WorldWideScience

Sample records for papillary transitional bladder

  1. [Transitional tumours of urinary bladder (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laumonier, R

    1979-01-01

    An overall survey of the transitional epithelium of the bladder and its carcinomas. This study is based upon the recent literature, in particular the considerable contribution of scanner electron microscopy. a) The transitional epithelium has the reputation of having a simple structure and even behaviour. In fact, it is complex with highly specialised surface cells. It has marked powers of regeneration after aggressions of various types. b) Tumours of the transitional epithelium are defined in relation to rupture of the basal lamina. Invasive carcinomas are classified according to their histological stage of penetration, their pure or partially metaplasic type and their degree defined according to the criteria of Broders. There exists a correlation between these three types of evaluation. Non-invasive carcinomas are either papillary--putting into question the reality of benign bladder papilloma--or flat mucosal and then often associated closely or at a distance with an invasive carcinoma. c) Abnormal regeneration, dysplasia or hyperplasia as a result of aggressions of different types or developing in isolation represent a high risk histologically, implying the need for careful follow-up and surveillance. d) Histopathological study of urothelial or transitional tumours is simple in operative specimens but difficult in biopsies. It requires close cooperation between surgeons and pathologists to ensure correct orientation of the fragments.

  2. Immunohistochemical Differentiation between Urothelial Papillomas and Papillary Neoplasms of Low Malignant Potential of the Urinary Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrashidy, Mohammed; Atef, Aliaa; Baky, Tarek Abdel

    2016-01-01

    Urothelial papilloma and non-invasive papillary carcinoma are common neoplasms of the urinary bladder. Distinguishing papillomas and papillary carcinomas, especially the low grade type, is often debatable on the basis of histological features alone. We investigated immunohistochemical expression of cytokeratin 20 (CK20), p53, and Ki-67 in a group of 20 urothelial papilloma cases and 30 noninvasive papillary neoplasms of low malignant potential (PNLMP) of the urinary bladder. Whole tissue sections were examined. Among the 30 carcinoma cases, 12 (40%) showed strong reactivity for the whole panel, 16 (53%) reacted positively for two markers, and 2 (7%) reacted just to one of them. Ki-67 was considered positive in 27 cases (90%) and p53 in 24 (80%), CK20 showed positive reactivity in 21 cases (70%). Only small percentages of papillomas were positive, and then only weakly. We concluded that the intense positivity of suspicious cells for at least one of these markers would confirm the presence of malignant changes and favours the diagnosis of carcinoma.

  3. Predicting Recurrence and Progression of Noninvasive Papillary Bladder Cancer at Initial Presentation Based on Quantitative Gene Expression Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkhahn, M.; Mitra, A.P.; Williams, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Currently, tumor grade is the best predictor of outcome at first presentation of noninvasive papillary (Ta) bladder cancer. However, reliable predictors of Ta tumor recurrence and progression for individual patients, which could optimize treatment and follow-up schedules based...... on specific tumor biology, are yet to be identified. Objective: To identify genes predictive for recurrence and progression in Ta bladder cancer at first presentation using a quantitative, pathway-specific approach. Design, setting, and participants: Retrospective study of patients with Ta G2/3 bladder tumors...... at initial presentation with three distinct clinical outcomes: absence of recurrence (n = 16), recurrence without progression (n = 16), and progression to carcinoma in situ or invasive disease (n = 16). Measurements: Expressions of 24 genes that feature in relevant pathways that are deregulated in bladder...

  4. Predicting Recurrence and Progression of Noninvasive Papillary Bladder Cancer at Initial Presentation Based on Quantitative Gene Expression Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkhahn, M.; Mitra, A.P.; Williams, Johan

    2010-01-01

    % specificity. Since this is a small retrospective study using medium-throughput profiling, larger confirmatory studies are needed. Conclusions: Gene expression profiling across relevant cancer pathways appears to be a promising approach for Ta bladder tumor outcome prediction at initial diagnosis......Background: Currently, tumor grade is the best predictor of outcome at first presentation of noninvasive papillary (Ta) bladder cancer. However, reliable predictors of Ta tumor recurrence and progression for individual patients, which could optimize treatment and follow-up schedules based...... on specific tumor biology, are yet to be identified. Objective: To identify genes predictive for recurrence and progression in Ta bladder cancer at first presentation using a quantitative, pathway-specific approach. Design, setting, and participants: Retrospective study of patients with Ta G2/3 bladder tumors...

  5. Histological grading of papillary urothelial carcinoma of the bladder: prognostic value of the 1998 WHO/ISUP classification system and comparison with conventional grading systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhuis, J. W. A.; Schapers, R. F. M.; Janssen-Heijnen, M. L. G.; Pauwels, R. P. E.; Newling, D. W.; ten Kate, F.

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To test the prognostic value of the 1998 WHO/ISUP (World Health Organisation/International Society of Urologic Pathology) consensus classification system in Ta papillary urothelial neoplasms of the bladder. METHODS: The histological slides of 322 patients with a primary Ta tumour were

  6. Papillary cystitis mimicking transitional cell carcinoma : a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Rae; Park, Chan Pil

    1998-01-01

    Polypoid cystitis is a rare entity and, to our knowledge, has not been described in the radiologic literature. It is frequently found in patients with indwelling catheters and is characterized by inflammation and edema of the lamina propria. We encountered a case of papillary cystitis which on a sonogram showed a solid mass with inhomogeneous internal echopattern; on CT, a poorly-defined inhomogeneous, dense, soft-tissue density mass with enhancement and perivesical extension; and on T2 weighted MR images an intermediate SI mass. (author). 6 refs., 1 fig

  7. ETS-1 oncoprotein expression is decreased in aggressive papillary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E.A. Ibrahim

    2016-10-19

    Oct 19, 2016 ... aggressive papillary transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: An immunohistochemical study. E.A. Ibrahim. ∗. , M.R. Hassan, S.A. Sammour. Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Egypt. Received 23 August 2015; received in revised form 11 October 2015; accepted 12 ...

  8. Isolated Meningeal Recurrence of Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Butchart

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Meningeal carcinomatosis occurs in 1–18% of patients with solid tumours, most commonly carcinomas of the breast and lung or melanomas. There are relatively few reports of meningeal carcinomatosis in transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Isolated meningeal recurrence is particularly uncommon, and we present an unusual case of this in a 58-year-old man. The case was further complicated by the somewhat atypical presentation with a confirmed ischaemic stroke. The patient died one month after presentation.

  9. OPIUM USE IN TRANSITIONAL CELL CARCINOMA OF THE URINARY BLADDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nourbakhsh

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Opium use is one of the most common forms of substance abuse in Iran and there are some evidence indicating it is a risk factor of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the urinary bladder. The majority of opium users are also cigarette smokers, so consideration of the high prevalence of smoking which is the most important risk factor of TCC of the urinary bladder among opium users is essential to assess the role of opium use as a possible risk factor of TCC. This study was done to evaluate the role of opium as a risk factor of TCC. A case-control study was performed on 255 individuals diagnosed with TCC of the urinary bladder by pathologic light microscopic examination of the tumor biopsies. Control population was chosen from individuals who had no history or presenting signs or symptoms of urinary problems. Case and control groups were matched by sex and age and also by cigarette smoking habits. Forty-one (18.1% of the cases and 12 (5% of controls were recognized to be opium users. Mantel-Haenszel analysis showed an odds ratio of 3.88, with 95% confidence interval of 1.99-7.57 and P value of < 0.001. Results indicate that opium use is a risk factor for TCC. The majority of opium users are also cigarette smokers, which is another important risk factor for TCC. Routine urine cytology and early evaluation in the patients presenting with any of the symptoms of urinary bladder malignancy by means of cystoscopy and urine cytology are highly recommended.

  10. Surgical management of bladder transitional cell carcinoma in a vesicular diverticulum: case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Raheem, Omer A

    2011-08-01

    We report a case of primary transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of a bladder diverticum along with a literature review. A 55-year-old male presented with painless gross hematuria. A histological diagnosis of TCC within a bladder diverticulum was made following cystoscopical examination. Initially transurethral resection of bladder tumour with subsequent intravesical chemotherapy followed. As a result of recurrence and in view of bladder-sparing therapy, a distal partial cystectomy was performed. This report demonstrates that conservative bladder-sparing treatment can be achieved and subsequently followed by vigilant cystoscopy.

  11. Surgical management of bladder transitional cell carcinoma in a vesicular diverticulum: case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Raheem, Omer A

    2012-02-01

    We report a case of primary transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of a bladder diverticum along with a literature review. A 55-year-old male presented with painless gross hematuria. A histological diagnosis of TCC within a bladder diverticulum was made following cystoscopical examination. Initially transurethral resection of bladder tumour with subsequent intravesical chemotherapy followed. As a result of recurrence and in view of bladder-sparing therapy, a distal partial cystectomy was performed. This report demonstrates that conservative bladder-sparing treatment can be achieved and subsequently followed by vigilant cystoscopy.

  12. Factors related to recurrence of bladder transitional cell carcinoma after transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TUR-BT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Ki Dong; Koo, Bong Sik; Yoon, Seong Kuk; Park, Byung Ho; Nam, Kyung Jin; Choi, Jong Cheol; Lee, Ki Nam; Lee, Young Il; Chung, Duck Hwan

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate factors related to the recurrence of TCC (transitional cell carcinoma) in the urinary bladder after transurethal resection of bladder tumor (TUR-BT). We retrospectively reviewed 54 patients in whom TCC (transitional cell carcinoma) after TUR-BT had been confirmed. Recurrence was evaluated by US, CT, cystoscopy and urine smear during the follow-up period of 6 months. The multiplicity, shape, size, and calcification of TCC, as revealed by radiologic studies, were evaluated retrospectively before TUR-BT. After TUR-BT, the histologic grade and pathologic stage of TCC were evaluated. Radiologically, multiple and/or sessile type TCC had a higher recurrence rate than the single and/or pedunculated type. Pathologically, when the grade and stage of bladder tumor were higher, recurrent rates were higher. (author). 17 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  13. Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder in childhood: radiological findings and differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casado, L.; Mansilla, F.; Mansilla, M.D.; Marin, A.

    1998-01-01

    We present a case of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder in an 11-year-old boy. The rarity of these tumors during childhood is pointed out. The radiological and ultrasonographic findings are described and the differential diagnosis is discussed with respect to other bladder tumors occurring in childhood. (Author) 11 refs

  14. Urothelial (transitional cell) papilloma of the urinary bladder: a clinicopathologic study of 26 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenney, Jesse K; Amin, Mahul B; Young, Robert H

    2003-07-01

    The existence of a papillary lesion of the urinary bladder with a benign clinical course and recognizable morphologic features that merit the benign categorization "papilloma" has been controversial. The clinical aspects and histologic features of these lesions remain to be fully elucidated. We have studied the clinicopathologic features of 26 patients with urothelial papillomas and correlated them with outcome. Papillomas occurred in two distinct clinical settings: (1) de novo neoplasms (23/26) or (2) those occurring in patients with a known clinical history of bladder cancer ("secondary" papillomas; 3/26). Follow-up information was available in 14/23 of the de novo cases (mean = 39 mo) and in 3/3 secondary cases (mean = 24 mo). Patients with de novo papillomas had a mean age of 46 years; 16 were male and 7 were female. Twelve of 14 had a benign clinical course with no recurrences; 1 developed a recurrent papilloma at 3 years, and 1 developed a pT3a high-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma at 4 years. Patients with secondary papillomas had a mean age of 66 years; two were male and one was a female. One of these patients developed two additional recurrences, and two patients had no new recurrences. Morphologically, the papillary architecture ranged from a common simple, nonhierarchical arrangement to, infrequently, more complex anastomosing papillae with budding. The individual papillae ranged from small (most common), with scant stroma and slender fibrovascular cores, to large, with marked stromal edema and/or cystitis cystica-like urothelial invaginations. Common to all was a lining of normal-appearing urothelium without hyperplasia, maintenance of normal polarity, and frequent prominence of the umbrella cell layer. Overall, no patient with a diagnosis of papilloma died of disease; only one patient with a de novo lesion (7.0%) had a recurrent papilloma, and 1/14 (7.0%) progressed to a higher grade and stage of disease, although this patient was on

  15. Analysis of failure following definitive radiotherapy for invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mameghan, Hedy; Fisher, Richard; Mameghan, Jill; Brook, Susan

    1995-01-15

    Purpose: To assess prognostic factors for bladder relapse and distant failure following definitive radiotherapy for invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder. Methods and Materials: Retrospective review of patients treated in the period 1977 to 1990 by definitive radiotherapy. The factors studied included age, sex, T stage, histological grade, tumor multiplicity, ureteric obstruction, total radiation dose, and use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The endpoints studied were bladder relapse and distant failure. Results: There were 342 patients with a mean follow-up time of 7.9 years. Bladder relapse was observed in 159 patients. The overall actuarial bladder relapse rate at 5 years was 55% (SE = 3%). Prognostic factors for a higher bladder relapse rate were: tumor multiplicity (p < 0.001), presence of ureteric obstruction (p = 0.001), and higher T stage (p 0.044). Distant failure occurred in 39 patients. The overall actuarial distant failure rate at 5 years was 28% (SE = 3%). Prognostic factors for a higher distant failure rate were: ureteric obstruction (p = 0.003) and higher T stage (p = 0.030). Conclusion: In our study, patients with invasive bladder TCC fell into distinct prognostic groups determined by the three independent factors, ureteric obstruction, tumor multiplicity, and T stage. These factors provided estimated risks of bladder relapse by 5 years which ranged from 34% to 91%. Knowledge of these prognostic factors can help in the selection of patients more suited for bladder preservation by definitive radiotherapy.

  16. Analysis of failure following definitive radiotherapy for invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mameghan, Hedy; Fisher, Richard; Mameghan, Jill; Brook, Susan

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To assess prognostic factors for bladder relapse and distant failure following definitive radiotherapy for invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder. Methods and Materials: Retrospective review of patients treated in the period 1977 to 1990 by definitive radiotherapy. The factors studied included age, sex, T stage, histological grade, tumor multiplicity, ureteric obstruction, total radiation dose, and use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The endpoints studied were bladder relapse and distant failure. Results: There were 342 patients with a mean follow-up time of 7.9 years. Bladder relapse was observed in 159 patients. The overall actuarial bladder relapse rate at 5 years was 55% (SE = 3%). Prognostic factors for a higher bladder relapse rate were: tumor multiplicity (p < 0.001), presence of ureteric obstruction (p = 0.001), and higher T stage (p 0.044). Distant failure occurred in 39 patients. The overall actuarial distant failure rate at 5 years was 28% (SE = 3%). Prognostic factors for a higher distant failure rate were: ureteric obstruction (p = 0.003) and higher T stage (p = 0.030). Conclusion: In our study, patients with invasive bladder TCC fell into distinct prognostic groups determined by the three independent factors, ureteric obstruction, tumor multiplicity, and T stage. These factors provided estimated risks of bladder relapse by 5 years which ranged from 34% to 91%. Knowledge of these prognostic factors can help in the selection of patients more suited for bladder preservation by definitive radiotherapy

  17. Frequent mutations of chromatin remodeling genes in transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gui, Yaoting; Guo, Guangwu; Huang, Yi

    2011-01-01

    frequently in tumors of low stages and grades, highlighting its potential role in the classification and diagnosis of bladder cancer. Our results provide an overview of the genetic basis of TCC and suggest that aberration of chromatin regulation might be a hallmark of bladder cancer.......Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the most common type of bladder cancer. Here we sequenced the exomes of nine individuals with TCC and screened all the somatically mutated genes in a prevalence set of 88 additional individuals with TCC with different tumor stages and grades. In our study, we...

  18. Bladder chondrosarcoma plus urothelial carcinoma in recurred transitional cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Min Hyun; Kim, Sung Han; Park, Weon Seo; Joung, Jae Young; Seo, Ho Kyung; Chung, Jinsoo; Lee, Kang Hyun

    2016-10-20

    Sarcomatoid urothelial carcinoma (SUC) is a rare malignant neoplasm of the urinary bladder comprising 0.2-0.6 % of all histological bladder tumor subtypes. It presents as a high-stage malignancy and exhibits aggressive biological behavior, regardless of the treatment employed. It is defined as histologically indistinguishable from sarcoma and as a high-grade biphasic neoplasm with malignant epithelial and mesenchymal components. The mean age of patients presenting with SUC is 66 years, and the male-to-female ratio is 3:1. In addition, gross hematuria is usually present. The prognosis of SUC is poorer than that of typical urothelial carcinoma because of uncertainty concerning the optimal treatment regimen. We report the case of a 77-year-old woman with SUC containing a chondrosarcoma component who, 12 years previously, had undergone a nephroureterectomy for pT3N0M0 ureter cancer of the contralateral upper urinary tract. From the 4th year of follow-up after nephroureterectomy, multiple recurrent bladder tumors staged as Ta transitional cell carcinoma developed, and six transurethral resections of the bladder (TURB) with multiple intravesical instillations were performed without any evidence of metastases and upper tract recurrences. In 2015, a right partial distal ureterectomy and an additional TURB were performed due to a papillary mass at the right contralateral ureterovesical junction of the bladder, which was confirmed as a high-grade pT1 transitional cell carcinoma. After a further 2 years of follow-up, total pelvic exenteration with an ileal conduit diversion was performed to remove the mass, which was a pT4N0M0 tumor composed of carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements compatible with a sarcomatoid carcinoma including grade 3 transitional cell carcinoma and chondrosarcoma. Immunohistochemical examination showed that tumor cells were positive for vimentin and p63 and negative for NSE and Cd56 markers. In the first postoperative month, a metastatic lung nodule

  19. Immunostimulation in the urinary bladder by local application of Nocardia rubra cell wall skeleton preparation (Rubratin) for superficial bladder cancer immunotherapy--a phase I/II study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Reijke, T. M.; de Boer, E. C.; Schamhart, D. H.; Kurth, K. H.

    1997-01-01

    Twelve patients with superficial papillary transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder (pTa, pT1) were treated with six consecutive weekly intravesical instillations of Rubratin (in a dose of 1.5, 3.0, or 4.5 mg), a cell wall skeleton preparation of Nocardia rubra (NCW). The main objective of this

  20. Sperm associated antigen 9 plays an important role in bladder transitional cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Kanojia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Majority of bladder cancer deaths are caused due to transitional cell carcinoma (TCC which is the most prevalent and chemoresistant malignancy of urinary bladder. Therefore, we analyzed the role of Sperm associated antigen 9 (SPAG9 in bladder TCC. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: We examined SPAG9 expression and humoral response in 125 bladder TCC patients. Four bladder cancer cell lines were assessed for SPAG9 expression. In addition, we investigated the effect of SPAG9 ablation on cellular proliferation, cell cycle, migration and invasion in UM-UC-3 bladder cancer cells by employing gene silencing approach. Our SPAG9 gene and protein expression analysis revealed SPAG9 expression in 81% of bladder TCC tissue specimens. High SPAG9 expression (>60% SPAG9 positive cells was found to be significantly associated with superficial non-muscle invasive stage (P = 0.042 and low grade tumors (P = 0.002 suggesting SPAG9 putative role in early spread and tumorigenesis. Humoral response against SPAG9 was observed in 95% of patients found positive for SPAG9 expression. All four bladder cancer cell lines revealed SPAG9 expression. In addition, SPAG9 gene silencing in UM-UC-3 cells resulted in induction of G0-G1 arrest characterized by up-regulation of p16 and p21 and consequent down-regulation of cyclin E, cyclin D and cyclin B, CDK4 and CDK1. Further, SPAG9 gene silencing also resulted in reduction in cellular growth, and migration and invasion ability of cancer cells in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our data in clinical specimens indicated that SPAG9 is potential biomarker and therapeutic target for bladder TCC.

  1. Risk factors for transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder: a hospital based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayyaz, A.; Ilyas, M.; Qayyum, A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the role of various known risk factors for the development of Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of urinary bladder in our set up. Study design: Case control study Place and duration of the study: Department of Radiology CMH Rawalpindi, from March 2007 to December 2007. Material and methods: 70 patients with TCC urinary bladder were included in the study. 70 controls were included. The patients were enquired about the risk factors. The data was analysed on SPSS version 12. Odds ratio for each factor was carried out. p value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Smoking was the most important factor in the development of TCC of urinary bladder with odds ratio of 3:1. Driving was the next common factor. Low socioeconomic conditions appear to be an important factor in our set up. The role of chemicals in industrial work could not be established. Conclusion: Differences from the West exist regarding the etiological factors for the development of TCC of urinary bladder. Males outnumber the females by a significant ratio. Smoking is an important factor in the development of TCC of urinary bladder. Most bladder cancers arise in low socioeconomic group in our set up. (author)

  2. Prognostic significance of atypical papillary urothelial hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swierczynski, Sharon L; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2002-05-01

    Typical papillary hyperplasia, a recently recognized precursor lesion to low-grade papillary urothelial neoplasms, consists of undulating folds of cytologically benign urothelium. Well-developed, branching fibrovascular cores of a papillary neoplasm are not evident. We have noted lesions with the architectural pattern of papillary hyperplasia; however, the overlying urothelium demonstrated varying degrees of cytologic atypia. We identified 15 cases of atypical papillary hyperplasia (13 males, 2 females, age 55 to 92) with overlying urothelium showing cytologic atypia. Of these cases, 8 (53%) were received in consultation. Of the 15 cases, 8 exhibited overlying flat carcinoma in situ (CIS), 4 had overlying dysplasia, and 3 were transitional between papillary hyperplasia with atypia and the earliest lesions of papillary neoplasia. Of these cases, 5 patients had multiple specimens with atypical papillary hyperplasia (range, 2 to 8) over time. Concurrent to the diagnosis of atypical papillary hyperplasia, there were 25 different urothelial lesions: CIS (n = 11), papilloma (n = 1), papillary neoplasm of low malignant potential with CIS (n = 1), high-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma (n = 10; 3 with CIS), small-cell carcinoma (n = 1), and infiltrating urothelial carcinoma (n = 1). Of 11 patients with known prior history, 2 had 12 prior urothelial neoplasms (9 low-grade papillary neoplasms, 2 papillary urothelial neoplasms of low malignant potential, and 1 high-grade papillary cancer). Of 10 patients with atypical papillary hyperplasia and a minimum of 1 year of follow-up, 9 had 19 recurrences: CIS (n = 4), papilloma (n = 1), papillary neoplasm of low malignant potential (n = 1), infiltrating urothelial carcinoma (n = 3; 1 with CIS), and high-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma (n = 10; 5 with invasion and 2 with CIS). Whether the papillary hyperplasia had overlying CIS or dysplasia did not affect the correlation with urothelial neoplasms. Immunohistochemical analysis

  3. The effect of Pokemon on bladder cancer epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Changcheng; Zhu, Kai; Sun, Wei; Yang, Bin; Gu, Wenyu; Luo, Jun; Peng, Bo; Zheng, Junhua

    2014-01-24

    This study aimed at detecting Pokemon expression in bladder cancer cell and investigating the relationship between Pokemon and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Furthermore, we investigated the functions of Pokemon in the carcinogenesis and development of bladder cancer. This study was also designed to observe the inhibitory effects of siRNA expression vector on Pokemon in bladder cancer cell. The siRNA expression vectors which were constructed to express a short hairpin RNA against Pokemon were transfected to the bladder cancer cells T24 with a liposome. Levels of Pokemon, E-cadherin and β-catenin mRNA and protein were examined by real-time quantitative-fluorescent PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. The effects of Pokemon silencing on epithelial-mesenchymal transition of T24 cells were evaluated with wound-healing assay. Pokemon was strongly inhibited by siRNA treatment, especially siRNA3 treatment group, as it was reflected by Western blot and real-time PCR. The gene and protein of E-cadherin expression level showed increased markedly after Pokemon was inhibited by RNA interference. While there were no differences in the levels of gene and protein of β-catenin among five groups. The bladder cancer cell after Pokemon siRNA interference showed a significantly reduced wound-closing efficiency at 6, 12 and 24h. Our findings suggest Pokemon may inhibit the expression of E-cadherin. The low expression of E-cadherin lead to increasing the phenotype and apical-base polarity of epithelial cells. These changes of cells may result in the recurrence and progression of bladder cancer at last. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Imaging of urinary bladder tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjidekov, G.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: Primary bladder neoplasms account for 2%-6% of all tumors, with urinary bladder cancer ranked as the fourth most common cancer in males. Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the most common subtype of urothelial tumour accounting for approximately 90% of all urothelial cancers. It is typically observed in men aged 50-70 years with history of smoking or occupational exposure to carcinogens. Most urothelial neoplasms are low-grade papillary tumors, with high incidence of recurrence, requires rigorous follow-up but have a relatively good prognosis. Other bladder neoplasm include squamous cell carcinoma accounts for 2%-15% mainly according to geographic location; adenocarcinoma - less than 2% /both occurring in the context of chronic bladder infection and irritation/; mesenchymal tumors in 5%, with the most common examples being rhabdomyosarcoma in children and leiomyosarcoma in adults. More rare mesenchymal tumors include paraganglioma, lymphoma, leiomyoma and solitary fibrous tumor which have no specific typical imaging findings to be differentiated. Multidetector computed tomography urography is an efficient tool for diagnosis and follow-up in patients with transitional cell carcinoma and it can be considered the primary radiologic method for detection, staging and assessment of the entire urothelium regarding the multicentric nature of TCC. MRI is rapidly expanding modality of choice especially in locally staging the tumor and in controversies. Accurate TNM staging is primordial in choosing treatment and prognosis for patients with bladder carcinoma. Correct interpretation and classification of the tumour is helpful for the urologists to determine further management in these cases. The learning objectives of the presentation are: to illustrate the spectrum of CT and MRI findings and to assess their clinical value in patients with transitional cell carcinoma and some other bladder neoplasm; to discuss the TNM staging based on the imaging findings; to be

  5. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR AND SURVIVIN EXPRESSION IN BLADDER CANCER TISSUE AND URINE CYTOLOGY OF PATIENTS WITH TRANSITIONAL CELL CARCINOMA OF THE URINARY BLADDER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehinde, E O; Al-Maghrebi, M; Anim, J T; Kapila, K; George, S S; Al-Juwaiser, A; Memon, A

    2013-01-01

    To assess whether epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and survivin immunostaining of tumour cells in urinary cytology and tissue of patients with bladder cancer has a prognostic significance. Prospective study Department of Surgery (Division of Urology), Mubarak Al-Kabeer Teaching Hospital and Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait Urine cytology smears obtainedpriorto cystoscopy in patients with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder were immunostained for EGFR and survivin. Bladder cancer tissue resected at surgery was also immunostained for EGFR and survivin expression. Tissue expression of EGFR and survivin in TCC of the bladder was compared to their expression in urine cytology and relationship to tumour grade and stage. 178 patients were studied (43 newly diagnosed bladder cancer, 58 with recurrent TCC and 77 in disease remission). Twenty five patients with normal urothelium served as controls. The mean sensitivity of urine cytology, tissue survivin immunohistochemistry (IHC) and tissue EGFR IHC was 30.5%, 62% and 59% respectively. The corresponding mean specificity was 95%, 79% and 38% respectively. For grades 1, 2 and 3 bladder tumors, tissue expression positivity for EGFR was 47.8%, 92.9%, 100% and for tissue survivin it was 27.8%, 18.2% and 33.3% respectively. For grades 1, 2 and 3 bladder tumors, urine expression positivity for EGFR was 35.7%, 40% and 67.7% and for urine survivin it was 8.3%, 42.9% and 33.3% respectively. Positive EGFR immunostaining of urine cytology specimen or tumour tissue increases with histological grade of TCC of the bladder. Survivin expression is less consistent in both urine cytology specimen and tissue samples. EGFR immunostaining may provide a useful tool in the grading of bladder TCC and aid in the selection of patients that may benefit from administration of EGFR inhibitors.

  6. Selective arterial embolization for control of haematuria secondary to advanced or recurrent transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Halpenny, D

    2014-05-02

    Haematuria is a common symptom in patients with advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. We report our experience of selective pelvic embolization using gelfoam as an embolic agent to treat intractable haematuria in these patients.

  7. Immunohistochemical positive stained p53 protein in bladder transitional cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halimi Monireh

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Molecular genetics and immunopathologic analysis of bladder cancer have shown some abnormalities in a number of genes and proteins that have been implicated in the development and progression of such tumors, mainly in the p53 pathway. Aims: To investigate the rate of positively stained p53 protein in patients with urothelial papillary carcinoma of the bladder (UCB by immunohistochemistry and its relationship with tumor grade, gender and age of the patients. Settings and Design: During the present cross-sectional study, 100 paraffin-embedded specimens of UCB, which were provided from biopsies of the bladder by transurethral access, were immunohistochemically stained and studied for p53 protein from May 2006 to May 2007 in our referral center pathology laboratory. Materials and Methods: First, 4 µm slices of paraffin sections were provided and then stained by the avidin-biotin peroxidase method. The rate of positively stained p53 protein (defined as positive nuclear staining in over 10% of the cells was assessed. This rate was also estimated and compared between grades, genders and age-related groups (< 70 years, ≥70 years. Statistical Analysis: The χ2 , Fisher′s exact test and Mann-Whitney U test were used for comparing. Results: The overall rate of positively stained specimens was 11% for nuclear p53 protein. This rate was significantly higher in females (10/29 vs. 1/71; P < 0.001; odds ratio [OR]: 0.23; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.43-306.08, patients with 70 or older than 70 years (8/42 vs. 3/58; P = 0.04; OR: 0.55; 95% CI: 1.07-17.39 and in high-grade tumors (10/58 vs. 1/42; P = 0.02; OR: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.01-0.95. Conclusions: The rate of positively stained p53 protein for UCB was lower in our population. This rate was also higher in females, patients with 70 or older than 70 years and high grade of UCB.

  8. The nested variant of bladder transitional cell carcinoma: Review of 12 cases and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion-Ballardo, C J; Gala-Solana, L; Portillo-Martin, J A; Azueta-Etxebarria, A; Truan-Cacho, D; Campos-Juanatey, F

    2015-01-01

    The nested variant of bladder transitional cell carcinoma is extremely rare and has a different biological behavior to other bladder tumors. The aim of this study is to analize if their behavior is as aggressive as has been described in the literature. Review of 12 diagnosed cases with nested variant of bladder transitional cell carcinoma and analysis of demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, tumor characteristics, treatment options, analysis of recurrence and cancer-specific survival between January 1997 and December 2010 in our hospital. 50% of the cases had a pathologic stage ≥T2, with grade of differentiation G2 (50%) or G3 (50%). After the pathological result of the TUR (transurethral resection) Bladder, 5 cases underwent radical cystoprostatectomy, 3 a second TUR bladder and 4 cases with treatment chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy (RT). Five out of 12 cases (41.7%) died due to bladder cancer and 3 died (25%) of other causes (urinary sepsis, respiratory failure, renal failure). With a median follow up of 40 months, the overall survival was 50% and cancer-specific survival of 65.6%. The nested variant of bladder transitional cell carcinoma is a disease with an advanced-stage presentation, with high recurrence and mortality rates despite the use of different treatments. So far there is not a clinical practice guideline for this variety of urothelial tumor. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Expression microarray meta-analysis identifies genes associated with Ras/MAPK and related pathways in progression of muscle-invasive bladder transition cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A Ewald

    Full Text Available The effective detection and management of muscle-invasive bladder Transition Cell Carcinoma (TCC continues to be an urgent clinical challenge. While some differences of gene expression and function in papillary (Ta, superficial (T1 and muscle-invasive (≥T2 bladder cancers have been investigated, the understanding of mechanisms involved in the progression of bladder tumors remains incomplete. Statistical methods of pathway-enrichment, cluster analysis and text-mining can extract and help interpret functional information about gene expression patterns in large sets of genomic data. The public availability of patient-derived expression microarray data allows open access and analysis of large amounts of clinical data. Using these resources, we investigated gene expression differences associated with tumor progression and muscle-invasive TCC. Gene expression was calculated relative to Ta tumors to assess progression-associated differences, revealing a network of genes related to Ras/MAPK and PI3K signaling pathways with increased expression. Further, we identified genes within this network that are similarly expressed in superficial Ta and T1 stages but altered in muscle-invasive T2 tumors, finding 7 genes (COL3A1, COL5A1, COL11A1, FN1, ErbB3, MAPK10 and CDC25C whose expression patterns in muscle-invasive tumors are consistent in 5 to 7 independent outside microarray studies. Further, we found increased expression of the fibrillar collagen proteins COL3A1 and COL5A1 in muscle-invasive tumor samples and metastatic T24 cells. Our results suggest that increased expression of genes involved in mitogenic signaling may support the progression of muscle-invasive bladder tumors that generally lack activating mutations in these pathways, while expression changes of fibrillar collagens, fibronectin and specific signaling proteins are associated with muscle-invasive disease. These results identify potential biomarkers and targets for TCC treatments, and

  10. Pharmacokinetic, Pharmacodynamic, and Activity Evaluation of TMX-101 in a Multicenter Phase 1 Study in Patients With Papillary Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arends, T.J.H.; Lammers, R.J.M.; Falke, J.; Heijden, A.G. van der; Rustighini, I.; Pozzi, R.; Ravic, M.; Eisenhardt, A.; Vergunst, H.; Witjes, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND: Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) has a strong tendency to recur despite adjuvant instillations. TMX-101 is a new liquid form of imiquimod for intravesical instillation and has activity in vitro against urothelial carcinoma. The purpose was to analyze the activity

  11. An autopsy study of histopathological changes in the urinary bladder transitional epithelium of atomic bomb survivors, 1960 - 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eto, Ryozo; Ishimaru, Toranosuke; Tokunaga, Masayoshi

    1988-01-01

    From the ABCC-RERF Life Span Study extended sample, there were 4,499 cases in the Pathology Study sample of atomic bomb survivors who had come to autopsy in the period 1960 - 83. Among 370 subjects who were heavily exposed with an estimated dose (T65D) of 100 rad or more, 72 (about 20 %) of them, whose urinary bladder epithelia had been preserved satisfactorily to suit the purpose of this study, were sampled as the index group. An equal number of control subjects were selected from the unexposed group individually, matched with the index cases by city, sex, age at death, and year of death. However, cases with marked epithelial autolysis and those pathologically diagnosed as urinary bladder cancer were previously excluded from both the index group and control subjects. These 72 pairs of autopsy cases were pathologically studied for the presence or absence of epithelial lesions of the urinary bladder, namely, hyperplasia, dysplasia and carcinoma-in-situ, and the frequencies of appearance of these lesions were compared statistically by χ 2 test based on a case-control study design. Carcinoma-in-situ and severe dysplasia were detected in neither the index cases nor the control cases. The risk was relatively higher in the index group than in the control subjects for both hyperplasia and dysplasia (mild and moderate), in particular the relative risk of papillary hyperplasia being about 4.0, but as the total number of cases were small, this was not statistically significant. (author)

  12. Correlation between Urothelial Differentiation and Sensory Proteins P2X3, P2X5, TRPV1, and TRPV4 in Normal Urothelium and Papillary Carcinoma of Human Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Sterle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Terminal differentiation of urothelium is a prerequisite for blood-urine barrier formation and enables normal sensory function of the urinary bladder. In this study, urothelial differentiation of normal human urothelium and of low and high grade papillary urothelial carcinomas was correlated with the expression and localization of purinergic receptors (P2X3, and P2X5 and transient receptor potential vanilloid channels (TRPV1, and TRPV4. Western blotting and immunofluorescence of uroplakins together with scanning electron microscopy of urothelial apical surface demonstrated terminal differentiation of normal urothelium, partial differentiation of low grade carcinoma, and poor differentiation of high grade carcinoma. P2X3 was expressed in normal urothelium as well as in low grade carcinoma and in both cases immunolabeling was stronger in the superficial cells. P2X3 expression decreased in high grade carcinoma. P2X5 expression was detected in normal urothelium and in high grade carcinoma, while in low grade carcinoma its expression was diminished. The expression of TRPV1 decreased in low grade and even more in high grade carcinoma when compared with normal urothelium, while TRPV4 expression was unchanged in all samples. Our results suggest that sensory proteins P2X3 and TRPV1 are in correlation with urothelial differentiation, while P2X5 and TRPV4 have unique expression patterns.

  13. Rare Association of Anti-Hu Antibody Positive Paraneoplastic Neurological Syndrome and Transitional Cell Bladder Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lukacs

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis (PEM and subacute sensory neuronopathy (SSN are remote effects of cancer, usually associated with small-cell lung carcinoma and positive anti-Hu antibody. We describe the rare association of bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC with anti-Hu antibody positivity resulting in this paraneoplastic neurological syndrome. Patient. A 76-year-old female presented with bilateral muscle weakness and paraesthesia of the upper and lower limbs in a length-dependent “glove and stocking” distribution. Central nervous system symptoms included cognitive problems, personality change, and truncal ataxia. Case notes and the literature were reviewed. Result. Autoantibody screening was positive for anti-Hu antibody (recently renamed antineuronal nuclear antibody 1, ANNA-1. The diagnosis of PEM and SSN was supported by MRI and lumbar puncture results. A superficial bladder TCC was demonstrated on CT and subsequently confirmed on histology. No other primary neoplasm was found on full-body imaging. The neurological symptoms were considered to be an antibody-mediated paraneoplastic neurological syndrome and improved after resection of the tumour. Discussion. The association of anti-Hu positive paraneoplastic neurological syndrome and TCC has not been described in the literature previously. We emphasize the need for detailed clinical examination and the importance of a multidisciplinary thought process and encourage further awareness of this rare association.

  14. Initial Results of Bladder Preserving Approach by Chemo-Radiotherapy in Patients with Muscle Invading Transitional Cell Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboziada, M.A.; Hamza, H.; Abdlrahem, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to test the efficacy and tolerability of trimodality treatment for invasive bladder cancer and to test the possibility of bladder sparing. Methods: This study had been carried out on 50 patients with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) stage T2- T3 tumors with adequate performance status and renal function. All patients were subjected to maximum transurethral resection of bladder tumors (TURBT). Patients were then subjected to chemo-radiation that was executed in two treatment phases. Phase I was external radiotherapy in the form of 46 Gy /23 fractions /5 weeks to whole pelvis with concurrent cisplatin 40 mg/m 2 weekly. Phase II was 20 Gy /10 fractions /2 weeks to the bladder tumor with concurrent cisplatin 40 mg/m2 weekly. After phase I, patients who had complete response (CR) or partial response (PR) were subjected to phase II and patients who had stationary disease (SD) were subjected to salvage cystectomy. After the end of treatment, patients who had CR were subjected to bladder preservation. Radiological and cystoscopic reevaluation was done to assess the tumor response after phase I and phase II. After completion of the scheduled treatment, patients were under follow up for clinical examination, radiological, and cystoscopic assessment. Results: The treatment schedule was tolerable and was associated with infrequent incidence of moderate toxicity that was easily controlled without interruption of treatment. Bladder preservation was achieved in 72% of patients. The actuarial relapse free survival and overall survival at a median follow up 18 months for patients who were candidate for bladder preservation were 81% and 100%; respectively. Invasive recurrence (16%) sal-Jvaged with cystectomy and superficial recurrence (6%) successfully treated with Bacilles bilie de Calmette- Guerin. Conclusions: This study indicates that in spite of a relatively small number of patients and short follow-up period; the trimodality treatment could be an

  15. Quantitative histopathology in the prognostic evaluation of patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasaki, M; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Fukuzawa, S

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Morphologic grading of malignancy is considered to be of prognostic value in patients with transitional cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder (TCC). This qualitative approach is, however, associated with low reproducibility. Grading of malignancy can be carried out on a reproducible......, quantitative scale. METHODS: A retrospective, prognostic study of 110 patients treated for TCC in clinical Stages Ta-T4 (median follow-up time, 6 years) was performed, evaluating various grading techniques. Unbiased estimates of the volume-weighted mean nuclear volume (nuclear vV), nuclear volume fraction...... of nuclear vV are prognostically superior to morphologic grading of malignancy in noninvasive TCC, whereas both morphologically and quantitatively based malignancy grading are without prognostic value in invasive TCC....

  16. Quantitative histopathology in the prognostic evaluation of patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasaki, M; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Fukuzawa, S

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Morphologic grading of malignancy is considered to be of prognostic value in patients with transitional cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder (TCC). This qualitative approach is, however, associated with low reproducibility. Grading of malignancy can be carried out on a reproducible......, quantitative scale.METHODS: A retrospective, prognostic study of 110 patients treated for TCC in clinical Stages Ta-T4 (median follow-up time, 6 years) was performed, evaluating various grading techniques. Unbiased estimates of the volume-weighted mean nuclear volume (nuclear vV), nuclear volume fraction...... of nuclear vV are prognostically superior to morphologic grading of malignancy in noninvasive TCC, whereas both morphologically and quantitatively based malignancy grading are without prognostic value in invasive TCC....

  17. Papillary carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, D.H.; Samuel, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid (PTC) constitutes a major proportion of all thyroid cancers and is generally believed to be a slow growing tumor with an indolent course. The diagnosis of PTC often makes the physician overly optimistic and complacent and yet this tumor can be aggressive in a subset of patients leading to death in a few months. The fundamental but subtle differences underlying the extremes in biologic behaviour of this complex and fascinating tumor remain poorly understood. Although there is a general agreement among the investigators regarding prognostic factors, controversy exists about the management of the disease. There is divided opinion with respect to the type and extent of surgery and the need for radioiodine (1 31 I) treatment in case of PTC. The experiences at Radiation Medicine Centre (RMC) of 1904 cases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) registered during the period 1963-1990 are reviewed

  18. Ketamine-induced bladder fibrosis involves epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition mediated by transforming growth factor-β1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junpeng; Chen, Yang; Gu, Di; Zhang, Guihao; Chen, Jiawei; Zhao, Jie; Wu, Peng

    2017-10-01

    Bladder wall fibrosis is a major complication of ketamine-induced cystitis (KC), but the underlying pathogenesis is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the mechanism of ketamine-induced fibrosis in association with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) mediated by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly distributed into four groups, which received saline, ketamine, ketamine combined with a TGF-β receptor inhibitor (SB-505124) for 16 wk, or 12 wk of ketamine and 4 wk of abstinence. In addition, the profibrotic effect of ketamine was confirmed in SV-40 immortalized human uroepithelial (SV-HUC-1) cells. The ketamine-treated rats displayed voiding dysfunction and decreased bladder compliance. Bladder fibrosis was accompanied by the appearance of a certain number of cells expressing both epithelial and mesenchymal markers, indicating that epithelial cells might undergo EMT upon ketamine administration. Meanwhile, the expression level of TGF-β1 was significantly upregulated in the urothelium of bladders in ketamine-treated rats. Treatment of SV-HUC-1 cells with ketamine increased the expression of TGF-β1 and EMT-inducing transcription factors, resulting in the downregulation of E-cadherin and upregulation of fibronectin and α-smooth muscle actin. Administration of SB-505124 inhibited EMT and fibrosis both in vitro and vivo. In addition, withdrawal from ketamine did not lead to recovery of bladder urinary function or decreased fibrosis. Taken together, our study shows for the first time that EMT might contribute to bladder fibrosis in KC. TGF-β1 may have an important role in bladder fibrogenesis via an EMT mechanism. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Bladder transitional cell carcinoma: correlation of contrast enhancement on computed tomography with histological grade and tumour angiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Q.; Zhang, J.; Wu, P.-H.; Jiang, X.-Q.; Chen, S.-L.; Wang, Q.-L.; Xu, J.; Chen, G.-D.; Deng, J.-H.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the correlation between the degree of contrast enhancement of bladder cancer in the early enhanced phase of helical computed tomography (CT) and microvessel density (MVD), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and histological grade. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-five patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder were examined by incremental unenhanced CT and helical CT at 40-45 s after initiation of intravenous administration of contrast medium before surgery. The CT density in Hounsfield units of bladder carcinomas were measured in the middle of the maximum diameter section of the cancer lesions on unenhanced and enhanced CT. The degree of contrast enhancement of the tumour was determined as the absolute increase in Hounsfield units. Histological grade, VEGF and MVD were analysed for each cancer. The Pearson and Spearman correlation tests were used to determine the strength of the relationships between CT enhancement and histological grade, VEGF expression and MVD. RESULTS: Different degrees of enhancement were observed in 91 cancers during the early enhanced phase of helical CT. Mean MVDs and mean CT enhancing values of different histological grade groups were statistically different (p<0.001). A positive correlation was found in the CT-enhancing value of bladder cancer and MVD (Pearson correlation test; r=0.938, p<0.001) and histological grade (Spearman rank correlation; r=0.734, p<0.001). VEGF of bladder cancer did not correlate with the change in CT attenuation (Spearman rank correlation; r=0.087, p=0.410) and MVD (Spearman rank correlation, r=0.103, p=0.330). CONCLUSION: In bladder cancer, the degree of contrast enhancement during the early enhanced helical CT is correlated with the MVD and histological grade of tumour. It is possible that MVD is the histopathological basis of early contrast enhancement of bladder cancer

  20. New approaches to obtaining scientific innovation in morphological studies of bladder transitional epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Popadynets

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To demonstrate the capabilities of cluster analysis in receiving scientific innovation results in morphological studies of cells of the bladder urothelium. Materials and methods.10 Wistar rats were used. Histological sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin; electron microscope studies were  conducted; morphometry was performed in ImageJ and statistics – in studio-R using nonparametric methods and multivariate statistics. Results. A brief description of the main stages of cluster analysis shows way to determine the most important features of uroteliocytes and to reveal their heterogeneity, algorithms of Euclidean metrics and methods of clustering were described, the features of the application of the analysis in morphological studies were presented, an example of using these methods in searching for new results was presented, the models of morphological substantiation of clustering results were showed.  Conclusion: 1 cluster analysis provides a scientific novelty in studies of transitional epithelium of the bladder; 2 it is used in case of heterogeneity of cellular composition of urothelium that is detected with a help of coefficient of variation; 3 the most significant features of uroteliocytes are their cell area and their nuclei area; 4 new results on the number of clusters were obtained by method of Ward, and new data on their indicators – by k-means; 5 Euclidean metric is the best to use; 6 to assess the adequacy of the results pairwise comparisons between multiple clusters were carried out according to their indicators; 7 results are presented in dimentional projection and they characterize cellular composition of the urothelium as structural system and detect systemic effects.

  1. Thyroid cancer - papillary carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000331.htm Thyroid cancer - papillary carcinoma To use the sharing features on ... the lower neck. Causes About 80% of all thyroid cancers diagnosed in the United States are the papillary ...

  2. Frequency of papillary tubal hyperplasia (PTH), salpingoliths and transition from adenoma to borderline ovarian tumors (BOT): A systematic analysis of 74 BOT with different histologic types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Lars-Christian; Angermann, Karolin; Hentschel, Bettina; Einenkel, Jens; Höhn, Anne Kathrin

    2017-04-01

    Borderline ovarian tumors (BOT) arise from cystadenomas and represent a transition step within the development of low-grade ovarian carcinomas (Type I tumors). That pathway mirrors the adenoma-to-carcinoma sequence known for colorectal cancer. It has been suggested that papillary tubal hyperplasia (PTH) and salpingoliths may be associated with the development of BOT. To evaluate the frequency of the presence of benign cystadenoma and its transition to BOT in a given patient as well as the presence of PTH and salpingoliths we re-valuated in 74 consecutive cases of BOT with different histologic types. The majority of cases represented serous-BOT (60.8%), followed by mucinous BOT (25.7%), other histologic types were rare. 86.5% showed an adenoma-BOT sequence, which was seen in all mucinous BOT but was missed in 15.6% of serous BOT. Two cases had salpingoliths without associated PTH. PTH was seen in four out of the 74 (5.4%) BOT and occurred only in cases with serous histology. The vast majority of BOT represent a transition from benign cystadenoma to BOT in cases with mucinous and serous histology. Salpingoliths are rarely seen in association with BOT and occurred exclusively in BOT with serous histology. PTH may represent a distinct lesion but is rarely seen in association with BOT, especially in those with non-serous histology. Further studies are needed to evaluate the frequency and pathogenetic association of PTH with BOT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Contemporary management of low-risk bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falke, J.; Witjes, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Bladder cancer comprises a heterogeneous group of tumors, the majority of which are non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) at initial presentation. Low-risk bladder cancer--defined as pTa low-grade papillary tumors--is the type of NMIBC with the most favorable oncologic outcome. Although the

  4. Loss of prostasin (PRSS8) in human bladder transitional cell carcinoma cell lines is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Li-Mei; Verity, Nicole J; Chai, Karl X

    2009-01-01

    The glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored epithelial extracellular membrane serine protease prostasin (PRSS8) is expressed abundantly in normal epithelia and essential for terminal epithelial differentiation, but down-regulated in human prostate, breast, and gastric cancers and invasive cancer cell lines. Prostasin is involved in the extracellular proteolytic modulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and is an invasion suppressor. The aim of this study was to evaluate prostasin expression states in the transitional cell carcinomas (TCC) of the human bladder and in human TCC cell lines. Normal human bladder tissues and TCC on a bladder cancer tissue microarray (TMA) were evaluated for prostasin expression by means of immunohistochemistry. A panel of 16 urothelial and TCC cell lines were evaluated for prostasin and E-cadherin expression by western blot and quantitative PCR, and for prostasin gene promoter region CpG methylation by methylation-specific PCR (MSP). Prostasin is expressed in the normal human urothelium and in a normal human urothelial cell line, but is significantly down-regulated in high-grade TCC and lost in 9 (of 15) TCC cell lines. Loss of prostasin expression in the TCC cell lines correlated with loss of or reduced E-cadherin expression, loss of epithelial morphology, and promoter DNA hypermethylation. Prostasin expression could be reactivated by demethylation or inhibition of histone deacetylase. Re-expression of prostasin or a serine protease-inactive variant resulted in transcriptional up-regulation of E-cadherin. Loss of prostasin expression in bladder transitional cell carcinomas is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and may have functional implications in tumor invasion and resistance to chemotherapy

  5. Loss of prostasin (PRSS8 in human bladder transitional cell carcinoma cell lines is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chai Karl X

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI-anchored epithelial extracellular membrane serine protease prostasin (PRSS8 is expressed abundantly in normal epithelia and essential for terminal epithelial differentiation, but down-regulated in human prostate, breast, and gastric cancers and invasive cancer cell lines. Prostasin is involved in the extracellular proteolytic modulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and is an invasion suppressor. The aim of this study was to evaluate prostasin expression states in the transitional cell carcinomas (TCC of the human bladder and in human TCC cell lines. Methods Normal human bladder tissues and TCC on a bladder cancer tissue microarray (TMA were evaluated for prostasin expression by means of immunohistochemistry. A panel of 16 urothelial and TCC cell lines were evaluated for prostasin and E-cadherin expression by western blot and quantitative PCR, and for prostasin gene promoter region CpG methylation by methylation-specific PCR (MSP. Results Prostasin is expressed in the normal human urothelium and in a normal human urothelial cell line, but is significantly down-regulated in high-grade TCC and lost in 9 (of 15 TCC cell lines. Loss of prostasin expression in the TCC cell lines correlated with loss of or reduced E-cadherin expression, loss of epithelial morphology, and promoter DNA hypermethylation. Prostasin expression could be reactivated by demethylation or inhibition of histone deacetylase. Re-expression of prostasin or a serine protease-inactive variant resulted in transcriptional up-regulation of E-cadherin. Conclusion Loss of prostasin expression in bladder transitional cell carcinomas is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT, and may have functional implications in tumor invasion and resistance to chemotherapy.

  6. Bladder Cancer—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    The most common type of bladder cancer is transitional cell carcinoma, also called urothelial carcinoma. Smoking is a major risk factor for bladder cancer. Bladder cancer is often diagnosed at an early stage. Start here to find information on bladder cancer treatment, screening, research, and statistics.

  7. Dimethylarsinic acid in drinking water changed the morphology but not the expression of DNA repair genes of bladder transitional epithelium in F344 rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inorganic arsenic increases urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma in humans. In laboratory animals, it is dimethylarsinic acid [DMA(V)], a major arsenic metabolite in the urine of inorganic arsenic-exposed people, that increases transitional cell carcinoma, namely in F344 r...

  8. Evaluation of transforming growth factor-β1 suppress Pokemon/epithelial-mesenchymal transition expression in human bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Kidiyoor, Amritha; Hu, Yangyang; Guo, Changcheng; Liu, Min; Yao, Xudong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Peng, Bo; Zheng, Junhua

    2015-02-01

    Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) plays a dual role in apoptosis and in proapoptotic responses in the support of survival in a variety of cells. The aim of this study was to determine the function of TGF-β1 in bladder cancer cells and the relationship with POK erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor (Pokemon). TGF-β1 and its receptors mediate several tumorigenic cascades that regulate cell proliferation, migration, and survival of bladder cancer cells. Bladder cancer cells T24 were treated with different levels of TGF-β1. Levels of Pokemon, E-cadherin, Snail, MMP2, MMP9, Twist, VEGF, and β-catenin messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein were examined by real-time quantitative fluorescent PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. The effects of TGF-β1 on epithelial-mesenchymal transition of T24 cells were evaluated with wound-healing assay, proliferation of T24 was evaluated with reference to growth curves with MTT assay, and cell invasive ability was investigated by Transwell assay. Data show that Pokemon was inhibited by TGF-β1 treatment; the gene and protein of E-cadherin and β-catenin expression level showed decreased markedly after TGF-β1 treatment (P Pokemon, β-catenin, and E-cadherin. The high expression of TGF-β1 leads to an increase in the phenotype and apical-base polarity of epithelial cells. These changes of cells may result in the recurrence and progression of bladder cancer at last. Related mechanism is worthy of further investigation.

  9. Identification of Apo-A1 as a biomarker for early diagnosis of bladder transitional cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shixin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bladder transitional cell carcinoma (BTCC is the fourth most frequent neoplasia in men, clinically characterized by high recurrent rates and poor prognosis. Availability of urinary tumor biomarkers represents a convenient alternative for early detection and disease surveillance because of its direct contact with the tumor and sample accessibility. Results We tested urine samples from healthy volunteers and patients with low malignant or aggressive BTCC to identify potential biomarkers for early detection of BTCC by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE coupled with mass spectrometry (MS and bioinformatics analysis. We observed increased expression of five proteins, including fibrinogen (Fb, lactate dehydrogenase B (LDHB, apolipoprotein-A1 (Apo-A1, clusterin (CLU and haptoglobin (Hp, which were increased in urine samples of patients with low malignant or aggressive bladder cancer. Further analysis of urine samples of aggressive BTCC showed significant increase in Apo-A1 expression compared to low malignant BTCC. Apo-A1 level was measured quantitatively using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and was suggested to provide diagnostic utility to distinguish patients with bladder cancer from controls at 18.22 ng/ml, and distinguish patients with low malignant BTCC from patients with aggressive BTCC in two-tie grading system at 29.86 ng/ml respectively. Further validation assay showed that Apo-A1 could be used as a biomarker to diagnosis BTCC with a sensitivity and specificity of 91.6% and 85.7% respectively, and classify BTCC in two-tie grading system with a sensitivity and specificity of 83.7% and 89.7% respectively. Conclusion Taken together, our findings suggest Apo-A1 could be a potential biomarker related with early diagnosis and classification in two-tie grading system for bladder cancer.

  10. Survival after primary and deferred cystectomy for stage T1 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedeir Ali-El-Dein

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Cancer-specific survival is statistically comparable for primary and deferred cystectomy in T1 bladder cancer, although there is a non-significant difference in favor of primary cystectomy. In the deferred cystectomy group, the number of TURBTs beyond three is associated with lower survival. Conservative treatment should be adopted for most cases in this category.

  11. Low grade papillary transitional cell carcinoma pelvic recurrence masquerading as high grade invasive carcinoma, ten years after radical cystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortazavi Amir

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor recurrence following radical cystectomy for a low-grade superficial transitional cell carcinoma (TCC is exceedingly uncommon and has not been reported previously. Case presentation We describe a case of a young male presenting with anorexia, weight loss and a large, painful locally destructive pelvic recurrence, ten years after radical cystoprostatectomy. The pathology was consistent with a low-grade urothelial carcinoma. After an unsuccessful treatment with cisplatin-based chemotherapy, the patient underwent a curative intent hemipelvectomy with complete excision of tumor and is disease free at one year follow-up. Conclusion A literature review related to this unusual presentation is reported and a surgical solutions over chemotherapy and radiotherapy is proposed.

  12. Laparoscopic bilateral nephroureterectomy and bladder cuff excision for native renal pelvic and ureteral transitional cell carcinoma after renal transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen C

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A 37-years-old female who was suffering from end-stage renal disease for about 6 years received allograft renal transplantation 4 years ago. She has been receiving 50mg of Cyclosporin A orally daily for immuno-suppression since then. Gross haematuria was noted and computerised tomography showed native left renal pelvic and ureteral multi-focal transitional cell carcinoma with severe hydronephrosis. Laparoscopic bilateral nephroureterectomy and bladder cuff excision were performed. In the past, history of previous operation was considered a relative contraindication for laparoscopic surgery. To our knowledge, we present the first case of laparoscopic treatment for native renal pelvic and ureteral transitional cell carcinoma after renal allograft transplantation without a hand-assisted device. This case shows the feasibility of laparoscopic bilateral nephroureterectomy in patients with transplanted kidneys.

  13. Usefulness of the UBCTM (urinary bladder cancer) test compared to urinary cytology for transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder in patients with hematuria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, Myung Cheol; Kang, Do Young; Seong, Youl Koon

    2001-01-01

    Urinary cytology and cystoscopic exam are effective methods for diagnosis of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). But the former shows drawbacks such as the need for a well-trained examiner, and wide imprecision related to the variability of microscopic exam; the latter is a invasive method. UBC TM test detects the epitope on specific cytokeratin fragments released from epithelium of bladder cancer by immunoradiometric assay. We compared UBC TM test with urinary cytology for diagnosis of TCC to evaluate the utility of UBC TM test. Eighty-four patients with hematuria were included in our study, UBC TM tests (IDL Biotech, Sweden) were assayed in mid-stream urine according to the ordinary assay protocol. Nineteen patients were confirmed as TCC by cystoscopic examination and underwent transurethral resection (Group A). Other patients had various benign urinary tract conditions (Group B). Samples were considered positive as the UBC TM concentration was greater than 12 μg/L. UBC TM levels were significantly different between group A (95.9 ±166.4 μg/L) and group B (19.2 ± 85.6 μg/L)(p TM test and 100% (65/65) in cytology. UBC TM test was significantly more sensitive in stage Ta, T 1 tumors (84.6 vs 38.5%, p TM test showed a tendency to be more sensitive as the grade was higher (83.3% in Grade 1, 90% in Grade II and 100% in Grade III). UBC TM test could be a useful method in distinguishing TCC from other benign genitourinary diseases. Moreover, UBC TM test could be an especially valuable marker for diagnosis of TCC in patients with early TCC of low grade TCC compared to urinary cytology. Therefore, mbined use of UBC TM test in association with cytology is helpful to overcome the limited sensitivity of cytology

  14. The Prognostic Role of NEDD9 and P38 Protein Expression Levels in Urinary Bladder Transitional Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola A. Harb

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The most common malignant tumor of the urinary bladder is transitional cell carcinoma (TCC. Neural precursor cell-expressed developmentally downregulated protein 9 (NEDD9 is found to be a cell adhesion mediator. P38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase is a serine/threonine kinases member which can mediate carcinogenesis through intracellular signaling. Methods. To assess their prognostic role; NEDD9 and p38 protein were evaluated in sections from 50 paraffin blocks of TCC. Results. The high expressions of NEDD9 and p38 protein were significantly associated with grade, stage, distant metastasis (p<0.001, number of tumors, lymph node metastasis, and tumor size (p<0.001, 0.002; 0.018, <0.001; and 0.004, 0.007, respectively. High NEDD9 and p38 detection had a worse 3-year OS (p=0.041 and <0.001, respectively. By multivariate analysis the NEDD9 and p38 protein expression levels and various clinicopathological criteria including gender, grade, stage of the tumor, and regional lymph node involvement were independent prognostic parameters of TCC of the urinary bladder patients’ outcome. Conclusion. NEDD9 and p38 protein expressions were poor prognostic markers of TCC.

  15. Papillary thyroid carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godballe, C; Asschenfeldt, P; Sørensen, J A

    1994-01-01

    The age influence on the prognosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma was analyzed in a group of 67 patients. A marked decline in cause-specific survival was found for patients older than 60 years of age at the time of diagnosis. In order to find a tumor-biological explanation of the prognostic...... invasion and distant metastases. The results indicate that 60 years of age the time of diagnosis may be the "prognostic break-point" for papillary thyroid carcinoma....

  16. Developments in bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis, L.; Niijima, T.; Prout, G.; Schroder, F.H.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 20 selections. Some of the titles are: Guidelines for Radiation Therapy in Clinical Research on Bladder Cancer; Transitional Cell Carcinoma in Situ; Policy on Monitoring and Reporting Results; Standardization of Protocol Formnd The Role of Cytology in the Diagnosis, Detection and Follow-up of Bladder Cancer

  17. Transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder with metastasis in lumbar vertebrae and spinal cord compression in an ocelot(Leopardus pardalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Y.R. Nakagaki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a case of nonpapillary and infiltrative transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the urinary bladder with metastasis of lumbar vertebrae and spinal cord compression in an adult female ocelot (Leopardus pardalis, from the Mato Grosso state, Brazil. The ocelot had pelvic limb paralysis and skin ulcers in the posterior region of the body and was submitted to euthanasia procedure. At necropsy was observed a multilobulated and irregular shaped, yellowish to white nodule in the urinary bladder. The nodule had a soft consistency and arised from the mucosa of the urinary bladder extending throughout the muscular layers and the serosa. Nodules of similar appearance infiltrating the vertebral column the at L6 and L7 vertebrae with corresponding spinal canal invasion were also observed. The histological evaluation showed epithelial neoplastic proliferation in the urinary bladder with characteristics of nonpapillary and infiltrative TCC, with positive immunohistochemical staining for pancytokeratin, and strong immunostaining for cytokeratin of low molecular weight, and weak or absent labeling for high molecular weight cytokeratin. This is the first report of TCC of urinary bladder in ocelot in Brazil.

  18. Is transition zone index useful in assessing bladder outflow obstruction due to benign prostatic hyperplasia?: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S L Sailo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Benign prostatic enlargement (BPE is the commonest cause of bladder outlet obstruction in men above 50 years of age. Though pressure-flow study is the gold standard in establishing outlet obstruction, it is associated with definite morbidity. Several noninvasive parameters are described to diagnose outlet obstruction due to BPE and evaluate treatment efficacy. AIM: We studied the role of transitional zone index (TZI in assessing bladder outlet obstruction (BOO due to BPE. SETTING AND DESIGN: Prospective hospital-based cross-sectional diagnostic study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-five men aged between 50 and 77 years with untreated lower urinary tract symptoms due to BPE were studied. Patients with prostate cancer, prostatitis, active UTI urethral stricture, neurovesical dysfunction and diabetes mellitus were excluded. All patients underwent a standard assessment using the American Urological Association (AUA symptom score, uroflow, pressure-flow (PF study and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS estimation of TZI. Investigators undertaking PF studies and TRUS were blinded to the investigation of others. From the PF studies, Abrams Griffith (AG number was calculated. Based on this, patients were grouped into obstructed (AG>40 and unobstructed (AG< 40 groups. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: TZI was calculated and compared with PF studies using Mann-Whitney U test, logistic regression analysis and receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC. RESULTS: The mean age was 63.2 years (SD. The mean AUA scores and peak flow rate were 16.7 and 7.5 ml/sec, respectively. Of the 35 men, 21 were obstructed and 14 were unobstructed. TZI was not significantly different between the two groups, while the differences in age, AUA symptom score, prostate volume and TZ volume were statistically significant. Logistic regression model did not show any independent effect of TZI in predicting obstruction. ROC curve showed a poor overall accuracy in diagnosing obstruction due

  19. Positive Correlation between Matrix Metalloproteinases and Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and its Association with Clinical Outcome in Bladder Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R; Mandhani, A; Agrawal, V; Garg, Minal

    2018-01-18

    Involvement of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the pathogenesis of urothelial carcinoma elects them to be sensitive marker for clinical and prognostic implications. MMPs regulate tumor growth and invasion by inducing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) which is characterized by the complex reprogramming of epithelial cells and ultimately bring about major changes in the structural organization of bladder urothelium. The present study has been undertaken to evaluate the clinical relevance of MMPs in two distinct types of bladder cancer disease. Expression analysis of MMPs namely MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9 and EMT markers including epithelial marker, E-cadherin; mesenchymal markers, N-cadherin and Vimentin; and EMT-activating transcriptional factors (EMT-ATFs), Snail, Slug, Twist and Zeb was done in 64 cases of bladder tumor tissues [{Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC): 35 cases} and {Muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC): 29 cases}] by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining was done in matched bladder tumor tissues to evaluate the protein expression and localization of E-cadherin, N-cadherin, Vimentin, Snail, and Slug. Our data showed overexpression of MMP-2, MMP-7 and MMP-9 at transcriptome level in 32.8%, 25% and 37.5% bladder tumor cases respectively. These tumor tissues were examined for higher expression of mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin and Vimentin) at mRNA and protein level and exhibited statistical association with tumor stage and tumor grade (p = 0.02, p = 0.04, Mann-Whitney test). Significant statistical correlation in tumor tissues with overexpressed MMPs has also been observed between gain of transcriptional factors and weak expression of E-cadherin with tumor stage, grade, gender, presence of hematuria and smoking history of the patients. Gene expression patterns of EMT markers in bladder tumors with overexpressed MMPs and their significant association with clinical profile

  20. Bladder Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Catheterization • Urinary Tract Infections: Indwelling (Foley) Catheter Bladder Management [ Download this pamphlet: "Bladder Management" - (PDF, 499KB) ] The ... and medication or surgery may be helpful. Bladder Management Foley or Suprapubic Catheter A tube is inserted ...

  1. Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... organ in your lower abdomen that stores urine. Bladder cancer occurs in the lining of the bladder. It ... urinate Low back pain Risk factors for developing bladder cancer include smoking and exposure to certain chemicals in ...

