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Sample records for papaya chilena vasconcellea

  1. Papaya Lethal Yellowing Virus (PLYV) Infects Vasconcellea cauliflora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaral, P.P.R.; Resende, de R.O.; Souza, M.T.

    2006-01-01

    Papaya lethal yellowing virus (PLYV) é um dos três vírus descritos infectando mamoeiros (Carica papaya L.) no Brasil. Vasconcellea cauliflora (Jacq.) A. DC., antes denominada de Carica cauliflora (Jacq.), é uma reconhecida fonte de resistência natural ao Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), causador da "Ma

  2. Distribution, diversity and environmental adaptation of highland papaya (Vasconcellea spp.) in tropical and subtropical America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheldeman, X.; Willemen, L.; Coppens D'eeckenbrugge, G.; Romeijn-Peeters, E.; Restrepo, M.T.; Romero Motoche, J.; Jimenez, D.; Lobo, M.; Medina, C.I.; Reyes, C.; Rodriguez, D.; Ocampo, J.A.; Damme, van P.; Goetghebeur, P.

    2007-01-01

    Vasconcellea species, often referred to as highland papayas, consist of a group of fruit species that are closely related to the common papaya (Carica papaya). The genus deserves special attention as a number of species show potential as raw material in the tropical fruit industry, fresh or in proce

  3. Deshidratación osmótica de la papaya chilena (Vasconcellea pubescens e influencia de la temperatura y concentración de la solución sobre la cinética de transferencia de materia Desidratação osmótica do mamão chileno (Vasconcellea pubescens e influência da temperatura e concentração da solução sobre a cinética de transferência de matéria

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    Antonio Vega-Gálvez

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la cinética de deshidratación osmótica de la papaya chilena (Vasconcellea pubescens, utilizando dos variables experimentales: la temperatura (30, 40, 50 °C y concentración (40, 50 y 60% de la solución osmótica. Se determinó la variación de masa total, masa de agua y masa de sólidos solubles y se modeló con las ecuaciones difusionales, además en esta investigación se consideró y utilizó una modificación de la ecuación propuesta por Biswal-Bozorgmehr. Estos modelos fueron evaluados por medio del coeficiente de regresión lineal, suma de errores cuadrados, raíz media de los errores cuadrados y Chi-cuadrado. Al comparar los valores experimentales con los calculados, se demostró que el modelo Biswal-Bozorgmehr modificado obtuvo mejor ajuste sobre la variación de masa de agua y sólidos solubles. Mediante la ecuación de Arrhenius se analizó el efecto de la temperatura sobre los parámetros cinéticos (Kw y Kss y difusividad efectiva de agua (Dwe y sólidos solubles (Dsse. De acuerdo al diseño factorial, se observó que la temperatura no influyó sobre la difusividad efectiva de agua y de sólidos, pero sí la concentración de la solución osmótica. La mejor condición de salida de agua y ganancia de sólidos solubles durante la deshidratación osmótica de la papaya chilena fue a 30 °C con una concentración del 60%.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a cinética de desidratação osmótica do mamão chileno (Vasconcellea pubescens utilizando duas variáveis experimentais: temperatura (30, 40 e 50 °C e concentração (40, 50 e 60% da solução osmótica. Para este estudo, determinou-se a variação de massa total, de massa de água, de massa de sólidos solúveis, modeladas com as equações difusionais. Nesta investigação, também se considera e se usa uma modificação da equação proposta por Biswal-Bozorgmehr. Estes modelos foram avaliados através do coeficiente de regress

  4. Extraction Techniques for Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity Determination of Chilean Papaya (Vasconcellea pubescens) Fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Elsa Uribe; Alvaro Delgadillo; Claudia Giovagnoli-Vicuña; Issis Quispe-Fuentes; Liliana Zura-Bravo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess and compare different extraction methods by using high hydrostatic pressure (HHPE), ultrasound (UE), agitation (AE), and their combinations for the extraction of bioactive compounds of Chilean papaya. Extract antioxidant capacity was evaluated by three methods (i.e., DPPH, FRAP, and Voltammetry) and phenolic compounds and vitamin C were determined by HPLC. Papaya sample extraction was performed by HHPE at 500 MPa for 10 min and UE and AE for 30 min, respecti...

  5. Papaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaya is a plant. The leaves are used to make medicine. Papaya is used for preventing and treating gastrointestinal tract ... of the lymphatic system caused by parasitic worms. Papaya contains a chemical called papain, which is commonly ...

  6. Intestinal obstruction due to Vasconcellea seeds: Report of three cases and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Montoya-González, Juliana; Vasco, Alejandra; Hoyos-Figueroa, Francisco; Osorio-Cadavid, Natalia; Marín-Agudelo, Alejandro; Jaramillo-Bustamante, Juan Camilo

    2015-01-01

    Vasconcellea spp., is a species of Andean papaya commonly cultivated in rural communities close to Medellín, Colombia. Due to the pleasant and sweet flavor of its fruits, children frequently ingest its seeds accidentally. After ingestion, the seeds are engaged in the colonic lumen and block the exit of stools, causing pain and bloating, and promoting bacterial translocation. Diagnosis is based on clinical history and rectal examination. Treatment depends on the degree of local and systemic in...

  7. Palynology of Carica and Vasconcellea (Caricaceae Palinología de Carica y Vasconcellea (Caricaceae

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    Lagos Túlio César

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Palynology of Carica and Vasconcellea (Caricaceae. The pollen of C. papaya and agreements of Vasconcellea cauliflora, V. cundinamarcensis, V. crassipetala, V. goudotiana, V. x heilbornii var. chrysopetala, V. longiflora and V. sphaerocarpa collected in the Colombian Coffee Growing Zone, using the technique of acetolisis for optic microscopy and the fixation procedure with glutaraldehide, dehydration and ionization with gold-palade, for scanning electronic microscopy was described. The pollen grains were characterized using descriptors, which include the characters of taxonomic value for pollen identification, genetically determined. The most important are the number, position and character of the aperture (NPC and exine ornamentation and stratification. The pollen is of medium size for both genera, tricolporate, zonoaperturate, prolate-spheroid to subprolate, isopolar radial symmetry, tectate, dug, foveolate, with columelas. These characters have demonstrated a great contribution to the taxonomy of Caricaceae because the cluster analysis allowed distinguish very well the two genera.

    Se describe el polen de C. papaya y accesiones de Vasconcellea cauliflora, V. cundinamarcensis, V. crassipetala, V. goudotiana, V. x heilbornii var. chrysopetala, V. longiflora y V. sphaerocarpa recolectadas en la Zona Cafetera de Colombia, empleando la técnica de acetólisis para microscopía óptica y el procedimiento de fijación con glutaraldehído, deshidratación e ionización con oro paladio, para microscopía electrónica de barrido (MEB. Se caracterizaron los granos de polen por medio de una lista de descriptores que incluyeron los caracteres de valor taxonómico para identi

  8. Citogenética de especies de Vasconcellea (Caricaceae

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    Creucí Maria Caetano

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Conocer aspectos básicos de la citogenética de las papayas de montaña o papayuelas, especies del género Vasconcellea (Caricaceae originarias de Ecuador y Colombia, fue el objetivo del trabajo. Botones florales se fijaron en etanol-acético 3:1 por 24h, luego se transfirieron a nueva solución y se almacenaron en frío. Los microsporocitos y los granos de polen se tiñieron con acetocarmín (1%. Se evaluaron las fases de meiosis y la viabilidad de polen para describir el comportamiento cromosómico. Se encontró que: 1 todas las seis especies estudiadas fueron diploides (2n=2x=18; 2 se describió el número cromosómico para V. sphaerocarpa, V. longiflora y V. palandensis (2n=18; 3 el grado de asimetría de los complementos cromosómicos indicó un proceso de evolución; 4 la presencia de numerosos NOR en V. sphaerocarpa está relacionada con los micronucleolos y corroboró el posible origen híbrido; y 5 V. cauliflora (42.98% y V. cundinamarcensis (47.93% presentaron la más baja viabilidad polínica.

  9. Intestinal obstruction due to Vasconcellea seeds: Report of three cases and literature review

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    Montoya-González, Juliana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Vasconcellea spp., is a species of Andean papaya commonly cultivated in rural communities close to Medellín, Colombia. Due to the pleasant and sweet flavor of its fruits, children frequently ingest its seeds accidentally. After ingestion, the seeds are engaged in the colonic lumen and block the exit of stools, causing pain and bloating, and promoting bacterial translocation. Diagnosis is based on clinical history and rectal examination. Treatment depends on the degree of local and systemic involvement and includes disimpaction of rectal contents under general anesthesia and colonic washes with 0.9% saline solution. In severe cases derivative colostomy has been required. In the literature there are no reports of intestinal obstruction due to Vasconcellea seeds, possibly because it has been mistaken for seeds of the genus Carica. In this article, three cases treated at pediatric services in Medellín, Colombia, in 2012 and 2013 are described. We note that this is a rarely suspected disease, leading to late diagnosis and potential catastrophic consequences. It is important to educate people to prevent the ingestion of the seeds.

  10. Citogenética de especies de Vasconcellea (Caricaceae

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    Caetano Creucí María

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Conocer aspectos básicos de la citogenética de las papayas de montaña o papayuelas, especies del género Vasconcellea (Caricaceae originarias de Ecuador y Colombia, fue el objetivo del trabajo. Botones florales se fijaron en etanol-acético 3:1 por 24h, luego se transfirieron a nueva solución y se almacenaron en frío. Los microsporocitos y los granos de polen se tiñieron con acetocarmín (1%. Se evaluaron las fases de meiosis y la viabilidad de polen para describir el comportamiento cromosómico. Se encontró que: 1 todas las seis especies estudiadas fueron diploides (2n=2x=18; 2 se describió el número cromosómico para V. sphaerocarpa, V. longiflora y V. palandensis (2n=18; 3 el grado de asimetría de los complementos cromosómicos indicó un proceso de evolución; 4 la presencia de numerosos NOR en V. sphaerocarpa está relacionada con los micronucleolos y corroboró el posible origen híbrido; y 5 V. cauliflora (42.98% y V. cundinamarcensis (47.93% presentaron la más baja viabilidad polínica.

  11. Mejoramiento de la germinación, control de la hiperhidricidad y formación de brotes en Vasconcellea stipulata Badillo

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    Rosa Armijos González

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Vasconcellea stipulata has great commercial importance because of its enzymatic activity and as a source for genetic improvement of papaya since it is resistant to the papaya ringspot virus. However, due to its low regeneration by seeds and limited knowledge of its genetic and pharmaceutical properties, this species is not widely cultivated. For propagation, in vitro culture of seeds has been used to address this problem, but hyperhydricity, a physiological disorder, mainly expressed in the developing embryonic axis and specifically associated with this species, is a significant constraint. In order to obtain elite material for culture of V. stipulata, the aim of this work was to increase germination, to control hyperhydricity in embryos and to evaluate the potential to induce morphogenic responses, i.e., shoot formation. Our results showed that it is possible to increase germination up to 53% under in vitro conditions within a short period in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. In addition, hyperhydricity was significantly reduced (50% in vitro when gibberellic acid concentrations were included on a 1/2 Nitsch and Nitsch nutrient medium, resulting in approximately 80% recovery of viable seedlings. Finally, other plant growth regulators were evaluated and found to trigger shoot formation in axillary buds as well as induce the formation of callus in leaf sections derived of seedlings.

  12. A dated phylogeny of the papaya family (Caricaceae) reveals the crop's closest relatives and the family's biogeographic history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Fernanda Antunes; Renner, Susanne S

    2012-10-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya) is a crop of great economic importance, and the species was among the first plants to have its genome sequenced. However, there has never been a complete species-level phylogeny for the Caricaceae, and the crop's closest relatives are therefore unknown. We investigated the evolution of the Caricaceae based on sequences from all species and genera, the monospecific Carica, African Cylicomorpha with two species, South American Jacaratia and Vasconcellea with together c. 28 species, and Mexican/Guatemalan Jarilla and Horovitzia with four species. Most Caricaceae are trees or shrubs; the species of Jarilla, however, are herbaceous. We generated a matrix of 4711 nuclear and plastid DNA characters and used maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian analysis to infer species relationships, rooting trees on the Moringaceae. Divergence times were estimated under relaxed and strict molecular clocks, using different subsets of the data. Ancestral area reconstruction relied on a ML approach. The deepest split in the Caricaceae occurred during the Late Eocene, when the ancestor of the Neotropical clade arrived from Africa. In South America, major diversification events coincide with the Miocene northern Andean uplift and the initial phase of the tectonic collision between South America and Panama resulting in the Panamanian land bridge. Carica papaya is sister to Jarilla/Horovitzia, and all three diverged from South American Caricaceae in the Oligocene, 27 (22-33) Ma ago, coincident with the early stages of the formation of the Panamanian Isthmus. The discovery that C. papaya is closest to a clade of herbaceous or thin-stemmed species has implications for plant breeders who have so far tried to cross papaya only with woody highland papayas (Vasconcellea). PMID:22659516

  13. en una comuna chilena

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    Mirtha Lischetti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Los procesos globalizadores encuentran en el Estado chileno un campo propicio para desarrollarse después de que la brutal represión de la dictadura militar eliminara la posibilidad de un gobierno socialista llegado al poder por vía electoral. Los contenidos ideológicos de la globalización, así como las políticas económicas concretas que se llevan a la práctica en su nombre, transforman las subjetividades de los sujetos. La clase trabajadora chilena de ideología y tradición mayoritariamente de izquierda queda marginada de la vida política dentro de su propia realidad. Nuestro análisis indaga acerca de los alcances y límites de la supresión de la vida política dentro de dicha clase y la posible construcción de una contrahegemonía que ésta pueda realizar.

  14. Sex Determination in Papaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sex determination is an intriguing system in trioecious papaya. Over the past seven decades various hypotheses, based on the knowledge and information available at the time, have been proposed to explain the genetics of the papaya's sex determination. These include a single gene with three alleles...

  15. BASKETFUL BENEFITS OF PAPAYA

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    Parle Milind

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Papaya (Carica papaya linn is well known for its exceptional nutritional and medicinal properties throughout the world. From the times immemorial, the whole Papaya plant including its leaves, seeds, ripe and unripe fruits and their juice is used as a traditional medicine. The fruit has a large oval shape, yellowish-green skin and yellow flesh. Nowadays, Papaya is considered as a Nutraceutical fruit due to its multi-faceted medicinal properties. The prominent medicinal properties of Papaya include Anti-fertility, Uterotonic, Diuretic, Anti-hypertensive, Hypolipidemic, Anti-helmintic, Wound-healing, Anti-fungal, Anti-bacterial, Anti-tumor and Free radical scavenging activities. Phytochemically, the whole plant contains enzymes (Papain, carotenoids, alkaloids, monoterpenoids, flavonoids, minerals and vitamins. In the present review article, a humble attempt is made to compile all the strange facts available about this tasty fruit. This tasty fruit of Papaya is popular among family members of all ages for the delicious dishes derived from it.

  16. Post-irradiation identification of papaya ( Carica papaya L.) fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Suchandra; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

    2012-03-01

    Impact of radiation processing on the volatile essential oil profile of papaya ( Carica papaya) was investigated. Gamma-radiation processing resulted in the appearance of a new peak in the GLC profile that was identified as phenol. The observed dose dependent increase in phenol content suggested possible use of this compound as a marker for radiation processed papaya.

  17. Biodistribution, pharmacokinetics and toxicity of a Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis proteinase fraction with pharmacological activity

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    Fernanda O. Lemos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Prior studies demonstrate that a proteinase fraction from Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis V.M. Badillo, Caricaceae, exhibits wound healing activity in gastric and cutaneous models and antitumoral/antimetastatic effects. Here, we present the toxicity, pharmacokinetics and biodistribution data for this proteinase fraction following a single dose into Swiss mice by i.v., s.c. or p.o. routes. The i.v. and s.c. toxicity assays demonstrate that proteinase fraction at ≤20 mg/kg is non-lethal after single injection, while parental administration (p.o. of ≤300 mg/kg does not cause death. Based on p.o. acute toxicity dose using Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development protocols, proteinase fraction ranks as Class IV “harmful” substance. Proteinase fraction shows high uptake determined as Kp (distribution tissue/blood in organs linked to metabolism and excretion. Also, high bioavailability (≈100% was observed by s.c. administration. The blood contents following i.v. dose fits into a pharmacokinetic bi-compartmental model, consisting of high removal constants – kel 0.22 h−1 and kd 2.32 h−1and a half-life – t½ = 3.13 h. The Ames test of proteinase fraction (0.01–1% demonstrates absence of mutagenic activity. Likewise, genotoxic evaluation of proteinase fraction (5 or 10 mg/kg, i.p. shows no influence in micronuclei frequency. In conclusion, the acute doses for proteinase fraction lack mutagenic and genotoxic activity, clearing the way for clinical assays.

  18. Características Físico-Químicas del Látex de Papayuelo (Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis Badillo, Caricaceae Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Papayuelo Latex (Vasconcellea Cundinamarcensis Badillo, Caricaceae

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    Leslie V Vidal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó el rendimiento y la actividad enzimática de la papaína presente en el látex de papayuelo (Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis, cultivado en Cobquecura, VIII región del Bío-Bío, Chile, durante un año. Entre enero y diciembre, las plantas, frutos y látex, obtenidos de frutos inmaduros, fueron caracterizados con el propósito de conocer el comportamiento del cultivo a través de las estaciones del año, y comprender las posibles relaciones entre los parámetros estudiados. El diseño experimental fue completamente aleatorio y los datos se procesaron mediante un ANDEVA y prueba de rangos múltiples de Duncan. Se encontró diferencia estadística significativa entre estaciones en cuanto al desarrollo de la planta y sus características. Los mayores rendimientos de látex se obtuvieron en la estación de primavera, mientras que la actividad enzimática se mantuvo constante durante el año de estudio.A study to determine the yield and enzymatic activity of papain present in the latex obtained from papayuelo fruit (Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis cultivated in Cobquecura, VIII Bío-Bío Region in Chile, during one year was done. Between January and December the papayuelo plants, fruits and latex obtained from unripe fruits were characterized. The objective of the study was to know the species behavior through the seasons and the relation between the parameters studied. The experimental design was completely random, and the data were processed through ANOVA and Duncan’s multiple range test. A significant statistical difference in plant growth and plan characteristics between seasons was found. The higher latex yields were obtained in spring, whereas the enzymatic activity was constant through the year.

  19. La guerra en la dramaturgia chilena

    OpenAIRE

    Faúndez Carreño, Tania

    2014-01-01

    La guerra se ha constituido un tema constante en la dramaturgia chilena, la cual a su vez se ha vinculado estrechamente con la identidad nacional. La pulsión de la guerra, con sus mecanismos discursivos institucionales (histórico, político, cultural, militar, nacional), sus ondulaciones y su dificultad misma de la representación sobre la escena han resonado en la dramaturgia patria desde la consolidación de la República en el siglo XIX (1817) hasta la apoteósica celebración del Bicentenario n...

  20. Improving Tenderness of Spent Layer Hens Meat Using Papaya Leaves (Carica papaya)

    OpenAIRE

    H. O. Abdalla, N. N. A. Ali, F. S. Siddig and S. A. M. Ali*

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments were performed to study the use of papaya leaves as a meat tenderizer. The first experiment was to evaluate the effect of papaya dry leaves added to hen’s diet before slaughter. Spent hens (n=48) were used, half of them were fed a concentrate ration containing10% dried papaya leaves powder (DPLP) while others received layer ration (Control), for 10 days. The second experiment involved a comparison between papaya leaves juice (PLJ), fresh papaya leaves (FPL) and vinegar soluti...

  1. La izquierda chilena contemparánea

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    Manuel Antonio Garretón

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo, el autor examina las particularidades de la izquierda chilena para entender su papel en los gobiernos democráticos desde los años 70. El autor parte de la premisa de la existencia, durante los años 90, de dos izquierdas: una, el socialismo dentro de la coalición; la otra, el comunismo fuera de ella. En el trabajo se sostiene que la izquierda socialista ha sido el principal motor de la coalición y su papel específico se ha concentrado en los temas socio-económicos ligados a la igualdad, a la justicia, a los derechos humanos y a las propuestas culturales de tipo progresista. Asimismo, se analizan las particularidades esenciales de los gobiernos democráticos chilenos y se examinan los temas y las tareas pendientes. El artículo concluye con un balance del papel de la izquierda y de los retos que aún tiene por delante.

  2. Protection and coexistence of conventional papaya productions with PRSV resistant transgenic papaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is a devastating disease that has a detrimental impact on both commercial papaya production and Caricaceae germplasm conservation. Transgenic line 55-1 and derived progeny ‘SunUp’ and ‘Rainbow’ are resistant to PRSV and have saved the papaya industry in Hawaii. In small...

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of Papaya Ringspot Virus Isolated from Genetically Modified Papaya in Hainan Island, China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Guangyuan; Yan, Pu; Shen, Wentao; Tuo, Decai; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

    2015-01-01

    The complete genome sequence (10,326 nucleotides) of a papaya ringspot virus isolate infecting genetically modified papaya in Hainan Island of China was determined through reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. The virus shares 92% nucleotide sequence identity with the isolate that is unable to infect PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya.

  4. Costo de flete de las exportaciones chilenas: 2000-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalo Becerra M.; Claudio Vicuña U.

    2008-01-01

    El costo de flete que enfrentan las exportaciones chilenas muestra una trayectoria creciente en el lapso 2000-2008, caracterizada por oscilaciones. Las cifras del primer semestre de 2008, medidas en términos reales, se acercan a los US$75/tonelada, mientras que en 2000 se ubicaban en torno a los US$50/tonelada. A partir de la influencia que ejerce el cobre, el sector más relevante de las exportaciones chilenas lo constituye el mineral, con un costo de flete que se ha más que duplicado en el p...

  5. Physical-chemical analyses of irradiated papayas (Carica papaya L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camargo, R.J. [Radiation Technology Center, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Lineu Prestes, 2242, 05508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tadini, C.C. [Chemical Engineering Department, Escola Politecnica, Sao Paulo University, P.O. Box 61548, 05424-970, SP (Brazil); Sabato, S.F. [Radiation Technology Center, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Lineu Prestes, 2242, 05508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: sfsabato@ipen.br

    2007-11-15

    Papaya is cultivated in Espirito Santo State/Brazil and as it stands up to irradiation, it is important to validate this technology, since it is already being applied in some countries. Penetration energy, ratio (relation between soluble solids and titrable acidity) and skin color were evaluated to verify the influence of four different doses of irradiation (0.0, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.00 kGy) on papayas, during 21 days. As a result for the skin color and the penetration energy, it was found that in the first days after irradiation, these variables increased with increase in radiation dose; however, after a time lapse, the tendency inverted and the irradiated fruits had a slower ripening process. For the ratio, a very important variable that it is responsible for the fruit taste, no difference was found between irradiated and the control fruit. Color and texture measurements are dependent on the storage temperature.

  6. Physical-chemical analyses of irradiated papayas ( Carica papaya L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, R. J.; Tadini, C. C.; Sabato, S. F.

    2007-11-01

    Papaya is cultivated in Espírito Santo State/Brazil and as it stands up to irradiation, it is important to validate this technology, since it is already being applied in some countries. Penetration energy, ratio (relation between soluble solids and titrable acidity) and skin color were evaluated to verify the influence of four different doses of irradiation (0.0, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.00 kGy) on papayas, during 21 days. As a result for the skin color and the penetration energy, it was found that in the first days after irradiation, these variables increased with increase in radiation dose; however, after a time lapse, the tendency inverted and the irradiated fruits had a slower ripening process. For the ratio, a very important variable that it is responsible for the fruit taste, no difference was found between irradiated and the control fruit. Color and texture measurements are dependent on the storage temperature.

  7. Ambient temperature perception in papaya for papaya ringspot virus interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangrauthia, Satendra K; Singh Shakya, Viplendra P; Jain, R K; Praveen, Shelly

    2009-06-01

    Temperature dramatically affects the host-virus interaction. Outbreaks of viral diseases are frequently associated with the ambient temperature required for host development. Using papaya as a host and Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) as a pathogen, we studied the effect of temperature on the intensity of disease symptoms and virus accumulation. The phenotypic expression of symptoms and viral accumulation were found to be maximum at ambient temperature (26-31 degrees C) of papaya cultivation. However, there was a drastic difference, 10 degrees C above and below the ambient temperature. The underlying mechanism of these well-known observations are not yet understood completely; however, these observations might help find answers in RNA silencing mechanism of plants. Since viral-derived silencing suppressor proteins play a significant role in RNA silencing mechanism, here we show that PRSV-derived Helper component proteinase (HC-Pro) protein has an affinity for small RNAs in a temperature-dependent manner. This suggested the probable role of HC-Pro in the temperature-regulated host-virus relationship.

  8. Gene Technology for Papaya Ringspot Virus Disease Management

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Abul Kalam Azad; Latifah Amin; Nik Marzuki Sidik

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya) is severely damaged by the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). This review focuses on the development of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya through gene technology. The genetic diversity of PRSV depends upon geographical distribution and the influence of PRSV disease management on a sequence of PRSV isolates. The concept of pathogen-derived resistance has been employed for the development of transgenic papaya, using a coat protein-mediated, RNA-silencing mechanism and replicase...

  9. Anticancer activity of Carica papaya: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thao T T; Shaw, Paul N; Parat, Marie-Odile; Hewavitharana, Amitha K

    2013-01-01

    Carica papaya is widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical countries and is used as food as well as traditional medicine to treat a range of diseases. Increasing anecdotal reports of its effects in cancer treatment and prevention, with many successful cases, have warranted that these pharmacological properties be scientifically validated. A bibliographic search was conducted using the key words "papaya", "anticancer", and "antitumor" along with cross-referencing. No clinical or animal cancer studies were identified and only seven in vitro cell-culture-based studies were reported; these indicate that C. papaya extracts may alter the growth of several types of cancer cell lines. However, many studies focused on specific compounds in papaya and reported bioactivity including anticancer effects. This review summarizes the results of extract-based or specific compound-based investigations and emphasizes the aspects that warrant future research to explore the bioactives in C. papaya for their anticancer activities.

  10. Characterization of chromoplasts and carotenoids of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiggert, Ralf M; Steingass, Christof B; Heller, Annerose; Esquivel, Patricia; Carle, Reinhold

    2011-11-01

    Chromoplast morphology and ultrastructure of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L.) were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. Carotenoid analyses by LC-MS revealed striking similarity of nutritionally relevant carotenoid profiles in both the red and yellow varieties. However, while yellow fruits contained only trace amounts of lycopene, the latter was found to be predominant in red papaya (51% of total carotenoids). Comparison of the pigment-loaded chromoplast ultrastructures disclosed tubular plastids to be abundant in yellow papaya, whereas larger crystalloid substructures characterized most frequent red papaya chromoplasts. Exclusively existent in red papaya, such crystalloid structures were associated with lycopene accumulation. Non-globular carotenoid deposition was derived from simple solubility calculations based on carotenoid and lipid contents of the differently colored fruit pulps. Since the physical state of carotenoid deposition may be decisive regarding their bioavailability, chromoplasts from lycopene-rich tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) were also assessed and compared to red papaya. Besides interesting analogies, various distinctions were ascertained resulting in the prediction of enhanced lycopene bioavailability from red papaya. In addition, the developmental pathway of red papaya chromoplasts was investigated during fruit ripening and carotenogenesis. In the early maturation stage of white-fleshed papaya, undifferentiated proplastids and globular plastids were predominant, corresponding to incipient carotenoid biosynthesis. Since intermediate plastids, e.g., amyloplasts or chloroplasts, were absent, chromoplasts are likely to emerge directly from proplastids.

  11. Short Communication: In vitro response of papaya (Carica papaya to plant growth regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAIME A. TEIXEIRA DA SILVA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Teixeira da Silva JA. 2016. In vitro response of papaya (Carica papaya to multiple plant growth regulators. Nusantara Bioscience 8: 77-82. The use of plant growth regulators (PGRs in papaya (Carica papaya L. tissue culture is essential for tissue and organ culture in vitro. In this study, in a bid to expand the information available on the response to PGRs, a wide range of PGRs, roughly divided into four groups (auxins, cytokinins, alternative PGRs, growth inhibitors and retardants was tested. Among them, the auxins 2,4-D, dicamba and picloram formed most callus (hard and soft. Callus inductions by chitosan and coconut water are novel results for papaya. Shoots only formed in response to BA and TDZ, but TDZ-induced shoots were fasciated and/or hyperhydric. These results provide novel perspectives for papaya researchers who may have recalcitrant genotypes or tissues that are unresponsive in vitro.

  12. Ocorrência de Ovulariopsis papayae Bijl em folhas de mamoeiro Occurrence of Ovulariopsis papayae Bijl in papaya leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan José Antunes Ribeiro

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available É citada pela primeira vez, em nossas condições, a ocorrência de oídio causado por Ovulariopsis papayae Bijl em folhas de mamoeiro (Cacica papaya L.. São descritas a sintomatologia, as características morfológicas do patógeno e o teste de patogenicidade.The occurrence causing powdery mildew in papaya leaves was observed for the first time in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The symptomatology and the morphological characteristics of the pathogen were described and the pathogenicity was comproved.

  13. The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya ( Carica papaya Linnaeus)

    OpenAIRE

    Ming, Ray; Hou, Shaobin; Feng, Yun; Yu, Qinguyi; Thimmapuram, Jyothi

    2008-01-01

    Papaya, a fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, is known for its nutritional benefits and medicinal applications. Here we report a 3 draft genome sequence of 'SunUp' papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree1 to be sequenced. The papaya genome is three times the size of the Arabidopsis genome, but contains fewer genes, including significantly fewer disease-resistance gene analogues. Comparison of the five sequenced genomes suggests a minimal angio...

  14. The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus)

    OpenAIRE

    Ming, Ray; Hou, Shaobin; Feng, Yun; Yu, Qingyi; Dionne-Laporte, Alexandre; Saw, Jimmy H.; Senin, Pavel; Wang, Wei; Ly, Benjamin V; Lewis, Kanako L. T.; Salzberg, Steven L.; Feng, Lu; Jones, Meghan R; Skelton, Rachel L; Murray, Jan E

    2008-01-01

    Papaya, a fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, is known for its nutritional benefits and medicinal applications. Here we report a 3× draft genome sequence of ‘SunUp’ papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree1 to be sequenced. The papaya genome is three times the size of the Arabidopsis genome, but contains fewer genes, including significantly fewer disease-resistance gene analogues. Comparison of the five sequenced genomes suggests a minimal angi...

  15. Effect of Biopreservatives on Storage Life of Papaya (Carica papaya L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Fatema H. Brishti; Jawadul Misir; Ayesha Sarker

    2013-01-01

    In this experiment the effect on post-harvest preservation of papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit coated with either Aloe gel (AG; 100%) or papaya leaf extract with Aloe gel (PLEAG; 1:1) was studied. To evaluate the role of coating on ripening behavior and quality of papaya the uncoated and coated fruits were stored and ripened at room temperature (25 °C-29 °C) and 82-84% relative humidity. Physico-chemical properties were analyzed at 4 day intervals during the storage period. The incidence of ...

  16. Validation and use of DNA markers for sex determination in papaya (Carica papaya)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Profitable papaya production requires female and hermaphrodite plants in higher number than male plants. This is only possible if sex of plants is determined at an early growth stage. The present study was conducted to validate sex-linked DNA markers using plants from two Pakistani papaya varieties and subsequently utilize them for determination of sex in juvenile papaya plants. One hundred and five plants (including 49 male and 56 female) of two Pakistani Papaya varieties at flowering stage were screened with six DNA markers viz., W-11, T12, SDP, Napf-76Napf-76, PKBT4 and PKBT5. All male plants exhibited amplification of sex-linked alleles with markers T12 and W11, whereas, 96% and 95% of female plants showed the absence of sex-linked allele with these markers, respectively. Markers SDP, PKBT5 and Napf-76 showed the presence of sex-linked alleles in 98%, 96% and 93% of male plants, respectively, whereas the same markers showed the absence of sex-linked alleles in 100%, 96% and 94% of female plants. One marker, PKBT4 could not produce expected PCR amplification reported previously. The five DNA markers were further used to screen 171 papaya seedlings. These markers clearly differentiated male and female sex types in the studied papaya plants. Results of our study are likely to facilitate Pakistani papaya breeders and growers to incorporate DNA based screening at juvenile stage to determine sex at early stage and to ensure profitable papaya production. (author)

  17. The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report a draft genome sequence of ‘SunUp’ papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree crop. The papaya genome has more than two times the DNA but about 28% fewer genes than the genome of the related botanical model Arabidopsis. A lack of genome duplication, atypical of angi...

  18. Improving Tenderness of Spent Layer Hens Meat Using Papaya Leaves (Carica papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. O. Abdalla, N. N. A. Ali, F. S. Siddig and S. A. M. Ali*

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were performed to study the use of papaya leaves as a meat tenderizer. The first experiment was to evaluate the effect of papaya dry leaves added to hen’s diet before slaughter. Spent hens (n=48 were used, half of them were fed a concentrate ration containing10% dried papaya leaves powder (DPLP while others received layer ration (Control, for 10 days. The second experiment involved a comparison between papaya leaves juice (PLJ, fresh papaya leaves (FPL and vinegar solution (VS as marinades applied to meat for one or two hours before cooking. Spent layer hens (n=42 were used for tenderness evaluation method. After slaughtering and preparing the chickens two methods of cooking were used (oven and moist cooking. The cooked parts (breast, thigh and drumstick were subjected to a panel test evaluation according to a designed questionnaire. Addition of dried papaya leaves powder to spent layer hens ration significantly (P≤0.05 increased the level of meat tenderness. Moist cooking had significantly (P≤0.05 improved meat tenderization compared to oven cooking. Meat treated with fresh papaya leaves had significantly (P≤0.05 improved tenderness. It was concluded that wrapping the tough meat of spent layer hens with fresh papaya leaves for one hour and moist cooking improve tenderness of meat.

  19. Molecular detection of Papaya meleira virus in the latex of Carica papaya by RT-PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araujo, de M.M.M.; Tavares, E.T.; Silva, da F.R.; Marinho, V.L.D.; Souza, M.T.

    2007-01-01

    A RT-PCR assay was developed for early and accurate detection of Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) in the latex from infected papayas. The meleira disease is characterized by an excessive exudation of more fluidic latex from fruits, leaves and stems. This latex oxidises and gives the fruit a ¿sticky¿ text

  20. Papaya (Carica papaya) lysozyme is a member of the family 19 (Basic, class II) chitinases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subroto, T; Sufiati, S; Beintema, JJ

    1999-01-01

    The most comprehensive studies on a plant lysozyme (EC 3.2.1.17) are those on the enzyme from papaya (Carica papaya) latex, published in 1967 and 1969. However, the N-terminal amino acid sequence of five amino acid sequence of this enzyme, determined by manual Edman degradation, did not allow assign

  1. Erwinia mallotivora sp., a new pathogen of papaya (Carica papaya) in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Noriha Mat; Bunawan, Hamidun; Redzuan, Rohaiza Ahmad; Jaganath, Indu Bala S

    2010-01-01

    Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya infected with dieback disease showing the typical symptoms of greasy, water-soaked lesions and spots on leaves. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain belonged to the genus Erwinia and was united in a monophyletic group with E. mallotivora DSM 4565 (AJ233414). Earlier studies had indicated that the causal agent for this disease was E. papayae. However, our current studies, through Koch's postulate, have confirmed that papaya dieback disease is caused by E. mallotivora. To our knowledge, this is the first new discovery of E. mallotivora as a causal agent of papaya dieback disease in Peninsular Malaysia. Previous reports have suggested that E. mallotivora causes leaf spot in Mallotus japonicus. However, this research confirms it also to be pathogenic to Carica papaya. PMID:21339975

  2. Erwinia mallotivora sp., a new pathogen of papaya (Carica papaya) in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Noriha Mat; Bunawan, Hamidun; Redzuan, Rohaiza Ahmad; Jaganath, Indu Bala S

    2010-12-24

    Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya infected with dieback disease showing the typical symptoms of greasy, water-soaked lesions and spots on leaves. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain belonged to the genus Erwinia and was united in a monophyletic group with E. mallotivora DSM 4565 (AJ233414). Earlier studies had indicated that the causal agent for this disease was E. papayae. However, our current studies, through Koch's postulate, have confirmed that papaya dieback disease is caused by E. mallotivora. To our knowledge, this is the first new discovery of E. mallotivora as a causal agent of papaya dieback disease in Peninsular Malaysia. Previous reports have suggested that E. mallotivora causes leaf spot in Mallotus japonicus. However, this research confirms it also to be pathogenic to Carica papaya.

  3. Erwinia mallotivora sp., a New Pathogen of Papaya (Carica papaya in Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriha Mat Amin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya infected with dieback disease showing the typical symptoms of greasy, water-soaked lesions and spots on leaves. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain belonged to the genus Erwinia and was united in a monophyletic group with E. mallotivora DSM 4565 (AJ233414. Earlier studies had indicated that the causal agent for this disease was E. papayae. However, our current studies, through Koch’s postulate, have confirmed that papaya dieback disease is caused by E. mallotivora. To our knowledge, this is the first new discovery of E. mallotivora as a causal agent of papaya dieback disease in Peninsular Malaysia. Previous reports have suggested that E. mallotivora causes leaf spot in Mallotus japonicus. However, this research confirms it also to be pathogenic to Carica papaya.

  4. 78 FR 48628 - Importation of Papayas From Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... of Papayas From Peru AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule... of fresh papayas from Peru into the continental United States. The conditions for the importation of papayas from Peru would include requirements for approved production locations; field sanitation;...

  5. Diversity of Papaya ringspot virus isolates in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) devastates papaya production worldwide. In Puerto Rico, papaya fields can be completely infected with PRSV within a year of planting. Information about the diversity of the Puerto Rican PRSV population is relevant in order to establish a control strategy in the island. T...

  6. Effect of gamma irradiation in papaya (Carica papaya L.) harvested in three degrees of maturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The papaya is a fragile tropical fruit with thin skin, susceptible to post harvest diseases and mechanical injuries. Furthermore, it is sensible to low temperatures and at normal conditions it ripens rapidly, increasing the difficulties with storage. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of gamma irradiation in papayas harvested in three degrees of maturation, in order to increase shelf life. To accomplish that, papayas were harvested in perfect quality conditions, washed, submitted to carnauba wax and selected by skin coloration into three distinct degrees of maturation: Mat 0, or beginning of yellow coloration; Mat 1, yellow stripes more developed, and Mat 2, one third yellow. Half of them were submitted to irradiation with 0, 75 kGy, while the others became control treatment. They were analyzed in four different periods of conservation, which were 1 day after irradiation (DAI) refrigerated (11 +- 1 deg C), 14 DAI refrigerated, 14 DAI refrigerated + 3 at room temperature (RT = 24 deg +- 2 deg C) and 14 DAI refrigerated + 6 at RT. The effect of irradiation was not influenced by the maturation degree at harvest. Irradiation promoted firmness maintenance of papaya and, therefore, delayed ripening; modified the green color of papaya to a lighter tone, which determined more homogeneity in the skin yellow color development (greater values of L* and b*), and turned the papaya flesh color lighter (rower values of b*). There was no effect of irradiation in papaya weight loss, in the occurrence of diseases, in the development of surface yellow color, in the parameter a* of papaya skin color, in the parameters L*, a* and chroma of flesh color, p H and total soluble solids content. Visual and organoleptic sensorial tests were accomplished with papayas from a new delivery in the conservation period of 14 DAI refrigerated + 3 at RT. In the visual test was evaluated the appearance of papaya in the following treatments: Mat O control, Mat O irradiated, Mat 1

  7. Correlation between ethylene emission and skin colour changes during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, M. G.; Oliveira, J. G.; Vitoria, A. P.; Corrêa, S. F.; Pereira, M. G.; Campostrini, E.; Santos, E. O.; Cavalli, A.; Vargas, H.

    2005-06-01

    The skin colour changes and ethylene emission rates were monitored during papaya (C. papaya L.) fruit ripening. Two groups of papaya (‘Formosa’ and ‘Solo’) were applied in this study. The total colour difference was used as measured parameter and the corresponding half time of its saturation was used as correlation parameter. A high correlation factor between the saturation half time and corresponding climacteric peak time was found. It was concluded that high ethylene emission rate in ‘Solo’ fruit promotes a quick change of the total colour difference.

  8. Purification and characterization of peroxidase from papaya (Carica papaya) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Veda P; Singh, Swati; Singh, Rupinder; Dwivedi, Upendra N

    2012-05-01

    Ripening of papaya fruit was found to be characterized with a decrease in peroxidase activity and its transcript. This peroxidase was purified to homogeneity through successive steps of ammonium sulfate fractionation, ion exchange and molecular exclusion chromatography. The peroxidase was purified 30.22-folds with overall recovery of 44.37% and specific activity of 68.59. Purified peroxidase was found to be a heterotrimer of ~240 kDa, containing two subunits each of 85 and one of 70 kDa. Purified enzyme exhibited pH and temperature optima of 7.0 and 40 °C, respectively. K(m) values for substrates o-dianicidin, guaiacol and ascorbic acid were found to be 0.125, 0.8 and 5.2 mM, respectively. K(m) for H(2)O(2) was found to be 0.25 mM. Salicylic acid was found to activate peroxidase up to 50 μM concentration, beyond which it acted as inhibitor. Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) activated peroxidase while sodium azide, SDS, and Triton X-100 were found to inhibit peroxidase.

  9. PROCESOS DE CANONIZACIÓN DE LA LITERATURA CHILENA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Carrasco M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo estudia los procesos de canonización en la literatura chilena y sus relaciones con las identidades socioculturales, desde la generación romántica de 1852 (ó 1842 hasta la última década del siglo XX, delimitando sus autores, textos y metatextos canónicos. La hipótesis que organiza el trabajo es que la literatura chilena se inició en torno a un canon único, que ha sido reemplazado a través del tiempo por cánones plurales, paralelos y contrapuestos.This paper studies the literary canonization processes in Chilean literature andtheir relations with social and cultural identities. Its purpose is to establish the boundaries of the texts and metatexts written by Chilean canonical authors, starting with the romantic generation of 1852 (or 1842 and ending up with the works published in the last decade of 'the XX century. The hypothesis of this essay is that Chilean literature can be said to have its origins focused on a single canon, which is later replaced by a series of plural, parallel and even opposite canons.

  10. Papaya Development Model As A Competitive Local Superior Commodity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reny Sukmawani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study the comparative advantage and papaya competitive and to design its development model by using the approach of local base agriculture development. This research uses survey method. The resulting research shows that papaya is a base commodity that has comparative advantage and competitive. The development papaya in the district of Sukabumi is quite good bases on eight superior creations. But in order to be the main sector in economic development and has a competition, the development of papaya must concern to its influence factors. In supporting papaya development as a competitive local superior commodity, it needs to be done some efforts are as follows: (1 increase a skillful worker; (2 improve business management; (3 increase papaya productivity by using technology and study papaya planted technology in specific local superior commodity; (4 develop the involvement of the business relation; (5 provide market information and information technology network; and (6 improve infrastructures.

  11. Influence of ripening stages on antioxidant properties of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addai, Zuhair Radhi; Abdullah, Aminah; Mutalib, Sahilah Abd.

    2013-11-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L. cv Eksotika) is one of the most commonly consumed tropical fruits by humans, especially Malaysians. The objective of this study was to determine the phenolic compounds and antioxidants activity in different ripening stages of papaya fruit. The fruits were harvested at five different, stages RS1, RS2, RS3, RS4, and RS5 corresponding to 12, 14, 16, 18, and 20 weeks after anthesis, respectively. Papayas fruit at five different stage of ripening were obtained from farms at Pusat Flora Cheras, JabatanPertanian and Hulu Langat Semenyih, Selangor, Malaysia. The antioxidants activity were analyzed using the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), ferric reducing antioxidant Power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The analyses were conducted in triplicate and the data were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS. The results showed significant differences (Ppapaya fruits.

  12. Quantification of the antiplasmodial alkaloid carpaine in papaya (Carica papaya) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julianti, Tasqiah; Oufir, Mouhssin; Hamburger, Matthias

    2014-08-01

    Daily consumption of papaya (Carica papaya) leaves as greens and an herbal infusion is common in some parts of Indonesia as a means for preventing malaria. Antiplasmodial activity of the leaf extracts and of the main alkaloid carpaine were recently confirmed. A quantitative assay for determination of carpaine in papaya leaves was developed and validated. The assay involved pressurized liquid extraction and quantification with the aid of ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy. Extraction conditions were optimized with respect to solvent, temperature, and number of extraction cycles. The ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy assay was validated over a range of 20-5000 ng/mL (R(2) of 0.9908). A total of 29 papaya leaf samples were analyzed, and carpaine concentration in dry leaves was found to range from 0.02 to 0.31%. No obvious dependence on geographic origin and leaf maturity was observed.

  13. Gene Technology for Papaya Ringspot Virus Disease Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abul Kalam Azad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Papaya (Carica papaya is severely damaged by the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV. This review focuses on the development of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya through gene technology. The genetic diversity of PRSV depends upon geographical distribution and the influence of PRSV disease management on a sequence of PRSV isolates. The concept of pathogen-derived resistance has been employed for the development of transgenic papaya, using a coat protein-mediated, RNA-silencing mechanism and replicase gene-mediated transformation for effective PRSV disease management. The development of PRSV-resistant papaya via post-transcriptional gene silencing is a promising technology for PRSV disease management. PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya is environmentally safe and has no harmful effects on human health. Recent studies have revealed that the success of adoption of transgenic papaya depends upon the application, it being a commercially viable product, bio-safety regulatory issues, trade regulations, and the wider social acceptance of the technology. This review discusses the genome and the genetic diversity of PRSV, host range determinants, molecular diagnosis, disease management strategies, the development of transgenic papaya, environmental issues, issues in the adoption of transgenic papaya, and future directions for research.

  14. Gene technology for papaya ringspot virus disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Amin, Latifah; Sidik, Nik Marzuki

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya) is severely damaged by the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). This review focuses on the development of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya through gene technology. The genetic diversity of PRSV depends upon geographical distribution and the influence of PRSV disease management on a sequence of PRSV isolates. The concept of pathogen-derived resistance has been employed for the development of transgenic papaya, using a coat protein-mediated, RNA-silencing mechanism and replicase gene-mediated transformation for effective PRSV disease management. The development of PRSV-resistant papaya via post-transcriptional gene silencing is a promising technology for PRSV disease management. PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya is environmentally safe and has no harmful effects on human health. Recent studies have revealed that the success of adoption of transgenic papaya depends upon the application, it being a commercially viable product, bio-safety regulatory issues, trade regulations, and the wider social acceptance of the technology. This review discusses the genome and the genetic diversity of PRSV, host range determinants, molecular diagnosis, disease management strategies, the development of transgenic papaya, environmental issues, issues in the adoption of transgenic papaya, and future directions for research. PMID:24757435

  15. Origin and domestication of papaya Yh chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sex in papaya is controlled by a pair of nascent sex chromosomes. Females are XX, and two slightly different Y chromosomes distinguish males (XY) and hermaphrodites (XYh). The hermaphrodite-specific region of the Yh chromosome (HSY) and its X chromosome counterpart were sequenced and analyzed previo...

  16. Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties of Carica papaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Saurabh; Cabot, Peter J; Shaw, P Nicholas; Hewavitharana, Amitha K

    2016-07-01

    Chronic inflammation is linked with the generation and progression of various diseases such as cancer, diabetes and atherosclerosis, and anti-inflammatory drugs therefore have the potential to assist in the treatment of these conditions. Carica papaya is a tropical plant that is traditionally used in the treatment of various ailments including inflammatory conditions. A literature search was conducted by using the keywords "papaya", "anti-inflammatory and inflammation" and "immunomodulation and immune" along with cross-referencing. Both in vitro and in vivo investigation studies were included. This is a review of all studies published since 2000 on the anti-inflammatory activity of papaya extracts and their effects on various immune-inflammatory mediators. Studies on the anti-inflammatory activities of recognized phytochemicals present in papaya are also included. Although in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that papaya extracts and papaya-associated phytochemicals possess anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, clinical studies are lacking.

  17. Apertura y Eficiencia Productiva: La Industria Chilena, 1975-1988 Apertura y Eficiencia Productiva: La Industria Chilena, 1975-1988

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Román

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Apertura y Eficiencia Productiva: La Industria Chilena, 1975-1988 The results of Chile's profound economic liberalizations remain the subject of ongoing debate. Using the Total Factor Productivity approach (TFP; we review the industrial sector performance during the 1975-1988 period. Our analysis shows that greater competitiveness dictated by economic liberalization was not accomplished through technical change but, rather, through intensive factor use (1976-81, or extensive factor use (1984-88. After exhaustion of the "easy phase", new levels of productive efficiency necessitated technical innovation, that is, investment in equipment, training. and reorganization of productive processes. However, after the 1982-83 crisis, firms did not follow this path: previous financial stress and low wage costs determined a growth path based on extensive use of labor, thereby delaying technological modernization of the industrial sector.

  18. Optimization of process parameters for osmotic dehydration of papaya cubes

    OpenAIRE

    S.K. Jain; R. C. Verma; Murdia, L. K.; Jain, H. K.; Sharma, G. P.

    2010-01-01

    Process temperature (30, 40 and 50 °C), syrup concentration (50, 60 and 70o Brix) and process time (4, 5 and 6 h) for osmotic dehydration of papaya (Carica papaya) cubes were optimized for the maximum water loss and optimum sugar gain by using response surface methodology. The peeled and pre-processed papaya cubes of 1 cm size were immersed in sugar syrup at constant temperature water bath having syrup to papaya cubes ratio of 4:1 (w/w). The cubes were removed from bath at pre-decided time, r...

  19. Physical Characteristics of the Leaves and Latex of Papaya Plants Infected with the Papaya meleira Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar Magaña-Álvarez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sticky disease, which is caused by Papaya meleira virus (PMeV, is a significant papaya disease in Brazil and Mexico, where it has caused severe economic losses, and it seems to have spread to Central and South America. Studies assessing the pathogen-host interaction at the nano-histological level are needed to better understand the mechanisms that underlie natural resistance. In this study, the topography and mechanical properties of the leaf midribs and latex of healthy and PMeV-infected papaya plants were observed by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Healthy plants displayed a smooth surface with practically no roughness of the leaf midribs and the latex and a higher adhesion force than infected plants. PMeV promotes changes in the leaf midribs and latex, making them more fragile and susceptible to breakage. These changes, which are associated with increased water uptake and internal pressure in laticifers, causes cell disruption that leads to spontaneous exudation of the latex and facilitates the spread of PMeV to other laticifers. These results provide new insights into the papaya-PMeV interaction that could be helpful for controlling papaya sticky disease.

  20. Proteomic analysis of papaya (Carica papaya L.) displaying typical sticky disease symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Silas P; Ventura, José A; Aguilar, Clemente; Nakayasu, Ernesto S; Almeida, Igor C; Fernandes, Patricia M B; Zingali, Russolina B

    2011-07-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) hosts the only described laticifer-infecting virus (Papaya meleira virus, PMeV), which is the causal agent of papaya sticky disease. To understand the systemic effects of PMeV in papaya, we conducted a comprehensive proteomic analysis of leaf samples from healthy and diseased plants grown under field conditions. First, a reference 2-DE map was established for proteins from healthy samples. A total of 486 reproducible spots were identified, and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS data identified 275 proteins accounting for 159 distinct proteins from 231 spots that were annotated. Second, the differential expression of proteins from healthy and diseased leaves was determined through parallel experiments, using 2-DE and DIGE followed by MALDI-TOF-MS/MS and LC-IonTrap-MS/MS, respectively. Conventional 2-DE analysis revealed 75 differentially expressed proteins. Of those, 48 proteins were identified, with 26 being upregulated (U) and 22 downregulated (D). In general, metabolism-related proteins were downregulated, and stress-responsive proteins were upregulated. This expression pattern was corroborated by the results of the DIGE analysis, which identified 79 differentially expressed proteins, with 23 identified (17 U and 6 D). Calreticulin and the proteasome subunits 20S and RPT5a were shown to be upregulated during infection by both 2-DE and DIGE analyses. These data may help shed light on plant responses against stresses and viral infections.

  1. Digital transcriptome analysis of putative sex-determination genes in papaya (Carica papaya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya Urasaki

    Full Text Available Papaya (Carica papaya is a trioecious plant species that has male, female and hermaphrodite flowers on different plants. The primitive sex chromosomes genetically determine the sex of the papaya. Although draft sequences of the papaya genome are already available, the genes for sex determination have not been identified, likely due to the complicated structure of its sex-chromosome sequences. To identify the candidate genes for sex determination, we conducted a transcriptome analysis of flower samples from male, female and hermaphrodite plants using high-throughput SuperSAGE for digital gene expression analysis. Among the short sequence tags obtained from the transcripts, 312 unique tags were specifically mapped to the primitive sex chromosome (X or Y(h sequences. An annotation analysis revealed that retroelements are the most abundant sequences observed in the genes corresponding to these tags. The majority of tags on the sex chromosomes were located on the X chromosome, and only 30 tags were commonly mapped to both the X and Y(h chromosome, implying a loss of many genes on the Y(h chromosome. Nevertheless, candidate Y(h chromosome-specific female determination genes, including a MADS-box gene, were identified. Information on these sex chromosome-specific expressed genes will help elucidating sex determination in the papaya.

  2. Digital transcriptome analysis of putative sex-determination genes in papaya (Carica papaya).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urasaki, Naoya; Tarora, Kazuhiko; Shudo, Ayano; Ueno, Hiroki; Tamaki, Moritoshi; Miyagi, Norimichi; Adaniya, Shinichi; Matsumura, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya) is a trioecious plant species that has male, female and hermaphrodite flowers on different plants. The primitive sex chromosomes genetically determine the sex of the papaya. Although draft sequences of the papaya genome are already available, the genes for sex determination have not been identified, likely due to the complicated structure of its sex-chromosome sequences. To identify the candidate genes for sex determination, we conducted a transcriptome analysis of flower samples from male, female and hermaphrodite plants using high-throughput SuperSAGE for digital gene expression analysis. Among the short sequence tags obtained from the transcripts, 312 unique tags were specifically mapped to the primitive sex chromosome (X or Y(h)) sequences. An annotation analysis revealed that retroelements are the most abundant sequences observed in the genes corresponding to these tags. The majority of tags on the sex chromosomes were located on the X chromosome, and only 30 tags were commonly mapped to both the X and Y(h) chromosome, implying a loss of many genes on the Y(h) chromosome. Nevertheless, candidate Y(h) chromosome-specific female determination genes, including a MADS-box gene, were identified. Information on these sex chromosome-specific expressed genes will help elucidating sex determination in the papaya.

  3. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON ANTHELMINTIC POTENTIAL OF CUCURBITA MAXIMA (PUMPKIN SEEDS AND CARICA PAPAYA (PAPAYA SEEDS

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    Sengupta Rupa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The crude extract of Carica papaya (papaya seeds (CP and Cucurbita maxima (Pumpkin seeds (CM were assayed against adult earthworms (Pheretima posthuma for the evaluation of anthelmintic activity. Various concentrations of both extracts were tested and results were expressed in terms of time for paralysis (P and time for death (D of worms. Albendazole was used as a reference standard. The result showed that in both of the extracts (i.e. CP and CM dose of 60 mg / ml possesses more wormicidal activity. The time of paralysis was 1.88 ± 0.52 minute and 1.93 ± 0.57 minute whereas the time of death was 3.45 ± 0.17 minute and 4.90 ± 0.18 minute in the case of Carica papaya and Cucurbita maxima respectively. In conclusion, the use of seeds of Carica papaya (CP and Cucurbita maxima (CM for anthelmintic activity have been confirmed and further studies are suggested to isolate the active principles responsible for the activity. Both the extracts showed significant anthelmintic activity, but the comparative study showed that out of these two, Carica papaya proves to be a better anthelmintic remedy.

  4. Physical Characteristics of the Leaves and Latex of Papaya Plants Infected with the Papaya meleira Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaña-Álvarez, Anuar; Vencioneck Dutra, Jean Carlos; Carneiro, Tarcio; Pérez-Brito, Daisy; Tapia-Tussell, Raúl; Ventura, Jose Aires; Higuera-Ciapara, Inocencio; Fernandes, Patricia Machado Bueno; Fernandes, Antonio Alberto Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    Sticky disease, which is caused by Papaya meleira virus (PMeV), is a significant papaya disease in Brazil and Mexico, where it has caused severe economic losses, and it seems to have spread to Central and South America. Studies assessing the pathogen-host interaction at the nano-histological level are needed to better understand the mechanisms that underlie natural resistance. In this study, the topography and mechanical properties of the leaf midribs and latex of healthy and PMeV-infected papaya plants were observed by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Healthy plants displayed a smooth surface with practically no roughness of the leaf midribs and the latex and a higher adhesion force than infected plants. PMeV promotes changes in the leaf midribs and latex, making them more fragile and susceptible to breakage. These changes, which are associated with increased water uptake and internal pressure in laticifers, causes cell disruption that leads to spontaneous exudation of the latex and facilitates the spread of PMeV to other laticifers. These results provide new insights into the papaya-PMeV interaction that could be helpful for controlling papaya sticky disease. PMID:27092495

  5. Proteomic analysis of papaya (Carica papaya L.) displaying typical sticky disease symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Silas P; Ventura, José A; Aguilar, Clemente; Nakayasu, Ernesto S; Almeida, Igor C; Fernandes, Patricia M B; Zingali, Russolina B

    2011-07-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) hosts the only described laticifer-infecting virus (Papaya meleira virus, PMeV), which is the causal agent of papaya sticky disease. To understand the systemic effects of PMeV in papaya, we conducted a comprehensive proteomic analysis of leaf samples from healthy and diseased plants grown under field conditions. First, a reference 2-DE map was established for proteins from healthy samples. A total of 486 reproducible spots were identified, and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS data identified 275 proteins accounting for 159 distinct proteins from 231 spots that were annotated. Second, the differential expression of proteins from healthy and diseased leaves was determined through parallel experiments, using 2-DE and DIGE followed by MALDI-TOF-MS/MS and LC-IonTrap-MS/MS, respectively. Conventional 2-DE analysis revealed 75 differentially expressed proteins. Of those, 48 proteins were identified, with 26 being upregulated (U) and 22 downregulated (D). In general, metabolism-related proteins were downregulated, and stress-responsive proteins were upregulated. This expression pattern was corroborated by the results of the DIGE analysis, which identified 79 differentially expressed proteins, with 23 identified (17 U and 6 D). Calreticulin and the proteasome subunits 20S and RPT5a were shown to be upregulated during infection by both 2-DE and DIGE analyses. These data may help shed light on plant responses against stresses and viral infections. PMID:21630455

  6. Physical Characteristics of the Leaves and Latex of Papaya Plants Infected with the Papaya meleira Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaña-Álvarez, Anuar; Vencioneck Dutra, Jean Carlos; Carneiro, Tarcio; Pérez-Brito, Daisy; Tapia-Tussell, Raúl; Ventura, Jose Aires; Higuera-Ciapara, Inocencio; Fernandes, Patricia Machado Bueno; Fernandes, Antonio Alberto Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    Sticky disease, which is caused by Papaya meleira virus (PMeV), is a significant papaya disease in Brazil and Mexico, where it has caused severe economic losses, and it seems to have spread to Central and South America. Studies assessing the pathogen-host interaction at the nano-histological level are needed to better understand the mechanisms that underlie natural resistance. In this study, the topography and mechanical properties of the leaf midribs and latex of healthy and PMeV-infected papaya plants were observed by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Healthy plants displayed a smooth surface with practically no roughness of the leaf midribs and the latex and a higher adhesion force than infected plants. PMeV promotes changes in the leaf midribs and latex, making them more fragile and susceptible to breakage. These changes, which are associated with increased water uptake and internal pressure in laticifers, causes cell disruption that leads to spontaneous exudation of the latex and facilitates the spread of PMeV to other laticifers. These results provide new insights into the papaya-PMeV interaction that could be helpful for controlling papaya sticky disease. PMID:27092495

  7. Fusarium species associated with fruit rot of banana (Musa spp.), papaya (Carica papaya) and guava (Psidium guajava)

    OpenAIRE

    Zakaria, L.; Mazzura, W. C.; Kong, W. H.; S. Baharuddin

    2012-01-01

    A total of 60 isolates of Fusarium were isolated from fruit rot of banana (Musa spp.), papaya (Carica papaya) and guava(Psidium guajava). The most common species recovered from the fruit rot of the three fruit crops were F. semitectum(40 %), F. solani (38.3 %), F. verticillioides (11.7 %) and F. oxysporum (10 %). Fusarium semitectum was isolated from fruit rot of banana, papaya and guava; F. oxysporum from banana and papaya; F. solani from banana and guava and F.verticillioides from banana. F...

  8. Extraction and characteristics of seed oil from Papaya (Carica papaya in Congo-Brazzaville

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bouanga-Kalou

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Papaya seeds were collected and dried. This study was carried out on papaya seed to clarify their proximate composition and the characteristics of the extracted oil including unsaponifiable matter and fatty acid composition. The seed is a rich source of protein (26.78% and crude fiber (21.4%. Palmitic acid was the main saturated fatty acid (15.22%, while linoleic acid was the major unsaturated fatty acid (76.38% in all lipid classes. The physical properties of the oil extracts showed the state to be liquid at room temperature. Carica papaya seeds have ash content of 3.2% (with the presence of following minerals: K, Na, Ca, P and Mg. However, Ca and P occur in appreciable quantities (1821±2.12 mg/100 g dry matter and 1156±1.8 mg/100 g dry mater, respectively.

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-25 - Papayas from Central America and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Papayas from Central America and Brazil. 319.56-25... § 319.56-25 Papayas from Central America and Brazil. The Solo type of papaya may be imported into the... section and all other applicable provisions of this subpart. (a) The papayas were grown and packed...

  10. Mabel Condemarín: una educadora diferencial chilena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Caiceo Escudero

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mabel Condemarín Grimberg (3/11/1931-30/03/2004 fue una importante educadora chilena a quien, por su labor, el Estado de Chile le otorgó el Premio Nacional de Ciencias de la Educación en el 2003. Fue una educadora transgresora de su tiempo porque, a pesar de su origen humilde y estar lejana a los centros de poder, logró superarse académicamente y obtener los títulos que ella deseaba, tanto en Chile como en el extranjero. Condemarín dedicó su vida a un tema que no otorga grandes beneficios: preocuparse porque los nifios mas pobres y con trastornos de aprendizaje aprendieran a leer y escribir comprensiva y correctamente. Al mismo tiempo, estaba orgullosa de su condición de género, pero ello no era problema para trabajar tanto con hombres como con mujeres. En este artículo, se busca reconstituir la vida, la obra y el pensamiento de esta educadora chilena, cuyas obras escritas se conocen en los diversos países latinoamericanos y han tenido varias ediciones, así como traducciones al portugués para Brasil. AbstractMabel Condemarin Grimberg (1931-2004 was an important  Chilean  educator who was awarded the National Prize in Learning Sciences in 2003 by the Chilean government. She was a struggler of her time because despite her humble origins and no involvement in elite groups, she achieved all her academic goals and obtained all the titles she wished not only in Chile, but also abroad. She devoted her life to a project that does not have great benefits such as caring and working for those poorest children with learning disorders, to make them read and write comprehensively and accurately. At the same time, she was proud of being a woman, and this fact was not a problem to work with both, men and women. This paper aims to reconstruct Mabel Condemarin's life, works and thoughts, whose written works are well-known and reedited in different Latin American countries; as well as some editions which have been translated into Portuguese for

  11. Extraction and characteristics of seed oil from Papaya (Carica papaya) in Congo-Brazzaville

    OpenAIRE

    G. Bouanga-Kalou; A. Kimbonguila; J.M. Nzikou; F.B. Ganongo-Po; F.E. Moutoula; E. Panyoo-Akdowa; Th. Silou and S. Desobry

    2011-01-01

    Papaya seeds were collected and dried. This study was carried out on papaya seed to clarify their proximate composition and the characteristics of the extracted oil including unsaponifiable matter and fatty acid composition. The seed is a rich source of protein (26.78%) and crude fiber (21.4%). Palmitic acid was the main saturated fatty acid (15.22%), while linoleic acid was the major unsaturated fatty acid (76.38%) in all lipid classes. The physical properties of the oil extracts showed the ...

  12. Carica papaya microRNAs are responsive to Papaya meleira virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Paolla M V; Gaspar, Clicia G; Buss, David S; Ventura, José A; Ferreira, Paulo C G; Fernandes, Patricia M B

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs are implicated in the response to biotic stresses. Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is the causal agent of sticky disease, a commercially important pathology in papaya for which there are currently no resistant varieties. PMeV has a number of unusual features, such as residence in the laticifers of infected plants, and the response of the papaya to PMeV infection is not well understood. The protein levels of 20S proteasome subunits increase during PMeV infection, suggesting that proteolysis could be an important aspect of the plant defense response mechanism. To date, 10,598 plant microRNAs have been identified in the Plant miRNAs Database, but only two, miR162 and miR403, are from papaya. In this study, known plant microRNA sequences were used to search for potential microRNAs in the papaya genome. A total of 462 microRNAs, representing 72 microRNA families, were identified. The expression of 11 microRNAs, whose targets are involved in 20S and 26S proteasomal degradation and in other stress response pathways, was compared by real-time PCR in healthy and infected papaya leaf tissue. We found that the expression of miRNAs involved in proteasomal degradation increased in response to very low levels of PMeV titre and decreased as the viral titre increased. In contrast, miRNAs implicated in the plant response to biotic stress decreased their expression at very low level of PMeV and increased at high PMeV levels. Corroborating with this results, analysed target genes for this miRNAs had their expression modulated in a dependent manner. This study represents a comprehensive identification of conserved miRNAs inpapaya. The data presented here might help to complement the available molecular and genomic tools for the study of papaya. The differential expression of some miRNAs and identifying their target genes will be helpful for understanding the regulation and interaction of PMeV and papaya.

  13. Carica papaya microRNAs are responsive to Papaya meleira virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolla M V Abreu

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are implicated in the response to biotic stresses. Papaya meleira virus (PMeV is the causal agent of sticky disease, a commercially important pathology in papaya for which there are currently no resistant varieties. PMeV has a number of unusual features, such as residence in the laticifers of infected plants, and the response of the papaya to PMeV infection is not well understood. The protein levels of 20S proteasome subunits increase during PMeV infection, suggesting that proteolysis could be an important aspect of the plant defense response mechanism. To date, 10,598 plant microRNAs have been identified in the Plant miRNAs Database, but only two, miR162 and miR403, are from papaya. In this study, known plant microRNA sequences were used to search for potential microRNAs in the papaya genome. A total of 462 microRNAs, representing 72 microRNA families, were identified. The expression of 11 microRNAs, whose targets are involved in 20S and 26S proteasomal degradation and in other stress response pathways, was compared by real-time PCR in healthy and infected papaya leaf tissue. We found that the expression of miRNAs involved in proteasomal degradation increased in response to very low levels of PMeV titre and decreased as the viral titre increased. In contrast, miRNAs implicated in the plant response to biotic stress decreased their expression at very low level of PMeV and increased at high PMeV levels. Corroborating with this results, analysed target genes for this miRNAs had their expression modulated in a dependent manner. This study represents a comprehensive identification of conserved miRNAs inpapaya. The data presented here might help to complement the available molecular and genomic tools for the study of papaya. The differential expression of some miRNAs and identifying their target genes will be helpful for understanding the regulation and interaction of PMeV and papaya.

