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Sample records for pantoea agglomerans plant

  1. Genotypic comparison of Pantoea agglomerans plant and clinical strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frey Jürg E

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pantoea agglomerans strains are among the most promising biocontrol agents for a variety of bacterial and fungal plant diseases, particularly fire blight of apple and pear. However, commercial registration of P. agglomerans biocontrol products is hampered because this species is currently listed as a biosafety level 2 (BL2 organism due to clinical reports as an opportunistic human pathogen. This study compares plant-origin and clinical strains in a search for discriminating genotypic/phenotypic markers using multi-locus phylogenetic analysis and fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphisms (fAFLP fingerprinting. Results Majority of the clinical isolates from culture collections were found to be improperly designated as P. agglomerans after sequence analysis. The frequent taxonomic rearrangements underwent by the Enterobacter agglomerans/Erwinia herbicola complex may be a major problem in assessing clinical associations within P. agglomerans. In the P. agglomerans sensu stricto (in the stricter sense group, there was no discrete clustering of clinical/biocontrol strains and no marker was identified that was uniquely associated to clinical strains. A putative biocontrol-specific fAFLP marker was identified only in biocontrol strains. The partial ORF located in this band corresponded to an ABC transporter that was found in all P. agglomerans strains. Conclusion Taxonomic mischaracterization was identified as a major problem with P. agglomerans, and current techniques removed a majority of clinical strains from this species. Although clear discrimination between P. agglomerans plant and clinical strains was not obtained with phylogenetic analysis, a single marker characteristic of biocontrol strains was identified which may be of use in strain biosafety determinations. In addition, the lack of Koch's postulate fulfilment, rare retention of clinical strains for subsequent confirmation, and the polymicrobial nature of P

  2. Comprehensive genomic analysis of a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Pantoea agglomerans strain P5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati J, Vahid; Malboobi, Mohammad Ali; Tabrizi, Zeinab; Tavakol, Elahe; Owilia, Parviz; Safari, Maryam

    2017-11-15

    In this study, we provide a comparative genomic analysis of Pantoea agglomerans strain P5 and 10 closely related strains based on phylogenetic analyses. A next-generation shotgun strategy was implemented using the Illumina HiSeq 2500 technology followed by core- and pan-genome analysis. The genome of P. agglomerans strain P5 contains an assembly size of 5082485 bp with 55.4% G + C content. P. agglomerans consists of 2981 core and 3159 accessory genes for Coding DNA Sequences (CDSs) based on the pan-genome analysis. Strain P5 can be grouped closely with strains PG734 and 299 R using pan and core genes, respectively. All the predicted and annotated gene sequences were allocated to KEGG pathways. Accordingly,  genes involved in plant growth-promoting (PGP) ability, including phosphate solubilization, IAA and siderophore production, acetoin and 2,3-butanediol synthesis and bacterial secretion, were assigned. This study provides an in-depth view of the PGP characteristics of strain P5, highlighting its potential use in agriculture as a biofertilizer.

  3. Draft genome sequences of Pantoea agglomerans and Pantoea vagans isolates associated with termites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Marike; de Maayer, Pieter; Thomas-Poulsen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The genus Pantoea incorporates many economically and clinically important species. The plant-associated species, Pantoea agglomerans and Pantoea vagans, are closely related and are often isolated from similar environments. Plasmids conferring certain metabolic capabilities are also shared amongst...... these two species. The genomes of two isolates obtained from fungus-growing termites in South Africa were sequenced, assembled and annotated. A high number of orthologous genes are conserved within and between these species. The difference in genome size between P. agglomerans MP2 (4,733,829 bp) and P...

  4. Pantoea agglomerans: a mysterious bacterium of evil and good. Part IV. Beneficial effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Mackiewicz, Barbara; Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Golec, Marcin; Milanowski, Janusz

    2016-06-02

    Pantoea agglomerans, a gammaproteobacterium of plant origin, possesses many beneficial traits that could be used for the prevention and/or treatment of human and animal diseases, combating plant pathogens, promotion of plant growth and bioremediation of the environment. It produces a number of antibiotics (herbicolin, pantocins, microcin, agglomerins, andrimid, phenazine, among others) which could be used for combating plant, animal and human pathogens or for food preservation. Japanese researchers have demonstrated that the low-molecular-mass lipopolysaccharide of P. agglomerans isolated by them and described as 'Immunopotentiator from Pantoea agglomerans 1 (IP-PA1)' reveals the extremely wide spectrum of healing properties, mainly due to its ability for the maintenance of homeostasis by macrophage activation. IP-PA1 was proved to be effective in the prevention and treatment of a broad range of human and animal disorders, such as tumours, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, ulcer, various infectious diseases, atopic allergy and stress-induced immunosuppression; it also showed a strong analgesic effect. It is important that most of these effects could be achieved by the safe oral administration of IP-PA1. Taking into account that P. agglomerans occurs commonly as a symbiont of many species of insects, including mosquitoes transmitting the Plasmodium parasites causing malaria, successful attempts were made to apply the strategy of paratransgenesis, in which bacterial symbionts are genetically engineered to express and secrete anti-Plasmodium effector proteins. This strategy shows prospects for a successful eradication of malaria, a deadly disease killing annually over one million people, as well as of other vector-borne diseases of humans, animals and plants. Pantoea agglomerans has been identified as an antagonist of many plant pathogens belonging to bacteria and fungi, as a result of antibiotic production, competition mechanisms or induction of plant resistance. Its use as

  5. Pantoea agglomerans : a mysterious bacterium of evil and good. Part IV. Beneficial effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Dutkiewicz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pantoea agglomerans , a gammaproteobacterium of plant origin, possesses many beneficial traits that could be used for the prevention and/or treatment of human and animal diseases, combating plant pathogens, promotion of plant growth and bioremediation of the environment. It produces a number of antibiotics (herbicolin, pantocins, microcin, agglomerins, andrimid, phenazine, among others which could be used for combating plant, animal and human pathogens or for food preservation. Japanese researchers have demonstrated that the low-molecular-mass lipopolysaccharide of P. agglomerans isolated by them and described as ‘Immunopotentiator from Pantoea agglomerans 1 (IP-PA1’ reveals the extremely wide spectrum of healing properties, mainly due to its ability for the maintenance of homeostasis by macrophage activation. IP-PA1 was proved to be effective in the prevention and treatment of a broad range of human and animal disorders, such as tumours, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, ulcer, various infectious diseases, atopic allergy and stress-induced immunosuppression; it also showed a strong analgesic effect. It is important that most of these effects could be achieved by the safe oral administration of IP-PA1. Taking into account that P. agglomerans occurs commonly as a symbiont of many species of insects, including mosquitoes transmitting the Plasmodium parasites causing malaria, successful attempts were made to apply the strategy of paratransgenesis, in which bacterial symbionts are genetically engineered to express and secrete anti- Plasmodium effector proteins. This strategy shows prospects for a successful eradication of malaria, a deadly disease killing annually over one million people, as well as of other vector-borne diseases of humans, animals and plants. Pantoea agglomerans has been identified as an antagonist of many plant pathogens belonging to bacteria and fungi, as a result of antibiotic production, competition mechanisms or induction of

  6. Pantoea agglomerans: a mysterious bacterium of evil and good. Part IV. Beneficial effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Dutkiewicz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available [i][/i][i]Pantoea agglomerans[/i], a gammaproteobacterium of plant origin, possesses many beneficial traits that could be used for the prevention and/or treatment of human and animal diseases, combating plant pathogens, promotion of plant growth and bioremediation of the environment. It produces a number of antibiotics (herbicolin, pantocins, microcin, agglomerins, andrimid, phenazine, among others which could be used for combating plant, animal and human pathogens or for food preservation. Japanese researchers have demonstrated that the low-molecular-mass lipopolysaccharide of [i]P. agglomerans[/i] isolated by them and described as ‘Immunopotentiator from [i]Pantoea agglomerans[/i] 1 (IP-PA1’ reveals the extremely wide spectrum of healing properties, mainly due to its ability for the maintenance of homeostasis by macrophage activation. IP-PA1 was proved to be effective in the prevention and treatment of a broad range of human and animal disorders, such as tumours, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, ulcer, various infectious diseases, atopic allergy and stress-induced immunosuppression; it also showed a strong analgesic effect. It is important that most of these effects could be achieved by the safe oral administration of IP-PA1. Taking into account that [i]P. agglomerans[/i] occurs commonly as a symbiont of many species of insects, including mosquitoes transmitting the [i]Plasmodium[/i] parasites causing malaria, successful attempts were made to apply the strategy of paratransgenesis, in which bacterial symbionts are genetically engineered to express and secrete anti-[i]Plasmodium[/i] effector proteins. This strategy shows prospects for a successful eradication of malaria, a deadly disease killing annually over one million people, as well as of other vector-borne diseases of humans, animals and plants. [i]Pantoea agglomerans[/i] has been identified as an antagonist of many plant pathogens belonging to bacteria and fungi, as a result of antibiotic

  7. Investigation of Viability of Pantoea agglomerans (Formerly Erwinia herbicola) After Aerosolization From Media Containing Enriching and Coating Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    conducted. 14. ABSTRACT Percent viability of the sensitive bacteria Pantoea agglomerans (ATCC_33243, formerly Erwinia herbicola or Eh), is an important ...effect of several nitrogen and carbon sources on the growth of Eh (strain CPA-2). Synthetic yeast extract enhanced maximum growth and disaccharides...recently-evolved pathogens? Mol. Plant Pathology 2003; 20, pp 307-314. 4. Vanneste, J.L.; Yu, J.; Beer , S.V. Role of antibiotic production by Erwinia

  8. ECOLOGY OF PANTOEA AGGLOMERANS 2066-7 STRAIN: A BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF BACTERIA ONION DISEASES

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    Soumia Sadik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth response of the biocontrol agent Pantoea agglomerans 2066-7 to change in water activity (aw, temperature, and pH was determined in vitro in basic medium. The minimum temperature at which 2066-7 was able to grow was 7°C, and the growth of 2066-7 did not change at varying pH levels (4–10.34. The best growth was obtained at a water activity of 0.98 in all media modified with the four solutes (glucose, glycerol, NaCl and polyethylene glycol. The solute used to reduce water activity had a great influence on bacterial growth, especially at unfavorable conditions (low temperature. This study has defined the range of environmental conditions (aw, pH, and temperature over which the bacteria may be developed for biological control of plant diseases.

  9. Controlled release of Pantoea agglomerans E325 for biocontrol of fire blight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microencapsulation and controlled release of Pantoea agglomerans strain E325 (E325), which is an antagonist to bacterial pathogen (Erwinia amylovora) of fire blight, a devastating disease of apple and pear, have been investigated. Uniform core-shell alginate microcapsules (AMCs), 60-300 µm in diamet...

  10. Endophthalmitis caused by Pantoea agglomerans: clinical features, antibiotic sensitivities, and outcomes

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    Venincasa VD

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Vincent D Venincasa, Ajay E Kuriyan, Harry W Flynn Jr, Jayanth Sridhar, Darlene Miller Department of Ophthalmology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA Purpose: To report the clinical findings, antibiotic sensitivities, and visual outcomes associated with endophthalmitis caused by Pantoea agglomerans.Methods: A consecutive case series of patients with vitreous culture-positive endophthalmitis caused by P. agglomerans from January 1, 1990 to December 31, 2012 at a large university referral center. Findings from the current study were compared to prior published studies.Results: Of the three study patients that were identified, clinical settings included trauma (n=2 and post-cataract surgery (n=1. Presenting visual acuity was hand motion or worse in all three cases. All isolates were sensitive to ceftazidime, gentamicin, imipenem, and fluoroquinolones. All isolates were resistant to ampicillin. Initial treatment strategies were vitreous tap and intravitreal antibiotic injection (n=1 and pars plana vitrectomy with intravitreal antibiotic injection (n=2. At last follow-up, one patient had no light perception vision, while the other two had best-corrected visual acuity of 20/200 and 20/400.Conclusion: All Pantoea isolates were sensitive to ceftazidime, gentamicin, imipenem, and fluoroquinolones. All patients in the current study received at least one intravitreal antibiotic to which P. agglomerans was shown to be sensitive in vitro. In spite of this, the visual outcomes were generally poor.Keywords: ocular infection, trauma, antibiotic resistance

  11. New Blue Pigment Produced by Pantoea agglomerans and Its Production Characteristics at Various Temperatures ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Fujikawa, Hiroshi; Akimoto, Ryo

    2010-01-01

    A bacterium capable of producing a deep blue pigment was isolated from the environment and identified as Pantoea agglomerans. The pigment production characteristics of the bacterium under various conditions were studied. The optimal agar plate ingredients for pigment production by the bacterium were first studied: the optimal ingredients were 5 g/liter glucose, 10 g/liter tryptic soy broth, and 40 g/liter glycerol at pH 6.4. Bacterial cells grew on the agar plate during the incubation, while ...

  12. Fermentative hydrogen production by the new marine Pantoea agglomerans isolated from the mangrove sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Daling [College of Marine Science and Engineering, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China); Wang, Guangce [College of Marine Science and Engineering, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China); Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071 (China); Qiao, Hongjin; Cai, Jinling [Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071 (China)

    2008-11-15

    A new fermentative hydrogen-producing bacterium was isolated from mangrove sludge and identified as Pantoea agglomerans using light microscopic examination, biological tests and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The isolated bacterium, designated as P. agglomerans BH-18, is a new strain that has never been optimized as a potential hydrogen-producing bacterium. In this study, the culture conditions and the hydrogen-producing ability of P. agglomerans BH-18 were examined. The strain was a salt-tolerant facultative anaerobe with the initial optimum pH value at 8.0-9.0 and temperature at 30 C on cell growth. During fermentation, hydrogen started to evolve when cell growth entered late-exponential phase and was mainly produced in the stationary phase. The strain was able to produce hydrogen over a wide range of initial pH from 5 to 10, with an optimum initial pH of 6. The level of hydrogen production was affected by the initial glucose concentration, and the optimum value was found to be 10 g glucose/l. The maximum hydrogen-producing yield (2246 ml/l) and overall hydrogen production rate (160 ml/l/h) were obtained at an initial glucose concentration of 10 g/l and an initial pH value of 7.2 in marine culture conditions. In particular, the level of hydrogen production was also affected by the salt concentration. Hydrogen production reached a higher level in fresh culture conditions than in marine ones. In marine conditions, hydrogen productivity was 108 ml/l/h at an initial glucose concentration of 20 g/l and pH value of 7.2, whereas, it increased by 27% in fresh conditions. In addition, this strain could produce hydrogen using glucose and many other carbon sources such as fructose, sucrose, sorbitol and so on. As a result, it is possible that P. agglomerans BH-18 is used for biohydrogen production and biological treatment of mariculture wastewater and marine organic waste. (author)

  13. New blue pigment produced by Pantoea agglomerans and its production characteristics at various temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikawa, Hiroshi; Akimoto, Ryo

    2011-01-01

    A bacterium capable of producing a deep blue pigment was isolated from the environment and identified as Pantoea agglomerans. The pigment production characteristics of the bacterium under various conditions were studied. The optimal agar plate ingredients for pigment production by the bacterium were first studied: the optimal ingredients were 5 g/liter glucose, 10 g/liter tryptic soy broth, and 40 g/liter glycerol at pH 6.4. Bacterial cells grew on the agar plate during the incubation, while the pigment spread into the agar plate, meaning that it is water soluble. Pigment production was affected by the initial cell density. Namely, at higher initial cell densities ranging from 10(6.3) to 10(8.2) CFU/cm(2) on the agar plate, faster pigment production was observed, but no blue pigment was produced at a very high initial density of 10(9.1) CFU/cm(2). Thus, the cell population of 10(8.2) CFU/cm(2) was used for subsequent study. Although the bacterium was capable of growing at temperatures above and below 10°C, it could produce the pigment only at temperatures of ≥10°C. Moreover, the pigment production was faster at higher temperatures in the range of 10 to 20°C. Pigment production at various temperature patterns was well described by a new logistic model. These results suggested that the bacterium could be used in the development of a microbial temperature indicator for the low-temperature-storage management of foods and clinical materials. To our knowledge, there is no other P. agglomerans strain capable of producing a blue pigment and the pigment is a new one of microbial origin.

  14. Pantoea agglomerans: a marvelous bacterium of evil and good.Part I. Deleterious effects: Dust-borne endotoxins and allergens - focus on cotton dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Mackiewicz, Barbara; Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Golec, Marcin; Milanowski, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquitous Gram-negative bacterium Pantoea agglomerans (synonyms: Enterobacter agglomerans, Erwinia herbicola) is known both as an epiphytic microbe developing on the surface of plants and as an endophytic organism living inside the plants. The bacterium occurs also abundantly in plant and animal products, in the body of arthropods and other animals, in water, soil, dust and air, and occasionally in humans. From the human viewpoint, the role of this organism is ambiguous, both deleterious and beneficial: on one side it causes disorders in people exposed to inhalation of organic dusts and diseases of crops, and on the other side it produces substances effective in the treatment of cancer and other diseases of humans and animals, suppresses the development of various plant pathogens, promotes plant growth, and appears as a potentially efficient biofertilizer and bioremediator. P. agglomerans was identified as a predominant bacterium on cotton plant grown all over the world, usually as an epiphyte, rarely as pathogen. It is particularly numerous on cotton bract after senescence. During processing of cotton in mills, bacteria and their products are released with cotton dust into air and are inhaled by workers, causing respiratory and general disorders, usually defined as byssinosis. The most adverse substance is endotoxin, a heteropolymer macromolecule present in the outermost part of the cell wall, consisting of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a major constituent, phospholipids and protein. The numerous experiments carried out in last quarter of XXth century on laboratory animals and human volunteers supported a convincing evidence that the inhaled endotoxin produced by P. agglomerans causes numerous pathologic effects similar to those elicited by cotton dust, such as influx of free lung cells into airways and activation of alveolar macrophages which secrete mediators (prostaglandins, platelet-activating factor, interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor) that cause

  15. Pantoea agglomerans: a marvelous bacterium of evil and good.Part I. Deleterious effects: Dust-borne endotoxins and allergens – focus on cotton dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Dutkiewicz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitous Gram-negative bacterium Pantoea agglomerans (synonyms: Enterobacter agglomerans, Erwinia herbicola is known both as an epiphytic microbe developing on the surface of plants and as an endophytic organism living inside the plants. The bacterium occurs also abundantly in plant and animal products, in the body of arthropods and other animals, in water, soil, dust and air, and occasionally in humans. From the human viewpoint, the role of this organism is ambiguous, both deleterious and beneficial: on one side it causes disorders in people exposed to inhalation of organic dusts and diseases of crops, and on the other side it produces substances effective in the treatment of cancer and other diseases of humans and animals, suppresses the development of various plant pathogens, promotes plant growth, and appears as a potentially efficient biofertilizer and bioremediator. P. agglomerans was identified as a predominant bacterium on cotton plant grown all over the world, usually as an epiphyte, rarely as pathogen. It is particularly numerous on cotton bract after senescence. During processing of cotton in mills, bacteria and their products are released with cotton dust into air and are inhaled by workers, causing respiratory and general disorders, usually defined as byssinosis. The most adverse substance is endotoxin, a heteropolymer macromolecule present in the outermost part of the cell wall, consisting of lipopolysaccharide (LPS as a major constituent, phospholipids and protein. The numerous experiments carried out in last quarter of XXth century on laboratory animals and human volunteers supported a convincing evidence that the inhaled endotoxin produced by P. agglomerans causes numerous pathologic effects similar to those elicited by cotton dust, such as influx of free lung cells into airways and activation of alveolar macrophages which secrete mediators (prostaglandins, platelet-activating factor, interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor

  16. Pantoea agglomerans : a marvelous bacterium of evil and good. Part I. Deleterious effects: Dust-borne endotoxins and allergens – focus on cotton dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Dutkiewicz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitous Gram-negative bacterium Pantoea agglomerans (synonyms: Enterobacter agglomerans , Erwinia herbicola is known both as an epiphytic microbe developing on the surface of plants and as an endophytic organism living inside the plants. The bacterium occurs also abundantly in plant and animal products, in the body of arthropods and other animals, in water, soil, dust and air, and occasionally in humans. From the human viewpoint, the role of this organism is ambiguous, both deleterious and beneficial: on one side it causes disorders in people exposed to inhalation of organic dusts and diseases of crops, and on the other side it produces substances effective in the treatment of cancer and other diseases of humans and animals, suppresses the development of various plant pathogens, promotes plant growth, and appears as a potentially efficient biofertilizer and bioremediator. P. agglomerans was identified as a predominant bacterium on cotton plant grown all over the world, usually as an epiphyte, rarely as pathogen. It is particularly numerous on cotton bract after senescence. During processing of cotton in mills, bacteria and their products are released with cotton dust into air and are inhaled by workers, causing respiratory and general disorders, usually defined as byssinosis. The most adverse substance is endotoxin, a heteropolymer macromolecule present in the outermost part of the cell wall, consisting of lipopolysaccharide (LPS as a major constituent, phospholipids and protein. The numerous experiments carried out in last quarter of XXth century on laboratory animals and human volunteers supported a convincing evidence that the inhaled endotoxin produced by P. agglomerans causes numerous pathologic effects similar to those elicited by cotton dust, such as influx of free lung cells into airways and activation of alveolar macrophages which secrete mediators (prostaglandins, platelet-activating factor, interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor

  17. Impact of modified diamond-like carbon coatings on the spatial organization and disinfection of mixed-biofilms composed of Escherichia coli and Pantoea agglomerans industrial isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, L C; Deschamps, J; Briandet, R; Mergulhão, F J

    2018-07-20

    This work investigated the effects of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on the architecture and biocide reactivity of dual-species biofilms mimicking food processing contaminants. Biofilms were grown using industrial isolates of Escherichia coli and Pantoea agglomerans on bare stainless steel (SST) and on two DLC surface coatings (a-C:H:Si:O designated by SICON® and a-C:H:Si designated by SICAN) in order to evaluate their antifouling activities. Quantification and spatial organization in single- and dual-species biofilms were examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) using a strain specific labelling procedure. Those assays revealed that the E. coli isolate exhibited a higher adhesion to the modified surfaces and a decreased susceptibility to disinfectant in presence of P. agglomerans than alone in axenic culture. While SICON® reduced the short-term growth of E. coli in axenic conditions, both DLC surfaces increased the E. coli colonization in presence of P. agglomerans. However, both modified surfaces triggered a significantly higher log reduction of E. coli cells within mixed-species biofilms, thus the use of SICON® and SICAN surfaces may be a good approach to facilitate the disinfection process in critical areas of food processing plants. This study presents a new illustration of the importance of interspecies interactions in surface-associated community functions, and of the need to evaluate the effectiveness of hygienic strategies with relevant multi-species consortia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Contact lens-related polymicrobial keratitis from Pantoea agglomerans and Escherichia vulneris

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    Vincent D. Venincasa

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: This is the first report of P. agglomerans and E. vulneris keratitis in association with contact lens wear. Both strains of P. agglomerans and E. vulneris were pansensitive to all tested antibiotics.

  19. Biological control of fire blight in pear orchards with a formulation of Pantoea agglomerans strain Eh 24 Controle biológico de fire blight em pereiras empregando uma formulação de Pantoea agglomerans Eh 24

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Özaktan

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Biological control by using epiphytic bacteria against Erwinia amylovora has been considered as an alternative method for controlling the disease. Talc-based formulation of Pantoea agglomerans strain Eh-24 was applied at 30% and 100% bloom on two pear orchards which were selected from different locations in the Aegean Region in Turkey. Pear orchard trials were replicated for two years (1999 and 2000 in each place. Talc-based formulation of P. agglomerans strain Eh-24 was sprayed on pear trees which were naturally infected with E. amylovora. In the orchard trials conducted in 1999 and 2000, talc-based formulation of P. agglomerans strain Eh-24 reduced the percentage of blighted blossoms on pear orchards by 63% to 76%, approximately. Copper oxychloride+maneb was less effective in reducing the incidence of blossom infection by E. amylovora in each pear orchard than the bioformulation treatment. P. agglomerans strain Eh-24 labelled with StrR+ was applied at 30% and 100% bloom to monitor the colonization and population dynamics of P. agglomerans on pear blossoms. The population size of P. agglomerans strain Eh-24 strR+ on pear blossoms increased from 2x10(4 to 1.3x10(6 cfu per blossom over 18 days.Controle biológico de Erwinia amylovora através do uso de bactérias epifíticas tem sido considerado um método alternativo para o controle de "fire blight". Uma formulação de Pantoea agglomerans Eh 24 em talco foi utilizada em pereiras a 30% e a 100% de floração, em duas plantações selecionadas na região Aegean da Turquia. Os experimentos foram repetidos duas vezes (1999 e 2000 em cada plantação. A formulação de P. agglomerans foi aspergida nas pereiras naturalmente infectadas com E. amylovora. Nos experimentos de 1999 e 2000, a redução da porcentagem de ocorrência de "fire blight" foi reduzida aproximadamente em 63% e em 76%, respectivamente. Oxicloreto de cobre + maneb foi menos eficiente na redução da infecção por E. amylovora do

  20. Dichromatic and monochromatic laser radiation effects on antibiotic resistance, biofilm formation, and division rate of Pantoea agglomerans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomé, A. M. C.; Souza, B. P.; Mendes, J. P. M.; Cardoso, A. F. R.; Soares, L. C.; Trajano, E. T. L.; Fonseca, A. S.

    2018-06-01

    Since infection is a common cause of delayed wound healing, it is important to understand the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in bacterial mechanisms. In this study we evaluated the effects of LLLT on antibiotic resistance, division rate, and biofilm formation of Pantoea agglomerans. P. agglomerans samples were isolated from human pressure injuries in humans and cultures were exposed to low-level monochromatic and simultaneous dichromatic laser radiation to study the susceptibility of an antimicrobial to ampicillin and piperacillin  +  tazobactam, quantification of areas of bacterial colonies, and biofilm formation of bacterial cells. Fluence, wavelength, and emission mode were used in the therapeutic protocols for wound healing. The data showed no changes in the areas of the colonies, but dichromatic laser radiation decreased biofilm formation, while a monochromatic red laser at low dose increased biofilm formation and infrared at high dose decreased antibiotic resistance to ampicillin. LLLT modulates antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation of P. agglomerans, but these depend on the laser irradiation parameters, since dichromatic laser radiation induces biological effects that differ from those induced by monochromatic laser radiation. Thus, simultaneous dichromatic low-level red and infrared lasers could be a new option for the treatment of infected wounds, reducing biofilm formation, without altering antibiotic resistance and the division rate of P. agglomerans cultures.

  1. Biosynthesis of selenium nanoparticles by Pantoea agglomerans and their antioxidant activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, S. K.; Campos, V. L.; León, C. G.; Rodríguez-Llamazares, S. M.; Rojas, S. M.; González, M.; Smith, C.; Mondaca, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    The bio-reduction of selenite (Se (IV)) generates nanoparticles with sizes ranging between 30 and 300 nm. Biologic properties of Se nanoparticles, e.g., antioxidant activity, are dependent on the nanoparticle size; smaller particles have greater activity. In this study, the bio-reduction of selenite by Pantoea agglomerans strain UC-32 under aerobic conditions and room temperature to produce bioactive Se nanoparticles smaller than 100 nm was demonstrated. Isolation and purification of the nanoparticles was performed by alkaline lysis. These purified nanoparticles were stabilized with l-cysteine (4 mM). The visualization and characterization of nanoparticles were performed by transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The antioxidant activity of nanoparticles was determined by production of reactive oxygen species using human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Transmission electron microscopy images showed the accumulation of spherical selenium nanoparticles as intracellular and extracellular deposits. The size of Se nanoparticles varied with incubation time. Amorphous Se nanoparticles with size in the order of 100 nm were obtained before 24 h of incubation; but, at 24 h of incubation, the size of the majority of the nanoparticles was in the desirable order of 100 nm and they were not aggregated. Energy dispersive spectroscopy spectra indicated that nanoparticles were composed entirely of selenium. Antioxidant activity of stabilized selenium nanoparticles demonstrated high antioxidant activity when compared to selenite and selenium nanoparticles without stabilization. Stabilized biologically synthetized selenium (0) nanoparticles with size less than 100 nm have a potential application as a food additive with antioxidant properties relevant to human health.

  2. Biosynthesis of selenium nanoparticles by Pantoea agglomerans and their antioxidant activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, S. K.; Campos, V. L., E-mail: vcampos@udec.cl; Leon, C. G. [Universidad de Concepcion, Laboratorio de Microbiologia Ambiental, Departamento de Microbiologia (Chile); Rodriguez-Llamazares, S. M. [Centro de Investigacion de Polimeros Avanzados (CIPA) (Chile); Rojas, S. M.; Gonzalez, M. [Universidad de Concepcion, Laboratorio de Fisiologia Vascular, Departamento de Fisiologia (Chile); Smith, C. [Universidad de Concepcion, Departamento de Microbiologia (Chile); Mondaca, M. A. [Universidad de Concepcion, Laboratorio de Microbiologia Ambiental, Departamento de Microbiologia (Chile)

    2012-11-15

    The bio-reduction of selenite (Se (IV)) generates nanoparticles with sizes ranging between 30 and 300 nm. Biologic properties of Se nanoparticles, e.g., antioxidant activity, are dependent on the nanoparticle size; smaller particles have greater activity. In this study, the bio-reduction of selenite by Pantoea agglomerans strain UC-32 under aerobic conditions and room temperature to produce bioactive Se nanoparticles smaller than 100 nm was demonstrated. Isolation and purification of the nanoparticles was performed by alkaline lysis. These purified nanoparticles were stabilized with l-cysteine (4 mM). The visualization and characterization of nanoparticles were performed by transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The antioxidant activity of nanoparticles was determined by production of reactive oxygen species using human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Transmission electron microscopy images showed the accumulation of spherical selenium nanoparticles as intracellular and extracellular deposits. The size of Se nanoparticles varied with incubation time. Amorphous Se nanoparticles with size in the order of 100 nm were obtained before 24 h of incubation; but, at 24 h of incubation, the size of the majority of the nanoparticles was in the desirable order of 100 nm and they were not aggregated. Energy dispersive spectroscopy spectra indicated that nanoparticles were composed entirely of selenium. Antioxidant activity of stabilized selenium nanoparticles demonstrated high antioxidant activity when compared to selenite and selenium nanoparticles without stabilization. Stabilized biologically synthetized selenium (0) nanoparticles with size less than 100 nm have a potential application as a food additive with antioxidant properties relevant to human health.

  3. Pantoea agglomerans: a mysterious bacterium of evil and good. Part II--Deleterious effects: Dust-borne endotoxins and allergens--focus on grain dust, other agricultural dusts and wood dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Mackiewicz, Barbara; Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Golec, Marcin; Skórska, Czesława; Góra-Florek, Anna; Milanowski, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    Pantoea agglomerans, a Gram-negative bacterium developing in a variety of plants as epiphyte or endophyte is particularly common in grain and grain dust, and has been identified by an interdisciplinary group from Lublin, eastern Poland, as a causative agent of work-related diseases associated with exposure to grain dust and other agricultural dusts. The concentration of P. agglomerans in grain as well as in the settled grain and flour dust was found to be high, ranging from 10(4)-10(8) CFU/g, while in the air polluted with grain or flour dust it ranged from 10(3)-10(5) CFU/m(3) and formed 73.2-96% of the total airborne Gram-negative bacteria. The concentration of P. agglomerans was also relatively high in the air of the facilities processing herbs and other plant materials, while it was lower in animal farms and in wood processing facilities. Pantoea agglomerans produces a biologically-potent endotoxin (cell wall lipopolysaccharide, LPS). The significant part of this endotoxin occurs in dusts in the form of virus-sized globular nanoparticles measuring 10-50 nm that could be described as the 'endotoxin super-macromolecules'. A highly significant relationship was found (R=0.804, P=0.000927) between the concentration of the viable P. agglomerans in the air of various agricultural and wood industry settings and the concentration of bacterial endotoxin in the air, as assessed by the Limulus test. Although this result may be interfered by the presence of endotoxin produced by other Gram-negative species, it unequivocally suggests the primary role of the P. agglomerans endotoxin as an adverse agent in the agricultural working environment, causing toxic pneumonitis (ODTS). Numerous experiments by the inhalation exposure of animals to various extracts of P. agglomerans strains isolated from grain dust, including endotoxin isolated with trichloroacetic acid (LPS-TCA), endotoxin nanoparticles isolated in sucrose gradient (VECN), and mixture of proteins and endotoxin obtained

  4. Pantoea agglomerans : a mysterious bacterium of evil and good. Part II. Deleterious effects: Dust-borne endotoxins and allergens – focus on grain dust, other agricultural dusts and wood dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Dutkiewicz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pantoea agglomerans , a Gram-negative bacterium developing in a variety of plants as epiphyte or endophyte is particularly common in grain and grain dust, and has been identified by an interdisciplinary group from Lublin, eastern Poland, as a causative agent of work-related diseases associated with exposure to grain dust and other agricultural dusts. The concentration of [i]P. agglomerans[/i] in grain as well as in the settled grain and flour dust was found to be high, ranging from 10 4 –10 8 CFU/g, while in the air polluted with grain or flour dust it ranged from 10 3 –10 5 CFU/m 3 and formed 73.2–96% of the total airborne Gram-negative bacteria. The concentration of P. agglomerans was also relatively high in the air of the facilities processing herbs and other plant materials, while it was lower in animal farms and in wood processing facilities. Pantoea agglomerans produces a biologically-potent endotoxin (cell wall lipopolysaccharide, LPS. The significant part of this endotoxin occurs in dusts in the form of virus-sized globular nanoparticles measuring 10–50 nm that could be described as the ‘endotoxin super-macromolecules’. A highly significant relationship was found (R=0.804, P=0.000927 between the concentration of the viable P. agglomerans in the air of various agricultural and wood industry settings and the concentration of bacterial endotoxin in the air, as assessed by the Limulus test. Although this result may be interfered by the presence of endotoxin produced by other Gram-negative species, it unequivocally suggests the primary role of the P. agglomerans endotoxin as an adverse agent in the agricultural working environment, causing toxic pneumonitis (ODTS. Numerous experiments by the inhalation exposure of animals to various extracts of P. agglomerans strains isolated from grain dust, including endotoxin isolated with trichloroacetic acid (LPS-TCA, endotoxin nanoparticles isolated in sucrose gradient (VECN, and mixture of

  5. Microbial Fe (III) reduction and hydrogen production by a transposon-mutagenized strain of Pantoea agglomerans BH18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hongyan; Wang, Guangce

    2015-01-01

    Based on the transposon-mutagenized library of Pantoea agglomerans BH18, mutant screens were conducted to obtain the strain with the highest Fe (III) reduction and hydrogen production. Of these transposon-mutagenized mutants, the mutant strain TB230 was screened for high Fe (III)-reducing efficiency and hydrogen production. The PCR amplification and kanamycin resistance selection results indicated that the transposon insertion of the mutant strain TB230 was stable. Hydrogen production of the mutant strain TB230 was (2.21 ± 0.34) mol H 2 /mol glucose, which increased hydrogen production by over 40% compared with that of the wild type strain. The accumulation concentration of Fe (II) in the medium of the mutant strain TB230 with Fe (OH) 3 as the sole electron acceptor was (7.39 ± 0.49) mmol/l, which was approximately 3-fold greater than that of the wild type strain. The mutant strain TB230 showed high Fe (III)-reducing activity and hydrogen production by adopting glucose and pyruvate as the carbon source. In addition, the mutant strain TB230 was capable of Fe (III) reduction and hydrogen production under fresh or marine conditions. This result indicates that the mutant strain with high microbial Fe (III) reduction and hydrogen production is beneficial for the improvement of anaerobic performance. - Highlights: • The mutant strain TB230 was a transposon-mutagenized strain of Pantoea agglomerans BH18. • Strain TB230 was screened for high Fe (III)-reducing efficiency and hydrogen production. • H 2 yield and Fe (III)-reducing activity were 2.21 ± 0.34 and 7.39 ± 0.49 in marine condition. • Strain TB230 was capable of Fe (III) reduction and hydrogen production in fresh or marine condition

  6. Use of Gentamicine sulfate for the control of Pantoea agglomerans, contaminant of the Solanum tuberosum L cv. Desirée in vitro multiplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelenys Alvarado-Capó

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial contamination is one of the principal problems of plant tissue culture. The use of natural or synthetic antimicrobial substances represent an alternative for it solution. In potato micropropagation bacterial contamination produce serious damages. In this paper the effect of Gentamicine sulfate on control of high frequently contaminant was evaluated. The microorganism was isolated from media culture of potato cv. Desirée in vitro plants in multiplication stage. Traditional tintorial, bioquemical and physiological test were performed for bacteria identification together with BIOLOG bacteria identification system. Besides, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC of Gentamicine sulfate were determined and it antimicrobial and phytotoxic effect in multiplication stage were evaluated too. Pantoea agglomerans was identificated as potato contaminant and show sensibility to Gentamicine sulfate. The MIC was 0.625 mg.l-1 and the MBC was 1.25 mg.l-1. The antibiotics controlled the contamination in the 80% of contaminated explants without phytotoxicity at 2.5 mg.l-1. Key words: bacteria, in vitro culture, microbial contamination, potato

  7. Kinetics of bacterial potentiometric titrations: the effect of equilibration time on buffering capacity of Pantoea agglomerans suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetas, Leon; Ngwenya, Bryne T; Macdonald, Alan M; Elphick, Stephen C

    2011-07-15

    Several recent studies have made use of continuous acid-base titration data to describe the surface chemistry of bacterial cells as a basis for accurately modelling metal adsorption to bacteria and other biomaterials of potential industrial importance. These studies do not share a common protocol; rather they titrate in different pH ranges and they use different stability criteria to define equilibration time during titration. In the present study we investigate the kinetics of bacterial titrations and test the effect they have on the derivation of functional group concentrations and acidity constants. We titrated suspensions of Pantoea agglomerans by varying the equilibration time between successive titrant additions until stability of 0.1 or 0.001 mV s(-1) was attained. We show that under longer equilibration times, titration results are less reproducible and suspensions exhibit marginally higher buffering. Fluorescence images suggest that cell lysis is not responsible for these effects. Rather, high DOC values and titration reversibility hysterisis after long equilibration times suggest that variability in buffering is due to the presence of bacterial exudates, as demonstrated by titrating supernatants separated from suspensions of different equilibration times. It is recommended that an optimal equilibration time is always determined with variable stability control and preliminary reversibility titration experiments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Revealing the inventory of type III effectors in Pantoea agglomerans gall-forming pathovars using draft genome sequences and a machine-learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissan, Gal; Gershovits, Michael; Morozov, Michael; Chalupowicz, Laura; Sessa, Guido; Manulis-Sasson, Shulamit; Barash, Isaac; Pupko, Tal

    2018-02-01

    Pantoea agglomerans, a widespread epiphytic bacterium, has evolved into a hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (hrp)-dependent and host-specific gall-forming pathogen by the acquisition of a pathogenicity plasmid containing a type III secretion system (T3SS) and its effectors (T3Es). Pantoea agglomerans pv. betae (Pab) elicits galls on beet (Beta vulgaris) and gypsophila (Gypsophila paniculata), whereas P. agglomerans pv. gypsophilae (Pag) incites galls on gypsophila and a hypersensitive response (HR) on beet. Draft genome sequences were generated and employed in combination with a machine-learning approach and a translocation assay into beet roots to identify the pools of T3Es in the two pathovars. The genomes of the sequenced Pab4188 and Pag824-1 strains have a similar size (∼5 MB) and GC content (∼55%). Mutational analysis revealed that, in Pab4188, eight T3Es (HsvB, HsvG, PseB, DspA/E, HopAY1, HopX2, HopAF1 and HrpK) contribute to pathogenicity on beet and gypsophila. In Pag824-1, nine T3Es (HsvG, HsvB, PthG, DspA/E, HopAY1, HopD1, HopX2, HopAF1 and HrpK) contribute to pathogenicity on gypsophila, whereas the PthG effector triggers HR on beet. HsvB, HsvG, PthG and PseB appear to endow pathovar specificities to Pab and Pag, and no homologous T3Es were identified for these proteins in other phytopathogenic bacteria. Conversely, the remaining T3Es contribute to the virulence of both pathovars, and homologous T3Es were found in other phytopathogenic bacteria. Remarkably, HsvG and HsvB, which act as host-specific transcription factors, displayed the largest contribution to disease development. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  9. Klebsiella pneumoniae inoculants for enhancing plant growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplett, Eric W [Middleton, WI; Kaeppler, Shawn M [Oregon, WI; Chelius, Marisa K [Greeley, CO

    2008-07-01

    A biological inoculant for enhancing the growth of plants is disclosed. The inoculant includes the bacterial strains Herbaspirillum seropedicae 2A, Pantoea agglomerans P101, Pantoea agglomerans P102, Klebsiella pneumoniae 342, Klebsiella pneumoniae zmvsy, Herbaspirillum seropedicae Z152, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PA15, with or without a carrier. The inoculant also includes strains of the bacterium Pantoea agglomerans and K. pneumoniae which are able to enhance the growth of cereal grasses. Also disclosed are the novel bacterial strains Herbaspirillum seropedicae 2A, Pantoea agglomerans P101 and P102, and Klebsiella pneumoniae 342 and zmvsy.

  10. Pantoea allii sp. nov., isolated from onion plants and seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Carrie L; Goszczynska, Teresa; Venter, Stephanus N; Cleenwerck, Ilse; De Vos, Paul; Gitaitis, Ronald D; Coutinho, Teresa A

    2011-04-01

    Eight yellow-pigmented, Gram-negative, rod-shaped, oxidase-negative, motile, facultatively anaerobic bacteria were isolated from onion seed in South Africa and from an onion plant exhibiting centre rot symptoms in the USA. The isolates were assigned to the genus Pantoea on the basis of phenotypic and biochemical tests. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA), based on gyrB, rpoB, infB and atpD sequences, confirmed the allocation of the isolates to the genus Pantoea. MLSA further indicated that the isolates represented a novel species, which was phylogenetically most closely related to Pantoea ananatis and Pantoea stewartii. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis also placed the isolates into a cluster separate from P. ananatis and P. stewartii. Compared with type strains of species of the genus Pantoea that showed >97 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with strain BD 390(T), the isolates exhibited 11-55 % whole-genome DNA-DNA relatedness, which confirmed the classification of the isolates in a novel species. The most useful phenotypic characteristics for the differentiation of the isolates from their closest phylogenetic neighbours are production of acid from amygdalin and utilization of adonitol and sorbitol. A novel species, Pantoea allii sp. nov., is proposed, with type strain BD 390(T) ( = LMG 24248(T)).

  11. Epidemiology and molecular characterization of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacter spp., Pantoea agglomerans, and Serratia marcescens isolates from a Bulgarian hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovska, Rumyana Donkova; Stoeva, Temenuga Jekova; Bojkova, Kalina Dineva; Mitov, Ivan Gergov

    2014-04-01

    Forty-two extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing isolates of Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae, Pantoea agglomerans, and Serratia marcescens, collected consecutively during the period January-November 2011 from the University Hospital in Varna, Bulgaria, were studied to characterize their ESBLs by isoelectric focusing, group-specific PCR, and sequencing. The epidemiological relationship was evaluated by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD). Transferability of ESBL genes was determined by conjugation experiments. Plasmid analysis was done by replicon typing and PstI fingerprinting. The overall rate of ESBL production was 20%. The most widespread enzyme was CTX-M-3, found in 64%. It was dominant in E. aerogenes (100%) and S. marcescens (83%). SHV-12, CTX-M-3, and CTX-M-15 were found among E. cloacae isolates in 50%, 35%, and 45%, respectively. Three main CTX-M-3-producing epidemic clones of E. aerogenes and S. marcescens have been detected. Among E. cloacae isolates, six different RAPD profiles were discerned. The plasmids harboring blaCTX-M-3 belonged to IncL/M type and demonstrated similar PstI fingerprinting profiles. IncFII plasmids were detected in two CTX-M-15-producing E. cloacae isolates. Our results demonstrate wide intrahospital dissemination of clonal E. aerogenes and S. marcescens isolates, carrying IncL/M conjugative plasmids.

  12. Isolation of Pantoea ananatis from sugarcane and characterization of its potential for plant growth promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, J F; Barbosa, R R; de Souza, A N; da Motta, O V; Teixeira, G N; Carvalho, V S; de Souza, A L S R; de Souza Filho, G A

    2015-11-30

    Each year, approximately 170 million metric tons of chemical fertilizer are consumed by global agriculture. Furthermore, some chemical fertilizers contain toxic by-products and their long-term use may contaminate groundwater, lakes, and rivers. The use of plant growth-promoting bacteria may be a cost-effective strategy for partially replacing conventional chemical fertilizers, and may become an integrated plant nutrient solution for sustainable crop production. The main direct bacteria-activated mechanisms of plant growth promotion are based on improvement of nutrient acquisition, siderophore biosynthesis, nitrogen fixation, and hormonal stimulation. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify bacteria with growth-promoting activities from sugarcane. We extracted the bacterial isolate SCB4789F-1 from sugarcane leaves and characterized it with regard to its profile of growth-promoting activities, including its ability to colonize Arabidopsis thaliana. Based on its biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, this isolate was identified as Pantoea ananatis. The bacteria were efficient at phosphate and zinc solubilization, and production of siderophores and indole-3-acetic acid in vitro. The isolate was characterized by Gram staining, resistance to antibiotics, and use of carbon sources. This is the first report on zinc solubilization in vitro by this bacterium, and on plant growth promotion following its inoculation into A. thaliana. The beneficial effects to plants of this bacterium justify future analysis of inoculation of economically relevant crops.

  13. Potential transmission of Pantoea spp. and Serratia marcescens (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae) to plants by Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lygus hesperus Knight (Hemiptera: Miridae) is a key agricultural pest in the western United States. In a recent study, proteins from Pantoea ananatis and Serratia marcescens (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae) were identified in diet that was stylet-probed and fed upon by L. hesperus adults. P...