  2. Delayed Cystectomy for T1G3 Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC) of the Urinary Bladder, NCI Retrospective Case Series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FAKHR, I.; EL-HOSSIENY, H.; SALAMA, A.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: We aim to evaluate the National Cancer Institute (NCI) treatment protocol and its outcome regarding recurrence, progression and survival in patients with T1G3 urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma. Patients and Methods: In a retrospective study, between January 2001 and December 2007, all 34 patients with T1G3 bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), after complete transurethral resection (TURBT), received intravesical BCG as adjuvant therapy. A conservative approach was adopted, whereby those with superficial recurrences were eligible to TURBT, with delayed cystectomy for progression to muscle invasion. Overall, recurrence, and progression-free survival were analyzed. Results: Thirty-three patients were included, 29 were males and 4 were females. The mean age was 61 years (range 35-89 years). Final analysis was made at median follow-up of 15 months (Range of 3-68 months, mean 18 months) for survival. Eleven (33.3%) patients had multi- focal tumors. Associated schistosomiasis was present in 12 (36.6%) patients. Twenty-two (66.67%) patients showed recurrence. Eleven out of these 22 (50.0%) patients progressed to muscle invasion and underwent radical cystectomy. Ten out of 34 (30.3%) patients received post- cystectomy radiotherapy. Two (20.0%) of them, were staged as TNM stage II, 6 (60.0%) as TNM stage III and 2 (20.0%) patients were TNM stage IV. Eight (72.7%) of these 11 patients had post-cystectomy radiotherapy alone; while the 2 (6.0%) other patients with stage IV had adjuvant concomitant Cisplatin and Gemcitabine chemotherapy. Five (14%) patients of those cystectomy patients died of TCC. Three (60%) patients died from metastatic disease (to lung, liver and bone), one patient died from advanced locoregional disease and another patient died from post- operative complications. Among those patients who received radiotherapy alone, 62.5% are alive. Although, we report a biologically more aggressive behavior of T1G3 than that reported by some authors

  3. Expression of KAI1/CD82 and MRP-1/CD9 in transitional cell carcinoma of bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Xing; Zhang, Xu; Wu, Zhun; Ma, Xin; Ju, Zhenghua; Wang, Baojun; Shi, Taoping

    2007-02-01

    The expression of KAI1/CD82 and MRP-1/CD9 in transitional cell carcinoma of bladder (TCCB) and its clinical significance were investigated. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect KAI1/CD82 and MRP-1/CD9 protein expression in 52 TCCB specimens. Correlation between the expression of KAI1/CD82 and MRP-1/CD9 to clinicopathologic factors was statistically analyzed. The results showed that the positive rate of KAI1/CD82 and MRP-1/CD9 in TCCB was 50% and 61.5%, respectively. The MRP-1/CD9 and KAI1/CD82 expression was significantly associated with grade of TCCB (PMRP-1/CD9 or KAI1/CD82 expression and clinical stage of TCCB (P>0.05). The expression level of MRP-1/CD9 and KAI1/CD82 in recurrent TCCB samples was lower than that in non-recurrent samples (PMRP-1/CD9 expression was statistically significant (r=0.316, PMRP-1/CD9 expression may be important prognostic indicators and potentially useful for assessing the biological behavior of TCCB.

  4. Determination of lumbosacral transitional vertebrae in kidney urinary bladder x-ray films in the Saudi population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid G. Khashoggi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigated the rate of occurrence of lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LSTV, spinal variant, in kidney urinary bladder (KUB plain radiographs in a Saudi population. Methods: Between January 2012 to January 2015, KUB plain films obtained from patients at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, were reviewed, and the presence or absence of LSTV was documented and classified as incomplete or complete. Patients who had evidence of spinal surgery that would obscure the view were excluded. Results: A total of 2078 patients underwent KUB examinations during the study period; LSTV anomalies were detected in 158 of these. Sacralization was present in 153 (96.8% of this cohort, while lumbarization was present in 5 (3.2%. A total of 136 (86.1% of the sacralized segments were of the incomplete type, whereas 17 (10.7% were complete. Of the lumbarized vertebrae, 3 (1.8% were incomplete, and 2 (1.2% were complete. The most frequent type in men was type Ib (28.5% for sacralized segments, and type IIb for lumbarized segments (0.6%. In women, type Ia was the most common form of sacralized segments (11.3% and type IIb was the most common form of lumbarized segments (2.8%. Conclusion: The prevalence of LSTV in Saudi patients is 7.6%, with a higher incidence of sacralization than lumbarization. Further studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up time are needed to demonstrate the clinical significance thereof.

  5. Analysis of prognostic factors in patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder treated with radical cystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antunes Alberto A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the results of the treatment of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the bladder with radical cystectomy and determine which prognostic factors can be utilized as disease-free survival and cancer-specific survival independent variables. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical records of 113 patients submitted to radical cystectomy and bilateral iliac lymphadenectomy between 1993 and 2005 were reviewed. The risk factors analyzed were age, sex, pathological stage, tumor grade, presence of carcinoma in situ and the presence of lymph nodes involvement. RESULTS: After a mean follow-up of 31.7 ? 28.5 months, 46 patients (40.7% presented recurrence and 24 patients (21.2% died due to cancer. Only pathological stage and the lymph nodes involvement became independent variables for recurrence and survival. Patients with T4 stage presented 9.6 times the risk of recurrence of the disease when compared with stage T0 patients (p = 0.010 and the patients with lymph node involvement presented 2.5 times the risk of recurrence (p = 0.047 and 3.1 times the risk of death (p = 0.022 when compared to patients without lymph nodes involvement. CONCLUSIONS: Pathological stage and the involvement of lymph nodes represented more important prognostic variables, and in the presence of advanced stage tumors (T3/T4 and involvement of lymph nodes, the institution of adjuvant treatment should be considered.

  6. Clinico-pathological pattern, classification and staging of urinary bladder carcinomas - a five years experience at a tertiary care hospital in central punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naeem, A.

    2015-01-01

    In Pakistan, urinary bladder carcinoma is the 8th commonest malignancy while being the fourth commonest cancer in men. The relative occurrence of a particular histological type of bladder carcinoma depends on the clinical setting. Both grade and stage of these cancers are highly correlated with recurrence, progression and patient survival rates. Methods: This cross-sectional study comprised of 122 patients with newly diagnosed operable primary bladder carcinomas who underwent cystoscopy associated transurethral resection of bladder tumour at the Urology Department of Punjab Employees Social Security Hospital, Lahore. All participants completed a detailed questionnaire and underwent an in-depth interview to obtain data. The surgical specimens were referred to the Pathology department. Gross observations of the tumour recorded. Result: A total of 114 cases, classified according to WHO/ISUP criteria, low-grade papillary lesions, comprising Papillary Urothelial Neoplasm of Low Malignant Potential (PUNLMP) and Papillary Low Grade carcinomas, accounted for 43% of tumours. Male to female ratio being 5.3:1 (74%). Lateral walls were involved in 44%, posterior wall in 25.3%, trigone in 10.7%, bladder neck in 7.2%, dome in 5.8%, ureteric orifice in 4.13%, anterior wall in 2% and left ureter in 0.87% cases. Tumour staging revealed an overall 11.5% of tumours with stage Ta and 31.5% with stage T3-4. About 29% tumours were non invasive. About n=13 of low-grade carcinomas and n=68 of high-grade carcinomas were invasive. For tumours classified by WHO/ISUP criteria, the percentage of women was larger for PUNLMP than for the other categories of urothelial tumours (p-value 0.006); no statistically significant difference was found by age or gender with respect to tumour stage (p-value 0.138 and 0.452). Conclusion: Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC) is the commonest among middle aged men. (author)

  7. Synchronous triple urogenital cancer (renal cancer, bladder cancer, prostatic cancer). A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, Tsuyoshi; Honda, Masahito; Momohara, Chikahiro; Komori, Kazuhiko; Fujioka, Hideki [Osaka Police Hospital (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    A case of synchronous triple urogenital cancer, which was comprised of renal cell carcinoma of the left kidney, transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder, and adenocarcinoma of the prostate, is reported. A 72-year-old Japanese male patient was referred to our outpatient clinic with the complaint of asymptomatic hematuria. At that time, his serum of level of PSA was elevated to 20 ng/ml. Cystourethroscopy showed a papillary bladder tumor and coagula through the left urinary orifice. Ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass lesion measuring about 6 cm by 5 cm in the left kidney. Angiography showed a hypervascular lesion measuring about 6 cm by 5 cm at the same site. Double cancer, consisting of renal cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder, was suspected and we performed left total nephroureterectomy, hilar lymphadenectomy, and transurethral rection of the bladder tumor, one month later. At the same time, we performed a biopsy of the prostate. Histological diagnosis was renal cell carcinoma, clear cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder. Histological diagnosis of the prostate biopsy was moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. Since this case fulfilled the criteria of Warren and Gates, it was classified as synchronous triple urogenital cancer. A review of the literature revealed 17 authentic cases of triple urogenital cancer, of which 14 and 10 cases were reported as a combination of renal cancer, bladder cancer and prostatic cancer, in the world and in Japan, respectively. Furthermore, he had been exposed to the atomic bomb explosion in Hiroshima in 1945. This carcinogenic precursor may be related to the development of the triple cancer. (author)

  8. Synchronous triple urogenital cancer (renal cancer, bladder cancer, prostatic cancer). A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Tsuyoshi; Honda, Masahito; Momohara, Chikahiro; Komori, Kazuhiko; Fujioka, Hideki

    2002-01-01

    A case of synchronous triple urogenital cancer, which was comprised of renal cell carcinoma of the left kidney, transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder, and adenocarcinoma of the prostate, is reported. A 72-year-old Japanese male patient was referred to our outpatient clinic with the complaint of asymptomatic hematuria. At that time, his serum of level of PSA was elevated to 20 ng/ml. Cystourethroscopy showed a papillary bladder tumor and coagula through the left urinary orifice. Ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass lesion measuring about 6 cm by 5 cm in the left kidney. Angiography showed a hypervascular lesion measuring about 6 cm by 5 cm at the same site. Double cancer, consisting of renal cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder, was suspected and we performed left total nephroureterectomy, hilar lymphadenectomy, and transurethral rection of the bladder tumor, one month later. At the same time, we performed a biopsy of the prostate. Histological diagnosis was renal cell carcinoma, clear cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder. Histological diagnosis of the prostate biopsy was moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. Since this case fulfilled the criteria of Warren and Gates, it was classified as synchronous triple urogenital cancer. A review of the literature revealed 17 authentic cases of triple urogenital cancer, of which 14 and 10 cases were reported as a combination of renal cancer, bladder cancer and prostatic cancer, in the world and in Japan, respectively. Furthermore, he had been exposed to the atomic bomb explosion in Hiroshima in 1945. This carcinogenic precursor may be related to the development of the triple cancer. (author)

  9. Radiotherapy may improve overall survival of patients with T3/T4 transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis or ureter and delay bladder tumour relapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Li-Li

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the upper urinary tract is a relatively uncommon malignancy, the role of adjuvant radiotherapy is unknown. Methods We treated 133 patients with TCC of the renal pelvis or ureter at our institution between 1998 and 2008. The 67 patients who received external beam radiotherapy (EBRT following surgery were assigned to the radiation group (RT. The clinical target volume included the renal fossa, the course of the ureter to the entire bladder, and the paracaval and para-aortic lymph nodes, which were at risk of harbouring metastatic disease in 53 patients. The tumour bed or residual tumour was targeted in 14 patients. The median radiation dose administered was 50 Gy. The 66 patients who received intravesical chemotherapy were assigned to the non-radiation group (non-RT. Results The overall survival rates for the RT and non-RT groups were not significantly different (p = 0.198. However, there was a significant difference between the survival rates for these groups based on patients with T3/T4 stage cancer. A significant difference was observed in the bladder tumour relapse rate between the irradiated and non-irradiated bladder groups (p = 0.004. Multivariate analysis indicated that improved overall survival was associated with age grade 3 hematologic symptoms also occurred. Conclusion EBRT may improve overall survival for patients with T3/T4 cancer of the renal pelvis or ureter and delay bladder tumour recurrence in all patients.

  10. Overexpression of HER-2 via immunohistochemistry in canine urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma - A marker of malignancy and possible therapeutic target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millanta, F; Impellizeri, J; McSherry, L; Rocchigiani, G; Aurisicchio, L; Lubas, G

    2018-06-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the most commonly diagnosed neoplasm in the urinary bladder. Distant metastases to the regional lymph nodes, lungs, abdominal organs or bones are noted in up to 50% of dogs at time of death. Surgical excision is often not practical as TCC typically involve the trigone of the bladder and/or occurs multifocally throughout the bladder with field cancerization. Therapeutic approaches are very challenging and the requirement to evaluate alternative therapeutic protocols that may prolong survival times in dogs bearing these tumours is compelling. We assessed the immunohistochemical expression of HER-2 in 23 cases of canine TCCs of the urinary bladder and compare it with non-neoplastic urothelium in order to evaluate a rationale for targeted therapies and gene-based vaccines. HER-2 positivity was recorded in 13/23 (56%) neoplastic lesions. The receptor was significantly overexpressed in neoplastic than in non-neoplastic samples (P = .015). According to our preliminary results, it would be of interest to further evaluate the role of HER-2 in canine TCCs as a marker of malignancy and a therapeutic target for cancer vaccine and antibodies. Moreover, the significantly different overexpression of HER-2 in TCCs than in non-neoplastic urothelium further supports to investigate its role in the progression toward malignancy of non-neoplastic lesions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. MicroRNA profiling of dogs with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder using blood and urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Michael S; Zwingenberger, Allison; Westropp, Jodi L; Barrett, Laura E; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe P; Ghosh, Paramita; Vinall, Ruth L

    2017-11-15

    Early signs of canine transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) are frequently assumed to be caused by other lower urinary tract diseases (LUTD) such as urinary tract infections, resulting in late diagnosis of TCC which could be fatal. The development of a non-invasive clinical test for TCC could dramatically reduce mortality. To determine whether microRNAs (miRNAs) can be used as non-invasive diagnostic biomarkers, we assessed miRNA expression in blood and/or urine from dogs with clinically normal bladders (n = 28), LUTD (n = 25), and TCC (n = 17). Expression levels of 5 miRNA associated with TCC pathophysiology (miR-34a, let-7c, miR-16, miR-103b, and miR-106b) were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR. Statistical analyses using ranked ANOVA identified significant differences in miR-103b and miR-16 levels between urine samples from LUTD and TCC patients (miR-103b, p = 0.002; and miR-16, p = 0.016). No statistically significant differences in miRNA levels were observed between blood samples from LUTD versus TCC patients. Expression levels of miR-34a trended with miR-16, let-7c, and miR-103b levels in individual normal urine samples, however, this coordination was completely lost in TCC urine samples. In contrast, co-ordination of miR-34a, miR-16, let-7c, and miR-103b expression levels was maintained in blood samples from TCC patients. Our combined data indicate a potential role for miR-103b and miR-16 as diagnostic urine biomarkers for TCC, and that further investigation of miR-103b and miR-16 in the dysregulation of coordinated miRNA expression in bladder carcinogenesis is warranted.

  12. The influence of the level of lamina propria invasion and the prevalence of p53 nuclear accumulation on survival in stage T1 transitional cell bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, G G; Horn, T; Steven, K

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: We assessed the influence of the level of lamina propria invasion and the prevalence of p53 nuclear immunoreactivity on the survival of patients with stage T1 transitional cell bladder cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients presenting with stage T1 bladder cancer were prospectively...... and routinely grouped according to the level of lamina propria invasion. Invasion of the tumor stalk was defined as stage T1a, invasion of the lamina propria proper superficial to the level of muscularis mucosa as stage T1b and into or deeper than the muscularis mucosa as stage T1c. The p53 nuclear...... related to age, level of lamina propria invasion and presence of p53 nuclear accumulation. For this subpopulation overall survival was 67%, and 79% for stage T1a, 70% for stage T1b and 57% for stage T1c (p

  13. Papillary endothelial hyperplasia in angiokeratoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Anurag; Sayal, Satish Kumar; Raman, Deep Kumar; Sood, Aradhana

    2003-01-01

    Papillary endothelial hyperplasia (Masson's tumour) is a reactive proliferation of endothelium producing papillary structures with fibrovascular cores. Dilatation, stasis and accompanying inflammation have been incriminated as the inciting events, evident by the presence of this lesion in haemorrhoids, urethral caruncles and laryngeal polyps. We present here a case of papillary endothelial hyperplasia in angiokeratoma hitherto undescribed despite sharing common etiopathogenetic features of dilatation and stasis with other aforementioned lesions.

  14. Papillary ovarian cystadenocarcinoma in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yotov, S; Simeonov, R; Dimitrov, F; Vassilev, N; Dimitrov, M; Georgiev, P

    2005-03-01

    An 11-year-old female German Shepherd dog was presented for investigation of progressive enlargement of the abdomen, periodic bloody discharge from the vulva and rapid exhaustion. Transabdominal ultrasonography and lateral abdominal radiography demonstrated an echogenic formation with anechogenic cavities located cranial to the urinary bladder and a homogeneous shadow with an elliptical shape was located caudal to the rib arc. Both showed indistinct borders. Exploratory laparotomy identified bilateral ovarian masses and ovariohysterectomy was performed. Histopathology confirmed ovarian cystadenocarcinoma. The dog remained clinically normal without evidence of metastatic disease 4 months after surgery. Papillary cystadenocarcinoma in the bitch could affect both ovaries and manifests with a rapid growth rate and clinical signs such as rapid exhaustion, abdominal enlargement and vulval discharge. Ovariohysterectomy is the treatment option.

  15. Comparing Intra-Arterial Chemotherapy Combined With Intravesical Chemotherapy Versus Intravesical Chemotherapy Alone: A Randomised Prospective Pilot Study for T1G3 Bladder Transitional Cell Carcinoma After Bladder-Preserving Surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Junxing, E-mail: Junxingchen@hotmail.com; Yao, Zhijun, E-mail: yaozhijun1985@qq.com; Qiu, Shaopeng, E-mail: qiushp@mail.sysu.edu.cn; Chen, Lingwu, E-mail: chenlingwu@hotmail.com [First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Urology (China); Wang, Yu, E-mail: zsyyjr@163.com; Yang, Jianyong, E-mail: yangjianyong_2011@163.com; Li, Jiaping, E-mail: jpli3s@126.com [First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Interventional Oncology (China)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: To compare the efficacy of intra-arterial chemotherapy combined with intravesical chemotherapy versus intravesical chemotherapy alone for T1G3 bladder transitional cell carcinoma (BTCC) followed by bladder-preserving surgery. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients with T1G3 BTCC were randomly divided into two groups. After bladder-preserving surgery, 29 patients (age 30-80 years, 24 male and 5 female) received intra-arterial chemotherapy in combination with intravesical chemotherapy (group A), whereas 31 patients (age 29-83 years, 26 male and 5 female) were treated with intravesical chemotherapy alone (group B). Twenty-nine patients were treated with intra-arterial epirubicin (50 mg/m{sup 2}) + cisplatin (60 mg/m{sup 2}) chemotherapy 2-3 weeks after bladder-preserving surgery once every 4-6 weeks. All of the patients received the same intravesical chemotherapy: An immediate prophylactic was administered in the first 6 h. After that, therapy was administered one time per week for 8 weeks and then one time per month for 8 months. The instillation drug was epirubicin (50 mg/m{sup 2}) and lasted for 30-40 min each time. The end points were tumour recurrence (stage Ta, T1), tumour progression (to T2 or greater), and disease-specific survival. During median follow-up of 22 months, the overall survival rate, tumour-specific death rate, recurrence rate, progression rate, time to first recurrence, and adverse reactions were compared between groups. Results: The recurrence rates were 10.3 % (3 of 29) in group A and 45.2 % (14 of 31) in group B, and the progression rates were 0 % (0 of 29) in group A and 22.6 % (7 of 31) in group B. There was a significant difference between the two groups regarding recurrence (p = 0.004) and progression rates (p = 0.011). Median times to first recurrence in the two groups were 15 and 6.5 months, respectively. The overall survival rates were 96.6 and 87.1 %, and the tumour-specific death rates were 0 % (0 of 29) and 13.5 % (4 of 31

  16. Expression of Peroxisome Proferator-Activated Receptor γ (PPARγ in Human Transitional Bladder Cancer and its Role in Inducing Cell Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Fei Guan

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the expression and role of the thiazolidinedione (TZD-activated transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ, in human bladder cancers. In situ hybridization shows that PPARγ mRNA is highly expressed in all human transitional epithelial cell cancers (TCCa's studied (n=11. PPARγ was also expressed in five TCCa cell lines as determined by RNase protection assays and immunoblot. Retinoid X receptor α (RXRα, a 9-cis-retinoic acid stimulated (9-cis-RA heterodimeric partner of PPARγ, was also co-expressed in all TCCa tissues and cell lines. Treatment of the T24 bladder cancer cells with the TZD PPARγ agonist troglitazone, dramatically inhibited 3H-thymidine incorporation and induced cell death. Addition of the RXRα ligands, 9-cis-RA or LG100268, sensitized T24 bladder cancer cells to the lethal effect of troglitazone and two other PPARγ activators, ciglitazone and 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-PGJ2 (15dPGJ2. Troglitazone treatment increased expression of two cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p21wAF1/CIP1 and p16INK4, reduced cyclin D1 expression, consistent with G1 arrest. Troglitazone also induced an endogenous PPARγ target gene in T24 cells, adipocyte-type fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP, the expression of which correlates with bladder cancer differentiation. In situ hybridization shows that A-FABP expression is localized to normal uroepithelial cells as well as some TCCa's. Taken together, these results demonstrate that PPARγ is expressed in human TCCa where it may play a role in regulating TCCa differentiation and survival, thereby providing a potential target for therapy of uroepithelial cancers.

  17. Tanshinone IIA Inhibits Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Bladder Cancer Cells via Modulation of STAT3-CCL2 Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Ying Huang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Tanshinone IIA (Tan-IIA is an extract from the widely used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza, and has been found to attenuate the proliferation of bladder cancer (BCa cells (The IC50 were: 5637, 2.6 μg/mL; BFTC, 2 μg/mL; T24, 2.7 μg/mL, respectively.. However, the mechanism of the effect of Tan-IIA on migration inhibition of BCa cells remains unclear. This study investigates the anti-metastatic effect of Tan-IIA in human BCa cells and clarifies its molecular mechanism. Three human BCa cell lines, 5637, BFTC and T24, were used for subsequent experiments. Cell migration and invasion were evaluated by transwell assays. Real-time RT-PCR and western blotting were performed to detect epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT-related gene expression. The enzymatic activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP was evaluated by zymography assay. Tan-IIA inhibited the migration and invasion of human BCa cells. Tan-IIA suppressed both the protein expression and enzymatic activity of MMP-9/-2 in human BCa cells. Tan-IIA up-regulated the epithelial marker E-cadherin and down-regulated mesenchymal markers such as N-cadherin and Vimentin, along with transcription regulators such as Snail and Slug in BCa cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Mechanism dissection revealed that Tan-IIA-inhibited BCa cell invasion could function via suppressed chemokine (C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2 expression, which could be reversed by the addition of CCL2 recombinant protein. Furthermore, Tan-IIA could inhibit the phosphorylation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 (Tyr705, which cannot be restored by the CCL2 recombinant protein addition. These data implicated that Tan-IIA might suppress EMT on BCa cells through STAT3-CCL2 signaling inhibition. Tan-IIA inhibits EMT of BCa cells via modulation of STAT3-CCL2 signaling. Our findings suggest that Tan-IIA can serve as a potential anti-metastatic agent in BCa therapy.

  18. Bladder Cancer—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder can be low-grade or high-grade. Bladder cancer is also divided into muscle-invasive and nonmuscle-invasive disease. Find evidence-based information on bladder cancer including treatment, screening, research, and statistics.

  19. The results of a series of 963 patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder primarily treated by radical megavoltage X-ray therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, W.; Quilty, P.M.

    1986-01-01

    The results are reported of a large series of patients with transitional cell cancer of the bladder, treated in Edinburgh between 1971 and 1982. Analysis of pre-treatment characteristics for patients with transitional cell bladder cancer showed that tumour category was significantly associated with grade and tumour size. Complete local tumour regression at follow-up cystoscopy was achieved in 45.9% of patients who completed radical megavoltage X-ray therapy. Patients with grade 2 or 3 cancer, a solid cancer or a tumour of less than 8 cm in size had significantly improved complete regression rates. Lasting local tumour control after initial complete regression was better in patients with grade 3 cancer. Complete regression was associated with improved survival for all but patients with T1 cancer. The poorest survival rates were seen in patients over 79 years of age, those with T4 cancer, an ulcerated cancer, a grade 3 cancer or a tumour of more than 7 cm in size. Metastases were more often seen in patients with grade 3 or T3/T4 cancer. Severe late radiation-related complications were seen in 14.8% of patients. (Auth.)

  20. ETS-1 oncoprotein expression is decreased in aggressive papillary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    So far, there is no reliable prognostic marker has been proved for detection of the tumor progression and recurrence. Objectives: To analyze the correlation between ETS-1 oncoprotein immunohistochemical expression and the different stages and grades of the primary papillary transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary ...

  1. Papillary tubal hyperplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurman, Robert J; Vang, Russell; Junge, Jette

    2011-01-01

    , designated "papillary tubal hyperplasia (PTH)," characterized by small rounded clusters of tubal epithelial cells and small papillae, with or without associated psammoma bodies, that are present within the tubal lumen and which are frequently associated with APSTs. Twenty-two cases in this study were...... with an ovarian tumor. PTH was found in 20 (91%) of the 22 cases in the Danish study. On the basis of this association of PTH with APSTs with implants and the close morphologic resemblance of PTH, not only to primary ovarian APSTs but also to noninvasive epithelial implants and endosalpingiosis, we speculate...... of ovarian and extraovarian low-grade serous proliferations (APST, noninvasive epithelial implants, and endosalpingiosis) that postulates that all of these lesions are derived from PTH, which appears to be induced by chronic inflammation. If this hypothesis is confirmed, it can be concluded that low...

  2. Bilateral papillary renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gossios, K.; Vazakas, P.; Argyropoulou, M.; Stefanaki, S.; Stavropoulos, N.E.

    2001-01-01

    Papillary renal cell carcinoma is a subgroup of malignant renal epithelial neoplasms. We report the clinical and imaging findings of a case with multifocal and bilateral renal cell carcinoma which are nonspecific. (orig.)

  3. Neurogenic Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T. Dorsher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital anomalies such as meningomyelocele and diseases/damage of the central, peripheral, or autonomic nervous systems may produce neurogenic bladder dysfunction, which untreated can result in progressive renal damage, adverse physical effects including decubiti and urinary tract infections, and psychological and social sequelae related to urinary incontinence. A comprehensive bladder-retraining program that incorporates appropriate education, training, medication, and surgical interventions can mitigate the adverse consequences of neurogenic bladder dysfunction and improve both quantity and quality of life. The goals of bladder retraining for neurogenic bladder dysfunction are prevention of urinary incontinence, urinary tract infections, detrusor overdistension, and progressive upper urinary tract damage due to chronic, excessive detrusor pressures. Understanding the physiology and pathophysiology of micturition is essential to select appropriate pharmacologic and surgical interventions to achieve these goals. Future perspectives on potential pharmacological, surgical, and regenerative medicine options for treating neurogenic bladder dysfunction are also presented.

  4. Bladder Leiomyoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliskan, Selahattin; Sungur, Mustafa

    2017-03-01

    Leiomyoma of the bladder is a very rare disorder that accounts for 0.43% of all bladder neoplasms. Although the pathophysiology of the bladder leiomyoma is unknown, there are some theories in it. The patients can be asymptomatic; and clinical symptoms, when present, are associated with the tumor size and location. Imaging techniques such as ultrasonography, intravenous urography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging are helpful but definitive diagnosis is made by histopathological examination. Surgical resection of tumor with transurethral, open, laparoscopic and robotic approaches is the main treatment. We present a case of leiomyoma of the bladder in an adult male patient.

  5. p53-stabilizing Agent CP-31398 Prevents Growth and Invasion of Urothelial Cancer of the Bladder in Transgenic UPII-SV40T Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateshwar Madka

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The high prevalence of bladder cancer and its recurrence make it an important target for chemoprevention. About half of invasive urothelial tumors have mutations in p53. We determined the chemopreventive efficacy of a p53-stabilizing agent, CP-31398, in a transgenic UPII-SV40T mouse model of bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC that strongly resembles human TCC. After genotyping, six-week-old UPII-SV40T mice (n = 30/group were fed control (AIN-76A or experimental diets containing 150 or 300 ppm of CP-31398 for 34 weeks. Progression of bladder cancer growth was monitored by magnetic resonance imaging. At 40 weeks of age, all mice were killed; urinary bladders were collected to determine weights, tumor incidence, and histopathology. There was a significant increase in bladder weights of transgenic versus wild-type mice (male: 140.2 mg vs 27.3 mg, P < .0001; female: 34.2 mg vs 14.8 mg, P < .0001. A significant decrease in the bladder tumor weights (by 68.6–80.2%, P < .0001 in males and by 36.9–55.3%, P < .0001 in females was observed in CP-31398-treated mice. Invasive papillary TCC incidence was 100% in transgenic mice fed control diet. Both male and female mice exposed to CP-31398 showed inhibition of invasive TCC. CP-31398 (300 ppm completely blocked invasion in female mice. Molecular analysis of the bladder tumors showed an increase in apoptosis markers (p53, p21, Bax, and Annexin V with a decrease in vascular endothelial growth factor in transgenic mice fed CP-31398. These results suggest that p53-modulating agents can serve as potential chemopreventive agents for bladder TCC.

  6. Epithelial mesenchymal transition status is associated with anti-cancer responses towards receptor tyrosine-kinase inhibition by dovitinib in human bladder cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hänze, Jörg; Henrici, Marcus; Hegele, Axel; Hofmann, Rainer; Olbert, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Dovitinib (TKI-258) is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor targeting fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) and further related RTKs. TKI-258 is under investigation as anticancer drug for the treatment of various cancers including bladder cancer with aberrant RTK signaling. Here, we analyzed the responses of ten human bladder cancer cell lines towards TKI-258 treatment in relation to the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) status of the cells. Expression of epithelial marker E-cadherin as well as mesenchymal markers N-cadherin and vimentin was determined by quantitative RT-PCR and Western-blot in RNA and protein extracts from the cultured cell lines. The cell responses were analyzed upon addition of TKI-258 by viability/proliferation (XTT assay) and colony formation assay for measurement of cell contact independent growth. The investigated bladder cancer cell lines turned out to display quite different EMT patterns as indicated by the abundance of E-cadherin or N-cadherin and vimentin. Protein and mRNA levels of the respective components strongly correlated. Based on E-cadherin and N-cadherin mRNA levels that were expressed approximately mutual exclusively, an EMT-score was calculated for each cell line. A high EMT-score indicated mesenchymal-like cells and a low EMT-score epithelial-like cells. Then, we determined the IC 50 values for TKI-258 by dose response curves (0-12 μM TKI-258) in XTT assays for each cell line. Also, we measured the clonogenic survival fraction after adding TKI-258 (1 μM) by colony formation assay. We observed significant correlations between EMT-score and IC 50 values (r = 0.637, p = 0.0474) and between EMT-score and clonogenic survival fraction (r = 0.635, p = 0.0483) as analyzed by linear regression analyses. In sum, we demonstrated that the EMT status based on E-cadherin and N-cadherin mRNA levels may be useful to predict responses towards TKI-258 treatment in bladder cancer

  7. Bladder wash cytology, quantitative cytology, and the qualitative BTA test in patients with superficial bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Poel, H. G.; van Balken, M. R.; Schamhart, D. H.; Peelen, P.; de Reijke, T.; Debruyne, F. M.; Schalken, J. A.; Witjes, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    Two new methods for the detection of transitional tumor cells in bladder wash (karyometry: QUANTICYT) and voided urine material (BARD BTA test) were compared with bladder wash cytology for the prediction of histology and tumor recurrence. Bladder wash material and voided urine were sampled from 138

  8. DIMETHYLARSINIC ACID ALTERS EXPRESSION OF OXIDATIVE STRESS AND DNA REPAIR GENES IN A DOSE DEPENDENT MANNER IN THE TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIUM OF THE URINARY BLADDER FROM FEMALE F344 RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dose-dependent alteration of oxidative stress and DNA repair gene expression by Dimethylarsinic acid [DMA(V)] in transitional epithelium of urinary bladder from female F344 rats.Arsenic (As) is a major concern as millions of people are at risk from drinking arsenic contaminat...

  9. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with methotrexate and cisplatin prior to radiotherapy for invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Assessment of feasibility and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, G.C.W.; Cornbleet, M.A.; Whillis, D.; Hargreave, T.B.; Chisholm, G.D.

    1991-01-01

    A prospective study has been performed to assess the feasibility and toxicity of administering neoadjuvant chemotherapy with methotrexate and cisplatin prior to radical radiotherapy. Twenty patients with advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder were assessed after each of 3 courses of chemotherapy, after radiotherapy and 6 months following treatment. Of particular concern was whether neoadjuvant chemotherapy compromised the ability to give potentially curative radical radiotherapy, delayed effective palliation of distressing urinary symptoms, or allowed local tumour progression prior to definitive treatment. It was concluded that this chemotherapy regimen was well tolerated, did not compromise the ability to give radical radiotherapy and resulted in the prompt palliation of urinary symptoms. This treatment, however, did not stop the development or progression of metastatic disease in some patients. In only 1 patient was there local progression during chemotherapy. (author)

  10. Pattern and Risk Factors of Urinary Bladder Neoplasms in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It poses biologic and clinical challenges. ... Conclusion: There is significant relationship between urinary schistosomal infestation and the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder among Sudanese patients. Keywords: Urinary Bladder, Transitional Cell Carcinoma, Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  11. Papillary cystadenoma of the epididymis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallie, N R; Fisher, G F; Harker, J R

    1983-03-01

    The case of a 30-year-old man with papillary cystadenoma of the epididymis is presented. This extremely rare lesion is often associated with von Hippel-Lindau disease, although in this case there were no such signs or symptoms. The gross and microscopic features of this lesion and theories of its origin are reviewed. The constant microscopic features are: efferent duct ectasia with papillary formation, a lining of cuboidal epithelium, often with clear vacuolated cytoplasm, and a stroma of hyalinized fibrous tissue infiltrated by inflammatory cells.

  12. Incidental finding of multiple well-differentiated papillary mesotheliomas in peritoneum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mark; Engvad, Birte; Jensen, Thor

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of multiple well-differentiated papillary mesotheliomas (WDPM) in the peritoneum found incidentally in a 63-year-old man with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. When multiple tumors are seen, malignant mesothelioma should be excluded by histopathological examination as this ma...... with a good prognosis. Great care is needed when diagnosing mesothelial proliferations, given the crucial nature of a benign vs malignant diagnosis. No standardized treatment has yet been established....

  13. Overactive Bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... especially if your symptoms disrupt your work schedule, social interactions and everyday activities. Causes Normal bladder function The ... fills, nerve signals sent to your brain eventually trigger the need to urinate. When you urinate, nerve ...

  14. Neurogenic bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause skin to break down and lead to pressure sores Kidney damage if the bladder becomes too full, ... dysfunction; NBSD Patient Instructions Multiple sclerosis - discharge Preventing pressure ulcers Images Voiding cystourethrogram References Chapple CR, Osman NI. ...

  15. Bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dye workers, rubber workers, aluminum workers, leather workers, truck drivers, and pesticide applicators are at the highest ... examining the inside of the bladder with a camera), with biopsy Intravenous pyelogram - IVP Pelvic CT scan ...

  16. Deletion/duplication mutation screening of TP53 gene in patients with transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazrafshani, Mohammad Reza R; Nowshadi, Pouriaali A; Shirian, Sadegh; Daneshbod, Yahya; Nabipour, Fatemeh; Mokhtari, Maral; Hosseini, Fatemehsadat; Dehghan, Somayeh; Saeedzadeh, Abolfazl; Mosayebi, Ziba

    2016-02-01

    Bladder cancer is a molecular disease driven by the accumulation of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. The aim of this study was to detect the deletions/duplication mutations in TP53 gene exons using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) method in the patients with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). The achieved formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from 60 patients with TCC of bladder were screened for exonal deletions or duplications of every 12 TP53 gene exons using MLPA. The pathological sections were examined by three pathologists and categorized according to the WHO scoring guideline as 18 (30%) grade I, 22 (37%) grade II, 13 (22%) grade III, and 7 (11%) grade IV cases of TCC. None mutation changes of TP53 gene were detected in 24 (40%) of the patients. Furthermore, mutation changes including, 15 (25%) deletion, 17 (28%) duplication, and 4 (7%) both deletion and duplication cases were observed among 60 samples. From 12 exons of TP53 gene, exon 1 was more subjected to exonal deletion. Deletion of exon 1 of TP53 gene has occurred in 11 (35.4%) patients with TCC. In general, most mutations of TP53, either deletion or duplication, were found in exon 1, which was statistically significant. In addition, no relation between the TCC tumor grade and any type of mutation were observed in this research. MLPA is a simple and efficient method to analyze genomic deletions and duplications of all 12 exons of TP53 gene. The finding of this report that most of the mutations of TP53 occur in exon 1 is in contrast to that of the other reports suggesting that exons 5-8 are the most (frequently) mutated exons of TP53 gene. The mutations of exon 1 of TP53 gene may play an important role in the tumorogenesis of TCC. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Microsatellite instability in bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Zulueta, M; Ruppert, J M; Tokino, K

    1993-01-01

    Somatic instability at microsatellite repeats was detected in 6 of 200 transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder. Instabilities were apparent as changes in (GT)n repeat lengths on human chromosome 9 for four tumors and as alterations in a (CAG)n repeat in the androgen receptor gene on the X...... or larger (> 2 base pairs) alterations in repeat length. All six tumors were low stage (Ta-T1), suggesting that these alterations can occur early in bladder tumorigenesis....

  18. Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Grants Bladder Cancer Think Tank Bladder Cancer Research Network Bladder Cancer Genomics Consortium Get Involved Ways to ... us? Who we are The Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network (BCAN) is a community of patients, caregivers, survivors, ...

  19. A novel combination of multiple primary carcinomas: Urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma, prostate adenocarcinoma and small cell lung carcinoma- report of a case and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannikaki Elpida

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of multiple primary malignant neoplasms increases with age and they are encountered more frequently nowadays than before, the phenomenon is still considered to be rare. Case presentation We report a case of a man in whom urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma, metachronous prostate adenocarcinoma and small cell lung carcinoma were diagnosed within an eighteen-month period. The only known predisposing factor was that he was heavy smoker (90–100 packets per year. The literature on the phenomenon of multiple primary malignancies in a single patient is reviewed and the data is summarized. Conclusion It is important for the clinicians to keep in mind the possibility of a metachronous (successive or a synchronous (simultaneous malignancy in a cancer patient. It is worthy mentioning this case because clustering of three primary malignancies (synchronous and metachronous is of rare occurrence in a single patient, and, to our knowledge, this is the first report this combination of three carcinomas appearing in the same patient.

  20. Use of Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEAI) to distinguish vascular and "pseudovascular" invasion in transitional cell carcinoma of bladder with lamina propria invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, M P; Steinberg, G D; Brendler, C B; Epstein, J I

    1990-01-01

    We used Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEAI)-immunoperoxidase staining of endothelium to study the accuracy of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) diagnosis, occurrence, and significance of lymphvascular invasion in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder invading the lamina propria (Stage T1). Original histologic slides from cases (1967 to 1985) with and without vascular invasion were destained and restained with UEAI-immunoperoxidase. Only 5 of 36 biopsies originally diagnosed with lymphvascular invasion had tumor nests within endothelium-lined spaces. The 31 negative biopsies had extensive retraction artifacts lined by connective tissue and fibroblasts around tumor nests. Thirty-five control biopsies remained negative for lymphvascular invasion. Clinical follow-up of the five patients with proven lymphvascular invasion found three without progression of disease 3 to 10 yr postbiopsy, one dead of a local recurrence of TCC 1.67 yr postbiopsy, and one lost to follow-up. Based on this study, we feel that lymphvascular invasion by TCC in Stage T1 tumors is unusual, is frequently misdiagnosed on H&E stain, and does not necessarily portend a poor prognosis.

  1. Arsenate and dimethylarsinic acid in drinking water did not affect DNA damage repair in urinary bladder transitional cells or micronuclei in bone marrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic is a recognized human skin, lung, and urinary bladder carcinogen, and may act as a cocarcinogen in the urinary bladder (with cigarette smoking) and skin (with UV light exposure). Possible modes of action of arsenic carcinogenesis/cocarcinogenesis include induction of DNA ...

  2. Clinical value and potential pathways of miR-183-5p in bladder cancer: A study based on miRNA-seq data and bioinformatics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jia-Min; Huang, Lin-Zhen; Huang, Zhi-Guang; He, Rong-Quan

    2018-04-01

    The clinicopathological value and exploration of the potential molecular mechanism of microRNA-183-5p (miR-183-5p) have been investigated in various cancers; however, to the best of the author's knowledge, no similar research has been reported for bladder cancer. In the present study, it was revealed that the expression level of miR-183-5p was notably increased in bladder cancer tissues compared with adjacent non-cancerous tissues (P=0.001) and was markedly increased in the tissue samples of papillary, pathological T stage (T0-T2) and pathological stage (I-II) compared with tissue samples of their counterparts (P=0.05), according to data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed the robust diagnostic value of miR-183-5p for distinguishing bladder cancer from non-cancerous bladder tissues (area under curve=0.948; 95% confidence interval: 0.919-0.977). Amplification and deep deletion of miR-183-5p were indicated by cBioPortal, accounting for 1% (4/412) of bladder cancer cases. Data from YM500v3 demonstrated that compared with other cancers, bladder cancer exhibited high expression levels of miR-183-5p, and miR-183-5p expression in primary solid tumors was much higher compared with solid normal tissues. A meta-analysis indicated that miR-183-5p was more highly expressed in bladder cancer samples compared with normal counterparts. A total of 88 potential target genes of miR-183-5p were identified, 13 of which were discerned as hub genes by protein-protein interaction. The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition pathway was the most significantly enriched pathway by FunRich (P=0.0001). In summary, miR-183-5p may participate in the tumorigenesis and development of bladder cancer via certain signaling pathways, particularly the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition pathway. However, the exact molecular mechanism of miR-183-5p in bladder cancer must be validated by in vitro and in vivo experiments.

  3. Fatores de risco em carcinomas de células transicionais da bexiga: risk factors Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Brianezi Tiraboschi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar alguns dados epidemiológicos do câncer vesical bem como fatores de risco. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados 125 pacientes atendidos no período 1980-2002, com idade média de 63,6±11,3 anos, sendo 97 (77,6% homens e 28 (22,4% mulheres. As proporções de tumores G1, G2 e G3 foram: 48%, 35,2% e 16,8%. As proporções dos estádios da lesão primária foram: pTa-1 - 85 ( 68% e pT2-4 - 40 ( 32%. Entre os pacientes com tumores superficiais houve recidiva em 41 (48,2%. RESULTADOS: O grau da lesão primária mostrou relação com o estádio T (pOBJECTIVE: To analyse some epidemiological data of patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder (TCC and the predictive value of conventional risk factors. METHODS: From 1980 to 2002, 125 patients were treated at our hospital and selected retrospectively for this study. The series mean age was 63,6±11,3 years, being 77.6% males and 22.4% females. The proportions of G!, G2 and G3 TCC were: 48%, 35.2% and 16.8%. The T stage was: pTa-1 - 85 (68% and pT2-4 - 40 (32%. Superficial tumors were treated by TUR alone or plus BCG (>G1, and the invasives ones by radical cystectomy. The vesical reccurence rate of superficial TCC was 48.2%. RESULTS: TCC grade showed a positive association with T stage (p<0.0001 and patient survival (p<0.0001, but not with local bladder reccurence of superficial tumors (p=0.72. The T stage also showed a strong correlation with patient survival (p<0.0001. CONCLUSION: The TCC is more common in male than in female with mean age of 63.2 years. The tumor grading and staging exhibited as strong predictive value for disease progression and patient survival.

  4. Bladder stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    The health care provider will perform a physical exam. This will also include a rectal exam. The exam may reveal an enlarged prostate or other problems. The following tests may be done: Bladder or pelvic x-ray Cystoscopy Urinalysis Urine culture (clean catch)

  5. Apoptosis, proliferation and p53, cyclin D1, and retinoblastoma gene expression in relation to radiation response in transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moonen, Luc; Ong, Francisca; Gallee, Maarten; Verheij, Marcel; Horenblas, Simon; Hart, Augustinus A.M.; Bartelink, Harry

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the apoptotic index, the Ki67 index, and the expression of the p53, cyclin D1, and retinoblastoma genes correlate with local control, overall survival, and time to distant metastases in invasive bladder cancer treated with external beam radiation. Methods and Materials: Paraffin-embedded pretreatment biopsies from 83 patients with invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder were scored morphologically for apoptosis and immunohistochemically for Ki67, p53, cyclin D1, and retinoblastoma gene expression. Survival analysis methods were used to assess overall survival, local control, and freedom from distant metastases. A multiple proportional hazard (PH) regression analysis was performed to study the prognostic value of the above mentioned biologic parameters (all divided into two categories, except Ki67) in addition to classical prognostic factors such as T stage, histologic grade, multifocality of the tumor, and completeness of transurethral resection. All patients were treated with external beam radiation as sole treatment. Median follow-up for the 19 patients still living was 7.5 years. Results: Apoptotic index varied from 0% to 3.4% with a mean of 0.8% and a median of 0.6%. Ki67 index varied from 0% to 60% with a mean of 14% and a median of 12%. P53 protein was detectable in 61% of the tumors. Overexpression of cyclin D1 was observed in 39% of the tumors and loss of retinoblastoma protein in 23% of the tumors. High Ki67 index was found to be significantly associated with p53 expression (p=0.04) and cyclin D1 overexpression (p=0.023). Cyclin D1 overexpression was found more often in Rb-positive tumors than in Rb-negative tumors (p=0.006). Other associations between the markers are less clear. Biologic markers were not correlated with T stage or grade. In the PH analysis local control was found to be significantly better for tumors with wild-type p53 (p=0.028). Also, tumors with an apoptotic index above the median value (0

  6. Effects of YC-1 on hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha in hypoxic human bladder transitional carcinoma cell line T24 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yangle; Zhao, Xiaokun; Tang, Huiting; Zhong, Zhaohui; Zhang, Lei; Xu, Ran; Li, Songchao; Wang, Yi

    2012-01-01

    It was the aim of this study to explore the effects of 3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'-furyl)-l-benzyl indazole (YC-1) on transcription activity, cell proliferation and apoptosis of hypoxic human bladder transitional carcinoma cells (BTCC), mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α). BTCC cell line T24 cells were incubated under normoxic or hypoxic conditions, adding different doses of YC-1. The protein expression of HIF-1α and HIF-1α-mediated genes was detected by Western blotting. RT-PCR was used to detect HIF-1α mRNA expression. Cell proliferation, apoptosis and migration activity were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, flow cytometry and transwell migration assay. The cells were pretreated by two ERK/p38 MAPK pathway-specific inhibitors, PD98059 or SB203580, and then incubated with YC-1 treatment under hypoxic condition. HIF-1α protein expression was detected by Western blotting. Hypoxic T24 cells expressed a higher level of HIF-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor, matrix metalloproteinases-2, B-cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 protein and HIF-1α mRNA compared with normoxic controls, in which the above-mentioned expression was downregulated by YC-1 in a dose-dependent manner. Cell proliferation and migration activity were inhibited while apoptosis was induced by YC-1 under hypoxic condition. Moreover, YC-1-downregulated HIF-1α expression was reversed by PD98059 and SB203580, respectively. YC-1 inhibits HIF-1α and HIF-1α-mediated gene expression, cell proliferation and migration activity and induces apoptosis in hypoxic BTCC. The ERK/p38 MAPK pathway may be involved in YC-1-mediated inhibition of HIF-1α. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Heterogeneity of uroplakin localization in human normal urothelium, papilloma and papillary carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zupancic, Dasa; Romih, Rok

    2013-01-01

    Uroplakins are differentiation-related membrane proteins of urothelium. We compared uroplakin expression and ultrastructural localization in human normal urothelium, papilloma and papillary carcinoma. Because of high recurrence rate of these tumours, treated by transurethral resection, we investigated urothelial tumour, resection border and uninvolved urothelium. Urinary bladder samples were obtained from tumour free control subjects and patients with papilloma and papillary carcinoma. Immunohistochemical and immunoelectron labelling of uroplakins were performed. In normal human urothelium with continuous uroplakin-positive superficial cell layer uroplakins were localized to flattened mature fusiform vesicles and apical plasma membrane of umbrella cells. Diverse uroplakin expression was found in papilloma and papillary carcinoma. Three aberrant differentiation stages of urothelial cells, not found in normal urothelium, were recognized in tumours. Diverse uroplakin expression and aberrant differentiation were occasionally found in resection border and in uninvolved urothelium. We demonstrated here that uroplakin expression and localization in urothelial tumours is altered when compared to normal urothelium. In patients with papilloma and papillary carcinoma immunolabelling of uroplakins at ultrastructural level shows aberrant urothelial differentiation. It is possible that aberrant differentiation stages of urothelial cells in resection border and in uninvolved urothelium contribute to high recurrence rate

  8. p27kip1 expression distinguishes papillary hyperplasia in Graves' disease from papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, L A; Yousef, O M; Jin, L; Lohse, C M; Pankratz, V S; Lloyd, R V

    2000-09-01

    In most cases, the histopathologic and cytologic distinction between Graves' disease and papillary thyroid carcinoma is relatively easy, but on occasion Graves' disease may simulate a thyroid papillary carcinoma. For example, papillary fronds with fibrovascular cores may be present in both Graves' disease and papillary carcinoma. p27kip1 (p27) is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitory protein that has been shown to be an independent prognostic factor in a variety of human tumors. Our previous studies of p27 expression in hyperplastic and neoplastic endocrine lesions showed that the level of p27 was quite different in these two conditions. To determine if this distinction could also be made between Graves' disease and papillary carcinoma, we analyzed expression of p27 and other cell cycle proteins in a series of cases of Graves' disease with papillary hyperplasia and a series of papillary thyroid carcinomas. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from 61 randomly selected patients with thyroid disease, including 29 cases of Graves' disease with papillary architectural features and 32 cases of papillary carcinoma, were analyzed for expression of p27, Ki-67, and DNA topoisomerase II alpha (topo II alpha) by immunostaining. The distribution of immunoreactivity was analyzed by quantifying the percentage of positive nuclei that was expressed as the labeling index (LI) plus or minus the standard error of the mean. The papillary hyperplasia of Graves' disease had a p27 LI of 68.2 +/- 3.1 (range, 24 to 88), whereas papillary carcinomas had a LI of 25.6 +/- 2.5 (range, 12 to 70) (P hyperplasia in Graves' disease and papillary carcinoma. These results indicate that p27 protein expression is significantly higher in papillary hyperplasia of Graves' disease compared to papillary carcinoma, which may be diagnostically useful in difficult cases.

  9. Characteristics of bladder neoplasms in the young population of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman I Alabdulkareem

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Bladder malignancies at the early fourth decade of life tend to be a low stage and low grade. The most common histopathology was papillary urothelial carcinoma. Management should be based on the clinical and histopathological features. However, most of the patient underwent TURBT.

  10. Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the urinary bladder in a patient with bladder cancer previously treated with intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numakura, Satoe; Morikawa, Teppei; Ushiku, Tetsuo; Toyoshima, Toyoaki; Fukayama, Masashi

    2014-02-01

    We report an extremely rare case of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) of the urinary bladder. A 68-year-old man presented with gross hematuria. Cystoscopy showed multiple papillary tumors in the urinary bladder, and transurethral resection was performed. Pathological diagnosis was high-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma with lamina propria invasion. The patient received six treatments with intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) therapy. Seven months after surgery, follow-up cystoscopy showed three elevated lesions in the urinary bladder, two of which were identified histologically as recurrent urothelial carcinoma. Microscopic examination of the lesion at the anterior wall revealed diffuse infiltration of medium to large histiocytoid cells in the lamina propria, many of which had distorted nuclei and nuclear grooves. Dense eosinophilic infiltration was also observed. Immunohistochemically, the histiocytoid cells were diffusely positive for S-100 and CD1a, but negative for cytokeratin AE1/AE3 and melanosome-associated antigen recognized by HMB-45. Based on the histological and immunohistochemical features, we diagnosed the lesion as LCH of the urinary bladder. There was no evidence of recurrence of either bladder cancer or LCH after an 18-month follow-up. To avoid misdiagnosis, urologists and pathologists should be aware that LCH may develop in the urinary bladder after intravesical BCG therapy for bladder cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Hypoxia regulates the expression and localization of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α by hypoxia inducible factor-1α in bladder transitional carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Mei; Li, Xu; Chen, Wei

    2015-08-01

    Hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is overexpressed in various types of solid tumor in humans, including bladder cancer. HIF-1α regulates the expression of a series of genes, which are involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, migration and invasion and represents a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of human cancer. Despite extensive investigation of the effects of HIF-1α in the progression and metastasis of bladder cancer, the possible regulatory mechanisms underlying the effects of HIF-1α on bladder cancer cell proliferation and differentiation remain to be elucidated. It has been suggested that the transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα) acts as a tumor suppressor in several types of cancer cell, which are involved in regulating cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. The present study confirmed that, in bladder cancer cells, the expression and localization of C/EBPα was regulated by hypoxia through an HIF-1α -dependent mechanism, which may be significant in bladder cancer cell proliferation and differentiation. The 5637 and T24 bladder cancer cell lines were incubated under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. The expression levels of HIF-1α and C/EBPα were detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis. The results revealed that, under hypoxic conditions, the protein expression levels of HIF-1α were markedly upregulated, but the mRNA levels were not altered. However, the mRNA and protein levels of C/EBPα were significantly reduced. The present study further analyzed the subcellular localization of C/EBPα, which was markedly decreased in the nuclei under hypoxic conditions. Following HIF-1α small interference RNA silencing of HIF-1α, downregulation of C/EBPα was prevented in the bladder cancer cells cultured under hypoxic conditions. In addition, groups of cells treated with 3-(5'-hydroxymethyl

  12. Photodynamic management of bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, A.; Stepp, H.; Beyer, W.; Pongratz, T.; Sroka, R.; Bader, M.; Kriegmair, M.; Zaak, D.; Waidelich, R.; Karl, A.; Hofstetter, A.; Stief, C.; Baumgartner, R.

    2009-06-01

    Bladder cancer (BC) is among the most expensive oncological diseases. Any improvement in diagnosis or therapy carries a high potential for reducing costs. Fluorescence cystoscopy relies on a selective formation of Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) or more general photoactive porphyrins (PAP) in malignant urothelium upon instillation of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) or its hexyl-derivative h-ALA. Fluorescence cystoscopy equipment has been developed with the aim to compensate for the undesired distortion caused by the tissue optical properties by displaying the red fluorescence simultaneously with the backscattered blue light. Many clinical studies proved a high sensitivity in detecting flat carcinoma in situ and small papillary malignant tumours. As a result, recurrence rates were significantly decreased in most studies. The limitation lies in a low specificity, caused by false positive findings at inflamed bladder wall. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is currently being investigated as a promising tool to overcome this limitation. H-ALA-PDT (8 or 16 mM h-ALA in 50 ml instillation for 1-2 h, white light source, catheter applicator) has recently been investigated in a phase I study. 17 patients were applied 100 J/cm2 (3 patients received incrementing doses of 25 - 50 - 100 J/cm2) during approx. 1 hour irradiation time in 3 sessions, 6 weeks apart. PDT was performed without any technical complications. Complete photobleaching of the PpIX-fluorescence, as intended, could be achieved in 43 of 45 PDT-sessions receiving 100 J/cm2. The most prominent side effects were postoperative urgency and bladder pain, all symptoms being more severe after 16 mM h-ALA. Preliminary evaluation shows complete response assessed at 3 months after the third PDT-session (i.e. 6 months after first treatment) in 9 of 12 patients. 2 of these patients were free of recurrence until final follow-up at 84 weeks.

  13. Implication of androgen receptor in urinary bladder cancer: a critical mini review

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmani, Arshad H; Alzohairy, Mohammad; Babiker, Ali Yousif Y; Khan, Amjad A; Aly, Salah M; Rizvi, Moshahid A

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is probably the most dreaded disease of mankind and the bladder cancer is the fifth most common type of cancer worldwide. It is a major cause of cancer morbidity and mortality. From amongst the bladder cancer, the Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC) is the most prevalent cancer of the bladder and accounts for 90% of all bladder cancer cases. Despite such a high prevalence, the molecular mechanism involved in the induction of bladder carcinoma and its progression are poorly understood. Tu...

  14. Nine cases of bladder cancer occurring in occupational dye users

    OpenAIRE

    村瀬, 達良; 高士, 宗久; 青田, 泰博; 下地, 敏雄; 三宅, 弘治; 三矢, 英輔

    1985-01-01

    Workers in the dye manufacturing industry have a high risk of urinary bladder cancer. There may also be a high relative risk of bladder cancer in occupational dye users. Nine occupational dye users were found to have bladder cancer. The period of engaging with dye work ranged from 5 to 40 years. Seven patients had bladder cancer and the other 2 patients had lesions both in the bladder and in the renal pelvis. Histopathology of all cases was transitional cell carcinoma. Three cases were classi...

  15. Glucocorticoid receptor beta increases migration of human bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBeth, Lucien; Nwaneri, Assumpta C; Grabnar, Maria; Demeter, Jonathan; Nestor-Kalinoski, Andrea; Hinds, Terry D

    2016-05-10

    Bladder cancer is observed worldwide having been associated with a host of environmental and lifestyle risk factors. Recent investigations on anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid signaling point to a pathway that may impact bladder cancer. Here we show an inverse effect on the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) isoform signaling that may lead to bladder cancer. We found similar GRα expression levels in the transitional uroepithelial cancer cell lines T24 and UMUC-3. However, the T24 cells showed a significant (p bladder cancer cells. Therefore, GRβ may have a significant role in bladder cancer, and possibly serve as a therapeutic target for the disease.

  16. Leiomyoma of urinary bladder with bladder stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farouk, K.; Gondal, M.; Khan, A.

    2008-01-01

    Leiomyoma of the urinary bladder is a rare benign mesenchymal tumour. We describe here a case of leiomyoma of the urinary bladder in a 65-year-old gentleman who presented with haematuria, passage of clots and combined obstructive and irritative urinary symptoms. The investigations revealed a vesical calculus and a mass on the left lateral wall of the urinary bladder. Cystolitholapaxy and transurethral resection of the tumour was performed. Histopathological report of the resected tumour revealed a leiomyoma of the urinary bladder. So far, a leiomyoma of the urinary bladder and a concomitant vesical calculus have not been described in literature. (author)

  17. Papillary mesothelioma of the albuginea testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjandra, B. S.; Daemen, M. J.; Weil, E. H.

    1994-01-01

    An eleven-year-old boy is presented with symptom of a torsion of the testis. Scrotal exploration revealed a papillary mesothelioma of the tunica albuginea which is extremely rare in childhood. We report 1 case and review the literature

  18. Association of PAX5 Expression with Clinical Outcome in Patients with TaT1 Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babjuk, M.; Soukup, V.; Mareš, J.; Dušková, J.; Pecen, Ladislav; Pešl, M.; Pavlík, I.; Dvořáček, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 4 (2006), s. 756-761 ISSN 0090-4295 R&D Projects: GA MZd NR8095; GA MZd NR8934 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : bladder carcinoma * PAX5 expression Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.130, year: 2006

  19. Primary combined carcinoid and adenocarcinoma of the ileum associated with transitional carcinoma of the bladder. Single case report Causa infrecuente de disfagia en el postoperatorio tardío de la cirugía de la hernia de hiato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Venizelos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Composite neoplasms, carcinoid and adenocarcinoma have been reported to occur in several parts of the body, including the stomach, ampulla of Vater, large bowel, lung, and urinary bladder. Here we report a case of a 74-year-old male with a composite carcinoid-adenocarcinoma of the ileum associated with a transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. The microscopical examination of the composite tumor showed an admixture of typical carcinoid tumor and moderately a differentiated adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemically, the two components showed clear-cut differentiations. A review of the literature revealed that this is the first reported case of composite carcinoid-adenocarcinoma of the ileum associated with transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder.Las neoplasias compuestas, el carcinoide y el adenocarcinoma se ha observado que aparecen en varias partes del organismo, como el estómago, la ampolla de Vater, el intestino grueso, el pulmón y la vejiga urinaria. Publicamos aquí el caso de un varón de 74 años con un tumor compuesto de tipo carcinoide-adenocarcinoma del íleon asociado a un carcinoma vesical de células transicionales. El examen macroscópico del tumor compuesto mostró una mezcla de tumor carcinoide típico y adenocarcinoma moderadamente diferenciado. Desde el punto de vista inmunohistoquímico, los dos componentes estaban claramente diferenciados. Una revisión de la bibliografía reveló que este es el primer caso que se publica de un tumor compuesto de tipo carcinoide-adenocarcinoma del íleon asociado a un carcinoma de células transicionales de la vejiga urinaria.

  20. Urothelial cancer of bladder in young versus older adults: clinical and pathological characteristics and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telli, Onur; Sarici, Hasmet; Ozgur, Berat Cem; Doluoglu, Omer Gokhan; Sunay, Mehmet Melih; Bozkurt, Selen; Eroglu, Muzaffer

    2014-09-01

    Bladder urothelial carcinoma is rare in young adults and occurs more commonly in older individuals. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical behavior, pathologic characteristics, and prognosis of urothelial carcinoma of urinary bladder in young versus older adults. A retrospective review of our records between 2007 and 2013 identified 56 patients (42 males and 14 females) with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder who were less than 40 years old. Clinical and pathological parameters of patients who were less than 40 years of age were compared with those of a series of patients older than 40 years of age (the control group) during the same period. A survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test, and Cox regression was performed to identify clinical parameters that affected the clinical outcomes. The mean age was 29.21 years (range, 5-40 years) for patients less than 40 years old and 61.66 years (range, 41-75) for those older than 40 years. The mean follow-up was 40.26 months (range, 12-65 months) for young patients and 42.57 months (range, 12-72 months) for the older patients. Young bladder cancer patients had smaller-sized tumors (less than 3 cm), less high-grade cancers, higher papillary urothelial neoplasms of low malignant potential, and low-grade tumors than patients older than 40 years. Multivariate logistic regression analysis predicted tumor recurrence in young patients with high-grade tumors [odds ratio (OR), 1.959; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.235-2.965; p = 0.046] and tumors larger than 3 cm (OR, 1.772; 95% CI, 1.416-1.942; p = 0.032). The 5-year overall survival rate was 100% for young patients and 88.1% for older patients. No difference was observed in the recurrence-free (p = 0.321) and progression-free (p = 0.422) survival rates between the two groups. We concluded that although the clinical stage distribution, natural history, and outcomes of bladder urothelial cancer in young adults are

  1. WHO/ISUP classification of the urothelial tumors of the urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenka Ovčak

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The authors present the current classification of urothelial neoplasms of the urinary bladder. The classification of urothelial tumors of the urinary bladder of 1973 was despite some imperfection relatively successfuly used for more than thirty years. The three grade classification of papillary urothelial tumors without invasion has been based on evaluation of variations in architecture of covering epithelium and tumor cell anaplasia. As reccomended by the International Society of Urological Pathologists (ISUP, the World Health Organisation (WHO accepted the new WHO/ ISUP classification in 1998 that was revised in 2002 and finally published in 2004. With intention to avoid unnecessary diagnosis of cancer in patients having papillary urothelial tumors with rare invasive or metastastatic growth, this classification introduced a new entity, the papillary urothelial neoplasia of low malignant potential (PUNLMP. The additional change in classification was the division of invasive urothelial neoplasms only to low and high grade urothelial carcinomas.Conclusions: The authors’ opinion is that although the old classification is not recommended for use anymore the new one is not solving the elementary reproaches to previous classification such as terminological unsuitability and insufficient scientific reasoning. Our proposed solution in classification of papillary urothelial neoplasms would be the application of criteria analogous to that used in diagnostics of papillary noninvasive tumors of the head and neck or alimentary tract.

  2. Warthin-like papillary thyroid carcinoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haeri H

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Warthin tumor- like papillary carcinoma of thyroid is a rare variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. It is characterized by distinct papillary structures lined by oncocytic tumor cells with nuclear features of papillary carcinoma and marked lymphoplasmocytic infiltrate in the papillary stalks. This tumor derives its name from its resemblance to Warthin tumor of major salivary glands.Case presentation: We report a 54- year- old man presented with bilateral thyroid masses. Histopathological study showed papillary structures lined by cells with eosinophilic granular cytoplasm and ground- glass nuclei with lymphoplasmacytic infiltration of the stalks.Conclusion: Warthin tumor-like papillary thyroid carcinoma could be mistaken for benign lymphoepithelial lesions such as Hashimoto thyroiditis, Hurthle cell tumors and tall cell variant of papillary carcinoma. Follow- up information on the previously reported cases has suggested that these tumors behave similarly to usual papillary carcinoma.