  14. Carica papaya microRNAs are responsive to Papaya meleira virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Paolla M V; Gaspar, Clicia G; Buss, David S; Ventura, José A; Ferreira, Paulo C G; Fernandes, Patricia M B

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs are implicated in the response to biotic stresses. Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is the causal agent of sticky disease, a commercially important pathology in papaya for which there are currently no resistant varieties. PMeV has a number of unusual features, such as residence in the laticifers of infected plants, and the response of the papaya to PMeV infection is not well understood. The protein levels of 20S proteasome subunits increase during PMeV infection, suggesting that proteolysis could be an important aspect of the plant defense response mechanism. To date, 10,598 plant microRNAs have been identified in the Plant miRNAs Database, but only two, miR162 and miR403, are from papaya. In this study, known plant microRNA sequences were used to search for potential microRNAs in the papaya genome. A total of 462 microRNAs, representing 72 microRNA families, were identified. The expression of 11 microRNAs, whose targets are involved in 20S and 26S proteasomal degradation and in other stress response pathways, was compared by real-time PCR in healthy and infected papaya leaf tissue. We found that the expression of miRNAs involved in proteasomal degradation increased in response to very low levels of PMeV titre and decreased as the viral titre increased. In contrast, miRNAs implicated in the plant response to biotic stress decreased their expression at very low level of PMeV and increased at high PMeV levels. Corroborating with this results, analysed target genes for this miRNAs had their expression modulated in a dependent manner. This study represents a comprehensive identification of conserved miRNAs inpapaya. The data presented here might help to complement the available molecular and genomic tools for the study of papaya. The differential expression of some miRNAs and identifying their target genes will be helpful for understanding the regulation and interaction of PMeV and papaya. PMID:25072834

  15. Physical Characteristics of the Leaves and Latex of Papaya Plants Infected with the Papaya meleira Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Anuar Magaña-Álvarez; Jean Carlos Vencioneck Dutra; Tarcio Carneiro; Daisy Pérez-Brito; Raúl Tapia-Tussell; Jose Aires Ventura; Inocencio Higuera-Ciapara; Patricia Machado Bueno Fernandes; Antonio Alberto Ribeiro Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    Sticky disease, which is caused by Papaya meleira virus (PMeV), is a significant papaya disease in Brazil and Mexico, where it has caused severe economic losses, and it seems to have spread to Central and South America. Studies assessing the pathogen-host interaction at the nano-histological level are needed to better understand the mechanisms that underlie natural resistance. In this study, the topography and mechanical properties of the leaf midribs and latex of healthy and PMeV-infected pa...

  16. Erwinia mallotivora sp., a New Pathogen of Papaya (Carica papaya) in Peninsular Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Noriha Mat Amin; Hamidun Bunawan; Rohaiza Ahmad Redzuan; Indu Bala S. Jaganath

    2010-01-01

    Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya infected with dieback disease showing the typical symptoms of greasy, water-soaked lesions and spots on leaves. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain belonged to the genus Erwinia and was united in a monophyletic group with E. mallotivora DSM 4565 (AJ233414). Earlier studies had indicated that the causal agent for this disease was E. papayae. However, our current studies, through Koch’s postulate, have confirmed th...

  17. Growth and yield of papaya under irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Frederico Terra de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal units or degree day systems can both be used to quantify relationships between plants and air temperature. The Northern Fluminense region holds no tradition for irrigated papaya (Carica papaya L. cropping and, because of the need for irrigation, it is important knowing its growth and development characteristics under these conditions. This study aimed to determine the relationship between growth rate of papaya plants and degree days, and its effect on crop productivity, under different irrigation levels. An experiment was set up with the cultivar "Improved Sunrise Soil 72/12", in a randomized blocks design, with seven irrigation water depths and three repetitions; crop growth and yield parameters were evaluated. There were significant correlations between water depths and degree days. Polynomial models of 2nd and 3rd order appropriately fitted the relationships degree day versus plant height, stem diameter, crown diameter and number of emitted leaves, for each water depth. Growth parameters related to degree days and to the applied treatments are indicative of yield potential. The total water depth that promoted the greatest fruit yield was 2,937 mm.

  18. Gamma radiation in papaya harvested at three stages of maturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, Rodrigo Meirelles de Azevedo; Walder, Julio Marcos Melges [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Irradiacao de Alimentos]. E-mail: jmwalder@cena.usp.br

    2004-04-01

    Papaya is a fragile, perishable fruit, highly accepted worldwide. To keep the quality of papaya from harvest to the consumers, conservation techniques are often used; among them is the application of gamma irradiation. The objective of this work was to evaluate gamma irradiation in papayas harvested at three degrees of maturation, in order to increase shelf life. Papayas were harvested in perfect quality conditions and selected by skin coloration into three distinct degrees of maturation: maturation 0, or beginning of yellow coloration; maturation 1, yellow stripes more developed, and maturation 2, one third yellow. Half of them were irradiated with 0.75 kGy, while the other half became control treatment. They were analyzed in four periods of conservation, which were 1 DAI (days after irradiation refrigerated at 11 {+-} 1 deg C), 14 DAI, 14 DAI + 3 DRT (room temperature at 24 deg C {+-} 2 deg C) and 14 DAI + 6 DRT. The papaya maturation degree at harvest did not influence the radiation effect. Irradiation maintained firmness of papaya and, therefore, delayed ripening; modified the green color of papaya to a lighter, more intense tone, which determined more homogeneity in the development of the skin's yellow color (greater values of L{sup *} and chroma). There was no effect of irradiation in papaya weight loss, occurrence of diseases, chroma of flesh color, p H and total soluble solids contents. (author)

  19. 75 FR 22207 - Importation of Papayas From Colombia and Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... published in the Federal Register (74 FR 18161-18166, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0050) a proposal\\1\\ to amend the... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AC95 Importation of Papayas From... importation of commercial shipments of fresh papayas from Colombia and Ecuador into the continental...

  20. Promover la salud mental con mujeres chilenas en desventaja social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Soledad Rivera

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se descrive una parte de la experiencia del proyecto Chileno/Canadiense: “Promover la salud mental de las mujeres chilenas en desventaja social: Los Secretos de Maruja”. Se describen los objetivos, las etapas del proceso, de intervención y los resultados de las evaluaciones preliminares. Con la participación de las mujeres usuárias de los centros de salud, profesionales y autoridades de la comuna de La Pintana, se construyó, aplicó y evaluó un proyecto de intervención para apoyar a las mujeres en la toma de decisiones que favorezcan su salud mental personal, familiar y social. La intervención contempló el diseño, producción, distribución y evaluación de 12 folletos educativos tipo calendarios, cada uno respecto a tres temas de salud mental identificados por las mismas mujeres: Identidad y autoestima, Vínculo y Comunicación y Autocuidado. Además se involucró a las enfermeras que trabajan en los Centros de Salud, quienes incorporaron esta estrategia a la atención de salud habitual y evaluaron su impacto en la identidad, autonomía profesional y en la mejoría de la calidad del cuidado

  1. 76 FR 13972 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Papaya Fruit From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... Importation of Fresh Papaya Fruit From Malaysia Into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant... of fresh papaya (Carica papaya) fruit from Malaysia into the continental United States. Based on our... edible fresh fruit of papaya (Carica papaya) into the continental United States. Currently, fresh...

  2. COMUNEROS ANDINOS EN LA ADMINISTRACIÓN CHILENA (ARICA, 1880-1929

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALBERTO DÍAZ ARAYA

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Se evalúa el impacto generado en los sectores rurales andinos de Arica por la implementación de la estructura y burocracia administrativa chilena post Guerra del Pacífico. A través de registros documentales se hace explícita la participación de comuneros indígenas en la trama estatal chilena en un período de conflicto político y de identidades nacionales. Palabras claves: Comunidad andina – administración chilena – Arica y Tacna. Abstract Assesses the impact generated in the rural Andes Arica for implementing the administrative structure and bureaucracy in Chile after the Pacific War. Through documentary record makes explicit the participation of indigenous community members in the plot Chilean state over a period of political and national identities. Keywords : Andean Community - Chilean government - Arica and Tacna.

  3. Effects of chloroformic extracts from washed and unwashed papaya seeds (Carica papaya) on the sperm concentration of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Pacheco, A; Jiménez-Coello, M; Gutiérrez-Blanco, E; Acosta-Viana, K Y; Guzmán-Marín, E; Zavala-Sánchez, M A; Montalvo-Beltrán, N E; Pérez-Gutiérrez, M S

    2010-12-01

    Papaya seeds (Carica papaya Linn) have been found to have a significant effect on sperm characteristics in some mammals, including humans, but no studies have investigated the effects on dogs. In the present study, a significant decrease in sperm concentration was observed in a group of dogs treated with extracts from washed papaya seeds, but no decrease was observed in the group of dogs treated with non-washed seeds. An important effect of extract components from washed seeds such as fatty acids is probably involved in the reduction of sperm production because of Sertoli cell damage, as has been suggested for langur monkeys. Dilution of the active components in the non-washed papaya seeds or interference with some of the components may reduce the expected effect on spermatogenesis. This first report on the effects of a chloroformic extract of papaya seeds in dogs suggests that an increased dose is necessary to achieve azoospermia.

  4. Agronomic, economic and ecological aspects of the papaya (Carica papaya) production in Tabasco, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guzmán-Ramón, E.; Gómez-Alvarez, R.; Pat-Fernández, J.M.; Pohlan, H.A.J.; Álvarez-Rivero, J.C.; Geissen, V.

    2010-01-01

    The cultivation of papaya is important in the tropic because it provides source of income to the farmer within a short time. Statistical data were obtained from farmers located in the Chontalpa, Rios and Centro-Sierra regions; the size of the survey was 67 farmers. The study shows the results of the

  5. Effects of heat, irradiation and their combination on the keeping quality of papaya (carica papaya linn.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental work has been done to determine the effect of gamma irradiation either alone or in combination with hot water dipping on the shelf life of fresh papaya. Mature green papayas of 'semangka paris' variety were treated under 3 different conditions, i.e. dipped in hot water at 50 Celsius degrees for 10 minutes; irradiated in air with a dose of 0.5 kGy; treated with combination of hot water dipping at 50 Celsius degrees for 10 minutes and irradiation with a dose of 0.5 kGy, and stored at ambient conditions. Quality evaluation was done subjectively during storage on the colour, texture, and taste. Besides, weight loss was also observed. Chemical characteristics, namely the contents of vitamin C, β-carotene, total soluble pectin, and reducing sugar were also determined as objective parameters. The results revealed that ripening of mature green papaya could be delayed by irradiation with the dose of 0.5 kGy. Best result was obtained from the combination treatment. The treated papayas were still acceptable up to 8 days of storage, whereas the untreated ones were acceptable only up to 5 days of storage. (author)

  6. Effect of Biopreservatives on Storage Life of Papaya (Carica papaya L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatema H. Brishti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE In this experiment the effect on post-harvest preservation of papaya (Carica papaya L. fruit coated with either Aloe gel (AG; 100% or papaya leaf extract with Aloe gel (PLEAG; 1:1 was studied. To evaluate the role of coating on ripening behavior and quality of papaya the uncoated and coated fruits were stored and ripened at room temperature (25 °C-29 °C and 82-84% relative humidity. Physico-chemical properties were analyzed at 4 day intervals during the storage period. The incidence of disease attack was also visually observed. The overall results showed the superiority of AG and PLEAG coating in lengthening the shelf-life of papaya fruit compared to controls which showed significant decay from 6th day onward and complete decay within 12 days of storage. The AG and PLEAG coated fruits maintained their shelf life for 12 days and decayed at 16th day. The coated fruits also maintained their color, flavor and firmness up to 12 days of storage. An increase in ascorbic acid content (120.2 mg/100 g was also found in coated fruits in contrast to the control (59 mg/100 g. Only 27% disease incidence was observed in AG and 13% in PLEAG coated fruits as compared to control (100% during the storage period. The results of this study show that both AG and PLEAG coatings have excellent potential to be used on fresh produce to maintain quality and extend shelf-life.

  7. Development of Transgenic Papaya through Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abul Kalam Azad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transgenic papaya plants were regenerated from hypocotyls and immature zygotic embryo after cocultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA-4404 carrying a binary plasmid vector system containing neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII gene as the selectable marker and β-glucuronidase (GUS as the reporter gene. The explants were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens on regeneration medium containing 500 mg/L carbenicillin + 200 mg/L cefotaxime for one week. The cocultivated explants were transferred into the final selection medium containing 500 mg/L carbenicillin + 200 mg/L cefotaxime + 50 mg/L kanamycin for callus induction as well as plant regeneration. The callus derived from the hypocotyls of Carica papaya cv. Shahi showed the highest positive GUS activities compared to Carica papaya cv. Ranchi. The transformed callus grew vigorously and formed embryos followed by transgenic plantlets successfully. The result of this study showed that the hypocotyls of C. papaya cv. Shahi and C. papaya cv. Ranchi are better explants for genetic transformation compared to immature embryos. The transformed C. papaya cv. Shahi also showed the maximum number of plant regeneration compared to that of C. papaya cv. Ranchi.

  8. Whole genome sequence analysis of unidentified genetically modified papaya for development of a specific detection method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kosuke; Kondo, Kazunari; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Ishigaki, Takumi; Noguchi, Akio; Katsumata, Hiroshi; Takasaki, Kazuto; Futo, Satoshi; Sakata, Kozue; Fukuda, Nozomi; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi; Tanaka, Hidenori; Akashi, Ryo; Nishimaki-Mogami, Tomoko

    2016-08-15

    Identification of transgenic sequences in an unknown genetically modified (GM) papaya (Carica papaya L.) by whole genome sequence analysis was demonstrated. Whole genome sequence data were generated for a GM-positive fresh papaya fruit commodity detected in monitoring using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The sequences obtained were mapped against an open database for papaya genome sequence. Transgenic construct- and event-specific sequences were identified as a GM papaya developed to resist infection from a Papaya ringspot virus. Based on the transgenic sequences, a specific real-time PCR detection method for GM papaya applicable to various food commodities was developed. Whole genome sequence analysis enabled identifying unknown transgenic construct- and event-specific sequences in GM papaya and development of a reliable method for detecting them in papaya food commodities.

  9. Whole genome sequence analysis of unidentified genetically modified papaya for development of a specific detection method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kosuke; Kondo, Kazunari; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Ishigaki, Takumi; Noguchi, Akio; Katsumata, Hiroshi; Takasaki, Kazuto; Futo, Satoshi; Sakata, Kozue; Fukuda, Nozomi; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi; Tanaka, Hidenori; Akashi, Ryo; Nishimaki-Mogami, Tomoko

    2016-08-15

    Identification of transgenic sequences in an unknown genetically modified (GM) papaya (Carica papaya L.) by whole genome sequence analysis was demonstrated. Whole genome sequence data were generated for a GM-positive fresh papaya fruit commodity detected in monitoring using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The sequences obtained were mapped against an open database for papaya genome sequence. Transgenic construct- and event-specific sequences were identified as a GM papaya developed to resist infection from a Papaya ringspot virus. Based on the transgenic sequences, a specific real-time PCR detection method for GM papaya applicable to various food commodities was developed. Whole genome sequence analysis enabled identifying unknown transgenic construct- and event-specific sequences in GM papaya and development of a reliable method for detecting them in papaya food commodities. PMID:27006240

  10. Pengujian Ekstrak n-Heksana dan Etanol terhadap Aktivitas Antibakteri Biji Pepaya (Carica papaya L.) dari Dua Varietas

    OpenAIRE

    Ginting, Ovalina Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Papaya seed can be beneficial as drug of digestion trouble, diarrhoea and skin disease.The aim research is understanding antibacterial activity from n-hexane extract and ethanol extract from seed of two varieties of papaya (Carica papaya L.) to Escherichia coli (ATCC 10536) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29737). Papaya seed used in this research came from seeds of bird papaya and chocolate papaya. Extraction was done of two type solvents which were polar (ethanol) and non polar (n-hexane)...

  11. Plant lipases: partial purification of Carica papaya lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Ivanna; Mateos-Díaz, Juan Carlos; Sandoval, Georgina

    2012-01-01

    Lipases from plants have very interesting features for application in different fields. This chapter provides an overview on some of the most important aspects of plant lipases, such as sources, applications, physiological functions, and specificities. Lipases from laticifers and particularly Carica papaya lipase (CPL) have emerged as a versatile autoimmobilized biocatalyst. However, to get a better understanding of CPL biocatalytic properties, the isolation and purification of individual C. papaya lipolytic enzymes become necessary. In this chapter, a practical protocol for partial purification of the latex-associated lipolytic activity from C. papaya is given.

  12. New approach for papaya latex storage without virus degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Silas P. Rodrigues; Andrade, Josemar S.; José A. Ventura; Fernandes, Patricia M. B.

    2009-01-01

    Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is the causal agent of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sticky disease, which has been detected through analysis of its double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome from plant latex. In this work we demonstrate that PMeV dsRNA is protected during 25 days when latex is diluted in citrate buffer pH 5.0 (1:1 v/v) and maintained at -20ºC. At the same temperature, some protection was observed for pure latex or latex diluted in ultra-pure water. Conversely, the dsRNA was almost completel...

  13. Isolation and functional characterization of a lycopene beta-cyclase gene that controls fruit colour of papaya (Carica papaya L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, Luke C; Fanning, Kent; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Holton, Timothy A

    2010-01-01

    The colour of papaya fruit flesh is determined largely by the presence of carotenoid pigments. Red-fleshed papaya fruit contain lycopene, whilst this pigment is absent from yellow-fleshed fruit. The conversion of lycopene (red) to beta-carotene (yellow) is catalysed by lycopene beta-cyclase. This present study describes the cloning and functional characterization of two different genes encoding lycopene beta-cyclases (lcy-beta1 and lcy-beta2) from red (Tainung) and yellow (Hybrid 1B) papaya cultivars. A mutation in the lcy-beta2 gene, which inactivates enzyme activity, controls lycopene production in fruit and is responsible for the difference in carotenoid production between red and yellow-fleshed papaya fruit. The expression level of both lcy-beta1 and lcy-beta2 genes is similar and low in leaves, but lcy-beta2 expression increases markedly in ripe fruit. Isolation of the lcy-beta2 gene from papaya, that is preferentially expressed in fruit and is correlated with fruit colour, will facilitate marker-assisted breeding for fruit colour in papaya and should create possibilities for metabolic engineering of carotenoid production in papaya fruit to alter both colour and nutritional properties.

  14. Evaluation of fruit leather made from two cultivars of papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZUHAIR RADHI ADDAI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Two papaya cultivars were used to manufacture fruit leather. The objective of this study was to formulate papaya leather from locally grown papaya using natural ingredients like pectin, honey and citric acid. The fresh fruits were pureed and mix with natural ingredients, and dried in an oven at 60°C for 12 hours. The physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity were determined.The results showed that fruit leather made from Hongkong cultivar is significantly (P<0.05 higher in sensory parameters as well as physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity. The phenolics content and antioxidant activity increased by process of drying the fruit leather compared to fresh fruits in both papaya cultivars. Therefore, the consumer requirements for healthy and safe food products were respected.

  15. KARAKTERISASI PAPAIN DARI DAUN PEPAYA (Carica Papaya L. CHARACTERIZATION OF PAPAIN FROM Carica Papaya L. LEAVES

    OpenAIRE

    Zusfahair; Dian Riana Ningsih; Febrina Nur Habibah

    2014-01-01

    Enzim yang menempati urutan pertama dalam pemanfaatannya di bidang industri adalah protease. Protease dapat digunakan sebagai katalis untuk reaksi yang menggunakan pelarut organik. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui karakteristik ekstrak kasar papain dari daun pepaya (Carica papaya L.) yang meliputi suhu dan pH optimum, pengaruh EDTA dan ion-ion logam, serta kestabilannya dalam pelarut organik seperti metanol, aseton, dan toluena, serta potensinya sebagai katalis dalam pelarut organik....

  16. Optical and ultrastructural study of the pollen grain development in hermaphrodite papaya tree (Carica papaya L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Lídia Márcia Silva Santos; Telma Nair Santana Pereira; Margarete Magalhães de Souza; Pedro Correa Damasceno Junior; Fabiane Rabelo da Costa; Beatriz Ferreira Ribeiro; Noil Gomes de Freitas; Messias Gonzaga Pereira

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the pollen grain development in hermaphrodite papaya tree. The flower buds were collected at different stages of the development and the anthers were treated chemically for observation under optical and electronic transmission microscopes. The pollen grain development followed the normal pattern described for the Angiosperms. The pollen grain development was described from meiocyte to the mature pollen grain. In the microsporogenesis, the microspore...

  17. ESR detection procedure of irradiated papaya containing high water content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Masahiro; Shimoyama, Yuhei; Ukai, Mitsuko; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko

    2011-05-01

    ESR signals were recorded from irradiated papaya at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K), and freeze-dried irradiated papaya at room temperature (295 K). Two side peaks from the flesh at the liquid nitrogen temperature indicated a linear dose response for 3-14 days after the γ-irradiation. The line shapes recorded from the freeze-dried specimens were sharper than those at liquid nitrogen temperature.

  18. ESR detection procedure of irradiated papaya containing high water content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Masahiro, E-mail: kikuchi.masahiro@jaea.go.j [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Shimoyama, Yuhei [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Ukai, Mitsuko [Hokkaido University of Education, 1-2 Hachiman-cho, Hakodate, Hokkaido 040-8567 (Japan); Kobayashi, Yasuhiko [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    ESR signals were recorded from irradiated papaya at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K), and freeze-dried irradiated papaya at room temperature (295 K). Two side peaks from the flesh at the liquid nitrogen temperature indicated a linear dose response for 3-14 days after the {gamma}-irradiation. The line shapes recorded from the freeze-dried specimens were sharper than those at liquid nitrogen temperature.

  19. Genetic-molecular characterization of backcross generations for sexual conversion in papaya (Carica papaya L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, H C C; Pereira, M G; Pereira, T N S; Barros, G B A; Ferreguetti, G A

    2014-12-04

    The low number of improved cultivars limits the expansion of the papaya crop, particularly because of the time required for the development of new varieties using classical procedures. Molecular techniques associated with conventional procedures accelerate this process and allow targeted improvements. Thus, we used microsatellite markers to perform genetic-molecular characterization of papaya genotypes obtained from 3 backcross generations to monitor the inbreeding level and parental genome proportion in the evaluated genotypes. Based on the analysis of 20 microsatellite loci, 77 genotypes were evaluated, 25 of each generation of the backcross program as well as the parental genotypes. The markers analyzed were identified in 11 of the 12 linkage groups established for papaya, ranging from 1 to 4 per linkage group. The average values for the inbreeding coefficient were 0.88 (BC1S4), 0.47 (BC2S3), and 0.63 (BC3S2). Genomic analysis revealed average values of the recurrent parent genome of 82.7% in BC3S2, 64.4% in BC1S4, and 63.9% in BC2S3. Neither the inbreeding level nor the genomic proportions completely followed the expected average values. This demonstrates the significance of molecular analysis when examining different genotype values, given the importance of such information for selection processes in breeding programs.

  20. Multivariate analysis to determine the genetic distance among backcross papaya (Carica papaya) progenies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, H C C; Pereira, M G; Gonçalves, L S A; Berilli, A P C G; Pinto, F O; Ribeiro, E H

    2012-05-14

    Morpho-agronomic and molecular (RAPD and ISSR markers) data were used to evaluate genetic distances between papaya backcross progenies in order to help identify agronomically superior genotypes. Thirty-two papaya progenies were evaluated based on 15 morpho-agronomic characteristics, 20 ISSR and 19 RAPD primers. Manhattan, Jaccard and Gower distances were used to estimate differences based on continuous and binary data and combined analyses, respectively. Except for production, there were significant differences in the continuous variables among the genotypes. The molecular analysis revealed 193 dominant markers (ISSR and RAPD), being 53 polymorphic loci. Among the various clusters that were generated, the one based on a combined analysis of morpho-agronomic and molecular data gave the highest cophenetic correlation (0.72) compared to individual analysis, consistently allocating the progenies into six groups. We found that the Gower algorithm was more coherent in the discrimination of the genotypes, demonstrating that a combination of molecular and agronomic data is valuable for studies of genetic dissimilarity in papaya.

  1. Complete genome sequence of an isolate of papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus from commercialized PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuo, D; Shen, W; Yan, P; Li, Ch; Gao, L; Li, X; Li, H; Zhou, P

    2013-01-01

    Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus is highly destructive to commercial papaya production. Here, the complete genome sequence was determined for an isolate of papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus, designated PLDMV-DF, infecting the commercialized papaya ringspot virus (PRSV)-resistant transgenic papaya from China. Excluding the 3'-poly (A) tail, the sequence shares high sequence identity to several PLDMV isolates from Taiwan and Japan and is phylogenetically most closely related to the isolate from Japan. Infection of PLDMV-DF in transgenic PRSV-resistant papaya may indicate emergence of this disease in genetically engineered plants. The reported sequence for this isolate may help generate bi-transgenic papaya resistant to PRSV and PLDMV. PMID:24294960

  2. The Extraction and Properties of Carica papaya Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.M. Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the suitability of Ultrasound-Microwave synergistic Extraction (UMAE for the recovery of papaya seed oil as compared to Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE. The efficiency of these two methods was assessed by comparing the physicochemical properties and oxidative stability of papaya seed oil. The analytic tests were color, unsaponifiable matters, iodine value, acid value and peroxide value. The fatty acid components were analyzed by GC. Results indicated that the Ultrasound-Microwave synergistic Extraction (UMAE considerably impact on the physicochemical properties of the extracted papaya seed oil, UMAE provided papaya seed oil with obviously lighter color, lower unsaponifiable matters (2.53% and higher oxidative stability (PV, 0.98 m mol/kg than that of UAE. Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that 13 kinds of components are identified and the total amount of fatty acids accounted for 93.13% of papaya seed oil, the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 72.60%, palmitic (16:0, 18.00%, linoleic acid (18:2, 5.80% and stearic (18:0, 3.60%.

  3. Cyanogenesis in glucosinolate-producing plants: Carica papaya and Carica quercifolia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olafsdottir, E.S.; Jørgensen, Lise Bolt; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W.

    2002-01-01

    Carica papaya, Carica quercifolia, Carica hastata, Caricaceae, Passifloraceae, Biosynthesis, Glucosinolates, Cyanohydrin glycosides, Cyanogenic glycosides, Prunasin, Tetraphyllin B, Cyclopentenylglycine......Carica papaya, Carica quercifolia, Carica hastata, Caricaceae, Passifloraceae, Biosynthesis, Glucosinolates, Cyanohydrin glycosides, Cyanogenic glycosides, Prunasin, Tetraphyllin B, Cyclopentenylglycine...

  4. Efficacy of four plant extracts on nematodes associated with papaya in Sindh, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    This investigation examines the effect of ethanol extracts of four plant species--Azadirachta indica (neem), Withania somnifera (ashwagandha), Tagetes erecta (marigold) and Eucalyptus citriodora (eucalyptus)--against nematodes associated with papaya (Carica papaya), and it assesses their influence o...

  5. Antioxidant capacity of juice from different papaya (Carica papaya L.) cultivars grown under greenhouse conditions in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Aysun ÖZKAN; Hamide GÜBBÜK; GÜNEŞ, Esma; ERDOĞAN, Ayşe

    2011-01-01

    The fruits of Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) are valuable as food and are also used in traditional medicine. The present study was designed to assess the antioxidant potential of the juices of 3 papaya cultivars (PCJ): Sunrise Solo, Red Lady, and Tainung. The antioxidant capacity of PCJ obtained from fully ripened fruit was determined by the following methods: scavenging of the free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), reducing power assay, scavenging of superoxide radicals, 2-deoxyri...

  6. Screening of papaya accessions resistant to Papaya lethal yellowing virus and capacity of Tetranychus urticae to transmit the virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Fernando Basso

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to produce a polyclonal antiserum against the coat protein (CP of Papaya lethal yellowing virus (PLYV and to determine its specificity and sensibility in the diagnosis of the virus, as well as to evaluate the genetic resistance to PLYV in papaya (Carica papaya accessions and to investigate the capacity of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae to acquire and transmit PLYV to the plants. Sixty-five papaya accessions were evaluated. For each accession, ten plants were mechanically inoculated using PLYV-infected plant extracts, and three plants were mock inoculated with phosphate buffer alone and used as negative controls. Ninety days after inoculation, newly-emerging systemic leaves were collected from the inoculated plants, and viral infection was diagnosed by indirect Elisa, using polyclonal antiserum sensible to the in vitro-expressed PLYV CP. Viral transmission by T. urticae was evaluated in greenhouse. The experiments were repeated twice. Polyclonal antiserum recognized the recombinant PLYV CP specifically and discriminated PLYV infection from infections caused by other plant viruses. Out of the 65 papaya accessions evaluated, 15 were considered resistant, 18 moderately resistant, and 32 susceptible. The two-spotted spider mite T. urticae was capable of acquiring PLYV, but not of transmitting it to papaya.

  7. Rapid sex identification of papaya (Carica papaya) using multiplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification (mLAMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Te-Hua; Gwo, Jin-Chywan; Lin, Kuan-Hung

    2012-10-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is established as a cash crop throughout the tropical and subtropical regions due to its easy adaptation to diverse agricultural conditions, high yields, and prompt returns. The sex types of papaya plants are hermaphrodite, male, and female. Among them, hermaphroditic plants are the major type in papaya production, because the fruit has commercial advantages over that of the other sexes. Sex inheritance in papaya is determined by the M and M(h) dominant alleles in males and hermaphrodites, respectively, and a recessive m allele in females. Currently, all hermaphrodite seeds are not available due to the lethality of dominant homozygosity. Therefore, in this study, six male-hermaphrodite-specific markers were developed for a rapid sex identification using multiplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification (mLAMP) to efficiently and precisely select hermaphroditic individuals in the seedling or early growth stage. The LM1-LAMP assay consisted of two sex-LAMP reactions for amplifying two male-specific markers (T12 and Cpsm90) in one reaction, and showed several advantages in terms of a rapid reaction time (papaya production.

  8. Effects of Different Concentrations and Applications of Calcium on Storage Life and Physicochemical Characteristics of Papaya (Carica Papaya L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. M. Mahmud

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Papaya (Carica Papaya L. fruits index 2 were treated with 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5% solutions of calcium chloride by dipping and vacuum infiltration (-33 Kpa or untreated (0% as control. Effects of these treatments were evaluated on storage life and postharvest quality characteristics of papaya. After 21 days of storage at 13±1°C, the fruits were removed from storage for physicochemical analysis. Following additional five days holding in the storage condition for fruits used for evaluation of the rate of disease incidence and storage life. Postharvest dip treatments at different concentrations of calcium prolonged storage life, slowed down the ripening processes and maintained the quality of papaya. Whereas, it was effectively greater with calcium infiltration treatments than that for dip treatments. Calcium infiltration extended the storage life and retained the quality as calcium concentrations increased up to 2.5% and then declined. The desired effect was obtained at 2.5% infiltration compared with other treatments. The least disease incidence was found in those fruits infiltrated with 2.5% calcium. Hence, it can be concluded that postharvest infiltration of calcium at 2.5% has the potential to control disease incidence, prolong the storage life and preserve valuable attributes of postharvest papaya, presumably because of its effects on inhibition of ripening and senescence process and loss of the fruit firmness of papaya.

  9. Penentuan Dosis Insektisida Nabati Ekstrak Air Daun Pepaya (Carica papaya L.) Terhadap Larva Buah Jeruk

    OpenAIRE

    Ratna

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use ofsynthetic insecticides on an ongoing basis can have a negative impact on human health and the environment. Required control alternative. Papaya leaves(Carica papaya L.)can be developedas aninsecticide active ingredient vegetable contains the enzyme papain, alkaloids, flavonoids, polyphenols, quinones, and terpenoids. Purpose: determine the effectof water extract papaya leaves mortality on larvae citrus fruit and Effective doses of water extract papaya leaves right as ...

  10. Sequences of the coat protein gene from brazilian isolates of Papaya ringspot virus

    OpenAIRE

    LIMA ROBERTO C. A.; SOUZA JR. MANOEL T.; PIO-RIBEIRO GILVAN; LIMA J. ALBERSIO A.

    2002-01-01

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is the causal agent of the main papaya (Carica papaya) disease in the world. Brazil is currently the world's main papaya grower, responsible for about 40% of the worldwide production. Resistance to PRSV on transgenic plants expressing the PRSV coat protein (cp) gene was shown to be dependent on the sequence homology between the cp transgene expressed in the plant genome and the cp gene from the incoming virus, in an isolate-specific fashion. Therefore, knowledge o...

  11. Origin and domestication of papaya Yh chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanBuren, Robert; Zeng, Fanchang; Chen, Cuixia; Zhang, Jisen; Wai, Ching Man; Han, Jennifer; Aryal, Rishi; Gschwend, Andrea R; Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Huang, Lixian; Zhang, Lingmao; Miao, Wenjing; Gou, Jiqing; Arro, Jie; Guyot, Romain; Moore, Richard C; Wang, Ming-Li; Zee, Francis; Charlesworth, Deborah; Moore, Paul H; Yu, Qingyi; Ming, Ray

    2015-04-01

    Sex in papaya is controlled by a pair of nascent sex chromosomes. Females are XX, and two slightly different Y chromosomes distinguish males (XY) and hermaphrodites (XY(h)). The hermaphrodite-specific region of the Y(h) chromosome (HSY) and its X chromosome counterpart were sequenced and analyzed previously. We now report the sequence of the entire male-specific region of the Y (MSY). We used a BAC-by-BAC approach to sequence the MSY and resequence the Y regions of 24 wild males and the Y(h) regions of 12 cultivated hermaphrodites. The MSY and HSY regions have highly similar gene content and structure, and only 0.4% sequence divergence. The MSY sequences from wild males include three distinct haplotypes, associated with the populations' geographic locations, but gene flow is detected for other genomic regions. The Y(h) sequence is highly similar to one Y haplotype (MSY3) found only in wild dioecious populations from the north Pacific region of Costa Rica. The low MSY3-Y(h) divergence supports the hypothesis that hermaphrodite papaya is a product of human domestication. We estimate that Y(h) arose only ∼ 4000 yr ago, well after crop plant domestication in Mesoamerica >6200 yr ago but coinciding with the rise of the Maya civilization. The Y(h) chromosome has lower nucleotide diversity than the Y, or the genome regions that are not fully sex-linked, consistent with a domestication bottleneck. The identification of the ancestral MSY3 haplotype will expedite investigation of the mutation leading to the domestication of the hermaphrodite Y(h) chromosome. In turn, this mutation should identify the gene that was affected by the carpel-suppressing mutation that was involved in the evolution of males.

  12. Paisajes del agua y trayectorias del arraigo en la Patagonia chilena

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Rebolledo, Mª Dolores

    2011-01-01

    El artículo analiza las dificultades de asentarase en los paisajes de la vastedad en la Patagonia chilena, en la zona del río Baker y lago General Carrera. Toma como referencia la definicíión de paisaje contenida en el marco teórico y otros antecedentes expuestos en el capítulo 2 de la tesis doctoral

  13. The dsRNA Virus Papaya Meleira Virus and an ssRNA Virus Are Associated with Papaya Sticky Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tathiana Ferreira Sá Antunes

    Full Text Available Papaya sticky disease, or "meleira", is one of the major diseases of papaya in Brazil and Mexico, capable of causing complete crop loss. The causal agent of sticky disease was identified as an isometric virus with a double stranded RNA (dsRNA genome, named papaya meleira virus (PMeV. In the present study, PMeV dsRNA and a second RNA band of approximately 4.5 kb, both isolated from latex of papaya plants with severe symptoms of sticky disease, were deep-sequenced. The nearly complete sequence obtained for PMeV dsRNA is 8,814 nucleotides long and contains two putative ORFs; the predicted ORF1 and ORF2 display similarity to capsid proteins and RdRp's, respectively, from mycoviruses tentatively classified in the family Totiviridae. The sequence obtained for the second RNA is 4,515 nucleotides long and contains two putative ORFs. The predicted ORFs 1 and 2 display 48% and 73% sequence identity, respectively, with the corresponding proteins of papaya virus Q, an umbravirus recently described infecting papaya in Ecuador. Viral purification in a sucrose gradient allowed separation of particles containing each RNA. Mass spectrometry analysis indicated that both PMeV and the second RNA virus (named papaya meleira virus 2, PMeV2 were encapsidated in particles formed by the protein encoded by PMeV ORF1. The presence of both PMeV and PMeV2 was confirmed in field plants showing typical symptoms of sticky disease. Interestingly, PMeV was detected alone in asymptomatic plants. Together, our results indicate that sticky disease is associated with double infection by PMeV and PMeV2.

  14. The dsRNA Virus Papaya Meleira Virus and an ssRNA Virus Are Associated with Papaya Sticky Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá Antunes, Tathiana Ferreira; Amaral, Raquel J Vionette; Ventura, José Aires; Godinho, Marcio Tadeu; Amaral, Josiane G; Souza, Flávia O; Zerbini, Poliane Alfenas; Zerbini, Francisco Murilo; Fernandes, Patricia Machado Bueno

    2016-01-01

    Papaya sticky disease, or "meleira", is one of the major diseases of papaya in Brazil and Mexico, capable of causing complete crop loss. The causal agent of sticky disease was identified as an isometric virus with a double stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome, named papaya meleira virus (PMeV). In the present study, PMeV dsRNA and a second RNA band of approximately 4.5 kb, both isolated from latex of papaya plants with severe symptoms of sticky disease, were deep-sequenced. The nearly complete sequence obtained for PMeV dsRNA is 8,814 nucleotides long and contains two putative ORFs; the predicted ORF1 and ORF2 display similarity to capsid proteins and RdRp's, respectively, from mycoviruses tentatively classified in the family Totiviridae. The sequence obtained for the second RNA is 4,515 nucleotides long and contains two putative ORFs. The predicted ORFs 1 and 2 display 48% and 73% sequence identity, respectively, with the corresponding proteins of papaya virus Q, an umbravirus recently described infecting papaya in Ecuador. Viral purification in a sucrose gradient allowed separation of particles containing each RNA. Mass spectrometry analysis indicated that both PMeV and the second RNA virus (named papaya meleira virus 2, PMeV2) were encapsidated in particles formed by the protein encoded by PMeV ORF1. The presence of both PMeV and PMeV2 was confirmed in field plants showing typical symptoms of sticky disease. Interestingly, PMeV was detected alone in asymptomatic plants. Together, our results indicate that sticky disease is associated with double infection by PMeV and PMeV2. PMID:27166626

  15. Effect of ozone on anthracnose physicochemical responses and gene expression in papaya (carica papaya l.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Mei Kying

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of varying levels of ozone (0, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 or 5.0 ppm) for 96 h on 1. the in vitro and in vivo growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, the causal organism of anthracnose; 2. the reactive oxygen species generation and spore mitochondria of C. gloeosporioides using transmission electron microscope, fluorescence microscope and laser scanning confocal microscope; 3. the production of defence-related enzymes in papaya; 4. microbiological analysi...

  16. Analysis of ripening-related gene expression in papaya using an Arabidopsis-based microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabi João Paulo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Papaya (Carica papaya L. is a commercially important crop that produces climacteric fruits with a soft and sweet pulp that contain a wide range of health promoting phytochemicals. Despite its importance, little is known about transcriptional modifications during papaya fruit ripening and their control. In this study we report the analysis of ripe papaya transcriptome by using a cross-species (XSpecies microarray technique based on the phylogenetic proximity between papaya and Arabidopsis thaliana. Results Papaya transcriptome analyses resulted in the identification of 414 ripening-related genes with some having their expression validated by qPCR. The transcription profile was compared with that from ripening tomato and grape. There were many similarities between papaya and tomato especially with respect to the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in primary metabolism, regulation of transcription, biotic and abiotic stress and cell wall metabolism. XSpecies microarray data indicated that transcription factors (TFs of the MADS-box, NAC and AP2/ERF gene families were involved in the control of papaya ripening and revealed that cell wall-related gene expression in papaya had similarities to the expression profiles seen in Arabidopsis during hypocotyl development. Conclusion The cross-species array experiment identified a ripening-related set of genes in papaya allowing the comparison of transcription control between papaya and other fruit bearing taxa during the ripening process.

  17. Subchronic Immunotoxicity Assessment of Genetically Modified Virus-Resistant Papaya in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsin-Tang; Lee, Wei-Cheng; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Wu, Jhaol-Huei; Yen, Gow-Chin; Yeh, Shyi-Dong; Cheng, Ying-Huey; Chang, Shih-Chieh; Liao, Jiunn-Wang

    2016-07-27

    Papaya is an important fruit that provides a variety of vitamins with nutritional value and also holds some pharmacological properties, including immunomodulation. Genetically modified (GM) papaya plants resistant to Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) infection have been generated by cloning the coat protein gene of the PRSV which can be used as a valuable strategy to fight PRSV infection and to increase papaya production. In order to assess the safety of GM papaya as a food, this subchronic study was conducted to assess the immunomodulatory responses of the GM papaya line 823-2210, when compared with its parent plant of non-GM papaya, Tainung-2 (TN-2), in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Both non-GM and GM 823-2210 papaya fruits at low (1 g/kg bw) and high (2 g/kg bw) dosages were administered via daily oral gavage to male and female rats consecutively for 90 days. Immunophenotyping, mitogen-induced splenic cell proliferation, antigen-specific antibody response, and histopathology of the spleen and thymus were evaluated at the end of the experiment. Results of immunotoxicity assays revealed no consistent difference between rats fed for 90 days with GM 823-2210 papaya fruits, as opposed to those fed non-GM TN-2 papaya fruits, suggesting that with regard to immunomodulatory responses, GM 823-2210 papaya fruits maintain substantial equivalence to fruits of their non-GM TN-2 parent.

  18. Subchronic Immunotoxicity Assessment of Genetically Modified Virus-Resistant Papaya in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsin-Tang; Lee, Wei-Cheng; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Wu, Jhaol-Huei; Yen, Gow-Chin; Yeh, Shyi-Dong; Cheng, Ying-Huey; Chang, Shih-Chieh; Liao, Jiunn-Wang

    2016-07-27

    Papaya is an important fruit that provides a variety of vitamins with nutritional value and also holds some pharmacological properties, including immunomodulation. Genetically modified (GM) papaya plants resistant to Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) infection have been generated by cloning the coat protein gene of the PRSV which can be used as a valuable strategy to fight PRSV infection and to increase papaya production. In order to assess the safety of GM papaya as a food, this subchronic study was conducted to assess the immunomodulatory responses of the GM papaya line 823-2210, when compared with its parent plant of non-GM papaya, Tainung-2 (TN-2), in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Both non-GM and GM 823-2210 papaya fruits at low (1 g/kg bw) and high (2 g/kg bw) dosages were administered via daily oral gavage to male and female rats consecutively for 90 days. Immunophenotyping, mitogen-induced splenic cell proliferation, antigen-specific antibody response, and histopathology of the spleen and thymus were evaluated at the end of the experiment. Results of immunotoxicity assays revealed no consistent difference between rats fed for 90 days with GM 823-2210 papaya fruits, as opposed to those fed non-GM TN-2 papaya fruits, suggesting that with regard to immunomodulatory responses, GM 823-2210 papaya fruits maintain substantial equivalence to fruits of their non-GM TN-2 parent. PMID:27396727

  19. Physico-chemical characteristics of papaya (Carica papaya L.) seed oil of the Hong Kong/Sekaki variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanty, Noorzianna Abdul Manaf; Marikkar, Jalaldeen Mohammed Nazrim; Nusantoro, Bangun Prajanto; Long, Kamariah; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    A study was carried out to determine the physicochemical characteristics of the oil derived from papaya seeds of the Hong Kong/Sekaki variety. Proximate analysis showed that seeds of the Hong Kong/Sekaki variety contained considerable amount of oil (27.0%). The iodine value, saponification value, unsaponifiable matter and free fatty acid contents of freshly extracted papaya seed oil were 76.9 g I2/100g oil, 193.5 mg KOH/g oil, 1.52% and 0.91%, respectively. The oil had a Lovibond color index of 15.2Y + 5.2B. Papaya seed oil contained ten detectable fatty acids, of which 78.33% were unsaturated. Oleic (73.5%) acid was the dominant fatty acids followed by palmitic acid (15.8%). Based on the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, seven species of triacylglycerols (TAGs) were detected. The predominant TAGs of papaya seed oil were OOO (40.4%), POO (29.1%) and SOO (9.9%) where O, P, and S denote oleic, palmitic and stearic acids, respectively. Thermal analysis by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that papaya seed oil had its major melting and crystallization transitions at 12.4°C and -48.2°C, respectively. Analysis of the sample by Z-nose (electronic nose) instrument showed that the sample had a high level of volatile compounds.

  20. Simultaneous detection of papaya ringspot virus, papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus, and papaya mosaic virus by multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, P; Shen, W T; Yan, P; Tuo, D C; Li, X Y; Zhou, P

    2015-12-01

    Both the single infection of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV) or papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) and double infection of PRSV and PLDMV or PapMV which cause indistinguishable symptoms, threaten the papaya industry in Hainan Island, China. In this study, a multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) was developed to detect simultaneously the three viruses based on their distinctive melting temperatures (Tms): 81.0±0.8°C for PRSV, 84.7±0.6°C for PLDMV, and 88.7±0.4°C for PapMV. The multiplex real-time RT-PCR method was specific and sensitive in detecting the three viruses, with a detection limit of 1.0×10(1), 1.0×10(2), and 1.0×10(2) copies for PRSV, PLDMV, and PapMV, respectively. Indeed, the reaction was 100 times more sensitive than the multiplex RT-PCR for PRSV, and 10 times more sensitive than multiplex RT-PCR for PLDMV. Field application of the multiplex real-time RT-PCR demonstrated that some non-symptomatic samples were positive for PLDMV by multiplex real-time RT-PCR but negative by multiplex RT-PCR, whereas some samples were positive for both PRSV and PLDMV by multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay but only positive for PLDMV by multiplex RT-PCR. Therefore, this multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay provides a more rapid, sensitive and reliable method for simultaneous detection of PRSV, PLDMV, PapMV and their mixed infections in papaya.

  1. Removal of hazardous pharmaceutical dyes by adsorption onto papaya seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Caroline Trevisan; Collazzo, Gabriela Carvalho; Mazutti, Marcio Antonio; Foletto, Edson Luiz; Dotto, Guilherme Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) seeds were used as adsorbent to remove toxic pharmaceutical dyes (tartrazine and amaranth) from aqueous solutions, in order to extend application range. The effects of pH, initial dye concentration, contact time and temperature were investigated. The kinetic data were evaluated by the pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order and Elovich models. The equilibrium was evaluated by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. It was found that adsorption favored a pH of 2.5, temperature of 298 K and equilibrium was attained at 180-200 min. The adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo second-order model, and the equilibrium was well represented by the Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacities were 51.0 and 37.4 mg g(-1) for tartrazine and amaranth, respectively. These results revealed that papaya seeds can be used as an alternative adsorbent to remove pharmaceutical dyes from aqueous solutions.

  2. Effect of papaya seed extract on microenvironment of cauda epididymis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.J. Verma; N.J. Chinoy

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of aqueous Carica papaya seed extract on microenvironment of cauda epididymis.Methods: Adult male albino rats were intrauscularly administered with 0 (control) or 0.5 mg papaya seed ex tract/kg body weight for 7 days. Cauda epididymal tubular content was collected by micropuncture technique; epididy real luminal fluid and sperm pellets were separately analyzed. Results: The results revealed that the extract treat ment caused significant reduction, as compared with control, in total protein and sialic acid contents in both epididymal fluid and sperm pellet. As compared with control, significantly lowered acid phosphatase activity was recorded in spermpellet but was higher in epididymal fluid after the treatment. The extract treatment also caused significant reduction in level of inorganic phosphorus in the ePididymal fluid. Conclusion: It is concluded that the aqueous papaya seed ex tract alters cauda epididymal microenvironment.

  3. Field released transgenic papaya effect on soil microbial communities and enzyme activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Xiang-dong; ZOU Hui-ling; CHU Lee-min; LIAO Bin; YE Chang-min; LAN Chong-yu

    2006-01-01

    Soil properties, microbial communities and enzyme activities were studied in soil amended with replicase (RP)-transgenic or non-transgenic papaya under field conditions. Compared with non-transgenic papaya, significant differences (P<0.05) were observed in total nitrogen in soils grown with transgenic papaya. There were also significant differences (P<0.05) in the total number of colony forming units (CFUs) of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi between soils amended with RP-transgenic plants and non-transgenic plants. Compared with non-transgenic papaya, the total CFUs of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi in soil with transgenic papaya increased by 0.43-1.1, 0.21-0.80 and 0.46-0.73 times respectively. Significantly higher (P<0.05) CFUs of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi resistant to kanamycin (Km) were obtained in soils with RP-transgenic papaya than those with non-transgenic papaya in all concentrations of Km. Higher resistance quotients for Kmr (kanam ycin resistant) bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi were found in soil planted with RP-transgenic papaya, and the resistance quotients for KTr bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi in soils with transgenic papaya increased 1.6-4.46, 0.63-2.5 and 0.75-2.30 times. RP-transgenic papaya and non-transgenic papaya produced significantly different enzyme activities in arylsulfatase (5.4-5.9x), polyphenol oxidase (0.7-1.4x), invertase (0.5-0.79x), cellulase (0.23-0.35x) and phosphodiesterase (0.16-0.2x). The former three soil enzymes appeared to be more sensitive to the transgenic papaya than the others, and could be useful parameters in assessing the effects of transgenic papaya.Transgenic papaya could alter soil chemical properties, enzyme activities and microbial communities.

  4. INFLUENCE OF THICKNESS ON THE DRYING OF PAPAYA PUREE (Carica papaya L. THROUGH REFRACTANCE WINDOWTM TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA U. OCORÓ-ZAMORA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la influencia del espesor de las muestras (2, 3 y 4 mm sobre las cinéticas de secado, actividad de agua (aw y color (∆E de rodajas de puré de papaya procesadas por tecnología de ventana de refractanciaTM (RWTM. Adicionalmente se evaluó la difusividad del agua (Deff teniendo en cuenta el encogimiento. Los datos de humedad se ajustaron mediante los modelos de Newton y Midilli. Los resultados mostraron que a menor espesor el secado fue más rápido, los valores de aw fueron menores y los ∆E superiores. Las muestras alcanzaron 0.0652, 0.1132 y 0.2624 g agua/ g sólido seco en 60 min para rodajas de 2, 3 y 4 mm, respectivamente. El Modelo de Midilli fue el más apropiado para predecir las curvas de secado de papaya por RWTM. Deff disminuyó a menor espesor y su orden de magnitud fue de 10-10 m2/s.

  5. Folate levels and polyglutamylation profiles of papaya (Carica papaya cv. Maradol) during fruit development and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Parra, Perla A; García-Salinas, Carolina; Hernández-Brenes, Carmen; de la Garza, Rocío I Díaz

    2013-04-24

    Folates are essential micronutrients for humans, and their deficiency causes several detrimental effects on human health. Papaya fruit is an important natural source of some micronutrients. This paper presents a first complete characterization of folate derivatives accumulated in cv. Maradol papaya during fruit development and ripening processes. During postharvest ripening, the fruit accumulated up to 24.5% of the daily folate recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for an adult in a 1 cup (145 g) portion. Tetrahydrofolate (THF) and 5-methyl-THF were the predominant folate classes observed. Surprisingly, an unusually long polyglutamylation profile of tentatively up to 17 glutamates linked to 5-methyl-THF was detected; to the authors' knowledge, this very long polyglutamyl tail has not been reported for any organism, and it is probably characteristic of this plant species. This polyglutamylation degree changed throughout fruit development and ripening, showing the largest differences at the onset of ripening. This work raises questions about the functional role of folate derivatives in fruit development.

  6. Purification of a thermostable alkaline laccase from papaya (Carica papaya) using affinity chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Nivedita; Pandey, Veda P; Dwivedi, Upendra N

    2015-01-01

    A laccase from papaya leaves was purified to homogeneity by a two step procedure namely, heat treatment (at 70 °C) and Con-A affinity chromatography. The procedure resulted in 1386.7-fold purification of laccase with a specific activity of 41.3 units mg(-1) and an overall yield of 61.5%. The native purified laccase was found to be a hexameric protein of ∼ 260 kDa. The purified enzyme exhibited acidic and alkaline pH optima of 6.0 and 8.0 with the non-phenolic substrate (ABTS) and phenolic substrate (catechol), respectively. The purified laccase was found to be thermostable up to 70 °C such that it retained ∼ 80% activity upon 30 min incubation at 70 °C. The Arrhenius energy of activation for purified laccase was found to be 7.7 kJ mol(-1). The enzyme oxidized various phenolic and non-phenolic substrates having catalytic efficiency (K(cat)/K(m)) in the order of 7.25>0.67>0.27 mM(-1) min(-1) for ABTS, catechol and hydroquinone, respectively. The purified laccase was found to be activated by Mn(2+), Cd(2+), Ca(2+), Na(+), Fe(2+), Co(2+) and Cu(2+) while weakly inhibited by Hg(2+). The properties such as thermostability, alkaline pH optima and metal tolerance exhibited by the papaya laccase make it a promising candidate enzyme for industrial exploitation.

  7. Sequence and genome organization of papaya meleira virus infecting papaya in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Emanuel F M; Daltro, Cleidiane B; Nogueira, Elsa O P L; Andrade, Eduardo C; Aragão, Francisco J L

    2015-12-01

    Papaya sticky disease ('meleira') was first observed in Brazil at the beginning of the 1980s. The disease is characterized by intense latex exudation from the fruit surface that becomes dark as it oxidizes, which makes it difficult to sell. The causal agent, which has been called papaya meleira virus (PMeV), has been identified as an isometric virus particle, approximately 50 nm in diameter, with a double-stranded RNA genome. Here, we report the first complete sequence and organization of the 8.7-kb viral dsRNA genome. Two ORFs coding for a putative coat protein and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) were predicted. In silico analysis revealed that the translated ORF2 contains the conserved domains characteristic of an RdRp protein (pfam02123:RdRP 4), which is a family that includes RdRps from members of the genera Luteovirus, Totivirus and Rotavirus. Evolutionary analysis with amino acid sequences with the RdRps from members of the family Totiviridae and some dsRNA viruses showed that PMeV RdRp did not root itself in any genus. PMID:26370790

  8. Imobilisasi Enzim Papain Dari Getah Papaya Dengan Alginant

    OpenAIRE

    Firman Sebayang

    2009-01-01

    Telah dilakukan isolasi enzim papain dari getah papaya (Carica papaya). Isolasi papain dalam penelitian ini menggunakan aseton 85% sebagai pengendap enzim. Setelah melalui tahap penyaringan dan pengeringan beku diperoleh papain 1,25 gram untuk setiap 50 ml getah. Imobilisasi isolat enzim papain dengan metoda penjebakan(entrapment) menggunakan alginat sebagai matrik polimer. pH optimum enzim imobil diperoleh 7,0 dan temperatur optimum 55oC dengan aktivitas enzim 55,60 unit/ml, sedangkan pH opt...

  9. Effect of maleic hydrazide and waxing on quality and shelf life of papaya (carica papaya L.) fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of post harvest treatment of maleic hydrazide (MH) with and with out waxing on the quality and shelf-life of Baladi and Ekostika I papaya fruits at 18 ±1°C and 85%-90% relative humidity was evaluated. Maleic hydrazide at 250 and 500 ppm significantly delayed fruit ripening by two and three days in both papaya cultivars, respectively, compared with untreated fruits. The higher the concentration, the more was the delay in fruit ripening. The results also showed that waxing addition to MH resulted in a delay of two more days in fruit ripening that treatment with MH alone. The effect of MH and waxing treatments in delaying papaya fruits ripening was manifested in retarded respiratory climacteric, reduced weight loss and delayed fruit softening and increase in total soluble solids and ascorbic acid content.(Author)

  10. Administration Dependent Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya Seeds Water Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Panzarini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carica papaya is widely used in folk medicine as herbal remedy to prevent, protect against, and cure several diseases. These curative properties are based on the presence in different parts of the plant of phytochemical nutrients with antioxidant effect. Seeds are the less exploited part; thus this study is aimed at assessing the antioxidant activities of the C. papaya seeds water extract against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 oxidative stress in human skin Detroit 550 fibroblasts. C. papaya seeds water extract is not toxic and acts as a potent free radical scavenger, providing protection to Detroit 550 fibroblasts that underwent H2O2 oxidative stress. Data show that (i the maximum protective effect is achieved by the simultaneous administration of the extract with 1 mM H2O2; (ii the extract in presence of an oxidative stress does not increase catalase activity and prevents the release of cytochrome C and the inner mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψm loss; (iii the extract is more efficient than vitamin C to hamper the oxidative damage; (iv the purified subfractions of the seeds water extract exert the same antioxidant effect of whole extract. In conclusion, C. papaya seeds water extract is potentially useful for protection against oxidative stress.

  11. Papaya fruit quality management during the postharvest supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papayas are popular in tropical and subtropical regions and are being exported in large volumes to Europe, the U.S. and Japan. The fruit has excellent taste, exotic flavor and nutritional properties, being rich in vitamins A, C, and antioxidants. However, due to its highly perishable nature it has n...

  12. An ultrasonic system for determining papaya physiological properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sallehuddin; Ramli, Azlin; Yunus, Mohd Amri Md

    2015-05-01

    There is an increasing need for high quality fruit. As such it is important to have a fast, accurate and reliable method for measuring and monitoring the quality of fruit from the field to the consumer. This paper presents an investigation on the use of a non-destructive ultrasonic system which can be used to measure the quality of papaya.

  13. Genetic diversity of papaya ring spot virus in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Food and Agriculture Organization estimates that 20-40% of crop yield is lost due to pests and diseases. Viruses are agents that cause diseases which contribute greatly to the global yield loss. Because of this, food production is negatively affected, especially in the tropics. Carica papaya, co...

  14. Estimation of papaya leaf area using the central vein length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campostrini Eliemar

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Four genotypes of papaya (Carica papaya L. two from the 'Solo' group (Sunrise Solo and Improved Sunrise Solo line 72/12 and two from the 'Formosa' group (Tainung 02 and Known-You 01, grown in Macaé, RJ, Brazil (lat. 22(0 24' S, long. 41(0 42' W, were used in this study. Twenty-five mature leaves from each genotype were sampled four and five months after seedling transplant to the field to determine the length of the leaf central vein (LLCV and the leaf area (LA. According to covariance analyses there were no significant differences in the slope and intercept of the mathematical models calculated for each genotype. Thus, a single mathematical model (Log LA = 0.315 + 1.85 Log LLCV, R²=0.898 was adjusted to estimate the LA using the length of LLCV for the four genotypes. An unique model can be applied to estimate the LA for the four papaya genotypes using LLCV in the range from 0.25 to 0.60 m, and for papaya trees 150 to 180 days after transplanting.

  15. Ekstraksi Minyak dari Biji Pepaya (Carica Papaya) dengan Metode Soxhlet Extraction dengan Mengunakan N-Butil Asetat

    OpenAIRE

    Purwanto, Sigit

    2016-01-01

    Papaya seed it is a waste product from home industry. Commonly, papaya seed used to be a new plant to grow. Papaya seed have a potential as a edible oil. Soxhlet is used to obtain the oil from papaya seed by using several solvent such as: petroleum ether, methanol and n-hexane. In this research, papaya seed as raw material by using a solvent n-butyl acetate. The variables studied were the time of extraction and the ratio papaya seed to solvent . The results showed that the highest fatty acid ...

  16. Referentes internacionales para el giro reformista de la izquierda chilena (1975-1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Mella Polanco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo analiza el giro reformista de la izquierda chilena durante el régimen autoritario de Pinochet. Para lograrlo, se expone cómo la penetración de ideas provenientes del marxismo analítico homogeneizó un importante sector de intelectuales y expertos opositores de Pinochet, constituyendo, de esta forma, un nuevo mainstream político-académico capaz de renovar los marcos epistémicos de las ciencias sociales y diseñar la transición a la democracia.

  17. Implementación del enfoque de derechos humanos: la reforma sanitaria chilena

    OpenAIRE

    Nuria Cunill-Grau; Margarita Fernández

    2014-01-01

    EI propósito de este trabajo es analizar la incidencia de la arquitectura institucional publica en la implementación de las políticas públicas con enfoque de derechos humanos. Se adopta como caso de estudio la reforma sanitaria chilena a partir del año 2005, que reconoce garantías exigibles de acceso, oportunidad, calidad y protección financiera para un conjunto de problemas de salud a la ciudadanía, independientemente de su adscripción al sistema público 0 privado. La metodología integró un ...

  18. La Predicción de la Insolvencia de Empresas Chilenas

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Zurita

    2008-01-01

    Este trabajo compara modelos de inestabilidad financiera de naturaleza estadística y basados en la teoría de opciones, para el conjunto de sociedades anónimas abiertas chilenas. Los modelos estadísticos tienen un ajuste adecuado, aunque la peculiar historia de las quiebras en el período considerado, a saber, su aglomeración al inicio, pone en duda su utilidad como herramienta predictiva. En el segundo caso, en cambio, el promedio de probabilidades de quiebra muestra una alta correlación con i...

  19. Development of a gene-centered ssr atlas as a resource for papaya (Carica papaya marker-assisted selection and population genetic studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Medeiros Vidal

    Full Text Available Carica papaya (papaya is an economically important tropical fruit. Molecular marker-assisted selection is an inexpensive and reliable tool that has been widely used to improve fruit quality traits and resistance against diseases. In the present study we report the development and validation of an atlas of papaya simple sequence repeat (SSR markers. We integrated gene predictions and functional annotations to provide a gene-centered perspective for marker-assisted selection studies. Our atlas comprises 160,318 SSRs, from which 21,231 were located in genic regions (i.e. inside exons, exon-intron junctions or introns. A total of 116,453 (72.6% of all identified repeats were successfully mapped to one of the nine papaya linkage groups. Primer pairs were designed for markers from 9,594 genes (34.5% of the papaya gene complement. Using papaya-tomato orthology assessments, we assembled a list of 300 genes (comprising 785 SSRs potentially involved in fruit ripening. We validated our atlas by screening 73 SSR markers (including 25 fruit ripening genes, achieving 100% amplification rate and uncovering 26% polymorphism rate between the parental genotypes (Sekati and JS12. The SSR atlas presented here is the first comprehensive gene-centered collection of annotated and genome positioned papaya SSRs. These features combined with thousands of high-quality primer pairs make the atlas an important resource for the papaya research community.

  20. Development of a gene-centered ssr atlas as a resource for papaya (Carica papaya) marker-assisted selection and population genetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Newton Medeiros; Grazziotin, Ana Laura; Ramos, Helaine Christine Cancela; Pereira, Messias Gonzaga; Venancio, Thiago Motta

    2014-01-01

    Carica papaya (papaya) is an economically important tropical fruit. Molecular marker-assisted selection is an inexpensive and reliable tool that has been widely used to improve fruit quality traits and resistance against diseases. In the present study we report the development and validation of an atlas of papaya simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. We integrated gene predictions and functional annotations to provide a gene-centered perspective for marker-assisted selection studies. Our atlas comprises 160,318 SSRs, from which 21,231 were located in genic regions (i.e. inside exons, exon-intron junctions or introns). A total of 116,453 (72.6%) of all identified repeats were successfully mapped to one of the nine papaya linkage groups. Primer pairs were designed for markers from 9,594 genes (34.5% of the papaya gene complement). Using papaya-tomato orthology assessments, we assembled a list of 300 genes (comprising 785 SSRs) potentially involved in fruit ripening. We validated our atlas by screening 73 SSR markers (including 25 fruit ripening genes), achieving 100% amplification rate and uncovering 26% polymorphism rate between the parental genotypes (Sekati and JS12). The SSR atlas presented here is the first comprehensive gene-centered collection of annotated and genome positioned papaya SSRs. These features combined with thousands of high-quality primer pairs make the atlas an important resource for the papaya research community.

  1. Callus induction in papaya (Carica papaya L. and synseed production for low temperature storage and cryopreservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira da Silva Jaime A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The mid- to long-term preservation of papaya (Carica papaya L. would allow for the safeguarding of important germplasm. In this study, soft friable callus (SFC and hard callus (HC were induced from the first two true leaves of 10-day-old seedlings containing a midrib derived from the germinated seed of two cultivars (‘Rainbow’ and ‘Sunrise Solo’. Following germination on a Murashige and Skoog (MS medium that contained 3% sucrose and was free of plant growth regulators (PGRs, sections of the first true leaves from 10-day-old seedlings were exposed to seven published callus or somatic embryogenesis protocols for zygotic embryos, leaves or hypocotyls. Optimal SFC and HC induction was carried out on a half-strength MS medium following the Fitch (1993 or the Ascêncio-Cabral et al. (2008 protocol, respectively. SFC formed shoots that could then convert to plants when transferred to a full-strength MS medium devoid of PGRs. Plantlets 10-cm tall were acclimatised in two steps: first by in vitro acclimatisation in aerated vessels, the Vitron, under CO2-enriched (3000 ppm CO2, then by the transfer of individually rooted plantlets in Rockwool® blocks to a substrate of soil: pine bark : perlite (1:1:1, v/v/v. SFC and HC were then encapsulated in alginate beads, which were exposed to low temperature storage (LTS at 10°C and 15°C, and also cryopreserved for 30 days. All encapsulated alginate beads that contained SFC, HC or leaf tissue that had been stored under LTS or cryopreserved were able to regenerate callus when placed on an optimal callus induction medium. Plants derived from the control, LTS and cryopreservation protocols, either from SFC or HC, were successfully acclimatised.

  2. DESHIDRATACIÓN OSMÓTICA DE FRUTOS DE PAPAYA HAWAIANA (Carica papaya L. EN CUATRO AGENTES EDULCORANTES OSMOTIC DEHYDRATION OF HAWAIIAN PAPAYA FRUITS (Carica papaya L. USING FOUR SWEETENER AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Maria Ríos Pérez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Trozos de papaya hawaiiana (Carica papaya L. fueron sometidos a un proceso de osmo-deshidratación usando cuatro agentes edulcorantes: miel de abejas, miel de caña, crema de miel de abejas y sacarosa en medio acuoso a 79 grados Brix, temperatura de 20 ºC y 23 horas de inmersión. Los resultados estadísticos mostraron que el agente de mayor capacidad deshidratante fue la miel de abejas y el menor la sacarosa. Además, los análisis cinéticos indicaron que la máxima transferencia de masa ocurre en las primeras cuatro horas del proceso y la máxima pérdida de masa del producto que puede ser alcanzada fue de 32 % con un contenido de humedad final en los frutos de papaya osmodeshidratada de 41,3 % b.h.Pieces of Hawaiian papaya (Carica papaya L. were subjected to osmotic dehydration using four sweetener agents: honey, molasses, honey cream and sucrose in aqueous solution to 79 degrees Brix, 20 ºC temperature and 23 hours of immersion. The statistical results showed that honey was the sweetener agent with highest osmotic capacity while sucrose had the lowest. The kinetic analysis also showed that the maximum mass transfer occurs during the first four hours of the process and the maximum mass loss of the product that can be attained was 32 % with a final moisture content of 41,3 % w.b.