  14. The genomes of closely related Pantoea ananatis maize seed endophytes having different effects on the host plant differ in secretion system genes and mobile genetic elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh eSheibani-Tezerji

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The seed as a habitat for microorganisms is as yet under-explored and has quite distinct characteristics as compared to other vegetative plant tissues. In this study, we investigated three closely related P. ananatis strains (named S6, S7 and S8, which were isolated from maize seeds of healthy plants. Plant inoculation experiments revealed that each of these strains exhibited a different phenotype ranging from weak pathogenic (S7, commensal (S8, to a beneficial, growth-promoting effect (S6 in maize. We performed a comparative genomics analysis in order to find genetic determinants responsible for the differences observed. Recent studies provided exciting insight into the genetic drivers of niche adaption and functional diversification of the genus Pantoea. However, we report here for the first time on the analysis of P. ananatis strains colonizing the same ecological niche but showing distinct interaction strategies with the host plant. Our comparative analysis revealed that genomes of these three strains are highly similar. However, genomic differences in genes encoding protein secretion systems and putative effectors, and transposase/integrases/phage related genes could be observed.

  15. The catabolite repressor/activator, Cra, bridges a connection between carbon metabolism and host colonization in the plant drought resistance-promoting bacterium Pantoea alhagi LTYR-11Z.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Li, Muhang; Li, Qiqi; Chen, Chaoqiong; Qu, Meng; Li, Mengyun; Wang, Yao; Shen, Xihui

    2018-04-27

    Efficient root colonization is a prerequisite for application of plant growth promoting (PGP) bacteria in improving health and yield of agricultural crops. We have recently identified an endophytic bacterium Pantoea alhagi LTYR-11Z with multiple PGP properties that effectively colonizes the root system of wheat and improves its growth and drought tolerance. To identify novel regulatory genes required for wheat colonization, we screened a LTYR-11Z transposon (Tn) insertion library and found cra to be a colonization-related gene. By using RNA-seq analysis, we found that transcriptional levels of an eps operon, the ydiV gene encoding an anti-FlhD 4 C 2 factor and the yedQ gene encoding an enzyme for synthesis of cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) were significantly downregulated in the mutant Δ cra. Further studies demonstrated that Cra directly binds to the promoters of the eps operon, ydiV and yedQ and activates their expression, thus inhibiting motility and promoting exopolysaccharides (EPS) production and biofilm formation. Consistent with previous findings that Cra plays a role in transcriptional regulation in response to carbon source availability, the activating effects of Cra were much more pronounced when LTYR-11Z was grown within a gluconeogenic environment than when it was grown within a glycolytic environment. We further demonstrate that the ability of LTYR-11Z to colonize wheat roots is modulated by the availability of carbon sources. All together, these results uncover a novel strategy utilized by LTYR-11Z to achieve host colonization in response to carbon nutrition in the environment, in which Cra bridges a connection between carbon metabolism and colonization capacity of LTYR-11Z. IMPORTANCE Rapid and appropriate response to environmental signals is crucial for bacteria to adapt to competitive environments and to establish interactions with their hosts. Efficient colonization and persistence within the host is controlled by various regulatory factors that

  16. Analysis of the Pantoea ananatis pan-genome reveals factors underlying its ability to colonize and interact with plant, insect and vertebrate hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maayer, Pieter; Chan, Wai Yin; Rubagotti, Enrico; Venter, Stephanus N; Toth, Ian K; Birch, Paul R J; Coutinho, Teresa A

    2014-05-27

    Pantoea ananatis is found in a wide range of natural environments, including water, soil, as part of the epi- and endophytic flora of various plant hosts, and in the insect gut. Some strains have proven effective as biological control agents and plant-growth promoters, while other strains have been implicated in diseases of a broad range of plant hosts and humans. By analysing the pan-genome of eight sequenced P. ananatis strains isolated from different sources we identified factors potentially underlying its ability to colonize and interact with hosts in both the plant and animal Kingdoms. The pan-genome of the eight compared P. ananatis strains consisted of a core genome comprised of 3,876 protein coding sequences (CDSs) and a sizeable accessory genome consisting of 1,690 CDSs. We estimate that ~106 unique CDSs would be added to the pan-genome with each additional P. ananatis genome sequenced in the future. The accessory fraction is derived mainly from integrated prophages and codes mostly for proteins of unknown function. Comparison of the translated CDSs on the P. ananatis pan-genome with the proteins encoded on all sequenced bacterial genomes currently available revealed that P. ananatis carries a number of CDSs with orthologs restricted to bacteria associated with distinct hosts, namely plant-, animal- and insect-associated bacteria. These CDSs encode proteins with putative roles in transport and metabolism of carbohydrate and amino acid substrates, adherence to host tissues, protection against plant and animal defense mechanisms and the biosynthesis of potential pathogenicity determinants including insecticidal peptides, phytotoxins and type VI secretion system effectors. P. ananatis has an 'open' pan-genome typical of bacterial species that colonize several different environments. The pan-genome incorporates a large number of genes encoding proteins that may enable P. ananatis to colonize, persist in and potentially cause disease symptoms in a wide range of

  17. The effects of Pantoea sp. strain Y4-4 on alfalfa in the remediation of heavy-metal-contaminated soil, and auxiliary impacts of plant residues on the remediation of saline-alkali soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuhuan; Wang, Jie; Gao, Nanxiong; Liu, Lizhu; Chen, Yahua

    2017-04-01

    The plant-growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) Y4-4 was isolated from plant rhizosphere soil and identified as Pantoea sp. by 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The effects of strain Y4-4 on alfalfa grown in heavy-metals-contaminated soil was investigated using a pot experiment. In a Cu-rich environment, the shoot dry mass and total dry mass of plants inoculated with strain Y4-4 increased by 22.6% and 21%, and Cu accumulation increased by 15%. In a Pb-Zn-rich environment, the shoot dry mass and total dry mass of plants inoculated with strain Y4-4 increased by 23.4% and 22%, and Zn accumulation increased by 30.3%. In addition, the salt tolerance and biomass of wheat seedlings could be improved by applying strain Y4-4 mixed with plant residue as a result of the Cu-rich plant residues providing copper nutrition to wheat. This study offers an efficient PGPR with strong salt tolerance and a safe strategy for the post-treatment of plant residue.

  18. Mineral phosphate solubilization by wild type and radiation induced mutants of pantoea dispersa and pantoea terrae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murugesan, Senthilkumar; Lee, Young Keun; Kim, Jung Hun

    2009-01-01

    Three mineral phosphate solubilizing (MPS) bacteria where isolated from rhizosphere soil samples of common bean and weed plants. 16S rDNA analysis indicated that the isolate P2 and P3 are closely related to Pantoea dispersa while isolate P4 is closely related to Pantoea terrae. Islates P2 and P3 recorded 381.60 μg ml -1 of tricalcium phosphate (TCP) solubilization respectively on 3 days incubation. Isolate P4 recorded the TCP solubilization of 215.85 μg ml -1 and the pH was dropped to 4.44 on 24 h incubation. Further incubation of P4 sharply decreased the available phosphorous to 28.94 μg ml -1 and pH level was raised to 6.32. Gamma radiation induced mutagenesis was carried out at LD 99 dose of the wild type strains. The total of 14 mutant clones with enhanced MPS activity and 4 clones with decreased activity were selected based on solubilization index (SI) and phosphate solubilization assay. Mutant P2-M1 recorded the highest P-solubilizing potential among any other wild or mutnat clones by releasing 504.21 μg ml -1 of phosphorous i.e. 35% higher than its wild type by the end of day 5. A comparative evaluation of TCP solubilization by wild type isolates of Pantoea and their mutants, led to select three MPS mutant clones such as P2-M1, P3-M2 and P3-M4 with a potential to release >471.67 μg ml 1 of phosphorous from TCP. These over expressing mutant clones are considered as suitable candidates for biofertilization

  19. La inoculación de plantas con Pantoea sp., bacteria solubilizadora de fosfatos, incrementa la concentración de P en los tejidos foliares Plant inoculation with Pantoea sp., phosphate solubilising-bacteria increases P concentration in leaf tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortega-Rodés Patricia

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available El fósforo (P es un macronutriente mineral esencial para las plantas. Aunque puede encontrarse en los suelos en diferentes formas minerales, la baja solubilidad de estos disminuye su disponibilidad para las plantas, y el nutriente debe aplicarse como fertilizante a los cultivos. Las reservas mundiales de P son limitadas y tendrán una reducción considerable en los próximos años. Usar microorganismos solubilizadores de fosfatos como inoculante para los cultivos es una alternativa biotecnológica para incrementar la disponibilidad del nutriente. Pantoea sp. (cepa 9C es una bacteria endofítica fijadora de nitrógeno, aislada del interior de tallos de la caña de azúcar (Loiret et ál., 2004; este microorganismo produjo halos de solubilización con tamaños de hasta 6 mm en medio sólido NBRI-P en 7 días a 30 ºC, y en ese tiempo y condiciones solubilizó Ca3(PO42 en el medio líquido hasta acumular 1128 μg P mL-1. La bacteria sobrevivió durante 35 días en un sustrato preparado con mezcla de Vermiculita y suelo ferralítico rojo (Cambisol Ferrálico, ródico, alcanzando poblaciones de 3,2 x 1015 células g-1. Plantas de rábano (Raphanus sativus, L. var. Scarlet Globe, de alta demanda de P y crecimiento rápido, usadas como modelo y cultivadas en suelos inoculados con el microorganismo, absorbieron más P que las plantas no inoculadas, alcanzando en los tejidos foliares concentraciones ≥ 3500 ppm P base seca. Palabras clave: bacteria endofítica; solubilización de fosfatos; rábano (Raphanus sativus, L.; caña de azúcar (Saccharum híbrido.Phosphorus is an essential mineral macronutrient for plant growth and development. Although it can be found in soils in different mineral forms, its low solubility decrease its availability for plants; the nutrient should be added to crops as fertiliser. World sources of P are limited and in the near future they will suffer a remarkable decrease. Using P solubiliser microorganisms as

  20. The large universal Pantoea plasmid LPP-1 plays a major role in biological and ecological diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Maayer Pieter

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pantoea spp. are frequently isolated from a wide range of ecological niches and have various biological roles, as plant epi- or endophytes, biocontrol agents, plant-growth promoters or as pathogens of both plant and animal hosts. This suggests that members of this genus have undergone extensive genotypic diversification. One means by which this occurs among bacteria is through the acquisition and maintenance of plasmids. Here, we have analyzed and compared the sequences of a large plasmid common to all sequenced Pantoea spp. Results and discussion The Large PantoeaPlasmids (LPP-1 of twenty strains encompassing seven different Pantoea species, including pathogens and endo-/epiphytes of a wide range of plant hosts as well as insect-associated strains, were compared. The LPP-1 plasmid sequences range in size from ~281 to 794 kb and carry between 238 and 750 protein coding sequences (CDS. A core set of 46 proteins, encompassing 2.2% of the total pan-plasmid (2,095 CDS, conserved among all LPP-1 plasmid sequences, includes those required for thiamine and pigment biosynthesis. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that these plasmids have arisen from an ancestral plasmid, which has undergone extensive diversification. Analysis of the proteins encoded on LPP-1 also showed that these plasmids contribute to a wide range of Pantoea phenotypes, including the transport and catabolism of various substrates, inorganic ion assimilation, resistance to antibiotics and heavy metals, colonization and persistence in the host and environment, pathogenesis and antibiosis. Conclusions LPP-1 is universal to all Pantoea spp. whose genomes have been sequenced to date and is derived from an ancestral plasmid. LPP-1 encodes a large array of proteins that have played a major role in the adaptation of the different Pantoea spp. to their various ecological niches and their specialization as pathogens, biocontrol agents or benign saprophytes found in many diverse

  1. Diversity of fecal coliforms and their antimicrobial resistance patterns in wastewater treatment model plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczkiewicz, A; Fudala-Ksiazek, S; Jankowska, K; Quant, B; Olańczuk-Neyman, K

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of resistance patterns among wastewater fecal coliforms was determined in the study. Susceptibility of the isolates was tested against 19 antimicrobial agents: aminoglycosides, aztreonam, carbapenems, cephalosporines, beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitors, penicillines, tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and fluoroquinolones. Additionally the removal of resistant isolates was evaluated in the laboratory-scale wastewater treatment model plant (M-WWTP), continuously supplied with the wastewater obtained from the full-scale WWTP. Number of fecal coliforms in raw (after mechanical treatment) and treated wastewater, as well as in aerobic chamber effluent was determined using selective medium. The selected strains were identified and examined for antibiotic resistance using Phoenix Automated Microbiology System (BD Biosciences, USA). The strains were identified as Escherichia coli (n=222), Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. ozaenae (n=9), and Pantoea agglomerans (n=1). The isolate of P. agglomerans as well as 48% of E. coli isolates were sensitive to all antimicrobials tested. The most frequent resistance patterns were found for ampicillin: 100% of K. pneumoniae ssp. ozaenae and 41% of E. coli isolates. Among E. coli isolates 12% was regarded as multiple antimicrobial resistant (MAR). In the studied M-WWTP, the applied activated sludge processes reduced considerably the number of fecal coliforms, but increased the ratio of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli isolates to sensitive ones, especially among strains with MAR patterns.

  2. In-vitro inhibiton of Pantoea ananatis by antagonistic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagöz, Kenan

    2017-04-01

    Like most cultivated crops, onions (Allium cepa L.) are plagued by phytopathogenic bacteria. Although bacterial diseases of onion occur sporadically, they can cause loss of yield, in the range of a few percent up to 40%. Center rot of onion caused by Pantoea ananatis is the one of the major bacterial disease. Cultural methods and copper compounds often are recommended for control of bacterial diseases, but these are insufficient and the use of some chemicals has adverse effects. For these reasons, biological control is important manner for control of plant disease. In this study; it was researched that in-vitro inhibition effect of 271bacterial strains on P. ananatis in-vitro. Commercially available streptomycin, kanamycin and tetracycline disks were used as control. In consequence; three isolates show more or less inhibitory effect against P. ananatis.

  3. Phylogenomic, Pan-genomic, Pathogenomic and Evolutionary Genomic Insights into the Agronomically Relevant Enterobacteria Pantoea ananatis and Pantoea stewartii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter De Maayer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pantoea ananatis is ubiquitously found in the environment and causes disease on a wide range of plant hosts. By contrast, its sister species, Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii is the host-specific causative agent of the devastating maize disease Stewart’s wilt. This pathogen has a restricted lifecycle, overwintering in an insect vector before being introduced into susceptible maize cultivars, causing disease and returning to overwinter in its vector. The other subspecies of P. stewartii subsp. indologenes, has been isolated from different plant hosts and is predicted to proliferate in different environmental niches. Here we have, by the use of comparative genomics and a comprehensive suite of bioinformatic tools, analyzed the genomes of ten P. stewartii and nineteen P. ananatis strains. Our phylogenomic analyses have revealed that there are two distinct clades within P. ananatis while far less phylogenetic diversity was observed among the P. stewartii subspecies. Pan-genome analyses revealed a large core genome comprising of 3,571 protein coding sequences is shared among the twenty-nine compared strains. Furthermore, we showed that an extensive accessory genome made up largely by a mobilome of plasmids, integrated prophages, integrative and conjugative elements and insertion elements has resulted in extensive diversification of P. stewartii and P. ananatis. While these organisms share many pathogenicity determinants, our comparative genomic analyses show that they differ in terms of the secretion systems they encode. The genomic differences identified in this study have allowed us to postulate on the divergent evolutionary histories of the analyzed P. ananatis and P. stewartii strains and on the molecular basis underlying their ecological success and host range.

  4. Phylogenomic, Pan-genomic, Pathogenomic and Evolutionary Genomic Insights into the Agronomically Relevant Enterobacteria Pantoea ananatis and Pantoea stewartii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maayer, Pieter; Aliyu, Habibu; Vikram, Surendra; Blom, Jochen; Duffy, Brion; Cowan, Don A; Smits, Theo H M; Venter, Stephanus N; Coutinho, Teresa A

    2017-01-01

    Pantoea ananatis is ubiquitously found in the environment and causes disease on a wide range of plant hosts. By contrast, its sister species, Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii is the host-specific causative agent of the devastating maize disease Stewart's wilt. This pathogen has a restricted lifecycle, overwintering in an insect vector before being introduced into susceptible maize cultivars, causing disease and returning to overwinter in its vector. The other subspecies of P. stewartii subsp. indologenes , has been isolated from different plant hosts and is predicted to proliferate in different environmental niches. Here we have, by the use of comparative genomics and a comprehensive suite of bioinformatic tools, analyzed the genomes of ten P. stewartii and nineteen P. ananatis strains. Our phylogenomic analyses have revealed that there are two distinct clades within P. ananatis while far less phylogenetic diversity was observed among the P. stewartii subspecies. Pan-genome analyses revealed a large core genome comprising of 3,571 protein coding sequences is shared among the twenty-nine compared strains. Furthermore, we showed that an extensive accessory genome made up largely by a mobilome of plasmids, integrated prophages, integrative and conjugative elements and insertion elements has resulted in extensive diversification of P. stewartii and P. ananatis . While these organisms share many pathogenicity determinants, our comparative genomic analyses show that they differ in terms of the secretion systems they encode. The genomic differences identified in this study have allowed us to postulate on the divergent evolutionary histories of the analyzed P. ananatis and P. stewartii strains and on the molecular basis underlying their ecological success and host range.

  5. POTENSI BAKTERI ENDOFIT DALAM MENEKAN PENYAKIT LAYU STEWART (PANTOEA STEWARTII SUBSP. STEWARTII PADA TANAMAN JAGUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haliatur Rahma

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Potential of endophytic bacteria to control stewart wilt disease (Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii in maize. The purpose of this study was to explore endophytic bacteria from seedling, maize roots and grass roots as well as to test the ability of endophytic bacteria which could potentially suppress stewart wilt disease development in maize. Characterization of endophytic bacteria as biocontrol agents including: do not induce HR on tobacco, synthesize IAA, dissolve phosphate, produce siderophores, and antibiotic to Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (Pnss. The results of research shoed 17 isolates of endophytic bacteria potentially as candidate biocontrol agents. Nine isolates were able to produce IAA, siderofores and phosphatase; two isolates produce IAA and phosphatase; six isolates produce IAA. Six isolates ie: AR1, AJ34, AJ15, AJ19, and AJ14 AN6, can increase maize plant resistance and suppress stewart wilt disease severity with a range of 48.95-55.60%.

  6. Characterization of Pantoea ananatis Isolated from Garlic and Shallot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanik Nurjanah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The new disease on garlic (Allium sativum and shallot (A. cepa L. aggregatum group have been found in several production centers of garlic and shallot in Tawangmangu and Temanggung, Central Java. The infected plants showed symptoms of leaf blight accompanied by chlorosis. The objective of this study was to determine the pathogen that causes leaf blight and chlorosis based on the phenotypic characterization and gyrB gene sequences analysis. The research started from the isolation of pathogen, physiological and biochemical test, DNA extraction, and sequence analysis of gyrB using gyrB 01-F and gyrB 02-R primer. The results showed that the isolated bacterial pathogen have a yellow pigment, slimy colonies with regular borders, convex, gram-negative, non-spore, facultative anaerobic, motile, catalase production, indole production, and acid production from D-glucose, D-mannitol, sucrose, and lactose. From the pathogenicity test, it was found that the bacteria produced the typical symptom of leaf blight. Characterization of pathogens based on gyrB gene sequence revealed that the pathogen was placed in the group of Pantoea ananatis.   Intisari Penyakit baru pada bawang putih (Allium sativum dan bawang merah (A. cepa L. aggregatum group telah ditemukan di beberapa sentra produksi bawang putih dan bawang merah di Tawangmangu dan Temanggung, Jawa Tengah. Tanaman yang terinfeksi menunjukkan gejala hawar daun disertai klorosis. Tujuan penelitian untuk mengetahui karakter patogen berdasarkan fenotipik dan sekuen gen gyrB. Penelitian dimulai dengan isolasi bagian tanaman yang sakit, uji fisiologi dan biokimia, ekstraksi DNA dengan metode CTAB/NaCl dan amplifikasi gen gyrB menggunakan primer gyrB 01-F and gyrB 02-R. Hasil uji menunjukkan koloni berlendir, cembung, pigmen berwarna kuning, gram negative, tidak berspora, aerob fakultatif, motil, produksi katalase, indol, membentuk asam dari D-glukosa, D-monnitol, sukrosa dan laktosa, dan patogenesitas positif

  7. Plant growth promoting capability and genetic diversity of bacteria isolated from mud volcano and lime cave of Andaman and Nicobar Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopu Venkadesaperumal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty four bacterial strains from four different regions of mud volcano and lime cave were isolated to estimate their diversity, plant growth promoting and biocontrol activities to use them as inoculant strains in the fields. An excellent antagonistic effect against four plant pathogens and plant growth promoting properties such as IAA production, HCN production, phosphate solubilization, siderophore production, starch hydrolysis and hydrolytic enzymes syntheses were identified in OM5 (Pantoea agglomerans and EM9 (Exiguobacterium sp. of 24 studied isolates. Seeds (Chili and tomato inoculation with plant growth promoting strains resulted in increased percentage of seedling emergence, root length and plant weight. Results indicated that co-inoculation gave a more pronounced effects on seedling emergence, secondary root numbers, primary root length and stem length, while inoculation by alone isolate showed a lower effect. Our results suggest that the mixed inocula of OM5 and EM9 strains as biofertilizers could significantly increase the production of food crops in Andaman archipelago by means of sustainable and organic agricultural system.

  8. Plant growth promoting capability and genetic diversity of bacteria isolated from mud volcano and lime cave of Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkadesaperumal, Gopu; Amaresan, Natrajan; Kumar, Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Twenty four bacterial strains from four different regions of mud volcano and lime cave were isolated to estimate their diversity, plant growth promoting and biocontrol activities to use them as inoculant strains in the fields. An excellent antagonistic effect against four plant pathogens and plant growth promoting properties such as IAA production, HCN production, phosphate solubilization, siderophore production, starch hydrolysis and hydrolytic enzymes syntheses were identified in OM5 (Pantoea agglomerans) and EM9 (Exiguobacterium sp.) of 24 studied isolates. Seeds (Chili and tomato) inoculation with plant growth promoting strains resulted in increased percentage of seedling emergence, root length and plant weight. Results indicated that co-inoculation gave a more pronounced effects on seedling emergence, secondary root numbers, primary root length and stem length, while inoculation by alone isolate showed a lower effect. Our results suggest that the mixed inocula of OM5 and EM9 strains as biofertilizers could significantly increase the production of food crops in Andaman archipelago by means of sustainable and organic agricultural system.

  9. Indole-3-acetic acid biosynthetic pathway and aromatic amino acid aminotransferase activities in Pantoea dispersa strain GPK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, G B; Nayak, A S; Sajjan, S S; Oblesha, A; Karegoudar, T B

    2013-05-01

    This investigation deals with the production of IAA by a bacterial isolate Pantoea dispersa strain GPK (PDG) identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. HPLC and Mass spectral analysis of metabolites from bacterial spent medium revealed that, IAA production by PDG is Trp-dependent and follows indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPyA) pathway. Substrate specificity study of aromatic amino acid aminotransferase (AAT) showed high activities, only when tryptophan (Trp) and α-ketoglutarate (α-kg) were used as substrates. AAT is highly specific for Trp and α-kg as amino group donor and acceptor, respectively. The effect of exogenous IAA on bacterial growth was established. Low concentration of exogenous IAA induced the growth, whereas high concentration decreased the growth of bacterium. PDG treatment significantly increased the root length, shoot length and dry mass of the chickpea and pigeon pea plants. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Involvement of Fenton chemistry in rice straw degradation by the lignocellulolytic bacterium Pantoea ananatis Sd-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jiangshan; Zhang, Keke; Huang, Mei; Hector, Stanton B; Liu, Bin; Tong, Chunyi; Liu, Qian; Zeng, Jiarui; Gao, Yan; Xu, Ting; Liu, Ying; Liu, Xuanming; Zhu, Yonghua

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulolytic bacteria have revealed to be a promising source for biofuel production, yet the underlying mechanisms are still worth exploring. Our previous study inferred that the highly efficient lignocellulose degradation by bacterium Pantoea ananatis Sd-1 might involve Fenton chemistry (Fe 2+  + H 2 O 2  + H +  → Fe 3+  + OH· + H 2 O), similar to that of white-rot and brown-rot fungi. The aim of this work is to investigate the existence of this Fenton-based oxidation mechanism in the rice straw degradation process of P. ananatis Sd-1. After 3 days incubation of unpretreated rice straw with P. ananatis Sd-1, the percentage in weight reduction of rice straw as well as its cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin components reached 46.7, 43.1, 42.9, and 37.9 %, respectively. The addition of different hydroxyl radical scavengers resulted in a significant decline ( P  Fenton reagent treatment. In addition to the increased total iron ion concentration throughout the rice straw decomposition process, the Fe 3+ -reducing capacity of P. ananatis Sd-1 was induced by rice straw and predominantly contributed by aromatic compounds metabolites. The transcript levels of the glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase gene related to hydrogen peroxide production were significantly up-regulated (at least P  Fenton-like reactions. Our results confirmed the Fenton chemistry-assisted degradation model in P. ananatis Sd-1. We are among the first to show that a Fenton-based oxidation mechanism exists in a bacteria degradation system, which provides a new perspective for how natural plant biomass is decomposed by bacteria. This degradative system may offer an alternative approach to the fungi system for lignocellulosic biofuels production.

  11. Influence of endogenous plasmids on phenotypes of Pantoea vagans strain C9-1 associated with epiphytic fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoea vagans strain C9-1 is an effective biological control agent for fire blight of pear and apple. C9-1 carries three circular plasmids: pPag1 (168 kb), pPag2 (166 kb), and pPag3 (530 kb). Of these, pPag3, a member of the large Pantoea plasmid family, was proposed to contribute to epiphytic fitn...

  12. A single genetic locus in the phytopathogen Pantoea stewartii enables gut colonization and pathogenicity in an insect host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinides, John; No, Alexander; Ochman, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Aphids are typically exposed to a variety of epiphytic and phytopathogenic bacteria, many of which have entomopathogenic potential. Here we describe the interaction between Pantoea stewartii ssp. stewartii DC283 (DC283), an enteric phytopathogen and causal agent of Stewart's wilt, and the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. When ingested by aphids, DC283 establishes and aggregates in the crop and gut, preventing honeydew flow and excretion, resulting in aphid death in 72 h. A mutagenesis screen identified a single locus, termed ucp1 (youcannot pass), whose disruption abolishes aphid pathogenicity. Moreover, the expression of ucp1 in Escherichia coli is sufficient to mediate the hindgut aggregation phenotype by this normally avirulent species. Ucp1 is related to six other proteins in the DC283 genome, each having a common N-terminal region and a divergent C-terminus, but only ucp1 has a role in pathogenicity. Based on predicted motifs and secondary structure, Ucp1 is a membrane-bound protein that functions in bacterial adhesion and promotes the formation of aggregates that are lethal to the insect host. These results illustrate that the enteric plant pathogenic bacteria have the capacity to exploit alternative non-plant hosts, and retain genetic determinants for colonizing the gut.

  13. Pantoea hericii sp. nov., Isolated from the Fruiting Bodies of Hericium erinaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Chengbo; Ma, Yuanwei; Wang, Shouxian; Liu, Yu; Chen, Sanfeng; Huang, Bin; Wang, Jing; Xu, Feng

    2016-06-01

    Three Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacterial isolates were obtained from the fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom Hericium erinaceus showing symptoms of soft rot disease in Beijing, China. Sequences of partial 16S rRNA gene placed these isolates in the genus Pantoea. Multilocus sequence analysis based on the partial sequences of atpD, gyrB, infB and rpoB revealed P. eucalypti and P. anthophila as their closest phylogenetic relatives and indicated that these isolates constituted a possible novel species. DNA-DNA hybridization studies confirmed the classification of these isolates as a novel species and phenotypic tests allowed for differentiation from the closest phylogenetic neighbours. The name Pantoea hericii sp. nov. [Type strain LMG 28847(T) = CGMCC 1.15224(T) = JZB 2120024(T)] is proposed.

  14. Draft genome sequence of Pantoea agglomerans JM1, a strain isolated from soil polluted by industrial production of Beta-Lactam antibiotics that exhibits valacyclovir-like hydrolase activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zahradník, Jiří; Plačková, Martina; Palyzová, Andrea; Marešová, Helena; Kyslíková, Eva; Kyslík, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 38 (2017), č. článku e00921-17. ISSN 2169-8287 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : 6 nitro 3 (phenylacetamido)benzoic acid * beta lactam antibiotic * topoisomerase (ATP hydrolysing) B Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology

  15. Pantoea ananatis Genetic Diversity Analysis Reveals Limited Genomic Diversity as Well as Accessory Genes Correlated with Onion Pathogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun P. Stice

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Pantoea ananatis is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and an enigmatic plant pathogen with a broad host range. Although P. ananatis strains can be aggressive on onion causing foliar necrosis and onion center rot, previous genomic analysis has shown that P. ananatis lacks the primary virulence secretion systems associated with other plant pathogens. We assessed a collection of fifty P. ananatis strains collected from Georgia over three decades to determine genetic factors that correlated with onion pathogenic potential. Previous genetic analysis studies have compared strains isolated from different hosts with varying diseases potential and isolation sources. Strains varied greatly in their pathogenic potential and aggressiveness on different cultivated Allium species like onion, leek, shallot, and chive. Using multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA and repetitive extragenic palindrome repeat (rep-PCR techniques, we did not observe any correlation between onion pathogenic potential and genetic diversity among strains. Whole genome sequencing and pan-genomic analysis of a sub-set of 10 strains aided in the identification of a novel series of genetic regions, likely plasmid borne, and correlating with onion pathogenicity observed on single contigs of the genetic assemblies. We named these loci Onion Virulence Regions (OVR A-D. The OVR loci contain genes involved in redox regulation as well as pectate lyase and rhamnogalacturonase genes. Previous studies have not identified distinct genetic loci or plasmids correlating with onion foliar pathogenicity or pathogenicity on a single host pathosystem. The lack of focus on a single host system for this phytopathgenic disease necessitates the pan-genomic analysis performed in this study.

  16. The Immunogenicity of a Biological Simulant: Strategies for the Improvement of Antibody-Based Detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grahame, David A; Gencic, Simonida; Bronk, Burt V

    2005-01-01

    .... The bacterium Pantoea agglomerans (formerly Erwinia herbicola, Eh) presently is used to simulate vegetative biological agents, however, anti-Eh antibodies of high affinity and specificity are needed...

  17. Quorum-sensing regulation governs bacterial adhesion, biofilm development, and host colonization in Pantoea stewartii subspecies stewartii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsoudis, Maria D; Tsaltas, Dimitrios; Minogue, Timothy D; von Bodman, Susanne B

    2006-04-11

    The phytopathogenic bacterium Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii synthesizes stewartan exo/capsular polysaccharide (EPS) in a cell density-dependent manner governed by the EsaI/EsaR quorum-sensing (QS) system. This study analyzes biofilm development and host colonization of the WT and QS regulatory mutant strains of P. stewartii. First, we show that the cell density-dependent synthesis of stewartan EPS, governed by the EsaI/EsaR QS system, is required for proper bacterial adhesion and development of spatially defined, 3D biofilms. Second, a nonvirulent mutant lacking the esaI gene adheres strongly to surfaces and develops densely packed, less structurally defined biofilms in vitro. This strain appears to be arrested in a low cell density developmental mode. Exposure of this strain to exogenous N-acyl-homoserine lactone counteracts this adhesion phenotype. Third, QS mutants lacking the EsaR repressor attach poorly to surfaces and form amorphous biofilms heavily enmeshed in excess EPS. Fourth, the WT strain disseminates efficiently within the xylem, primarily in a basipetal direction. In contrast, the two QS mutant strains remain largely localized at the site of infection. Fifth, and most significantly, epifluorescence microscopic imaging of infected leaf tissue and excised xylem vessels reveals that the bacteria colonize the xylem with unexpected specificity, particularly toward the annular rings and spiral secondary wall thickenings of protoxylem, as opposed to indiscriminate growth to fill the xylem lumen. These observations are significant to bacterial plant pathogenesis in general and may reveal targets for disease control.

  18. Biofilm formation as a method of survival of Escherichia coli and Pantoea spp in the marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzoleva, L. S.; Golozubova, Y. S.; Eskova, A. I.; Kim, A. V.; Bogatyrenko, E. A.

    2018-01-01

    The article shows the formation of biofilms of bacteria Escherichia and Pantoea, which were isolated from sea water, both in monoculture and in associations with marine heterotrophs. It studied the influence of the nutrient medium and temperature on the biofilm-forming properties of marine strains. The highest biofilm formation properties were found in monoculture in family enterobacteria compared to saprophytic marine bacteria, regardless of the medium and the culture temperature. In association with saprophytes, Pantoea spp. possess more pronounced biofilm-forming properties at 37 ° C compared to the control than at 22 ° C and 5 ° C irrespective of the culture medium. Escherichia coli, in association with saprophytes, have less pronounced biofilm formation properties than monoculture, regardless of the temperature and culture medium.

  19. Tingkat Keterjadian Penyakit Layu Stewart pada Benih dan Respon beberapa Varietas Jagung terhadap Infeksi Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haliatur Rahma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Disease incidence of Stewart’s wilt on the seed and response of several maize varieties to Pantoea stewartii subp. stewartii. Stewart’s wilt disease of maize is caused by Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii.  This bacterium is seed-borne pathogens, when attacked maize caused yield lost 40-100%.  The objective of this research was to detemine the incidence level of stewart’s wilt disease, growth of some varieties of maize and their response to stewart’s wilt pathogens Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii.  The research was conducted in the Laboratory of Bacteriology and Greenhouse Cikabayan IPB from November 2011 to March 2012. In experiment I, nineteen samples of maize were used for symptom test  in the maize seedling stage, using Randomized Block Design with three replications. Experiment II used a Randomized Block Design with 2 factors: maize varieties (8 hybrids varieties, 3 open pollinated varieties, and 7 sweet corn varieties and bacteria isolates  (BGR 2, BGR 4, BGR 28, BGR7 and PSM 27, with three replications. The results showed in experiment I, the incidence of stewart’s wilt disease ranged 2.00 – 15.33%, germination and vigor index of maize seed were 68.00 – 95.33% and 55.33 – 90.67% respectively.  While in experiment II, hybrid and open pollinated of maize varieties were resistant to moderately susceptible   while all sweet corn varieties were susceptible to infection of Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii.

  20. Pseudomonas, Pantoea and Cupriavidus isolates induce calcium carbonate precipitation for biorestoration of ornamental stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskalakis, M I; Magoulas, A; Kotoulas, G; Catsikis, I; Bakolas, A; Karageorgis, A P; Mavridou, A; Doulia, D; Rigas, F

    2013-08-01

    Bacterially induced calcium carbonate precipitation from various isolates was investigated aiming at developing an environmentally friendly technique for ornamental stone protection and restoration. Micro-organisms isolated from stone samples and identified using 16S rDNA and biochemical tests promoted calcium carbonate precipitation in solid and novel liquid growth media. Biomineral morphology was studied on marble samples with scanning electron microscopy. Most isolates demonstrated specimen weight increase, covering partially or even completely the marble surfaces mainly with vaterite. The conditions under which vaterite precipitated and its stability throughout the experimental runs are presented. A growth medium that facilitated bacterial growth of different species and promoted biomineralization was formulated. Most isolates induced biomineralization of CaCO3 . Micro-organisms may actually be a milestone in the investigation of vaterite formation facilitating our understanding of geomicrobiological interactions. Pseudomonas, Pantoea and Cupriavidus strains could be candidates for bioconsolidation of ornamental stone protection. Characterization of biomineralization capacity of different bacterial species improves understanding of the bacterially induced mineralization processes and enriches the list of candidates for biorestoration applications. Knowledge of biomineral morphology assists in differentiating mineral from biologically induced precipitates. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Perlakuan Panas Kering dan Bakterisida untuk Menekan Infeksi Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii pada Benih Jagung Manis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suswi Nalis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Stewart’s Wilt is an important bacterial disease of sweet corn caused by Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (synonim Erwinia stewartii. This bacteria is a seed transmitted pathogen therefore seed treatment is one method to control stewart’s wilt. The aim of this research was to study the effectiveness of dry heat, bactericide treatment, and their combinations to eliminate P. stewartii subsp. stewartii infection on sweet corn seed without damaging seed quality. The research was conducted in 3 experiments. Experiment I was conducted to determine the treatment window of dry heat and bactericide treatment. The treatment was carried out on sweet corn seed using the P. stewartii subsp. stewartii in vitro. Experiment II was conducted to study dry heat and bactericide treatment on sweet corn seed infested by P. stewartii subsp. stewartii. Experiment III was conducted to study combination of dry heat and bactericide treatment on sweet corn seed infested by P. stewartii subsp. stewartii. The results showed that dry heat treatment at 50 °C for 24 hours was able to eliminate pathogen populations in vitro but was unable to eliminate the 128 pathogen on infected seed (in vivo. Germination tests indicated that seed treatments with dry heat up to 55 °C did not decrease the germination level. The use of bactericide treatment in 100 ppm could reduce the population of bacteria on sweet corn seeds. Bactericide concentration of 150 and 200 ppm could decrease the population of bacteria on sweet corn seeds, however it could cause phytotoxic effect. The combination of bactericide (100 ppm, w/v with dry heat treatment (55 °C for 24 hours was able to eliminate bacteria on infected seed with seed germination above 85%.

  2. Galactooligosaccharide Production from Pantoea anthophila Strains Isolated from “Tejuino”, a Mexican Traditional Fermented Beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia V. Yañez-Ñeco

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Two Pantoea anthophila bacterial strains were isolated from “tejuino”, a traditional Mexican beverage, and studied as β-galactosidase producers for galactooligosaccharides synthesis. Using 400 g/L of lactose, 50 °C, and 15 U/mL of β-galactosidase activity with ethanol-permeabilized cells, the maximum galactooligosaccharides (GOS yield determined by High performance anion exchange chromatography with pulse amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD was 136 g/L (34% w/w of total sugars at 96% of lactose conversion for Bac 55.2 and 145 g/L (36% w/w of total sugars at 94% of lactose conversion for Bac 69.1. The main synthesized products were the disaccharides allolactose [Gal-β(1 → 6-Glc] and 6-galactobiose [Gal-β(1 → 6-Gal], as well as the trisaccharides 3′-galactosyl-lactose [Gal-β(1 → 3-Gal-β(1 → 4-Glc], 6-galactotriose [Gal-β(1 → 6-Gal-β(1 → 6-Gal], 3′-galactosyl-allolactose [Gal-β(1 → 3-Gal-β(1 → 6-Glc], and 6′-galactosyl-lactose [Gal-β(1 → 6-Gal-β(1 → 4-Glc]. The β-galactosidases present in both strains showed a high transgalactosylation activity and formed principally β(1 → 3 and β(1 → 6 linkages. Considering the stability and bifidogenic properties of GOS containing such types of bonds, P. anthophila strains Bac 55.2 and Bac 69.1 possess a high potential as novel biocatalysts for prebiotic industrial production.

  3. Novel Glucose-1-Phosphatase with High Phytase Activity and Unusual Metal Ion Activation from Soil Bacterium Pantoea sp. Strain 3.5.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleimanova, Aliya D; Beinhauer, Astrid; Valeeva, Liia R; Chastukhina, Inna B; Balaban, Nelly P; Shakirov, Eugene V; Greiner, Ralf; Sharipova, Margarita R

    2015-10-01

    Phosphorus is an important macronutrient, but its availability in soil is limited. Many soil microorganisms improve the bioavailability of phosphate by releasing it from various organic compounds, including phytate. To investigate the diversity of phytate-hydrolyzing bacteria in soil, we sampled soils of various ecological habitats, including forest, private homesteads, large agricultural complexes, and urban landscapes. Bacterial isolate Pantoea sp. strain 3.5.1 with the highest level of phytase activity was isolated from forest soil and investigated further. The Pantoea sp. 3.5.1 agpP gene encoding a novel glucose-1-phosphatase with high phytase activity was identified, and the corresponding protein was purified to apparent homogeneity, sequenced by mass spectroscopy, and biochemically characterized. The AgpP enzyme exhibits maximum activity and stability at pH 4.5 and at 37°C. The enzyme belongs to a group of histidine acid phosphatases and has the lowest Km values toward phytate, glucose-6-phosphate, and glucose-1-phosphate. Unexpectedly, stimulation of enzymatic activity by several divalent metal ions was observed for the AgpP enzyme. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and high-performance ion chromatography (HPIC) analyses of phytate hydrolysis products identify dl-myo-inositol 1,2,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate as the final product of the reaction, indicating that the Pantoea sp. AgpP glucose-1-phosphatase can be classified as a 3-phytase. The identification of the Pantoea sp. AgpP phytase and its unusual regulation by metal ions highlight the remarkable diversity of phosphorus metabolism regulation in soil bacteria. Furthermore, our data indicate that natural forest soils harbor rich reservoirs of novel phytate-hydrolyzing enzymes with unique biochemical features. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Characterization of the rcsA Gene from Pantoea sp. Strain PPE7 and Its Influence on Extracellular Polysaccharide Production and Virulence on Pleurotus eryngii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Keun Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available RcsA is a positive activator of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS synthesis in the Enterobacteriaceae. The rcsA gene of the soft rot pathogen Pantoea sp. strain PPE7 in Pleurotus eryngii was cloned by PCR amplification, and its role in EPS synthesis and virulence was investigated. The RcsA protein contains 3 highly conserved domains, and the C-terminal end of the open reading frame shared significant amino acid homology to the helix-turn-helix DNA binding motif of bacterial activator proteins. The inactivation of rcsA by insertional mutagenesis created mutants that had decreased production of EPS compared to the wild-type strain and abolished the virulence of Pantoea sp. strain PPE7 in P. eryngii. The Pantoea sp. strain PPE7 rcsA gene was shown to strongly affect the formation of the disease symptoms of a mushroom pathogen and to act as the virulence factor to cause soft rot disease in P. eryngii.

  5. Chryseobacterium indologenes improves survival of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ), Pantoea agglomerans (4 and 5), Enterobacter asburiae (6) and Bacillus megaterium (7), were isolated together from a nest of Crematogaster biroi. In the duel species competition experiments, C. violaceum (3) inhibited the growth of C.

  6. Detecting cotton boll rot with an electronic nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina Boll Rot is an emerging disease of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., caused by the opportunistic bacteria, Pantoea agglomerans (Ewing and Fife). Unlike typical fungal diseases, bolls infected with P. agglomerans continue to appear normal externally, complicating early and rapid detectio...

  7. Avaliação de produtos químicos comerciais, in vitro e in vivo, no controle da doença foliar, mancha branca do milho, causada por Pantoea ananatis Evaluation of commercial chemical products, in vitro and in vivo in the control of foliar disease, maize white spot, caused by Pantoea ananais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleide Aparecida Bomfeti

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Uma bactéria identificada como Pantoea ananatis foi recentemente isolada de lesões jovens da doença mancha branca do milho de plantas naturalmente infectadas. Esta bateria reproduziu sintomas semelhantes aos da doença quando inoculada em plantas de milho em casa de vegetação. Estudos anteriores realizados por outros autores demonstraram que o controle desta doença em condições de campo foi obtido pelo uso de fungicidas, principalmente o Mancozeb, nas fases iniciais de seu desenvolvimento. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a freqüência de isolamento da bactéria P. ananatis a partir de plantas infectadas coletadas na região de Londrina, Estado do Paraná, e reproduzir sintomas da doença através de inoculações artificiais em plantas de milho em casa de vegetação. Utilizando os produtos químicos testados anteriormente por outros autores para o controle desta doença a campo, foi também objetivo deste trabalho avaliar o potencial destes produtos na inibição da bactéria tanto em condições de laboratório como em condições de infecção natural. Os resultados mostraram que P. ananatis foi isolada em 40% das lesões jovens coletadas a campo e quando inoculada em casa de vegetação sob condições controladas reproduziu sintomas semelhantes aos observados a campo. Entre os produtos químicos testados, o fungicida Mancozeb mostrou-se eficiente no controle da doença a campo, em concordância com os relatos anteriores. Este produto inibiu completamente o crescimento da bactéria em laboratório, explicando os resultados obtidos a campo. Os demais produtos não foram eficientes no controle a campo e eles também não inibiram a bactéria em laboratório. Estes resultados representam evidências adicionais de que a bactéria P. ananatis é o agente causal da doença mancha branca do milho.A bacterium identified as Pantoea ananatis was recently isolated from young lesions of the disease maize white spot from infected plants in

  8. Promiscuous Diffusible Signal Factor Production and Responsiveness of the Xylella fastidiosa Rpf System

    OpenAIRE

    Ionescu, Michael; Yokota, Kenji; Antonova, Elena; Garcia, Angelica; Beaulieu, Ellen; Hayes, Terry; Iavarone, Anthony T.; Lindow, Steven E.

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 Ionescu et al. Cell density-dependent regulation of gene expression in Xylella fastidiosa that is crucial to its switching between plant hosts and insect vectors is dependent on RpfF and its production of 2-enoic acids known as diffusible signal factor (DSF). We show that X. fastidiosa produces a particularly large variety of similar, relatively long-chain-length 2-enoic acids that are active in modulating gene expression. Both X. fastidiosa itself and a Pantoea agglomerans surrogate h...

  9. Metabolic versatility and antibacterial metabolite biosynthesis are distinguishing genomic features of the fire blight antagonist Pantoea vagans C9-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo H M Smits

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pantoea vagans is a commercialized biological control agent used against the pome fruit bacterial disease fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora. Compared to other biocontrol agents, relatively little is currently known regarding Pantoea genetics. Better understanding of antagonist mechanisms of action and ecological fitness is critical to improving efficacy. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Genome analysis indicated two major factors Contribute to biocontrol activity: competition for limiting substrates and antibacterial metabolite production. Pathways for utilization of a broad diversity of sugars and acquisition of iron were identified. Metabolism of sorbitol by P. vagans C9-1 may be a major metabolic feature in biocontrol of fire blight. Biosynthetic genes for the antibacterial peptide pantocin A were found on a chromosomal 28-kb genomic island, and for dapdiamide E on the plasmid pPag2. There was no evidence of potential virulence factors that could enable an animal or phytopathogenic lifestyle and no indication of any genetic-based biosafety risk in the antagonist. CONCLUSIONS: Identifying key determinants contributing to disease suppression allows the development of procedures to follow their expression in planta and the genome sequence contributes to rationale risk assessment regarding the use of the biocontrol strain in agricultural systems.