  3. Bladder carcinogenesis in rats subjected to ureterosigmoidostomy and treated with L-lysine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornelas, Conceição Aparecida; Santos, Alessandra Marques Dos; Correia, Antonio Lucas Oliveira; Juanes, Camila de Carvalho; Coelho, João Paulo Ferreira; Cunha, Bianca Lopes; Maciel, André Vinicius Vieira; Jamacaru, Francisco Vagnaldo Fechine

    2016-01-01

    to evaluate the effect of L-lysine in the bladder and intestinal epithelia in rats submitted to vesicosigmoidostomy. we divided forty Wistar rats into four groups: group I - control group (Sham); group II - submitted to vesicosigmoidostomy and treated with L-lysine 150mg/kg; group III - submitted only to vesicosigmoidostomy; and group IV - received L-lysine 150mg/kg. After eight weeks the animals were sacrificed. in the bladders of all operated animals we observed simple, papillary and nodular hyperplasia of transitional cells, transitional cell papillomas and squamous metaplasia. As for the occurrence of aberrant crypt foci in the colons of operated animals, we did not observe statistically significant differences in any of the distal, proximal and medium fragments, or in all fragments together (p=1.0000). Although statistically there was no promotion of carcinogenesis in the epithelia of rats treated with L-lysine in the observed time, it was clear the histogenesis of bladder carcinogenesis in its initial phase in all operated rats, this being probably associated with chronic infection and tiny bladder stones. o objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar o efeito da L-lisina nos epitélios vesical e intestinal de ratas submetidas à vesicossigmoidostomia. quarenta ratas Wistar, foram divididas em quatro grupos: grupo I- grupo controle (Sham); grupo II- submetido à vesicossigmoidostomia e tratado com L-lisina 150mg/kg; grupo III- submetido apenas à vesicossigmoidostomia; e grupo IV- recebeu L-lisina 150mg/kg. Após oito semanas os animais foram sacrificados. na bexiga de todos os animais operados observou-se hiperplasia simples, papilar e nodular de células transicionais, papiloma de células transicionais e metaplasia escamosa. Quanto à ocorrência de focos de criptas aberrantes nos colos dos animais operados, não foi evidenciado diferença estatística significante em nenhum dos fragmentos distal, proximal e médio, e todos juntos (P=1,0000). apesar de

  4. Bladder sensation measures and overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, David E; Neil, Nancy J; Govier, Fred E; Kobashi, Kathleen C

    2009-09-01

    We performed a prospective multicomponent study to determine whether subjective and objective bladder sensation instruments may provide data on sensory dysfunction in patients with overactive bladder. We evaluated 70 prospectively enrolled patients with urodynamics and questionnaires on validated urgency (Urgency Perception Score), general overactive bladder (Urogenital Distress Inventory) and quality of life (Incontinence Impact Questionnaire). We first sought a correlation between sensory specific (Urgency Perception Score) and quality of life questionnaire scores. We then assessed a correlation between sensory questionnaire scores and urodynamic variables, exploring the hypothesis that certain urodynamic parameters may be bladder sensation measures. We evaluated 2 urodynamic derivatives (first sensation ratio and bladder urgency velocity) to increase sensory finding discrimination. We noted a moderate correlation between the Urgency Perception Score (0.56) and the Urogenital Distress Inventory (0.74) vs the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (each p Perception Score and bladder capacity (-0.25, p sensation ratio and bladder urgency velocity statistically significantly correlated with the Urgency Perception Score despite the lesser or absent correlation associated with the individual components of these derivatives. Bladder sensation questionnaires may be valuable to identify patients with sensory dysfunction and provide additional data not obtained in generalized symptom questionnaires. Urodynamic variables correlated with bladder sensation questionnaire scores and may be an objective method to assess sensory dysfunction.

  5. Biological significance of TERT promoter mutation in papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chung-Chieh; Huang, Chao-Yuan; Jhuang, Yu-Lin; Chen, Chih-Chi; Jeng, Yung-Ming

    2018-04-01

    Mutations in FGFR3 and the promoter region of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene have been found frequently in urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder. However, related data for papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUNLMP) are limited. In this study, we investigated the mutation status of the TERT promoter, FGFR3 and HRAS in low-grade papillary urothelial neoplasms and evaluated their prognostic significance. The cases included in this study comprised 21 inverted papillomas, 30 PUNLMPs and 34 low-grade non-invasive papillary urothelial carcinomas (NIPUCs). TERT promoter mutations were observed in 10 (33%) PUNLMPs and 17 (50%) low-grade NIPUCs, but not in any inverted papilloma. FGFR3 mutations were observed more frequently in PUNLMP and low-grade NIPUC than in inverted papillomas (P = 0.009), whereas the opposite trend was noted for HRAS mutations (P low-grade NIPUC (P = 0.530). Notably, PUNLMP cases with TERT promoter mutations had a similar recurrence rate to that in low-grade NIPUC cases (P = 0.487). Our results suggest that the status of the TERT promoter mutation may serve as a biomarker of prognostic stratification in patients with PUNLMP. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The management of invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Results of definitive and preoperative radiation therapy in 390 patients treated at the Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mameghan, H; Fisher, R J; Watt, W H; Meagher, M J; Rosen, I M; Mameghan, J; Brook, S; Tynan, A P; Korbel, E I; Millard, R J

    1992-06-01

    The treatment results for invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder were assessed in a series of 390 patients referred to the Department of Radiation Oncology at the Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, Australia, during the period 1977 to 1988. These patients were managed by one of two strategies: cystectomy (87 patients) and radiation therapy (303 patients). Actuarial survival rates (death from any cause) were determined and comparisons were made using log-rank tests and Cox regression analyses. The mean follow-up time was 7.6 years. Independent prognostic factors for shorter survival were: the presence of a ureteric obstruction (P less than 0.001), increasing clinical stage (P less than 0.001), increasing patient age (P = 0.003), and earlier year of presentation (P = 0.008). Comparison of the two strategies indicated no significant difference in overall survival after adjusting for imbalances in prognostic factors (P = 0.007 unadjusted; P = 0.29 adjusted). The slightly longer survival of 46 patients from 1983 onward who received primary systemic chemotherapy (compared with 149 patients not given chemotherapy) was not statistically significant (P = 0.12 unadjusted; P = 0.56 adjusted for prognostic factors). The 5-year actuarial rates of severe complications were 8.0% after cystectomy and 5.3% after radiation therapy. In 303 patients treated by definitive radiation therapy, the 5-year actuarial rate of freedom from bladder failure for all clinical tumor stages was 44% (Tx, 67%; T1, 45%; T2, 56%; T3, 39%; and T4, 39%). These results suggest that definitive radiation therapy is a viable alternative to radical cystectomy for patients with invasive TCC of the bladder.

  7. Papillary Squamotransitional Cell Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shomaila Aamir M. Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Papillary squamotransitional cell carcinoma (PSTCC is an uncommon histopathological variant of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the uterine cervix, which occurs in postmenopausal women. Presentation of Case. Herein, we describe a case of a 63-year-old woman who presented with 4-month history of postmenopausal vaginal bleeding. Vaginal examination revealed a fragile lesion of size 1×1 cm invading left posterior vaginal fornice and parametrium. Biopsy showed the presence of papillae containing fibrovascular cores lined by multilayered atypical epithelial cells resembling squamous and transitional cell epithelium, confirming the diagnosis of PSTCC of the uterine cervix. After staging work-up she was staged according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO staging system 2009 as FIGO IIB, and she was started on extended field concurrent chemoradiation. Discussion. PSTCC of the uterine cervix is an extremely rare and aggressive entity. PSTCC is often characterized by the presence of papillary structures with prominent fibrovascular cores. PSTCC of the uterine cervix should be differentiated from transitional cell carcinoma, squamous papilloma, papillary adenocarcinoma, and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia with papillary features. Conclusion. PSTCC of the uterine cervix is a diagnostic challenge; further studies regarding the mechanism underlying the development of PSCC are warranted.

  8. Consistent genomic alterations in carcinoma in situ of the urinary bladder confirm the presence of two major pathways in bladder cancer development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zieger, Karsten; Marcussen, Niels; Borre, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Bladder cancer develops through different pathways, provisionally entitled "papillary" and "invasive." Carcinoma in situ (CIS) is thought to be the precursor of invasive bladder cancer. However, little is known about chromosomal alterations of these clinically important lesions......, and the relationship between chromosomal alterations and the different pathways. We laser-microdissected 12 CIS and 4 dysplasia samples concomitant to invasive bladder cancer. We determined genome-wide chromosome copy number changes and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) using Mapping 10K SNP microarrays. We further...... examined 48 high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancers using SNP microarrays to reveal characteristic changes correlated with the CIS-phenotype. DNA copy-number changes were further validated using QPCR in 77 independent tumor samples. CIS was found to be chromosomal unstable in 8 of 12 cases...

  9. Radiological appearances of papillary breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookes, M.J.; Bourke, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    This review illustrates the varied appearances of benign and malignant papillary breast tumours, as identified by a breast cancer-screening programme. The commonest mammographic appearance of a papillary tumour is as a soft-tissue mass, with calcification present in less than half of cases. When calcification is present the pattern is variable, but clusters of pleomorphic calcification can occur, sometimes resembling the mammographic appearance of invasive ductal carcinoma. Ultrasonography of papillary lesions typically shows a solid, oval, intraductal mass, often associated with duct dilatation. A cystic component is also commonly seen, and lesions may appear hypervascular on colour Doppler ultrasound. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has a high sensitivity, but low specificity for detecting papillary tumours, and is useful in establishing the extent and distribution of lesions in patients with multiple papillomatosis. Despite a benign histology on core biopsy, an argument exists for complete surgical excision of all papillary tumours, as a significant proportion of papillomas will contain foci of atypia or overt malignant change

  10. Radiological appearances of papillary breast lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brookes, M.J. [Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Perth, Western Australia (Australia)], E-mail: mattbrookes@doctors.org.uk; Bourke, A.G. [Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Perth, Western Australia (Australia)

    2008-11-15

    This review illustrates the varied appearances of benign and malignant papillary breast tumours, as identified by a breast cancer-screening programme. The commonest mammographic appearance of a papillary tumour is as a soft-tissue mass, with calcification present in less than half of cases. When calcification is present the pattern is variable, but clusters of pleomorphic calcification can occur, sometimes resembling the mammographic appearance of invasive ductal carcinoma. Ultrasonography of papillary lesions typically shows a solid, oval, intraductal mass, often associated with duct dilatation. A cystic component is also commonly seen, and lesions may appear hypervascular on colour Doppler ultrasound. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has a high sensitivity, but low specificity for detecting papillary tumours, and is useful in establishing the extent and distribution of lesions in patients with multiple papillomatosis. Despite a benign histology on core biopsy, an argument exists for complete surgical excision of all papillary tumours, as a significant proportion of papillomas will contain foci of atypia or overt malignant change.

  11. The paediatric neuropathic bladder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pathophysiological terms, a neurogenic bladder is caused by a spinal reflex arc that occurs when ... and potential progressive renal damage because of high bladder ... creatinine level, can also be used to assess kidney function. Urodynamic ...

  12. Left Atrium Papillary Fibroelastomas: A Cause of Cerebral Emboli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Ciss

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Papillary fibroelastomas are cardiac benign tumours. Among the benign cardiac tumor, papillary fibroelastomas are reported second after myxomas. Most often diagnosed incidentally, papillary fibroelastomas may embolize to cerebral circulation. Valvular locations are predominant; location in left atrium is rare. In this paper, we present a case of papillary fibroelastoma located in left atrium with symptoms of cerebral embolization. Transoesophageal echocardiography diagnosed a mobile mass. The patient was treated with surgical resection without further embolic complication.

  13. Double-negative feedback loop between long non-coding RNA TUG1 and miR-145 promotes epithelial to mesenchymal transition and radioresistance in human bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jiemei; Qiu, Kaifeng; Li, Mingyi; Liang, Ying

    2015-10-07

    LncRNAs have a critical role in the regulation of cellular processes such as cancer progression and metastasis. In the present study, we confirmed that TUG1 was overexpressed in bladder cancer tissues and established cell lines. Knockdown of TUG1 inhibited bladder cancer cell metastasis both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we found that TUG1 promoted cancer cell invasion and radioresistance through inducing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Interestingly, TUG1 decreased the expression of miR-145 and there was a reciprocal repression between TUG1 and miR-145 in an Argonaute2-dependent manner. ZEB2 was identified as a down-stream target of miR-145 and TUG1 exerted its function through the miR-145/ZEB2 axis. In summary, our data indicated that blocking TUG1 function may be an effective anti-cancer therapy. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Arsenic and urinary bladder cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luster, Michael I.; Simeonova, Petia P.

    2004-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that a close association exists between the elevated levels of arsenic in drinking water and the incidence of certain cancers, including transitional cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder. We have employed in vitro and in vivo models to examine the effects of sodium arsenite on the urinary bladder epithelium. Mice exposed to 0.01% sodium arsenite in drinking water demonstrated hyperproliferation of the bladder uroepithelium within 4 weeks after initiating treatment. This occurred in the absence of amorphous precipitates and was accompanied by the accumulation of trivalent arsenite (iAs 3+ ), and to a lesser extent dimethylarsenic (DMA), arsenate (iAs 5+ ), and monomethylarsenic (MMA) in bladder tissue. In contrast to the bladder, urinary secretion was primarily in the form of DMA and MMA. Arsenic-induced cell proliferation in the bladder epithelium was correlated with activation of the MAP kinase pathway, leading to extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase activity, AP-1 activation, and expression of AP-1-associated genes involved in cell proliferation. Activation of the MAP kinase pathway involved both epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor-dependent and -independent events, the latter involving Src activation. Studies summarized in this review suggest that arsenic accumulates in urinary bladder epithelium causing activation of specific signaling pathways that lead to chronic increased cell proliferation. This may play a non-epigenetic role in carcinogenesis by increasing the proliferation of initiated cells or increasing the mutational rate

  15. Thrombomodulin expression regulates tumorigenesis in bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chun-Te; Chang, Ying-Hsu; Lin, Paul- Yang; Chen, Wen-Cheng; Chen, Miao-Fen

    2014-01-01

    The identification of potential tumor markers will help improve therapeutic planning and patient management. Thrombomodulin (TM) is a sensitive urothelial marker. TM was reported to be one of the endogenous anti-metastatic factors and has diagnostic and prognostic values for the progression of carcinoma. In the present study, we examine the role of TM in bladder cancer. We studied the role of TM in tumor behavior and related signaling pathways in vitro using the human bladder cancer cell lines HT1376, HT1197, J82 and T24, and in vivo using animal models. We also selected clinical specimens from 100 patients with bladder cancer for immunohistochemical staining to evaluate the predictive capacity of TM in tumor invasiveness. The data revealed that positive immunoreactivity for TM was inversely correlated with clinical stage and DNA methyltransferase 1 immunoreactivity. Decreased TM expression could predict the aggressive tumor growth and advanced clinical stage in bladder cancer. When TM was inhibited, tumor growth rate and invasion ability were augmented in vitro and in vivo. The underlying changes included increased cell proliferation, enhanced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and angiogenesis. Moreover, inhibition of NF-κB activation significantly increased TM expression and attenuated tumor aggressiveness in bladder cancer. TM plays an important role in bladder cancer tumor aggressiveness in vitro and in vivo and is a clinically significant predictor that may represent a suitable therapeutic target for bladder cancer

  16. Rathke's Cleft Cyst as Origin of a Pediatric Papillary Craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaffer, Sven-Martin; Buchfelder, Michael; Stoehr, Robert; Buslei, Rolf; Hölsken, Annett

    2018-01-01

    A 6-year old patient presented with an intra and suprasellar cystic lesion accompanied with impairment of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis and partial hypopituitarism. The most likely cause of sellar lesions in this age group are adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma (adaCP) or Rathke´s cleft cysts (RCCs). AdaCP are characterized by CTNNB1 mutations accompanied with aberrant nuclear beta-catenin expression. RCC show neither nuclear beta-catenin expression nor BRAF mutation. The latter is a hallmark of papillary craniopharyngiomas (papCP) that exhibit remarkable histological similarity with metaplasia of RCC. Diagnosis of the patient was elucidated by CTNNB1 and BRAF mutation screening, utilizing different approaches, as well as histological examination of markers, e.g., beta-catenin, claudin-1, EpCAM and the mutated BRAFV600E protein, which are known to be differentially expressed in sellar lesions. The case presented reveals extraordinary aspects for two reasons. Firstly, the lesion appeared clinically, on MRI, intraoperatively and histologically as RCC with prominent squamous metaplasia, but showing an expression pattern of markers also found in papCP, whilst exhibiting a hitherto undescribed BRAF V 600 E mutation. This important result documents a supposable transition of RCC metaplasia into a papillary craniopharyngioma (papCP). Secondly, this intriguing case shows unexpectedly that although papCP usually occurs almost exclusively in adults, it can also arise in childhood.

  17. Rathke's Cleft Cyst as Origin of a Pediatric Papillary Craniopharyngioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven-Martin Schlaffer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A 6-year old patient presented with an intra and suprasellar cystic lesion accompanied with impairment of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis and partial hypopituitarism. The most likely cause of sellar lesions in this age group are adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma (adaCP or Rathke´s cleft cysts (RCCs. AdaCP are characterized by CTNNB1 mutations accompanied with aberrant nuclear beta-catenin expression. RCC show neither nuclear beta-catenin expression nor BRAF mutation. The latter is a hallmark of papillary craniopharyngiomas (papCP that exhibit remarkable histological similarity with metaplasia of RCC. Diagnosis of the patient was elucidated by CTNNB1 and BRAF mutation screening, utilizing different approaches, as well as histological examination of markers, e.g., beta-catenin, claudin-1, EpCAM and the mutated BRAFV600E protein, which are known to be differentially expressed in sellar lesions. The case presented reveals extraordinary aspects for two reasons. Firstly, the lesion appeared clinically, on MRI, intraoperatively and histologically as RCC with prominent squamous metaplasia, but showing an expression pattern of markers also found in papCP, whilst exhibiting a hitherto undescribed BRAFV600E mutation. This important result documents a supposable transition of RCC metaplasia into a papillary craniopharyngioma (papCP. Secondly, this intriguing case shows unexpectedly that although papCP usually occurs almost exclusively in adults, it can also arise in childhood.

  18. Papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Londero, Stefano Christian; Godballe, Christian; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2008-01-01

    at the time of diagnosis. Material and methods. From the 1(st) of January 1996 to 31(st) of December 2002 a total of 169 PMC patients were diagnosed and registered in the national Danish thyroid cancer database DATHYRCA and 131 of these were eligible for the study. Forty-three (33%) had histologically......Introduction. Papillary microcarcinomas (PMC) of the thyroid gland are defined according to The WHO Committee as papillary carcinomas measuring 10 mm or less in diameter. A large proportion of these tumours are found coincidentally in the treatment of symptomatic goitre and most cases follow...

  19. Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Polymorphisms at Familial Bladder Cancer: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulay Ceylan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer is the seventh most common cancer in men in the world, it is the second most seen cancer after lung cancer and the first in urogenital tumours in Turkey. Many molecular epidemiologic studies have been reported to investigate the associations between the MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and bladder cancer risk. In this report, a family with transitional bladder cancer have also MTHFR A1298C heterozygosity which supports the association between MTHFR variants and bladder cancer. This %uFB01nding should be further validated by prospective and larger studies with more diverse ethnic groups.

  20. Biomarker in Cisplatin-Based Chemotherapy for Urinary Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecke, Thorsten H

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of metastasized bladder cancer has been evolving during recent years. Cisplatin based chemotherapy combinations are still gold standard in the treatment of advanced and metastasized bladder cancer. But new therapies are approaching. Based to this fact biological markers will become more important for decisions in bladder cancer treatment. A systematic MEDLINE search of the key words "cisplatin", "bladder cancer", "DNA marker", "protein marker", "methylation biomarker", "predictive marker", "prognostic marker" has been made. This review aims to highlight the most relevant clinical and experimental studies investigating markers for metastasized transitional carcinoma of the urothelium treated by cisplatin based regimens.

  1. Contrast-enhanced multislice pneumo-CT-cystography in the evaluation of urinary bladder neoplasms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scardapane, Arnaldo [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital ' Policlinico' , Bari (Italy)], E-mail: scardapane@aruba.it; Pagliarulo, Vincenzo [Institute of Urology, University Hospital ' Policlinico' , Bari (Italy); Ianora, Amato A. Stabile [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital ' Policlinico' , Bari (Italy); Pagliarulo, Arcangelo [Institute of Urology, University Hospital ' Policlinico' , Bari (Italy); Angelelli, Giuseppe [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital ' Policlinico' , Bari (Italy)

    2008-05-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of contrast-enhanced multislice CT (MSCT) in the study of urothelial tumors after distension of the bladder with air. Materials and methods: We evaluated 43 consecutive patients with endoscopically proven bladder lesions. After air distension of the bladder, unenhanced pelvic and enhanced abdomino-pelvic scans were obtained with the following protocol: thickness 2.5 mm x 4 mm, increment 1 mm, scan delay 40'' and 7-10 min. For each patient we considered the number, size, aspect (papillary or sessile) and contrast enhancement of lesions. Ureteral involvement and the presence of synchronous lesions in the excretory scan were also evaluated. MPR and virtual endoscopy images were reviewed in all cases. Results: Bladder lesions were visualized in 39/43 cases. Compared to conventional cystoscopy, MSCT recognized single lesions in 31/33 patients, two lesions in 4/6, three in 2/2 and more than five foci in 2/2 patients. A papillary aspect was described in 44 cases while 11 lesions were sessile. Conventional Cystoscopy recognized six more lesions as compared with MSCT (four flat and two small papillary lesions). The detection rate for protruding lesions was 100% (52/52) for lesions > 5 mm and 60% (3/5%) for lesions < 5 mm. In four patients hydronephrosis was present, while in one case a synchronous lesion was evident in the renal pelvis. Conclusion: Contrast-enhanced MSCT with air distension of the urinary bladder is a safe and complete investigation to evaluate the local stage of bladder cancer and to evaluate the ureteral extension of the tumor, as well as the presence of synchronous lesions.

  2. Urine and bladder washing cytology for detection of urothelial carcinoma: standard test with new possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flezar, Margareta Strojan

    2010-01-01

    Light microscopic evaluation of cell morphology in preparations from urine or bladder washing containing exfoliated cells is a standard and primary method for the detection of bladder cancer and also malignancy from other parts of the urinary tract. The cytopathologic examination is a valuable method to detect an early recurrence of malignancy or new primary carcinoma during the follow-up of patients after the treatment of bladder cancer. Characteristic cellular and nuclear signs of malignancy indicate invasive or in situ urothelial carcinoma or high-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma. However, low sensitivity of the method reflects the unreliable cytopathologic diagnosis of low-grade urothelial neoplasms as cellular and nuclear signs of malignancy in these neoplasms are poorly manifested. Many different markers were developed to improve the diagnosis of bladder carcinoma on urinary samples. UroVysion™ test is among the newest and most promising tests. By the method of in situ hybridization one can detect specific cytogenetic changes of urothelial carcinoma

  3. Intracystic papillary carcinoma of mamma. Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González Ortega, Dr. José María; Díaz Valdéz, Lic. Marilín; González Díaz, Est. Ailin; Fleites Acosta, Est. Arnolys; Roque Lorenzo, Dr. Jorge Luis; Dueñas González, MSc. Dianelys María

    2016-01-01

    The intracystic papillary carcinoma is a rare form of mamma cancer, with an incidence of 0.5-1 % of all mamma cancers. It is a tumor predominantly affecting women in advanced age. Although it was believed that this rare entity was a variant of ductal carcinoma in situ, some lesions might be tumors of low risk invasiveness. The tumor has an excellent prognosis despite being in situ or invasive one. Therefore, the precise diagnosis plays an important role in the management of patients with this entity. We report the case of an intracystic papillary carcinoma in a woman aged 75 years. Among other pathological findings, the tumor was 2 cm and was located in the low external quadrant of the right mamma. In the carried out ultrasonography, it was informed an echo lucid image, of well defined edges, and the mammography showed the presence of a nodular image with irregular edges. The histopathologic diagnosis was non-invasive papillary carcinoma, inside a 1 cm cystic lesion, with an 0,5 cm solid nodule inside of low nuclear grade. A wide tumorectomy was carried out. Currently it is controlled. For the elaboration of the current paper we consulted 17 materials of journals and Surgery textbooks. The aim was reporting an intracystic papillary carcinoma case, showing how rare this pathology is for the specialists on the theme. (author)

  4. Hashimotos Thyroiditis with Coexistent Papillary Carcinoma and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    final diagnosis of HT coexisting with papillary carcinoma and primary NHL (B-cell lineage) was made. Levothyroxine was initiated at 300mcg/day and patient was treated with chemotherapy (R-CHOP regime). Patient tolerated the chemotherapy well and with 12 months of follow-up, no recurrence or metastasis was noted.

  5. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in patients with muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder can distinguish between residual tumour and post-chemotherapy effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, Stephanie B.; Bonington, Suzanne C.; Kershaw, Lucy E.; Cowan, Richard; Lyons, Jeanette; Elliott, Tony; Carrington, Bernadette M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer with chemotherapy results in haemorrhagic inflammation, mimicking residual tumour on conventional MR images and making interpretation difficult. The aim of this study was to use dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) to estimate descriptive and tracer kinetic parameters post-neoadjuvant chemotherapy and to investigate whether parameters differed in areas of residual tumour and chemotherapy-induced haemorrhagic inflammation (treatment effect, Tr-Eff). Methods and materials: Twenty-one patients underwent DCE-MRI scans with 2.5 s temporal resolution before and following neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Regions-of-interest (ROIs) were defined in areas suspicious of residual tumour on T 2 -weighted MRI scans. Data were analysed semi-quantitatively and with a two-compartment exchange model to obtain parameters including relative signal intensity (rSI 80s ) and plasma perfusion (F p ) respectively. The bladder was subsequently examined histologically after cystectomy for evidence of residual tumour and/or Tr-Eff. Differences in parameters measured in areas of residual tumour and Tr-Eff were examined using Student's t-test. Results: Twenty-four abnormal sites were defined after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. On pathology, 10 and 14 areas were identified as residual tumour and Tr-Eff respectively. Median rSI 80s and F p were significantly higher in areas of residual tumour than Tr-Eff (rSI 80s = 2.9 vs 1.7, p < 0.001; F p = 20.7 vs 9.1 ml/100 ml/min, p = 0.03). The sensitivity and specificity for differentiating residual tumour from Tr-Eff were 70% and 100% (rSI 80s ), 60% and 86% (F p ), and 75% and 100% when combined. Conclusion: DCE-MRI parameters obtained post-treatment are capable of distinguishing between residual tumour and treatment effect in patients treated for bladder cancer with neoadjuvant chemotherapy

  6. Combined intraarterial cisplatin infusion and radiation therapy for invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizoguchi, Hiroaki; Nomura, Yoshio; Terada, Katsuhiko; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Ogata, Jiro

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-three patients with invasive bladder cancer (T2 in 17, T3 in 6) were treated initially with combined intraarterial cisplatin infusion and radiation therapy. Cisplatin (50 mg) was infused into the internal iliac artery through a subcutaneous reservoir twice a week over three weeks while concurrent radiation therapy with 30 Gy, delivered in 15 fractions, was given. In 23 patients, 6 received additional cisplatin infusion and the other 17 had transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT). Two of the patients undergoing total cystectomy exhibited a complete response (CR). Thus overall response rate was 87% (CR in 13 and partial response in 7). CR was achieved in 53% for T2 patients and 67% for T3 patients. CR was slightly higher in patients with non-papillary cancer than those with papillary one. Toxic reaction included a decrease in bladder capacity in 2 patients and severe diarrhea due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colitis in one. The other toxicities, including nausea, vomiting, neurotoxicity and myelosuppression, were tolerable. All except for one are alive. Seven patients had a local recurrence of bladder cancer. One patient developed invasive bladder cancer reaching the prostatic urethra. One other patient had recurrence at the same site as the previous tumor. Five others had superficial bladder cancer and were managed by TURBT. Bladder function was preserved in 65% at a mean follow-up of 29 months. In conclusion, the combined intraarterial cisplatin infusion and radiation therapy is useful for the initial treatment of invasive bladder cancer. (N.K.)

  7. LDH-A promotes malignant progression via activation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and conferring stemness in muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Fujin [Department of Urinary Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu (China); Department of Urinary Surgery, Huai' an Hospital to Xuzhou Medical University, Huai' an, Jiangsu (China); Ma, Song [Department of Urinary Surgery, Huai' an Hospital to Xuzhou Medical University, Huai' an, Jiangsu (China); Xue, Yubao [Department of Medical Oncology, Huai' an Hospital to Xuzhou Medical University, Huai' an, Jiangsu (China); Hou, Jianquan, E-mail: Jianquanhou@aliyun.com [Department of Urinary Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu (China); Zhang, Yongjie, E-mail: zhangyj0818@126.com [Department of Medical Oncology, Huai' an Hospital to Xuzhou Medical University, Huai' an, Jiangsu (China)

    2016-01-22

    Lactate dehydrogenase-A(LDH-A) is an important rate-limiting enzyme in the Warburg effect. Survival analysis indicated poor clinical outcomes in MIBC with high LDH-A expression. The results of in vitro experiment indicated that LDH-A promotes MIBC cells proliferation, invasion and migration. The positive relationship between LDH-A expression and CSC/EMT markers was confirmed both in invasive bladder cell line and in 136 MIBC specimens. Thus, we conclude that LDH-A may be a promising target for MIBC. - Highlights: • Survival analysis indicated poor clinical outcomes in MIBC with high LDH-A expression. • IHC analysis of 136 MIBC specimens revealed increased LDH-A is correlated with positive Oct4 and negative E-cadherin. • In vitro experiments demonstrated LDH-A promotes MIBC progression by positive regulation of EMT/CSC.

  8. Incidence of bladder cancer in a one-stop clinic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-15

    Jun 15, 2011 ... Objective: The aim of this study is to demonstrate the importance of transvaginal scan (TVS) in ... bladder tumors in patients presenting with postmenopausal bleeding. ... tumor (malignant transitional cell cancer) were found.

  9. Distinction between papillary thyroid hyperplasia and papillary thyroid carcinoma by immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratin 19, galectin-3, and HBME-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Mary B; Lohse, Christine M; Lloyd, Ricardo V

    2003-01-01

    The histopathology of papillary thyroid hyperplasia and papillary thyroid carcinoma is similar enough to cause a diagnostic dilemma in a few cases. Both lesions may have papillary fronds with fibrovascular cores, nuclear crowding, and nuclear anisocytosis. Formalin- fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from 30 randomly selected patients with papillary thyroid hyperplasia and an equal number from patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma were analyzed for expression of cytokeratin 19 (CK19), galectin-3, and HBME-1. Cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma had moderate to strong CK19, galectin-3, and HBME-1 reactivity although both CK19 and galectin-3 showed positive staining in a significant number of nonneoplastic thyroid cases. HBME-1 was uncommon in the nonneoplastic cases. These results indicate that HBME-1 may be useful in helping to distinguish papillary thyroid carcinoma from hyperplasia in diagnostically difficult cases.

  10. Bladder pain syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanno, Philip; Nordling, Jørgen; Fall, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Bladder pain syndrome is a deceptively intricate symptom complex that is diagnosed on the basis of chronic pelvic pain, pressure, or discomfort perceived to be related to the urinary bladder, accompanied by at least one other urinary symptom. It is a diagnosis of exclusion in a patient who has ex...... can be challenging, and misdiagnosis as a psychological problem, overactive bladder, or chronic urinary infection has plagued patients with the problem....

  11. Transitional cell carcinoma in fishing cats (Prionailurus viverrinus): pathology and expression of cyclooxygenase-1, -2, and p53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolfi, J A; Terio, K A

    2006-09-01

    A high prevalence of urinary bladder transitional-cell carcinoma (TCC) has been noted in captive fishing cats (Prionailurus viverrinus). Of the 91 adult deaths between 1995 and 2004, 12 (13%) were attributed to TCC. To help elucidate mechanisms of carcinogenesis, archival sections of urinary bladder from 14 fishing cats were examined histologically and immunohistochemically for p53, cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, and COX-2 expression. Ten cats had TCC, and 4 were unaffected. The average age at death was 10.8 years in affected individuals and 10.5 years in unaffected individuals. There was no sex predilection. Fishing cat TCCs were characterized histologically as papillary and infiltrating (n = 6), nonpapillary and infiltrating (n = 3), or carcinoma in situ (n = 1). Glandular and squamous metaplasia, necrosis, and lymphatic invasion were prominent histologic features. Two individuals had documented metastasis. p53 nuclear immunolabeling was detected in 4/10 (40%) TCCs. In two cases, immunolabeling was limited to less than 10% of the neoplastic cellular population and was comparable to staining of normal fishing cat bladder. Therefore, p53 gene mutation did not appear to be an essential component of TCC carcinogenesis in examined fishing cats. COX-1 immunohistochemistry was negative in all cases. All TCCs had some degree of COX-2 cytoplasmic immunolabeling, which was exclusively within the invasive portions of the neoplasms. Papillary portions were uniformly negative. COX-2 overexpression was a prominent feature in the majority of the examined fishing cat TCCs, suggesting that COX-2-mediated mechanisms of carcinogenesis are important in this species and that COX-inhibiting drugs may be of therapeutic benefit.

  12. TP53 modulating agent, CP-31398 enhances antitumor effects of ODC inhibitor in mouse model of urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madka, Venkateshwar; Mohammed, Altaf; Li, Qian; Zhang, Yuting; Kumar, Gaurav; Lightfoot, Stan; Wu, Xueru; Steele, Vernon; Kopelovich, Levy; Rao, Chinthalapally V

    2015-01-01

    Mutations of the tumor suppressor p53 and elevated levels of polyamines are known to play key roles in urothelial tumorigenesis. We investigated the inhibition of polyamines biosynthesis and the restoration of p53 signaling as a possible means of preventing muscle invasive urothelial tumors using DFMO, an ODC-inhibiting agent, and CP-31398 (CP), a p53 stabilizing agent. Transgenic UPII-SV40T male mice at 6weeks age (n=15/group) were fed control diet (AIN-76A) or experimental diets containing DFMO (1000 and 2000 ppm) or 150 ppm CP or both. At 40 weeks of age, all mice were euthanized and urinary bladders were evaluated to determine tumor weight and histopathology. Low-dose DFMO had a moderate significant inhibitory effect on tumor growth (38%, P0.05). CP at 150 ppm alone had a strong inhibitory effect on tumor growth by 80% (PCP (150 ppm) led to significant decrease in tumor weight (70%, PCP and DFMO appears to be a promising strategy for urothelial TCC prevention.

  13. Cardiac mesothelial papillary hyperplasia in four dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirejczyk, Shannon G; Burnum, Anne L; Brown, Corrie C; Sakamoto, Kaori; Rissi, Daniel R

    2018-05-01

    Mesothelial papillary hyperplasia (MPH) has been described as an incidental finding on the epicardial surface of clinically normal laboratory Beagle dogs. We describe MPH in 4 dogs diagnosed with acute cardiac tamponade (1 case) or chronic cardiac disease (3 cases). Cardiac MPH appeared as distinct, soft, irregular villous plaques on the epicardial surface of the auricles and occasionally the ventricles. Histologically, areas of MPH were composed of multiple papillary fronds arising from the epicardial surface and projecting into the pericardial space. Fronds were covered by cuboidal and occasionally vacuolated mesothelial cells and were supported by loose fibrovascular stroma with various degrees of edema and inflammation. Although these may represent incidental findings with no clinical significance, the gross appearance warrants differentiation from other conditions. Additional insight into the pathogenesis of MPH is needed to fully understand its significance in the face of concurrent cardiac disease.

  14. Solid and papillary neoplasm of the pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L J; Hansen, A B; Burcharth, F

    1992-01-01

    In two cases of solid and papillary neoplasm of the pancreas (SPN), positive staining for argyrophil granules, chromogranin-A, neuron-specific enolase, chymotrypsin, alpha 1-antitrypsin, vimentin, cytokeratin, and estrogen receptors was present. Ultrastructurally, neurosecretory as well as zymoge......In two cases of solid and papillary neoplasm of the pancreas (SPN), positive staining for argyrophil granules, chromogranin-A, neuron-specific enolase, chymotrypsin, alpha 1-antitrypsin, vimentin, cytokeratin, and estrogen receptors was present. Ultrastructurally, neurosecretory as well...... as zymogenlike granules were demonstrated. Measurements of mean nuclear volume and volume-corrected mitotic index discriminated between SPN and well-differentiated ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas, with notably lower values being seen in SPN. Silver-stained nucleolar organizer region counts showed wide...

  15. Bladder necrosis: 'A man without a bladder'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosschieter, Judith; Oudshoorn, Frederik H K; Meuleman, Eric J H; Nieuwenhuijzen, Jakko A

    2018-02-17

    Since the use of antibiotics, bladder necrosis has become a rare condition. We report a case of bladder necrosis in a 90-year-old man following urinary retention. After insertion of a transurethral catheter (TUC), 2 L of urine was evacuated. In the following days, the TUC became intermittently blocked. Adequate bladder drainage could not be obtained despite intensive rinsing and placement of a suprapubic catheter. On surgical exploration necrosis of almost the entire bladder wall, except for the trigone, was encountered. Surgical debridement of the non-viable bladder wall without opening the abdominal cavity was conducted, and a TUC was placed in the Retzius cavity to ensure evacuation of urine. Since the patient was haemodynamically unstable, construction of a urinary diversion was waived and urinary drainage of the Retzius cavity by the TUC was accepted, resulting in adequate urinary drainage without compromising renal function. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Papillary renal cell carcinoma in allograft kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Catherine; El Ghali, Sofiane; Buy, Xavier; Gangi, Afshin; Lindner, Veronique

    2005-01-01

    Papillary renal cell carcinoma is a subgroup of malignant renal epithelial neoplasms. Its occurrence in allograft transplanted kidney has not been debated in the literature. We report two pathologically proven cases and discuss the clinical hypothesis for such neoplasms and the aspect on MR images. The paramagnetic effect of the iron associated with an absence of signal coming from calcifications is a plausible explanation for this unusual hypointense appearance on T2-weighted sequence. (orig.)

  17. Bladder pain syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanno, Philip; Nordling, Jørgen; Fall, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Bladder pain syndrome is a deceptively intricate symptom complex that is diagnosed on the basis of chronic pelvic pain, pressure, or discomfort perceived to be related to the urinary bladder, accompanied by at least one other urinary symptom. It is a diagnosis of exclusion in a patient who has...

  18. Ultrasound: Bladder (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... If You Have Questions Print en español Ultrasonido: vejiga What It Is A bladder ultrasound is a safe and painless test that ... Exam: Voiding Cystourethrogram (VCUG) Ultrasound: Renal (Kidneys, Ureters, Bladder) Urinary ... only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, consult your doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All ...

  19. Bladder Involvement in Stage I Endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Paula C; Missmer, Stacey A; Laufer, Marc R

    2017-08-01

    Endometriosis-the ectopic implantation of endometrial-like tissue-affects 10% of adolescent females and adults. Bladder involvement, causing dysuria and hematuria, occurs in a very small number of endometriosis patients. The patient presented at age 12 years with dysuria and pelvic pain. Laparoscopy revealed stage I endometriosis. Postoperatively, she reported persistent dysuria and passage of tissue in her urine. Cystoscopy showed diffuse erythema; urine cytology revealed glandular and spindle cells suggestive of endometriosis. She was transitioned from oral contraceptives to an intranasal gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, with symptom resolution. Intravesicular endometriosis coinciding with stage I disease supports a mechanism of endometriosis dissemination other than direct bladder infiltration. Patients with endometriosis who complain of urinary symptoms warrant assessment, because intravesicular bladder involvement cannot be excluded using pelviscopy. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Loss of MTUS1/ATIP expression is associated with adverse outcome in advanced bladder carcinomas: data from a retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogler, Anja; Lehmann, Jan; Petsch, Sabrina; Hartmann, Arndt; Stoehr, Robert; Hoja, Sabine; Giedl, Johannes; Ekici, Arif B; Wach, Sven; Taubert, Helge; Goebell, Peter J; Wullich, Bernd; Stöckle, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Seventy percent of all bladder tumours tend to recur and need intensive surveillance, and a subset of tumours progress to muscle-invasive and metastatic disease. However, it is still difficult to find the adequate treatment for every individual patient as it is a very heterogeneous disease and reliable biomarkers are still missing. In our study we searched for new target genes in the critical chromosomal region 8p and investigated the potential tumour suppressor gene candidate MTUS1/ATIP in bladder cancer. MTUS1 was identified to be the most promising deleted target gene at 8p in aCGH analysis with 19 papillary bladder tumours. A correlation with bladder cancer was further validated using immunohistochemistry of 85 papillary and 236 advanced bladder tumours and in functional experiments. Kaplan-Meier analysis and multivariate Cox-regression addressed overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) as a function of MTUS1/ATIP expression. Bivariate correlations investigated associations between MTUS1/ATIP expression, patient characteristics and histopathology. MTUS1 expression was analysed in cell lines and overexpressed in RT112, where impact on viability, proliferation and migration was measured. MTUS1 protein expression was lost in almost 50% of all papillary and advanced bladder cancers. Survival, however, was only influenced in advanced carcinomas, where loss of MTUS1 was associated with adverse OS and DSS. In this cohort, there was also a significant correlation of MTUS1 expression and histological subtype: positive expression was detected in all micropapillary tumours and aberrant nuclear staining was detected in a subset of plasmocytoid urothelial carcinomas. MTUS1 was expressed in all investigated bladder cell lines and overexpression in RT112 led to significantly decreased viability. MTUS1 is a tumour suppressor gene in cultured bladder cancer cells and in advanced bladder tumours. It might represent one new target gene at chromosome 8p and can be

  1. Adjuvant chemotherapy for superficial transitional cell bladder carcinoma : Long-term results of a European organization for research and treatment of cancer randomized trial comparing doxorubicin, ethoglucid and transurethral resection alone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurth, K; Tunn, U; Ay, R; Schroder, FH; PavoneMacaluso, M; Debruyne, F; TenKate, F; DePauw, M; Sylvester, R; Essed, E; Caubergh, RV; Hoekstra, JW; deVoogt, HJ; Newling, DWW; deReijke, TM; Mensink, HJA; Groen, JM; Jakse, G; Leisinger, HJ; Richards, B; Adib, RA; Robinson, M; Denis, L; Bouffioux, C; Schulman, C; Carpentier, PJ

    Purpose: We compared the efficacy of transurethral resection alone or transurethral resection followed by bladder instillations of doxorubicin or ethoglucid for 1 year in patients with superficial bladder carcinoma, and followed them long term for the incidence of progression to muscle invasion.

  2. TRANSIT

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. TRANSIT. SYSTEM: DETERMINE 2D-POSITION GLOBALLY BUT INTERMITTENT (POST-FACTO). IMPROVED ACCURACY. PRINCIPLE: POLAR SATELLITES WITH INNOVATIONS OF: GRAVITY-GRADIENT ATTITUDE CONTROL; DRAG COMPENSATION. WORKS ...

  3. Patients with a negative cystoscopy and negative Nmp22® Bladderchek® test are at low risk of missed transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder: a prospective evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Terrell

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Urine based tumor markers have uncertain utility in diagnosis or surveillance of patients with bladder cancer while cytology is commonly used. We evaluated whether cytology provides additional diagnostic information in patients with a negative NMP22® BladderChek® test (BladderChek and negative cystoscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed subset analyses of 2 large prospective multi-center databases evaluating BladderChek for UCB detection and surveillance. These cohorts were analyzed for presence of cancer and result of urine cytology in setting of a negative cystoscopy and negative BladderChek. Subsequently, we prospectively performed cystoscopy, cytology and BladderChek on 434 patients at our institution being evaluated for UCB. RESULTS: In the detection database (n = 1331, 1065 patients had a negative cystoscopy and BladderChek. There were 3 cancers (stages Ta, Tis and T1 and cytology was atypical in one and reactive in two. In the surveillance cohort (n = 668 patients, 437 patients had negative cystoscopy and BladderChek. Cancer was found in 2 patients (stages Tis and Ta. The patient with Tis has dysplastic cytology and Ta tumor had reactive cytology. In our cohort of 434 patients, 288 pts had negative cystoscopy and BladderChek. One cancer was missed, a Ta ureteral urothelial carcinoma with a reactive cytology. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with negative cystoscopy and BladderChek, very few cancers are missed and cytology was not effective in detection. Use of a point-of-care test in conjunction with cystoscopy in lieu of cytology could decrease cost, provide immediate results, improve negative predictive value and reduce the uncertainty that results from inconclusive cytologic results.

  4. Clinical and pathological features of papillary renal cell carcinoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction and objectives: Papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC) accounts for 10–15% of renal tumors in adults. This type of tumor contains more than 75% of tubulo-papillary structures and is divided histologically into two subtypes. The distinction between these two subtypes is essential because of their prognostic value.

  5. Ultrasonographic imaging of papillary thyroid carcinoma variants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jung Hee [Dept. of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Ultrasonography (US) is routinely used to evaluate thyroid nodules. The US features of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), the most common thyroid malignancy, include hypoechogenicity, spiculated/microlobulated margins, microcalcifications, and a nonparallel orientation. However, many PTC variants have been identified, some of which differ from the classic type of PTC in terms of biological behavior and clinical outcomes. This review describes the US features and clinical implications of the variants of PTC. With the introduction of active surveillance replacing immediate biopsy or surgical treatment of indolent, small PTCs, an understanding of the US characteristics of PTC variants will facilitate the individualized management of patients with PTC.

  6. Stages of Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... above the waist. Tiny tubules in the kidneys filter and clean the blood . They take out waste ... to bladder cancer. Being exposed to paints, dyes, metals, or petroleum products in the workplace. Past treatment ...

  7. Bladder Diseases - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF Health Information Translations Spanish (español) Expand Section Bladder Diseases: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Enfermedades de la vejiga: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español (Spanish) National ...

  8. Bladder perforations in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-11-20

    Nov 20, 2014 ... Mean recovery time for patients was 15 days. ... fracture.[1,2] Isolated bladder perforations are rare, and they .... PA, perineal injury, pelvic fracture. Trauma .... Lower genitourinary injury and pelvic fractures in pediatric patients.

  9. Bladder cancer and schistosomiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaghloul, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    Schistosoma-associated bladder cancer was believed, for several decades, to be a completely unique entity of disease, different from urothelial cancer. This was probably due to its distinct clinico pathologic and demographic features that varied from those of urothelial entity. The carcinogenesis is an extremely complex process resulting from the accumulation of many genetic and epigenetic changes leading to alterations in the cell proliferation regulation process. In bladder cancer, many of these carcinogenic cascades were not fully documented or somewhat conflicting. In spite of the efforts performed, much is still needed to explore the presence or absence of the carcinogenic difference with a different etiology. The control of schistosomiasis in certain countries and the subsequent decrease in the intensity of infestation showed changing of features approaching that of urothelial tumors. However the schistosoma-associated bladder cancer presented in more advanced stages than schistosoma-non associated urothelial cancer. More recently, data are gathered that, upon applying the same treatment protocol and management care, stage by stage comparison of the treatment end-results were found to be similar in bladder cancer patients with a different etiology. All treatment options; including radical cystectomy with or without adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemo- or radiotherapy or tri modality bladder preserving treatment seem to lead to similar end-results regardless of etiologic factor(s) implicated in bladder cancer development.

  10. Modification of N-Methyl-N-Nitrosourea initiated bladder carcinogenesis in Wistar rats by terephthalic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Lunbiao; Shi Yuan; Dai Guidong; Pan Hongxin; Chen Jianfeng; Song Ling; Wang Shouling; Chang, Hebron C.; Sheng Hongbing; Wang Xinru

    2006-01-01

    The effect of terephthalic acid (TPA) on urinary bladder carcinogenesis was examined. Male Wistar rats were initiated by injection of N-Methyl-N-Nitrosourea (MNU) (20 mg/kg b.w. ip) twice a week for 4 weeks, then given basal diet containing 5% TPA, 5% TPA plus 4% Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) or 1% TPA for the next 22 weeks, and then euthanized. 5% TPA treatment induced a high incidence of urinary bladder calculi and a large amount of precipitate. Though 5% TPA plus 4% Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) and 1% TPA treatment did not induce urinary bladder calculi formation, they resulted in a moderate increase in urinary precipitate. Histological examination of urinary bladder revealed that MNU-5% TPA treatment resulted in a higher incidence of simple hyperplasia, papillary or nodular hyperplasia (PN hyperplasia), papilloma and cancer than MNU control. MNU-5% TPA plus 4% Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) and 1% TPA treatment increased slightly the incidence of simple hyperplasia and PN hyperplasia (not statistically significant). The major elements of the precipitate are phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, chloride, calcium and TPA. The present study indicated that the calculi induced by TPA had a strong promoting activity on urinary bladder carcinogenesis and the precipitate containing calcium terephthalate (CaTPA) may also have weak promoting activity on urinary bladder carcinogenesis

  11. Papillary endothelial hyperplasia (Masson's tumor) in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liné, A; Sanchez, J; Jayyosi, L; Birembaut, P; Ohl, X; Poli-Mérol, M-L; François, C

    2017-06-01

    The intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (IPEH/Masson's tumor) is a rare benign tumor of the skin and subcutaneous vessels. We report, in four pediatric cases, clinical presentation, care (diagnostic and surgical) of Masson's tumor in children. Two boys (two years) and two girls (four and six years) showed a pain subcutaneous tumor (one to five centimeters). They were in the transverse abdominal muscle, between two metatarsals, at the front of thigh and in the axilla. Imaging performed (MRI, Doppler ultrasound) evoked either a hematoma, a lymphangioma or hemangioma. The indication for removal was selected from pain and/or parental concern. The diagnosis was histologically. A lesion persisted in residual form (incomplete initial resection), and is currently not scalable for eleven years. This tumor is characterized by excessive proliferation and papillary endothelial cells in the vessels, following a thrombotic event. It is found mainly in adults (no specific age), and preferentially localizes in the face and limbs. The clinical differential diagnosis of this tumor is angiosarcoma. The imagery has not allowed in our series to diagnose but still essential to eliminate differential diagnoses. Only surgical excision with histological examination can differentiate. Our study emphasizes the possibility of pediatric cases with two cases of unusual locations (abdominal and axilla). Clinical presentations we met, now lead us to direct our histologist looking for a Masson tumor in any child with a subcutaneous tumor and/or intramuscular pain, sudden onset, and vascular appearance (after excluding an arteriovenous malformation). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Spontaneous Bladder Perforation in an Infant Neurogenic Bladder: Laparoscopic Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cabezalí Barbancho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous bladder perforation is an uncommon event in childhood. It is usually associated with bladder augmentation. We are presenting a case of bladder rupture in an infant with neurogenic bladder without prior bladder surgery. Three days after lipomyelomeningocele excision the patient showed signs and symptoms of acute abdomen. The ultrasound exploration revealed significant amount of intraperitoneal free fluid and therefore a laparoscopic exploration was performed. A posterior bladder rupture was diagnosed and repaired laparoscopically. Currently, being 3 years old, she keeps successfully dry with clean intermittent catheterization. Neurogenic bladder voiding function can change at any time of its evolution and lead to complications. Early diagnosis of spontaneous bladder rupture is of paramount importance, so it is essential to think about it in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen.

  13. Papillary bile duct dysplasia in primary sclerosing cholangitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, J; Wahlstrom, H E; Batts, K P; Wiesner, R H

    1992-06-01

    A 62-year-old man with a 20-year history of chronic ulcerative colitis and a 9-year history of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) underwent orthotopic liver transplantation because of symptoms related to PSC and cholangiographic features compatible with a biliary neoplasm. Study of the excised liver revealed papillary mucosal lesions in the common hepatic duct and the right and left hepatic ducts as well as cholangiectases and other features typically associated with PSC. The papillary lesions consisted of abundant fibrovascular stroma covered by biliary epithelium with low-grade and high-grade dysplasia. Some periductal glands were also dysplastic. These features distinguished papillary dysplasia from classic biliary papillomatosis. Only one focus of microinvasion was found; there were no metastases. Among 60 cases of PSC in whom the entire liver could be studied after orthotopic liver transplantation, this was the only instance of unequivocal dysplasia. However, in one specimen, papillary hyperplasia was found. Detailed macroscopic and microscopic rereview of 23 livers from our patients with the longest history of PSC (range, 5-24 years) failed to reveal any additional cases with dysplasia. It is concluded that (a) papillary mucosal lesions in PSC may represent papillary dysplasia without invasion; (b) these lesions may evolve from papillary hyperplasia; (c) the process may be largely, if not entirely, in situ; and (d) the prevalence of dysplasia and carcinoma of bile ducts may be less than the 7%-9% reported in the literature for malignancies associated with PSC.

  14. Review of underactive bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Huei Chang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In clinical practice, many patients cannot empty their bladders within an acceptable duration. Common complaints include weak urinary stream and incomplete emptying, which may affect quality of life. Bladder emptying requires sufficient detrusor contractile power, velocity, and durability. The urodynamic term for inadequate detrusor contraction is detrusor underactivity (DU. Although this definition was provided by the ICS, it may not be clinically practical. Analogous to the relationship between overactive bladder (OAB and detrusor overactivity (DO, the symptom complex caused by DU is termed underactive bladder (UAB. Many conditions lead to UAB, such as advanced age, neurogenic bladder and BOO, but the definite pathophysiology directly leading to UAB is still being widely studied without a widely-accepted consensus. The preferred mainstream treatment for increased residual urine volume caused by UAB is intermittent catheterization, while pharmacotherapy is still disappointing after decades of development. There are no studies on surgical treatment for UAB with an acceptable level of evidence. We reviewed the recent literature on UAB and DU to provide a comprehensive discussion of the related presentation, etiology, diagnosis and management.

  15. Diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Chan; Kim, Dong Wook

    2006-01-01

    Diffuse sclerosing papillary carcinoma (DSPC) is a variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), but it shows more aggressive clinical course and a poorer prognosis than the other types of PTC. Most PTCs show a focal nodular pattern in the thyroid on the imaging modalities, but DSPC reveals a diffuse infiltrating configuration in the thyroid without any focal nodular lesion. To our knowledge, there are scant radiological reports of diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. In this report, we present the case of a patient with DSPC who showed the characteristic findings on sonography and computed tomography

  16. Malar Bone Metastasis Revealing a Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsen Slim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common form of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. It is generally confined to the neck with or without spread to regional lymph nodes. Metastatic thyroid carcinomas are uncommon and mainly include lung and bone. Metastases involving oral and maxillofacial region are extremely rare. We described a case of malar metastasis revealing a follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, presenting with pain and swelling of the left cheek in a 67-years-old female patient with an unspecified histological left lobo-isthmectomy medical history. To our knowledge, this is the first recorded instance of a malar metastasis from a follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

  17. Characterizing the outcomes of metastatic papillary renal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connor Wells, John; Donskov, Frede; Fraccon, Anna P

    2017-01-01

    Outcomes of metastatic papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC) patients are poorly characterized in the era of targeted therapy. A total of 5474 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) in the International mRCC Database Consortium (IMDC) were retrospectively analyzed. Outcomes were...... compared between clear cell (ccRCC; n = 5008) and papillary patients (n = 466), and recorded type I and type II papillary patients (n = 30 and n = 165, respectively). Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall response rate (ORR) favored ccRCC over pRCC. OS was 8 months longer...

  18. Imaging findings of papillary breast lesions: A pictorial review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kestelman, F.P.; Gomes, C.F.A.; Fontes, F.B.; Marchiori, E.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to describe the different imaging appearances of benign and malignant papillary breast lesions on mammography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging, according to the World Health Organization histopathological classifications. The classification and morphological imaging characteristics of papillary lesions remain challenging for pathologists and radiologists. Despite the difficulty of classifying these lesions, our review and those of others suggest that morphology is associated with clinically meaningful staging and outcome implications. Imaging can help to differentiate the forms of papillary lesion, but surgical specimens are required for definitive diagnosis in the majority of cases

  19. Genetics Home Reference: bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testing Registry: Malignant tumor of urinary bladder Other Diagnosis and Management Resources (1 link) MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Bladder Cancer General Information from MedlinePlus (5 links) Diagnostic Tests ...

  20. Renal papillary calcification and the development of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary renal calculi: a case series study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to determine in a case series (four patients) how calcified deposits in renal papillae are associated with the development of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) papillary calculi. Methods From the recently collected papillary calculi, we evaluated retrospectively patients, subjected to retrograde ureteroscopy, with COM papillary lithiasis. Results The COM papillary calculi were found to result from subepithelial injury. Many of these lesions underwent calcification by hydroxyapatite (HAP), with calculus morphology and the amount of HAP in the concave zone dependent on the location of the calcified injury. Most of these HAP deposits grew, eroding the epithelium covering the renal papillae, coming into contact with urine and starting the development of COM calculi. Subepithelial HAP plaques may alter the epithelium covering the papillae, resulting in the deposit of COM crystals directly onto the epithelium. Tissue calcification depends on a pre-existing injury, the continuation of this process is due to modulators and/or crystallization inhibitors deficiency. Conclusions Since calculus morphology and the amount of detected HAP are dependent on the location and widespread of calcified injury, all types of papillary COM calculi can be found in the same patient. All patients had subepithelial calcifications, with fewer papillary calculi, demonstrating that some subepithelial calcifications did not further evolve and were reabsorbed. A high number of subepithelial calcifications increases the likelihood that some will be transformed into COM papillary calculi. PMID:23497010

  1. Renal papillary calcification and the development of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary renal calculi: a case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grases, Fèlix; Costa-Bauzá, Antonia; Prieto, Rafel M; Conte, Antonio; Servera, Antonio

    2013-03-11

    The objective of this study is to determine in a case series (four patients) how calcified deposits in renal papillae are associated with the development of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) papillary calculi. From the recently collected papillary calculi, we evaluated retrospectively patients, subjected to retrograde ureteroscopy, with COM papillary lithiasis. The COM papillary calculi were found to result from subepithelial injury. Many of these lesions underwent calcification by hydroxyapatite (HAP), with calculus morphology and the amount of HAP in the concave zone dependent on the location of the calcified injury. Most of these HAP deposits grew, eroding the epithelium covering the renal papillae, coming into contact with urine and starting the development of COM calculi. Subepithelial HAP plaques may alter the epithelium covering the papillae, resulting in the deposit of COM crystals directly onto the epithelium. Tissue calcification depends on a pre-existing injury, the continuation of this process is due to modulators and/or crystallization inhibitors deficiency. Since calculus morphology and the amount of detected HAP are dependent on the location and widespread of calcified injury, all types of papillary COM calculi can be found in the same patient. All patients had subepithelial calcifications, with fewer papillary calculi, demonstrating that some subepithelial calcifications did not further evolve and were reabsorbed. A high number of subepithelial calcifications increases the likelihood that some will be transformed into COM papillary calculi.

  2. Papillary fibroelastoma arising from the coumadin ridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahim Malik

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac papillary fibroelastomas (CPF are rare cardiac tumors, mostly found on the valvular surfaces in the heart. These tumors are frond like in nature and are benign, intracardiac masses, rarely causing any hemodynamic disturbances. However, excision of these masses is indicated due to their propensity to embolize. We present a case report of the tumor found on the coumadin ridge, causing transient ischemic attacks in a patient. We performed complete excision of the tumor via median sternotomy on cardiopulmonary bypass support with cardiac arrest. The diagnosis was confirmed by histological examination. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course and was discharghed on postoperative day 4. She has had complete resolution of her symptoms post excision. The diagnosis of the mass was confirmed on histological examination.

  3. Papillary fibroelastomas: innocent bystanders or ignored culprits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saloura, Vassiliki; Grivas, Petros D; Sarwar, A Bilal; Gorodin, Paulina; Ledley, Gary S

    2009-05-01

    Cardiac papillary fibroelastomas (PFEs) are the most common tumors of the cardiac valves and the third most common cardiac tumor. They are usually detected accidentally on echocardiography, but have the potential to manifest with catastrophic embolic phenomena, resulting in stroke and myocardial infarction. Echocardiography is currently the preferred diagnostic modality, while magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography are helpful in the differential diagnosis of cardiac tumors. The management of PFEs is empiric, as no large randomized trials have been conducted to support specific treatment guidelines. The treatment of choice for PFEs with high-risk features for peripheral embolization is surgical resection. Anticoagulation is recommended in patients who are poor surgical candidates or who refuse surgery, although its duration and intensity are debatable. This review summarizes current knowledge on the epidemiology, pathology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of PFEs. It also highlights the need for large randomized clinical trials that would delineate more specific guidelines for managing PFEs with anticoagulation.

  4. A Case of Post Myocardial Infarction Papillary Muscle Rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuwatworn, Amornpol; Milnes, Christopher; Kumar, Vishesh; Raizada, Amol; Nykamp, Verlyn; Stys, Adam

    2016-06-01

    Papillary muscle rupture is a rare, life-threatening post myocardial infarction mechanical complication. Without surgical intervention, prognosis is very poor. Clinicians need to recognize this complication early, as prompt therapy is crucial. We present a case of inferior ST elevation myocardial infarction complicated by posteromedial papillary muscle rupture resulting in severe acute mitral regurgitation (flail anterior mitral leaflet), acute pulmonary edema and cardiogenic shock. In our patient, a new mitral regurgitation murmur suggested this mechanical complication. Complete disruption of papillary muscle was visualized by transesophageal echocardiography. This case illustrates the importance of good physical examination for early diagnosis of papillary muscle rupture, so that life-saving treatment can be administered without delay.

  5. Normal-sized ovarian papillary serous carcinoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, W C; Lai, C I; Huang, L C; Chiu, T H; Hung, Y C; Chang, W C

    2010-01-01

    A normal-sized ovarian papillary serous carcinoma is rare. We present the case of a 46-year-old woman with progressive abdominal fullness of one week's duration. The medical evaluation revealed abdominal carcinomatosis with normal-sized ovaries and an elevated serum CA-125 level of 147,365.8 U/ml. Cytoreductive surgery (hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, omentectomy, lymphadenectomy, infracolic omentectomy, peritoneal biopsy, washing cytology, and appendectomy) was performed. The histologic examination revealed an ovarian serous papillary carcinoma. Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered. The serum CA-125 level decreased after completion of treatment. Normal-sized ovarian serous surface papillary carcinomas should be kept in mind as an origin of disease in patients who have peritoneal carcinomatosis, which sometimes is a diagnostic dilemma of the disease source. We report this case to emphasize the clinical symptoms and importance of the early and accurate diagnosis of a normal-sized ovarian papillary serous carcinoma.

  6. Prevalence and associations of symptomatic renal papillary necrosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-11-12

    Nov 12, 2015 ... Diagnosis was based on microscopic hematuria and positive ultrasound findings. Their steady ... until recently the most widely accepted first account was documented by ... papillary necrosis in sickle cell anemia patients in.

  7. Neglected Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Seven Years after Initial Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleftherios D. Spartalis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC is the most common epithelial thyroid tumor, accounting for more than 80% of all thyroid tumors. Recent advances in ultrasonographic screening and US-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB have facilitated the early detection and diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinomas. In exceptionally rare cases, papillary thyroid tumors may assume enormous dimensions due to recurrent disease or the patient's negligence of the problem. We report an extremely rare case of a 72-year-old woman presented with a neglected giant exophytic papillary thyroid carcinoma with hemorrhagic ulcers. Computed tomography showed a mass measured 17×12 cm that caused a displacement of the trachea to the right side and reached the mediastinum. After bleeding management, patient was discharged. The patient was fully aware of her situation, but she denied any further therapeutic management.