  3. Antagonism or synergism between papaya ringspot virus and papaya mosaic virus in Carica papaya is determined by their order of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Calvillo, Gabriela; Contreras-Paredes, Carlos A; Mora-Macias, Javier; Noa-Carrazana, Juan C; Serrano-Rubio, Angélica A; Dinkova, Tzvetanka D; Carrillo-Tripp, Mauricio; Silva-Rosales, Laura

    2016-02-01

    Antagonism between unrelated plant viruses has not been thoroughly described. Our studies show that two unrelated viruses, papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) produce different symptomatic outcomes during mixed infection depending on the inoculation order. Synergism occurs in plants infected first with PRSV or in plants infected simultaneously with PRSV and PapMV, and antagonism occurs in plants infected first with PapMV and later inoculated with PRSV. During antagonism, elevated pathogenesis-related (PR-1) gene expression and increased reactive oxygen species production indicated the establishment of a host defense resulting in the reduction in PRSV titers. Polyribosomal fractioning showed that PRSV affects translation of cellular eEF1α, PR-1, β-tubulin, and PapMV RNAs in planta, suggesting that its infection could be related to an imbalance in the translation machinery. Our data suggest that primary PapMV infection activates a defense response against PRSV and establishes a protective relationship with the papaya host.

  4. Purification and characterization of a papaya (Carica papaya L.) pectin methylesterase isolated from a commercial papain preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    We purified a single stable pectin methylesterase (CpL-PME; EC 3.1.1.11) from a commercial papain preparation, which is isolated from Carica papaya (L.) fruit latex. This CpL-PME was separated from the abundant cysteine endopeptidases activities using sequential hydrophobic interaction and cation-ex...

  5. Portable chlorophyll meter (PCM-502) values are related to total chlorophyll concentration and photosynthetic capacity in papaya (Carica papaya L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was carried out to verify the practical use of the portable chlorophyll meter-PCM502 (PCM) in two papaya cultivars with contrasting green coloring of the leaf blade (‘Golden’: yellowish-green; ‘Solo’: dark green). The relationship was studied between the photosynthetic process and leaf n...

  6. Chemical treatment of papaya seeds aiming at long-term storage and control of damping off

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia de Carvalho Campos Botelho; Silvaldo Felipe da Silveira; Roberto Ferreira da Silva; Alexandre Pio Viana

    2014-01-01

    Damping off is a nursery disease of great economic importance in papaya and seed treatment may be an effective measure to control. The aim of this work was to evaluate the quality of papaya seeds treated with fungicides and stored under two environmental and packaging conditions. Additionally, the efficiency of fungicide treatments in the control of damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia solani was evaluated. Papaya seeds were treated with the fungicides Captan, Tolylfluanid and the mixture Tolylf...

  7. In vitro erythrocyte membrane stabilization properties of Carica papaya L. leaf extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Priyanga Ranasinghe; Pathmasiri Ranasinghe; Abeysekera, W. P. Kaushalya M.; G A Sirimal Premakumara; Perera, Yashasvi S; Padmalal Gurugama; Gunatilake, Saman B.

    2012-01-01

    Background : Carica papaya L. fruit juice and leaf extracts are known to have many beneficial medical properties. Recent reports have claimed possible beneficial effects of C. papaya L. leaf juice in treating patients with dengue viral infections. This study aims to evaluate the membrane stabilization potential of C. papaya L. leaf extracts using an in vitro hemolytic assay. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in between June and August 2010. Two milliliters of blood from healthy v...

  8. Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of Papaya ringspot virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wentao; Tuo, Decai; Yan, Pu; Yang, Yong; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

    2014-08-01

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), which causes disease symptoms similar to PRSV, threaten commercial production of both non-transgenic-papaya and PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya in China. A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay to detect PLDMV was developed previously. In this study, the development of another RT-LAMP assay to distinguish among transgenic, PRSV-infected and PLDMV-infected papaya by detection of PRSV is reported. A set of four RT-LAMP primers was designed based on the highly conserved region of the P3 gene of PRSV. The RT-LAMP method was specific and sensitive in detecting PRSV, with a detection limit of 1.15×10(-6)μg of total RNA per reaction. Indeed, the reaction was 10 times more sensitive than one-step RT-PCR. Field application of the RT-LAMP assay demonstrated that samples positive for PRSV were detected only in non-transgenic papaya, whereas samples positive for PLDMV were detected only in commercialized PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya. This suggests that PRSV remains the major limiting factor for non-transgenic-papaya production, and the emergence of PLDMV threatens the commercial transgenic cultivar in China. However, this study, combined with the earlier development of an RT-LAMP assay for PLDMV, will provide a rapid, sensitive and cost-effective diagnostic power to distinguish virus infections in papaya. PMID:24769198

  9. Sequences of the coat protein gene from brazilian isolates of Papaya ringspot virus Seqüência do gene da proteína capsidial de isolados brasileiros de Papaya ringspot virus

    OpenAIRE

    ROBERTO C.A. LIMA; Manoel T. Souza Jr.; GILVAN PIO-RIBEIRO; J. Albersio A. Lima

    2002-01-01

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is the causal agent of the main papaya (Carica papaya) disease in the world. Brazil is currently the world's main papaya grower, responsible for about 40% of the worldwide production. Resistance to PRSV on transgenic plants expressing the PRSV coat protein (cp) gene was shown to be dependent on the sequence homology between the cp transgene expressed in the plant genome and the cp gene from the incoming virus, in an isolate-specific fashion. Therefore, knowledge o...

  10. Effect of gamma irradiation in papaya (Carica papaya L.) harvested in three degrees of maturation.; Efeito da irradiacao gama em mamao papaia (Carica papaya L.) colhido em tres pontos de maturacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, Rodrigo Meirelles de Azevedo

    2001-07-01

    The papaya is a fragile tropical fruit with thin skin, susceptible to post harvest diseases and mechanical injuries. Furthermore, it is sensible to low temperatures and at normal conditions it ripens rapidly, increasing the difficulties with storage. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of gamma irradiation in papayas harvested in three degrees of maturation, in order to increase shelf life. To accomplish that, papayas were harvested in perfect quality conditions, washed, submitted to carnauba wax and selected by skin coloration into three distinct degrees of maturation: Mat 0, or beginning of yellow coloration; Mat 1, yellow stripes more developed, and Mat 2, one third yellow. Half of them were submitted to irradiation with 0, 75 kGy, while the others became control treatment. They were analyzed in four different periods of conservation, which were 1 day after irradiation (DAI) refrigerated (11 +- 1 deg C), 14 DAI refrigerated, 14 DAI refrigerated + 3 at room temperature (RT = 24 deg +- 2 deg C) and 14 DAI refrigerated + 6 at RT. The effect of irradiation was not influenced by the maturation degree at harvest. Irradiation promoted firmness maintenance of papaya and, therefore, delayed ripening; modified the green color of papaya to a lighter tone, which determined more homogeneity in the skin yellow color development (greater values of L* and b*), and turned the papaya flesh color lighter (rower values of b*). There was no effect of irradiation in papaya weight loss, in the occurrence of diseases, in the development of surface yellow color, in the parameter a* of papaya skin color, in the parameters L*, a* and chroma of flesh color, p H and total soluble solids content. Visual and organoleptic sensorial tests were accomplished with papayas from a new delivery in the conservation period of 14 DAI refrigerated + 3 at RT. In the visual test was evaluated the appearance of papaya in the following treatments: Mat O control, Mat O irradiated, Mat 1

  11. Transcriptome Profiling Revealed Stress-Induced and Disease Resistance Genes Up-Regulated in PRSV Resistant Transgenic Papaya

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Jingping; Lin, Aiting; Qiu, Weijing; Cai, Hanyang; Umar, Muhammad; Chen, Rukai; Ming, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Papaya is a productive and nutritious tropical fruit. Papaya Ringspot Virus (PRSV) is the most devastating pathogen threatening papaya production worldwide. Development of transgenic resistant varieties is the most effective strategy to control this disease. However, little is known about the genome-wide functional changes induced by particle bombardment transformation. We conducted transcriptome sequencing of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya SunUp and its PRSV susceptible progenitor Sunset t...

  12. 77 FR 31294 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Papaya...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... Collection; Importation of Papaya From Colombia and Ecuador AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... with regulations for the importation of commercial shipments of fresh papaya from Colombia and Ecuador... importation of commercial shipments of fresh papaya from Colombia and Ecuador, contact Ms. Dorothy...

  13. 40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.515 Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are...

  14. Low-dose gamma irradiation following hot Water immersion of Papaya (Carica Papaya linn.) fruits provides additional control of postharvest fungal infection to extend shelf life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rashid, M.H.A.; Grout, Brian William Wilson; Continella, A.;

    2015-01-01

    Low-dose gamma irradiation (0.08 kGy over 10 min), a level significantly below that required to satisfy the majority of international quarantine regulations, has been employed to provide a significant reduction in visible fungal infection on papaya fruit surfaces. This is appropriate for local...... and national markets in producer countries where levels of commercial acceptability can be retained despite surface lesions due to fungal infection. Irradiation alone and in combination with hot-water immersion (50 °C for 10 min) has been applied to papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruits at both the mature green...

  15. Effects of Different Concentrations and Applications of Calcium on Storage Life and Physicochemical Characteristics of Papaya (Carica Papaya L.)

    OpenAIRE

    T. M. M. Mahmud; A. Al Eryani-Raqeeb; Syed Omar, S. R.; A. R. Mohamed Zaki; Al E. Abdul-Rahman

    2008-01-01

    Papaya (Carica Papaya L.) fruits index 2 were treated with 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5% solutions of calcium chloride by dipping and vacuum infiltration (-33 Kpa) or untreated (0%) as control. Effects of these treatments were evaluated on storage life and postharvest quality characteristics of papaya. After 21 days of storage at 13±1°C, the fruits were removed from storage for physicochemical analysis. Following additional five days holding in the storage condition for fruits used for evaluation o...

  16. Development of transgenic papayas expressing the coat protein gene from a Brazilian isolate of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) = Desenvolvimento de mamoeiros transgênicos resistentes a vírus expressando o gene da capa protéica de um isolado brasileiro de Papaya ringspot virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza, M.T.; Níckel, O.; Gonsalves, D.

    2005-01-01

    Translatable and nontranslatable versions of the coat protein (cp) gene of a Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) isolate collected in the state of Bahia, Brazil, were engineered for expression in Sunrise and Sunset Solo varieties of papaya (Carica papaya). The biolistic system was used to transform seconda

  17. A polymorphic pseudoautosomal boundary in the Carica papaya sex chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappin, Fiona M; Medert, Charles M; Hawkins, Kevin K; Mardonovich, Sandra; Wu, Meng; Moore, Richard C

    2015-08-01

    Sex chromosomes are defined by a non-recombining sex-determining region (SDR) flanked by one or two pseudoautosomal regions (PARs). The genetic composition and evolutionary dynamics of the PAR is also influenced by its linkage to the differentiated non-recombining SDR; however, understanding the effects of this linkage requires a precise definition of the PAR boundary. Here, we took a molecular population genetic approach to further refine the location of the PAR boundary of the evolutionary young sex chromosomes of the tropical plant, Carica papaya. We were able to map the position of the papaya PAR boundary A to a 100-kb region between two genetic loci approximately 2 Mb upstream of the previously genetically identified PAR boundary. Furthermore, this boundary is polymorphic within natural populations of papaya, with an approximately 100-130 kb expansion of the non-recombining SDR found in 16 % of individuals surveyed. The expansion of the PAR boundary in one Y haplotype includes at least one additional gene. Homologs of this gene are involved in male gametophyte and pollen development in other plant species.

  18. The potential of papaya leaf extract in controlling Ganoderma boninense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Z. H.; Chong, K. P.

    2016-06-01

    Basal Stem Rot (BSR) disease causes significant losses to the oil palm industry. Numerous controls have been applied in managing the disease but no conclusive result was reported. This study investigated the antifungal potential of papaya leaf extracts against Ganoderma boninense, the causal pathogen of BSR. Among the five different solvents tested in extraction of compounds from papaya leaf, methanol and acetone gave the highest yield. In vitro antifungal activity of the methanol and acetone extracts were evaluated against G. boninense using agar dilution at four concentrations: 5 mg mL-1, 15 mg mL-1, 30 mg mL-1and 45 mg mL-1. The results indicated a positive correlation between the concentration of leaf extracts and the inhibition of G. boninense. ED50 of methanol and acetone crude extracts were determined to be 32.016 mg mL-1and 65.268 mg mL-1, respectively. The extracts were later semi-purified using solid phase extraction (SPE) and the nine bioactive compounds were identified: decanoic acid, 2-methyl-, Z,Z-10-12-Hexadecadien-1-ol acetate, dinonanoin monocaprylin, 2-chloroethyl oleate, phenol,4-(1-phenylethyl)-, phenol,2,4-bis(1-phenylethyl)-, phenol-2-(1-phenylethyl)-, ethyl iso-allocholate and 1- monolinoleoylglycerol trimethylsilyl ether. The findings suggest that papaya leaf extracts have the ability to inhibit the growth of G. boninense, where a higher concentration of the extract exhibits better inhibition effects.

  19. Identification of a new phospholipase D in Carica papaya latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkafi, Slim; Abousalham, Abdelkarim; Fendri, Imen; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Barouh, Nathalie; Fouquet, Benjamin; Scheirlinckx, Frantz; Villeneuve, Pierre; Carrière, Frédéric

    2012-05-15

    Phospholipase D (PLD) is a lipolytic enzyme involved in signal transduction, vesicle trafficking and membrane metabolism. It catalyzes the hydrolysis and transphosphatidylation of glycerophospholipids at the terminal phosphodiester bond. The presence of a PLD in the latex of Carica papaya (CpPLD1) was demonstrated by transphosphatidylation of phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) in the presence of 2% ethanol. Although the protein could not be purified to homogeneity due to its presence in high molecular mass aggregates, a protein band was separated by SDS-PAGE after SDS/chloroform-methanol/TCA-acetone extraction of the latex insoluble fraction. This material was digested with trypsin and the amino acid sequences of the tryptic peptides were determined by micro-LC/ESI/MS/MS. These sequences were used to identify a partial cDNA (723 bp) from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of C. papaya. Based upon EST sequences, a full-length gene was identified in the genome of C. papaya, with an open reading frame of 2424 bp encoding a protein of 808 amino acid residues, with a theoretical molecular mass of 92.05 kDa. From sequence analysis, CpPLD1 was identified as a PLD belonging to the plant phosphatidylcholine phosphatidohydrolase family.

  20. Dengue fever treatment with Carica papaya leaves extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nisar; Fazal, Hina; Ayaz, Muhammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Mohammad, Ijaz; Fazal, Lubna

    2011-08-01

    The main objective of the current study is to investigate the potential of Carica papaya leaves extracts against Dengue fever in 45 year old patient bitten by carrier mosquitoes. For the treatment of Dengue fever the extract was prepared in water. 25 mL of aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves was administered to patient infected with Dengue fever twice daily i.e. morning and evening for five consecutive days. Before the extract administration the blood samples from patient were analyzed. Platelets count (PLT), White Blood Cells (WBC) and Neutrophils (NEUT) decreased from 176×10(3)/µL, 8.10×10(3)/µL, 84.0% to 55×10(3)/µL, 3.7×10(3)/µL and 46.0%. Subsequently, the blood samples were rechecked after the administration of leaves extract. It was observed that the PLT count increased from 55×10(3)/µL to 168×10(3)/µL, WBC from 3.7×10(3)/µL to 7.7×10(3)/µL and NEUT from 46.0% to 78.3%. From the patient feelings and blood reports it showed that Carica papaya leaves aqueous extract exhibited potential activity against Dengue fever. Furthermore, the different parts of this valuable specie can be further used as a strong natural candidate against viral diseases.

  1. Bio-safety of transgenic papaya resistant against Papaya ring spot virus%抗病毒转基因番木瓜及其安全性问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李世访

    2011-01-01

    本文对番木瓜生产上存在的病害问题、转基因番木瓜的研发、转基因番木瓜国际竞争的动态与趋势、转基因番木瓜的安全性、转基因木瓜的标识等几个方面进行综述.%This paper was focused on the following issues: 1) Diseases of papaya; 2) Research and development of transgenic papaya; 3) Trends of international competition on transgenic papaya; 4) Safety of transgenic papaya; 5) Identification of transgenic papaya.

  2. Reguladores vegetais na quebra da dominância apical de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. Plant growth regulators on breaking apical dominance in papaya plants (Carica papaya L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Orika Ono

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho avaliou os efeitos de reguladores vegetais sobre a quebra da dominância apical de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. cv. Improved Sunrise Solo. A aplicação dos reguladores vegetais foi iniciada quando as plantas tinham seis meses de idade, totalizando três aplicações, a intervalos de sete dias, constando dos seguintes tratamentos: T1- água (testemunha; T2- GA3 250 mg L-1; T3- GA3 500 mg L-1; T4- benziladenina (BA 250 mg L-1; T5- BA 500 mg L-1; T6- GA3 125 mg L-1 + BA 125 mg L-1; T7- GA3 250 mg L-1 + BA 250 mg L-1. Esses tratamentos foram acompanhados da remoção ou não da gema apical. Os resultados mostraram que plantas tratadas com GA3 + BA a 125 e 250 mg L-1, com e sem a remoção da gema apical, apresentaram maior número de brotações que a testemunha, a qual não apresentou nenhuma brotação das gemas laterais.The objective of this work was to study the effects of gibberelin and cytokinin on breaking apical dominance and axillary buds growth of the Carica papaya L. Papaya plants sprayed three times within a period of 7 days, with the following treatments: T1- water (control, T2- GA3 250 mg L-1, T3- GA3 500 mg L-1, T4- benzyladenine (BA 250 mg L-1, T5- BA 500 mg L-1, T6- GA3 125 mg L-1 + BA 125 mg L-1, T7- GA3 250 mg L-1 + BA 250 mg L-1. The treatments were carried out with or without removal of the apical buds. After 36 days of the last plant growth regulators application was observed lateral bud numbers, lateral buds length and lateral buds diameter. The results showed that there were a higher number of shoots in plants treated with GA3 at 125 mg L-1 + BA at 125 mg L-1 and GA3 at 250mg L-1 + BA at 250 mg L-1. The removal of the apical bud helped the sprouting of the papaya plants.

  3. Hypoglycemic effect of Carica papaya leaves in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juárez-Rojop Isela Esther

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional plant treatment for diabetes has shown a surging interest in the last few decades. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves in diabetic rats. Several studies have reported that some parts of the C. papaya plant exert hypoglycemic effects in both animals and humans. Methods Diabetes was induced in rats by intraperitoneal administration of 60 mg/kg of streptozotocin (STZ. The aqueous extract of C. papaya was administered in three different doses (0.75, 1.5 and 3 g/100 mL as drinking water to both diabetic and non-diabetic animals during 4 weeks. Results The aqueous extract of Carica papaya (0.75 g and 1.5 g/100 mL significantly decreased blood glucose levels (pC. papaya could help islet regeneration manifested as preservation of cell size. In the liver of diabetic treated rats, C. papaya prevented hepatocyte disruption, as well as accumulation of glycogen and lipids. Finally, an antioxidant effect of C. papaya extract was also detected in diabetic rats. Conclusions This study showed that the aqueous extract of C. papaya exerted a hypoglycemic and antioxidant effect; it also improved the lipid profile in diabetic rats. In addition, the leaf extract positively affected integrity and function of both liver and pancreas.

  4. A Current Overview of the Papaya meleira virus, an Unusual Plant Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolla M. V. Abreu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Papaya meleira virus (PMeV is the causal agent of papaya sticky disease, which is characterized by a spontaneous exudation of fluid and aqueous latex from the papaya fruit and leaves. The latex oxidizes after atmospheric exposure, resulting in a sticky feature on the fruit from which the name of the disease originates. PMeV is an isometric virus particle with a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA genome of approximately 12 Kb. Unusual for a plant virus, PMeV particles are localized on and linked to the polymers present in the latex. The ability of the PMeV to inhabit such a hostile environment demonstrates an intriguing interaction of the virus with the papaya. A hypersensitivity response is triggered against PMeV infection, and there is a reduction in the proteolytic activity of papaya latex during sticky disease. In papaya leaf tissues, stress responsive proteins, mostly calreticulin and proteasome-related proteins, are up regulated and proteins related to metabolism are down-regulated. Additionally, PMeV modifies the transcription of several miRNAs involved in the modulation of genes related to the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Until now, no PMeV resistant papaya genotype has been identified and roguing is the only viral control strategy available. However, a single inoculation of papaya plants with PMeV dsRNA delayed the progress of viral infection.

  5. An umbra-like virus of papaya discovered in Ecuador: detection, occurrence and phylogenetic relatedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) extractions from papaya leaves infected with Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) revealed the presence of an unusual 4kb band, in addition to the presumed PRSV-associated 10kb band. Partial sequence of RT-PCR products from the 4kb dsRNA revealed homology to genomes of several me...

  6. Selection and testing of epiphytic yeasts to control anthacnose in post-harvest of papaya fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capdeville, G.; Souza, M.T.; Santos, J.R.P.; Miranda, S.P.; Caetano, A.R.; Torres, F.A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, is a major post-harvest disease in papaya fruit. The major objectives of the present work were to isolate, select and test the in vitro and in vivo ability of epiphytic microorganisms, isolated from papaya fruit and leaf surfaces, in controlling

  7. Release and establishment of Encarsia diaspidicola (Hymenoptera: Aphelididae) against white peach scale in papaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    White peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Hemiptera:Diaspididae) is a serious economic pest of papaya, Carica papaya L. The parasitic wasp Encarsia diaspidicola (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) was brought from Samoa into a quarantine containment facility in Hawaii for evaluation and potential release...

  8. A current overview of the Papaya meleira virus, an unusual plant virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Paolla M V; Antunes, Tathiana F S; Magaña-Álvarez, Anuar; Pérez-Brito, Daisy; Tapia-Tussell, Raúl; Ventura, José A; Fernandes, Antonio A R; Fernandes, Patricia M B

    2015-04-01

    Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is the causal agent of papaya sticky disease, which is characterized by a spontaneous exudation of fluid and aqueous latex from the papaya fruit and leaves. The latex oxidizes after atmospheric exposure, resulting in a sticky feature on the fruit from which the name of the disease originates. PMeV is an isometric virus particle with a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome of approximately 12 Kb. Unusual for a plant virus, PMeV particles are localized on and linked to the polymers present in the latex. The ability of the PMeV to inhabit such a hostile environment demonstrates an intriguing interaction of the virus with the papaya. A hypersensitivity response is triggered against PMeV infection, and there is a reduction in the proteolytic activity of papaya latex during sticky disease. In papaya leaf tissues, stress responsive proteins, mostly calreticulin and proteasome-related proteins, are up regulated and proteins related to metabolism are down-regulated. Additionally, PMeV modifies the transcription of several miRNAs involved in the modulation of genes related to the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Until now, no PMeV resistant papaya genotype has been identified and roguing is the only viral control strategy available. However, a single inoculation of papaya plants with PMeV dsRNA delayed the progress of viral infection. PMID:25856636

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Erwinia mallotivora BT-MARDI, Causative Agent of Papaya Dieback Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redzuan, R Ahmad; Abu Bakar, N; Rozano, L; Badrun, R; Mat Amin, N; Mohd Raih, M F

    2014-01-01

    Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya trees infected with dieback disease, which were planted at the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Malaysia. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of E. mallotivora BT-MARDI, which offers an important source of information for understanding pathogen and host interaction during papaya dieback development. PMID:24812220

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Erwinia mallotivora BT-MARDI, Causative Agent of Papaya Dieback Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Redzuan, R. Ahmad; Abu Bakar, N; Rozano, L.; Badrun, R.; Mat Amin, N.; Mohd Raih, M. F.

    2014-01-01

    Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya trees infected with dieback disease, which were planted at the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Malaysia. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of E. mallotivora BT-MARDI, which offers an important source of information for understanding pathogen and host interaction during papaya dieback development.

  11. Direct LAMP Assay without Prior DNA Purification for Sex Determination of Papaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chi-Chu; Shih, Huei-Chuan; Ko, Ya-Zhu; Wang, Ren-Huang; Li, Shu-Ju; Chiang, Yu-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is an economically important tropical fruit tree with hermaphrodite, male and female sex types. Hermaphroditic plants are the major type used for papaya production because their fruits have more commercial advantages than those of female plants. Sex determination of the seedlings, or during the early growth stages, is very important for the papaya seedling industry. Thus far, the only method for determining the sex type of a papaya at the seedling stage has been DNA analysis. In this study, a molecular technique-based on DNA analysis-was developed for detecting male-hermaphrodite-specific markers to examine the papaya's sex type. This method is based on the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and does not require prior DNA purification. The results show that the method is an easy, efficient, and inexpensive way to determine a papaya's sex. This is the first report on the LAMP assay, using intact plant materials-without DNA purification-as samples for the analysis of sex determination of papaya. We found that using high-efficiency DNA polymerase was essential for successful DNA amplification, using trace intact plant material as a template DNA source. PMID:27669237

  12. Effect of heat treatment on ethylene and CO2 emissions rates during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, M. G.; Santos, E. O.; Sthel, M. S.; Cardoso, S. L.; Cavalli, A.; Monteiro, A. R.; de Oliveira, J. G.; Pereira, M. G.; Vargas, H.

    2003-01-01

    Ripening studies of nontreated and treated papaya (papaya L) are accomplished by monitoring the ethylene and CO2 emission rates of that climacteric fruit, to evaluate its shelf life. The treatments simulate the commercial Phitosanitarian process used to avoid the fly infestation. Ethylene emission was measured using a commercial CO2 laser driven photoacoustic setup and CO2, using a commercial gas analysis also based on the photothermal effect. The results show a marked change in ethylene and CO2 emission rate pattern for treated fruits when compared to the ones obtained for nontreated fruits and a displacement of the climacteric pick shown that the treatment causes a decrease of shelf life of fruit.

  13. Molecular characterization and pathogenicity of Erwinia spp. associated with pineapple [Ananas comosus (L. Merr.] and papaya (Carica papaya L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Kogeethavani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Erwinia species are well-known pathogens of economic importance in Malaysia causing serious damage to high-value fruit crops that include pineapple [Ananas comosus (L. Merr.] and papaya (Carica papaya L..The 16S rRNA sequence using eubacteria fD1 and rP2 primers, identified two bacteria species; Dickeya zeae from pineapple heart rot, and Erwinia mallotivora from papaya dieback. Phylogenetic analysis based on the neighbor-joining method indicated that all the bacterial isolates clustered in their own taxa and formed monophyletic clades. From the pathogenicity test, all isolates of D. zeae and E. mallotivora showed pathogenic reactions on their respective host plants. Genetic variability of these isolates was assessed using repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR fingerprinting. The results indicated interspecies, and intraspecies variation in both species’ isolates. There were more polymorphic bands shown by rep-PCR fingerprints than enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC and BOX- PCRs, however both species’ isolates produced distinguishable banding patterns. Unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA cluster analysis indicated that all Dickeya and Erwinia isolates from the same species were grouped in the same main cluster. Similarity among the isolates ranged from 77 to 99%. Sequencing of 16S rRNA using eubacteria fD1 and rP2 primers, and rep-PCR fingerprinting revealed diversity among Dickeya and Erwinia isolates. But this method appears to be reliable for discriminating isolates from pineapple heart rot and papaya dieback.

  14. Label-free quantitative proteomics reveals differentially regulated proteins in the latex of sticky diseased Carica papaya L. plants

    OpenAIRE

    Silas P. Rodrigues; José A. Ventura; Aguilar, Clemente; Nakayasu, Ernesto S; Choi, Hyungwon; Sobreira, Tiago J. P.; Nohara, Lilian L.; Wermelinger, Luciana S.; Almeida, Igor C.; Zingali, Russolina B.; Fernandes, Patricia M. B.

    2012-01-01

    Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is so far the only described laticifer-infecting virus, the causal agent of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sticky disease. The effects of PMeV on the laticifers’ regulatory network were addressed here through the proteomic analysis of papaya latex. Using both 1-DE- and 1D-LC-ESI-MS/MS, 160 unique papaya latex proteins were identified, representing 122 new proteins in the latex of this plant. Quantitative analysis by normalized spectral counting revealed 10 down-regulate...

  15. Histopathological changes in Wistar albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taofeeq Oduola

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure of animals to xenobiotics may or may not trigger adverse response at cellular levels. Aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya is consumed by sickle cell patients as antisickling agent in Western Nigeria. Aim: This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Carica papaya on certain organs in Wister albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya. Materials and Methods: Different doses of aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya were administered orally daily for 42 days to six groups of rats. At the end of exposure, the animals were sacrificed and tissue sections were prepared from livers, kidneys, hearts and small intestines using standard techniques. Results: Histopathological results showed that no pathological changes were observed in tissue sections of experimental animals when compared with tissue sections of the same organs in control animals. Conclusion: No pathological changes were elicited in the organs of rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya.

  16. Geographical and Genetic Divergence Among Papaya ringspot virus Populations Within Hainan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Jia, Rui Zong; Zhang, Yu-Liang; Zhu, Yun Judy; Zeng, Hui-Cai; Kong, Hua; McCafferty, Heather; Guo, An-Ping; Peng, Ming

    2016-08-01

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) severely affects the global papaya industry. Transgenic papaya has been proven to have effective resistance to PRSV isolates from Hawaii, Thailand, Taiwan, and other countries. However, those transgenic cultivars failed to show resistance to Hainan Island isolates. Some 76 PRSV samples, representative of all traditional papaya planting areas across five cities (Wen Chang, n = 13; Cheng Mai, n = 14; Chang Jiang, n = 11; Le Dong, n = 25; and San Ya, n = 13) within Hainan Province, were investigated. Results revealed three genetic diversity groups (Hainan I, II, and III) that correlated with geographical distribution. Frequent mutations among PRSV isolates from Hainan were also observed. The high genetic divergence in PRSV isolates from Hainan is likely to be the cause of the failure of genetically modified papaya that targets sequence-specific virus. PMID:27070425

  17. Histopathological changes in Wistar albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taofeeq Oduola

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Exposure of animals to xenobiotics may or may not trigger adverse response at cellular levels. Aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya is consumed by sickle cell patients as antisickling agent in Western Nigeria. Aim : This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Carica papaya on certain organs in Wister albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya. Materials and Methods : Different doses of aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya were administered orally daily for 42 days to six groups of rats. At the end of exposure, the animals were sacrificed and tissue sections were prepared from livers, kidneys, hearts and small intestines using standard techniques. Results : Histopathological results showed that no pathological changes were observed in tissue sections of experimental animals when compared with tissue sections of the same organs in control animals. Conclusion : No pathological changes were elicited in the organs of rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya.

  18. Curar, prevenir y asistir: Medicina y salud en la historia chilena

    OpenAIRE

    Soledad Zarate C., María; del Campo P., Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Este estudio identifica y describe parte de la bibliografía disponible sobre historia de la medicina y la salud pública chilena, relativas al periodo colonial y republicano. La literatura revisada reúne títulos producidos por médicos e historiadores profesionales, comentándose los aportes temáticos y metodológicos de ambas producciones. Asimismo, el artículo consigna límites analíticos y ciertas debilidades de esta historiografía y sugiere nuevas interrogantes para futuros estudios.  This ...

  19. Yellow Krang – A New Cultivar Of Papaya For Green Consumption With Tolerance To Papaya Ringspot Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janthasri Rapatsa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of a papaya cultivar for unripe or green consumption that has resistance to papaya ringspot virus (PRSV began in 2004 by crossing red-fleshed ‘Red Krang’ cultivar with yellow-fleshed Sai Nampeung cultivar. Numerous diverse hybrids that were obtained were selected in a recurrent selection until 2010. The ’Yellow Krang’ line was selected because of the early and high yielding, elongated fruit shape, is yellow and crispy flesh when unripe and suitable for consumption as green papaya, and tolerance to PRSV. From 2010 to 2015 the ‘Yellow Krang’ line was refined through pure line selection. It was evaluated in four growing areas in Thailand for 3 years. The field trial showed that ‘Yellow Krang’ can be classified as dwarf, reaching a height of 110-150 cm, early bearing, with mean 105 days to first flower anthesis; an average of 100 flowers and 206 fruits per plant, mean fruit weight 1.2 kg, mean fruit thickness 2.4 cm, mean fruit firmness 7.15 Newtons; high yielding, with mean fresh weight yield of 134.606 kg/hectare; and 24.86% incidence of PRSV.

  20. Genome sequence comparison reveals a candidate gene involved in male-hermaphrodite differentiation in papaya (Carica papaya) trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Hiroki; Urasaki, Naoya; Natsume, Satoshi; Yoshida, Kentaro; Tarora, Kazuhiko; Shudo, Ayano; Terauchi, Ryohei; Matsumura, Hideo

    2015-04-01

    The sex type of papaya (Carica papaya) is determined by the pair of sex chromosomes (XX, female; XY, male; and XY(h), hermaphrodite), in which there is a non-recombining genomic region in the Y and Y(h) chromosomes. This region is presumed to be involved in determination of males and hermaphrodites; it is designated as the male-specific region in the Y chromosome (MSY) and the hermaphrodite-specific region in the Y(h) chromosome (HSY). Here, we identified the genes determining male and hermaphrodite sex types by comparing MSY and HSY genomic sequences. In the MSY and HSY genomic regions, we identified 14,528 nucleotide substitutions and 965 short indels with a large gap and two highly diverged regions. In the predicted genes expressed in flower buds, we found no nucleotide differences leading to amino acid changes between the MSY and HSY. However, we found an HSY-specific transposon insertion in a gene (SVP like) showing a similarity to the Short Vegetative Phase (SVP) gene. Study of SVP-like transcripts revealed that the MSY allele encoded an intact protein, while the HSY allele encoded a truncated protein. Our findings demonstrated that the SVP-like gene is a candidate gene for male-hermaphrodite determination in papaya.

  1. Heat shock and gamma radiation in the quarantine process of Papaya CV. Solo(Carica papaya L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, Rodrigo M.A.; Walder, Julio M.M. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: rmapiment@cena.usp.br; jmwalder@cena.usp.br; Marcondes, Yvens E.M. [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: yvensmar@unimep.br

    2007-07-01

    Full text: To export, it is not only necessary to achieve quality standards, but also, quarantine standards. The main function of irradiation is quarantine control of fruit flies, therefore it is necessary to combine with treatments which focus at keeping fruit quality. The objective of this work was the evaluation of the quality of papaya submitted to heat treatment followed by irradiation at quarantine doses. Papayas were selected green and separated in treatments: a) control; irradiation at doses; b) 250, c) 500 Gy; d) hot water at 60 deg C for 30 seconds; and combined to doses e) 250, f) 500 Gy. The papayas were stored at 21 ({+-} 1 deg C) with relative humidity of 85 - 90%, and then after 8 days, they were evaluated by their soluble solid content, pH, titratable acidity, firmness, decay index and internal color. The analysis of mass loss and external color were executed at 0, 2, 4 and 7 days after irradiation. It was observed that in fruits submitted to hot water (d, e, f) there were less decay and in combined treatments (e, f) it was verified higher firmness. In the second day, irradiated treatments (b, c, e, f) were more yellow than the others. As to the other parameters evaluated, there were no differences between treatments (author)

  2. Implementación del enfoque de derechos humanos: la reforma sanitaria chilena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Cunill-Grau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available EI propósito de este trabajo es analizar la incidencia de la arquitectura institucional publica en la implementación de las políticas públicas con enfoque de derechos humanos. Se adopta como caso de estudio la reforma sanitaria chilena a partir del año 2005, que reconoce garantías exigibles de acceso, oportunidad, calidad y protección financiera para un conjunto de problemas de salud a la ciudadanía, independientemente de su adscripción al sistema público 0 privado. La metodología integró un análisis cualitativo de normas legales, instrumentos de gestión y entrevistas en profundidad principalmente a directivos de salud. Los resultados muestran que, no obstante los evidentes logros de la reforma chilena en pos de la equidad en salud, resultan limitados sus esfuerzos de dotar de gobernanza sistémica, accountability y espacio público a su arquitectura institucional, comprometiendo con ello su intención de instaurar un enfoque de derechos humanos. Se concluye que el patrón hegemónico de diseño institucional, organización y gestión de los servicios sociales requiere ser enfrentado para construirviabilidad a la implementación de este tipo de política y se sugiere la importancia de adoptar estrategias diferenciadas de accountabitily que consideren las asimetrías sociales en la apropiación y exigibilidad de los derechos.

  3. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Properties of Edible Surface Coating Based on Carrageenan Conjugated with Silver Nanoparticles on Sekaki Papaya (Carica Papaya cv. Sekaki): A New Antimicrobial Edible Coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antibacterial properties of edible surface coating based on carrageenan incorporated with silver nanoparticles (SNPs), was investigated against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus to obtain optimum concentration of SNPs. Results obtained indicate that SNPs with concentration of 40 ml L-1 effectively inhibited the growth of both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria. Sekaki papaya fruits were then coated with prepared edible coating formulation comprising of carrageenan (0.8 % w/v) and glycerol (1.0 % w/v) with and without SNPs (40 ppm) and stored at ambient conditions (26±2 degree Celsius and 60±10 % RH). Microbial analysis of coated and uncoated papaya samples during storage indicated that the edible coating comprising of carrageenan, glycerol and SNPs, strongly inhibited the growth of fungus that caused post harvest diseases of papaya as compared to uncoated and coated papaya fruits with edible coating without SNPs. (author)

  4. Potential Test of Papaya Leaf and Seed Extract (Carica Papaya) as Larvicides against Anopheles Mosquito Larvae Mortality. SP IN Jayapura, Papua Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Arsunan

    2015-01-01

    Anopheles mosquitoes, sp is the main vector of malaria disease that is widespread in many parts of the world including in Papua Province. There are four speciesof Anopheles mosquitoes, sp, in Papua namely: An.farauti, An.koliensis, An. subpictus, and An.punctulatus. Larviciding synthetic cause resistance. This study aims to analyze the potential of papaya leaf and seeds extracts (Carica papaya) as larvicides against the mosquitoes Anopheles sp. The experiment was conducted at the Laboratory o...

  5. An analysis on DNA fingerprints of thirty papaya cultivars (Carica papaya L.), grown in Thailand with the use of amplified fragment length polymorphisms technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratchadaporn, Janthasri; Sureeporn, Katengam; Khumcha, U

    2007-09-15

    The experiment was carried out at the Department of Horticulture, Ubon Ratchathani University, Ubon Ratchathani province, Northeast Thailand during June 2002 to May 2003 aims to identify DNA fingerprints of thirty papaya cultivars with the use of Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLP) technique. Papaya cultivars were collected from six different research centers in Thailand. Papaya plants of each cultivar were grown under field conditions up to four months then leaf numbers 2 and 3 of each cultivar (counted from top) were chosen for DNA extraction and the samples were used for AFLP analysis. Out of 64 random primers being used, 55 pairs gave an increase in DNA bands but only 12 pairs of random primers were randomly chosen for the final analysis of the experiment. The results showed that AFLP markers gave Polymorphic Information Contents (PIC) of three ranges i.e., AFLP markers of 235 lied on a PIC range of 0.003-0.05, 47 for a PIC range of 0.15-0.20 and 12 for a PIC range of 0.35-0.40. The results on dendrogram cluster analysis revealed that the thirty papaya cultivars were classified into six groups i.e., (1) Kaeg Dum and Malador (2) Kaeg Nuan (3) Pakchong and Solo (4) Taiwan (5) Co Coa Hai Nan and (6) Sitong. Nevertheless, in spite of the six papaya groups all papaya cultivars were genetically related to each other where diversity among the cultivars was not significantly found. PMID:19090101

  6. Estética, política y vida cotidiana. El caso de la pintura callejera chilena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Rodriguez-Plaza

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata de compartir una reflexión académica con respecto al fenómeno de la pintura callejera chilena, entendiéndola como un hecho estético total, que lo es menos por sus producciones y resultados que por los usos y percepciones que lo entretejen, conforman y desparraman por la ciudad.

  7. Sobre inmigrantes latinoamericanos en la televisión chilena: estigmas y fronteras en las narrativas audiovisuales

    OpenAIRE

    Ambiado Cortés, Constanza; Fernández Ossandón, Rosario

    2012-01-01

    En la presente ponencia, pretendemos analizar la presencia del proceso migratorio latinoamericano en la televisión chilena dentro de las coordenadas de una narrativa nacional arraigada sobre viejas ideas de modernidad y nuevas concepciones del trabajo - como el emprendimiento- las cuales, se entrecruzan y articulan para generar estigmas objetivados sobre los cuerpos visibles de inmigrantes latinoamericanos en Chile. Tomaremos el caso particular de la imagen del territorio fronterizo nortino (...

  8. El crecimiento de las ciudades chilenas (1865-1982: primacía y dialéctica socioespacial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilario Hernández Gurruchaga

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se inserta en el amplio propósito de investigar la dinámica tempo-espacial del crecimiento de las ciudades chilenas (1865-1982 a la luz de algunos supuestos teóricos y metodológicos actuales, con la intención de describir los procesos de crecimiento; vale decir, las secuencias de cambios estructurales ligados a algún mecanismo explicativo. Específicamente, en una primera aproximación, se describirá el crecimiento de las ciudades chilenas (1865-1982 utilizando como cuerpo heurístico la "norma-rango-tamaño" (Zipf G.K. 1941-1949 y la "ley de efectos proporcionales", (Gibrat para luego buscar una más cabal explicación a través de la historia de la suscesión de modelos político-económicos adoptados por la sociedad chilena, centrando el análisis histórico en los últimos cincuenta años de evolución (1930-82; período central para una real comprensión de los procesos que han conducido a la actual concentración demográfica y económica que caracteriza el país.

  9. Contrasting patterns of X/Y polymorphism distinguish Carica papaya from other sex chromosome systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingartner, Laura A; Moore, Richard C

    2012-12-01

    The sex chromosomes of the tropical crop papaya (Carica papaya) are evolutionarily young and consequently allow for the examination of evolutionary mechanisms that drive early sex chromosome divergence. We conducted a molecular population genetic analysis of four X/Y gene pairs from a collection of 45 wild papaya accessions. These population genetic analyses reveal striking differences in the patterns of polymorphism between the X and Y chromosomes that distinguish them from other sex chromosome systems. In most sex chromosome systems, the Y chromosome displays significantly reduced polymorphism levels, whereas the X chromosome maintains a level of polymorphism that is comparable to autosomal loci. However, the four papaya sex-linked loci that we examined display diversity patterns that are opposite this trend: the papaya X alleles exhibit significantly reduced polymorphism levels, whereas the papaya Y alleles maintain greater than expected levels of diversity. Our analyses suggest that selective sweeps in the regions of the X have contributed to this pattern while also revealing geographically restricted haplogroups on the Y. We discuss the possible role sexual selection and/or genomic conflict have played in shaping the contrasting patterns of polymorphism found for the papaya X and Y chromosomes.

  10. Wound-healing potential of an ethanol extract of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Bijoor Shivananda; Ramdeen, Ria; Adogwa, Andrew; Ramsubhag, Adash; Marshall, Julien Rhodney

    2012-12-01

    Carica papaya L. (Linn) (Caricaceae) is traditionally used to treat various skin disorders, including wounds. It is widely used in developing countries as an effective and readily available treatment for various wounds, particularly burns. This study evaluated the wound-healing and antimicrobial activity of C. papaya seed extract. Ethanol extract of C. papaya seed (50 mg/kg/day) was evaluated for its wound-healing activity in Sprague-Dawley rats using excision wound model. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of six each (group 1 served as control, group 2 treated with papaya seed extract, group 3 treated with a standard drug mupirocin and papaya seed extract (1:1 ratio) and group 4 treated with a mupirocin ointment. Rate of wound contraction and hydroxyproline content were determined to assess the wound-healing activity of the seed extract. The group 2 animals showed a significant decrease in wound area of 89% over 13 days when compared with groups 1 (82%), 3 (86%) and 4 (84%) respectively. The hydroxyproline content was significantly higher with the granulation tissue obtained from group 2 animals which were treated with C. papaya seed extract. Histological analysis of granulation tissue of the group 2 animals showed the deposition of well-organized collagen. The extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against Salmonella choleraesuis and Staphylococcus aureus. Our results suggest that C. papaya promotes significant wound healing in rats and further evaluation for this activity in humans is suggested.

  11. The Evolutionary Tempo of Sex Chromosome Degradation in Carica papaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng; Moore, Richard C

    2015-06-01

    Genes on non-recombining heterogametic sex chromosomes may degrade over time through the irreversible accumulation of deleterious mutations. In papaya, the non-recombining male-specific region of the Y (MSY) consists of two evolutionary strata corresponding to chromosomal inversions occurring approximately 7.0 and 1.9 MYA. The step-wise recombination suppression between the papaya X and Y allows for a temporal examination of the degeneration progress of the young Y chromosome. Comparative evolutionary analyses of 55 X/Y gene pairs showed that Y-linked genes have more unfavorable substitutions than X-linked genes. However, this asymmetric evolutionary pattern is confined to the oldest stratum, and is only observed when recently evolved pseudogenes are included in the analysis, indicating a slow degeneration tempo of the papaya Y chromosome. Population genetic analyses of coding sequence variation of six Y-linked focal loci in the oldest evolutionary stratum detected an excess of nonsynonymous polymorphism and reduced codon bias relative to autosomal loci. However, this pattern was also observed for corresponding X-linked loci. Both the MSY and its corresponding X-specific region are pericentromeric where recombination has been shown to be greatly reduced. Like the MSY region, overall selective efficacy on the X-specific region may be reduced due to the interference of selective forces between highly linked loci, or the Hill-Robertson effect, that is accentuated in regions of low or suppressed recombination. Thus, a pattern of gene decay on the X-specific region may be explained by relaxed purifying selection and widespread genetic hitchhiking due to its pericentromeric location.

  12. Papaya Extract to Treat Dengue: A Novel Therapeutic Option?

    OpenAIRE

    N Sarala; Paknikar, SS

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is a viral disease that today affects a vast number of people in over 125 countries and is responsible for a sizable number of deaths. In the absence of an effective antiviral drug to treat the disease, various treatments are being investigated. Studies have indicated that the juice of the leaves of the Carica papaya plant from the family Caricaceae could help to increase the platelet levels in these patients. This review describes some of the published studies on this topic. The searc...

  13. Papaya pulp gelling: is it premature ripening or problems of water accumulation in the apoplast?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurandi Gonçalves de Oliveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Gelled aspect in papaya fruit is typically confused with premature ripening. This research reports the characterization of this physiological disorder in the pulp of papaya fruit by measuring electrolyte leakage, Pi content, lipid peroxidation, pulp firmness, mineral contents (Ca, Mg and K - in pulp and seed tissues, and histological analysis of pulp tissue. The results showed that the gelled aspect of the papaya fruit pulp is not associated with tissue premature ripening. Data indicate a reduction of the vacuole water intake as the principal cause of the loss of cellular turgor; while the waterlogged aspect of the tissue may be due to water accumulation in the apoplast.

  14. A Current Overview of the Papaya meleira virus, an Unusual Plant Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Paolla M. V. Abreu; Antunes, Tathiana F. S.; Anuar Magaña-Álvarez; Daisy Pérez-Brito; Raúl Tapia-Tussell; José A. Ventura; Antonio A. R. Fernandes; Fernandes, Patricia M. B.

    2015-01-01

    Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is the causal agent of papaya sticky disease, which is characterized by a spontaneous exudation of fluid and aqueous latex from the papaya fruit and leaves. The latex oxidizes after atmospheric exposure, resulting in a sticky feature on the fruit from which the name of the disease originates. PMeV is an isometric virus particle with a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome of approximately 12 Kb. Unusual for a plant virus, PMeV particles are localized on and linked to ...

  15. Sales de calcio mejoran vida de anaquel y aceptabilidad general de papaya (Carica papaya L. var. Maradol fresca cortada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayely Leyva López

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Las tendencias actuales de los consumidores por alimentos sanos y de conveniencia promueven un mayor consumo de frutas y hortalizas, donde destacan productos frescos cortados. Sin embargo, por su naturaleza estos productos pueden ser muy susceptibles a diferentes alteraciones que afectan su calidad. El uso de aditivos como sales de calcio representa una alternativa tecnológica para mantener, o incluso mejorar, la calidad durante su vida de anaquel. Por lo anterior el objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el efecto de sales de calcio en papaya fresca cortada sobre la calidad física, química, microbiológica, nutracéutica y sensorial. Cubos de papaya, variedad Maradol (2 cm de arista fueron tratados con lactato y cloruro de calcio al 1,0 y 3,0 %, bajo condiciones de inmersión por 2 min a 40 °C. Las muestras tratadas fueron colocadas en vasos de polietileno tereftalato (PET de 500 mL con tapa, y almacenadas por 8 días a 5 °C. En comparación con los frutos testigo, los tratamientos a base de calcio demostraron mejorar la firmeza (~ 8 N, principalmente los frutos tratados con cloruro de calcio al 3,0 %. Por otra parte, la calidad nutracéutica (fenólicos totales no se vio afectada por el uso de sales de calcio, mientras que las evaluaciones microbiológicas demuestran condiciones de inocuidad conforme a normatividad. Se sugiere el uso de cloruro de calcio para fines de comercializar papaya fresca cortada.

  16. Sales de calcio mejoran vida de anaquel y aceptabilidad general de papaya (Carica papaya L. var. Maradol fresca cortada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayely Leyva López

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Las tendencias actuales de los consumidores por alimentos sanos y de conveniencia promueven un mayor consumo de frutas y hortalizas, donde destacan productos frescos cortados. Sin embargo, por su naturaleza estos productos pueden ser muy susceptibles a diferentes alteraciones que afectan su calidad. El uso de aditivos como sales de calcio representa una alternativa tecnológica para mantener, o incluso mejorar, la calidad durante su vida de anaquel. Por lo anterior el objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el efecto de sales de calcio en papaya fresca cortada sobre la calidad física, química, microbiológica, nutracéutica y sensorial. Cubos de papaya, variedad Maradol (2 cm de arista fueron tratados con lactato y cloruro de calcio al 1,0 y 3,0 %, bajo condiciones de inmersión por 2 min a 40 °C. Las muestras tratadas fueron colocadas en vasos de polietileno tereftalato (PET de 500 mL tapa, y almacenadas por 8 días a 5 °C. En comparación con los frutos testigo, los tratamientos a base de calcio demostraron mejorar la firmeza (~ 8 N, principalmente los frutos tratados con cloruro de calcio al 3,0 %. Por otra parte, la calidad nutracéutica (fenólicos totales no se vio afectada por el uso de sales de calcio, mientras que las evaluaciones microbiológicas demuestran condiciones de inocuidad conforme a normatividad. Se sugiere el uso de cloruro de calcio para fines de comercializar papaya fresca cortada.

  17. Dengue fever treatment with Carica papaya leaves extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nisar Ahmad; Hina Fazal; Muhammad Ayaz; Bilal Haider Abbasi; Ijaz Mohammad; Lubna Fazal

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the current study is to investigate the potential of Carica papaya leaves extracts against Dengue fever in 45 year old patient bitten by carrier mosquitoes. For the treatment of Dengue fever the extract was prepared in water. 25 mL of aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves was administered to patient infected with Dengue fever twice daily i.e. morning and evening for five consecutive days. Before the extract administration the blood samples from patient were analyzed. Platelets count (PLT), White Blood Cells (WBC) and Neutrophils (NEUT) decreased from 176×103/μL, 8.10×10 3/μL, 84.0% to 55×10 3/μL, 3.7×10 3/μL and 46.0%. Subsequently, the blood samples were rechecked after the administration of leaves extract. It was observed that the PLT count increased from 55×103/μL to 168×10 3/μL, WBC from 3.7×10 3/μL to 7.7×10 3/μL and NEUT from 46.0% to 78.3%. From the patient feelings and blood reports it showed that Caricapapaya leaves aqueous extract exhibited potential activity against Dengue fever. Furthermore, the different parts of this valuable specie can be further used as a strong natural candidate against viral diseases.

  18. Methanolysis of Carica papaya Seed Oil for Production of Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foluso O. Agunbiade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The future of fossil fuel sources of energy has necessitated the need to search for renewable alternatives. Thus, Carica papaya seed oil (CPSO was employed as feedstock for the production of biodiesel by methanolysis. The seed was obtained locally, dried, and extracted with n-hexane. The CPSO was analyzed for specific gravity, viscosity, iodine value, and saponification value, among others using standard methods. The oil was transesterified by two-stage catalysis with oil to methanol mole ratio of 1 : 9. The biodiesel produced was subjected to standard fuel tests. The seed has an oil yield of 31.2% which is commercially viable. The kinematic viscosity of the oil at 313 K was 27.4 mm2s−1 while that of Carica papaya oil methylester (CPOME was reduced to 3.57 mm2s−1 and the specific gravity was 0.84 comparable with other seed-oil biodiesels and number 2 diesel. Other oil properties were compared favourably with seed oils already documented for biodiesel synthesis. CPOME’s cloud and pour points were 275 K and 274 K, respectively, and relatively higher than other biodiesels and number 2 diesel. CPOME exhibits moderate corrosion of copper strip. The methanolysis improved the fuel properties of the CPOME similar to other biodiesels. CPSO therefore exhibits a potential for biodiesel production.

  19. Immobilization of mycoplana sp. MVMB2 isolated from petroleum contaminated soil onto papaya stem (carica papaya l.) and its application on degradation of phenanthrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinda Lakshmi, Mahalingam; Muthukumar, Karuppan; Velan, Manickam [Environmental Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, A.C. College of Technology, Anna University, Chennai (India)

    2012-08-15

    This study presents the degradation of phenanthrene using immobilized Mycoplana sp. MVMB2 isolated from contaminated soil. Papaya stem pretreated by two stage processes, treating with acid or alkali and drying, was used for the immobilization of Mycoplana sp. Alkali pretreated papaya stem was found to be most effective in cell uptake compared to acid treated one. The maximum immobilization capacity at various physiochemical conditions for the alkali pretreated papaya stem was found to be at 320 min time, pH 6.5, 30 C temperature, and 18.6 x 10{sup 6} cells/mL initial concentrations. The adsorption mechanism of Mycoplana sp. MVMB2 on pretreated papaya stem was assessed using various kinetic and isotherm models. The immobilization of Mycoplana sp. MVMB2 on to pretreated papaya stem was corroborated by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transformed IR spectroscopy analysis. The performance of immobilized cells in batch reactor showed more than 95% phenanthrene degradation within 72 h, whereas, free cells were found to require 120 h. The immobilized cells also showed better degradation performance in the packed column study. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Complete nucleotide sequence of a monopartite Begomovirus and associated satellites infecting Carica papaya in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, M S; Yoshida, S; Khatri-Chhetri, G B; Briddon, R W; Natsuaki, K T

    2013-06-01

    Carica papaya (papaya) is a fruit crop that is cultivated mostly in kitchen gardens throughout Nepal. Leaf samples of C. papaya plants with leaf curling, vein darkening, vein thickening, and a reduction in leaf size were collected from a garden in Darai village, Rampur, Nepal in 2010. Full-length clones of a monopartite Begomovirus, a betasatellite and an alphasatellite were isolated. The complete nucleotide sequence of the Begomovirus showed the arrangement of genes typical of Old World begomoviruses with the highest nucleotide sequence identity (>99 %) to an isolate of Ageratum yellow vein virus (AYVV), confirming it as an isolate of AYVV. The complete nucleotide sequence of betasatellite showed greater than 89 % nucleotide sequence identity to an isolate of Tomato leaf curl Java betasatellite originating from Indonesian. The sequence of the alphasatellite displayed 92 % nucleotide sequence identity to Sida yellow vein China alphasatellite. This is the first identification of these components in Nepal and the first time they have been identified in papaya.

  1. Assessment of the anti-protozoal activity of crude Carica papaya seed extract against Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Coello, Matilde; Guzman-Marín, Eugenia; Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Perez-Gutiérrez, Salud; Acosta-Viana, Karla Y

    2013-10-11

    In order to determine the in vivo activity against the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, two doses (50 and 75 mg/kg) of a chloroform extract of Carica papaya seeds were evaluated compared with a control group of allopurinol. The activity of a mixture of the three main compounds (oleic, palmitic and stearic acids in a proportion of 45.9% of oleic acid, 24.1% of palmitic and 8.52% of stearic acid previously identified in the crude extract of C. papaya was evaluated at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg. Both doses of the extracts were orally administered for 28 days. A significant reduction (p papaya extract in comparison with the positive control group (allopurinol 8.5 mg/kg). Parasitemia in animals treated with the fatty acids mixture was also significantly reduced (p papaya (from ripe fruit) are able to reduce the number of parasites from both parasite stages, blood trypomastigote and amastigote (intracellular stage).

  2. Verbo de concordancia en la lengua de señas chilena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Adamo Quintela

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo trata sobre una clase verbo de la lengua de señas chilena, el verbo de concordancia. A través de su descripción se da cuenta de los diversos mecanismos utilizados por el sistema de la lengua de señas para establecer la concordancia entre el sujeto y el objeto, que funcionan en la oración mediante el proceso de inflexión gramatical. Una característica relevante de la LSCh consiste en la utilización del espacio para producir modificaciones gramaticales regulares, entendidas como procesos de inflexión, a través de la co-ocurrencia de parámetros gestual-visuales, que permiten una comunicación eficiente entre sus usuarios. (This article focuses on a particular type of verb used in Chilean Sign Language: the verb of agreement. Through its description, different mechanisms used to show subject-object accord operating through inflection are presented. A relevant feature of Chilean Sign Language (LSCh, is to use space to mark regular grammatical modifications, understood as processes of inflection through the co-occurrence of visual-kinetic parameters that allow its user an efficient communication.

  3. Política educativa chilena 1965-2009. ¿Qué oculta esa trama?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Angélica Oliva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se aborda la política educativa chilena del período 1965-2009, inquiriéndose, ¿Qué oculta la trama? La conjetura es, la política educativa, a excepción del gobierno de Allende, muestra la institución del orden neoliberal. Se revisan algunas antinomias, mecanismos de ese orden, que se introduce en1965 con la pedagogía por objetivos y la teoría del capital humano. Esta pedagogía, es profundizada en dictadura, junto a la idea de subsidiariedad, que impulsa el cambio del rol del Estado, regulado en la Constitución de 1980, aún vigente, y presente en la Ley General de Educación. La municipalización, la transformación en el financiamiento y la pérdida del estatus de funcionario público del profesorado, son un legado de la dictadura. Ello, desperfila el afán democrático de la actual política educativa, transformándola en cómplice de un sistema que genera desigualdad y fragmentación social.

  4. LOS DERECHOS SOCIALES DE PRESTACIÓN EN LA JURISPRUDENCIA CHILENA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ignacio Martínez Estay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Parte importante de los derechos sociales consisten en prestaciones. Desde el punto de vista jurídico ello parece ser una limitante para su garantía y satisfacción, pues dependen de los recursos económicos de que disponga el Estado. Por eso, lo usual es que si se constitucionalizan no llevan aparejada una garantía jurisdiccional. Así ocurre en la Constitución chilena. Dicha limitación se ve ratificada por la jurisprudencia de la Corte Suprema, que reiteradamente ha negado lugar a recursos de protección en que se intentaba la tutela de derechos sociales consistentes en prestaciones, vinculándolos a algún derecho protegido jurisdiccionalmente. Pero la reciente jurisprudencia del Tribunal Constitucional respecto del derecho a la protección de la salud y del derecho a la seguridad social contradice lo anterior, atribuyéndole a los derechos sociales consistentes en prestaciones el mismo valor que el de los demás derechos y libertades.

  5. Analysis on virus resistance and fruit quality for T4 generation of transgenic papaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Xiangdong; LAN Congyu; LU Zhijing; YE Changming

    2007-01-01

    Molecular biological characterization,fruit characters,and nutrients were analyzed for T4 generation of transgenic papaya.All transgenic papaya plants with the mutated replicase (RP) gene from papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) showed high resistance or immunity against PRSV in the field.The RP transgene can be steadily inherited to,and expressed at RNA level,the progenies.The growth characteristics of transgenic papaya were much better than nontransgenic papaya in the field.The non-transgenic papaya seedlings began to show typical symptoms caused by PRSV after being inoculated with PRSV.They died quickly and never grew to produce fruit.The adult trees developed yellow leaves and produced smaller fruits and were doomed to a slow death after some time,while most oftransgenic papaya plants (about 91.8%) did not show any symptoms caused by PRSV,and produced more,bigger,and high quality fruits.Compared with non-transgenic plants,the fresh fruit length of T4 generation of transgenic papaya increased 2.6%-5%,and the diameter decreased 0.6%-1.5%.The flesh thickness of fresh fruit increased 12%-15%,which made it fitter for eating.Although the fresh fruit quality changed,there was no significant difference between transgenic and non-transgenic papaya.The quality characteristics of dry fruit including the contents of water,lipid,N,protein,reduced sugar,vitamin A,vitamin C,and carotene in the T4 generation of transgenic papaya were all the same as their non-transgenic parents.This means that transgenic plants and non-transgenic plants are substantially equivalent,and the transgene has no effect on dry fruit quality.In this study,we found that vitamin A and vitamin C in red-fleshed papaya were 1.4-1.8 and 1.78-2.07 times more than the yellow-fleshed ones,respectively,while N and protein were only 84.2%-92.1% and 82.1%-98.9% of the yellow-fleshed ones.

  6. THE ROLE OF PAPAYA DRESSINGS IN THE MAN AGEMENT OF DIABETIC FOOT ULCERS: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Bapurapu; Madipeddi; Boda; Dodda Ramesh; Sridhar Reddy; Karthik; Shankaraiah

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES : To determine the role of grated papaya fruit dressings in the management of diabetic foot ulcers. STUDY DESIGN: In our study, all the patients with diabetic foot ulcers (n=94) were included. The initial management was control of hyperglycemia, surgical debridement, ant ibiotics and then wound care with the help of grated papaya dressings. In this study, dressings were changed every 24 hours. The wound was considered healthy, when it wa...

  7. Quality Characteristics, Nutraceutical Profile, and Storage Stability of Aloe Gel-Papaya Functional Beverage Blend

    OpenAIRE

    Pushkala Ramachandran; Srividya Nagarajan

    2014-01-01

    Aloe vera gel, well known for its nutraceutical potential, is being explored as a functional ingredient in a wide array of health foods and drinks. Processing of exotic fruits and herbal botanicals into functional beverage is an emerging sector in food industry. The present study was undertaken to develop a spiced functional RTS beverage blend using Aloe gel (AG) and papaya. Aloe gel (30%), papaya pulp (15%), spice extract (5%), and citric acid (0.1%) were mixed in given proportion to prepare...

  8. Biodiesel Production by Enzymatic Transesterification of Papaya Seed Oil and Rambutan Seed Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, C. S.; R. Othman

    2014-01-01

    Biodiesel production from vegetable oil has gained attention as an alternative fuel to minimize the usage of fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gases pollution. In Malaysia, oils from local fruit seeds of papaya and rambutan are potential feedstock for biodiesel production due to their high lipid contents and easily available. In the present study, papaya and rambutan seed oils were extracted via soxhlet apparatus using n-hexane and the oil yields were in between 34–40%. The extracted oils we...

  9. In vitro erythrocyte membrane stabilization properties of Carica papaya L. leaf extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanga Ranasinghe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Carica papaya L. fruit juice and leaf extracts are known to have many beneficial medical properties. Recent reports have claimed possible beneficial effects of C. papaya L. leaf juice in treating patients with dengue viral infections. This study aims to evaluate the membrane stabilization potential of C. papaya L. leaf extracts using an in vitro hemolytic assay. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in between June and August 2010. Two milliliters of blood from healthy volunteers and patients with serologically confirmed current dengue infection were freshly collected and used in the assays. Fresh papaya leaves at three different maturity stages (immature, partly matured, and matured were cleaned with distilled water, crushed, and the juice was extracted with 10 ml of cold distilled water. Freshly prepared cold water extracts of papaya leaves (1 ml containing 30 μl of papaya leaf extracts, 20 μl from 40% erythrocytes suspension, and 950 μl of phosphate buffered saline were used in the heat-induced and hypotonic-induced hemolytic assays. In dose response experiments, six different concentrations (9.375, 18.75, 37.5, 75, 150, and 300 μg/ml of freeze dried extracts of the partly matured leaves were used. Membrane stabilization properties were investigated with heat-induced and hypotonicity-induced hemolysis assays. Results: Extracts of papaya leaves of all three maturity levels showed a significant reduction in heat-induced hemolysis compared to controls (P 0.05 different from one another. Heat-induced hemolysis inhibition activity did not demonstrate a linear dose response relationship. At 37.5 μg/ml concentration of the extract, a marked inhibition of hypotonicity-induced hemolysis was observed. Conclusion: C. papaya L. leaf extracts showed a significant inhibition of hemolysis in vitro and could have a potential therapeutic effect on disease processes causing destabilization of biological membranes.

  10. Oxidative Stress in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease: Effect of Extracts of Fermented Papaya Powder

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Barbagallo; Francesco Marotta; Dominguez, Ligia J

    2015-01-01

    Brain tissue is particularly susceptible to oxidative stress (OS). Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduced antioxidant systems, and decreased efficiency in repairing mechanisms have been linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Postmortem studies in AD patients' brains have shown oxidative damage markers (i.e., lipid peroxidation, protein oxidative damage, and glycoxidation). Fermented papaya (FPP, a product of Carica papaya Linn fermentation with yeast) is a nutraceutical s...

  11. Pengaruh Pemeraman, Pengeringan, dan Keadaan Kulit Biji Terhadap Perkecambahan Benih Pepaya (Carica papaya L.) Varietas Red Lady

    OpenAIRE

    Sebayang, Amelia

    2014-01-01

    Ripening of papaya leads to increase the rate of maturity and seed viability. Papaya seeds require light for germination. The light requirement could be supplied with drying before the seeds were planted. There is a phenolic compound in sarcotesta surrounding the papaya seed which act as a germination inhibitor. This experiment was conducted in the Seed Technology Laboratory, Agriculture Faculty, University of Sumatera Utara during Juli-September 2013, using a factorial randomized block desi...

  12. Direct LAMP Assay without Prior DNA Purification for Sex Determination of Papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chu Tsai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Papaya (Carica papaya L. is an economically important tropical fruit tree with hermaphrodite, male and female sex types. Hermaphroditic plants are the major type used for papaya production because their fruits have more commercial advantages than those of female plants. Sex determination of the seedlings, or during the early growth stages, is very important for the papaya seedling industry. Thus far, the only method for determining the sex type of a papaya at the seedling stage has been DNA analysis. In this study, a molecular technique—based on DNA analysis—was developed for detecting male-hermaphrodite-specific markers to examine the papaya’s sex type. This method is based on the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP and does not require prior DNA purification. The results show that the method is an easy, efficient, and inexpensive way to determine a papaya’s sex. This is the first report on the LAMP assay, using intact plant materials-without DNA purification-as samples for the analysis of sex determination of papaya. We found that using high-efficiency DNA polymerase was essential for successful DNA amplification, using trace intact plant material as a template DNA source.