  10. Use of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Profiles to Compare Copper-Tolerant and Copper-Sensitive Strains of Pantoea ananatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nischwitz, C; Gitaitis, R; Sanders, H; Langston, D; Mullinix, B; Torrance, R; Boyhan, G; Zolobowska, L

    2007-10-01

    ABSTRACT A survey was conducted to evaluate differences in fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles among strains of Pantoea ananatis, causal agent of center rot of onion (Allium cepa), isolated from 15 different onion cultivars in three different sites in Georgia. Differences in FAME composition were determined by plotting principal components (PCs) in two-dimensional plots. Euclidean distance squared (ED(2)) values indicated a high degree of similarity among strains. Plotting of PCs calculated from P. ananatis strains capable of growing on media amended with copper sulfate pentahydrate (200 mug/ml) indicated that copper-tolerant strains grouped into tight clusters separate from clusters formed by wild-type strains. However, unlike copper-sensitive strains, the copper-tolerant strains tended to cluster by location. A total of 80, 60, and 73% of the strains from Tift1, Tift2, and Tattnall, respectively, exhibited either confluent growth or partial growth on copper-amended medium. However, all strains were sensitive to a mixture of copper sulfate pentahydrate (200 mug/ml) and maneb (40 mug/ml). When copper-tolerant clones were analyzed and compared with their wild-type parents, in all cases the plotting of PCs developed from copper-tolerant clones formed tight clusters separate from clusters formed by the parents. Eigenvalues generated from these tests indicated that two components provided a good summary of the data, accounting for 98, 98, and 96% of the standardized variance for strains Pna 1-15B, Pna 1-12B, and Pna 2-5A, respectively. Furthermore, feature 4 (cis-9-hexadecenoic acid/2-hydroxy-13-methyltetradecanoic acid) and feature 7 (cis-9/trans-12/cis-7-octadecenoic acid) were the highest or second highest absolute values for PC1 in all three strains of the parents versus copper-tolerant clones, and hexadecanoic acid was the highest absolute value for PC2 in all three strains. Along with those fatty acids, dodecanoic acid and feature 3 (3-hydroxytetradecanoic

  11. The survival of pathogens in soil treated with wastewater sludge and in potatoes grown in such soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chale-Matsau, J R B; Snyman, H G

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of pathogens on potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) grown in soil amended with a pathogen rich wastewater sludge was investigated. Bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae are important pathogens causing intestinal and systemic illness of humans and other animals. Type B sludge was used. Sludges investigated are the high metal and the low metal sludges. Microorganisms in the sludge-amended soil were using culture-based technique. Salmonella and E. coli were observed in tested soil samples. No microorganisms were isolated from control samples taken throughout the process of the experiment. At harvest time, some of the potato samples from LMS soil were contaminated. These potatoes were subjected to further investigation using molecular techniques (polymerase chain reaction) with fD1 and rP2 as primers. Organisms identified from the sequenced potato peel samples with the BLAST search tool included Enterobacter agglomerans (Pantoea agglomerans), several Buttiauxella spp., Pectobacterium spp., Erwinia spp. and a few Pantoea spp. Other than the E. agglomerans, which is commonly found in the gut and upper respiratory tract of humans and in the environment, all the other species identified were found to be mainly either plant or soil pathogens. The E. agglomerans are not primary pathogens but secondary opportunistic pathogens particularly in immunocompromised individuals. These results suggest that growing high risk crops using wastewater sludge contaminated soil may lead to limited infestation of produce with primary pathogens. It appears that the use of HMS due to early pathogen die-off provides less risk of infection than the LMS. However, proper treatment of wastewater sludge to reduce pathogen load is essential prior to its use as soil conditioner.

  12. Comparative genomics of the type VI secretion systems of Pantoea and Erwinia species reveals the presence of putative effector islands that may be translocated by the VgrG and Hcp proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Maayer Pieter

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Type VI secretion apparatus is assembled by a conserved set of proteins encoded within a distinct locus. The putative effector proteins Hcp and VgrG are also encoded within these loci. We have identified numerous distinct Type VI secretion system (T6SS loci in the genomes of several ecologically diverse Pantoea and Erwinia species and detected the presence of putative effector islands associated with the hcp and vgrG genes. Results Between two and four T6SS loci occur among the Pantoea and Erwinia species. While two of the loci (T6SS-1 and T6SS-2 are well conserved among the various strains, the third (T6SS-3 locus is not universally distributed. Additional orthologous loci are present in Pantoea sp. aB-valens and Erwinia billingiae Eb661. Comparative analysis of the T6SS-1 and T6SS-3 loci showed non-conserved islands associated with the vgrG and hcp, and vgrG genes, respectively. These regions had a G+C content far lower than the conserved portions of the loci. Many of the proteins encoded within the hcp and vgrG islands carry conserved domains, which suggests they may serve as effector proteins for the T6SS. A number of the proteins also show homology to the C-terminal extensions of evolved VgrG proteins. Conclusions Extensive diversity was observed in the number and content of the T6SS loci among the Pantoea and Erwinia species. Genomic islands could be observed within some of T6SS loci, which are associated with the hcp and vgrG proteins and carry putative effector domain proteins. We propose new hypotheses concerning a role for these islands in the acquisition of T6SS effectors and the development of novel evolved VgrG and Hcp proteins.

  13. Herbivore Oral Secreted Bacteria Trigger Distinct Defense Responses in Preferred and Non-Preferred Host Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Chung, Seung Ho; Peiffer, Michelle; Rosa, Cristina; Hoover, Kelli; Zeng, Rensen; Felton, Gary W

    2016-06-01

    Insect symbiotic bacteria affect host physiology and mediate plant-insect interactions, yet there are few clear examples of symbiotic bacteria regulating defense responses in different host plants. We hypothesized that plants would induce distinct defense responses to herbivore- associated bacteria. We evaluated whether preferred hosts (horsenettle) or non-preferred hosts (tomato) respond similarly to oral secretions (OS) from the false potato beetle (FPB, Leptinotarsa juncta), and whether the induced defense triggered by OS was due to the presence of symbiotic bacteria in OS. Both horsenettle and tomato damaged by antibiotic (AB) treated larvae showed higher polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity than those damaged by non-AB treated larvae. In addition, application of OS from AB treated larvae induced higher PPO activity compared with OS from non-AB treated larvae or water treatment. False potato beetles harbor bacteria that may provide abundant cues that can be recognized by plants and thus mediate corresponding defense responses. Among all tested bacterial isolates, the genera Pantoea, Acinetobacter, Enterobacter, and Serratia were found to suppress PPO activity in tomato, while only Pantoea sp. among these four isolates was observed to suppress PPO activity in horsenettle. The distinct PPO suppression caused by symbiotic bacteria in different plants was similar to the pattern of induced defense-related gene expression. Pantoea inoculated FPB suppressed JA-responsive genes and triggered a SA-responsive gene in both tomato and horsenettle. However, Enterobacter inoculated FPB eliminated JA-regulated gene expression and elevated SA-regulated gene expression in tomato, but did not show evident effects on the expression levels of horsenettle defense-related genes. These results indicate that suppression of plant defenses by the bacteria found in the oral secretions of herbivores may be a more widespread phenomenon than previously indicated.

  14. Substrate specificity of glucose dehydrogenase and carbon source utilization pattern of pantoea dispersa strain P2 and its radiation induced mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Keun; Murugesan, Senthilkumar

    2009-01-01

    Mineral phosphate solubilizing pantoea dispersa strain P2 produced 5.5 mM and 42.6 mM of gluconic acid on 24 h and 72 h incubation, respectively. Strain P2 exhibited glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) specific activity of 0.32 IU mg -1 protein. We have studied the substrate specificity of GDH as well as carbon source utilization pattern of strain P2. GDH of strain P2 did not use ribose as substrate. Utilization of lactose with specific activity of 0.65 IU mg -1 protein indicated that the enzyme belongs to GDH type B isozyme. Arabinose, galactose, ribose, sucrose and xylose did not induce the synthesis of GDH enzyme while mannose induced the synthesis of GDH with highest specific activity of 0.58 IU mg -1 protein. Through radiation mutagenesis, the substrate specificity of GDH was modified in order to utilize side range of sugars available in root exudates. Ribose, originally not a substrate for GDH of strain P2 was utilized as substrate by mutants P2-M5 with specific activity of 0.44 and 0.57 IU mg -1 protein, respectively. Specific activity of GDH on the media containing lactose and galactose was also improved to 1.2 and 0.52 IU mg -1 protein in P2-M5 and P2-M6 respectively. Based on the carbon source availability in root exudate, the mutants can be selected and utilized as efficient biofertilizer under P-deficient soil conditions

  15. Substrate specificity of glucose dehydrogenase and carbon source utilization pattern of pantoea dispersa strain P2 and its radiation induced mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Keun; Murugesan, Senthilkumar [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    Mineral phosphate solubilizing pantoea dispersa strain P2 produced 5.5 mM and 42.6 mM of gluconic acid on 24 h and 72 h incubation, respectively. Strain P2 exhibited glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) specific activity of 0.32 IU mg{sup -1} protein. We have studied the substrate specificity of GDH as well as carbon source utilization pattern of strain P2. GDH of strain P2 did not use ribose as substrate. Utilization of lactose with specific activity of 0.65 IU mg{sup -1} protein indicated that the enzyme belongs to GDH type B isozyme. Arabinose, galactose, ribose, sucrose and xylose did not induce the synthesis of GDH enzyme while mannose induced the synthesis of GDH with highest specific activity of 0.58 IU mg{sup -1} protein. Through radiation mutagenesis, the substrate specificity of GDH was modified in order to utilize side range of sugars available in root exudates. Ribose, originally not a substrate for GDH of strain P2 was utilized as substrate by mutants P2-M5 with specific activity of 0.44 and 0.57 IU mg{sup -1} protein, respectively. Specific activity of GDH on the media containing lactose and galactose was also improved to 1.2 and 0.52 IU mg{sup -1} protein in P2-M5 and P2-M6 respectively. Based on the carbon source availability in root exudate, the mutants can be selected and utilized as efficient biofertilizer under P-deficient soil conditions.

  16. [Phytopathogenic bacteria of couch-grass in the crops of wheat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovleva, L M; Patyka, V F; Gvozdiak, R I; Shcherbina, T N

    2009-01-01

    Bacterialdiseases of weeds in the crops of wheat on the fields of Kyiv and Vinnytsya regions of Ukraine Elytrigia repens (L.) Nevski Agropyrum repens L. were revealed. The following symptoms of bacterial affections: the leaves wither, oval or hatched necrotic spots on green leaves, necroses on the stalks, empty-ears, partial blackening of the ear axes, awns, caryopsises, scales, water-soaked or dark brown with violet shade spots on the rhizomes were found. During the vegetation period bacteria were isolated from the affected plants which caused pathological process in the couch-grass and wheat. The pathogenic bacteria were identified as Pseudomonas syringae, P. viridiflava, Pseudomonas sp., Erwinia carotovora pv. carotovora, Pantoea agglomerans, the part of yellow-pigmentary isolates were not identified. Some Psyringae were isolated from the rhizomes during winterthawing. The paper is presented in Ukrainian.

  17. Isolation and Identification of Endophytic Bacteria with Plant Growth Promoting Activity and Biocontrol Potential from Wild Pistachio Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etminani, Faegheh; Harighi, Behrouz

    2018-06-01

    In this study, samples were collected from the leaves and stems of healthy wild Pistachio trees ( Pistacia atlantica L.) from various locations of Baneh and Marivan regions, Iran. In total, 61 endophytic bacteria were isolated and grouped according to phenotypic properties. Ten selected isolates from each group were further identified by partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Based on the results, isolates were identified as bacteria belonging to Pseudomonas , Stenotrophomonas , Bacillus , Pantoea and Serratia genus. The ability of these isolates was evaluated to phytohormone production such as auxin and gibberellin, siderophore production, phosphate solubilization, atmospheric nitrogen fixation, protease and hydrogen cyanide production. All strains were able to produce the plant growth hormone auxin and gibberellin in different amounts. The majority of strains were able to solubilize phosphate. The results of atmospheric nitrogen fixation ability, protease and siderophore production were varied among strains. Only Ba66 could produce a low amount of hydrogen cyanide. The results of biocontrol assay showed that Pb78 and Sp15 strains had the highest and lowest inhibition effects on bacterial plant pathogens, Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae Pss20 and Pseudomonas tolaasii Pt18 under in vitro condition. Pb3, Pb24 and Pb71 strains significantly promote root formation on carrot slices. To our knowledge this is the first report of the isolation of endophytic bacterial strains belonging to Pantoea , Bacillus , Pseudomonas , Serratia and Stenotrophomonas genus from wild pistachio trees with plant growth promoting potential and biocontrol activity.

  18. Isolation and Identification of Endophytic Bacteria with Plant Growth Promoting Activity and Biocontrol Potential from Wild Pistachio Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etminani, Faegheh; Harighi, Behrouz

    2018-01-01

    In this study, samples were collected from the leaves and stems of healthy wild Pistachio trees (Pistacia atlantica L.) from various locations of Baneh and Marivan regions, Iran. In total, 61 endophytic bacteria were isolated and grouped according to phenotypic properties. Ten selected isolates from each group were further identified by partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Based on the results, isolates were identified as bacteria belonging to Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, Pantoea and Serratia genus. The ability of these isolates was evaluated to phytohormone production such as auxin and gibberellin, siderophore production, phosphate solubilization, atmospheric nitrogen fixation, protease and hydrogen cyanide production. All strains were able to produce the plant growth hormone auxin and gibberellin in different amounts. The majority of strains were able to solubilize phosphate. The results of atmospheric nitrogen fixation ability, protease and siderophore production were varied among strains. Only Ba66 could produce a low amount of hydrogen cyanide. The results of biocontrol assay showed that Pb78 and Sp15 strains had the highest and lowest inhibition effects on bacterial plant pathogens, Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae Pss20 and Pseudomonas tolaasii Pt18 under in vitro condition. Pb3, Pb24 and Pb71 strains significantly promote root formation on carrot slices. To our knowledge this is the first report of the isolation of endophytic bacterial strains belonging to Pantoea, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Serratia and Stenotrophomonas genus from wild pistachio trees with plant growth promoting potential and biocontrol activity. PMID:29887777

  19. [Isolation, identification and characterization of ACC deaminase-containing endophytic bacteria from halophyte Suaeda salsa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Songshan; Liu, Yanping; Zhao, Lei

    2010-11-01

    We Isolated and characterized 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase-containing endophytic bacteria from halophyte Suaeda salsa to understand the interactions between endophytes and halophyte. ACC deaminase-containing endophytic bacteria were isolated from root, stalk and leaf of Suaeda salsa and were identified based on morphological, physiological-biochemical properties, API and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Isolates were evaluated for their ACC deaminase, antifungal, protease activity, siderophores and phytohormones, such as indole-3-acetic acid, gibberellic acid and abscisic acid production, as well as atmospheric nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization. Four ACC deaminase-containing endophytic bacteria strains named as LP11, SS12, TW1 and TW2 were isolated and identified as Pseudomonas oryzihabitans, Pseudomonas sp., Pantoea agglomerans and Pseudomonas putida respectively. All the strains possessed the phosphate-solubilizing ability and could produce siderophores and phytohormones more or less. None of them could fix atmospheric nitrogen or produce protease. Only strain SS12 showed antagonism against two phytopathogenic fungi viz Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans and F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum. ACC deaminase-containing endophytic bacteria of Pseudomonas sp. and Pantoea sp. isolated from halophyte Suaeda salsa have abundant biological characteristics related to plant growth promotion, stress homeostasis regulation and biocontrol activity.

  20. Epiphytic and endophytic bacteria that promote growth of ethnomedicinal plants in the subtropical forests of Meghalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenella Mary War Nongkhlaw

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to investigate the endophytic and epiphytic bacteria associated with selected ethnomedicinal plants from the pristine subtropical forests of Meghalaya and analyse them for plant growth promotion and antagonistic ability. This study is an attempt to explore plant associated bacteria which are beneficial to host plants, and thus aid in the conservation of ethnomedicinal plants of the studied subtropical forests, which are dwindling due to exploitation. The plant growth promotion parameters like indole acetic acid (IAA production, mineral phosphate solubilisation, acid phosphatase activity, presence of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase (ACC gene, nitrogen fixation, cellulose digestion, chitin and pectin degradation were screened among the isolates. The study revealed significant differences in bacterial population not only between the epiphytic and endophytic microhabitats, but also amongst the host plants. Out of the 70 isolated plant associated bacteria, Bacillus sp., Serratia sp., Pseudomonas sp., Pantoea sp., and Lysinibacillus sp. showed potent plant growth promotion properties. Bacillus siamensis C53 and B. subtilis cenB showed significant antagonistic activity against the tested pathogens. This study indicated the isolates inhabiting the plants prevalent in the subtropical sacred forests could be explored for use as plant growth promoters while practising the cultivation and conservation of ethnomedicinal plants. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (4: 1295-1308. Epub 2014 December 01.

  1. Massive production of butanediol during plant infection by phytopathogenic bacteria of the genera Dickeya and Pectobacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effantin, Géraldine; Rivasseau, Corinne; Gromova, Marina; Bligny, Richard; Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat, Nicole

    2011-11-01

    Plant pathogenic bacteria of the genera Dickeya and Pectobacterium are broad-host-range necrotrophs which cause soft-rot diseases in important crops. A metabolomic analysis, based on (13)C-NMR spectroscopy, was used to characterize the plant-bacteria interaction. Metabolic profiles revealed a decline in plant sugars and amino acids during infection and the concomitant appearance of a compound identified as 2,3-butanediol. Butanediol is the major metabolite found in macerated tissues of various host plants. It is accumulated during the symptomatic phase of the disease. Different species of Dickeya or Pectobacterium secrete high levels of butanediol during plant infection. Butanediol has been described as a signalling molecule involved in plant/bacterium interactions and, notably, able to induce plant systemic resistance. The bud genes, involved in butanediol production, are conserved in the phytopathogenic enterobacteria of the genera Dickeya, Pectobacterium, Erwinia, Pantoea and Brenneria. Inactivation of the bud genes of Dickeya dadantii revealed that the virulence of budA, budB and budR mutants was clearly reduced. The genes budA, budB and budC are highly expressed during plant infection. These data highlight the importance of butanediol metabolism in limiting acidification of the plant tissue during the development of the soft-rot disease caused by pectinolytic enterobacteria. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Erwinia gerundensis sp. nov., a cosmopolitan epiphyte originally isolated from pome fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezzonico, Fabio; Smits, Theo H M; Born, Yannick; Blom, Jochen; Frey, Jürg E; Goesmann, Alexander; Cleenwerck, Ilse; de Vos, Paul; Bonaterra, Anna; Duffy, Brion; Montesinos, Emilio

    2016-03-01

    A survey to obtain potential antagonists of pome fruit tree diseases yielded two yellow epiphytic bacterial isolates morphologically similar to Pantoea agglomerans , but showing no biocontrol activity. Whole-cell MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and analysis of 16S rRNA gene and gyrB sequences suggested the possibility of a novel species with a phylogenetic position in either the genus Pantoea or the genus Erwinia . Multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) placed the two strains in the genus Erwinia and supported their classification as a novel species. The strains showed general phenotypic characteristics typical of this genus and results of DNA-DNA hybridizations confirmed that they represent a single novel species. Both strains showed a DNA G+C content, as determined by HPLC, of 54.5 mol% and could be discriminated from phylogenetically related species of the genus Erwinia by their ability to utilize potassium gluconate, potassium 2-ketogluconate, maltose, melibiose and raffinose. Whole-genome sequencing of strain EM595 T revealed the presence of a chromosomal carotenoid biosynthesis gene cluster similar to those found in species of the genera Cronobacter and Pantoea that explains the pigmentation of the strain, which is atypical for the genus Erwinia . Additional strains belonging to the same species were recovered from different plant hosts in three different continents, revealing the cosmopolitan nature of this epiphyte. The name Erwinia gerundensis sp. nov. is proposed, with EM595 T ( = LMG 28990 T  = CCOS 903 T ) as the designated type strain.

  3. Isolation and selection of plant growth-promoting bacteria associated with sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana Alves Rodrigues

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms play a vital role in maintaining soil fertility and plant health. They can act as biofertilizers and increase the resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. This study aimed at isolating and characterizing plant growth-promoting bacteria associated with sugarcane, as well as assessing their ability to promote plant growth. Endophytic bacteria from leaf, stem, root and rhizosphere were isolated from the RB 867515 commercial sugarcane variety and screened for indole acetic acid (IAA production, ability to solubilize phosphate, fix nitrogen and produce hydrogen cyanide (HCN, ammonia and the enzymes pectinase, cellulase and chitinase. A total of 136 bacteria were isolated, with 83 of them presenting some plant growth mechanism: 47 % phosphate solubilizers, 26 % nitrogen fixers and 57 % producing IAA, 0.7 % HCN and chitinase, 45 % ammonia, 30 % cellulose and 8 % pectinase. The seven best isolates were tested for their ability to promote plant growth in maize. The isolates tested for plant growth promotion belong to the Enterobacteriaceae family and the Klebsiella, Enterobacter and Pantoea genera. Five isolates promoted plant growth in greenhouse experiments, showing potential as biofertilizers.

  4. On the structure and function of the phytoene desaturase CRTI from Pantoea ananatis, a membrane-peripheral and FAD-dependent oxidase/isomerase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Schaub

    Full Text Available CRTI-type phytoene desaturases prevailing in bacteria and fungi can form lycopene directly from phytoene while plants employ two distinct desaturases and two cis-tans isomerases for the same purpose. This property renders CRTI a valuable gene to engineer provitamin A-formation to help combat vitamin A malnutrition, such as with Golden Rice. To understand the biochemical processes involved, recombinant CRTI was produced and obtained in homogeneous form that shows high enzymatic activity with the lipophilic substrate phytoene contained in phosphatidyl-choline (PC liposome membranes. The first crystal structure of apo-CRTI reveals that CRTI belongs to the flavoprotein superfamily comprising protoporphyrinogen IX oxidoreductase and monoamine oxidase. CRTI is a membrane-peripheral oxidoreductase which utilizes FAD as the sole redox-active cofactor. Oxygen, replaceable by quinones in its absence, is needed as the terminal electron acceptor. FAD, besides its catalytic role also displays a structural function by enabling the formation of enzymatically active CRTI membrane associates. Under anaerobic conditions the enzyme can act as a carotene cis-trans isomerase. In silico-docking experiments yielded information on substrate binding sites, potential catalytic residues and is in favor of single half-site recognition of the symmetrical C(40 hydrocarbon substrate.

  5. Combined use of alkane-degrading and plant growth-promoting bacteria enhanced phytoremediation of diesel contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tara, Nain; Afzal, Muhammad; Ansari, Tariq M; Tahseen, Razia; Iqbal, Samina; Khan, Qaiser M

    2014-01-01

    Inoculation of plants with pollutant-degrading and plant growth-promoting microorganisms is a simple strategy to enhance phytoremediation activity. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of inoculation of different bacterial strains, possessing alkane-degradation and 1-amino-cyclopropane-1 -carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase activity, on plant growth and phytoremediation activity. Carpet grass (Axonopus affinis) was planted in soil spiked with diesel (1% w/w) for 90 days and inoculated with different bacterial strains, Pseudomonas sp. ITRH25, Pantoea sp. BTRH79 and Burkholderia sp. PsJN, individually and in combination. Generally, bacterial application increased total numbers of culturable hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the rhizosphere ofcarpet grass, plant biomass production, hydrocarbon degradation and reduced genotoxicity. Bacterial strains possessing different beneficial traits affect plant growth and phytoremediation activity in different ways. Maximum bacterial population, plant biomass production and hydrocarbon degradation were achieved when carpet grass was inoculated with a consortium of three strains. Enhanced plant biomass production and hydrocarbon degradation were associated with increased numbers of culturable hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the rhizosphere of carpet grass. The present study revealed that the combined use of different bacterial strains, exhibiting different beneficial traits, is a highly effective strategy to improve plant growth and phytoremediation activity.

  6. Environmental Assessment: For Joint Biological Point Detection System (JBPDS) at Multiple Test Ranges, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    found in orchards and is a common microflora on fruits and vegetables. Information is limited regarding this microorganism, although it is being...are expected. Erwinia herbicola reclassified as Pantoea agglomerans (EH) EH is found in orchards and is a common micro flora on fruits and...may over time develop a resistance to BT. Soil microbiota may be affected by the persistence of BT in soils (ECOTOXNET, 1996). Fish in Holley

  7. Diversity of bacteria nesting the plant cover of north Sinai deserts, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira L. Hanna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available North Sinai deserts were surveyed for the predominant plant cover and for the culturable bacteria nesting their roots and shoots. Among 43 plant species reported, 13 are perennial (e.g. Fagonia spp., Pancratium spp. and 30 annuals (e.g. Bromus spp., Erodium spp.. Eleven species possessed rhizo-sheath, e.g. Cyperus capitatus, Panicum turgidum and Trisetaria koelerioides. Microbiological analyses demonstrated: the great diversity and richness of associated culturable bacteria, in particular nitrogen-fixing bacteria (diazotrophs; the majority of bacterial residents were of true and/or putative diazotrophic nature; the bacterial populations followed an increasing density gradient towards the root surfaces; sizeable populations were able to reside inside the root (endorhizosphere and shoot (endophyllosphere tissues. Three hundred bacterial isolates were secured from studied spheres. The majority of nitrogen-fixing bacilli isolates belonged to Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus polymexa, Bacillus macerans, Bacillus circulans and Bacillus licheniformis. The family Enterobacteriaceae represented by Enterobacter agglomerans, Enterobacter sackazakii, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia adorifera, Serratia liquefaciens and Klebsiella oxytoca. The non-Enterobacteriaceae population was rich in Pantoae spp., Agrobacterium rdiobacter, Pseudomonas vesicularis, Pseudomonas putida, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Ochrobactrum anthropi, Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Chrysemonas luteola. Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus were reported inside root and shoot tissues of a number of tested plants. The dense bacterial populations reported speak well to the very possible significant role played by the endophytic bacterial populations in the survival, in respect of nutrition and health, of existing plants. Such groups of diazotrophs are good candidates, as bio-preparates, to support the growth of future field crops grown in deserts of north Sinai and irrigated by the

  8. [Polyvalence of bacteriophages isolated from fruit trees, affected by bacterial fire blight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovkach, F I; Moroz, S N; Korol', N A; Faĭdiuk, Iu V; Kushkina, A I

    2013-01-01

    Phage populations appearing as a result of a pathogenic process caused by Erwinia amylovora have been discovered and described. They accompany bacterial fire blight development in the process of quince, pear and apple trees vegetation in Zakarpattya region of Ukraine. Phage isolates of the affected pear and quince include polyvalent virulent phages able to develop on bacterial strains associated with plants--E. amylovora. E. "horticola" and Pantoea agglomerans. E. amylovora isolated from the plant tissues affected by the fire blight and detected at the same time as phages proved to be resistant to the viral infection. It is hard to explain now this characteristic however it was noticed that resistance to phages can change drastically in case of dissociation, lysogenization and mutagenesis of erwinia in laboratory conditions. Phage population study shows that they are heterogeneous and can obviously include not only polyvalent but also specific viruses. Further studies of biology and molecular genetics of pure lines of isolated phages will help to get closer to understanding the place and role of bacteriophages in the complicated network of relations between bacterial pathogens and plants.

  9. Identification and elimination of bacterial contamination during in vitro propagation of Guadua angustifolia Kunth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadha, Harleen Kaur; Salwan, Richa; Kasana, Ramesh Chand; Anand, Manju; Sood, Anil

    2012-04-01

    Guadua angustifolia Kunth is a very important bamboo species with significant utility in pharmaceutical, paper, charcoal, and construction industries. Microbial contamination is a major problem encountered during establishment of in vitro cultures of Guadua. This study has been designed to analyze the identity of contaminating bacteria and to develop the strategy to eliminate them during micropropagation of Guadua. We isolated and consequently analyzed partial sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene to identify two contaminating bacteria as (1) Pantoea agglomerans and (2) Pantoea ananatis. In addition, we also- performed antibiotic sensitivity testing on these bacterial isolates. We identified kanamycin and streptomycin sulfate as potentially useful antibiotics in eliminating the contaminating bacteria. We grew shoots on multiplication medium containing BAP (2 mg/l) and adenine sulfate (10 mg/l) supplemented with kanamycin (10 μg/ml) for 10 days and transferred them to fresh medium without antibiotics and found that bacterial growth was inhibited. Moreover, we observed intensive formation of high-quality shoots. Streptomycin sulfate also inhibited bacterial growth but at higher concentration. We also demonstrated that shoots grown in streptomycin sulfate tended to be shorter and had yellow leaves. Thus, we have developed a novel strategy to identify and inhibit intriguing microbial contaminations of (1) Pantoea agglomerans and (2) Pantoea ananatis during establishment of in vitro cultures of Guadua. This would improve in vitro establishment of an important bamboo, Guadua angustifolia Kunth for large scale propagation.

  10. Screening for lipase-producing Enterobacter agglomerans for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Olive oil, sesame oil and tea oil as raw materials can be catalyzed to biodiesel by the lipase of this strain at 30°C and 180 rpm. And the yield reached 54.51% with sesame oil as raw material, even when they contained 92.4% (w/v) water in the starting materials. This strain will potentially serve as a promising alternative ...

  11. Simultaneous profiling of seed-associated bacteria and fungi reveals antagonistic interactions between microorganisms within a shared epiphytic microbiome on Triticum and Brassica seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links, Matthew G; Demeke, Tigst; Gräfenhan, Tom; Hill, Janet E; Hemmingsen, Sean M; Dumonceaux, Tim J

    2014-01-01

    In order to address the hypothesis that seeds from ecologically and geographically diverse plants harbor characteristic epiphytic microbiota, we characterized the bacterial and fungal microbiota associated with Triticum and Brassica seed surfaces. The total microbial complement was determined by amplification and sequencing of a fragment of chaperonin 60 (cpn60). Specific microorganisms were quantified by qPCR. Bacteria and fungi corresponding to operational taxonomic units (OTU) that were identified in the sequencing study were isolated and their interactions examined. A total of 5477 OTU were observed from seed washes. Neither total epiphytic bacterial load nor community richness/evenness was significantly different between the seed types; 578 OTU were shared among all samples at a variety of abundances. Hierarchical clustering revealed that 203 were significantly different in abundance on Triticum seeds compared with Brassica. Microorganisms isolated from seeds showed 99–100% identity between the cpn60 sequences of the isolates and the OTU sequences from this shared microbiome. Bacterial strains identified as Pantoea agglomerans had antagonistic properties toward one of the fungal isolates (Alternaria sp.), providing a possible explanation for their reciprocal abundances on both Triticum and Brassica seeds. cpn60 enabled the simultaneous profiling of bacterial and fungal microbiota and revealed a core seed-associated microbiota shared between diverse plant genera. PMID:24444052

  12. Isolation and enzyme bioprospection of endophytic bacteria associated with plants of Brazilian mangrove ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Renata A; Quecine, Maria Carolina; Lacava, Paulo T; Batista, Bruna D; Luvizotto, Danice M; Marcon, Joelma; Ferreira, Anderson; Melo, Itamar S; Azevedo, João L

    2014-01-01

    The mangrove ecosystem is a coastal tropical biome located in the transition zone between land and sea that is characterized by periodic flooding, which confers unique and specific environmental conditions on this biome. In these ecosystems, the vegetation is dominated by a particular group of plant species that provide a unique environment harboring diverse groups of microorganisms, including the endophytic microorganisms that are the focus of this study. Because of their intimate association with plants, endophytic microorganisms could be explored for biotechnologically significant products, such as enzymes, proteins, antibiotics and others. Here, we isolated endophytic microorganisms from two mangrove species, Rhizophora mangle and Avicennia nitida, that are found in streams in two mangrove systems in Bertioga and Cananéia, Brazil. Bacillus was the most frequently isolated genus, comprising 42% of the species isolated from Cananéia and 28% of the species from Bertioga. However, other common endophytic genera such as Pantoea, Curtobacterium and Enterobacter were also found. After identifying the isolates, the bacterial communities were evaluated for enzyme production. Protease activity was observed in 75% of the isolates, while endoglucanase activity occurred in 62% of the isolates. Bacillus showed the highest activity rates for amylase and esterase and endoglucanase. To our knowledge, this is the first reported diversity analysis performed on endophytic bacteria obtained from the branches of mangrove trees and the first overview of the specific enzymes produced by different bacterial genera. This work contributes to our knowledge of the microorganisms and enzymes present in mangrove ecosystems.

  13. Nutrients Can Enhance the Abundance and Expression of Alkane Hydroxylase CYP153 Gene in the Rhizosphere of Ryegrass Planted in Hydrocarbon-Polluted Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Muhammad; Afzal, Muhammad; Amin, Imran; Iqbal, Samina; Khan, Qaiser M.

    2014-01-01

    Plant-bacteria partnership is a promising strategy for the remediation of soil and water polluted with hydrocarbons. However, the limitation of major nutrients (N, P and K) in soil affects the survival and metabolic activity of plant associated bacteria. The objective of this study was to explore the effects of nutrients on survival and metabolic activity of an alkane degrading rhizo-bacterium. Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) was grown in diesel-contaminated soil and inoculated with an alkane degrading bacterium, Pantoea sp. strain BTRH79, in greenhouse experiments. Two levels of nutrients were applied and plant growth, hydrocarbon removal, and gene abundance and expression were determined after 100 days of sowing of ryegrass. Results obtained from these experiments showed that the bacterial inoculation improved plant growth and hydrocarbon degradation and these were further enhanced by nutrients application. Maximum plant biomass production and hydrocarbon mineralization was observed by the combined use of inoculum and higher level of nutrients. The presence of nutrients in soil enhanced the colonization and metabolic activity of the inoculated bacterium in the rhizosphere. The abundance and expression of CYP153 gene in the rhizosphere of ryegrass was found to be directly associated with the level of applied nutrients. Enhanced hydrocarbon degradation was associated with the population of the inoculum bacterium, the abundance and expression of CYP153 gene in the rhizosphere of ryegrass. It is thus concluded that the combination between vegetation, inoculation with pollutant-degrading bacteria and nutrients amendment was an efficient approach to reduce hydrocarbon contamination. PMID:25360680

  14. Changes of Bacterial Diversity Depend on the Spoilage of Fresh Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hwan Lee

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Almost 10~30% of vegetables were discarded by the spoilage from farms to tables. After harvest, vegetables are often spoiled by a wide variety of microorganisms including many bacterial and fungal species. This investigation was conducted to extent the knowledge of relationship the spoilage of vegetables and the diversity of microbes. The total aerobic bacterial numbers in fresh lettuce, perilla leaf, and chicory were 2.6~2.7×106, 4.6×105, 1.2×106 CFU/g of fresh weight, respectively. The most common bacterial species were Pseudomonas spp., Alysiella spp., and Burkholderia spp., and other 18 more genera were involved in. After one week of incubation of those vegetables at 28℃, the microbial diversity had been changed. The total aerobic bacterial numbers increased to 1.1~4.6×108, 4.9×107, and 7.6×108 CFU/g of fresh weight for lettuce, perilla leaf, and chicory that is about 102 times increased bacterial numbers than that before spoilage. However, the diversity of microbes isolated had been simplified and fewer bacterial species had been isolated. The most bacterial population (~48% was taken up by Pseudomonas spp., and followed by Arthrobacter spp. and Bacillus spp. The spoilage activity of individual bacterial isolates had been tested using axenic lettuce plants. Among tested isolates, Pseudomonas fluorescence and Pantoea agglomerans caused severe spoilage on lettuce.

  15. Diversity and Antimicrobial Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Rhizosphere of Olive Trees and Desert Truffles of Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imene Fhoula

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 119 lactic acid bacteria (LAB were isolated, by culture-dependant method, from rhizosphere samples of olive trees and desert truffles and evaluated for different biotechnological properties. Using the variability of the intergenic spacer 16S-23S and 16S rRNA gene sequences, the isolates were identified as the genera Lactococcus, Pediococcus, Lactobacillus, Weissella, and Enterococcus. All the strains showed proteolytic activity with variable rates 42% were EPS producers, while only 10% showed the ability to grow in 9% NaCl. In addition, a low rate of antibiotic resistance was detected among rhizospheric enterococci. Furthermore, a strong antibacterial activity against plant and/or pathogenic bacteria of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pantoea agglomerans, Pseudomonas savastanoi, the food-borne Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes was recorded. Antifungal activity evaluation showed that Botrytis cinerea was the most inhibited fungus followed by Penicillium expansum, Verticillium dahliae, and Aspergillus niger. Most of the active strains belonged to the genera Enterococcus and Weissella. This study led to suggest that environmental-derived LAB strains could be selected for technological application to control pathogenic bacteria and to protect food safety from postharvest deleterious microbiota.

  16. Differences in bacterial diversity of host-associated populations of Phylloxera notabilis Pergande (Hemiptera: Phylloxeridae) in pecan and water hickory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, R F; Nachappa, P; Tamborindeguy, C

    2011-04-01

    Host-associated differentiation (HAD) is the presence of genetically divergent, host-associated populations. It has been suggested that microbial symbionts of insect herbivores may play a role in HAD by allowing their insect hosts to use different plant species. The objective of this study was to document if host-associated populations of Phylloxera notabilis Pergande (Hemiptera: Phylloxeridae) in pecan and water hickory corresponded with differences in the composition of their associated bacteria. To test this hypothesis, we characterized the symbionts present in P. notabilis associated with these two tree species through metagenomic analyses using 454 sequencing. Differences in bacterial diversity were found between P. notabilis populations associated with pecan and water hickory. The bacteria, Pantoea agglomerans and Serratia marcescens, were absent in the P. notabilis water hickory population, whereas both species accounted for more than 69.72% of bacterial abundance in the pecan population. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  17. Determination of plant growth promoting potential of enterobacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis H. León Mendoza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The yellow maize is the third most important crop in Peru and part of the chain maize-poultry-pig, significant impact on the national economic and social activity, however, in 2011, only 40% of the corn offered corresponded to the domestic industry. Looking for alternatives to reduce the use of chemical fertilizers, have performed investigations with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. Bacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere of maize from districts Monsefú and Reque, Lambayeque. Dilution was made into sterile saline 0.87% NaCl w/v and plated on MacConkey agar, incubating at 30°C for 48 hours. 269 pure cultures of bacteria were obtained, the biochemical reaction was investigated in agar Triple sugar iron agar Iron Lysine, agar Citrate Simons, peptone broth, red broth methyl Voges-Proskauer and nitrate broth, was identified 66% as Enterobacteriaceae of genera Pantoea (49%, Klebsiella (17%, Kluyvera (16%, Serratia (11%, Citrobacter (4% and Hafnia (3%. The native enterobacteria were quantified to 31.67 ppm of fixed nitrogen as ammonia; 54.25 ppm indole acetic acid and 4,78 ppm solubilized phosphorus, activity proteolytic and chitinolytic and antagonistic activity of Fusarium verticillioides were also determined. 16% of native enterobacteria did not affect the emergence of hard yellow maize, 77% affected positively and 7% affected negatively. In turn, none bacteria affected survival. Was demonstrated the potential plant growth promoter of enterobacteria isolated from field crops in the region of Lambayeque.

  18. Genome-Wide Comparative Functional Analyses Reveal Adaptations of Salmonella sv. Newport to a Plant Colonization Lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos H. de Moraes

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of salmonellosis linked to the consumption of vegetables have been disproportionately associated with strains of serovar Newport. We tested the hypothesis that strains of sv. Newport have evolved unique adaptations to persistence in plants that are not shared by strains of other Salmonella serovars. We used a genome-wide mutant screen to compare growth in tomato fruit of a sv. Newport strain from an outbreak traced to tomatoes, and a sv. Typhimurium strain from animals. Most genes in the sv. Newport strain that were selected during persistence in tomatoes were shared with, and similarly selected in, the sv. Typhimurium strain. Many of their functions are linked to central metabolism, including amino acid biosynthetic pathways, iron acquisition, and maintenance of cell structure. One exception was a greater need for the core genes involved in purine metabolism in sv. Typhimurium than in sv. Newport. We discovered a gene, papA, that was unique to sv. Newport and contributed to the strain’s fitness in tomatoes. The papA gene was present in about 25% of sv. Newport Group III genomes and generally absent from other Salmonella genomes. Homologs of papA were detected in the genomes of Pantoea, Dickeya, and Pectobacterium, members of the Enterobacteriacea family that can colonize both plants and animals.

  19. Rapid isolation of a facultative anaerobic electrochemically active bacterium capable of oxidizing acetate for electrogenesis and azo dyes reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Nan; Yuan, Shi-Jie; Wu, Chao; Cheng, Yuan-Yuan; Song, Xiang-Ning; Li, Wen-Wei; Tong, Zhong-Hua; Yu, Han-Qing

    2014-05-01

    In this study, 27 strains of electrochemically active bacteria (EAB) were rapidly isolated and their capabilities of extracellular electron transfer were identified using a photometric method based on WO3 nanoclusters. These strains caused color change of WO3 from white to blue in a 24-well agar plate within 40 h. Most of the isolated EAB strains belonged to the genera of Aeromonas and Shewanella. One isolate, Pantoea agglomerans S5-44, was identified as an EAB that can utilize acetate as the carbon source to produce electricity and reduce azo dyes under anaerobic conditions. The results confirmed the capability of P. agglomerans S5-44 for extracellular electron transfer. The isolation of this acetate-utilizing, facultative EBA reveals the metabolic diversity of environmental bacteria. Such strains have great potential for environmental applications, especially at interfaces of aerobic and anaerobic environments, where acetate is the main available carbon source.

  20. Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, J. David

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

  1. Reducing COD level on oily effluent by utilizing biosurfactant-producing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Franco Carvalho Jacobucci

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Two bacteria isolated from crude oil contaminated soil, Pantoea agglomerans and Planococcus citreus, produced biosurfactants utilizing 1.5% of kerosene and olive oil as the sole carbon sources, respectively. The bacteria and the biosurfactants produced were introduced to oily effluent, arising from margarine and soap industry. Emulsification activities were determined by increases in the absorbance of the oil-in-water emulsions at 610 nm, whereas the water-in-oil emulsions were expressed as the height (cm of the emulsion layers formed. The 72 h incubation experiment resulted in a COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand reduction of 76% with Planococcus citreus strain and 70% with Pantoea agglomerans.The COD reduction with bacterial biosurfactants was over 50% in 24 h of incubation. The COD reduction showed that these strains and the surfactants produced could be used in bioremediation processes.Duas bactérias isoladas de solo contaminado com derivados de petróleo, Pantoea agglomerans e Planococcus citreus, produzem biosurfactantes utilizando respectivamente 1.5% de querosene e óleo de oliva como únicas fontes de carbono. As bactérias e os biosurfactantes produzidos foram adicionados a um efluente oleoso obtido de uma indústria nacional de sabão e margarina. As atividades de emulsificação foram determinadas pelo aumento da absorbância das emulsões óleo em água a 610 nm, enquanto que as emulsões do tipo água em óleo foram expressas em centímetros, pela altura do halo de espumas formado. A redução da demanda química de oxigênio (COD mostra que as linhagens e os biosurfactantes produzidos podem ser utilizados em processos de biorremediação.

  2. Plant walkdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostov, M.

    2000-01-01

    This report covers the following: preparatory steps for performing plant walk-down; the objective of the first plant walk-down; plant walk-down procedures; earthquake screening evaluation; walk-down documentation; second plant walk-down. The following objectives concerning the plant walk-down(s) were achieved. The plant system configuration is verified in order to proceed with event tree and fault tree analyses. Systems interactions, other types of dependencies or plant unique features are identified. he safety related components that are judged to generically possess high capacities (i.e., larger than the earthquake review level) have been verified to contain no weaknesses. Further analyses needed to establish the capacities of remaining safety-related components are identified and necessary field data are obtained. Information on components is obtained to assist in HCLPF (fragility) evaluation and peer review of the seismic margin study

  3. Aquatic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T. V.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic fl owering plants form a relatively young plant group on an evolutionary timescale. The group has developed over the past 80 million years from terrestrial fl owering plants that re-colonised the aquatic environment after 60-100 million years on land. The exchange of species between terre...... terrestrial and aquatic environments continues today and is very intensive along stream banks. In this chapter we describe the physical and chemical barriers to the exchange of plants between land and water.......Aquatic fl owering plants form a relatively young plant group on an evolutionary timescale. The group has developed over the past 80 million years from terrestrial fl owering plants that re-colonised the aquatic environment after 60-100 million years on land. The exchange of species between...