  8. Radiotherapy of bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Yoshiyuki

    1978-01-01

    Methods of treating bladder cancer include surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, as well as various combinations of these. The author investigated clinically and histopathologically the therapeutic results of preoperative irradiation in cases of bladder cancer. 1. The survival rates (crude survival rates) in forty cases of bladder cancer were 90% after one year, 62.5% after three years and 46% after five years from the treatment. 2. As the result of irradiation, urogram improved in 25%, which was comparatively remarkable in high stage cases. There were no cases of deterioration of urogram findings caused by irradiation. Cystoscopy revealed disappearance or remarkable shrinkage of the tumors in 35% of the total cases and effects of the irradiation was observed not correlated to the stage and grade. 3. With respect to the histopathological changes, the changes became greater as the dosage increased and the higher the stage and grade were the more remarkable tendency was observed. 4. From our clinical observations such as urogram, cystoscopy and histopathologically, we estimated the optimum dosage of preoperative irradiation for bladder cancer is 3000 - 4000 rad. Thus, we concluded that the radiotherapy is effective in reducing both surgical invasion and postoperative recurrence. (author)

  9. A STUDY OF P53 EXPRESSION IN UROTHELIAL NEOPLASMS OF URINARY BLADDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sathish Kumar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Urothelial Cell Carcinoma (UCC of urinary bladder is the seventh commonest cancer wordwide.1 At initial diagnosis, 30% of UCC display solid and invasive growth patterns and are locally advanced or metastatic at the time of diagnosis. 70% of tumours are noninvasive papillary UCC confined to the epithelium and subepithelial connective tissue,2 which can be managed by endoscopic resection. A significant number of post-resected cases, progress for recurrence of tumour and infiltration to muscle layers. Invasive bladder cancer has high morbidity and uniform mortality when it is metastatic. There are no effective tools to predict aggressiveness of tumour, so that these cases can be managed more successfully. Mutated Tp53/p53 is the genetic abnormality most frequently associated with UCC and related to cell transformation, malignancy and high recurrence rates.2 MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a descriptive study conducted in the departments of urology and pathology and during the period of March 2014 to February 2015. All consecutive cystoscopic biopsies, Trans urethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT and radical cystectomy specimens histopathologically diagnosed as UCC were included in the study. p53 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Positive and negative controls were used. Bivariate analysis was done using Chi-square test in all cases. RESULTS A total of 80 cases were analysed. Significant association of p53 expression was found in higher grades of tumour. Also, noted relation of p53 mutation with tumour size, multifocality, multiplicity, muscle invasion and tumour stage, which were statistically not significant. CONCLUSION Bladder tumour grade shows significant association to p53 expression. Papillary neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUNLMP tumours are negative for p53, and in the present study, there was significant difference in p53 over expression low-grade papillary UCC compared with PUNLMP. 90% of low

  10. Coexistence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroidal carcinoma with papillary carcinoma of thyreoglossal duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čizmić Milica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Simultaneous presence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroidal carcinoma in thyroidal gland with papillary carcinoma association in thyroglossal duct is quite rare. The questions like where the original site of primary process, is where metastasis is, what the cause of coexisting of these diseasesis present a diagnostic dilemma. Case report. We presented a case of a 53-year old female patient, with the diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and symptoms of subclinical hypothyreosis and nodal changes in the right lobe of thyroidal gland, according to clinical investigation. Morphological examination of thyroidal gland, ultrasound examination and scintigraphy with technetium (Tc confirmed the existence of nonhomogenic tissue with parenchyma nodular changes in the right lobe of thyroidal gland that weakly bonded Tc. Fine needle biopsy in nodal changes, with cytological analyses showed no evidence of atypical thyreocites. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was confirmed on the basis of the increased values of anti-microsomal antibodies, the high levels of thyreogobulin 117 ng/ml and TSH 6.29 μIU/ml. The operation near by the nodular change in the right lobe of thyroidal gland revealed pyramidal lobe spread in the thyroglossal duct. Total thyroidectomia was done with the elimination of thyroglossal duct. Final patohystological findings showed papillary carcinoma in the nodal changes pT2, N0 and in the thyroglossal duct with the presence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in the residual parenchyme of the thyroid gland. After the surgery the whole body scintigraphy with iodine 131 (131I did not reveal accumulation of 131I in the body, while the fixation in the neck was 1%. After that, the patient was treated with thyroxin with suppressionsubstitution doses. Conclusion. Abnormality in embrional development of thyroidal tissue might be the source of thyroidal carcinoma or the way of spreading of metastasis of primary thyroidal carcinoma from thyroid

  11. Does multifocal papillary micro-carcinoma require radioiodine ablation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punda, A.; Markovic, V.; Eterovic, D.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Background: the thyroid carcinomas smaller than 1 cm (micro-carcinomas) comprise a significant fraction of papillary carcinomas. Excluding clinical micro-carcinomas, which present as metastatic disease, the micro-carcinomas diagnosed by ultrasound/FNAC or incidentally have very good prognosis. However, whether or not these papillary micro-carcinomas require post-surgical radioiodine ablation remains a matter of debate. Hypothesis: multi-focality is present in majority of clinical papillary micro-carcinomas and this characteristic can be used to identify the subset of non-clinical micro-carcinomas with greater malignant potential. Methods: the data on types of differentiated thyroid carcinomas diagnosed in the period 2008-2011 in the University Hospital Split were collected. Results: there were 359 patients with thyroid carcinoma, 329 (92%) of which had papillary carcinoma. About 61% (202/329) of papillary carcinomas were micro-carcinomas; most of them were diagnosed by ultrasound/FNAC (134/202= 66%), the rest were incidentalomas (48/202=24%) and clinical micro carcinomas (20/202=10%). Sixty percent (12/20) of patients with clinical micro-carcinoma and 23 patients with non-clinical micro-carcinoma (23/182=13%) had multifocal disease. Conclusion: multifocal disease is a frequent characteristic of clinical papillary thyroid micro-carcinomas, suggesting that multi-focality presents an early stage of non-clinical micro-carcinomas with more aggressive behaviour. Thus multifocal, but not uni-focal papillary micro-carcinomas may require radioiodine ablation. (authors)

  12. Comprehensive Molecular Characterization of Papillary Renal-Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linehan, W Marston; Spellman, Paul T; Ricketts, Christopher J; Creighton, Chad J; Fei, Suzanne S; Davis, Caleb; Wheeler, David A; Murray, Bradley A; Schmidt, Laura; Vocke, Cathy D; Peto, Myron; Al Mamun, Abu Amar M; Shinbrot, Eve; Sethi, Anurag; Brooks, Samira; Rathmell, W Kimryn; Brooks, Angela N; Hoadley, Katherine A; Robertson, A Gordon; Brooks, Denise; Bowlby, Reanne; Sadeghi, Sara; Shen, Hui; Weisenberger, Daniel J; Bootwalla, Moiz; Baylin, Stephen B; Laird, Peter W; Cherniack, Andrew D; Saksena, Gordon; Haake, Scott; Li, Jun; Liang, Han; Lu, Yiling; Mills, Gordon B; Akbani, Rehan; Leiserson, Mark D M; Raphael, Benjamin J; Anur, Pavana; Bottaro, Donald; Albiges, Laurence; Barnabas, Nandita; Choueiri, Toni K; Czerniak, Bogdan; Godwin, Andrew K; Hakimi, A Ari; Ho, Thai H; Hsieh, James; Ittmann, Michael; Kim, William Y; Krishnan, Bhavani; Merino, Maria J; Mills Shaw, Kenna R; Reuter, Victor E; Reznik, Ed; Shelley, Carl S; Shuch, Brian; Signoretti, Sabina; Srinivasan, Ramaprasad; Tamboli, Pheroze; Thomas, George; Tickoo, Satish; Burnett, Kenneth; Crain, Daniel; Gardner, Johanna; Lau, Kevin; Mallery, David; Morris, Scott; Paulauskis, Joseph D; Penny, Robert J; Shelton, Candace; Shelton, W Troy; Sherman, Mark; Thompson, Eric; Yena, Peggy; Avedon, Melissa T; Bowen, Jay; Gastier-Foster, Julie M; Gerken, Mark; Leraas, Kristen M; Lichtenberg, Tara M; Ramirez, Nilsa C; Santos, Tracie; Wise, Lisa; Zmuda, Erik; Demchok, John A; Felau, Ina; Hutter, Carolyn M; Sheth, Margi; Sofia, Heidi J; Tarnuzzer, Roy; Wang, Zhining; Yang, Liming; Zenklusen, Jean C; Zhang, Jiashan; Ayala, Brenda; Baboud, Julien; Chudamani, Sudha; Liu, Jia; Lolla, Laxmi; Naresh, Rashi; Pihl, Todd; Sun, Qiang; Wan, Yunhu; Wu, Ye; Ally, Adrian; Balasundaram, Miruna; Balu, Saianand; Beroukhim, Rameen; Bodenheimer, Tom; Buhay, Christian; Butterfield, Yaron S N; Carlsen, Rebecca; Carter, Scott L; Chao, Hsu; Chuah, Eric; Clarke, Amanda; Covington, Kyle R; Dahdouli, Mahmoud; Dewal, Ninad; Dhalla, Noreen; Doddapaneni, Harsha V; Drummond, Jennifer A; Gabriel, Stacey B; Gibbs, Richard A; Guin, Ranabir; Hale, Walker; Hawes, Alicia; Hayes, D Neil; Holt, Robert A; Hoyle, Alan P; Jefferys, Stuart R; Jones, Steven J M; Jones, Corbin D; Kalra, Divya; Kovar, Christie; Lewis, Lora; Li, Jie; Ma, Yussanne; Marra, Marco A; Mayo, Michael; Meng, Shaowu; Meyerson, Matthew; Mieczkowski, Piotr A; Moore, Richard A; Morton, Donna; Mose, Lisle E; Mungall, Andrew J; Muzny, Donna; Parker, Joel S; Perou, Charles M; Roach, Jeffrey; Schein, Jacqueline E; Schumacher, Steven E; Shi, Yan; Simons, Janae V; Sipahimalani, Payal; Skelly, Tara; Soloway, Matthew G; Sougnez, Carrie; Tam, Angela; Tan, Donghui; Thiessen, Nina; Veluvolu, Umadevi; Wang, Min; Wilkerson, Matthew D; Wong, Tina; Wu, Junyuan; Xi, Liu; Zhou, Jane; Bedford, Jason; Chen, Fengju; Fu, Yao; Gerstein, Mark; Haussler, David; Kasaian, Katayoon; Lai, Phillip; Ling, Shiyun; Radenbaugh, Amie; Van Den Berg, David; Weinstein, John N; Zhu, Jingchun; Albert, Monique; Alexopoulou, Iakovina; Andersen, Jeremiah J; Auman, J Todd; Bartlett, John; Bastacky, Sheldon; Bergsten, Julie; Blute, Michael L; Boice, Lori; Bollag, Roni J; Boyd, Jeff; Castle, Erik; Chen, Ying-Bei; Cheville, John C; Curley, Erin; Davies, Benjamin; DeVolk, April; Dhir, Rajiv; Dike, Laura; Eckman, John; Engel, Jay; Harr, Jodi; Hrebinko, Ronald; Huang, Mei; Huelsenbeck-Dill, Lori; Iacocca, Mary; Jacobs, Bruce; Lobis, Michael; Maranchie, Jodi K; McMeekin, Scott; Myers, Jerome; Nelson, Joel; Parfitt, Jeremy; Parwani, Anil; Petrelli, Nicholas; Rabeno, Brenda; Roy, Somak; Salner, Andrew L; Slaton, Joel; Stanton, Melissa; Thompson, R Houston; Thorne, Leigh; Tucker, Kelinda; Weinberger, Paul M; Winemiller, Cynthia; Zach, Leigh Anne; Zuna, Rosemary

    2016-01-14

    Papillary renal-cell carcinoma, which accounts for 15 to 20% of renal-cell carcinomas, is a heterogeneous disease that consists of various types of renal cancer, including tumors with indolent, multifocal presentation and solitary tumors with an aggressive, highly lethal phenotype. Little is known about the genetic basis of sporadic papillary renal-cell carcinoma, and no effective forms of therapy for advanced disease exist. We performed comprehensive molecular characterization of 161 primary papillary renal-cell carcinomas, using whole-exome sequencing, copy-number analysis, messenger RNA and microRNA sequencing, DNA-methylation analysis, and proteomic analysis. Type 1 and type 2 papillary renal-cell carcinomas were shown to be different types of renal cancer characterized by specific genetic alterations, with type 2 further classified into three individual subgroups on the basis of molecular differences associated with patient survival. Type 1 tumors were associated with MET alterations, whereas type 2 tumors were characterized by CDKN2A silencing, SETD2 mutations, TFE3 fusions, and increased expression of the NRF2-antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway. A CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) was observed in a distinct subgroup of type 2 papillary renal-cell carcinomas that was characterized by poor survival and mutation of the gene encoding fumarate hydratase (FH). Type 1 and type 2 papillary renal-cell carcinomas were shown to be clinically and biologically distinct. Alterations in the MET pathway were associated with type 1, and activation of the NRF2-ARE pathway was associated with type 2; CDKN2A loss and CIMP in type 2 conveyed a poor prognosis. Furthermore, type 2 papillary renal-cell carcinoma consisted of at least three subtypes based on molecular and phenotypic features. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health.).

  13. Comprehensive Molecular Characterization of Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linehan, W. Marston; Spellman, Paul T.; Ricketts, Christopher J.; Creighton, Chad J.; Fei, Suzanne S.; Davis, Caleb; Wheeler, David A.; Murray, Bradley A.; Schmidt, Laura; Vocke, Cathy D.; Peto, Myron; Al Mamun, Abu Amar M.; Shinbrot, Eve; Sethi, Anurag; Brooks, Samira; Rathmell, W. Kimryn; Brooks, Angela N.; Hoadley, Katherine A.; Robertson, A. Gordon; Brooks, Denise; Bowlby, Reanne; Sadeghi, Sara; Shen, Hui; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Bootwalla, Moiz; Baylin, Stephen B.; Laird, Peter W.; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Saksena, Gordon; Haake, Scott; Li, Jun; Liang, Han; Lu, Yiling; Mills, Gordon B.; Akbani, Rehan; Leiserson, Mark D.M.; Raphael, Benjamin J.; Anur, Pavana; Bottaro, Donald; Albiges, Laurence; Barnabas, Nandita; Choueiri, Toni K.; Czerniak, Bogdan; Godwin, Andrew K.; Hakimi, A. Ari; Ho, Thai; Hsieh, James; Ittmann, Michael; Kim, William Y.; Krishnan, Bhavani; Merino, Maria J.; Mills Shaw, Kenna R.; Reuter, Victor E.; Reznik, Ed; Shelley, Carl Simon; Shuch, Brian; Signoretti, Sabina; Srinivasan, Ramaprasad; Tamboli, Pheroze; Thomas, George; Tickoo, Satish; Burnett, Kenneth; Crain, Daniel; Gardner, Johanna; Lau, Kevin; Mallery, David; Morris, Scott; Paulauskis, Joseph D.; Penny, Robert J.; Shelton, Candace; Shelton, W. Troy; Sherman, Mark; Thompson, Eric; Yena, Peggy; Avedon, Melissa T.; Bowen, Jay; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Gerken, Mark; Leraas, Kristen M.; Lichtenberg, Tara M.; Ramirez, Nilsa C.; Santos, Tracie; Wise, Lisa; Zmuda, Erik; Demchok, John A.; Felau, Ina; Hutter, Carolyn M.; Sheth, Margi; Sofia, Heidi J.; Tarnuzzer, Roy; Wang, Zhining; Yang, Liming; Zenklusen, Jean C.; Zhang, Jiashan (Julia); Ayala, Brenda; Baboud, Julien; Chudamani, Sudha; Liu, Jia; Lolla, Laxmi; Naresh, Rashi; Pihl, Todd; Sun, Qiang; Wan, Yunhu; Wu, Ye; Ally, Adrian; Balasundaram, Miruna; Balu, Saianand; Beroukhim, Rameen; Bodenheimer, Tom; Buhay, Christian; Butterfield, Yaron S.N.; Carlsen, Rebecca; Carter, Scott L.; Chao, Hsu; Chuah, Eric; Clarke, Amanda; Covington, Kyle R.; Dahdouli, Mahmoud; Dewal, Ninad; Dhalla, Noreen; Doddapaneni, HarshaVardhan; Drummond, Jennifer; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Guin, Ranabir; Hale, Walker; Hawes, Alicia; Hayes, D. Neil; Holt, Robert A.; Hoyle, Alan P.; Jefferys, Stuart R.; Jones, Steven J.M.; Jones, Corbin D.; Kalra, Divya; Kovar, Christie; Lewis, Lora; Li, Jie; Ma, Yussanne; Marra, Marco A.; Mayo, Michael; Meng, Shaowu; Meyerson, Matthew; Mieczkowski, Piotr A.; Moore, Richard A.; Morton, Donna; Mose, Lisle E.; Mungall, Andrew J.; Muzny, Donna; Parker, Joel S.; Perou, Charles M.; Roach, Jeffrey; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Schumacher, Steven E.; Shi, Yan; Simons, Janae V.; Sipahimalani, Payal; Skelly, Tara; Soloway, Matthew G.; Sougnez, Carrie; Tam, Angela; Tan, Donghui; Thiessen, Nina; Veluvolu, Umadevi; Wang, Min; Wilkerson, Matthew D.; Wong, Tina; Wu, Junyuan; Xi, Liu; Zhou, Jane; Bedford, Jason; Chen, Fengju; Fu, Yao; Gerstein, Mark; Haussler, David; Kasaian, Katayoon; Lai, Phillip; Ling, Shiyun; Radenbaugh, Amie; Van Den Berg, David; Weinstein, John N.; Zhu, Jingchun; Albert, Monique; Alexopoulou, Iakovina; Andersen, Jeremiah J; Auman, J. Todd; Bartlett, John; Bastacky, Sheldon; Bergsten, Julie; Blute, Michael L.; Boice, Lori; Bollag, Roni J.; Boyd, Jeff; Castle, Erik; Chen, Ying-Bei; Cheville, John C.; Curley, Erin; Davies, Benjamin; DeVolk, April; Dhir, Rajiv; Dike, Laura; Eckman, John; Engel, Jay; Harr, Jodi; Hrebinko, Ronald; Huang, Mei; Huelsenbeck-Dill, Lori; Iacocca, Mary; Jacobs, Bruce; Lobis, Michael; Maranchie, Jodi K.; McMeekin, Scott; Myers, Jerome; Nelson, Joel; Parfitt, Jeremy; Parwani, Anil; Petrelli, Nicholas; Rabeno, Brenda; Roy, Somak; Salner, Andrew L.; Slaton, Joel; Stanton, Melissa; Thompson, R. Houston; Thorne, Leigh; Tucker, Kelinda; Weinberger, Paul M.; Winemiller, Cythnia; Zach, Leigh Anne; Zuna, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Background Papillary renal cell carcinoma, accounting for 15% of renal cell carcinoma, is a heterogeneous disease consisting of different types of renal cancer, including tumors with indolent, multifocal presentation and solitary tumors with an aggressive, highly lethal phenotype. Little is known about the genetic basis of sporadic papillary renal cell carcinoma; no effective forms of therapy for advanced disease exist. Methods We performed comprehensive molecular characterization utilizing whole-exome sequencing, copy number, mRNA, microRNA, methylation and proteomic analyses of 161 primary papillary renal cell carcinomas. Results Type 1 and Type 2 papillary renal cell carcinomas were found to be different types of renal cancer characterized by specific genetic alterations, with Type 2 further classified into three individual subgroups based on molecular differences that influenced patient survival. MET alterations were associated with Type 1 tumors, whereas Type 2 tumors were characterized by CDKN2A silencing, SETD2 mutations, TFE3 fusions, and increased expression of the NRF2-ARE pathway. A CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) was found in a distinct subset of Type 2 papillary renal cell carcinoma characterized by poor survival and mutation of the fumarate hydratase (FH) gene. Conclusions Type 1 and Type 2 papillary renal cell carcinomas are clinically and biologically distinct. Alterations in the MET pathway are associated with Type 1 and activation of the NRF2-ARE pathway with Type 2; CDKN2A loss and CIMP in Type 2 convey a poor prognosis. Furthermore, Type 2 papillary renal cell carcinoma consists of at least 3 subtypes based upon molecular and phenotypic features. PMID:26536169

  14. GENE EXPRESSION CAN DIFFERENTIATE CARCINOGENIC FROM NON-CARCINOGENIC DOSES OF DIMETHYLARSINIC ACID (DMAv) IN THE TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIUM OF THE URINARY BLADDER FROM FEMALE F344 RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic is an environmental concern worldwide, and drinking arsenic contaminated water has been associated with increased incidences of skin, lung and bladder cancer. Dimethylarsinic acid (DMAv) is a major metabolite of inorganic arsenic in rodents and humans and is the predomina...

  15. Cardiac papillary fibroelastoma; when, how, why?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos G Baikoussis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We would like to present an interesting case operated on in our department and discuss the international bibliography about this issue. We also present some interesting images of this case. Our material is composed from a 68-year-old woman treated by the authors. She presented with a small murmur in the auscultation while she was asymptomatic and then she diagnosed with a tumor on of the left coronary cusp of the aortic valve with the characteristics of papillary fibroelastoma. On the basis of the potential embolic risk either of the mass itself or of associated thrombus and the possibility of further enlargement, the patient although asymptomatic at the time of diagnosis was referred for elective surgical excision of the mass. She underwent on median sternotomy and through extracorporeal circulation the mass has been excised with the preservation of the well-functioning valve. Through this case, we would like to discuss the bibliography for the decision making in these cases. Hence, the aim of our study is that we have to keep in mind that this kind of friable mass may be the cause of embolism, stroke or coronary artery occlusion and must be excided in a conservative setting, sparing the aortic valve.

  16. Integrated Genomic Characterization of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Nishant; Akbani, Rehan; Aksoy, B. Arman; Ally, Adrian; Arachchi, Harindra; Asa, Sylvia L.; Auman, J. Todd; Balasundaram, Miruna; Balu, Saianand; Baylin, Stephen B.; Behera, Madhusmita; Bernard, Brady; Beroukhim, Rameen; Bishop, Justin A.; Black, Aaron D.; Bodenheimer, Tom; Boice, Lori; Bootwalla, Moiz S.; Bowen, Jay; Bowlby, Reanne; Bristow, Christopher A.; Brookens, Robin; Brooks, Denise; Bryant, Robert; Buda, Elizabeth; Butterfield, Yaron S.N.; Carling, Tobias; Carlsen, Rebecca; Carter, Scott L.; Carty, Sally E.; Chan, Timothy A.; Chen, Amy Y.; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Cheung, Dorothy; Chin, Lynda; Cho, Juok; Chu, Andy; Chuah, Eric; Cibulskis, Kristian; Ciriello, Giovanni; Clarke, Amanda; Clayman, Gary L.; Cope, Leslie; Copland, John; Covington, Kyle; Danilova, Ludmila; Davidsen, Tanja; Demchok, John A.; DiCara, Daniel; Dhalla, Noreen; Dhir, Rajiv; Dookran, Sheliann S.; Dresdner, Gideon; Eldridge, Jonathan; Eley, Greg; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Eng, Stephanie; Fagin, James A.; Fennell, Timothy; Ferris, Robert L.; Fisher, Sheila; Frazer, Scott; Frick, Jessica; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Ganly, Ian; Gao, Jianjiong; Garraway, Levi A.; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Getz, Gad; Gehlenborg, Nils; Ghossein, Ronald; Gibbs, Richard A.; Giordano, Thomas J.; Gomez-Hernandez, Karen; Grimsby, Jonna; Gross, Benjamin; Guin, Ranabir; Hadjipanayis, Angela; Harper, Hollie A.; Hayes, D. Neil; Heiman, David I.; Herman, James G.; Hoadley, Katherine A.; Hofree, Matan; Holt, Robert A.; Hoyle, Alan P.; Huang, Franklin W.; Huang, Mei; Hutter, Carolyn M.; Ideker, Trey; Iype, Lisa; Jacobsen, Anders; Jefferys, Stuart R.; Jones, Corbin D.; Jones, Steven J.M.; Kasaian, Katayoon; Kebebew, Electron; Khuri, Fadlo R.; Kim, Jaegil; Kramer, Roger; Kreisberg, Richard; Kucherlapati, Raju; Kwiatkowski, David J.; Ladanyi, Marc; Lai, Phillip H.; Laird, Peter W.; Lander, Eric; Lawrence, Michael S.; Lee, Darlene; Lee, Eunjung; Lee, Semin; Lee, William; Leraas, Kristen M.; Lichtenberg, Tara M.; Lichtenstein, Lee; Lin, Pei; Ling, Shiyun; Liu, Jinze; Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Yingchun; LiVolsi, Virginia A.; Lu, Yiling; Ma, Yussanne; Mahadeshwar, Harshad S.; Marra, Marco A.; Mayo, Michael; McFadden, David G.; Meng, Shaowu; Meyerson, Matthew; Mieczkowski, Piotr A.; Miller, Michael; Mills, Gordon; Moore, Richard A.; Mose, Lisle E.; Mungall, Andrew J.; Murray, Bradley A.; Nikiforov, Yuri E.; Noble, Michael S.; Ojesina, Akinyemi I.; Owonikoko, Taofeek K.; Ozenberger, Bradley A.; Pantazi, Angeliki; Parfenov, Michael; Park, Peter J.; Parker, Joel S.; Paull, Evan O.; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Perou, Charles M.; Prins, Jan F.; Protopopov, Alexei; Ramalingam, Suresh S.; Ramirez, Nilsa C.; Ramirez, Ricardo; Raphael, Benjamin J.; Rathmell, W. Kimryn; Ren, Xiaojia; Reynolds, Sheila M.; Rheinbay, Esther; Ringel, Matthew D.; Rivera, Michael; Roach, Jeffrey; Robertson, A. Gordon; Rosenberg, Mara W.; Rosenthall, Matthew; Sadeghi, Sara; Saksena, Gordon; Sander, Chris; Santoso, Netty; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Schultz, Nikolaus; Schumacher, Steven E.; Seethala, Raja R.; Seidman, Jonathan; Senbabaoglu, Yasin; Seth, Sahil; Sharpe, Samantha; Mills Shaw, Kenna R.; Shen, John P.; Shen, Ronglai; Sherman, Steven; Sheth, Margi; Shi, Yan; Shmulevich, Ilya; Sica, Gabriel L.; Simons, Janae V.; Sipahimalani, Payal; Smallridge, Robert C.; Sofia, Heidi J.; Soloway, Matthew G.; Song, Xingzhi; Sougnez, Carrie; Stewart, Chip; Stojanov, Petar; Stuart, Joshua M.; Tabak, Barbara; Tam, Angela; Tan, Donghui; Tang, Jiabin; Tarnuzzer, Roy; Taylor, Barry S.; Thiessen, Nina; Thorne, Leigh; Thorsson, Vésteinn; Tuttle, R. Michael; Umbricht, Christopher B.; Van Den Berg, David J.; Vandin, Fabio; Veluvolu, Umadevi; Verhaak, Roel G.W.; Vinco, Michelle; Voet, Doug; Walter, Vonn; Wang, Zhining; Waring, Scot; Weinberger, Paul M.; Weinstein, John N.; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Wheeler, David; Wilkerson, Matthew D.; Wilson, Jocelyn; Williams, Michelle; Winer, Daniel A.; Wise, Lisa; Wu, Junyuan; Xi, Liu; Xu, Andrew W.; Yang, Liming; Yang, Lixing; Zack, Travis I.; Zeiger, Martha A.; Zeng, Dong; Zenklusen, Jean Claude; Zhao, Ni; Zhang, Hailei; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhang, Jiashan (Julia); Zhang, Wei; Zmuda, Erik; Zou., Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Summary Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid cancer. Here, we describe the genomic landscape of 496 PTCs. We observed a low frequency of somatic alterations (relative to other carcinomas) and extended the set of known PTC driver alterations to include EIF1AX, PPM1D and CHEK2 and diverse gene fusions. These discoveries reduced the fraction of PTC cases with unknown oncogenic driver from 25% to 3.5%. Combined analyses of genomic variants, gene expression, and methylation demonstrated that different driver groups lead to different pathologies with distinct signaling and differentiation characteristics. Similarly, we identified distinct molecular subgroups of BRAF-mutant tumors and multidimensional analyses highlighted a potential involvement of oncomiRs in less-differentiated subgroups. Our results propose a reclassification of thyroid cancers into molecular subtypes that better reflect their underlying signaling and differentiation properties, which has the potential to improve their pathological classification and better inform the management of the disease. PMID:25417114

  17. [Concomitant oncopathological changes in the prostate of urinary bladder cancer patients undergoing radical cystoprostateectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komyakov, B K; Sergeev, A V; Fadeev, V A; Ismailov, K I; Ulyanov, A Yu; Shmelev, A Yu; Onoshko, M V

    2017-09-01

    To determine the incidence of spreading bladder transitional cell carcinoma and primary adenocarcinoma to the prostate in patients with bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy. From 1995 to 2016, 283 men underwent radical cystectomy with removal of the bladder, perivesical tissue, prostate, seminal vesicles and pelvic lymph nodes. Prostate sparing cystectomy was performed in 45 (13.7%) patients. The whole prostate and the apex of the prostate were preserved in 21 (6.4%) and 24 (7.3%) patients, respectively. The spread of transitional cell cancer of the bladder to the prostate occurred in 50 (15.2%) patients. Twelve (3.6%) patients were found to have primary prostate adenocarcinoma. Clinically significant prostate cancer was diagnosed in 4 (33.3%) patients. We believe that the high oncological risk of prostate sparing cystectomy, despite some functional advantages, dictates the need for complete removal of the prostate in the surgical treatment of bladder cancer.

  18. Discordance Between Preoperative and Postoperative Bladder Cancer Location: Implications for Partial-Bladder Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, Benjamin; Tucker, Kai; Conway, Robert Greg; He, Jiwei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Guzzo, Thomas [Department of Urology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Bekelman, Justin; Deville, Curtiland; Vapiwala, Neha [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Malkowicz, S. Bruce [Department of Urology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Christodouleas, John, E-mail: christojo@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: There is strong interest in partial-bladder radiation whether as a boost or definitive therapy to limit long-term toxicity. It is unclear that a standard preoperative examination can accurately identify all sites of disease within the bladder. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between preoperative localization of bladder tumors with postoperative findings to facilitate partial-bladder radiation techniques when appropriate. Methods and Materials: We examined patients with clinically staged T1-T4 invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) or TCC with variant histology with no history of radiation or partial cystectomy undergoing radical cystectomy. Patients were scored as “under-detected” if a bladder site was involved with invasive disease (≥T1) at the time of cystectomy, but not identified preoperatively. Patients were additionally scored as “widely under-detected” if they had postoperative lesions that were not identified preoperatively in a given site, nor in any adjacent site. Rates of under-detected and widely under-detected lesions, as well as univariate and multivariate association between clinical variables and under-detection, were evaluated using logistic regression. Results: Among 222 patients, 96% (213/222) had at least 1 area of discordance. Fifty-eight percent of patients were under-detected in at least 1 location, whereas 12% were widely under-detected. Among 24 patients with a single site of disease on preoperative evaluation, 21/24 (88%) had at least 1 under-detected lesion and 14/24 (58%) were widely under-detected. On multivariate analysis, only solitary site of preoperative disease was associated with increased levels of under-detection of invasive disease (OR = 4.161, 95% CI, 1.368-12.657). Conclusion: Our study shows a stark discordance between preoperative and postoperative localization of bladder tumors. From a clinical perspective, incomplete localization of all sites of disease within the bladder

  19. Concomitant boost radiotherapy for muscle invasive bladder cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pos, Floris J; Tienhoven, Geertjan van; Hulshof, Maarten C.C.M.; Koedooder, Kees; Gonzalez Gonzalez, Dionisio

    2003-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a concomitant partial bladder boost schedule in radiotherapy for invasive bladder cancer, coupling a limited boost volume with shortening of the overall treatment time. Methods and materials: Between 1994 and 1999, 50 patients with a T2-T4 N0M0 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder received radiotherapy delivered in a short overall treatment time with a concomitant boost technique. With this technique a dose of 40 Gy in 2-Gy fractions was administered to the small pelvis with a concomitant boost limited to the bladder tumor area plus margin of 15 Gy in fractions of 0.75 Gy. The total tumor dose was 55 Gy in 20 fractions in 4 weeks. Toxicity was scored according to EORTC/RTOG toxicity criteria. Results: The feasibility of the treatment was good. Severe acute toxicity {>=}G3 was observed in seven patients (14%). Severe late toxicity {>=}G3 was observed in six patients (13%). Thirty-seven patients (74%) showed a complete and five (10 %) a partial remission after treatment. The actuarial 3-year freedom of local progression was 55%. Conclusion: In external radiotherapy for muscle invasive bladder cancer a concomitant boost technique coupling a partial bladder boost with shortening of the overall treatment time provides a high probability of local control with acceptable toxicity.

  20. Concomitant boost radiotherapy for muscle invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pos, Floris J.; Tienhoven, Geertjan van; Hulshof, Maarten C.C.M.; Koedooder, Kees; Gonzalez Gonzalez, Dionisio

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a concomitant partial bladder boost schedule in radiotherapy for invasive bladder cancer, coupling a limited boost volume with shortening of the overall treatment time. Methods and materials: Between 1994 and 1999, 50 patients with a T2-T4 N0M0 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder received radiotherapy delivered in a short overall treatment time with a concomitant boost technique. With this technique a dose of 40 Gy in 2-Gy fractions was administered to the small pelvis with a concomitant boost limited to the bladder tumor area plus margin of 15 Gy in fractions of 0.75 Gy. The total tumor dose was 55 Gy in 20 fractions in 4 weeks. Toxicity was scored according to EORTC/RTOG toxicity criteria. Results: The feasibility of the treatment was good. Severe acute toxicity ≥G3 was observed in seven patients (14%). Severe late toxicity ≥G3 was observed in six patients (13%). Thirty-seven patients (74%) showed a complete and five (10 %) a partial remission after treatment. The actuarial 3-year freedom of local progression was 55%. Conclusion: In external radiotherapy for muscle invasive bladder cancer a concomitant boost technique coupling a partial bladder boost with shortening of the overall treatment time provides a high probability of local control with acceptable toxicity

  1. CIP2A protein expression in high-grade, high-stage bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Lisa P; Savoly, Diana; Sidi, Abraham A; Adelson, Martin E; Mordechai, Eli; Trama, Jason P

    2012-01-01

    Bladder cancer is one of the most common cancers in the United States. Numerous markers have been evaluated for suitability of bladder cancer detection and surveillance. However, few of them are acceptable as a routine tool. Therefore, there exists a continuing need for an assay that detects the presence of bladder cancer in humans. It would be advantageous to develop an assay with a protein that is associated with the development of bladder cancer. We have identified the cancerous inhibitor of PP2A (CIP2A) protein as a novel bladder cancer biomarker. In this study, Western blot analysis was used to assess the expression level of CIP2A protein in bladder cancer cell lines and bladder cancer patient tissues (n = 43). Our studies indicated CIP2A protein was abundantly expressed in bladder cancer cell lines but not in nontumor epithelial cell lines. Furthermore, CIP2A was specifically expressed in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder tumor tissues but not in adjacent nontumor bladder tissue. Our data showed that CIP2A protein detection in high-grade TCC tissues had a sensitivity of 65%, which is 3.4-fold higher than that seen in low-grade TCC tissues (19%). The level of CIP2A protein expression increased with the stage of disease (12%, 27%, 67%, and 100% for pTa, pT1, pT2, and pT3 tumor, respectively). In conclusion, our studies suggest that CIP2A protein is specifically expressed in human bladder tumors. CIP2A is preferentially expressed in high-grade and high-stage TCC tumors, which are high-risk and invasive tumors. Our studies reported here support the role of CIP2A in bladder cancer progression and its usefulness for the surveillance of recurrence or progression of human bladder cancer

  2. Oncoprotein DEK as a tissue and urinary biomarker for bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Antara; Adelson, Martin E; Mogilevkin, Yakov; Mordechai, Eli; Sidi, Abraham A; Trama, Jason P

    2011-01-01

    Bladder cancer is a significant healthcare problem in the United States of America with a high recurrence rate. Early detection of bladder cancer is essential for removing the tumor with preservation of the bladder, avoiding metastasis and hence improving prognosis and long-term survival. The objective of this study was to analyze the presence of DEK protein in voided urine of bladder cancer patients as a urine-based bladder cancer diagnostic test. We examined the expression of DEK protein by western blot in 38 paired transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) bladder tumor tissues and adjacent normal tissue. The presence of DEK protein in voided urine was analyzed by western blot in 42 urine samples collected from patients with active TCC, other malignant urogenital disease and healthy individuals. The DEK protein is expressed in 33 of 38 bladder tumor tissues with no expression in adjacent normal tissue. Based on our sample size, DEK protein is expressed in 100% of tumors of low malignant potential, 92% of tumors of low grade and in 71% of tumors of high grade. Next, we analyzed 42 urine samples from patients with active TCC, other malignant urogenital disease, non-malignant urogenital disease and healthy individuals for DEK protein expression by western blot analysis. We are the first to show that the DEK protein is present in the urine of bladder cancer patients. Approximately 84% of TCC patient urine specimens were positive for urine DEK. Based on our pilot study of 38 bladder tumor tissue and 42 urine samples from patients with active TCC, other malignant urogenital disease, non-malignant urogenital disease and healthy individuals; DEK protein is expressed in bladder tumor tissue and voided urine of bladder cancer patients. The presence of DEK protein in voided urine is potentially a suitable biomarker for bladder cancer and that the screening for the presence of DEK protein in urine can be explored as a noninvasive diagnostic test for bladder cancer

  3. Radiotherapy in bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozan, R.

    1992-01-01

    In 1992, the problem of the vesical radiotherapy is not resolved. The author presents the situation and the different techniques of radiotherapy in bladder cancers: external radiotherapy, only and associated with surgery, interstitial curietherapy and non-classical techniques as per operative radiotherapy, neutron therapy and concurrent radiotherapy with chemotherapy. In order to compare their efficiency, the five-year survival are given in all cases.(10 tabs)

  4. 1 The effectiveness of ultrasound in the diagnosis of bladder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    evaluating patients presenting with haematuria or suspected to have bladder tumours. It is cheap, ... world, transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the commonest, while in developing countries squamous cell ..... Fenlon, H., Bell, T., Ahari, H. & Hussain, S. (1997) Virtual cystoscopy: early clinical experience. Radiology 250 ...

  5. MRI appearances of pure epithelial papillary serous borderline ovarian tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, J.; Nagaraju, E.; Ahmad, S.

    2015-01-01

    Borderline epithelial ovarian tumours (BOT) represent 15–20% of all non-benign ovarian epithelial neoplasms. Compared to malignant ovarian tumours, they usually present at a younger age and carry a far superior prognosis. Fertility-conserving surgery is an important treatment option for patients with BOT. Ultrasound and CT are both widely available and play roles in the initial investigation and staging of BOT, respectively. However, lack of soft-tissue contrast limits their ability to characterize BOT. MRI can facilitate recognition of pure epithelial serous BOT (SBOT), including the cystic papillary and surface papillary subtypes. An abundance of hyperintense papillary projections with low signal internal branching and ovarian stroma preservation with a hypointense ovarian capsular margin on T2-weighted imaging are features strongly suggestive of SBOT. In this review we will discuss the general morphological features of SBOT, the benefits and drawbacks of ultrasound and CT in the initial work-up, and the principal MRI features enabling recognition of surface papillary and cystic papillary SBOT

  6. High relative frequency of thyroid papillary carcinoma in northern Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambade, M C; Gonçalves, V S; Dias, M; Sobrinho-Simões, M A

    1983-05-01

    Two hundred and twelve papillary and 40 follicular carcinomas were found in 3002 thyroid glands examined from 1931 to 1975 in four Laboratories of Pathology that fairly cover northern Portugal. There was a striking preponderance of women both in papillary (female:male = 6.9:1) and follicular carcinoma (5.7:1). Sex-specific frequency of malignancy was significantly greater in men (13.3%) than in women (8.8%). The overall papillary/follicular ratio was 5.3:1 and did not significantly change throughout the study period. Papillary/follicular ratio was not significantly greater in litoral (5.5:1) than in regions with a low iodine intake and a relatively high prevalence of goiter (3.5:1). It is advanced that this high relative frequency of papillary carcinoma in northern Portugal, even in goiter areas, may reflect the existence of a racial factor since there is not enough evidence to support the influence of dietary iodine, previous irradiation and concurrent thyroiditis.

  7. Intraparenchymal papillary meningioma of brainstem: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Xiao-Bing

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Both intraparenchymal papillary meningioma and papillary meningioma with cyst formation of brainstem have never been reported. The authors present an extremely rare case of patient with intraparenchymal papillary meningioma of brainstem. A 23-year-old Chinese male presented with a 4-month history of progressive left upper limb and facial nerve palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cystic-solid, heterogeneously enhancing mass in pons and right cerebral peduncle with no dural attachment. The tumor was totally removed via subtemporal approach. During surgery, the lesion was found to be completely intraparenchymal. Histological and immunohistochemical examinations were compatible with the diagnosis of papillary meningioma. The lesion recurred nine months after primary surgery, a second surgery followed by radiotherapy was performed. Till to now (nearly 2 years after the treatment, the patient is tumor free survival. Intraparenchymal meningioma of brainstem with cystic formation is very rare, however, it should be considered as a differential diagnosis of a brainstem neoplasm. The present case strongly recommended that postoperative radiotherapy was essential for the patients with papillary meningiomas.

  8. Cystoscopic enucleation of bladder leiomyoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan A Barayan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We are presenting a rare case of bladder leiomyoma. A 61-year-old female patient was found to have a bladder mass during a work up of lower urinary tract symptoms. After full investigation, she underwent transurethral excision of the mass. The histopathology revealed typical feature of bladder leiomyoma. No recurrence was seen after a follow-up period of 12 months.

  9. Contemporary Management of Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David; Fradet, Yves

    1991-01-01

    Bladder cancer is currently the fifth most common cancer in Western society, and its incidence appears to be increasing. Important advances have recently occurred in both diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to bladder neoplasms. Presentation is not unique, and physician awareness is important to identify patients who are at risk for bladder neoplasia and consequently require further investigation. A diagnostic approach and contemporary management are discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 4 PMID:21229043

  10. Permeability and ultrastructure of human bladder epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, J; Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Nielsen, S L

    1983-01-01

    Leakage of tight junctions as observed with electron microscopy and demonstration of solute transport across bladder epithelium was investigated in 13 patients with different bladder diseases: urinary retention and infection, bladder tumours and interstitial cystitis. The latter group showed...

  11. The evolution of bladder cancer genomics: What have we learned and how can we use it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audenet, François; Attalla, Kyrollis; Sfakianos, John P

    2018-03-21

    With advancements in molecular biology techniques, great progress has been made in the understanding of urothelial carcinoma pathogenesis. To examine the historic description of molecular alterations in bladder cancer and their evolution towards our current comprehension of the biology of the disease. Historically, a two-pathway model was described from histological and cytogenetic studies: low-grade papillary non-muscle invasive bladder cancers (NMIBC) were described to arise from epithelial hyperplasia with loss of chromosome 9 as an early event, whereas muscle-invasive bladder cancers (MIBC) were considered to develop from dysplasia, associated with genetic instability. Although there could be connections between the 2 pathways, NMIBC and MIBC were largely believed to develop secondary to different molecular alterations. Next-generation sequencing has allowed important insights into cancer biology and a better understanding of the pathways involved in bladder cancer pathogenesis and heterogeneity. Urothelial carcinoma has been found to have a high frequency of somatic mutations compared to other solid tumors, including several mutations in multiple signaling pathways, such as cell cycle regulators (TP53, RB1), RTK/RAS/RAF pathway, PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and TERT gene promoter. Epigenetic changes and mutations in chromatin remodeling genes are especially frequent in bladder cancer. Mutations in FGFR3 and KDM6A are more common in NMIBC than in MIBC, whereas mutations in TP53 and KMT2D are more common in MIBC, suggesting the previously hypothesized 2 different pathways, with a subset of tumors progressing from NMIBC to MIBC. Using comprehensive RNA expression profiling studies, at least 5 subtypes of bladder cancer have been identified, the most fundamental division being Basal/Squamous-like and Luminal. These subtypes have different prognoses, natural histories and responses to systemic treatments: Luminal subtypes are enriched with papillary histology and have a

  12. OVERACTIVE BLADDER SYNDROME IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.L. Vishnevskiy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Overactive bladder is a specific syndrome characterized by bladder dysfunction that is clinically manifested by imperative urination (pollakiuria, urgency, urgent incontinence and nocturia. This state is very widely spread among children: every fifth child aged 4 to 7 shows typical bladder dysfunction. Quite often if urinary distresses are not studied well enough such children are falsely diagnosed with monosymptom enuresis, which, according to our information, actually happens in only 3,9% of cases. When examining children with urinary disorders it is reasonable to be geared to the protocol of European urologist association. According to this protocol, treatment should be started with antimuscarinimedications. The only antimuscarinic medication for treating children with hyperactive bladder that is legal in Russia is oxybutinin (Driptane, that is presently considered to be the «golden standard» of pharmaceutical treatment of overactive bladder for patients of any age. This statement is based on the modern idea of overactive bladder pathogenesis, that presupposes detrusorhypersensibility to acetylcholine. However, in some cases it might be reasonable to use some other medications, physiotherapy, sometimes as part of complex therapy. If individual dosage is observed, which will enable preventing or significantly lowering possible side effects, oxybutinin will be still considered «the golden standard» for treating overactive bladder for years to come in cases when detrusor hypersensibility to acetylcholine is the key component of bladder dysfunction pathogenesis.Key words: overactive bladder, oxybutinin, urination disorder, children.

  13. Molecular biology of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Doyle, William; Kwiatkowski, David J

    2015-04-01

    Classic as well as more recent large-scale genomic analyses have uncovered multiple genes and pathways important for bladder cancer development. Genes involved in cell-cycle control, chromatin regulation, and receptor tyrosine and PI3 kinase-mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathways are commonly mutated in muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Expression-based analyses have identified distinct types of bladder cancer that are similar to subsets of breast cancer, and have prognostic and therapeutic significance. These observations are leading to novel therapeutic approaches in bladder cancer, providing optimism for therapeutic progress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical characterization of papillary proliferation of the endometrium: A single institutional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Cheol Keun; Yoon, Gun; Cho, Yoon Ah; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2016-06-28

    Papillary proliferation of the endometrium is an unusual lesion that is composed of papillae with fibrovascular stromal cores covered with benign-appearing glandular epithelium. We studied the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features of four cases of endometrial papillary proliferations. All patients were postmenopausal. Two lesions were incidental findings in hysterectomy specimens, and two lesions were detected in endometrial curettage specimens. Based on the degree of architectural complexity and extent of proliferation, we classified papillary proliferations histopathologically into "simple" or "complex" growth patterns. Three cases were classified as simple papillary proliferation, and one case was classified as complex papillary proliferation. Simple papillary proliferations were characterized by slender papillae with delicate stromal cores. In contrast, complex papillary proliferations had intracystic papillary projections and cellular clusters with frequent branching and occasional cytological atypia. All cases showed coexistent metaplastic epithelial changes, including mucinous metaplasia, eosinophilic cell change, and ciliated cell metaplasia. One patient with simple papillary proliferations had coexistent well-differentiated endometrioid carcinoma. One patient had subsequent hyperplasia without atypia, and another patient had subsequent atypical hyperplasia/endometrioid intraepithelial neoplasia; both patients underwent total hysterectomy within four months. Our observations are consistent with previous data demonstrating that endometrial papillary proliferations coexist with or develop into atypical hyperplasia/endometrioid intraepithelial neoplasia or endometrioid carcinoma. It is very important for pathologists to discriminate papillary proliferations from neoplastic lesions (including atypical hyperplasia/endometrioid intraepithelial neoplasia and well-differentiated endometrioid carcinoma) and benign mimickers (including papillary

  15. Papillary squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix in Uganda: a report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Non-glandular papillary carcinoma of the cervix are uncommon tumours. In Uganda where cervical carcinoma is very common, no cases of papillary squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix has been reported. Objectives: To ascertain the occurrence and describe the clinicopathological features of papillary ...

  16. A Case of Patella Metastasis of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Eun Ji; Choi, Woo Hee; Chung, Yong An; Sohn, Hyung Sun; Kang, Chang Suk

    2009-01-01

    A 73-year-old man presented with a chief complaint of progressive left knee pain for two months. He had a history of total thyroidectomy and central lymph node dissection due to papillary thyroid carcinoma three months ago. MRI images revealed a solid mass in the left patella. A solid mass demonstrated low signal on T1 weighed image, and high signal on T2 weighed image. And whole body bone scan showed focal photon defect in same lesion of left patella. The histologic result of left knee lesion was adenocarcinoma, consistent with metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma. Although patellar metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma is very rare, when knee pain and radiologic abnormality are noted, differential diagnosis of metastasis is necessary

  17. Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Karen; Delvaux, Peter; Huysentruyt, Frederik

    2017-08-01

    Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) is a rare variant of bile duct tumors, characterized by papillary growth within the bile duct lumen and is regarded as a biliary counterpart of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas. IPNBs are mainly found in patients from Far Eastern areas, where hepatolithiasis and clonorchiasis are endemic. The Western experience, however, remains limited. In this article, we report a 56-year-old man, referred to our hospital because of deranged liver function tests. Further imaging modalities showed a cystic lesion of 9 cm diameter, arising from the left hepatic duct. Inlying was a heterogeneous, lobulated mass. The patient underwent a left hemihepatectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy. Despite recent advanced technologies, diagnosis of IPNB is still challenging, especially in western countries due to its rarity. Early identification and resection of lesions, even in asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic patients, are however important prognostic factors.

  18. Papillary thyroid carcinoma presenting as an asymptomatic pelvic bone metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddiq S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid carcinoma is rare comprising 1% of all malignancies and commonly presents as a neck lump. Papillary thyroid carcinoma unlike follicular thyroid carcinoma tends not to metastasise to distant sites.We present a case of papillary thyroid carcinoma presenting as a solitary asymptomatic pelvic bone metastases and highlight current management of bone metastases. A 59-year old female was found on abdominal computerised tomography to have an incidental finding of a 4.5 cm soft tissue mass in the right iliac bone. Biopsy of the lesion confirmed metastatic thyroid carcinoma. There was no history of a neck lump, head and neck examination was normal. Further imaging confirmed focal activity in the right lobe of the thyroid. A total thyroidectomy and level VI neck dissection was performed and histology confirmed follicular variant of papillary carcinoma.Early detection of bone metastases have been shown to improve prognosis and thyroid carcinoma should be considered as a potential primary malignancy.

  19. Synchronous Parathyroid and Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Dou Lin

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Concomitant thyroid disease is not unusual among patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. However, the simultaneous occurrence of parathyroid and thyroid carcinoma is extremely rare. We report a 38-year-old man with primary hyperparathyroidism who presented with osteitis fibrosa cystica complicated with pathologic femoral neck fracture. Preoperative investigation for exclusion of multiple endocrine neoplasia did not find evidence of medullary thyroid carcinoma or pheochromocytoma, but imaging studies revealed the presence of nodules in the right lobe and a parathyroid lesion over the left inferior pole of the thyroid gland. Total thyroidectomy, left parathyroidectomy, and bipolar hemiarthroplasty of the left hip were then performed simultaneously. The resected specimens were pathologically identified as papillary thyroid carcinoma and parathyroid carcinoma, respectively. After the operation, 131I ablation therapy was administered at a dose of 120 mCi. Additional doses of 30 mCi were given yearly as serum thyroglobulin level became elevated. Serum calcium level remained normal during yearly follow-up. Although parathyroid carcinoma is an uncommon cause of parathyroid hormone-dependent hypercalcemia, it should nonetheless be given due consideration because its surgical approach differs from that of parathyroid adenoma. As the coexistence of parathyroid and non-medullary thyroid carcinoma has previously been reported, the possibility of both malignancies must also be considered in the setting of primary hyperparathyroidism with thyroid nodules. If confirmed with preoperative parathyroid scintigraphic and other laboratory studies, an optimal outcome may be achieved with complete resection of both tumors at the time of initial operation, followed by adjunctive therapy.

  20. Laparoscopic partial cystectomy for urachal and bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose R. Colombo Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To report our initial experiences with laparoscopic partial cystectomy for urachal and bladder malignancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between March 2002 and October 2004, laparoscopic partial cystectomy was performed in 6 cases at 3 institutions; 3 cases were urachal adenocarcinomas and the remaining 3 cases were bladder transitional cell carcinomas. All patients were male, with a median age of 55 years (45-72 years. Gross hematuria was the presenting symptom in all patients, and diagnosis was established with trans-urethral resection bladder tumor in 2 patients and by means of cystoscopic biopsy in the remaining 4 patients. Laparoscopic partial cystectomy was performed using the transperitoneal approach under cystoscopic guidance. In each case, the surgical specimen was removed intact entrapped in an impermeable bag. One patient with para-ureteral diverticulum transitional cell carcinoma required concomitant ureteral reimplantation. RESULTS: All six procedures were completed laparoscopically without open conversion. The median operating time was 110 minutes (90-220 with a median estimated blood loss of 70 mL (50-100. Frozen section evaluations of bladder margins were routinely obtained and were negative for cancer in all cases. The median hospital stay was 2.5 days (2-4 and the duration of catheterization was 7 days. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. Final histopathology confirmed urachal adenocarcinoma in 3 cases and bladder transitional cell carcinoma in 3 cases. At a median follow-up of 28.5 months (range: 26 to 44 months, there was no evidence of recurrent disease as evidenced by radiologic or cystoscopic evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic partial cystectomy in carefully selected patients with urachal and bladder cancer is feasible and safe, offering a promising and minimally invasive alternative for these patients.

  1. Traumatic injury of the bladder and urethra

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disruption Images Bladder catheterization, female Bladder catheterization, male Female urinary tract Male urinary tract References Morey AF, Zhao LC. Genital and lower urinary tract trauma. In: Wein AJ, ...

  2. Meat and components of meat and the risk of bladder cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrucci, Leah M.; Sinha, Rashmi; Ward, Mary H.; Graubard, Barry I.; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Kilfoy, Briseis A.; Schatzkin, Arthur; Michaud, Dominique S.; Cross, Amanda J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Meat could be involved in bladder carcinogenesis via multiple potentially carcinogenic meat-related compounds related to cooking and processing, including nitrate, nitrite, heterocyclic amines (HCAs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The authors comprehensively investigated the association between meat and meat components and bladder cancer. METHODS: During 7 years of follow-up, 854 transitional cell bladder-cancer cases were identified among 300,933 men and...

  3. Incidence of urinary bladder tumors in the control Beagle dog population at the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, R.R.; Kusewitt, D.F.; Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.

    1982-01-01

    The report reviews the incidence and types of urinary bladder tumors in 94 dogs that have died in a population of 250 control dogs (median life span 14.0 years). Six bladder tumors, two papillomas and four transitional cell carcinomas, were found. The cumulative incidence for bladder tumors was 10.5 percent at 16 to 19 years of age; this was a 20 percent age-specific incidence

  4. [Papillary cystadenoma of the epididymis. 2 case reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimoldi, A; Berti, G L; Canclini, L; Giola, V; Leidi, G L; Maccaroni, A; Sironi, M; Veneroni, L; Bacchioni, A M; Assi, A

    1997-12-01

    Tumors of the epididymis are very rare. They are benign tumors in 75 per cent of the cases. Papillary cystadenoma represents 4-9 per cent of epididymal benign tumors. Often associated with the syndrome of von Hippel Lindau and infertility, histologically it can be confused with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. We report two cases of papillary cystadenoma located in the head of the right epididymis, with no concomitance with the syndrome of von Hippel Lindau, cured by the removal of the neoplastic nodule. There was no recidivation, in confirmation of the neoplastic benignity.

  5. Marine-Lenhart syndrome with papillary thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulusi Atmaca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Graves′ disease with accompanying functioning nodules is known as Marine-Lenhart syndrome. Autonomously functioning thyroid nodules (AFTNs also within Graves′ thyroid tissue are almost always bening in nature. A 45-year-old man developed hyperthyroidism due to the coexistence of Graves′ disease and AFTN. Total thyroidectomy was performed. The hyperfunctioning nodule with centrally hypoactive foci detected by technetium-99m thyroid scanning was histologically diagnosed as papillary thyroid carcinoma that was 2.5 cm in diameter. We report the presence of papillary thyroid carcinoma within AFTN in patients with Marine-Lenhart syndrome, which has not been reported so far.

  6. Metanephric Adenofibroma associated with Papillary Renal CeU Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roa, Carmen Lucia B; Navarrete, Maria Constanza

    2008-01-01

    Metanephric adenofibroma is an infrequent biphasic epithelial-stromal renal tumor, occasionally associated with papillary renal cell carcinoma. We describe a case of a girl with a four year clinical history of intermittent hematuria; she was diagnosed, using a left-side tru-cut renal biopsy, with a Wilms' tumor with stromal and epithelial component, with no sign of anaplasia. Later, through the product of the left-side nephrectomy that was performed at the National Cancer institute of Colombia, she was diagnosed with metanephric adenofibroma associated with papillary renal cell carcinoma

  7. Simultaneous Papillary Carcinoma in Thyroglossal Duct Cyst and Thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Cancela e Penna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroglossal duct cyst (TDC is a cystic expansion of a remnant of the thyroglossal duct tract. Carcinomas in the TDC are extremely rare and are usually an incidental finding after the Sistrunk procedure. In this report, an unusual case of a 36-year-old woman with concurrent papillary thyroid carcinoma arising in the TDC and on the thyroid gland is presented, followed by a discussion of the controversies surrounding the possible origins of a papillary carcinoma in the TDC, as well as the current management options.

  8. Papillary Fibroelastoma of the Right Ventricular Free Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Niino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Papillary fibroelastoma is a rare benign cardiac tumor that usually arises from the valvular endocardium and its development in the cardiac chambers is extremely rare. A 52-year-old woman complained of palpitations and echocardiography revealed a cardiac tumor. Resection was performed via the right ventricle and main pulmonary artery under cardiopulmonary bypass. Histological examination of the resected tumor showed that it was a papillary fibroelastoma. The patient’s postoperative course was unremarkable and no complications have been detected on followup.

  9. Marine-Lenhart syndrome with papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Hulusi; Çolak, Ramis; Yazici, Zihni Acar; Kefeli, Mehmet; Tosun, Fevziye Canbaz

    2015-04-01

    Graves' disease with accompanying functioning nodules is known as Marine-Lenhart syndrome. Autonomously functioning thyroid nodules (AFTNs) also within Graves' thyroid tissue are almost always bening in nature. A 45-year-old man developed hyperthyroidism due to the coexistence of Graves' disease and AFTN. Total thyroidectomy was performed. The hyperfunctioning nodule with centrally hypoactive foci detected by technetium-99m thyroid scanning was histologically diagnosed as papillary thyroid carcinoma that was 2.5 cm in diameter. We report the presence of papillary thyroid carcinoma within AFTN in patients with Marine-Lenhart syndrome, which has not been reported so far.

  10. Papillary carcinoma in median aberrant thyroid (ectopic) - case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbar K, Ashwin; K, Shashidhar; Deshmane, Vijaya Laxmi; Kumar, Veerendra; Arjunan, Ravi

    2014-06-01

    Median ectopic thyroid may be encountered anywhere from the foramen caecum to the diaphragm. Non lingual median aberrant thyroid (incomplete descent) usually found in the infrahyoid region and malignant transformation in this ectopic thyroid tissue is very rare. We report an extremely rare case of papillary carcinoma in non lingual median aberrant thyroid in a 25-year-old female. The differentiation between a carcinoma arising in the median ectopic thyroid tissue and a metastatic papillary carcinoma from an occult primary in the main thyroid gland is also discussed.

  11. The management of non-invasive bladder tumours with Doxorubicin intravesical instillation after transurethral resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gallab, Musa I; Naddaf, Louai A; Kanan, Mohamad R

    2009-04-01

    Evaluation of the intravesical instillation of doxorubicin for its effect on disease recurrence for patients with non-invasive bladder tumour. The study was performed at Al Assad University Hospital in Lattakia, Syria and included patients with non-invasive bladder tumours who were managed with transurethral resection and induction and maintenance therapy with intravesical doxorubicin. They were followed up by cystoscopy every 3 months for 2 years and every 6 months thereafter with special emphasis on recurrence rates. The study included 85 patients with non-invasive bladder tumours: 23 with non-invasive papillary carcinoma (Stage Ta), 62 with tumour invading subepithelial connective tissue (Stage T1). Twelve patients had well differentiated tumours (Grade 1), 48 had moderately differentiated (Grade 2), 25 had poorly differentiated (Grade 3) tumours. The total recurrence rate was 23%. The rates of recurrence were 56% in Grade 3 and 0% in Grade 1. The recurrence rate was 41% in patients with large tumours versus 17% in those with small tumours; 44% in those with multiple tumours compared to 18% in those with solitary tumours; 30% of Stage Ta tumours recurred and 21% of Stage T1 tumours. In short term follow-up, our rate of recurrence was 23%. Adjuvant intravesical doxorubicin was shown to reduce the recurrence of superficial bladder cancer. Tumour grade, size and number were shown to be prognostic factors for recurrence.

  12. Sixteen-slice multidetector computed tomographic virtual cystoscopy in the evaluation of a patient with suspected bladder tumor and history of bladder carcinoma operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Muzaffer; Ozkurt, Huseyin; Tanriverdi, Orhan; Cay, Esra; Aydin, Mustafa; Miroglu, Cengiz

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of virtual cystoscopy performed with multidetector computed tomography (CT) in patients with suspected bladder tumors and histories of bladder carcinoma operation. Thirty-six patients (29 men and 7 women) with a mean age of 66 years (range, 24-88 years) with suspected bladder tumors and histories of bladder carcinoma operation were included in this prospective study. Virtual cystoscopy was performed by 16-slice multidetector CT scanner. The bladder was filled with diluted contrast material solution through a Foley catheter. Then, all patients underwent conventional cystoscopy examination. Two reviewers found 18 lesions detected by virtual cystoscopy by consensus, whereas 19 lesions were depicted by conventional cystoscopy. At virtual and conventional cystoscopies, the conditions of 3 patients, 2 with chronic inflammations and 1 with foreign body reaction, were wrongly diagnosed as tumors. At conventional cystoscopy, one patient's result was wrongly interpreted as normal. In pathologic evaluation, all tumors were diagnosed as transitional cell carcinoma. Bladder tumor can be noninvasively diagnosed using virtual cystoscopy. Use of virtual cystoscopy should be considered inpatients who present with hematuria or have histories of bladder carcinoma operation and are for follow-up because of its lesser complication risk and its being a less invasive, easily applied procedure without need of anesthesia. In the future, owing to the development of the CT technology and image processing technique, virtual cystoscopy may have a part in the detection of bladder cancer.

  13. The follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer and noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharpf, Joseph; Kamani, Dipti; Sadow, Peter M; Randolph, Gregory W

    2017-01-01

    Noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) is a new terminology proposed for encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (EFVPTC). Recently, thyroid cancer incidence has increased dramatically, without affecting related mortality rate. This increase is widely attributed to the intensified surveillance leading to a substantial increase in the diagnosis of small classic papillary thyroid cancers and EFVPTCs. Recent studies emphasize the indolent behavior of the EFVPTC. Recently, there has been a reclassification of EFVPTC as NIFTP, a benign entity. The financial and emotional burden of 'cancer' diagnosis and treatment can be significant. This review recapitulates the literature supporting the reclassification of EFVPTC as NIFTP, a benign entity, and reviews standardized diagnostic criteria for EFVPTC. The information highlighted in this review will affect surgical decision making and may promote the offering of hemithyroidectomy over a total thyroidectomy to some patients with 'indeterminate' cytopathological category; postoperative radioiodine ablation will not be required for NIFTP patients.

  14. Molecular Diagnosis in Bladder Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.C.M. Zuiverloon (Tahlita)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractEpidemiologyBladder cancer (BC) is the most prevalent type of urothelial cancer and is associated with thehighest costs of all cancer types due to intensive patient surveillance. Because bladder tumorsfrequently recur, patients need to be monitored extensively [1-4]. Incidence increases

  15. Postmortem MRI of bladder agenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Brendan R. [St George' s Hospital, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom); Weber, Martin A. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom); Bockenhauer, Detlef [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Nephrology, London (United Kingdom); Hiorns, Melanie P.; McHugh, Kieran [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    We report a 35-week preterm neonate with bladder agenesis and bilateral dysplastic kidneys. A suprapubic catheter was inadvertently inserted into one of the larger inferior cysts of the left dysplastic kidney. A postmortem MRI scan was performed with the findings being confirmed on autopsy. We are unaware of another postmortem MRI study demonstrating bladder agenesis. (orig.)

  16. Postmortem MRI of bladder agenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, Brendan R.; Weber, Martin A.; Bockenhauer, Detlef; Hiorns, Melanie P.; McHugh, Kieran

    2011-01-01

    We report a 35-week preterm neonate with bladder agenesis and bilateral dysplastic kidneys. A suprapubic catheter was inadvertently inserted into one of the larger inferior cysts of the left dysplastic kidney. A postmortem MRI scan was performed with the findings being confirmed on autopsy. We are unaware of another postmortem MRI study demonstrating bladder agenesis. (orig.)

  17. Vulvar Metastasis from Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad Aoun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vulvar metastasis of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder is a very rare entity; few cases are reported in the English literature. In this paper, we describe the clinical and pathological characteristics, evolution, and treatment of a patient with vulvar metastasis of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder followed by a brief review of the reported cases in the literature.

  18. Neuromodulation in bladder dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, S T; Neal, D E

    1998-10-01

    Neuromodulation is one option for the management of a wide variety of lower urinary tract disorders, including non-neuropathic and neuropathic bladder dysfunctions. The mechanisms of action of the reported techniques remain unclear; urodynamic changes are minimal, but symptomatic improvements are common. Although the treatment is relatively free from side-effects compared with more aggressive surgical options, the placebo effect is likely to be significant. Its exact cost effectiveness is unclear, but the technology is a welcome addition to the range of treatment options for lower urinary tract dysfunctions, such as urgency and urge incontinence.

  19. Basic bladder neurophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, J Quentin

    2010-11-01

    Maintenance of normal lower urinary tract function is a complex process that requires coordination between the central nervous system and the autonomic and somatic components of the peripheral nervous system. This article provides an overview of the basic principles that are recognized to regulate normal urine storage and micturition, including bladder biomechanics, relevant neuroanatomy, neural control of lower urinary tract function, and the pharmacologic processes that translate the neural signals into functional results. Finally, the emerging role of the urothelium as a sensory structure is discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Horseradish extract promotes urinary bladder carcinogenesis when administered to F344 rats in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Man; Hasumura, Mai; Imai, Toshio; Takami, Shigeaki; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi; Ogawa, Kumiko

    2017-07-01

    Horseradish extract (HRE), consisting mainly of a mixture of allyl isothiocyanate and other isothiocyanates, has been used as a food additive. To evaluate the potential hazards of HRE, a 104-week chronic study, a 2-week analysis of cell proliferation in the urinary bladder and a medium-term promotion bioassay of HRE were conducted with administration at concentrations of up to 0.04% HRE in the drinking water to male F344 rats. In the 104-week chronic study with 32 male rats per group, no treatment-related increases in the incidences of neoplastic lesions in any organ, including urinary bladder, were observed, except for simple hyperplasia in the urinary bladder in rats treated with HRE at concentrations of more than 0.01% (5.0 mg kg -1 body weight day -1 ). In the promotion study, HRE treatment after N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine initiation caused a clear increase in papillary or nodular hyperplasia, papilloma, and urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder in the groups given HRE for 13 weeks at doses higher than 0.005%, 0.01%, and 0.04% (2.7, 5.4 and 20.5 mg kg -1 body weight day -1 ), respectively. In the 2-week cell proliferation analysis, treatment with HRE at concentrations greater than 0.005% (3.9 mg kg -1 body weight day -1 ) caused transient increases in 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine labeling indices in the urothelium. Although clear tumor induction was not observed, administration of relatively low-dose HRE increased cell proliferation in the urothelium and exerted obvious promoting effects on rat urinary bladder carcinogenesis. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mode of action of HRE in the rat urinary bladder to facilitate data extrapolation from the present study and provide insights into risk assessment. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Deregulation of HOX B13 expression in urinary bladder cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, L; Cantile, M; Scognamiglio, G; Perdonà, S; La Mantia, E; Cerrone, M; Gigantino, V; Cillo, C; Caraglia, M; Pignata, S; Facchini, G; Botti, G; Chieffi, S; Chieffi, P; Franco, R

    2013-02-01

    Urinary bladder cancer is a common malignancy in industrialized countries. More than 90% of bladder cancer originates in the transitional cells. Bladder transitional cancer prognosis is, according to the most recent definition related to the level of tumor infiltration, characterized by two main phenotypes, Non Muscle Invasive Bladder Transitional Cancer (NMIBC) and Muscle Invasive Bladder Transitional Cancer (MIBC). The genetic profile and the clinical course of the two subtypes are completely different, however among NMIBC the prognosis is not completely predictable, since 20% of the cases experience a relapse, even in the form of MIBC. It has recently been reported that the chromosomal region 12q13-15, containing crucial cancer genes such as MDM2, CDK4, GLI and an entire cluster of HOX genes, is amplified in bladder cancer. HOX genes codify for transcriptionl factor, involved in embryonal development and cancer progression, with main nuclear expression. Particularly it was also described the strong involvement of HOX B13 in several tumors of urogenital system. In this study we have been investigated, by immunohistochemisty and quantitative Real Time PCR, the HOX B13 expression in bladder cancer evolution and progression, evaluating its ability to discriminate between NMIBC and MBCI phenotypes. Cytoplasmic HOX B13 delocalization significantly relates with muscle invasion (p 0.004). In addition in the series of NMIBC nuclear HOX B13 expression loss is significantly associated to shorter disease free survival (p-value=0.038) defining a potential prognostic role. Overexpression of HOX B13 in more aggressive phenotype is also demonstrate at gene level by quantitative RT-PCR. The de-regulation and delocalization of HOX B13 in urinary bladder cancer supports again the important role of HOX genes in tumor evolution and represents a starting point to establish an integrated analysis, in which HOX genes represent important prognostic and predictive markers for bladder

  2. Increased bladder wall thickness is associated with severe symptoms and reduced bladder capacity in patients with bladder pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yu Wu

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: There are obvious differences in bladder CT scans of patients with symptoms of bladder pain due to different etiology. Increased BWT was associated with increased pain scores and decreased bladder capacity in patients with KC and IC. BWT on a CT scan might be considered a marker for the severity of bladder inflammation.