  13. Oral dosing with papaya latex is an effective anthelmintic treatment for sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus

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    Donnan Alison A

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cysteine proteinases in papaya latex have been shown to have potent anthelmintic properties in monogastric hosts such as rodents, pigs and humans, but this has not been demonstrated in ruminants. Methods In two experiments, sheep were infected concurrently with 5,000 infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and 10,000 infective larvae of Trichostrongylus colubriformis and were then treated with the supernatant from a suspension of papaya latex from day 28 to day 32 post-infection. Faecal egg counts were monitored from a week before treatment until the end of the experiment and worm burdens were assessed on day 35 post-infection. Results We found that the soluble fraction of papaya latex had a potent in vivo effect on the abomasal nematode H. contortus, but not on the small intestinal nematode T. colubriformis. This effect was dose-dependent and at tolerated levels of gavage with papaya latex (117 μmol of active papaya latex supernatant for 4 days, the H. contortus worm burdens were reduced by 98%. Repeated treatment, daily for 4 days, was more effective than a single dose, but efficacy was not enhanced by concurrent treatment with the antacid cimetidine. Conclusions Our results provide support for the idea that cysteine proteinases derived from papaya latex may be developed into novel anthelmintics for the treatment of lumenal stages of gastro-intestinal nematode infections in sheep, particularly those parasitizing the abomasum.

  14. Variation in the Coat Protein Gene of Papaya ringspot Virus Isolates from Multiple Locations of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The potyvirus Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is an important pathogen of papaya that causes severe losses in economic crops for papaya production globally. The coat protein (CP) genes of five PRSV isolates originating from different locations in China were cloned and sequenced. The CP-coding region varied in size from 864-873 nucleotides, encoding proteins of 288-291 amino acids. The five Chinese isolates of PRSV have been characterized as papaya-infecting (PRSV-P). The CP sequences of the Chinese isolates were compared with those of previously published PRSV isolates originating from different countries at amino acid levels. A number of KE repeat boxes in the N terminus of the PRSV-CP were found in all Chinese isolates. The phylogenetic branching pattern revealed that there was certain extended grouping between geographic locations, and the Asian type probably represents the oldest population of PRSV. The information of CP genes will be useful in designing and developing durable virus resistant-PRSV transgenic papaya in China. Meanwhile broad-spectrum-virus resistant, strongly resistant-PRSV and good safe papaya lines are required.

  15. Evaluación de híbridos de papaya (carica papaya l. en pococí, limón, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Mora

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluación de híbridos de papaya (Carica papaya L. en Pococí, Limón, Costa Rica. Se estableció un experimento con nueve híbridos de papaya con el objetivo de determinar sus potenciales agronómicos y comerciales en una región de alta pluviosidad (cantón de Pococí, provincia de Limón. Las características evaluadas fueron tamaño de fruta, productividad total, brix de la pulpa y susceptibilidad a la antracnosis de la fruta causado por Colletotrichum gloesporioides. Se determinó que solo uno de los materiales mostró características similares al testigo comercial como fruta para consumo en fresco. Otro de los híbridos tuvo potencial para uso con fines agroindustriales.

  16. Gamma radiation use as a quarantine treatment for Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied., 1830) in papaya fruits (Carica papaya, Linnaeus), cultivar sunrise solo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gamma irradiation as treatment for control of the immature stages of fruit flies, C. capitata and A. fraterculus in papaya fruits, cultivar Sunrise Solo is studied. The gamma rays attenuation was observed by one and two papaya fruits placed between source and infested fruit, and this changed the radiation doses required to obtain mortality in eggs and larvae of the Medfly. The efficacy of irradiation was higher when the infested papayas were packed in paper box. The radiation dose determined using the Probit 9 concept, for immature stages mortality of C. capitata was 107,74 Gy and for A. fraterculus was 50,82 Gy. The sterilizing doses for adults of C. capitata and D. fraterculus, irradiated as pupae, was 60 Gy and 40 Gy, respectively. (author)

  17. L-ascorbic acid, β-carotene and lycopene content in papaya fruits (Carica papaya) with or without physiological skin freckles Conteúdo de ácido l-ascórbico, β-caroteno e licopeno em frutos de mamão (Carica papaya) com e sem mancha fisiológica

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro Marelli de Souza; Karla Silva Ferreira; José Benício Paes Chaves; Sílvio Lopes Teixeira

    2008-01-01

    The Skin Freckles is a papaya skin disorder that depreciates de fruit appearance and hampers its commercialization, although not lowering its nutritive value. Being the papaya a good source of ascorbic acid, β-carotene and licopene this research aimed at determining L-ascorbic acid, β-carotene and licopene content in papaya fruits, from 'Formosa' and 'Solo' group varieties, with and without apparent physiological skin disease (skin freckles). Fruits were harvested in the Southeast R...

  18. Indução de brotos laterais de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. Induction of lateral shoots of papaya tree (Carica papaya L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Segundo Giampan

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo estudar o efeito da benzilaminopurina e do ácido giberélico, bem como a forma de aplicação destes, na produção de brotos laterais de mamoeiro. Foram utilizados mamoeiros 'Sunrise Solo' e os reguladores vegetais benzilaminopurina (BAP e ácido giberélico (GA, na concentração de 500 mg.L-1. As formas de aplicação de BAP + GA estudadas foram: pulverização; pasta de lanolina; injeção; completo, que consistiu na utilização de todas as formas de aplicação, e o controle, constituído pela ausência de aplicação de reguladores. Foram realizadas três aplicações semanais dos reguladores em cada forma de aplicação, sendo eliminado o meristema apical de todas as plantas após a última aplicação. O comprimento e o diâmetro dos brotos laterais foram avaliados aos 30; 55 e 86 dias após a retirada da gema apical. O uso de reguladores favoreceu a produção de brotos laterais. A pulverização apresentou os melhores resultados tanto em relação ao número de brotos obtidos quanto à conformação das estacas, seguida pela injeção e pasta de lanolina.The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP and gibberellic acid (GA, as well as the form of application of these growth regulators in the plant, for the production of lateral shoots on papaya trees. Twelve months old 'Sunrise Solo' papaya trees were treated with BAP and GA, in the concentration of 500 mg.L-1. BAP + GA were applied to the trees by means of spraying, lanolin paste, injection, and a combination of all three procedures (complete. Untreated plants were used as control. After three successive applications of the plant growth regulators in each form of application, at one week intervals, all plants were decapitated. The length and diameter of the lateral shoots were measured at 30, 55 and 86 days after decapitation. The use of plant growth regulators favored the production of lateral shoots. The

  19. Empleo del método de secado convectivo combinado para la deshidratación de papaya (Carica papaya L.), variedad Maradol roja

    OpenAIRE

    Sahylin Muñiz Becerá; Antihus Hernández Gómez; Annia García Pereira; Lilia Méndez Lagunas

    2013-01-01

    La presente investigación tiene como objetivo evaluar el método de secado convectivo de papaya (Carica papaya L.) variedad Maradol roja, combinado con la aplicación de pretratamientos de osmosis (DOSC) y escaldado simple (ESSC), mediante el efecto de los factores tecnológi- cos del secador: temperatura (40 y 60oC) y velocidad del flujo de aire (2,5 y 1,5 m/s) sobre el comportamiento de las propiedades de calidad de la fruta deshidratada y la cinética del proceso. El pretratamiento de escaldad...

  20. Morfología de la flor y de la semilla de papaya (carica papaya l.): variedad maradol e híbrido tainung-1

    OpenAIRE

    Gil, Arlette Ivonne; Miranda, Diego

    2010-01-01

    Con el objetivo de analizar la morfología de la flor y de la semilla de papaya (Carica papaya L.) de la variedad ‘Maradol’ y el híbrido ‘Tainung-1’, se recolectó el material vegetal en dos plantaciones y se llevaron al laboratorio de Fisiología de Cultivos, Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, con el fin de realizar las descripciones correspondientes de los tres tipos de flores (femeninas, hermafroditas y estaminadas) y de la semilla, sus características externas (...

  1. Control de dos especies de Colletotrichum causantes de antracnosis en frutos de papaya Maradol Control of two species of Colletotrichum causing anthracnose in Maradol papaya fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Santamaría Basulto; Raúl Díaz Plaza; Omar Gutiérrez Alonso; Jorge Santamaría Fernández; Alfonso Larqué Saavedra

    2011-01-01

    La antracnosis es una limitante de la vida útil de los frutos de papaya, es causada principalmente por Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, aunque es posible encontrar otras especies de Colletotrichum causando enfermedades en un mismo cultivo. Para el control de la antracnosis en Yucatán se recomiendan varios fungicidas, pero no todos están permitidos por la agencia de protección al ambiente (EPA) de los Estados Unidos de América, principal país al cual se exporta la papaya yucateca. El presente e...

  2. Pengaruh Konsentrasi Natrium Klorida (NaCl) dan Lama Perendaman Buffer Fosfat Terhadap Perolehan Crude Papain Dari Daun Papain (Carica Papaya, L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Hasibuan, Pinta Rizki Mala

    2016-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is one of the fruits of commodities internationally, either in the form of fresh fruit or as processed products. The leaves are green still not fully utilized. In papaya enzyme papain which allegedly contained can be used as a meat tenderizer. Papain is a protease enzyme contained in papaya latex, whether in fruit, stems and leaves, as an enzyme capable of solving the protein molecules, current papain into products that are beneficial to human life, either at home or...

  3. DISCURSO ACADÉMICO DE LANZAMIENTO DE LA REVISTA CHILENA DE DERECHO Y CIENCIA POLÍTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio - Ignacio Carvajal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Me complace enormemente la invitación que se me ha cursado para dirigir algunaspalabras en el lanzamiento de esta Revista Chilena de Derecho y Ciencia Política.Me honra el hecho de que me hayan tenido Uds. en consideración para este actoacadémico y, por supuesto, también que me hayan incorporado al elenco de especialistasde su Comité Científi co Externo. Por ello, comienzo por expresar mi sinceroagradecimiento.

  4. Incorporación del paisaje en la gestión del territorio de la Patagonia Chilena

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Dolores Muñoz; Gerardo Azócar

    2014-01-01

    Este artículo presenta una metodología para el análisis y gestión del paisaje en la Patagonia chilena, un territorio que se destaca por la belleza y diversidad de los paisajes del agua generados por la presencia de grandes lagos, ríos, fiordos, humedales y campos de hielo. El primer caso de estudio es una investigación para evaluar las potencialidades turísticas y territoriales de los paisajes del agua en la cuenca del río Baker. Se utiliza una metodología interdisciplinaria y técnicas de ...

  5. Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a 60Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment

  6. Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin-Huachaca, N.S.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge E-mail: jmancini@usp.br; Delincee, Henry E-mail: henry.delincee@bfe.uni-karlsruhe.de; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. E-mail: villavic@net.ipen.br

    2004-10-01

    Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a {sup 60}Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment.

  7. Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Huachaca, Nélida S.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna Lúcia C. H.

    2004-09-01

    Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a 60Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment.

  8. Antiulcerogenic activity of Carica papaya seed in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Lorraine Aparecida; Cordeiro, Kátia Wolff; Carrasco, Viviane; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; Cardoso, Cláudia Andréa Lima; Argadoña, Eliana Janet Sanjinez; Freitas, Karine de Cássia

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the gastroprotective and healing effects of the methanolic extract of the seed of the papaya Carica papaya L. (MECP) in rats. Models of acute gastric ulcer induction by ethanol and indomethacin and of chronic ulcer by acetic acid were used. The gastric juice and mucus parameters were evaluated using the pylorus ligation model, and the involvement of sulfhydryl compounds (GSH) and nitric oxide in the gastroprotective effect was analyzed using the ethanol model. The toxicity was assessed through toxicity tests. No signs of toxicity were observed when the rats received a single dose of 2000 mg/kg of extract. The MECP in doses of 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg significantly reduced the gastric lesion with 56, 76, and 82 % inhibition, respectively, and a dose of 30 mg/kg lansoprazole showed 79 % inhibition in the ethanol model. MECP (125, 250, 500 mg/kg) and cimetidine (200 mg/kg) reduced the gastric lesion in the indomethacin model, with 62, 67, 81, and 85 % inhibition, respectively. The MECP (500 mg/kg) and cimetidine (200 mg/kg) treatments showed a reduction in ulcerative symptoms induced by acetic acid by 84 and 73 %, respectively. The antiulcerogenic activity seems to involve GSH because the inhibition dropped from 72 to 13 % in the presence of a GSH inhibitor. Moreover, the MECP showed systemic action, increasing the mucus production and decreasing gastric acidity. Treatments with MECP induce gastroprotection without signs of toxicity. This effect seems to involve sulfhydryl compounds, increased mucus, and reduced gastric acidity.

  9. Partial rootzone drying (PRD) and regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) effects on stomal conductance, growth, photosynthetic capacity, and water-use efficiency of papaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaya (Carica papaya, L.) is an important economic crop in tropical and subtropical countries in addition to its human health benefits. Papaya is a giant herbaceous species and maintaining adequate tissue turgidity and water availability is necessary to maintain the rigidity of the stem as well as...

  10. Anglicismos y aculturación en la sociedad chilena (English loanwords: acculturation in chilean society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza Gerding Salas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La implementación del modelo económico neoliberal estadounidense enChile hace cuatro décadas y la participación del país en la globalización han provocado cambios fundamentales en la sociedad. De hecho, los efectos de la adopción de dicho paradigma se reflejan en diversos ámbitos, incluido el del uso de la lengua. Por esta razón, resulta de interés para lingüistas y traductores indagar acerca de la influencia del idioma inglés y de la cultura estadounidense en la sociedad chilena. De allí que los objetivos de este estudio fueron constatar la presencia de préstamos del inglés en la prensa escrita, para describirlos, determinar su frecuencia de uso e inferir las causas de su adopción. Para lograr estos objetivos se clasificaron de forma manual y semiautomática préstamos del inglés extraídos de periódicos entre enero de 2003 y diciembre de 2009. Se analizó las unidades recopiladas según sus características formales, frecuencia de aparición y áreas del saber a las que pertenecían. Se determinó que los préstamos del inglés se adoptan más que adaptan y que tienen una fuerte presencia en la redacción periodística actual, específicamente en economía, computación, deportes y cultura. Además, se pudo establecer que su uso estaría determinado por cuatro factores: vacío denominativo, prestigio social, economía lingüística y preferencia de los usuarios. Finalmente, se concluyó que la lengua inglesa y la cultura estadounidense tienen una presencia significativa en la prensa chilena. (The implementation of the US-inspired neoliberal economic model in Chile four decades ago and the country’s participation in the globalization process have led to fundamental societal changes. In fact, the effect of the adoption of this paradigm is reflected in several areas, including that of the use of the language. For this reason, it is interesting for linguists and translators to find out the influence of the English language and

  11. INCORPORACIÓN DEL PAISAJE EN LA GESTIÓN DEL TERRITORIO DE LA PATAGONIA CHILENA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA DOLORES MUÑOZ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una metodología para el análisis y gestión del paisaje en la Patagonia chilena, un territorio que se destaca por la belleza y diversidad de los paisajes del agua generados por la presencia de grandes lagos, ríos, fiordos, humedales y campos de hielo. El primer caso de estudio es una investigación para evaluar las potencialidades turísticas y territoriales de los paisajes del agua en la cuenca del río Baker. Se utiliza una metodología interdisciplinaria y técnicas de medición, cualitativa y cuantitativa, que permitieran analizar los valores espaciales, ambientales, territoriales y culturales asociados al paisaje. Un aspecto esencial fue incorporar la valoración social del paisaje. El segundo caso, ubicado en el estrecho de Magallanes, corresponde a una metodología de análisis territorial como base para diseñar un Plan de Manejo Turístico en el Área Marina Protegida Francisco Coloane (que incluye al Parque Marino Francisco Coloane. Comprende el análisis de las condiciones ambientales, las características del paisaje y potencialidades del turismo de intereses especiales asociado al paisaje para respaldar la propuesta de gestión. En ambos casos, la metodología considera al paisaje como principal recurso territorial y plantea una forma de gestión respaldada por principios de sustentabilidad ambiental y social.

  12. Cloning and expression analysis of phytoene desaturase and ζ-carotene desaturase genes in Carica papaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, P; Gao, X Z; Shen, W T; Zhou, P

    2011-02-01

    The fruit flesh color of papaya is an important nutritional quality trait and is due to the accumulation of carotenoid. To elucidate the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in Carica papaya, the phytoene desaturase (PDS) and the ζ-carotene desaturase (ZDS) genes were isolated from papaya (named CpPDS and CpZDS) using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approach, and their expression levels were investigated in red- and yellow-fleshed papaya varieties. CpPDS contains a 1749 bp open reading frame coding for 583 amino acids, while CpZDS contains a 1716 bp open reading frame coding for 572 amino acids. The deduced CpPDS and CpZDS proteins contain a conserved dinucleotide-binding site at the N-terminus and a carotenoid-binding domain at the C-terminus. Papaya genome sequence analysis revealed that CpPDS and CpZDS are single copy; the CpPDS was mapped to papaya chromosome LG6, and the CpZDS was mapped to chromosome LG3. Quantitative PCR showed that both CpPDS and CpZDS were expressed in all tissues examined with the highest expression in maturing fruits, and that the expression of CpPDS and CpZDS were higher in red-fleshed fruits than in yellow-fleshed fruits. These results indicated that the differential accumulation of carotenoids in red- and yellow-fleshed papaya varieties might be partly explained by the transcriptional level of CpPDS and CpZDS.

  13. Antihypertensive effect of Carica papaya via a reduction in ACE activity and improved baroreflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasil, Girlandia Alexandre; Ronchi, Silas Nascimento; do Nascimento, Andrews Marques; de Lima, Ewelyne Miranda; Romão, Wanderson; da Costa, Helber Barcellos; Scherer, Rodrigo; Ventura, José Aires; Lenz, Dominik; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza; Endringer, Denise Coutinho; de Andrade, Tadeu Uggere

    2014-11-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the antihypertensive effects of the standardised methanolic extract of Carica papaya, its angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory effects in vivo, its effect on the baroreflex and serum angiotensin converting enzyme activity, and its chemical composition. The chemical composition of the methanolic extract of C. papaya was evaluated by liquid chromatography-mass/mass and mass/mass spectrometry. The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory effect was evaluated in vivo by Ang I administration. The antihypertensive assay was performed in spontaneously hypertensive rats and Wistar rats that were treated with enalapril (10 mg/kg), the methanolic extract of C. papaya (100 mg/kg; twice a day), or vehicle for 30 days. The baroreflex was evaluated through the use of sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine. Angiotensin converting enzyme activity was measured by ELISA, and cardiac hypertrophy was evaluated by morphometric analysis. The methanolic extract of C. papaya was standardised in ferulic acid (203.41 ± 0.02 µg/g), caffeic acid (172.60 ± 0.02 µg/g), gallic acid (145.70 ± 0.02 µg/g), and quercetin (47.11 ± 0.03 µg/g). The flavonoids quercetin, rutin, nicotiflorin, clitorin, and manghaslin were identified in a fraction of the extract. The methanolic extract of C. papaya elicited angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity. The antihypertensive effects elicited by the methanolic extract of C. papaya were similar to those of enalapril, and the baroreflex sensitivity was normalised in treated spontaneously hypertensive rats. Plasma angiotensin converting enzyme activity and cardiac hypertrophy were also reduced to levels comparable to the enalapril-treated group. These results may be associated with the chemical composition of the methanolic extract of C. papaya, and are the first step into the development of a new phytotherapic product which could be used in the treatment of hypertension.

  14. Study about papaya (Carica papaya L.) conservation submitted to a combined treatment of irradiation and an edible film of quitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this research, on a first stage the effect of two treatments were studied: thermal, and a chitosan edible coating, combined with four different irradiation doses: 0,00 kGy, 0,50 kGy, 0,75 kGy and 1,00 kGy for effects in the ripening of papaya (Carica Papaya) cv. Golden. To evaluate the influence of these two factors in the physical-chemical characteristics of the fruit during ripening, analysis on color, both skin and pulp, firmness, soluble solids, pH and titrable acidity were performed. The incidence of fungi in fruit skin was also analyzed. The fruits were first maintained at 10 deg C chamber for fifteen days to simulate maritime transportation to the importer country and then transferred to a 25 deg C chamber aiming simulation of the commercialization conditions. From this first step, the conclusion was that chitosan in the concentration of 2% was not able to contain the fungi development and that it also influenced in a significant form the variable pH. A more expressive result was obtained for irradiation doses of 0,75 kGy and 1,00 kGy, as it was observed in the beginning the acceleration in ripening through the variables skin color and penetration energy of the fruit pulp. When storage temperature was changed to 25 deg C this situation inverted for these same variables and a two day delay was observed on the development of yellow color on the fruit skin and loss of pulp firmness. The variables titrable acidity, soluble solids and pulp color were not influenced by treatment or by irradiation. On a second stage, the fruits, in the same condition of the previous stage, were analyzed in relation of their mass and ripening stage using a ripening scale provided by the producer of the fruits for this experiment, as to evaluate the gradual development of fruit ripening according to the various treatments (chitosan 3%, thermal or control) and irradiation dose (0,00 kGy and 0,75 kGy). Confirming the results obtained in the first stage, the irradiation was able to

  15. Use of microsatellite markers in molecular analysis of segregating populations of papaya (Carica papaya L.) derived from backcrossing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, F O; Pereira, M G; Luz, L N; Cardozo, D L; Ramos, H C C; Macedo, C M P

    2013-07-08

    Brazil is the world leader in papaya production. However, only a small number of cultivars are registered for commercial planting, mainly owing to delays in obtaining cultivars and the high costs of the field phase of breeding programs. These costs can be reduced when molecular tools are combined with conventional breeding methods. In the present study, we conducted a molecular analysis of a self-fertilized population of a first backcrossing generation of BC1S1 papaya plants via microsatellite markers both to monitor the level of homozygosity and the gene/allele transfer that confers the Golden trait (fruit color) and to assess the parental genomic proportion in the genotypes studied. Based on the analysis of 20 polymorphic microsatellite loci, 19 genotypes with the Golden trait belonging to BC1S1 were evaluated in addition to the parental genotypes. Genetic distance was estimated through weighted index. The genotypes were then grouped using the hierarchical nearest neighbor method, and the analysis of principal coordinates was used to measure the proportion of parental genomes in the segregating genotypes. The mean value of the inbreeding coefficient was 0.36. The analysis of the principal coordinates revealed that on average, 64% of the recurrent parent genome was present in the population. Together, the analyses allowed the selection of 3 individuals for the next backcross cycle (33BC1S1-18, 34BC1S1-16, and 37BC1S1-10). These individuals had a higher proportion of the recurrent parent and were grouped close to the recurrent parent in the cluster analysis.

  16. Identification, Expression and IAA-Amide Synthetase Activity Analysis of Gretchen Hagen 3 in Papaya Fruit (Carica papaya L.) during Postharvest Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kaidong; Wang, Jinxiang; Li, Haili; Zhong, Jundi; Feng, Shaoxian; Pan, Yaoliang; Yuan, Changchun

    2016-01-01

    Auxin plays essential roles in plant development. Gretchen Hagen 3 (GH3) genes belong to a major auxin response gene family and GH3 proteins conjugate a range of acylsubstrates to alter the levels of hormones. Currently, the role of GH3 genes in postharvest physiological regulation of ripening and softening processes in papaya fruit is unclear. In this study, we identified seven CpGH3 genes in a papaya genome database. The CpGH3.1a, CpGH3.1b, CpGH3.5, CpGH3.6, and CpGH3.9 proteins were identified as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-specific amido synthetases. We analyzed the changes in IAA-amido synthetase activity using aspartate as a substrate for conjugation and found a large increase (over 5-fold) during the postharvest stages. Ascorbic acid (AsA) application can extend the shelf life of papaya fruit. Our data showed that AsA treatment regulates postharvest fruit maturation processes by promoting endogenous IAA levels. Our findings demonstrate the important role of GH3 genes in the regulation of auxin-associated postharvest physiology in papaya.

  17. Low-dose gamma irradiation following hot water immersion of papaya (Carica papaya linn.) fruits provides additional control of postharvest fungal infection to extend shelf life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-dose gamma irradiation (0.08 kGy over 10 min), a level significantly below that required to satisfy the majority of international quarantine regulations, has been employed to provide a significant reduction in visible fungal infection on papaya fruit surfaces. This is appropriate for local and national markets in producer countries where levels of commercial acceptability can be retained despite surface lesions due to fungal infection. Irradiation alone and in combination with hot-water immersion (50 °C for 10 min) has been applied to papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruits at both the mature green and 1/3 yellow stages of maturity. The incidence and severity of surface fungal infections, including anthracnose, were significantly reduced by the combined treatment compared to irradiation or hot water treatment alone, extending storage at 11 °C by 13 days and retaining commercial acceptability. The combined treatment had no significant, negative impact on ripening, with quality characteristics such as surface and internal colour change, firmness, soluble solids, acidity and vitamin C maintained at acceptable levels. - Highlights: • Storage of papaya extended to 28 days whilst retaining commercial quality. • Additive effect of low gamma irradiation (0.08 kGy over 10 min) and hot-water treatment. • Significant reduction in surface fungal lesions. • No significant impact on colour change or flesh quality during storage

  18. NIa-Pro of Papaya ringspot virus interacts with Carica papaya eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit G (CpeIF3G).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Le; Tuo, Decai; Shen, Wentao; Yan, Pu; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

    2015-02-01

    The interaction of papaya eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit G (CpeIF3G) with Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) NIa-Pro was validated using a bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay in papaya protoplasts based on the previous yeast two-hybrid assay results. The C-terminal (residues 133-239) fragment of PRSV NIa-Pro and the central domain (residues 59-167) of CpeIF3G were required for effective interaction between NIa-Pro and CpeIF3G as shown by a Sos recruitment yeast two-hybrid system with several deletion mutants of NIa-Pro and CpeIF3G. The central domain of CpeIF3G, which contains a C2HC-type zinc finger motif, is required to bind to other eIFs of the translational machinery. In addition, quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR assay confirmed that PRSV infection leads to a 2- to 4.5-fold up-regulation of CpeIF3G mRNA in papaya. Plant eIF3G is involved in various stress response by enhancing the translation of resistance-related proteins. It is proposed that the NIa-Pro-CpeIF3G interaction may impair translation preinitiation complex assembly of defense proteins and interfere with host defense.

  19. Molecular diagnosis of Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) from leaf samples of Carica papaya L. using conventional and real-time RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Paolla M V; Piccin, João G; Rodrigues, Silas P; Buss, David S; Ventura, José A; Fernandes, Patricia M B

    2012-03-01

    Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is the causal agent of papaya sticky disease. This study describes two methods for molecular diagnosis of PMeV using conventional and real-time PCR. These methods were shown to be more efficient than current methods of viral detection using extraction of PMeV dsRNA and observation of symptoms in the field. The methods described here were used to evaluate the effect of inoculation of papaya plants with purified PMeV dsRNA on the progress of PMeV infection. A single inoculation with PMeV dsRNA was observed to delay the progress of the virus infection by several weeks. The possibility of vertical transmission of PMeV was also investigated. No evidence was found for PMeV transmission through seeds collected from diseased fruit. The implications of these results for the epidemiology of PMeV and the management of papaya sticky disease are discussed.

  20. Relationships between SAP-flow measurements, whole-canopy transpiration and reference evapotranspiration in field-grown papaya (Carica papaya L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole-canopy gas exchange measurement in papaya can provide a scientific basis to optimize irrigation, and fruit yield and quality. The objectives of this study were to: 1) verify the relationship between xylem sap flow measured by the heat coefficient method and whole canopy transpiration in ‘Gra...

  1. Molecular diagnosis of Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) from leaf samples of Carica papaya L. using conventional and real-time RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Paolla M V; Piccin, João G; Rodrigues, Silas P; Buss, David S; Ventura, José A; Fernandes, Patricia M B

    2012-03-01

    Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is the causal agent of papaya sticky disease. This study describes two methods for molecular diagnosis of PMeV using conventional and real-time PCR. These methods were shown to be more efficient than current methods of viral detection using extraction of PMeV dsRNA and observation of symptoms in the field. The methods described here were used to evaluate the effect of inoculation of papaya plants with purified PMeV dsRNA on the progress of PMeV infection. A single inoculation with PMeV dsRNA was observed to delay the progress of the virus infection by several weeks. The possibility of vertical transmission of PMeV was also investigated. No evidence was found for PMeV transmission through seeds collected from diseased fruit. The implications of these results for the epidemiology of PMeV and the management of papaya sticky disease are discussed. PMID:22193169

  2. 76 FR 49725 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Papaya Fruit From Malaysia into the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ..., 2011 (76 FR 13972, Docket No. APHIS-2011- 0013), in which we announced the availability, for review and... Importation of Fresh Papaya Fruit From Malaysia into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant... authorize the importation into the continental United States of fresh papaya fruit from Malaysia. Based...

  3. Influence of coat protein transgene copy number on resistance in transgenic line 63-1 against Papaya ringspot virus isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza, M.T.; Níckel, O.; Gonsalves, D.

    2005-01-01

    Line 63-1 is a 'Sunset'-derived transgenic papaya expressing the coat protein (CP) gene from a mild mutant of a Hawaiian isolate of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). Previous work showed that line 63-1 R, plants exhibited a range of resistance to severe PRSV isolates from Hawaii (HA), Jamaica (JA), Thai

  4. KURSUS SINGKAT DAN PELATIHAN PEMANFAATAN PEPAYA (CARISA PAPAYA L. MENJADI MANISAN KERING BUAH PEPAYA DI DESA TIMUHUN, KECAMATAN BANJARANGKAN, KABUPATEN KLUNGKUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Nada

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In Desa Timuhun, eventhough papaya is not primary fruit product, but usually papaya is planted among the other plants and easily to grow. Papaya has good potency to be processed to become food product. Matured papaya fruit is usually fresh served for desk fruit. On the other hand, for papaya which is not mature yet, usually used for vegetable. Papaya has high water content, so it makes papaya fruit easy to experience damage. With papaya processing, papaya which is originally assumed improper to be sold or to be consumed (mechanical damage, diseased, acid, physical damage and will only to be thrown, finally can be used. The making of papaya dry candy is one of effort to preserve and to vary form of papaya serving. It also improves the economic value of papaya. The making of papaya can be conducted in big or small scale. The activity objectives are to introduce and give additional knowledge to society about papaya processing technology, to increase economic added value of papaya and the using of papaya which is improper to be sold or to be consumed becoming valuable food product .Realization of the objectives above are by performing an information sharing and discussion with the society about process of the making dry candy from papaya, training of papaya dry candy making, introduce simple technology of dry candy papaya making. This activity was performed at the head of Desa Timuhun office, on Friday, September 14, 2007 and was attended by 26 persons, including association of woman farmer and the staff in that office. The result of this activity shows that there was positive response of people who attend this activity, because by processing papaya fruit into dry candy, have a lot of advantage compare to sale it freshly. Beside that, this dry candy is healthy snack, without synthetic preservation, enriched with vitamins which is useful for health, also this dry candy is still good up to 1 month and of course it could to improve economic

  5. Data on screening and identification of genetically modified papaya in food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Theo W; Scholtens, Ingrid M J; Bak, Arno W; van Dijk, Jeroen P; Voorhuijzen, Marleen M; Laurensse, Emile J; Kok, Esther J

    2016-12-01

    This article contains data related to the research article entitled "A case study to determine the geographical origin of unknown GM papaya in routine food sample analysis, followed by identification of papaya events 16-0-1 and 18-2-4" (Prins et al., 2016) [1]. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) with targets that are putatively present in genetically modified (GM) papaya was used as a first screening to narrow down the vast array of candidates. The combination of elements P-nos and nptII was further confirmed by amplification and subsequent sequencing of the P-nos/nptII construct. Next, presence of the candidate GM papayas 16-0-1 and 18-2-4 were investigated by amplification and sequencing of event-spanning regions on the left and right border. This data article reports the Cq values for GM elements, the nucleotide sequence of the P-nos/nptII construct and the presence of GM papaya events 18-2-4 and/or 16-0-1 in five samples that were randomly sampled to be analysed in the framework of the official Dutch GMO monitoring program for food.

  6. Control Strategies of Papaya Mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Willink in the Laboratory Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J.H. Biswas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The laboratory experiment was conducted at the laboratory of the Department of Entomology, Bangladesh Agricultural University to determine the effectiveness of polythene band, predatory ladybird beetles (available species found in Bangladesh viz. Coccinella transversalis (F., Micraspis discolor (F., Menochilus sexmaculatus (F., Cyclonida sanguinea, Adalia bipunctata, Coccinella novemnotata and Illeis koebelei, four chemical insecticides and three botanical oils in controlling papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink. The chemical insecticides were Sevin 85 SP, Dimethoate 40 EC, Fipronil 50 EC, Deltamethrin 2.5 EC, and the botanical oils were Neem oil, Mahogany oil and Karanja oil. In the laboratory experiment, polythene banding failed to prevent the plant from the infestation of papaya mealybug. Seven commonly available species of ladybird beetles in Bangladesh did not provide any control to papaya mealybug. Among the chemical insecticides, Sevin 85 SP and Dimethoate 40 EC showed significant mortality of papaya mealybug. Deltamethrin 2.5 EC and Neem oil (2% provided moderate control of the pest. The remaining insecticides and botanical oils were less effective to control papaya mealybug.

  7. Data on screening and identification of genetically modified papaya in food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Theo W; Scholtens, Ingrid M J; Bak, Arno W; van Dijk, Jeroen P; Voorhuijzen, Marleen M; Laurensse, Emile J; Kok, Esther J

    2016-12-01

    This article contains data related to the research article entitled "A case study to determine the geographical origin of unknown GM papaya in routine food sample analysis, followed by identification of papaya events 16-0-1 and 18-2-4" (Prins et al., 2016) [1]. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) with targets that are putatively present in genetically modified (GM) papaya was used as a first screening to narrow down the vast array of candidates. The combination of elements P-nos and nptII was further confirmed by amplification and subsequent sequencing of the P-nos/nptII construct. Next, presence of the candidate GM papayas 16-0-1 and 18-2-4 were investigated by amplification and sequencing of event-spanning regions on the left and right border. This data article reports the Cq values for GM elements, the nucleotide sequence of the P-nos/nptII construct and the presence of GM papaya events 18-2-4 and/or 16-0-1 in five samples that were randomly sampled to be analysed in the framework of the official Dutch GMO monitoring program for food. PMID:27626052

  8. Cloning and characterization of a FLORICAULA/LEAFY ortholog, PFL, in polygamous papaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingyi YU; Paul H. MOORE; Henrik H. ALBERT; Adrienne H.K. ROADER; Ray MING

    2005-01-01

    The homologous genes FLORICAULA (FLO) in Antirrhinum and LEAFY (LFY) in Arabidopsis are known to regulate the initiation of flowering in these two distantly related plant species. These genes are necessary also for the expression of downstream genes that control floral organ identity. We used Arabidopsis LFY cDNA as a probe to clone and sequence a papaya ortholog of LFY, PFL. It encodes a protein that shares 61% identity with the Arabidopsis LFY gene and 71% identity with the LFYhomologs of the two woody tree species: California sycamore (Platanus racemosa) and black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa). Despite the high sequence similarity within two conserved regions, the N-terminal proline-rich motif in papaya PFL differs from other members in the family. This difference may not affect the gene function of papaya PFL, since an equally divergent but a functional LFY ortholog NEEDLY of Pinus radiata has been reported. Genomic and BAC Southern analyses indicated that there is only one copy of PFL in the papaya genome. In situ hybridization experiments demonstrated that PFL is expressed at a relatively low level in leaf primordia,but it is expressed at a high level in the floral meristem. Quantitative PCR analyses revealed that PFL was expressed in flower buds of all three sex types - male, female, and hermaphrodite with marginal difference between hermaphrodite and unisexual flowers. These data suggest that PFL may play a similar role as LFY in flower development and has limited effect on sex differentiation in papaya.

  9. ‘Buscamos una voz que nos reciba’. Narrativa chilena reciente: lecturas cómplices

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    Daza D., Paulina

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research explores certain suggested ways of reading recent Chilean narratives, focusing particularly on a corpus of works by four authors: Alvaro Bisama, Alejandra Costamagna, María José Viera-Gallo and Alejandro Zambra. It is proposed that from reception it is possible to specify certain ways of reading that manifest themselves in the degree of complicity achieved between the reader and the works, where this is defined by the reader’s cooperation or participation in the act of reading. The reader is drawn into the work by following the signs given in it, shifting from a critical to emotional reading by updating the stories through a close link between writer, the work and the reader. Thus the works are always read in a complicit way, but from different viewpoints and on different levels. Taking these nuances into account we aim to revise three ways of complicit reading: a through appropriation of the past, b politically and c dynamically.Esta investigación centra su estudio en algunas propuestas de lectura para la narrativa chilena reciente, especialmente un corpus compuesto por un conjunto de obras de cuatro autores: Álvaro Bisama, Alejandra Costamagna, María José Viera-Gallo y Alejandro Zambra. Se propone que desde la recepción es posible precisar algunas formas de lectura que se concretan pensando en el grado de complicidad que logra el lector con estas obras, determinada por su relación de colaboración o participación en el acto de leer. El lector se acercará más o menos a la obra siguiendo las señas propuestas en ella, así las formas de leer irán desde lo crítico hasta lo afectivo, actualizando los relatos a partir de un estrecho vínculo entre escritor, obra y lector. De esta forma la lectura siempre será cómplice, pero desde diferentes aspectos y en distintos grados. Teniendo en cuenta estos matices revisaremos tres formas de lectura cómplice: a de apropiación del pasado, b política y c dinámica.

  10. Caracterización del aceite de coquito de palma chilena (Jubaea chilensis

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    Torija, M. Esperanza

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the seeds from Chilean palm and the detailed composition of its fat are studied starting from 4 lots of seeds from the two regions being the major producers of Chilean palm seeds. From the proximate composition of the seeds a high content of fats is deduced with a mean value of 67.3%. The contents of proteins, carbohydrates and fibre were in the range of 7-11%. A detailed analysis of the fat indicates a high content of saturated fatty acids being capric, caprilic, lauric and miristic acids the major fatty acids. For this reason the presence of a high percentage of medium-chain triglycerides are detected in the triglyceride analysis. As for tocopherols, the fat contains low amounts of α-, γ- y δ-tocopherol with a total average of 84 mg/kg. Concerning phytosterols, the total content was around 1000 mg/kg being β-sitosterol and Δ7-estigmastenol the two major sterolsSe analizan las características generales del coquito de palma chilena y se estudia con detalle la composición de su aceite. Con este objetivo, se analizan 4 lotes de coquitos procedentes de las dos regiones de Chile donde existe mayor producción. La composición proximal del coquito indica un contenido muy mayoritario de grasa, con un promedio de 67,3% mientras los contenidos de proteínas, hidratos de carbono y fibra se encuentran entre el 7 y el 11%. Un análisis detallado de la grasa muestra un contenido elevado de ácidos grasos saturados (alrededor del 85% siendo los ácidos cáprico, caprílico, láurico y mirístico los que se encuentran en mayor concentración, lo que origina un elevado porcentaje de triglicéridos de cadena media. Respecto a los tocoferoles, el aceite contiene cantidades limitadas de α-, γ- y δ-tocoferol con un valor promedio total de 84 mg/kg, no detectándose la presencia de tocotrienoles. Respecto a los fitoesteroles, el contenido total es del orden de 1000 mg/kg siendo los esteroles mayoritarios el

  11. Diferencias entre la composición sectorial y ocupacional de las principales ciudades chilenas

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    Marcelo Lufín Varas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available La planifcación regional y urbana ha tendido a fjarse exclusivamente en la composición sectorial de las economías locales, asumiendo en forma implícita que la estructura de ocupaciones por actividad es similar a lo largo de un país. Si bien este supuesto parece ser cierto para el conjunto del tejido productivo, se encuentran diferencias signifcativas cuando se analizan ocupaciones específcas. Entre ellas destacan aquellas intensivas en conocimiento, las cuales tienden a estar sobrerrepresen-tadas en las principales ciudades. Se propone una metodología para el análisis de la relación existente entre la estructura de ocupaciones y la estructura sectorial y se aplica al estudio de las principales ciudades chilenas en 2002 a partir de la información del Censo de población, con el objetivo de estimar en qué medida estas estructuras divergen y si existen concentraciones relativas de ocupaciones, observándose que aquellas relacionadas con el conocimiento y la toma de decisiones empresariales tienen una presencia mayor que la esperada en el área metropolitana de Santiago.Regional and urban planning have tended to be exclusively focused on the industrial mix of local economies, implicitly assuming that the occupational mix of economic activities is similar throughout a country. Tis assumption seems to be right fom the perspective of the productive system as a whole, however signifcant diferences arise when analyzing certain occupations. Among them, knowledge-intensive occupations stand out and tend to be overrepresented in the main urban areas. A methodolog y is proposed to analyze the relationship between the occupational and industrial structures. Tis methodology is applied to the case of the principal Chilean cities in 2002 using data fom the population Census in order to estimate the extent to which these structures diverge and whether or not there are relative concentrations of occupations. Results show that the presence of managerial

  12. Phenol induced by irradiation does not impair sensory quality of fenugreek and papaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of radiation processing on the sensory quality of fenugreek and papaya exposed to doses in the range of 2.5–10 kGy and 100 Gy–2.5 kGy respectively was investigated. Despite an increase in the content of phenol in the volatile oil of these food products overall sensory quality of the irradiated and control samples was not significantly affected by radiation processing. - Highlights: • Sensory quality of fenugreek and papaya is not significantly affected by radiation processing. • Irradiation did not adversely affect the overall acceptability of the processed samples. • Radiation processing was thus successfully applied to the preservation of fenugreek and papaya

  13. Habitat fragmentation threatens wild populations of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) in a lowland rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Pesqueira, Mariana; Suárez-Montes, Pilar; Castillo, Guillermo; Núñez-Farfán, Juan

    2014-07-11

    • Premise of the study: Wild populations of domesticated species constitute a genetic reservoir and are fundamental to the evolutionary potential of species. Wild papaya (Carica papaya) is a rare, short-lived, gap-colonizing, dioecious tree that persists in the forest by continuous dispersal. Theoretically, these life-history characteristics render wild papaya highly susceptible to habitat fragmentation, with anticipated negative effects on its gene pool. Further, species dioecy may cause founder effects to generate local biases in sex ratio, decreasing effective population size.• Methods: We contrasted the genetic diversity and structure of C. papaya between wild populations from rainforest fragments and continuous forest at Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. We evaluated recent migration rates among populations as well as landscape resistance to gene flow. Finally, we calculated the sex ratio of the populations in both habitats.• Key results: Populations of wild papaya in rainforest fragments showed lower genetic diversity and higher population differentiation than populations in continuous rainforest. Estimates of recent migration rates showed a higher percentage of migrants moving from the continuous forest to the forest fragments than in the opposite direction. Agricultural land and cattle pasture were found to be the most resistant matrices to gene flow. Finally, biased sex ratios were seen to affect the effective population size in both habitats.• Conclusions: The mating system, rarity, and short life cycle of C. papaya are exacerbating the effects of rainforest fragmentation on its genetic diversity, threatening the persistence of its natural populations in the proposed place of origin as well as its genetic reservoir.

  14. Stability and efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells based on papaya-leaf dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyitno, Suyitno; Saputra, Trisma Jaya; Supriyanto, Agus; Arifin, Zainal

    2015-09-01

    The present article reports on the enhancement of the performance and stability of natural dye-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Natural dyes extracted from papaya leaves (PL) were investigated as sensitizers in TiO2-based DSSCs and evaluated in comparison with N719 dye. The acidity of the papaya-leaf extract dyes was tuned by adding benzoic acid. The TiO2 film-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates were prepared using the doctor-blade method, followed by sintering at 450 °C. The counter electrode was coated by chemically deposited catalytic platinum. The working electrodes were immersed in N719 dye and papaya dye solutions with concentrations of 8 g/100 mL. The absorbance spectra of the dyes were obtained by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy. The energy levels of the dyes were measured by the method of cyclic voltammetry. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to determine the characteristic functionalities of the dye molecules. The DSSC based on the N719 dye displayed a highest efficiency of 0.87% whereas those based on papaya-leaf dye achieved 0.28% at pH 3.5. The observed improved efficiency of the latter was attributed to the increased current density value. Furthermore, the DSSCs based on papaya-leaf dye with pH 3.5-4 exhibited better stability than those based on N719 dye. However, further studies are required to improve the current density and stability of natural dye-based DSSCs, including the investigation of alternative dye extraction routes, such as isolating the pure chlorophyll from papaya leaves and stabilizing it.

  15. Cytogenetics of Chilean angiosperms: Advances and prospects Citogenética de angiospermas chilenas: Avances y proyecciones

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    PEDRO JARA-SEGUEL

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic data on Chilean angiosperms have been reported since at least eight decades ago; however, much of this information is disperse in diverse sources and is not readily available as a comprehensive document that allows having a general vision on advances and gaps in this matter. The goal of this paper is to summarize the advances and prospets on cytogenetic studies of the Chilean angiosperms based on compiled publications from 1929 to 2010. We found 78 publications supplied by four groups of Chilean researchers and some foreign specialists. Cytogenetic data have been reported for 139 Chilean angiosperm species (2.8 % of the total, which belong to 58 genera and 34 families. During 2001-2010 there was an increase in the number of publications, being available 40 reports including 95 additional species. Based on these data, we hope that such a trend can be maintained in the next decade if the current research groups and young specialists continue to be interested in the study of native plants.Los datos citogenéticos sobre angiospermas chilenas han sido reportados desde al menos ocho décadas atrás; sin embargo, mucha de esta información está dispersa en diversas fuentes y no está disponible como un documento completo que permita tener una visión general sobre los avances y vacíos en esta materia. El objetivo de este trabajo es resumir los avances y proyecciones sobre los estudios citogenéticos disponibles para angiospermas chilenas, basado en publicaciones recopiladas desde 1929 hasta el 2010. Nosotros encontramos 78 publicaciones aportadas por cuatro grupos de investigadores chilenos y por algunos especialistas extranjeros. Datos citogenéticos han sido reportados para 139 especies de angiospermas chilenas (2.8 % del total, las cuales pertenecen a 58 géneros y 34 familias. Durante los años 2001-2010, existió un incremento en el número de publicaciones estando disponibles 40 reportes que incluyen 95 especies adicionales. Basados

  16. Scarabaeidae family species in the Carica papaya L. in Ciego de Ávila

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    Maria Luisa Sisne Luis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A white light trap was placed in Carica papaya L. plantations, as Sisne, 2009 and MINAG, 1985 establishes, in the Citric Enterprise of Ciego de Ávila during the period between º May and July of 2010 with the objective of determining the composition of genus and species of the order Coleoptera family Scarabaeidae associated to the agroecosystem. The species. Cyclocephala cubana Chapin, Anomala calceata Chev. y Phyllophaga crenaticollis Blanch are associated to Carica papaya L. crops in these areas.

  17. Papaya extract to treat dengue: a novel therapeutic option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarala, N; Paknikar, Ss

    2014-05-01

    Dengue is a viral disease that today affects a vast number of people in over 125 countries and is responsible for a sizable number of deaths. In the absence of an effective antiviral drug to treat the disease, various treatments are being investigated. Studies have indicated that the juice of the leaves of the Carica papaya plant from the family Caricaceae could help to increase the platelet levels in these patients. This review describes some of the published studies on this topic. The search was done independently by the two authors using PubMed, Google and the library database and included relevant articles of the last 10 years. A total of 7 studies were included in this review, which were one animal study, one case report, three case series and two randomized controlled trials. Although many of the studies and case reports published in literature lack adequate information, some of the studies do raise the possibility that this treatment could be an important option in the future. Further large-scale studies could establish the usefulness or ineffectiveness of this natural product in the treatment of dengue. PMID:24971201

  18. Label-free quantitative proteomics reveals differentially regulated proteins in the latex of sticky diseased Carica papaya L. plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Silas P; Ventura, José A; Aguilar, Clemente; Nakayasu, Ernesto S; Choi, HyungWon; Sobreira, Tiago J P; Nohara, Lilian L; Wermelinger, Luciana S; Almeida, Igor C; Zingali, Russolina B; Fernandes, Patricia M B

    2012-06-18

    Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is so far the only described laticifer-infecting virus, the causal agent of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sticky disease. The effects of PMeV on the laticifers' regulatory network were addressed here through the proteomic analysis of papaya latex. Using both 1-DE- and 1D-LC-ESI-MS/MS, 160 unique papaya latex proteins were identified, representing 122 new proteins in the latex of this plant. Quantitative analysis by normalized spectral counting revealed 10 down-regulated proteins in the latex of diseased plants, 9 cysteine proteases (chymopapain) and 1 latex serine proteinase inhibitor. A repression of papaya latex proteolytic activity during PMeV infection was hypothesized. This was further confirmed by enzymatic assays that showed a reduction of cysteine-protease-associated proteolytic activity in the diseased papaya latex. These findings are discussed in the context of plant responses against pathogens and may greatly contribute to understand the roles of laticifers in plant stress responses.

  19. Label-free quantitative proteomics reveals differentially regulated proteins in the latex of sticky diseased Carica papaya L. plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Silas P; Ventura, José A; Aguilar, Clemente; Nakayasu, Ernesto S; Choi, HyungWon; Sobreira, Tiago J P; Nohara, Lilian L; Wermelinger, Luciana S; Almeida, Igor C; Zingali, Russolina B; Fernandes, Patricia M B

    2012-06-18

    Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is so far the only described laticifer-infecting virus, the causal agent of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sticky disease. The effects of PMeV on the laticifers' regulatory network were addressed here through the proteomic analysis of papaya latex. Using both 1-DE- and 1D-LC-ESI-MS/MS, 160 unique papaya latex proteins were identified, representing 122 new proteins in the latex of this plant. Quantitative analysis by normalized spectral counting revealed 10 down-regulated proteins in the latex of diseased plants, 9 cysteine proteases (chymopapain) and 1 latex serine proteinase inhibitor. A repression of papaya latex proteolytic activity during PMeV infection was hypothesized. This was further confirmed by enzymatic assays that showed a reduction of cysteine-protease-associated proteolytic activity in the diseased papaya latex. These findings are discussed in the context of plant responses against pathogens and may greatly contribute to understand the roles of laticifers in plant stress responses. PMID:22465191

  20. Confesiones subalternas: subjetivación, relato y culpa en tres novelas argentinas y chilenas de la posdictadura

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    Macarena Areco

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo intento elaborar una reflexión acerca del régimen de repartición de culpas y de exención de responsabilidad en la posdictadura, a partir de la pregunta acerca de quiénes son los sujetos que se confiesan en algunas obras narrativas recientes. Para ello analizo tres novelas argentinas y chilenas - Ciencias morales (2007 de Martín Kohan, La vida doble (2010 de Arturo Fontaine y Carne de perra (2009 de Fátima Sime- protagonizadas por mujeres, que, de manera más o menos obligada o más o menos voluntaria, asumieron labores represivas e incluso criminales, en los setenta y ochenta en sus países.

  1. “Masonología chilena. O la porfiada memoria institucional de una élite decimonónica”

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    Felipe Santiago del Solar Guajardo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo busca analizar la estructura argumental de la historiografía masónica chilena. Para ello, se analizan los dos trabajos más importantes que se han escrito al respecto. Como hipótesis, planteamos que la historia de la francmasonería en Chile surge de diversas tradiciones, de donde destacan el proceso conflictual con la Iglesia católica, que la provee de un lenguaje para autodefinirse, y su doble naturaleza (latina y británica, que la obliga a través de la historia a legitimar su particularidad institucional y su participación pública.

  2. Interculturalidad y ciencias de la educación en lengua de señas chilena

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    Carolina-Alejandra-de-Lourdes Becerra-Sepúlveda

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Los paradigmas de intervención orales para la cultura sorda afectan la percepción sobre la lengua de señas Chilena . Esto provoca debates emanados de una subvaloración, dadas sus particularidades visuales: iconicidad e isomorfismo, subvaloración nacida de una incomprensión en la lectura de investigaciones internacionales (por escasez de estudios nacionales, especialmente acerca del lenguaje corporeizado. Esto se contradice con nuevas investigaciones en psicolingüística cognitiva acer-ca de embodied cognition . El abordaje de la LSCh a partir de nuevas teorías atraviesa la interculturalidad y educación a fin de proponerse la metáfora de “la cultura en el cuerpo” como modalidad de estudio contemporáneo.

  3. Análisis de la política de pago de dividendos en empresas chilenas

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    MAURICIO GUTIÉRREZ URZÚA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la tasa de pago de dividendos de las empresas chilenas, considerando aspectos como el pago de dividendos obligatorios, la fuerte concentración de la propiedad, las oportunidades de crecimiento y la presencia de inversionistas institucionales. La investigación se realizó para el período 2001 a 2007, a través de regresiones lineales múltiples, con selección de variables mediante el criterio de stepwise y estimación de parámetros a través de máxima verosimilitud, en donde se encontró evidencia de la utilización de la tasa de pago de dividendos para entregar información sobre los proyectos futuros de la empresa y el tratamiento justo de los accionistas. También se destaca el control ejercido por los inversionistas institucionales.

  4. La familia Hemiaulaceae (Bacillariophyceae de las aguas marinas chilenas The family Hemiaulaceae (Bacillariophyceae from marine Chilean waters

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    PATRICIO RIVERA

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available La familia Hemiaulaceae comprende cuatro géneros, señalados previamente para las aguas chilenas con las siguientes especies: Cerataulina pelagica (Cleve Hendey, Hemiaulus sinensis Greville, H. membranaceus Cleve, Climacodium biconcavum Cleve, Eucampia antarctica (Castracane Mangin, E. cornuta (Cleve Grunow y E. zodiacus Ehrenberg. Sin embargo, el análisis con microscopía fotónica y electrónica de muestras recolectadas en aguas marinas chilenas que contenían representantes de esta familia (incluyendo la mayoría de aquellas estudiadas anteriormente por otros investigadores nacionales reveló que (1 el género Cerataulina está representado por C. pelagica, distribuida a lo largo de la costa chilena entre Arica por el norte y el Estrecho de Magallanes por el sur, (2 el género Eucampia está representado por cuatro taxa: E. zodiacus f. cylindrocornis Syvertsen (señalada en trabajos anteriores como E. zodiacus f. zodiacus, E. zodiacus f. recta Rivera. Avaria & Cruces f. nov. (descrita aquí, E. cornuta y E. antarctica. Los primeros tres taxa se distribuyen en la zona central y norte de Chile, mientras que E. antarctica es propia de las aguas antárticas desde el Estrecho de Magallanes al sur, (3 las citas anteriores de Hemiaulus sinensis, H. membranaceus y Climacodium biconcavum para las aguas chilenas corresponden a determinaciones erróneas de Eucampia zodiacus f. recta, f. nov. Se entregan descripciones de los taxa encontrados y fotografías obtenidas con los microscopios fotónico y electrónicos que ilustran sus principales características morfológicasThe Family Hemiaulaceae comprises four genera, all of which have been previously reported for coastal waters off Chile, and represented by the following taxa: Cerataulina pelagica (Cleve Hendey, Hemiaulus sinensis Greville, H. membranaceus Cleve, Climacodium biconcavum Cleve, Eucampia antarctica (Castracane Mangin, E. cornuta (Cleve Grunow and E. zodiacus Ehrenberg. However, examination

  5. Transcriptome Profiling Revealed Stress-Induced and Disease Resistance Genes Up-Regulated in PRSV Resistant Transgenic Papaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jingping; Lin, Aiting; Qiu, Weijing; Cai, Hanyang; Umar, Muhammad; Chen, Rukai; Ming, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Papaya is a productive and nutritious tropical fruit. Papaya Ringspot Virus (PRSV) is the most devastating pathogen threatening papaya production worldwide. Development of transgenic resistant varieties is the most effective strategy to control this disease. However, little is known about the genome-wide functional changes induced by particle bombardment transformation. We conducted transcriptome sequencing of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya SunUp and its PRSV susceptible progenitor Sunset to compare the transcriptional changes in young healthy leaves prior to infection with PRSV. In total, 20,700 transcripts were identified, and 842 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) randomly distributed among papaya chromosomes. Gene ontology (GO) category analysis revealed that microtubule-related categories were highly enriched among these DEGs. Numerous DEGs related to various transcription factors, transporters and hormone biosynthesis showed clear differences between the two cultivars, and most were up-regulated in transgenic papaya. Many known and novel stress-induced and disease-resistance genes were most highly expressed in SunUp, including MYB, WRKY, ERF, NAC, nitrate and zinc transporters, and genes involved in the abscisic acid, salicylic acid, and ethylene signaling pathways. We also identified 67,686 alternative splicing (AS) events in Sunset and 68,455 AS events in SunUp, mapping to 10,994 and 10,995 papaya annotated genes, respectively. GO enrichment for the genes displaying AS events exclusively in Sunset was significantly different from those in SunUp. Transcriptomes in Sunset and transgenic SunUp are very similar with noteworthy differences, which increased PRSV-resistance in transgenic papaya. No detrimental pathways and allergenic or toxic proteins were induced on a genome-wide scale in transgenic SunUp. Our results provide a foundation for unraveling the mechanism of PRSV resistance in transgenic papaya. PMID:27379138

  6. DEL MALTRATO AL UXORICIDIO. LA VIOLENCIA «PUERTAS ADENTRO» EN LA ALDEA CHILENA TRADICIONAL (Siglo XIX

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    René Salinas Meza

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pone de manifiesto el contexto en el cual las mujeres chilenas de las aldeas del siglo XIX son víctimas de diversos tipos de agresiones físicas, directas e indirectas, y psicológicas. Las conductas violentas de los agresores son explicadas en el marco de una comunidad que las reconoce como un componente habitual de la vida cotidiana. Así, se delimitan espacios específicos en los que se desenvuelven las relaciones de la gente, tales como el mundo urbano de la aldea y el mundo doméstico de la casa. En ambos, las personas construyen redes colectivas de solidaridad y fraternidad; pero, al mismo tiempo, desarrollan relaciones de competencia que son generadoras de roces y agresiones que ilustran la sociabilidad y el parentesco. Por otra parte, las mujeres agredidas confundieron a menudo la agresión con la aceptación de la autoridad masculina que permitía suponer la existencia de un matrimonio socialmente aceptado y cotidianamente bien llevado. La actitud de rebeldía femenina chocaba con el rechazo social y el ejercicio de un poder marital que se expresaba en conductas agresivas. Así, las relaciones en la pareja no fueron entre iguales, sino jerárquicas, imponiendo a las mujeres un rol subordinado y dependiente frente a los hombres, los que, a su vez, ostentaban la autoridad suficiente para controlarlas y castigarlas. Con la ayuda documental de un abundante número de expedientes judiciales se intenta comprender y explicar las conductas que asumen hombres y mujeres en la relación familiar desarrollada en las aldeas chilenas del siglo XIX.

  7. Purification and characterization of a papaya (Carica papaya L.) pectin methylesterase isolated from a commercial papain preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasu, Prasanna; Savary, Brett J; Cameron, Randall G

    2012-07-15

    We purified a Carica papaya pectin methylesterase (CpL-PME; EC 3.1.1.11) from a commercial papain preparation. This CpL-PME was separated from the abundant cysteine endopeptidases activities using sequential hydrophobic interaction and cation-exchange chromatographies and then purified by affinity chromatography using Sepharose-immobilized kiwi PME inhibitor protein to obtain a single electrophoretically homogeneous protein. The enzyme was purified 92-fold with 38% yield, providing a specific activity of 1200 U/mg. The molecular weight was determined to be 35,135 by MALDI-TOF-MS in linear mode. MALDI-TOF-MS peptide mass fingerprinting following trypsin digestion indicated CpL-PME represents a novel Carica PME isoform. The CpL-PME required salt for activity, and it showed a broad activity range (pH 6-9) and moderate thermostability (optimum ca. 70°C). A calcium-insensitive methylated lime pectin treated with CpL-PME to reduce degree of methylesterification by 6% converted the substrate to high calcium sensitivity, indicating a processive mode of action. These properties support further research to apply CpL-PME to tailor pectin nanostructure.

  8. Antihyperglycaemic effects of ethanol extracts of Carica papaya and Pandanus amaryfollius leaf in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Sumathi, Vello; Jegathambigai, Naidu Rameshwar; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga

    2011-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a global disease that is increasing in an alarming rate. The present study was undertaken to study the antidiabetic effect of the ethanol extracts of Carica papaya and Pandanus amaryfollius on streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. The results of the present study indicated that there was no significant difference in the body weight of the treated groups when compared to diabetic control. Whereas, there was significant (P papaya and P. amaryfollius. The antidiabetic effect of C. papaya and P. amaryfollius observed in the present study may be due to the presence of these phytochemicals.

  9. Antihyperglycaemic effects of ethanol extracts of Carica papaya and Pandanus amaryfollius leaf in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Sumathi, Vello; Jegathambigai, Naidu Rameshwar; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga

    2011-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a global disease that is increasing in an alarming rate. The present study was undertaken to study the antidiabetic effect of the ethanol extracts of Carica papaya and Pandanus amaryfollius on streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. The results of the present study indicated that there was no significant difference in the body weight of the treated groups when compared to diabetic control. Whereas, there was significant (P papaya and P. amaryfollius. The antidiabetic effect of C. papaya and P. amaryfollius observed in the present study may be due to the presence of these phytochemicals. PMID:21707251

  10. Valorization of agroindustrial wastes: Identification by LC-MS and NMR of benzylglucosinolate from papaya (Carica papaya L.) seeds, a protective agent against lipid oxidation in edible oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Vargas, Henry I; Baumann, Wolfram; Parada-Alfonso, Fabián

    2016-07-01

    In the present study we report the characterization of benzylglucosinolate (BG) isolated from papaya (Carica papaya L.) seeds. A methanolic extract was fractionated and further purified by solid phase extraction (SPE). It was analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H and (13) C-NMR) as well, and the target compound BG was identified by these two techniques. The effect of BG on lipid oxidation in edible vegetable oil (EO) was shown by observing some lipid oxidation products (linoleic acid hydroperoxides, LHP; hexanal, HEX; nonanal, NON; thiobarbituric acid reactives species, TBARS). BG reduced lipid oxidation production in EO by over 80%, as compared to a control sample and in this way has proved to be a useful antioxidant, even more effective than some antioxidants used by food industry. PMID:26756135

  11. Valorization of agroindustrial wastes: Identification by LC-MS and NMR of benzylglucosinolate from papaya (Carica papaya L.) seeds, a protective agent against lipid oxidation in edible oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Vargas, Henry I; Baumann, Wolfram; Parada-Alfonso, Fabián

    2016-07-01

    In the present study we report the characterization of benzylglucosinolate (BG) isolated from papaya (Carica papaya L.) seeds. A methanolic extract was fractionated and further purified by solid phase extraction (SPE). It was analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H and (13) C-NMR) as well, and the target compound BG was identified by these two techniques. The effect of BG on lipid oxidation in edible vegetable oil (EO) was shown by observing some lipid oxidation products (linoleic acid hydroperoxides, LHP; hexanal, HEX; nonanal, NON; thiobarbituric acid reactives species, TBARS). BG reduced lipid oxidation production in EO by over 80%, as compared to a control sample and in this way has proved to be a useful antioxidant, even more effective than some antioxidants used by food industry.

  12. Caracterización de accesiones de papaya (Carica papaya L. a través de marcadores AFLP en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruchi Alonso Esquivel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Los marcadores moleculares son herramientas valiosas en los estudios genéticos en plantas, y están siendo empleados exitosamente en programas de mejoramiento principalmente en la elección de progenitores y en la selección. El polimorfismo observado mediante la técnica molecular AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism ha sido de utilidad para estudios de diversidad genética en frutales. En el presente trabajo se realizó la caracterización molecular de 12 accesiones de papaya (Carica papaya L. del banco de germoplasma del Instituto de Investigaciones en Fruticultura Tropical (IIFT, empleando la técnica AFLP. Se evaluaron seis combinaciones de iniciadores para la amplificación selectiva, las cuales amplificaron un total de 431 bandas con 73,3% de polimorfismo. El número total de patrones de bandas identificados fue igual en todas las combinaciones utilizadas, con un porcentaje de identificación alto, lo que sugiere que dichas combinaciones pudieran ser empleadas para estudios de variabilidad genética en papaya. En general, los resultados presentados demuestran que existe diversidad genética entre las accesiones evaluadas, lo cual constituye un reflejo del origen que presentan los genotipos analizados a partir de la introducción de materiales foráneos y la polinización abierta de un grupo de materiales selectos. Por tanto, se recomienda retomar la prospección y selección de accesiones locales, así como la introducción de nuevos genotipos foráneos, como dos vías fundamentales para aumentar la diversidad genética presente en el banco de germoplasma de papaya de Cuba. Palabras clave: marcadores moleculares, polimorfismo, diversidad genética.

  13. Gastroprotective and Anti-ulcer activity of Aloe vera juice, Papaya fruit juice and Aloe vera and Papaya fruit combined juice in Ethanol induced Ulcerated Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. S. Gopinathan; D. Naveenraj

    2013-01-01

    Peptic ulcer is the most prevalent gastrointestinal disease. Even though a wide range of drugs are available for the treatment of peptic ulcer, but many of these do not fulfill all the requirements and have side effects. These factors have attracted researchers to investigate the natural products which have more efficacy, less side effects and less expensive for the treatment of peptic ulcer disease. In the present study the anti ulcer activity of (1) Aloe vera juice, (2) papaya fruit juice (...

  14. Estudio de la conservación de la papaya (Carica papaya L. asociado a la aplicación de películas comestibles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Almeida Castro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Brasil es un importante productor de papaya, pero sólo una pequeña parte se exporta. Esta fruta es altamente perecedera, por lo que el control de la maduración es esencial para aumentar la vida útil, tanto para el mercado interno como para la exportación. Una alternativa que ha cobrado impulso en el mercado es el uso de películas comestibles biodegradables, entre ellas la película producida a partir de almidón de yuca. En este estudio se evaluó el efecto de una película de almidón de yuca (2 % sobre la papaya almacenadas a temperatura ambiental (25 ± 2 ºC y a 8 °C, y 82 % de humedad relativa durante 6 días de almacenamiento. Se realizaron análisis de pérdida de peso, color, pH, acidez, carotenoides totales, vitamina C y sólidos solubles totales, cada tres días de almacenamiento. La película comestible de almidón de yuca resultó ser una buena alternativa para la preservación de la papaya durante seis días de almacenamiento, en relación a los parámetros pH, grados Brix, acidez y carotenoides.

  15. Estudio de la conservación de la papaya (Carica papaya L. asociado a la aplicación de películas comestibles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Almeida Castro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Brasil es un importante productor de papaya, pero sólo una pequeña parte se exporta. Esta fruta es altamente perecedera, por lo que el control de la maduración es esencial para aumentar la vida útil, tanto para el mercado interno como para la exportación. Una alternativa que ha cobrado impulso en el mercado es el uso de películas comestibles biodegradables, entre ellas la película producida a partir de almidón de yuca. En este estudio se evaluó el efecto de una película de almidón de yuca (2 % sobre la papaya almacenadas a temperatura ambiental (25 ± 2 ºC y a 8 °C, y 82 % de humedad relativa durante 6 días de almacenamiento. Se realizaron análisis de pérdida de peso, color, pH, acidez, carotenoides totales, vitamina C y sólidos solubles totales, cada tres días de almacenamiento. La película comestible de almidón de yuca resultó ser una buena alternativa para la preservación de la papaya durante seis días de almacenamiento, en relación a los parámetros pH, grados Brix, acidez y carotenoides.