  4. Culturable endophytic bacterial communities associated with field-grown soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Lopes, K B; Carpentieri-Pipolo, V; Oro, T H; Stefani Pagliosa, E; Degrassi, G

    2016-03-01

    Assess the diversity of the culturable endophytic bacterial population associated with transgenic and nontransgenic soybean grown in field trial sites in Brazil and characterize them phenotypically and genotypically focusing on characteristics related to plant growth promotion. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from roots, stems and leaves of soybean cultivars (nontransgenic (C) and glyphosate-resistant (GR) transgenic soybean), including the isogenic BRS133 and BRS245RR. Significant differences were observed in bacterial densities in relation to genotype and tissue from which the isolates were obtained. The highest number of bacteria was observed in roots and in GR soybean. Based on characteristics related to plant growth promotion, 54 strains were identified by partial 16S rRNA sequence analysis, with most of the isolates belonging to the species Enterobacter ludwigii and Variovorax paradoxus. Among the isolates, 44·4% were able to either produce indoleacetic acid (IAA) or solubilize phosphates, and 9·2% (all from GR soybean) presented both plant growth-promoting activities. The results from this study indicate that the abundance of endophytic bacterial communities of soybean differs between cultivars and in general it was higher in the transgenic cultivars than in nontransgenic cultivars. BRS 245 RR exhibited no significant difference in abundance compared to nontransgenic BRS133. This suggests that the impact of the management used in the GR soybean fields was comparable with the impacts of some enviromental factors. However, the bacterial endophytes associated to GR and nontransgenic soybean were different. The soybean-associated bacteria showing characteristics related to plant growth promotion were identified as belonging to the species Pantoea agglomerans and Variovorax paradoxus. Our study demonstrated differences concerning compostion of culturable endophytic bacterial population in nontransgenic and transgenic soybean. © 2016 The Society for Applied

  5. Natural History of Multi-Drug Resistant Organisms in a New Military Medical Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Sink  Staphylococcus schleiferi ssp  coagulans   Surgical Ward  06.316  Room Sink  Acinetobacter baumannii  Surgical Ward  06.316  Toilet seat...Telephone  Bacillus  megaterium  Maternity Ward  05.326  Call box  Pantoea agglomerans  Maternity Ward  05.326  Toilet rail  Staphylococcus aureus

  6. Electronic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinidou, Eleni; Gabrielsson, Roger; Gomez, Eliot; Crispin, Xavier; Nilsson, Ove; Simon, Daniel T.; Berggren, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    The roots, stems, leaves, and vascular circuitry of higher plants are responsible for conveying the chemical signals that regulate growth and functions. From a certain perspective, these features are analogous to the contacts, interconnections, devices, and wires of discrete and integrated electronic circuits. Although many attempts have been made to augment plant function with electroactive materials, plants’ “circuitry” has never been directly merged with electronics. We report analog and digital organic electronic circuits and devices manufactured in living plants. The four key components of a circuit have been achieved using the xylem, leaves, veins, and signals of the plant as the template and integral part of the circuit elements and functions. With integrated and distributed electronics in plants, one can envisage a range of applications including precision recording and regulation of physiology, energy harvesting from photosynthesis, and alternatives to genetic modification for plant optimization. PMID:26702448

  7. Biopesticides from plants: Calceolaria integrifolia s.l.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Céspedes, Carlos L; Salazar, Juan R; Ariza-Castolo, Armando; Yamaguchi, Lydia; Avila, José G; Aqueveque, Pedro; Kubo, Isao; Alarcón, Julio

    2014-07-01

    The effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) on humans and biodiversity are multiple and varied. Nowadays environmentally-friendly pesticides are strongly preferred to POPs. It is noteworthy that the crop protection role of pesticides and other techniques, i.e. biopesticides, plant extracts, prevention methods, organic methods, evaluation of plant resistance to certain pests under an integrated pest management (IPM), could improve the risks and benefits which must be assessed on a sound scientific basis. For this directive it is crucial to bring about a significant reduction in the use of chemical pesticides, not least through the promotion of sustainable alternative solutions such as organic farming and IPM. Biopesticides are derived from natural materials such as animals, plants, bacteria, and certain minerals. Most of them are biodegradable in relatively short periods of time. On this regard, substances from Calceolaria species emerge as a strong alternative to the use of POPs. The American genus Calceolaria species are regarded both as a notorious weeds and popular ornamental garden plants. Some have medicinal applications. Other taxa of Calceolaria are toxic to insects and resistant to microbial attack. These properties are probably associated with the presence of terpenes, iridoids, flavonoids, naphthoquinones and phenylpropanoids previously demonstrated to have interesting biological activities. In this article a comprehensive evaluation of the potential utilization of Calceolaria species as a source of biopesticides is made. The chemical profile of selected members of the Chilean Calceolaria integrifolia sensu lato complex represents a significant addition to previous studies. New secondary metabolites were isolated, identified and tested for their antifeedant, insect growth regulation and insecticidal activities against Spodoptera frugiperda and Drosophila melanogaster. These species serve as a model of insect pests using conventional procedures

  8. Bacteria in a woody fungal disease: characterization of bacterial communities in wood tissues of esca-foliar symptomatic and asymptomatic grapevines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie eBruez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Esca is a grapevine trunk disease (GTD associated with different pathogenic fungi inhabiting the woody tissues. Bacteria can also be found in such tissues and they may interact with these fungal colonizers. Although such types of microbial interaction have been observed for wood diseases in many trees, this has never been studied for grapevine. In this study, the bacterial microflora of different vine status (esca-symptomatic and asymptomatic, different anatomical part (trunk and cordon and different type of tissues (necrotic or not have been studied. Based on Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP analyses, data showed that (i specific complexes of bacterial microflora colonize the wood of both necrotic and non-necrotic tissues of esca-foliar symptomatic and asymptomatic vines, and also that (ii depending on the anatomical part of the plant, cordon or trunk, differences could be observed between the bacterial communities. Such differences were also revealed through the Community-Level Physiological Profiling (CLPP with Biolog Ecoplates™. Two hundred seventeen bacterial strains were also isolated from plants samples and then assigned to bacterial species based on the 16S rRNA genes. Although Bacillus spp. and Pantoea agglomerans were the two most commonly isolated species from all kinds of tissues, various other taxa were also isolated. Inoculation of vine cuttings with 14 different bacterial species, and one GTD fungus, Neofusicoccum parvum, showed no impact of these bacteria on the size of the wood necroses caused by N. parvum. This study showed, therefore, that bacterial communities differ according to the anatomical part (trunk or cordon and/or the type of tissue (necrotic or non necrotic of wood of grapevine plants showing external symptoms of esca disease. However, research into bacteria having a role in GTD development needs further studies.

  9. Nutrients can enhance the abundance and expression of alkane hydroxylase CYP153 gene in the rhizosphere of ryegrass planted in hydrocarbon-polluted soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Arslan

    Full Text Available Plant-bacteria partnership is a promising strategy for the remediation of soil and water polluted with hydrocarbons. However, the limitation of major nutrients (N, P and K in soil affects the survival and metabolic activity of plant associated bacteria. The objective of this study was to explore the effects of nutrients on survival and metabolic activity of an alkane degrading rhizo-bacterium. Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum was grown in diesel-contaminated soil and inoculated with an alkane degrading bacterium, Pantoea sp. strain BTRH79, in greenhouse experiments. Two levels of nutrients were applied and plant growth, hydrocarbon removal, and gene abundance and expression were determined after 100 days of sowing of ryegrass. Results obtained from these experiments showed that the bacterial inoculation improved plant growth and hydrocarbon degradation and these were further enhanced by nutrients application. Maximum plant biomass production and hydrocarbon mineralization was observed by the combined use of inoculum and higher level of nutrients. The presence of nutrients in soil enhanced the colonization and metabolic activity of the inoculated bacterium in the rhizosphere. The abundance and expression of CYP153 gene in the rhizosphere of ryegrass was found to be directly associated with the level of applied nutrients. Enhanced hydrocarbon degradation was associated with the population of the inoculum bacterium, the abundance and expression of CYP153 gene in the rhizosphere of ryegrass. It is thus concluded that the combination between vegetation, inoculation with pollutant-degrading bacteria and nutrients amendment was an efficient approach to reduce hydrocarbon contamination.

  10. Plant embryogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Sacco C.; Weijers, Dolf

    2017-01-01

    Land plants are called ‘embryophytes’ and thus, their collective name is defined by their ability to form embryos. Indeed, embryogenesis is a widespread phenomenon in plants, and much of our diet is composed of embryos (just think of grains, beans or nuts; Figure 1). However, in addition to embryos

  11. Plant Macrofossils

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past vegetation and environmental change derived from plant remains large enough to be seen without a microscope (macrofossils), such as leaves, needles,...

  12. T Plant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Arguably the second most historic building at Hanford is the T Plant.This facility is historic in that it's the oldest remaining nuclear facility in the country that...

  13. Lunar Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We present an open design for a first plant growth module on the Moon (LPX). The primary science goal of lunar habitat is to investigate germination and initial...

  14. Alien plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    No-one’s ever travelled to an extrasolar planet, or even observed one that we’re sure harbours life. But if plants do exist on such alien worlds, we can have fun speculating what form they might take.

  15. Deteksi dan Identifikasi Dickeya sp. sebagai Organisme Pengganggu Tumbuhan Karantina A2 pada Tanaman Kentang di Jawa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haerani Haerani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Erwinia chrysanthemi (currently Dickeya sp. is one of the A2 quarantine pest that must be concerned of its distribution on potato in Indonesia. The aim of this study is to detect and identify E. chrysanthemi from potato in Java. A total of 400 samples of potato plants showing symptoms of soft rot were obtained from several potato areas in Pangalengan and Garut (West Java, Dieng (Central Java, and Batu-Malang (East Java. Disease incidence was determined by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA using polyclonal antiserum. E.chrysanthemi was isolated from plant samples with positive ELISA results. Furthermore, bacterial isolates were characterized by GEN III OmniLog ID System and PCR using specific primers Ec3F/Ec4R, as well as the universal 16S rRNA primer pair of 27F/1429R. The incidence of E. chrysanthemi based on ELISA was obtained. Based on physiological characters; Gram, catalase, oxidase, and oxidation-fermentation, there were 4 isolates similar to the genus of Erwinia. However, the results of Gen III OmniLog System, PCR, and nucleotide sequences analysis of 16S rRNA confirmed that none of the isolates were identified as E.chrysanthemi. Otherwise, those 4 isolates were identified as Pseudomonas oryzihabitans, Pantoea agglomerans, and Pseudomonas viridiflava. The result of this study indicated that the existence of E. chrysanthemi as an A2 quarantine pest on potato in Java can not be confirmed and remains as an A1 quarantine pest.

  16. Evaluation of Plant- Compost -Microorganisms Synergy for the Remediation of Diesel contaminated Soil: Success Stories from the Field Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Imran; Wimmer, Bernhard; Soja, Gerhard; Sessitsch, Angela; Reichenauer, Thomas G.

    2016-04-01

    and four replicates; T1 was only planted with Lolium multiflorum and Lotus corniculatus, T2 was planted with both above mentioned plants inoculated with microbial consortium (mixture of strains: Pantoea sp. strains, ITSI10, BTRH79 and Pseudomonas sp. strain, MixRI75)and T3 was kept unplanted to support bioremediation. Germination percentage (GP) was monitored weekly until three weeks after seed sowing. Biometric parameters (plant height, fresh and dry weight of shoots) and leaf chlorophyll content were recorded in periodic intervals. Soil samples were taken in regular intervals (after every 6 month) and PHC content was measured by GC-FID. In the presentation we will report about the development of plants and the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in Lysimeter. The degradation of TPH will be reported for 7 layers inside each Lysimeter as well as in leachate samples.

  17. Plant simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumitsu, Hiroyuki

    1998-01-01

    A simulator of a reactor plant of the present invention comprises a plurality of distributed computers, an indication processing section and an operation section. The simulation calculation functions of various kinds of plant models in the plant are shared by the plurality of computers. The indication processing section controls collection of data of the plant simulated by the computers and instructions of an operator. The operation section is operated by the operator and the results of operation are transmitted to the indication processing section, to conduct operation trainings and display the results of the simulation. Each of the computers and the indication processing portion are connected with each other by a network having a memory for common use. Data such as the results of calculation of plant models and various kinds of parameters of the plant required commonly to the calculators and the indication processing section are stored in the common memory, and adapted to be used by way of the network. (N.H.)

  18. Classification of plant associated bacteria using RIF, a computationally derived DNA marker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin L Schneider

    Full Text Available A DNA marker that distinguishes plant associated bacteria at the species level and below was derived by comparing six sequenced genomes of Xanthomonas, a genus that contains many important phytopathogens. This DNA marker comprises a portion of the dnaA replication initiation factor (RIF. Unlike the rRNA genes, dnaA is a single copy gene in the vast majority of sequenced bacterial genomes, and amplification of RIF requires genus-specific primers. In silico analysis revealed that RIF has equal or greater ability to differentiate closely related species of Xanthomonas than the widely used ribosomal intergenic spacer region (ITS. Furthermore, in a set of 263 Xanthomonas, Ralstonia and Clavibacter strains, the RIF marker was directly sequenced in both directions with a success rate approximately 16% higher than that for ITS. RIF frameworks for Xanthomonas, Ralstonia and Clavibacter were constructed using 682 reference strains representing different species, subspecies, pathovars, races, hosts and geographic regions, and contain a total of 109 different RIF sequences. RIF sequences showed subspecific groupings but did not place strains of X. campestris or X. axonopodis into currently named pathovars nor R. solanacearum strains into their respective races, confirming previous conclusions that pathovar and race designations do not necessarily reflect genetic relationships. The RIF marker also was sequenced for 24 reference strains from three genera in the Enterobacteriaceae: Pectobacterium, Pantoea and Dickeya. RIF sequences of 70 previously uncharacterized strains of Ralstonia, Clavibacter, Pectobacterium and Dickeya matched, or were similar to, those of known reference strains, illustrating the utility of the frameworks to classify bacteria below the species level and rapidly match unknown isolates to reference strains. The RIF sequence frameworks are available at the online RIF database, RIFdb, and can be queried for diagnostic purposes with RIF

  19. Plant automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, L.J.; Sackett, J.I.; Dayal, Y.; Wagner, W.K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes work at EBR-II in the development and demonstration of new control equipment and methods and associated schemes for plant prognosis, diagnosis, and automation. The development work has attracted the interest of other national laboratories, universities, and commercial companies. New initiatives include use of new control strategies, expert systems, advanced diagnostics, and operator displays. The unique opportunity offered by EBR-II is as a test bed where a total integrated approach to automatic reactor control can be directly tested under real power plant conditions

  20. Enterobacteriaceae in gut of honey bee (Apis mellifera and the antibiotic resistance of the isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Gasper

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial species of Enterobacteriaceae and the antimicrobial resistance of the isolates were detected in Apis mellifera L. bees gut. Gut content was cultivated on Meat peptone and McConkey agars at 30 and 37 °C, then, the isolates were identified with MALDI TOF MS Biotyper. Isolated strains were tested for antibiotic resistance to penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides. Altogether, 12 species representing Enterobacteriaceae family were isolated. Firmicutes and Candida  were represented by Bacillus megaterium and Issatchenkia orientalis  . Isolated Enterobacteriaceae  species were  Enterobacter cloacae, Hafnia alvei, Klebsiella oxytoca, Morganella morganii, Serratia marcescens, Ser. liquefaciens, Raoultella ornithinolytica, R. planticola, R. terrigena, Pantoea ananatis, P. agglomerans, Rahnella aquatilis. Enterobacter cloacae, Hafnia alvei, Klebsiella oxytoca, Morganella morganii, Serratia marcescens, Ser. liquefaciens isolates exhibited the antimicrobial resistance more frequently than Raoultella ornithinolytica, R. planticola, R. terrigena, Pantoea ananatis, P. agglomerans, Rahnella aquatilis. Microflora of gut of bees could serve as a source of resistant microorganisms.

  1. Plant intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipavská, Helena; Žárský, Viktor

    2009-01-01

    The concept of plant intelligence, as proposed by Anthony Trewavas, has raised considerable discussion. However, plant intelligence remains loosely defined; often it is either perceived as practically synonymous to Darwinian fitness, or reduced to a mere decorative metaphor. A more strict view can be taken, emphasizing necessary prerequisites such as memory and learning, which requires clarifying the definition of memory itself. To qualify as memories, traces of past events have to be not only stored, but also actively accessed. We propose a criterion for eliminating false candidates of possible plant intelligence phenomena in this stricter sense: an “intelligent” behavior must involve a component that can be approximated by a plausible algorithmic model involving recourse to stored information about past states of the individual or its environment. Re-evaluation of previously presented examples of plant intelligence shows that only some of them pass our test. “You were hurt?” Kumiko said, looking at the scar. Sally looked down. “Yeah.” “Why didn't you have it removed?” “Sometimes it's good to remember.” “Being hurt?” “Being stupid.”—(W. Gibson: Mona Lisa Overdrive) PMID:19816094

  2. PLANT DIVERSITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habitat change statistics and species-area curves were used to estimate the effects of alternative future scenarios for agriculture on plant diversity in Iowa farmlands. Study areas were two watersheds in central Iowa of about 50 and 90 square kilometers, respectively. Future s...

  3. Characterization of N2-fixing plant growth promoting endophytic and epiphytic bacterial community of Indian cultivated and wild rice (Oryza spp.) genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banik, Avishek; Mukhopadhaya, Subhra Kanti; Dangar, Tushar Kanti

    2016-03-01

    The diversity of endophytic and epiphytic diazotrophs in different parts of rice plants has specificity to the niche (i.e. leaf, stem and root) of different genotypes and nutrient availability of the organ. Inoculation of the indigenous, polyvalent diazotrophs can facilitate and sustain production of non-leguminous crops like rice. Therefore, N2-fixing plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) were isolated from different parts of three Indian cultivated [Oryza sativa L. var. Sabita (semi deep/deep water)/Swarna (rain fed shallow lowland)/Swarna-Sub1(submergence tolerant)] and a wild (O. eichingeri) rice genotypes which respond differentially to nitrogenous fertilizers. Thirty-five isolates from four rice genotypes were categorized based on acetylene reduction assay on nitrogenase activity, biochemical tests, BIOLOG and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The bacteria produced 9.36-155.83 nmole C2H4 mg(-1) dry bacteria h(-1) and among them nitrogenase activity of 11 potent isolates was complemented by nifH-sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequencing divided them into five groups (shared 95-100 % sequence homology with type strains) belonging to five classes-alpha (Ancylobacter, Azorhizobium, Azospirillum, Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Novosphingobium, spp.), beta (Burkholderia sp.), gamma (Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Azotobacter, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas spp.) Proteobacteria, Bacilli (Bacillus, Paenibacillus spp.) and Actinobacteria (Microbacterium sp.). Besides, all bacterial strains possessed the intrinsic PGP traits of like indole (0.44-7.4 µg ml(-1)), ammonia (0.18-6 mmol ml(-1)), nitrite (0.01-3.4 mol ml(-1)), and siderophore (from 0.16-0.57 μmol ml(-1)) production. Inoculation of rice (cv. Swarna) seedlings with selected isolates had a positive impact on plant growth parameters like shoot and root elongation which was correlated with in vitro PGP attributes. The results indicated that the

  4. Promiscuous Diffusible Signal Factor Production and Responsiveness of the Xylella fastidiosa Rpf System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ionescu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cell density-dependent regulation of gene expression in Xylella fastidiosa that is crucial to its switching between plant hosts and insect vectors is dependent on RpfF and its production of 2-enoic acids known as diffusible signal factor (DSF. We show that X. fastidiosa produces a particularly large variety of similar, relatively long-chain-length 2-enoic acids that are active in modulating gene expression. Both X. fastidiosa itself and a Pantoea agglomerans surrogate host harboring X. fastidiosa RpfF (XfRpfF is capable of producing a variety of both saturated and unsaturated free fatty acids. However, only 2-cis unsaturated acids were found to be biologically active in X. fastidiosa. X. fastidiosa produces, and is particularly responsive to, a novel DSF species, 2-cis-hexadecanoic acid that we term XfDSF2. It is also responsive to other, even longer 2-enoic acids to which other taxa such as Xanthomonas campestris are unresponsive. The 2-enoic acids that are produced by X. fastidiosa are strongly affected by the cellular growth environment, with XfDSF2 not detected in culture media in which 2-tetradecenoic acid (XfDSF1 had previously been found. X. fastidiosa is responsive to much lower concentrations of XfDSF2 than XfDSF1. Apparently competitive interactions can occur between various saturated and unsaturated fatty acids that block the function of those agonistic 2-enoic fatty acids. By altering the particular 2-enoic acids produced and the relative balance of free enoic and saturated fatty acids, X. fastidiosa might modulate the extent of DSF-mediated quorum sensing.

  5. Quorum sensing in the plant pathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora: the role of expR(Ecc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, R A; Eriksson, A R; Heikinheimo, R; Mäe, A; Pirhonen, M; Kõiv, V; Hyytiäinen, H; Tuikkala, A; Palva, E T

    2000-04-01

    The production of the main virulence determinants of the plant pathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, the extracellular cell wall-degrading enzymes, is partly controlled by the diffusible signal molecule N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (OHHL). OHHL is synthesized by the product of the expI/carI gene. Linked to expI we found a gene encoding a putative transcriptional regulator of the LuxR-family. This gene, expR(Ecc), is transcribed convergently to the expI gene and the two open reading frames are partially overlapping. The ExpR(Ecc) protein showed extensive amino acid sequence similarity to the repressor EsaR from Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (formerly Erwinia stewartii subsp. stewartii) and to the ExpR(Ech) protein of Erwinia chrysanthemi. Inactivation of the E. carotovora subsp. carotovora expR(Ecc) gene caused no decrease in virulence or production of virulence determinants in vitro. In contrast, there was a slight increase in the maceration capacity of the mutant strain. The effects of ExpR(Ecc) were probably mediated by changes in OHHL levels. Inactivation of expR(Ecc) resulted in increased OHHL levels during early logarithmic growth. In addition, overexpression of expR(Ecc) caused a clear decrease in the production of virulence determinants and part of this effect was likely to be caused by OHHL binding to ExpR(Ecc). ExpR(Ecc) did not appear to exhibit transcriptional regulation of expI, but the effect on OHHL was apparently due to other mechanisms.

  6. Stress tolerant plants

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio, Vicente; Iniesto Sánchez, Elisa; Irigoyen Miguel, María Luisa

    2014-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to transgenic plants and methods for modulating abscisic acid (ABA) perception and signal transduction in plants. The plants find use in increasing yield in plants, particularly under abiotic stress.

  7. Plant Host Finding by Parasitic Plants: A New Perspective on Plant to Plant Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Mescher, Mark C; Runyon, Justin B; De Moraes, Consuelo M

    2006-01-01

    Plants release airborne chemicals that can convey ecologically relevant information to other organisms. These plant volatiles are known to mediate a large array of, often complex, interactions between plants and insects. It has been suggested that plant volatiles may have similar importance in mediating interactions among plant species, but there are few well-documented examples of plant-to-plant communication via volatiles, and the ecological significance of such interactions has been much d...

  8. Nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Data concerning the existing nuclear power plants in the world are presented. The data was retrieved from the SIEN (Nuclear and Energetic Information System) data bank. The information are organized in table forms as follows: nuclear plants, its status and type; installed nuclear power plants by country; nuclear power plants under construction by country; planned nuclear power plants by country; cancelled nuclear power plants by country; shut-down nuclear power plants by country. (E.G.) [pt

  9. LNG plant combined with power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, I; Kikkawa, Y [Chiyoda Chemical Engineering and Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-06-01

    The LNG plant consumers a lot of power of natural gas cooling and liquefaction. In some LNG plant location, a rapid growth of electric power demand is expected due to the modernization of area and/or the country. The electric power demand will have a peak in day time and low consumption in night time, while the power demand of the LNG plant is almost constant due to its nature. Combining the LNG plant with power plant will contribute an improvement the thermal efficiency of the power plant by keeping higher average load of the power plant, which will lead to a reduction of electrical power generation cost. The sweet fuel gas to the power plant can be extracted from the LNG plant, which will be favorable from view point of clean air of the area. (Author). 5 figs.

  10. LNG plant combined with power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, I.; Kikkawa, Y.

    1997-01-01

    The LNG plant consumers a lot of power of natural gas cooling and liquefaction. In some LNG plant location, a rapid growth of electric power demand is expected due to the modernization of area and/or the country. The electric power demand will have a peak in day time and low consumption in night time, while the power demand of the LNG plant is almost constant due to its nature. Combining the LNG plant with power plant will contribute an improvement the thermal efficiency of the power plant by keeping higher average load of the power plant, which will lead to a reduction of electrical power generation cost. The sweet fuel gas to the power plant can be extracted from the LNG plant, which will be favorable from view point of clean air of the area. (Author). 5 figs

  11. Plant host finding by parasitic plants: a new perspective on plant to plant communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mescher, Mark C; Runyon, Justin B; De Moraes, Consuelo M

    2006-11-01

    Plants release airborne chemicals that can convey ecologically relevant information to other organisms. These plant volatiles are known to mediate a large array of, often complex, interactions between plants and insects. It has been suggested that plant volatiles may have similar importance in mediating interactions among plant species, but there are few well-documented examples of plant-to-plant communication via volatiles, and the ecological significance of such interactions has been much debated. To date, nearly all studies of volatile-mediated interactions among plant species have focused on the reception of herbivore-induced volatiles by neighboring plants. We recently documented volatile effects in another system, demonstrating that the parasitic plant Cuscuta pentagona uses volatile cues to locate its hosts. This finding may broaden the discussion regarding plant-to-plant communication, and suggests that new classes of volatile-meditated interactions among plant species await discovery.

  12. Plant host finding by parasitic plants: A new perspective on plant to plant communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark C. Mescher; Justin B. Runyon; Consuelo M. De Moraes

    2006-01-01

    Plants release airborne chemicals that can convey ecologically relevant information to other organisms. These plant volatiles are known to mediate a large array of, often complex, interactions between plants and insects. It has been suggested that plant volatiles may have similar importance in mediating interactions among plant species, but there are few well-...

  13. Kansas Power Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Power Plants database depicts, as point features, the locations of the various types of power plant locations in Kansas. The locations of the power plants...

  14. Gender in Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    What is the difference between plant sex and plant gender? Why does stress .... environmental sex determination is often predictable. Sunlit patches favour .... ensures that these self-incompatible plants receive cross-pollen only. i emporal ...

  15. Engineered Plants as Biosensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stewart, C

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the research was the creation of a model biosensing plant that could detect plant diseases and to characterize the utility of laser induced fluorescence imaging for detecting the inducible (LIFI) plant signal...

  16. Plant stress signalling: understanding and exploiting plant-plant interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, J A; Rasmussen, H B; Woodcock, C M; Matthes, M; Napier, J A

    2003-02-01

    When plants are attacked by insects, volatile chemical signals can be released, not only from the damaged parts, but also systemically from other parts of the plant and this continues after cessation of feeding by the insect. These signals are perceived by olfactory sensory mechanisms in both the herbivorous insects and their parasites. Molecular structures involved can be characterized by means of electrophysiological assays, using the insect sensory system linked to chemical analysis. Evidence is mounting that such signals can also affect neighbouring intact plants, which initiate defence by the induction of further signalling systems, such as those that increase parasitoid foraging. Furthermore, insect electrophysiology can be used in the identification of plant compounds having effects on the plants themselves. It has been found recently that certain plants can release stress signals even when undamaged, and that these can cause defence responses in intact plants. These discoveries provide the basis for new crop protection strategies, that are either delivered by genetic modification of plants or by conventionally produced plants to which the signal is externally applied. Delivery can also be made by means of mixed seed strategies in which the provoking and recipient plants are grown together. Related signalling discoveries within the rhizosphere seem set to extend these approaches into new ways of controlling weeds, by exploiting the elusive potential of allelopathy, but through signalling rather than by direct physiological effects.

  17. Analysis of the effect of high hydrostatic pressure treatment and enterocin AS-48 addition on the bacterial communities of cherimoya pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Pulido, Rubén; Toledo, Julia; Grande, M José; Gálvez, Antonio; Lucas, Rosario

    2015-03-02

    In the present study, pulp obtained from cherimoya pulp (Annona cherimola) was inoculated with epiphytic microbiota collected from cherimoya fruits, and supplemented or not with the circular bacteriocin enterocin AS-48 (50μg/g) and then packed under vacuum. Samples supplemented or not with enterocin were treated by high hydrostatic pressure (600MPa, 8min) and then stored at 5°C for 30days. The single AS-48 treatment only delayed microbial growth non-significantly (p>0.05). HHP treatment reduced microbial counts by five log cycles, but it did not prevent further growth of survivors by day 7. The combined treatment (AS-48+HHP) was the most effective, keeping bacterial cell densities at ≤1.5 log CFU/g for up to 15days. 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing analysis was done on amplicon libraries from the growth on TSA plates seeded with ten-fold dilutions of pulp suspensions and incubated at 22°C for 24h. The results obtained are limited by the experimental conditions used in the study, and only concern the bacterial fraction that was selected by the TSA and growth conditions used. Pantoea (Pantoea agglomerans, Pantoea vagans) were the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) detected at highest relative abundance in bacterial biomass grown from control samples for the first 7days of storage, followed by Enterococcus gallinarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides during late storage. The single HHP treatment significantly reduced the relative abundance of OTUs belonging to Pantoea and strongly increased that of endosporeformers (mainly Bacillus firmus and Bacillus stratosphericus) early after treatment, although Pantoea became again the predominant OTUs during storage. Samples singly treated with enterocin AS-48 revealed a strong inhibition of E. gallinarum as well as an early decrease in the relative abundance of Pantoea and an increased relative abundance of OTUs belonging to other Gram-negative species (mainly from genera Serratia and Pseudomonas). The strong microbial

  18. Promiscuous Diffusible Signal Factor Production and Responsiveness of the Xylella fastidiosa Rpf System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Michael; Yokota, Kenji; Antonova, Elena; Garcia, Angelica; Beaulieu, Ellen; Hayes, Terry; Iavarone, Anthony T; Lindow, Steven E

    2016-07-19

    Cell density-dependent regulation of gene expression in Xylella fastidiosa that is crucial to its switching between plant hosts and insect vectors is dependent on RpfF and its production of 2-enoic acids known as diffusible signal factor (DSF). We show that X. fastidiosa produces a particularly large variety of similar, relatively long-chain-length 2-enoic acids that are active in modulating gene expression. Both X. fastidiosa itself and a Pantoea agglomerans surrogate host harboring X. fastidiosa RpfF (XfRpfF) is capable of producing a variety of both saturated and unsaturated free fatty acids. However, only 2-cis unsaturated acids were found to be biologically active in X. fastidiosa X. fastidiosa produces, and is particularly responsive to, a novel DSF species, 2-cis-hexadecanoic acid that we term XfDSF2. It is also responsive to other, even longer 2-enoic acids to which other taxa such as Xanthomonas campestris are unresponsive. The 2-enoic acids that are produced by X. fastidiosa are strongly affected by the cellular growth environment, with XfDSF2 not detected in culture media in which 2-tetradecenoic acid (XfDSF1) had previously been found. X. fastidiosa is responsive to much lower concentrations of XfDSF2 than XfDSF1. Apparently competitive interactions can occur between various saturated and unsaturated fatty acids that block the function of those agonistic 2-enoic fatty acids. By altering the particular 2-enoic acids produced and the relative balance of free enoic and saturated fatty acids, X. fastidiosa might modulate the extent of DSF-mediated quorum sensing. X. fastidiosa, having a complicated lifestyle in which it moves and multiplies within plants but also must be vectored by insects, utilizes DSF-based quorum sensing to partition the expression of traits needed for these two processes within different cells in this population based on local cellular density. The finding that it can produce a variety of DSF species in a strongly

  19. Plants get sick too!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although many people may never have given consideration to plant health, plants can suffer from a wide range of diseases. These plant diseases are caused by micro-organisms, including bacteria, fungi, and viruses. The audience will be introduced to short case studies of several plant diseases that m...

  20. Plant extraction process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    A method for producing a plant extract comprises incubating a plant material with an enzyme composition comprising a lipolytic enzyme.......A method for producing a plant extract comprises incubating a plant material with an enzyme composition comprising a lipolytic enzyme....

  1. Radioactive uptake by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horak, O

    1986-01-01

    The fundamentals of radionuclide uptake by plants, both by leaves and roots are presented. Iodine, cesium, strontium and ruthenium are considered and a table of the measured concentrations in several agricultural plants shortly after the Chernobyl accident is presented. Another table gives the Cs and Sr transfer factors soil plants for some plants. By using them estimates of future burden can be obtained.

  2. Plant Biology Science Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, David R.

    This book contains science projects about seed plants that deal with plant physiology, plant ecology, and plant agriculture. Each of the projects includes a step-by-step experiment followed by suggestions for further investigations. Chapters include: (1) "Bean Seed Imbibition"; (2) "Germination Percentages of Different Types of Seeds"; (3)…

  3. Plants' essential chemical elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2007-01-01

    Every garden center and hardware store sells fertilizer guaranteed to "feed" plants. In a strict sense, we can't feed plants. Food contains an energy source. Green plants capture solar energy and make their own food through photosynthesis! Photosynthesis and other metabolic processes require chemical elements in appropriate doses for plants to survive...

  4. Plant Research '75

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    Research is reported on stomatal regulation of the gas exchanges between plant and environment; inhibitory effects in flower formation; plant growth and development through hormones; hormone action; development and nitrogen fixation in algae; primary cell wall glycoprotein ectensin; enzymic mechanisms and control of polysaccharide and glycoprotein synthesis; molecular studies of membrane studies; sensory transduction in plants; regulation of formation of protein complexes and enzymes in higher plant cell and mechanism of sulfur dioxide toxicity in plants. (PCS)

  5. PLANT BIOPRINTING: NOVEL PERSPECTIVE FOR PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhityo WICAKSONO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bioprinting is a technical innovation that has revolutionized tissue engineering. Using conventional printer cartridges filled with cells as well as a suitable scaffold, major advances have been made in the biomedical field, and it is now possible to print skin, bones, blood vessels, and even organs. Unlike animal systems, the application of bioprinting in simple plant tissue cells is still in a nascent phase and has yet to be studied. One major advantage of plants is that all living parts are reprogrammable in the form of totipotent cells. Plant bioprinting may improve scientists’understanding of plant shape and morphogenesis, and could serve for the mass production of desired tissues or plants, or even the production of plant-based biomaterial for industrial uses. This perspectives paper explores these possibilities using knowledge on what is known about bioprinting in other biosystems.

  6. Plutonium Plant, Trombay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, J.S.; Agarwal, K.

    2017-01-01

    The journey of Indian nuclear fuel reprocessing started with the commissioning of Plutonium Plant (PP) at Trombay on 22"n"d January, 1965 with an aim to reprocess the spent fuel from research reactor CIRUS. The basic process chosen for the plant was Plutonium Uranium Reduction EXtraction (PUREX) process. In seventies, the plant was subjected to major design modifications and replacement of hardware, which later met the additional demand from research reactor DHRUVA. The augmented plutonium plant has been operating since 1983. Experience gained from this plant was very much helpful to design future reprocessing plant in the country

  7. Better plants through mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This is a public relations film describing problems associated with the genetic improvement of crop plants through induced mutations. Mutations are the ultimate source of genetic variation in plants. Mutation induction is now established as a practical tool in plant breeding. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division and the IAEA's laboratory at Seibersdorf have supported research and practical implementation of mutation breeding of both seed propagated and vegetatively propagated plants. Plant biotechnology based on in vitro culture and recombinant DNA technology will make a further significant contribution to plant breeding

  8. Plant Phenotype Characterization System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel W McDonald; Ronald B Michaels

    2005-09-09

    This report is the final scientific report for the DOE Inventions and Innovations Project: Plant Phenotype Characterization System, DE-FG36-04GO14334. The period of performance was September 30, 2004 through July 15, 2005. The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of a new scientific instrument concept for the study of plant root systems. The root systems of plants are thought to be important in plant yield and thus important to DOE goals in renewable energy sources. The scientific study and understanding of plant root systems is hampered by the difficulty in observing root activity and the inadequacy of existing root study instrumentation options. We have demonstrated a high throughput, non-invasive, high resolution technique for visualizing plant root systems in-situ. Our approach is based upon low-energy x-ray radiography and the use of containers and substrates (artificial soil) which are virtually transparent to x-rays. The system allows us to germinate and grow plant specimens in our containers and substrates and to generate x-ray images of the developing root system over time. The same plant can be imaged at different times in its development. The system can be used for root studies in plant physiology, plant morphology, plant breeding, plant functional genomics and plant genotype screening.

  9. Xanthomonads and other yellow-pigmented, Xanthomonas-like bacteria associated with tomato seeds in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbega, Ernest Rashid; Wulff, Ednar Gadelha; Mabagala, R.B.

    2012-01-01

    of Xanthomonas campestris pv. malvacearum, were pathogenic on tomato and pepper plants. Strains identified by Biolog as Sphingomonas sanguinis and Sphingomonas terrae also incited black rot symptoms on pepper leaves. However, bacterial strains belonging to the genus Stenotrophomonas, Chryseobacterium, Pantoea...... and Flavobacterium were not pathogenic on tomato and pepper. Phylogenetic analysis showed that strains of the genus Xanthomonas are more closely related to Stenotrophomonas and Pantoea compared to the other bacterial genera found in tomato seeds....

  10. Plant tissue culture techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Dieter Illg

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

  11. Plant Tissue Culture

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    Plant tissue culture is a technique of culturing plant cells, tissues and organs on ... working methods (Box 2) and discovery of the need for B vita- mins and auxins for ... Kotte (Germany) reported some success with growing isolated root tips.

  12. Fertilization in Flowering Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Ecology and the Environ- ment, Bengaluru as ... remaining plants, it is an abiotic agent (abiotic pollination), .... tion was slow until the origin of flowering plants and evolution of ..... Although pollination is generally a mutual interaction in a major-.

  13. Plant proton pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaxiola, Roberto A.; Palmgren, Michael Gjedde; Schumacher, Karin

    2007-01-01

    Chemiosmotic circuits of plant cells are driven by proton (H+) gradients that mediate secondary active transport of compounds across plasma and endosomal membranes. Furthermore, regulation of endosomal acidification is critical for endocytic and secretory pathways. For plants to react...

  14. Terrestrial plant methane production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Bruhn, Dan; Møller, Ian M.

    We evaluate all experimental work published on the phenomenon of aerobic methane (CH4) generation in terrestrial plants. We conclude that the phenomenon is true. Four stimulating factors have been observed to induce aerobic plant CH4 production, i.e. cutting injuries, increasing temperature...... the aerobic methane emission in plants. Future work is needed for establishing the relative contribution of several proven potential CH4 precursors in plant material....

  15. Plant aquaporins: roles in plant physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guowei; Santoni, Véronique; Maurel, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    Aquaporins are membrane channels that facilitate the transport of water and small neutral molecules across biological membranes of most living organisms. Here, we present comprehensive insights made on plant aquaporins in recent years, pointing to their molecular and physiological specificities with respect to animal or microbial counterparts. In plants, aquaporins occur as multiple isoforms reflecting a high diversity of cellular localizations and various physiological substrates in addition to water. Of particular relevance for plants is the transport by aquaporins of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide or metalloids such as boric or silicic acid. The mechanisms that determine the gating and subcellular localization of plant aquaporins are extensively studied. They allow aquaporin regulation in response to multiple environmental and hormonal stimuli. Thus, aquaporins play key roles in hydraulic regulation and nutrient transport in roots and leaves. They contribute to several plant growth and developmental processes such as seed germination or emergence of lateral roots. Plants with genetically altered aquaporin functions are now tested for their ability to improve plant resistance to stresses. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Aquaporins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Plants under dual attack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponzio, C.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Though immobile, plants are members of complex environments, and are under constant threat from a wide range of attackers, which includes organisms such as insect herbivores or plant pathogens. Plants have developed sophisticated defenses against these attackers, and include chemical responses

  17. Growing Plants and Minds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Ashley Lewis; Kamdar, Danae; Vidiksis, Regan; Goldstein, Marion; Dominguez, Ximena; Orr, Jillian

    2017-01-01

    Many preschool classrooms explore plant growth. However, because many plants take a long time to grow, it is often hard to facilitate engagement in some practices (i.e., since change is typically not observable from one day to another, children often forget their prior predictions or cannot recall what plants looked like days or weeks earlier).…

  18. Fundaments of plant cybernetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucconi, F

    2001-01-01

    A systemic approach is proposed for analyzing plants' physiological organization and cybernesis. To this end, the plant is inspected as a system, starting from the integration of crown and root systems, and its impact on a number of basic epigenetic events. The approach proves to be axiomatic and facilitates the definition of the principles behind the plant's autonomous control of growth and reproduction.

  19. Plant or Animal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Frank; Matthews, Catherine E.

    1996-01-01

    Presents activities that use marine organisms with plant-like appearances to help students build classification skills and illustrate some of the less obvious differences between plants and animals. Compares mechanisms by which sessile plants and animals deal with common problems such as obtaining energy, defending themselves, successfully…

  20. Small hydroelectric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helgesen, Boerre

    2002-01-01

    Small hydroelectric power plants are power plants of 1 - 10 MW. For a supplier, this is an unnatural limit. A more natural limit involves compact engine design and simplified control system. The article discusses most of the engine and electrotechnical aspects in the development, construction and operation of such a plant

  1. Recognizing Plant Defense Priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Medina, Ainhoa; Flors, Victor; Heil, Martin; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte; Pieterse, Corné M J; Pozo, Maria J; Ton, Jurriaan; van Dam, Nicole M; Conrath, Uwe

    2016-10-01

    Defense priming conditions diverse plant species for the superinduction of defense, often resulting in enhanced pest and disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we propose a guideline that might assist the plant research community in a consistent assessment of defense priming in plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Plant Physiology in Greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, E.; Kierkels, T.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2004 Ep Heuvelink and Tijs Kierkels have been writing a continuing series of plant physiology articles for the Dutch horticultural journal Onder Glas and the international edition In Greenhouses. The book Plant Physiology in Greenhouses consists of 50 of their plant physiology articles. The

  3. Plants and people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn Lynch

    2012-01-01

    Salal! Salmonberries! Sword ferns! The Northwest is home to a great number of native plant species that humans have used for centuries. Sadly, many local children are unaware of the history and culture connecting people and plants. Yet, from the beginning of time, plants have provided us food, medicine, and material for clothing, shelter, transportation, decoration,...

  4. Plant Systems Biology (editorial)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In June 2003, Plant Physiology published an Arabidopsis special issue devoted to plant systems biology. The intention of Natasha Raikhel and Gloria Coruzzi, the two editors of this first-of-its-kind issue, was ‘‘to help nucleate this new effort within the plant community’’ as they considered that ‘‘...

  5. Plants of the Bayshore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachle, Leo; And Others

    This field guide gives pictures and descriptions of plants that can be found along the San Francisco Bayshore, especially along the Hayward shoreline. The plants are divided into three categories, those of the mud-flat zone, the drier zone, and the levee zone. Eighteen plants are represented in all. The guide is designed to be used alone, with an…

  6. TRANSGENIC PLANT CONTAINMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The new technology using plant genetics to produce chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and therapeuitics in a wide array of new plant forms requires sufficient testing to ensure that these new plant introductions are benign in the environment. A recent effort to provide necessary guidan...

  7. Plant Breeding Goes Microbial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, Zhong; Jousset, Alexandre

    Plant breeding has traditionally improved traits encoded in the plant genome. Here we propose an alternative framework reaching novel phenotypes by modifying together genomic information and plant-associated microbiota. This concept is made possible by a novel technology that enables the

  8. Plant innate immunity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Plants are invaded by an array of pathogens of which only a few succeed in causing disease. The attack by others is countered by a sophisticated immune system possessed by the plants. The plant immune system is broadly divided into two, viz. microbial-associated molecular-patterns-triggered immunity (MTI) and ...

  9. Diagnosing plant problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheryl A. Smith

    2008-01-01

    Diagnosing Christmas tree problems can be a challenge, requiring a basic knowledge of plant culture and physiology, the effect of environmental influences on plant health, and the ability to identify the possible causes of plant problems. Developing a solution or remedy to the problem depends on a proper diagnosis, a process that requires recognition of a problem and...

  10. Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majercak, V.; Srenkelova, Z.; Kristak, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    In this brochure the Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina, (VED), subsidiary of the utility Slovenske Elektrarne, a.s. (Slovak Electric, plc. Bratislava) are presented. VED is mainly aimed at generating peak-load electrical energy and maintenance of operational equipment. Reaching its goals, company is first of all focused on reliability of production, economy and effectiveness, keeping principles of work safety and industry safety standards and also ecology. VED operates eight hydroelectric power plants, from which PVE Ruzin I and PVE Dobsina I are pump storage ones and they are controlled directly by the Slovak Energy Dispatch Centre located in Zilina thought the system LS 3200. Those power plants participate in secondary regulation of electrical network of Slovakia. They are used to compensate balance in reference to foreign electrical networks and they are put into operation independently from VED. Activity of the branch is focused mainly on support of fulfilment of such an important aim as electric network regulation. Beginnings of the subsidiary Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina are related to the year of 1948. After commissioning of the pump storage Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina in 1953, the plant started to carry out its mission. Since that time the subsidiary has been enlarged by other seven power plants, through which it is fulfilling its missions nowadays. The characteristics of these hydroelectric power plants (The pump-storage power plant Dobsina, Small hydroelectric power plant Dobsina II, Small hydroelectric power plant Rakovec, Small hydroelectric power plant Svedlar, Hydroelectric power plant Domasa, The pump-storage power plant Ruzin, and Small hydroelectric power plant Krompachy) are described in detail. Employees welfare and public relations are presented

  11. Multinationals and plant survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate how different ownership structures affect plant survival, and second, to analyze how the presence of foreign multinational enterprises (MNEs) affects domestic plants’ survival. Using a unique and detailed data set on the Swedish manufacturing...... sector, I am able to separate plants into those owned by foreign MNEs, domestic MNEs, exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms. In line with previous findings, the result, when conditioned on other factors affecting survival, shows that foreign MNE plants have lower survival rates than non......-MNE plants. However, separating the non-MNEs into exporters and non-exporters, the result shows that foreign MNE plants have higher survival rates than non-exporting non-MNEs, while the survival rates of foreign MNE plants and exporting non-MNE plants do not seem to differ. Moreover, the simple non...

  12. Plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbonneau, S.; Framatome, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    Plant life assessment and extension studies have been performed by numerous companies all over the world. Critical equipment has been identified as well as various degradation mechanisms involved in the plant aging process. Nowadays one has to think what to implement to improve the existing situation in the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). FRAMATOME has undertaken this thought process in order to find the right answers and bring them to utilities facing either critical concern for plant life extension or the problem of management of power plant potential longevity. This is why we prepared a Plant Life Improvement Action Plan, comprising 10 (ten) major items described hereafter using examples of work performed by FRAMATOME for its utility customers desiring to manage the lives of their plants, both in France with EDF and abroad

  13. Photochemical smog and plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawada, T.

    1974-07-01

    Surveys of plant damage due to photochemical smog are summarized. The components of smog which appear to be responsible for plant damage include ozone and peroxyacyl nitrates. Their phytotoxic effects are much greater than those due to sulfur oxides. Damage surveys since 1970 reveal the following symptoms appearing on herbaceous plants (morning glory, cocks comb, dahlia, knotweed, petunia, chickweed, Welsh onion, spinach, Chinese cabbage, chard, taro): yellowish-white leaf discoloration, white and brown spots on matured leaves, and silvering of the lower surfaces of young leaves. Symptoms which appear on arboraceous plants such as zelkova, poplar, ginkgo, planetree, rose mallow, magnolia, pine tree, and rhododendron include early yellowing and reddening, white or brown spots, and untimely leaf-fall. The above plants are now utilized as indicator plants of photochemical smog. Surveys covering a broad area of Tokyo and three other prefectures indicate that plant damage due to photochemical smog extends to relatively unpolluted areas.