  3. Bladder stones after bladder augmentation are not what they seem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Konrad M; Misseri, Rosalia; Whittam, Benjamin; Lingeman, James E; Amstutz, Sable; Ring, Joshua D; Kaefer, Martin; Rink, Richard C; Cain, Mark P

    2016-04-01

    Bladder and renal calculi after bladder augmentation are thought to be primarily infectious, yet few studies have reported stone composition. The primary aim was to assess bladder stone composition after augmentation, and renal stone composition in those with subsequent nephrolithiasis. The exploratory secondary aim was to screen for possible risk factors for developing infectious stones. Patients treated for bladder stones after bladder augmentation at the present institution between 1981 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Data were collected on demographics, surgeries and stone composition. Patients without stone analysis were excluded. Stones containing struvite, carbonate apatite or ammonium acid ureate were classified as infectious. The following variables were analyzed for a possible association with infectious bladder stone composition: gender, history of cloacal exstrophy, ambulatory status, nephrolithiasis, recurrent urea-splitting urinary tract infections, first vs recurrent stones, timing of presentation with a calculus, history of bladder neck procedures, catheterizable channel and vesicoureteral reflux. Fisher's exact test was used for analysis. Of the 107 patients with bladder stones after bladder augmentation, 85 met inclusion criteria. Median age at augmentation was 8.0 years (follow-up 10.8 years). Forty-four patients (51.8%) recurred (14 multiple recurrences, 143 bladder stones). Renal calculi developed in 19 (22.4%) patients with a bladder stone, and 10 (52.6%) recurred (30 renal stones). Overall, 30.8% of bladder stones were non-infectious (Table). Among patients recurring after an infectious bladder stone, 30.4% recurred with a non-infectious one. Among patients recurring after a non-infectious stone, 84.6% recurred with a non-infectious one (P = 0.005). Compared with bladder stones, renal stones were more likely to be non-infectious (60.0%, P = 0.003). Of patients with recurrent renal calculi after an infectious stone, 40.0% recurred with

  4. BRAF V600E mutations in papillary craniopharyngioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brastianos, Priscilla K.; Santagata, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    Papillary craniopharyngioma is an intracranial tumor that results in high levels of morbidity. We recently demonstrated that the vast majority of these tumors harbor the oncogenic BRAF V600E mutation. The pathologic diagnosis of papillary craniopharyngioma can now be confirmed using mutation specific immunohistochemistry and targeted genetic testing. Treatment with targeted agents is now also a possibility in select situations. We recently reported a patient with a multiply recurrent papillary craniopharyngioma in whom targeting both BRAF and MEK resulted in a dramatic therapeutic response with a marked anti-tumor immune response. This work shows that activation of the MAPK pathway is the likely principal oncogenic driver of these tumors. We will now investigate the efficacy of this approach in a multicenter phase II clinical trial. Post-treatment resection samples will be monitored for the emergence of resistance mechanisms. Further advances in the non-invasive diagnosis of papillary craniopharyngioma by radiologic criteria and by cell-free DNA testing could someday allow neo-adjuvant therapy for this disease in select patient populations. PMID:26563980

  5. Metastatic papillary carcinoma of the thyroid in a patient previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    She had an 123I diagnostic whole body scan that showed 123I avid areas in the thyroid bed as well as left cervical lymph nodes, which later turned out to be metastatic papillary carcinoma of the thyroid on histology. She was treated with therapeutic doses of 131I. Follow-up radioactive iodine scans and serum thyroglobulin ...

  6. Papillary thyroid carcinoma in Denmark 1996-2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Londero, Stefano Christian; Krogdahl, Annelise; Bastholt, Lars

    2013-01-01

    question this assumption. Methods: National, unselected, prospective cohort study of 1350 papillary thyroid cancer patients in Denmark from 1996 to 2008. Objective: To analyze changes in incidence by time and to identify factors which might influence detection rate. Results: A rise in incidence is seen...

  7. Papillary Cystadenoma: An Incidental Finding in Tubal Ligation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabitha Lynn Ward

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available von Hippel-Lindau disease (vHLD is a rare autosomal dominant disorder with multiple benign and malignant tumors of different organs. We report a papillary cystadenoma of the mesosalpinx found in close association with an adenomatoid tumor discovered incidentally following tubal ligation in a patient with vHLD.

  8. Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma in Denmark, 1996-2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Londero, Stefano Christian; Krogdahl, Annelise; Bastholt, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Background: Regional as well as national series show an increasing incidence of thyroid cancer largely small size papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Prognostic scoring systems have been developed, but these do not take into account the rapidly changing case mix, and adjustments may be required...

  9. Solid and papillary epithelial tumor of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega, Alejandro de la; Eyheremendy, Eduardo; Mondello, Eduardo; Florenzano, Nestor

    2001-01-01

    We report a case of a teenage female patient who presented upper abdominal pain and bilious vomiting. Laboratory analysis, abdominal ultrasound and contrast enhanced CT was performed. On the bases of these results she underwent a corporocaudal pancreatectomy. Pathology studied with immunohistochemical test, showed a solid and papillary epithelial neoplasm of the pancreas, which is an unusual disease. (author)

  10. Thyroglossal Duct Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma and Synchronous Lingual Thyroid Atypia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Yoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroglossal duct and lingual thyroid ectopic lesions are exceedingly rare synchronous findings. Papillary thyroid carcinoma of these ectopic thyroid sites is well understood but still a rare finding. This case points to some management nuances in regard to ectopic thyroid screening with imaging and also shows the effectiveness of minimally invasive transoral robotic surgery for lingual thyroid.

  11. Metastatic papillary carcinoma of the thyroid in a patient previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Graves' disease, papillary thyroid carcinoma, radioactive iodine. Résumé. Accessoire de ... une cause de préoccupation et de controverse pour ceux qui s'occupent d'eux. ... remained thyrotoxic warranting administration of three ...

  12. Gene-expression Classifier in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Londero, Stefano Christian; Jespersen, Marie Louise; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No reliable biomarker for metastatic potential in the risk stratification of papillary thyroid carcinoma exists. We aimed to develop a gene-expression classifier for metastatic potential. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genome-wide expression analyses were used. Development cohort: freshly...

  13. Metastatic papillary carcinoma of the thyroid in a patient previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incidental papillary carcinoma of the thyroid in patients treated surgically for benign thyroid diseases including Graves' disease is a known phenomenon. However, the management of these patients remains an issue of concern and controversy for those who care for them. We report a case of metastatic paillary carcinoma of ...

  14. Rare Papillary Serous Carcinoma In A Nigerian: Case Report And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To present a rare case of papillary serous carcinoma of the cervix and review the literature. Materials and Methods: An illustrative case seen by the authors in a fifty-two year old Nigerian woman with stage III carcinoma of the cervix. Results: The clinical and pathological features of this rare tumour are discussed ...

  15. Primary Papillary Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Ureter Mimicking Genitourinary Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulwani, Hanni; Jain, Aruna

    2010-01-01

    Primary adenocarcinomas of the renal pelvis and ureter are rare and account for less than 1% of all malignancies at this site. We report a case of primary papillary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the ureter that clinically mimicked genitourinary tuberculosis. Early diagnosis is important for the better outcome. PMID:21151719

  16. Primary Papillary Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Ureter Mimicking Genitourinary Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanni Gulwani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary adenocarcinomas of the renal pelvis and ureter are rare and account for less than 1% of all malignancies at this site. We report a case of primary papillary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the ureter that clinically mimicked genitourinary tuberculosis. Early diagnosis is important for the better outcome.

  17. Prevalence and associations of symptomatic renal papillary necrosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To assess the prevalence and associations of symptomatic renal papillary necrosis (RPN) in sickle cell anemia patients. Patients and Methods: The case notes of homozygous hemoglobin (Hb) S patients diagnosed with RPN were retrospectively assessed. Diagnosis was based on microscopic hematuria and positive ...

  18. Age at diagnosis in bladder cancer: does opium addiction play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbakhsh, Mojgan; Dabbagh, Najmeh; Shabani, Azadeh; Tabibi, Ali; Akhavizadegan, Hamed

    2013-01-01

    Bladder cancer is a major health problem, especially among men. Opium addiction can be an important risk factor. One important question is whether it can affect the age of onset of bladder cancer .We performed this study to evaluate this question. In a cross-section study, records of patients diagnosed with bladder carcinoma in Shahid Labbafinejad Medical Center, within 1999-2008 were included. Data were extracted from records regarding age at onset, gender, smoking status, and opioid addiction and analyzed with SPSS 13. Within 10 years, 920 cases were diagnosed with bladder cancer of which 97 percent were transitional cell carcinoma. In 698 cases, opium addiction status was recorded in 21.3% (n=149). Age at diagnosis was 59.7±11.51 (median: 60) among opioid addicts which was significantly lower than non- addicts (63.1±13.65, Median: 65) (POpium addiction can decrease the age of onset of bladder cancer.

  19. Calcifications of the bladder in schistosomiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wechmar, M. von; Vogel, H.

    1989-01-01

    In schistosomiasis calcification of the urinary bladder are characteristic signs that allow a corresponding diagnosis in endemic regions. Problems concerning differential diagnosis occur only in very rare cases. The calcifications of the bladder can be easily detected by native diagnostics. A late complication in an affected bladder is often a bladder carcinoma. (orig.) [de

  20. Efficacy and tolerability of concurrent weekly low dose cisplatin during radiation treatment of localised muscle invasive bladder transitional cell carcinoma: A report of two sequential Phase II studies from the Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogna, Nirdosh Kumar; Matthews, John H.L.; Turner, Sandra L.; Mameghan, Heidi; Duchesne, Gillian M.; Spry, Nigel; Berry, Martin P.; Keller, Jacqui; Tripcony, Lee

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: To determine the feasibility, toxicity, and clinical effectiveness of concurrent weekly cisplatin chemotherapy in conjunction with definitive radiation in the treatment of localised muscle invasive bladder cancer. Patients and methods: In January 1997 the Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group embarked on a Phase II study (TROG 97.01) of weekly cisplatin (35 mg/m 2 x 7 doses) plus radiation to a dose of 63 Gy over 7 weeks. Following an interim toxicity analysis, the dose intensity of cisplatin was reduced to 6 cycles and the radiation schedule changed to 64 Gy over 6.5 weeks leading to the second study (TROG 99.06). A total of 113 patients were enrolled. Results: Acute grade 3 urinary toxicity occurred in 23% of the patients. Acute grade 4 pelvic toxicity was not seen. Thirty-eight patients (33%) experienced grade 3 or 4 cisplatin related toxicities with 15 patients (12%) requiring significant dose modification. The reduced dose intensity in Study 99.06 improved tolerability. Incidence of significant late morbidity was low (6%). Seventy-nine patients (70%) achieved complete remission at the 6 month cystoscopic assessment. Local invasive recurrence was seen in 11 of the 79 patients (14%). In 18 patients (16%) isolated superficial TCC/CIS were detected (6 months and beyond).The local control rate was 45% with a functional bladder being retained in 69 of the 113 patients (61%). RFS and DSS at 5 years were 33% and 50%, respectively. Conclusion: Our two sequential Phase II studies have shown that concurrent chemoradiation using weekly cisplatin in the management of localised invasive bladder TCC is feasible and reasonably well tolerated. This approach is currently being investigated further in a randomised study

  1. An Orthotopic Model of Murine Bladder Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Dobek, Georgina L.; Godbey, W. T.

    2011-01-01

    In this straightforward procedure, bladder tumors are established in female C57 mice through the use of catheterization, local cauterization, and subsequent cell adhesion. After their bladders are transurethrally catheterized and drained, animals are again catheterized to permit insertion of a platinum wire into bladders without damaging the urethra or bladder. The catheters are made of Teflon to serve as an insulator for the wire, which will conduct electrical current into the bladder to c...

  2. Teardrop bladder: additional considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wechsler, R.J.; Brennan, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Nine cases of teardrop bladder (TDB) seen at excretory urography are presented. In some of these patients, the iliopsoas muscles were at the upper limit of normal in size, and additional evaluation of the perivesical structures with computed tomography (CT) was necessary. CT demonstrated only hypertrophied muscles with or without perivesical fat. The psoas muscles and pelvic width were measured in 8 patients and compared with the measurements of a control group of males without TDB. Patients with TDB had large iliopsoas muscles and narrow pelves compared with the control group. The psoas muscle width/pelvic width ratio was significantly greater (p < 0.0005) in patients with TDB than in the control group, with values of 1.04 + 0.05 and 0.82 + 0.09, respectively. It is concluded that TDB is not an uncommon normal variant in black males. Both iliopsoas muscle hypertrophy and a narrow pelvis are factors that predispose a patient to TDB

  3. Dose Distribution in Bladder and Surrounding Normal Tissues in Relation to Bladder Volume in Conformal Radiotherapy for Bladder Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majewski, Wojciech; Wesolowska, Iwona; Urbanczyk, Hubert; Hawrylewicz, Leszek; Schwierczok, Barbara; Miszczyk, Leszek

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate bladder movements and changes in dose distribution in the bladder and surrounding tissues associated with changes in bladder filling and to estimate the internal treatment margins. Methods and Materials: A total of 16 patients with bladder cancer underwent planning computed tomography scans with 80- and 150-mL bladder volumes. The bladder displacements associated with the change in volume were measured. Each patient had treatment plans constructed for a 'partially empty' (80 mL) and a 'partially full' (150 mL) bladder. An additional plan was constructed for tumor irradiation alone. A subsequent 9 patients underwent sequential weekly computed tomography scanning during radiotherapy to verify the bladder movements and estimate the internal margins. Results: Bladder movements were mainly observed cranially, and the estimated internal margins were nonuniform and largest (>2 cm) anteriorly and cranially. The dose distribution in the bladder worsened if the bladder increased in volume: 70% of patients (11 of 16) would have had bladder underdosed to 70%, 80%, and 90% of the prescribed dose was 23%, 20%, and 15% for the rectum and 162, 144, 123 cm 3 for the intestines, respectively) than with a 'partially full' bladder (volume that received >70%, 80%, and 90% of the prescribed dose was 28%, 24%, and 18% for the rectum and 180, 158, 136 cm 3 for the intestines, respectively). The change in bladder filling during RT was significant for the dose distribution in the intestines. Tumor irradiation alone was significantly better than whole bladder irradiation in terms of organ sparing. Conclusion: The displacements of the bladder due to volume changes were mainly related to the upper wall. The internal margins should be nonuniform, with the largest margins cranially and anteriorly. The changes in bladder filling during RT could influence the dose distribution in the bladder and intestines. The dose distribution in the rectum and bowel was slightly better with

  4. NMP22 BladderChek Test: point-of-care technology with life- and money-saving potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomera, Kevin M

    2004-11-01

    A new, relatively obscure tumor marker assay, the NMP22 BladderChek Test (Matritech, Inc.), represents a paradigm shift in the diagnosis and management of urinary bladder cancer (transitional cell carcinoma). Specifically, BladderChek should be employed every time a cystoscopy is performed, with corresponding changes in the diagnostic protocol and the guidelines of the American Urological Association for the diagnosis and management of bladder cancer. Currently, cystoscopy is the reference standard and NMP22 BladderChek Test in combination with cystoscopy improves the performance of cystoscopy. At every stage of disease, BladderChek provides a higher sensitivity for the detection of bladder cancer than cytology, which now represents the adjunctive standard of care. Moreover, BladderChek is four-times more sensitive than cytology and is available at half the cost. Early detection of bladder cancer improves prognosis, quality of life and survival. BladderChek may be analogous to the prostate-specific antigen test and eventually expand beyond the urologic setting into the primary care setting for the testing of high-risk patients characterized by smoking history, occupational exposures or age.

  5. Differential effect of extracellular matrix derived from papillary and reticular fibroblasts on epidermal development in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, David; Rietveld, Marion; Mahé, Christian; Saintigny, Gaëlle; El Ghalbzouri, Abdoelwaheb

    2017-06-01

    Papillary and reticular fibroblasts have different effects on keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these effects are caused by differential secretion of soluble factors or by differential generation of extracellular matrix from papillary and reticular fibroblasts. To study the effect of soluble factors, keratinocyte monolayer cultures were grown in papillary or reticular fibroblast-conditioned medium. To study the effect of extracellular matrix, keratinocytes were grown on papillary or reticular-derived matrix. Conditioned medium from papillary or reticular fibroblasts did not differentially affect keratinocyte viability or epidermal development. However, keratinocyte viability was increased when grown on matrix derived from papillary, compared with reticular, fibroblasts. In addition, the longevity of the epidermis was increased when cultured on papillary fibroblast-derived matrix skin equivalents compared with reticular-derived matrix skin equivalents. The findings indicate that the matrix secreted by papillary and reticular fibroblasts is the main causal factor to account for the differences in keratinocyte growth and viability observed in our study. Differences in response to soluble factors between both populations were less significant. Matrix components specific to the papillary dermis may account for the preferential growth of keratinocytes on papillary dermis.

  6. Curcumin inhibits bladder cancer progression via regulation of β-catenin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jing; Wang, Yunpeng; Jia, Zhuomin; Gao, Yu; Zhao, Chaofei; Yao, Yuanxin

    2017-07-01

    Bladder cancer has a considerable morbidity and mortality impact with particularly poor prognosis. Curcumin has been recently noticed as a polyphenolic compound separated from turmeric to regulate tumor progression. However, the precise molecular mechanism by which curcumin inhibits the invasion and metastasis of bladder cancer cells is not fully elucidated. In this study, we investigate the effect of curcumin on the bladder cancer as well as possible mechanisms of curcumin. The expression of β-catenin was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical analysis in a series of bladder cancer tissues. In addition, bladder cancer cell lines T24 and 5637 cells were treated with different concentrations of curcumin. The cytotoxic effect of curcumin on cell proliferation of T24 and 5637 cells was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The migration and invasion capacity of T24 and 5637 cells were measured by transwell assay. The effects of curcumin on expression levels of β-catenin and epithelial-mesenchymal transition marker were determined by western blotting. The β-catenin expression was significantly upregulated in bladder cancer tissues when compared with corresponding peri-tumor tissues. Furthermore, curcumin inhibited the cell proliferation of T24 and 5637 cells, and curcumin reduced the migration and invasive ability of T24 and 5637 cells via regulating β-catenin expression and reversing epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Curcumin may be a new drug for bladder cancer.

  7. What Help Could Ultrasound Elastography Give to the Diagnosis of Breast Papillary Lesions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lu-Jing; Yao, Ji-Yi; Zhou, Xin-Chuan; Zhao, Xin-Bao; Zhong, Wen-Jing; Ou, Bing; Luo, Bao-Ming; Hao, Shao-Yun; Zhi, Hui

    2017-05-01

    On the basis of results of our previous studies and the findings of other scholars, the most common histologic type of false-positive diagnosis with strain elastography (SE) was papilloma. The objectives of our study were to evaluate whether SE could contribute to conventional ultrasound differentiation between benign and malignant papillary lesions and between papillary lesions and other common benign breast lesions. Data on 89 papillary lesions at our hospital, including 74 benign and 15 malignant papillary lesions, were included in our study. In addition, 198 non-papillary benign tumors were selected as the control group, including 126 fibroadenomas and 72 cases of fibrocystic mastopathy. All patients gave written informed consent. All patients with breast lesions underwent conventional ultrasound and SE examination. Breast Imaging Recording and Data System (BI-RADS) category and SE score were compared with respect to sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in differentiating between benign and malignant papillary lesions. We then explored the possibility of using BI-RADS combined with SE to differentiate papillary lesions from non-papillary benign tumors. For differentiating between benign and malignant papillary lesions, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of BI-RADS was 0.568, whereas the AUC values of SE score, strain ratio and BI-RADS combined with SE were 0.517, 0.584 and 0.509, respectively (p > 0.05). For differentiating between papillary lesions and non-papillary benign lesions, the AUC of BI-RADS combined with SE was 0.835, which was higher than the values for BI-RADS (0.775) and SE (SE score: 0.648, strain ratio: 0.661) (p breast papillary lesions from non-papillary benign lesions. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Treatment Option Overview (Bladder Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... above the waist. Tiny tubules in the kidneys filter and clean the blood . They take out waste ... to bladder cancer. Being exposed to paints, dyes, metals, or petroleum products in the workplace. Past treatment ...

  9. Drugs Approved for Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for bladder cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  10. Primary Signet Ring Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Urinary Bladder: A Report of 2 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiem Boukettaya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare and aggressive histologic subtype of adenocarcinoma. In general, this tumor occurs in the middle age, and clinical presentation does not differ from transitional cell carcinomas. The prognosis is often poor, given the advanced stage at diagnosis. To our knowledge, <100 cases of signet ring cell adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder have been reported. We report 2 cases with bladder linitis plastica primitive, and we draw attention to its pathologic, anatomoclinical, and evolution specificity to optimize its therapeutic management.

  11. Monitoring of the upper urinary tract in patients with bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajinikanth Ayyathurai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Upper urinary tract (UUT transitional cell carcinoma (TCC is relatively rare tumor. Approximately 0.7-4% of patients with primary bladder cancer develops UUT-TCC. The symptoms related to an UUT-TCC often occur with an advanced stage which leads one to emphasize a surveillance strategy to monitor the UUT to allow for an earlier diagnosis. Although the risk of UUT-TCC after bladder cancer is well established, there is a paucity of recommendations suggesting the optimal method and frequency of monitoring the UUT and there is no consensus among them. This article reviews the recommendations on monitoring the UUT in patients with bladder cancer.

  12. Papillary thyroid carcinoma: comparison between CT features and pathologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Hongna; Gu Yajia; Peng Weijun; Yang Wentao; Huang Dan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relationship between the CT imaging features and pathologic findings of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC), as well as the CT appearances of Non-papillary thyroid carcinoma(N-PTC). Methods: CT features of 229 PTC, 42 PTMC and 36 N-PTC patients with 264, 57 and 41 lesions respectively were analyzed retrospectively, and comparison was made with the pathologic findings. All data were analyzed by X 2 test. Results: (1) Of PTC lesions, 25.4% (67/264)of the lesions and 2.9% (24/828) of metastatic lymph nodes showed cystic changes. Cyst formation with intracystic high density papillary-like nodules were found in 31.3% (21/67)of the PTC lesions and 37.5% (9/24) of metastatic lymph nodes. The histologic appearances of these tumors demonstrated fibrous tissue forming the wall of cyst, and papillary-like tumor tissue. (2) 75.2% (112/149) of PTC and 33.3% (5/15) of PTMC showed multiple small granular and fine calcifications, and there was statiscally significant difference between the two (P 0.05). However, the degree of enhancement in PTC lesions were less than that of N-PTC, 36.6% (94/257) of PTC and 54.1% (20/37)of N-PTC lesions showed significant enhancement, and there was statistically significant difference (P<0.05). 75.1% of PTC (172/229) and 52.8% of (19/36)N-PTC had cervical lymph node metastases, with a propensity fbr PTC to have more VI region metastatic lymph nodes, 80.8% (139/172)vs 57.9% (11/19), which was statistically significant (both P<0.05). (4)Distant metastases to bone or lung were rare, but N-PTC (5/36) were more likely to produce distant metastases than PTC (5/229), and there was statistically significant difference (P<0.01). Conclusion Multiple, small granular and fine calcifications were found more frequently in PTC than PTMC. Compared with N-PTC, the papillary-like mural nodules of PTC showed less enhancement on post-contrast CT and cervical lymph node metastases were more

  13. Neurogenic bladder in Hunter's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, K; Moda, Y; Sone, A; Tanaka, H; Hino, Y

    1994-01-01

    We encountered a rare patient with Hunter's syndrome who exhibited urinary retention as a result of a neurogenic bladder, uninhibited detrusor contractions, and detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia. Neurological findings were consistent with cervical myelopathy and cervical MR imaging showed very narrow segments at the cord level C2-4. We speculate that this Hunter's syndrome patient has cervical myelopathy and that this neurological dysfunction causes the neurogenic bladder. PMID:8014981

  14. High-Grade Hydronephrosis Predicts Poor Outcomes After Radical Cystectomy in Patients with Bladder Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dong Suk; Cho, Kang Su; Lee, Young Hoon; Cho, Nam Hoon; Oh, Young Taek; Hong, Sung Joon

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether the presence and severity of preoperative hydronephrosis have prognostic significance in patients who underwent radical cystectomy for transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. The medical records of 457 patients who underwent radical cystectomy for bladder cancer between 1986 and 2005 were retrospectively reviewed. Following the Society for Fetal Urology grading system, patients were divided into low-, and high-grade hydronephrosis groups. Clinicopathologic factors asso...

  15. Interstitial cystitis: painful bladder syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R F Sholan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Interstitial cystitis, or painful bladder syndrome, is a chronic inflammatory disease of a bladder of unknown etiology. It negatively affects the quality of life, causes depressive disorders, anxiety, and sexual dysfunction. Despite numerous studies, the etiology of interstitial cystitis is still unclear and it’s considered as painful bladder syndrome with multifactorial origin. According to the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 470/100 000 people (60/100 000 men, 850/100 000 women are diagnosed with interstitial cystitis. Diagnosis of the disease is difficult and is substantially based on clinical symptoms. Pelvic pain, urinary urgency, frequency and nocturia are the basic complaints in this pathology. The diagnosis requires exclusion of diseases with similar manifestations. So interstitial cystitis is frequently misdiagnosed as urinary tract infection, overactive bladder, urethral obstruction or diverticulosis, chronic prostatitis, bladder cancer, vulvodynia, endometriosis, and chronic pelvic pain. Etiopathogenesis of the disease is uncertain, which makes etiologic treatment impossible. Currently scientific discussions on the causes of disease continue as well as different treatment regimens are offered, but are often ineffective, palliative and temporary. The treatment for intersticial cystitis should focus on restoring normal bladder function, prevention of relapse of symptoms and improvement of patients’ quality of life. The literature review presents current view on the terminology, epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of interstitial cystitis.

  16. Current management of overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Rufus; Renganathan, Arasee; Cardozo, Linda

    2008-10-01

    The concept of overactive bladder has helped us address the problem of urgency and urge incontinence from a symptomatic perspective. In this review, we provide a critical summary of clinically relevant recent publications, focusing in particular on advances in our understanding of assessment methods and therapeutic interventions for overactive bladder in women. According to current definitions, the prevalence of overactive bladder in western nations is now estimated as 13.0%. Although the prevalence increases with age, the symptoms of overactive bladder may follow a relapsing and remitting course. There has been a proliferation of validated symptom and quality of life measures and increasing sophistication in the analysis of bladder diaries. The role of urodynamics in the evaluation of urgency remains uncertain, with many trials showing limited benefit as a preoperative investigation. Fluid restriction and bladder retraining remain important first-line interventions. Many new anticholinergic medications have been licensed, with limited benefits compared with existing preparations. Intravesical botulinum toxin has become a popular alternative for patients who fail oral therapies. Although there have been few important therapeutic innovations, recent publications have led to greater sophistication in assessment methods and a clearer understanding of the role of existing interventions.

  17. Bladder Dysfunction and Vesicoureteral Reflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Sillén

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this overview the influence of functional bladder disturbances and of its treatment on the resolution of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR in children is discussed. Historically both bladder dysfunction entities, the overactive bladder (OAB and the dysfunctional voiding (DV, have been described in conjunction with VUR. Treatment of the dysfunction was also considered to influence spontaneous resolution in a positive way. During the last decades, however, papers have been published which could not support these results. Regarding the OAB, a prospective study with treatment of the bladder overactivity with anticholinergics, did not influence spontaneous resolution rate in children with a dysfunction including also the voiding phase, DV and DES (dysfunctional elimination syndrome, most studies indicate a negative influence on the resolution rate of VUR in children, both before and after the age for bladder control, both with and without treatment. However, a couple of uncontrolled studies indicate that there is a high short-term resolution rate after treatment with flow biofeedback. It should be emphasized that the voiding phase dysfunctions (DV and DES are more severe than the genuine filling phase dysfunction (OAB, with an increased frequency of UTI and renal damage in the former groups. To be able to answer the question if treatment of bladder dysfunction influence the resolution rate of VUR in children, randomized controlled studies must be performed.

  18. Relationship of PCNA, C-erbB2 and CD44s expression with tumor grade and stage in urothelial carcinomas of the bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Ayhan; Kösem, Mustafa; Sayar, İlyas; Gelincik, İbrahim; Yavuz, Alparslan; Bozkurt, Aliseydi; Erkorkmaz, Ünal; Bayram, İrfan

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the intention was to reveal the relationship of histological grade and stage with c-erbB2, CD44s, and PCNA immunoreactivity in bladder urothelial carcinomas (UC). In our study, we evaluated 46 items of transurethral resection material of patients submitted by YYU Faculty of Medicine, Main Department of Pathology, with a mass revealed in their bladder after clinical and radiological studies at our laboratories and who were diagnosed with urothelial carcinomas. PCNA, c-erbB2, and CD44s were applied in an immunohistochemical manner comprised from nine low-malignant potential papillary urothelial neoplasia, 23 low-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma, and 14 high-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma. Immunostaining was scored according to the percentage of positive cells. The immunohistochemical study demonstrated that the c-erbB2 and PCNA staining ratio increased when an increase occurred in stage and grade. The CD44s staining ratio decreased. C-erbB2, PCNA, and CD44s appear to be a useful marker in the assessment of the prognosis and treatment options in urothelial carcinomas. PMID:25035774

  19. Gynaecomastia: an unusual presenting symptom of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mashrafi; Kanji, Aleem; Begum, Tahmina

    2015-06-25

    A 74-year-old man presented to the outpatient clinic with painful gynaecomastia. A detailed physical examination to sort out possible causes of the gynaecomastia, including intracranial tumour, liver cirrhosis, hyperthyroidism, and adrenal and testicular tumour, was negative. No offending agent was found in his medication list. A CT scan of the head and ultrasound of the scrotum did not show any mass lesion. His serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) and oestradiol levels were elevated. A CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis revealed bladder wall thickening with soft tissue mass. A cystoscopic biopsy confirmed transitional cell carcinoma with muscle invasion. The patient was started on chemotherapy but responded poorly. This case report describes the β-hCG and oestradiol-secreting transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder presenting as gynaecomastia in an older man. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  20. Thyroidectomy and Lymph Node Dissection in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Ito

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Papillary carcinoma is a prominent malignancy originating from follicular cells. This disease generally shows an indolent character, but patients demonstrating certain clinicopathological features have a dire prognosis. At present, Western countries adopted almost routine total thyroidectomy with radioactive iodine (RAI ablation, while limited thyroidectomy with extensive prophylactic lymph node dissection has traditionally been performed for most patients in Japan. Recently, accurate evaluation of carcinoma stage can be performed on preoperative imaging studies, especially on ultrasonography. It is therefore important to treat papillary carcinoma patients depending on clinicopathological features rather than in a stereotyped fashion. In this paper, appropriate extension of thyroidectomy and lymph node dissection is discussed based on Western and recently published Japanese guidelines and the experience in Kuma Hospital.

  1. Canine ovarian serous papillary adenocarcinoma with neoplastic hypercalcemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Yasutomo; Uechi, Masami; Kanakubo, Kayo; Sano, Tadashi; Oyamada, Toshifumi

    2006-09-01

    A female golden retriever was referred to assess a history of a palpable abdominal mass. A serum chemistry analysis revealed elevated concentrations of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, calcium, and parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTH-rP). Exploratory laparotomy revealed an ovoid mass within the right ovary. This mass was removed surgically by performing an ovariohysterectomy. The right ovarian mass was diagnosed as a serous papillary adenocarcinoma. Following surgery, the dog recovered, and the serum calcium and PTH-rP concentrations decreased. Therefore, concentrations of PTH-rP and calcium might be associated with serous papillary adenocarcinomas. Serial evaluation of the serum PTH-rP and calcium was useful for evaluating the prognosis.

  2. Metastatic papillary craniopharyngioma: case study and study of tumor angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmaci, Lhan; Kurtkaya-Yapicier, Ozlem; Ekinci, Gazanfer; Sav, Aydin; Pamir, M. Necmettin; Vidal, Sergio; Kovacs, Kalman; Scheithauer, Bernd W.

    2002-01-01

    We report a case of suprasellar papillary craniopharyngioma metastatic to the temporoparietal region 2 years after its initial resection. The literature documents examples of craniopharyngioma recurrences along the surgical tract, as well as remote ipsi- and contralateral metastases via cerebrospinal fluid seeding. Ours is the second report of a craniopharyngioma of papillary type to exhibit metastatic behavior. The tumor spread opposite the side of craniotomy. Although a rare occurrence, it confirms the limited capacity of histologically benign craniopharyngiomas to undergo meningeal seeding, likely the result of surgical manipulation. Immunohistochemical demonstration of increased microvascular density and vascular endothelial growth factor expression, as well as a high vascular endothelial growth receptor (VEGFR2) signal by in situ hybridization, suggests that tumor vascularity facilitated angiogenesis and may have been involved in the establishment and growth of the metastatic deposit. PMID:11916504

  3. High Prevalence of Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma in Danish Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Maria; Nygaard, Birte; Bennedbæk, Finn Noe

    2012-01-01

    with a cold thyroid nodule undergoing US-guided FNA were prospectively registered. 408 patients underwent thyroid surgery, resulting in 50 cancers and in addition 37 patients had an incidental finding of papillary thyroid microcarcinomas. Based on the diagnostic FNA, we found sensitivity and specificity...... for malignancy. Cancer incidence was 13% among females and 9% among males. The accuracy of a diagnostic set-up based on clinical examination, scintigraphy, US, and US-guided FNA was determined with a 48% rate of histopathological validation in the cohort. The overall thyroid cancer incidence has increased...... worldwide, but our results suggest that the most frequent occurring cancer is an incidental papillary thyroid microcarcinoma of which the clinical significance has yet to be established....

  4. Thyroidectomy and lymph node dissection in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yasuhiro; Miyauchi, Akira

    2010-11-10

    Papillary carcinoma is a prominent malignancy originating from follicular cells. This disease generally shows an indolent character, but patients demonstrating certain clinicopathological features have a dire prognosis. At present, Western countries adopted almost routine total thyroidectomy with radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation, while limited thyroidectomy with extensive prophylactic lymph node dissection has traditionally been performed for most patients in Japan. Recently, accurate evaluation of carcinoma stage can be performed on preoperative imaging studies, especially on ultrasonography. It is therefore important to treat papillary carcinoma patients depending on clinicopathological features rather than in a stereotyped fashion. In this paper, appropriate extension of thyroidectomy and lymph node dissection is discussed based on Western and recently published Japanese guidelines and the experience in Kuma Hospital.

  5. Uterine Serous Papillary Carcinoma: A Retrospective Analysis of 22 Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Demir Özbasar; Serap Bozok; Taner Turan; İltac Küçükelçi; Gökhan Tulunay; Şadıman Altınbaş; Nurettin Boran; Ömer Faruk Demir; Mehmet Faruk Köse

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The cases of 22 patients with uterine serous papillary carcinoma (USPC) were reviewed for this study. STUDY DESIGN: The data of 22 patients diagnosed with USPC was examined. 18 patients underwent formal staging surgery including type I hysterectomy, bilateral salphingo-oophorectomy, para-aortic and bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy, appendectomy and omentectomy in our clinic. Four patients were sent to our clinic from other hospitals after primary surgery. Staging of the disease ...

  6. Choroid metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Color doppler ultrasound study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganado, T.; Torre, S. de la; Contreras, E.; Hernandez, J.

    1997-01-01

    The most common causes of intraocular metastases are breast and lung cancers, although many other neoplasms can metastasize to the eye. Most of the metastases are located in the posterior pole and the choroid is more often involved than the retina. We present a case of a choroidal metastasis from a papillary carcinoma of the thyroid, associated with a massive subretinal hemorrhage. Findings with color Doppler ultrasound are emphasized. (Author) 9 refs

  7. Hypofractionated radiotherapy for invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholten, Astrid N.; Leer, Jan-Willem H.; Collins, C. David; Wondergem, Jan; Hermans, Jo; Timothy, Adrian

    1997-01-01

    Background and purpose: The policy of the Radiotherapy Department of St. Thomas' Hospital in London for patients with invasive bladder cancer, used to be treatment with hypofractionated radiotherapy. The advantages of this fractionation scheme included reduction of the number of treatment sessions and better use of limited resources. Our results after hypofractionation were compared to series with more conventional radiotherapy. Material and methods: Between 1975 and 1985, 123 patients with a T2-T3 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder were treated by a radical course of hypofractionated radiotherapy. Local control, survival and morbidity rates were analysed retrospectively. Results: The actuarial local control rates at 5 and 10 years were 31 and 29%, respectively. The actuarial cancer-specific 5- and 10-year survival rates were 48 and 39%, respectively. Acute side effects were observed in 87% of patients. The actuarial overall and severe late complication rates at 5 years were 33 and 9%, respectively. The local control, survival and early side effect rates we found, were in the same range as those reported in literature. Late radiation side effects however, were more common after hypofractionated radiotherapy compared to conventional radiotherapy schedules. Conclusions: We conclude that the potential advantage of a reduced number of treatment sessions may be lost in the long term, because of the higher incidence of late morbidity after hypofractionated radiotherapy. Hypofractionation however, remains a valuable technique for palliation and deserves further investigation for radical treatment where access to equipment is difficult or resources are limited

  8. Bladder preservation using chemoradiation therapy for locally invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Toyofumi; Yoshioka, Toshiaki; Sato, Mototaka; Mori, Naoki; Sekii, Ken-Ichiro; Itatani, Hiroaki

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the long-term results and molecular markers of outcome with selective organ preservation in invasive bladder cancer using chemoradiation therapy. We examined locally invasive bladder cancer in 32 patients (30 men, 2 women; mean age at treatment 68.1 years) who underwent bladder-sparing protocols in the Department of Urology at Sumitomo Hospital between 2000 and 2005. The clinical stage was T2, T3, and T4 in 13, 16, and 3 patients, respectively. Our protocol includes aggressive transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) and 46 Gy radiotherapy (2 Gy/fraction, 5 fractions/week) to the pelvis with concurrent cisplatin chemotherapy (20 mg/body/day, 5 days/week, the first and fourth week, intravenously). The initial evaluation included magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), urine cytology, and cystoscopy with a biopsy. During follow-up, if the patients developed superficial recurrence, they was treated with TURBT and intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), while patients with invasive recurrence were advised to undergo a salvage cystectomy. We examined the association between the expression of the Bcl-2 family in pretreatment TUR specimens and patient outcome. The mean follow-up was 54.6 months. The first assessment after the induction chemoradiotherapy showed that bladder preservation was achieved in 27 patients (84.4%). The actuarial local control rate with an intact bladder was 56.3% (18 patients) at 3 years. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year cancer-specific survival rate was 90.6, 84.0, and 66.9%, respectively. The 5-year cancer-specific survival rate was 75.0, 67.2, and 33.3% in T2, T3, and T4, respectively. Bcl-x positivity was significantly associated with a poor cancer-specific survival rate (log-rank test, p=0.038). Chemoradiation therapy for invasive bladder cancer can achieve survival rates similar to those in patients treated with radical cystectomy, with successful bladder preservation. Our results suggest that the expression of Bcl-x is a

  9. Management of the Patient with Aggressive and Resistant Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Miftari, Rame; Top?iu, Valdete; Nura, Adem; Haxhibeqiri, Valdete

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Papillary carcinoma is the most frequent type of thyroid cancer and was considered the most benign of all thyroid carcinomas, with a low risk of distant metastases. However, there are some variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma that have affinity to spread in many organs, such as: lymph nodes, lungs and bones. Aim: The aim of this study was presentation of a case with papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland, very persistent and resistant in treatment with I 131. Material and result...

  10. Preventive but Not Curative Efficacy of Celecoxib on Bladder Carcinogenesis in a Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Sereno

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of a cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor, celecoxib (CEL, on bladder cancer inhibition in a rat model, when used as preventive versus as curative treatment. The study comprised 52 male Wistar rats, divided in 5 groups, during a 20-week protocol: control: vehicle, carcinogen: 0.05% of N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl nitrosamine (BBN, CEL: 10 mg/kg/day of the selective COX-2 inhibitor Celebrex, preventive CEL (CEL+BBN-P, and curative CEL (BBN+CEL-C groups. Although tumor growth was markedly inhibited by the preventive application of CEL, it was even aggravated by the curative treatment. The incidence of gross bladder carcinoma was: control 0/8(0%, BBN 13/20(65%, CEL 0/8(0%, CEL+BBN-P 1/8(12.5%, and BBN+CEL-C 6/8(75%. The number and volume of carcinomas were significantly lower in the CEL+BBN-P versus BBN, accompanied by an ample reduction in hyperplasia, dysplasia, and papillary tumors as well as COX-2 immunostaining. In spite of the reduction of tumor volumes in the curative BBN+CEL-C group, tumor malignancy was augmented. An anti-inflammatory and antioxidant profile was encountered only in the group under preventive treatment. In conclusion, preventive, but not curative, celecoxib treatment promoted a striking inhibitory effect on bladder cancer development, reinforcing the potential role of chemopreventive strategies based on cyclooxygenase 2 inhibition.

  11. Cystic lesion of pancreas - Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Baijal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN of the pancreas is an intraductal mucin-producing epithelial neoplasm that arises from the main and/or branched pancreatic duct. It usually presents as cystic lesion of pancreas. There are well known differential diagnosis of cystic pancreatic lesion. Pancreatic cystic neoplasms are detected at an increasing frequency due to an increased use of abdominal imaging. The diagnosis and treatment of intraductal papillary mucinous tumors (IPMN of the pancreas has evolved over the past decade. IPMN represents a spectrum of disease, ranging from benign to malignant lesions, making the early detection and characterization of these lesions important. Definitive management is surgical resection for appropriate candidates, as benign lesions harbor malignant potential. IPMN has a prognosis, which is different from adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. We report a case of a 58-year-old male with intraductal papillary neoplasm involving main duct and side branches presenting to us with clinical symptoms of chronic pancreatitis with obstructive jaundice and cholangitis treated surgically.

  12. Thyroid Metastasis from Breast Carcinoma Accompanied by Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-I Yang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis to the thyroid gland is very rare. Recently, we experienced a case of thyroid metastasis from breast cancer accompanying a papillary thyroid. A 51-year-old female patient presented with a palpated lymph node on her left lateral neck. The patient had undergone a left modified radical mastectomy followed by chemotherapy and hormonal therapy 12 years prior. Ultrasonography of the neck revealed a malignant looking nodule at the left thyroid lobe, measuring 0.9 × 0.9 cm, and several cystic nodules at the right thyroid lobe. Ultrasonography of the neck additionally revealed a malignant looking lymph node at the right level VI. Fine-needle aspiration of the left thyroid lobe resulted in a diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma and that of the right level VI in Hurthle cell lesion. The patient had a total thyroidectomy with selective dissection of the left neck node. Pathologic assessment of the specimen revealed metastatic carcinoma from the breast carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma. Although the thyroid gland is highly vascularized, metastasis of malignant tumors to the thyroid is relatively rare and detection of metastasis shows a low frequency. So a careful evaluation of thyroid tumor should be considered in a patient with a history of other malignancy.

  13. Hypofractionated Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy in Combined Modality Treatment for Bladder Preservation in Elderly Patients With Invasive Bladder Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turgeon, Guy-Anne [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Souhami, Luis, E-mail: luis.souhami@muhc.mcgill.ca [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Cury, Fabio L.; Faria, Sergio L.; Duclos, Marie [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Sturgeon, Jeremy [Department of Medical Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Kassouf, Wassim [Department of Urology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2014-02-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): To review our experience with bladder-preserving trimodality treatment (TMT) using hypofractionated intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for the treatment of elderly patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Methods and Materials: Retrospective study of elderly patients treated with TMT using hypofractionated IMRT (50 Gy in 20 fractions) with concomitant weekly radiosensitizing chemotherapy. Eligibility criteria were as follows: age ≥70 years, a proven diagnosis of muscle-invasive transitional cell bladder carcinoma, stage T2-T3N0M0 disease, and receipt of TMT with curative intent. Response rate was assessed by cystoscopic evaluation and bladder biopsy. Results: 24 patients with a median age of 79 years were eligible. A complete response was confirmed in 83% of the patients. Of the remaining patients, 1 of them underwent salvage cystectomy, and no disease was found in the bladder on histopathologic assessment. After a median follow-up time of 28 months, of the patients with a complete response, 2 patients had muscle-invasive recurrence, 1 experienced locoregional failure, and 3 experienced distant metastasis. The overall and cancer-specific survival rates at 3 years were 61% and 71%, respectively. Of the surviving patients, 75% have a disease-free and functioning bladder. All patients completed hypofractionated IMRT, and 19 patients tolerated all 4 cycles of chemotherapy. Acute grade 3 gastrointestinal or genitourinary toxicities occurred in only 4% of the patients, and acute grade 3 or 4 hematologic toxicities, liver toxicities, or both were experienced by 17% of the cohort. No patient experienced grade 4 gastrointestinal or genitourinary toxicity. Conclusions: Hypofractionated IMRT with concurrent radiosensitizing chemotherapy appears to be an effective and well-tolerated curative treatment strategy in the elderly population and should be considered for patients who are not candidates for cystectomy or who wish to avoid

  14. Accessory papillary muscles and papillary muscle hypertrophy are associated with sudden cardiac arrest of unknown cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhm, Jae-Sun; Youn, Jong-Chan; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Park, Junbeom; Park, Jin-Kyu; Shim, Chi Young; Hong, Geu-Ru; Joung, Boyoung; Pak, Hui-Nam; Lee, Moon-Hyoung

    2015-10-15

    The present study was performed for elucidating the associations between the morphology of the papillary muscles (PMs) and sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). We retrospectively reviewed history, laboratory data, electrocardiography, echocardiography, coronary angiography, and cardiac CT/MRI for 190 patients with SCA. The prevalence of accessory PMs and PM hypertrophy in patients with SCA of unknown cause was compared with that in patients with SCA of known causes and 98 age- and sex-matched patients without SCA. An accessory PM was defined as a PM with origins separated from the anterolateral and posteromedial PMs, or a PM that branched into two or three bellies at the base of the anterolateral or posteromedial PM. PM hypertrophy was defined as at least one of the two PMs having a diameter of ≥1.1cm. In 49 patients (age 49.9±15.9years; 38 men) the cause of SCA was unknown, whereas 141 (age 54.2±16.6years; 121 men) had a known cause. The prevalence of accessory PMs was significantly higher in the unknown-cause group than in the known-cause group (24.5% and 7.8%, respectively; p=0.002) or the no-SCA group (7.1%, p=0.003). The same was true for PM hypertrophy (unknown-cause 12.2%, known-cause 2.1%, p=0.010; no SCA group 1.0%, p=0.006). By logistic regression, accessory PM and PM hypertrophy were independently associated with sudden cardiac arrest of unknown cause. An accessory PM and PM hypertrophy are associated with SCA of unknown cause. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Implication of androgen receptor in urinary bladder cancer: a critical mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Arshad H; Alzohairy, Mohammad; Babiker, Ali Yousif Y; Khan, Amjad A; Aly, Salah M; Rizvi, Moshahid A

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is probably the most dreaded disease of mankind and the bladder cancer is the fifth most common type of cancer worldwide. It is a major cause of cancer morbidity and mortality. From amongst the bladder cancer, the Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC) is the most prevalent cancer of the bladder and accounts for 90% of all bladder cancer cases. Despite such a high prevalence, the molecular mechanism involved in the induction of bladder carcinoma and its progression are poorly understood. Tumorigenesis and tumor progression of bladder carcinomas are thought to result from the accumulation of multiple genetic alterations. The Androgen Receptor (AR) gene is located on the q arm of X chromosome (q11-12) and considered as a ligand-inducible transcription factor that regulates target gene expression. The Androgen plays a vital role in the development and maintenance of the normal urinary bladder. The AR is also involved in the development and progression of urinary bladder carcinoma, which is the most common type of carcinoma. Mutation in AR alters the ligand binding ability that may cause the progression and development of bladder cancer. Tumorigenesis and tumor progression are thought to result from changes in the function of hormonal receptor gene. The accumulation of the changes in AR expressions, determines the tumor's phenotype and ultimately the patient's clinical outcome. The early detection of which may help in management and prediction, how will it behave and respond to the therapeutic regimen. The present review aimed to study the mechanism and alteration of AR gene that play a vital role in the tumorIgenesis of bladder carcinoma.

  16. Papillary neoplasia of the breast: immunohistochemically defined myoepithelial cells in the diagnosis of benign and malignant papillary breast neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, U B; Lee, M W; Zarbo, R J; Crissman, J D

    1989-11-01

    The presence or absence of myoepithelial cells (ME) has been considered as an important feature in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant papillary lesions of the breast. We evaluated the distribution of myoepithelial cells in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections of 25 papillomas and 18 papillary carcinomas by ABC immunoperoxidase technique with antibodies to muscle actin (HHF-35) and high molecular weight (HMW) keratin (clone 34BE12, cytokeratins 1, 5, 10, and 14; reacting preferentially with ME cells) and an antiserum to S-100 protein. Also included in the study were eight cases of micropapillary ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) having a few fibrovascular cores and five peripheral papillomas with accompanying ductal carcinoma in situ or atypical hyperplasia. The antibodies to muscle actin were sensitive and relatively specific for ME cells of the breast and uniformly labeled ME cells in all 25 papillomas. ME cells were absent or extremely sparse in papillary carcinomas. They were present focally in some of the fibrovascular cores of the micropapillary DCIS, and a mixed pattern was observed in peripheral papillomas with areas of carcinoma. HMW keratin was variably expressed in ME cells in most cases with positive internal controls and was present in several normal ductal and papilloma epithelial cells but not in epithelial cells of papillary carcinomas. HMW keratin, although less specific for ME cells, was a useful adjunct because of its reactivity with ME cells as well as hyperplastic epithelial cells in papillomas, which resulted in a combined positive reaction.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Medical management of overactive bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvpreet S Ubee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Overactive bladder (OAB, as defined by the International Continence Society, is characterized by a symptom complex including urinary urgency with or without urge incontinence, usually associated with frequency and nocturia. OAB syndrome has an incidence reported from six European countries ranging between 12-17%, while in the United States; a study conducted by the National Overactive Bladder Evaluation program found the incidence at 17%. In Asia, the prevalence of OAB is reported at 53.1%. In about 75%, OAB symptoms are due to idiopathic detrusor activity; neurological disease, bladder outflow obstruction (BOO intrinsic bladder pathology and other chronic pelvic floor disorders are implicated in the others. OAB can be diagnosed easily and managed effectively with both non-pharmacological and pharmacological therapies. The first-line treatments are lifestyle interventions, bladder training, pelvic floor muscle exercises and anticholinergic drugs. Antimuscarinics are the drug class of choice for OAB symptoms; with proven efficacy, and adverse event profiles that differ somewhat.

  18. Automatic bladder segmentation on CBCT for multiple plan ART of bladder cancer using a patient-specific bladder model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chai, Xiangfei; van Herk, Marcel; Betgen, Anja; Hulshof, Maarten; Bel, Arjan

    2012-01-01

    In multiple plan adaptive radiotherapy (ART) strategies of bladder cancer, a library of plans corresponding to different bladder volumes is created based on images acquired in early treatment sessions. Subsequently, the plan for the smallest PTV safely covering the bladder on cone-beam CT (CBCT) is

  19. Fundamentals of bladder tissue engineering | Mahfouz | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fundamentals of bladder tissue engineering. ... could affect the bladder and lead to eventual loss of its integrity, with the need for replacement or repair. ... Tissue engineering relies upon three essential pillars; the scaffold, the cells seeded on ...

  20. Aging changes in the kidneys and bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affect kidney function. COMMON PROBLEMS Aging increases the risk of kidney and bladder problems such as: Bladder control issues, such as leakage or urinary incontinence (not being able to hold your urine), or ...

  1. An orthotopic model of murine bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobek, Georgina L; Godbey, W T

    2011-02-06

    In this straightforward procedure, bladder tumors are established in female C57 mice through the use of catheterization, local cauterization, and subsequent cell adhesion. After their bladders are transurethrally catheterized and drained, animals are again catheterized to permit insertion of a platinum wire into bladders without damaging the urethra or bladder. The catheters are made of Teflon to serve as an insulator for the wire, which will conduct electrical current into the bladder to create a burn injury. An electrocautery unit is used to deliver 2.5W to the exposed end of the wire, burning away extracellular layers and providing attachment sites for carcinoma cells that are delivered in suspension to the bladder through a subsequent catheterization. Cells remain in the bladder for 90 minutes, after which the catheters are removed and the bladders allowed to drain naturally. The development of tumor is monitored via ultrasound. Specific attention is paid to the catheterization technique in the accompanying video.

  2. Vinflunine in the treatment of bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bachner

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Mark Bachner, Maria De Santis3rd Medical Department – Center for Oncology and Hematology, Kaiser Franz Josef-Spital der Stadt Wien, and Ludwig Boltzmann-Institute for Applied Cancer Research Vienna (LBI-ACR VIEnna, Cluster Translational Oncology, Kaiser Franz Josef-Spital der Stadt Wien, and Applied Cancer Research – Institution for Translational Research Vienna (ACR-ITR VIEnna/CEADDP, Vienna, AustriaAbstract: Vinflunine (VFL is a third-generation bifluorinated semi-synthetic vinca alkaloid obtained by superacidic chemistry from its parent compound, vinorelbine. As with the other vinca alkaloids, the main antineoplastic effects of VFL arise from its interaction with tubulin, the major component of microtubules in mitotic spindles. In contrast to other vinca alkaloids, VFL shows some distinctive properties in terms of tubulin binding, possibly explaining its superior antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo compared with vinorelbine as well as its excellent safety profile. In transitional cell carcinoma (TCC, two single-agent phase II trials were performed testing VFL in platinum-pretreated patients, showing moderate response rates and promising disease control rates. Therefore, the first phase III trial in modern times for second-line TCC of the urothelium was designed in order to further investigate the activity of VFL. First results were presented at the 2008 ASCO conference. VFL appears to be a possible treatment option for patients with TCC progressing after first-line platinum-containing chemotherapy.Keywords: vinflunine, transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the bladder, bladder cancer, chemotherapy, second-line chemotherapy

  3. Clinical results of a concomitant boost radiotherapy technique for muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piet, A H.M.; Hulshof, M C.C.M.; Pieters, B R; Koning, C C.E. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pos, F J [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Inst., Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Reijke, T.M. de [Dept. of Urology, Academic Medical Center, Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-06-15

    Purpose: to update the results of external radiotherapy with a focal concomitant boost technique on local control and bladder function in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Patients and methods: the authors retrospectively evaluated 92 elderly or disabled patients with localized T2-4 N0-1 M0 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder and a median age of 79 years, not suitable for radical surgery and treated between 1994 and 2005. Treatment consisted of a dose of 40 Gy/2 Gy to the small pelvis with a daily concomitant boost of 0.75 Gy to the tumor. Total dose was 55 Gy in 4 weeks. Results: complete remission rate after evaluation by means of cystoscopy at 3 months was 78%. 3-year local control rate amounted to 56%, and 3-year overall survival to 36%. The posttreatment bladder capacity was comparable with the pretreatment capacity and was {>=} 200 ml in 81% of the cases. Mean bladder capacity did not deteriorate at longer follow-up. Conclusion: the local control rate after external beam radiotherapy in elderly patients with a focal concomitant boost for localized muscle-invasive bladder cancer was 56% at 3 years. Functional bladder outcome was good. (orig.)

  4. Clinical results of a concomitant boost radiotherapy technique for muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, A.H.M.; Hulshof, M.C.C.M.; Pieters, B.R.; Koning, C.C.E.; Pos, F.J.; Reijke, T.M. de

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: to update the results of external radiotherapy with a focal concomitant boost technique on local control and bladder function in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Patients and methods: the authors retrospectively evaluated 92 elderly or disabled patients with localized T2-4 N0-1 M0 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder and a median age of 79 years, not suitable for radical surgery and treated between 1994 and 2005. Treatment consisted of a dose of 40 Gy/2 Gy to the small pelvis with a daily concomitant boost of 0.75 Gy to the tumor. Total dose was 55 Gy in 4 weeks. Results: complete remission rate after evaluation by means of cystoscopy at 3 months was 78%. 3-year local control rate amounted to 56%, and 3-year overall survival to 36%. The posttreatment bladder capacity was comparable with the pretreatment capacity and was ≥ 200 ml in 81% of the cases. Mean bladder capacity did not deteriorate at longer follow-up. Conclusion: the local control rate after external beam radiotherapy in elderly patients with a focal concomitant boost for localized muscle-invasive bladder cancer was 56% at 3 years. Functional bladder outcome was good. (orig.)

  5. Inhibition of macrophage migration inhibitory factor decreases proliferation and cytokine expression in bladder cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leifheit Erica C

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of various inflammatory cytokines in maintaining tumor cell growth and viability is well established. Increased expression of the proinflammatory cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF has previously been associated with various types of adenocarcinoma. Methods MIF IHC was used to localize MIF in human bladder tissue. ELISA and Western blot analysis determined the synthesis and secretion of MIF by human bladder transitional cell carcinoma cells. The effects of MIF inhibitors (high molecular weight hyaluronate (HA, anti-MIF antibody or MIF anti-sense on cell growth and cytokine expression were analyzed. Results Human bladder cancer cells (HT-1376 secrete detectable amounts of MIF protein. Treatment with HA, anti-MIF antibody and MIF anti-sense reduced HT-1376 cell proliferation, MIF protein secretion, MIF gene expression and secreted inflammatory cytokines. Our evidence suggests MIF interacts with the invariant chain, CD74 and the major cell surface receptor for HA, CD44. Conclusions This study is the first to report MIF expression in the human bladder and these findings support a role for MIF in tumor cell proliferation. Since MIF participates in the inflammatory response and bladder cancer is associated with chronic inflammatory conditions, these new findings suggest that neutralizing bladder tumor MIF may serve as a novel therapeutic treatment for bladder carcinoma.

  6. Inhibition of macrophage migration inhibitory factor decreases proliferation and cytokine expression in bladder cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer-Siegler, Katherine L; Leifheit, Erica C; Vera, Pedro L

    2004-01-01

    The importance of various inflammatory cytokines in maintaining tumor cell growth and viability is well established. Increased expression of the proinflammatory cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has previously been associated with various types of adenocarcinoma. MIF IHC was used to localize MIF in human bladder tissue. ELISA and Western blot analysis determined the synthesis and secretion of MIF by human bladder transitional cell carcinoma cells. The effects of MIF inhibitors (high molecular weight hyaluronate (HA), anti-MIF antibody or MIF anti-sense) on cell growth and cytokine expression were analyzed. Human bladder cancer cells (HT-1376) secrete detectable amounts of MIF protein. Treatment with HA, anti-MIF antibody and MIF anti-sense reduced HT-1376 cell proliferation, MIF protein secretion, MIF gene expression and secreted inflammatory cytokines. Our evidence suggests MIF interacts with the invariant chain, CD74 and the major cell surface receptor for HA, CD44. This study is the first to report MIF expression in the human bladder and these findings support a role for MIF in tumor cell proliferation. Since MIF participates in the inflammatory response and bladder cancer is associated with chronic inflammatory conditions, these new findings suggest that neutralizing bladder tumor MIF may serve as a novel therapeutic treatment for bladder carcinoma

  7. Feasibility and effectiveness of image-guided percutaneous biopsy of the urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butros, Selim Reha; McCarthy, Colin James; Karaosmanoğlu, Ali Devrim; Shenoy-Bhangle, Anuradha S; Arellano, Ronald S

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the indications, technique, results, and complications of image-guided percutaneous biopsy of the urinary bladder. This retrospective study included 15 patients (10 male, 5 female) who underwent image-guided percutaneous biopsy of the urinary bladder between January 1999 and December 2013. The medical records, imaging studies, procedural details, and long-term follow-up of each patient were reviewed in detail to assess the feasibility of percutaneous bladder biopsy. Ten patients had focal bladder masses and 5 patients had asymmetric or diffuse bladder wall thickening. Eleven patients had either negative or unsatisfactory cystoscopies prior to the biopsy. Percutaneous biopsies were performed under computed tomography guidance in 12 patients and ultrasound in 3 patients. All procedures were technically successful and there were no procedural complications. Malignancy was confirmed in 8 patients, among whom 6 had transitional cell carcinoma, 1 cervical cancer, and 1 prostate cancer metastasis. Seven patients had a benign diagnosis, including 3 that were later confirmed by pathology following surgery and 2 patients with a false-negative result. The overall sensitivity was 80% and accuracy was 87%. Image-guided percutaneous biopsy of the urinary bladder is a safe and technically feasible procedure with a high sensitivity and accuracy rate. Although image-guided bladder biopsy is an uncommon procedure, it should be considered in selected cases when more traditional methods of tissue sampling are either not possible or fail to identify abnormalities detected by cross-sectional imaging.

  8. [Occupational hazards and bladder cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamova, R S

    1991-01-01

    Occupational exposure to health hazards was studied in 258 industrial workers who had developed cancer of the bladder against 454 matched controls. All the test subjects and controls were residents of the Tambov Province centers of chemical industry. Statistical significance (relative risk-4.7) was established for exposure to aromatic amines. For those contacting with aniline dyes the relative risk (RR) made up 2.4. The risk to develop bladder cancer in powder shops (RR-3.2) was attributed to the hazards of dyes and diphenylamine. In leather-shoe and textile industry the exposure to dyes was not safe (RR-6.1), neither was it to chemicals, oil products, pesticides, overheating (RR-3.2, 1.6, 3.2 and 2.9, respectively). It is stated that in line with a significant risk to develop bladder cancer at exposure to aromatic amines there exist a number of occupational factors contributing to this risk.

  9. Tumour cell expansion in bladder epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.J. Rebel (Annemarie)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractBladder cancer is common in western society. The major problem of patients with superficial bladder cancer is the high recurrence rate and multifocality of these tumours. In 70 % of the patients superficial bladder cancer recurs after local resection of the tumour within 15 years. The

  10. Bladder Dysfunction and Urinary Incontinence

    OpenAIRE

    F. faizi

    2009-01-01

      "nIn the name of God. Dear colleagues, ladies and gentlemen, it is a great honor to be here. Bladder dysfunction is serious enough to seek serious help. If you may know I am working in a private clinic which it is impossible to follow the patients so this lecture is based on unusual and rare cases who came to me. Bladder dysfunction (BD) is common among 30% of young and old people who are suffering from it, however it is more common in old ages. According to a research, women ...

  11. Designing the selenium and bladder cancer trial (SELEBLAT, a phase lll randomized chemoprevention study with selenium on recurrence of bladder cancer in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goossens Maria E

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Belgium, bladder cancer is the fifth most common cancer in males (5.2% and the sixth most frequent cause of death from cancer in males (3.8%. Previous epidemiological studies have consistently reported that selenium concentrations were inversely associated with the risk of bladder cancer. This suggests that selenium may also be suitable for chemoprevention of recurrence. Method The SELEBLAT study opened in September 2009 and is still recruiting all patients with non-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder on TURB operation in 15 Belgian hospitals. Recruitment progress can be monitored live at http://www.seleblat.org. Patients are randomly assigned to selenium yeast (200 μg/day supplementation for 3 years or matching placebo, in addition to standard care. The objective is to determine the effect of selenium on the recurrence of bladder cancer. Randomization is stratified by treatment centre. A computerized algorithm randomly assigns the patients to a treatment arm. All study personnel and participants are blinded to treatment assignment for the duration of the study. Design The SELEnium and BLAdder cancer Trial (SELEBLAT is a phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, academic, double-blind superior trial. Discussion This is the first report on a selenium randomized trial in bladder cancer patients. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00729287

  12. Diagnosis of urinary bladder carcinoma by MR: Improvement through Gd-DTPA?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparenberg, A.; Hamm, B.; Samberger, V.; Wolf, K.J.; Hammerer, P.

    1991-01-01

    85 patients suffering from urinary bladder carcinoma were examined by magnetic resonance imaging in a prospective study. Following precontrast diagnosis, 15 patients were given an intravesicular application of gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA). Another 35 patients received an intravenous bolus of Gd-DTPA. A diagnostic advantage was achieved in only 2 of 15 tumours by using intravesicular contrast application. Compared to the precontrast diagnosis, a 14% improvement from 69% (precontrast) to 83% (contrast medium) was seen with Gd-DTPA applied intravenously in the diagnosis of the tumour stage. The diagnostic gain lies in the improved tumour recognition, the improved demarcation of papillary, non-muscle-infiltrating tumours and in the more definite diagnosis of infiltration into neighbouring organs and the pelvic wall. Demarcation of perivesicular fatty infiltration is rendered more difficult by Gd-DTPA. (orig.) [de

  13. Selective bladder preservation by combined modality therapy for invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachnic, L. A.; Kaufman, D. S.; Zietman, A. L.; Dallow, K. C.; Griffin, P. P.; Heney, N. M.; Althausen, A. F.; Shipley, W. U.

    1995-01-01

    intravesical drug therapy. Only 4 of these required subsequent cystectomy for failure of conservative management with 13 to 97 months of follow-up. Multivariate analysis showed that the probability of local tumor control was independently predicted by increasing T-stage but not by tumor grade 1-2 vs. 3. The probability of local tumor control was highest in those who had a complete response following TURBT and MCV. No patient has required cystectomy for treatment related bladder morbidity. Conclusions: The use of TURBT with chemotherapy, radiation, and selection for organ-conservation by response should now be a standard treatment option for muscle-invading transitional cell cancer of the bladder. Overall survival is comparable to the published results of radical cystectomy-based series and the majority of the long-term survivors retain fully functional bladders

  14. Selective bladder preservation by combined modality therapy for invasive bladder cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachnic, L A; Kaufman, D S; Zietman, A L; Dallow, K C; Griffin, P P; Heney, N M; Althausen, A F; Shipley, W U

    1995-07-01

    intravesical drug therapy. Only 4 of these required subsequent cystectomy for failure of conservative management with 13 to 97 months of follow-up. Multivariate analysis showed that the probability of local tumor control was independently predicted by increasing T-stage but not by tumor grade 1-2 vs. 3. The probability of local tumor control was highest in those who had a complete response following TURBT and MCV. No patient has required cystectomy for treatment related bladder morbidity. Conclusions: The use of TURBT with chemotherapy, radiation, and selection for organ-conservation by response should now be a standard treatment option for muscle-invading transitional cell cancer of the bladder. Overall survival is comparable to the published results of radical cystectomy-based series and the majority of the long-term survivors retain fully functional bladders.