  16. Low-dose gamma irradiation following hot water immersion of papaya (Carica papaya linn.) fruits provides additional control of postharvest fungal infection to extend shelf life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, M. H. A.; Grout, B. W. W.; Continella, A.; Mahmud, T. M. M.

    2015-05-01

    Low-dose gamma irradiation (0.08 kGy over 10 min), a level significantly below that required to satisfy the majority of international quarantine regulations, has been employed to provide a significant reduction in visible fungal infection on papaya fruit surfaces. This is appropriate for local and national markets in producer countries where levels of commercial acceptability can be retained despite surface lesions due to fungal infection. Irradiation alone and in combination with hot-water immersion (50 °C for 10 min) has been applied to papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruits at both the mature green and 1/3 yellow stages of maturity. The incidence and severity of surface fungal infections, including anthracnose, were significantly reduced by the combined treatment compared to irradiation or hot water treatment alone, extending storage at 11 °C by 13 days and retaining commercial acceptability. The combined treatment had no significant, negative impact on ripening, with quality characteristics such as surface and internal colour change, firmness, soluble solids, acidity and vitamin C maintained at acceptable levels.

  17. Potencial antifúngico de extractos de cuatro especies vegetales sobre el crecimiento de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides en papaya (Carica papaya en poscosecha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Landero Valenzuela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El manejo de antracnosis por Colletotrichum gloeosporioides es el problema más importante en poscosecha de frutos tropicales. La actividad antifúngica de diferentes extractos vegetales fue evaluada in vitro e in vivo para controlar la antracnosis poscosecha en papaya. Extractos de ajo (Allium sativum (10 y 15 % y canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum (0,0050; 0,0100; 0,0150 % mostraron efecto fungicida en contra de C. gloeosporioides para supresión de crecimiento micelial (100 %, inhibición de germinación (100 % y esporulación del hongo (100 %, considerándose estos extractos como los más promisorios para inhibir el desarrollo del hongo in vitro. Estudios in vivo también revelaron que los extracto de ajo (11,74 % y canela a dosis de 0,0054 % aplicada antes y al mismo tiempo de la inoculación con C. gloeosporioides, fueron las dosis óptimas para el control (severidad de la antracnosis en frutos de papaya artificialmente inoculados, mientras que a mayores dosis la severidad aumentó. La variable fitotoxicidad arrojó resultados consistentes con lo anterior, comprobándose que al aumentar las dosis de extracto de canela se presentó cambio de color en los frutos. Los resultados sugieren la posibilidad de usar estos extractos a dosis adecuadas como biofungicidas para controlar antracnosis en papaya en poscosecha.

  18. Chemical and morphological characterization of Costa Rican papaya (Carica papaya L.) hybrids and lines with particular focus on their genuine carotenoid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiggert, Ralf M; Steingass, Christof B; Esquivel, Patricia; Carle, Reinhold

    2012-03-14

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) F1 hybrids and inbred lines grown in Costa Rica were screened for morphological and nutritionally relevant fruit traits. The qualitative composition of carotenoids showed great similarity, being mostly composed of free and esterified β-cryptoxanthins accompanied by β-carotene, lycopene, and biosynthetic precursors. High levels of (all-E)-lycopene and its isomers were distinctive for red-fleshed hybrids, whereas yellow-fleshed fruits were virtually devoid of lycopenes. Because carotenoid levels among the investigated hybrids and lines differed significantly, this study supports the hypothesis of an exploitable genetic variability, and a potential heterotic effect regarding carotenoid expression may be instrumental in papaya-breeding programs. Due to significantly higher levels of provitamin A carotenoids and coinciding high levels of total lycopene, particularly red-fleshed hybrids might represent prospective sources of these compounds. Furthermore, the nutritional value of some genotypes was boosted by substantial amounts of ascorbic acid (up to 73 mg/100 g of fresh weight), which correlated to total soluble solids (R(2) = 0.86).

  19. Potencial antifúngico de extractos de cuatro especies vegetales sobre el crecimiento de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides en papaya (Carica papaya en poscosecha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Landero Valenzuela

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El manejo de antracnosis por Colletotrichum gloeosporioides es el problema más importante en poscosecha de frutos tropicales. La actividad antifúngica de diferentes extractos vegetales fue evaluada in vitro e in vivo para controlar la antracnosis poscosecha en papaya. Extractos de ajo (Allium sativum (10 y 15 % y canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum (0,0050; 0,0100; 0,0150 % mostraron efecto fungicida en contra de C. gloeosporioides para supresión de crecimiento micelial (100 %, inhibición de germinación (100 % y esporulación del hongo (100 %, considerándose estos extractos como los más promisorios para inhibir el desarrollo del hongo in vitro. Estudios in vivo también revelaron que los extracto de ajo (11,74 % y canela a dosis de 0,0054 % aplicada antes y al mismo tiempo de la inoculación con C. gloeosporioides, fueron las dosis óptimas para el control (severidad de la antracnosis en frutos de papaya artificialmente inoculados, mientras que a mayores dosis la severidad aumentó. La variable fitotoxicidad arrojó resultados consistentes con lo anterior, comprobándose que al aumentar las dosis de extracto de canela se presentó cambio de color en los frutos. Los resultados sugieren la posibilidad de usar estos extractos a dosis adecuadas como biofungicidas para controlar antracnosis en papaya en poscosecha.

  20. Resistance of non-transgenic papaya plants to papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) mediated by intron-containing hairpin dsRNAs expressed in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, W; Yang, G; Chen, Y; Yan, P; Tuo, D; Li, X; Zhou, P

    2014-01-01

    RNA-mediated virus resistance based on natural antiviral RNA silencing has been exploited as a powerful tool for engineering virus resistance in plants. In this study, a conserved 3'-region (positions 9839-10117, 279 nt) of the capsid protein (CP) gene of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), designated CP279, was used to generate an intron-containing hairpin RNA (ihpRNA) construct by one-step, zero-background ligation-independent cloning (OZ-LIC). The RNaseIII-deficient Escherichia coli strain M-JM109lacY was identified as the best choice for producing large quantities of specific ihpRNA-CP279. Resistance analyses and ELISA data verified that most papaya plants mechanically co-inoculated with TRIzol-extracted ihpRNA-CP279 and PRSV were resistant to PRSV, and resistance was maintained throughout the test period (>2 months post-inoculation). In contrast, a 1-2 day interval between sequential inoculation of PRSV and ihpRNA-CP279 did not result in complete protection against PRSV infection, but delayed the appearance of viral symptoms by 3 to 4 days. These findings indicate that direct mechanical inoculation of papaya plants with bacterially-expressed ihpRNA-CP279 targeting the PRSV CP gene can interfere with virus infection. This work lays a foundation for developing a non-transgenic approach to control PRSV by directly spraying plants with ihpRNA or crude bacterial extract preparations. PMID:25283861

  1. Chemical Characterization and in Vitro Cytotoxicity on Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells of Carica Papaya Leaf Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thao T. Nguyen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In traditional medicine, Carica papaya leaf has been used for a wide range of therapeutic applications including skin diseases and cancer. In this study, we investigated the in vitro cytotoxicity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Carica papaya leaves on the human oral squamous cell carcinoma SCC25 cell line in parallel with non-cancerous human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Two out of four extracts showed a significantly selective effect towards the cancer cells and were found to contain high levels of phenolic and flavonoid compounds. The chromatographic and mass spectrometric profiles of the extracts obtained with Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry were used to tentatively identify the bioactive compounds using comparative analysis. The principal compounds identified were flavonoids or flavonoid glycosides, particularly compounds from the kaempferol and quercetin families, of which several have previously been reported to possess anticancer activities. These results confirm that papaya leaf is a potential source of anticancer compounds and warrant further scientific investigation to validate the traditional use of papaya leaf to treat cancer.

  2. THE ROLE OF PAPAYA DRESSINGS IN THE MAN AGEMENT OF DIABETIC FOOT ULCERS: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

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    Bapurapu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES : To determine the role of grated papaya fruit dressings in the management of diabetic foot ulcers. STUDY DESIGN: In our study, all the patients with diabetic foot ulcers (n=94 were included. The initial management was control of hyperglycemia, surgical debridement, ant ibiotics and then wound care with the help of grated papaya dressings. In this study, dressings were changed every 24 hours. The wound was considered healthy, when it was covered with healthy granulation tissue and had epithelial growth on wound edges. RES ULTS: In this study, results reveal that majority (83.0% of the patients were male. Among them, surgical debridement was done for sixty three patients (67.2% and thirty one patients (33.8% required amputation. After the initial surgical debridement papaya dr essings were needed in about 89.0%. Six patients (7% needed further surgical debridement and four (4.0% required amputations. Duration of healing was 17 to 28 days. Mean healing period was 21.56 days. CONCLUSION: Topical grated papaya dressings provide g ood enzymatic wound debridement. It is cost effective, reduces the duration of healing time, number of surgical debridements required and reduces the incidence of amputation

  3. Biodiesel Production by Enzymatic Transesterification of Papaya Seed Oil and Rambutan Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Wong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel production from vegetable oil has gained attention as an alternative fuel to minimize the usage of fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gases pollution. In Malaysia, oils from local fruit seeds of papaya and rambutan are potential feedstock for biodiesel production due to their high lipid contents and easily available. In the present study, papaya and rambutan seed oils were extracted via soxhlet apparatus using n-hexane and the oil yields were in between 34–40%. The extracted oils were subjected to enzymatic transesterification by the immobilized Candida rugosa lipase as a catalyst under room temperature with varies molar ratios of methanol to oil. The highest biodiesel yield for papaya seed oil and rambutan seed oil was found to be 96% and 89% at methanol-to-oil ratios of 6:1 and 8:1, respectively. Results also showed a higher biodiesel yield using lipase immobilized on the magnetic particles as the heterogeneous catalyst compared to the yield obtained using free enzyme as the homogeneous catalyst. The properties of biodiesel such as density, acid value, iodine value and cetane number were analyzed and found to meet the European Standard of Biodiesel. The study shows that papaya and rambutan seed oils have the potential to be used as alternative feedstock for biodiesel production than the full dependence on palm oil in Malaysia.

  4. Molecular and Clinical Effects of Green Tea and Fermented Papaya Preparation on Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-14

    Assess the Effect of Green Tea on Diabetes; Assess the Effect of Fermented Papaya Pretration on Diabetes; Effects of Green Tea and FPP on C-reactive Proteins; Effects of Green Tea and FPP of Lipid Profiles in Diabetes; Effect of Green Tea and FPP on Atheroma Formation

  5. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of the glutaminyl cyclase from Carica papaya latex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azarkan, Mohamed [Laboratoire de Chimie Générale I, Faculté de Médecine-ULB CP609, 808 Route de Lennik, B-1070 Brussels (Belgium); Clantin, Bernard; Bompard, Coralie [CNRS-UMR 8525, Institut de Biologie de Lille, BP 477, 1 Rue du Professeur Calmette, F-59021 Lille (France); Belrhali, Hassan [EMBL Grenoble Outstation, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, BP 181, F-38042 Grenoble CEDEX 9 (France); Baeyens-Volant, Danielle [Laboratoire de Chimie Générale I, Faculté de Médecine-ULB CP609, 808 Route de Lennik, B-1070 Brussels (Belgium); Looze, Yvan [Laboratoire de Chimie Générale, Institut de Pharmacie-ULB CP206/04, Boulevard du Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Villeret, Vincent, E-mail: vincent.villeret@ibl.fr [CNRS-UMR 8525, Institut de Biologie de Lille, BP 477, 1 Rue du Professeur Calmette, F-59021 Lille (France); Wintjens, René, E-mail: vincent.villeret@ibl.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie Générale, Institut de Pharmacie-ULB CP206/04, Boulevard du Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Laboratoire de Chimie Générale I, Faculté de Médecine-ULB CP609, 808 Route de Lennik, B-1070 Brussels (Belgium)

    2005-01-01

    The glutaminyl cyclase isolated from C. papaya latex has been crystallized using the hanging-drop method. Diffraction data have been collected at ESRF beamline BM14 and processed to 1.7 Å resolution. In living systems, the intramolecular cyclization of N-terminal glutamine residues is accomplished by glutaminyl cyclase enzymes (EC 2.3.2.5). While in mammals these enzymes are involved in the synthesis of hormonal and neurotransmitter peptides, the physiological role played by the corresponding plant enzymes still remains to be unravelled. Papaya glutaminyl cyclase (PQC), a 33 kDa enzyme found in the latex of the tropical tree Carica papaya, displays an exceptional resistance to chemical and thermal denaturation as well as to proteolysis. In order to elucidate its enzymatic mechanism and to gain insights into the structural determinants underlying its remarkable stability, PQC was isolated from papaya latex, purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 62.82, b = 81.23, c = 108.17 Å and two molecules per asymmetric unit. Diffraction data have been collected at ESRF beamline BM14 and processed to a resolution of 1.7 Å.

  6. Chemical Characterization and in Vitro Cytotoxicity on Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells of Carica papaya Leaf Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thao T; Parat, Marie-Odile; Hodson, Mark P; Pan, Jenny; Shaw, Paul N; Hewavitharana, Amitha K

    2015-12-24

    In traditional medicine, Carica papaya leaf has been used for a wide range of therapeutic applications including skin diseases and cancer. In this study, we investigated the in vitro cytotoxicity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Carica papaya leaves on the human oral squamous cell carcinoma SCC25 cell line in parallel with non-cancerous human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Two out of four extracts showed a significantly selective effect towards the cancer cells and were found to contain high levels of phenolic and flavonoid compounds. The chromatographic and mass spectrometric profiles of the extracts obtained with Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry were used to tentatively identify the bioactive compounds using comparative analysis. The principal compounds identified were flavonoids or flavonoid glycosides, particularly compounds from the kaempferol and quercetin families, of which several have previously been reported to possess anticancer activities. These results confirm that papaya leaf is a potential source of anticancer compounds and warrant further scientific investigation to validate the traditional use of papaya leaf to treat cancer.

  7. Line 63-1: A New Virus-resistant Transgenic Papaya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tennant, P.; Souza, M.T.; Fitch, M.M.; Manshardt, R.; Slightom, J.L.; Gonsalves, D.

    2005-01-01

    The disease resistance of a transgenic line expressing the coat protein (CP) gene of the mild strain of the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) from Hawaii was further analyzed against PRSV isolates from Hawaii and other geographical regions. Line 63-1 originated from the same transformation experiment tha

  8. Chemical treatment of papaya seeds aiming at long-term storage and control of damping off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia de Carvalho Campos Botelho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Damping off is a nursery disease of great economic importance in papaya and seed treatment may be an effective measure to control. The aim of this work was to evaluate the quality of papaya seeds treated with fungicides and stored under two environmental and packaging conditions. Additionally, the efficiency of fungicide treatments in the control of damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia solani was evaluated. Papaya seeds were treated with the fungicides Captan, Tolylfluanid and the mixture Tolylfluanid + Captan (all commercial wettable powder formulations. Seeds of the control group were not treated. The seeds were stored for nine months in two conditions: packed in aluminum coated paper and kept at 7 ± 1ºC and in permeable kraft paper and kept in non-controlled environment. At the beginning of the storage and every three months the seed quality (germination and vigor tests, emergence rate index, height, dry mass and damping of plants in pre and post-emergence (in contaminated substrate and mycelia-free substrate were analyzed. Both storage conditions as well as the fungicide treatments preserved the germination and seed vigor. In the infested substrate, seedling emergence was favored by fungicides, but in post-emergence, fungicides alone did not control the damping off caused by R. solani. Symptoms of damping off were not observed in the clean substrate. The results showed that the fungicide treatments may be used to pretreat papaya seed for long-term storage and commercialization.

  9. Assessment of the Anti-Protozoal Activity of Crude Carica papaya Seed Extract against Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Y. Acosta-Viana

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the in vivo activity against the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, two doses (50 and 75 mg/kg of a chloroform extract of Carica papaya seeds were evaluated compared with a control group of allopurinol. The activity of a mixture of the three main compounds (oleic, palmitic and stearic acids in a proportion of 45.9% of oleic acid, 24.1% of palmitic and 8.52% of stearic acid previously identified in the crude extract of C. papaya was evaluated at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg. Both doses of the extracts were orally administered for 28 days. A significant reduction (p < 0.05 in the number of blood trypomastigotes was observed in animals treated with the evaluated doses of the C. papaya extract in comparison with the positive control group (allopurinol 8.5 mg/kg. Parasitemia in animals treated with the fatty acids mixture was also significantly reduced (p < 0.05, compared to negative control animals. These results demonstrate that the fatty acids identified in the seed extracts of C. papaya (from ripe fruit are able to reduce the number of parasites from both parasite stages, blood trypomastigote and amastigote (intracellular stage.

  10. Extraction of light filth from whole leaves of alfalfa, lemon balm, papaya, and spearmint: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, M J; Glaze, L E

    1987-01-01

    Results are reported for a collaborative study to extend AOAC method 44.A06-44.A08 to extraction of light filth from whole leaves of alfalfa, lemon balm, papaya, and spearmint. A 5 g (spearmint) or 10 g (alfalfa, lemon balm, papaya) test portion is defatted with isopropanol in a simple reflux apparatus. Rat hairs, insect fragments, and whole insects are isolated by wet sieving on a No. 230 sieve, a deaerating boil in 40% isopropanol, and flotation with mineral oil-heptane (85 + 15) from Tween 80-Na4EDTA (1 + 1) and 40% isopropanol in a Wildman trap flask. Each product was spiked at a different level. For rat hairs, recoveries averaged 82.2% from alfalfa, 88.9% from lemon balm, 80.6% from papaya, and 79.6% from spearmint. Recoveries of whole or equivalent insects from these products averaged 66.1, 218.8, 69.4, and 85.4%, respectively; recoveries of insect fragments from these products averaged 89.6, 94.4, 94.1, and 88.1%, respectively. The method has been adopted official first action for extraction of light filth from whole leaves of alfalfa, papaya, and spearmint. The extension of the method to lemon balm was not recommended because of interferences by intrinsic whole insects, which were the same species as the spike material. PMID:3436916

  11. CADÁVER TUERTO, DE EDUARDO LABARCA EN EL MARCO DE LA "NOVELA HISTÓRICA CHILENA RECIENTE" Corpse, de Eduardo Labarca under The "Historical Novel Recent Chilean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Barraza J

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Cadáver tuerto (2005 anticipa las variaciones del género novelesco en la literatura chilena, privilegiando y contemplando el proceso de la escritura. Labarca parodia en esta novela los cruces entre la ficción, la realidad y la historia, entre la vida y la autobiografía, entre el discurso televisivo, radial y del periodismo escrito, de modo tal que da un notorio giro discursivo a la narrativa chilena de filiación histórica.Cadáver tuerto (2005 anticipates the variations of the novel genre in Chilean literatura, priviledging and contemplating the writing process. Labarca parodies, in this novel, the crossings among fiction and reality, between life and autobiography, between television, radio and written newsprint discourse.

  12. Purification of papain from fresh latex of Carica papaya

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    Rubens Monti

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we wish to report a method of crystallizing papain from fresh papaya latex which gave higher yields than previously reported. This method does not involve the use of sulphydryl reagents. The papain thus obtained is practically pure and shows a single band when submitted to electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel, and is identical to the papain obtained by other methods. In routine enzymatic assays, specific activity was measured using Z-gly-pNP and BAEE as substrates. Papain crystallized by this method, without the use of high concentrations of salts or thiol-containing substances such as cysteine and dithiothreitol, is obtained in the form of a complex with natural inhibitors existent in latex which can be removed by dialysis.No presente trabalho apresenta-se um método de cristalização da papaína oriunda do látex fresco de mamão, o qual apresenta uma alta produtividade em relação aos métodos previamente descritos. A metodologia aqui descrita não envolve o uso de reagentes sulfidrílicos, a papaína foi obtida de forma praticamente pura, apresentando uma simples banda quando submetida a eletroforese, e com propriedades idênticas àquelas obtidas por outros métodos. A atividade específica foi determinada utilizando Z-gly-pNP e BAEE como substrato. A papaína obtida por essa metodologia, sem uso de substâncias tais como cisteína e ditiotreitol, apresenta-se na forma de um complexo com inibidores naturais, os quais podem ser removidos por diálise.

  13. Planting spacing and NK fertilizing on physiological indexes and fruit production of papaya under semiarid climate

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    Eduardo Monteiro Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The nutritional requirements of papaya (Carica papaya L. increase continuously throughout the crop cycle, especially for potassium and nitrogen, which are the most required nutrients and act on plant vital functions such as photosynthetic activity, respiration, transpiration and stomatal regulation. An experiment was conducted from November 2010 to December 2012 to evaluate physiological indexes and fruit production of papaya cv. Caliman-01 as a function of planting spacing and NK fertilizing. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks, with treatments distributed in a factorial arrangement (2 × 4 × 4, using 2 planting spacing [simple rows (3.8 × 2.0 m and double rows (3.8 × 2.0 × 1.8 m], 4 nitrogen doses (320, 400, 480 and 560 g of N per plant-1 and 4 potassium doses (380, 475, 570 and 665 g of K2O per plant-1 with 4 replications of 3 plants each. The following variables were evaluated: leaf area index (LAI, leaf chlorophyll index (a, b and total index, intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (Int.PAR, in µmol∙m-2∙s-1, efficiency use of photosynthetically active radiation (Ef.PAR and fruit yield. The fruit production and physiological characteristics of papaya cv. Caliman-01 depend on planting spacing. Under the soil, climate and plant conditions of this study, 665 g of K2O and 320 g of N per plant under double spacing could be recommended for the production of papaya cv. Caliman-01.

  14. Detection of Papaya ringspot virus type W infecting the cucurbit weed Cucumis melo var. dudaim in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the first report of Papaya ringspot virus type W infecting Cucumis melo var. dudaim, a cucurbit weed, in Florida. It provides an overview of this virus reservoir for growers, extension workers, crop consultants and research and regulatory scientists....

  15. The use of sodium alginate-based coating and cellulose acetate in papaya post-harvest preservation

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    Denise Andrade Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the ripening of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L. at room temperature (±25°C and10°C with 80% relative humidity, coated with edible film based on sodium alginate (1% and cellulose acetate film (3% by dipping the fruit in the suspensions for 1 min. On the application of the treatment and every three days during 12 days of storage, fruit were evaluated for weight loss, firmness, total carotenoid content, lycopene content and vitamin C content of the pulp. The cellulose acetate film extended the shelf-life of papayas, without affecting their quality. This treatment delayed fruit ripening, whose changes in all the parameters analyzed were significantly slower than fruit treated with sodium alginate-based coating. The coating with cellulose acetate at 3% was more effective in the preservation of papaya stored for 12 days under both temperatures.

  16. Green synthesis and antibacterial activity screening of silver nanoparticles reduced by papaya (Carica papaya L.) leaves extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The field of nano technology is the most active area of research in modern material sciences. Though there are many chemical, as well as physical methods, green synthesis is the most emerging method of synthesis. This study aimed to describe a cost effective and environment friendly technique for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles was prepared by adding Carica papaya L. leaves extract to 1mM silver nitrate solution. The color change in reaction mixture (pale yellow to dark brown color was observed during the incubation period , due to excitation of surface plasmon vibrations in silver nanoparticles. Nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) pattern, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy-Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. Absorption spectra of silver nanoparticles formed in the reaction media has absorbance peak at 280 nm, broadening of peak indicates that the particles are poly dispersed. SEM analysis described the morphology and the size of the particles. XRD confirmed the crystalline structure of the nanoparticles. The presence of the elemental silver was observed in the graph obtained from EDX analysis, which also supports the XRD results. The biomass of plants produces their nano materials by a process called bio mineralization. The tests cultures included in the study were Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella. Results showed that the maximum inhibitory effect using 1mM silver nitrates against the microbes were obtained. The approach of plant-mediated synthesis appears to be cost efficient, eco-friendly and easy alternative to conventional methods of silver nanoparticles synthesis (author)

  17. Interlaboratory validation data on real-time polymerase chain reaction detection for unauthorized genetically modified papaya line PRSV-YK

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    Kosuke Nakamura

    2016-06-01

    Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR detection method for unauthorized genetically modified (GM papaya (Carica papaya L. line PRSV-YK (PRSV-YK detection method was developed using whole genome sequence data (DDBJ Sequenced Read Archive under accession No. PRJDB3976. Interlaboratory validation datasets for PRSV-YK detection method were provided. Data indicating homogeneity of samples prepared for interlaboratory validation were included. Specificity and sensitivity test data for PRSV-YK detection method were also provided.

  18. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE) and Solvent Extraction of Papaya Seed Oil: Yield, Fatty Acid Composition and Triacylglycerol Profile

    OpenAIRE

    Hasanah Mohd Ghazali; Chin Ping Tan; Hamed Mirhosseini; Shadi Samaram

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE) and solvent extraction (SE)). In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (...

  19. Pemulihan Spermatozoa Mencit (Mus musculus L.) dengan Vitamin C setelah Pemberian Ekstrak Air Biji Pepaya (Carica papaya L.) dan Testosteron Undekanoat (TU).

    OpenAIRE

    Lestari, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Water extract of papaya seeds and testosterone undecanoate (TU) resulted in decreased quality and quantity of spermatozoa. Decrease in the quality and quantity of spermatozoa can be restored by administering Vitamin C. The research "Recovery Spermatozoa Mice (Mus musculus L.) with Vitamin C after Giving Water Seed Extract Papaya (Carica papaya L.) and Testosterone Undekanoat (TU)" using male mice (Mus musculus L.) grown fertile ± 3-month-old body weight 25-30 grams were 70 mices are divided i...

  20. Gambaran Histologis Testis Mencit (Mus musculus L.) Yang Mendapat Kombinasi Ekstrak Air Biji Pepaya (Carica papaya L.) Dan Testosteron Undekanoat (TU)

    OpenAIRE

    Hikmatullah, Desy

    2012-01-01

    Many traditional use of medicinal plants to treat different sort of disease, including fertility has done. This research observed the influence of papaya seed (Carica papaya L.) extract and Testosterone Undekanoat (TU) combination in testicle histology of mice (Mus musculus L.) which designed in complete random design (RAL) that divide to 5 control groups and 5 treatment groups. The papaya seed extract (30mg/day) gived orally from 0 week until 24 weeks. The time interval for intramuscular inj...

  1. La solidez de la economía chilena a la luz de las reformas estructurales: 1970-1997

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    Ángeles SÁNCHEZ DÍEZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En el presente artículo se recogen las principales reformas estructurales que han tenido lugar en Chile desde 1970 y que constituyen la base de la solidez actual de dicha economía latinoamericana. Se propone una división en períodos en la que se distingue la época del gobierno de la Unidad Popular, el gobierno de la Junta Militar y la transición a la democracia para evaluar los resultados económicos que se registraron a la luz de las distintas estrategias de desarrollo. Las principales reformas que se dieron en el periodo 1970-1973 bajo la "vía chilena hacia el socialismo" fueron la creación del Área de Propiedad social, la profundización de la Reforma Agraria y la nacionalización de la Gran Minería Durante el monetarismo ortodoxo (1974-1982 destacan como principales reformas la liberalización y desregulación de los mercados, la l a ronda de privatizaciones, la apertura comercial, la liberalización financiera y las "siete modernizaciones", todas ellas respaldadas por la ortodoxia de la denominada Escuela de Chicago. Tras la profunda crisis de 1982 que afectó a todo el continente latinoamericano fue necesario replantear el modelo y se introdujeron distintas medidas de carácter neoliberal que consiguieron que fuera posible aprovechar los beneficios de las reformas realizadas con anterioridad. La transición a la democracia constituye un reto para la sociedad chilena, en tanto que contando con las bases de una economía sólida deben incorporarse la visión social y política para que el crecimiento se convierta en desarrollo. En este sentido toma importancia la última estrategia de la CEPAL de "Transformación productiva con equidad".ABSTRACT: In this paper, the main structural reforms are searched, which happened between 1970 and 1995. These are the base of the actual economic framework. The different considered periods are: the "Unidad Popular" government, the military government and the democratic transition. Finally

  2. Anatomia foliar de plantas transgênicas e não transgênicas de Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae Leaf anatomy of genetically modified and wild-type Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae

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    Marcos Vinicius Leal-Costa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O mamoeiro, Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae é uma espécie americana, cujos frutos são largamente consumidos em todo mundo. Devido às perdas de produção provocadas por viroses e a dificuldade em controlá-las por métodos convencionais, a espécie tem sido alvo de pesquisas de melhoramento genético envolvendo transgenia para resistência a vírus. O presente trabalho descreve a anatomia foliar de plantas de mamoeiro convencional e transgênico resistente ao vírus da mancha anelar-Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV com inserção da capa protéica viral. As duas cultivares apresentam pecíolo com endoderme e fibras pericíclicas. As folhas são hipoestomáticas e dorsiventrais, com laticíferos acompanhando os feixes vasculares e grande concentração de idioblastos com drusas de oxalato de cálcio. A epiderme é glabra, possuindo estômatos anomocíticos e anisocíticos, com células de paredes anticlinais retas na face adaxial e levemente sinuosas na face abaxial. O presente trabalho concluiu que o processo de transformação genética não alterou as características anatômicas das folhas de C. papaya, servindo de subsídio para avaliação da conformidade anatômica da cultivar transgênica.Papaya, Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae, is an American species, consumed worldwide. A major limitation to papaya production is attack by viruses, like the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV. Papaya has been genetically modified to increase its resistance to PRSV. The aim of this research was to compare the leaf anatomy of wild-type and genetically modified (GM C. papaya plants to evaluate the influence of genetic modification on leaf anatomy. Wild-type and GM plants showed petiole with endodermis and pericycle fibers. The leaves are hypostomatic and dorsiventral, with laticifers along vascular system and abundant druses of calcium oxalate. The epidermis was glabrous and presented anomocytic and anisocytic stomata, straight anticlinal walls on the adaxial face and

  3. Posfolklore: Raíces y globalización en la música popular chilena

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    González, Juan Pablo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the development of the concept of folk roots, introduced by Chilean singer-songwriters in the mid-seventies, as a strategy to legitimize their divergent practice from the norm of folklore in times of military rule. The institutionalization of this concept with the return of democracy in the early nineties and its continued tightening from a third generation of Chilean singersongwriters and bands derivatives from theater companies, allow us to discuss the problem of folk roots in times of globalization. We propose the concepts of posfolklore and hydroponic roots, attached to the trend of Chilean listeners and musicians to incorporate world music to their artistic practices and consumption. These concepts would facilitate the discussion of the mixing of influences in Chilean music and the consequent proliferation of intermediate rather than hegemonic identities in contemporary Chilean culture.

    Este artículo aborda el desarrollo del concepto de raíz folklórica, introducido por cantautores chilenos a mediados de los años setenta, como estrategia para legitimar corrientes divergentes del folklore de la norma imperante en tiempos del régimen militar. La institucionalización de este concepto con el retorno a la democracia y su continuo tensionamiento desde una tercera generación de cantautores nacionales y desde los nuevos grupos musicales derivados de compañías teatrales, permite reflexionar sobre el problema de las raíces en tiempos de globalización. Se proponen los conceptos de posfolklore y de raíces hidropónicas, adscritos a la permanente tendencia del músico y del auditor chileno a incorporar músicas del mundo a su práctica y consumo musical. Estos conceptos permiten discutir las mezclas en la música chilena y la consiguiente multiplicación de identidades intermedias más que hegemónicas en la cultura chilena contemporánea.

  4. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE COMPOST A BASE DE ESPINILLO EN RELACIÓN A LA NORMA CHILENA No2880

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    Ricardo Tighe-Neira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Caracterización de compost a base de espinillo en relación a la Norma Chilena No2880. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar el compost a base de espinillo (Ulex europaeus L. y contrastar sus características físico-químicas con las de la Norma Chilena de compost (NCh 2880. El ensayo se montó en el Centro Experimental Pillanlelbún, Temuco, Chile, entre diciembre 2010 y abril de 2011. Se empleó un diseño factorial de 2×2, los factores fueron: mezcla y acelerador de compostaje (AC, ambos en dos niveles. Cuatro tratamientos: T1 U. europaeus (100% sin AC, T2 U. europaeus (78% + estiércol de bovino (22% sin AC, T3 U. europaeus (100% con AC y T4 U. europaeus (78% + estiércol de bovino (22% con AC. Se evaluó el contenido de materia orgánica (MO%, C orgánico total (%, relación C:N, N total (%, humedad (Ho%, tamaño partículas (TP%, toxicidad (% germinación de Raphanus sativus L., pH, densidad aparente (DAP kg/m3, conductividad eléctrica (CE dS/m y germinación de malezas (No de propágulos. Los tratamientos U. europaeus (100% sin AC y con AC presentaron mayor %MO, %N total y relación C:N que T2 y T4. A la vez, U. europaeus (100% sin AC, presentó un menor %C y T2 menor pH en comparación al resto de los tratamientos. Las demás variables evaluadas no presentaron diferencias significativas. Todas cumplieron con la NCh 2880, excepto toxicidad en el tratamiento con solo U. europaeus, y la CE en todos los tratamientos. Se debe reducir la CE para poder optar a su certificación por la NCh 2880.

  5. Conocimientos y autoeficacia asociados a la prevención del VIH y SIDA en mujeres chilenas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas Rodríguez, Natalia; Ferrer Lagunas, Lilian Marcela; Cianelli Acosta, Rosina; Miner, Sarah; Lara Campos, Loreto; Peragallo, Nilda

    2014-01-01

    Resumen Objetivo Evaluar la relación existente entre conocimientos y autoeficacia asociados al VIH/SIDA en mujeres chilenas en desventaja social. Metodología Estudio correlacional, que utiliza la medición basal del estudio “Testeando una intervención en VIH y SIDA en mujeres chilenas”, realizada entre 2006 y 2008, que tiene una muestra de 496 mujeres entre 18 y 49 años residentes en dos comunas de Santiago de Chile. Las participantes respondieron un cuestionario estructurado aplicado por entrevistadoras entrenadas. Este cuestionario incluyó preguntas sobre datos sociodemográficos, escala de conocimientos de conductas de riesgo y autoeficacia, entre otros. Resultados Edad promedio de 32.3±9.1 años, 72.2% vive con su pareja y 42.7% poseen educación media completa. La puntuación media de los conocimientos de la infección por el VIH fue de 8.9±2.5, mientras que para las tres escalas empleadas para medir autoeficacia fueron: “Normas de los pares” =9.8±3.6, “Intención de reducir conductas de riesgo” =12.2±3.6 y “Self Efficacy Form”=20.2±4.7. Los conocimientos tuvieron una correlación positiva débil con la “intención de reducir conductas de riesgo” (r=0.19; p<0.0001) y con la escala “Self Efficacy Form” (r=0.34; p<0.0001), pero no se relacionaron con las “normas de los pares en cuanto a relaciones sexuales seguras” (r=0.13; p=0.78). Conclusión Existe una débil correlación positiva entre el nivel de conocimientos sobre el VIH/SIDA y la autoeficacia en mujeres chilenas en desventaja social. PMID:25284914

  6. Asymmetric purine-pyrimidine distribution in cellular small RNA population of papaya

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    Aryal Rishi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The small RNAs (sRNA are a regulatory class of RNA mainly represented by the 21 and 24-nucleotide size classes. The cellular sRNAs are processed by RNase III family enzyme dicer (Dicer like in plant from a self-complementary hairpin loop or other type of RNA duplexes. The papaya genome has been sequenced, but its microRNAs and other regulatory RNAs are yet to be analyzed. Results We analyzed the genomic features of the papaya sRNA population from three sRNA deep sequencing libraries made from leaves, flowers, and leaves infected with Papaya Ringspot Virus (PRSV. We also used the deep sequencing data to annotate the micro RNA (miRNA in papaya. We identified 60 miRNAs, 24 of which were conserved in other species, and 36 of which were novel miRNAs specific to papaya. In contrast to the Chargaff’s purine-pyrimidine equilibrium, cellular sRNA was significantly biased towards a purine rich population. Of the two purine bases, higher frequency of adenine was present in 23nt or longer sRNAs, while 22nt or shorter sRNAs were over represented by guanine bases. However, this bias was not observed in the annotated miRNAs in plants. The 21nt species were expressed from fewer loci but expressed at higher levels relative to the 24nt species. The highly expressed 21nt species were clustered in a few isolated locations of the genome. The PRSV infected leaves showed higher accumulation of 21 and 22nt sRNA compared to uninfected leaves. We observed higher accumulation of miRNA* of seven annotated miRNAs in virus-infected tissue, indicating the potential function of miRNA* under stressed conditions. Conclusions We have identified 60 miRNAs in papaya. Our study revealed the asymmetric purine-pyrimidine distribution in cellular sRNA population. The 21nt species of sRNAs have higher expression levels than 24nt sRNA. The miRNA* of some miRNAs shows higher accumulation in PRSV infected tissues, suggesting that these strands are not totally

  7. Control de dos especies de Colletotrichum causantes de antracnosis en frutos de papaya Maradol Control of two species of Colletotrichum causing anthracnose in Maradol papaya fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Santamaría Basulto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available La antracnosis es una limitante de la vida útil de los frutos de papaya, es causada principalmente por Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, aunque es posible encontrar otras especies de Colletotrichum causando enfermedades en un mismo cultivo. Para el control de la antracnosis en Yucatán se recomiendan varios fungicidas, pero no todos están permitidos por la agencia de protección al ambiente (EPA de los Estados Unidos de América, principal país al cual se exporta la papaya yucateca. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivos identificar el agente causal de la antracnosis de papaya en Yucatán, evaluar el efecto de fungicidas que cuentan con registro de EPA sobre las especies que causan antracnosis y explorar el efecto de inductores a resistencia en el control de esta enfermedad. Durante marzo y mayo de 2006 se obtuvieron nueve aislamientos de Colletotrichum en frutos de tres regiones productoras de Yucatán, los cuales se identificaron mediante claves taxonómicas. La evaluación de los productos se hizo mediante bioensayos de sensibilidad in vitro y la efectividad en frutos inoculados, posteriormente en agosto de 2007, noviembre de 2007 y febrero de 2008, se evaluó el efecto de la aplicación poscosecha de los fungicidas e inductores de resistencia sobre la antracnosis en frutos infectados naturalmente desde campo. En las tres localidades se encontraron dos especies que causan antracnosis identificadas como C. gloeosporioides y C. dematium. En condiciones in vitro el desarrollo de C. gloeosporioides fue inhibido por prochloraz, ferbam, azoxystrobin, tryfloxystrobin y clorotalonil; el desarrollo de C. dematium fue inhibido sólo por prochloraz, ferbam y clorotalonil. En frutos inoculados prochloraz tuvo 100% de efectividad para las dos especies, mientras que azoxystrobin tuvo 87.5% de efectividad para C. gloeosporioides y 3.3% para C. dematium.Anthracnose is a limitation of papaya fruits' life, mainly caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

  8. Characterization of the exogenous insert and development of event-specific PCR detection methods for genetically modified Huanong No. 1 papaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinchao; Yang, Litao; Liu, Xin; Guan, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Lingxi; Zhang, Dabing

    2009-08-26

    Genetically modified (GM) papaya (Carica papaya L.), Huanong No. 1, was approved for commercialization in Guangdong province, China in 2006, and the development of the Huanong No. 1 papaya detection method is necessary for implementing genetically modified organism (GMO) labeling regulations. In this study, we reported the characterization of the exogenous integration of GM Huanong No. 1 papaya by means of conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and thermal asymmetric interlaced (TAIL)-PCR strategies. The results suggested that one intact copy of the initial construction was integrated in the papaya genome and which probably resulted in one deletion (38 bp in size) of the host genomic DNA. Also, one unintended insertion of a 92 bp truncated NptII fragment was observed at the 5' end of the exogenous insert. Furthermore, we revealed its 5' and 3' flanking sequences between the insert DNA and the papaya genomic DNA, and developed the event-specific qualitative and quantitative PCR assays for GM Huanong No. 1 papaya based on the 5' integration flanking sequence. The relative limit of detection (LOD) of the qualitative PCR assay was about 0.01% in 100 ng of total papaya genomic DNA, corresponding to about 25 copies of papaya haploid genome. In the quantitative PCR, the limits of detection and quantification (LOD and LOQ) were as low as 12.5 and 25 copies of papaya haploid genome, respectively. In practical sample quantification, the quantified biases between the test and true values of three samples ranged from 0.44% to 4.41%. Collectively, we proposed that all of these results are useful for the identification and quantification of Huanong No. 1 papaya and its derivates.

  9. Validación chilena del cuestionario de evaluación de apego en el adulto CAMIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusmenia Garrido

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue examinar la confiabilidad y validez del instrumento de evaluación de apego en el adulto, .Cartes: Modèles Individuels de Relation (CAMIR., en la realidad sociocultural chilena. Este instrumento, basado en la teoría del apego, es un cuestionario de auto-reporte que evalúa los modelos operativos internos en adultos y otras escalas relacionadas al apego. Los participantes fueron 578 sujetos, 204 hombres y 374 mujeres, con edades entre 14 y 80 años. Los sujetos completaron el CAMIR y medidas de vínculo y sintomatología actual, a través del Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI and Outcome Questionnaire OQ-45.2. A través del análisis estadístico de los resultados se evaluaron las características psicométricas del test y se analiz ó la posibilidad de generar normas locales para la prueba. Los resultados confirmaron que el CAMIR es un instrumento confiable y válido en la evaluación de los modelos internos de relación en adultos.

  10. Relación entre el rendimiento y las estrategias de crecimiento en las sociedades anónimas chilenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Medina Giacomozzi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La relación entre los resultados empresariales y la diversificación o concentración es un tema muy rele- vante, por lo que en este artículo se exponen las evidencias obtenidas al comparar el rendimiento obtenido por 82 sociedades anónimas chilenas, seleccionadas al azar, con su estrategia de concentración o diversi- ficación. La metodología seguida implicó la clasificación de las estrategias mediante una matriz con base en el Código Industrial Internacional Uniforme (CIIU de Chile y la aplicación del método Du Pont para la determinación del resultado. La principal evidencia es que la mayoría son empresas concentradas, pero las sociedades con diversificación relacionada obtienen un mayor rendimiento promedio que las empresas concentradas y que las compa ̃ nías con estrategia de diversificación no relacionada.

  11. BARRERAS DE APRENDIZAJE PARA ESTUDIANTES CON DISCAPACIDAD EN UNA UNIVERSIDAD CHILENA. DEMANDAS ESTUDIANTILES – DESAFÍOS INSTITUCIONALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Corrales Huenul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo expone los resultados de una investigación sobre estudiantes con discapacidad de una universidad chilena. El objetivo del estudio es determinar las barreras para el aprendizaje y la participación que enfrentan estos estudiantes y, de esta manera, determinar los apoyos educativos requeridos para que estos puedan realizar sus estudios de manera equitativa en relación con la población estudiantil universitaria. En el plano metodológico, la investigación fue definida como descriptiva y transversal y la principal técnica de recolección de datos fue el cuestionario. Los resultados indican que las barreras de aprendizaje se desarrollan en torno a tres categorías: infraestructura, proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje y gestión institucional. Los estudiantes según su situación de discapacidad presentan demandas diferenciadas, por lo que este factor se constituye en un aspecto central para examinar los apoyos educativos solicitados. A partir de los resultados, se analizan los desafíos y se proponen estrategias con el objeto de mejorar las políticas de accesibilidad a la universidad.

  12. Estudiantes con discapacidad en una universidad chilena: desafíos de la inclusión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Paulina VILLAFAÑE HORMAZÁBAL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es dar cuenta de una investigación acerca de las condiciones de inclusión para los estudiantes con discapacidad en una universidad chilena. La investigación tiene un diseño cuantitativo, descriptivo y transversal. Para la recolección de datos se elaboró una encuesta que fue aplicada a 38 estudiantes con discapacidad. Los principales resultados revelan un alto nivel de retención de los estudiantes, quienes presentan una percepción positiva de su inclusión en la vida universitaria, así como una alta satisfacción con la mayoría de los servicios. Se destaca que siete de cada diez encuestados reconocen haber recibido algún tipo de atención educativa para realizar sus estudios. Sin embargo, existe una falta de articulación entre las iniciativas de la Universidad para favorecer el acceso y permanencia de personas con discapacidad; a esto se agrega la carencia de protocolos y de instancias de capacitación para profesores y administrativos. Se propone que la institución establezca un sistema de gestión que defina objetivos, estrategias y acciones para contribuir a la inclusión de personas con discapacidad.

  13. Estudio de la conservación de la papaya (Carica papaya L.) asociado a la aplicación de películas comestibles

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Almeida Castro; Jane Delane Reis Pimentel; Danilo Santos Souza; Thaciana Vieira de Oliveira; Mariana da Costa Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Brasil es un importante productor de papaya, pero sólo una pequeña parte se exporta. Esta fruta es altamente perecedera, por lo que el control de la maduración es esencial para aumentar la vida útil, tanto para el mercado interno como para la exportación. Una alternativa que ha cobrado impulso en el mercado es el uso de películas comestibles biodegradables, entre ellas la película producida a partir de almidón de yuca. En este estudio se evaluó el efecto de una película de almidón de yuca ...

  14. Empleo de un Recubrimiento Formulado con Propóleos para el Manejo Poscosecha de Frutos de Papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiana Use of a Coating Formulated with Propolis for Postharvest Handling of Papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiian Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Barrera Bello

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. El fruto de papaya es reconocido por las propiedades nutricionales y sensoriales; no obstante, su tiempo de vida útil en poscosecha es muy corto. En los últimos años, para incrementar la vida de almacenamiento del fruto se ha implementado el uso de recubrimientos como vehículos de agentes antimicrobianos y antioxidantes, entre otros. En este trabajo se comparó el efecto de dos recubrimientos; cera comercial (control y cera comercial conteniendo un extracto etanólico de propóleos (5% p/v, sobre la vida en poscosecha de frutos de papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiana almacenados a temperatura ambiente (28 ± 2 ºC y humedad relativa entre 65 y 70%. El efecto de los recubrimientos se determinó mediante el índice de deterioro de los frutos y el recuento microbiano (mesófilos aerobios, mohos y levaduras. Adicionalmente, se evaluaron durante 12 días las propiedades fisicoquímicas de los frutos (cambio de color, textura, pH, acidez total titulable, pérdida de peso y sólidos solubles. Los resultados mostraron que las papayas tratadas con el recubrimiento formulado con el extracto de propóleos, presentó un menor deterioro en cuanto a su apariencia y mayor inhibición del crecimiento de microorganismos durante los primeros 6 días de evaluación en comparación con los frutos control; además, no se observaron diferencias, producto de los recubrimientos, en relación a las características fisicoquímicas de los frutos.Abstract. Papaya fruit is known for the nutritional and sensory properties; however, its postharvest shelf life is very short. In recent years, to extend the storage life of this fruit, the use of coatings as a carrier of antimicrobial agents and antioxidants, has been implemented. In this work, the effect of two coatings, commercial wax (control and commercial wax containing an ethanolic extract of propolis (5% w/v on the postharvest of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiian was compared. The fruits were stored at

  15. AMELIORATION OF GENOTOXICITY BY PAPAYA EXTRACT INDUCED BY ARSENIC CONTAMINATED DRINKING WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DHARMSHILA KUMARI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is an established genotoxic carcinogen in human. Arsenic trioxide (0.04mg/animal when administeredorally daily to albino swiss mice for 15 continuous days, increased the incidence of abnormalities to 30.6% inmeiotic metaphase chromosome, 5.88% in the gross morphology of sperm head and decreased the sperm countper unit volume of caput epididymal suspension to 64.16 in comparison to the control. The concurrent treatmentof papaya fruit extract and arsenic trioxide significantly decreased the abnormalities to19.6% in meioticchromosome, 4.16% in the sperm head morphology and increased the mean count of sperm to 82.28. Theincrease in abnormality of meiotic chromosome as well as abnormality in gross morphology of the sperm headand decrease in sperm count, as observed upon arsenic trioxide treatment, were ameliorated by the aqueouspapaya fruit extract. Therefore, it is suggested that the papaya fruit extract may reduce the risk of arsenic-inducedgenotoxicity.

  16. Effect of the potassium permanganate during papaya fruit ripening: Ethylene production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, S. F.; Filho, M. B.; da Silva, M. G.; Oliveira, J. G.; Aroucha, E. M. M.; Silva, R. F.; Pereira, M. G.; Vargas, H.

    2005-06-01

    The effect of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) on the ripening process of papaya fruits by monitoring the ethylene emission rates is reported. The ethylene emission was monitored by a photoacoustic spectrometer. Two experimental conditions were applied, being one of them just putting the fruit alone inside the sampling chamber and the second, modifying the atmosphere by the presence of KMnO4. The use of the ethylene absorber reduces the autocatalytic process of ethylene during papaya fruit ripening. For 20 g of KMnO4 the maximal intensity of the ethylene emission decreases by a factor two. Using the same amount of KMnO4, a reduction of about 2.2% in the concentration of ethylene for a mixture of 1ppmv of ethylene in synthetic air was observed.

  17. Uso de esterco associado à adubação mineral na produção de mudas de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. The use of manure associated with mineral fertilization in papaya (Carica papaya L. seedling production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Célia Faria Simão Canesin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Na composição do substrato para produção de mudas de mamoeiro, recomenda-se o uso de adubação orgânica, que traz como vantagens a melhoria das características físicas, químicas e biológicas do solo, criando um ambiente favorável ao desenvolvimento inicial das mudas, bem como boa resposta do mamoeiro. Os materiais orgânicos desempenham ainda um importante papel na nutrição das plantas como fornecedores de nutrientes. Contudo, observa-se que existe uma grande variação nas recomendações e quase sempre a adubação orgânica está associada à adubação mineral. Neste contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi o de verificar os efeitos do uso de esterco de curral associado ou não à adubação mineral no substrato sobre a formação de mudas de mamoeiro. O Experimento foi conduzido na FEP/UNESP/Câmpus de Ilha Solteira-SP. O delineamento utilizado foi em blocos, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, sendo parcelas as cultivares e subparcelas os substratos. Cada parcela com 5 repetições e 10 plantas úteis por subparcela. Para a comparação das médias, utilizou-se o teste de Tukey. Com base nos resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que: a Na formação das mudas de mamoeiro, o esterco de curral pode ser utilizado sem a necessidade de adubação mineral com o superfosfato simples e o cloreto de potássio; b O esterco de curral foi capaz de fornecer às mudas de mamoeiro os nutrientes N, P, K, Ca, Mg e Cu, necessários para seu desenvolvimento até o transplantio para o campo.The use of organic fertilization is recommended to be added to the substrate for papaya seedling production, as it enhances the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the soil, creating a favorable environment for the initial development of the plants, which results in better plant growth. The organic matter has also the important role of providing nutrients to the plants. However, there is great variation in the recommendations, and in most cases

  18. Development and Validation of a Multiplex Reverse Transcription PCR Assay for Simultaneous Detection of Three Papaya Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decai Tuo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV, Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV, and Papaya mosaic virus (PapMV produce similar symptoms in papaya. Each threatens commercial production of papaya on Hainan Island, China. In this study, a multiplex reverse transcription PCR assay was developed to detect simultaneously these three viruses by screening combinations of mixed primer pairs and optimizing the multiplex RT-PCR reaction conditions. A mixture of three specific primer pairs was used to amplify three distinct fragments of 613 bp from the P3 gene of PRSV, 355 bp from the CP gene of PLDMV, and 205 bp from the CP gene of PapMV, demonstrating the assay’s specificity. The sensitivity of the multiplex RT-PCR was evaluated by showing plasmids containing each of the viral target genes with 1.44 × 103, 1.79 × 103, and 1.91 × 102 copies for the three viruses could be detected successfully. The multiplex RT-PCR was applied successfully for detection of three viruses from 341 field samples collected from 18 counties of Hainan Island, China. Rates of single infections were 186/341 (54.5%, 93/341 (27.3%, and 3/341 (0.9%, for PRSV, PLDMV, and PapMV, respectively; 59/341 (17.3% of the samples were co-infected with PRSV and PLDMV, which is the first time being reported in Hainan Island. This multiplex RT-PCR assay is a simple, rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective method for detecting multiple viruses in papaya and can be used for routine molecular diagnosis and epidemiological studies in papaya.

  19. Reasoned opinion on the modification of MRLs for spirodiclofen in strawberries bananas, avocado, mango and papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the Netherlands, herewith referred as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from Bayer S.A.S-Bayer CropScience to modify the existing MRLs for spirodiclofen in strawberries and bananas and set import tolerances for papaya, avocado and mango. The Netherlands proposed to decrease the existing MRL for strawberries from 2 mg/kg to 0.02 mg/kg and to increase the MRL for banana from the limit of quantification 0.02* mg/kg to 0.3mg/kg. In order to accommodate the import of produce, the Netherlands proposed to set the MRL for papaya, mangos and avocados at 1.0 mg/kg. The Netherlands drafted an evaluation report according to Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive MRL proposals of 0.3 mg/kg for the proposed use in banana and 1.5 mg/kg to accommodate the reported use in the USA on avocado, noting that the MRL in the country of origin is set at the level of 1 mg/kg. EFSA has some reservations regarding the proposal that the residue trial results for avocado might be extrapolated to propose MRLs on papaya and mango. The intended use on strawberries is not adequately supported by residue data. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the proposed use of spirodiclofen on strawberry, banana, avocado, mango and papaya will not result in consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference value and therefore is unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

  20. Control of papaya fruits anthracnose by essential oil of Ricinus communis

    OpenAIRE

    César Luis Siqueira Júnior; Maria das Graças Machado Freire; Antônio Sérgio Nascimento Moreira; Maria Ligia Rodrigues Macedo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the potential of castor oil for the control of papaya diseases caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and the bacterium Pseudomonas caricapapayae. The treatment with 1% castor oil did not significantly affect the fungal growth. The effectiveness of castor oil for the control of anthracnose was shown when 5% and 10% (v/v) were used in the assays resulting in reduced mycelial growth. Fungal sporulation was strongly inhibited at 10% (v/v) conc...

  1. Phenol induced by irradiation does not impair sensory quality of fenugreek and papaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Suchandra; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

    2013-11-01

    The effect of radiation processing on the sensory quality of fenugreek and papaya exposed to doses in the range of 2.5-10 kGy and 100 Gy-2.5 kGy respectively was investigated. Despite an increase in the content of phenol in the volatile oil of these food products overall sensory quality of the irradiated and control samples was not significantly affected by radiation processing.

  2. Sensory acceptance of mixed nectar of papaya, passion fruit and acerola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuura Fernando César Akira Urbano

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Nectars are beverages formulated with the juice or pulp of one or more fruits, plus water and sugar in concentrations resulting in a "ready-to-drink" product. Recently, the market for such products has greatly expanded. Fruit mixtures present a series of advantages, such as the combination of different aromas and flavors and the sum of their nutritional components. The objective of this work was to develop a nectar based on papaya pulp and passion fruit juice, enriched with the vitamin C present in acerola pulp, optimizing the formulation using sensory consumer tests and a response surface statistical methodology. Eleven formulations were prepared using different concentrations of papaya pulp and passion fruit juice and sucrose, and maintaining the concentration of acerola pulp constant. The sensory tests were carried out with 22 non-trained panelists using a structured 9-point hedonic scale to evaluate overall acceptance. The acceptance means were submitted to regression analysis, by first calculating a polynomial quadratic equation. A predictive model was adjusted considering only those parameters where P < 0.05, and a response surface was generated. The overall acceptance of nectars of different formulations varied from 5 ("neither liked nor disliked" to more than 7 ("liked moderately", showing that some products can be considered adequate to consumers, like the nectar produced with 37.5% papaya pulp, 7.5% passion fruit juice, and 5.0% acerola pulp, added of 15% sucrose. A quadratic predictive overall acceptance model, with a regression coefficient of 0.97 was obtained. The sensory acceptance of nectars was positively affected by increases in the concentrations of papaya pulp and of sucrose. Thus, some products presented good sensory acceptance suggesting commercial potential.

  3. Tratamientos postcosecha en el control de la antracnosis y calidad de frutos de papaya "maradol"

    OpenAIRE

    López Navarrete, María Consepción

    2010-01-01

    Colletrotricum gloeosporioides agente causal de la antracnosis, siendo el principal patógeno postcosecha en papaya, causando pérdidas en la calidad del fruto. El objetivo de este trabajo en la primera fase fue evaluar la efectividad de los fungicidas azoxystrobin, trifloxystrobin, pyraclostrobin, prochloraz, thiabendazol sobre la germinación y el crecimiento micelial in vitro de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, así como la efectividad biológica de los fungicidas y la termoterapia (tratamient...

  4. Prediction of genetic gain from selection indices for disease resistance in papaya hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Vivas; Silvaldo Felipe da Silveira; Messias Gonzaga Pereira

    2012-01-01

    In order to select superior hybrids for the concentration of favorable alleles for resistance to papaya black spot, powdery mildew and phoma spot, 67 hybrids were evaluated in two seasons, in 2007, in a randomized block design with two replications. Genetic gains were estimated from the selection indices of Smith & Hazel, Pesek & Baker, Williams, Mulamba & Mock, with selection intensity of 22.39%, corresponding to 15 hybrids. The index of Mulamba & Mock showed gains more suitable for the five...

  5. Testers for combining ability and selection of papaya hybrids resistant to fungal diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Eduardo Pessanha da Silva Terra; Messias Gonzaga Pereira; Marcelo Vivas; Silvaldo Felipe da Silveira

    2011-01-01

    Genetic resistance represents a sustainable alternative to disease control in papaya crop. The purpose of this studywas to evaluate the use of testers to estimate combining ability and select hybrids resistant to black spot, phoma spot and chocolatespot. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with two replications and 20 plants per plot. The severity ofphoma spot and black spot on leaves and the lesion area of black spot and chocolate spot on fruits were evaluated in twosea...

  6. Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment for carambola, papaya and mango

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary experiments carried out on the effects of irradiation on carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.), papaya (Carica papaya L.) and mango (Mangifera indica L.) with regard to fruit fly treatment, fruit injury and the physicochemical and organoleptic properties showed that irradiation can be successfully developed and should be investigated further as a quarantine treatment for these fruits. Emergence of normal adult fruit flies of the Dacus dorsalis complex did not occur when infested carambolas were treated at doses as low as 100 Gy. Carambola showed external symptoms of injury at irradiation doses in excess of 200 Gy. There appeared to be some reduction in sugar content at doses exceeding 100 Gy. Papaya, cv. ''Eksotika'', tolerated irradiation up to 300 Gy. Irradiation at this dose did not alter the ripening behaviour, nor did it cause any injury or alter the organoleptic properties of the fruit. An additional benefit was that doses above 250 Gy significantly reduced freckling of the fruit and enhanced its cosmetic value. ''Eksotika'' is an ideal candidate for quarantine treatment using gamma irradiation. Mango, cv. ''Harumanis'', tolerated irradiation fairly well. Exposure of fruit to doses of up to 750 Gy did not produce significant injury. (author). 13 refs, 2 figs, 17 tabs

  7. Color index and correlation with physical and chemical parameters of guava, mango and papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jedman Dantas Motta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available It was used a low cost colorimeter determine the color in agricultural products. Color analysis on peel and pulps of guava, papaya and mango were made. The values found in the L*a*b* color spaces were used to calculate color indexes that were related to the soluble solids content, pH and the fruit consistence during the maturation. The results obtained permit to conclude that it is possible to estimate the ripening of papaya over the color peel, having found an accurate relation between peel color index and soluble solids content expressed in terms of the third degree equation. Nevertheless for the guava and mango there is not a relation between the peel color indexes and soluble solids content. There is not a relation between color indexes of the guava, papaya and mango pulps with soluble solids content. For all fruits studied there was not relation between color indexes of the peel or pulp with pH.

  8. Quality Characteristics, Nutraceutical Profile, and Storage Stability of Aloe Gel-Papaya Functional Beverage Blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Pushkala; Nagarajan, Srividya

    2014-01-01

    Aloe vera gel, well known for its nutraceutical potential, is being explored as a functional ingredient in a wide array of health foods and drinks. Processing of exotic fruits and herbal botanicals into functional beverage is an emerging sector in food industry. The present study was undertaken to develop a spiced functional RTS beverage blend using Aloe gel (AG) and papaya. Aloe gel (30%), papaya pulp (15%), spice extract (5%), and citric acid (0.1%) were mixed in given proportion to prepare the blend with TSS of 15 °Brix. The product was bottled, pasteurized, and stored at room temperature. The quality characteristics and storage stability of the spiced beverage blend (SAGPB) were compared with spiced papaya RTS beverage (SPB). Periodic analysis was carried out up to five months for various physicochemical parameters, sugar profile, bioactive compounds, microbial quality, instrumental color, and sensory acceptability. The SAGPB exhibited superior quality characteristics compared to SPB both in fresh and in stored samples. The SPB was acceptable up to four months and SAGPB for five months. The results indicate that nutraceutical rich AG could be successfully utilized to develop functional fruit beverages with improved quality and shelf life. PMID:26904652

  9. Bioseparation of papain from Carica papaya latex by precipitation of papain-poly (vinyl sulfonate) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braia, Mauricio; Ferrero, Maximiliano; Rocha, María Victoria; Loureiro, Dana; Tubio, Gisela; Romanini, Diana

    2013-09-01

    The formation of insoluble complexes between enzymes and polyelectrolytes is a suitable technique for isolating these biomolecules from natural sources, because it is a simple and rapid technique that allows the concentration of the protein. This technique can be used in most purification protocols at the beginning of the downstream process. The aim of this investigation is to isolate papain from Carica papaya latex by precipitation of insoluble complexes between this enzyme and poly (vinyl sulfonate). The papain-poly (vinyl sulfonate) complex was insoluble at pH lower than 6, with a PVS/PAP stoichiometric ratio of 1:279. Ionic strength affected the complex formation. The presence of the polymer increased the enzymatic activity and protected the enzyme from autodegradation. The optimal conditions for the formation of insoluble papain-polyelectrolyte complex formation were applied to C. papaya latex and a high recovery was obtained (around 86%) and a purification factor around 2. This method can be applied as an isolation method of papain from C. papaya latex or as a first step in a larger purification strategy.

  10. Human sperm immobilization effect of Carica papaya seed extracts: an in vitro study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NirmalKLohiya; LalitKKothari; BManivannan; PradyumnaKMishra; NeelamPathak

    2000-01-01

    Aim: To examine if the seed extracts of Carica papaya, which showed antispermatogenic/sperm immobilization properties in animal models, could cause human sperm immobilization in vitro. Methods: Chloroform extract, benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract, its methanol and ethyl acetate sub-fractions and the isolated compounds from the sub-fractions i.e., ECP 1 & 2 and MCP 1 & 2, of the seeds of Cadca papaya were used at concentrations of 0.1%, 0.5%, 1% and 2%. Sperm motility was assessed immediately after addition of extracts and every 5 minutes thereafter for 30 minutes. Results: There were dose-dependent spermicidal effects showing an instant fall in the sperm motility to less than 20 % at 2 % concentration. Isolated compounds ECP 1 & 2 were more effective inducing a motility of less than 10%. Many of the spermatozoa became vibratory on the spot. Total inhibition of motility was observed within 20 - 25 min at all concentrations of all products. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed deleterious changes in the plasma membrane of the head and mid-piece of spermatozoa. Sperm viability test and the number of abnormal spermatozoa after completion of incubation suggested that the spermatozoa were infertile. The effects were spermicidal but not spermiostatic as revealed by the sperm revival test. Conclusion: The results reveal spermicidal activity in vitro of the seed extracts of Carica papaya.

  11. Antiinflammatory activity of the methanolic extract of the seeds ofCarica papaya in experimental animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amazu LU; Azikiwe CCA; Njoku CJ; Osuala FN; Nwosu PJC; Ajugwo AO; Enye JC

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To scientifically verify the claims of our traditional healers on the anti-inflammatory activity ofCarica papaya (C. papaya) and possibly deduce its activities.Methods:0.1 mL of fresh egg albumin was injected into the right hind-paw of adult white Wistar rats to induce inflammation an hour post intraperitoneal (IP) administration of50-200 mg/kg doses of the extract to3groups of5 rats per group. The 4th group of5 rats was used as negative control and received2 mL/kg(IP) of physiological saline, while the 5th group of5rats was used as positive-comparative control and received (IP) 150 mg/kg of aspirin. Increases in diameter of the paw were measured with the aid of Veneer Calipers before extract administration and at interval of30minutes post administration for further 2 hours. Percentage inhibition of oedema was calculated for each dose group and results were subjected to statistical analysis using studentt-test and analysis of variance(ANOVA).Results: All doses of extract showed a dose and time dependent inhibition effects of oedema(P<0.05).Conclusions:This work is at present though limited to animals, the anti-inflammatory activity of the seeds ofC. papaya is perhaps proven.

  12. Reduction of hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte damage by Carica papaya leaf extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tebekeme Okoko; Diepreye Ere

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the in vitro antioxidant potential of Carica papaya (C. papaya) leaf extract and its effect on hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte damage assessed by haemolysis and lipid peroxidation. Methods: Hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, hydrogen ion scavenging activity, metal chelating activity, and the ferrous ion reducing ability were assessed as antioxidant indices. In the other experiment, human erythrocytes were treated with hydrogen peroxide to induce erythrocyte damage. The extract (at various concentrations) was subsequently incubated with the erythrocytes and later analysed for haemolysis and lipid peroxidation as indices for erythrocyte damage. Results:Preliminary investigation of the extract showed that the leaf possessed significant antioxidant and free radical scavenging abilities using in vitro models in a concentration dependent manner (P<0.05). The extract also reduced hydrogen peroxide induced erythrocyte haemolysis and lipid peroxidation significantly when compared with ascorbic acid (P<0.05). The IC50 values were 7.33 mg/mL and 1.58 mg/mL for inhibition of haemolysis and lipid peroxidation, respectively. In all cases, ascorbic acid (the reference antioxidant) possessed higher activity than the extract. Conclusions:The findings show that C. papaya leaves possess significant bioactive potential which is attributed to the phytochemicals which act in synergy. Thus, the leaves can be exploited for pharmaceutical and nutritional purposes.

  13. Quality Characteristics, Nutraceutical Profile, and Storage Stability of Aloe Gel-Papaya Functional Beverage Blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushkala Ramachandran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aloe vera gel, well known for its nutraceutical potential, is being explored as a functional ingredient in a wide array of health foods and drinks. Processing of exotic fruits and herbal botanicals into functional beverage is an emerging sector in food industry. The present study was undertaken to develop a spiced functional RTS beverage blend using Aloe gel (AG and papaya. Aloe gel (30%, papaya pulp (15%, spice extract (5%, and citric acid (0.1% were mixed in given proportion to prepare the blend with TSS of 15 °Brix. The product was bottled, pasteurized, and stored at room temperature. The quality characteristics and storage stability of the spiced beverage blend (SAGPB were compared with spiced papaya RTS beverage (SPB. Periodic analysis was carried out up to five months for various physicochemical parameters, sugar profile, bioactive compounds, microbial quality, instrumental color, and sensory acceptability. The SAGPB exhibited superior quality characteristics compared to SPB both in fresh and in stored samples. The SPB was acceptable up to four months and SAGPB for five months. The results indicate that nutraceutical rich AG could be successfully utilized to develop functional fruit beverages with improved quality and shelf life.