  14. Plant Physiology and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taiz, Lincoln; Zeiger, Eduardo; Møller, Ian Max

    Throughout its twenty-two year history, the authors of Plant Physiology have continually updated the book to incorporate the latest advances in plant biology and implement pedagogical improvements requested by adopters. This has made Plant Physiology the most authoritative, comprehensive......, and widely used upper-division plant biology textbook. In the Sixth Edition, the Growth and Development section (Unit III) has been reorganized and expanded to present the complete life cycle of seed plants from germination to senescence. In recognition of this enhancement, the text has been renamed Plant...... Physiology and Development. As before, Unit III begins with updated chapters on Cell Walls and Signals and Signal Transduction. The latter chapter has been expanded to include a discussion of major signaling molecules, such as calcium ions and plant hormones. A new, unified chapter entitled Signals from...

  15. Microbial degradation of phosmet on blueberry fruit and in aqueous systems by indigenous bacterial flora on lowbush blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, K M; Bushway, A A; Bushway, R J; Davis-Dentici, K

    2007-10-01

    Phosmet-adapted bacteria isolated from lowbush blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium) were evaluated for their ability to degrade phosmet on blueberry fruit and in minimal salt solutions. Microbial metabolism of phosmet by isolates of Enterobacter agglomerans and Pseudomonas fluorescens resulted in significant reductions (P blueberries and in minimal salt solutions. Thus, the role of adapted strains of E. agglomerans and P. fluorescens in degrading phosmet on blueberries represents an extensive plant-microorganism relationship, which is essential to determination of phosmet persistence under pre- and postharvest conditions.

  16. Reassessing apoptosis in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, Martin; Williams, Brett; Li, Yurong; de Figueiredo, Paul; Wolpert, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Cell death can be driven by a genetically programmed signalling pathway known as programmed cell death (PCD). In plants, PCD occurs during development as well as in response to environmental and biotic stimuli. Our understanding of PCD regulation in plants has advanced significantly over the past two decades; however, the molecular machinery responsible for driving the system remains elusive. Thus, whether conserved PCD regulatory mechanisms include plant apoptosis remains enigmatic. Animal apoptotic regulators, including Bcl-2 family members, have not been identified in plants but expression of such regulators can trigger or suppress plant PCD. Moreover, plants exhibit nearly all of the biochemical and morphological features of apoptosis. One difference between plant and animal PCD is the absence of phagocytosis in plants. Evidence is emerging that the vacuole may be key to removal of unwanted plant cells, and may carry out functions that are analogous to animal phagocytosis. Here, we provide context for the argument that apoptotic-like cell death occurs in plants.

  17. Safe genetically engineered plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosellini, D; Veronesi, F [Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale e Biotecnologie Agroambientali e Zootecniche, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, Borgo XX giugno 74, 06121 Perugia (Italy)

    2007-10-03

    The application of genetic engineering to plants has provided genetically modified plants (GMPs, or transgenic plants) that are cultivated worldwide on increasing areas. The most widespread GMPs are herbicide-resistant soybean and canola and insect-resistant corn and cotton. New GMPs that produce vaccines, pharmaceutical or industrial proteins, and fortified food are approaching the market. The techniques employed to introduce foreign genes into plants allow a quite good degree of predictability of the results, and their genome is minimally modified. However, some aspects of GMPs have raised concern: (a) control of the insertion site of the introduced DNA sequences into the plant genome and of its mutagenic effect; (b) presence of selectable marker genes conferring resistance to an antibiotic or an herbicide, linked to the useful gene; (c) insertion of undesired bacterial plasmid sequences; and (d) gene flow from transgenic plants to non-transgenic crops or wild plants. In response to public concerns, genetic engineering techniques are continuously being improved. Techniques to direct foreign gene integration into chosen genomic sites, to avoid the use of selectable genes or to remove them from the cultivated plants, to reduce the transfer of undesired bacterial sequences, and make use of alternative, safer selectable genes, are all fields of active research. In our laboratory, some of these new techniques are applied to alfalfa, an important forage plant. These emerging methods for plant genetic engineering are briefly reviewed in this work.

  18. Safe genetically engineered plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosellini, D; Veronesi, F

    2007-01-01

    The application of genetic engineering to plants has provided genetically modified plants (GMPs, or transgenic plants) that are cultivated worldwide on increasing areas. The most widespread GMPs are herbicide-resistant soybean and canola and insect-resistant corn and cotton. New GMPs that produce vaccines, pharmaceutical or industrial proteins, and fortified food are approaching the market. The techniques employed to introduce foreign genes into plants allow a quite good degree of predictability of the results, and their genome is minimally modified. However, some aspects of GMPs have raised concern: (a) control of the insertion site of the introduced DNA sequences into the plant genome and of its mutagenic effect; (b) presence of selectable marker genes conferring resistance to an antibiotic or an herbicide, linked to the useful gene; (c) insertion of undesired bacterial plasmid sequences; and (d) gene flow from transgenic plants to non-transgenic crops or wild plants. In response to public concerns, genetic engineering techniques are continuously being improved. Techniques to direct foreign gene integration into chosen genomic sites, to avoid the use of selectable genes or to remove them from the cultivated plants, to reduce the transfer of undesired bacterial sequences, and make use of alternative, safer selectable genes, are all fields of active research. In our laboratory, some of these new techniques are applied to alfalfa, an important forage plant. These emerging methods for plant genetic engineering are briefly reviewed in this work

  19. [Intoxications with plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupper, Jacqueline; Reichert, Cornelia

    2009-05-01

    Ingestions of plants rarely lead to life-threatening intoxications. Highly toxic plants, which can cause death, are monkshood (Aconitum sp.), yew (Taxus sp.) and autumn crocus (Colchicum autumnale). Lethal ingestions of monkshood and yew are usually suicides, intoxications with autumn crocus are mostly accidental ingestions of the leaves mistaken for wild garlic (Allium ursinum). Severe intoxications can occur with plants of the nightshade family like deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), angel's trumpet (Datura suaveolens) or jimsonweed (Datura stramonium). These plants are ingested for their psychoactive effects. Ingestion of plant material by children most often only causes minor symptoms or no symptoms at all, as children usually do not eat great quantities of the plants. They are especially attracted by the colorful berries. There are plants with mostly cardiovascular effects like monkshood, yew and Digitalis sp. Some of the most dangerous plants belong to this group. Plants of the nightshade family cause an anticholinergic syndrome. With golden chain (Laburnum anagyroides), castor bean (Ricinus communis) and raw beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) we see severe gastrointestinal effects. Autumn crocus contains a cell toxin, colchicine, which leads to multiorgan failure. Different plants are irritative or even caustic to the skin. Treatment is usually symptomatic. Activated charcoal is administered within one hour after ingestion (1 g/kg). Endoscopic removal of plant material can be considered with ingestions of great quantities of highly toxic plants. Administration of repeated doses of charcoal (1-2 g/h every 2-4 hours) may be effective in case of oleander poisoning. There exist only two antidotes: Anti-digoxin Fab fragments can be used with cardenolide glycoside-containing plants (Digitalis sp., Oleander). Physostigmine is the antidote for severe anticholinergic symptoms of the CNS. Antibodies against colchicine, having been developed in France, are not available at

  20. Microbial resistance and frequency of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL in isolated from blood cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruan Carlos Gomes da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The emergence and spread of isolated carriers of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL have complicated the treatment of nosocomial infections, since its production is not easily identified by the sensitivity tests, routinely performed in clinical laboratories, leading to difficulties in the hospital control of resistant microorganisms and antibiotics misuse.Objective:The objective of this study was to analyze the resistance profile and the frequency of ESBL in Gram-negative bacteria isolated from blood cultures. A hundred bacterial samples from blood cultures of adult patients were analyzed, which were phenotypically identified by biochemical tests of carbohydrates fermentation and submitted to determination of the resistance profile by disc diffusion test and ESBL screening by disc approximation and disc replacement methods.Results:Among the bacterial samples tested, 30 were identified as Gram-negative bacteria, predominantly by Proteus mirabilis, Pantoea agglomerans, and Escherichia coli. Of these, 73.33% were positive for the detection of ESBL by phenotypic tests, and was found mainly in Pantoea agglomerans, Proteus mirabilis, and Enterobacter cloacae.Conclusion:The increase in the occurrence of ESBL in different Enterobacteriaceae shows the importance of the amplification of detection in other species than Escherichia coli or Klebsiella sp., so that the assistance to the patient is not restrained, since these resistant bacteria cannot be detected by the laboratories. Considering the frequency of ESBL in this study, we highlight the importance of its detection, aiming to its contribution to the development of improvements in the health care policies of hospitals.

  1. Nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margulova, T.Ch.

    1976-01-01

    The textbook focuses on the technology and the operating characteristics of nuclear power plants equiped with pressurized water or boiling water reactors, which are in operation all over the world at present. The following topics are dealt with in relation to the complete plant and to economics: distribution and consumption of electric and thermal energy, types and equipment of nuclear power plants, chemical processes and material balance, economical characteristics concerning heat and energy, regenerative preheating of feed water, degassing and condenser systems, water supply, evaporators, district heating systems, steam generating systems and turbines, coolant loops and pipes, plant siting, ventilation and decontamination systems, reactor operation and management, heat transfer including its calculation, design of reactor buildings, and nuclear power plants with gas or sodium cooled reactors. Numerous technical data of modern Soviet nuclear power plants are included. The book is of interest to graduate and post-graduate students in the field of nuclear engineering as well as to nuclear engineers

  2. Conditional sterility in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Richard B.; McKinney, Elizabeth; Kim, Tehryung

    2010-02-23

    The present disclosure provides methods, recombinant DNA molecules, recombinant host cells containing the DNA molecules, and transgenic plant cells, plant tissue and plants which contain and express at least one antisense or interference RNA specific for a thiamine biosynthetic coding sequence or a thiamine binding protein or a thiamine-degrading protein, wherein the RNA or thiamine binding protein is expressed under the regulatory control of a transcription regulatory sequence which directs expression in male and/or female reproductive tissue. These transgenic plants are conditionally sterile; i.e., they are fertile only in the presence of exogenous thiamine. Such plants are especially appropriate for use in the seed industry or in the environment, for example, for use in revegetation of contaminated soils or phytoremediation, especially when those transgenic plants also contain and express one or more chimeric genes which confer resistance to contaminants.

  3. Plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wusheng; Stewart, C Neal

    2015-05-01

    Plant synthetic biology is an emerging field that combines engineering principles with plant biology toward the design and production of new devices. This emerging field should play an important role in future agriculture for traditional crop improvement, but also in enabling novel bioproduction in plants. In this review we discuss the design cycles of synthetic biology as well as key engineering principles, genetic parts, and computational tools that can be utilized in plant synthetic biology. Some pioneering examples are offered as a demonstration of how synthetic biology can be used to modify plants for specific purposes. These include synthetic sensors, synthetic metabolic pathways, and synthetic genomes. We also speculate about the future of synthetic biology of plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Annual Plant Reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , three dimensional structures and functions of each protein in a biological system. In plant science, the number of proteome studies is rapidly expanding after the completion of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome sequence, and proteome analyses of other important or emerging model systems and crop plants...... are in progress or are being initiated. Proteome analysis in plants is subject to the same obstacles and limitations as in other organisms, but the nature of plant tissues, with their rigid cell walls and complex variety of secondary metabolites, means that extra challenges are involved that may not be faced when...... analysing other organisms. This volume aims to highlight the ways in which proteome analysis has been used to probe the complexities of plant biochemistry and physiology. It is aimed at researchers in plant biochemistry, genomics, transcriptomics and metabolomics who wish to gain an up-to-date insight...

  5. Towards plant wires

    OpenAIRE

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In experimental laboratory studies we evaluate a possibility of making electrical wires from living plants. In scoping experiments we use lettuce seedlings as a prototype model of a plant wire. We approximate an electrical potential transfer function by applying direct current voltage to the lettuce seedlings and recording output voltage. We analyse oscillation frequencies of the output potential and assess noise immunity of the plant wires. Our findings will be used in future designs of self...

  6. Design of chemical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Il; Kim, Seung Jae; Yang, Jae Ho; Ryu, Hwa Won

    1993-01-01

    This book describes design of chemical plant, which includes chemical engineer and plan for chemical plant, development of chemical process, cost engineering pattern, design and process development, general plant construction plan, project engineering, foundation for economy on assets and depreciation, estimation for cost on capital investment and manufacturing cost, design with computers optimal design and method like fluid mechanics design chemical device and estimation for cost, such as dispatch of material and device writing on design report and appendixes.

  7. Late Palaeozoic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhuo

    2017-09-11

    Land plants are one of the major constituents of terrestrial ecosystems on Earth, and play an irreplaceable role in human activities today. If we are to understand the extant plants, it is imperative that we have some understanding of the fossil plants from the deep geological past, particularly those that occurred during their early evolutionary history, in the late Palaeozoic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Plant Habitat (PH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onate, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will soon have a platform for conducting fundamental research of Large Plants. Plant Habitat (PH) is designed to be a fully controllable environment for high-quality plant physiological research. PH will control light quality, level, and timing, temperature, CO2, relative humidity, and irrigation, while scrubbing ethylene. Additional capabilities include leaf temperature and root zone moisture and oxygen sensing. The light cap will have red (630 nm), blue (450 nm), green (525 nm), far red (730 nm) and broad spectrum white LEDs. There will be several internal cameras (visible and IR) to monitor and record plant growth and operations.

  9. Integrated Nuclear Recycle Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patodi, Anuj; Parashar, Abhishek; Samadhiya, Akshay K.; Ray, Saheli; Dey, Mitun; Singh, K.K.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear Recycle Board (NRB), Tarapur proposes to set up an 'Integrated Nuclear Recycle Plant' at Tarapur. This will be located in the premises of BARC facilities. The project location is at coastal town of Tarapur, 130 Km north of Mumbai. Project area cover of INRP is around 80 hectares. The plant will be designed to process spent fuel received from Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs). This is the first large scale integrated plant of the country. INRP will process spent fuel obtained from indigenous nuclear power plants and perform left over nuclear waste disposal

  10. Towards plant wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    In experimental laboratory studies we evaluate a possibility of making electrical wires from living plants. In scoping experiments we use lettuce seedlings as a prototype model of a plant wire. We approximate an electrical potential transfer function by applying direct current voltage to the lettuce seedlings and recording output voltage. We analyse oscillation frequencies of the output potential and assess noise immunity of the plant wires. Our findings will be used in future designs of self-growing wetware circuits and devices, and integration of plant-based electronic components into future and emergent bio-hybrid systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. MBS Native Plant Communities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data layer contains results of the Minnesota County Biological Survey (MCBS). It includes polygons representing the highest quality native plant communities...

  12. The Kuroshio power plant

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Falin

    2013-01-01

    By outlining a new design or the Kuroshio power plant, new approaches to turbine design, anchorage system planning, deep sea marine engineering and power plant operations and maintenance are explored and suggested. The impact on the local environment, particularly in the face of natural disasters, is also considered to provide a well rounded introduction to plan and build a 30MW pilot power plant. Following a literature review, the six chapters of this book propose a conceptual design by focusing on the plant's core technologies and establish the separate analysis logics for turbine design and

  13. Plant Transporter Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bo

    Membrane transport proteins (transporters) play a critical role for numerous biological processes, by controlling the movements of ions and molecules in and out of cells. In plants, transporters thus function as gatekeepers between the plant and its surrounding environment and between organs......, tissues, cells and intracellular compartments. Since plants are highly compartmentalized organisms with complex transportation infrastructures, they consequently have many transporters. However, the vast majority of predicted transporters have not yet been experimentally verified to have transport...... activity. This project contains a review of the implemented methods, which have led to plant transporter identification, and present our progress on creating a high-throughput functional genomics transporter identification platform....

  14. Less power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TASR

    2003-01-01

    In the Slovak Republic the number of company power plants decreased as against 2001 by two sources. In present time only 35 companies have their own power plants. The companies Slovnaft, Kappa Sturovo, Slovensky hodvab Senica, Matador Puchov, Maytex Liptovsky MikuIas, Kovohuty Krompachy, Chemko Strazske and some Slovak sugar factories belong to the largest company power plants in force of distributing companies. Installed output of present 35 company sources is 531 MW. The largest of separate power plants as Paroplynovy cyklus Bratislava (218 MW) and VD Zilina (72 MW) belong to independent sources. Total installed output of Slovak sources was 8306 MW in the end of last year

  15. Offshore atomic power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Various merits of offshore atomic power plants are illustrated, and their systems are assessed. The planning of the offshore atomic power plants in USA is reviewed, and the construction costs of the offshore plant in Japan were estimated. Air pollution problem may be solved by the offshore atomic power plants remarkably. Deep water at low temperature may be advantageously used as cooling water for condensers. Marine resources may be bred by building artificial habitats and by providing spring-up equipments. In the case of floating plants, the plant design can be standardized so that the construction costs may be reduced. The offshore plants can be classified into three systems, namely artificial island system, floating system and sea bottom-based system. The island system may be realized with the present level of civil engineering, but requires the development of technology for the resistance of base against earthquake and its calculation means. The floating system may be constructed with conventional power plant engineering and shipbuilding engineering, but the aseismatic stability of breakwater may be a problem to be solved. Deep water floating system and deep water submerging system are conceivable, but its realization may be difficult. The sea bottom-based system with large caissons can be realized by the present civil engineering, but the construction of the caissons, stability against earthquake and resistance to waves may be problems to be solved. The technical prediction and assessment of new plant sites for nuclear power plants have been reported by Science and Technology Agency in 1974. The construction costs of an offshore plant has been estimated by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry to be yen71,026/kW as of 1985. (Iwakiri, K.)

  16. Selenium accumulation by plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate 100 mg Se kg–1 dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000–15 000 mg Se kg–1 dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. Scope This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. Conclusions The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated into non-functional proteins, through the synthesis of less toxic Se metabilites. There is potential to breed or select crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible tissues, which

  17. Recovery of surface bacteria from and surface sanitization of cantaloupes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Jeri D; Chue, Bryan; Mills, Daniel C

    2003-10-01

    Practical, effective methods that could be implemented in a food service establishment (restaurant or delicatessen) for the surface sanitization of cantaloupes were microbiologically evaluated. Cantaloupes (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulates) were immersed in an inoculum containing Salmonella enterica serovar Poona or Pantoea agglomerans at ca. 10(4) to 10(5) CFU/ml. An efficient method for the recovery of bacteria from the cantaloupe surface was developed and validated. The method consisted of washing the entire melon with Butterfield's buffer containing 1% Tween 80 in a plastic bag placed inside a plastic pail affixed to an orbital shaker. Levels of S. enterica Poona recovered by washing the entire melon were significantly higher than those recovered by the more common laboratory method of blending the rind. P. agglomerans can be used as a non-pathogenic proxy for S. enterica Poona. A three-compartment surface sanitization method consisting of washing with an antimicrobial soap solution, scrubbing with a brush in tap water, and immersion in 150 ppm of sodium hypochlorite reduced the initial level of recoverable viable bacteria by 99.8%. When examined separately, scrubbing with a vegetable brush in tap water, washing with soap, and dipping in chlorine were found to reduce the bacterial load by 70, 80, and 90%, respectively.

  18. Better Plants Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Better Buildings, Better Plants Program is a voluntary partnership initiative to drive significant energy efficiency improvement across energy intensive companies and organizations. 157 leading manufacturers and public water and wastewater treatment utilities are partnering with DOE through Better Plants to improve energy efficiency, slash carbon emissions, and cut energy costs.

  19. Plant Glandular Trichomes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    landing on the plant. Glandular trichomes in catmint (Nepeta sp.) produce nepetalactone, closely related to the aphid sex pheromone, nepetalactol. Nepetalactone can be reduced to the corresponding nepetalactol. ... Plant glandular trichomes function either as repositories or releasing sites of various chemicals. Interest in ...

  20. Plants as green phones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soler, R.; Harvey, J.A.; Bezemer, T.M.; Stuefer, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    Plants can act as vertical communication channels or `green phones¿ linking soil-dwelling insects and insects in the aboveground ecosystem. When root-feeding insects attack a plant, the direct defense system of the shoot is activated, leading to an accumulation of phytotoxins in the leaves. The

  1. Solar thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnatbaum, L.

    2009-01-01

    The solar thermal power plant technology, the opportunities it presents and the developments in the market are outlined. The focus is on the technology of parabolic trough power plants, a proven technology for solar power generation on a large scale. In a parabolic trough power plant, trough-shaped mirrors concentrate the solar irradiation onto a pipe in the focal line of the collector. The thermal energy thus generated is used for electricity generation in a steam turbine. Parabolic trough plants can be combined with thermal storage and fossil or biomass fired heat exchangers to generate electricity even when the sun is not shining. Solar Millennium AG in Erlangen has developed the first power plant of this kind in Europe. After two years of construction the plant started operation in Southern Spain in 2008. This one and its sister projects are important steps leading the way for the whole market. The paper also covers the technological challenges, the key components used and the research and development activities concerning this technology. Solar thermal power plants are ideal for covering peak and medium loads in power grids. In hybrid operation they can also cover base-load. The Solar Chimney power plant, another striking technology for the conversion of solar into electric energy, is described briefly. The paper concludes with a look at the future - the import of solar energy from the deserts of North Africa to central Europe. (author)

  2. Redox signaling in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyer, Christine H; Noctor, Graham

    2013-06-01

    Our aim is to deliver an authoritative and challenging perspective of current concepts in plant redox signaling, focusing particularly on the complex interface between the redox and hormone-signaling pathways that allow precise control of plant growth and defense in response to metabolic triggers and environmental constraints and cues. Plants produce significant amounts of singlet oxygen and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a result of photosynthetic electron transport and metabolism. Such pathways contribute to the compartment-specific redox-regulated signaling systems in plant cells that convey information to the nucleus to regulate gene expression. Like the chloroplasts and mitochondria, the apoplast-cell wall compartment makes a significant contribution to the redox signaling network, but unlike these organelles, the apoplast has a low antioxidant-buffering capacity. The respective roles of ROS, low-molecular antioxidants, redox-active proteins, and antioxidant enzymes are considered in relation to the functions of plant hormones such as salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and auxin, in the composite control of plant growth and defense. Regulation of redox gradients between key compartments in plant cells such as those across the plasma membrane facilitates flexible and multiple faceted opportunities for redox signaling that spans the intracellular and extracellular environments. In conclusion, plants are recognized as masters of the art of redox regulation that use oxidants and antioxidants as flexible integrators of signals from metabolism and the environment.

  3. Cognition in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calvo, P.; Keijzer, F.A.

    2009-01-01

    To what extent can plants be considered cognitive from the perspective of embodied cognition? Cognition is interpreted very broadly within embodied cognition, and the current evidence for plant intelligence might find an important theoretical background here. However, embodied cognition does stress

  4. Invertebrates and Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell R. Haag; Robert J. Distefano; Siobhan Fennessy; Brett D. Marshall

    2013-01-01

    Invertebrates and plants are among the most ubiquitous and abundant macroscopic organisms in aquatic ecosystems; they dominate most habitats in both diversity and biomass and play central roles in aquatic food webs. Plants regulate and create habitats for a wide array of organisms (Cooke et al. 2005). Snail grazing and bivalve filtering profoundly alter habitats and...

  5. Modulating lignin in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apuya, Nestor; Bobzin, Steven Craig; Okamuro, Jack; Zhang, Ke

    2013-01-29

    Materials and methods for modulating (e.g., increasing or decreasing) lignin content in plants are disclosed. For example, nucleic acids encoding lignin-modulating polypeptides are disclosed as well as methods for using such nucleic acids to generate transgenic plants having a modulated lignin content.

  6. Recognizing Plant Defense Priming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Medina, Ainhoa; Flors, Victor; Heil, Martin; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte; Pieterse, Corné M J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113115113; Pozo, Maria J; Ton, Jurriaan; van Dam, Nicole M; Conrath, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Defense priming conditions diverse plant species for the superinduction of defense, often resulting in enhanced pest and disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we propose a guideline that might assist the plant research community in a consistent assessment of defense priming in

  7. Exotic invasive plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolyn Hull Sieg; Barbara G. Phillips; Laura P. Moser

    2003-01-01

    Ecosystems worldwide are threatened by nonnative plant invasions that can cause undesirable, irreversible changes. They can displace native plants and animals, out-cross with native flora, alter nutrient cycling and other ecosystem functions, and even change an ecosystem's flammability (Walker and Smith 1997). After habitat loss, the spread of exotic species is...

  8. Plant-Fungus Marriages

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Every plant requires mineral elements for growth. A mnemonic ... lar coils. More commonly, the hypha forms highly branched, .... stamps on the edible and poisonous mushrooms (Figure 2). One of the ... but these days dogs are used for truffle. 'hunting' . .... example is a non-chlorophyllous plant known as Indian pipe or.

  9. Dormancy in Plant Seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, H.W.M.; Finch-Savage, W.E.; Buitink, J.; Bolingue, W.; Leubner-Metzger, G.

    2010-01-01

    Seed dormancy has been studied intensely over the past decades and, at present, knowledge of this plant trait is at the forefront of plant biology. The main model species is Arabidopsis thaliana, an annual weed, possessing nondeep physiological dormancy. This overview presents the state-of-the-art

  10. Slavery in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabiri, S.; Rodenburg, J.; Ast, van A.; Bastiaans, L.

    2017-01-01

    The rain-fed lowland rice weed Rhamphicarpa fistulosa (Rice Vampireweed) is a facultative root parasitic plant. Growth and reproduction of R. fistulosa benefit considerably from parasitism, but how this affects the host plant is not well established. We determined accumulation and partitioning of

  11. Power plant chemical technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    17 contributions covering topies of fossil fuel combustion, flue gas cleaning, power plant materials, corrosion, water/steam cycle chemistry, monitoring and control were presented at the annual meeting devoted to Power Plant Chemical Technology 1996 at Kolding (Denmark) 4-6 September 1996. (EG)

  12. Plant diagnosis device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tozuka, Shin-ichi.

    1996-01-01

    Standard data approximately defined are inputted as 1:1 functional data between at least two or more plant data and each of plant data are inputted. Diagnosis data corresponding to each of process data are formed based on the functional data. Limit value data to be a threshold value which determines whether the diagnosis data are in a predetermined state or not are formed. The diagnosis data and the limit value data are displayed in a recognizable state. If diagnosis data of a plurality of plants are displayed simultaneously, all of the plant data are substantially the same value with one standard datum if the plant is in a normal state. When abnormality should occur in the plant, the difference between the diagnosis data and the standard data is remarkable, and the difference between the diagnosis data of other normal plant data and the standard data are also made remarkably, accordingly, the display of a plurality of diagnosis data is scattered thereby capable of diagnosing the abnormality of the plant. (N.H.)

  13. Methylome evolution in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vidalis, Amaryllis; Živković, Daniel; Wardenaar, René; Roquis, David; Tellier, Aurélien; Johannes, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Despite major progress in dissecting the molecular pathways that control DNA methylation patterns in plants, little is known about the mechanisms that shape plant methylomes over evolutionary time. Drawing on recent intra- and interspecific epigenomic studies, we show that methylome evolution over

  14. Antimicrobial Peptides from Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P. Tam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant antimicrobial peptides (AMPs have evolved differently from AMPs from other life forms. They are generally rich in cysteine residues which form multiple disulfides. In turn, the disulfides cross-braced plant AMPs as cystine-rich peptides to confer them with extraordinary high chemical, thermal and proteolytic stability. The cystine-rich or commonly known as cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs of plant AMPs are classified into families based on their sequence similarity, cysteine motifs that determine their distinctive disulfide bond patterns and tertiary structure fold. Cystine-rich plant AMP families include thionins, defensins, hevein-like peptides, knottin-type peptides (linear and cyclic, lipid transfer proteins, α-hairpinin and snakins family. In addition, there are AMPs which are rich in other amino acids. The ability of plant AMPs to organize into specific families with conserved structural folds that enable sequence variation of non-Cys residues encased in the same scaffold within a particular family to play multiple functions. Furthermore, the ability of plant AMPs to tolerate hypervariable sequences using a conserved scaffold provides diversity to recognize different targets by varying the sequence of the non-cysteine residues. These properties bode well for developing plant AMPs as potential therapeutics and for protection of crops through transgenic methods. This review provides an overview of the major families of plant AMPs, including their structures, functions, and putative mechanisms.

  15. Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

  16. NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J.C.; Armstrong, R.H.; Janicke, M.J.

    1963-05-14

    A nuclear power plant for use in an airless environment or other environment in which cooling is difficult is described. The power plant includes a boiling mercury reactor, a mercury--vapor turbine in direct cycle therewith, and a radiator for condensing mercury vapor. (AEC)

  17. Caladium plant poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enough to prevent normal speaking and swallowing. Home Care If the plant was eaten, wipe out the mouth with a ... to Expect at the Emergency Room Take the plant with you to the hospital, if possible. The health care provider will measure and monitor the person's vital ...

  18. Gold in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girling, C.A.; Peterson, P.J.

    1980-01-01

    Many plants have the ability to take up gold from the soil and to accumulate it in their tisssue. Advances have been made in understanding these processes to the point where their exploitation in the field of prospecting for gold appears practically feasible. Neutron activation analysis is used for the determination of the small quantities of gold in plants

  19. Recognizing plant defense priming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Medina, A.; Flors, V.; Heil, M.; Mauch-Mani, B.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Pozo, M.J.; Ton, J.; Van Dam, N.M.; Conrath, U.

    2016-01-01

    Defense priming conditions diverse plant species for the superinduction of defense, often resulting in enhanced pest and disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we propose a guideline that might assist the plant research community in a consistent assessment of defense priming in

  20. Carotenoid metabolism in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenoids are mostly C40 terpenoids, a class of hydrocarbons that participate in various biological processes in plants, such as photosynthesis, photomorphogenesis, photoprotection, and development. Carotenoids also serve as precursors for two plant hormones and a diverse set of apocarotenoids. Th...

  1. [Neotropical plant morphology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-García, Blanca; Mendoza, Aniceto

    2002-01-01

    An analysis on plant morphology and the sources that are important to the morphologic interpretations is done. An additional analysis is presented on all published papers in this subject by the Revista de Biología Tropical since its foundation, as well as its contribution to the plant morphology development in the neotropics.

  2. Automatic micropropagation of plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Clemens; Schwanke, Joerg; Jensch, Peter F.

    1996-12-01

    Micropropagation is a sophisticated technique for the rapid multiplication of plants. It has a great commercial potential due to the speed of propagation, the high plant quality, and the ability to produce disease-free plants. However, micropropagation is usually done by hand which makes the process cost-intensive and tedious for the workers especially because it requires a sterile work-place. Therefore, we have developed a prototype automation system for the micropropagation of a grass species (miscanthus sinensis gigantheus). The objective of this paper is to describe the robotic system in an overview and to discuss the vision system more closely including the implemented morphological operations recognizing the cutting and gripping points of miscanthus plants. Fuzzy controllers are used to adapt the parameters of image operations on-line to each individual plant. Finally, we discuss our experiences with the developed prototype an give a preview of a possible real production line system.

  3. Plants and fluorine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garber, K

    1962-01-01

    A report is given about the contents of fluorine in soil and different plants. It is stated that spinach and several spice herbages are rich in fluorine (0.98 - 21.8 ppm) while in other plants are not more than 5 ppm maximum. An exception is found in Thea sinensis with 178 ppm and more. Tea is, therefore, a source of fluorine for contamination of the human body. An increase of the fluorine contents of plants by manuring with F-salts or mineral manure is possible but of long duration. Damage to plants by uptake of fluorine from soil as well as in a gaseous condition from the atmosphere are described. The rate of damage is related to the type of soil in which the plant is grown.

  4. Poultry Plant Noise Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    A demonstration conducted last winter at the Tip Top Poultry Plant intended to show poultry plant managers from all over the U.S. potential solutions to the problem of plant noise. Plastic covers used over sound absorbing materials need to meet cleanability requirements, high- pressure water cleaning and other harsh maintenance procedures peculiar to the poultry processing industry. For the demonstration, Fiber Flex, Inc. manufactured and donated 750 noise panels; Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation donated the fiberglas cores; and the cover material was purchased from Howe and Bainbridge. The Engineering Experiment Station (EES) conducted before and after noise surveys and is evaluating the effect of noise reduction on turnover and productivity in the demonstration plant. EES plans to conduct a noise abatement workshop and update a handbook to help poultry processors with noise problems. EES study and demonstration may be applicable to other food processing plants where similar sanitary constraints exist.

  5. Protein carbonylation in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ian Max; Havelund, Jesper; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina

    2017-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the current knowledge on protein carbonylation in plants and its role in plant physiology. It starts with a brief outline of the turnover and production sites of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants and the causes of protein carbonylation. This is followed...... by a description of the methods used to study protein carbonylation in plants, which is also very brief as the methods are similar to those used in studies on animals. The chapter also focuses on protein carbonylation in plants in general and in mitochondria and in seeds in particular, as case stories where...... specific carbonylated proteins have been identified. Protein carbonylation appears to accumulate at all stages of seed development and germination investigated to date. In some cases, such as seed aging, it is probably simply an accumulation of oxidative damage. However, in other cases protein...

  6. Plant control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Masuo; Ono, Makoto.

    1995-01-01

    A plant control device comprises an intellectual instrumentation group for measuring a predetermined process amount, an intellectual equipment group operating in accordance with a self-countermeasure, a system information space for outputting system information, a system level monitoring and diagnosing information generalization section for outputting system information, a system level maintenance information generalization section for outputting information concerning maintenance, a plant level information space and a plant level information generalization section. Each of them determines a state of the plant autonomously, and when abnormality is detected, each of the intellectual instrumentation, equipments and systems exchange information with each other, to conduct required operations including operations of intellectual robots, as required. Appropriate countermeasures for gauges, equipments and systems can be conducted autonomously at a place where operators can not access to improve reliability of complicate operations in the working site, as well as improve plant safety and reliability. (N.H.)

  7. Plant abnormality inspection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, Toshio.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention concerns a plant abnormality inspection device for conducting remote or automatic patrolling inspection in a plant and, more particularly, relates to such a device as capable of detecting abnormal odors. That is, the device comprises a moving device for moving to a predetermined position in the plant, a plurality of gas sensors for different kind of gases to be inspected mounted thereon, a comparator for comparing the concentration of a gas detected by the gas sensor with the normal gas concentration at the predetermined position and a judging means for judging the absence or presence of abnormality depending on the combination of the result of the comparison and deliverying a signal if the state is abnormal. As a result, a slight amount of gas responsible to odors released upon abnormality of the plant can be detected by a plurality of gas sensors for different kinds gases to rapidly and easily find abnormal portions in the plant. (I.S.)

  8. Nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulkiewicz, M.; Navratil, J.

    The construction of a nuclear power plant is conditioned on territorial requirements and is accompanied by the disturbance of the environment, land occupation, population migration, the emission of radioactive wastes, thermal pollution, etc. On the other hand, a nuclear power plant makes possible the introduction of district heating and increases the economic and civilization activity of the population. Due to the construction of a nuclear power plant the set limits of negative impacts must not be exceeded. The locality should be selected such as to reduce the unfavourable effects of the plant and to fully use its benefits. The decision on the siting of the nuclear power plant is preceded by the processing of a number of surveys and a wide range of documentation to which the given criteria are strictly applied. (B.H.)

  9. Manganese deficiency in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Sidsel Birkelund; Jensen, Poul Erik; Husted, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential plant micronutrient with an indispensable function as a catalyst in the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII). Even so, Mn deficiency frequently occurs without visual leaf symptoms, thereby masking the distribution and dimension of the problem...... restricting crop productivity in many places of the world. Hence, timely alleviation of latent Mn deficiency is a challenge in promoting plant growth and quality. We describe here the key mechanisms of Mn deficiency in plants by focusing on the impact of Mn on PSII stability and functionality. We also address...... the mechanisms underlying the differential tolerance towards Mn deficiency observed among plant genotypes, which enable Mn-efficient plants to grow on marginal land with poor Mn availability....

  10. Communal biomass conversion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm-Nielsen, J.B.; Huntingford, S.; Halberg, N.

    1993-03-01

    The aim was to show the agricultural advantages of farmers being in connection with Communal Biogas Plant. Whether a more environmentally protectire distribution of plant nutrients from animal manure takes place through a biogas plants distribution system, whether the nitrogen in the digested slurry is better utilized and whether the connection results in slurry transportation-time reduction, are discussed. The average amount of nitrogen from animal manure used per hectare was reduced. The area of manure distribution was larger. The nitrogen efficiency was increased when using digested slurry and purchase of N mineral fertilizer decreased, resulting in considerable reduction in nitrogen leaching. The amount of slurry delivered to the local storage tanks was approximately 45 per cent of the total amount treated on the biogas plant. Conditions of manure transport improved greatly as this was now the responsibility of the communal biomass conversion plant administrators. (AB) (24 refs.)

  11. Encapsulation plant at Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nystroem, Anders

    2007-08-01

    SKB has already carried out a preliminary study of an encapsulation plant detached from Clab (Central interim storage for spent fuels). This stand-alone encapsulation plant was named FRINK and its assumed siting was the above-ground portion of the final repository, irrespective of the repository's location. The report previously presented was produced in cooperation with BNFL Engineering Ltd in Manchester and the fuel reception technical solution was examined by Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH (GNS) in Hannover and by Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN) in Paris. This report is an update of the earlier preliminary study report and is based on the assumption that the encapsulation plant and also the final repository will be sited in the Forsmark area. SKB's main alternative for siting the encapsulation plant is next to Clab. Planning of this facility is ongoing and technical solutions from the planning work have been incorporated in this report. An encapsulation plant placed in proximity to any final repository in Forsmark forms part of the alternative presentation in the application for permission to construct and operate an installation at Clab. The main technical difference between the planned encapsulation plant at Clab and an encapsulation plant at a final repository at Forsmark is how the fuel is managed and prepared before actual encapsulation. Fuel reception at the encapsulation plant in Forsmark would be dry, i.e. there would be no water-filled pools at the facility. Clab is used for verificatory fuel measurements, sorting and drying of the fuel before transport to Forsmark. This means that Clab will require a measure of rebuilding and supplementary equipment. In purely technical terms, the prospects for building an encapsulation plant sited at Forsmark are good. A description of the advantages and drawbacks of siting the encapsulation plant at Clab as opposed to any final repository at Forsmark is presented in a separate report

  12. Encapsulation plant at Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nystroem, Anders

    2007-08-15

    SKB has already carried out a preliminary study of an encapsulation plant detached from Clab (Central interim storage for spent fuels). This stand-alone encapsulation plant was named FRINK and its assumed siting was the above-ground portion of the final repository, irrespective of the repository's location. The report previously presented was produced in cooperation with BNFL Engineering Ltd in Manchester and the fuel reception technical solution was examined by Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH (GNS) in Hannover and by Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN) in Paris. This report is an update of the earlier preliminary study report and is based on the assumption that the encapsulation plant and also the final repository will be sited in the Forsmark area. SKB's main alternative for siting the encapsulation plant is next to Clab. Planning of this facility is ongoing and technical solutions from the planning work have been incorporated in this report. An encapsulation plant placed in proximity to any final repository in Forsmark forms part of the alternative presentation in the application for permission to construct and operate an installation at Clab. The main technical difference between the planned encapsulation plant at Clab and an encapsulation plant at a final repository at Forsmark is how the fuel is managed and prepared before actual encapsulation. Fuel reception at the encapsulation plant in Forsmark would be dry, i.e. there would be no water-filled pools at the facility. Clab is used for verificatory fuel measurements, sorting and drying of the fuel before transport to Forsmark. This means that Clab will require a measure of rebuilding and supplementary equipment. In purely technical terms, the prospects for building an encapsulation plant sited at Forsmark are good. A description of the advantages and drawbacks of siting the encapsulation plant at Clab as opposed to any final repository at Forsmark is presented in a separate

  13. Biofuelled heating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulliksson, Hans; Wennerstaal, L.; Zethraeus, B.; Johansson, Bert-Aake

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to serve as a basis to enable establishment and operation of small and medium-sized bio-fuel plants, district heating plants and local district heating plants. Furthermore, the purpose of this report is to serve as a guideline and basis when realizing projects, from the first concept to established plant. Taking into account all the phases, from selection of heating system, fuel type, selection of technical solutions, authorization request or application to operate a plant, planning, construction and buying, inspection, performance test, take-over and control system of the plant. Another purpose of the report is to make sure that best available technology is used and to contribute to continuous development of the technology. The report deals mainly with bio-fuelled plants in the effect range 0.3 to10 MW. The term 'plant' refers to combined power and heating plants as well as 'simpler' district heating plants. The last-mentioned is also often referred to as 'local heating plant'. In this context, the term bio fuel refers to a wide range of fuel types. The term bio fuel includes processed fractions like powders, pellets, and briquettes along with unprocessed fractions, such as by-products from the forest industry; chips and bark. Bio fuels also include straw, energy crops and cereal waste products, but these have not been expressly studied in this report. The report is structured with appendixes regarding the various phases of the projects, with the purpose of serving as a helping handbook, or manual for new establishment, helping out with technical and administrative advice and environmental requirements. Plants of this size are already expanding considerably, and the need for guiding principles for design/technology and environmental requirements is great. These guiding principles should comply with the environmental legislation requirements, and must contain advice and recommendations for bio fuel plants in this effect range, also in

  14. Populations in clonal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi Tammisola

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Population phenomena in higher plants are reviewed critically, particularly in relation to clonality. An array of concepts used in the field are discussed. In contrast to animals, higher plants are modular in structure. Plant populations show hierarchy at two levels: ramets and genets. In addition, their demography is far more complicated, since even the direction of development of a ramet may change by rejuvenation. Therefore, formulae concerning animal populations often require modification for plants. Furthermore, at the zygotic stage, higher plants are generally less mobile than animals. Accordingly, their population processes tend to be more local. Most populations of plants have a genetic structure: alleles and genotypes are spatially aggregated. Due to the short-ranged foraging behaviour of pollinators, genetically non-random pollination prevails. A generalized formula for parent-offspring dispersal variance is derived. It is used to analyze the effect of clonality on genetic patchiness in populations. In self-compatible species, an increase in clonality will tend to increase the degree of patchiness, while in self-incompatible species a decrease may result. Examples of population structure studies in different species are presented. A considerable degree of genetic variation appears to be found also in the populations of species with a strong allocation of resources to clonal growth or apomictic seed production. Some consequences of clonality are considered from the point of view of genetic conservation and plant breeding.

  15. Experimental mutagenesis in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conger, B.V.

    1979-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in directed or controlled mutagenesis with bacterial systems, the genetic resolving power of which is much greater than that of higher plants. The mutagen specificity in higher plants has been of great interest, and numerous results and observations have been reported. The advances in the culture of plant cells and tissues have created much interest concerning the possibility of inducing and recovering mutants at the cellular level. There are great problems including the failure to regenerate plants from cells in all but a few species. The genetic and cytogenetic instability in the culture of plant tissues is well known, and the most common nuclear change is polyploidy including aneuploidy. The degree of polyploidy increases with calluses or culture age. In rice, the frequency of aneuploidy is greater in the calluses derived from roots than those derived from stem internodes. Polyploid and/or self-incompatible plant species are not as amenable to conventional mutation breeding techniques as diploid, self-fertilizing species. Inducing mutations in somatic tissues creates the problem of chimeras. However, the new cultivars of highly heterozygous, outcrossing, self-incompatible species are produced by combining several different clones. The performance of the progeny of at least 4 generations removed from the polycross of the parent clones is the important factor, and a high amount of heterozygocity is tolerated within cultivars and even on the same plants. (Yamashita, S.)

  16. Plant state display device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadota, Kazuo; Ito, Toshiichiro.

    1994-01-01

    The device of the present invention conducts information processing suitable for a man to solve a problem in a plant such as a nuclear power plant incorporating a great amount of information, where safety is required and provides information to an operator. Namely, theories and rules with respect to the flow and balanced state of materials and energy upon plant start-up, and a vapor cycle of operation fluids are symbolized and displayed on the display screen of the device. Then, the display of the plant information suitable to the information processing for a man to dissolve problems is provided. Accordingly, a mechanism for analyzing a purpose of the plant is made more definite, thereby enabling to prevent an erroneous judgement of an operator and occurrence of plant troubles. In addition, a simular effect can also be expected when the theories and rules with respect to the flow and the balanced state of materials and energy and thermohydrodynamic behavior of the operation fluids in a state of after-heat removing operation during shutdown of the plant are symbolized and displayed. (I.S.)

  17. Physiology of woody plants

    CERN Document Server

    Hazewinkel, Michiel; Pallardy, Stephen G

    1996-01-01

    This completely revised classic volume is an up-to-date synthesis of the intensive research devoted to woody plants. Intended primarily as a text for students and a reference for researchers, this interdisciplinary book should be useful to a broad range of scientists from agroforesters, agronomists, and arborists to plant pathologists, ecophysiologists, and soil scientists. Anyone interested in plant physiology will find this text invaluable. Key Features * Includes supplementary chapter summaries and lists of general references * Provides a solid foundation of reference information * Thoroughly updated classic text/reference.

  18. Interelement correlations in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markert, B.

    1987-01-01

    The concentration of 25 elements in 4 plant species (Citrus aurantia, Brassica oleracea, Lycopersicon esculentum and Pinus strobus) were linearly correlated. For some element pairs (Ce-Fe, Ce-Ni, Ce-Sb, Ce-Sc, Ce-Zn, Fe-Sb, Fe-Sc, Fe-U, Fe-Zn, K-Cd, La-U, Ni-Sb, Sc-U and Sc-Zn) a high positive correlation coefficient (r = +1) was found. The element pairs Ca-Mg, Hg-U, Ni-Sr and Sr-Zn show a significant negative correlation (r = -1). Plants seem to process some constant interelement relations, independent of plant species. (orig.)