  15. Anterolateral papillary muscle rupture after intervention of the right coronary artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Liam; Desai, Anand; Akkus, Nuri Ilker

    2015-11-01

    Rupture of the anterolateral papillary muscle following a right coronary artery occlusion is extremely rare, and when complicated by a right ventricular infarction, can be fatal. The literature on optimal management of this complication is limited. We present an unusual case of anterolateral papillary muscle rupture following intervention of the right coronary artery. Published by Elsevier España.

  16. Ultrasonographic Findings of Papillary Thyroid Cancer with or without Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jun Young; Lee, Tae Hyun; Park, Dong Hee

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the ultrasonographic features of papillary thyroid carcinoma with and without Hashimoto's thyroiditis. This retrospective study included 190 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma which was proven by neck surgery. The difference in the ultrasonographic findings between papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma without Hashimoto's thyroiditis were calculated statistically. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was diagnosed in 61 of 190 patients following neck surgery. The incidence of coexisting papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis was significantly higher in women (p=0.0026). In addition, the frequency of macrocalcification in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis was also significantly higher (p=0.0009). Conversely,other ultrasonographic findings including the shape, margin, echogenicity and calcifications, for patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma without Hashimoto's thyroiditis, were not statistically significant. We also found that patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis who showed no calcification on ultrasonography tended not to detect the papillary carcinoma at a higher frequency. On ultrasonography, macrocalcifications occurred more frequently in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis than those without Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Malignant thyroid nodules without calcifications in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis more often could not be detected. Therefore, it is important carefully examine patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis

  17. Ultrasonographic Findings of Papillary Thyroid Cancer with or without Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jun Young; Lee, Tae Hyun; Park, Dong Hee [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    This study was designed to compare the ultrasonographic features of papillary thyroid carcinoma with and without Hashimoto's thyroiditis. This retrospective study included 190 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma which was proven by neck surgery. The difference in the ultrasonographic findings between papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma without Hashimoto's thyroiditis were calculated statistically. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was diagnosed in 61 of 190 patients following neck surgery. The incidence of coexisting papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis was significantly higher in women (p=0.0026). In addition, the frequency of macrocalcification in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis was also significantly higher (p=0.0009). Conversely,other ultrasonographic findings including the shape, margin, echogenicity and calcifications, for patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma without Hashimoto's thyroiditis, were not statistically significant. We also found that patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis who showed no calcification on ultrasonography tended not to detect the papillary carcinoma at a higher frequency. On ultrasonography, macrocalcifications occurred more frequently in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis than those without Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Malignant thyroid nodules without calcifications in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis more often could not be detected. Therefore, it is important carefully examine patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis

  18. Intracystic papillary carcinoma in a male as a rare presentation of breast cancer: a case report and literature review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Romics, Laszlo

    2009-01-01

    The term "intracystic papillary ductal carcinoma in situ" has recently changed and is now more appropriately referred to "intracystic papillary carcinoma". Intracystic papillary carcinoma in men is an extremely rare disease with only a few case presentations published in the literature so far.

  19. Hyperfunctioning papillary thyroid carcinoma: A case report with literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, Abdulwahid M; Kakamad, F H; Nihad, Han

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid malignant tumors are rarely associated with hyperfunctioning thyroid. The incidence of this co-incidence is highly variable. Here we report a rare case of papillary thyroid cancer associated with hyperthyroidism with brief literature review. A 40-year-old male, presented with palpitation, excess sweating and weight loss for one month duration. There was asymmetrical swelling of the neck, more on right side, mobile. Free T3: 11.09pmol/L, free T4: 34.41pmol/L, TFT: less than 0.005mIU/ml, Neck ultrasound showed features of background thyroiditis. Left lobe contained 9×7×5mm nodule with irregular outline and multiple dots of calcification, other nodules are of the same features. Under ultrasound guide, fine needle aspiration cytology showed features of papillary carcinoma. After preparation, total thyrodectomy done and the result of histopathological examination confirmed papillary thyroid carcinoma. The patient was put on 0.2mg thyroxine daily. Literature review has showed an increasing number of papers reporting the association of high level of thyroid function tests and thyroid malignancy. The cause of high level of TH in thyroid malignancy is thought to be due to an active mutation of the gene of TH receptor. Niepomniszcze and colleagues found that a combination of TSH receptor mutations and Ki-RAS was the main etiological factor for hyperfunction of the thyroid malignancy. Although the coexistence of them is rare, thyroid malignancy should be put in the differential diagnosis of hyperthyroid goiter. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Pathogenic and Diagnostic Potential of BLCA-1 and BLCA-4 Nuclear Proteins in Urothelial Cell Carcinoma of Human Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Santoni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the bladder is one of the most common malignancies of genitourinary tract. Patients with bladder cancer need a life-long surveillance, directly due to the relatively high recurrence rate of this tumor. The use of cystoscopy represents the gold standard for the followup of previously treated patients. Nevertheless, several factors, including cost and invasiveness, render cystoscopy not ideal for routine controls. Advances in the identification of specific alterations in the nuclear structure of bladder cancer cells have opened novel diagnostic landscapes. The members of nuclear matrix protein family BLCA-1 and BLCA-4, are currently under evaluation as bladder cancer urinary markers. They are involved in tumour cell proliferation, survival, and angiogenesis. In this paper, we illustrate the role of BLCA-1 and BLCA-4 in bladder carcinogenesis and their potential exploitation as biomarkers in this cancer.

  1. Pathological criteria and practical issues in papillary lesions of the breast - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yun-Bi; Tse, Gary M

    2016-01-01

    Papillary lesions of the breast include a broad spectrum of lesions, ranging from benign papilloma, papilloma with atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to papillary carcinoma. The accurate diagnosis of mammary papillary lesions is a challenge for pathologists, owing to the overlapping features among these lesions. In this review, some of the diagnostic criteria of papillary lesions are discussed, with special emphasis on some key morphological features, namely fibrovascular cores, epithelial proliferation in a solid pattern, intraductal papilloma complicated by ADH or DCIS, and invasion and its mimics. The roles of immunohistochemistry, and the interpretation of myoepithelial cell markers, hormone receptors, and high molecular weight cytokeratin, are addressed. Finally, novel biomarkers and genetic aberrations in papillary lesions are summarized. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. An incidental primary papillary carcinoma arising in a thyroglossal duct cyst: Report of a rare finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jaseem Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The thyroglossal duct cysts (TGDCs are the most common congenital anomaly of the thyroid, usually manifested as painless midline neck mass. Malignancy is very rare and is reported in around 1% of cases as an incidental finding after histopathological evaluation of resected cyst. Papillary carcinoma is the most common carcinoma reported in TGDC. Here, we report a case of 17-year-old-female, who presented with a gradually increasing midline neck mass which moves with swallowing. On imaging a diagnosis of infected TGDC was made. The Sistrunk operation was done and a diagnosis of primary papillary carcinoma arising in a TGDC was rendered histopathologically. The contemporary appearance of papillary carcinoma thyroid was reported in about 20% cases of TGDC carcinoma, thus it is essential to differentiate primary papillary carcinoma arising in a TGDC from those of metastatic papillary carcinoma thyroid by strict diagnostic criteria.

  3. Bladder Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing bladder cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  4. Bladder-type hydropneumatic accumulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anigas, F.

    1985-01-01

    Hydropneumatic pressure accumulators allow liquids to be stored under pressure, their operating principle being based on the inherent compressibility of elements in a liquid and gaseous state. A wide range of fluids can be covered by means of the appropriate choice of the material for the body and bladder. Their main applications are: energy accumulation, safety reserve, suspension. (author)

  5. Bladder carcinoma. Apport MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, C.; Spittler, G.; Jacqmin, D.; Morel, M.

    1991-01-01

    Bladder carcinoma is the second most commun cause of urogenital tumor. It is suspected by abdominal ultrasound and prouved by cystoscopy with biopsy. At present, MR Imaging is the most accurate diagnostic modality for loco-regional staging. Urography is still useful to appreciate urinary tract [fr

  6. Combined parathyroid adenoma and an occult papillary carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshikhes, Abdul-Wahid N.; Al-Saihati, Basima A.; Butt, Mohammad S.

    2004-01-01

    Although the pathological association of thyroid and parathyroid disease is common, the association of both parathyroid adenoma and thyroid cancer is rare. We report here a case of a 45-year-old saudi women who diagnosed to have primary hyperparathyrodism due to single parathyroid adenoma as confirmed biochemically and radiologically. At operation, the adenoma was found to be an intrathyroid and therefore a thyroid lobectomy was performed. Histology of the excised lobe revealed in addition to the intrathyroid parathyroid adenoma a concurrent occult thyroid papillary carcinoma. The interesting association is discussed based on a literature review. (author)

  7. Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma in a thyroid pyramidal lobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Tae Kwan; Kim, Dong Wook; Park, Ha Kyoung; Jung, Soo Jin [Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    We report an extremely rare case of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) in the thyroid pyramidal lobe (TPL). A 48-year-old woman underwent ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for a small thyroid nodule in the right lobe in local clinic, and it revealed a malignant cytology. On preoperative ultrasonography for tumor staging in our hospital, another small suspiciously malignant hypoechoic nodule was detected in the left TPL. Total thyroidectomy and central nodal dissection were performed. Histopathology confirmed PTMCs in the left TPL and both thyroid lobes. Ultrasonography for TPL should be required for complete evaluation of possible multifocality of thyroid malignancy.

  8. Hyperfunctioning papillary thyroid carcinoma: A case report with literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulwahid M. Salih; F.H. Kakamad; Han Nihad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Thyroid malignant tumors are rarely associated with hyperfunctioning thyroid. The incidence of this co-incidence is highly variable. Here we report a rare case of papillary thyroid cancer associated with hyperthyroidism with brief literature review. Case report: A 40-year-old male, presented with palpitation, excess sweating and weight loss for one month duration. There was asymmetrical swelling of the neck, more on right side, mobile. Free T3: 11.09 pmol/L, free T4: 34.41 pm...

  9. Adenocarcinoma of the rete testis with prominent papillary structure and clear neoplastic cells: Morphologic and immunohistochemical findings and differential diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Wen Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenocarcinoma of the rete testis is rare, and its etiology is unknown. The definite diagnosis merely depends on the exclusion of other tumors and histological features. We first describe a 38-year-old man with a carcinoma arising in the rete testis. The tumor was characterized by clear neoplastic cells and branching papillary growth. Focal stromal invasion and transition of normal rete epithelium to neoplastic cells were seen. The neoplastic cells were positive for epithelial membrane antigen, Ber-Ep4, vimentin, renal cell carcinoma marker, and CD10, while negative for Wilms′ tumor 1, thyroid transcription factor-1, estrogen receptor, prostate specific antigen, placental alkaline phosphate, CD117, and alpha-1-fetoprotein. According to the above features, we diagnosed this tumor as adenocarcinoma of the rete testis. To our best knowledge, this is the first reported case of adenocarcinoma of the rete testis with prominently papillary structure and clear neoplastic cells. The rarity of adenocarcinoma of the rete testis and the unique features in our case cause diagnostic pitfalls. A complete clinicopathological study and thorough differential diagnosis are crucial for the correct result.

  10. Leiomyoma of the bladder and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabbaj, N.; Dafiri, R.; Imani, F.; Benslimane, L.; Benchekroun, A.

    1998-01-01

    Unlike epithelial tumors, connective tissue tumors are uncommon, representing only 3 % of all bladder tumors. Leiomyoma of the bladder is the most frequent non-epithelial benign tumor of the bladder. Magnetic resonance imaging (MIR) is highly useful for diagnostic purposes and to determine the degree of extension. Only few reports of sonographic findings have been reported for leiomyoma of the bladder. The tumor usually develops within the bladder. Extra-vesicular formations have also been reported as well as a few intramural localizations. The characteristic feature is the absence of mucosal involvement. We analyzed the MRI findings in a case of leiomyoma of the bladder with intra and extra-vesicular development inflammatory reaction of the bladder wall and uterine adherences in a woman with a past history of chronic cystitis. The role of diagnostic MRI is discussed. (author)

  11. Pathobiology and Chemoprevention of Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takuji; Miyazawa, Katsuhito; Tsukamoto, Tetsuya; Kuno, Toshiya; Suzuki, Koji

    2011-01-01

    Our understanding of the pathogenesis of bladder cancer has improved considerably over the past decade. Translating these novel pathobiological discoveries into therapies, prevention, or strategies to manage patients who are suspected to have or who have been diagnosed with bladder cancer is the ultimate goal. In particular, the chemoprevention of bladder cancer development is important, since urothelial cancer frequently recurs, even if the primary cancer is completely removed. The numerous alterations of both oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes that have been implicated in bladder carcinogenesis represent novel targets for therapy and prevention. In addition, knowledge about these genetic alterations will help provide a better understanding of the biological significance of preneoplastic lesions of bladder cancer. Animal models for investigating bladder cancer development and prevention can also be developed based on these alterations. This paper summarizes the results of recent preclinical and clinical chemoprevention studies and discusses screening for bladder cancer. PMID:21941546

  12. CT in the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma of urinary bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narumi, Yoshifumi; Mitani, Takashi; Kuriyama, Keiko

    1988-01-01

    CT findings of 8 operated cases with squamous cell carcinoma of urinary bladder were reviewed. All of them had advanced stage tumor with invasion into perivesical fat or organs (≥ T3b), and with or without lymphnode involvement. We compared them with 15 operated cases with advavced transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder (≥ T3b) especially in regard to the direction of tumor growth, and the frequency of invasion into perivesical organs and lymphnode involvement. Futhermore, we studied a relation between CT findings and histopathological stages of the squamous cell carcinoma of urinary bladder. Squamous cell carcinoma of urinary bladder showed predominant extravesical growth as the stage advanced, while transitional cell carcinoma generally showed predominant intravesical growth. Squamous cell carcinoma invaded into perivesical organs and metastasized to lymphnodes more frequently than transitional cell carcinoma of control group. Accuracy of CT staging of squamous cell carcinoma of urinary bladder was found to be 100 % in T stage and 75 % in N stage. (author)

  13. Papillary muscles of right ventricle-morphological variations and its clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Anubha; Roy, Sanchita

    2018-02-09

    Papillary muscle plays an important role in stabilizing the position of the tricuspid valve. Several pathologies can result in anatomical and functional abnormalities of the papillary muscles. The aim of the study is to deliberate the morphometry of papillary muscles in tricuspid valve and to analyze with the eminent research works previously done. The study was carried out in 52 formalin-fixed adult apparently normal cadaveric hearts belonging to either sex obtained from the Department of Anatomy. These hearts were dissected carefully to open the right ventricle and to expose the papillary muscles. Different morphological features of papillary muscles were noted, and measurements were taken. The classical picture of three papillary muscles existed in 23.07% of the specimens. Anterior papillary muscle was in all hearts, but posterior and septal muscle was off in 15.38% and 55.76%, respectively. Double and triple papillary muscles were seen too. Anterior and posterior muscle appeared predominantly flat-top and arose from the middle third (mostly), while septal muscle was chiefly conical and originated basically from the upper third of the ventricular wall. Chordopapillary relationship with tricuspid valve leaflets was beyond conventional. Mean length and breadth of anterior muscle were 2.19±0.59 cm and 0.76±0.26 cm, those of posterior muscle were 1.39±0.63 cm and 0.67±0.43 cm, and those of septal papillary muscle were 0.95±0.38 cm and 0.59±0.09 cm. Detailed knowledge of normal and variable anatomy of papillary muscles is not only necessary for better understanding of tricuspid pathologies but also valuable for successful newer surgical approaches in cardiac treatment. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Diagnosis of bladder tumours in patients with macroscopic haematuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandrup, Karen L; Løgager, Vibeke B; Bretlau, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    patients underwent CTU, MRU and flexible cystoscopy. Two uroradiologists individually reviewed the images without any clinical information, using a questionnaire. Patient records and pathology reports were also reviewed. RESULTS: At flexible cystoscopy, MRU and CTU, 32, 19 and 15 bladder lesions were...... identified, respectively. Histopathology showed that 13 of the 29 biopsied lesions were transitional cell carcinomas. Compared with the histopathology, the sensitivity and specificity for detection of tumours by CTU and MRU were 61.5% and 94.9%, and 79.9% and 93.4%, respectively. False-positive detection...... of bladder tumours, compared with histopathology, was reported in seven CTUs and nine MRUs, whereas the number of false-negative findings was five for CTUs and three for MRUs. CONCLUSIONS: Split-bolus CTU or MRU cannot replace cystoscopy in cases of macroscopic haematuria. MRU has a higher sensitivity than...

  15. Bladder preservation in non-metastatic muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC): a single-institution experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardi, Marianna A; Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara A; Zerini, Dario; Surgo, Alessia; Dicuonzo, Samantha; Spoto, Ruggero; Fodor, Cristiana; Verri, Elena; Rocca, Maria Cossu; Nolè, Franco; Muto, Matteo; Ferro, Matteo; Musi, Gennaro; Bottero, Danilo; Matei, Deliu V; De Cobelli, Ottavio; Orecchia, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to access the feasibility, toxicity profile, and tumour outcome of an organ preservation curative approach in non-metastatic muscle-invasive bladder cancer. A retrospective analysis was conducted on patients affected by M0 bladder cancer, who refused cystectomy and were treated with a curative approach. The standard bladder preservation scheme included maximal transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT) and combination of radiotherapy and platin-based chemotherapy, followed by endoscopic evaluation, urine cytology, and instrumental evaluation. Thirteen patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. TNM stage was cT2cN0M0 and cT2cNxM0, in 12 and one patients, respectively. All patients had transitional cell cancer. Twelve patients completed the whole therapeutic programme (a bimodal treatment without chemotherapy for one patient). Median follow-up is 36 months. None of the patients developed severe urinary or intestinal acute toxicity. In 10 patients with a follow-up > 6 months, no cases of severe late toxicity were observed. Response evaluated in 12 patients included complete response and stable disease in 11 patients (92%), and one patient (8%), respectively. At the time of data analysis (March 2016), 10 patients (77%) are alive with no evidence of disease, two patients (15%) died for other reasons, and one patient has suspicious persistent local disease. The trimodality approach, including maximal TURBT, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer, is well-tolerated and might be considered a valid and feasible option in fit patients who refuse radical cystectomy.

  16. Hemipelvic irradiation for superficial bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashiro, Kazuya; Machida, Toyohei; Ooishi, Yukihiko; Ueda, Masataka; Kido, Akira; Wada, Tetsuro; Yoshigoe, Fukuo; Yamashita, Takashi; Mochizuki, Sachio

    1985-01-01

    In 15 patients with superficial bladder cancer hemipelvic irradiation was performed for prevention of relapse of cancer and decrease in side effects with following results. All patients received TUR-Bt at our department during the six years period from 1978 to 1983. As to stages, one was classified as Ta, 11 as T 1 and 3 as T 2, and pathologic diagnosis was transitional epithelial carcinoma of grade 1 in 1 case, grade 2 in 8 cases and grade 3 in 6 cases. Irradiation was started from the 7 th to 14 th day after TUR-Bt. At first, hemipelvic anterior and posterior field including the field from the affected pelvis to 1 to 2 cm beyond the midline toward the contralateral side and from the aortic bifurcation to the prostatic urethra were irradiated at a dose of 45 Gy. Then, whole bladder field was given an additional rotation irradiation of 20 Gy. The mean observation period was 43 months (ranging from 12 to 79 months) and relapse of cancer was observed in 6 cases out of 15 cases (40%). The site of relapse was in the irradiated site in 2 cases, contralateral site in 3 cases and both side in 1 cases. However, in all of the relapsed cases no aggravation in differential degree or progression in stage was observed. As the side effects, radiation cystitis developed as a delayed damage in 1 case. Thus, although no efficacy for prevention of relapse which we had expected was not seen, this irradiation method effectively inhibited the progression of lesion and development of delayed damage. (author)

  17. Hemipelvic irradiation for superficial bladder cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tashiro, Kazuya; Machida, Toyohei; Ooishi, Yukihiko; Ueda, Masataka; Kido, Akira; Wada, Tetsuro; Yoshigoe, Fukuo; Yamashita, Takashi; Mochizuki, Sachio

    1985-02-01

    In 15 patients with superficial bladder cancer hemipelvic irradiation was performed for prevention of relapse of cancer and decrease in side effects with following results. All patients received TUR-Bt at our department during the six years period from 1978 to 1983. As to stages, one was classified as Ta, 11 as T 1 and 3 as T 2, and pathologic diagnosis was transitional epithelial carcinoma of grade 1 in 1 case, grade 2 in 8 cases and grade 3 in 6 cases. Irradiation was started from the 7 th to 14 th day after TUR-Bt. At first, hemipelvic anterior and posterior field including the field from the affected pelvis to 1 to 2 cm beyond the midline toward the contralateral side and from the aortic bifurcation to the prostatic urethra were irradiated at a dose of 45 Gy. Then, whole bladder field was given an additional rotation irradiation of 20 Gy. The mean observation period was 43 months (ranging from 12 to 79 months) and relapse of cancer was observed in 6 cases out of 15 cases (40%). The site of relapse was in the irradiated site in 2 cases, contralateral site in 3 cases and both side in 1 cases. However, in all of the relapsed cases no aggravation in differential degree or progression in stage was observed. As the side effects, radiation cystitis developed as a delayed damage in 1 case. Thus, although no efficacy for prevention of relapse which we had expected was not seen, this irradiation method effectively inhibited the progression of lesion and development of delayed damage. (author).

  18. Functional Effects of Hyperthyroidism on Cardiac Papillary Muscle in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Furtado Vieira

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Hyperthyroidism is currently recognized to affect the cardiovascular system, leading to a series of molecular and functional changes. However, little is known about the functional influence of hyperthyroidism in the regulation of cytoplasmic calcium and on the sodium/calcium exchanger (NCX in the cardiac muscle. Objectives: To evaluate the functional changes in papillary muscles isolated from animals with induced hyperthyroidism. Methods: We divided 36 Wistar rats into a group of controls and another of animals with hyperthyroidism induced by intraperitoneal T3 injection. We measured in the animals' papillary muscles the maximum contraction force, speed of contraction (+df/dt and relaxation (-df/dt, contraction and relaxation time, contraction force at different concentrations of extracellular sodium, post-rest potentiation (PRP, and contraction force induced by caffeine. Results: In hyperthyroid animals, we observed decreased PRP at all rest times (p < 0.05, increased +df/dt and -df/dt (p < 0.001, low positive inotropic response to decreased concentration of extracellular sodium (p < 0.001, reduction of the maximum force in caffeine-induced contraction (p < 0.003, and decreased total contraction time (p < 0.001. The maximal contraction force did not differ significantly between groups (p = 0.973. Conclusion: We hypothesize that the changes observed are likely due to a decrease in calcium content in the sarcoplasmic reticulum, caused by calcium leakage, decreased expression of NCX, and increased expression of a-MHC and SERCA2.

  19. Papillary thyroid carcinoma with tuberculous cervical lymphadenopathy mimicking metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M; Subhan, A.; Aslam, A.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the frequency of tuberculous cervical lymphadenopathy mimicking metastasis from papillary thyroid cancer. Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: Surgical Unit-I, Ward-3 of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from March 2005 to March 2010. Methodology: All patients above 12 years of age of either gender diagnosed on investigations as papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) were included in the study. Ultrasound and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), neck of solitary thyroid nodules (STN) and cervical lymph nodes were done. Total thyroidectomy and excision biopsy of cervical lymph nodes was performed, histopathological results were recorded and patients were managed accordingly. Results: A total of 55 patients had PTC and 25 had cervical lymphadenopathy. Eighteen patients of PTC with cervical lymphadenopathy were diagnosed after investigations as cases of tuberculous cervical lymphadenopathy (TCL) initially considered as metastasis from PTC; 5 patients had metastasis from PTC. Two patients proved to be of reactive hyperplasia which initially showed tuberculous cervical lymphadenopathy on FNAC. So 80% patients of cervical lymphadenopathy with PTC were due to benign disease and 20% had metastasis in lymph node due to PTC. Conclusion: PTC with cervical lymphadenopathy due to co-existent tuberculosis is common. Metastasis from PTC in lymph nodes were less common than tuberculous lymphodenitis in this study. Tuberculosis should be considered before deciding for neck dissection in cases of PTC. (author)

  20. Papillary lesions of the breast: To excise or observe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sidrah; Diaz, Adrian; Archer, Kellie J; Lehman, Rebecca R; Mullins, Tiffany; Cardenosa, Gilda; Bear, Harry D

    2018-05-01

    Papillary lesions of the breast range from benign to atypical to malignant. Although papillomas without frank cancer are benign, their management remains controversial. When a core needle biopsy of a lesion yields a diagnosis of intraductal papilloma with atypia, excision is generally recommended to rule out a concurrent malignant neoplasm. For intraductal papillomas without atypia, however, recommendations for excision versus observation are variable. The aims of this study are to evaluate the rate of concurrent malignancies for intraductal papilloma diagnosed on core needle biopsy and to assess the long-term risk of developing cancer after the diagnosis of a papillary lesion. This single institution retrospective study analyzed 259 patients that were diagnosed with intraductal papilloma (IDP) by core needle biopsy from 1995 to 2010. Patients were grouped by initial diagnosis into three groups (papilloma without atypia, papilloma with atypia, and papilloma with atypical duct hyperplasia or atypical lobular hyperplasia (ADH/ALH) and followed up for long-term outcomes. After a core needle biopsy showing IDP with atypia or IDP + ADH/ALH, surgical excision yielded a diagnosis of concomitant invasive or ductal in situ cancer in greater that 30% of cases. For intraductal papilloma without atypia, the likelihood of cancer was much lower. Moreover, even with excision, the finding of intraductal papilloma with atypia carries a significant risk of developing cancer long-term, and such patients should be followed carefully and perhaps should be considered for chemoprevention. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Functional Effects of Hyperthyroidism on Cardiac Papillary Muscle in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Fabricio Furtado; Olivoto, Robson Ruiz; Silva, Priscyla Oliveira da; Francisco, Julio Cesar; Fogaça, Rosalvo Tadeu Hochmuller

    2016-12-01

    Hyperthyroidism is currently recognized to affect the cardiovascular system, leading to a series of molecular and functional changes. However, little is known about the functional influence of hyperthyroidism in the regulation of cytoplasmic calcium and on the sodium/calcium exchanger (NCX) in the cardiac muscle. To evaluate the functional changes in papillary muscles isolated from animals with induced hyperthyroidism. We divided 36 Wistar rats into a group of controls and another of animals with hyperthyroidism induced by intraperitoneal T3 injection. We measured in the animals' papillary muscles the maximum contraction force, speed of contraction (+df/dt) and relaxation (-df/dt), contraction and relaxation time, contraction force at different concentrations of extracellular sodium, post-rest potentiation (PRP), and contraction force induced by caffeine. In hyperthyroid animals, we observed decreased PRP at all rest times (p < 0.05), increased +df/dt and -df/dt (p < 0.001), low positive inotropic response to decreased concentration of extracellular sodium (p < 0.001), reduction of the maximum force in caffeine-induced contraction (p < 0.003), and decreased total contraction time (p < 0.001). The maximal contraction force did not differ significantly between groups (p = 0.973). We hypothesize that the changes observed are likely due to a decrease in calcium content in the sarcoplasmic reticulum, caused by calcium leakage, decreased expression of NCX, and increased expression of a-MHC and SERCA2.

  2. Molecular pathology of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paini, Marina; Crippa, Stefano; Partelli, Stefano; Scopelliti, Filippo; Tamburrino, Domenico; Baldoni, Andrea; Falconi, Massimo

    2014-08-07

    Since the first description of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas in the eighties, their identification has dramatically increased in the last decades, hand to hand with the improvements in diagnostic imaging and sampling techniques for the study of pancreatic diseases. However, the heterogeneity of IPMNs and their malignant potential make difficult the management of these lesions. The objective of this review is to identify the molecular characteristics of IPMNs in order to recognize potential markers for the discrimination of more aggressive IPMNs requiring surgical resection from benign IPMNs that could be observed. We briefly summarize recent research findings on the genetics and epigenetics of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, identifying some genes, molecular mechanisms and cellular signaling pathways correlated to the pathogenesis of IPMNs and their progression to malignancy. The knowledge of molecular biology of IPMNs has impressively developed over the last few years. A great amount of genes functioning as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes have been identified, in pancreatic juice or in blood or in the samples from the pancreatic resections, but further researches are required to use these informations for clinical intent, in order to better define the natural history of these diseases and to improve their management.

  3. Genetic Alterations in Hungarian Patients with Papillary Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiás, Bálint; Halászlaki, Csaba; Balla, Bernadett; Kósa, János P; Árvai, Kristóf; Horváth, Péter; Takács, István; Nagy, Zsolt; Horváth, Evelin; Horányi, János; Járay, Balázs; Székely, Eszter; Székely, Tamás; Győri, Gabriella; Putz, Zsuzsanna; Dank, Magdolna; Valkusz, Zsuzsanna; Vasas, Béla; Iványi, Béla; Lakatos, Péter

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancers is increasing worldwide. Some somatic oncogene mutations (BRAF, NRAS, HRAS, KRAS) as well as gene translocations (RET/PTC, PAX8/PPAR-gamma) have been associated with the development of thyroid cancer. In our study, we analyzed these genetic alterations in 394 thyroid tissue samples (197 papillary carcinomas and 197 healthy). The somatic mutations and translocations were detected by Light Cycler melting method and Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction techniques, respectively. In tumorous samples, 86 BRAF (44.2%), 5 NRAS (3.1%), 2 HRAS (1.0%) and 1 KRAS (0.5%) mutations were found, as well as 9 RET/PTC1 (4.6%) and 1 RET/PTC3 (0.5%) translocations. No genetic alteration was seen in the non tumorous control thyroid tissues. No correlation was detected between the genetic variants and the pathological subtypes of papillary cancer as well as the severity of the disease. Our results are only partly concordant with the data found in the literature.

  4. Clinicopathological characteristics of papillary tumor of the pineal region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-yu JIANG

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR is a newly recognized distinct entity in the 2007 WHO nomenclature. This tumor is characterized by epithelial-appearing areas with papillary features and more densely cellular areas that often display ependymal-like differentiation, which is likely to originate from the specialized ependymocytes of subcommissural organ near the Sylvian cerebral aqueduct. Due to its rarity and non-specific appearance in radiological exanimation, it is a diagnostic challenge for radiologists and histopathologists to differentiate PTPR from other primary or metastatic lesions located in the pineal region because of their similarities in radiological and histological findings. The aim of this study is to summarize the clinicopathological features of PTPR and discuss the differential diagnosis of histologically similar papillary tumors in pineal region.  Methods The clinical manifestations of a patient with PTPR occurring in supratentorial pineal region were presented retrospectively. Resected mass was routinely paraffin-embedded and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Dako EnVision immunohistochemical staining system was used to detect the tumor antigen expressions, including vimentin (Vim, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, S-100 protein (S-100, pan cytokeratin (PCK, cytokeratin 7 (CK7, CK20, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA, neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN, synaptophysin (Syn, neuron-specific enolase (NSE, and Ki-67 labeling index (MIB-1.  Results A 57-year-old male patient presented with 6-month history of mild headache, and became severe in last one month. MRI revealed a solid well-circumscribed lesion in supratentorial midline near the pineal region and the posterior third ventricle with mild heterogeneous enhancement. Craniotomy was performed and the tumor was removed totally. Histological examination revealed that the lesion contained papillary areas lined by columnar epithelioid tumor cells with

  5. Bladder symptoms assessed with overactive bladder questionnaire in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovelli, Elisa; Gilio, Francesca; Meco, Giuseppe; Fattapposta, Francesco; Vanacore, Nicola; Brusa, Livia; Giacomelli, Elena; Gabriele, Maria; Rubino, Alfonso; Locuratolo, Nicoletta; Iani, Cesare; Pichiorri, Floriana; Colosimo, Carlo; Carbone, Antonio; Palleschi, Giovanni; Inghilleri, Maurizio

    2010-07-15

    In Parkinson's disease (PD) the urinary dysfunction manifests primarily with symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB). The OAB questionnaire (OAB-q) is a measure designed to assess the impact of OAB symptoms on health-related quality of life. In this study, we quantified the urinary symptoms in a large cohort of PD patients by using the OAB-q short form. Possible correlations between the OAB-q and clinical features were tested. Three hundred and two PD patients were enrolled in the study. Correlations between the OAB-q and sex, age, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III (UPDRS-III), Hoehn-Yahr (H-Y) staging, disease duration, and treatment were analyzed. Data were compared with a large cohort of 303 age-matched healthy subjects. The OAB-q yielded significantly higher scores in PD patients than in healthy subjects. In the group of PD patients, all the variables tested were similar between men and women. Pearson's coefficient showed a significant correlation between mean age, disease duration, mean OAB-q scores, UPDRS-III scores, and H-Y staging. A multiple linear regression analysis showed that OAB-q values were significantly influenced by age and UPDRS-III. No statistical correlations were found between OAB-q scores and drug therapy or the equivalent levodopa dose, whilst the items relating to the nocturia symptoms were significantly associated with the equivalent levodopa dose. Our findings suggest that bladder dysfunction assessed by OAB-q mainly correlates with UPDRS-III scores for severity of motor impairment, possibly reflecting the known role of the decline in nigrostriatal dopaminergic function in bladder dysfunction associated with PD and patients' age. Our study also suggests that the OAB-q is a simple, easily administered test that can objectively evaluate bladder function in patients with PD.

  6. HAMLET treatment delays bladder cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Hou, Yuchuan; Svensson, Majlis; Holmqvist, Bo; Svanborg, Catharina

    2010-04-01

    HAMLET is a protein-lipid complex that kills different types of cancer cells. Recently we observed a rapid reduction in human bladder cancer size after intravesical HAMLET treatment. In this study we evaluated the therapeutic effect of HAMLET in the mouse MB49 bladder carcinoma model. Bladder tumors were established by intravesical injection of MB49 cells into poly L-lysine treated bladders of C57BL/6 mice. Treatment groups received repeat intravesical HAMLET instillations and controls received alpha-lactalbumin or phosphate buffer. Effects of HAMLET on tumor size and putative apoptotic effects were analyzed in bladder tissue sections. Whole body imaging was used to study HAMLET distribution in tumor bearing mice compared to healthy bladder tissue. HAMLET caused a dose dependent decrease in MB49 cell viability in vitro. Five intravesical HAMLET instillations significantly decreased tumor size and delayed development in vivo compared to controls. TUNEL staining revealed selective apoptotic effects in tumor areas but not in adjacent healthy bladder tissue. On in vivo imaging Alexa-HAMLET was retained for more than 24 hours in the bladder of tumor bearing mice but not in tumor-free bladders or in tumor bearing mice that received Alexa-alpha-lactalbumin. Results show that HAMLET is active as a tumoricidal agent and suggest that topical HAMLET administration may delay bladder cancer development. Copyright (c) 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Increased Prevalence of Chronic Lymphocytic Thyroiditis in Korean Patients with Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Mo; Park, Sohee; Lee, Joo Young; Won, Young-Joo; Shin, Aesun; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Choi, Kui-Sun; Lee, You Jin; Chung, Ki- Wook; Jung, Kyu-Won

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years, some reports have suggested that papillary thyroid cancers are more frequently associated with lymphocytic thyroiditis or Hashimoto's thyroiditis. This study investigated a potential increase in the prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis among papillary thyroid cancer patients. Materials and Methods We used national epidemiological survey data on thyroid cancer patients diagnosed in 1999, 2005, and 2008. A retrospective medical record survey was conducted by representative sampling of a national cancer incidence database. The analysis included 5,378 papillary thyroid cancer patients aged 20–79 years. We calculated the age-standardized prevalence and age-adjusted prevalence ratios using a binomial regression model with a log link for the prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis among papillary thyroid cancer patients by sex for each year. Results The prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis among papillary thyroid cancer patients was 4.0% and 12.8% for men and women in 1999, 6.5% and 24.6% in 2005, and 10.7% and 27.6% in 2008, respectively. Between 1999 and 2008, the age-standardized prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis increased 4.1-fold in male patients and 2.0-fold in female patients with papillary thyroid cancer. The prevalence of other thyroid diseases, however, did not increase in either gender. Conclusions Among Korean papillary thyroid cancer patients, the prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis increased between 1999 and 2008, whereas the prevalence of other thyroid disorders did not change. PMID:24927027

  8. Suppression of progranulin expression inhibits bladder cancer growth and sensitizes cancer cells to cisplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buraschi, Simone; Xu, Shi-Qiong; Stefanello, Manuela; Moskalev, Igor; Morcavallo, Alaide; Genua, Marco; Tanimoto, Ryuta; Birbe, Ruth; Peiper, Stephen C; Gomella, Leonard G; Belfiore, Antonino; Black, Peter C; Iozzo, Renato V; Morrione, Andrea

    2016-06-28

    We have recently demonstrated a critical role for progranulin in bladder cancer. Progranulin contributes, as an autocrine growth factor, to the transformed phenotype by modulating Akt-and MAPK-driven motility, invasion and anchorage-independent growth. Progranulin also induces F-actin remodeling by interacting with the F-actin binding protein drebrin. In addition, progranulin is overexpressed in invasive bladder cancer compared to normal tissue controls, suggesting that progranulin might play a key role in driving the transition to the invasive phenotype of urothelial cancer. However, it is not established whether targeting progranulin could have therapeutic effects on bladder cancer. In this study, we stably depleted urothelial cancer cells of endogenous progranulin by shRNA approaches and determined that progranulin depletion severely inhibited the ability of tumorigenic urothelial cancer cells to migrate, invade and grow in anchorage-independency. We further demonstrate that progranulin expression is critical for tumor growth in vivo, in both xenograft and orthotopic tumor models. Notably, progranulin levels correlated with response to cisplatin treatment and were upregulated in bladder tumors. Our data indicate that progranulin may constitute a novel target for therapeutic intervention in bladder tumors. In addition, progranulin may serve as a novel biomarker for bladder cancer.

  9. Clinical utility of urinary soluble Fas in screening for bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anupam Kumar; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Singh, Dhramveer; Dalela, Divakar; Rath, Srikanta Kumar; Bhatt, Madan Lal Brahma

    2016-06-01

    Early diagnosis of carcinoma of urinary bladder remains a challenge. Urine cytology, as an adjunct to cystoscopy, is less sensitive for low-grade tumors. Soluble Fas (sFas), a cell-surface receptor and member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily, is frequently expressed in urinary bladder carcinoma. The objective of this study was to investigate the urinary sFas for diagnosis of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of urinary bladder. We examined urinary sFas concentration in 74 controls and 117 cases of TCC, both primary and recurrent disease, by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and compared it with urinary cytology. Urinary sFas concentration was found to be significantly higher in the patient as compared to control group (P bladder cancer in comparison with cytology. Out of 15 node positive bladder cancer cases, 13 had high urinary sFas levels, whereas 12 were urinary cytology positive for malignancy. Urinary sFas can be used as a non-invasive diagnostic biomarker for TCC of urinary bladder, both for primary and recurrent disease. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Appraisal of diagnostic ability of UCA1 as a biomarker of carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, A K; Singh, P K; Rath, S K; Dalela, D; Goel, M M; Bhatt, M L B

    2014-11-01

    Initial diagnosis of carcinoma of the urinary bladder remains to be a challenge. Urine cytology, as an adjunct to cystoscopy, is less sensitive for low-grade tumors. Urothelial cancer associated 1 (UCA1) is a novel non-coding RNA gene, which plays a pivotal role in bladder cancer progression. Our aim is to investigate the significance of urinary UCA1 for the non-invasive diagnosis of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder. We examined UCA1 expression in a bladder cancer cell line (T24) and in urine of 28 healthy individuals, 46 patients of non-malignant disorders, and 117 cases (69 primary and 48 recurrent cases) of histologically proven TCC prior to transurethral resection by using real-time PCR and compared it with voided urinary cytology. UCA1 expression was found in T24 cell line and also found to be significantly higher in the cancer group as compared to the controls (p0.05). UCA1 can be used as a non-invasive diagnostic biomarker for TCC bladder as an adjunct to cytology in the early diagnosis of primary urinary bladder cancer.

  11. MRI of perforated gall bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, B.; Jain, M.; Khandelwal, N.; Singh, P.; Suri, S.

    2002-01-01

    Gall bladder perforation is a dreaded complication of acute cholecystitis that, if not diagnosed early in the course, might have a poor prognosis. Both CT and ultrasonography have been used until now extensively for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis, but diagnosis of perforation is always difficult. Magnetic resonance, by its superior soft tissue resolution and multiplanar capability, is a better modality and should fare better than ultrasonography and CT, as demonstrated in our case. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrates the wall of the gall bladder and defects to a much better advantage and more convincingly. In addition, MR colangiopancreatography images demonstrate the biliary tree better than other modalities. We suggest that in the case of acute cholecystitis, if perforation is suspected and CT and ultrasonography are not conclusive, MR should be the modality of choice. It can be used as a first line of investigation; however, it might not be cost-effective. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  12. Orthotopic neo- bladder in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettini, Manlio

    2010-12-01

    Radical cystectomy is the most effective treatment madality for high grade urinary bladder carcinoma and orthotopic reconstruction is the better urinary diversion modality also in women. From 2002 to 2007 we performed 14 radical cystectomies followed by orthotopic reconstruction in women aged between 47 and 68 years (mean age 56) affected by urinary bladder carcinoma. Our reconstructive technique requires the preparation of two strips of the recti muscles fascia, the sectioning of the bladder neck and, when the uterus is present, hysteroannessiectomy and cystectomy en block leaving intact the lateral and inferior vaginal walls. The pelvic floor is stabilized by a colposacropexis with a prosthesis and placing an omental flap over the prosthesis. The orthotopic reconstruction is achieved via a neobladder according to the Padovana technique. The ureters are anastomized to the neobladder and splinted with single J stents. The pathological examination demonstrated in all patients the presence of a high grade carcinoma (G3): more specifically 4 patients had a full thickness intramural infiltration (T2), 2 patients had involvment of the perivescical fat (T3) ad 8 patients were in T1 stage. Lymphnodes were negative for tumour (NO). In 8 patients blood transfusions were necessary to treat post surgical anemia. No significant intra-, peri- or post operative complications were noted. The mean follow-up was 45 months: a patient died for diffuse metastatic disease after 11 months. The remaining patients are still alive and report normal lifestyle: 10 with normal micturition and 4 with urinary retention treated with intermittent self-catetherization. Two patients report nocturnal incontinence treated with hourly micturition and one pad. The five patients who had normal preoperative sexual intercourse resumed a normal sexual activity. The possibility to orthotopically recontruct the female urinary bladder has been established long time after the introduction of orthotopic

  13. Epitheloid hemangioendothelioma of urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narmada P Gupta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Epitheloid hemangioendothelioma is an uncommon vascular neoplasm and has an unpredictable clinical behavior. It is characterized by round or spindle-shaped endothelial cells with cytoplasmic vacuolation. Most often, epitheloid hemangioendothelioma arise from the soft tissues of the upper and lower extremities and it has borderline malignant potential. We describe the first reported case of epitheloid hemangioendothelioma in the urinary bladder, which was treated by transurethral resection. The diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistry.

  14. Bladder rupture caused by postpartum urinary retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueñas-García, Omar Felipe; Rico, Hugo; Gorbea-Sanchez, Viridiana; Herrerias-Canedo, Tomas

    2008-08-01

    Postpartum bladder rupture is an uncommon surgical emergency and a diagnostic challenge. A primigravida delivered a healthy newborn without complications at 39.4 weeks of gestation. The patient was admitted 80 hours postpartum with abdominal pain, oliguria, hematuria, and pain that worsened during the previous 4 hours. An inserted Foley catheter drained only a small amount of urine, and serum creatinine was elevated (3.5 mg/dL). A laparotomy was performed and revealed a 10-cm hole in the urinary bladder. The bladder was repaired and the patient was discharged 15 days after surgery. The follow-up cystoscopy revealed adequate healing of the bladder. Urinary retention can lead to serious complications, including bladder rupture. Postpartum bladder rupture due to urinary retention should be ruled out if there is a history of abdominal pain, oliguria, and elevated of serum creatinine.

  15. Applications of Nanotechnology in Bladder Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Wei Hsu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective therapies can prevent superficial bladder cancer from developing into muscle-invasive stage or more severe stages which require radical cystectomy and negatively affect life quality. In terms of therapeutic approaches against superficial bladder cancer, intravesical (regional therapy has several advantages over oral (systemic therapy. Though urologists can directly deliver drugs to bladder lesions by intravesical instillation after transurethral resection, the efficacy of conventional drug delivery is usually low due to the bladder permeability barrier and bladder periodical discharge. Nanoparticles have been well developed as pharmaceutical carriers. By their versatile properties, nanoparticles can greatly improve the interactions between urothelium and drugs and also enhance the penetration of drugs into urothelium with lesions, which dramatically improves therapeutic efficacy. In this review, we discuss the advances of nanotechnology in bladder cancer therapy by different types of nanoparticles with different encapsulating materials.

  16. Bladder injuries frequently missed in polytrauma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanweer Karim

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Tanweer Karim, Margaret Topno, Vinod Sharma, Raymond Picardo, Ankur HastirSurgery, MGM Medical College, Kamothe, Navi Mumbai, IndiaAbstract: Bladder injuries are very common in patients who have had road traffic accidents. The method of diagnosis and management of such injuries is well established and accepted. However, trauma to the bladder can be associated with other life-threatening injuries which are frequently missed, and often diagnosed during laparotomy for other reasons. The aim of this study was to diagnose bladder injury in polytrauma patients as early as possible, taking into consideration the fact that these patients are hemodynamically unstable and require rapid evaluation and management. In order to achieve our objective, we used bedside sonography with retrograde instillation of normal saline to diagnose bladder injury in addition to use of the conventional retrograde cystogram.Keywords: bladder injury, bladder rupture, retrograde cystogram

  17. SOX4 expression in bladder carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, Mads; Birkenkamp-Demtroder, Karin; Wiuf, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    The human transcription factor SOX4 was 5-fold up-regulated in bladder tumors compared with normal tissue based on whole-genome expression profiling of 166 clinical bladder tumor samples and 27 normal urothelium samples. Using a SOX4-specific antibody, we found that the cancer cells expressed...... in the clinical bladder material and a small subset of the genes showed a high correlation to SOX4 expression. The present data suggest a role of SOX4 in the bladder cancer disease....... the SOX4 protein and, thus, did an evaluation of SOX4 protein expression in 2,360 bladder tumors using a tissue microarray with clinical annotation. We found a correlation (P bladder cell line HU609, SOX4...

  18. Transurethral resection for botryoid bladder rhabdomyosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuyuki Nakata

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The outcome of multimodal therapy for localized bladder rhabdomyosarcoma is quite good in terms of morbidity, and conservative surgery is generally recommended. However, in cases originating in the bladder neck, tumorectomy or partial cystectomy has adverse effects on bladder function. A 2-year-old girl underwent transurethral resection of a bladder tumor (TUR-BT, chemotherapy consisting of vincristine, actinomycin-D, and cyclophosphamide, and radiotherapy. She was in remission for 3 years when frequent urination became evident. Her bladder capacity and compliance were low; however, her urinary symptom was controlled using anticholinergic medication. Accordingly, TUR-BT could be an optional approach for bladder rhabdomyosarcoma. Keywords: Rhabdomyosarcoma, Transurethral resection, Conservative surgery

  19. Duplex gall bladder: bystander or culprit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jogender; Yadav, Arushi

    2017-08-30

    Gall bladder (GB) duplication is a rare anatomical malformation, which can be detected by preoperative imaging study. We present a case of duplex gall bladder in a 14-year-old boy who presented with abdominal pain. On ultrasound, he had right nephrolithiasis and duplex gall bladder. Duplex gall bladder was confirmed on MR cholangiopancreatography. There was a dilemma for surgical management of duplex gall bladder; however, he became asymptomatic after conservative treatment. Prophylactic surgery is not recommended for asymptomatic incidentally detected duplex gall bladder. Radiologists and paediatric surgeons should be sensitised about the exact anatomy of this entity. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Calcium transport in turtle bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabatini, S.; Kurtzman, N.A.

    1987-01-01

    Unidirectional 45 Ca fluxes were measured in the turtle bladder under open-circuit and short-circuit conditions. In the open-circuited state net calcium flux (J net Ca ) was secretory (serosa to mucosa). Ouabain reversed J net Ca to an absorptive flux. Amiloride reduced both fluxes such that J net Ca was not significantly different from zero. Removal of mucosal sodium caused net calcium absorption; removal of serosal sodium caused calcium secretion. When bladders were short circuited, J net Ca decreased to approximately one-third of control value but remained secretory. When ouabain was added under short-circuit conditions, J net Ca was similar in magnitude and direction to ouabain under open-circuited conditions (i.e., absorptive). Tissue 45 Ca content was ≅30-fold lower when the isotope was placed in the mucosal bath, suggesting that the apical membrane is the resistance barrier to calcium transport. The results obtained in this study are best explained by postulating a Ca 2+ -ATPase on the serosa of the turtle bladder epithelium and a sodium-calcium antiporter on the mucosa. In this model, the energy for calcium movement would be supplied, in large part, by the Na + -K + -ATPase. By increasing cell sodium, ouabain would decrease the activity of the mucosal sodium-calcium exchanger (or reverse it), uncovering active calcium transport across the serosa

  1. Bladder tissue engineering through nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Daniel A; Sharma, Arun K; Erickson, Bradley A; Cheng, Earl Y

    2008-08-01

    The field of tissue engineering has developed in phases: initially researchers searched for "inert" biomaterials to act solely as replacement structures in the body. Then, they explored biodegradable scaffolds--both naturally derived and synthetic--for the temporary support of growing tissues. Now, a third phase of tissue engineering has developed, through the subcategory of "regenerative medicine." This renewed focus toward control over tissue morphology and cell phenotype requires proportional advances in scaffold design. Discoveries in nanotechnology have driven both our understanding of cell-substrate interactions, and our ability to influence them. By operating at the size regime of proteins themselves, nanotechnology gives us the opportunity to directly speak the language of cells, through reliable, repeatable creation of nanoscale features. Understanding the synthesis of nanoscale materials, via "top-down" and "bottom-up" strategies, allows researchers to assess the capabilities and limits inherent in both techniques. Urology research as a whole, and bladder regeneration in particular, are well-positioned to benefit from such advances, since our present technology has yet to reach the end goal of functional bladder restoration. In this article, we discuss the current applications of nanoscale materials to bladder tissue engineering, and encourage researchers to explore these interdisciplinary technologies now, or risk playing catch-up in the future.

  2. Coexistence of papillary thyroid cancer and Hashimoto thyroiditis in children: report of 3 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koibuchi, Harumi; Omoto, Kiyoka; Fukushima, Noriyoshi; Toyotsuji, Tomonori; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki; Kawano, Mikihiko

    2014-07-01

    This report documents 3 pediatric papillary thyroid carcinoma cases with associated Hashimoto thyroiditis. In all 3 cases, hypoechoic nodules accompanied by multiple echogenic spots were noted on sonography of the thyroid. Hashimoto thyroiditis was suspected on the basis of positive thyroid autoantibody test results and pathologic examinations of thyroidectomy specimens, which revealed chronic thyroiditis with lymphocytic infiltration as the background of papillary thyroid carcinoma development. The potential for papillary carcinoma development warrants close follow-up, and meticulous sonographic examinations must be performed in children with Hashimoto thyroiditis. © 2014 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  3. Well differentiated papillary mesothelioma of abdomen- a rare case with diagnostic dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Aniruddha; Mandal, Palash Kumar; Manna, Anupam; Khan, Kalyan; Pal, Subrata

    2018-01-01

    Well-differentiated papillary mesothelioma is a rare tumor occurring predominantly in the peritoneum of young women, a few with history of asbestos exposure. A 28-year-old woman presented with ascites and pain abdomen. Ultrasonography and computed tomography scan of the abdomen revealed a mass in the retroperitoneum measuring 15 cm × 12 cm. Histopathological examination along with immunohistochemistry (IHC) confirmed it to be a papillary mesothelioma in the peritoneum. It is difficult to differentiate from more common malignant mesothelioma and papillary adenocarcinoma, which also have poorer prognosis. The difficulty can be resolved by clinico-radiological correlation along with histopathological examination and IHC.

  4. Evaluating the need for transurethral bladder biopsy at first follow up ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Patients with high-risk superficial transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder have a lifelong risk of progression and require particular attention. Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is recommended as a first-choice adjuvant treatment to reduce the risk of progression of high-grade tumors and ...

  5. Bladder tumors in Benin city: a 15 year histopathological study | Olu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malignant neoplasms (40 cases) accounted for 88.9% of the bladder tumours and 1.85% of all malignant neoplasms seen during the study period. Contrary to most reports, the malignant neoplasms were predominantly transitional cell carcinoma constituting 27(67.2%) cases, with peak in the 7th and 8th decades, mean age ...

  6. Low dose intravesical heparin as prophylaxis against recurrent noninvasive (stage Ta) bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bitsch, M; Hermann, G G; Andersen, J P

    1990-01-01

    A controlled randomized clinical trial was conducted to examine the efficacy of topical low dose heparin (0.125 gm./l., 25,000 units per l.) as prophylaxis against recurrent noninvasive (stage Ta) transitional cell bladder cancer. Transurethral tumor resection was done with irrigation fluid conta...

  7. Rotation technique for irradiation of the bladder and the results obtained

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backhouse, T W [Coventry and Warwickshire Hospital (UK). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Oncology

    1979-05-01

    An argument is advanced for the use of partial rotational techniques for the treatment of carcinoma of the bladder. One hundred and seventy cases are analysed; the majority were T3 solid transitional cell lesions with an overall (corrected) survival rate of 24.7%. Salvage cystectomy produced a four-year survival rate of 40% when performed within six months of the radiotherapy.

  8. Analysis of intravesical recurrence after bladder-preserving therapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozawa, Mizuki; Miyanaga, Naoto; Hinotsu, Shiro

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the pattern of recurrences after bladder-preserving therapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. The subjects were 77 patients with T2-3N0M0 bladder cancer whose bladder was preserved by intra-arterial chemotherapy and radiation. The patterns of the first recurrences were retrospectively analyzed. With a median follow-up of 38.5 months, 17 patients (22.1%) experienced intravesical recurrence without metastasis, 14 (82.4%) of which were cases of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrence and 3 (17.6%) of which were muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrences. Muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurred at the same site as the initial tumor site in all three cases, whereas non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurred at different sites in 64% of the patients in that group. The peak hazard of the non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrence was observed at around a year after treatment. Recurrent non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer was of a significantly lower histological grade with lower Ki-67-labeling indices than the initial muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Twelve (85.7%) of 14 patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrence achieved disease-free status. The multivariate analysis revealed that multiplicity, grade and tumor size were significantly correlated with the recurrence (P=0.0001, 0.0442 and 0.0412, respectively). Most of the recurrences after bladder-preserving therapy were cases of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. The recurrence pattern and characteristics of the tumors did not differ from those of primary non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Patients with high-risk factors would be candidates for prophylactic intravesical therapy for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrence. (author)

  9. Bladder Cancer in HIV-infected Adults: An Emerging Issue? Case-Reports and Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Chawki

    Full Text Available Non-AIDS-related malignancies now represent a frequent cause of death among HIV-infected patients. Albeit bladder cancer is one of the most common malignancies worldwide, it has been rarely reported among HIV-infected patients. We wished to assess the prevalence and characteristics of bladder cancer in HIV-infected patients.We conducted a single center retrospective study from 1998 to 2013 in a university hospital in Paris. Cases of bladder cancer among HIV-infected patients were identified using the electronic records of the hospital database and of the HIV-infected cohort. Patient characteristics and outcomes were retrieved from patients charts. A systematic review of published cases of bladder cancers in patients with HIV-infection was also performed.During the study period we identified 15 HIV-infected patients (0.2% of the cohort with a bladder cancer. Patients were mostly men (73% and smokers (67%, with a median age of 56 years at cancer diagnosis. Bladder cancer was diagnosed a median of 14 years after HIV-infection. Most patients were on ART (86% with median current and nadir CD4 cell counts of 506 and 195 cells/mm3, respectively. Haematuria (73% was the most frequent presenting symptom and HPV-associated lesions were seen in 6/10 (60% patients. Histopathology showed transitional cell carcinoma in 80% and a high proportion of tumors with muscle invasion (47% and high histologic grade (73%. One-year survival rate was 74.6%. The systematic review identified 13 additional cases of urothelial bladder cancers which shared similar features.Bladder cancers in HIV-infected patients remain rare but may occur in relatively young patients with a low nadir CD4 cell count, have aggressive pathological features and can be fatal.

  10. Seven cases of brain metastasis from papillary thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikekubo, Katsuji; Hino, Megumu; Ito, Hidetomi; Hirao, Kazuyuki; Ueshima, Miho; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Kobayashi, Hiromasa; Ishihara, Takashi; Kurahachi, Hiroyuki

    2000-01-01

    Brain metastases from differentiated thyroid carcinoma are extremely rare and carry a poor prognosis. We describe here clinical details of 7 cases of brain metastases from papillary thyroid carcinoma. Of 153 patients with metastases from differentiated thyroid carcinoma (papillary in 123, follicular in 30) treated at our institution between 1981 and 1999, 7 patients (4.6%) had brain metastases. Histologically, the primary tumor was papillary carcinoma in all 7 cases. Four were males and 3 were females. The median age at first diagnosis of distant metastases was 63 yr (range, 47-76 yr). Of these patients, one had brain metastases only and six and metastases to the lungs as well. Five of these patients were treated with 131 I. Three of these 5 patients had marked uptake in the metastases ( 131 I positive) on post-therapy 131 I scans and another 2 patients had no significant activity ( 131 I negative) in both pulmonary and brain metastatic lesions. One of 3 patients with 131 I positive lesions had intense activity in the brain tumor, but no uptake in multiple pulmonary metastatic tumors. In a patient with 131 I positive brain metastases, the tumors progressed rapidly after 131 I therapy. In another one patient, acute hemorrhage of the tumor occurred four days after 131 I therapy, requiring surgical removal. Loner case of 131 I negative 2 patients was treated with radiosurgery (γ-knife) and complete reduction in tumor volume was observed. On the other hand, one of 2 patients receiving no 131 I therapy had radiosurgery (x-knife) and remaining one received conventional external radiation and chemotherapy for small solitary brain and pulmonary metastatic tumors. These therapeutic interventions were useful in both cases. The mean length of survival after the development of brain metastases in the five patients who died of the disease was 30 months. One patient treated with x-knife has been alive at 21 months and another one who has 131 I uptake in the brain tumor without

  11. Giant Leiomyosarcoma of the Urinary Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, José G A; Klojda, Carlos A B; Araújo, Claudio P De; Pires, Lucas A S; Babinski, Marcio A

    2016-05-01

    The bladder leiomyosarcoma is a rare and agressive mesenchymal tumour, and adult women of reproductive age have a higher incidence of developing the bladder leiomyosarcoma. The pathophysiology of the disease is not certain, and its main symptoms are hematuria, dysuria and abdominal pain. There are not a considerable amount of cases described in the literature. We report a case of a giant leiomyosarcoma of the urinary bladder in a 31-year-old woman.

  12. Effects of acute urinary bladder overdistension on bladder response during sacral neurostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bross, S; Schumacher, S; Scheepe, J R; Zendler, S; Braun, P M; Alken, P; Jünemann, K

    1999-10-01

    Urinary retention and micturition disorders after overdistension are clinically well-known complications of subvesical obstruction. We attempted to evaluate whether bladder overdistension influences bladder response and whether overdistension supports detrusor decompensation. Following lumbal laminectomy in 9 male foxhounds, the sacral anterior roots S2 and S3 were placed into a modified Brindley electrode for reproducible and controlled detrusor activation. The bladder was filled in stages of 50 ml from 0 to 700 ml, corresponding to an overdistension. At each volume, the bladder response during sacral anterior root stimulation was registered. After overdistension, the bladder was refilled stepwise from 0 to 300 ml and stimulated. In all dogs, the bladder response was influenced by the intravesical volume. The maximum pressure (mean 69.1 cm H(2)O) was observed at mean volume of 100 ml. During overdistension, a significant reduction in bladder response of more than 80% was seen. After overdistension, a significant reduction in intravesical pressure of 19.0% was observed. In 2 cases, reduction in bladder response was more than 50% after a single overdistension. We conclude that motoric bladder function is influenced during and after overdistension. A single bladder overdistension can support acute and long-lasting detrusor decompensation. In order to protect motoric bladder function, bladder overdistension must be prevented.

  13. Full-thickness endometriosis of the bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjer, Jens Jørgen; Kristensen, Jens; Hartwell, Dorthe

    2014-01-01

    referral centres in Denmark for surgical treatment of stage III and IV endometriosis. POPULATION: Thirty-one women with deep infiltrating bladder endometriosis. METHODS: All women presenting in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology with deep infiltrating bladder endometriosis between March 2002...... and March 2011. We included only patients with symptomatic full-thickness bladder detrusor endometriosis and mucosal involvement. All patients had had bladder symptoms for two to seven years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Symptoms after surgery and recurrence rate. RESULTS: The main preoperative symptom...

  14. Bladder, Bowel, and Sexual Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuji Sakakibara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bladder dysfunction (urinary urgency/frequency, bowel dysfunction (constipation, and sexual dysfunction (erectile dysfunction (also called “pelvic organ” dysfunctions are common nonmotor disorders in Parkinson's disease (PD. In contrast to motor disorders, pelvic organ autonomic dysfunctions are often nonresponsive to levodopa treatment. The brain pathology causing the bladder dysfunction (appearance of overactivity involves an altered dopamine-basal ganglia circuit, which normally suppresses the micturition reflex. By contrast, peripheral myenteric pathology causing slowed colonic transit (loss of rectal contractions and central pathology causing weak strain and paradoxical anal sphincter contraction on defecation (PSD, also called as anismus are responsible for the bowel dysfunction. In addition, hypothalamic dysfunction is mostly responsible for the sexual dysfunction (decrease in libido and erection in PD, via altered dopamine-oxytocin pathways, which normally promote libido and erection. The pathophysiology of the pelvic organ dysfunction in PD differs from that in multiple system atrophy; therefore, it might aid in differential diagnosis. Anticholinergic agents are used to treat bladder dysfunction in PD, although these drugs should be used with caution particularly in elderly patients who have cognitive decline. Dietary fibers, laxatives, and “prokinetic” drugs such as serotonergic agonists are used to treat bowel dysfunction in PD. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors are used to treat sexual dysfunction in PD. These treatments might be beneficial in maximizing the patients' quality of life.

  15. Bladder, bowel, and sexual dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, Ryuji; Kishi, Masahiko; Ogawa, Emina; Tateno, Fuyuki; Uchiyama, Tomoyuki; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Yamanishi, Tomonori

    2011-01-01

    Bladder dysfunction (urinary urgency/frequency), bowel dysfunction (constipation), and sexual dysfunction (erectile dysfunction) (also called "pelvic organ" dysfunctions) are common nonmotor disorders in Parkinson's disease (PD). In contrast to motor disorders, pelvic organ autonomic dysfunctions are often nonresponsive to levodopa treatment. The brain pathology causing the bladder dysfunction (appearance of overactivity) involves an altered dopamine-basal ganglia circuit, which normally suppresses the micturition reflex. By contrast, peripheral myenteric pathology causing slowed colonic transit (loss of rectal contractions) and central pathology causing weak strain and paradoxical anal sphincter contraction on defecation (PSD, also called as anismus) are responsible for the bowel dysfunction. In addition, hypothalamic dysfunction is mostly responsible for the sexual dysfunction (decrease in libido and erection) in PD, via altered dopamine-oxytocin pathways, which normally promote libido and erection. The pathophysiology of the pelvic organ dysfunction in PD differs from that in multiple system atrophy; therefore, it might aid in differential diagnosis. Anticholinergic agents are used to treat bladder dysfunction in PD, although these drugs should be used with caution particularly in elderly patients who have cognitive decline. Dietary fibers, laxatives, and "prokinetic" drugs such as serotonergic agonists are used to treat bowel dysfunction in PD. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors are used to treat sexual dysfunction in PD. These treatments might be beneficial in maximizing the patients' quality of life.

  16. Solitary Cystic Metastasis Of Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma: Two Cases Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Tarkan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The appearance of a solitary lateral cervical cystic mass as the only initial presenting symptom of occult thyroid carcinoma is uncommon. Its presence is often related with the more frequently branchial cyst in young adults, but also rarely related with thyroid carcinomas. In most of these cases all such lesions may initially be considered as metastatic foci from a primary thyroid lesion. However, an alternative explanation by means of which ectopic thyroid tissue is associated with a branchial cyst has to be considered, especially if no primary tumour is observed in the histological examination of the thyroid gland. We present two case of solitary cystic lymph node metastasis of occult papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. [Cukurova Med J 2011; 36(1.000: 29-33

  17. Solitary Cystic Metastasis Of Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma: Two Cases Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Tarkan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The appearance of a solitary lateral cervical cystic mass as the only initial presenting symptom of occult thyroid carcinoma is uncommon. Its presence is often related with the more frequently branchial cyst in young adults, but also rarely related with thyroid carcinomas. In most of these cases all such lesions may initially be considered as metastatic foci from a primary thyroid lesion. However, an alternative explanation by means of which ectopic thyroid tissue is associated with a branchial cyst has to be considered, especially if no primary tumour is observed in the histological examination of the thyroid gland. We present two case of solitary cystic lymph node metastasis of occult papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. [Cukurova Med J 2011; 36(1: 29-33

  18. Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma in a thyroid pyramidal lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Kwun Ha

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available

    We report an extremely rare case of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC in the thyroid Epub ahead of print pyramidal lobe (TPL. A 48-year-old woman underwent ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for a small thyroid nodule in the right lobe in local clinic, and it revealed a malignant cytology. On preoperative ultrasonography for tumor staging in our hospital, another small suspiciously malignant hypoechoic nodule was detected in the left TPL. Total thyroidectomy and central nodal dissection were performed. Histopathology confirmed PTMCs in the left TPL and both thyroid lobes. Ultrasonography for TPL should be required for complete evaluation of possible multifocality of thyroid malignancy.