  14. Spatial and temporal diversity of begomoviral complexes in papayas with leaf curl disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh-Pant, P; Pant, P; Mukherjee, S K; Mazumdar-Leighton, S

    2012-07-01

    Old World, monopartite begomoviruses associated with satellite DNA β were observed in papaya showing symptoms of leaf curl disease sampled randomly over five years from within a radius of 250 km in north-central India. Three groups of DNA A sequences were evident. One group resembled chili leaf curl virus infecting tomatoes (ChiLCuV). Another group resembled tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCuNDV). The third group was novel (tentatively named papaya leaf crumple virus, PaLCrV), with less than 89% identity to known begomovirus sequences in the GenBank database. At least seven DNA A sequences were putative recombinants. The AC4-encoding regions exhibited highest numbers of non-synonymous substitutions. Most DNA β sequences resembled tomato leaf curl virus-associated DNA βs. A few DNA β sequences were similar to that of croton yellow vein mosaic virus-associated DNA β (CroYVMVβ). One DNA β sequence was novel and showed papayas grown in plantations, kitchen gardens and feral patches in the region are vulnerable to disease outbreak. No geographic or temporal patterns were discernable in the distribution of these viruses. PMID:22437254

  15. LEAF GAS EXCHANGE CHARACTERISTICS OF FOUR PAPAYA GENOTYPES DURING DIFFERENT STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAMPOSTRINI ELIEMAR

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, was used four papaya (Carica papaya L. genotypes: three from the 'Solo ( Sunrise Solo TJ, Sunrise Solo 72/12 and Baixinho de Santa Amália group and one from the 'Formosa' group (Know-You 01. They were grown in plastic pots containing a sandy-clay-loam soil subjected to pH correction and fertilization, under greenhouse conditions. Throughout the experimental period plants were subjected to periodic irrigation to maintain the soil humitidy around field capacity. The experiment was conducted 73 days after sowing. In all genotypes, leaf gas exchange characteristics were determined. The net photosynthetic rate (A, mumol m-2 s-1 , stomatal conductance (g s mol m-2 s-1, leaf temperature (T I, 0C and intercellular carbon dioxide concentration (ci, muL L-1 on the 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th and 9th leaves from the plant apex were determined. No significant differences were observed for A, g s, c i, or Tl either among the leaves sampled from any of the genotypes. A was positively correlated with g s and in the other hand T I and g s were negatively correlated. The results suggest that, for 73 DAP, all the sampled papaya leaves functioned as sources of organs.

  16. Supercritical fluid chromatography with photodiode array detection for pesticide analysis in papaya and avocado samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pano-Farias, Norma S; Ceballos-Magaña, Silvia G; Gonzalez, Jorge; Jurado, José M; Muñiz-Valencia, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    To improve the analysis of pesticides in complex food matrices with economic importance, alternative chromatographic techniques, such as supercritical fluid chromatography, can be used. Supercritical fluid chromatography has barely been applied for pesticide analysis in food matrices. In this paper, an analytical method using supercritical fluid chromatography coupled to a photodiode array detection has been established for the first time for the quantification of pesticides in papaya and avocado. The extraction of methyl parathion, atrazine, ametryn, carbofuran, and carbaryl was performed through the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe methodology. The method was validated using papaya and avocado samples. For papaya, the correlation coefficient values were higher than 0.99; limits of detection and quantification ranged from 130-380 and 220-640 μg/kg, respectively; recovery values ranged from 72.8-94.6%; precision was lower than 3%. For avocado, limit of detection values were ˂450 μg/kg; precision was lower than 11%; recoveries ranged from 50.0-94.2%. Method feasibility was tested for lime, banana, mango, and melon samples. Our results demonstrate that the proposed method is applicable to methyl parathion, atrazine, ametryn, and carbaryl, toxics pesticides used worldwide. The methodology presented in this work could be applicable to other fruits. PMID:25641906

  17. Canto para una semilla: Luis Advis, Violeta Parra y la modernización de la música popular chilena

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    avier Osorio Fernández

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente artículo es aportar algunas reflexiones sobre la obra Canto para una semilla del compositor chileno Luis Advis (1972, fundamentalmente a partir de sus dimensiones culturales e históricas. El significado de esta obra es observado en relación con los debates y cuestionamientos a los que se ve enfrentado el compositor en la sociedad chilena durante las décadas de 1960 y 1970, los cuales se constituyen como expresión de las transformaciones provocadas por la modernización en nuestro país. Esta experiencia concreta de la modernidad se ve reflejada en el contenido poético de las décimas de Violeta Parra, que constituyen el soporte dramático de la obra de Luis Advis, así como también en las vinculaciones entre música culta y música popular, que darán origen posteriormente a la Nueva Canción Chilena y, con ello, redefinirán también el lugar que la música popular posee en nuestra sociedadThis article is a study of the piece Canto para una semilla (Song for a Seed by the Chilean composer Luis Advis (1972, primarily in its cultural and historical dimensions. The meaning of the work is sought in its interrelations with the problems and debates within the Chilean society of the 1960s and 1970s, which were related to the transformations brought about by modernization in Chile. This is mirrored in the poetic content of the décimas written by Violeta Parra, which constitute the dramatic support for Luis Advis's work. This is further related to the connections between art music and popular music which will later originate the Nueva Canción Chilena (New Chilean Song this redefining the place of popular music in our society

  18. Gastroprotective and Anti-ulcer activity of Aloe vera juice, Papaya fruit juice and Aloe vera and Papaya fruit combined juice in Ethanol induced Ulcerated Rats

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    S. Gopinathan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Peptic ulcer is the most prevalent gastrointestinal disease. Even though a wide range of drugs are available for the treatment of peptic ulcer, but many of these do not fulfill all the requirements and have side effects. These factors have attracted researchers to investigate the natural products which have more efficacy, less side effects and less expensive for the treatment of peptic ulcer disease. In the present study the anti ulcer activity of (1 Aloe vera juice, (2 papaya fruit juice (3 Aloe vera and papaya fruit combined juice were investigated in the ethanol induced ulcerated rats. The administration of plant juices decreased the offensive factors like ulcer index and acid secretion and also reduced the amount of protein and carbohydrates in the stomach fluid. Further, plant juices increased the defensive factors like activity of oxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione. Activities of alkaline phosphatase and lipid peroxide were higher in the diseased condition and same were reduced after the treatment with plant juices. Content of haemoglobin and RBC and WBC counts were brought back to normalcy after the treatment with plant juices. The efficacy of plant juices was comparable with the reference drug- Ranitidine. The results of the present study reveal that the plant juices are having efficiency in the gastroprotective activity. It is recommended that the above said plant juices can be further studied for their anti ulcer efficacy in human subjects.

  19. Ectopic expression of Dahlia merckii defensin DmAMP1 improves papaya resistance to Phytophthora palmivora by reducing pathogen vigor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun J; Agbayani, Ricelle; Moore, Paul H

    2007-06-01

    Phytophthora spp., some of the more important casual agents of plant diseases, are responsible for heavy economic losses worldwide. Plant defensins have been introduced as transgenes into a range of species to increase host resistance to pathogens to which they were originally susceptible. However, the effectiveness and mechanism of interaction of the defensins with Phytophthora spp. have not been clearly characterized in planta. In this study, we expressed the Dahlia merckii defensin, DmAMP1, in papaya (Carica papaya L.), a plant highly susceptible to a root, stem, and fruit rot disease caused by Phytophthora palmivora. Extracts of total leaf proteins from transformed plants inhibited growth of Phytophthora in vitro and discs cut from the leaves of transformed plants inhibited growth of Phytophthora in a bioassay. Results from our greenhouse inoculation experiments demonstrate that expressing the DmAMP1 gene in papaya plants increased resistance against P. palmivora and that this increased resistance was associated with reduced hyphae growth of P. palmivora at the infection sites. The inhibitory effects of DmAMP1 expression in papaya suggest this approach has good potential to impart transgenic resistance against Phytophthora in papaya. PMID:17216480

  20. Repeated Dose 28-Days Oral Toxicity Study of Carica papaya L. Leaf Extract in Sprague Dawley Rats

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    Hussin Muhammad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Carica papaya L. leaves have been used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of fevers and cancers. Despite its benefits, very few studies on their potential toxicity have been described. The aim of the present study was to characterize the chemical composition of the leaf extract from ‘Sekaki’ C. papaya cultivar by UPLC-TripleTOF-ESI-MS and to investigate the sub-acute oral toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats at doses of 0.01, 0.14 and 2 g/kg by examining the general behavior, clinical signs, hematological parameters, serum biochemistry and histopathology changes. A total of twelve compounds consisting of one piperidine alkaloid, two organic acids, six malic acid derivatives, and four flavonol glycosides were characterized or tentatively identified in the C. papaya leaf extract. In the sub-acute study, the C. papaya extract did not cause mortality nor were treatment-related changes in body weight, food intake, water level, and hematological parameters observed between treatment and control groups. Some biochemical parameters such as the total protein, HDL-cholesterol, AST, ALT and ALP were elevated in a non-dose dependent manner. Histopathological examination of all organs including liver did not reveal morphological alteration. Other parameters showed non-significant differences between treatment and control groups. The present results suggest that C. papaya leaf extract at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in practical use in traditional medicine in Malaysia could be considered safe as a medicinal agent.

  1. Repeated dose 28-days oral toxicity study of Carica papaya L. leaf extract in Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzan, Adlin; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Halim, Siti Zaleha; Rashid, Badrul Amini; Semail, Raja Hazlini Raja; Abdullah, Noordini; Jantan, Ibrahim; Muhammad, Hussin; Ismail, Zakiah

    2012-04-10

    Carica papaya L. leaves have been used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of fevers and cancers. Despite its benefits, very few studies on their potential toxicity have been described. The aim of the present study was to characterize the chemical composition of the leaf extract from 'Sekaki' C. papaya cultivar by UPLC-TripleTOF-ESI-MS and to investigate the sub-acute oral toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats at doses of 0.01, 0.14 and 2 g/kg by examining the general behavior, clinical signs, hematological parameters, serum biochemistry and histopathology changes. A total of twelve compounds consisting of one piperidine alkaloid, two organic acids, six malic acid derivatives, and four flavonol glycosides were characterized or tentatively identified in the C. papaya leaf extract. In the sub-acute study, the C. papaya extract did not cause mortality nor were treatment-related changes in body weight, food intake, water level, and hematological parameters observed between treatment and control groups. Some biochemical parameters such as the total protein, HDL-cholesterol, AST, ALT and ALP were elevated in a non-dose dependent manner. Histopathological examination of all organs including liver did not reveal morphological alteration. Other parameters showed non-significant differences between treatment and control groups. The present results suggest that C. papaya leaf extract at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in practical use in traditional medicine in Malaysia could be considered safe as a medicinal agent.

  2. La irrupción de la Alianza del Pacífico : ¿Cambio en la agenda de la política exterior chilena?

    OpenAIRE

    Dockendorff, Andrés; Lopez, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    En este artículo se examina la agenda de la política exterior chilena a la luz de los programas de gobierno de las candidaturas presidenciales en 2009 y 2013. En términos generales, la agenda de este sector se ha caracterizado por un alto nivel de estabilidad. No obstante, con la llegada de la derecha al poder en 2010 adquirieron prominencia algunos asuntos de la agenda por sobre otros. En ese contexto se produjo el ingreso de Chile a la Alianza del Pacífico. Hasta ese punto, los cambios de g...

  3. Caracterización de compost a base de espinillo en relación a la Norma Chilena Nº2880.

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Tighe-Neira; Gina Leonelli-Cantergiani; René Montalba-Navarro; Carolina Cavieres-Acuña; Daniza Morales-Ulloa

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar el compost a base de espinillo (Ulex europaeus L.) y contrastar sus características físico-químicas con las de la Norma Chilena de compost (NCh 2880). El ensayo se montó en el Centro Experimental Pillanlelbún, Temuco, Chile, entre diciembre 2010 y abril de 2011. Se empleó un diseño factorial de 2×2, los factores fueron: mezcla y acelerador de compostaje (AC), ambos en dos niveles. Cuatro tratamientos: T1 U. europaeus (100%) sin AC, T2 U. europaeus ...

  4. Regional journals in medicine and public health: a look to the future upon the indexing of the Revista Chilena de Infectología.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermund, Sten H; Acuña, Guillermo

    2005-03-01

    Revista Chilena de Infectología has recently been accepted for index listing in the Index Medicus via the MEDLINE data base. This breakthrough prompts reflection on the nature of regionally focused subspecialty journals and what such a listing means for better dissemination of scientific and medical discoveries reported in such journals. There is a conscientious global effort at present to better represent regional journals in indexing systems and to make access easier for persons in less wealthy nations to medical and public health information via the internet. These trends are reviewed and discussed in the context of Chile's national medical and public health literature.

  5. Feminización de la escuela básica chilena. Metáforas de la identidad docente

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    Claudia González Castro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo invita a reflexionar sobre los cuestionamientos a la calidad de la educación básica en Chile, desde una perspectiva de género. Para ello, se analizó la praxis discursiva de un grupo de estudiantes de Pedagogía, a través de una entrevista grupal, identificando las metáforas que conforman su discurso y que, en su interpretación, contienen la caracterización de su propia identidad docente. Concluimos que, por encima de los atributos profesionales, la educación es una profesión altamente feminizada, sobre la cual recae el imaginario del apostolado maternal y otros principios propios del estereotipo de género. En esta feminización de la docencia puede estar entrampada la calidad de la escuela básica chilena, como institución imaginariamente femenina. AbstractThis article invites us to reflect on inquiry of the quality of basic education in Chile, from a gender perspective. To do this, we analyzed the discursive praxis of a group of students of pedagogy through a group interview, identifying the metaphors that make their speech, which shows the characterization of their own teacher identity. We conclude that, beyond the professional attributes, education in Chile is a profession exercised mostly by women, on which rests the maternal apostolate and other principles inherent in the female gender stereotype. This over-population of female teachers can be the reason for the quality of basic education in Chile to be stuck.

  6. La construcción discursiva de los imaginarios sociales: el caso de la medicina popular chilena

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    Gerardo Álvarez

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se da cuenta del estado de avance de una investigación interdisciplinaria (lingüística, psicología, sociología sobre las representaciones de cuerpo (salud/enfermedad en la medicina popular chilena (Proyecto FONDECYT 1000376. No se trata de una investigación sobre la medicina como tal. El objetivo es rastrear el imaginario sobre el cuerpo que subyace a las prácticas curativas y que se revela a través del discurso de las sanadoras populares (mapuches y no mapuches, y luego examinar las relaciones que se establecen entre estos dos tipos de saberes: el saber médico científico "occidental" y los saberes tradicionales populares. El método de análisis deriva de la teoría de la enunciación, de la polifonía enunciativa y del análisis actancialde los relatos. (This article deals with the representation of the human body (in terms of health and sickness which underlies the curative practices of popular Chilean "curanderas" and "meicas" (Research project: FONDECYT 1000376. Through an interdisciplinary approach –linguistic, psychological and sociological– the authors examine the imagery of the human body that is revealed through discoursive practices, and the relationship between the scientific "western" medical representations and those of popular medicine women (mapuche and "hispanic". The analysis of interviews draws mainly upon the theories of enunciation (Benveniste, intertextuality (Bakhtin and the actantial analysis of tales (Greimas.

  7. Study about papaya (Carica papaya L.) conservation submitted to a combined treatment of irradiation and an edible film of quitosan; Estudo do tratamento combinado de radiacao ionizante e cobertura de quitosana em mamao papaia (Carica papaya L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camargo, Rita Junqueira de

    2004-07-01

    In this research, on a first stage the effect of two treatments were studied: thermal, and a chitosan edible coating, combined with four different irradiation doses: 0,00 kGy, 0,50 kGy, 0,75 kGy and 1,00 kGy for effects in the ripening of papaya (Carica Papaya) cv. Golden. To evaluate the influence of these two factors in the physical-chemical characteristics of the fruit during ripening, analysis on color, both skin and pulp, firmness, soluble solids, pH and titrable acidity were performed. The incidence of fungi in fruit skin was also analyzed. The fruits were first maintained at 10 deg C chamber for fifteen days to simulate maritime transportation to the importer country and then transferred to a 25 deg C chamber aiming simulation of the commercialization conditions. From this first step, the conclusion was that chitosan in the concentration of 2% was not able to contain the fungi development and that it also influenced in a significant form the variable pH. A more expressive result was obtained for irradiation doses of 0,75 kGy and 1,00 kGy, as it was observed in the beginning the acceleration in ripening through the variables skin color and penetration energy of the fruit pulp. When storage temperature was changed to 25 deg C this situation inverted for these same variables and a two day delay was observed on the development of yellow color on the fruit skin and loss of pulp firmness. The variables titrable acidity, soluble solids and pulp color were not influenced by treatment or by irradiation. On a second stage, the fruits, in the same condition of the previous stage, were analyzed in relation of their mass and ripening stage using a ripening scale provided by the producer of the fruits for this experiment, as to evaluate the gradual development of fruit ripening according to the various treatments (chitosan 3%, thermal or control) and irradiation dose (0,00 kGy and 0,75 kGy). Confirming the results obtained in the first stage, the irradiation was able to

  8. Pathogenicity of three entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana, and Paecilomyces lilacinus, to Tetranychus kanzawai infesting papaya seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayan Sanjaya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tetranychus kanzawai is an economically important polyphagous mite species in East and South Asia. In the Philippines, it commonly infests cassava and papaya plants. The mites attack and severely damage the older leaves of papaya trees as well as seedlings. Its serious damage causes the leaves to dry up, thus, reducing the photosynthetic activity of the plant. Three entomopathogenic fungal isolates were tested on mites under greenhouse conditions using treated papaya seedlings following a completely randomized design. The mites tested were examined under a dissecting scope to determine the causal agent and to confirm mortality. The LT50 of Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana and Paecilomyces lilacinus on T. kanzawai were estimated. Our results indicate that among these entomopathogenic fungi, the Metarhizium anisopliae Ma6 isolate (LT50= 3.00 days has potentiality for the control of T. kanzawai.

  9. Anatomia foliar de plantas transgênicas e não transgênicas de Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) Leaf anatomy of genetically modified and wild-type Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Vinicius Leal-Costa; Márcia Munhoz; Paulo Ernesto Meissner Filho; Fernanda Reinert; Eliana Schwartz Tavares

    2010-01-01

    O mamoeiro, Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) é uma espécie americana, cujos frutos são largamente consumidos em todo mundo. Devido às perdas de produção provocadas por viroses e a dificuldade em controlá-las por métodos convencionais, a espécie tem sido alvo de pesquisas de melhoramento genético envolvendo transgenia para resistência a vírus. O presente trabalho descreve a anatomia foliar de plantas de mamoeiro convencional e transgênico resistente ao vírus da mancha anelar-Papaya ringspot virus...

  10. Effect of irradiation on the biochemical and organoleptic changes during the ripening of papaya and mango fruits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacroix, M.; Bernard, L.; Jobin, M.; Milot, S.; Gagnon, M. (Centre d' Irradiation du Canada, Laval, Quebec (Canada))

    1990-01-01

    Papaya and mango rot caused by fungi is a major problem during storage and marketing. Gamma irradiation treatment was used to determine its effect on the quality of papayas and mangoes irradiated at 0,5 to 0,95 kGy. The level of respiration, soluble solids, texture, vitamin C and the sensorial evaluation were effectuated. The results indicate that irradiation treatment reduces significantly (p{le}0,001) weakens the texture of mangoes. The content of soluble solids and vitamin C are not significantly affected by the irradiation. The sensory evaluation indicates that up to 0,95 kGy the sensorial quality is not changed. (author).

  11. RICARDO E. LATCHAM, UN CIENTÍFICO SOCIAL: DESDE LAS OBSERVACIONES ETNOGRÁFICAS DE LA SOCIEDAD HASTA LA ARQUEOLOGÍA DE LAS CULTURAS ORIGINARIAS CHILENAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio González Pizarro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la presencia intelectual de Ricardo Eduardo Latcham, ingeniero inglés, que llegado a Chile dio un mayor impulso al estudio tanto de la prehistoria latinoamericana como de la arqueología chilena, en los ámbitos del hábitat araucano y de las culturas del norte, en especial la atacameña. En este sentido, sus investigaciones prosiguieron a las de Uhle y posibilitaron integrar a los pueblos originarios del norte chileno al panorama de la prehistoria nacional. Latcham se adentró en registrar las conductas de la sociedad chilena, tanto culta como popular, de fines del siglo XIX, legando agudas anotaciones etnográficas juntamente con una labor de tenaz divulgador de los progresos de la antropología europea, convirtiéndose en un corresponsal de las revistas británicas de la disciplina. Sus obras mayores las pudo difundir en el marco de sus actividades en el Museo de Historia Natural y en la Universidad de Chile.

  12. La inclusión educativa desde la voz de madres de estudiantes con Trastornos del Espectro Autista en una muestra chilena

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    Marcela Villegas Otárola

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio es mostrar la perspectiva de madres chilenas sobre la inclusión educativa de sus hijos escolarizados en centros de educación primaria, quienes presentan un Trastorno del Espectro Autista. Se recogen evidencias, desde la voz de las familias, que pueden servir como punto de partida para reflexionar sobre cómo avanzar hacia una educación más inclusiva y cómo contribuir a mejorar los apoyos que se brindan a estudiantes con discapacidad. El estudio se enmarca en un paradigma cualitativo de investigación, utilizando entrevistas no estructuradas para acceder a la información. Se ha contado con la participación de ocho madres chilenas de la Región de Valparaíso. Los resultados muestran que la valoración de la escolarización está estrechamente relacionada con el bienestar emocional, ámbito al que se le otorga mayor relevancia que al de los resultados académicos. Se destaca la importancia de los apoyos adaptados a las necesidades del sistema familiar.

  13. AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI GETAH PEPAYA KERING TERHADAP Staphylococcus aureus PADA DANGKE [Antibacterial Activity of Dried Papaya Latex toward Staphylococcus aureus in Dangke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifah Hestyani Arum

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dangke is a traditional milk curd product, made by coagulation of milk using fresh papaya latex. This product is usually kept at room temperature (27-30ºC until consumption. Dried papaya latex was used in this study to produce dangke, and its effect to S. aureus was determined by direct contact in TSB and dangke. Fresh papaya latex was dried using vacuum oven at 50-55ºC for 22 hours. Dried papaya latex at a concentration of 2.7x10-3 g/100 mL could reduce S. aureus approximately 1 log CFU/mL in TSB after 24 hours. Dried papaya latex and papain could maintain the S. aureus number in dangke within 24 hours storage at room temperature. The antibacterial activity of non-proteolytic compound of papaya latex, i.e ethanolic extract of papaya latex was determined by macrodilution method, resulted an the MIC90 of 8 mg/mL. The cell membrane leakage after exposure was detected by measuring the optical density of bacterial supernatant at 260 nm. The result showed that exposure to increasing antibacterial concentration resulted in increasing of optical density of S. aureus supernatant, indicating that the antibacterial caused the S. aureus membrane leakage. Fluorescence microscopy imaging showed that S. aureus exposure to antibacterial caused membrane leakage thus gave Propidium Iodide (PI chance to penetrate into the cell, as indicated by changing of fluorescence color from green to red.

  14. Morphological study of bone marrow to assess the effects of lead acetate on haemopoiesis and aplasia and the ameliorating role of Carica papaya extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, Ching S; Chakravarthi, Srikumar; Haleagrahara, Nagaraja; DE Alwis, Ranjit

    2013-02-01

    Lead causes damage to the body by inducing oxidative stress. The sites of damage include the bone marrow, where marrow hypoplasia and osteosclerosis may be observed. Leaves of Carica papaya, which have antioxidant and haemopoietic properties, were tested against the effect of lead acetate in experimental rats. The rats were divided into 8 groups; control, lead acetate only, Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg), post-treatment with Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg) following lead acetate administration and pre-treatment with Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg) followed by lead acetate administration. The substances were administered for 14 days. The effects were evaluated by measuring protein carbonyl content (PCC) and glutathione content (GC) in the bone marrow. Histological changes in the bone marrow were also observed. The results showed that Carica papaya induced a significant reduction in the PCC activity and significantly increased the GC in the bone marrow. Carica papaya also improved the histology of the bone marrow compared with that of the lead acetate-treated group. In summary, Carica papaya was effective against the oxidative damage caused by lead acetate in the bone marrow and had a stimulatory effect on haemopoiesis.

  15. Informativeness of minisatellite and microsatellite markers for genetic analysis in papaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, G A F; Dantas, J L L; Oliveira, E J

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate information on minisatellite and microsatellite markers in papaya (Carica papaya L.). Forty minisatellites and 91 microsatellites were used for genotyping 24 papaya accessions. Estimates of genetic diversity, genetic linkage and analyses of population structure were compared. A lower average number of alleles per locus was observed in minisatellites (3.10) compared with microsatellites (3.57), although the minisatellites showed rarer alleles (18.54 %) compared with microsatellite (13.85 %). Greater expected (He = 0.52) and observed (Ho = 0.16) heterozygosity was observed in the microsatellites compared with minisatellites (He = 0.42 and Ho = 0.11), possibly due to the high number of hermaphroditic accessions, resulting in high rates of self-fertilization. The polymorphic information content and Shannon-Wiener diversity were also higher for microsatellites (from 0.47 to 1.10, respectively) compared with minisatellite (0.38 and 0.85, respectively). The probability of paternity exclusion was high for both markers (>0.999), and the combined probability of identity was from 1.65(-13) to 4.33(-38) for mini- and micro-satellites, respectively, which indicates that both types of markers are ideal for genetic analysis. The Bayesian analysis indicated the formation of two groups (K = 2) for both markers, although the minisatellites indicated a substructure (K = 4). A greater number of accessions with a low probability of assignment to specific groups were observed for microsatellites. Collectively, the results indicated higher informativeness of microsatellites. However, the lower informative power of minisatellites may be offset by the use of larger number of loci. Furthermore, minisatellites are subject to less error in genotyping because there is greater power to detect genotyping systems when larger motifs are used.

  16. Evaluation of new reference genes in papaya for accurate transcript normalization under different experimental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoyang; Li, Xueping; Chen, Weixin; Chen, Jianye; Lu, Wangjin; Chen, Lei; Fu, Danwen

    2012-01-01

    Real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) is a preferred method for rapid and accurate quantification of gene expression studies. Appropriate application of RT-qPCR requires accurate normalization though the use of reference genes. As no single reference gene is universally suitable for all experiments, thus reference gene(s) validation under different experimental conditions is crucial for RT-qPCR analysis. To date, only a few studies on reference genes have been done in other plants but none in papaya. In the present work, we selected 21 candidate reference genes, and evaluated their expression stability in 246 papaya fruit samples using three algorithms, geNorm, NormFinder and RefFinder. The samples consisted of 13 sets collected under different experimental conditions, including various tissues, different storage temperatures, different cultivars, developmental stages, postharvest ripening, modified atmosphere packaging, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment, hot water treatment, biotic stress and hormone treatment. Our results demonstrated that expression stability varied greatly between reference genes and that different suitable reference gene(s) or combination of reference genes for normalization should be validated according to the experimental conditions. In general, the internal reference genes EIF (Eukaryotic initiation factor 4A), TBP1 (TATA binding protein 1) and TBP2 (TATA binding protein 2) genes had a good performance under most experimental conditions, whereas the most widely present used reference genes, ACTIN (Actin 2), 18S rRNA (18S ribosomal RNA) and GAPDH (Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) were not suitable in many experimental conditions. In addition, two commonly used programs, geNorm and Normfinder, were proved sufficient for the validation. This work provides the first systematic analysis for the selection of superior reference genes for accurate transcript normalization in papaya under different experimental conditions.

  17. Evaluation of new reference genes in papaya for accurate transcript normalization under different experimental conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyang Zhu

    Full Text Available Real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR is a preferred method for rapid and accurate quantification of gene expression studies. Appropriate application of RT-qPCR requires accurate normalization though the use of reference genes. As no single reference gene is universally suitable for all experiments, thus reference gene(s validation under different experimental conditions is crucial for RT-qPCR analysis. To date, only a few studies on reference genes have been done in other plants but none in papaya. In the present work, we selected 21 candidate reference genes, and evaluated their expression stability in 246 papaya fruit samples using three algorithms, geNorm, NormFinder and RefFinder. The samples consisted of 13 sets collected under different experimental conditions, including various tissues, different storage temperatures, different cultivars, developmental stages, postharvest ripening, modified atmosphere packaging, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP treatment, hot water treatment, biotic stress and hormone treatment. Our results demonstrated that expression stability varied greatly between reference genes and that different suitable reference gene(s or combination of reference genes for normalization should be validated according to the experimental conditions. In general, the internal reference genes EIF (Eukaryotic initiation factor 4A, TBP1 (TATA binding protein 1 and TBP2 (TATA binding protein 2 genes had a good performance under most experimental conditions, whereas the most widely present used reference genes, ACTIN (Actin 2, 18S rRNA (18S ribosomal RNA and GAPDH (Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were not suitable in many experimental conditions. In addition, two commonly used programs, geNorm and Normfinder, were proved sufficient for the validation. This work provides the first systematic analysis for the selection of superior reference genes for accurate transcript normalization in papaya under different experimental

  18. Empleo del método de secado convectivo combinado para la deshidratación de papaya (Carica papaya L., variedad Maradol roja

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    Sahylin Muñiz Becerá

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tiene como objetivo evaluar el método de secado convectivo de papaya (Carica papaya L. variedad Maradol roja, combinado con la aplicación de pretratamientos de osmosis (DOSC y escaldado simple (ESSC, mediante el efecto de los factores tecnológi- cos del secador: temperatura (40 y 60oC y velocidad del flujo de aire (2,5 y 1,5 m/s sobre el comportamiento de las propiedades de calidad de la fruta deshidratada y la cinética del proceso. El pretratamiento de escaldado simple se realizó en agua destilada caliente a 70oC durante 15 minutos y la deshidratación osmótica u osmosis a 60oC por 4 horas a frutas cortadas en cubos de 1,5± 0,2 cm de largo por 1,0±0,01 cm de espesor, utilizando una solución de sacarosa comercial a 50oBrix. Como diseño experimental se empleó un Diseño Factorial Completo 22 y para el procesamiento estadístico de los datos el software STATGRAPHICS Plus 5.1. Como principales resultados se obtuvo que en ambos procesos el aumento de la temperatura a 60oC y la reducción de la velocidad del flujo de aire a 1,5 m/s disminuyó el tiempo de secado con valores de R 2 >0,95 y α<0,01. Mediante el secado a 40oC con 1,5 m/s se preserva el color y se minimiza la pérdida de peso en la fruta deshidratada con R 2 superior al 90% (α<0,01.

  19. Isolation And Purification Of Flavonoids From The Leaves Of Locally Produced Carica Papaya

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    Yahaya Mobmi Musa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The leaves of Carica papaya 150g was defatted with N-Hexane and extracted with Methanol. The N-Hexane exract showed the presence of Flavonoid Saponin Tannin Glycoside Anthraquinone Resin and Steroid while Methanolic extract showed the presence of Flavonoid Saponin and Resins. 6g of the Methanolic extract was chromatographed using Column chromatography over Silica gel of column 200g60-200 mesh and eluted with the solvent mixture of CH2Cl2CH3OH H2O in the ratio of 70301. The yield of the isolated Flavonoid was 0.23.

  20. Isolation And Purification Of Flavonoids From The Leaves Of Locally Produced Carica Papaya

    OpenAIRE

    Yahaya Mobmi Musa

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The leaves of Carica papaya 150g was defatted with N-Hexane and extracted with Methanol. The N-Hexane exract showed the presence of Flavonoid Saponin Tannin Glycoside Anthraquinone Resin and Steroid while Methanolic extract showed the presence of Flavonoid Saponin and Resins. 6g of the Methanolic extract was chromatographed using Column chromatography over Silica gel of column 200g60-200 mesh and eluted with the solvent mixture of CH2Cl2CH3OH H2O in the ratio of 70301. The yield o...

  1. Nutritional status and fruit production of Carica papaya as a function of coated and conventional urea

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel B. da Silva Júnior; Eduardo M. dos Santos; Roberto L. Silva; Ítalo H. L. Cavalcante

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT As a strategy to minimize N losses in the soil, mineral N sources, such as polymer-coated urea, have been studied as possibility to increase the synchronization of N release by the fertilizer and its absorption by plants. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the contents of macronutrients and the production of Formosa papaya as a function of sources and doses of N fertilizer applied as top-dressing in the region of Bom Jesus-PI, Brazil. The treatments were arranged in a 2 x 4 factorial...

  2. Effects of the methanolic seeds extract of Carica Papaya on plasmodium Berghei infected mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amazu LU; Ebong OO; Azikiwe CCA; Unekwe PC; Siminialayi MI; Nwosu PJC; Ezeani MC; Obidiya OS; Ajugwo AO

    2009-01-01

    Objective:The leaves extract of Carica Papaya(C.Papaya)papaya has been shown to possess antimalarial ac-tivity,thus this work aims at finding out if the plants antimalarial activity is present in or extended to the seeds.Methods:The seeds of C.papaya were collected from its fruit,air dried for 5 days and ground into fine powder.80.65 g of the powder was then soaked for 48hours in 300 mL of methanol.Filtration was carried out using Whatman No.1 filter paper.The filtrate was evaporated to dryness by a three-day continuous heating on a hot plate of 30℃.The dry extract yield was scraped out of the Petri dish weighed and refrigerated until re-quired.The percentage extract yield was calculated out from the initial powder weight.A preliminary phyto-chemical study was done by re-dissolving the appropriate amount of the dry extract in distilled water and appro-priate test reagent added.The LD50 of the seeds of C.papaya was carried out using arithmetic method.Swiss albino Mice of both sexes and of average weight of 1 8-25 g were used as animals for antimalarial activity.They were housed in standard animal house,fed on Rats/Mice pellets and had non restricted excess to both feed and water throughout the 60day study period.While the non pregnant female Mice were used as test animals,the male animals were used as malaria parasite donors.Precautions were taken to ensure that all animals in the study groups were free from infection with Eperythrozoon coocoides.The female animals were then divided into three main groups (A-C)of 25 animals per group.Group A was used for malaria suppressive study (early in-fection-day 0-3)and was further subdivided to 5subgroups (a-e)of 5animals per group.Group B was used for malaria curative study (established malaria infection-day 3-7)and was further subdivided to 5subgroups (a-e) of 5animals per group.Group C was used for malaria prophylactic study (repository-4days treatment prior to malaria parasite infection)and was also further subdivided

  3. Evaluation of the composition of Carica papaya L. seed oil extracted with supercritical CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro T.W. Barroso

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the most important tropical fruit grown in the world today and in Brazil, papaya occupies a prominent place. Native to tropical America, papaya has spread to several regions of the world, and Brazil accounts for 12.74% of the world production, followed by Mexico, Nigeria and India. The culture reached a harvested area of 441,042 ha and production of 12,420,585 t worldwide. The largest interest in this fruit relies on its main constituent compounds, like vitamins A, B and C, alkaloids (carpaine and pseudocarpaine, proteolytic enzymes (papain and quimiopapain and benzyl isothiocyanate, more known as BITC, which has anthelmintic activity. Because of that, the present work has as objective the evaluation of the efficiency and composition of the oil extracted from Carica papaya L. seeds with supercritical carbon dioxide. The experiments were performed in a unit containing mainly a high-pressure pump and a stainless steel extractor with 42 mL of volume. The sampling was performed at each 20 min until the saturation of the process. About 6.5 g of sample were fed for each experiment done at 40, 60 and 80 °C under the pressures of 100, 150 and 200 bar. Samples of the Carica papaya L. fruit were acquired in a popular market and free for personal use intended for the study. After collection, the seeds were crushed with the help of a pestle, and dried at 60 °C for 60 min. For each operational condition, the extraction curves were constructed relating cumulative mass of oil extracted in function of the operational time. The better efficiencies were found at 40 °C and 200 bar (1.33% followed by 80 °C and 200 bar (2.56%. Gas chromatography and NMR analysis could identify an insecticide component (BITC that enables new applications of this residue in pharmaceutical and chemical industries.

  4. Incidence of post-harvest fungal diseases of ripe papaya in Mymensingh

    OpenAIRE

    Hamim, I.; Alam, M.Z.; Ali, M. A.; M. Ashrafuzzaman

    2014-01-01

    A survey was conducted during November, 2012 to May, 2013 to assess the status of major post harvest diseases of papaya fruits in the local markets of Mymensingh. Average percentage of diseased fruits at the markets were 29.83 and diseased fruits ranged from 20.40% to 38.04% during the study period. Highest percentage of diseased fruits (38.04%) was recorded in the month of May, 2013 followed by March, 2013 (37.98%). The minimum percentage of diseased fruits (20.40%) was recorded in January, ...

  5. ANTICANCER EFFECTS OF CARICA PAPAYA IN EXPERIMENTAL INDUCED MAMMARY TUMORS IN RATS

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    Gurudatta M, Deshmukh YA, Naikwadi A A

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the anticancer effect of Carica papaya in DMBA induced mammary tumors in rats. Methods: Wistar rats were divided in to five groups (n=6, Group-I (Normal control administered vehicle olive oil, Group-II, Group-III ,Group-IV and V induced mammary tumors by administering single dose of DMBA (7,12 Dimethyl benz(Aanthracene orally 65 mg/kg. Group-III was administered aqueous leaf extract of Carica papaya (ALQECP in a dose of 200 mg/kg body wt for a period of 3 months, group-IV has given ALQECP 200 mg/kg body wt for a period of 21 days post 3 months of tumor induction, group-V rats were administered a small dose of Carica papaya extract intra tumor locally in the region of tumor. Results: Values of CA15-3 were increased in group-II rats (tumor control significantly, whereas in group-III (prevention group the levels of CA15-3 were found to be reduced substantially and the P value < 0.001. Similarly, CA-15-3 levels were reduced significantly in group-IV (treatment groupand P<0.005. The levels of LDH were seen to be increased in group-II, where as in group-III LDH levels were decreased and P<0.001.similarly group-IV LDH levels also reduced significantly but not to the level of group-III. Conclusion: Among the various markers for the detection of cancer antigen-15(CA15-3 and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH are important biochemical parameters that give a clear understanding of the progression and proliferation of cancer cells. In this study it was found that there is increase in the levels of markers such as CA15-3 and LDH and also the tumor volume in tumor control, these marker levels were decreased by the administration of aqueous leaf extract of Carica papaya in a dose of 200 mg/kg body wt. ALQECP not only prevented the progression of cancer growth but also has significant effect in reducing the both CA15-3 and LDH levels in treatment group.

  6. Etiologia e estratégias de controle de viroses do mamoeiro no brasil Etiology and control strategies of papaya virus diseases in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    ROBERTO C.A. LIMA; J. Albersio A. Lima; Manoel T. Souza Jr.; GILVAN PIO-RIBEIRO; Genira P. Andrade

    2001-01-01

    As viroses constituem o principal grupo de doenças do mamoeiro (Carica papaya), ocasionando grandes perdas na produção, podendo chegar à destruição total das plantações afetadas. Embora mais de dez vírus tenham sido constatados infetando naturalmente o mamoeiro, em todo o mundo, no Brasil, até o presente, foram assinaladas apenas as ocorrências do vírus da mancha anelar do mamoeiro (Papaya ringspot virus, PRSV), do vírus do amarelo letal do mamoeiro (Papaya lethal yellowing virus, PLYV) e do ...

  7. New approach for papaya latex storage without virus degradation Nova metodologia de armazenamento do latex de mamão sem degradação viral

    OpenAIRE

    Silas P. Rodrigues; Andrade, Josemar S.; José A. Ventura; Fernandes, Patricia M. B.

    2009-01-01

    Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is the causal agent of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sticky disease, which has been detected through analysis of its double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome from plant latex. In this work we demonstrate that PMeV dsRNA is protected during 25 days when latex is diluted in citrate buffer pH 5.0 (1:1 v/v) and maintained at -20°C. At the same temperature, some protection was observed for pure latex or latex diluted in ultra-pure water. Conversely, the dsRNA was almost completel...

  8. A case study to determine the geographical origin of unknown GM papaya in routine food sample analysis, followed by identification of papaya events 16-0-1 and 18-2-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Theo W; Scholtens, Ingrid M J; Bak, Arno W; van Dijk, Jeroen P; Voorhuijzen, Marleen M; Laurensse, Emile J; Kok, Esther J

    2016-12-15

    During routine monitoring for GMOs in food in the Netherlands, papaya-containing food supplements were found positive for the genetically modified (GM) elements P-35S and T-nos. The goal of this study was to identify the unknown and EU unauthorised GM papaya event(s). A screening strategy was applied using additional GM screening elements including a newly developed PRSV coat protein PCR. The detected PRSV coat protein PCR product was sequenced and the nucleotide sequence showed identity to PRSV YK strains indigenous to China and Taiwan. The GM events 16-0-1 and 18-2-4 could be identified by amplifying and sequencing events-specific sequences. Further analyses showed that both papaya event 16-0-1 and event 18-2-4 were transformed with the same construct. For use in routine analysis, derived TaqMan qPCR methods for events 16-0-1 and 18-2-4 were developed. Event 16-0-1 was detected in all samples tested whereas event 18-2-4 was detected in one sample. This study presents a strategy for combining information from different sources (literature, patent databases) and novel sequence data to identify unknown GM papaya events. PMID:27451215

  9. DE ARMARIOS Y BIBLIOTECAS: MASCULINIDAD Y TRADICIÓN LITERARIA CHILENA EN LA NARRATIVA DE ALBERTO FUGUET

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    Cristian Opazo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available La tesis de este ensayo postula que la narrativa de Alberto Fuguet puede ser leída como un proyecto escriturario que propone una (nueva estrategia retórica por la cual representar los desvíos del género sexual. Según este modus operandi, en las narraciones de Fuguet, tanto el acto de reprimir como el de explicitar los desvíos de la masculinidad, se ejecutan a través de un juego de citas a la tradición literaria chilena. En los textos de José Donoso, Jorge Edwards y Alfredo Gómez Morel, entre otros, los narradores personajes de Fuguet encuentran un conjunto de figuras retóricas que les permite decir su desvío, pero de manera oblicua; es decir, cifrando la voluptuosidad de sus deseos en la lengua culturalmente prestigiosa del Canon de las Letras de Chile. Dentro de este contexto, este ensayo pesquisa las citas que los primeros trabajos de Fuguet (Sobredosis y Mala onda hacen de Casa de campo y El jardín de al lado, de José Donoso, y El río, de Alfredo Gómez Morel.This essay proposes that Alberto Fuguet s narrative may be read as a writing project with a (new rhetorical strategy by which various sexual deviances may be represented By this modus operandi, in Fuguet's stories, both manifestation and repression of male deviance are made explicit by way of a 'quotation game' in the field of Chilean literary tradition. The narrators in his texts find in the narrative of José Donoso, Jorge Edwards and Alfredo Gómez Morel, among others, a corpus of rhetorical figures which allow them to make their deviance explicit in an oblique way; that is, to condense their voluptous desire in the prestigious language of the Chilean Literary Canon. Within this context, this essay explores the quotations of Donoso 's Casa de Campo and El Jardin de al lado, and those quotations of Alfredo Garcia Morel's El río present in Alberto Fuguet's first works (Sobredosis y Mala Onda.

  10. Factores que impactan los resultados empresariales: un estudio comparativo entre empresas chilenas y españolas

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    Patricia Carolina Huerta Riveros

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Los resultados empresariales representan un tema que sigue concentrando el interés de los investigadores y que aún no está resuelto. Es por ello que el presente estudio persigue dos objetivos: en primer lugar, realizar una revisión bibliográfica de los factores que impactan sobre los resultados empresariales; en segundo lugar, contrastar los planteamientos anteriores para aportar evidencia empírica al respecto, a través de un análisis comparativo entre dos países. Metodológicamente se realiza un contraste sobre paneles completos de empresas industriales chilenas y españolas, utilizando dos bases de datos: (i la Encuesta Nacional Industrial Anual (ENIA y (ii la base de datos de la Encuesta Sobre Estrategias Empresariales (ESEE, respectivamente, para el periodo 2000-2007. Utilizando análisis de componentes de varianza se identifican los factores que explican más del 90% de los resultados empresariales y, empleando técnicas para datos de panel, se descubre que estos factores también influyen en los resultados obtenidos. De este modo, el presente artículo avanza en la discusión del tema, a través de su aplicación a empresas de un país en vías de desarrollo como Chile, además de analizar un aspecto descuidado en la literatura como es el estudio de la influencia de los factores, sin concentrarse únicamente en el análisis del porcentaje de explicación de los factores identificados sobre los resultados empresariales; de igual manera, este trabajo actualiza el periodo tradicionalmente investigado e incorpora un factor relevante pero menos analizado en este tipo de estudios, como es la localización geográfica, factor que contribuye a explicar significativamente el modelo propuesto. Dentro de las repercusiones que implican el estudio, es evidente que sus resultados permitirán a los directivos y dueños de empresas comprender los elementos que influyen en los resultados organizacionales, los cuales son la base de su existencia y

  11. La escuela y la cuestión del mérito: reflexiones desde la experiencia chilena

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    Kathya Araujo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Este artículo discute la importancia y centralidad que ha adquirido el mérito en la sociedad chilena hoy, enfocándose principalmente en sus efectos asociados con la experiencia educacional. El argumento es desarrollado en tres pasos. Luego de una presentación del contexto histórico y de las transformaciones sociales que dan cuenta de su expansión, se analizan sobre todo las maneras en que el reconocimiento del mérito es distintamente evaluado en las diferentes etapas de la trayectoria escolar por las clases medias y los sectores populares. En un tercer momento, se muestra de qué manera a través del extendido recurso a las redes sociales y a los contactos interpersonales, la expansión del mérito se acompaña del surgimiento de un nuevo horizonte de injusticia social. El artículo pone en evidencia, así, a la vez el fuerte consenso en torno al valor del mérito en Chile y los sentimientos de injusticia y frustración que ello engendra en los individuos. La discusión presentada se basa en los resultados de dos estudios cualitativos. La primera investigación se desarrolló en las ciudades de Santiago, Concepción y Valparaíso, entre 2007 y 2009, a través de alrededor de un centenar de entrevistas a hombres y mujeres de entre 30 y 55 años, pertenecientes la mitad de ellos a sectores populares urbanos y la otra mitad a las clases medias y medias-altas. La segunda investigación, en curso, aportó al análisis dieciséis entrevistas hechas en Santiago, a lo largo del 2014, a partir de las cuales se profundizó la problemática del mérito.

  12. PROYECTOS DE ELITE CHILENA DEL SIGLO XIX (I Chile’s 19th century elite’s projects

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    Jorge Pinto Rodríguez

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Examen de los proyectos con que la elite chilena del siglo XIX gobernó el país. La hipótesis es que hubo un proyecto original levantado por quienes se instalan en el poder después de la Independenciaque se sostuvo en el orden, la centralización del poder, la voluntad de desarrollarnos por nosotros mismos, de espaldas a cualquier proyecto sudamericano, y materialmente sostenido en las exportaciones de nuestras materias primas. Este proyecto fue cuestionado por una generación más liberal, formada en los años 40, que llega al poder en los años 60. Admiradores del positivismo, aquellos jóvenes vieron en Europa el modelo a seguir. Para ellos, el progreso, meta final que querían lograr, fue asociado a Francia, Inglaterra y, en algunos casos, a Estados Unidos, cuyas huellas pretenden seguir, sin considerar las particularidades de Chile. Con cierta insensibilidad social e incapaz de atender las demandas de los grupos subalternos, este proyecto arrastró al país a la crisis que lo sacudió a fines del siglo XIX y comienzos del XX.This article discusses projects with which the elite ruled in the 19th century. According to the author, there was an original project led by those who ruled the country after the ; it was based on order, power centralization, and Chilean people’s own ideas on self-improvement irrespective of any other South American project and materially supported by Chilean raw materials exports. This Project was questioned by a more liberal generation rising in the 1840s and taking over power in the 1860s. Being admirers of positivism, youngsters looked at as a model to be followed. As their ultimate goal, they associated progress with and in some cases, the They wanted to follow these countries’ footsteps regardless of ’s national characteristics. With little social sensitivity and unable to meet the demands of subaltern groups, this project led the country to the crisis at the turn of the century.

  13. Managing Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), Using Spinosad-Based Protein Bait Sprays in Papaya Orchards in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy of GF-120 Fruit Fly Bait was evaluated as a control of female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) in papaya orchards in Hawaii. Two important components of this study were field sanitation and mass trapping using the male-specific lure methyl eugenol. Three different spray ...

  14. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma graminis' and 'Candidatus Phytoplasma caricae', two novel phytoplasmas associated with diseases of sugarcane, weeds and papaya in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arocha, Yaima; López, Mercedes; Piñol, Berta; Fernández, Miriam; Picornell, Buenaventura; Almeida, Roberto; Palenzuela, Iris; Wilson, Michael R; Jones, Phil

    2005-11-01

    During 2003, surveys of sugarcane yellow leaf disease and papaya bunchy top-like disease were carried out on plantations in Havana province, Cuba, to determine the roles of weeds and Auchenorrhyncha insects in the epidemiology of these diseases. More than 250 plant and insect samples were collected and indexed by using a nested PCR for phytoplasma 16S rDNA with the generic primer pairs P1/P7 and R16F2n/R16R2. The PCR products were further characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism using HaeIII, AluI, Sau3AI, Tru9I, HhaI, HpaII and TaqI endonucleases, giving patterns that distinguished them from those of the other reference phytoplasmas analysed. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences identified the phytoplasmas present in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.), Cynodon dactylon L., Conyza canadensis L. Cronq., Sorghum halepense L. Pers., Macroptilium lathyroides L. Urb., Saccharosydne saccharivora (Westwood) and Cedusa spp., and those in papaya (Carica papaya L.) and Empoasca papayae, as two novel provisional phytoplasma species. We propose that these phytoplasmas should be given Candidatus status, as 'Candidatus Phytoplasma graminis' and 'Candidatus Phytoplasma caricae', respectively.

  15. Effects of chitosan-based coatings containing peppermint essential oil on the quality of post-harvest papaya fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edible coatings comprised of antimicrobial polymers based on chitosan are promising technologies to preserve post-harvest fruit quality. In this study, we investigated the potential utility of a coating made from chitosan modified by N-acylation with fatty acid to preserve post-harvest papaya qualit...

  16. Resistance to papaya ringspot virus-watermelon strain (PRSV-W) in the desert watermelon Citrullus colocynthis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bitter desert watermelon (Citrullus colocynthis) is a valuable source for improving disease or pest resistance in watermelon cultivars. The objective of this study was to identify C. colocynthis accessions displaying resistance to the papaya ringspot virus-watermelon strain (PRSV-W) that could ...

  17. Long-term spatial memory and morphological changes in hippocampus of Wistar rats exposed to smoke from Carica papaya leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aboyeji Lukuman Oyewole; Bamidele Victor Owoyele

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of smoking of dried leaves of Carica papaya (pawpaw) based on ethnopharmacological information which indicated that smoking of papaya leaves could influence motor performance and learning. Methods:Twenty-four rats were used for the study, and were grouped into four groups. Groups 1 served as the control (not exposed to papaya leaves smoke), while Groups 2, 3 and 4 were exposed to smoke from 6.25 g, 12.50 g and 18.75 g of dry pawpaw leaves respectively in a smoking chamber twice daily for 21 d with each exposure lasting for 3 min. Lastly, hippocampus was harvested in each group for histological study. Results: The results showed that there were significant (P Conclusions: In conclusion, the findings from this study has demonstrated that smoking of papaya leaves has the ability to maintain an intact long-term spatial memory at all doses but retrieving such memory is faster with the low and medium dosages.

  18. Content determination of benzyl glucosinolate and anti-cancer activity of its hydrolysis product inCarica papaya L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ze-You Li; Yong Wang; Wen-Tao Shen; Peng Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To determine the content of benzyl glucosinolate(BG)in the pulp and the seed and investigate the anti-cancer activity of its hydrolysis product inCarica papaya L.Methods:Determination ofBG was performed on an HypersilBDS C18 column at the wavelength of214 nm with0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA)aqueous solution (A) and 0.1%TFA acetonitrile (B)as the mobile phase. In vitro activity test was adopted with cultured human lung cancerH69 cellin vitro to investigate the inhibition rate of cell proliferation of benzyl isothiocyanate(BITC)againstH69 cell.Results: The pulp has more BG before the maturation of papaya and it nearly disappeared after papaya matured, while the seed containsBG at every stage. Activity test demonstrated that the a higher concentration ofBITC would have better inhibition rate of cell proliferation onH69 cell, and the IC50 was6.5 μmol/L.Conclusions:BG also can be produced in the pulp of papaya and it will be stored in the seed after the fruit has been matured. The hydrolysis product ofBG has certain cancer-prevention anti-cancer activities for human.

  19. How to become a tree without wood--biomechanical analysis of the stem of Carica papaya L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempe, A; Lautenschläger, T; Lange, A; Neinhuis, C

    2014-01-01

    Carica papaya L. does not contain wood, according to the botanical definition of wood as lignified secondary xylem. Despite its parenchymatous secondary xylem, these plants are able to grow up to 10-m high. This is surprising, as wooden structural elements are the ubiquitous strategy for supporting height growth in plants. Proposed possible alternative principles to explain the compensation for lack of wood in C. papaya are turgor pressure of the parenchyma, lignified phloem fibres in the bark, or a combination of the two. Interestingly, lignified tissue comprises only 5-8% of the entire stem mass. Furthermore, the phloem fibres do not form a compact tube enclosing the xylem, but instead form a mesh tubular structure. To investigate the mechanism of papaya's unusually high mechanical strength, a set of mechanical measurements were undertaken on whole stems and tissue sections of secondary phloem and xylem. The structural Young's modulus of mature stems reached 2.5 GPa. Since this is low compared to woody plants, the flexural rigidity of papaya stem construction may mainly be based on a higher second moment of inertia. Additionally, stem turgor pressure was determined indirectly by immersing specimens in sucrose solutions of different osmolalities, followed by mechanical tests; turgor pressure was between 0.82 and 1.25 MPa, indicating that turgor is essential for flexural rigidity of the entire stem.

  20. Genetic differentiation of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. truncatum associated with Anthracnose disease of papaya (Carica papaya L.) and bell pepper (Capsium annuum L.) based on ITS PCR-RFLP fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharaj, Ariana; Rampersad, Sephra N

    2012-03-01

    Members of the genus Colletotrichum include some of the most economically important fungal pathogens in the world. Accurate diagnosis is critical to devising disease management strategies. Two species, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. truncatum, are responsible for anthracnose disease in papaya (Carica papaya L.) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in Trinidad. The ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of 48 Colletotrichum isolates was sequenced, and the ITS PCR products were analyzed by PCR-RFLP analysis. Restriction site polymorphisms generated from 11 restriction enzymes enabled the identification of specific enzymes that were successful in distinguishing between C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum isolates. Species-specific restriction fragment length polymorphisms generated by the enzymes AluI, HaeIII, PvuII, RsaI, and Sau3A were used to consistently resolve C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum isolates from papaya. AluI, ApaI, PvuII, RsaI, and SmaI reliably separated isolates of C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum from bell pepper. PvuII, RsaI, and Sau3A were also capable of distinguishing among the C. gloeosporioides isolates from papaya based on the different restriction patterns that were obtained as a result of intra-specific variation in restriction enzyme recognition sites in the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA region. Of all the isolates tested, C. gloeosporioides from papaya also had the highest number of PCR-RFLP haplotypes. Cluster analysis of sequence and PCR-RFLP data demonstrated that all C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum isolates clustered separately into species-specific clades regardless of host species. Phylograms also revealed consistent topologies which suggested that the genetic distances for PCR-RFLP-generated data were comparable to that of ITS sequence data. ITS PCR-RFLP fingerprinting is a rapid and reliable method to identify and differentiate between Colletotrichum species.

  1. Genetic differentiation of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. truncatum associated with Anthracnose disease of papaya (Carica papaya L.) and bell pepper (Capsium annuum L.) based on ITS PCR-RFLP fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharaj, Ariana; Rampersad, Sephra N

    2012-03-01

    Members of the genus Colletotrichum include some of the most economically important fungal pathogens in the world. Accurate diagnosis is critical to devising disease management strategies. Two species, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. truncatum, are responsible for anthracnose disease in papaya (Carica papaya L.) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in Trinidad. The ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of 48 Colletotrichum isolates was sequenced, and the ITS PCR products were analyzed by PCR-RFLP analysis. Restriction site polymorphisms generated from 11 restriction enzymes enabled the identification of specific enzymes that were successful in distinguishing between C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum isolates. Species-specific restriction fragment length polymorphisms generated by the enzymes AluI, HaeIII, PvuII, RsaI, and Sau3A were used to consistently resolve C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum isolates from papaya. AluI, ApaI, PvuII, RsaI, and SmaI reliably separated isolates of C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum from bell pepper. PvuII, RsaI, and Sau3A were also capable of distinguishing among the C. gloeosporioides isolates from papaya based on the different restriction patterns that were obtained as a result of intra-specific variation in restriction enzyme recognition sites in the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA region. Of all the isolates tested, C. gloeosporioides from papaya also had the highest number of PCR-RFLP haplotypes. Cluster analysis of sequence and PCR-RFLP data demonstrated that all C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum isolates clustered separately into species-specific clades regardless of host species. Phylograms also revealed consistent topologies which suggested that the genetic distances for PCR-RFLP-generated data were comparable to that of ITS sequence data. ITS PCR-RFLP fingerprinting is a rapid and reliable method to identify and differentiate between Colletotrichum species. PMID:21720933

  2. Prediction of genetic gain from selection indices for disease resistance in papaya hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Vivas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to select superior hybrids for the concentration of favorable alleles for resistance to papaya black spot, powdery mildew and phoma spot, 67 hybrids were evaluated in two seasons, in 2007, in a randomized block design with two replications. Genetic gains were estimated from the selection indices of Smith & Hazel, Pesek & Baker, Williams, Mulamba & Mock, with selection intensity of 22.39%, corresponding to 15 hybrids. The index of Mulamba & Mock showed gains more suitable for the five traits assessed when it was used the criterion of economic weight tentatively assigned. Together, severity of black spot on leaves and on fruits, characteristics considered most relevant to the selection of resistant materials, expressed percentage gain of -44.15%. In addition, there were gains for other characteristics, with negative predicted selective percentage gain. The results showed that the index of Mulamba & Mock is the most efficient procedure for simultaneous selection of papaya hybrid resistant to black spot, powdery mildew and phoma spot.

  3. Nutritional status and fruit production of Carica papaya as a function of coated and conventional urea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel B. da Silva Júnior

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT As a strategy to minimize N losses in the soil, mineral N sources, such as polymer-coated urea, have been studied as possibility to increase the synchronization of N release by the fertilizer and its absorption by plants. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the contents of macronutrients and the production of Formosa papaya as a function of sources and doses of N fertilizer applied as top-dressing in the region of Bom Jesus-PI, Brazil. The treatments were arranged in a 2 x 4 factorial scheme corresponding to N sources (coated urea and conventional urea and N doses (350, 440, 530 and 620 g plant-1 of N, with four replicates and four plants per plot. The contents of macronutrients in the leaf dry matter and fruit production were evaluated. The sources and doses of top-dressing N fertilization incremented the leaf contents of macronutrients and the production of Formosa papaya hybrid Caliman 01. Under the experimental conditions and based on the macronutrient contents considered as adequate for crop nutrition, associated with maximum fruit production (8.08 kg plant-1, the supply of 525 g of N plant-1 is recommended in the form of coated urea.

  4. Control of papaya fruits anthracnose by essential oil of Ricinus communis

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    César Luis Siqueira Júnior

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the potential of castor oil for the control of papaya diseases caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and the bacterium Pseudomonas caricapapayae. The treatment with 1% castor oil did not significantly affect the fungal growth. The effectiveness of castor oil for the control of anthracnose was shown when 5% and 10% (v/v were used in the assays resulting in reduced mycelial growth. Fungal sporulation was strongly inhibited at 10% (v/v concentration of essential oil. The studies with the fresh fruits treated with 5% (v/v castor oil in aqueous emulsions resulted in effective reduction of pathogen spread in these fruits. No lesion was found in the fruits treated with oil, when compared to the control fruits. Castor oil showed no effect against the P. caricapapayae when tested in vitro. These results suggested the potential use of the castor bean essential oil and its fatty acids constituents for the control of anthracnose in papaya fruits.

  5. Compositional and functional dynamics of dried papaya as affected by storage time and packaging material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udomkun, Patchimaporn; Nagle, Marcus; Argyropoulos, Dimitrios; Mahayothee, Busarakorn; Latif, Sajid; Müller, Joachim

    2016-04-01

    Papaya has been identified as a valuable source of nutrients and antioxidants, which are beneficial for human health. To preserve the nutritional properties after drying, appropriate storage specifications should be considered. This study aimed to investigate the quality and stability of air-dried papaya in terms of quality dynamics and behavior of bio-active compounds during storage for up to 9 months in two packaging materials: aluminum laminated polyethylene and polyamide/polyethylene. Samples with moisture content (MC) of 0.1328 g g(-1) and water activity (aw) of 0.5 were stored at 30 °C and relative humidity (RH) of 40-50%. The MC, aw, degree of browning (DB) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content were found to notably increase as storage progressed. On the contrary, there was a significant decrease in antioxidant capacity (DPPH, FRAP and ABTS), total phenolic (TP) and ascorbic acid (AA) contents. Packaging in aluminum laminated polyethylene under ambient conditions was found to better preserve bio-active compounds and retard increases in MC, aw and DB, when compared to polyamide/polyethylene. PMID:26593545

  6. Production of fatty acid butyl esters using the low cost naturally immobilized Carica papaya lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Erzheng; Wei, Dongzhi

    2014-07-01

    In this work, the low cost naturally immobilized Carica papaya lipase (CPL) was investigated for production of fatty acid butyl esters (FABE) to fulfill the aim of reducing the lipase cost in the enzymatic butyl-biodiesel process. The CPL showed specificities to different alcohol acyl acceptors. Alcohols with more than three carbon atoms did not have negative effects on the CPL activity. The CPL catalyzed butanolysis for FABE production was systematically investigated. The reaction solvent, alcohol/oil molar ratio, enzyme amount, reaction temperature, and water activity all affected the butanolysis process. Under the optimized conditions, the highest conversion of 96% could be attained in 24 h. These optimal conditions were further applied to CPL catalyzed butanolysis of other vegetable oils. All of them showed very high conversion. The CPL packed-bed reactor was further developed, and could be operated continuously for more than 150 h. All of these results showed that the low cost Carica papaya lipase can be used as a promising lipase for biodiesel production.

  7. Identification of miRNAs and miRNA-mediated regulatory pathways in Carica papaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Gang; Li, Yang; He, Hua; Wang, Fang; Yu, Diqiu

    2013-10-01

    Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) post-transcriptionally regulate target gene expression to modulate growth and development and biotic and abiotic stress responses. By analyzing small RNA deep sequencing data in combination with the genome sequence, we identified 75 conserved miRNAs and 11 novel miRNAs. Their target genes were also predicted. For most conserved miRNAs, the miRNA-target pairs were conserved across plant species. In addition to these conserved miRNA-target pairs, we also identified some papaya-specific miRNA-target regulatory pathways. Both miR168 and miR530 target the Argonaute 1 gene, indicating a second autoregulatory mechanism for miRNA regulation. A non-conserved miRNA was mapped within an intron of Dicer-like 1 (DCL1), suggesting a conserved homeostatic autoregulatory mechanism for DCL1 expression. A 21-nt miRNA triggers secondary siRNA production from its target genes, nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat protein genes. Certain phased-miRNAs were processed from their conserved miRNA precursors, indicating a putative miRNA evolution mechanism. In addition, we identified a Carica papaya-specific miRNA that targets an ethylene receptor gene, implying its function in the ethylene signaling pathway. This work will also advance our understanding of miRNA functions and evolution in plants.

  8. Germination and biochemical changes in ‘Formosa’ papaya seeds treated with plant hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fonsêca Zanotti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of growth regulators on germination rates and biochemical compound concentrations in Carica papaya L. seeds (‘Formosa’ group. The seeds were harvested from fruits at maturation stages 3 and 5 (50 and 75% yellow fruit skin, respectively. The effects of 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (CEPA, KNO3 and gibberellic acid (GA3on seed germination, germination index speed, soluble sugars, starch, lipids, soluble proteins and total proteins of the papaya seeds were evaluated. The seeds from stage 5 showed a higher rate of germination 30 days after sowing than did the seeds from stage 3. Treatment with CEPA decreased seed germination, apparently due to decreased starch mobilization; the opposite response was observed following KNO3 treatment. GA3, alone or in combination with KNO3, stimulated an increase in lipid mobilization. In general, with the exception of CEPA, all growth regulators tested were effective in overcoming seed dormancy, and KNO3 was the most effective. The seeds from stage 3 fruits treated with KNO3 or KNO3 + GA3 had higher rates of germination at 14 days.

  9. Oxidative stress in patients with Alzheimer's disease: effect of extracts of fermented papaya powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbagallo, Mario; Marotta, Francesco; Dominguez, Ligia J

    2015-01-01

    Brain tissue is particularly susceptible to oxidative stress (OS). Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduced antioxidant systems, and decreased efficiency in repairing mechanisms have been linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Postmortem studies in AD patients' brains have shown oxidative damage markers (i.e., lipid peroxidation, protein oxidative damage, and glycoxidation). Fermented papaya (FPP, a product of Carica papaya Linn fermentation with yeast) is a nutraceutical supplement with favorable effects on immunological, hematological, inflammatory, and OS parameters in chronic/degenerative diseases. We studied 40 patients (age 78.2 ± 1.1 years), 28 AD patients, and 12 controls. Urinary 8-OHdG was measured to assess OS. Twenty AD patients were supplemented with FPP (Immunage, 4.5 grams/day) for 6 months, while controls did not receive any treatment. At baseline, 8-OHdG was significantly higher in patients with AD versus controls (13.7 ± 1.61 ng/mL versus 1.6 ± 0.12 ng/mL, P < 0.01). In AD patients FPP significantly decreased 8-OHdG (14.1 ± 1.7 ng/mL to 8.45 ± 1.1 ng/mL, P < 0.01), with no significant changes in controls. AD is associated with increased OS, and FPP may be helpful to counteract excessive ROS in AD patients. PMID:25944987

  10. Oxidative Stress in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease: Effect of Extracts of Fermented Papaya Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Barbagallo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain tissue is particularly susceptible to oxidative stress (OS. Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, reduced antioxidant systems, and decreased efficiency in repairing mechanisms have been linked to Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Postmortem studies in AD patients’ brains have shown oxidative damage markers (i.e., lipid peroxidation, protein oxidative damage, and glycoxidation. Fermented papaya (FPP, a product of Carica papaya Linn fermentation with yeast is a nutraceutical supplement with favorable effects on immunological, hematological, inflammatory, and OS parameters in chronic/degenerative diseases. We studied 40 patients (age 78.2 ± 1.1 years, 28 AD patients, and 12 controls. Urinary 8-OHdG was measured to assess OS. Twenty AD patients were supplemented with FPP (Immunage, 4.5 grams/day for 6 months, while controls did not receive any treatment. At baseline, 8-OHdG was significantly higher in patients with AD versus controls (13.7 ± 1.61 ng/mL versus 1.6 ± 0.12 ng/mL, P<0.01. In AD patients FPP significantly decreased 8-OHdG (14.1 ± 1.7 ng/mL to 8.45 ± 1.1 ng/mL, P<0.01, with no significant changes in controls. AD is associated with increased OS, and FPP may be helpful to counteract excessive ROS in AD patients.