  19. Radiation hormesis in plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Sung; Song, Hi Sup; Lee, Young Keun; Lee, Byung Hun; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    2000-04-01

    This research was performed to investigate the effects of low dose {gamma}-ray radiation on the seed germination and the following physiological responses in vegetable crops. Special attention was focused on whether the resistance of vegetables against the unfavorable conditions of environment such as subsequent high doses of radiation or Phytophthora blight of pepper could be enhanced as an aspect of radiation hormesis. Analysis and characterization of antioxidant enzyme from plant culture cells and radiation tolerant of transformed plants from antioxidant (POD) were accomplished in the plant irradiated with different dose of {gamma}-ray. (author)

  20. Selenium accumulation by plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Philip J

    2016-02-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate plant species have evolved tolerance to Se, and commonly accumulate tissue Se concentrations >100 mg Se kg(-1) dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000-15 000 mg Se kg(-1 )dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated into non-functional proteins, through the synthesis of less toxic Se metabilites. There is potential to breed or select crops

  1. Radiation hormesis in plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Sung; Song, Hi Sup; Lee, Young Keun; Lee, Byung Hun; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    2000-04-01

    This research was performed to investigate the effects of low dose γ-ray radiation on the seed germination and the following physiological responses in vegetable crops. Special attention was focused on whether the resistance of vegetables against the unfavorable conditions of environment such as subsequent high doses of radiation or Phytophthora blight of pepper could be enhanced as an aspect of radiation hormesis. Analysis and characterization of antioxidant enzyme from plant culture cells and radiation tolerant of transformed plants from antioxidant (POD) were accomplished in the plant irradiated with different dose of γ-ray. (author)

  2. Nuclear power plants maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear power plants maintenance now appears as an important factor contributing to the competitivity of nuclea energy. The articles published in this issue describe the way maintenance has been organized in France and how it led to an actual industrial activity developing and providing products and services. An information note about Georges Besse uranium enrichment plant (Eurodif) recalls that maintenance has become a main data not only for power plants but for all nuclear industry installations. (The second part of this dossier will be published in the next issue: vol. 1 January-February 1989) [fr

  3. Optofluidics of plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demetri Psaltis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Optofluidics is a tool for synthesizing optical systems, making use of the interaction of light with fluids. In this paper we explore optofluidic mechanisms that have evolved in plants where sunlight and fluidic control combine to define most of the functionality of the plan. We hope that the presentation of how plants function, from an optofluidics point of view, will open a window for the optics community to the vast literature of plant physiology and provide inspiration for new ideas for the design of bio-mimetic optofluidic devices.

  4. Competitive breeder power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkleblack, R.K.

    1984-01-01

    To utilize the fissile material that is accumulating in the utilities' spent fuel pools, breeder plants must be less expensive than current LWR costs (or utilities will not buy nuclear plants in the near future) and also be highly reliable. The fundamental differences between LWRs and LMFBRs are discussed and recommendations are made for making the most of these differences to design a superior breeder plant that can sell in the future, opening the way to U.S. utilities becoming self-sufficient for fuel supply for centuries

  5. Radiation hormesis in plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Sung; Song, Hi Sup; Lee, Young Keun; Cun, Ki Jung; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    1999-04-01

    This research was performed to investigate the effects of low dose γ-ray radiation on the seed germination and the following physiological responses in vegetable crops. Special attention was focused on whether the resistance of vegetables against the unfavorable conditions of environment such as acid rain or soil types could be enhanced as an aspect of radiation hormesis. Analysis and characterization of antioxidant enzyme from plant culture cells and radiation tolerant of transformed plants from antioxidant enzyme (POD) were accomplished in the plant irradiated with difference dosage of γ-ray

  6. Coal gasification plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-09-29

    The proposal concerns a stage in the process of cooling the synthetic gas produced in a coal gasification plant at temperatures above 900/sup 0/C. The purpose is to keep the convection heating surface of the subsequent waste heat plant free of dirt. According to the invention, the waste heat plant has a radiation area connected before it, on the heating surfaces of which the slack carried over solidifies. This radiation area has a hydraulic and thermal cleaning system, which can be raised or lowered in a water bath. The subclaims concern all the constructional characteristics of this cleaning system, which causes the solidified slack to crack.

  7. TOR signalling in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexin, Daniel; Meyer, Christian; Robaglia, Christophe; Veit, Bruce

    2015-08-15

    Although the eukaryotic TOR (target of rapamycin) kinase signalling pathway has emerged as a key player for integrating nutrient-, energy- and stress-related cues with growth and metabolic outputs, relatively little is known of how this ancient regulatory mechanism has been adapted in higher plants. Drawing comparisons with the substantial knowledge base around TOR kinase signalling in fungal and animal systems, functional aspects of this pathway in plants are reviewed. Both conserved and divergent elements are discussed in relation to unique aspects associated with an autotrophic mode of nutrition and adaptive strategies for multicellular development exhibited by plants. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  8. Radiation hormesis in plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Sung; Song, Hi Sup; Lee, Young Keun; Cun, Ki Jung; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    1999-04-01

    This research was performed to investigate the effects of low dose {gamma}-ray radiation on the seed germination and the following physiological responses in vegetable crops. Special attention was focused on whether the resistance of vegetables against the unfavorable conditions of environment such as acid rain or soil types could be enhanced as an aspect of radiation hormesis. Analysis and characterization of antioxidant enzyme from plant culture cells and radiation tolerant of transformed plants from antioxidant enzyme (POD) were accomplished in the plant irradiated with difference dosage of {gamma}-ray.

  9. Nuclear power plant outages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) controls nuclear power plant safety in Finland. In addition to controlling the design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants, STUK also controls refuelling and repair outages at the plants. According to section 9 of the Nuclear Energy Act (990/87), it shall be the licence-holder's obligation to ensure the safety of the use of nuclear energy. Requirements applicable to the licence-holder as regards the assurance of outage safety are presented in this guide. STUK's regulatory control activities pertaining to outages are also described

  10. FRIB Cryogenic Plant Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Kelly D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Ganni, Venkatarao [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Knudsen, Peter N. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Casagranda, Fabio [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2015-12-01

    After practical changes were approved to the initial conceptual design of the cryogenic system for MSU FRIB and an agreement was made with JLab in 2012 to lead the design effort of the cryogenic plant, many activities are in place leading toward a cool-down of the linacs prior to 2018. This is mostly due to using similar equipment used at CHLII for the 12 GeV upgrade at JLab and an aggressive schedule maintained by the MSU Conventional Facilities department. Reported here is an updated status of the cryogenic plant, including the equipment procurement status, plant layout, facility equipment and project schedule.

  11. Plant-soil feedbacks: role of plant functional group and plant traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cortois, R.; Schröder-Georgi, T.; Weigelt, A.; van der Putten, W.H.; De Deyn, G.B.

    2016-01-01

    Plant-soil feedback (PSF), plant trait and functional group concepts advanced our understanding of plant community dynamics, but how they are interlinked is poorly known. To test how plant functional groups (FGs: graminoids, small herbs, tall herbs, legumes) and plant traits relate to PSF, we grew

  12. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    known to improve plant growth in many ways when compared to ... roles in agricultural productivity. ... Sustainable agriculture: Sustainable agriculture involves the successful management of agricultural re- ... For the first time Kloepper et al.

  13. KWU Nuclear Plant Analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennewitz, F.; Hummel, R.; Oelmann, K.

    1986-01-01

    The KWU Nuclear Plant Analyzer is a real time engineering simulator based on the KWU computer programs used in plant transient analysis and licensing. The primary goal is to promote the understanding of the technical and physical processes of a nuclear power plant at an on-site training facility. Thus the KWU Nuclear Plant Analyzer is available with comparable low costs right at the time when technical questions or training needs arise. This has been achieved by (1) application of the transient code NLOOP; (2) unrestricted operator interaction including all simulator functions; (3) using the mainframe computer Control Data Cyber 176 in the KWU computing center; (4) four color graphic displays controlled by a dedicated graphic computer, no control room equipment; and (5) coupling of computers by telecommunication via telephone

  14. Nuclear Power Plants (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell III, Walter [Southern Nuclear Engineering, Inc.

    1973-01-01

    Projected energy requirements for the future suggest that we must employ atomic energy to generate electric power or face depletion of our fossil-fuel resources—coal, oil, and gas. In short, both conservation and economic considerations will require us to use nuclear energy to generate the electricity that supports our civilization. Until we reach the time when nuclear power plants are as common as fossil-fueled or hydroelectric plants, many people will wonder how the nuclear plants work, how much they cost, where they are located, and what kinds of reactors they use. The purpose of this booklet is to answer these questions. In doing so, it will consider only central station plants, which are those that provide electric power for established utility systems.

  15. Ferrous Metal Processing Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes ferrous metal processing plants in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  16. Nonferrous Metal Processing Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes nonferrous metal processing plants in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  17. Plutonium Finishing Plant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Plutonium Finishing Plant, also known as PFP, represented the end of the line (the final procedure) associated with plutonium production at Hanford.PFP was also...

  18. Plant Vascular Biology 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Biao

    2014-11-17

    This grant supported the Second International Conference on Plant Vascular Biology (PVB 2010) held July 24-28, 2010 on the campus of Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Biao Ding (Ohio State University; OSU) and David Hannapel (Iowa State University; ISU) served as co-chairs of this conference. Biao Ding served as the local organizer. PVB is defined broadly here to include studies on the biogenesis, structure and function of transport systems in plants, under conditions of normal plant growth and development as well as of plant interactions with pathogens. The transport systems cover broadly the xylem, phloem, plasmodesmata and vascular cell membranes. The PVB concept has emerged in recent years to emphasize the integrative nature of the transport systems and approaches to investigate them.

  19. Bituminization plant Jaslovske Bohunice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    In this leaflet the principle of the bituminization plant for radioactive concentrate (the intermediate liquid radioactive waste generated during the NPP A1, V-1, V-2 operations) solidification used in the Bohunice Radwaste Treatment Centre (BSC RAO) is presented

  20. Plant stem cell niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichinger, Ernst; Kornet, Noortje; Friedrich, Thomas; Laux, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Multicellular organisms possess pluripotent stem cells to form new organs, replenish the daily loss of cells, or regenerate organs after injury. Stem cells are maintained in specific environments, the stem cell niches, that provide signals to block differentiation. In plants, stem cell niches are situated in the shoot, root, and vascular meristems-self-perpetuating units of organ formation. Plants' lifelong activity-which, as in the case of trees, can extend over more than a thousand years-requires that a robust regulatory network keep the balance between pluripotent stem cells and differentiating descendants. In this review, we focus on current models in plant stem cell research elaborated during the past two decades, mainly in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We address the roles of mobile signals on transcriptional modules involved in balancing cell fates. In addition, we discuss shared features of and differences between the distinct stem cell niches of Arabidopsis.

  1. Biogas plants; Biogasanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Within the KRdL expert meeting at 30th October, 2012 in Bonn (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) New requirements on biomass conversion plants based on the Federal Nuisance Control Ordinance (Hans-Peter Ewens); (2) State of the art of the operation of biomass conversion plants (Christina Dornack); (3) Implementation of the regulation VDI 3475 sheet 4 (Markus Helm); (4) Handling of constraints of residents in the licensing procedure as well as during operation (Helmar Hentschke); (5) Explosion protection for biomass conversion plants considering the matters of immission control (Michael Faber); (6) Microbiological and epidemic-hygienic aspects of agricultural biomass conversion plants and their fermentation residues (Werner Philipp); (7) Emissions of climatic relevant gases at the biogas production (Jacqueline Daniel-Gromke); (8) State of the art in the biogas processing (Joachim Krassowski).

  2. Nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima Moreira, Y.M. de.

    1979-01-01

    The legal aspects of nuclear power plant construction in Brazil, derived from governamental political guidelines, are presented. Their evolution, as a consequence of tecnology development is related. (A.L.S.L.) [pt

  3. Nuclear power plant decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaziz Yunus

    1986-01-01

    A number of issues have to be taken into account before the introduction of any nuclear power plant in any country. These issues include reactor safety (site and operational), waste disposal and, lastly, the decommissioning of the reactor inself. Because of the radioactive nature of the components, nuclear power plants require a different approach to decommission compared to other plants. Until recently, issues on reactor safety and waste disposal were the main topics discussed. As for reactor decommissioning, the debates have been academic until now. Although reactors have operated for 25 years, decommissioning of retired reactors has simply not been fully planned. But the Shippingport Atomic Power Plant in Pennysylvania, the first large scale power reactor to be retired, is now being decommissioned. The work has rekindled the debate in the light of reality. Outside the United States, decommissioning is also being confronted on a new plane. (author)

  4. Advanced stellarator power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    The stellarator is a class of helical/toroidal magnetic fusion devices. Recent international progress in stellarator power plant conceptual design is reviewed and comparisons in the areas of physics, engineering, and economics are made with recent tokamak design studies

  5. Protoplasts and plant viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakishi, H.; Lesney, M.S.; Carlson, P.

    1984-01-01

    The use of protoplasts in the study of plant viruses has attracted considerable attention since its inception in the late 1960s. This article is an attempt to assess the current status of protoplasts (primarily) and all cell cultures (in some instances) in studies of virus infection, virus replication, cytopathology, cross-protection, virus resistance, and the use of in vitro methods and genetic engineering to recover virus-resistant plants. These areas of study proved difficult to do entirely with whole plants or plant parts. However, because protoplasts could be synchronously infected with virus, they provided a valuable alternative means of following biochemical and cytological events in relation to the virus growth cycle in a more precise manner than previously possible

  6. Fertilization in Flowering Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ecology and the. Environment ... agents (pollinators), the next step before fertilization is to se- .... the embryo sac are referred to as pollen-pistil interaction and play ..... evolutionary success of flowering plants when compared to other groups of ...

  7. Competition between herbage plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de C.T.; Bergh, van den J.P.

    1965-01-01

    Starting from work with annuals a model of competition between herbage plants is discussed. It is shown that their mutual interference can only be described adequately if they are grown in mixture and also in monoculture

  8. Photomorphogenesis in plants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kendrick, Richard E; Kronenberg, G. H. M

    1994-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ... VII VIII XXXI Part 1 Introduction 1. Introduction by Lars Olof Bjorn 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 A developing research field ... Plant vision...

  9. Reprocessing plants safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, A.G.; Leighton, C.; Millington, D.

    1989-01-01

    The reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel at British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) Sellafield site consists of a number of relatively self-contained activities carried out in separate plants across the site. The physical conditions and time scales applied in reprocessing and storage make it relatively benign. The potential for minor releases of radioactivity under fault conditioning is minimised by plant design definition of control procedures, training and supervision. The risks to both the general public and workforce are shown to be low with all the safety criteria being met. Normal operating conditions also have the potential for some occupational radiation exposure and the plant and workers are monitored continuously. Exposure levels have been reduced steadily and will continue to fall with plant improvements. (U.K.)

  10. International power plant business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grohe, R.

    1986-03-03

    At the Brown Boveri press seminar 'Energy' in Baden-Baden Rainer Grohe, member of the Brown Boveri board, Mannheim, gave a survey of the activities on the international power plant market in recent years. He showed the vacuities which must be taken into account in this sector today. The drastic escalation of demands on power plant suppliers has lead not to a reduction of protagonists but to an increase. (orig.).

  11. Wind power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caneghem, A.E. von

    1975-07-24

    The invention applies to a wind power plant in which the wind is used to drive windmills. The plant consists basically of a vertical tube with a lateral wind entrance opening with windmill on its lower end. On its upper end, the tube carries a nozzle-like top which increases the wind entering the tube by pressure decrease. The wind is thus made suitable for higher outputs. The invention is illustrated by constructional examples.

  12. Janata biogas plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahadur, S; Singh, K K

    1980-03-01

    The Janata biogas plant is based on the use of local materials and locally available skills only. It is a proven technology at low cost and easy maintenance which should facilitate its extension at a much faster pace especially among the low income groups. This technology is important at this time because of the current crisis in the availability of firewood and mineral fuels. This handbook explains in non-technical language the basic features, design, and construction of this biogas plant. (DC)

  13. The plant mitochondrial proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Millar, A.H.; Heazlewood, J.L.; Kristensen, B.K.

    2005-01-01

    The plant mitochondrial proteome might contain as many as 2000-3000 different gene products, each of which might undergo post-translational modification. Recent studies using analytical methods, such as one-, two- and three-dimensional gel electrophoresis and one- and two-dimensional liquid...... context to be defined for them. There are indications that some of these proteins add novel activities to mitochondrial protein complexes in plants....

  14. NMR, water and plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As, H. van.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis describes the application of a non-destructive pulsed proton NMR method mainly to measure water transport in the xylem vessels of plant stems and in some model systems. The results are equally well applicable to liquid flow in other biological objects than plants, e.g. flow of blood and other body fluids in human and animals. The method is based on a pulse sequence of equidistant π pulses in combination with a linear magnetic field gradient. (Auth.)

  15. Plant Formate Dehydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Markwell

    2005-01-10

    The research in this study identified formate dehydrogenase, an enzyme that plays a metabolic role on the periphery of one-carbon metabolism, has an unusual localization in Arabidopsis thaliana and that the enzyme has an unusual kinetic plasticity. These properties make it possible that this enzyme could be engineered to attempt to engineer plants with an improved photosynthetic efficiency. We have produced transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants with increased expression of the formate dehydrogenase enzyme to initiate further studies.

  16. Detergent zeolite filtration plant

    OpenAIRE

    Stanković Mirjana S.; Pezo Lato L.

    2003-01-01

    The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for detergent zeolite filtration plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects, a production plant with a capacity of 75,000 t/y was manufactured, at "Zeolite Mira", Mira (VE), Italy, in 1997, for increasing detergent zeolite production, from 50,000 to 100,000 t/y. The main goal was to increase the detergent zeoli...

  17. Unusual microorganisms and antimicrobial resistances in a group of Syrian migrants: Sentinel surveillance data from an asylum seekers centre in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeletti, Silvia; Ceccarelli, Giancarlo; Vita, Serena; Dicuonzo, Giordano; Lopalco, Maurizio; Dedej, Etleva; Blasi, Aletheia; Antonelli, Francesca; Conti, Alessia; De Cesaris, Marina; Farchi, Francesca; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Ciccozzi, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Three years of civil war in Syria have caused death and increase of communicable diseases. The suffering population has been forced to migrate creating a fertile condition for epidemic spread of infection within the refugee camps. Forty-eight Syrian migrants, upon their arrival in Italy, were accommodated at the asylum seekers centre of Castelnuovo di Porto. They received a physical examination and were subjected to microbiological surveillance by blood, rectal, pharyngeal and nasal swabs collection and delivering to the Clinical Pathology and Microbiology Laboratory of the University Campus Bio-Medico of Rome. All refugees resulted negative for HBV, HCV and HIV infections. In swabs a large number of unusual gram-negative bacteria species were isolated, such as Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas monteilii, Pseudomonas fulva, Pseudomonas moselii, Aeromonas veronii, Aeromonas caviae, Aeromonas hydrophila, Acinteobacter guilloviae, Acinteobacter lowffii; Acinetobacter johnsonii; Acinteobacter tjernbergae; Pantoea agglomerans; Pantoea calida. Among isolates, strains resistant to carbapenems, ESBL producers and methicillin resistant were found. The microbiological surveillance performed represents a useful action to understand refugees health status and to trace unusual microorganisms movement even carriers of antimicrobial resistance during migrants traveling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Plant extracts as radioprotectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baydoun, S; Al-Oudat, M [Atomic Energy Commission, Department of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Al-Achkar, W [Atomic Energy Commission, Department of Radiobiology and Health, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    1996-09-01

    Several studies show that the extracts of some plants, namely containing vitamins or sulfide components, have radioprotection properties against the effects of ionizing radiation. In Syria, many of hates plants are available. This experiment was conducted in order to test the ability of ten different plants to protect against the radiation damages. These plants are Daucus carota L., Brassica oleracea L, Aloe vera L., Opuntia ficus-indica, Allium cepa L., Capsicum annuum L., Scilla maritima L., Allium sativum L., Rubus sanctus L. and Rosa canina L.Their effects on the protection of E. Coli growth after the exposure to L.D 50 of gamma radiation (100 Gy) were investigated . Two concentrations to each plant extract were tested, both were than 1%. Our results are indicating that the protection depend on plant. The radioprotection factors were ranged between 1.42 to 2.39. The best results were obtained by using the extract of Allium sativum L. (2.01), Opuntia ficus-indica (2.14) and Capsiucum annuum L. (2.39). (author) 16 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  19. Medicinal plants of Lorestan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shahla ahmadi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Collection and determination of medicinal plants in Lorestan province have been carried out for 6 years in the agriculture and natural resources research of center of Lorestan. The aims of this study were collection and identification the medicinal plans that grow in Loretta province, their distribution, habitat, traditional uses, utilized organ, manner of usage, botany specification, local name, Persian name and scientific name. Material and methods: Medicinal plants were collected from different regions by using field and library study for these goals we prepared a list of recorded medicinal plants from Lorestan, identified the local herbal experts. Results: Finally we collected 151 medicinal plant identified that related to 63 families and 90 genuses. The Lamiaceae, Compositae, Legominosae , Liliaceae, Umbelliferae and . Rosaceae are the greatest family in the Lorestan province. Diction: According to the literature 96 medicinal plans were recorded from Lorestan, but during this study we collected and identified 151 medicinal plants in Lorestan province. Comparing with those that recorded from Bushehr 70 sp.(9, Hormozgan 113 sp.(10, Markazi 144 sp. And Kordestan 144 sp(11. We have more diversity but comparing with Zanjan 163 sp.(13, Hamedan 315 sp.(14 And Qazvin 250 sp.(15 We have less diversity in medicinal plants.

  20. Plant extracts as radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baydoun, S.; Al-Oudat, M.; Al-Achkar, W.

    1996-09-01

    Several studies show that the extracts of some plants, namely containing vitamins or sulfide components, have radioprotection properties against the effects of ionizing radiation. In Syria, many of hates plants are available. This experiment was conducted in order to test the ability of ten different plants to protect against the radiation damages. These plants are Daucus carota L., Brassica oleracea L, Aloe vera L., Opuntia ficus-indica, Allium cepa L., Capsicum annuum L., Scilla maritima L., Allium sativum L., Rubus sanctus L. and Rosa canina L.Their effects on the protection of E. Coli growth after the exposure to L.D 50 of gamma radiation (100 Gy) were investigated . Two concentrations to each plant extract were tested, both were than 1%. Our results are indicating that the protection depend on plant. The radioprotection factors were ranged between 1.42 to 2.39. The best results were obtained by using the extract of Allium sativum L. (2.01), Opuntia ficus-indica (2.14) and Capsiucum annuum L. (2.39). (author) 16 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  1. Plant extracts as radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baydoun, S.; Al-Oudat, M.; Al-Achkar, W.

    1997-01-01

    Several studies show that the extracts of some plants, namely containing vitamins or sulfide components, have radioprotection properties against the effects of ionizing radiation. In Syria, many of hates plants are available. This experiment was conducted in order to test the ability of ten different plants to protect against the radiation damages. These plants are Daucus carota L., Brassica oleracea L, Aloe vera L., Opuntia ficus-indica, Allium cepa L., Capsicum annuum L., Scilla maritima L., Allium sativum L., Rubus sanctus L. and Rosa canina L.Their effects on the protection of E. Coli growth after the exposure to L.D 50 of gamma radiation (100 Gy) were investigated . Two concentrations to each plant extract were tested, both were than 1%. Our results are indicating that the protection depend on plant. The radioprotection factors were ranged between 1.42 to 2.39. The best results were obtained by using the extract of Allium sativum L. (2.01), Opuntia ficus-indica (2.14) and Capsiucum annuum L. (2.39). (author)

  2. Power plants 2010. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The proceedings include the following lectures: Facing the challenges - new structures for electricity production. Renewable energies in Europe - chances and challenges. Nuclear outlook in the UK. Sustainable energy for Europe. Requirements of the market and the grid operator at the electricity production companies. Perspectives for the future energy production. Pumped storage plants - status and perspectives. Nuclear power/renewable energies -partners or opponents? New fossil fired power stations in Europe - status and perspectives. Nuclear energy: outlook for new build and lifetime extension in Europe. Biomass in the future European energy market - experiences for dong energy. Meeting the EU 20:20 renewable energy targets: the offshore challenges. DESERTEC: sustainable electricity for Europe, Middle East and North Africa. New power plants in Europe - a challenge for project and quality management. Consideration of safely in new build activities of power plants. Challenges to an integrated development in Maasvlakte, Netherlands. Power enhancement in EnBW power plants. Operational experiences of CCS pilot plants worldwide. Two years of operational experiences with Vattenfall's oxyfuel pilot plant. Pre-conditions for CCS. Storage technologies for a volatile generation. Overview: new generation of gas turbines.

  3. Plant monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Toru.

    1994-01-01

    The device of the present invention comprises a data collecting section for periodically collecting processed data sent from plant equipments, a top node induction and processing section for an important plant function model for inducing the plant function to be noted particularly by an operator from important plant function models by using process data and a window screen selection section for selecting a window screen to be displayed based on the result of the evaluation for each of function nodes based on the processing described above and determining the layout and automatically forming the display screen. It is constituted so that the kind and the layout of the window under display are checked if they are the same as those one cycle before or not and, if they are different, the screen is automatically switched to a new screen display. Then, operator's psychological burdens such as selection of information and judgement for the operation upon occurrence of plant abnormality and accident can be mitigated, to provide a safe operation circumstance having reinforced monitoring of the function of the whole plant can be provided. (N.H.)

  4. Uranium speciation in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, A.; Bernhard, G.; Geipel, G.; Reich, T.; Rossberg, A.; Nitsche, H.

    2003-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the nature of uranium complexes formed after the uptake by plants is an essential prerequisite to describe the migration behavior of uranium in the environment. This study focuses on the determination of uranium speciation after uptake of uranium by lupine plants. For the first time, time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy were used to determine the chemical speciation of uranium in plants. Differences were detected between the uranium speciation in the initial solution (hydroponic solution and pore water of soil) and inside the lupine plants. The oxidation state of uranium did not change and remained hexavalent after it was taken up by the lupine plants. The chemical speciation of uranium was identical in the roots, shoot axis, and leaves and was independent of the uranium speciation in the uptake solution. The results indicate that the uranium is predominantly bound as uranyl(VI) phosphate to the phosphoryl groups. Dandelions and lamb's lettuce showed uranium speciation identical to lupine plants. (orig.)

  5. Plant critical concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Regan, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the effort summarized in this paper is to support O and M cost reduction efforts by focusing resources on components and processes critical to plant performance. This effort will identify where resources on nonplant critical components and processes can be reduced or eliminated. This method will use a functional assessment as the basis for component-specific evaluations and ranking. This effort consists of two stages conducted in series. The first stage is to deterministically identify that set of plant components that are relevant from a plant performance perspective (i.e., safety, economics, reliability). The second stage probabilistically ranks that set of plant components from an importance perspective, where importance pertains to the particular application and is probabilistically weighted. The results of a pilot study identified that only a relatively small set of components are truly critical from an integrated plant performance perspective. These results are consistent with work being conducted at other nuclear power plants, as well as other commercial facilities. Initial implementation of this effort is estimated to reduce O and M costs on the order of $1 million per year. Subsequent applications are anticipated to increase that savings to $4--$5 million per year

  6. Landscaping plant epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Peter C; Spillane, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The understanding of epigenetic mechanisms is necessary for assessing the potential impacts of epigenetics on plant growth, development and reproduction, and ultimately for the response of these factors to evolutionary pressures and crop breeding programs. This volume highlights the latest in laboratory and bioinformatic techniques used for the investigation of epigenetic phenomena in plants. Such techniques now allow genome-wide analyses of epigenetic regulation and help to advance our understanding of how epigenetic regulatory mechanisms affect cellular and genome function. To set the scene, we begin with a short background of how the field of epigenetics has evolved, with a particular focus on plant epigenetics. We consider what has historically been understood by the term "epigenetics" before turning to the advances in biochemistry, molecular biology, and genetics which have led to current-day definitions of the term. Following this, we pay attention to key discoveries in the field of epigenetics that have emerged from the study of unusual and enigmatic phenomena in plants. Many of these phenomena have involved cases of non-Mendelian inheritance and have often been dismissed as mere curiosities prior to the elucidation of their molecular mechanisms. In the penultimate section, consideration is given to how advances in molecular techniques are opening the doors to a more comprehensive understanding of epigenetic phenomena in plants. We conclude by assessing some opportunities, challenges, and techniques for epigenetic research in both model and non-model plants, in particular for advancing understanding of the regulation of genome function by epigenetic mechanisms.

  7. Plant monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, Kunio.

    1991-01-01

    The monitoring device of the present invention is most suitable to early detection for equipment abnormality, or monitoring of state upon transient conditions such as startup and shutdown of an electric power plant, a large-scaled thermonuclear device and an accelerator plant. That is, in existent moitoring devices, acquired data are stored and the present operation states are monitored in comparison. A plant operation aquisition data reproduction section is disposed to the device. From the past operation conditions stored in the plant operation data aquisition reproducing section, the number of operation cycles that agrees with the present plant operation conditions is sought, to determine the agreed aquired data. Since these aquired data are time sequential data measured based on the standard time determined by the operation sequence, aquired data can be reproduced successively on every sample pitches. With such a constitution, aquired data under the same operation conditions as the present conditions are displayed together with the measured data. Accordingly, accurate monitoring can be conducted from the start-up to the shutdown of the plant. (I.S.)

  8. Molecular plant volatile communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holopainen, Jarmo K; Blande, James D

    2012-01-01

    Plants produce a wide array of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which have multiple functions as internal plant hormones (e.g., ethylene, methyl jasmonate and methyl salicylate), in communication with conspecific and heterospecific plants and in communication with organisms of second (herbivores and pollinators) and third (enemies of herbivores) trophic levels. Species specific VOCs normally repel polyphagous herbivores and those specialised on other plant species, but may attract specialist herbivores and their natural enemies, which use VOCs as host location cues. Attraction of predators and parasitoids by VOCs is considered an evolved indirect defence, whereby plants are able to indirectly reduce biotic stress caused by damaging herbivores. In this chapter we review these interactions where VOCs are known to play a crucial role. We then discuss the importance of volatile communication in self and nonself detection. VOCs are suggested to appear in soil ecosystems where distinction of own roots from neighbours roots is essential to optimise root growth, but limited evidence of above-ground plant self-recognition is available.

  9. Conservation law of plants' energy value dependence of plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plants differences in biochemical composition are analyzed, and the conservation law of energy value in plants is obtained. The link between the need for the nutrients and the plants biochemical composition is examined, Liebig's law is specified. Keywords: plant's biochemical composition, biochemistry, energy value in ...

  10. Chapter 15. Plant pathology and managing wildland plant disease systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Nelson

    2004-01-01

    Obtaining specific, reliable knowledge on plant diseases is essential in wildland shrub resource management. However, plant disease is one of the most neglected areas of wildland resources experimental research. This section is a discussion of plant pathology and how to use it in managing plant disease systems.

  11. Chemical signaling between plants and plant-pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturi, Vittorio; Fuqua, Clay

    2013-01-01

    Studies of chemical signaling between plants and bacteria in the past have been largely confined to two models: the rhizobial-legume symbiotic association and pathogenesis between agrobacteria and their host plants. Recent studies are beginning to provide evidence that many plant-associated bacteria undergo chemical signaling with the plant host via low-molecular-weight compounds. Plant-produced compounds interact with bacterial regulatory proteins that then affect gene expression. Similarly, bacterial quorum-sensing signals result in a range of functional responses in plants. This review attempts to highlight current knowledge in chemical signaling that takes place between pathogenic bacteria and plants. This chemical communication between plant and bacteria, also referred to as interkingdom signaling, will likely become a major research field in the future, as it allows the design of specific strategies to create plants that are resistant to plant pathogens.

  12. Plants in alpine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germino, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Alpine and subalpine plant species are of special interest in ecology and ecophysiology because they represent life at the climate limit and changes in their relative abundances can be a bellwether for climate-change impacts. Perennial life forms dominate alpine plant communities, and their form and function reflect various avoidance, tolerance, or resistance strategies to interactions of cold temperature, radiation, wind, and desiccation stresses that prevail in the short growing seasons common (but not ubiquitous) in alpine areas. Plant microclimate is typically uncoupled from the harsh climate of the alpine, often leading to substantially warmer plant temperatures than air temperatures recorded by weather stations. Low atmospheric pressure is the most pervasive, fundamental, and unifying factor for alpine environments, but the resulting decrease in partial pressure of CO2 does not significantly limit carbon gain by alpine plants. Factors such as tree islands and topographic features create strong heterogeneous mosaics of microclimate and snow cover that are reflected in plant community composition. Factors affecting tree establishment and growth and formation of treeline are key to understanding alpine ecology. Carbohydrate and other carbon storage, rapid development in a short growing season, and physiological function at low temperature are prevailing attributes of alpine plants. A major contemporary research theme asks whether chilling at alpine-treeline affects the ability of trees to assimilate the growth resources and particularly carbon needed for growth or whether the growth itself is limited by the alpine environment. Alpine areas tend to be among the best conserved, globally, yet they are increasingly showing response to a range of anthropogenic impacts, such as atmospheric deposition.

  13. Advanced plant design recommendations from Cook Nuclear Plant experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, W.L.

    1993-01-01

    A project in the American Electric Power Service Corporation to review operating and maintenance experience at Cook Nuclear Plant to identify recommendations for advanced nuclear plant design is described. Recommendations so gathered in the areas of plant fluid systems, instrument and control, testing and surveillance provisions, plant layout of equipment, provisions to enhance effective maintenance, ventilation systems, radiological protection, and construction, are presented accordingly. An example for a design review checklist for effective plant operations and maintenance is suggested

  14. Japanese national reference reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-08-01

    This paper gives a general description of the proposed Japanese national reprocessing plant and of the design philosophy. The plant is in most respects similar to the base case reprocessing plant, with an annual throughput of 100-1500 tU. The plant would be co-located with a fuel fabrication facility

  15. African names for American plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, van T.R.

    2015-01-01

    African slaves brought plant knowledge to the New World, sometimes applying it to related plants they found there and sometimes bringing Old World plants with them. By tracing the linguistic parallels between names for plants in African languages and in communities descended from African slaves,

  16. Cadmium uptake by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghiri, F.

    1973-01-01

    Absorption of /sup 115m/Cd by soybean (Gylcine max l.) plants via foliar and root systems and translocation into the seed was determined. The uptake of /sup 115m/Cd by soybeans via the root system was more efficient than that of the foliar placement. Growth and Cd concentrations of soybean and wheat (Triticum aestivum l.) tops were influenced by soil-applied Cd. In both crops, the Cd concentration of plant tops increased while yield decreased with increasing levels of applied Cd. Cadmium toxicitiy began to occur in both crops at the lowest level of soil applied Cd (2.5 ppM). With soybean plants, Cd toxicity symptoms resembled fe chlorosis. For wheat plants there were no visual symptoms other than the studied growth. The relative concentration of Cd found in several vegetable crops varied depending on the plant species. The relative Cd concentration in descending order for various vegetables was lettuce (Lactuca sativa l.) > radish top (Raphanus sativus l.) > celery stalk (Apium graveolens l.) > celery leaves greater than or equal to green pepper (Capsicum frutescens l.) > radish roots.

  17. Plant critical concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Regan, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    The achievement of operation and maintenance (O ampersand M) cost reductions is a prime concern for plant operators. Initiatives by the nuclear industry to address this concern are under way and/or in development. These efforts include plant reliability studies, reliability-centered maintenance, risk ranking and testing philosophies, performance-based testing philosophies, graded quality assurance, and so forth. This paper presents the results of an effort to develop a methodology that integrates and applies the common data and analysis requirements for a number of risk-based and performance-based initiatives. This initial phase of the effort applied the methodology and its results to two initiatives. These were the procurement function and the preventive maintenance function. This effort integrated multiple programs and functions to identify those components that are truly critical from an integrated plant performance perspective. The paper describes the scope of the effort, the development of a methodology to identify plant critical components, and the application of these results to the maintenance rule compliance, preventive maintenance, and procurement functions at the candidate plant

  18. Benchmarking Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakic, I.

    2016-01-01

    One of the main tasks an owner have is to keep its business competitive on the market while delivering its product. Being owner of nuclear power plant bear the same (or even more complex and stern) responsibility due to safety risks and costs. In the past, nuclear power plant managements could (partly) ignore profit or it was simply expected and to some degree assured through the various regulatory processes governing electricity rate design. It is obvious now that, with the deregulation, utility privatization and competitive electricity market, key measure of success used at nuclear power plants must include traditional metrics of successful business (return on investment, earnings and revenue generation) as well as those of plant performance, safety and reliability. In order to analyze business performance of (specific) nuclear power plant, benchmarking, as one of the well-established concept and usual method was used. Domain was conservatively designed, with well-adjusted framework, but results have still limited application due to many differences, gaps and uncertainties. (author).

  19. Ornamental Plant Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Barbosa Silva Botelho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available World’s ornamental plant market, including domestic market of several countries and its exports, is currently evaluated in 107 billion dollars yearly. Such estimate highlights the importance of the sector in the economy of the countries, as well as its important social role, as it represents one of the main activities, which contributes to income and employment. Therefore a well-structured plant breeding program, which is connected with consumers’ demands, is required in order to fulfill these market needs globally. Activities related to pre-breeding, conventional breeding, and breeding by biotechnological techniques constitute the basis for the successful development of new ornamental plant cultivars. Techniques that involve tissue culture, protoplast fusion and genetic engineering greatly aid conventional breeding (germplasm introduction, plant selection and hybridization, aiming the obtention of superior genotypes. Therefore it makes evident, in the literature, the successful employment of genetic breeding, since it aims to develop plants with commercial value that are also competitive with the ones available in the market.

  20. Plant arginyltransferases (ATEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Domitrovic

    Full Text Available Abstract Regulation of protein stability and/or degradation of misfolded and damaged proteins are essential cellular processes. A part of this regulation is mediated by the so-called N-end rule proteolytic pathway, which, in concert with the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS, drives protein degradation depending on the N-terminal amino acid sequence. One important enzyme involved in this process is arginyl-t-RNA transferase, known as ATE. This enzyme acts post-translationally by introducing an arginine residue at the N-terminus of specific protein targets to signal degradation via the UPS. However, the function of ATEs has only recently begun to be revealed. Nonetheless, the few studies to date investigating ATE activity in plants points to the great importance of the ATE/N-end rule pathway in regulating plant signaling. Plant development, seed germination, leaf morphology and responses to gas signaling in plants are among the processes affected by the ATE/N-end rule pathway. In this review, we present some of the known biological functions of plant ATE proteins, highlighting the need for more in-depth studies on this intriguing pathway.

  1. Soft valves in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Keunhwan; Tixier, Aude; Christensen, Anneline; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Sif; Zwieniecki, Maciej; Jensen, Kaare

    2017-11-01

    Water and minerals flow from plant roots to leaves in the xylem, an interconnected network of vascular conduits that spans the full length of the organism. When a plant is subjected to drought stress, air pockets can spread inside the xylem, threatening the survival of the plant. Many plants prevent propagation of air by using hydrophobic nano-membranes in the ``pit'' pores that link adjacent xylem cells. This adds considerable resistance to flow. Interestingly, torus-margo pit pores in conifers are open and offer less resistance. To prevent propagation of air, conifers use a soft gating mechanism, which relies on hydrodynamic interactions between the xylem liquid and the elastic pit. However, it is unknown exactly how it is able to combine the seemingly antagonist functions of high permeability and resistance to propagation of air. We conduct experiments on biomimetic pores to elucidate the flow regulation mechanism. The design of plant valves is compared to other natural systems and optimal strategies are discussed. This work was supported by a research Grant (13166) from VILLUM FONDEN.

  2. AECL's plant Information Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVerno, M.; Lupton, L.; Didsbury, R.; Judd, R.

    1998-01-01

    The competitiveness of the world-wide energy market is a continual driving force for improvements to CANDU performance and lower operating, maintenance, and administration costs. As in other industries, advanced Information Technologies (IT) are changing the way we work and conduct business. The nuclear industry is no different and there exists strong incentives to improve work processes and provide faster and more flexible access to the information needed to effectively manage and maintain nuclear plant assets. AECL has responded to these forces through the development of a vision of integrated IT systems addressing all phases of nuclear plant development and operations. This includes the initial engineering, design, and construction processes as well as support to the long-term operations and maintenance. Integral to the AECL vision is the need for cost-effective engineering and operational configuration management systems, proactive maintenance processes and systems, and advanced plant surveillance and diagnostics. This paper presents the vision and describes the integrated information systems needed to manage both the design basis and operating plant data systems to ensure the cost-effective, long-term viability of CANDU plants. (author)

  3. Antidiabetic Plants of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashrafeddin Goushegir

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available To identify the antidiabetic plants of Iran, a systematic review of the published literature on the efficacy of Iranian medicinal plant for glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus was conducted. We performed an electronic literature search of MEDLINE, Science Direct, Scopus, Proquest, Ebsco, Googlescholar, SID, Cochrane Library Database, from 1966 up to June 2010. The search terms were complementary and alternative medicine (CAM, diabetes mellitus, plant (herb, Iran, patient, glycemic control, clinical trial, RCT, natural or herbal medicine, hypoglycemic plants, and individual herb names from popular sources, or combination of these key words. Available Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT published in English or Persian language examined effects of an herb (limited to Iran on glycemic indexes in type 2 diabetic patients were included. Among all of the articles identified in the initial database search, 23 trials were RCT, examining herbs as potential therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The key outcome for antidiabetic effect was changes in blood glucose or HbA1 c, as well as improves in insulin sensitivity or resistance. Available data suggest that several antidiabetic plants of Iran need further study. Among the RCT studies, the best evidence in glycemic control was found in Citrullus colocynthus, Ipomoea betatas, Silybum marianum and Trigonella foenum graecum.

  4. Geothermal Power Generation Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya [Oregon Inst. of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR (United States). Geo-Heat Center

    2013-12-01

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196°F resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  5. Pinellas Plant facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    This plant was built in 1956 in response to a need for the manufacture of neutron generators, a principal component in nuclear weapons. The neutron generators consist of a miniaturized linear ion accelerator assembled with the pulsed electrical power supplies required for its operation. The ion accelerator, or neutron tube, requires ultra clean, high vacuum technology: hermetic seals between glass, ceramic, glass-ceramic, and metal materials: plus high voltage generation and measurement technology. The existence of these capabilities at the Pinellas Plant has led directly to the assignment of the lightning arrester connector, specialty capacitor, vacuum switch, and crystal resonator. Active and reserve batteries and the radioisotopically-powered thermoelectric generator draw on the materials measurement and controls technologies which are required to ensure neutron generator life. A product development and production capability in alumina ceramics, cermet (electrical) feedthroughs, and glass ceramics has become a specialty of the plant; the laboratories monitor the materials and processes used by the plant's commercial suppliers of ferroelectric ceramics. In addition to the manufacturing facility, a production development capability is maintained at the Pinellas Plant

  6. Latina nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-03-01

    In the period under review, the Latina power plant produced 1009,07 million kWh with a utilization factor of 72% and an availability factor of 80,51%. The disparity between the utilization and availability factors was mainly due to the shutdown of the plant owing to trade union strife. The reasons for non-availability (19,49%) were almost all related to the functioning of the conventional part and the general servicing of the plant (18 September-28 October). During the shutdown for maintenance, an inspection of the steel members and parts of the core stabilizing structure was made in order to check for the familiar oxidation phenomena caused by CO 2 ; the results of the inspection were all satisfactory. Operation of the plant during 1974 was marked by numerous power cutbacks as a result of outages of the steam-raising units (leaks from the manifolds) and main turbines (inspection and repairs to the LP rotors). Since it was first brought into commercial operation, the plant has produced 13,4 thousand million kWh

  7. Plants cultivation in controlled containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The plants cultivation in controlled containments permits to the - Departement d'Ecophysiologie Vegetale et de Microbiologie (DVEM) - of the CEA to lead several topics of research. The works of DVEM which are based on the molecular labelling, technique adapted to plants, contribute to understand the plant - soil relationships and the plant growth process. In addition, the staff of DVEM study the impact of pollutant heavy metals, existing in the soil, on plants and the plant stress induced by oxygen, light, ionizing radiations,... and defence mechanisms of plants (F. M.)

  8. Owners of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.S.

    1991-07-01

    This report indicates percentage ownership of commercial nuclear power plants by utility companies. The report includes all plants operating, under construction, docketed for NRC safety and environmental reviews, or under NRC antitrust review, but does not include those plants announced but not yet under review or those plants formally cancelled. Part 1 of the report lists plants alphabetically with their associated applicants or licensees and percentage ownership. Part 2 lists applicants or licensees alphabetically with their associated plants and percentage ownership. Part 1 also indicates which plants have received operating licenses (OLS)

  9. PV power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Within the international seminar of the Ostbayerisches Technologie-Transfer-Institut e.V. (OTTI) at 11th June, 2012 in Munich (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Technical due diligence (Dietmar Obst); (2) Certification / rating system for large PV plants (Robert Pfatischer); (3) O and M requirements (Lars Rulf); (4) IR photography for large scale systems (Bernhard Weinreich); (5) New market models for PV systems - direct marketing and sales of PV electricity (Martin Schneider); (6) Needs and benefits for plant certification for grid connection and operation (Christoph Luetke-Lengerich); (7) Lare volume module testing / Screening in the field and workshop (Semir Merzoug); (8) Dismantling costs of large scale PV plants (Siegfried Schimpf).

  10. Plant redox proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navrot, Nicolas; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte

    2011-01-01

    PTMs in regulating enzymatic activities and controlling biological processes in plants. Notably, proteins controlling the cellular redox state, e.g. thioredoxin and glutaredoxin, appear to play dual roles to maintain oxidative stress resistance and regulate signal transduction pathways via redox PTMs......In common with other aerobic organisms, plants are exposed to reactive oxygen species resulting in formation of post-translational modifications related to protein oxidoreduction (redox PTMs) that may inflict oxidative protein damage. Accumulating evidence also underscores the importance of redox....... To get a comprehensive overview of these types of redox-regulated pathways there is therefore an emerging interest to monitor changes in redox PTMs on a proteome scale. Compared to some other PTMs, e.g. protein phosphorylation, redox PTMs have received less attention in plant proteome analysis, possibly...