  19. Solid-pseudo papillary tumor of the pancreas: Frantz's tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Bruno Righi Rodrigues de; Moreira, Reni Cecilia Lopes; Campos, Marcelo Esteves Chaves

    2010-01-01

    The pseudo papillary solid tumor of the pancreas, also known as Frantz's tumor, is a rare disease, taking place in approximately 0.17% to 2.7% of non-endocrine tumors of the pancreas. Recently, the increase of its incidence has been noted with more than two-thirds of the total cases described in the last 10 years. A possible explanation is a greater knowledge of the disease and a greater uniformity of conceptualization in the last years. Generally, it affects young adult females. In most of the series, the tumor principally attacks the body and tail of the pancreas. The objective of the present report is to present the diagnostic and therapeutic option used in this rare pancreatic tumor of low-grade malignancy. (author)

  20. Use of a latex biomembrane for bladder augmentation in a rabbit model: biocompatibility, clinical and histological outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre L. A. Domingos

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate histological features and biocompatibility of a latex biomembrane for bladder augmentation using a rabbit model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: After a partial cystectomy, a patch of a non-vulcanized latex biomembrane (2x4 cm was sewn to the bladder with 5/0 monofilament polydioxanone sulfate in a watertight manner. Groups of 5 animals were sacrificed at 15, 45 and 90 days after surgery and the bladder was removed. The 5-µm preparations obtained from grafted area and normal bladder were stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Immunohistochemical staining was performed with a primary antibody against alpha-actin to assess muscle regeneration. RESULTS: No death, urinary leakage or graft extrusion occurred in any group. All bladders showed a spherical shape. Macroscopically, after 90 days, the latex biomembrane was not identifiable and the patch was indistinguishable from normal bladder. A bladder stone was found in one animal (6.6%. On the 90th day, histology revealed continuity of transitional epithelium of host bladder tissue on the patch area. At this time, the muscle layers were well organized in a similar fashion to native bladder muscle layers. The inflammatory process was higher on grafted areas when compared to controls: 15 days - p < 0.0001, 45 days - p < 0.001, and 90 days - p < 0.01. The anti alpha-actin immunoexpression peaked at 45 days, when the graft was observed covered by muscle cells. CONCLUSION: The latex biomembrane is biocompatible and can be used in models for bladder augmentation in rabbits. It promotes epithelium and muscle regeneration without urinary leakage.

  1. SPECT/CT imaging in children with papillary thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hwa-Young; Gelfand, Michael J.; Sharp, Susan E.

    2011-01-01

    SPECT/CT improves localization of single photon-emitting radiopharmaceuticals. To determine the utility of SPECT/CT in children with papillary thyroid carcinoma. 20 SPECT/CT and planar studies were reviewed in 13 children with papillary thyroid carcinoma after total thyroidectomy. Seven studies used I-123 and 13 used I-131, after elevating TSH by T4 deprivation or intramuscular thyrotropin alfa. Eight children had one study and five children had two to four studies. Studies were performed at initial post-total thyroidectomy evaluation, follow-up and after I-131 treatment doses. SPECT/CT was performed with a diagnostic-quality CT unit in 13 studies and a localization-only CT unit in 7. Stimulated thyroglobulin was measured (except in 2 cases with anti-thyroglobulin antibodies). In 13 studies, neck activity was present but poorly localized on planar imaging; all foci of uptake were precisely localized by SPECT/CT. Two additional foci of neck uptake were found on SPECT/CT. SPECT/CT differentiated high neck uptake from facial activity. In six studies (four children), neck uptake was identified as benign by SPECT/CT (three thyroglossal duct remnants, one skin contamination, two by precise anatomical CT localization). In two children, SPECT/CT supported a decision not to treat with I-131. When SPECT/CT was unable to identify focal uptake as benign, stimulated thyroglobulin measurements were valuable. In three of 13 studies with neck uptake, SPECT/CT provided no useful additional information. SPECT/CT precisely localizes neck iodine uptake. In small numbers of patients, treatment is affected. SPECT/CT should be used when available in thyroid carcinoma patients. (orig.)

  2. Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia: magnetic resonance imaging of finger lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Jinkyeong; Kim, Jee-Young [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, St. Vincent' s Hospital, College of Medicine, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Changyoung [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Hospital Pathology, St. Vincent' s Hospital, College of Medicine, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    To describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (IPEH), to identify findings differentiating IPEH of the finger from that of other locations, and to correlate these with pathology. Nineteen patients with 20 I.E. masses of the finger (n = 13) and other locations (n = 7) were evaluated. All patients underwent MRI, and the results were correlated with pathology. Seventeen IPEHs, including all IPEHs of the finger, were located in the subcutis, the three other lesions in the muscle layer. On T1WI, all masses were isointense or slightly hyperintense. IPEHs of the finger (n = 13) revealed focal hyperintense nodules (n = 2) or central hypointensity (n = 2) on T1WI, hypointensity with a hyperintense rim (n = 7), hyperintensity with hypointense nodules (n = 5), or isointensity with a hypointense rim (n = 1) on T2WI, and rim enhancement (n = 5), heterogeneous enhancement with nodular nonenhanced areas (n = 6), peripheral nodular enhancement (n = 1), or no enhancement (n = 1) on gadolinium-enhanced T1WI. IPEHs of other locations (n = 7) demonstrated focal hyperintense nodules (n = 5) on T1WI, hyperintensity with hypointense nodules (n = 5) or heterogeneous signal intensity (n = 2) on T2WI, and rim or rim and septal enhancement (n = 6) or peripheral nodular enhancement (n = 1). Microscopically, IPEHs were composed of thrombi that were hypointense on T2WI and papillary endothelial proliferations that showed T2 hyperintensity and enhancement. MRI of finger IPEH reveals well-demarcated subcutaneous masses with hypointensity or hypointense nodules with peripheral hyperintensity on T2WI, as well as peripheral enhancement. T1 hyperintense nodules, internal heterogeneity on T2WI, and septal enhancement are more common in IPEH of other locations. (orig.)

  3. Urothelial Tumours of the Urinary Bladder: A Histopathological Study of Cystoscopic Biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujan Vaidya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Bladder tumours constitute one of the most common urological conditions. Urothelial (transitional cell carcinoma accounts for 90% of all primary tumours of the bladder. These tumours are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to present the histopathological patterns of urothelial tumours and to determine the grade and stage of these tumours. Methods: This is a 3 year retrospective study of urothelial tumours carried out in the Department of Pathology, Patan Academy of Health Sciences (PAHS, Lalitpur, Nepal. Data of all cystoscopic biopsies collected during this period were analyzed. Results: Urothelial (transitional cell tumours accounted for 97.59% (81 cases of all bladder tumours. Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC was the most common tumour which was present in 67 cases (80.72%. Of these, 32 (47.76% were low grade TCC while 35 (52.24% were high grade TCC. Maximum number of tumours (70.37% were superficial (pTa and pT1 while (29.63% were muscle invasive (pT2. Sixteen percent of low grade and 76.92% of high grade tumours showed muscle invasion. Detrusor muscle was absent in 23.88% cases (16/67. Conclusion: Transitional cell carcinoma was the most common bladder cancer. Most of these tumours were high grade. A large percentage of high grade carcinomas presented with muscle invasion. Pathological grade and muscle invasion are the most valuable prognostic predictors of survival. The importance of including smooth muscle in the biopsy specimens needs to be emphasized Key words: cancer, high grade, low grade, transitional, tumour, urinary bladder.

  4. Lung papillary adenocarcinoma complicated with paraneoplastic autoimmune hemolytic anemia: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Limin; Wang, Huaquan; Qu, Wen; Fang, Fang; Dong, Qi-e; Shao, Zonghong

    2014-01-01

    A middle-aged woman presented at our facility and was diagnosed after surgery with lung papillary adenocarcinoma. Seven years earlier, she had suffered from autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA), which was refractory. Following lung surgery, the AIHA was cured.

  5. Intravascular Papillary Endothelial Hyperplasia Associated with Venous Pool Arising in the Lower Lip: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisanobu Yonezawa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia is a benign nonneoplastic vascular lesion that consists of endothelial cells with abundant vascular tissue with papillary proliferation. An adult female had a painless growing dark red nodule on the left side of the lower lip and often touched and gnawed at it for more than 4 years. The lesion was a tender, smooth mass approximately 1 cm in diameter without discoloration reaction. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lesion showed specific findings. She was diagnosed clinically as having mimicked hemangioma, and the lesion was totally excised under local anesthesia. Histopathological examination revealed that papillary proliferated endothelial cells with venous pool, and the lesion was diagnosed as intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia associated with venous pool. There has been no recurrence for more than 1 year. Despite the benign nature of this lesion, it could have been mistaken for a malignant tumor because of its clinical course and radiologic findings.

  6. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for bile duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms

    OpenAIRE

    Ying, Shi-Hong; Teng, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Zhao-Ming; Wang, Qi-Dong; Zhao, Yi-Lei; Chen, Feng; Xiao, Wen-Bo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the bile duct (IPMN-B).

  7. Cytomorphologic features of papillary lesions of the male breast: a study of 11 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid-Nicholson, Michelle D; Tong, Guoxia; Cangiarella, Joan F; Moreira, Andre L

    2006-08-25

    Breast masses occur in men far less commonly than women and are infrequently subjected to fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy. Papillary lesions of the male breast are rare and are comprised of a spectrum of lesions ranging from papillary hyperplasia in gynecomastia to invasive papillary carcinoma. The following study describes the cytomorphology of papillary breast lesions in 11 men. The patients ranged in age from 23 to 78 years old and each presented with an unilateral subareolar or periareolar breast mass that varied in size from 0.5 to 3 cm. Two patients presented with bloody nipple discharge. Archival material (8-year period) from FNA biopsies of papillary lesions of the male breast was reviewed. The reviewed cases were correlated with appropriate clinicopathologic follow-up. The smears had variable cellularity but all showed papillary clusters of mammary epithelial cells with and without fibrovascular cores. Single epithelial cells with a high nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio and eccentric nuclei were seen in all smears; however, these were more numerous in cases of adenocarcinoma. Hemosiderin-laden macrophages were present in all cases. Nipple discharge was seen only in the 2 benign lesions. All adenocarcinomas occurred in older men. The only cytologic criteria that differentiated benign from malignant papillary lesions were marked cellularity and the presence of abundant 3-dimensional clusters. To the best of the authors' knowledge, the current series is the largest in the English literature to date that examines the cytomorphologic features of papillary breast lesions in men. Copyright 2006 American Cancer Society.

  8. Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical characterization of papillary proliferation of the endometrium: A single institutional experience

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Cheol Keun; Yoon, Gun; Cho, Yoon Ah; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Papillary proliferation of the endometrium is an unusual lesion that is composed of papillae with fibrovascular stromal cores covered with benign-appearing glandular epithelium. We studied the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features of four cases of endometrial papillary proliferations. All patients were postmenopausal. Two lesions were incidental findings in hysterectomy specimens, and two lesions were detected in endometrial curettage specimens. Based on the degree of architect...

  9. The imunocytochemical advances in prognosis of metastasis radioiodine resistant of papillary thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelyins'ka, G.V.

    2015-01-01

    The topical issues is the problem of prognosis of metastasis radioiodine resistant metastasis. We offered the methods of prognosis of metastasis radioiodine resistant of papillary thyroid carcinoma with the help of immunocytochemical detection of the cytokeratin 17 and thyroid peroxidase. With the purpose of prognosis of metastasis radioiodine resistibility the cytokeratin 17 is taped in punctates of primary papillary carcinomas. This approach allows predict response of metastases on radioiodine therapy to choose proper therapeutic approach

  10. Intracystic Papillary Carcinoma in the Male Breast: A Rare Endpoint of a Wide Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketan Vagholkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Fibrocystic disease of the male breast is uncommon. The presence of a spectrum of changes ranging from fibrocystic disease to duct papilloma to papillary carcinoma in the same patient renders the case a rarity and therefore reportable. Case Report. A case of intracystic papillary carcinoma of the male breast is presented. Discussion. The pathological, clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic options are discussed after reviewing the literature. Conclusion. Modified radical mastectomy with axillary clearance is the safest option for established cases.

  11. Aberrantly methylated genes in human papillary thyroid cancer and their association with BRAF/RAS mutation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuko eKikuchi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer arises through accumulation of epigenetic and genetic alteration. Aberrant promoter methylation is a common epigenetic mechanism of gene silencing in cancer cells. We here performed genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation of promoter regions by Infinium HumanMethylation27 BeadChip, using 14 clinical papillary thyroid cancer samples and 10 normal thyroid samples. Among the 14 papillary cancer cases, 11 showed frequent aberrant methylation, but the other three cases showed no aberrant methylation at all. Distribution of the hypermethylation among cancer samples was non-random, which implied existence of a subset of preferentially methylated papillary thyroid cancer. Among 25 frequently methylated genes, methylation status of six genes (HIST1H3J, POU4F2, SHOX2, PHKG2, TLX3, HOXA7 was validated quantitatively by pyrosequencing. Epigenetic silencing of these genes in methylated papillary thyroid cancer cell lines was confirmed by gene re-expression following treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and trichostatin A, and detected by real-time RT-PCR. Methylation of these six genes was validated by analysis of additional 20 papillary thyroid cancer and 10 normal samples. Among the 34 cancer samples in total, 26 cancer samples with preferential methylation were significantly associated with mutation of BRAF/RAS oncogene (P=0.04, Fisher’s exact test. Thus we identified new genes with frequent epigenetic hypermethylation in papillary thyroid cancer, two subsets of either preferentially methylated or hardly methylated papillary thyroid cancer, with a concomitant occurrence of oncogene mutation and gene methylation. These hypermethylated genes may constitute potential biomarkers for papillary thyroid cancer.

  12. Bladder extension variability during pelvic external beam radiotherapy with a full or empty bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkawa, Michael; Asadpour, Branka; Siluschek, Jaroslav; Gagel, Bernd; Piroth, Marc D.; Demirel, Cengiz; Eble, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Varying bladder fillings during radiotherapy lead to a changing dose-volume load to the bladder and adjacent structures. The aim of the study was to compare the extent of bladder wall movements during parallel series with full bladder (FB) and empty bladder (EB). Materials and methods: Three hundred and forty serial computed tomography (CT) scans were performed in 50 patients scheduled for primary and postoperative radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Each patient underwent two CT scans (with FB and EB) before and 2-3 times during radiotherapy. Displacements of the bladder wall were compared and correlated with changing bladder fillings. Results: The variability of FB was larger compared to EB volume (standard deviation of 124cc and 56cc; p < 0.01), but significant bladder wall displacement variabilities were only found at the anterior and superior borders. Within a bladder volume range between -100 and +200 ml relative to the FB planning scan, the mean bladder wall displacement remained <5 mm at the inferior, lateral, and posterior borders - as opposed to 15 and 21 mm at the anterior and superior borders. Conclusions: Treating the pelvis with EB compared to FB, bladder wall displacement can be only reduced at the superior and anterior borders. FB wall displacements are comparable with EB displacements at all other borders

  13. Small cardiac lesions: fibrosis of papillary muscles and focal cardiac myocytolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steer, A [Hijiyanna Park, Hiroshima JP; Nakashima, N; Kawashima, T; Lee, K K; Danzig, M D; Robertson, T L; Dock, D S

    1977-11-01

    Three types of small cardiac lesions were described and illustrated: (1) focal type of papillary muscle fibrosis, evidently a healed infarct of the papillary muscle present in 13% of the autopsies, is a histologically characteristic lesion associated with coronary artery disease and healed myocardial infarction; (2) diffuse type of papillary muscle fibrosis, probably an aging change present in almost half of the autopsies, is associated with sclerosis of the arteries in the papillary muscle, is identifiable histologically; and apparently is not associated with any cardiac abnormality; and (3) focal cardiac myocytolysis, a unique histologic lesion, usually multifocal without predilection for any area of the heart, is associated with ischemic heart disease, death due to cancer complicated by non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis and microthrombi in small cardiac arteries as well as with other diseases. Differentiation of the 2 types of papillary muscle fibrosis is important in the study of papillary muscle and mitral valve dysfunction. Focal cardiac myocytolysis may contribute to the fatal extension of myocardial infarcts.

  14. Small cardiac lesions: fibrosis of papillary muscles and focal cardiac myocytolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steer, A; Nakashima, T; Kawashima, T; Lee, K K; Danzig, M D; Robertson, T L; Dock, D S

    1977-11-01

    Three types of small cardiac lesions were described and illustrated: (1) focal type of papillary muscle fibrosis, evidently a healed infarct of the papillary muscle present in 13% of the autopsies, is a histologically characteristic lesion associated with coronary artery disease and healed myocardial infarction, (2) diffuse type of papillary muscle fibrosis, probably an aging change present in almost half of the autopsies, is associated with sclerosis of the arteries in the papillary muscle, is identifiable histologically, and apparently is not associated with any cardiac abnormality, and (3) focal cardiac myochtolysis, a unique histologic lesion, usually multifocal without predilection for any area of the heart, is associated with ischemic heart disease, death due to cancer complicated by nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis and microthrombi in small cardiac arteries as well as with other diseases. Differentiation of the 2 types of papillary muscle fibrosis is important in the study of papillary muscle and mitral valve dysfunction. Focal cardiac myocytolysis may contribute to the fatal extension of myocardial infarcts.

  15. Bladder pressure sensors in an animal model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koldewijn, E. L.; van Kerrebroeck, P. E.; Schaafsma, E.; Wijkstra, H.; Debruyne, F. M.; Brindley, G. S.

    1994-01-01

    Urinary incontinence due to detrusor hyperreflexia might be inhibited on demand if changes in bladder pressure could be detected by sensors and transferred into pudendal nerve electrostimulation. The aim of this study is to investigate how the bladder wall reacts on different sensor implants.

  16. NEOADJUVANT RADIOTHERAPY FOR BLADDER CARCINOMA IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective To evaluate the impact of preoperative accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy in the management of bladder carcinoma in Egyptian patients. Patients and Methods Between December 1996 and February 2000, 104 Egyptian patients with pathologically proven infiltrative bladder carcinoma were enrolled in ...

  17. Advances in immunotherapy for bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jiyu; Chen Lijun

    2009-01-01

    The conventional treatments for bladder cancer, including surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, are highly invasive and bring about lots of side effects. Immunotherapy has become a promising strategy for the treatment of malignant tumors. This review presents the research advances in immunotherapy of bladder cancer. (authors)

  18. Bladder exstrophy associated with complete urethral duplication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J.E. Mensah

    ees.elsevier.com/afju · www.sciencedirect.com. Case report. Bladder exstrophy associated with complete urethral duplication: Bladder can be augmented with dorsal urethral mucosa. J.E. Mensaha,∗. , K.N. Ampadua, M.Y. Kyeia, B. Edusieb.

  19. Squamous cell carcinoma in bladder extrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Cabral-Ribeiro, J; Silva, C; Sousa, L; Pérez García, D; Ribeiro dos Santos, A

    2005-01-01

    Bladder extrophy is a rare congenital malformation that nowadays is surgically corrected in neonatal period. We present a case report of a 71-year-old male with a verrucous squamous cell carcinoma arising in a classical uncorrected form of bladder extrophy.

  20. Neurogenic bladder in spinal cord injury patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Taweel W

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Waleed Al Taweel, Raouf SeyamDepartment of Urology, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Neurogenic bladder dysfunction due to spinal cord injury poses a significant threat to the well-being of patients. Incontinence, renal impairment, urinary tract infection, stones, and poor quality of life are some complications of this condition. The majority of patients will require management to ensure low pressure reservoir function of the bladder, complete emptying, and dryness. Management typically begins with anticholinergic medications and clean intermittent catheterization. Patients who fail this treatment because of inefficacy or intolerability are candidates for a spectrum of more invasive procedures. Endoscopic managements to relieve the bladder outlet resistance include sphincterotomy, botulinum toxin injection, and stent insertion. In contrast, patients with incompetent sphincters are candidates for transobturator tape insertion, sling surgery, or artificial sphincter implantation. Coordinated bladder emptying is possible with neuromodulation in selected patients. Bladder augmentation, usually with an intestinal segment, and urinary diversion are the last resort. Tissue engineering is promising in experimental settings; however, its role in clinical bladder management is still evolving. In this review, we summarize the current literature pertaining to the pathology and management of neurogenic bladder dysfunction in patients with spinal cord injury.Keywords: neurogenic bladder, spinal cord injury, urodynamics, intestine, intermittent catheterization

  1. Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmström, Per-Uno; Agrawal, Sachin; Bläckberg, Mats

    2017-01-01

    The management of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) has evolved from the first reports on bladder endoscopy and transurethral resection to the introduction of adjuvant intravesical treatment. However, disease recurrence and progression remain an ongoing risk, placing a heavy burden...

  2. Bladder dysfunction in advanced Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winge, Kristian; Nielsen, Kurt K

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) patients often have lower urinary tract symptoms. Seventy-four percent of patients with early-to-moderate disease report more than one bladder disturbance symptom. Severe bladder symptoms are reported in 27-39% of PD patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate...

  3. Transient neuropathic bladder following herpes simplex genitalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehle, R A; Williams, J J

    1979-08-01

    A case of transient bladder dysfunction and urinary retention concomitant with herpes genitalis is presented. The protean manifestations of the herpes simplex virus, the similar neurotropic behavior of simplex and zoster, and the neurologic sequelae of the cutaneous simplex eruption are discussed. The possibility of sacral radiculopathy after herpes genitalis must be considered when evaluating acute or episodic neurogenic bladders.

  4. Neuropathic bladder in the neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Michael C

    2014-09-01

    The management of infants born with myelomeningocele depends on understanding how their bladder stores and empties urine. Storage at low pressure with effective emptying periodically throughout the day is the goal. Intervention is designed to impact on one or both of these processes so that infants can remain infection-free and at the same time allow for appropriate renal growth over time. Urodynamic evaluation plays an important role, so that neonates can be stratified according to their risk. Most patients require intermittent catheterization and pharmacotherapy to achieve these goals at some point in their lives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Danish Bladder Cancer Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansen E

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Erik Hansen,1–3 Heidi Larsson,4 Mette Nørgaard,4 Peter Thind,3,5 Jørgen Bjerggaard Jensen1–3 1Department of Urology, Hospital of West Jutland-Holstebro, Holstebro, 2Department of Urology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 3The Danish Bladder Cancer Database Group, 4Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 5Department of Urology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark Aim of database: The aim of the Danish Bladder Cancer Database (DaBlaCa-data is to monitor the treatment of all patients diagnosed with invasive bladder cancer (BC in Denmark. Study population: All patients diagnosed with BC in Denmark from 2012 onward were included in the study. Results presented in this paper are predominantly from the 2013 population. Main variables: In 2013, 970 patients were diagnosed with BC in Denmark and were included in a preliminary report from the database. A total of 458 (47% patients were diagnosed with non-muscle-invasive BC (non-MIBC and 512 (53% were diagnosed with muscle-invasive BC (MIBC. A total of 300 (31% patients underwent cystectomy. Among the 135 patients diagnosed with MIBC, who were 75 years of age or younger, 67 (50% received neoadjuvent chemotherapy prior to cystectomy. In 2013, a total of 147 patients were treated with curative-intended radiation therapy. Descriptive data: One-year mortality was 28% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15–21. One-year cancer-specific mortality was 25% (95% CI: 22–27%. One-year mortality after cystectomy was 14% (95% CI: 10–18. Ninety-day mortality after cystectomy was 3% (95% CI: 1–5 in 2013. One-year mortality following curative-intended radiation therapy was 32% (95% CI: 24–39 and 1-year cancer-specific mortality was 23% (95% CI: 16–31 in 2013. Conclusion: This preliminary DaBlaCa-data report showed that the treatment of MIBC in Denmark overall meet high international academic standards. The database is able to identify Danish BC patients and

  6. Computer-assisted bladder cancer grading: α-shapes for color space decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, M. K. K.; Parwani, Anil V.; Gurcan, Metin N.

    2016-03-01

    According to American Cancer Society, around 74,000 new cases of bladder cancer are expected during 2015 in the US. To facilitate the bladder cancer diagnosis, we present an automatic method to differentiate carcinoma in situ (CIS) from normal/reactive cases that will work on hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) stained images of bladder. The method automatically determines the color deconvolution matrix by utilizing the α-shapes of the color distribution in the RGB color space. Then, variations in the boundary of transitional epithelium are quantified, and sizes of nuclei in the transitional epithelium are measured. We also approximate the "nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio" by computing the ratio of the average shortest distance between transitional epithelium and nuclei to average nuclei size. Nuclei homogeneity is measured by computing the kurtosis of the nuclei size histogram. The results show that 30 out of 34 (88.2%) images were correctly classified by the proposed method, indicating that these novel features are viable markers to differentiate CIS from normal/reactive bladder.

  7. Automatic bladder segmentation on CBCT for multiple plan ART of bladder cancer using a patient-specific bladder model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiangfei, Chai; Hulshof, Maarten; Bel, Arjan [Department of Radiotherapy, Academic medical Center, University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Van Herk, Marcel; Betgen, Anja [Department of Radiotherapy, The Netherlands Cancer Institute/Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, 1066 CX, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-06-21

    In multiple plan adaptive radiotherapy (ART) strategies of bladder cancer, a library of plans corresponding to different bladder volumes is created based on images acquired in early treatment sessions. Subsequently, the plan for the smallest PTV safely covering the bladder on cone-beam CT (CBCT) is selected as the plan of the day. The aim of this study is to develop an automatic bladder segmentation approach suitable for CBCT scans and test its ability to select the appropriate plan from the library of plans for such an ART procedure. Twenty-three bladder cancer patients with a planning CT and on average 11.6 CBCT scans were included in our study. For each patient, all CBCT scans were matched to the planning CT on bony anatomy. Bladder contours were manually delineated for each planning CT (for model building) and CBCT (for model building and validation). The automatic segmentation method consisted of two steps. A patient-specific bladder deformation model was built from the training data set of each patient (the planning CT and the first five CBCT scans). Then, the model was applied to automatically segment bladders in the validation data of the same patient (the remaining CBCT scans). Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the training data to model patient-specific bladder deformation patterns. The number of PCA modes for each patient was chosen such that the bladder shapes in the training set could be represented by such number of PCA modes with less than 0.1 cm mean residual error. The automatic segmentation started from the bladder shape of a reference CBCT, which was adjusted by changing the weight of each PCA mode. As a result, the segmentation contour was deformed consistently with the training set to fit the bladder in the validation image. A cost function was defined by the absolute difference between the directional gradient field of reference CBCT sampled on the corresponding bladder contour and the directional gradient field of validation

  8. Automatic bladder segmentation on CBCT for multiple plan ART of bladder cancer using a patient-specific bladder model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Xiangfei; Hulshof, Maarten; Bel, Arjan; Van Herk, Marcel; Betgen, Anja

    2012-01-01

    In multiple plan adaptive radiotherapy (ART) strategies of bladder cancer, a library of plans corresponding to different bladder volumes is created based on images acquired in early treatment sessions. Subsequently, the plan for the smallest PTV safely covering the bladder on cone-beam CT (CBCT) is selected as the plan of the day. The aim of this study is to develop an automatic bladder segmentation approach suitable for CBCT scans and test its ability to select the appropriate plan from the library of plans for such an ART procedure. Twenty-three bladder cancer patients with a planning CT and on average 11.6 CBCT scans were included in our study. For each patient, all CBCT scans were matched to the planning CT on bony anatomy. Bladder contours were manually delineated for each planning CT (for model building) and CBCT (for model building and validation). The automatic segmentation method consisted of two steps. A patient-specific bladder deformation model was built from the training data set of each patient (the planning CT and the first five CBCT scans). Then, the model was applied to automatically segment bladders in the validation data of the same patient (the remaining CBCT scans). Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the training data to model patient-specific bladder deformation patterns. The number of PCA modes for each patient was chosen such that the bladder shapes in the training set could be represented by such number of PCA modes with less than 0.1 cm mean residual error. The automatic segmentation started from the bladder shape of a reference CBCT, which was adjusted by changing the weight of each PCA mode. As a result, the segmentation contour was deformed consistently with the training set to fit the bladder in the validation image. A cost function was defined by the absolute difference between the directional gradient field of reference CBCT sampled on the corresponding bladder contour and the directional gradient field of validation

  9. NKG2D is a key receptor for recognition of bladder cancer cells by IL-2-activated NK cells and BCG promotes NK cell activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva María García-Cuesta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Intravesical instillation of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG is used to treat superficial bladder cancer, either papillary tumors (after trans-urethral resection or high-grade flat carcinomas (carcinoma in situ, reducing recurrence in about 70% of patients. Initially, BCG was proposed to work through an inflammatory response, mediated by phagocytic uptake of mycobacterial antigens and cytokine release. More recently, other immune effectors such as monocytes, Natural Killer (NK and NKT cells have been suggested to play a role in this immune response. Here, we provide a comprehensive study of multiple bladder cancer cell lines as putative targets for immune cells and evaluated their recognition by NK cells in the presence and absence of BCG. We describe that different bladder cancer cells can express multiple activating and inhibitory ligands for NK cells. Recognition of bladder cancer cells depended mainly on NKG2D, with a contribution from NKp46. Surprisingly, exposure to BCG did not affect the immune phenotype of bladder cells nor increased NK cell recognition of purified IL-2-activated cell lines. However, NK cells were activated efficiently when BCG was included in mixed lymphocyte cultures, suggesting that NK activation after mycobacteria treatment requires the collaboration of various immune cells. We also analyzed the percentage of NK cells in peripheral blood of a cohort of bladder cancer patients treated with BCG. The total numbers of NK cells did not vary during treatment, indicating that a more detailed study of NK cell activation in the tumor site will be required to evaluate the response in each patient.

  10. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder diverticulum: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xu Dong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is very rare. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a mass with swiftly aggressive and metastatic, and with a poor prognosis. Due to its scarcity, no forward-looking researches assessing the most effective treatment have been issued in the medical literature. It can happen either in connection with urothelial (transitional cell carcinoma or in a pure form. Its treatment should include surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In this article,we report a case occurring in a mixed form in the urinary bladder diverticulum and we concisely review the published literature with respect to the clinical manifestation, pathology,differential diagnosis, treatment and prognosis.

  11. The Danish Bladder Cancer Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Erik; Larsson, Heidi Jeanet; Nørgaard, Mette

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The aim of the Danish Bladder Cancer Database (DaBlaCa-data) is to monitor the treatment of all patients diagnosed with invasive bladder cancer (BC) in Denmark. STUDY POPULATION: All patients diagnosed with BC in Denmark from 2012 onward were included in the study. Results......-intended radiation therapy. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: One-year mortality was 28% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15-21). One-year cancer-specific mortality was 25% (95% CI: 22-27%). One-year mortality after cystectomy was 14% (95% CI: 10-18). Ninety-day mortality after cystectomy was 3% (95% CI: 1-5) in 2013. One......-year mortality following curative-intended radiation therapy was 32% (95% CI: 24-39) and 1-year cancer-specific mortality was 23% (95% CI: 16-31) in 2013. CONCLUSION: This preliminary DaBlaCa-data report showed that the treatment of MIBC in Denmark overall meet high international academic standards. The database...

  12. Lymphoma of the Urinary Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Kodzo-Grey Venyo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lymphoma of the urinary bladder (LUB is rare. Aims. To review the literature on LUB. Methods. Various internet databases were used. Results. LUB can be either primary or secondary. The tumour has female predominance; most cases occur in middle-age women. Secondary LUB occurs in 10% to 25% of leukemias/lymphomas and in advanced-stage systemic lymphoma. Less than 100 cases have been reported. MALT typically affects adults older than 60 years; 75% are female. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is also common and may arise from transformation of MALT. LUB presents with haematuria, dysuria, urinary frequency, nocturia, and abdominal or back pain. Macroscopic examination of LUBs show large discrete tumours centred in the dome or lateral walls of the bladder. Positive staining of LUB varies by the subtype of lymphoma; B-cell lymphomas are CD20 positive. MALT lymphoma is positively stained for CD20, CD19, and FMC7 and negatively stained for CD5, CD10, and CD11c. LUB stains negatively with Pan-keratin, vimentin, CK20, and CK7. MALT lymphoma exhibits t(11; 18(q21: 21. Radiotherapy is an effective treatment for the MALT type of LUB with no recurrence. Conclusions. LUB is diagnosed by its characteristic morphology and immunohistochemical characteristics. Radiotherapy is a useful treatment.

  13. Prognostic factors in invasive bladder carcinoma treated by combined modality protocol (organ-sparing approach)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, Tadeja; Cufer, Tanja; Cervek, Jozica; Borstnar, Simona; Kragelj, Borut; Zumer-Pregelj, Mirjana

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The results of bladder sparing approach for the treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer, using a combination of transurethral resection (TUR), chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, are encouraging. The survival of patients treated by this method is similar to the survival of patients treated by radical cystectomy. The aim of our study was to find out which pretreatment characteristics influence the survival of patients treated by organ sparing approach that would enable us to identify the patients most suitable for this type of treatment. Methods and Materials: The prognostic value of different factors, such as age, gender, performance status, hemoglobin level, clinical stage, histologic grade, presence of obstructive uropathy, and completeness of TUR, has been studied in 105 patients with invasive bladder cancer, who received a bladder sparing treatment in the period from 1988 to 1995. They were treated with a combination of TUR, followed by 2-4 cycles of methotrexate, cisplatinum, and vinblastine polychemotherapy. In complete responders the treatment was completed by radiotherapy (50 Gy to the bladder and 40 Gy to the regional lymph nodes), whereas nonresponders underwent cystectomy whenever feasible. Results: Our study has confirmed an independent prognostic value of performance status, histologic grade, and obstructive uropathy, for the disease-specific survival (DSS) of bladder cancer patients treated by a conservative approach. We believe that performance status best reflects the extent of disease and exerts significant influence on the extent and course of treatment, while obstructive uropathy is a good indicator of local spread of the disease, better than clinical T-stage. Our finding that histologic grade is one of the strongest prognostic factors shows that tumor biology also is a very important prognostic factor in patients treated by conservative approach. Conclusion: Patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer who are most likely to benefit

  14. Near infrared imaging to identify sentinel lymph nodes in invasive urinary bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Deborah W.; Adams, Larry G.; Niles, Jacqueline D.; Lucroy, Michael D.; Ramos-Vara, Jose; Bonney, Patty L.; deGortari, Amalia E.; Frangioni, John V.

    2006-02-01

    Approximately 12,000 people are diagnosed with invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (InvTCC) each year in the United States. Surgical removal of the bladder (cystectomy) and regional lymph node dissection are considered frontline therapy. Cystectomy causes extensive acute morbidity, and 50% of patients with InvTCC have occult metastases at the time of diagnosis. Better staging procedures for InvTCC are greatly needed. This study was performed to evaluate an intra-operative near infrared fluorescence imaging (NIRF) system (Frangioni laboratory) for identifying sentinel lymph nodes draining InvTCC. NIRF imaging was used to map lymph node drainage from specific quadrants of the urinary bladder in normal dogs and pigs, and to map lymph node drainage from naturally-occurring InvTCC in pet dogs where the disease closely mimics the human condition. Briefly, during surgery NIR fluorophores (human serum albumen-fluorophore complex, or quantum dots) were injected directly into the bladder wall, and fluorescence observed in lymphatics and regional nodes. Conditions studied to optimize the procedure including: type of fluorophore, depth of injection, volume of fluorophore injected, and degree of bladder distention at the time of injection. Optimal imaging occurred with very superficial injection of the fluorophore in the serosal surface of the moderately distended bladder. Considerable variability was noted from dog to dog in the pattern of lymph node drainage. NIR fluorescence was noted in lymph nodes with metastases in dogs with InvTCC. In conclusion, intra-operative NIRF imaging is a promising approach to improve sentinel lymph node mapping in invasive urinary bladder cancer.

  15. A Non-Invasive Bladder Sensory Test Supports a Role for Dysmenorrhea Increasing Bladder Noxious Mechanosensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    TU, Frank F.; EPSTEIN, Aliza E.; POZOLO, Kristen E.; SEXTON, Debra L.; MELNYK, Alexandra I.; HELLMAN, Kevin M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Catheterization to measure bladder sensitivity is aversive and hinders human participation in visceral sensory research. Therefore, we sought to characterize the reliability of sonographically-estimated female bladder sensory thresholds. To demonstrate this technique’s usefulness, we examined the effects of self-reported dysmenorrhea on bladder pain thresholds. Methods Bladder sensory threshold volumes were determined during provoked natural diuresis in 49 healthy women (mean age 24 ± 8) using three-dimensional ultrasound. Cystometric thresholds (Vfs – first sensation, Vfu – first urge, Vmt – maximum tolerance) were quantified and related to bladder urgency and pain. We estimated reliability (one-week retest and interrater). Self-reported menstrual pain was examined in relationship to bladder pain, urgency and volume thresholds. Results Average bladder sensory thresholds (mLs) were Vfs (160±100), Vfu (310±130), and Vmt (500±180). Interrater reliability ranged from 0.97–0.99. One-week retest reliability was Vmt = 0.76 (95% CI 0.64–0.88), Vfs = 0.62 (95% CI 0.44–0.80), and Vfu = 0.63, (95% CI 0.47–0.80). Bladder filling rate correlated with all thresholds (r = 0.53–0.64, p dysmenorrhea pain had increased bladder pain and urgency at Vfs and increased pain at Vfu (p’s dysmenorrhea pain was unrelated to bladder capacity. Discussion Sonographic estimates of bladder sensory thresholds were reproducible and reliable. In these healthy volunteers, dysmenorrhea was associated with increased bladder pain and urgency during filling but unrelated to capacity. Plausibly, dysmenorrhea sufferers may exhibit enhanced visceral mechanosensitivity, increasing their risk to develop chronic bladder pain syndromes. PMID:23370073

  16. Complex bladder-exstrophy-epispadias management: Causes of failure of initial bladder closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouame Dibi Bertin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of the initial closure of the complex bladder-exstrophy remains a challenge in pediatric surgery. This study describes a personal experience of the causes of failure of the initial closure and operative morbidity during the surgical treatment of bladder-exstrophy complex. From April 2000 to March 2014, four patients aged 16 days to 7 years and 5 months underwent complex exstrophy-epispadias repair with pelvic osteotomies. There were three males and one female. Three of them had posterior pelvic osteotomy, one had anterior innominate osteotomy. Bladder Closure: Bladder closure was performed in three layers. Our first patient had initial bladder closure with polyglactin 4/0 (Vicryl ® 4/0, concerning the last three patients, initial bladder closure was performed with polydioxanone 4/0 (PDS ® 4/0. The bladder was repaired leaving the urethral stent and ureteral stents for full urinary drainage for three patients. In one case, only urethral stent was left, ureteral drainage was not possible, because stents sizes were more important than the ureteral diameter. Out of a total of four patients, initial bladder closure was completely achieved for three patients. At the immediate postoperative follow-up, two patients presented a complete disunion of the abdominal wall and bladder despite an appropriate postoperative care. The absorbable braided silk (polyglactin used for the bladder closure was considered as the main factor in the failure of the bladder closure. The second cause of failure of the initial bladder closure was the incomplete urine drainage, ureteral catheterisation was not possible because the catheters sizes were too large compared with the diameters of the ureters. The failure of the initial bladder-exstrophy closure may be reduced by a closure with an absorbable monofilament silk and efficient urine drainage via ureteral catheterisation.

  17. Layer-dependent role of collagen recruitment during loading of the rat bladder wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fangzhou; Birder, Lori A; Kullmann, F Aura; Hornsby, Jack; Watton, Paul N; Watkins, Simon; Thompson, Mark; Robertson, Anne M

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we re-evaluated long-standing conjectures as to the source of the exceptionally large compliance of the bladder wall. Whereas these conjectures were based on indirect measures of loading mechanisms, in this work we take advantage of advances in bioimaging to directly assess collagen fibers and wall architecture during biaxial loading. A custom biaxial mechanical testing system compatible with multiphoton microscopy was used to directly measure the layer-dependent collagen fiber recruitment in bladder tissue from 9 male Fischer rats (4 adult and 5 aged). As for other soft tissues, the bladder loading curve was exponential in shape and could be divided into toe, transition and high stress regimes. The relationship between collagen recruitment and loading curves was evaluated in the context of the inner (lamina propria) and outer (detrusor smooth muscle) layers. The large extensibility of the bladder was found to be possible due to folds in the wall (rugae) that provide a mechanism for low resistance flattening without any discernible recruitment of collagen fibers throughout the toe regime. For more extensible bladders, as the loading extended into the transition regime, a gradual coordinated recruitment of collagen fibers between the lamina propria layer and detrusor smooth muscle layer was found. A second important finding was that wall extensibility could be lost by premature recruitment of collagen in the outer wall that cut short the toe region. This change was correlated with age. This work provides, for the first time, a mechanistic understanding of the role of collagen recruitment in determining bladder extensibility and capacitance.

  18. Laparoscopic Transvesical Resection of an En Bloc Bladder Cuff and Distal Ureter during Nephroureterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stilianos Giannakopoulos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The most appropriate technique for excising the distal ureter and bladder cuff during laparoscopic nephroureterectomy is still debated. We report our experience with a pure laparoscopic transvesical method that duplicates the long-standing open transvesical approach. Materials and Methods. Seven men and three women diagnosed with upper tract transitional cell carcinoma were treated with this procedure. Three intravesical ports were inserted, and pneumovesicum was established at 12 mmHg. Transvesical laparoscopic circumferential detachment of the bladder cuff and en bloc mobilization of the last centimeters of the distal ureter were performed, followed by the closure of the bladder defect. Subsequently, a nephrectomy was performed either laparoscopically or using an open flank approach. Results. The median age was 68.5 years. The procedure was completed uneventfully in all cases. The median operating time for distal ureter excision was 82.5 minutes (range 55–120. No complications directly related to the pneumovesicum method were recorded. The median follow-up period was 31 months (range 12–55. During the follow-up period, two patients (20% died from the disease, and a bladder tumor developed in three cases (30%. Conclusion. The laparoscopic transvesical resection of the en bloc bladder cuff and distal ureter is a reliable, effective, and oncologically safe technique, at least in the midterm.

  19. Whole-genome sequencing identifies genomic heterogeneity at a nucleotide and chromosomal level in bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Carl D.; Liu, Pengyuan; Woloszynska-Read, Anna; Zhang, Jianmin; Luo, Wei; Qin, Maochun; Bshara, Wiam; Conroy, Jeffrey M.; Sabatini, Linda; Vedell, Peter; Xiong, Donghai; Liu, Song; Wang, Jianmin; Shen, He; Li, Yinwei; Omilian, Angela R.; Hill, Annette; Head, Karen; Guru, Khurshid; Kunnev, Dimiter; Leach, Robert; Eng, Kevin H.; Darlak, Christopher; Hoeflich, Christopher; Veeranki, Srividya; Glenn, Sean; You, Ming; Pruitt, Steven C.; Johnson, Candace S.; Trump, Donald L.

    2014-01-01

    Using complete genome analysis, we sequenced five bladder tumors accrued from patients with muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (TCC-UB) and identified a spectrum of genomic aberrations. In three tumors, complex genotype changes were noted. All three had tumor protein p53 mutations and a relatively large number of single-nucleotide variants (SNVs; average of 11.2 per megabase), structural variants (SVs; average of 46), or both. This group was best characterized by chromothripsis and the presence of subclonal populations of neoplastic cells or intratumoral mutational heterogeneity. Here, we provide evidence that the process of chromothripsis in TCC-UB is mediated by nonhomologous end-joining using kilobase, rather than megabase, fragments of DNA, which we refer to as “stitchers,” to repair this process. We postulate that a potential unifying theme among tumors with the more complex genotype group is a defective replication–licensing complex. A second group (two bladder tumors) had no chromothripsis, and a simpler genotype, WT tumor protein p53, had relatively few SNVs (average of 5.9 per megabase) and only a single SV. There was no evidence of a subclonal population of neoplastic cells. In this group, we used a preclinical model of bladder carcinoma cell lines to study a unique SV (translocation and amplification) of the gene glutamate receptor ionotropic N-methyl D-aspertate as a potential new therapeutic target in bladder cancer. PMID:24469795

  20. Urinary bladder tumors among atomic bomb survivors Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1961-1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanefuji, Hayato; Ishimaru, Toranosuke.

    1980-03-01

    A study was made of the relationship of radiation dose to the incidence of urinary bladder tumors among atomic bomb survivors and controls in the RERF Life Span Study extended sample. A total of 112 cases of urinary bladder tumors was identified among approximately 99,000 subjects in this fixed cohort during 1961-72. Morphologic diagnoses were available for 86 cases (76.8%), cystoscopy alone for 21 cases (18.7%), and only the cause of death recorded on death certificates for 5 cases (4.5%). Urothelial carcinoma (transitional cell carcinoma) is the most common type of urinary bladder tumor for which morphologic diagnoses are available. The 1961-72 incidence rate was calculated using 106 cases identified as urinary bladder tumors. Although the crude annual incidence rate in the high dose group (100 rad or more) is elevated in both cities and both sexes, all nine cases with this dose were aged 40 years or more at the time of the bomb (ATB). The standardized relative risk adjusted for city and sex for those of age 40 or more ATB in the high dose group is 1.8 in comparison with the control group and this is a suggestive statistical difference. A statistically significant elevation of risk occurs in the high dose group for urothelial carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder among those aged 40 or more ATB. (author)

  1. A Boy with a Large Bladder Stone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Shen Chow

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the frequent association of urinary tract infection with vesicoureteral reflux and urinary calculi, since vesicouretal reflux is induced by bladder stones, the coexistence of vesicoureteral reflux and bladder stones is rare. Because of its occurrence in children belonging to poor socioeconomic groups, it is believed to be a deficiency disorder. Most cases of bladder stones occur between the ages of 2 and 5 years. Common clinical presentations of bladder stones include urinary dribbling and enuresis, frequency of micturition, pain during micturition, pelvic pain and hematuria. We report the occurrence of a large bladder stone in a boy, who experienced intermittent lower abdominal pain and urinary incontinence, both during the day and at night. He had been diagnosed with enuresis and treated in pediatric clinics for 1 year. Delayed diagnosis resulted in bladder stone formation. The stone was larger than 2.5 cm and open vesicolithotomy was therefore selected as the best and safest treatment choice. His symptoms disappeared after surgery. Thorough metabolic and environmental evaluations of such cases are required on an individual basis. Bladder stones should be considered as a possible diagnosis in children presenting with urinary incontinence.

  2. Gall bladder function test with Ceruletid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, G.

    1981-01-01

    Compared with the stimulating food given orally in the gall bladder function test the administration of the decapeptide Ceruletid which is related with Cholecystokinin has the advantage of avoiding resorption disturbances in the upper gastrointestinal tract. To 100 patients with positive peroral cholecystography, Ceruletid was injected i.m. in a dose of 0.4 μg/kg body weight. The contrasting of the main bile duct was thus increased from 10% to 86%. The oral stimulating food brings an increase to appr. 20%. A special importance is assigned to the frequent diagnosis of adenomyomatoses which, with 6%, lies significantly above the 0.8% achieved by means of the oral stimulating food. More contractile segments of the gall bladder wall can cause pain symptoms which are typical for the biliary tract. Adenomyomatoses in the region of the infundibulum of the gall bladder cause colicky pains and are, as generally accepted, an absolute indication for a surgical intervention. The finding of small gall bladder conrements is often connected with a strong diminution of the gall bladder in order to prevent the small concrements from being overlapped by the non-contrasting bladder bile. Therefore, the application of Ceruletid should be considered also within the frame of the intravenous cholegraphy, thinking of the large number of normal gall bladder findings which were obtained with the oral stimulating food as the only diagnostical help. (orig./MG) [de

  3. Urinary bladder cancer: role of MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sadhna; Rajesh, Arumugam; Prasad, Srinivasa R; Gaitonde, Krishnanath; Lall, Chandana G; Mouraviev, Vladimir; Aeron, Gunjan; Bracken, Robert B; Sandrasegaran, Kumaresan

    2012-01-01

    Urinary bladder cancer is a heterogeneous disease with a variety of pathologic features, cytogenetic characteristics, and natural histories. It is the fourth most common cancer in males and the tenth most common cancer in females. Urinary bladder cancer has a high recurrence rate, necessitating long-term surveillance after initial therapy. Early detection is important, since up to 47% of bladder cancer-related deaths may have been avoided. Conventional computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are only moderately accurate in the diagnosis and local staging of bladder cancer, with cystoscopy and pathologic staging remaining the standards of reference. However, the role of newer MR imaging sequences (eg, diffusion-weighted imaging) in the diagnosis and local staging of bladder cancer is still evolving. Substantial advances in MR imaging technology have made multiparametric MR imaging a feasible and reasonably accurate technique for the local staging of bladder cancer to optimize treatment. In addition, whole-body CT is the primary imaging technique for the detection of metastases in bladder cancer patients, especially those with disease that invades muscle. © RSNA, 2012.

  4. Simple and complex hyperplastic papillary proliferations of the endometrium: a clinicopathologic study of nine cases of apparently localized papillary lesions with fibrovascular stromal cores and epithelial metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, M B; Hart, W R

    2001-11-01

    The clinicopathologic features of nine cases of papillary proliferation of the endometrium devoid of malignant nuclear features were studied. The patients ranged in age from 33 to 71 years (median 57 years). All were postmenopausal, except the youngest. The most common symptom was postmenopausal bleeding. Two patients were receiving hormonal replacement therapy and two were taking megestrol acetate. Two lesions were incidental findings in a hysterectomy specimen. Seven were diagnosed in endometrial biopsy or curettage specimens. In six cases (67%) the lesion involved an endometrial polyp. In all cases the papillae had fibrovascular stromal cores and variable degrees of branching. Two architectural patterns were found. A simple papillary pattern with involvement of only a few glands and little epithelial proliferation occurred in five cases, including three that were entirely intracystic. A complex papillary pattern with more extensive involvement of endometrial glands, a greater degree of branching of the papillae, and cellular tufting occurred in four cases. One or more metaplastic epithelial changes occurred in all cases, including endocervical-type mucinous metaplasia in nine cases (90%), eosinophilic cell change in eight (89%), ciliated cell change in seven (70%), focal squamous metaplasia in two cases (22%), and hobnail cell change in two (22%). Mitotic figures were found in three cases. In four lesions (44%), all with a complex papillary pattern, the proliferating cells had mild nuclear atypia. Three of these patients underwent hysterectomy within 5 months. Simple nonpapillary hyperplasia and two endometrial polyps were found in one patient, complex nonpapillary hyperplasia in one, and atrophic endometrium in the other. Two patients had additional endometrial samplings within 4 months that contained small residual simple papillary lesions. One of these had another biopsy at 16 months that showed only atrophy. One patient had no subsequent diagnostic or

  5. Experimental model of bladder instability in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasteghin K.T.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Propose a new experimental model of bladder instability in rabbits after partial bladder obstruction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty North Folk male rabbits, weighting 1,700 to 2,820 g (mean: 2,162 g were studied. The animals were distributed in 2 experimental groups, formed by 15 rabbits each: Group 1 - clinical control. In this group there was no surgical intervention; Group 2 - bladder outlet obstruction. In this group, after anesthetizing the animal, urethral cannulation with Foley catheter 10F was performed and then an adjustable plastic bracelet was passed around the bladder neck. It was then adjusted in order to not constrict the urethra. The following parameters were studied in M1 - pre-operative period; M2 - 4 weeks post-operatively moments: 1- urine culture; 2- cystometric study; 3- serum creatinine and BUN. RESULTS: Bladder weight was 2.5 times larger in the group with obstruction than in the control group. Cystometric evaluation showed a significant increase in maximal vesical volume in the final moment at Group G2. However, there was no statistically significant difference among the groups studied. There was no statistically significant difference between maximal detrusor pressure and vesical compliance in the different moments or in the studied groups. There was an absence of uninhibited detrusor contractions in all the animals in group 1, and involuntary contractions were detected in 93% of group 2 animals. There was no significant variation in BUN and serum creatinine either among the groups or in the same group. CONCLUSIONS: We observed in the group with obstruction a bladder weight 2.5 higher than normal bladders. We detected involuntary contractions in 93% of the animals in group 2, establishing this experimental model as appropriate to secondary bladder instability and partial bladder outlet obstruction.

  6. Cholescintigraphy in the diagnosis and assessment of benign papillary stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, B.; Axelsson, B.; Jacobsson, H.

    1993-01-01

    Benign papillary stenosis (BPS) is an uncommon condition, the diagnosis of which is often difficult. In this report cholescintigraphy with technetium-99m diethyl-acetanilido-iminodiacetic acid has been evaluated for the diagnosis of BPS, as well as for assessing the effect of treatment by endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES). In 12 patients with BPS, cholescintigraphy was performed before and after ES and the findings compared with those in ten controls. Time-activity curves from regions over the liver and bowel were generated. A significant difference was found in respect of the time for maximum activity (T max ) over the liver before and after ES. The time for occurrence of bowel activity (T excr ) also showed significant differences before and after ES. Considering both T max and T excr mean values plus standard deviations in the control group, all BPS patients would have been detected and there would have been no false-positives among the controls. It is concluded that cholescinitgraphy should be used in the diagnosis of BPS. The method has high sensitivity and should be applied as an early diagnostic procedure to exclude BPS in patients with clinical suspicion of the disorder. The method can also be used for assessment of endoscopic treatment (ES). (orig.)

  7. Cholescintigraphy in the diagnosis and assessment of benign papillary stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, B. (Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology); Axelsson, B. (Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Hospital Physics); Jacobsson, H. (Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology)

    1993-09-01

    Benign papillary stenosis (BPS) is an uncommon condition, the diagnosis of which is often difficult. In this report cholescintigraphy with technetium-99m diethyl-acetanilido-iminodiacetic acid has been evaluated for the diagnosis of BPS, as well as for assessing the effect of treatment by endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES). In 12 patients with BPS, cholescintigraphy was performed before and after ES and the findings compared with those in ten controls. Time-activity curves from regions over the liver and bowel were generated. A significant difference was found in respect of the time for maximum activity (T[sub max]) over the liver before and after ES. The time for occurrence of bowel activity (T[sub excr]) also showed significant differences before and after ES. Considering both T[sub max] and T[sub excr] mean values plus standard deviations in the control group, all BPS patients would have been detected and there would have been no false-positives among the controls. It is concluded that cholescinitgraphy should be used in the diagnosis of BPS. The method has high sensitivity and should be applied as an early diagnostic procedure to exclude BPS in patients with clinical suspicion of the disorder. The method can also be used for assessment of endoscopic treatment (ES). (orig.)

  8. Pancreas as Delayed Site of Metastasis from Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutahir A. Tunio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Follicular variant (FV papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC has aggressive biologic behavior as compared to classic variant (CV of PTC and frequently metastasizes to the lungs and bones. However, metastasis to the pancreas is extremely rare manifestation of FV-PTC. To date, only 9 cases of PTC have been reported in the literature. Pancreatic metastases from PTC usually remain asymptomatic or manifest as repeated abdominal aches. Associated obstructive jaundice is rare. Prognosis is variable with reported median survival from 16 to 46 months. Case Presentation. Herein we present a 67-year-old Saudi woman, who developed pancreatic metastases seven years after total thyroidectomy and neck dissection followed by radioactive iodine ablation (RAI for FV-PTC. Metastasectomy was performed by pancreaticoduodenectomy followed by sorafenib as genetic testing revealed a BRAF V600E mutation. She survived 32 months after the pancreatic metastasis diagnosis. Conclusion. Pancreatic metastases are rare manifestation of FV-PTC and are usually sign of extensive disease and conventional diagnostic tools may remain to reach the diagnosis.

  9. Gene signature of the post-Chernobyl papillary thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handkiewicz-Junak, Daria; Swierniak, Michal; Rusinek, Dagmara; Oczko-Wojciechowska, Małgorzata; Dom, Genevieve; Maenhaut, Carine; Unger, Kristian; Detours, Vincent; Bogdanova, Tetiana; Thomas, Geraldine; Likhtarov, Ilya; Jaksik, Roman; Kowalska, Malgorzata; Chmielik, Ewa; Jarzab, Michal; Swierniak, Andrzej; Jarzab, Barbara

    2016-07-01

    Following the nuclear accidents in Chernobyl and later in Fukushima, the nuclear community has been faced with important issues concerning how to search for and diagnose biological consequences of low-dose internal radiation contamination. Although after the Chernobyl accident an increase in childhood papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) was observed, it is still not clear whether the molecular biology of PTCs associated with low-dose radiation exposure differs from that of sporadic PTC. We investigated tissue samples from 65 children/young adults with PTC using DNA microarray (Affymetrix, Human Genome U133 2.0 Plus) with the aim of identifying molecular differences between radiation-induced (exposed to Chernobyl radiation, ECR) and sporadic PTC. All participants were resident in the same region so that confounding factors related to genetics or environment were minimized. There were small but significant differences in the gene expression profiles between ECR and non-ECR PTC (global test, p Chernobyl PTC are associated with previous low-dose radiation exposure.

  10. Imaging diagnosis of intraductal papillary mucinous tumor of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Huimao; Lai Ying; Yang Shuqin; Yang Haishan; Murakami, K.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the diagnostic value of intraductal papillary mucinous tumor (IPMT) of the pancreas, and to assess its clinical and characteristic radiological features. Methods: Thirty-six cases with IPMT who underwent CT and MRI with plain and contrast enhancement before operation were reviewed. The clinical presentation and characteristic imaging findings of main duct type (8 cases) and branch duct type (28 cases) were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Typical imaging findings of main duct type were segmental or diffuse dilation of MPD (diameter was over 9 mm) with enhanced mural nodules after contrast medium administration. MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) showed dilation of MPD with flat/nodule filling defects in 4 cases and MPD dilatation in the head side in 2 cases. Branch duct type was more frequently located in the head or uncinate. Typical imaging findings of branch duct type were unilocular or multilocular cystic tumors with septa, mural nodules, and MPD dilatation. MRCP showed septa in 24 cases, filling defects in 15 cases, and MPD dilatation in 8 cases. Communication between the cystic lesion and the MPD was demonstrated in 19 cases by MRCP. Conclusion: It is extremely important to accurately make the diagnosis of IPMT for planning the surgical strategy. MRCP is a noninvasive and useful method in detecting and making definite diagnosis of IPMT. (authors)

  11. Transoral videolaryngoscopic surgery for papillary carcinoma arising in lingual thyroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogi, Chisato; Shinomiya, Hirotaka; Fujii, Natsumi; Tsuruta, Tomoyuki; Morita, Naruhiko; Furukawa, Tatsuya; Teshima, Masanori; Kanzawa, Maki; Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Otsuki, Naoki; Nibu, Ken-Ichi

    2018-05-15

    Carcinoma arising in lingual thyroid is an extremely rare entity accounting for only 1% of all reported ectopic thyroids. Here, we report a case of carcinoma arising in lingual thyroid, which has been successfully managed by transoral resection and bilateral neck dissections. A lingual mass 4-cm in diameter with calcification was incidentally detected by computed tomography at medical check-up. No thyroid tissue was observed in normal position. Ultrasound examination showed bilateral multiple lymphadenopathies. Fine needle aspiration biopsy from lymph node in his right neck was diagnosed as Class III and thyroglobulin level of the specimen was 459ng/ml. Due to the difficulty in performing FNA of the lingual masses, right neck dissection was performed in advance for diagnostic purpose. Pathological examination showed existence of large and small follicular thyroid tissues in several lymph nodes, suggesting lymph node metastasis from thyroid carcinoma. Two months after the initial surgery, video-assisted transoral resection of lingual thyroid with simultaneous left neck dissection was performed. Postoperative course was uneventful. Papillary carcinoma was found in the lingual thyroid and thyroid tissues were also found in left cervical lymph nodes. Video-assisted transoral resection was useful for the treatment of thyroid cancer arising in lingual thyroid. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Video-Assisted Thyroidectomy for Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celestino Pio Lombardi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The results of video-assisted thyroidectomy (VAT were evaluated in a large series of patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC, especially in terms of completeness of the surgical resection and short-to-medium term recurrence. Methods. The medical records of all patients who underwent video-assisted thyroidectomy for PTC between June 1998 and May 2009 were reviewed. Results. Three hundred fifty-nine patients were included. One hundred twenty-six patients underwent concomitant central neck node removal. Final histology showed 285 pT1, 26 pT2, and 48 pT3 PTC. Lymph node metastases were found in 27 cases. Follow-up was completed in 315 patients. Mean postoperative serum thyroglobulin level off levothyroxine was 5.4 ng/mL. Post operative ultrasonography showed no residual thyroid tissue in all the patients. Mean post-operative 131I uptake was 1.7%. One patient developed lateral neck recurrence. No other recurrence was observed.

  13. Septin 7 immunoexpression in papillary thyroid carcinoma: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igci, Yusuf Ziya; Erkilic, Suna; Arslan, Ahmet

    2014-07-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type among thyroid cancers. The diagnosis of PTC may be challenging when follicular variant (FVPTC) of this disease is present due to the resemblance of nuclear properties of the classical type (CVPTC). However, making use of ancillary molecular markers in the diagnosis of PTC may help. In our study, we aimed to evaluate the SEPT7 protein expression in PTC. A total of 55 paraffin block tissue samples comprising encapsulated FVPTC (FVPTC(e), n=25), and CVPTC (n=15), and benign hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules (HypN, n=15) were used in this study. Nuclear, cytoplasmic, and overall (total) SEPT7 protein expression levels were determined by using immunohistochemistry. Nuclear, cytoplasmic, and overall SEPT7 expressions (p=0.02, p=0.001, p=0.002, respectively) were significantly lower in FVPTC(e) tissues when compared to HypN. In CVPTC group, nuclear expression was significantly lower (p=0.004) while overall and cytoplasmic expressions were not changed (p>0.05). In HypN group, highest nuclear (mean=2.73), cytoplasmic (mean=2.86), and overall (mean=2.86) expression scores were detected. Significantly lower SEPT7 expression in all expressional categories in FVPTC(e) group may be a sign of different molecular signature in this type of tissue. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Papillary microcarcinomas of the thyroid gland and immunohistochemical analysis of expression of p53 protein in papillary microcarcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uysal Ali R

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid papillary microcarcinoma (TPM is defined according to WHO criteria as a thyroid tumor smaller than 1–1.5 cm. TPMs are encountered in 0.5–35.6 % of autopsies or surgical specimens where carcinoma had been unsuspected. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate patients who had TPMs in terms of clinical findings, histopathological features and immunohistochemical evidence of expression of the tumor suppressor gene p53. Methods A total of 44 patients with TPMs less than 1.0 cm in diameter were included in the study. The patients were evaluated clinically and the tumors were evaluated in terms of their histopathological and immunohistochemical features, including expression of p53. Results The female/male ratio was 2.8/1, and the median age at time of diagnosis was 49 years (range 20–71 years. The maximum diameter of the smallest focus was 0.1 mm, and that of the largest was 10 mm microscopically. The mean diameter of all tumors was 5.7 mm. There was no correlation between tumor size and age or gender. Of the TPMs, 72 % were found in the right lobe, 24 % in the left lobe and 4 % in the isthmus. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy provided the diagnosis of TPM in only 43.2 % of the patients. All patients were treated with surgery, with 20 undergoing conservative surgery, i.e. lobectomy or isthmusectomy, and 24 undergoing total thyroidectomy. Frozen section provided the diagnosis of TPM in only 56.8 % of the patients. We found lymphocytic thyroiditis in 13.6% of patients, follicular variants in 11.9%, capsular invasion in 26.8%, lymph node involvement in 11.9%, soft tissue metastases in the neck in 12.1% and multifocality in 31.7 %, and none of these were related to age or gender (p > 0.05. No distant metastases were observed during approximately 10 years of follow up. We found p53 positivity in 34.5 % of TPM tumors. However, p53 expression was not statistically related to age or gender. Conclusion Our findings imply

  15. [Bladder-conserving treatment for bladder cancer: potential of and developments in radiotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, Maarten C C M; Pieters, Bradley R; Koning, Caro C E

    2013-01-01

    The standard treatment for muscle-invasive bladder cancer is surgical removal of the bladder and construction of a neobladder. Recently, important improvements have been made in the potential for bladder-conserving treatment using radiotherapy. External beam radiotherapy has undergone technological improvements, as a result of which it is possible to radiate the tumour more precisely while decreasing radiation to healthy tissue. Radiochemotherapy improves local recurrence-free and overall survival compared with radiotherapy alone. The results of this combined treatment are comparable with those of surgery. Additionally, Dutch radiotherapy departments have collected data in a national database of 1040 selected patients with confined bladder cancer. These patients were treated with external beam radiation, limited surgery and brachytherapy. The 5-year local recurrence-free survival was 75%. Bladder conserving treatment options for muscle-invasive bladder cancer should be discussed during the multidisciplinary meeting.

  16. Primary signet cell adenocarcinoma of bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateek Kinra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary signet cell cancer of the urinary bladder is a relatively rare entity. Since there is no mucinous epithelium in the bladder, It is proposed that the tumor arises from metaplastic urothelium. Two thirds of the tumours are mucin secreting, in most of which the site of the deposition is either extracellular or intracellular displacing the nucleus to a peripheral crescent, giving the cells a signet ring appearance. The tumours are most often infiltrative and diffusely involving the majority of the bladder akin to its name sake in stomach. It is essential to distinguish this carcinoma from gastrointestinal metastases as different therapeutic strategies are often necessary.

  17. Urinary Bladder Leiomyosarcoma: Primary Surgical Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakim Slaoui

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cases of bladder leiomyosarcoma represent 0.1% of all nonurothelial tumors. We present a case report of a 73-year-old man who underwent a radical cystoprostatectomy for a high-grade bladder leiomyosarcoma with an ileal diversion. The patient recovered uneventfully and no surgical margins were verified in final pathology. Early follow-up at 3 months shows no signs of computed tomography recurrence and adequate adaptation to ileal diversion. Although bladder sarcomas were once thought to have a grim prognosis, recent studies suggest that adequate surgical treatment is able to achieve optimal cancer control outcomes.

  18. Bladder exstrophy: current management and postoperative imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierre, Ketsia; Borer, Joseph; Phelps, Andrew; Chow, Jeanne S.