  11. Lactogenic Activity of an Enzymatic Hydrolysate from Octopus vulgaris and Carica papaya in SD Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Bingna; Chen, Hua; Sun, Han; Sun, Huili; Wan, Peng; Chen, Deke; Pan, Jianyu

    2015-11-01

    The traditional Chinese medicine theory believes that octopus papaya soup can stimulate milk production in lactating women. The objective of this study was to determine whether dietary supplementation with an enzymatic hydrolysate of Octopus vulgaris and Carica papaya (EHOC) could increase milk production and nutritional indexes in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Female SD rats (n = 24) were fed a control diet (n = 8), EHOC-supplemented diet, or a positive control diet (Shengruzhi) from day 10 of pregnancy to day 10 of lactation. Maternal serum, mammary gland (day 10 of lactation), milk, and pup weight (daily) were collected for analysis. Results showed that the EHOC diet obviously elevated daily milk yield and pup weight compared to the control group (P supplemented dams were higher than those of the control group, especially the cholesterol, glucose, and IgG were higher by 44.98% (P < .001), 42.76% (P < .01), and 42.23% (P < .01), respectively. In conclusion, this article demonstrates that EHOC administration has beneficial effects on milk production in the dams and on performance of the dam and pup. These results indicate that EHOC could be explored as a potentially lactogenic nutriment for lactating women. PMID:26270883

  12. Comparison of methods for classification of the coefficient of variation in papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeferson Pereira Ferreira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this work was to study the distribution of values of the coefficient of variation (CV in the experiments of papaya crop (Carica papaya L. by proposing ranges to guide researchers in their evaluation for different characters in the field. The data used in this study were obtained by bibliographical review in Brazilian journals, dissertations and thesis. This study considered the following characters: diameter of the stalk, insertion height of the first fruit, plant height, number of fruits per plant, fruit biomass, fruit length, equatorial diameter of the fruit, pulp thickness, fruit firmness, soluble solids and internal cavity diameter, from which, value ranges were obtained for the CV values for each character, based on the methodology proposed by Garcia, Costa and by the standard classification of Pimentel-Gomes. The results obtained in this study indicated that ranges of CV values were different among various characters, presenting a large variation, which justifies the necessity of using specific evaluation range for each character. In addition, the use of classification ranges obtained from methodology of Costa is recommended.

  13. In silico cloning and characterization of the TGA (TGACG MOTIF-BINDING FACTOR) transcription factors subfamily in Carica papaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrovo Espín, Fabio Marcelo; Peraza-Echeverria, Santy; Fuentes, Gabriela; Santamaría, Jorge M

    2012-05-01

    The TGA transcription factors belong to the subfamily of bZIP group D that play a major role in disease resistance and development. Most of the TGA identified in Arabidopsis interact with the master regulator of SAR, NPR1 that controls the expression of PR genes. As a first approach to determine the possible involvement of these transcription factors in papaya defense, we characterized Arabidopsis TGA orthologs from the genome of Carica papaya cv. SunUp. Six orthologs CpTGA1 to CpTGA6, were identified. The predicted CpTGA proteins were highly similar to AtTGA sequences and probably share the same DNA binding properties and transcriptional regulation features. The protein sequences alignment evidenced the presence of conserved domains, characteristic of this group of transcription factors. The phylogeny showed that CpTGA evolved into three different subclades associated with defense and floral development. This is the first report of basal expression patterns assessed by RT-PCR, from the whole subfamily of CpTGA members in different tissues from papaya cv. Maradol mature plants. Overall, CpTGA1, CpTGA3 CpTGA6 and CpTGA4 showed a basal expression in all tissues tested; CpTGA2 expressed strongly in all tissues except in petioles while CpTGA5 expressed only in petals and to a lower extent in petioles. Although more detailed studies in anthers and other floral structures are required, we suggest that CpTGA5 might be tissue-specific, and it might be involved in papaya floral development. On the other hand, we report here for the first time, the expression of the whole family of CpTGA in response to salicylic acid (SA). The expression of CpTGA3, CpTGA4 and CpTGA6 increased in response to SA, what would suggest its involvement in the SAR response in papaya.

  14. Identification and expression of C2H2 transcription factor genes in Carica papaya under abiotic and biotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ling; Pan, Lin-jie

    2012-06-01

    C2H2 proteins belong to a group of transcription factors (TFs) existing as a superfamily that plays important roles in defense responses and various other physiological processes in plants. The present study aimed to screen for and identify C2H2 proteins associated with defense responses to abiotic and biotic stresses in Carica papaya L. Data were collected for 47,483 papaya-expressed sequence tags (ESTs). The full-length cDNA nucleotide sequences of 87 C2H2 proteins were predicated by BioEdit. All 91 C2H2 proteins were aligned, and a phylogenetic tree was constructed using DNAman. The expression levels of 42 C2H2 were analyzed under conditions of salt stress by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Methyl jasmonate treatment rapidly upregulated ZF(23.4) and ZF(30,912.1) by 18.6- and 21.7-fold, respectively. ZF(1.3), ZF(138.44), ZF(94.49), ZF(29.160), and ZF(20.206) were found to be downregulated after low temperature treatment at very significant levels (p papaya ringspot virus pathogen. ZF(30,912.1) was subcellularly localized in the nucleus by a transgenic fusion of pBS-ZF(30,912.1)-GFP into the protoplast of papaya. The results of the present study showed that ZF(30,912.1) could be an important TF that mediates responses to abiotic and biotic stresses in papaya.

  15. In silico cloning and characterization of the TGA (TGACG MOTIF-BINDING FACTOR) transcription factors subfamily in Carica papaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrovo Espín, Fabio Marcelo; Peraza-Echeverria, Santy; Fuentes, Gabriela; Santamaría, Jorge M

    2012-05-01

    The TGA transcription factors belong to the subfamily of bZIP group D that play a major role in disease resistance and development. Most of the TGA identified in Arabidopsis interact with the master regulator of SAR, NPR1 that controls the expression of PR genes. As a first approach to determine the possible involvement of these transcription factors in papaya defense, we characterized Arabidopsis TGA orthologs from the genome of Carica papaya cv. SunUp. Six orthologs CpTGA1 to CpTGA6, were identified. The predicted CpTGA proteins were highly similar to AtTGA sequences and probably share the same DNA binding properties and transcriptional regulation features. The protein sequences alignment evidenced the presence of conserved domains, characteristic of this group of transcription factors. The phylogeny showed that CpTGA evolved into three different subclades associated with defense and floral development. This is the first report of basal expression patterns assessed by RT-PCR, from the whole subfamily of CpTGA members in different tissues from papaya cv. Maradol mature plants. Overall, CpTGA1, CpTGA3 CpTGA6 and CpTGA4 showed a basal expression in all tissues tested; CpTGA2 expressed strongly in all tissues except in petioles while CpTGA5 expressed only in petals and to a lower extent in petioles. Although more detailed studies in anthers and other floral structures are required, we suggest that CpTGA5 might be tissue-specific, and it might be involved in papaya floral development. On the other hand, we report here for the first time, the expression of the whole family of CpTGA in response to salicylic acid (SA). The expression of CpTGA3, CpTGA4 and CpTGA6 increased in response to SA, what would suggest its involvement in the SAR response in papaya. PMID:22410205

  16. ¿CUÁL ES EL CRECIMIENTO DE LARGO PLAZO DE LA ECONOMÍA CHILENA? UNA RESPUESTA FORMAL PARA UNA ANTIGUA PREGUNTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron Idrovo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio es estimar la tasa de crecimiento de la economía en un contexto de plena utilización de los recursos productivos. Se emplean para el análisis modelos univariados de series de tiempo, incluyendo una tendencia determinística (con quiebres de medias, y un modelo de estado-espacio que considera una tendencia estocástica y un componente cíclico, estimado por Filtro de Kalman. El componente cíclico es calculado con y sin cambios de régimen (Markov-switching models, de acuerdo con la idea de Friedman (1993 -plucking model. Los resultados indican que la tasa de crecimiento potencial de la economía chilena sería superior al 4% anual, acompañada de ciclos económicos asimétricos.

  17. ¿Cuál es el crecimiento de largo plazo de la economía chilena? Una respuesta formal para una antigua pregunta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idrovo A. Byron

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio es estimar la tasa de crecimiento de la economía en un contexto de plena utilización de los recursos productivos. Se emplean para el análisis modelos univariados de series de tiempo, incluyendo una tendencia determinística (con quiebres de medias, y un modelo de estado-espacio que considera una tendencia estocástica y un componente cíclico, estimado por Filtro de Kalman. El componente cíclico es calculado con y sin cambios de régimen (Markov-switching models, de acuerdo con la idea de Friedman (1993 –plucking model. Los resultados indican que la tasa de crecimiento potencial de la economía chilena sería superior al 4% anual, acompañada de ciclos económicos asimétricos.

  18. Orientación emprendedora y orientación de pequeña empresa en Chile y su impacto en el rendimiento de las PYMES chilenas

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    Ismael Oliva-Becerra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Centrados en la Pequeña y Mediana Empresa chilena, se revisan los determinantes más importantes de la Orientación Emprendedora (OE: innovación, proclividad al riesgo y proactividad y la Orientación de Pequeña Empresa (OPE: involucramiento emocional y propósitos personales, como formulaciones distintas e identificables. Los resultados comprueban su independencia y su impacto positivo en el rendimiento organizacional, especialmente entre aquellos con un mayor grado de oportunismo. Sin embargo, en su conjunto, se demuestra que la Orientación de Pequeña Empresa (OPE, mejora el rendimiento en comparación con la Orientación Emprendedora (OE, lo cual se valida por la calificación de expertos, debido a factores culturales de los chilenos.

  19. Differential Gene Expression in Response to Papaya ringspot virus Infection in Cucumis metuliferus Using cDNA- Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Tsung Lin; Fuh-Jyh Jan; Chia-Wei Lin; Chien-Hung Chung; Jo-Chu Chen; Shy-Dong Yeh; Hsin-Mei Ku

    2013-01-01

    A better understanding of virus resistance mechanisms can offer more effective strategies to control virus diseases. Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), Potyviridae, causes severe economical losses in papaya and cucurbit production worldwide. However, no resistance gene against PRSV has been identified to date. This study aimed to identify candidate PRSV resistance genes using cDNA-AFLP analysis and offered an open architecture and transcriptomic method to study those transcripts differentially exp...

  20. Segregación residencial en las principales ciudades chilenas: Tendencias de las tres últimas décadas y posibles cursos de acción

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    Francisco Sabatini

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available El patrón de segregación residencial de las ciudades chilenas se está transformando en dos sentidos principales: está cambiando su escala geográfica y está aumentando su malignidad. Estos cambios parecen estar afectando a la mayoría de las ciudades latinoamericanas. Están vinculados con las políticas de liberalización de los mercados de suelo y con los procesos de globalización económica y cultural de las últimas décadas. En el artículo se entrega información empírica sobre los efectos de estos cambios en tres ciudades chilenas (Santiago, Valparaíso, Concepción; y se discute teóricamente la relación entre desigualdad social y segregación espacial, rechazando el enfoque usual que ve a la segunda como un mero reflejo en el espacio de la primeraThe pattern of residential segregation is undergoing two crucial changes in Chilean cities: its geographical scale is shifting, and segregation’s malignancy is increasing. Seemingly, these changes are affecting most of Latin American cities. They are linked to the land markets’ liberalization policies and to the processes of economic and cultural globalization of the past decades. This paper presents empirical data showing the effects of these changes for three Chilean cities (Santiago, Valparaíso, Concepción; and theoretically discusses the relationship between social inequality and spatial segregation, rejecting the usual approach that considers the latter as a mere spatial reflection of the first

  1. RELACIÓN ENTRE LOS INSUMOS DEL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO Y LOS RESULTADOS PARA LA ACREDITACIÓN. CASO APLICADO A UNIVERSIDADES CHILENAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Barra Salazar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Es importante conocer el proceso de planificación estratégica que formulan las universidades, ya que les permite analizar los impactos en los resultados que obtienen, el logro de ciertos sellos diferenciadores y ventajas competitivas en relación a sus competidores, entre otros aspectos. Hoy en día los directivos universitarios deben reflexionar y cuestionarse cómo enfrentar este proceso y cuáles son las ventajas para una organización que lo posee. Es por esto que el objetivo de este artículo es analizar el grado de avance de los distintos insumos utilizados en la planificación estratégica y su relación con los resultados de las universidades en cuanto a acreditación, que les permitirán contar con una certificación de calidad en los procesos internos, y de este modo diferenciarse de otras instituciones de educación superior. Se utiliza como metodología la revisión bibliográfica de los términos relevantes del estudio, así como información secundaria de datos obtenidos de todas las universidades chilenas pertenecientes al Consorcio de Universidades Estatales Chilenas (CUECH. Luego, se definen criterios para cuantificar el grado de avance que presentan las universidades en relación a los in sumos involucrados en la formulación del plan estratégico, se analiza su relación con los resultados y se concluye que los planes estratégicos de las universidades están compuestos de distintos insumos y que el grado de avance en cuanto a su elaboración, n o tiene impacto en los resultados de las universidades.

  2. Effects of the methanolic seeds extract of Carica Papaya on plasmodium Berghei infected mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amazu LU; Ebong OO; Azikiwe CCA; Unekwe PC; Siminialayi MI; Nwosu PJC; Ezeani MC; Obidiya OS; Ajugwo AO

    2009-01-01

    Objective:The leaves extract of Carica Papaya(C.Papaya)papaya has been shown to possess antimalarial ac-tivity,thus this work aims at finding out if the plants antimalarial activity is present in or extended to the seeds.Methods:The seeds of C.papaya were collected from its fruit,air dried for 5 days and ground into fine powder.80.65 g of the powder was then soaked for 48hours in 300 mL of methanol.Filtration was carried out using Whatman No.1 filter paper.The filtrate was evaporated to dryness by a three-day continuous heating on a hot plate of 30℃.The dry extract yield was scraped out of the Petri dish weighed and refrigerated until re-quired.The percentage extract yield was calculated out from the initial powder weight.A preliminary phyto-chemical study was done by re-dissolving the appropriate amount of the dry extract in distilled water and appro-priate test reagent added.The LD50 of the seeds of C.papaya was carried out using arithmetic method.Swiss albino Mice of both sexes and of average weight of 1 8-25 g were used as animals for antimalarial activity.They were housed in standard animal house,fed on Rats/Mice pellets and had non restricted excess to both feed and water throughout the 60day study period.While the non pregnant female Mice were used as test animals,the male animals were used as malaria parasite donors.Precautions were taken to ensure that all animals in the study groups were free from infection with Eperythrozoon coocoides.The female animals were then divided into three main groups (A-C)of 25 animals per group.Group A was used for malaria suppressive study (early in-fection-day 0-3)and was further subdivided to 5subgroups (a-e)of 5animals per group.Group B was used for malaria curative study (established malaria infection-day 3-7)and was further subdivided to 5subgroups (a-e) of 5animals per group.Group C was used for malaria prophylactic study (repository-4days treatment prior to malaria parasite infection)and was also further subdivided

  3. 木瓜酸奶制作工艺的优化%Papaya yogurt production process optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟君; 范秉琳; 白会丽

    2014-01-01

    [Objective]The processing conditions of papaya dairy products were optimized to provide a new way for developing new types of fruit and vegetable yogurt and fortified milk. [Method]Papaya and fresh milk were used as raw ma-terials. The finished products of yogurt were used as a leavening agent. Juice yogurt was prepared with added sugar and stabi-lizer after sterilization, cooling and fermentation. The processing conditions of papaya dairy products were optimized based on single factor test and orthogonal test. [Result]The best ratio of raw materials for papaya yogurt was as follows:milk, papaya juice:sugar:yeast leavening agent (Bright probiotics fermented milk):stabilizer (CMC∶gelatin=1∶1)=100∶30∶12∶60∶0.2. The production process of fermentation was 7 h fermentation at 40 ℃and 12 h refrigerator cooling. In the conditions of optimum process, the papaya yogurt acidity was 90.02 °T. Protein content was 3.09 g/100 g. Ca, Fe and Zn content was 121.75, 3.8575, and 5.0275 mg/L, respectively.[Conclusion]The papaya yogurt was prepared using papaya and fresh milk as raw materials and commercially available yogurt as the leavening agent. It was easy to obtain raw materials. The method was simple and feasible. The fermentation time was short, hence it was particularly suitable for home-made papaya yogurt.%【目的】优化木瓜酸奶的制作工艺条件,为研制新型的果蔬酸奶及营养强化乳提供新途径。【方法】以木瓜和鲜牛奶为原料,以成品酸奶为发酵剂,加入蔗糖、稳定剂,经杀菌、冷却后发酵制备果汁型酸奶,并通过单因素试验和正交试验优化木瓜酸奶制品的工艺条件。【结果】木瓜酸奶的最佳原料配比为鲜牛奶∶木瓜汁∶蔗糖∶发酵剂(光明益生菌发酵乳)∶稳定剂(CMC∶明胶=1∶1)=100∶30∶12∶60∶0.2,生产工艺为40℃发酵7 h后放入4℃冰箱冷藏12 h。在最佳工艺条件下制备获得的木瓜酸奶酸度为90.02

  4. Effect of irradiation on color of minimally processed melon and papaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The access to nutritious food is an essential dimension of food meal. High potential for fresh-cut industry exists and ready-to-eat fruit market has grown rapidly in recent years due to the health benefits associated. Although there is many concerns to food safety other parameters like texture, taste, color and sensory acceptance are fundamental principles of acceptance to any food. Actually the use of instrumental measurements has proven to be a major predictor of sensory responses. According to many authors, the addition of different techniques should always be considered to provide additional information of the sensory aspects. Therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of irradiation on color of minimally processed melon and papaya. The fruits were purchased in a market of Sao Paulo, at the same point of ripeness and sent to the IPEN/CNEN-SP. The fruits were sanitized and manually cut into cubes of approximately 2 x 2 cm with the aid of stainless steel knives and packed in polyethylene bags. Melons and papaya were irradiated in a Multipurpose Gamma Source (IPEN - Sao Paulo - Brazil) and were divided in six groups for color analysis: Control; 0.5 kGy; 1.0 kGy, 1.5kGy, 2.0 kGy and 3.0kGy. After the treatment, the MP fruits were kept in a refrigerator at 4 deg C ± 1 deg C until the end of the analysis. The color of the samples was determined using a Minolta colorimeter CR-400 Chromameter. The parameters L*, a* and b* were evaluated. The results were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance One-Dimensional Analysis of Variance (One-Way-ANOVA) followed by Tukey test. All statistical analysis was performed using the program Graph Pad Prism 5 and adopting a significance level of 5 % (p* parameter of any dose despite the tendency to darkening observed for the group of 3.0 kGy. This fact also occurred for the chromatographic coordinates a* and b* which remained in the same tonality for all treatments (p<0.05). Current results indicate

  5. Consideraciones sobre la utilización de diferentes densidades en el cultivo de papaya (Carica papaya, L. "Baixinho de Santa Amalia" en islas canarias Different plantation densities for papaya (Carica papaya, L cv. "Baixinho de Santa Amalia" culture in the canary islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Cristina Rodriguez Pastor

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo de papaya en Islas Canarias se ha extendido en los últimos años bajo condiciones de invernadero. La utilización de cultivares de papaya tipo "Baixinho de Santa Amalia" (mutante natural del cultivar "Sunrise" de porte bajo, emisión de la flor a corta altura y precocidad en la floración, resultan de gran interés sobre todo en esta clase de medios. Estas características fenológicas hacen posible el manejo del cultivo a mayores densidades que las empleadas con otros cultivares. Por lo tanto, se ha planteado este trabajo cuyo objetivo principal es determinar cual es el marco de plantación óptimo, que permita obtener mayores rendimientos sin depreciar la calidad del fruto. Para ello, se ha evaluado la producción tanto de las plantas hermafroditas como de las plantas femeninas durante dos ciclos de cultivo, así como las características organolépticas, grado de carpeloidía y deformación de los frutos. Los resultados indican que la densidad mayor, proporciona mejor comportamiento de las plantas así como mayor producción de frutos y menor porcentaje de fruta desechable.The growth of papaya plants under greenhouse conditions has recently become the norm in the Canary Islands. The use of "Baixinho de Santa Amalia" (a natural mutant of the "Sunrise" cultivar, which is a dwarf cultivar flowering early and not high up the plant, is the great interest, above all under these conditions. These phenological characteristic make possible the planting at higher densities than for other cultivars. This study has been carried out to determine the optimal planting density to permit greater production without reducing fruit quality. To this aim the yield, both of hermaphrodite and female plants, has been evaluated through two crop cycles, as well as studying the organoleptic characteristics, degree of carpellody and deformation of the fruits. The results suggest that the highest density provides better plant perfomance as well as higher fruit

  6. PENGGUNAAN GETAH PEPAYA DALAM SINTESIS ESTER XILITOL ASAM LEMAK (EXAL [The Use of Papaya Exudates for Fatty Acid Xilitol Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhardi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid xylitol-ester (FAXILE are xylitol esters of fatty acids with one to five DE (degree of esterification value. FAXILE with DE value of 3 or higher can be used as low calorie fat replacer since they have low digestive property; while the xylitol ester with DE of less than 3 can be used as emulsifier. The FAXILE synthesis experiments were carried out by esterification of xylitol with palm oil¡¦s fatty acid (POFA using papaya exudates as a lipase source. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the potential of papaya exuadates for the synthesis of FAXILE. In this first experiment, test were carried out to determine hydrolytic activity of lipases obtained from different part of papaya plant. The test, were performed with the presence of CaO and under different pH value. The papaya exudates were used for FAXILE synthesis under an optimum condition obtained from the first experiment. Samples were drawn during incubation at 40„aC for 1,2,3, and 4 days and hydroxyl number was analyzed to confirm the ester formation. The results showed that the most active exudate was from papaya leaves, followed by exudates from fruit with hydrolytic activity of 653 and 296 ƒÝmol/g. minutes, respectively. The hydrolytic activity of the fruit exudate was optimum at pH 6.0, at 45-50„aC, with the addition of CaO 4% dry exudates. The FAXILE synthesis with acid of papaya exudates was optimum at pH 6.0, at 45„aC with molar ratio of xylitol: fatty acids was 1 to 6,3 days incubation. At this condition the conversion rate xylitol to FAXILE was 79%.

  7. [Effect of the addition of tropical fruits--pineapple (Ananas comosus) and papaya (Carica papaya)--on the production of biological silage from fish].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, R; Cardillo, E; Martínez, R

    1993-09-01

    Microbial Fish Silage was produced from under-utilized fish mixed with juice and waste fruits (pineapple and papaya) at 35 degrees C. Six different products were elaborated as following: A: fish muscle with pineapple juice; B: fish muscle with fruit wastes; C: gutted fish with pineapple juice; D: gutted fish with fruit wastes; E: whole fish with pineapple juice; F: whole fish with fruit wastes. Process development was evaluated by measuring: pH, acidity, non-protein nitrogen, consistency and exudate liquid. Results indicated a slow decrease in pH value and production of acidity during 20 storage days. The addition of fruits to silage did not have any effect on these values. Silage liquefaction or hydrolysis was related to the following parameters: consistency, non-protein nitrogen and exudate liquid. The addition of fruits was related to silage liquefaction or hydrolysis, and it was measured by the consistency. Exudate liquid and non-protein nitrogen increased during storage time. However silage made from whole fish showed highest values in those parameters than other processing conditions. This results suggested that hydrolysis involve first enzymes from guts and second enzymes from muscle and head. Pineapple juice did not contribute to hydrolysis process. Mainly sensory changes in the silage occurs during first 24 hours and they were related to chemical changes. Proximal analysis did not change during silage process and microbial counts indicated the freshness of raw material used i this study. PMID:8779625

  8. RNA interference of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO1 and ACO2) genes expression prolongs the shelf life of Eksotika (Carica papaya L.) papaya fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekeli, Rogayah; Abdullah, Janna Ong; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Muda, Pauziah; Abu Bakar, Umi Kalsom; Yeong, Wee Chien; Pillai, Vilasini

    2014-06-19

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using RNA interference in down regulating the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene in Eksotika papaya. One-month old embryogenic calli were separately transformed with Agrobacterium strain LBA 4404 harbouring the three different RNAi pOpOff2 constructs bearing the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene. A total of 176 putative transformed lines were produced from 15,000 calli transformed, selected, then regenerated on medium supplemented with kanamycin. Integration and expression of the targeted gene in putatively transformed lines were verified by PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Confined field evaluation of a total of 31 putative transgenic lines planted showed a knockdown expression of the targeted ACO1 and ACO2 genes in 13 lines, which required more than 8 days to achieve the full yellow colour (Index 6). Fruits harvested from lines pRNAiACO2 L2-9 and pRNAiACO1 L2 exhibited about 20 and 14 days extended post-harvest shelf life to reach Index 6, respectively. The total soluble solids contents of the fruits ranged from 11 to 14° Brix, a range similar to fruits from non-transformed, wild type seed-derived plants.

  9. RNA Interference of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid Oxidase (ACO1 and ACO2 Genes Expression Prolongs the Shelf Life of Eksotika (Carica papaya L. Papaya Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogayah Sekeli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using RNA interference in down regulating the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene in Eksotika papaya. One-month old embryogenic calli were separately transformed with Agrobacterium strain LBA 4404 harbouring the three different RNAi pOpOff2 constructs bearing the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene. A total of 176 putative transformed lines were produced from 15,000 calli transformed, selected, then regenerated on medium supplemented with kanamycin. Integration and expression of the targeted gene in putatively transformed lines were verified by PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Confined field evaluation of a total of 31 putative transgenic lines planted showed a knockdown expression of the targeted ACO1 and ACO2 genes in 13 lines, which required more than 8 days to achieve the full yellow colour (Index 6. Fruits harvested from lines pRNAiACO2 L2-9 and pRNAiACO1 L2 exhibited about 20 and 14 days extended post-harvest shelf life to reach Index 6, respectively. The total soluble solids contents of the fruits ranged from 11 to 14° Brix, a range similar to fruits from non-transformed, wild type seed-derived plants.

  10. Process variables influence on microwave assisted extraction of pectin from waste Carcia papaya L. peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maran, J Prakash; Prakash, K Arun

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate and optimize the influence of process variables such as microwave power, pH, time and solid-liquid ratio on the extraction of pectin from waste Carcia papaya L peel. The experiments were carried out based on a four factors three level Box-Behnken response surface design. A quadratic model was developed from the experimental data in order to predict the pectin yield. The optimal condition was found to be: microwave power of 512 w, pH of 1.8, time of 140 s and solid-liquid ratio of 1:15 g/ml with maximum pectin yield (25.41%).

  11. Antioxidant activities and phenolics profiling of different parts of Carica papaya by LCMS-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunjar, V; Mammen, D; Trivedi, B M

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with the comparison of the antioxidant activity of aqueous extracts of various parts of Carica papaya L. The evaluation of total phenolic content and total flavonoid content revealed high antioxidant potential of the seeds and fruits. The free radical-scavenging potential of the aqueous extracts indicated the seeds to have better DPPH-scavenging activity than fruits. The results were augmented by the FRAP activity as well. The phenolics present in the extracts were separated and identified as 5-hydroxy feruloyl quinic acid, acetyl p-coumaryl quinic acid, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside, syringic acid hexoside, 5-hydroxy caffeic quinic acid, peonidin-3-O-glucoside, sinapic acid-O-hexoside, cyaniding-3-O-glucose and methyl feruloyl glycoside by LCMS-MS technique.

  12. Effects of papaya leaves on thrombocyte counts in dengue--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Osama; Sundus, Ayesha; Ibrahim, Mohammad Faisal

    2014-03-01

    Dengue fever is on the rise in developing nations like India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. There is no antiviral chemotherapy or vaccine for dengue virus and management of the disease is done on supportive measures. The decline in the thrombocyte count leads to dengue haemorrhagic fever accounting for complications and mortality. Oral administration of Carica papaya leaves extract is said to have a positive impact on thrombocyte count. A 23-year-old man was administered a calculated dose for five days. Blood samples were tested for complete blood count before and after the administration of the juice. Thrombocyte count had increased from 28000/micro liter to 138000/micro liter at the end of five days. We present our experience here. PMID:24864622

  13. Effect of irradiation on color of minimally processed melon and papaya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, Adriana D.T.; Sagretti, Juliana M.A.; Hirashima, Fabiana K.; Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Sabato, Susy F., E-mail: adriana.fabbri@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Irradiacao de Alimentos

    2013-07-01

    The access to nutritious food is an essential dimension of food meal. High potential for fresh-cut industry exists and ready-to-eat fruit market has grown rapidly in recent years due to the health benefits associated. Although there is many concerns to food safety other parameters like texture, taste, color and sensory acceptance are fundamental principles of acceptance to any food. Actually the use of instrumental measurements has proven to be a major predictor of sensory responses. According to many authors, the addition of different techniques should always be considered to provide additional information of the sensory aspects. Therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of irradiation on color of minimally processed melon and papaya. The fruits were purchased in a market of Sao Paulo, at the same point of ripeness and sent to the IPEN/CNEN-SP. The fruits were sanitized and manually cut into cubes of approximately 2 x 2 cm with the aid of stainless steel knives and packed in polyethylene bags. Melons and papaya were irradiated in a Multipurpose Gamma Source (IPEN - Sao Paulo - Brazil) and were divided in six groups for color analysis: Control; 0.5 kGy; 1.0 kGy, 1.5kGy, 2.0 kGy and 3.0kGy. After the treatment, the MP fruits were kept in a refrigerator at 4 deg C ± 1 deg C until the end of the analysis. The color of the samples was determined using a Minolta colorimeter CR-400 Chromameter. The parameters L{sup *}, a{sup *} and b{sup *} were evaluated. The results were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance One-Dimensional Analysis of Variance (One-Way-ANOVA) followed by Tukey test. All statistical analysis was performed using the program Graph Pad Prism 5 and adopting a significance level of 5 % (p<0.05), expressed as the mean results ± standard deviation. Samples of papaya and melons showed no statistical difference for the L{sup *} parameter of any dose despite the tendency to darkening observed for the group of 3.0 kGy. This

  14. Seasonal and genetic influences on sex expression in a backcrossed segregating papaya population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Pio Viana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the genetic and seasonal influence on sex expression in segregating generationsof papaya elite and backcrossed genotypes. In the four seasons of the 2005/2006 growing season, 200 hermaphrodite plantswere evaluated. Of the eight studied traits, four were related to flowering and four to fruiting, i.e., to the percentage of normal,deformed, sterile, and total number of flowers, as well as the percentage of total, carpelloid, pentandric, and marketablefruits. Significant differences due to the genotype x season interaction were verified. Based on the genotypic determinationcoefficient and the variation index it was concluded that winter and spring are most appropriate for the selection of superiorgenotypes. Thus, selection in early stages of plant development is more successful, indicating that the physiological age mayalso be a factor involved in the expression of the above traits.

  15. Lactogenic Activity of an Enzymatic Hydrolysate from Octopus vulgaris and Carica papaya in SD Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Bingna; Chen, Hua; Sun, Han; Sun, Huili; Wan, Peng; Chen, Deke; Pan, Jianyu

    2015-11-01

    The traditional Chinese medicine theory believes that octopus papaya soup can stimulate milk production in lactating women. The objective of this study was to determine whether dietary supplementation with an enzymatic hydrolysate of Octopus vulgaris and Carica papaya (EHOC) could increase milk production and nutritional indexes in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Female SD rats (n = 24) were fed a control diet (n = 8), EHOC-supplemented diet, or a positive control diet (Shengruzhi) from day 10 of pregnancy to day 10 of lactation. Maternal serum, mammary gland (day 10 of lactation), milk, and pup weight (daily) were collected for analysis. Results showed that the EHOC diet obviously elevated daily milk yield and pup weight compared to the control group (P < .05). The EHOC diet was found to increase the concentration of prolactin (PRL), progesterone (P), estradiol (E2), and growth hormone (GH) significantly in the circulation and mammary gland. Mammary glands of EHOC-treated dams showed clear lobuloalveolar development and proliferation of myoepithelial cells, but no striking variations were observed among the groups. Furthermore, the nutrition content and immune globulin concentration in the milk of EHOC-supplemented dams were higher than those of the control group, especially the cholesterol, glucose, and IgG were higher by 44.98% (P < .001), 42.76% (P < .01), and 42.23% (P < .01), respectively. In conclusion, this article demonstrates that EHOC administration has beneficial effects on milk production in the dams and on performance of the dam and pup. These results indicate that EHOC could be explored as a potentially lactogenic nutriment for lactating women.

  16. GROWTH OF MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII FED WITH MANGO SEED KERNEL, BANANA PEEL AND PAPAYA PEEL INCORPORATED FEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Aarumugam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth promoting potential of fruits wastes, mango seed kernel, banana peel and papaya peel on the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL was evaluated. Basal diet equated to 35% protein was prepared by using soybean meal, groundnut oilcake, horse gram and wheat flour. Each fruit waste powder was separately incorporated with basal diet at a proportion of 10%. Sunflower oil was used as lipid source. Egg albumin and tapioca flour were used as binding agents. Vitamin B-complex with Vitamin-C was also mixed. Feed without any fruit waste was served as control. M. rosenbergii PL (length: 1.2-1.4 cm; weight: 0.09- 0.13 g was fed with these feeds for a period of 90 days. Significant improvements in the nutritional indices (survival rate, weight gain, biomass index, specific growth rate and condition factor, concentrations of biochemical constituents (total protein, carbohydrate and lipid, levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamin-C and E, content of minerals (Na+ and K+, activities of digestive enzymes (protease, amylase and lipase, and profiles of essential amino acids and fatty acids were recorded in fruits wastes incorporated feeds fed PL when compared with control (P< 0.003 – 0.878. The overall results indicated the fact that mango seed kernel incorporated feed was produced the best performance, followed by better performance of banana peel and good performance of papaya peel. These fruits wastes incorporated feeds enhance digestive enzymes activities and act as appetizer, which in turn enhances food utilization and ultimately yielded better survival and growth of M. rosenbergii PL. Therefore, these fruits wastes have considerable potentials in sustainable development of Macrobrachium culture.

  17. Initial growth of Carica papaya under irrigation with saline water in soil with bovine biofertilizer
    Crescimento inicial de Carica papaya sob irrigação com águas salinas em solo com biofertilizante bovino

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco de Oliveira Mesquita; Rummenigge Macêdo Rodrigues; Reinaldo Ferreira Medeiros; Lourival Ferreira Cavalcante; Rafael Oliveira Batista

    2012-01-01

    The salinity is considered the major constraint to agriculture worldwide, constituting a limiting factor to growth, plant development, agricultural productivity and soil deterioration. In this direction an experiment was carried out during the period October/2009 to February/2010, in greenhouse conditions in Areia county, Paraiba State, PB, Brazil, in order to evaluate the effects of water saline on initial growth of papaya Hawaii in non-saline substrate with bovine rich biofertilizer. The su...

  18. Herencia de la concentración de los sólidos soluble entre líneas parentales de papaya (carica papaya l. y sus híbridos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Mora

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Herencia de la concentración de los sólidos solubles entre líneas parentales de papaya (Carica papaya L. y sus híbridos. Se estableció un experimento con el objetivo de determinar el patrón de herencia de la concentración de sólidos solubles de frutas (medido como grados brix entre tres líneas de papaya y sus tres posibles híbridos. Se utilizaron como materiales parentales tres líneas genéticas con niveles de azúcares significativamente diferentes entre ellos. Se determinó que la característica de alto contenido de sólidos solubles se comportó de manera dominante sobre un bajo contenido de los mismos. Se concluyó que existe un gran potencial para explotar comercialmente este patrón dominante al posibilitar el uso de germoplasma de buenas características agronómicas pero deficientes en sus contenidos de azúcares en sus frutas. La posible naturaleza de los factores que intervienen en la característica estudiada se discuten.

  19. Binary Combination of Carica papaya, Areca catechu and Myristica fragrans with Piperonyl Butoxide / MGK-264 against Freshwater Snail Lymnaea acuminata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, Farhat; Singh, Dinesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Piperonyl butoxide (PB) and MGK-264 were used to enhance the toxicity of the active components papain, arecoline and myristicin from the plants Carica papaya, Areca catechu and Myristica fragrans, respectively, against the vector snail Lymnaea acuminata. A time- and dose-dependent relationship was observed for the toxicity of these combinations. The toxic effects of these plant-derived molluscicides in combination with the synergists PB and MGK-264 were several times higher than the effect of the individual treatments. The highest degree of synergism was observed when MGK-264 was used in combination with C. papaya latex (10.47-fold increase) and PB was used with papain (8.35-fold increase). PMID:24575245

  20. 番木瓜果酒的酿制工艺%The Brewing Technology of Carica Papaya Fruit Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏杏洲; 彭球生; 庞李生; 彭克东

    2001-01-01

    介绍了以成熟番木瓜为原料,经打浆、成分调整及采用高活性干酵母进行发酵,酿造出风味独特、品质上乘的番木瓜果酒。确定了最适工艺条件,制定了产品的质量标准。%The brewing technology of carica papaya fruit wine with special flavour and high quality by using ripe carica papaya fruit as raw material, through mashing ingredient adjusting and fermenting by using high dry yeasts is introduced in this paper, the optimized processing technology and the quality standards are determined.

  1. Effect of irradiation on the biochemical and organoleptic changes during the ripening of papaya and mango fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Monique; Bernard, Linda; Jobin, Michele; Milot, Sylvain; Gagnon, Marcel

    Papaya and mango rot caused by fungi is a major problem during storage and marketing. Gamma irradiation treatment was used to determine its effect on the quality of papayas and mangoes irradiated at 0,5 to 0,95 kGy. The level of respiration, soluble solids, texture, vitamin C and the sensorial evaluation were effectuated. The results indicate that irradiation treatment reduces significantly (p ⪕ 0,001) the level of respiration and significantly (p ⪕ 0,001) weakens the texture of mangoes. The content of soluble solids and vitamin C are not significantly affected by the irradiation. The sensory evaluation indicates that up to 0,95 kGy the sensorial quality is not changed.

  2. Designing of putative siRNA against geminiviral suppressors of RNAi to develop geminivirus-resistant papaya crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Sangeeta; Kesharwani, Rupesh K; Singh, Vinayak; Singh, Sarita

    2013-01-01

    Geminiviruses are single-stranded circular DNA viruses causing leaf curl disease in papaya crop. Post-Transcriptional Gene Silencing (PTGS), also known as RNAi, acts as a natural antiviral defence mechanism and plays a role in genome maintenance and development in plants. PTGS suppression by viruses makes the plant RNA silencing machinery inefficient. Three geminiviral genes namely AV2, AC2 and AC4 are found to play the role in suppression of RNA silencing. siRNA degrades the target mRNA in a homology-dependent manner. In-silico designing of siRNA against these three genes of geminiviruses infecting Carica papaya was done using bioinformatics tools. This strategy may provide PTGS by specifically targeting the viral genes involved in suppression of plant RNA silencing machinery. PMID:23207994

  3. White varieties of papaya production integration technology%中白品种番木瓜生产集成技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永森

    2015-01-01

    番木瓜兼具蔬菜和水果两重属性,港澳、广东地区的居民常常用木瓜炖木瓜盅,具有去热、滋补胃脾效果,北方人喜好用木瓜片涮火锅,催熟的木瓜可以作为水果食用,具有养颜滋补、通便的效果.海南岛的生产木瓜鲜果在中秋节期间,第2年的1-4月份,北运的售价较高,近几年番木瓜全部是转基因技术的脱毒苗,花叶发病率低,许多种植户大批量生产,由于投入回报率好,岛内的许多地方发展形成大面积的产业化.%papaya vegetable and fruit twofold properties, the residents of the Hong Kong and Macao, guangdong region often use papaya pa-paya stew cup, have to heat, nourishing the stomach and spleen effect, northerners preferences with papaya rinse chaffy dish, ripened papaya can be used as a fruit to eat, have beauty nurture, aperient effect. Hainan papaya fruit during the Mid-Autumn festival, 1 to 2 years in April, the north's price is higher, virus-free papaya are all genetically modified (gm) technology in recent years, low incidence of Mosaic, many farmers in mass production, because of the good return on investment, many parts of the island's development to form a large area of industrialization.

  4. Nutritional status of papaya (pawpaw (cv. Caliman 01 as a function of NK fertilization and planting space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Monteiro Santos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, it´s not properly known the nutritional requirements of papaya plant, there are, therefore, a need for more research projects about the management of mineral fertilizer. This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional status of papaya as a function of planting space and fertilization with NK in coverage. The experiment was developed in an experimental area of the Federal University of Piauí, Campus Prof.a Cinobelina Elvas, Bom Jesus, Piauí State, Brazil, from November 2011 to November 2012. It was adopted the randomized block design in a factorial arrangement 2 x 4 x 4, corresponding to: i planting space (single and double doses of nitrogen (0.320, 0.400, 0.480 and 0.560 kg m-2 and iii doses of potassium (0.380, 0.475, 0.570 and 0.665 kg m-2, with four replications and three plants per plot. It was evaluated the levels of macronutrients in leaf dry matter of plants of papaya, cv. Caliman 01. There is influence of planting space and fertilization with NK in foliar macronutrients, with superiority for double spacing with respect to the simple. For adequate nutritional status of papaya cv. Caliman 01, grown in single spacing it is recommended a dose of 400 g plant-1 of nitrogen combined with 440g plant-1 of potassium, while for the double spacing, it is recommended 320g plant-1 of nitrogen in combination with 440 g plant-1 of potassium.

  5. Penentuan Dosis Larutan Getah Buah Pepaya (Carica papaya L.) sebagai Pestisida Nabati Terhadap Hama Ulat Tanaman Cabai

    OpenAIRE

    Khairunnisa, Rizki

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Residues of the chemical pesticide contained in plant will seriously endanger the health of people. According the WHO every year happen about 25 million cases of pesticide poisoning or about 68.493 cases everyday. The use of natural pesticide from plants is one of the solution to overcome negative impact of chemical pesticide. Carica papaya L. has enzyme papain and kimopapain highly on the latex of young fruit use of as proteolytic against caterpillar on plant. This research to ...

  6. The effect of praziquantel and Carica papaya seeds on Hymenolepis nana infection in mice using scanning electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Shady, Omayma M; Basyoni, Maha M A; Mahdy, Olfat A; Bocktor, Nardden Zakka

    2014-08-01

    Hymenolepis nana (H. nana) is the most common tapeworm infection worldwide. It is more prevalent in warm climates where sanitation is poor, particularly among children. The effect and mechanism of action of praziquantel (PZQ), given at a dose of 25-mg/kg BW, and Carica papaya dried seed crude aqueous extract (CAE), given at a dose of 1.2-g/kg BW, were assessed on H. nana worms in experimentally infected mice. Tegumental changes were studied using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and different parasitological parameters were observed. Each group of infected mice was divided into two subgroups. The first subgroup received either treatment before the 4th day after infection to investigate their effects on the cysticercoid stage. The other subgroup received treatments after the development of the adult stage, confirmed by eggs detection in stool. Both PZQ and C. papaya dried seed CAE resulted in a significant reduction of worm burden, total egg output and viable egg count. Marked tegumental changes were evident in adult worms treated with either treatment including shrinkage of the scolex and neck region with rostellar edema and complete loss of its hooks. However, all previous effects were exerted more rapidly in the case of PZQ treatment. They both significantly reduced cysticercoid stage size. Nevertheless, C. papaya outstand PZQ in having a deforming effect on adults arising from treated cysticercoids. It was concluded that C. papaya has significant anti-cestodal properties that enable its seed extract to be a very effective alternative to PZQ against H. nana.

  7. Processing technology of new type papaya milk tablets%新型番木瓜奶片的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王菲; 黄苇; 郑妙慈

    2011-01-01

    The processing technique of compound papaya-milk tablets was studied.By investigating physical characteristics of the compound papaya-milk tablets via the single factor test and the L9(33)orthogonal experiment,the optimal seasoning recipe conditions were determined as follows:raw material ratio of milk powder and carica papaya powder 3∶ 1,the particle size of 20 ~ 40 mesh,maltose 30%,xylitol 20%,citric acid 0.3%,magnesium stearate dosage of 0.5%,raw material ratio of carica papaya essential oils and ethanol and water 1∶ 1∶ 1.The best quality milk tablets can be made with drying time of 6h and drying temperature of 70℃.%以番木瓜、奶粉为原料,研究了其复合奶片的制作工艺。以奶片的感官评定为指标进行单因素对比实验以及L9(33)正交优化实验,得出复合奶片最佳调味配方为:奶粉与番木瓜粉的配比为3∶1,颗粒的粒度20~40目,麦芽糖、木糖醇、柠檬酸、硬脂酸镁的添加量分别为30%、20%、0.3%、0.5%,番木瓜香精∶乙醇∶水为1∶1∶1;湿粒干燥时以70℃干燥6h,得到的奶片质量最佳,具有番木瓜香味和奶香味,口感细腻柔滑。

  8. Identification and expression of the WRKY transcription factors of Carica papaya in response to abiotic and biotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lin-Jie; Jiang, Ling

    2014-03-01

    The WRKY transcription factor (TF) plays a very important role in the response of plants to various abiotic and biotic stresses. A local papaya database was built according to the GenBank expressed sequence tag database using the BioEdit software. Fifty-two coding sequences of Carica papaya WRKY TFs were predicted using the tBLASTn tool. The phylogenetic tree of the WRKY proteins was classified. The expression profiles of 13 selected C. papaya WRKY TF genes under stress induction were constructed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expression levels of these WRKY genes in response to 3 abiotic and 2 biotic stresses were evaluated. TF807.3 and TF72.14 are upregulated by low temperature; TF807.3, TF43.76, TF12.199 and TF12.62 are involved in the response to drought stress; TF9.35, TF18.51, TF72.14 and TF12.199 is involved in response to wound; TF12.199, TF807.3, TF21.156 and TF18.51 was induced by PRSV pathogen; TF72.14 and TF43.76 are upregulated by SA. The regulated expression levels of above eight genes normalized against housekeeping gene actin were significant at probability of 0.01 levels. These WRKY TFs could be related to corresponding stress resistance and selected as the candidate genes, especially, the two genes TF807.3 and TF12.199, which were regulated notably by four stresses respectively. This study may provide useful information and candidate genes for the development of transgenic stress tolerant papaya varieties.

  9. 木瓜牛奶多肽饮料的研制%Development of papaya-milk polypeptides beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭萍; 胡月英; 陈文学

    2012-01-01

    In this paper. A new kind of polypeptides beverage was produced with milk and papaya as main materials. We studied the effect of papaya-to-milk ratio, hydrolysis temperature, time and pH to the concentration of polypeptides by hydrolysis test and the effect of formula to the beverage quality by orthogonal experiment. The results of hydrolysis test showed that the optimum hydrolysis process was carried out at 65 ℃ and pH 6.0 for 7 h when the mass ratio of papaya to milk was 50%. The results obtained from the orthogonal experiment showed that the optimum formula was: fruit paste papaya 13.33%, milk powder 4.44%, citric acid 0.20%, β-cyclodextrin 1.25% and sucrose 15%.%以牛奶和木瓜为原料,利用木瓜自身所含的蛋白酶水解牛奶中的蛋白质.研究木瓜牛奶比例、温度、pH值、时间等因素对水解后溶液中多肽质量浓度的影响,以及配方对其风味的影响.通过水解工艺实验得到最佳水解条件为木瓜与牛奶的比例为50%,水解温度为65 ℃,水解pH值为6,水解时间为7h.通过调配实验得到木瓜牛奶多肽饮料的最佳配方为木瓜、奶粉、β-环糊精、柠檬酸、蔗糖添加量分别为13.33%,4.44%,1.25%,0.20%,15%.

  10. Engineering of papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) nanoparticles with a CTL epitope derived from influenza NP

    OpenAIRE

    Babin, Cindy; Majeau, Nathalie; Leclerc, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Background The ever-present threat of infectious disease, e.g. influenza pandemics, and the increasing need for new and effective treatments in immunotherapy are the driving forces that motivate research into new and innovative vaccine platforms. Ideally, such platforms should trigger an efficient CTL response, be safe, and easy to manufacture. We recently developed a novel nanoparticle adjuvant comprised of papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) coat protein (CP) assembled around an RNA. The PapMV nano...

  11. Biomass, virus concentration, and symptomatology of cucurbits infected by mild and severe strains of Papaya ringspot virus

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco Davi Andrade; Rezende Jorge Alberto Marques; Piedade Sônia Maria de Stefano

    2003-01-01

    Pre-immunization with mild strains of Papaya ringspot virus - type W (PRWV-W) has allowed the mosaic disease to be controlled in different cucurbit species, with increases in marketable fruit yield. The objective of this study was to compare virus concentration, biomass and symptomatology of 'Caserta' zucchini squash, 'Menina Brasileira' long-neck squash and 'Crimson Sweet' watermelon plants infected by three mild strains and one severe strain of PRSV-W. Plants were inoculated at the cotyledo...

  12. Preliminary In Vitro Antisickilng Properties of Crude Juice Extracts of Persia Americana, Citrus Sinensis, Carica Papaya and Ciklavit®

    OpenAIRE

    Iweala, EE J; Uhegbu, FO; Ogu, GN

    2009-01-01

    The antisickling properties of crude juice extracts of the edible portions of three commonly consumed tropical fruits namely Persia americana, Citrus sinensis, and Carica papaya were investigated in vitro alongside a new drug preparation called Ciklavit® that has antisickling activity. Four different solvent extracts of the crude juice of each fruit including aqueous, acidic, alkaline and alcoholic extracts were prepared and their antisickling effects on sickle cell trait (HbAS) and sickle ce...

  13. Efficacy of ginger oil and extract combined with gum arabic on anthracnose and quality of papaya fruit during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Asgar; Hei, Goh Kar; Keat, Yeoh Wei

    2016-03-01

    Effect of 2.0 % ginger oil (GO) and 1.5 % ginger extract (GE) in combination with 10.0 % gum arabic (GA) was evaluated for the postharvest control of anthracnose and maintaining quality of Eksotika II papaya fruit during storage at 12 ± 1 °C and 80-85 % RH. Antifungal compounds present in GO and GE were analyzed using gas chromatography and GO was found to contain α-pinene, 1, 8-cineole and borneol, while only borneol was present in GE due to different extraction methods applied. The highest antifungal activity was shown in 2.0 % GO combined with 10 % GA, which significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited spore germination by 93 %. Based on the physicochemical properties tested, 2.0 % GO combined with 10 % GA significantly delayed the ripening of papaya. These results show that 10.0 % GA combined with 2.0 % GO is an effective postharvest biofungicide for papaya. PMID:27570268

  14. Effect of Fitomas-E on seedling production of papaya var. Maradol Roja in Cienfuegos,Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando G. Serbelló Guzmán

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment in nursery in bag conditions was carried out at the Cienfuegos Horticultural Company, in order to evaluate the effect of different alternatives to stimulate the growth and the development of papaya seedlings (Carica papaya L. variety Maradol Red, in the period from June to September 2010. The treatments were: applying Fitomas-E, Trichoderma, EcoMic, the combination of Trichoderma + EcoMic and a control without application. We evaluated the height and diameter at four different positions, the number of leaves, green and dry mass of roots as well as for the external part of the plant at the transplantation time. The obtained data were subjected to the given statistical analyzes. Results indicate that the height and diameter of the papaya plants are increased with the application of Fitomas E and EcoMic, while a higher number of leaves is reached with the application of Fitomas E, and the combination of EcoMic with Trichoderma.

  15. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a protease inhibitor from the latex of Carica papaya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azarkan, Mohamed [Université Libre de Bruxelles, Faculty of Medicine, Protein Chemistry Unit, Campus Erasme (CP 609), 808 Route de Lennik, B-1070 Brussels (Belgium); Garcia-Pino, Abel [Department of Molecular and Cellular Interactions, Vlaams Interuniversitair Instituut voor Biotechnologie and Laboratorium voor Ultrastructuur, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussel (Belgium); Dibiani, Rachid [Université Libre de Bruxelles, Faculty of Medicine, Protein Chemistry Unit, Campus Erasme (CP 609), 808 Route de Lennik, B-1070 Brussels (Belgium); Wyns, Lode; Loris, Remy, E-mail: reloris@vub.ac.be [Department of Molecular and Cellular Interactions, Vlaams Interuniversitair Instituut voor Biotechnologie and Laboratorium voor Ultrastructuur, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussel (Belgium); Baeyens-Volant, Danielle [Université Libre de Bruxelles, Faculty of Medicine, Protein Chemistry Unit, Campus Erasme (CP 609), 808 Route de Lennik, B-1070 Brussels (Belgium)

    2006-12-01

    The Kunitz-type trypsin/chymotrypsin inhibitor isolated from C. papaya latex has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Two different crystal forms are observed, diffracting to 2.6 and 1.7 Å. A Kunitz-type protease inhibitor purified from the latex of green papaya (Carica papaya) fruits was crystallized in the presence and absence of divalent metal ions. Crystal form I, which is devoid of divalent cations, diffracts to a resolution of 2.6 Å and belongs to space group P3{sub 1} or P3{sub 2}. This crystal form is a merohedral twin with two molecules in the asymmetric unit and unit-cell parameters a = b = 74.70, c = 78.97 Å. Crystal form II, which was grown in the presence of Co{sup 2+}, diffracts to a resolution of 1.7 Å and belongs to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 44.26, b = 81.99, c = 140.89 Å.

  16. Study on the processing technology of Papaya Yogurt%木瓜酸奶生产工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文朵

    2015-01-01

    为优化木瓜酸奶的加工工艺,在单因素试验基础上,采用正交试验优化,其最佳生产工艺为:木瓜浆用量为10%,白砂糖用量为6%,发酵时间为4 h,接种量为4%.制得的木瓜酸奶组织均匀,口感细腻,酸甜适度.%This study mainly discussed the fermentation technology of the fermented milk with Papaya Yogurt. From the single factor experiments, the factors showed significant effects were selected in the furtherorthogonal experiments designed by Design-expert software. The optimum fermentation technology parameters were as following: the addition of papaya 10%, the addition of sugar 6%, the fermentation time 4h, inoculum, 4%. Papaya yogurt prepared under these conditions was homogeneous, with exquisite taste and moderate sour.

  17. 木瓜酸奶的加工工艺%Study on Process Technology of Papaya Yogurt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付红军

    2011-01-01

    The best craft for making papaya yogurt obtained through experiment was as follows, content of papaya slurry, 30%(m/m); white sugar consumption, 8%(m/m); Streptococcus thermophilus:Lactobacillus bulgaricus,1:1 (m':m); inoculum, 3%(m/m); fermentation temperature, 42℃; fermentation time, 6 h; compound stabilizer, CMC;PGA=0.30% :0.20%(m:m). Papaya yogurt prepared under these conditions was homogeneous, with exquisite taste and moderate sour.%通过对木瓜酸奶的加工工艺进行试验,得出其最优配方为木瓜浆质量分数30%,白砂糖用量(m/m,下同)8%,嗜热链球菌∶保加利亚乳杆菌(m∶m,下同)1.0∶1.0,接种量(m/m,下同)3%,发酵温度42℃,发酵时间6h,最佳复合稳定剂为羧甲基纤维素钠(CMC)(m/m,下同)∶海藻酸丙二醇酯(PGA)(m/m,下同)=0.30%∶0.20%,制得的木瓜酸奶组织均匀,口感细腻,酸甜适度.

  18. The component of Carica papaya seed toxic to A. aegypti and the identification of tegupain, the enzyme that generates it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Natalia N dos S; Santana, Lucimeire A; Sampaio, Misako U; Lemos, Francisco J A; Oliva, Maria Luiza

    2013-07-01

    As Aedes aegypti transmits the etiologic agents of both yellow and dengue fever; vector control is considered essential to minimise their incidence. The aim of this work was to identify the component of Carica papaya seed toxic to A. aegypti, and the identification of tegupain, the enzyme that generates it. Aqueous extracts (1%, w/v) of the seed tegument and cotyledon of C. papaya are not larvicidal isolately. However, a mixture of 17μgmL(-1) tegument extract and 27μgmL(-1) cotyledon extract caused 100% larval mortality in a bioassay. The mixture was no longer larvicidal after the tegument extract was pre-treated at 100°C for 10min. The enzyme tegupain efficiently hydrolysed the substrate Z-Phe-Arg-pNan (Km 58.8μM, Kcat 28020s(-1), Kcat/Km 5×10(8)M(-1) s(-1)), and its activity increased with 2mM dithiothreitol (DTT), at 37°C, pH 5.0. The chelating agent EDTA did not modify the enzyme activity. Inhibition of tegupain by cystatin (Kiapp 2.43nM), E64 (3.64nM, 83% inhibition), and the propeptide N-terminal sequence indicate that the toxic activity is due to a novel cysteine proteinase-like enzyme, rendered active upon the hydrolysis of a cotyledon component of C. papaya seeds.

  19. Current status of tropical fruit breeding and genetics for three tropical fruit species cultivated in Japan: pineapple, mango, and papaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Tatsushi; Yamanaka, Shinsuke; Shoda, Moriyuki; Urasaki, Naoya; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    Tropical fruit crops are predominantly produced in tropical and subtropical developing countries, but some are now grown in southern Japan. Pineapple (Ananas comosus), mango (Mangifera indica) and papaya (Carica papaya) are major tropical fruits cultivated in Japan. Modern, well-organized breeding systems have not yet been developed for most tropical fruit species. Most parts of Japan are in the temperate climate zone, but some southern areas such as the Ryukyu Islands, which stretch from Kyushu to Taiwan, are at the northern limits for tropical fruit production without artificial heating. In this review, we describe the current status of tropical fruit breeding, genetics, genomics, and biotechnology of three main tropical fruits (pineapple, mango, and papaya) that are cultivated and consumed in Japan. More than ten new elite cultivars of pineapple have been released with improved fruit quality and suitability for consumption as fresh fruit. New challenges and perspectives for obtaining high fruit quality are discussed in the context of breeding programs for pineapple. PMID:27069392

  20. L-ascorbic acid, β-carotene and lycopene content in papaya fruits (Carica papaya with or without physiological skin freckles Conteúdo de ácido l-ascórbico, β-caroteno e licopeno em frutos de mamão (Carica papaya com e sem mancha fisiológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Marelli de Souza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Skin Freckles is a papaya skin disorder that depreciates de fruit appearance and hampers its commercialization, although not lowering its nutritive value. Being the papaya a good source of ascorbic acid, β-carotene and licopene this research aimed at determining L-ascorbic acid, β-carotene and licopene content in papaya fruits, from 'Formosa' and 'Solo' group varieties, with and without apparent physiological skin disease (skin freckles. Fruits were harvested in the Southeast Region of Brazil. L-ascorbic acid content was determined by titration technique. β-carotene and licopene contents were determined by high performance liquid chromatography technique (HPLC. L-ascorbic acid content in papaya fruits ranged from (59.9 ± 3.4 mg 100 g-1 to (112.4 ± 12.6 mg 100 g-1 in fresh papaya pulp. β-carotene content ranged from (0.19 ± 0.07 mg 100 g-1 to (0.56 ± 0.09 mg 100 g-1 and that of licopene ranged from (1.44 ± 0.28 mg 100 g-1 to (3.39 ± 0.32 mg 100 g-1 in fresh papaya pulp. L-ascorbic acid contents of papaya fruits with skin disease averaged 7.0 mg 100 g-1 to 10.0 mg 100 g-1 higher than those of papaya fruits without skin freckles (P A Mancha Fisiológica do Mamão (MFM é uma desordem da casca do mamão, que deprecia a aparência do fruto e prejudica a sua comercialização, embora não prejudique o seu valor nutritivo. Considerando ser o mamão, uma boa fonte de ácido L-ascórbico, b-caroteno e licopeno, esta pesquisa visou determinar o índice destes componentes em frutas de mamão, das variedades do grupo 'Formosa' e 'Solo', com e sem Mancha Fisiológica do Mamão (MFM aparente na pele. As frutas foram colhidas na região do sudeste de Brasil. O teor de ácido L-ascórbico foi determinado pela técnica de titulação. Os índices do b-caroteno e do licopeno foram determinados pela técnica de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC. O teor de ácido L-ascórbico variou de (59,9 ± 3,4 mg 100 g-1 a (112,4 ± 12,6 mg 100 g-1

  1. Efecto de la madurez, geometría y presión sobre la cinética de transferencia de masa en la deshidratación osmótica de papaya (Carica papaya L., var. Maradol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Marcela Chavarro-Castrillón

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Las papayas obtenidas en el raleo (papayas menos desarrolladas entresacadas de los árboles para beneficiar el crecimiento de las otras generalmente se descartan. Alternativamente, estas papayas pueden secarse por un proceso de deshidratación osmótica y secado térmico convencional para usarlas como snacks o como ingrediente para otros productos. Se comparó la cinética de transferencia de masa en la deshidratación osmótica de papayas de raleo frente a papayas desarrolladas con diferente grado de madurez, considerando el efecto de la geometría de la muestra y de la presión del proceso. La deshidratación osmótica se efectuó en una solución agitada de sacarosa a 50 °Brix, a 25 °C. Se consideraron tres niveles de madurez: raleo, verde y pintona, tres geometrías: lámina, cilindro y anillo y dos niveles de presión: atmosférica y vacío. Se estudiaron como variables cinéticas la variación de peso (WR, pérdida de agua (WL y ganancia de sólidos (SG entre 10 y 180 min. La madurez tuvo efecto significativo sobre las tres respuestas de la cinética a 30 min y sobre SG a 180 min; la geometría tuvo efecto sobre WR y SG a 30 min y sobre los tres parámetros cinéticos a 180 min y la presión solamente tuvo efecto sobre WL y SG a 30 min. La mayor pérdida de agua (65% se obtuvo a 30 min para la combinación raleo/cilindro/vacío; mientras que la mayor ganancia de sólidos fue 31% para el tratamiento verde/lámina/vacío a 180 min.

  2. Participación chilena en reuniones IADR mundiales, 2001-2012 Chilean participation in IADR general sessions, 2001-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Cartes-Velásquez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Las reuniones mundiales de la International Association for Dental Research (IADR representan una de las instancias más importantes para la divulgación de las investigaciones odontológicas a nivel de congresos. El objetivo del presente trabajo es caracterizar la participación de investigadores de instituciones chilenas en reuniones IADR mundiales durante el período 2001-2012. Metodología: Estudio bibliométrico, la búsqueda se realizó en la plataforma web Conference Exchange™ para IADR, para las reuniones mundiales de 2001 a 2012 y el término libre "Chile", incluyendo todas las presentaciones con al menos un autor afiliado a una institución chilena; se consideraron las variables: Reunión, autor, institución, cooperación internacional y área temática. Resultados: Se hallaron 158 presentaciones, promedio de 13.2 (15.3 anuales, con participación de 1 a 6 autores en el 87.3%; la mayor participación corresponde a la Universidad de Chile (43%, seguida por las Universidades de Talca (15.8%, Finis Terrae (11.4% y de los Andes (10.8%; según área temática destaca Periodoncia (13.9%, Cariología (12.7% y Epidemiología (12.7%; 26% de las presentaciones tenía participación de instituciones extranjeras. Discusión: Los presentes resultados van en línea con reportes bibliométricos recientes en el área, aunque destaca la aparición de 2 universidades privadas en los primeros lugares. La valoración de la participación en las reuniones IADR mundiales representa un indicador valioso de la producción científica de la odontología chilena, que complementa las evaluaciones bibliométricas de publicaciones ISI, permitiendo una mejor comprensión de la generación de conocimiento en el área.Introduction: International Association for Dental Research (IADR general session is one of the most important annual congress in the dental and craniofacial field. The aim of this research is to characterize the participation of

  3. Características fenotípicas y agronómicas de seis genotipos de papaya (Carica papaya L. de Tuxpan, Guerrero, México

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    José Ángel Alcántara Jiménez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En México la producción de papayo (Carica papaya L. es afectada por factores genéticos, ambientales y bióticos. Destacan los daños provocados por el virus de la mancha anular, el cual reduce considerablemente la cantidad y calidad de la fruta; por eso es muy importante, conocer la productividad de los genotipos en un ambiente determinado. La presente investigación se realizó con el objetivo de evaluar el desarrollo y las características agronómicas de seis genotipos de papayo. El estudio se llevó a cabo en la localidad de Tuxpan, Guerrero, donde se cultivaron los genotipos: R4M3, Maradol, Criolla, Red Lady, Zapote y R5M2. Como diseño experimental se utilizó el de bloques completos al azar, con cuatro repeticiones. Las variables evaluadas fueron: altura al primer fruto, diámetro del cuello, altura de la planta, número de días a la cosecha, rendimiento de frutos (t/ha, número, diámetro y longitud de frutos, concentración de azúcares (grados Brix, textura, color de la pulpa y epicarpio de frutos maduros. Los datos de las variables se sometieron a análisis de varianza y prueba de comparación de medias de Tukey. En relación a la adaptación de los genotipos: todos los genotipos se desarrollaron y produjeron frutos en las condiciones de trópico seco. La variedad Maradol fue la más sobresaliente, presentando un porte menor, mayor precocidad y productividad, textura dura de pulpa, alta concentración de azúcares, buen tamaño y color.

  4. 木瓜挤压破损力学特性研究%The study on mechanical properties of extruded damaged papaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛; 艾星; 张喜瑞; 李粤; 梁栋

    2013-01-01

    为了解决木瓜运输过程中容易被压坏产生的损伤问题,利用电子万能试验机对木瓜进行压缩性能的试验研究。采用正交试验法研究木瓜受到破坏损伤的影响因素。选取了木瓜产生损伤的破坏力作为主要的试验指标,选取加载速度、加载方向、木瓜的成熟度为试验影响主要因素。结果表明:压缩速度为1.0mm/min、加载位置为宽的方向、成熟度为半成熟时,木瓜破碎所需加载力为最大。木瓜力学特性的试验研究不仅可以为木瓜的采摘机械化设计提供理论依据,也能为木瓜的运输、贮藏和加工提供基础。%Papaya transport process in order to solve easily crush injury problems, the use of electronic universal testing machine to test compression performance of papaya. By orthogonal test study papaya impact factors by the destruction of injury. Select a papaya produce in-jury destructive as the main indicators of the test, the loading speed is selected, the loading direction and papaya maturity test affect the main factors. The test results show that: the maturity is the papaya destructive influence of the most important factors. Compression speed is 1.0mm/min, the direction of the load position is wide, maturity of semi-mature, crushing load force required or maximum. The study of the papaya the mechanical characteristics of the test not only to provide a theoretical basis for papaya picking mechanization design, can provide the basis for the transportation, storage and processing off papaya.