  11. Collective biogas plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Papers contributed to the European seminar on collective biogas plants held at Herning, Denmark on October 22-23 under the auspices of the Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General for Energy (DG XVII) are presented. Within the framework of the THERMIE programme, a network of OPETs (Organizations for the Promotion of Energy Technologies) was set up in order to disseminate information on new energy technologies throughout the European communities. The potential for further implementation of centralized capacity for the conversion of animal manures and other organic wastes to bio-fuels, not only in central and eastern Europe but also in the developing countries, is discussed in addition to the relevant technologies. Actual biomass conversion plants are described and details are given on operational experience and plant management. Agricultural, economic and policy aspects are also dealt with. (AB)

  12. Town gas plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastos, G.J.; Johnson, G.M.; Schapot, R.M.; Velez, V.G.

    1990-01-01

    Town gas plant sites are receiving increasing attention from the utility industry and regulatory communities. This attention has been prompted by greater environmental awareness of impacts due to past disposal practices and the understanding that gas plant wastes contain a wide range of chemical constituents that have persisted in the environment. This paper discusses the history of the town gas plant industry, the various processes utilized and the resultant by-products and wastes. Potential problem areas relating to these sites as well as potential approaches to site characterization are addressed. Included are recommendations for the phasing of site investigations and the use of relatively inexpensive and rapid field screening techniques to identify contamination

  13. Plant stem cell niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Yvonne; Simon, Rüdiger

    2005-01-01

    Stem cells are required to support the indeterminate growth style of plants. Meristems are a plants stem cell niches that foster stem cell survival and the production of descendants destined for differentiation. In shoot meristems, stem cell fate is decided at the populational level. The size of the stem cell domain at the meristem tip depends on signals that are exchanged with cells of the organizing centre underneath. In root meristems, individual stem cells are controlled by direct interaction with cells of the quiescent centre that lie in the immediate neighbourhood. Analysis of the interactions and signaling processes in the stem cell niches has delivered some insights into the molecules that are involved and revealed that the two major niches for plant stem cells are more similar than anticipated.

  14. Nuclear plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negin, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    The nuclear power industry's addressing of life extension is a natural trend in the maturation of this technology after 20 years of commercial operation. With increasing emphasis on how plants are operated, and less on how to build them, attention is turning on to maximizing the use of these substantial investments. The first studies of life extension were conducted in the period from 1978 and 1982. These were motivated by the initiation, by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), of studies to support decommissioning rulemaking. The basic conclusions of those early studies that life extension is feasible and worth pursuing have not been changed by the much more extensive investigations that have since been conducted. From an engineering perspective, life extension for nuclear plants is fundamentally the same as for fossil plants

  15. Individual plant examination: Submittal guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    Based on a Policy Statement on Severe Accidents Regarding Future Designs and Existing Plants, the performance of a plant examination is requested from the licensee of each nuclear power plant. The plant examination looks for vulnerabilities to severe accidents and cost-effective safety improvements that reduce or eliminate the important vulnerabilities. This document delineates guidance for reporting the results of that plant examination. 38 refs., 2 tabs

  16. Urea metabolism in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Claus-Peter

    2011-03-01

    Urea is a plant metabolite derived either from root uptake or from catabolism of arginine by arginase. In agriculture, urea is intensively used as a nitrogen fertilizer. Urea nitrogen enters the plant either directly, or in the form of ammonium or nitrate after urea degradation by soil microbes. In recent years various molecular players of plant urea metabolism have been investigated: active and passive urea transporters, the nickel metalloenzyme urease catalyzing the hydrolysis of urea, and three urease accessory proteins involved in the complex activation of urease. The degradation of ureides derived from purine breakdown has long been discussed as a possible additional metabolic source for urea, but an enzymatic route for the complete hydrolysis of ureides without a urea intermediate has recently been described for Arabidopsis thaliana. This review focuses on the proteins involved in plant urea metabolism and the metabolic sources of urea but also addresses open questions regarding plant urea metabolism in a physiological and agricultural context. The contribution of plant urea uptake and metabolism to fertilizer urea usage in crop production is still not investigated although globally more than half of all nitrogen fertilizer is applied to crops in the form of urea. Nitrogen use efficiency in crop production is generally well below 50% resulting in economical losses and creating ecological problems like groundwater pollution and emission of nitric oxides that can damage the ozone layer and function as greenhouse gasses. Biotechnological approaches to improve fertilizer urea usage bear the potential to increase crop nitrogen use efficiency. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ion channels in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrich, Rainer

    2012-10-01

    Since the first recordings of single potassium channel activities in the plasma membrane of guard cells more than 25 years ago, patch-clamp studies discovered a variety of ion channels in all cell types and plant species under inspection. Their properties differed in a cell type- and cell membrane-dependent manner. Guard cells, for which the existence of plant potassium channels was initially documented, advanced to a versatile model system for studying plant ion channel structure, function, and physiology. Interestingly, one of the first identified potassium-channel genes encoding the Shaker-type channel KAT1 was shown to be highly expressed in guard cells. KAT1-type channels from Arabidopsis thaliana and its homologs from other species were found to encode the K(+)-selective inward rectifiers that had already been recorded in early patch-clamp studies with guard cells. Within the genome era, additional Arabidopsis Shaker-type channels appeared. All nine members of the Arabidopsis Shaker family are localized at the plasma membrane, where they either operate as inward rectifiers, outward rectifiers, weak voltage-dependent channels, or electrically silent, but modulatory subunits. The vacuole membrane, in contrast, harbors a set of two-pore K(+) channels. Just very recently, two plant anion channel families of the SLAC/SLAH and ALMT/QUAC type were identified. SLAC1/SLAH3 and QUAC1 are expressed in guard cells and mediate Slow- and Rapid-type anion currents, respectively, that are involved in volume and turgor regulation. Anion channels in guard cells and other plant cells are key targets within often complex signaling networks. Here, the present knowledge is reviewed for the plant ion channel biology. Special emphasis is drawn to the molecular mechanisms of channel regulation, in the context of model systems and in the light of evolution.

  18. Integrated Gasification SOFC Plant with a Steam Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud; Pierobon, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Steam Turbine (ST) plant is integrated with a gasification plant. Wood chips are fed to the gasification plant to produce biogas and then this gas is fed into the anode side of a SOFC cycle to produce electricity and heat. The gases from the SOFC stacks...... enter into a burner to burn the rest of the fuel. The offgases after the burner are now used to generate steam in a Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG). The generated steam is expanded in a ST to produce additional power. Thus a triple hybrid plant based on a gasification plant, a SOFC plant...... and a steam plant is presented and studied. The plant is called as IGSS (Integrated Gasification SOFC Steam plant). Different systems layouts are presented and investigated. Electrical efficiencies up to 56% are achieved which is considerably higher than the conventional integrated gasification combined...

  19. Plant biotechnology: transgenic crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewry, Peter R; Jones, Huw D; Halford, Nigel G

    2008-01-01

    Transgenesis is an important adjunct to classical plant breeding, in that it allows the targeted manipulation of specific characters using genes from a range of sources. The current status of crop transformation is reviewed, including methods of gene transfer, the selection of transformed plants and control of transgene expression. The application of genetic modification technology to specific traits is then discussed, including input traits relating to crop production (herbicide tolerance and resistance to insects, pathogens and abiotic stresses) and output traits relating to the composition and quality of the harvested organs. The latter include improving the nutritional quality for consumers as well as the improvement of functional properties for food processing.

  20. Wind power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, G

    1975-11-20

    A wind power plant is proposed suitable for electicity generation or water pumping. This plant is to be self-adjusting to various wind velocities and to be kept in operation even during violent storms. For this purpose the mast, carrying the wind rotor and pivotable around a horizontal axis is tiltable and equipped with a wind blind. Further claims contain various configurations of the tilting base resp. the cut in of an elastic link, the attachment and design of the wind blind as well as the constructive arrangement of one or more dynamos.

  1. Power plant process computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, R.

    1982-01-01

    The concept of instrumentation and control in nuclear power plants incorporates the use of process computers for tasks which are on-line in respect to real-time requirements but not closed-loop in respect to closed-loop control. The general scope of tasks is: - alarm annunciation on CRT's - data logging - data recording for post trip reviews and plant behaviour analysis - nuclear data computation - graphic displays. Process computers are used additionally for dedicated tasks such as the aeroball measuring system, the turbine stress evaluator. Further applications are personal dose supervision and access monitoring. (orig.)

  2. Savannah River Plant environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukes, E.K.

    1984-03-01

    On June 20, 1972, the Atomic Energy Commission designated 192,323 acres of land near Aiken, SC, as the nation's first National Environmental Research Park. The designated land surrounds the Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant production complex. The site, which borders the Savannah River for 17 miles, includes swampland, pine forests, abandoned town sites, a large man-made lake for cooling water impoundment, fields, streams, and watersheds. This report is a description of the geological, hydrological, meteorological, and biological characteristics of the Savannah River Plant site and is intended as a source of information for those interested in environmental research at the site. 165 references, 68 figures, 52 tables

  3. Quantitative plant ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This e-book is written in the Wolfram' CDF format (download free CDF player from Wolfram.com) The objective of this e-book is to introduce the population ecological concepts for measuring and predicting the ecological success of plant species. This will be done by focusing on the measurement...... and statistical modelling of plant species abundance and the relevant ecological processes that control species abundance. The focus on statistical modelling and likelihood function based methods also means that more algorithm based methods, e.g. ordination techniques and boosted regression tress...

  4. PLANTS, SOURCE FOR BIOFUELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Ramona PECINGINĂ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The most affordable alternative energy sources to fossil plants with hydropower are some oils that accumulate in different organs other accumulating carbohydrates with high energy value. They are known worldwide and cultivated a number of plant species entering the oilseeds, which provides significant production of edible oil (soybean, sunflower, etc. Vegetable oils or their product derived biodiesel fuels are potential diesel engines, representing an alternative to fuels. The most promising suitable for the production of oil crops "with short circuit "or biodiesel are fruits and seeds, both herbaceous and tree.

  5. ITER plant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolbasov, B.; Barnes, C.; Blevins, J.

    1991-01-01

    As part of a series of documents published by the IAEA that summarize the results of the Conceptual Design Activities for the ITER project, this publication describes the conceptual design of the ITER plant systems, in particular (i) the heat transport system, (ii) the electrical distribution system, (iii) the requirements for radioactive equipment handling, the hot cell, and waste management, (iv) the supply system for fluids and operational chemicals, (v) the qualitative analyses of failure scenarios and methods of burn stability control and emergency shutdown control, (vi) analyses of tokamak building functions and design requirements, (vii) a plant layout, and (viii) site requirements. Refs, figs and tabs

  6. Fossil power plant automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divakaruni, S.M.; Touchton, G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper elaborates on issues facing the utilities industry and seeks to address how new computer-based control and automation technologies resulting from recent microprocessor evolution, can improve fossil plant operations and maintenance. This in turn can assist utilities to emerge stronger from the challenges ahead. Many presentations at the first ISA/EPRI co-sponsored conference are targeted towards improving the use of computer and control systems in the fossil and nuclear power plants and we believe this to be the right forum to share our ideas

  7. Plant engineering network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angus, M.J.; Goossen, J.

    1996-01-01

    The Plant Engineering Network (PEN) is a utility-vendor relationship focussed on reducing O and M costs, while maintaining the safe and reliable operation of partner plants through sharing resources, using telecommunications systems for collaborative engineering, coordinating and streamlining work processes, and sharing financial risk and reward. This paper examines how Pacific Gas and Electric (PG and E) established a PEN organization and realized over =0.5 million U.S. in 1994, the first year of implementation, and approximately =2 million U.S. savings in 1995. (author)

  8. Total Logistic Plant Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Dorcak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Total Logistics Plant Solutions, plant logistics system - TLPS, based on the philosophy of advanced control processes enables complex coordination of business processes and flows and the management and scheduling of production in the appropriate production plans and planning periods. Main attributes of TLPS is to create a comprehensive, multi-level, enterprise logistics information system, with a certain degree of intelligence, which accepts the latest science and research results in the field of production technology and logistics. Logistic model of company understands as a system of mutually transforming flows of materials, energy, information, finance, which is realized by chain activities and operations

  9. Methylome evolution in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidalis, Amaryllis; Živković, Daniel; Wardenaar, René; Roquis, David; Tellier, Aurélien; Johannes, Frank

    2016-12-20

    Despite major progress in dissecting the molecular pathways that control DNA methylation patterns in plants, little is known about the mechanisms that shape plant methylomes over evolutionary time. Drawing on recent intra- and interspecific epigenomic studies, we show that methylome evolution over long timescales is largely a byproduct of genomic changes. By contrast, methylome evolution over short timescales appears to be driven mainly by spontaneous epimutational events. We argue that novel methods based on analyses of the methylation site frequency spectrum (mSFS) of natural populations can provide deeper insights into the evolutionary forces that act at each timescale.

  10. Power plants 2009. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Within the Annual Conference 2009 of the VGB PowerTech e.V. (Essen, Federal Republic of Germany) from 23rd to 25th May, 2009, in Lyon (France) the following lectures were held: (1) Electricity demand, consequences of the financial and economic crisis - Current overview 2020 for the EU-27 (Hans ten Berge); (2) Status and perspectives of the electricity generation mix in France (Bernard Dupraz); (3) European electricity grid - status and perspective (Dominique Maillard); (4) Technologies and acceptance in the European energy market (Gordon MacKerran); (5) EPR construction in Finland, China, France, (Claude Jaouen); (6) EPR Flamanville 3: A project on the path towards nuclear revival (Jacques Alary); (7) Worldwide nuclear Revival and acceptance (Luc Geraets); (8) An overview on the status of final disposal of radioactive wastes worldwide (Piet Zuidema); (9) Who needs pumped storage plants? PSP are partner to grid stability and renewable energies (Hans-Christoph Funke); (10) Sustainable use of water resources to generate electricity safely and efficiently (Patrick Tourasse); (11) The growth strategy of RWE Innogy - Role of RES in RWE strategy (Fritz Vahrenholt); (12) Solar technologies towards grid parity - key factors and timeframe (G. Gigliucci); (13) Overview on CCS technologies and results of Vattenfalls oxyfuel pilot plant (Philippe Paelinck); (14) Development perspectives of lignite-based IGCC-plants with CCS (Dietmar Keller); (15) Post combustion capture plants - concept and plant integration (Wolfgang Schreier); (16) CCS fossil power generation in a carbon constraint world (Daniel Hofmann); (17) CEZ group strategy in Central and South Eastern Europe (Jan Zizka); (18) Strategy and projects of DONG Energy (Jens Erik Pedersen); (19) E.ON coal-based power generation of the future - The highly efficient power plant and downstream separation of carbon dioxide (Gerhard Seibel); (20) Final sage of first supercritical 460 MW e l. CFB Boiler construction - firs

  11. Wind power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kling, A

    1977-01-13

    The wind power plant described has at least one rotor which is coupled to an electricity generator. The systems are fixed to a suspended body so that it is possible to set up the wind power plant at greater height where one can expect stronger and more uniform winds. The anchoring on the ground or on a floating body is done by mooring cables which can simultaneously have the function of an electric cable. The whole system can be steered by fins. The rotor system itself consists of at least one pair of contrarotating, momentum balanced rotors.

  12. Conceptualizing Pharmaceutical Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bent Dalgaard; Jensen, Klaes Ladeby; Gjøl, Mikkel

    2006-01-01

    In the conceptual design phase of pharmaceutical plants as much as 80%-90% of the total cost of a project is committed. It is therefore essential that the chosen concept is viable. In this design process configuration and 3D models can help validate the decisions made. Designing 3D models...... is a complex task and requires skilled users. We demonstrate that a simple 2D/3D configuration tool can support conceptualizing of pharmaceutical plants. Present paper reports on preliminary results from a full scale implementation project at a Danish engineering company....

  13. Ardennes nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-12-01

    The SENA nuclear power plant continued to operate, as before, at authorized rated power, namely 905MWth during the first half year and 950MWth during the second half year. Net energy production:2028GWh; hours phased to the line: 7534H; availability factor: 84%; utilization factor: 84%; total shutdowns:19; number of scrams:10; cost per KWh: 4,35 French centimes. Overall, the plant is performing very satisfactory. Over the last three years net production has been 5900GWh, corresponding to in average utilization factor of 83%

  14. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlov, V.V.; Rineisky, A.A.

    1975-01-01

    The invention is aimed at designing a nuclear power plant with a heat transfer system which permits an accelerated fuel regeneration maintaining relatively high initial steam values and efficiency of the steam power circuit. In case of a plant with three circuits the secondary cooling circuit includes a steam generator with preheater, evaporator, steam superheater and intermediate steam superheater. At the heat supply side the latter is connected with its inlet to the outlet of the evaporator and with its outlet to the low-temperature side of the secondary circuit

  15. Monitoring wood heating plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The overall aim of the project is to support the increased use of biomass heating plant in the UK by improving the quality and quantity of information available to suppliers and users. This aim will be achieved by: providing a qualitative assessment of the operational performance of a representative range of biomass heating installations including summaries of technical information; providing good case studies for a range of installations addressing the varied market demands; collating performance data of existing installations so as to improve the performance and/or reduce capital and operating costs of existing and future installations; and providing basic operator training and recommending methods optimising/improving plant performance. (author)

  16. Apoplastic interactions between plants and plant root intruders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanako eMitsumasu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerous pathogenic or parasitic organisms attack plant roots to obtain nutrients, and the apoplast including the plant cell wall is where the plant cell meets such organisms. Root-parasitic angiosperms and nematodes are two distinct types of plant root parasites but share some common features in their strategies for breaking into plant roots. Striga and Orobanche are obligate root parasitic angiosperms that cause devastating agricultural problems worldwide. Parasitic plants form an invasion organ called a haustorium, where plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDEs are highly expressed. Plant-parasitic nematodes are another type of agriculturally important plant root parasite. These nematodes breach the plant cell walls by protruding a sclerotized stylet from which PCWDEs are secreted. Responding to such parasitic invasion, host plants activate their own defense responses against parasites. Endoparasitic nematodes secrete apoplastic effectors to modulate host immune responses and to facilitate the formation of a feeding site. Apoplastic communication between hosts and parasitic plants also contributes to their interaction. Parasitic plant germination stimulants, strigolactones (SLs, are recently identified apoplastic signals that are transmitted over long distances from biosynthetic sites to functioning sites. Here, we discuss recent advances in understanding the importance of apoplastic signals and cell walls for plant-parasite interactions.

  17. Apoplastic interactions between plants and plant root intruders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsumasu, Kanako; Seto, Yoshiya; Yoshida, Satoko

    2015-01-01

    Numerous pathogenic or parasitic organisms attack plant roots to obtain nutrients, and the apoplast including the plant cell wall is where the plant cell meets such organisms. Root parasitic angiosperms and nematodes are two distinct types of plant root parasites but share some common features in their strategies for breaking into plant roots. Striga and Orobanche are obligate root parasitic angiosperms that cause devastating agricultural problems worldwide. Parasitic plants form an invasion organ called a haustorium, where plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) are highly expressed. Plant-parasitic nematodes are another type of agriculturally important plant root parasite. These nematodes breach the plant cell walls by protruding a sclerotized stylet from which PCWDEs are secreted. Responding to such parasitic invasion, host plants activate their own defense responses against parasites. Endoparasitic nematodes secrete apoplastic effectors to modulate host immune responses and to facilitate the formation of a feeding site. Apoplastic communication between hosts and parasitic plants also contributes to their interaction. Parasitic plant germination stimulants, strigolactones, are recently identified apoplastic signals that are transmitted over long distances from biosynthetic sites to functioning sites. Here, we discuss recent advances in understanding the importance of apoplastic signals and cell walls for plant-parasite interactions.

  18. B Plant hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broz, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning Activities for B Plant on the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE Order 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific , Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated

  19. Nuclear power plant analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stritar, A.

    1986-01-01

    The development of Nuclear Power Plant Analyzers in USA is described. There are two different types of Analyzers under development in USA, the forst in Idaho and Los Alamos national Lab, the second in brookhaven National lab. That one is described in detail. The computer hardware and the mathematical models of the reactor vessel thermalhydraulics are described. (author)

  20. Plant research '76

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    Overall objective remains unchanged: to contribute to the knowledge, with strong emphasis on fundamental problems, of how plants function, the roles they play in the environment and energy relations of the world, and how these roles may be optimized for the benefit of mankind. (PCS)

  1. Drought Signaling in Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    depending upon the source and nature of signaling: (i) hormone signal, (ii) .... plants to regulate the rate of transpiration through minor structural .... cell has to keep spending energy (in the form of A TP) to maintain a .... enzymes and proteins in the regulation of cellular metabolism can be determined by either inactivating.

  2. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieser, R.

    1979-01-01

    The reactor pressure vessel consists of two parts. A cylindrical lower part with a hemispherical steel roof is placed at some distance within an equally shaped pressure vessel of concrete. Both vessels are standing on a common bottom plate. The interspace is kept at subpressure. It serves to contain ring galleries, elevator shafts, and power plant components. (GL) [de

  3. Recombinant Cytokines from Plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sirko, A.; Vaněk, Tomáš; Gora-Sochacka, A.; Redkiewicz, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 6 (2011), s. 3536-3552 ISSN 1661-6596 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : cytokines * pharmaceutical proteins * plant-based production systems Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.598, year: 2011

  4. Phenolics and Plant Allelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-An Jiang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds arise from the shikimic and acetic acid (polyketide metabolic pathways in plants. They are but one category of the many secondary metabolites implicated in plant allelopathy. Phenolic allelochemicals have been observed in both natural and managed ecosystems, where they cause a number of ecological and economic problems, such as declines in crop yield due to soil sickness, regeneration failure of natural forests, and replanting problems in orchards. Phenolic allelochemical structures and modes of action are diverse and may offer potential lead compounds for the development of future herbicides or pesticides. This article reviews allelopathic effects, analysis methods, and allelopathic mechanisms underlying the activity of plant phenolic compounds. Additionally, the currently debated topic in plant allelopathy of whether catechin and 8-hydroxyquinoline play an important role in Centaurea maculata and Centaurea diffusa invasion success is discussed. Overall, the main purpose of this review is to highlight the allelopacthic potential of phenolic compounds to provide us with methods to solve various ecology problems, especially in regard to the sustainable development of agriculture, forestry, nature resources and environment conservation.

  5. Plant breeding and genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate goal of plant breeding is to develop improved crops. Improvements can be made in crop productivity, crop processing and marketing, and/or consumer quality. The process of developing an improved cultivar begins with intercrossing lines with high performance for the traits of interest, th...

  6. Plant monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarola, K.; Jamison, D.; Manazir, R.; Rescori, R.; Harmon, D.

    1991-01-01

    An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel in the control room. A separate data processing system, which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board. The discrete indicator and alarm system and the data processing system receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accident conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the main machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof. (author)

  7. TAPCHAN Wave Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-10-01

    The Tapered Channel Wave Power Plant (TAPCHAN) is based on a new method for wave energy conversion. The principle of operation can be explained by dividing the system into the following four sub-systems: Firstly, a collector which is designed to concentrate the water energy and optimize collection efficiency for a range of frequencies and directions. Secondly, the energy converter, in which the energy of the collected waves is transformed into potential energy in an on-shore water reservoir. This is the unique part of the power plant. It consists of a gradually narrowing channel with wall heights equal to the filling level of the reservoir (typical heights 3-7 m). The waves enter the wide end of the channel and as they propagate down the narrowing channel, the wave height is amplified until the wavecrests spill over the walls. Thirdly, a reservoir which provides a stable water supply for the turbines. Finally, the hydroelectric power plant, where well established techniques are used for the generation of electric power. The water turbine driving the electric generator is of a low head type, such as a Kaplan or a tubular turbine. It must be designed for salt water operation and should have good regulation capabilities. Power plants based on the principle described, are now offered on a commercial basis.

  8. Plant Modernization Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, John

    2004-01-01

    Most nuclear plants were designed and built from the 1960's through the 1990's. These plants employ predominantly analog instrumentation and control (I and C) technology, and their control rooms are made up of primarily hardwired controls (e.g., switches, knobs and handles) and displays (e.g., gauges, linear scales and indicator lights). Over the past several years, these plants have been modernized with digital I and C and computer-based human-system interfaces (HSIs) such as software-based process controls, touch-screen interfaces and large-screen, overview displays. As these computer based HIS technologies are integrated into control rooms based on conventional technology, hybrid control rooms are created. The paper summarizes lessons learned from the study of plant modernization programs over the past ten years so that they can be used to help improve the modification process. While the research focused on the impact of technology change on human performance, a number of organizational and programmatic issues were observed as well. Eleven lessons learned are presented

  9. Plants under continuous light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velez Ramirez, A.I.; Ieperen, van W.; Vreugdenhill, D.; Millenaar, F.F.

    2011-01-01

    Continuous light is an essential tool for understanding the plant circadian clock. Additionally, continuous light might increase greenhouse food production. However, using continuous light in research and practice has its challenges. For instance, most of the circadian clock-oriented experiments

  10. Nuclear plant scram reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiegle, H.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Nuclear Utility Management and Human Resources Committee (NUMARC) is a confederation of all 55 utilities with nuclear plants either in operation or under construction. NUMARC was formed in April 1984 by senior nuclear executives with hundreds of man-years of plant experience to improve (plant) performance and resolve NRC concerns. NUMARC has adopted 10 commitments in the areas of management, training, staffing and performance. One of these commitments is to strive to reduce automatic trips to 3 per year per unit for calendar year 1985 for plants in commercial operation greater than 3 years (with greater than 25% capacity factor). This goal applies to any unplanned automatic protection system trips at any time when the reactor is critical. Each utility has committed to develop methods to thoroughly evaluate all unplanned automatic trips to identify the root causes and formulate plans to correct the root causes thus reducing future unplanned scrams. As part of this program, the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) collects and evaluates information on automatic reactor trips. It publishes the results of these evaluations to aid the industry to identify root causes and corrective actions

  11. Italian steam power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Rautenkranz, J

    1939-01-01

    A brief history of geothermal power production in Italy is presented. Boric acid has been produced on an industrial scale since 1818. The first electrical power was generated in 1904, and by 1939 the output of geothermal power plants had reached 500 GWh, with major expansion of facilities planned.

  12. Plants and Medicinal Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, D.

    1977-01-01

    This is the first of two articles showing how plants that have been used in folk medicine for many centuries are guiding scientists in the design and preparation of new and potent drugs. Opium and its chemical derivatives are examined at length in this article. (Author/MA)

  13. Whitebark pine planting guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward McCaughey; Glenda L. Scott; Kay L. Izlar

    2009-01-01

    This article incorporates new information into previous whitebark pine guidelines for planting prescriptions. Earlier 2006 guidelines were developed based on review of general literature, research studies, field observations, and standard US Forest Service survival surveys of high-elevation whitebark pine plantations. A recent study of biotic and abiotic factors...

  14. Power plant at sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggen, M.

    2000-01-01

    Drilling platforms are rather inefficient when it comes to their own power supply. In view of ecotax and their environmental image, the offshore industry particularly the Norwegians is highly committed to changing this situation. An efficient power plant, specially designed for the offshore industry, might just prove to be the answer to their prayers

  15. Mechanisms in Plant Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hake, Sarah [USDA ARS Plant Gene Expression Center

    2013-08-21

    This meeting has been held every other year for the past twenty-two years and is the only regularly held meeting focused specifically on plant development. Topics covered included: patterning in developing tissues; short and long distance signaling; differentiation of cell types; the role of epigenetics in development; evolution; growth.

  16. Plant Biotech Lab Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tant, Carl

    This book provides laboratory experiments to enhance any food science/botany curriculum. Chapter 1, "Introduction," presents a survey of the techniques used in plant biotechnology laboratory procedures. Chapter 2, "Micronutrition," discusses media and nutritional requirements for tissue culture studies. Chapter 3, "Sterile Seeds," focuses on the…

  17. Radiosensitivity in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nauman, A.F.

    1979-01-01

    The report presents a compilation of available data on the sensitivity of plants to ionizing radiation, and provides basic information on methods of determining such sensitivities, or of estimating radiosensitivities by calcuation of the nuclear factors upon which they depend. The scope of the data presented here is necessarily limited to the most generally useful radiobiological end points and to the most commonly-used types of radiation. Many of the factors which influence radiosensitivity, particularly nuclear factors, will be discussed. Emphasis will be upon whole-plant studies done at Brookhaven National Laboratory by A.H. Sparrow and his associates, since these studies are the source of most of the available radiosensitivity data and of all the sensitivity predictions listed here. Data presented here include summaries of experimentally-determined radiosensitivities at various end points for both herbaceous and woody higher plants, and for a few species of ferns and lower plants. The algae and fungi have not been considered here due to space limitations

  18. Chromosome painting in plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schubert, I.; Fransz, P.F.; Fuchs, J.; Jong, de J.H.

    2001-01-01

    The current 'state-of-art' as to chromosome painting in plants is reviewed. We define different situations described as painting so far: i) Genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH) with total genomic DNA to distinguish alien chromosomes on the basis of divergent dispersed repeats, ii) 'Chromosomal in

  19. Nuclear Power Plant Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, George A.

    1975-01-01

    The author recognizes a body of basic knowledge in nuclear power plant technoogy that can be taught in school programs, and lists the various courses, aiming to fill the anticipated need for nuclear-trained manpower--persons holding an associate degree in engineering technology. (Author/BP)

  20. Plant cell culture initiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    The use of cultured plant cells in either organized or unorganized form has increased vey considerably in the last 10-15 yr. Many new technologies have been developed and applications in both fundamental and applied research have led to the development of some powerful tools for improving our

  1. Screening for Plant Features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Polder, G.

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, an overview of different plant features is given, from (sub)cellular to canopy level. A myriad of methods is available to measure these features using image analysis, and often, multiple methods can be used to measure the same feature. Several criteria are listed for choosing a

  2. The plant exocyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Emons, A.M.C.; Ketelaar, T.

    2010-01-01

    exocyst is an octameric vesicle tethering complex that functions upstream of SNARE mediated exocytotic vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane. All proteins in the complex have been conserved during evolution, and genes that encode the exocyst subunits are present in the genomes of all plants

  3. Plants flex their skeletons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foster, Randy; Mattsson, Ole; Mundy, John

    2003-01-01

    Recent work on the fragile fiber mutants of Arabidopsis has identified microtubule-associated proteins that affect the orientation of cellulose microfibrils in cell walls, a major determinant of plant elongation growth. These same proteins are implicated in responses to gibberellin, provoking fresh...

  4. Quality maintenance Tropical Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Moraes Dias

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The climatic characteristics of the country favor the cultivation of tropical flowers. The continued expansion of this market is due the beauty, exoticit nature and postharvest longevity of flower. However, little is known about the postharvest of tropical plants. Therefore, this paper provides information on harvest, handling and storage of cut tropical plantspostharvest, storage temperature, conditioning solution.

  5. Radiosensitivity in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nauman, A F

    1979-01-01

    The report presents a compilation of available data on the sensitivity of plants to ionizing radiation, and provides basic information on methods of determining such sensitivities, or of estimating radiosensitivities by calcuation of the nuclear factors upon which they depend. The scope of the data presented here is necessarily limited to the most generally useful radiobiological end points and to the most commonly-used types of radiation. Many of the factors which influence radiosensitivity, particularly nuclear factors, will be discussed. Emphasis will be upon whole-plant studies done at Brookhaven National Laboratory by A.H. Sparrow and his associates, since these studies are the source of most of the available radiosensitivity data and of all the sensitivity predictions listed here. Data presented here include summaries of experimentally-determined radiosensitivities at various end points for both herbaceous and woody higher plants, and for a few species of ferns and lower plants. The algae and fungi have not been considered here due to space limitations.

  6. Peru, People and Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Dennis

    Designed for horticulture, horticulture therapy, and botany students at Edmonds Community College (Washington), this 6-hour module explores the pre-Columbian use of plant materials in Peru and its relationships to cultural practices in modern Peru. The first sections provide basic information about the module, such as its objectives, the concepts…

  7. Fertilization in Flowering Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... for the right pollen,the pistil imposes a tough competition amongst them, comparableto a swayamvara of Indian mythology, to select the bestavailable pollen. Flowering plants have evolved into a matriarchalsociety. The selection of the male partner is totally theprerogative of the mother (pistil); the boy (pollen grain) andthe ...

  8. T Plant hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broz, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the T Plant on the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE ORDER 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated

  9. Steam power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.W.E.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to power plant forced flow boilers operating with water letdown. The letdown water is arranged to deliver heat to partly expanded steam passing through a steam reheater connected between two stages of the prime mover. (U.K.)

  10. Garigliano nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-03-01

    During the period under review, the Garigliano power station produced 1,028,77 million kWh with a utilization factor of 73,41% and an availability factor of 85,64%. The disparity between the utilization and availability factors was mainly due to a shutdown of about one and half months owing to lack of staff at the plant. The reasons for nonavailability (14.36%) break down as follows: nuclear reasons 11,49%; conventional reasons 2,81%; other reasons 0,06%. During the period under review, no fuel replacements took place. The plant functioned throughout with a single reactor reticulation pump and resulting maximum available capacity of 150 MWe gross. After the month of August, the plant was operated at levels slightly below the maximum available capacity in order to lengthen the fuel cycle. The total number of outages during the period under review was 11. Since the plant was brought into commercial operation, it has produced 9.226 million kWh

  11. Evolution of plant senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Mike

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Senescence is integral to the flowering plant life-cycle. Senescence-like processes occur also in non-angiosperm land plants, algae and photosynthetic prokaryotes. Increasing numbers of genes have been assigned functions in the regulation and execution of angiosperm senescence. At the same time there has been a large expansion in the number and taxonomic spread of plant sequences in the genome databases. The present paper uses these resources to make a study of the evolutionary origins of angiosperm senescence based on a survey of the distribution, across plant and microbial taxa, and expression of senescence-related genes. Results Phylogeny analyses were carried out on protein sequences corresponding to genes with demonstrated functions in angiosperm senescence. They include proteins involved in chlorophyll catabolism and its control, homeoprotein transcription factors, metabolite transporters, enzymes and regulators of carotenoid metabolism and of anthocyanin biosynthesis. Evolutionary timelines for the origins and functions of particular genes were inferred from the taxonomic distribution of sequences homologous to those of angiosperm senescence-related proteins. Turnover of the light energy transduction apparatus is the most ancient element in the senescence syndrome. By contrast, the association of phenylpropanoid metabolism with senescence, and integration of senescence with development and adaptation mediated by transcription factors, are relatively recent innovations of land plants. An extended range of senescence-related genes of Arabidopsis was profiled for coexpression patterns and developmental relationships and revealed a clear carotenoid metabolism grouping, coordinated expression of genes for anthocyanin and flavonoid enzymes and regulators and a cluster pattern of genes for chlorophyll catabolism consistent with functional and evolutionary features of the pathway. Conclusion The expression and phylogenetic

  12. Plant life management optimized utilization of existing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watzinger, H.; Erve, M.

    1999-01-01

    For safe, reliable and economical nuclear power generation it is of central importance to understand, analyze and manage aging-related phenomena and to apply this information in the systematic utilization and as-necessary extension of the service life of components and systems. An operator's overall approach to aging and plant life management which also improves performance characteristics can help to optimize plant operating economy. In view of the deregulation of the power generation industry with its increased competition, nuclear power plants must today also increasingly provide for or maintain a high level of plant availability and low power generating costs. This is a difficult challenge even for the newest, most modern plants, and as plants age they can only remain competitive if a plant operator adopts a strategic approach which takes into account the various aging-related effects on a plant-wide basis. The significance of aging and plant life management for nuclear power plants becomes apparent when looking at their age: By the year 2000 roughly fifty of the world's 434 commercial nuclear power plants will have been in operation for thirty years or more. According to the International Atomic Energy Agency, as many as 110 plants will have reached the thirty-year service mark by the year 2005. In many countries human society does not push the construction of new nuclear power plants and presumably will not change mind within the next ten years. New construction licenses cannot be expected so that for economical and ecological reasons existing plants have to be operated unchallengeably. On the other hand the deregulation of the power production market is asking just now for analysis of plant life time to operate the plants at a high technical and economical level until new nuclear power plants can be licensed and constructed. (author)

  13. Nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otway, H.J.

    1974-01-01

    Action at the international level will assume greater importance as the number of nuclear power plants increases, especially in the more densely populated parts of the world. Predictions of growth made prior to October 1973 [9] indicated that, by 1980, 14% of the electricity would be supplied by nuclear plants and by the year 2000 this figure would be about 50%. This will make the topic of international co-operation and standards of even greater importance. The IAEA has long been active in providing assistance to Member States in the siting design and operation of nuclear reactors. These activities have been pursued through advisory missions, the publication of codes of practice, guide books, technical reports and in arranging meetings to promote information exchange. During the early development of nuclear power, there was no well-established body of experience which would allow formulation of internationally acceptable safety criteria, except in a few special cases. Hence, nuclear power plant safety and reliability matters often received an ad hoc approach which necessarily entailed a lack of consistency in the criteria used and in the levels of safety required. It is clear that the continuation of an ad hoc approach to safety will prove inadequate in the context of a world-wide nuclear power industry, and the international trade which this implies. As in several other fields, the establishment of internationally acceptable safety standards and appropriate guides for use by regulatory bodies, utilities, designers and constructors, is becoming a necessity. The IAEA is presently planning the development of a comprehensive set of basic requirements for nuclear power plant safety, and the associated reliability requirements, which would be internationally acceptable, and could serve as a standard frame of reference for nuclear plant safety and reliability analyses

  14. Photooxidative stress in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foyer, C.H.; Lelandais, M.; Kunert, K.J.

    1994-01-01

    The light-dependent generation of active oxygen species is termed photooxidative stress. This can occur in two ways: (1) the donation of energy or electrons directly to oxygen as a result of photosynthetic activity; (2) exposure of tissues to ultraviolet irradiation. The light-dependent destruction of catalase compounds the problem. Although generally detrimental to metabolism, superoxide and hydrogen peroxide may serve useful functions if rigorously controlled and compartmentalised. During photosynthesis the formation of active oxygen species is minimised by a number of complex and refined regulatory mechanisms. When produced, active oxygen species are eliminated rapidly by efficient antioxidative systems. The chloroplast is able to use the production and destruction of hydrogen peroxide to regulate the thermal dissipation of excess excitation energy. This is an intrinsic feature of the regulation of photosynthetic electron transport. Photoinhibition and photooxidation only usually occur when plants are exposed to stress. Active oxygen species are part of the alarm-signalling processes in plants. These serve to modify metabolism and gene expression so that the plant can respond to adverse environmental conditions, invading organisms and ultraviolet irradiation. The capacity of the antioxidative defense system is often increased at such times but if the response is not sufficient, radical production will exceed scavenging and ultimately lead to the disruption of metabolism. Oxidative damage arises in high light principally when the latter is in synergy with additional stress factors such as chilling temperatures or pollution. Environmental stress can modify the photooxidative processes in various ways ranging from direct involvement in light-induced free radical formation to the inhibition of metabolism that renders previously optimal light levels excessive. It is in just such situations that the capacity for the production of active oxygen species can exceed that

  15. Heating plant privatization stagnates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoska, J.; Benka, M.; Sobinkovic, B.; Haluza, I.

    2005-01-01

    The state has been talking about privatization of 6 municipal heating plants since 2001. The tenders were to start last year. But nothing has happened and the future is uncertain. The city councils would prefer to receive, if not 100%, then at least a majority stake in the heating plants free of charge. But the Cabinet has decided to sell 51% to investors. The privatization agency - the National Property Fund (FNM) is preparing a proposal to increase the stake offered for sale to 67%. According to information provided by the FNM the sale will begin after Cabinet approval. The Fund intends to apply the same model to the sale of all the heating plants. Last year, a major German company Verbundnetz Gas declared its interest in purchasing large municipal heating plants in Slovakia. But it has been waiting for a response ever since. The French company - Dalkia, which has 10-years' experience of doing business in Slovakia, is interested in all the heating plants to be offered for sale. The Austrian company - Stefe is not new to the business either, it is interested mainly in the regions where it has already established itself - Central and Eastern Slovakia. Strategic investors expect financial groups to show interest too. The Penta Group has not hid its ambitions - it has already privatised a company which represents the key to the future development of heat management in Bratislava - Paroplynovy cyklus. Whereas Penta is not new to the heat production business another financial group - Slavia Capital is still surveying the sector. Should it not succeed, it plans several projects that would allow it to take a stake in the sector

  16. Radiochemistry in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, W.

    2007-01-01

    Radiochemistry is employed in nuclear power plants not as an end in itself but, among other things, as a main prerequisite of optimum radiation protection. Radiochemical monitoring of various loops provides important information about sources of radioactivity, activity distribution in the plant and its changes. In the light of these analytical findings, plant crews are able to take measures having a positive effect on radiation levels in the plant. The example of a BWR plant is used to show, among other things, how radiochemical analyses helped to reduce radiation levels in a plant and, as a consequence, to decrease clearly radiation exposure of the personnel despite higher workloads. (orig.)

  17. Stainless steels in power plant and plant construction. Papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The conference report comprises 14 papers on the corrosion characteristics of stainless steels in power plant and plant engineering. 9 papers are available as separate records in the ENERGY database. (MM) [de

  18. Remediation Using Plants and Plant Enzymes: A Progress Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    .... In every case, the sources are plants growing near the sediment. The use of plants for remediation of hazardous materials such as TNT or other munitions like RDX and HMX has led to a new approach to remediation-- phytoremediation...

  19. Design of plant safety model in plant enterprise engineering environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabbar, Hossam A.; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Shimada, Yukiyasu

    2001-01-01

    Plant enterprise engineering environment (PEEE) is an approach aiming to manage the plant through its lifecycle. In such environment, safety is considered as the common objective for all activities throughout the plant lifecycle. One approach to achieve plant safety is to embed safety aspects within each function and activity within such environment. One ideal way to enable safety aspects within each automated function is through modeling. This paper proposes a theoretical approach to design plant safety model as integrated with the plant lifecycle model within such environment. Object-oriented modeling approach is used to construct the plant safety model using OO CASE tool on the basis of unified modeling language (UML). Multiple views are defined for plant objects to express static, dynamic, and functional semantics of these objects. Process safety aspects are mapped to each model element and inherited from design to operation stage, as it is naturally embedded within plant's objects. By developing and realizing the plant safety model, safer plant operation can be achieved and plant safety can be assured

  20. Plant responses to plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, L.C. van

    2007-01-01

    Non-pathogenic soilborne microorganisms can promote plant growth, as well as suppress diseases. Plant growth promotion is taken to result from improved nutrient acquisition or hormonal stimulation. Disease suppression can occur through microbial antagonism or induction of resistance in the plant.

  1. Plant air systems safety study: Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-05-01

    The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Air System facilities and operations are reviewed for potential safety problems not covered by standard industrial safety procedures. Information is presented under the following section headings: facility and process description (general); air plant equipment; air distribution system; safety systems; accident analysis; plant air system safety overview; and conclusion

  2. Dipping Strawberry Plants in Fungicides before Planting to Control Anthracnose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myeong Hyeon Nam

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose crown rot (ACR, caused by Colletotrichum fructicola, is a serious disease of strawberry in Korea. The primary inoculums of ACR were symptomless strawberry plants, plant debris, and other host plants. To effectively control anthracnose in symptomless transplanted strawberries, it is necessary to use diseasefree plants, detect the disease early, and apply a fungicide. Therefore, in 2010 and 2011, we evaluated the efficacy of pre-plant fungicide dips by using strawberry transplants infected by C. fructicola for the control of anthracnose. Dipping plants in prochloraz-Mn for 10 min before planting was most effective for controlling anthracnose in symptomless strawberry plants and resulted in more than 76% control efficacy. Azoxystrobin showed a control efficacy of over 40%, but plants treated with pyraclostrobin, mancozeb and iminoctadine tris showed high disease severity. The control efficacy of the dip treatment with prochloraz-Mn did not differ with temperature and time. Treatment with prochloraz-Mn for more than an hour caused growth suppression in strawberry plants. Therefore, the development of anthracnose can be effectively reduced by dipping strawberry plants for 10 min in prochloraz-Mn before planting.

  3. Plant neurobiology and green plant intelligence : science, metaphors and nonsense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struik, P.C.; Yin, X.; Meinke, H.B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the recent debates on the emerging science of plant neurobiology, which claims that the individual green plant should be considered as an intelligent organism. Plant neurobiology tries to use elements from animal physiology as elegant metaphors to trigger the imagination in

  4. Nicotinic plant poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schep, Leo J; Slaughter, Robin J; Beasley, D Michael G

    2009-09-01

    A wide range of plants contain nicotinic and nicotinic-like alkaloids. Of this diverse group, those that have been reported to cause human poisoning appear to have similar mechanisms of toxicity and presenting patients therefore have comparable toxidromes. This review describes the taxonomy and principal alkaloids of plants that contain nicotinic and nicotinic-like alkaloids, with particular focus on those that are toxic to humans. The toxicokinetics and mechanisms of toxicity of these alkaloids are reviewed and the clinical features and management of poisoning due to these plants are described. This review was compiled by systematically searching OVID MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science. This identified 9,456 papers, excluding duplicates, all of which were screened. Reviewed plants and their principal alkaloids. Plants containing nicotine and nicotine-like alkaloids that have been reported to be poisonous to humans include Conium maculatum, Nicotiana glauca and Nicotiana tabacum, Laburnum anagyroides, and Caulophyllum thalictroides. They contain the toxic alkaloids nicotine, anabasine, cytisine, n-methylcytisine, coniine, n-methylconiine, and gamma-coniceine. These alkaloids act agonistically at nicotinic-type acetylcholine (cholinergic) receptors (nAChRs). The nicotinic-type acetylcholine receptor can vary both in its subunit composition and in its distribution within the body (the central and autonomic nervous systems, the neuromuscular junctions, and the adrenal medulla). Agonistic interaction at these variable sites may explain why the alkaloids have diverse effects depending on the administered dose and duration of exposure. Nicotine and nicotine-like alkaloids are absorbed readily across all routes of exposure and are rapidly and widely distributed, readily traversing the blood-brain barrier and the placenta, and are freely distributed in breast milk. Metabolism occurs predominantly in the liver followed by rapid renal elimination. Following acute exposure

  5. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cofrancesco, Alfred

    1998-01-01

    .... This search for natural plant enemies (insects and fungal pathogens) has led researchers to the native ranges of noxious aquatic plants, located throughout the continents of Africa, Asia, Europe, and Australia...