    2014-01-01

    Bladder exstrophy is a rare malformation characterized by an infra-umbilical abdominal wall defect, incomplete closure of the bladder with mucosa continuous with the abdominal wall, epispadias, and alterations in the pelvic bones and muscles. It is part of the exstrophy-epispadias complex, with cloacal exstrophy on the severe and epispadias on the mild ends of the spectrum. Bladder exstrophy is the most common of these entities and is more common in boys. The goal of this paper is to describe common methods of repair and to provide an imaging review of the postoperative appearances. (orig.)

  19. Bladder exstrophy: current management and postoperative imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierre, Ketsia [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Borer, Joseph [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Urology, Boston, MA (United States); Phelps, Andrew [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Pediatric Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Chow, Jeanne S. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Urology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Bladder exstrophy is a rare malformation characterized by an infra-umbilical abdominal wall defect, incomplete closure of the bladder with mucosa continuous with the abdominal wall, epispadias, and alterations in the pelvic bones and muscles. It is part of the exstrophy-epispadias complex, with cloacal exstrophy on the severe and epispadias on the mild ends of the spectrum. Bladder exstrophy is the most common of these entities and is more common in boys. The goal of this paper is to describe common methods of repair and to provide an imaging review of the postoperative appearances. (orig.)

  20. Modelling Creep (Relaxation of the Urinary Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravkovic Nebojsa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We first present the results of an experiment in which the passive properties of the urinary bladder were investigated using strips of rabbit bladder. Under the assumption that the urinary bladder had orthopaedic characteristics, the strips were taken in the longitudinal and in the circumferential directions. The material was subjected to uniaxial tension, and stress-stretch curves were generated for various rates of deformation. We found that the rates did not have a significantly effect on the passive response of the material. Additionally, the stress-stretch dependence during relaxation of the material when exposed to isometric conditions was determined experimentally.

  1. Experimental electrical stimulation of the bladder using a new device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, T.; Christiansen, P.; Nielsen, B.

    1986-01-01

    Repeated bladder contractions were evoked during a six month period in three unanaesthetized female minipigs by using unipolar carbon fiber electrodes embedded in the bladder wall adjacent to the ureterovesical junction. In contrast to bipolar and direct bladder muscle stimulation unipolar...... electrodes at each ureterovesical junction evoked bladder pressure increase similar to those produced in previous investigations in dogs. Sacral nerve stimulation of S2 evoked bladder contraction at a minimal current. Microscopic examination revealed no cellular reactions to the carbon fibers...

  2. Researchers studying alternative to bladder removal for bladder cancer patients | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new phase I clinical trial conducted by researchers at the Center for Cancer Research (CCR) is evaluating the safety and tolerability, or the degree to which any side effects can be tolerated by patients, of a two-drug combination as a potential alternative to bladder removal for bladder cancer patients. The trial targets patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) whose cancers have stopped responding to traditional therapies. Read more...

  3. Correlation of gene expression with bladder capacity in interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colaco, Marc; Koslov, David S; Keys, Tristan; Evans, Robert J; Badlani, Gopal H; Andersson, Karl-Erik; Walker, Stephen J

    2014-10-01

    Interstitial cystitis and bladder pain syndrome are terms used to describe a heterogeneous chronic pelvic and bladder pain disorder. Despite its significant prevalence, our understanding of disease etiology is poor. We molecularly characterized interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and determined whether there are clinical factors that correlate with gene expression. Bladder biopsies from female subjects with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and female controls without signs of the disease were collected and divided into those with normal and low anesthetized bladder capacity, respectively. Samples then underwent RNA extraction and microarray assay. Data generated by these assays were analyzed using Omics Explorer (Qlucore, Lund, Sweden), GeneSifter® Analysis Edition 4.0 and Ingenuity® Pathway Analysis to determine similarity among samples within and between groups, and measure differentially expressed transcripts unique to each phenotype. A total of 16 subjects were included in study. Principal component analysis and unsupervised hierarchical clustering showed clear separation between gene expression in tissues from subjects with low compared to normal bladder capacity. Gene expression in tissue from patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome who had normal bladder capacity did not significantly differ from that in controls without interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. Pairwise analysis revealed that pathways related to inflammatory and immune response were most involved. Microarray analysis provides insight into the potential pathological condition underlying interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. This pilot study shows that patients with this disorder who have low compared to normal bladder capacity have significantly different molecular characteristics, which may reflect a difference in disease pathophysiology. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc

  4. Bladder filling variation during conformal radiotherapy for rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sithamparam, S; Ahmad, R; Sabarudin, A; Othman, Z; Ismail, M

    2017-01-01

    Conformal radiotherapy for rectal cancer is associated with small bowel toxicity mainly diarrhea. Treating patients with a full bladder is one of the practical solutions to reduce small bowel toxicity. Previous studies on prostate and cervix cancer patients revealed that maintaining consistent bladder volume throughout radiotherapy treatment is challenging. The aim of this study was to measure bladder volume variation throughout radiotherapy treatment. This study also measured the association between bladder volume changes and diarrhea. Twenty two rectal cancer patients were recruited prospectively. Patients were planned for treatment with full bladder following departmental bladder filling protocol and the planning bladder volume was measured during CT-simulation. During radiotherapy, the bladder volume was measured weekly using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and compared to planning bladder volume. Incidence and severity of diarrhea were recorded during the weekly patient review. There was a negative time trend for bladder volume throughout five weeks treatment. The mean bladder volume decreased 18 % from 123 mL (SD 54 mL) during CT-simulation to 101 mL (SD 71 mL) on the 5th week of radiotherapy, but the decrease is not statistically significant. However, there was a large variation of bladder volume within each patient during treatment. This study showed an association between changes of bladder volume and diarrhea (P = 0.045). In conclusion bladder volume reduced throughout radiotherapy treatment for conformal radiotherapy for rectal cancer and there was a large variation of bladder volume within patients. (paper)

  5. Bladder filling variation during conformal radiotherapy for rectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sithamparam, S.; Ahmad, R.; Sabarudin, A.; Othman, Z.; Ismail, M.

    2017-05-01

    Conformal radiotherapy for rectal cancer is associated with small bowel toxicity mainly diarrhea. Treating patients with a full bladder is one of the practical solutions to reduce small bowel toxicity. Previous studies on prostate and cervix cancer patients revealed that maintaining consistent bladder volume throughout radiotherapy treatment is challenging. The aim of this study was to measure bladder volume variation throughout radiotherapy treatment. This study also measured the association between bladder volume changes and diarrhea. Twenty two rectal cancer patients were recruited prospectively. Patients were planned for treatment with full bladder following departmental bladder filling protocol and the planning bladder volume was measured during CT-simulation. During radiotherapy, the bladder volume was measured weekly using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and compared to planning bladder volume. Incidence and severity of diarrhea were recorded during the weekly patient review. There was a negative time trend for bladder volume throughout five weeks treatment. The mean bladder volume decreased 18 % from 123 mL (SD 54 mL) during CT-simulation to 101 mL (SD 71 mL) on the 5th week of radiotherapy, but the decrease is not statistically significant. However, there was a large variation of bladder volume within each patient during treatment. This study showed an association between changes of bladder volume and diarrhea (P = 0.045). In conclusion bladder volume reduced throughout radiotherapy treatment for conformal radiotherapy for rectal cancer and there was a large variation of bladder volume within patients.

  6. Influence of bladder and rectal volume on spatial variability of a bladder tumor during radical radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pos, Floris J.; Koedooder, Kees; Hulshof, Maarten C.C.M.; Tienhoven, Geertjan van; Gonzalez Gonzalez, Dionisio

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the spatial variability of a bladder tumor relative to the planning target volume boundaries during radical radiotherapy, and furthermore to develop strategies to reduce spatial variability. Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients with solitary T2-T4N0M0 bladder cancer were treated with a technique delivering 40 Gy/2 Gy in 20 fractions to the whole bladder with a concomitant boost to the bladder tumor of 20 Gy in 1 Gy fractions in an overall time of 4 weeks. CT scans were made weekly, immediately after treatment, and matched with the planning CT scan. Spatial variability of the tumor, as well as bladder volume and rectal diameter, were scored for each patient each week. Results: In 65% of patients, a part of the tumor appeared outside the planning target volume boundaries at least one time during the course of radiotherapy. No consistent relation of this variability with time was found. Bladder volumes and rectal diameters showed marked variability during the course of treatment. A large initial bladder volume and rectal diameter predicted a large volume variation and a large tumor spatial variability. Conclusion: In this study, a margin of 1.5 to 2 cm seemed to be inadequate in 65% of the patients with respect to spatial variability. Bladder volume and rectal diameter were found to be predictive for spatial variability of a bladder tumor during concomitant boost radiotherapy

  7. Influence of bladder and rectal volume on spatial variability of a bladder tumor during radical radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pos, Floris J; Koedooder, Kees; Hulshof, Maarten C.C.M.; Tienhoven, Geertjan van; Gonzalez Gonzalez, Dionisio

    2003-03-01

    Purpose: To assess the spatial variability of a bladder tumor relative to the planning target volume boundaries during radical radiotherapy, and furthermore to develop strategies to reduce spatial variability. Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients with solitary T2-T4N0M0 bladder cancer were treated with a technique delivering 40 Gy/2 Gy in 20 fractions to the whole bladder with a concomitant boost to the bladder tumor of 20 Gy in 1 Gy fractions in an overall time of 4 weeks. CT scans were made weekly, immediately after treatment, and matched with the planning CT scan. Spatial variability of the tumor, as well as bladder volume and rectal diameter, were scored for each patient each week. Results: In 65% of patients, a part of the tumor appeared outside the planning target volume boundaries at least one time during the course of radiotherapy. No consistent relation of this variability with time was found. Bladder volumes and rectal diameters showed marked variability during the course of treatment. A large initial bladder volume and rectal diameter predicted a large volume variation and a large tumor spatial variability. Conclusion: In this study, a margin of 1.5 to 2 cm seemed to be inadequate in 65% of the patients with respect to spatial variability. Bladder volume and rectal diameter were found to be predictive for spatial variability of a bladder tumor during concomitant boost radiotherapy.

  8. Bladder filling variation during radiation treatment of prostate cancer: Can the use of a bladder ultrasound scanner and biofeedback optimize bladder filling?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stam, Marcel R.; Lin, Emile N.J. Th. van; Vight, Lisette P. van der; Kaanders, Johannes; Visser, Andries G.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the use of a bladder ultrasound scanner in achieving a better reproducible bladder filling during irradiation of pelvic tumors, specifically prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: First, the accuracy of the bladder ultrasound scanner relative to computed tomography was validated in a group of 26 patients. Next, daily bladder volume variation was evaluated in a group of 18 patients. Another 16 patients participated in a biofeedback protocol, aiming at a more constant bladder volume. The last objective was to study correlations between prostate motion and bladder filling, by using electronic portal imaging device data on implanted gold markers. Results: A strong correlation between bladder scanner volume and computed tomography volume (r = 0.95) was found. Daily bladder volume variation was very high (1 Sd = 47.2%). Bladder filling and daily variation did not significantly differ between the control and the feedback group (47.2% and 40.1%, respectively). Furthermore, no linear correlations between bladder volume variation and prostate motion were found. Conclusions: This study shows large variations in daily bladder volume. The use of a biofeedback protocol yields little reduction in bladder volume variation. Even so, the bladder scanner is an easy to use and accurate tool to register these variations

  9. MR Imaging of papillary renal neoplasms: potential application for characterization of small renal masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Catherine; Sauer, Benoit; Lindner, Veronique; Lang, Herve; Saussine, Christian; Jacqmin, Didier

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate the role of MRI in demonstrating the precise nature of papillary renal tumors (P RCC) and its potential application to select patients for partial surgery. Ninety-seven tumors less than or equal to 3 cm in size [55 papillary renal cell carcinoma - 42 clear cell renal carcinoma (CC RCC)] were preoperatively evaluated by MRI. Imaging findings were assessed with a special focus on the aspect of the tumoral process. Correlations were performed with pathologic staging after surgery. At pathology, 92 tumors were established to be staged p T1 and 5 were p T3 (3 cases of CC RCC and 2 cases of P RCC). Ninety-four percent of papillary tumors exhibited low signal intensity with homogeneous pattern on T2-weighted images. All clear cell carcinoma were hyperintense and heterogeneous on T2-weighted sequence. Enhancement was lower and delayed in the papillary type in comparison with the clear cell type. MRI is accurate enough to predict the 'histologic' nature of papillary renal carcinoma. It is an additional argument to propose that the tumor can be removed by partial surgery. (orig.)

  10. A novel tissue engineering technique for regeneration of lost interdental papillary height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutuj Surana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Open interdental spaces caused by papillary gingival recession are one of the most common problems faced in dentistry. Surgical and nonsurgical periodontal treatments for regeneration of lost papillary height have been reported with limited success. The present study reports effectiveness of autologous cultured fibroblast injections, a tissue engineering technique for papillary regeneration. A black triangle caused by Tarnow′s and Nordland′s class I papillary gingival loss was reported in maxillary anterior region of a young male patient. An autologous gingival biopsy was cultured in a biotechnology lab for the growth and expansion of fibroblasts. Cultured fibroblast suspension was injected into the receded papilla twice at an interval of 5 days. Follow-ups were recorded on the 6th day, 15 th day, at 1 month and at 2 months. Complete fill of black triangle was noted at the end of 2 months. No inflammatory or immune reactions were noted at the site of injection. Autologous cultured fibroblast injections are safe, efficacious, and an acceptable treatment option for the regeneration of lost papillary height.

  11. Anatomically-specific intratubular and interstitial biominerals in the human renal medullo-papillary complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Chen

    Full Text Available Limited information exists on the anatomically-specific early stage events leading to clinically detectable mineral aggregates in the renal papilla. In this study, quantitative multiscale correlative maps of structural, elemental and biochemical properties of whole medullo-papillary complexes from human kidneys were developed. Correlative maps of properties specific to the uriniferous and vascular tubules using high-resolution X-ray computed tomography, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and immunolocalization of noncollagenous proteins (NCPs along with their association with anatomy specific biominerals were obtained. Results illustrated that intratubular spherical aggregates primarily form at the proximal regions distant from the papillary tip while interstitial spherical and fibrillar aggregates are distally located near the papillary tip. Biominerals at the papillary tip were closely localized with 10 to 50 μm diameter vasa recta immunolocalized for CD31 inside the medullo-papillary complex. Abundant NCPs known to regulate bone mineralization were localized within nanoparticles, forming early pathologic mineralized regions of the complex. Based on the physical association between vascular and urothelial tubules, results from light and electron microscopy techniques suggested that these NCPs could be delivered from vasculature to prompt calcification of the interstitial regions or they might be synthesized from local vascular smooth muscle cells after transdifferentiation into osteoblast-like phenotypes. In addition, results provided insights into the plausible temporal events that link the anatomically specific intratubular mineral aggregates with the interstitial biomineralization processes within the functional unit of the kidney.

  12. Treatment Options by Stage (Bladder Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... above the waist. Tiny tubules in the kidneys filter and clean the blood . They take out waste ... to bladder cancer. Being exposed to paints, dyes, metals, or petroleum products in the workplace. Past treatment ...

  13. Epidemiology of bladder cancer. A second look

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wynder, E.L.; Goldsmith, R.

    1977-09-01

    A case-control study among 574 male and 158 female bladder cancer patients and equal numbers of matched controls was conducted between 1969 and 1974 in 17 hospitals in six United States cities. We determined that cigarette smokers of both sexes were at higher relative risk than nonsmokers. Cigarette smoking was responsible for about one-half of male and one-third of female bladder cancer. There was an excess of bladder cancer patients with some previous occupational exposure, such as rubber, chemicals, and textiles. A weak association with coffee drinking, which appeared to be independent of smoking, was found for males. Users of artificial sweetners were not over-represented among the cases. The authors conclude that the epidemiologic pattern of bladder cancer cannot be fully accounted for by cigarette smoking and occupational exposure and suggest a series of metabolic studies to assess the role of additional factors, such as nutrition.

  14. 16. PRE-OPERATIVE BLADDER IRRIGATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    effectiveness of using preoperative bladder irrigation with 1% povidone iodine in reducing ... consenting patient who presented to the department of surgery for open ..... infections in a tertiary care center in south-western. Nigeria. International ...

  15. Conformal radiotherapy of urinary bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muren, Ludvig Paul; Smaaland, Rune; Dahl, Olav

    2004-01-01

    Recent advances in radiotherapy (RT) are founded on the enhanced tumour visualisation capabilities of new imaging modalities and the precise deposition of individualised radiation dose distributions made possible with the new systems for RT planning and delivery. These techniques have a large potential to also improve the results of RT of urinary bladder cancer. Major challenges to take full advantage of these advances in the management of bladder cancer are to control, and, as far as possible, reduce bladder motion, and to reliably account for the related intestine and rectum motion. If these obstacles are overcome, it should be possible in the near future to offer selected patients with muscle invading bladder cancer an organ-sparing, yet effective combined-modality treatment as an alternative to radical surgery

  16. Screening for Bladder and Other Urothelial Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer is the focus of this summary. Enlarge Anatomy of the male urinary system (left panel) and female urinary system (right panel) showing the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. Urine is made in ...

  17. Clinical observation of radiation urinary bladder disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Yuke; Liu Libo; Zhang Haiying; Liang Shuo; Chen Dawei; Wu Zhenfeng; Dong Lihua; Lu Xuejun

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Clinical characteristic, diagnosis and treatment of radiation urinary bladder disease induced by radiation therapy for cancers in the pelvis were inquired into for providing diagnostic basis. Methods: Statistical analysis for the clinical cases was carried out. Results: The incidence of radiation bladder diseases induced by radiation therapy of cervix cancer are about 0.8%-2.96%, with an average of 2.14%. Radiation bladder disease is divided into acute radiation cystitis, chronic radiation cystitis and radiation vesical fistula. Chronic radiation cystitis is seen most often in the clinic and its main clinical symptom is painless macroscopic hematuria, which is again subdivided into slight and severe degrees. Diagnosis should include history of exposure to radiation, which dose exceed the dose threshold, and typical clinical characteristics. Conclusion: The characteristics, types and diagnostic basis of radiation urinary bladder disease analyzed in this study can provide the reference for drawing up diagnostic standard

  18. The economics of bladder cancer: costs and considerations of caring for this disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svatek, Robert S; Hollenbeck, Brent K; Holmäng, Sten; Lee, Richard; Kim, Simon P; Stenzl, Arnulf; Lotan, Yair

    2014-08-01

    Due to high recurrence rates, intensive surveillance strategies, and expensive treatment costs, the management of bladder cancer contributes significantly to medical costs. To provide a concise evaluation of contemporary cost-related challenges in the care of patients with bladder cancer. An emphasis is placed on the initial diagnosis of bladder cancer and therapy considerations for both non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and more advanced disease. A systematic review of the literature was performed using Medline (1966 to February 2011). Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms for search criteria included "bladder cancer, neoplasms" OR "carcinoma, transitional cell" AND all cost-related MeSH search terms. Studies evaluating the costs associated with of various diagnostic or treatment approaches were reviewed. Routine use of perioperative chemotherapy following complete transurethral resection of bladder tumor has been estimated to provide a cost savings. Routine office-based fulguration of small low-grade recurrences could decrease costs. Another potential important target for decreasing variation and cost lies in risk-modified surveillance strategies after initial bladder tumor removal to reduce the cost associated with frequent cystoscopic and radiographic procedures. Optimizing postoperative care after radical cystectomy has the potential to decrease length of stay and perioperative morbidity with substantial decreases in perioperative care expenses. The gemcitabine-cisplatin regimen has been estimated to result in a modest increase in cost effectiveness over methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin. Additional costs of therapies need to be balanced with effectiveness, and there are significant gaps in knowledge regarding optimal surveillance and treatment of both early and advanced bladder cancer. Regardless of disease severity, improvements in the efficiency of bladder cancer care to limit unnecessary interventions and optimize effective

  19. Increased expression of transcription factor TFAP2α correlates with chemosensitivity in advanced bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordentoft, Iver; Dyrskjøt, Lars; Bødker, Julie S; Wild, Peter J; Hartmann, Arndt; Bertz, Simone; Lehmann, Jan; Ørntoft, Torben F; Birkenkamp-Demtroder, Karin

    2011-01-01

    The standard treatment for patients with advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder is platin based chemotherapy. Only approximately 50% of the patients respond to chemotherapy. Therefore, molecular predictive markers for identification of chemotherapy sensitive subgroups of patients are highly needed. We selected the transcription factor TFAP2α from a previously identified gene expression signature for chemotherapy response. TFAP2α expression and localization was assessed by immunohistochemistry using a tissue microarray (TMA) containing 282 bladder cancer tumors from patients with locally advanced (pT2-T4 b and N 1-3 ) or metastatic (M 1 ) disease. All patients had received cisplatin containing chemotherapy. Furthermore, QPCR analysis of three TFAP2α isoforms was performed on tumor specimens of advanced muscle invasive bladder cancers (T2-4). Using the bladder cell lines T24 and SW780 the relation of TFAP2α and cisplatin and gemcitabine sensitivity as well as cell proliferation was examined using siRNA directed TFAP2α knockdown. TFAP2α protein expression was analyzed on a TMA with cores from 282 advanced bladder cancer tumors from patients treated with cisplatin based combinational chemotherapy. TFAP2α was identified as a strong independent predictive marker for a good response and survival after cisplatin-containing chemotherapy in patients with advanced bladder cancer. Strong TFAP2α nuclear and cytoplasmic staining predicted good response to chemotherapy in patients with lymph node metastasis, whereas weak TFAP2α nuclear staining predicted good response in patients without lymph node metastasis. In vitro studies showed that siRNA mediated knockdown of TFAP2α increased the proliferation of SW780 cells and rendered the cells less sensitive to cisplatin and gemcitabine. In contrast to that T24 bladder cells with mutated p53 showed to be more drug sensitive upon TFAP2α depletion. High levels of nuclear and cytoplasmic TFAP2α protein were a

  20. Novel Multisensor Probe for Monitoring Bladder Temperature During Locoregional Chemohyperthermia for Nonmuscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: Technical Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geijsen, Debby E.; Zum Vörde Sive Vörding, Paul J.; Schooneveldt, Gerben; Sijbrands, Jan; Hulshof, Maarten C.; de la Rosette, Jean; de Reijke, Theo M.; Crezee, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background and Purpose: The effectiveness of locoregional hyperthermia combined with intravesical instillation of mitomycin C to reduce the risk of recurrence and progression of intermediate- and high-risk nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer is currently investigated in clinical trials. Clinically effective locoregional hyperthermia delivery necessitates adequate thermal dosimetry; thus, optimal thermometry methods are needed to monitor accurately the temperature distribution throughout the bladder wall. The aim of the study was to evaluate the technical feasibility of a novel intravesical device (multi-sensor probe) developed to monitor the local bladder wall temperatures during loco-regional C-HT. Materials and Methods: A multisensor thermocouple probe was designed for deployment in the human bladder, using special sensors to cover the bladder wall in different directions. The deployment of the thermocouples against the bladder wall was evaluated with visual, endoscopic, and CT imaging in bladder phantoms, porcine models, and human bladders obtained from obduction for bladder volumes and different deployment sizes of the probe. Finally, porcine bladders were embedded in a phantom and subjected to locoregional heating to compare probe temperatures with additional thermometry inside and outside the bladder wall. Results: The 7.5 cm thermocouple probe yielded optimal bladder wall contact, adapting to different bladder volumes. Temperature monitoring was shown to be accurate and representative for the actual bladder wall temperature. Conclusions: Use of this novel multisensor probe could yield a more accurate monitoring of the bladder wall temperature during locoregional chemohyperthermia. PMID:24112045

  1. Integrated irradiation and cystectomy for bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitmore, W.F. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Planned pre-operative irradiation and cystectomy for selected patients with bladder cancer was initiated approximately 20 years ago by a number of centres on the basis of the disappointing end results of treatment of bladder cancer by either irradiation or surgery and the empirical hope that the combination might lead to better results. This is a brief review of the logical basis for integrated treatment and of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) experience with such therapy. (author)

  2. Androgen Receptor Signaling in Bladder Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Peng; Chen, Jinbo; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Emerging preclinical findings have indicated that steroid hormone receptor signaling plays an important role in bladder cancer outgrowth. In particular, androgen-mediated androgen receptor signals have been shown to correlate with the promotion of tumor development and progression, which may clearly explain some sex-specific differences in bladder cancer. This review summarizes and discusses the available data, suggesting the involvement of androgens and/or the androgen receptor pathways in u...

  3. Complications of bladder distension during retrograde urethrography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsanti, J A; Crowell, W; Losonsky, J; Talkington, F D

    1981-05-01

    A severe, ulcerative cystitis that resulted in macroscopic hematuria occurred in 8 of 20 healthy dogs undergoing a series of diagnostic tests. Four of the remaining 12 dogs had mild bladder lesions consisting of submucosal edema and hemorrhage. Nine of the 20 dogs developed urinary tract infection after the procedures. These complications seemed associated with the radiographic technique of retrograde urethrography performed when the urinary bladder was distended. To test this hypothesis, retrograde urethrography was performed on 5 additional dogs. With the bladder undistended, no complications occurred. However, distention of these same dogs' bladders for 1 minute or less with sterile lactated Ringer's solution administered through a Foley catheter in the penile urethra resulted in a macroscopic hematuria in all 5 dogs which persisted for 24 hours. A microscopic hematuria continued for 5 days. One dog developed a bacterial urinary tract infection. A severe fibrinopurulent cystitis was present at necropsy of 2 dogs 2 days after distention. The morphologic changes in the bladder gradually diminished over 7 days, but mild submucosal edema and hemorrhage were still present when 2 dogs were necropsied, 7 days after distention. These studies indicated that retrograde urethrography in dogs may be complicated by hemorrhagic cystitis and urinary tract infection if performed with urinary bladder distention.

  4. Laparoscopic hernia repair and bladder injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalessandri, K M; Bhoyrul, S; Mulvihill, S J

    2001-01-01

    Bladder injury is a complication of laparoscopic surgery with a reported incidence in the general surgery literature of 0.5% and in the gynecology literature of 2%. We describe how to recognize and treat the injury and how to avoid the problem. We report two cases of bladder injury repaired with a General Surgical Interventions (GSI) trocar and a balloon device used for laparoscopic extraperitoneal inguinal hernia repair. One patient had a prior appendectomy; the other had a prior midline incision from a suprapubic prostatectomy. We repaired the bladder injury, and the patients made a good recovery. When using the obturator and balloon device, it is important to stay anterior to the preperitoneal space and bladder. Prior lower abdominal surgery can be considered a relative contraindication to extraperitoneal laparoscopic hernia repair. Signs of gas in the Foley bag or hematuria should alert the surgeon to a bladder injury. A one- or two-layer repair of the bladder injury can be performed either laparoscopically or openly and is recommended for a visible injury. Mesh repair of the hernia can be completed provided no evidence exists of urinary tract infection. A Foley catheter is placed until healing occurs.

  5. Virtual computed tomography cystoscopy in bladder pathologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslan, Halil; Ceylan, Kadir; Harman, Mustafa; Yilmaz, Yuksel; Temizoz, Osman; Can, Saban

    2006-01-01

    Objective: assessed the usefulness of virtual cystoscopy performed with multidetector computed tomography (CT) in patients with different urinary bladder pathologies compared to the conventional cystoscopy.Materials and methods: eighteen patients with different bladder pathologies, which consisted of 11 tumors, 3 diverticula, 2 trabecular changes and 2 stones, were assessed with conventional cystoscopy and virtual CT cystoscopy. The results of virtual CT cystoscopy were compared with the findings of conventional cystoscopy. We determined the detection rate and positive predictive value of CT imaging based virtual cystoscopy in the diagnosis of urinary bladder lesions. Results: CT scanning was well tolerated by all patients, and no complications occurred. Images in 16 (88%) of the 18 virtual cystoscopic examinations were either of excellent or good quality. All tumors except one, 2 trabecular changes and 2 stones were characterized with similar findings in the both of methods. The masses ranged from 0.4 to 7.0 cm in diameter. While conventional cystoscopy could not evaluate interior part of the diverticulum, virtual CT cystoscopy could demonstrate clearly within it. There were no false-positive findings in our series. Conclusion: virtual CT cystoscopy is a promising technique to be used in the detection of bladder lesions. It should be considered especially at the evaluation of bladder diverticula. In the future, it may be possible or even advantageous to incorporate into the imaging algorithm for evaluation of bladder lesion. (author)

  6. Neo bladder long term follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakhr, I.; Mohamed, A. M.; Moustafa, A.; Al-Sherbiny, M.; Salama, M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the commonest forms of orthotopic bladder substitution for bladder cancer surivors, used in our institute, is the use of ileocecal segment. Sometimes, the need for Indiana pouch heterotropic continent diversion arises. Aim: To compare the long-term effect of orthotopic ileocecal bladder and heterotropic Indiana pouch following radical cystectomy in bladder cancer patients. Patients and methods: Between January 2008 and December 2011, 91 patients underwent radical cystectomy/anterior pelvic exentration and ortho topic ileocecal bladder reconstruction (61 patients) and Indiana pouch (30 patients), when orthotopic diversion could not be technically or oncologically feasible. Results: Convalescence was uneventful in most patients. All minor and major urinary leakage cases, in both diversions groups, where successfully conservatively treated. Only one patient in the ileocecal group with major urinary leak required re-exploration with successful revision of uretro-colonic anastomosis. Only one patient in the Indiana pouch group had accidentally discovered sub-centimetric stone, which was simply expelled. The overall survival proportion of ileocecal group was 100% compared to 80% in the Indiana pouch group (p < 0.001). The disease free survival proportion of ileocecal group was 90.8% compared to 80% in the Indiana pouch group (p = 0.076). Effective comparative daytime and nighttime urinary continence as well as renal function deterioration were not statistically significant between both reconstruction types. Conclusion: Both ileocecal bladder and Indiana pouch are safe procedures in regard to long-term effects over kidney function following radical cystectomy

  7. Increased Bladder Wall Thickness in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Women With Overactive Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakkı Uzun

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Bladder wall thickness has been reported to be associated with overactive bladder (OAB in women. Diabetic women have an increased risk for OAB syndrome and may have an increased risk for bladder wall thickness. Methods: A total of 235 female patients aged 40 to 75 years were categorized into four groups. The first group consisted of women free of urgency or urge urinary incontinence. The second group included nondiabetic women with idiopathic OAB. The third group consisted of women with diabetes and clinical OAB, and women with diabetes but without OAB constituted the fourth group. Bladder wall thickness at the anterior wall was measured by ultrasound by the suprapubic approach with bladder filling over 250 mL. Results: The diabetic (third group and nondiabetic (second group women with OAB had significantly greater bladder wall thickness at the anterior bladder wall than did the controls. However, the difference was not significant between the diabetic (third group and the nondiabetic (second group women with OAB. Women with diabetes but without OAB (fourth group had greater bladder wall thickness than did the controls but this difference was not significant. Additionally, the difference in bladder wall thickness between diabetic women with (third group and without (fourth group OAB was not significant. Conclusions: This is the first study to show that bladder wall thickness is increased in diabetic women with and without OAB. Additionally, nondiabetic women with OAB had increased bladder wall thickness. Further studies may provide additional information for diabetic and nondiabetic women with OAB, in whom the etiopathogenesis of the disease may be similar.

  8. Sensory dysfunction of bladder mucosa and bladder oversensitivity in a rat model of metabolic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chia Lee

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the role of sensory dysfunction of bladder mucosa in bladder oversensitivity of rats with metabolic syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Female Wistar rats were fed a fructose-rich diet (60% or a normal diet for 3 months. Based on cystometry, the fructose-fed rats (FFRs were divided into a group with normal detrusor function or detrusor overactivity (DO. Acidic adenosine triphosphate (ATP solution (5mM, pH 3.3 was used to elicit reflex micturition. Cystometric parameters were evaluated before and after drug administration. Functional proteins of the bladder mucosa were assessed by western blotting. RESULTS: Compared to the controls, intravesical acidic ATP solution instillation induced a significant increase in provoked phasic contractions in both FFR groups and a significant decrease in the mean functional bladder capacity of group DO. Pretreatment with capsaicin for C-fiber desentization, intravesical liposome for mucosal protection, or intravenous pyridoxal 5-phosphate 6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid for antagonized purinergic receptors can interfere with the urodynamic effects of intravesical ATP in FFRs and controls. Over-expression of TRPV1, P2X(3, and iNOS proteins, and down-regulation of eNOS proteins were observed in the bladder mucosa of both fructose-fed groups. CONCLUSIONS: Alterations of sensory receptors and enzymes in the bladder mucosa, including over-expression of TRPV1, P2X(3, and iNOS proteins, can precipitate the emergence of bladder phasic contractions and oversensitivity through the activation of C-afferents during acidic ATP solution stimulation in FFRs. The down-regulation of eNOS protein in the bladder mucosa of FFRs may lead to a failure to suppress bladder oversensitivity and phasic contractions. Sensory dysfunction of bladder mucosa and DO causing by metabolic syndrome are easier to elicit bladder oversensitivity to certain urothelium stimuli.

  9. Selective bladder preservation with curative intent for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. A contemporary review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, Fumitaka; Kihara, Kazunori

    2012-01-01

    Radical cystectomy plus urinary diversion, the reference standard treatment for muscle-invasive bladder cancer, associates with high complication rates and compromises quality of life as a result of long-term effects on urinary, gastrointestinal and sexual function, and changes in body image. As a society ages, the number of elderly patients unfit for radical cystectomy as a result of comorbidity will increase, and thus the demand for bladder-sparing approaches for muscle-invasive bladder cancer will also inevitably increase. Trimodality bladder-sparing approaches consisting of transurethral resection, chemotherapy and radiotherapy (Σ55-65 Gy) yield overall survival rates comparable with those of radical cystectomy series (50-70% at 5 years), while preserving the native bladder in 40-60% of muscle-invasive bladder cancer patients, contributing to an improvement in quality of life for such patients. Limitations of the trimodality therapy include muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrence in the preserved bladder, which most often arises in the original muscle-invasive bladder cancer site; potential lack of curative intervention for regional lymph nodes; and increased morbidity in the event of salvage radical cystectomy for remaining or recurrent disease as a result of high-dose pelvic irradiation. Consolidative partial cystectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection followed by induction chemoradiotherapy at lower dose (exempli gratia (e.g.) 40 Gy) is a rational strategy for overcoming such limitations by strengthening locoregional control and reducing radiation dosage. Molecular profiling of the tumor and functional imaging might play important roles in optimal patient selection for bladder preservation. Refinement of radiation techniques, intensified concurrent or adjuvant chemotherapy, and novel sensitizers, including molecular targeting agent, are also expected to improve outcomes and consequently provide more muscle-invasive bladder cancer patients with favorable

  10. Congenital absence of anterior papillary muscle of the tricuspid valve and surgical repair with artificial chordae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chuan; Pan, Shiwei

    2017-02-01

    We report the case of a 26-year old woman who underwent successful tricuspid valve repair for the absence of the anterior papillary of the tricuspid valve. Preoperative echocardiography revealed grade IV tricuspid valve regurgitation, caused by congenital absence of the anterior papillary muscle and prolapse of the anterior leaflet. Tricuspid valve repair was performed using artificial chords consisting of two polytetrafluoroethylene sutures and a concomitant ring annuloplasty. Postoperative echocardiography revealed mild tricuspid valve regurgitation. This approach represented a safe and effective technique for tricuspid valve repair in congenital absence of papillary muscle. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  11. Papillary carcinoma thyroid, metastasis to cheek: First ever reported case in literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiffa Aiman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC metastasis to distant organs is rare and mainly includes lung and bone. Metastasis affecting oral and maxillofacial region is extremely rare. We describe a case of PTC metastasis to cheek. The patient presented with a painless swelling of the left cheek with a history of total thyroidectomy for papillary carcinoma thyroid 5 years back. Cheek metastasis from papillary carcinoma thyroid is extremely rare. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first recorded instance of cheek metastasis from PTC. Common malignancies can metastasize to unusual sites and although infrequent, may be the presenting feature. The successful management of such cases may be achieved by a multidisciplinary approach.

  12. Papillary Adenocarcinoma of the descending colon in a dog: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G.P.A. Ferreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this report was to describe the clinical findings and therapeutic management of a case of papillary adenocarcinoma of the descending colon in a Beagle. The patient presented soft stools, haematochezia, tenesmus, and dyschezia. Clinical examination revealed alterations on the ultrasonographic features of the descending colon suggestive of colitis and neoplasia. Following local mass resection, histopathology analysis revealed mild lymphoplasmocytic enteritis and papillary adenocarcinoma of the colon. Enterectomy for tumoral resection and biopsy of locoregional lymph nodes were carried out. Subsequent to the surgical procedure, it was possible to confirm the previous diagnosis and the tumor was classified as intestinal intraluminal papillary adenocarcinoma, with incomplete surgical margins. Adjuvant chemotherapy was performed using carboplatin, cyclophosphamide, and piroxicam, leading to remission of clinical signs and absence of any clinical or imaging alterations compatible with the patient’s previous clinical condition.

  13. An unusual case of intracystic papillary carcinoma of breast with invasive component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryawanshi Kishor H, Nikumbh Dhiraj B, Damle Rajshri P, Dravid NV, Tayde Yogesh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Papillary carcinoma of the breast is a rare malignant tumor, constituting 1-2 % of breast neoplasms mostly affecting elderly postmenopausal women. Intracystic (Encysted papillary carcinoma (IPC is a rare distinct entity with slow growth rate and overall favourable prognosis regardless of whether it is in situ alone or associated with invasive component. Treatment modalities vary from conservative surgery to radical surgery with or without adjuvant therapy depending upon the associated component (DCIS or invasive of the tumor. Herein, we report a case of 55-year-old female presented with a painless lump in the right breast. FNAC yielded haemorrhagic fluid with scanty cellularity of atypical ductal epithelial cells. Patient underwent wide local excision. The final histopathological diagnosis revealed intracystic papillary carcinoma associated with invasive ductal carcinoma, NOS type.

  14. HABP2 G534E Variant in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerneja Tomsic

    Full Text Available The main nonmedullary form of thyroid cancer is papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC that accounts for 80-90% of all thyroid malignancies. Only 3-10% of PTC patients have a positive family history of PTC yet the familiality is one of the highest of all cancers as measured by case control studies. A handful of genes have been implicated accounting for a small fraction of this genetic predisposition. It was therefore of considerable interest that a mutation in the HABP2 gene was recently implicated in familial PTC. The present work was undertaken to examine the extent of HABP2 variant involvement in PTC. The HABP2 G534E variant (rs7080536 was genotyped in blood DNA from 179 PTC families (one affected individual per family, 1160 sporadic PTC cases and 1395 controls. RNA expression of HABP2 was tested by qPCR in RNA extracted from tumor and normal thyroid tissue from individuals that are homozygous wild-type or heterozygous for the variant. The variant was found to be present in 6.1% familial cases, 8.0% sporadic cases (2 individuals were homozygous for the variant and 8.7% controls. The variant did not segregate with PTC in one large and 6 smaller families in which it occurred. In keeping with data from the literature and databases the expression of HABP2 was highest in the liver, much lower in 3 other tested tissues (breast, kidney, brain but not found in thyroid. Given these results showing lack of any involvement we suggest that the putative role of variant HABP2 in PTC should be carefully scrutinized.

  15. Gene signature of the post-Chernobyl papillary thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handkiewicz-Junak, Daria; Rusinek, Dagmara; Oczko-Wojciechowska, Malgorzata; Kowalska, Malgorzata; Jarzab, Barbara [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine Oncology, Gliwice (Poland); Swierniak, Michal [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine Oncology, Gliwice (Poland); Medical University of Warsaw, Genomic Medicine, Department of General, Transplant and Liver Surgery, Warsaw (Poland); Dom, Genevieve; Maenhaut, Carine; Detours, Vincent [Universite libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Institute of Interdisciplinary Research, Bruxelles (Belgium); Unger, Kristian [Imperial College London Hammersmith Hospital, Human Cancer Studies Group, Division of Surgery and Cancer, London (United Kingdom); Helmholtz-Zentrum, Research Unit Radiation Cytogenetics, Munich (Germany); Bogdanova, Tetiana [Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Kiev (Ukraine); Thomas, Geraldine [Imperial College London Hammersmith Hospital, Human Cancer Studies Group, Division of Surgery and Cancer, London (United Kingdom); Likhtarov, Ilya [Academy of Technological Sciences of Ukraine, Radiation Protection Institute, Kiev (Ukraine); Jaksik, Roman [Silesian University of Technology, Systems Engineering Group, Faculty of Automatic Control, Electronics and Informatics, Gliwice (Poland); Chmielik, Ewa [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, Department of Tumour Pathology, Gliwice (Poland); Jarzab, Michal [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, IIIrd Department of Radiation Therapy, Gliwice (Poland); Swierniak, Andrzej [Silesian University of Technology, Department of Automatic Control, Gliwice (Poland)

    2016-07-15

    Following the nuclear accidents in Chernobyl and later in Fukushima, the nuclear community has been faced with important issues concerning how to search for and diagnose biological consequences of low-dose internal radiation contamination. Although after the Chernobyl accident an increase in childhood papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) was observed, it is still not clear whether the molecular biology of PTCs associated with low-dose radiation exposure differs from that of sporadic PTC. We investigated tissue samples from 65 children/young adults with PTC using DNA microarray (Affymetrix, Human Genome U133 2.0 Plus) with the aim of identifying molecular differences between radiation-induced (exposed to Chernobyl radiation, ECR) and sporadic PTC. All participants were resident in the same region so that confounding factors related to genetics or environment were minimized. There were small but significant differences in the gene expression profiles between ECR and non-ECR PTC (global test, p < 0.01), with 300 differently expressed probe sets (p < 0.001) corresponding to 239 genes. Multifactorial analysis of variance showed that besides radiation exposure history, the BRAF mutation exhibited independent effects on the PTC expression profile; the histological subset and patient age at diagnosis had negligible effects. Ten genes (PPME1, HDAC11, SOCS7, CIC, THRA, ERBB2, PPP1R9A, HDGF, RAD51AP1, and CDK1) from the 19 investigated with quantitative RT-PCR were confirmed as being associated with radiation exposure in an independent, validation set of samples. Significant, but subtle, differences in gene expression in the post-Chernobyl PTC are associated with previous low-dose radiation exposure. (orig.)

  16. Ultrasonographic Features of Papillary Thyroid Carcinomas According to Their Subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Jin Baek

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe ultrasonographic characteristics and difference for various subtypes of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC are still unclear. The aim of this study was to compare the ultrasonographic features of PTC according to its subtype in patients undergoing thyroid surgery.MethodsIn total, 140 patients who underwent preoperative thyroid ultrasonography (US and thyroid surgery between January 2016 and December 2016 were included. The ultrasonographic features and the Korean Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (K-TIRADS category of each thyroid nodule were retrospectively evaluated by a single radiologist, and differences in ultrasonographic features according to the PTC subtype were assessed.ResultsAccording to histopathological analyses, there were 97 classic PTCs (62.2%, 34 follicular variants (21.8%, 5 tall cell variants (3.2%, 2 oncocytic variants (1.3%, 1 Warthin-like variant (0.6%, and 1 diffuse sclerosing variant (0.6%. Most PTCs were classified under K-TIRADS category 5. Among the ultrasonographic features, the nodule margin and the presence of calcification were significantly different among the PTC subtypes. A spiculated/microlobulated margin was the most common type of margin, regardless of the PTC subtype. In particular, all tall cell variants exhibited a spiculated/microlobulated margin. The classic PTC group exhibited the highest prevalence of intranodular calcification, with microcalcification being the most common. The prevalence of multiplicity and nodal metastasis was high in the tall cell variant group.ConclusionThe majority of PTCs in the present study belonged to K-TIRADS category 5, regardless of the subtype. Our findings suggest that ultrasonographic features are not useful for distinguishing PTC subtypes.

  17. Hashimoto's thyroiditis predicts outcome in intrathyroidal papillary thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marotta, Vincenzo; Sciammarella, Concetta; Chiofalo, Maria Grazia; Gambardella, Claudio; Bellevicine, Claudio; Grasso, Marica; Conzo, Giovanni; Docimo, Giovanni; Botti, Gerardo; Losito, Simona; Troncone, Giancarlo; De Palma, Maurizio; Giacomelli, Laura; Pezzullo, Luciano; Colao, Annamaria; Faggiano, Antongiulio

    2017-09-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) seems to have favourable prognostic impact on papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), but data were obtained analysing all disease stages. Given that HT-related microenvironment involves solely the thyroid, we aimed to assess the relationship between HT, as detected through pathological assessment, and outcome in intrathyroidal PTC. This was a multicentre, retrospective, observational study including 301 PTC with no evidence of extrathyroidal disease. Primary study endpoint was the rate of clinical remission. Auxiliary endpoint was recurrence-free survival (RFS). HT was detected in 42.5% of the cohort and was associated to female gender, smaller tumour size, lower rate of aggressive PTC variants and less frequent post-surgery radio-iodine administration. HT showed relationship with significantly higher rate of clinical remission ( P  < 0.001, OR 4, 95% CI 1.78-8.94). PTCs with concomitant HT had significantly longer RFS, as compared with non-HT tumours ( P  = 0.004). After adjustment for other parameters affecting disease outcome at univariate analysis (age at diagnosis, histology, tumour size and multifocality), prognostic effect of HT remained significant ( P  = 0.006, OR 3.28, 95% CI 1.39-7.72). To verify whether HT could optimise the identification of PTCs with unfavourable outcome, we assessed the accuracy of 'non-HT status' as negative prognostic marker, demonstrating poor capability of identifying patients not maintaining clinical remission until final follow-up (probability of no clinical remission in PTCs without HT: 21.05%, 95% CI 15.20-27.93). In conclusion, our data show that HT represents an independent prognostic parameter in intrathyroidal PTC, but cannot improve prognostic specificity. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  18. The role of imaging in pediatric bladder augmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breen, Micheal; Chow, Jeanne S. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Phelps, Andrew [UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital San Francisco, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Estrada, Carlos [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Urology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Bladder augmentation (also called augmentation cystoplasty) refers to a number of surgical methods that increase the capacity and compliance of the urinary bladder. Imaging has an important role in the postoperative evaluation of bladder augmentation. The most common augmentation procedures utilize enteric segments to augment the bladder. The various types of bladder augmentation have characteristic appearances on different imaging modalities. Spontaneous bladder perforation is a complication that is seen in both early and late post-operative periods and it is one of the most important complications for radiologists to be aware of as it is life-threatening. We review the indications for bladder augmentation in children, the surgical techniques employed, the normal postoperative appearances on imaging studies and the role of imaging complications of bladder augmentation including delayed spontaneous bladder rupture, which is life-threatening. (orig.)

  19. Risk of invasive breast cancer and ductal carcinoma in situ in women with atypical papillary lesions of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuneo, Kyle C; Dash, Rajesh C; Wilke, Lee G; Horton, Janet K; Koontz, Bridget F

    2012-09-01

    Benign papillary lesions of the breast include papilloma and papillomatosis. A retrospective analysis of patients with a papillary breast lesion diagnosed between October 1992 and December 2009 was performed. Patients were excluded if they had a previous or concurrent diagnosis of invasive or in situ cancer or less than 6 months of follow-up. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine the risk of developing subsequent malignancy. The log rank test was used to compare groups of patients. Median follow-up for the 167 patients included in the study was 4.6 years. Fifty-one patients had a papillary lesion with atypia and 116 patients had a papillary lesion without atypia. Patients with a papillary lesion with atypia were more likely to develop invasive or in situ breast cancer with a 5 year risk of 13.0% versus 4.6% in patients with no atypia (p = 0.03). © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Renal papillary attenuation differences between primary and recurrent idiopathic calcium stone disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakiroglu, B; Eyyupoglu, S E; Tas, T; Esen, T; Acar, O; Aksoy, S H

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate whether renal papillae of patients with nephrolithiasis are more radiodense than that of control patients and to evaluate the predictability of urolithiasis using papillary density differences between stone and non-stone formers. Renal papillary Hounsfield Unit (HU) measurements were conducted at the level of upper pole, middle region and lower pole of both kidneys in a total of 126 primary (group 1), 133 recurrent (group 2) stone disease patients and 108 controls (group 3). Mean patient age did not differ significantly between groups (P>0.05). Mean stone diameters (±SD) were 5.0±3.1 mm (3-9 mm) and 6.1±3.3 mm (3-15 mm) for primary and recurrent groups, respectively and group distributions and variances were similar (P>0.05). Mean papillary attenuation values (±SD) were 27.26±9.30 (4.00-56.00) in group 1, 30.42±9.88 (12.00-64.00) in group 2 and 25.83±2.72 (20.30-32.56) in the control group. The difference between the mean papillary attenuation value of the primary stone disease group and the control group was statistically insignificant (P=0.104). When the control group and the recurrent stone group was compared without variances, in terms of the mean renal papillary attenuation value, a statistical significance was achieved (P=0.000). With increasing renal papillary HU values, the risk of recurrent calcium stone disease is increased.

  1. [Clinico-pathological features of papillary thyroid cancer coexistent with Hashimoto's thyroiditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Sarolta; Győry, Ferenc; Nagy, Endre; Méhes, Gábor; Molnár, Csaba

    2017-02-01

    Former studies suggest the frequent coexistence of Hashimoto's thyreoditis with papillary thyroid cancer, frequently featured by multifocal carcinogenesis but lower clinical stages compared to thyroid cancers lacking thyroiditis. We examined the clinico-pathological correlations between Hashimoto's thyroditis and papillary thyroid cancer in our region in the North-Eastern part of Hungary. We included a total of 230 patients with papillary thyroid cancer who underwent thyroid surgery at the Surgical Department of the University of Debrecen. Patients' sex, age, multifocality of thyroid cancer and clinical stage were evaluated. Cases included 40 patients (17.4%) with (4 male, 36 female) and 190 (82.6%) patients without HT (44 male, 146 female). Hashimoto's thyroiditis related thyroid cancer was almost exclusively associated with the papillary histological type. Multifocality of papillary cancer was significantly more frequent with coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis (16/40; 40.0%) compared to cases uninvolved (45/190; 23.7%; p = 0.034). In contrast, lymph node metastasis was significantly less frequent among patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (4 pN1 [36.4%]; 7 pN0 [63.6%]) then without it (34 pN1 [82.9%]; 7 pN0 [17.1%]; p = 0.002). Higher frequency and multifocality of papillary thyroid cancer might be the consequence of preexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis to be considered as a preneoplastic stimulus supporting carcinogenesis, though the exact pathomechanism of this correlation is not clear yet. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(5), 178-182.

  2. Urinary cytokines reflecting the immunological response in the urinary bladder to biological response modifiers: their practical use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schamhart, D. H.; de Boer, E. C.; de Reijke, T. M.; Kurth, K.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunotherapy is currently the most effective treatment for superficial transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder. In recent years, the substantial number of patients not responding to BCG or experiencing considerable toxicities

  3. Expression of RFC/SLC19A1 is associated with tumor type in bladder cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyaa M Abdel-Haleem

    Full Text Available Urinary bladder cancer (UBC ranks ninth in worldwide cancer. In Egypt, the pattern of bladder cancer is unique in that both the transitional and squamous cell types prevail. Despite much research on the topic, it is still difficult to predict tumor progression, optimal therapy and clinical outcome. The reduced folate carrier (RFC/SLC19A1 is the major transport system for folates in mammalian cells and tissues. RFC is also the primary means of cellular uptake for antifolate cancer chemotherapeutic drugs, however, membrane transport of antifolates by RFC is considered as limiting to antitumor activity. The purpose of this study was to compare the mRNA expression level of RFC/SLC19A1 in urothelial and non-urothelial variants of bladder carcinomas. Quantification of RFC mRNA in the mucosa of 41 untreated bladder cancer patients was performed using RT-qPCR. RFC mRNA steady-state levels were ∼9-fold higher (N = 39; P<0.0001 in bladder tumor specimens relative to normal bladder mRNA. RFC upregulation was strongly correlated with tumor type (urothelial vs. non-urothelial; p<0.05 where median RFC mRNA expression was significantly (p<0.05 higher in the urothelial (∼14-fold compared to the non-urothelial (∼4-fold variant. This may account for the variation in response to antifolate-containing regimens used in the treatment of either type. RFC mRNA levels were not associated with tumor grade (I, II and III or stage (muscle-invasive vs. non-muscle invasive implying that RFC cannot be used for prognostic purposes in bladder carcinomas and its increased expression is an early event in human bladder tumors pathogenesis. Further, RFC can be considered as a potential marker for predicting response to antifolate chemotherapy in urothelial carcinomas.

  4. Urinary bladder cancer in dogs, a naturally occurring model for cancer biology and drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Deborah W; Ramos-Vara, José A; Moore, George E; Dhawan, Deepika; Bonney, Patty L; Young, Kirsten E

    2014-01-01

    Each year more than 65,000 people are diagnosed with urinary bladder cancer, and more than 14,000 people die from the disease in the United States. Studies in relevant animal models are essential to improve the management of bladder cancer. Naturally occurring bladder cancer in dogs very closely mimics human invasive bladder cancer, specifically high-grade invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC; also referred to as invasive urothelial carcinoma) in cellular and molecular features; biological behavior, including sites and frequency of metastasis; and response to therapy. Canine bladder cancer complements experimentally induced rodent tumors in regard to animal models of bladder cancer. Results of cellular and molecular studies and -omics analyses in dogs are expected to lead to improved detection of TCC and preneoplastic lesions, earlier intervention, better prediction of patient outcome, and more effective TCC management overall. Studies in dogs are being used to help define heritable risks (through very strong breed-associated risk) and environment risks and to evaluate prevention and treatment approaches that benefit humans as well as dogs. Clinical treatment trials in pet dogs with TCC are considered a win-win scenario by clinician scientists and pet owners. The individual dog benefits from effective treatment, the results are expected to help other dogs, and the findings are expected to ultimately help humans with TCC. This article provides an overview of canine TCC, a summary of the similarities and differences between canine and human invasive TCC, and examples of the types of valuable translational research that can be done using dogs with naturally occurring TCC. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Whistle from Afar: A Case of Endotracheal Metastasis in Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bitoti Chattopadhyay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Endotracheal metastasis is a rare situation, usually associated with malignancies of breast and gastrointestinal tract, specially colon. Papillary carcinoma of thyroid commonly disseminates through lymphatic channels and tracheal involvement through vascular route is rarely reported. Here, we report a case of tracheal metastasis from papillary carcinoma of thyroid. The patient responded to external beam radiation therapy with cobalt 60 beams in a dose of 44 Gy followed by a 16 Gy boost. The patient is under followup and is presently asymptomatic. This paper adds to the repertoire of evidence in treatment of endotracheal metastasis.

  6. Solitary eccrine syringofibroadenoma: a case report showing papillary tubular adenoma-like features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Yamamoto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We herein describe a case showing eccrine syringofibroadenoma occurred on the dorsum of the right foot of a 46-year-old Japanese female. Histopathologic examination revealed anastomosing cords and strands of cuboidal epithelial cells extending from the epidermis to the upper dermis, with a number of well-defined ducts suggesting eccrine ductal origin. In addition, there were papillary tubular adenoma-like ductal structures lined by a few rows of epithelial cells with papillary projections into the lumen surrounded by fibrous stroma in the mid-dermis. It is of note that various histologic features showing different differentiation were seen in a single lesion of eccrine syringofibroadenoma.

  7. Recurrent papillary craniopharyngioma with BRAFV600E mutation treated with neoadjuvant-targeted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Elham; Witt Nyström, Petra; Libard, Sylwia; Wikström, Johan; Casar-Borota, Olivera; Gudjonsson, Olafur

    2017-11-01

    Craniopharyngiomas are histologically benign but locally aggressive tumors in the sellar region that may cause devastating neurological and endocrine deficits. They tend to recur following surgery with high morbidity; hence, postoperative radiotherapy is recommended following sub-total resection. BRAFV600E mutation is the principal oncogenic driver in the papillary variant of craniopharyngiomas. Recently, a dramatic tumor reduction has been reported in a patient with BRAFV600E mutated, multiply recurrent papillary craniopharyngioma using a combination therapy of BRAF inhibitor dabrafenib and MEK inhibitor trametinib. Here, we report on near-radical reduction of a growing residual BRAFV600E craniopharyngioma using the same neoadjuvant therapy.

  8. A case of invasive papillary breast carcinoma: Fierce façade with favorable prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Vani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive papillary carcinoma of the breast is a rare, distinct variant comprising approximately less than 1-2% of all newly diagnosed cases of breast carcinoma and is usually found in postmenopausal women with a more favorable prognosis. We report an unusual case in a 45-year-old perimenopausal female who came with a complaint of lump in right breast for duration of 1 year. A simple mastectomy was undertaken for histopathological study and immunohistochemistry (IHC which showed characteristic features of an invasive papillary breast carcinoma. We present this case in view of its rarity and to highlight this clinicopathological subtype for its good prognosis and to avoid overtreatment.

  9. Papillary Ependymoma WHO Grade II of the Aqueduct Treated by Endoscopic Tumor Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas M. Stark

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Papillary ependymoma is a rare tumor that may be located along the ventricular walls or within the spinal cord. We report the case of a 54-year-old patient with a papillary ependymoma WHO grade II arising at the entrance of the aqueduct. The tumor caused hydrocephalus. The tumor was completely removed via a right-sided endoscopic approach with restoration of the aqueduct. The free cerebrospinal fluid passage through the aqueduct was not only visualized by endoscopy but also controlled by intraoperative high-field magnetic resonance imaging. Therefore, an additional endoscopic third ventriculostomy was unneccessary.

  10. Association of a renal papillary carcinoma with a low grade tumour of the collecting ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, L; Zattara-Cannoni, H; Lechevallier, E; Pellissier, J

    2001-01-01

    This case report describes a 75 year old man who had a renal papillary carcinoma associated with a low grade tumour of the collecting ducts. These tumours showed different immunohistochemical patterns for epithelial membrane antigen, cytokeratin 19, and Ulex europaeus lectin expression. In addition, cytogenetic findings were 47, XY, +7 and 45, XY, -8, add(12)(q–ter) for the papillary renal carcinoma and the low grade tumour of the collecting ducts, respectively. This is the first report where these two types of tumour are associated and cytogenetically distinguished. Key Words: renal cell carcinoma • low grade tumour of the collecting ducts PMID:11477121

  11. An unusual metastasis of a papillary thyroidian carcinoma with follicular pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coconu, M; Berdan, G; Roşculescu, I; Herlea, V

    1998-01-01

    The case of a 67-year-old man is presented. He was admitted for the presence of a left parietal tumour with progressive growing, without any other objective or subjective symptomatology. CT-scan detects a left parietal osteolytic area. The histopathological aspect suggested an adenocarcinomatous metastasis with papillary pattern, moderately differentiated. With the purpose of diagnosing the original tumour, immunnohistochemical techniques were performed, which led to a diagnosis of a thyroidian carcinoma. At the histological examination of the surgical extirpated thyroid, it was proved to be a papillary carcinoma (Chan, 1990, Hay, 1990), the follicular pattern.

  12. Aggressive Digital Papillary Adenocarcinoma in a Young Female-a Rare Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gole, Gautam Nandkumar; Tati, Shekhar Y; Deshpande, Ashok Kumar; Gole, Sheetal G

    2011-06-01

    A 20 year old female presented with a recurrent soft tissue swelling over the medial aspect of proximal phalanx of left little finger. It had recurred one year after excision. There was no lymphadenopathy or bony involvement. Previous histopathology reports were not available. After excision histopathological diagnosis was aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinoma. Later Ray's amputation of little finger was planned. Aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinomas are rare sweat gland tumors which occur on hands, fingers, and toes. They have high local recurrence rate and may metastasize to lungs and lymph nodes.

  13. Thyroid Duplication and Papillary Carcinoma in an Ectopic Thyroid. A Case Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Puerto Lorenzo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a patient with a palpable tumor located in midline of the anterior neck above the hyoid bone, initially diagnosed as a thyroglossal duct cyst. Preliminary study of the lesion was conducted, both clinically and radiologically and cytologically. The tumor was removed through surgery by conventional technique. The paraffin biopsy defined the existence of thyroid papillary carcinoma. Despite this condition, the patient had thyroid gland in normal location. It is considered to be a curious case, combining the concepts of thyroid duplication and ectopic thyroid, with the presence, in this last one, of papillary carcinoma.

  14. Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma Revealed by Renal Traumatism: A Case Report in Lomé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tchilabalo Matchonna Kpatcha

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is a report on a case of papillary carcinoma of the kidney revealed by an abdominal contusion. The results of radiological investigations were discordant with the low intensity of the shock. The treatment consisted of radical nephrectomy because of the suspicion of a pre-existing malignancy. Histological analysis revealed a papillary carcinoma pT3N0M0. We focus on the need for performing diagnostic tests in order to avoid missing a pre-existing anomaly to the kidney trauma.

  15. Bovine papillomavirus type 2 (BPV-2) E5 oncoprotein binds to the subunit D of the V₁-ATPase proton pump in naturally occurring urothelial tumors of the urinary bladder of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roperto, Sante; Russo, Valeria; Borzacchiello, Giuseppe; Urraro, Chiara; Lucà, Roberta; Esposito, Iolanda; Riccardi, Marita Georgia; Raso, Cinzia; Gaspari, Marco; Ceccarelli, Dora Maria; Galasso, Rocco; Roperto, Franco

    2014-01-01

    Active infection by bovine papillomavirus type 2 (BPV-2) was documented for fifteen urinary bladder tumors in cattle. Two were diagnosed as papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUNLMP), nine as papillary and four as invasive urothelial cancers. In all cancer samples, PCR analysis revealed a BPV-2-specific 503 bp DNA fragment. E5 protein, the major oncoprotein of the virus, was shown both by immunoprecipitation and immunohistochemical analysis. E5 was found to bind to the activated (phosphorylated) form of the platelet derived growth factor β receptor. PDGFβR immunoprecipitation from bladder tumor samples and from normal bladder tissue used as control revealed a protein band which was present in the pull-down from bladder cancer samples only. The protein was identified with mass spectrometry as "V₁-ATPase subunit D", a component of the central stalk of the V₁-ATPase vacuolar pump. The subunit D was confirmed in this complex by coimmunoprecipitation investigations and it was found to colocalize with the receptor. The subunit D was also shown to be overexpressed by Western blot, RT-PCR and immunofluorescence analyses. Immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence also revealed that E5 oncoprotein was bound to the subunit D. For the first time, a tri-component complex composed of E5/PDGFβR/subunit D has been documented in vivo. Previous in vitro studies have shown that the BPV-2 E5 oncoprotein binds to the proteolipid c ring of the V₀-ATPase sector. We suggest that the E5/PDGFβR/subunit D complex may perturb proteostasis, organelle and cytosol homeostasis, which can result in altered protein degradation and in autophagic responses.

  16. Finite element based bladder modeling for image-guided radiotherapy of bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chai, Xiangfei; van Herk, Marcel; van de Kamer, Jeroen B.; Hulshof, Maarten C. C. M.; Remeijer, Peter; Lotz, Heidi T.; Bel, Arjan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A biomechanical model was constructed to give insight into pelvic organ motion as a result of bladder filling changes. Methods: The authors used finite element (FE) modeling to simulate bladder wall deformation caused by urine inflow. For ten volunteers, a series of MRI scans of the pelvic

  17. Can we improve transurethral resection of the bladder tumour for nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, Esmee Iml; de Reijke, Theo M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review The recurrence rate in patients with nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer is high, and the quality of transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB) tumour influences recurrence risk. We review new methods that aim to improve the effectiveness of TURB, and highlight studies of the past

  18. Recurrent urinary tract infection and risk of bladder cancer in the Nijmegen bladder cancer study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, S.; Hanum, N.; Grotenhuis, A.J.; Castano-Vinyals, G.; Heijden, A.G. van der; Aben, K.K.H.; Mysorekar, I.U.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Controversy exists on whether urinary tract infection (UTI) is a risk factor for urinary bladder cancer (UBC). Here, the association is investigated using data from one of the largest bladder cancer case-control studies worldwide. METHODS: Information on (i) history and age at onset of

  19. Preoperative radiation therapy for muscle-invading bladder carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, J.A.; Greven, K.M.; Anscher, M.S.; Morgan, T.M.; Scott, J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on low-dose and high-dose radiation therapy (RT) followed by cystectomy for bladder carcinoma that was evaluated for survival, failure patterns, and complications as these outcomes have been incompletely documented in the past. One hundred five patients with clinical stages T2-T4 (muscle-invading) transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder who completed preoperative RT followed by total cystectomy were evaluated. Eighty-five patients received 20-27 Gy in 4-7 fractions (group A). Twenty patients received 40-50 Gy in 20-28 fractions (group B). Actuarial 5-year survival was 45% and 29% (P = .06) for groups A and B, respectively; 6% of group A was stage T4 compared with 30% of group B. Five-year actuarial survival for patients with stages T2-T3 in groups A and B was 46% and 42%, respectively, while that for T4 was 33% and 0% in groups A and B, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that stage, grade, and presence of hydronephrosis independently affected survival. Five-year actuarial local control rates for T2, T3, and T4 were 93%, 93%, and 22%, respectively, with no significant difference between RT groups. Rates of distant metastasis and complications versus preoperative regime and stage were similar

  20. Radiotherapy treatment results of bladder cancer: study of 458 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vara Santos, J.; Torre Tomas, A. de la; Romero Fernandez, J.; Regueiro Otero, C.; Clavo Varas, B.; Magallan Sebastian, R.; Valcarcel Sancho, F.; Polo Tolosana, E.; Aragon de la Cruz, G.

    1994-01-01

    Between 1964 to 1990, 458 patients diagnosed of bladder cancer have been treated with radical radiotherapy in our department. The 5-years and 10-years actuarial survival rates were 37% and 27% respectively. The 5-years and 10-years actuarial local control rates, evaluated in 404 patients, were 41% and 38%. In regard to survival, T stage (p=0.013), advanced intravesical extension or multicentrity (p>0.0001), and squamous differentiation (p<0.0001), reached statistical significance as adverse prognostic factors. In 248 patients, with invasive transitional carcinoma, radical radiotherapy alone was used. In this group of patients, T stage (p=0.006) and advanced intravesical extension or multicentrity (p=0.0002) were adverse prognostic factors for survival. Our results suggest that radical radiotherapy must be considered and alternative to surgery in management of bladder cancer. On the basis of prognostic factors evidenced in this series a subgroup of patients with low probability of survival when treated with exclusive radiotherapy are defined. This patients must be included in clinical research protocols. (Author) 44 refs