  5. "Matar al padre": Análisis discursivo de dos textos de la sociología chilena en período de dictadura

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    Miguel Alvarado

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una visión panorámica de las transformaciones de la sociología chilena durante el período de dictadura militar. Específicamente, desde una perspectiva lingüística se comenta el discurso escrito de la sociología chilena durante el período 1975-1989, tiempo durante el cual la producción escrita de esta disciplina se reconstituye bajo la influencia de las transformaciones del contexto sociocultural nacional, latinoamericano y mundial. Nuestra hipótesis de trabajo consiste en que dicha redefinición significó para estos discursos el paso desde un canon centrado en el concepto de la estructura social, hacia otro que enfatiza el concepto de cultura, asumida ésta como un sistema de valores. Lo anterior se demuestra por medio del análisis de dos textos fundamentales del período: Cultura y modernización en América Latina, de Pedro Morandé y El espejo trizado de José Joaquín Brünner.This article presents a panoramic view of the metamorphosis of Chilean sociology during the period of military dictatorship (1973-1989. The production of texts in Chilean sociology for the purpose of this investigation will be approached from a linguistic perspective. The written production of this discipline in this particular moment in history 1975-1989, demonstrates a reconstruction under the influence of the national, Latin American and international sociocultural context. Our work hypothesis is that the reconstruction of discipline oriented discourse meant that there was a movement from the general rule of viewing the social structure as the object of study towards one that emphasized culture, and accepting it as a system of values. The prior statement is demonstrated through the analysis of two texts of the period: Culture and Modernization by Pedro Morandé and The Broken Mirror by José Joaquín Brünner

  6. Metabolomic profiling of the phytomedicinal constituents of Carica papaya L. leaves and seeds by 1H NMR spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogna, Navdeep; Hamid, Neda; Dorai, Kavita

    2015-11-10

    Extracts from the Carica papaya L. plant are widely reported to contain metabolites with antibacterial, antioxidant and anticancer activity. This study aims to analyze the metabolic profiles of papaya leaves and seeds in order to gain insights into their phytomedicinal constituents. We performed metabolite fingerprinting using 1D and 2D 1H NMR experiments and used multivariate statistical analysis to identify those plant parts that contain the most concentrations of metabolites of phytomedicinal value. Secondary metabolites such as phenyl propanoids, including flavonoids, were found in greater concentrations in the leaves as compared to the seeds. UPLC-ESI-MS verified the presence of significant metabolites in the papaya extracts suggested by the NMR analysis. Interestingly, the concentration of eleven secondary metabolites namely caffeic, cinnamic, chlorogenic, quinic, coumaric, vanillic, and protocatechuic acids, naringenin, hesperidin, rutin, and kaempferol, were higher in young as compared to old papaya leaves. The results of the NMR analysis were corroborated by estimating the total phenolic and flavonoid content of the extracts. Estimation of antioxidant activity in leaves and seed extracts by DPPH and ABTS in-vitro assays and antioxidant capacity in C2C12 cell line also showed that papaya extracts exhibit high antioxidant activity.

  7. Risk analysis of Papaya dieback disease introduction to China%番木瓜顶梢枯死病传入中国的风险分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻群芳; 张贺; 漆艳香; 陆英; 张欣; 张辉强; 谢艺贤; 蒲金基

    2014-01-01

    番木瓜顶梢枯死病(Papaya dieback disease)是番木瓜生产上最严重的病害之一。本文根据 FAO 国际植物检疫措施标准--检疫性有害生物风险分析( ISPM No.11),从番木瓜顶梢枯死病分布情况、进入可能性、定殖和扩散可能性、后果评估等方面对番木瓜顶梢枯死病传入中国开展风险分析。风险评估结果表明,番木瓜顶梢枯死病传入中国风险高,并提出了风险管理措施。%Papaya dieback disease is one of the most serious diseases of papaya production. According to the FAO’s“International standards for phytosanitary measures--Pest risk analysis for quarantine pests”(ISPMNO. 11),The risk of Papaya dieback disease introduction to China was assessed from geographical distribution, possibility of entry ,possibility of colonization and spreading ,consequence assessment. The result demonstrated that the risk of Papaya dieback disease introduction risk would be very high. Following the risk analysis, the methods of controlling the disease introducing to China were suggested.

  8. Does Carica papaya leaf-extract increase the platelet count? An experimental study in a murine model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Susiji Wickramasinghe; Roshitha Nilmini Waduge

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the potential role of fresh Carica papaya (C. papaya) leaf extract on haematological and biochemical parameters and toxicological changes in a murine model. Methods: In total 36 mice were used for the trial. Fresh C. papaya leaf extract [0.2 mL (2 g)/mouse] was given only to the test group (18 mice). General behavior, clinical signs and feeding patterns were recorded. Blood and tissue samples were collected at intervals. Haematological parameters including platelet, red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), packed cell volume (PCV), serum biochemistry including serum creatinine, serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) were determined. Organs for possible histopathological changes were examined. Results: Neither group exhibited alteration of behavior or reduction in food and water intake. Similarly, no significant changes in SGOT, SGPT and serum creatinine levels were detected in the test group. Histopathological organ changes were not observed in either group of mice except in three liver samples of the test group which had a mild focal necrosis. The platelet count (11.33±0.35)í105/µL (P=0.000 04) and the RBC count (7.97±0.61)í106/µL (P=0.000 03) were significantly increased in the test group compared to that of the controls. However, WBC count and PCV (%) values were not changed significantly in the test group. The platelet count in the test group started to increase significantly from Day 3 (3.4±0.18í105/µL), reaching almost a fourfold higher at Day 21 (11.3í105/µL), while it was 3.8í105/µL and 5.5í105/µL at Day 3 and Day 21 respectively in the control. Likewise, the RBC count in the test group increased from 6í106/µL to 9í106/ µL at Day 21 while it remained near constant in the control group (6í106/µL). Conclusions: Fresh C. papaya leaf extract significantly increased the platelet and RBC counts in the test group as compared to controls. Therefore, it is very

  9. Expressão transiente do gene gus, sob regulação de quatro promotores, em diferentes tecidos de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. e videira (Vitis sp. Transient expression of the gus gene, under the regulation of four promoters, on different tissues of papaya (Carica papaya l. and grape (Vitis sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelar Almeida Pinto

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. e a videira (Vitis vinifera L. destacam-se entre as fruteiras produzidas no Brasil por serem plantadas em quase todo o território nacional e apresentarem importância econômica e social. A tecnologia de produção de organismos geneticamente modificados, também conhecidos como "transgênicos", tem grande potencial de uso no desenvolvimento de fruteiras melhoradas. Porém, questões de propriedade intelectual limitam o uso da engenharia genética por países em desenvolvimento, que normalmente não detêm direitos sobre processos ou produtos necessários ao uso desta. Neste contexto, o presente estudo buscou avaliar promotores de expressão gênica alternativos ao CaMV 35S, que é o mais utilizado no desenvolvimento de transgênicos, mas é patenteado. Para tanto, construções gênicas com o gene gus sob a regulação de diferentes promotores foram testadas para expressão transiente em diversos tecidos de mamoeiro e videira. Expressão transiente foi avaliada em embriões somáticos, folhas, caules, raízes e frutos. O promotor do gene UBQ3, que é constitutivo e se encontra em domínio publico, mostrou ser uma alternativa promissora para futuros trabalhos de transformação genética de mamoeiro, mas não de videira.Papaya (Carica papaya L. and grapes (Vitis vinifera L. are among the most important fruit crops produced in Brazil, and are cultivated in several regions around the country being of economical and social importance. Genetic engineering has great potential on the development of genetically improved fruit crops. However, intellectual property issues constantly limit the commercial use of this technology in developing countries. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate gene promoters as alternatives to the 35S CaMV, which is the most used so far in the development of transgenic plants, but it is patented. In order to do that, the expression of the gus gene under the regulation of distinct promoters was

  10. Genetic structure of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides sensu lato isolates infecting papaya inferred by multilocus ISSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampersad, Sephra N

    2013-02-01

    Colletotrichum gloeosporioides sensu lato is widely distributed throughout temperate and tropical regions and causes anthracnose disease in numerous plant species. Development of effective disease management strategies is dependent on, among other factors, an understanding of pathogen genetic diversity and population stratification at the intraspecific level. For 132 isolates of C. gloeosporioides sensu lato collected from papaya in Trinidad, inter-simple-sequence repeat-polymerase chain reaction (ISSR-PCR) generated 121 polymorphic loci from five ISSR primers selected from an initial screen of 22 ISSR primers. The mean percentage of polymorphic loci was 99.18%. Bayesian cluster analysis inferred three genetic subpopulations, where group 1 consisted exclusively of isolates collected in the southern part of Trinidad whereas groups 2 and 3, although genetically distinct, were mixtures of isolates collected from both the northern and southern parts of Trinidad. Principal coordinates analysis and unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean phylogeny were concordant with Bayesian cluster analysis and supported subdivision into the three subpopulations. Overall, the total mean gene diversity was 0.279, the mean within-population gene diversity was 0.2161, and genetic differentiation for the Trinidad population was 0.225. Regionally, northern isolates had a lower gene diversity compared with southern isolates. Nei's gene diversity was highest for group 1 (h = 0.231), followed by group 2 (h = 0.215) and group 3 (h = 0.202). Genotypic diversity was at or near maximum for all three subpopulations after clone correction. Pairwise estimates of differentiation indicated high and significant genetic differentiation among the inferred subpopulations (Weir's θ of 0.212 to 0.325). Pairwise comparisons among subpopulations suggested restricted gene flow between groups 1 and 2 and groups 1 and 3 but not between groups 2 and 3. The null hypothesis of random mating was rejected

  11. Psicopatía y delincuencia: comparaciones y diferencias entre ofensores sexuales y delincuentes comunes en una cárcel chilena

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    José Cabrera Sánchez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación se compararon ofensores sexuales y delincuentes comunes de una cárcel chilena en relación con la psicopatía. La muestra constó de 57 agresores sexuales y 82 delincuentes comunes, todos condenados y recluidos en el Centro Cumplimiento Penitenciario de la ciudad de Puerto Montt, Chile. El instrumento utilizado en esta investigación fue el Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R, de Robert Hare. Los resultados demuestran que el nivel de psicopatía parece no influir de manera significativa en el hecho de estar condenado por algún tipo de delito sexual; por otra parte, se aprecian niveles moderados de psicopatía en personas condenadas por delitos no violentos. A medida que aumentan las características psicopáticas se aprecia una asociación positiva con la participación en delitos violentos y/o de sangre. Se concluye que los ofensores sexuales y delincuentes comunes reincidentes presentan niveles mayores de psicopatía.

  12. Chistes par(ra reordenar el canon: Roberto Bolaño, Nicanor Parra y la poesía chilena

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    Benjamin Loy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available “Todo se lo debo a Parra” – con estas y semejantes palabras de elogio Roberto Bolaño le asignó un lugar central al antipoeta chileno dentro de su amplio canon personal. No obstante, la amplia crítica bolañiana hasta el momento no pareciera haber estudiado a fondo las múltiples dimensiones de esta relación entre los dos autores chilenos. El presente estudio pretende analizar, por lo tanto, de qué manera los postulados ético-estéticos de Parra y de su antipoesía le sirven a Bolaño como punto de referencia clave para reordenar el canon de la literatura chilena contemporánea. Además, se discutirá el papel clave que desempeña Bolaño en el renovado interés de la crítica en la obra de Nicanor Parra durante los últimos años.

  13. Evolución de la industria chilena de fondos mutuos. Análisis de su performance (2000-2005

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    Benito Umaña Hermosilla

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio, los autores desarrollan un análisis riguroso de la evolución de la Industria Chilena de Fondos Mutuos. Se aplican para ello las medidas tradicionales de performance,  correspondientes a los autores Sharpe, Treynor y Jensen, poniendo para ello de manifiesto, que su funcionamiento correcto depende de una serie de circunstancias, que no siempre se cumplen en los mercados financieros. En estos casos se aplican  medidas alternativas de medición de la performance, las cuales eliminan las incoherencias detectadas. Estas medidas fueron desarrolladas por los profesores Ferruz y Sarto (1997. El presente estudio comprende el periodo 2000- 2005. Se analizan rentabilidades mensuales correspondientes a 196 fondos mutuos de renta variable. Los índices alternativos no hicieron más que ratificar el resultado de los índices originales. Se concluye además que las gestoras con mayor patrimonio administrado no poseen los mejores índices de performance, similar  situación ocurre con aquellas gestoras pertenecientes a la industria bancaria.

  14. Evolución de la industria chilena de fondos mutuos: análisis de su performance (2000-2005

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    Benito Umaña Hermosilla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio, los autores desarrollan un análisis riguroso de la evolución de la Industria Chilena de Fondos Mutuos. Se aplican para ello las medidas tradicionales de performance, correspondientes a los autores Sharpe, Treynor y Jensen, poniendo para ello de manifiesto, que su funcionamiento correcto depende de una serie de circunstancias, que no siempre se cumplen en los mercados financieros. En estos casos se aplican medidas alternativas de medición de la performance, las cuales eliminan las incoherencias detectadas. Estas medidas fueron desarrolladas por los profesores Ferruz y Sarto (1997. El presente estudio comprende el periodo 2000- 2005. Se analizan rentabilidades mensuales correspondientes a 196 fondos mutuos de renta variable. Los índices alternativos no hicieron más que ratificar el resultado de los índices originales. Se concluye además que las gestoras con mayor patrimonio administrado no poseen los mejores índices de performance, similar situación ocurre con aquellas gestoras pertenecientes a la industria bancaria.

  15. La oposición a la dictadura de Miguel Primo de Rivera a través de la prensa mercurial chilena (1923-1930

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    Mario Valdés Urrutia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo examina algunos aspectos del accionar opositor al gobierno de Miguel Primo de Rivera desde una mirada sudamericana: el diario El Mercurio, influyente periódico en la sociedad chilena. Las reacciones frente al alzamiento primorriverista de 1923; la crítica política junto a algunos intentos de defenestrar la Dictadura;  y el  rechazo al proyecto de institucionalización autoritaria y antiliberal, son los temas abordados.Palabras claves: Primo de Rivera – Dictadura – Oposición – Visión de El Mercurio.___________________________Abstract:This article examines certain aspects of the opposition to the dictatorshipof Miguel Primo de Rivera from a South American point of view: that of El  Mercurio, an influential Chilean newspaper. The reaction to the coup d'etat of Primo de Rivera in 1923, political criticism together with certain attempts to unseat the dictator, and the rejection of the authoritarian and antiliberal political project are all considered. KeyWords: Primo de Rivera, Dictatorship, Opposition, Viewpoint of El Mercurio

  16. Contra-tradición: prácticas críticas y desestabilizadoras de escritoras chilenas de principios de siglo XX

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    Marina d. A. Alvarado Cornejo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the writing of critical speeches of the Chilean poets and storytellers Gabriela Mistral (1889-1957, Teresa Wilms Montt (1893-1921, Maria Monvel (1899-1936, Maria Luisa Bombal (1910-1980 and Maria Carolina Geel (1913-1996, who appropriated this genre as a strategy to reassert networks between women and, at the same time, be inserted inside the complex chilean and latinamerican cultural and literary field. Este artículo revisa la escritura de discursos críticos de las poetas y narradoras chilenas Gabriela Mistral (1889-1957, Teresa Wilms Montt (1893- 921, María Monvel (1899-1936, María Luisa Bombal (1910-1980 y María Carolina Geel (1913-1996, quienes se apropian de este género a modo de estrategia para reafirmar las redes entre mujeres y, a su vez, insertarse dentro del complejo campo cultural y literario chileno y latinoamericano.

  17. Respuesta del microfitoplancton a la adición de nitrato y ácido silícico en fiordos de la Patagonia chilena

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    Pamela Labbé-Ibáñez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available La Patagonia chilena está experimentando un aumento del uso del suelo y océano costero y el acelerado derretimiento de algunos glaciares, por lo que uno de los escenarios a futuro es que los fiordos adyacentes reciban cantidades variables de agua dulce y nutrientes inorgánicos. Se estudió la respuesta de ensambles de fitoplancton de los fiordos Reloncaví en invierno y Comau en primavera, a la adición de nitrato y ácido silícico en experimentos de microcosmos. Los ensambles fitoplanctónicos estudiados respondieron a la adición de nutrientes con incrementos en la abundancia celular biomasa autotrófica (clorofila-a y cambios en la composición específica, destacando el cambio de dominancia de especies de diatomeas pennadas a céntricas formadoras de cadenas. Estos resultados dan indicios acerca de los factores que afectan a las comunidades microalgales en un escenario de cambio climático e intervención antrópica de los fiordos de la Patagonia Norte.

  18. Agua, Poder y Discursos: Conflictos Socio-territoriales por la construcción de centrales hidroeléctricas en la Patagonia Chilena

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    Romero Toledo, Hugo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Chile is going to celebrate soon two hundred years of republican life and thirty five years of the application of a neoliberal economic model, in respect of which there are a lot of conflicts related with the land/capital dicotomy and water like a main resource. One of these conflicts is currently taking place in Chilean Patagonia, where, as a direct result of water privatization, a large hydropower project, supported by transnational companies collisions with traditional production and highly environmental quality landscapes.

    Chile está próximo a celebrar su Bicentenario de vida republicana y sus treinta y cinco años desde la aplicación de un estricto modelo económico neoliberal, donde han surgido numerosos conflictos que involucran a la dicotomía capital/territorio y que implican al agua como recurso principal. Uno de estos conflictos es el que actualmente ocurre en la Región de Aysén en la Patagonia Chilena donde, producto de la privatización del agua, un megaproyecto de producción hidroeléctrica de inversión transnacional colisiona con territorios de alta calidad ambiental y producción tradicional.

  19. Poder, Ideología y el Consenso de Washington: Desarrollo y Expansión de la Política Chilena de Vivienda.

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    Alan Gilbert

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Es bien sabido que a menudo la realidad supera la ficción. Esto ciertamente se aplica en el caso del modelo de subsidio habitacional en Chile. Desarrollado por los chilenos con ayuda de la ideología neo-liberal inventada en Chicago, las poderosas instituciones de Washington DC aparecen como actores menores en la escena chilena. Inicialmente, Chile necesitaba el apoyo y financiamiento del Banco Mundial pero una vez conseguidos, Chile siguió su propia agenda. El Banco de Desarrollo Interamericano y USAID no lograron mucho más. Chile era el amo y señor en su propia casa. ¿Fue ésta una victoria para la autonomía nacional por sobre el poder del financiamiento internacional?. Ciertamente no, porque el nuevo modelo que se estaba aplicando en Chile fue el precursor de mucho de lo que se estaba implementando desde Washington en los días de ajuste estructural. Chile “ganó” porque aceptó las reglas del nuevo juego establecido por instituciones muchísimo más poderosas que los bancos de desarrollo multilaterales. Washington del Desarrollo aprendió mucho de Chile y luego aplicó lo aprendido a los países más endeudados, más pequeños y menos sofisticados.

  20. Un amor estratificado: narrativas, prácticas y la infraestructura del amor de tres mujeres chilenas de diferentes estratos sociales

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    Amanda Rutllant

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo es un estudio exploratorio que busca incorporar la variable estratificación a la actual discusión académica en torno a lastransformaciones en la intimidad y lasformas de vivir el amor en la modernidad tardía producto de los proceso de individuación. Asimismo se hace hincapié en la conceptualización material del amor, considerando las prácticas y objetos de consumo amoroso como factores determinantes de la vivencia del amor. A través de un estudio exploratorio/comparativo basado en el análisis de historias de vida de tres mujeres chilenas de diferentes estratossocio-económicos se busca problematizar las categorías conceptuales que hoy se utilizan en el debate sociológico en torno al amor. Como se verá, el factor estratificación demuestra que el amor se vive de formas diferentes dependiendo del estrato social así como también de las materialidades.

  1. Effects of ozone exposure on `Golden' papaya fruit by photoacoustic phase-resolved method: Physiological changes associated with carbon dioxide and ethylene emission rates during ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Savio Figueira; Mota, Leonardo; Paiva, Luisa Brito; Couto, Flávio Mota do; Silva, Marcelo Gomes da; Oliveira, Jurandi Gonçalves de; Sthel, Marcelo Silva; Vargas, Helion; Miklós, András

    2011-06-01

    This work addresses the effects of ozone activity on the physiology of `Golden' papaya fruit. Depth profile analysis of double-layer biological samples was accomplished using the phase-resolved photoacoustic spectroscopy. The feasibility of the method was demonstrated by singling out the spectra of the cuticle and the pigment layers of papaya fruit. The same approach was used to monitor changes occurring on the fruit during ripening when exposed to ozone. In addition, one has performed real time studies of fluorescence parameters and the emission rates of carbon dioxide and ethylene. Finally, the amount of pigments and the changes in waxy cuticle have been monitored. Results indicate that a fruit deliberately subjected to ozone at a level of 6 ppmv underwent ripening sooner (at least 24-48 h) than a fruit stored at ambient conditions. Moreover, ozone caused a reduction in the maximum quantum yield of photosynthetic apparatus located within the skin of papaya fruit.

  2. Effects of ozone exposure on 'Golden' papaya fruit by photoacoustic phase-resolved method: Physiological changes associated with carbon dioxide and ethylene emission rates during ripening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work addresses the effects of ozone activity on the physiology of 'Golden' papaya fruit. Depth profile analysis of double-layer biological samples was accomplished using the phase-resolved photoacoustic spectroscopy. The feasibility of the method was demonstrated by singling out the spectra of the cuticle and the pigment layers of papaya fruit. The same approach was used to monitor changes occurring on the fruit during ripening when exposed to ozone. In addition, one has performed real time studies of fluorescence parameters and the emission rates of carbon dioxide and ethylene. Finally, the amount of pigments and the changes in waxy cuticle have been monitored. Results indicate that a fruit deliberately subjected to ozone at a level of 6 ppmv underwent ripening sooner (at least 24-48 h) than a fruit stored at ambient conditions. Moreover, ozone caused a reduction in the maximum quantum yield of photosynthetic apparatus located within the skin of papaya fruit.

  3. Novel concepts on functional foods and nutrigenomics in healthy aging and chronic diseases: a review of fermented papaya preparation research progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Marotta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractFunctional foods are an emerging research field corresponding with genomical, epidemiological and clinical studies integrated with the food industry in accordance with the consumer demands. Consequently, the features of the functional foods are being discussed by various researchers and related institutions, and a common view has been pointed out about the availability and the nature of the components of functional foods. Recently, the outcomes of functional foods are being assessed by the help of all the available scientific tools. Genomic medicine is one of the most promising areas of research to reveal the benefits of functional foods and the bioactive ingredients. Nutrigenomics aims at studying the genetic and epigenetic interactions with a nutrient or the functional component in order to lead to a phenotype change and therefore to the cell metabolism, differentiation or even apoptosis. Papaya and its fermentation product arespecific products derived from the technologically advanced and controlled environmentalfriendly bio-fermentation process. Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(5:120-136 It has been well known for a long time that the natural anti-oxidant properties of papaya, mainly depending on vitamins A and C in addition to certain amino acids, were consistent both in the fruit and derived from the papain enzyme which is no longer present in the fermented product. In this article, functional foods in genomic medicine are discussed in review of the fermented papaya preparation research progress. Clinical evidences about fermented papaya as a functional food are reported as supported by various research protocols and experimental models. The benefits of fermented papaya preparation are also discussed in nutrigenomic basis and it is reported to have an important antioxidant and transcriptomic potential which deserves further investigation. As a conclusion, fermented papaya preparation represents a Functional Food

  4. Anti-ulcerogenic activity of aqueous extract of Carica papaya seed on indomethacin-induced peptic ulcer in male albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hussein O B Oloyede; Matthew C Adaja; Taofeek O Ajiboye; Musa O Salawu

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:Carica papaya is an important fruit with its seeds used in the treatment of ulcer in Nigeria. This study investigated the anti-ulcerogenic and antioxidant activities of aqueous extract of Carica papaya seed against indomethacin-induced peptic ulcer in male rats. METHODS:Thirty male rats were separated into 6 groups (A–F) of ifve rats each. For 14 d before ulcer induction with indomethacin, groups received once daily oral doses of vehicle (distil ed water), cimetidine 200 mg/kg body weight (BW), or aqueous extract of C. papaya seed at doses of 100, 150 or 200 mg/kg BW (groups A, B, C, D, E and F, respectively). Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, groups B, C, D, E and F were treated with 100 mg/kg BW of indomethacin to induce ulcer formation. RESULTS:Carica papaya seed extract signiifcantly (P<0.05) increased gastric pH and percentage of ulcer inhibition relative to indomethacin-induced ulcer rats. The extract signiifcantly (P<0.05) decreased gastric acidity, gastric acid output, gastric pepsin secretion, ulcer index and gastric secretion volume relative to group B. These results were similar to that achieved by pretreatment with cimetidine. Speciifc activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the extract-treated groups (D, E and F) were increased signiifcantly over the group B (P<0.05). Pretreatment with the seed extract protected rats from the indomethacin-mediated decrease in enzyme function experienced by the group B. Similarly, indomethacin-mediated decrease in reduced glutathione level and indomethacin-mediated increase in malondialdehyde were reversed by Carica papaya extract. CONCLUSION:In this study, pretreatment with aqueous extract of Carica papaya seed exhibited anti-ulcerogenic and antioxidant effects, which may be due to the enhanced antioxidant enzymes.

  5. Imobilisasi Crude Enzim Papain Yang Diisolasi Dari Getah Buah Pepaya (Carica papaya L) Dengan Menggunakan Kappa Karagenan Dan Kitosan Serta Pengujian Aktivitas Dan Stabilitasnya

    OpenAIRE

    Wibisono, Eko

    2011-01-01

    Crude papain enzyme has been isolated from papaya fruit latex (Carica papaya L) with Balls and Lineweaver method, where the crude papain enzyme was immobilized by entrapping the lattice type by using the kappa carrageenan and chitosan, and then tested its activity with the Murachi method. The activity of free crude papain enzyme 82.493 μg/ml at a temperature of 55oC and pH 7, the immobilized crude enzyme papain with kappa carrageenan 78.706 μg/ml at a temperature of 60oC and pH 6.5, and the i...

  6. The use of natural product-papaya pulp powder as a disinte-grant in tablet formulation and their invitro evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dilip Chandrasekhar; Saraswathy R; Krishnan.N.V

    2009-01-01

    Objective:An attempt was made to study the use of papaya pulp powder as a disintegrant in tablet formula-tions.The objective of the present work is to identify a natural binding and disintegrating agent for formulating tablets and to study the effect of disintegrating agents and binding agents on the dissolution of the formulation containing paracetamol.Methods:Papaya pulp powder is obtained from unripe papaya fruit.The fruit was screened for its physical and chemical characteristics and used in tablet formulations.In order to find out the percentage that could be used to formulate a product containing good disintegrating and dissolution characteris-tics,several formulations (Paracetamol)with different concentrations of 8%,10%,12%,15%,20%,25% &30% were prepared.As a comparison,an already established disintegrant,sodium starchgylcolate was select-ed and several formulations containing similar concentrations,were also prepared.The invitro evaluation of the formulations were undertaken,and the results compared.In the present study preformulation studies on the pu-rity,development of calibration curve of the drug and the compatibility between the drug and excepients were carried out.The fruits were cut into small pieces,grated,dried and powdered,passed through different sieves and made into fine powder.Fine powder of papaya was mixed with required amount of drug and sodium starch-gylcolate individually in different concentrations along with other additives &binding agents.The dried gran-ules were compressed into tablets and all the formulated dosage forms of paracetamol tablets were subjected to quality control tests like hardness disintegration and dissolution.Results:From the results it was observed that formulations S1 and P7 containing 8% of sodium starchgylcolate and 30% of papaya pulp powder showed good disintegration and dissolution characteristics.Conclusion:Since the tablet formulation P7 containing 30% of papaya pulp powder shows good disintegration and

  7. Photoacoustic study of the influence of the cooling temperature on the CO2 emission rate by Carica papaya L. in modified atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, D. U.; Sthel, M. S.; da Silva, M. G.; Carneiro, L. O.; Silva, H. R. F.; Martins, M. L. L.; Resende, E. D.; Vitorazi, L.; Vargas, H.

    2005-06-01

    The monitoring of trace gas emitted by papaya fruits and assessments of its mass loss can contribute to improve the conditions for their storage and transport. The C02 emission rate by the papaya fruits, monitored by a commercial infrared-based gas analyzer, was influenced by the temperature and storage time. The fruits stored at temperature of 13 °C accumulated more CO2 inside the PEBD bags than those fruits stored at 6 °C. The loss of mass of the fruits progressively increased with storage time for both temperatures until the saturation of the moisture inside the PEBD bag, been more pronounced at 13 ºC.

  8. Analysis of the full-length genome sequence of papaya lethal yellowing virus (PLYV), determined by deep sequencing, confirms its classification in the genus Sobemovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Alvaro J; Alfenas-Zerbini, Poliane; Cascardo, Renan S; Andrade, Eduardo C; Murilo Zerbini, F

    2012-10-01

    Papaya lethal yellowing virus (PLYV) causes an economically important disease in papayas in northeastern Brazil. Based on biological and molecular properties, PLYV has been tentatively assigned to the genus Sobemovirus. We report the sequence of the full-length genome of a PLYV isolate from Brazil, determined by deep sequencing. The PLYV genome is 4,145 nt long and contains four ORFs, with an arrangement identical to that of sobemoviruses. The polyprotein and CP display significant sequence identity with the corresponding proteins of other sobemoviruses. Pairwise comparisons and phylogenetic analysis based on complete nucleotide sequences confirm the classification of PLYV in the genus Sobemovirus. PMID:22743825

  9. Sorologia e sobrevivência do vírus do amarelo letal do mamoeiro Serology and surviving characteristics of Papaya lethal yellowing virus

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Lúcia Lopes do Nascimento; José Albersio de Araujo Lima; Aline Kelly Queiroz do Nascimento; Maria de Fátima Barros Gonçalves

    2010-01-01

    O vírus do amarelo letal do mamoeiro (Papaya lethal yellowing virus, PLYV) é responsável por uma das principais doenças do mamoeiro (Carica papaya) no Nordeste brasileiro. O PLYV pode ser transmitido através do solo, água, instrumento de corte e mãos contaminadas. A presente pesquisa teve como objetivo estudar as características biológicas, sorológicas e físicas de um isolado do vírus e avaliar sua sobrevivência em tecido seco infetado. O PLYV foi detectado por "Enzyme linked immunosorbent as...

  10. Improved Function of Diabetic Wound-Site Macrophages and Accelerated Wound Closure in Response to Oral Supplementation of a Fermented Papaya Preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Collard, Eric; Roy, Sashwati

    2010-01-01

    Carica papaya Linn is widely known as a medicinal fruit. We sought to study a standardized fermented papaya preparation (FPP) for its effects on wound healing in adult obese diabetic (db/db) mice. FPP blunted the gain in blood glucose and improved the lipid profile after 8 weeks of oral supplementation. However, FPP did not influence weight gain during the supplementation period. FPP (0.2 g/kg body weight) supplementation for 8 weeks before wounding was effective in correcting wound closure. ...

  11. Respiration rate of Golden papaya stored under refrigeration and with different controlled atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derliane Ribeiro Martins

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the respiration rate during the storage is important in the evaluation of the post-harvest tools that preserve fruit quality, and also for the provision of information for the development of new packages. This work aimed to evaluate the respiration rate of 'Golden' Carica papaya stored under refrigeration and controlled atmosphere conditions. The fruit was kept at 13 °C in controlled atmospheres comprising three levels of O2 (20.8 %, 6 %, 3 % with a minimum level of CO2 (0.1 %; and three levels of CO2 (0.1 %, 6 %, 12 % with the lowest level of O2 (3 %. Measurements were taken at intervals of 5 days during the 30 days of storage. The mass loss and the peel color of the fruits were identified at the end of the storage period. The fruit maintained under 'normal' atmosphere conditions (20.8 % O2 and 0.1 % CO2 increased its respiration rate after the 10th day, reaching after 30 days 4.3 times the initial value. After 30 days in 3 % O2, the respiration rate was 2.9 times less than in the normal atmosphere. The decrease in respiration rate minimized the mass loss in fruit stored at 3 % O2, but it was unaffected by increasing levels of CO2.

  12. Zucchini shoestring virus: a distinct potyvirus in the papaya ringspot virus cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibaba, J D; Laing, M D; Gubba, A

    2016-08-01

    Zucchini shoestring virus (ZSSV) has been proposed to be a putative potyvirus in the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) cluster, based on the sequence similarity of its coat protein to those of related potyviruses. ZSSV has been associated with the outbreak of a damaging disease of baby marrow (Cucurbita pepo L.) that had been observed throughout the province of KwaZulu-Natal, in the Republic of South Africa (RSA). We report the genome sequence of ZSSV, determined by next-generation sequencing of total RNA extracted from an infected baby marrow (Cucurbita pepo L.). The ZSSV genome is 10,295 nucleotides long excluding the poly(A) tail and displays a typical potyvirus organization. Algerian watermelon mosaic virus (AWMV; EU410442.1) was identified as the closest relative of ZSSV, sharing the highest nucleotide sequence identity of 65.68%. The nucleotide and amino acid sequence identity values for each protein support the differentiation of ZSSV as a member of a distinct species in the genus Potyvirus. This taxonomic position was also confirmed using the Pairwise Sequence Comparison online tool from the National Center for Biotechnology Information. Phylogenetic analysis of the polyprotein coding sequence of ZSSV grouped ZSSV together with AWMV and Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus, but in different clusters. ZSSV is the second cucurbit-infecting virus in the PRSV cluster present in RSA. PMID:27216927

  13. In situ Carica papaya stem matrix and Fusarium oxysporum (NCBT-156) mediated bioremediation of chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatussalam, A; Abubacker, M N; Rajendran, R Babu

    2011-12-01

    Removal of heavy metal chromium was carried out using the fungus Fusarium oxysporum NCBT-156 strain isolated from soil of leather tanning effluent in in situ condition using potassium dichromate solution with 10 per cent Czapek-dox liquid medium. Biosorbent matrix was developed using Carica papaya plant dry stem to colonize the fungal strain to facilitate bioabsorption process. Bioabsorption of chromium was by metabolically mediated intracellular accumulation process. Maximum efficiency of chromium removal by biosorption upto 90 per cent was achieved at the end of 5th day of incubation (120 h of contact time) for 100 and 200 ppm concentration, upto 80 per cent for 300 and 400 ppm, and upto 65 per cent for 500 ppm to 1000 ppm concentrations with pH ranging from 5.8, 5.6, 5.5, 5.4 and 5.2, respectively for 100, 200, 300, 400, 500-1000 ppm concentration. SDS-PAGE protein profile showed significant difference in 34 kDa protein band after chromium absorption by the fungus. FTIR spectroscopic analysis revealed that the main functional groups involved in the uptake of chromium by F. oxysporium strain were carbonyl, carboxyl, amino and hydroxyl groups. PMID:22403866

  14. Glycyl endopeptidase from papaya latex: partial purification and use for production of fish gelatin hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnjanapratum, Supatra; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2014-12-15

    An aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) in combination with ammonium sulphate ((NH4)2SO4) precipitation was applied to fractionate glycyl endopeptidase from the papaya latex of Red Lady and Khack Dum cultivars. ATPS containing polyethylene glycol (PEG 2000 and 6000) and salts ((NH4)2SO4 and MgSO4) at different concentrations were used. Glycyl endopeptidase with high purification fold (PF) and yield was found in the salt-rich bottom phase of ATPS with 10%PEG 6000-10% (NH4)2SO4. When ATPS fraction from Red Lady cultivar was further precipitated with 40-60% saturation of (NH4)2SO4, PF of 2.1-fold with 80.23% yield was obtained. Almost all offensive odorous compounds, particularly benzyl isothiocyanate, were removed from partially purified glycyl endopeptidase (PPGE). The fish gelatin hydrolysates prepared using PPGE showed higher ABTS radical scavenging activity and less odour, compared with those of crude extract (CE). Thus antioxidative gelatin hydrolysate with negligible undesirable odour could be prepared with the aid of PPGE. PMID:25038693

  15. Effect of wine inhibitors on the proteolytic activity of papain from Carica papaya L. latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benucci, Ilaria; Esti, Marco; Liburdi, Katia

    2015-01-01

    The influence of potential inhibitors naturally present in wine on the proteolytic activity of papain from Carica papaya latex was investigated to evaluate its applicability in white wine protein haze stabilization. Enzymatic activity was tested against a synthetic tripeptide chromogenic substrate in wine-like acidic medium that consisted of tartaric buffer (pH 3.2) supplemented with ethanol, free sulfur dioxide (SO2 ), grape skin and seed tannins within the average ranges of concentrations that are typical in wine. The diagnosis of inhibition type, performed with the graphical method, demonstrated that all of tested wine constituents were reversible inhibitors of papain. The strongest inhibition was exerted by free SO2 , which acted as a mixed-type inhibitor, similar to grape skin and seed tannins. Finally, when tested in table white wines, the catalytic activity of papain, even when if it was ascribable to the hyperbolic behavior of Michaelis-Menten equation, was determined to be strongly affected by free SO2 and total phenol level.

  16. Characterization and occurence of eairly softening disorder in 'golden' papaya fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Pedro Jacomino

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of green skin and soft pulp in 'Golden' papaya fruit during certain seasons has been reported by farmers in the northern of the state of Espirito Santo, Brazil. The objective of this study was to characterize and determine the occurrence of this disorder, which was referred as "early softening disorder". Fruits were harvested weekly for 11 months (from September to July. The fruits were stored at 10°C, and then fruit flesh firmness and skin color were analyzed. The results of the firmness test were submitted to regression analysis assuming a linear trendline. The slope of the curve was called the 'softening index' (SI. Fruits with early softening are characterized by a loss of firmness in less than 10 days, even when stored under refrigeration. Although softened, the skin of the fruit remains partially green. Fruits with the disorder occurred more frequently from mid-summer to mid-autumn (February to May. It is not possible to distinguish early softening disorder fruits from those without the disorder by skin color and flesh firmness analysis at the time of the harvest.

  17. Testers for combining ability and selection of papaya hybrids resistant to fungal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Pessanha da Silva Terra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic resistance represents a sustainable alternative to disease control in papaya crop. The purpose of this studywas to evaluate the use of testers to estimate combining ability and select hybrids resistant to black spot, phoma spot and chocolatespot. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with two replications and 20 plants per plot. The severity ofphoma spot and black spot on leaves and the lesion area of black spot and chocolate spot on fruits were evaluated in twoseasons. The combining ability of the following crosses is negative for all traits: tester ‘JS 12’ with ‘Sunrise Solo’ and ‘Kaphoro SoloPV’; tester ‘Americano’ with ‘Caliman M5’, ‘Sunrise Solo’, ’Baixinho de Santa Amália’ and ‘Waimanalo’; and tester ‘Maradol’with ‘Caliman G’, ‘Caliman AM’ and ‘Sunrise Solo PT’. These results may be useful in breeding for disease resistance byhybridization.

  18. Block of Viral Movement in Papaya Mutant Plants Resistant to Papaya Ringspot Virus%番木瓜抗病突变体阻碍环斑病毒体内运转

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周国辉; 李华平; 等

    2001-01-01

    应用RT-PCR一步法检测了PRSV Ys株系在感病番木瓜及其抗病突 变体植株体内的运转 动态,结果表明:在感病植株中,接种后48hr接种叶的未接种部位可检出病毒,第4天部分 接种叶柄可检出病毒,第6天植株各部位均能检出病毒;而在抗病植株中,接种后可以而且 仅能 在接种部位检出病毒;因而认为抗病突变体能够阻碍病毒从接种部位运出及(或)向未接种 部位运入。%One-step RT-PCR was used to detect papaya ringspot virus (PRSV ) moveme nt in susceptible and resistant (mutant) papaya (Carica papaya L.) plants. The t ime of post-inoculation at which PRSV was first detected in susceptible plants w as 48 hours in the other area of inoculated leaves out of inoculated sites , 4 d ays in the petioles of inoculated leaf and 6 days in all parts of plant. Compara tively, in resistant plants, the inoculated sites were the only area at which PR SV can be detected any time. Therefore, it was proposed that the mutated resista nce to PRSV protects the virus from moving out of inoculated sites or/and into non-inoculated areas.

  19. Propagación in vitro de Carica papaya var. PTM-331 a partir de meristemos apicales In vitro propagation of Carica papaya var. PTM-331 from apical meristem

    OpenAIRE

    Reynaldo Solis L.; Julio Olivera S.; Rafael S. La Rosa L.

    2012-01-01

    El trabajo consistió en desarrollar un protocolo de propagación in vitro de la variedad de papaya PTM-331 a partir de meristemos apicales, con la finalidad de obtener plántulas vigorosas y libres de enfermedades, empleando la técnica del cultivo de tejidos. Las yemas apicales empleadas fueron obtenidas de plantas cultivadas en invernadero, los cuales fueron usados como explantes para la extracción de meristemos. La mejor diferenciación de meristemos se logró en el medio basal MS suplementado ...

  20. Biological control of toxigenic citrus and papaya-rotting fungi by Streptomyces violascens MT7 and its extracellular metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Bharti; Nagpure, Anand; Gupta, Rajinder K

    2015-12-01

    An Indian indigenous, Loktak Lake soil isolate Streptomyces violascens MT7 was assessed for its biocontrol potential both in vitro and in vivo against toxigenic fruit-rotting fungi. Strain MT7 exhibited broad-spectrum antifungal activity against various pathogenic postharvest fungi of citrus and papaya. In shake-flask fermentation, antagonist S. violascens MT7 highly produced extracellular antifungal metabolites in early stationary growth phase in glucose-yeast extract-malt extract (M93) broth. Both extracellular culture fluid (ECF) and its n-butanol extract showed significant broad-spectrum fungal mycelial inhibition of several tested fruit-rotting fungi. Antifungal metabolite was found to be heat stable, nonpeptidic, and polyene type antibiotic. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of n-butanol extract against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides MTCC 9664 and Aspergillus niger MTCC 281 was 0.0312 and 0.0625 mg/ml, respectively. Purification of n-butanol extract through silica gel chromatography resulted in partial purification of bioactive metabolite and the TLC autobiography revealed the presence of single antifungal metabolite with Rf value of 0.755. In vivo bioassays demonstrated the biocontrol potential of tested biocontrol agents on fruit-rotting fungi. Use of cell suspension of S. violascens MT7, extracellular metabolite(s), and n-butanol extract significantly (p Citrus reticulata Blanco (oranges) and soft-rot development on papaya fruits. Therefore, these results strongly suggest a high potential for application of S. violascens MT7 and its extracellular metabolites as an effective eco-friendly alternative to synthetic fungicides for controlling toxigenic citrus and papaya-rotting fungi. PMID:26214840

  1. "¡Y NO SE RÍEN DE ESTE LESO PORQUE ES DUEÑO DE MILLONES!": EL ASEDIO CÓMICO Y POPULAR DE JUAN RAFAEL ALLENDE A LA BURGUESÍA CHILENA DEL SIGLO XIX

    OpenAIRE

    Maximiliano Salinas Campos

    2006-01-01

    La historia de las elites decimonónicas ha sido contada como la historia de un Olimpo tan elevado e inalcanzable como serio. Juan Rafael Allende logró en el mismo siglo XIX crear un mundo paralelo si no alternativo que derribó tanta sospechosa sublimidad. El gran autor satírico se hizo cargo del habla histórica de la plebe chilena que provenía en alguna medida de la Picaresca española de los siglos XVI y XVII con su anticlericalismo y su anticapitalismo visceral y carnavalesco. Prolongando es...

  2. Estrés Materno y Configuración Familiar: Estudio comparativo en Familias Chilenas Monoparentales y Nucleares de bajos ingresos / Maternal Stress and Family Constitution: Comparative Study on Chilean, Single-Mother and Nuclear, Low-Income Families

    OpenAIRE

    Marcia Olhaberry; Chamarrita Farkas

    2012-01-01

    Los estudios sobre estrés materno durante la crianza infantil han considerado variables contextuales para explicarlo. El nivel socioeconómico, así como la configuración familiar han sido variables relevantes, asociándose monoparentalidad en familias de bajos ingresos a mayores niveles de estrés materno. Se estudian los niveles de estrés materno en familias chilenas nucleares y monoparentales de N.S.E. bajo, considerando el estrés en distintas dimensiones, asociado al rol materno, a la interac...

  3. Uso de modelos epidemiológicos para estimar la incidencia de caries dental y enfermedad periodontal en embarazadas chilenas Use of epidemiological models to estimate the incidence of dental caries and periodontal disease in Chilean pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    G Corsini Muñoz; C Zaror Sánchez; C Vallejos Vallejos

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar la incidencia de caries y enfermedad periodontal en embarazadas chilenas mediante un modelo de incidencia, prevalencia y mortalidad (IPM). Material y Método: Se construyó un modelo IPM con la prevalencia estimada en la Encuesta Nacional de Salud del año 2003 y los datos del Estudio de Carga de Enfermedad en Chile en el año 2007. Para efectos de estimar la población de mujeres embarazadas, se utilizó como variable de aproximación, los partos por edad de las mujeres según l...

  4. Heidi tinsman, la tierra para el que la trabaja. género, sexualidad y movimientos campesinos en la reforma agraria chilena. santiago, chile. lom ediciones, 2009, 339 p.

    OpenAIRE

    Alzate Mejía, Diana Maritza

    2011-01-01

    Este fue producto de su interés especial por los temas de género y la historia laboral, cuyos estudios se han avocado hacia la sociedad chilena, debido a la oportunidad que ha tenido de conocer este país de forma directa, y es por esto que se propuso en este libro la tarea de estudiar el proceso de La Reforma Agraria en el territorio chileno y cómo la mujer, en especial la mujer rural, participó de forma activa en el desarrollo de actividades que promovieron no sólo el desarrollo de la susodi...

  5. Fertility, developmental toxicity and teratogenicity in albino rats treated with methanol sub-fraction of Carica papaya seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Shrivastava, S; Ansari, A.S.; N K Lohiya

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the status of fertility, developmental stages during gestation and teratological changes, if any, following oral administration of methanol sub-fraction (MSF) of the benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya in rats. Materials and Methods: The MSF was administered at the doses of 50 mg contraceptive dose (CD), 100 mg (2x CD), 250 mg (5x CD) and 500 mg (10x CD)/kg body wt/day along with vehicle-treated control using 10 ...

  6. Pengaruh Ekstrak Air Biji Pepaya (Carica papaya L.) dan Testosteron Undekanoat (TU) Terhadap Jaringan Ginjal Mencit (Mus musculus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ummah, Warysatul

    2012-01-01

    Kidney excretion is the main organ, which is often damaged if exposed to toxic substances. The purpose of this study is to determine the influence or histologic changes in kidney of mice after administration of water extract of papaya seed and testosterone undecanoate for 24 weeks. Thi study used a complete randomized design (CRD) consist of 5 treatment group and 5 control groups. In Control, K0 to K4 is the control of each of the mice treated with each of the 5 mice. On treatment with a long...

  7. Traditional Aboriginal Preparation Alters the Chemical Profile of Carica papaya Leaves and Impacts on Cytotoxicity towards Human Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thao T; Parat, Marie-Odile; Shaw, Paul N; Hewavitharana, Amitha K; Hodson, Mark P

    2016-01-01

    Carica papaya leaf decoction, an Australian Aboriginal remedy, has been used widely for its healing capabilities against cancer, with numerous anecdotal reports. In this study we investigated its in vitro cytotoxicity on human squamous cell carcinoma cells followed by metabolomic profiling of Carica papaya leaf decoction and leaf juice/brewed leaf juice to determine the effects imparted by the long heating process typical of the Aboriginal remedy preparation. MTT assay results showed that in comparison with the decoction, the leaf juice not only exhibited a stronger cytotoxic effect on SCC25 cancer cells, but also produced a significant cancer-selective effect as shown by tests on non-cancerous human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Furthermore, evidence from testing brewed leaf juice on these two cell lines suggested that the brewing process markedly reduced the selective effect of Carica papaya leaf on SCC25 cancer cells. To tentatively identify the compounds that contribute to the distinct selective anticancer activity of leaf juice, an untargeted metabolomic approach employing Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry followed by multivariate data analysis was applied. Some 90 and 104 peaks in positive and negative mode respectively were selected as discriminatory features from the chemical profile of leaf juice and >1500 putative compound IDs were obtained via database searching. Direct comparison of chromatographic and tandem mass spectral data to available reference compounds confirmed one feature as a match with its proposed authentic standard, namely pheophorbide A. However, despite pheophorbide A exhibiting cytotoxic activity on SCC25 cancer cells, it did not prove to be the compound contributing principally to the selective activity of leaf juice. With promising results suggesting stronger and more selective anticancer effects when compared to the Aboriginal remedy, Carica papaya leaf juice warrants further study

  8. Flavonoid from Carica papaya inhibits NS2B-NS3 protease and prevents Dengue 2 viral assembly

    OpenAIRE

    Senthilvel, Padmanaban; Lavanya, Pandian; Kumar, Kalavathi Murugan; Swetha, Rayapadi; Anitha, Parimelzaghan; Bag, Susmita; Sarveswari, Sundaramoorthy; Vijayakumar, Vijayaparthasarathi; Ramaiah, Sudha; Anbarasu, Anand

    2013-01-01

    Dengue virus belongs to the virus family Flaviviridae. Dengue hemorrhagic disease caused by dengue virus is a public health problem worldwide. The viral non structural 2B and 3 (NS2B-NS3) protease complex is crucial for virus replication and hence, it is considered to be a good anti-viral target. Leaf extracts from Carica papaya is generally prescribed for patients with dengue fever, but there are no scientific evidences for its anti-dengue activity; hence we intended to investigate the anti-...

  9. Dois novos sistemas de diagnose precoce da meleira do mamoeiro Two new systems of early diagnosis of papaya sticky disease

    OpenAIRE

    Eder T. Tavares; JOSELI S. TATAGIBA; José A. Ventura; Manoel T. Souza Jr.

    2004-01-01

    A diagnose da meleira do mamoeiro (Carica papaya)tem sido feita mediante observação de sintomas que aparecem principalmente nos frutos ou pela detecção de dsRNA de cerca de 12 kb, purificado a partir do látex em coluna de CF11, em gel de agarose ou poliacrilamida. Os sintomas nos frutos são tardios e permitem longa permanência de plantas infectadas no campo e o processo usado para detectar dsRNA é laborioso, não se prestando a detecção em larga escala. Visando disponibilizar protocolos de dia...

  10. Genetic diversity analysis in a set of Caricaceae accessions using resistance gene analogues

    OpenAIRE

    Sengupta, Samik; Das, Basabdatta; Acharyya, Pinaki; Prasad, Manoj; Ghose, Tapas Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background In order to assess genetic diversity of a set of 41 Caricaceae accessions, this study used 34 primer pairs designed from the conserved domains of bacterial leaf blight resistance genes from rice, in a PCR based approach, to identify and analyse resistance gene analogues from various accessions of Carica papaya, Vasconcellea goudotiana, V. microcarpa, V. parviflora, V. pubescens, V. stipulata and, V. quercifolia and Jacaratia spinosa. Results Of the 34 primer pairs fourteen gave amp...

  11. Estudio descriptivo del desarrollo de la competencia narrativa en lengua de señas chilena (Descriptive study on narrative competence development in Chilean Sign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rosa Lissi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio consiste en determinar una evolución en el desarrollo de la competencia narrativa de un grupo de niños sordos, que usan la lengua de señas chilena como su lengua natural y que se encuentran en la etapa escolar (primero a cuarto año básico. Se trata de un estudio de caso, en el que se obtiene una producción narrativa por parte de cada niño en tres momentos distintos con una diferencia de un año entre cada una. Estas narraciones son analizadas, enfocándose en dos aspectos: la organización formal del texto narrativo, es decir su superestructura, y la organización del contenido en relación al uso de recursos lingüísticos para establecer cohesión textual. El estudio se enfoca en las formas empleadas al establecer referencia y correferencia, cuando se trata de introducir, mantener o reintroducir el foco sobre los personajes de la historia que narran. Aun cuando los niños ocupan todos los elementos de cohesión desde las primeras narraciones, hay un cambio que está determinado por las funciones para las cuales son usados. Se demuestracómo los niños desarrollan gradualmente la capacidad para construir narraciones, teniendo en cuenta la información que requiere su audiencia. El conocimiento sobre este aspecto del proceso de adquisición de la lengua de señas en niños sordos cobra importancia en el marco de la educación bilingüe, donde se asume que el desarrollo de habilidades de la lectura y escritura tienen una base importante en la consolidación de habilidades relacionadas con el desarrollo de la competencia en la lengua natural de las personas sordas de nuestro país, esto es, la lengua de señas chilena. (The purpose of this study was to evaluate the narrative competence development of a group of deaf children who use sign language as their natural language. Children in this study were in the elementary grades, 1st to 4th. This three-year case study obtained narratives from each child three times

  12. CONFIABILIDAD Y VALIDEZ DE LA VERSIÓN CHILENA DE LA HARE PCL-R Chilean version of Hare PCL-R: a study of reliability and validity

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    Elizabeth León-Mayer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. En Chile, al igual que en otros países latinoamericanos, diversas modificaciones judiciales y el interés de los profesionales en sistematizar sus métodos de evaluación en psicopatía promovieron la traducción, adaptación y revisión de las propiedades psicométricas de la Hare Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R. Objetivo. Evaluar aspectos de la confiabilidad y validez de la versión chilena del PCL-R en población forense masculina chilena. Material y métodos. Se realizó traducción y retrotraducción de la escala con la autorización del autor y editorial; se constituyó una muestra de 293 sujetos varones penados que aceptaron participar en la investigación. Entre otros análisis, se contrastó el diagnóstico obtenido a ciegas con la PCL-R con el aportado por el equipo técnico de Gendarmería de Chile. Resultados. La congruencia interna medida con Alfa de Cronbach fue la siguiente: total =0,91; F1= 0,86; F2 = 0,87; F3 = 0,67; F4= 0,77. Valor Kappa ambos tipos de evaluaciones = 0,804; p Background. In Chile as in other Latin American countries the introduction of the Adversarial Model in the Judicial System increased the need for the systematization of the evaluation of psychopathy, thus making necessary the translation, adaptation and revision of the psychometric properties of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist Revised. Objective. To evaluate aspects of the reliability and validity of the Chilean version of the PCL-R in Chilean male inmate population. Materials and methods. The PCL-R was translated and backtranslated with the authorization of the author and of the Editorial House. A sample of 293 inmates was constituted and the respective informed consent obtained. Several analyses were made including a blind comparison of the diagnosis made with the PCL-R and the one made by the Technical Area of Gendarmería of Chile. Results. The internal congruence measured with Crombach Alfa was: total =0,91; F1= 0,86; F2 = 0,87; F3

  13. Perfil bibliométrico de la odontología chilena, 2001-2010 Bibliometric profile of chilean dentistry, 2001-2010

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    R Cartes-Velásquez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Caracterizar la producción científica personal, institucional o nacional es una necesidad creciente para comprender y mejorar la generación de conocimiento. El objetivo de este trabajo es definir el perfil bibliométrico de la odontología chilena en la última década. Metodología: En la plataforma Web of Knowledge, mediante un algoritmo se realizó la búsqueda de las publicaciones odontológicas chilenas ISI. Los datos: número de publicaciones; factor de impacto (FI; Top-10 de: autores, instituciones, revistas y países de coautoría se muestran para el período 2001-2010 y sus quinquenios. Resultados: El número total de publicaciones fue de 195, con una media anual de 12.8 y un FI de 1.18 para el primer quinquenio, cifras aumentadas a 26.2 (105% y 1.82 (54% respectivamente en el segundo, pero con una disminución del FI en el último bienio a 1.73. En cuanto a autores destaca Gamonal; en instituciones la UChile seguida desde muy atrás por la UdeC y otras que aumentaron su producción como UFro, UMayor, UValpo y PUC; en cooperación internacional lo hacen España, USA, Brasil y Suecia, pero con porcentajes menores; en revistas destacan los de periodoncia y 2 publicaciones nacionales no odontológicas en el segundo quinquenio. Discusión: Aunque el aumento de la producción es claro durante la última década, aún está muy por debajo de los grandes productores internacionales y preocupa la disminución del impacto en los últimos 2 años, la alta concentración en la producción (UChile y la baja cooperación internacional, situaciones que deben ser resueltas en pos de mantener el crecimiento.Introduction: There is an increasing need to characterize personal, institutional or national scientific output in order to understand and improve the generation of knowledge. The aim of this paper is to define the bibliometric profile of Chilean dentistry for the last decade. Methodology: A search was performed in WOK platform

  14. Volatilidad de precios internacionales recibidos por los productores de kiwis y manzanas frescas chilenas Volatility of international prices received by chilean fresh kiwi and apple farmers

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    Germán Lobos Andrade

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar el comportamiento de los precios medios FOB y el de los precios medios recibidos por los productores de kiwis y manzanas frescas chilenas, usando datos mensuales del periodo enero 1998 a diciembre 2005. Los valores fueron expresados en moneda de diciembre de 2005 usando como deflactor el WPI de EE.UU. Las series de precios medios recibidos por los productores se estimaron indirectamente restando a los precios medios FOB las comisiones y tarifas de exportación. Como medida de volatilidad se usó la desviación estándar de los retornos (variación de precios continuos de cada serie. Se utilizó el método del promedio geométrico móvil para estimar patrones de estacionalidad ajustada de los precios recibidos por los productores de kiwis y manzanas frescas chilenas. Se observó una mayor volatilidad de los retornos en kiwis (47,5% que en manzanas (17,3%. Los resultados mostraron: a una menor estacionalidad de precios para kiwis que manzanas; b una estabilidad de precios en marzo y desde julio a noviembre para kiwis, y desde febrero a junio y desde agosto a diciembre para manzanas; c un valor máximo en diciembre y más bajo en junio para kiwis, un valor máximo en julio y más bajo en enero para manzanas.The purpose of this study is to analyze the behavior of FOB average prices and the average prices received by fresh kiwi and apple producers, using monthly figures for the period spanning from January 1998 to December 2005. The values were expressed in December 2005 currency rates using the U.S.A. WPI (Wholesale Price Index as a deflator. The series of average prices received by the producers were estimated indirectly by subtracting the commissions and export tariffs from the FOB average prices. As a measure of volatility, the standard deviation of the continuous returns (prices variation of each series was used. The patterns of seasonally adjusted price fluctuations, received by Chilean fresh kiwi and

  15. Export Behaviour in the Chilean Agribusiness and Food Processing Industry Comportamiento Exportador de las Empresas Chilenas, Agrocomerciales y Procesadoras de Alimentos

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    Rodrigo Echeverría

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the export-behavior of Chilean agribusiness and food processing firms and the relative importance of firm-specific and geographic characteristics in this behavior. Using firm level data and regional geographic indicators, a dynamic model was used to study the export decisions and the export intensity of three industries: processing fish, processing fruits and vegetables, and wine production. Results showed that determinants of exporting behavior vary among the three industries, except the effect of sunk costs, which strongly impacts the export decisions of all analyzed industries. This implies that firms with prior export experience will have higher probability of exporting in the future. Foreign ownership positively impacts the export decision of the two processing industries. Thus, firms belonging to these industries that wish to increase the probability of being an exporter should be encouraged to have a partnership with a foreign company or investor. The export intensity is positively influenced by foreign ownership in the fruit and vegetables processing and wine industries. As in the case of the export decision of firms, foreign participation helps increase the scale of exports. In general, firm-specific characteristics significantly impact the export behavior in Chilean agribusiness and processed food industries, while the contribution of geography attributes appears mixed.Este artículo analiza el comportamiento exportador de las empresas chilenas agroindustriales y procesadoras de alimentos y la importancia relativa que las características geográficas y específicas de las empresas tienen en este comportamiento exportador. Con datos a nivel de empresas e indicadores geográficos regionales, se utilizó un modelo dinámico para estudiar la decisión y la intensidad exportadora de tres industrias: industria procesadora de pescados, industria procesadora de frutas y hortalizas, e industria productora de vinos. Los

  16. Caracterización de compost a base de espinillo en relación a la Norma Chilena Nº2880.

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    Ricardo Tighe-Neira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar el compost a base de espinillo (Ulex europaeus L. y contrastar sus características físico-químicas con las de la Norma Chilena de compost (NCh 2880. El ensayo se montó en el Centro Experimental Pillanlelbún, Temuco, Chile, entre diciembre 2010 y abril de 2011. Se empleó un diseño factorial de 2×2, los factores fueron: mezcla y acelerador de compostaje (AC, ambos en dos niveles. Cuatro tratamientos: T1 U. europaeus (100% sin AC, T2 U. europaeus (78% + estiércol de bovino (22% sin AC, T3 U. europaeus (100% con AC y T4 U. europaeus (78% + estiércol de bovino (22% con AC. Se evaluó el contenido de materia orgánica (MO%, C orgánico total (%, relación C:N, N total (%, humedad (Hº%, tamaño partículas (TP%, toxicidad (% germinación de Raphanus sativus L., pH, densidad aparente (DAP kg/m3, conductividad eléctrica (CE dS/m y germinación de malezas (Nº de propágulos. Los tratamientos U. europaeus (100% sin AC y con AC presentaron mayor %MO, %N total y relación C:N que T2 y T4. A la vez, U. europaeus (100% sin AC, presentó un menor %C y T2 menor pH en comparación al resto de los tratamientos. Las demás variables evaluadas no presentaron diferencias significativas. Todas cumplieron con la NCh 2880, excepto toxicidad en el tratamiento con solo U. europaeus, y la CE en todos los tratamientos. Se debe reducir la CE para poder optar a su certificación por la NCh 2880.

  17. La imperiosa necesidad de ser diferente en la globalización: el mercadeo territorial. La experiencia de las regiones chilenas

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    Sergio Boisier

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo se centra en un tema emergente: el nuevo papel de los territorios en la competencia mundial empujada por la globalización. Todos y cada uno de los territorios persigue lo mismo: atraer capital, tecnología, turismo y vender sus productos transables en todo el mundo. Como se dice en un antiguo proverbio africano, en la llanura da lo mismo ser león o gacela; en cualquier caso hay que correr desde que sale el sol para no morir de hambre o en las garras de un depredador. En América Latina es escasa la importancia dada al mercadeo territorial, si bien comienza a reconocerse su importancia. Se trata de aplicar a los territorios las normas sobre la retórica descritas por Aristóteles, es decir, aplicar a la presentación de los territorios ante su clientela, el arte del discurso, basado en el ethos (las características intrínsecas de quien emite el discurso, en el pathos (la emocionalidad que se busca despertar y en el logos (la palabra y la razón. El texto se divide en cuatro secciones: a Introducción, que presenta el problema aclarando la naturaleza sistémica de la globalización y su más probable resultado: la conformación de un único espacio de mercado y de múltiples espacios de producción; b Competencia y mercadeo territorial, una presentación de los conceptos teóricos principales; c La experiencia chilena en marketing territorial, presentando los programas del gobierno: PROCHILE y TODOCHILE; d Comentarios finales.

  18. Autoritarismo, enajenación y locura en la poesía chilena de fines del siglo XX. Zurita, Maquieira, Cuevas.

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    Óscar GALINDO VILLARROEL

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El ensayo analiza la figura del sujeto en tres poetas claves de la poesía chilena de fines del siglo XX: Raúl Zurita, Diego Maquieira y José Ángel Cuevas, con el propósito de dar cuenta del proceso de enajenación vivido por diversos tipos de subjetividades en crisis. Este complejo proceso de metaforización de la censura y la represión social se traduce en una multiplicidad de voces que interactúan en el espacio del texto, dando lugar a voces desquiciadas, en los márgenes entre la razón y la locura, que complejizan las relaciones entre escritura y vida. Así la ambigüedad sexual, el disfraz, la escisión del sujeto, son rasgos de una escritura de una fuerte carga testimonial y crítica.ABSTRACT: The essay analyzes the figure of the subject in three of the most important Chilean poets at the end twentieth century, Raúl Zurita, Diego Maquieira and José Ángel Cuevas, in orden to show the process of alienation lived by different types of subject in situations of crisis. The complex processes of censorship and social repression converted to metaphors appears in the form of multiple voices interacting in the textual space, deranged voices on the frontiers of reason and madness which complicate the relation between writing and life. Sexual ambiguity, the mask, and the fragmentation of the subject are characteristics of this highly testimonial and critical literature.

  19. Efeito da fertilidade de terra preta de índio da Amazônia Central no estado nutricional e na produtividade do mamão hawaí (Carica papaya L.) Effect of amazonian dark earth fertility on nutritional status and fruit production of papaya(Carica papaya L.)in Central Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Newton Paulo de Souza Falcão; Lillian França Borges

    2006-01-01

    Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da fertilidade de solos antropogênicos no estado nutricional e na produtividade do mamão Havaí (Carica papaya L.), conduziu-se o presente estudo em um plantio, localizado na Costa do Açutuba, Iranduba, AM, em Latossolo Amarelo antrópico em plantas com oito meses de idade e no início da produção de frutos, no período de agosto a outubro de 2003. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e nove repetições, constituídos de...

  20. A microsatellite library for Carica papaya L. cv. Sunrise solo Marcadores microssatélites para Carica papaya L. cv. Sunrise solo

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    Silvia Correa Santos

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available In experimental areas of the Education and Researches Ilha Solteira and Jaboticabal UNESP/Campus farms were selected and tagged 20 hermaphrodite plants and 20 feminine of cultivar Sunrise Solo, Improved Sunrise Solo cv.72/12 and Baixinho of Santa Amália.The seeds origined of the selected fruits were cropped to be analysed the self-pollination efficiency and frequency of the sex in the progenies. After that, samples of the young leaf of the matrix plants were colected for the extration of the DNA. It was built five library enriched of microsatellite sequencies, using probes (TCA10, (TC13, (GATA4, (CAC10 e (TGAG8.It was possible the development of the primers only in the library that has utilized the probe (TCA10. This probe allowed the design of 32 primer pairs. From these, 31 presented pattern of unique band in agarose Metaphor and in acrilamide. For primer S36 were observed 2 bands, but with no polymorphism to differentiation in the sexual form at papaya tree culture. However, these primers can be tested, in the futures, in the investigation of the others features in segregated populations of this specie and the related species, germoplasm analysis, cultivars identification, parent evolution and molecular markers for the assisted plant breeding programs.Em áreas experimentais das Fazendas de Ensino e Pesquisa da UNESP/Campus de Ilha Solteira e Jaboticabal foram selecionadas e marcadas 20 plantas hermafroditas e 20 femininas dos cultivares Sunrise Solo, Improved Sunrise Solo cv.72/12 e Baixinho de Santa Amália. As sementes provenientes dos frutos selecionados foram plantadas para analisar-se a eficiência da autofecundação e a freqüência dos sexos nas progênies. Posteriormente, amostras de tecido foliar jovem das plantas matrizes foram coletadas para a extração de DNA. Foram construídas cinco bibliotecas enriquecidas de seqüências microsatélites, utilizando-se as sondas (TCA10, (TC13, (GATA4, (CAC10 e (TGAG8. Foi possível o