  6. Emission Facilities - Air Emission Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Represents the Primary Facility type Air Emission Plant (AEP) point features. Air Emissions Plant is a DEP primary facility type related to the Air Quality Program....

  7. Mathematical Modelling Plant Signalling Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Muraro, D.; Byrne, H.M.; King, J.R.; Bennett, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    methods for modelling gene and signalling networks and their application in plants. We then describe specific models of hormonal perception and cross-talk in plants. This mathematical analysis of sub-cellular molecular mechanisms paves the way for more

  8. Table showing nutritional plant list

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2013-04-02

    Apr 2, 2013 ... To consider food as medicine is part of a culture and a millennial human ... propagation, and introduction of nutritionally rich, indigenous plant species in the .... some respondents also mentioned that these plants were being ...

  9. Plant status monitor system description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prather, W.A.; Sly, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    In today's regulatory and financial environment, improving plant efficiency and safety are necessary elements of plant operations. Public utility commissions are making rate rulings based, in part, on plant availability performance; and the NRC is putting more emphasis on plant operational aspects. This comes at a time when operating, maintaining, and managing a plant are becoming increasingly complex; moreover, the desired number of experienced plant personnel are becoming more difficult to find. This situation can be partially resolved by using computer software tools to assist operations, maintenance, engineering, and management personnel. These software tools provide information and interpretations based on plant and equipment status. They support improved plant availability, technical specification compliance, and administrative functions. A key element or computerization is the ability to operate on integrated information

  10. Accommodating for plant modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weirich, P.H.

    1977-01-01

    Modification to a nuclear power plant may have different causes: 1) new instructions by the authorities; 2) changes of the marginal conditions on the construction site; 3) progress in the technological development. - Examples from different plants are supposed to demonstrate how such changes influence the planning or the construction and how they are integrated in the process of preparation. A distinction can be made between modifications before the completion of the submission of the order, during the phase of preparatory planning and during the construction phase. Of great importance are especially modifications made after the beginning of the construction works, since, in general, there is little scope for technical modifications and since consequences for the time schedule are to be expected. (orig.) [de

  11. Integrated turbomachine oxygen plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; DePuy, Richard Anthony; Muthaiah, Veerappan

    2014-06-17

    An integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes a turbomachine and an air separation unit. One or more compressor pathways flow compressed air from a compressor through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. An air separation unit is operably connected to the one or more compressor pathways and is configured to separate the compressed air into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air. A method of air separation in an integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes compressing a flow of air in a compressor of a turbomachine. The compressed flow of air is flowed through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander of the turbomachine to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. The compressed flow of air is directed to an air separation unit and is separated into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air.

  12. Nuclear plant license renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazda, P.A.; Bhatt, P.C.

    1991-01-01

    During the next 10 years, nuclear plant license renewal is expected to become a significant issue. Recent Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studies have shown license renewal to be technically and economically feasible. Filing an application for license renewal with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) entails verifying that the systems, structures, and components essential for safety will continue to perform their safety functions throughout the license renewal period. This paper discusses the current proposed requirements for this verification and the current industry knowledge regarding age-related degradation of structures. Elements of a license renewal program incorporating NRC requirements and industry knowledge including a schedule are presented. Degradation mechanisms for structural components, their significance to nuclear plant structures, and industry-suggested age-related degradation management options are also reviewed

  13. The Chernobyl plant shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-12-01

    The Chernobylsk-1 reactor, operational in september 1977 has been stopped in november 1996; the Chernobylsk-2 reactor started in november 1978 is out of order since 1991 following a fire. The Chernobylsk-3 reactor began in 1981. During the last three years it occurs several maintenance operations that stop it. In june 2000, the Ukrainian authorities decided to stop it definitively on the 15. of december (2000). This file handles the subject. it is divided in four chapters: the first one gives the general context of the plant shutdown, the second chapter studies the supporting projects to stop definitively the nuclear plant, the third chapter treats the question of the sarcophagus, and the fourth and final chapter studies the consequences of the accident and the contaminated territories. (N.C.)

  14. Power plant simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacking, D [Marconi Simulation (United Kingdom)

    1992-09-01

    Over many years in the field of simulation Marconi has developed and adopted a number of procedures and methodologies for the management, design and development of an extensive range of training equipment. This equipment encompasses desktop computer-based training systems, generic training devices. The procurement of a training simulator is clearly dictated by the perceived training requirement or problem. Also, it should preferably involve or follow a detailed training needs analysis. Although the cost benefits of training are often difficult to quantify, a simulator is frequently easier to justify if plant familiarisation and training can be provided in advance of on-the-job experience. This is particularly true if the target operators have little hands-on experience of similar plant either in terms of processes or the operator interface. (author).

  15. Radiosensitivity of higher plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Zhijie

    1992-11-01

    The general views on radiosensitivity of higher plants have been introduced from published references. The radiosensitivity varies with species, varieties and organs or tissues. The main factors of determining the radiosensitivity in different species are nucleus volume, chromosome volume, DNA content and endogenous compounds. The self-repair ability of DNA damage and chemical group of biological molecules, such as -SH thiohydroxy of proteins, are main factors to determine the radiosensitivity in different varieties. The moisture, oxygen, temperature radiosensitizer and protector are important external factors for radiosensitivity. Both the multiple target model and Chadwick-Leenhouts model are ideal mathematical models for describing the radiosensitivity of higher plants and the latter has more clear significance in biology

  16. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aisaka, Tatsuyoshi; Kamahara, Hisato; Yanagisawa, Ko.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent corrosion stress cracks in structural materials in a BWR type nuclear power plant by decreasing the oxygen concentration in the reactor coolants. Constitution: A hydrogen injector is connected between the condensator and a condensate clean up system of a nuclear power plant. The injector is incorporated with hydrogenated compounds formed from metal hydrides, for example, of alloys such as lanthanum-nickel alloy, iron titanium alloy, vanadium, palladium, magnesium-copper alloy, magnesium-nickel alloy and the like. Even if the pressure of hydrogen obtained from a hydrogen bomb or by way of water electrolysis is changed, the hydrogen can always be injected into a reactor coolant at a pressure equal to the equilibrium dissociation pressure for metal hydride by introducing the hydrogen into the hydrogen injector. (Seki, T.)

  17. Mobile power plant units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, R

    1979-10-05

    Diesel engines of the MaK line 282 AK/332 with a cylinder power up to 160 kW are used, either as 6-cylinder or 8-cylinder in-line engine or as 12-cylinder V engine. Fuel consumption is between 207 and 212 g/kW. The engine is mounted on a frame, together with a generator. The fuel reserve in the tank will last for 8 hours. The lubricating system, the cooling water and starting air system, the switchboard system, and the frame are described. The switchboard plant is mounted either on a skid undercarriage or on the undercarriage. The plant can be operated independently or parallel to the network. The unit can be remote-controlled via push buttons or control knobs. A picture is presented of a mobile diesel aggregate which is in service in Libya.

  18. Dry alcohol production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Mirjana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for dry alcohol production plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects a production plant with a capacity of 40 m3/y was manufactured, at "Zorka Pharma", Šabac in 1995-1996. The product meets all quality demands, as well as environmental regulations. The dry alcohol production process is fully automatized. There is no waste in the process, neither gaseous, nor liquid. The chosen process provides safe operation according to temperature regime and resistance in the pipes, air purification columns and filters. Working at increased pressure is suitable for evaporation and condensation at increased temperatures. The production process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during start-up, and repairs.

  19. Tritium in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vichot, L.; Losset, Y.

    2009-01-01

    The presence of tritium in the environment stems from its natural production by cosmic rays, from the fallout of the nuclear weapon tests between 1953 and 1964, and locally from nuclear industry activities. A part of the tritiated water contained in the foliage of plants is turned into organically bound tritium (OBT) by photosynthesis. The tritium of OBT, that is not exchangeable and then piles up in the plant, can be used as a marker of the past. It has been shown that the quantity of OBT contained in the age-rings of an oak that grew near the CEA center of Valduc was directly correlated with the tritium releases of the center. (A.C.)

  20. Third generation nuclear plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barré, Bertrand

    2012-05-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, a new generation of Light Water Reactors has been designed and is being built. Third generation nuclear plants are equipped with dedicated systems to insure that if the worst accident were to occur, i.e. total core meltdown, no matter how low the probability of such occurrence, radioactive releases in the environment would be minimal. This article describes the EPR, representative of this "Generation III" and a few of its competitors on the world market.

  1. The intelligent plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Firth [CSIRO Energy Technology (Australia)

    2009-06-15

    The current advances in electronics and smart sensors, coupled with the large amount of information that modern distributed control systems can create, provide opportunities but posses some significant problems. The potential suite of data measurements could provide plant operators, maintenance staff and supervisors with a comprehensive understanding of the current health of a coal preparation plant. Analysis of this issue would also provide a tool for the recognition of where important data is not or poorly (timeframe and/or quality) currently available. A suitable system for categorisation of the information associated with the description of the 'Health of a Plant' has been developed. A relational data base model for these categories was derived. The process and performance information relationships were established via the use of models derived from the wide body of literature available. Given the availability of the above model relationships and measurements, the best way to utilise this information in a simple intelligent manner was addressed. It involved the construction of a high level fuzzy set diagnosis chart and an underlying set of unit operation diagnostic charts. These charts provided the basis for the implementation of a generic diagnosis system. This was deliberately developed in EXCEL so that it can be used and/or modified to suit a particular plant. A sensing system which combines a limited set of measurements with an algorithm or logic system for optimisation of a process can be termed a smart sensor. These are vey useful in the optimisation of difficult process situations, and can be used to supplement expert systems. It is believed that the models developed in this project can also provide the basis for appropriate smart sensors when access to appropriate measurements is available.

  2. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schabert, H.P.; Laurer, E.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns a quick-acting valve on the main-steam pipe of a nuclear power plant. The engineering design of the valve is to be improved. To the main valve disc, a piston-operated auxiliary valve disc is to be assigned closing a section of the area of the main valve disc. This way it is avoided that the drive of the main valve disc has to carry out different movements. 15 sub-claims. (UWI) [de

  3. Fusion power plant economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The rationale, methodology, and updated comparative results of cost projections for magnetic-fusion-energy central-station electric power plants are considered. Changing market and regulatory conditions, particularly in the U.S., prompt fundamental reconsideration of what constitutes a competitive future energy-source technology and has implications for the direction and emphasis of appropriate near-term research and development programs, for fusion and other advanced generation systems. 36 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Parasites, Plants, and People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marion; Moore, Tony

    2016-06-01

    Anthelminthic resistance is acknowledged worldwide and is a major problem in Aotearoa New Zealand, thus alternative parasite management strategies are imperative. One Health is an initiative linking animal, human, and environmental health. Parasites, plants, and people illustrate the possibilities of providing diverse diets for stock thereby lowering parasite burdens, improving the cultural wellbeing of a local community, and protecting the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Power plant emissions reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy

    2015-10-20

    A system for improved emissions performance of a power plant generally includes an exhaust gas recirculation system having an exhaust gas compressor disposed downstream from the combustor, a condensation collection system at least partially disposed upstream from the exhaust gas compressor, and a mixing chamber in fluid communication with the exhaust gas compressor and the condensation collection system, where the mixing chamber is in fluid communication with the combustor.

  6. Automation of solar plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yebra, L.J.; Romero, M.; Martinez, D.; Valverde, A. [CIEMAT - Plataforma Solar de Almeria, Tabernas (Spain); Berenguel, M. [Almeria Univ. (Spain). Departamento de Lenguajes y Computacion

    2004-07-01

    This work overviews some of the main activities and research lines that are being carried out within the scope of the specific collaboration agreement between the Plataforma Solar de Almeria-CIEMAT (PSA-CIEMAT) and the Automatic Control, Electronics and Robotics research group of the Universidad de Almeria (TEP197) titled ''Development of control systems and tools for thermosolar plants'' and the projects financed by the MCYT DPI2001-2380-C02-02 and DPI2002-04375-C03. The research is directed by the need of improving the efficiency of the process through which the energy provided by the sun is totally or partially used as energy source, as far as diminishing the costs associated to the operation and maintenance of the installations that use this energy source. The final objective is to develop different automatic control systems and techniques aimed at improving the competitiveness of solar plants. The paper summarizes different objectives and automatic control approaches that are being implemented in different facilities at the PSA-CIEMAT: central receiver systems and solar furnace. For each one of these facilities, a systematic procedure is being followed, composed of several steps: (i) development of dynamic models using the newest modeling technologies (both for simulation and control purposes), (ii) development of fully automated data acquisition and control systems including software tools facilitating the analysis of data and the application of knowledge to the controlled plants and (iii) synthesis of advanced controllers using techniques successfully used in the process industry and development of new and optimized control algorithms for solar plants. These aspects are summarized in this work. (orig.)

  7. Antibodies from plants for bionanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Edgue, G.; Twyman, R.M.; Beiss, V.; Fischer, R.; Sack, M.

    2017-01-01

    Antibodies are produced as part of the vertebrate adaptive immune response and are not naturally made by plants. However, antibody DNA sequences can be introduced into plants, and together with laboratory technologies that allow the design of antibodies recognizing any conceivable molecular structure, plants can be used as green factories' to produce any antibody at all. The advent of plant-based transient expression systems in particular allows the rapid, convenient, and safe production of a...

  8. Plant Pathogenicity in Spaceflight Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop, Deborah L.; Levine, Howard G.; Anderson, Anne J.

    1996-01-01

    Plants grown in microgravity are subject to many environmental stresses, which may promote microbial growth and result in pathogenicity to the plant. Recent plant experiments with super dwarf wheat aboard the NASA Space Shuttle and NASA/Russian Mir Space Station returned from the mission with severe degrees of fungal contamination. Understanding the cause of such microbial contamination and methods to eliminate it are necessary prerequisites for continued plant growth and development studies ...

  9. On nuclear power plant uprating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, S. Allen; Bailey, James V.; Maginnis, Stephen T.

    2004-01-01

    Power uprating for commercial nuclear power plants has become increasingly attractive because of pragmatic reasons. It provides quick return on investment and competitive financial benefits, while involving low risks regarding plant safety and public objection. This paper briefly discussed nuclear plant uprating guidelines, scope for design basis analysis and engineering evaluation, and presented the Salem nuclear power plant uprating study for illustration purposes. A cost and benefit evaluation of the Salem power uprating was also included. (author)

  10. From plant genomes to phenotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Bolger, Marie; Gundlach, Heidrun; Scholz, Uwe; Mayer, Klaus; Usadel, Björn; Schwacke, Rainer; Schmutzer, Thomas; Chen, Jinbo; Arend, Daniel; Oppermann, Markus; Weise, Stephan; Lange, Matthias; Fiorani, Fabio; Spannagl, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in sequencing technologies have greatly accelerated the rate of plant genome and applied breeding research. Despite this advancing trend, plant genomes continue to present numerous difficulties to the standard tools and pipelines not only for genome assembly but also gene annotation and downstream analysis.Here we give a perspective on tools, resources and services necessary to assemble and analyze plant genomes and link them to plant phenotypes.

  11. Deep Learning for Plant Phenotyping

    OpenAIRE

    Mori, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Plant Phenotyping is an emerging science which provides us the knowledge to better understand plants. Indeed, the study of the link between genetic background and environment in which plants develop can help us to determine cures for plants’ sicknesses and new ways to improve yields using limited resources. In this regard, one of the main aspects of Plant Phenotyping that were studied in the past, was Root Phenotyping, which is based on the study of the root architectures. In particular, toda...

  12. Process Experimental Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henze, H.

    1986-01-01

    The Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) was built to convert transuranic contaminated solid waste into a form acceptable for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located near Carlsbad, New Mexico. There are about 2.0 million cubic ft of transuranic waste stored at the Transuranic Storage Area of the INEL's Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) located at the RWMC will examine this stored transuranic waste to determine if the waste is acceptable for direct shipment to and storage at WIPP, or if it requires shipment to PREPP for processing before shipment to WIPP. The PREPP process shreds the waste, incinerates the shredded waste, and cements (grouts) the shredded incinerated waste in new 55-gal drums. Unshreddable items are repackaged and returned to SWEPP. The process off-gas is cleaned prior to its discharge to the atmosphere, and complies with the effluent standards of the State of Idaho, EPA, and DOE. Waste liquid generated is used in the grouting operation

  13. Waste incinerating plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1972-12-01

    This plant is provided with a NKK-Ferunst type reciprocating stage fire lattice which has a good ventilating effect and a proper stirring and loosening effect, achieving a high combustion rate, and has also a gas flow system by which gas can flow in the reverse direction to adjust its flow for seasonal variations in the quality of waste. Also, a room in which the exhaust gas is mixed is provided in this plant as a help for the complete neutralization and combustion of acid gas such as hydrogen chloride and imperfect combustion gas from plastic waste contained in wastes. In this system, waste can accept a sufficient radiant heat from the combustion gas, the furnace wall, and the ceiling; even on the post combustion fire lattice the ashes are given heat enough to complete the post combustion, so that it can be completely reduced to ashes. For these reasons, this type of incinerator is suitable for the combustion of low-calorie wastes such as city wastes. The harmful gases resulting from the combustion of wastes are treated completely by desulfurization equipment which can remove the oxides of sulfur. This type of plant also can dispose of a wide variety of wastes, and is available in several capacities from 30 tons per 8 hr to 1,200 tons per 24 hr.

  14. Genetics and plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunet, Nathanaël; Meyerowitz, Elliot M

    2016-01-01

    There are only three grand theories in biology: the theory of the cell, the theory of the gene, and the theory of evolution. Two of these, the cell and gene theories, originated in the study of plants, with the third resulting in part from botanical considerations as well. Mendel's elucidation of the rules of inheritance was a result of his experiments on peas. The rediscovery of Mendel's work in 1900 was by the botanists de Vries, Correns, and Tschermak. It was only in subsequent years that animals were also shown to have segregation of genetic elements in the exact same manner as had been shown in plants. The story of developmental biology is different - while the development of plants has long been studied, the experimental and genetic approaches to developmental mechanism were developed via experiments on animals, and the importance of genes in development (e.g., Waddington, 1940) and their use for understanding developmental mechanisms came to botanical science much later - as late as the 1980s. Copyright © 2016 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP) is located in Zarechny, approximately 60 km east of Ekaterinberg along the Trans-Siberian Highway. Zarechny, a small city of approximately 30,000 residents, was built to support BNPP operations. It is a closed city to unescorted visitors. Residents must show identification for entry. BNPP is one of the first and oldest commercial nuclear power plants in Russia and began operations in 1964. As for most nuclear power plants in the Russian Federation, BNPP is operated by Rosenergoatom, which is subordinated to the Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation (Minatom). BNPP is the site of three nuclear reactors, Units 1, 2, and 3. Units 1 and 2, which have been shut-down and defueled, were graphite moderated reactors. The units were shut-down in 1981 and 1989. Unit 3, a BN-600 reactor, is a 600 MW(electric) sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor. Unit 3 went on-line in April 1980 and produces electric power which is fed into a distribution grid and thermal power which provides heat to Zarechny. The paper also discusses the SF NIKIET, the Sverdiovsk Branch of NIKIET, Moscow, which is the research and development branch of the parent NIKEIT and is primarily a design institute responsible for reactor design. Central to its operations is a 15 megawatt IVV research reactor. The paper discusses general security and fissile material control and accountability at these two facilities

  16. Profitability of irradiation plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustos R, M.E.; Gonzalez F, C.; Liceaga C, G.; Ortiz A, G.

    1997-01-01

    In any industrial process it is seek an attractive profit from the contractor and the social points of view. The use of the irradiation technology in foods allows keep their hygienically, which aid to food supply without risks for health, an increment of new markets and a losses reduction. In other products -cosmetics or disposable for medical use- which are sterilized by irradiation, this process allows their secure use by the consumers. The investment cost of an irradiation plant depends mainly of the plant size and the radioactive material reload that principally is Cobalt 60, these two parameters are in function of the type of products for irradiation and the selected doses. In this work it is presented the economic calculus and the financial costs for different products and capacities of plants. In general terms is determined an adequate utility that indicates that this process is profitable. According to the economic and commercial conditions in the country were considered two types of credits for the financing of this projects. One utilizing International credit resources and other with national sources. (Author)

  17. Communal biomass conversion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    The Coordinating Committee set up by the Danish government in 1986 were given the responsibility of investigating the potentials for biomass conversion plants in Denmark, especially in relation to agricultural, environmental and energy aspects. The results of the Committee's plan of management for this project are presented. This main report covers 13 background reports which deal with special aspects in detail. The report describes the overall plan of management, the demonstration and follow-up programme and the individual biogas demonstration plants. Information gained from these investigations is presented. The current general status, (with emphasis on the technical and economical aspects) and the prospects for the future are discussed. The interest other countries have shown in Danish activities within the field of biogas production is described, and the possibilities for Danish export of technology and know-how in this relation are discussed. It is claimed that Denmark is the first country that has instigated a coordinated development programme for biomass conversion plants. (AB) 24 refs

  18. Seeding and planting upland oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Oaks can be planted or seeded in uplands to: (1) afforest old fields, strip-mined areas, or other areas devoid of trees, and (2) supplement natural reproduction within existing forests. Planting is usually more successful than direct seeding. But even under good conditions survival and growth of planted oak has been considerably poorer than with conifers and other...

  19. Regulating nutrient allocation in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udvardi, Michael; Yang, Jiading; Worley, Eric

    2014-12-09

    The invention provides coding and promoter sequences for a VS-1 and AP-2 gene, which affects the developmental process of senescence in plants. Vectors, transgenic plants, seeds, and host cells comprising heterologous VS-1 and AP-2 genes are also provided. Additionally provided are methods of altering nutrient allocation and composition in a plant using the VS-1 and AP-2 genes.

  20. Try This: Plant Leaf Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Plants are often overlooked in favour of animals when teaching about living things. Focusing on familiar animals that share human characteristics helps young children learn about similar features. Examining plants for their differences, though, helps foster wonder. In the author's experience, children find it intriguing that plants need…

  1. Global Activities and Plant Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2014-01-01

    the highest exit rates. Moreover, the exit rates of globally engaged plants seem to be unaffected by increased foreign presence, whereas there appears to be a negative impact on the survival rates of non-exporting non-MNE plants. Finally, the result reveals that the survival ratio of plants of acquired...

  2. PERSPECTIVE IN PLANT DRUG RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R.H.; Singh, K.P.

    1990-01-01

    Plant medicine becomes more popular thought the world in these days probably of its latest toxicity. Ayurveda that leads in plant medicine preserves the natural form of herbs maximum, in various pharmaceutical preparations. Isolation of active principles has not proved much fruitful. However, the need of hour is cultivation of more medicinal plants along with popularization of their use traditional simpler forms. PMID:22557691

  3. Selected Landscape Plants. Slide Script.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Kevin

    This slide script, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deals with commercially important woody ornamental landscape plants. Included in the script are narrations for use with a total of 253 slides illustrating 92 different plants. Several slides are used to illustrate each plant: besides a view of…

  4. Gamma irradiation plants using reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suckow, W.

    1976-11-01

    Recent irradiation plants utilizing fuel elements are described. Criteria for optimizing such plants, evaluation of the plants realized so far, and applications for the facilities are discussed. (author)

  5. Four planting devices for planting no-till maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osei Bonsu Patterson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted at the CSIR-Crops Research Institute (CSIR-CRI Experimental station at Ejura in Ghana to compare the efficiency of four devices for planting no-till maize: Tractor drawn seeder, Chinese made jab planter, Locally made jab planter and a Cutlass. It took two (2 hours 48 minutes to plant one hectare of maize with the tractor drawn seeder, which was significantly (p less than 1% faster than all the planting methods. Cutlass was the slowest planting device lasting more than 14 hours per hectare. There was no significant difference in planting time between the Chinese planter and local planter. Economic analysis showed that cutlass planting produced the highest net benefit, whilst tractor drawn seeder produced the least benefit. In this study cutlass planting was done with precision by collaborating farmers. In actual farm situation however, hired laborers (planting gangs often plant in haste which often results in poor plant population leading to low yields. Tractor drawn seeders or jab planters could reduce drudgery in planting and encourage farm expansion.

  6. Regulatory requirements for desalination plant coupled with nuclear reactor plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yune, Young Gill; Kim, Woong Sik; Jo, Jong Chull; Kim, Hho Jung; Song, Jae Myung

    2005-01-01

    A small-to-medium sized reactor has been developed for multi-purposes such as seawater desalination, ship propulsion, and district heating since early 1990s in Korea. Now, the construction of its scaled-down research reactor, equipped with a seawater desalination plant, is planned to demonstrate the safety and performance of the design of the multi-purpose reactor. And the licensing application of the research reactor is expected in the near future. Therefore, a development of regulatory requirements/guides for a desalination plant coupled with a nuclear reactor plant is necessary for the preparation of the forthcoming licensing review of the research reactor. In this paper, the following contents are presented: the design of the desalination plant, domestic and foreign regulatory requirements relevant to desalination plants, and a draft of regulatory requirements/guides for a desalination plant coupled with a nuclear reactor plant

  7. Arabinogalactan proteins in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Szczuka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available AGPs (arabinogalactan-proteins are the major constituent of arabic gum and have been used as emulsifiers and stabilizing agents. They are also one of the most abundant and heterogeneous class forming a large family of proteoglycans that sculpt the surface not only of plant but also of all eukaryotic cells. Undoubtedly, AGPs appear in numerous biological processes, playing diverse functions. Despite their abundance in nature and industrial utility, the in vivofunction(s of AGPs still remains unclear or even unknown. AGPs are commonly distributed in different plant organs and probably participate in all aspects of plant growth and development including reproduction (e.g. they are present in the stigma including stigma exudates, and in transmitting tissues in styles, pollen grains, and pollen tubes. The functions and evident involvement of AGPs in sexual plant reproduction in a few plant species as Actinidia deliciosa (A.Chev. C.F.Liang & A.R.Ferguson, Amaranthus hypochondriacus L., Catharanthus roseus (L. G.Don, Lolium perenneL. and Larix deciduaMill. are known from literature. The localization of two kinds of AGP epitopes, recognized by the JIM8 and JIM13 mAbs, in anatomically different ovules revealed some differences in spatial localization of these epitopes in ovules of monocots Galanthus nivalis L. and Galtonia candicans (Baker Decne. and dicots like Oenothera species and Sinapis albaL. A detailed study of the localization of AGPs in egg cells, zygotes, including the zygote division stage, and in two-celled proembryos in Nicotiana tabacumL. prompts consideration of the necessity of their presence in the very early steps of ontogenesis. The selective labeling obtained with AGP mAbs JIM8, JIM13, MAC207, and LM2 during Arabidopsis thaliana(L. Heynh. development suggests that some AGPs can be regarded as molecular markers for gametophytic cell differentiation. Moreover, the results show evident differences in the distribution of specific AGP

  8. Plant ecdysteroids: plant sterols with intriguing distributions, biological effects and relations to plant hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkowská, Danuše; Strnad, Miroslav

    2016-09-01

    The present review summarises current knowledge of phytoecdysteroids' biosynthesis, distribution within plants, biological importance and relations to plant hormones. Plant ecdysteroids (phytoecdysteroids) are natural polyhydroxylated compounds that have a four-ringed skeleton, usually composed of either 27 carbon atoms or 28-29 carbon atoms (biosynthetically derived from cholesterol or other plant sterols, respectively). Their physiological roles in plants have not yet been confirmed and their occurrence is not universal. Nevertheless, they are present at high concentrations in various plant species, including commonly consumed vegetables, and have a broad spectrum of pharmacological and medicinal properties in mammals, including hepatoprotective and hypoglycaemic effects, and anabolic effects on skeletal muscle, without androgenic side-effects. Furthermore, phytoecdysteroids can enhance stress resistance by promoting vitality and enhancing physical performance; thus, they are considered adaptogens. This review summarises current knowledge of phytoecdysteroids' biosynthesis, distribution within plants, biological importance and relations to plant hormones.

  9. Beaver herbivory on aquatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, John D; Caudill, Christopher C; Hay, Mark E

    2007-04-01

    Herbivores have strong impacts on marine and terrestrial plant communities, but their impact is less well studied in benthic freshwater systems. For example, North American beavers (Castor canadensis) eat both woody and non-woody plants and focus almost exclusively on the latter in summer months, yet their impacts on non-woody plants are generally attributed to ecosystem engineering rather than herbivory. Here, we excluded beavers from areas of two beaver wetlands for over 2 years and demonstrated that beaver herbivory reduced aquatic plant biomass by 60%, plant litter by 75%, and dramatically shifted plant species composition. The perennial forb lizard's tail (Saururus cernuus) comprised less than 5% of plant biomass in areas open to beaver grazing but greater than 50% of plant biomass in beaver exclusions. This shift was likely due to direct herbivory, as beavers preferentially consumed lizard's tail over other plants in a field feeding assay. Beaver herbivory also reduced the abundance of the invasive aquatic plant Myriophyllum aquaticum by nearly 90%, consistent with recent evidence that native generalist herbivores provide biotic resistance against exotic plant invasions. Beaver herbivory also had indirect effects on plant interactions in this community. The palatable plant lizard's tail was 3 times more frequent and 10 times more abundant inside woolgrass (Scirpus cyperinus) tussocks than in spatially paired locations lacking tussocks. When the protective foliage of the woolgrass was removed without exclusion cages, beavers consumed nearly half of the lizard's tail leaves within 2 weeks. In contrast, leaf abundance increased by 73-93% in the treatments retaining woolgrass or protected by a cage. Thus, woolgrass tussocks were as effective as cages at excluding beaver foraging and provided lizard's tail plants an associational refuge from beaver herbivory. These results suggest that beaver herbivory has strong direct and indirect impacts on populations and

  10. Autophagy in plant pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Hong; Xu, Fei; Snyder, John Hugh; Shi, Huan-Bin; Lu, Jian-Ping; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2016-09-01

    Autophagy is a conserved cellular process that degrades cytoplasmic constituents in vacuoles. Plant pathogenic fungi develop special infection structures and/or secrete a range of enzymes to invade their plant hosts. It has been demonstrated that monitoring autophagy processes can be extremely useful in visualizing the sequence of events leading to pathogenicity of plant pathogenic fungi. In this review, we introduce the molecular mechanisms involved in autophagy. In addition, we explore the relationship between autophagy and pathogenicity in plant pathogenic fungi. Finally, we discuss the various experimental strategies available for use in the study of autophagy in plant pathogenic fungi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. B plant mission analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, D.P.

    1995-01-01

    This report further develops the mission for B Plant originally defined in WHC-EP-0722, ''System Engineering Functions and Requirements for the Hanford Cleanup Mission: First Issue.'' The B Plant mission analysis will be the basis for a functional analysis that breaks down the B Plant mission statement into the necessary activities to accomplish the mission. These activities are the product of the functional analysis and will then be used in subsequent steps of the systems engineering process, such as identifying requirements and allocating those requirements to B Plant functions. The information in this mission analysis and the functional and requirements analysis are a part of the B Plant technical baseline

  12. The plants in the Florilegia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnklit, Folmer; Frederiksen, Signe; Hansen, Hans Vilhelm

    2013-01-01

    The Gottorfer Codex and The Green Florilegium contain a total of more than 1,500 pictures of plants. In this article the botanists who recently identified the plants in the two albums take a look at the works as seen through the eyes of a botanist. Based on their knowledge of the plants behind...... the pictures the authors shed light on a range of different aspects, e.g. the relationship between figures and real plants and the horticultural background of the plants. They also offer botanical explanations for peculiarities such as double and proliferous flowers....

  13. Towards Multi Fuel SOFC Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud; Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Bang-Møller, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Complete Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) plants fed by several different fuels are suggested and analyzed. The plants sizes are about 10 kW which is suitable for single family house with needs for both electricity and heat. Alternative fuels such as, methanol, DME (Di-Methyl Ether) and ethanol...... are also considered and the results will be compared with the base plant fed by Natural Gas (NG). A single plant design will be suggested that can be fed with methanol, DME and ethanol whenever these fuels are available. It will be shown that the plant fed by ethanol will have slightly higher electrical...

  14. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Allelopathic Aquatic Plants for Aquatic Plant Management: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    1978. " Ecotoxicology of aquatic plant communi- ties," Principles of Ecotoxicology , SCOPE Report 12, Chapter 11, pp 239-255. [Heavy metals, Pollutants...Phragmites communis and Equisetum limosum were cultivated . They found plant-plant influences depend on soil type. Typha latifolia, S. A2 lacustris, and

  15. Plant-plant competition outcomes are modulated by plant effects on the soil bacterial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortal, S; Lozano, Y M; Bastida, F; Armas, C; Moreno, J L; Garcia, C; Pugnaire, F I

    2017-12-19

    Competition is a key process that determines plant community structure and dynamics, often mediated by nutrients and water availability. However, the role of soil microorganisms on plant competition, and the links between above- and belowground processes, are not well understood. Here we show that the effects of interspecific plant competition on plant performance are mediated by feedbacks between plants and soil bacterial communities. Each plant species selects a singular community of soil microorganisms in its rhizosphere with a specific species composition, abundance and activity. When two plant species interact, the resulting soil bacterial community matches that of the most competitive plant species, suggesting strong competitive interactions between soil bacterial communities as well. We propose a novel mechanism by which changes in belowground bacterial communities promoted by the most competitive plant species influence plant performance and competition outcome. These findings emphasise the strong links between plant and soil communities, paving the way to a better understanding of plant community dynamics and the effects of soil bacterial communities on ecosystem functioning and services.

  16. Phytochrome, plant growth and flowering

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, R. W.; Bagnall, D. J.

    1994-01-01

    Attempts to use artificially lit cabinets to grow plants identical to those growing in sunlight have provided compelling evidence of the importance of light quality for plant growth. Changing the balance of red (R) to far-red (FR) radiation, but with a fixed photosynthetic input can shift the phytochrome photoequilibrium in a plant and generate large differences in plant growth. With FR enrichment the plants elongate, and may produce more leaf area and dry matter. Similar morphogenic responses are also obtained when light quality is altered only briefly (15-30 min) at the end-of-the-day. Conversely, for plants grown in natural conditions the response of plant form to selective spectral filtering has again shown that red and far-red wavebands are important as found by Kasperbauer and coworkers. Also, where photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD) of sunlight have been held constant, the removal of far-red alone alters plant growth. With FR depletion plants grown in sunlight are small, more branched and darker green. Here we examine the implications for plant growth and flowering when the far-red composition of incident radiation in plant growth chambers is manipulated.

  17. The year 2000 power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, H.T.

    1989-01-01

    Every utility seeks extended service life from its existing power plants before building new ones. It is not easy to justify a new power plant. The licensing and cost of new plants have become uncertain. In response to these conditions, electric utilities are undertaking plant life-extension studies and, in some cases, reconditioning/upgrading old power plants to significantly increase useful service life. Other technologies like robotics and artificial intelligence/expert systems are also being developed to reduce operating and maintenance (O and M) expenses, to remove workers from potentially hazardous environments, and to reduce plant downtime. Together, these steps represent an interim solution, perhaps providing some relief for the next few decades. However, there are serious physical and economic limits to retrofitting new technology into existing power plants. Some old plants will simply be beyond their useful life and require retirement. In nuclear plants, for instance, retrofit may raise important and time-consuming licensing/safety issues. Based on their robotics and artificial intelligence experience, the authors of this article speculate bout the design of the year 2000 power plant - a power plant they feel will naturally incorporate liberal amounts of robotic and artificial intelligence technologies

  18. Phytochrome, plant growth and flowering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, R.W.; Bagnall, D.J. [CSIRO, Canberra (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Attempts to use artificially lit cabinets to grow plants identical to those growing in sunlight have provided compelling evidence of the importance of light quality for plant growth. Changing the balance of red (R) to far-red (FR) radiation, but with a fixed photosynthetic input can shift the phytochrome photoequilibrium in a plant and generate large differences in plant growth. With FR enrichment the plants elongate, and may produce more leaf area and dry matter. Similar morphogenic responses are also obtained when light quality is altered only briefly (15-30 min) at the end-of-the-day. Conversely, for plants grown in natural conditions the response of plant form to selective spectral filtering has again shown that red and far-red wavebands are important as found by Kasperbauer and coworkers. Also, where photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD) of sunlight have been held constant, the removal of far-red alone alters plant growth. As shown for chrysanthemum, with FR depletion plants grown in sunlight are small, more branched and darker green. We examine the implications for plant growth and flowering when the far-red composition of incident radiation in plant growth chambers is manipulated.

  19. Taylor Hydro plant goes live

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The 12.75 MW Taylor Hydroelectric Plant in Magrath, Alberta, synchronized its generator with the Alberta Power Grid and began production in April 2000. The plant is located on Government of Alberta irrigation works and is owned by Canadian Hydro Developers. During the irrigation season the plant will generate approximately 40 million kilowatt hours of zero-emission 'green' power for consumption, enough to power 5,000 homes for a year. The Taylor plant is a joint venture with EPCOR Power Development Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of EPCOR Inc., the City of Edmonton utility. Canadian Hydro Developers also owns a 19 MW wind plant and a 6 MW gas plant in Alberta and five other 'run of river' hydro plants in Ontario and British Columbia. The company is committed to the concept of low-impact power generation; its ownership of wind run-of-river hydro and gas-fired facilities is proof of that commitment

  20. Effects of fluorides on plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazoe, F

    1975-11-01

    Fluorine compounds known to be air pollutants, such as hydrogen fluoride and silicon tetrachloride, are highly poisonous to plants even at ppm - ppb levels. As solid microparticles, acidic sodium fluoride and cryolite cause problems by adhering to plant leaves and absorbing into plant bodies. Plants are classified by their susceptibility to hydrogen fluoride: gladiolus, apricot, buckwheat, turnip and Vaccinium vitis-idaea are most susceptible showing slight injury at less than 5 ppb for 7-9 days; maize, pepper, and dahlia are fairly susceptible, followed by azalea, rose, lilac, and alfalfa, then by oak and tomato. Gladiolus is used as an indicator plant. The exposure factor for one species was known. The symptoms of plants exposed to gaseous fluorine compounds are described in detail at various concentrations. The causal mechanism of the injuries due to fluorine compounds is described in detail, with the method of determining the fluorine content of plant parts. 7 references.

  1. Industrial safety in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The proceedings of the VGB conference 'Industrial safety in power plants' held in the Gruga-Halle, Essen on January 21 and 22, 1987, contain the papers reporting on: Management responsibility for and legal consequences of industrial safety; VBG 2.0 Industrial Accident Prevention Regulation and the power plant operator; Operational experience gained with wet-type flue gas desulphurization systems; Flue gas desulphurization systems: Industrial-safety-related requirements to be met in planning and operation; the effects of the Hazardous Substances Ordinance on power plant operation; Occupational health aspects of heat-exposed jobs in power plants; Regulations of the Industrial Accident Insurance Associations concerning heat-exposed jobs and industrial medical practice; The new VBG 30 Accident Prevention Regulation 'Nuclear power plants'; Industrial safety in nuclear power plants; safe working on and within containers and confined spaces; Application of respiratory protection equipment in power plants. (HAG) [de

  2. Pinellas Plant Environmental Baseline Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1997-06-01

    The Pinellas Plant has been part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) nuclear weapons complex since the plant opened in 1957. In March 1995, the DOE sold the Pinellas Plant to the Pinellas County Industry Council (PCIC). DOE has leased back a large portion of the plant site to facilitate transition to alternate use and safe shutdown. The current mission is to achieve a safe transition of the facility from defense production and prepare the site for alternative uses as a community resource for economic development. Toward that effort, the Pinellas Plant Environmental Baseline Report (EBR) discusses the current and past environmental conditions of the plant site. Information for the EBR is obtained from plant records. Historical process and chemical usage information for each area is reviewed during area characterizations.

  3. Plant toxicity, adaptive herbivory, and plant community dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Z.; Liu, R.; DeAngelis, D.L.; Bryant, J.P.; Kielland, K.; Stuart, Chapin F.; Swihart, R.K.

    2009-01-01

    We model effects of interspecific plant competition, herbivory, and a plant's toxic defenses against herbivores on vegetation dynamics. The model predicts that, when a generalist herbivore feeds in the absence of plant toxins, adaptive foraging generally increases the probability of coexistence of plant species populations, because the herbivore switches more of its effort to whichever plant species is more common and accessible. In contrast, toxin-determined selective herbivory can drive plant succession toward dominance by the more toxic species, as previously documented in boreal forests and prairies. When the toxin concentrations in different plant species are similar, but species have different toxins with nonadditive effects, herbivores tend to diversify foraging efforts to avoid high intakes of any one toxin. This diversification leads the herbivore to focus more feeding on the less common plant species. Thus, uncommon plants may experience depensatory mortality from herbivory, reducing local species diversity. The depensatory effect of herbivory may inhibit the invasion of other plant species that are more palatable or have different toxins. These predictions were tested and confirmed in the Alaskan boreal forest. ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  4. The iPlant Collaborative: Cyberinfrastructure for Plant Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Stephen A; Vaughn, Matthew; McKay, Sheldon; Lyons, Eric; Stapleton, Ann E; Gessler, Damian; Matasci, Naim; Wang, Liya; Hanlon, Matthew; Lenards, Andrew; Muir, Andy; Merchant, Nirav; Lowry, Sonya; Mock, Stephen; Helmke, Matthew; Kubach, Adam; Narro, Martha; Hopkins, Nicole; Micklos, David; Hilgert, Uwe; Gonzales, Michael; Jordan, Chris; Skidmore, Edwin; Dooley, Rion; Cazes, John; McLay, Robert; Lu, Zhenyuan; Pasternak, Shiran; Koesterke, Lars; Piel, William H; Grene, Ruth; Noutsos, Christos; Gendler, Karla; Feng, Xin; Tang, Chunlao; Lent, Monica; Kim, Seung-Jin; Kvilekval, Kristian; Manjunath, B S; Tannen, Val; Stamatakis, Alexandros; Sanderson, Michael; Welch, Stephen M; Cranston, Karen A; Soltis, Pamela; Soltis, Doug; O'Meara, Brian; Ane, Cecile; Brutnell, Tom; Kleibenstein, Daniel J; White, Jeffery W; Leebens-Mack, James; Donoghue, Michael J; Spalding, Edgar P; Vision, Todd J; Myers, Christopher R; Lowenthal, David; Enquist, Brian J; Boyle, Brad; Akoglu, Ali; Andrews, Greg; Ram, Sudha; Ware, Doreen; Stein, Lincoln; Stanzione, Dan

    2011-01-01

    The iPlant Collaborative (iPlant) is a United States National Science Foundation (NSF) funded project that aims to create an innovative, comprehensive, and foundational cyberinfrastructure in support of plant biology research (PSCIC, 2006). iPlant is developing cyberinfrastructure that uniquely enables scientists throughout the diverse fields that comprise plant biology to address Grand Challenges in new ways, to stimulate and facilitate cross-disciplinary research, to promote biology and computer science research interactions, and to train the next generation of scientists on the use of cyberinfrastructure in research and education. Meeting humanity's projected demands for agricultural and forest products and the expectation that natural ecosystems be managed sustainably will require synergies from the application of information technologies. The iPlant cyberinfrastructure design is based on an unprecedented period of research community input, and leverages developments in high-performance computing, data storage, and cyberinfrastructure for the physical sciences. iPlant is an open-source project with application programming interfaces that allow the community to extend the infrastructure to meet its needs. iPlant is sponsoring community-driven workshops addressing specific scientific questions via analysis tool integration and hypothesis testing. These workshops teach researchers how to add bioinformatics tools and/or datasets into the iPlant cyberinfrastructure enabling plant scientists to perform complex analyses on large datasets without the need to master the command-line or high-performance computational services.

  5. The iPlant Collaborative: Cyberinfrastructure for Plant Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A Goff

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The iPlant Collaborative (iPlant is a United States National Science Foundation (NSF funded project that aims to create an innovative, comprehensive, and foundational cyberinfrastructure in support of plant biology research (PSCIC, 2006. iPlant is developing cyberinfrastructure that uniquely enables scientists throughout the diverse fields that comprise plant biology to address Grand Challenges in new ways, to stimulate and facilitate cross-disciplinary research, to promote biology and computer science research interactions, and to train the next generation of scientists on the use of cyberinfrastructure in research and education. Meeting humanity's projected demands for agricultural and forest products and the expectation that natural ecosystems be managed sustainably will require synergies from the application of information technologies. The iPlant cyberinfrastructure design is based on an unprecedented period of research community input, and leverages developments in high-performance computing, data storage, and cyberinfrastructure for the physical sciences. iPlant is an open-source project with application programming interfaces that allow the community to extend the infrastructure to meet its needs. iPlant is sponsoring community-driven workshops addressing specific scientific questions via analysis tool integration and hypothesis testing. These workshops teach researchers how to add bioinformatics tools and/or datasets into the iPlant cyberinfrastructure enabling plant scientists to perform complex analyses on large datasets without the need to master the command-line or high-performance computational services.

  6. Plant diversity and plant identity influence Fusarium communities in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Nicholas; Kinkel, Linda; Kistler, H Corby

    2017-01-01

    Fusarium communities play important functional roles in soil and in plants as pathogens, endophytes, and saprotrophs. This study tests how rhizosphere Fusarium communities may vary with plant species, changes in the diversity of the surrounding plant community, and soil physiochemical characteristics. Fusarium communities in soil associated with the roots of two perennial prairie plant species maintained as monocultures or growing within polyculture plant communities were characterized using targeted metagenomics. Amplicon libraries targeting the RPB2 locus were generated from rhizosphere soil DNAs and sequenced using pyrosequencing. Sequences were clustered into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and assigned a taxonomy using the Evolutionary Placement Algorithm. Fusarium community composition was differentiated between monoculture and polyculture plant communities, and by plant species in monoculture, but not in polyculture. Taxonomic classification of the Fusarium OTUs showed a predominance of F. tricinctum and F. oxysporum as well of the presence of a clade previously only found in the Southern Hemisphere. Total Fusarium richness was not affected by changes in plant community richness or correlated with soil physiochemical characteristics. However, OTU richness within two predominant phylogenetic lineages within the genus was positively or negatively correlated with soil physiochemical characteristics among samples within each lineage. This work shows that plant species, plant community richness, and soil physiochemical characteristics may all influence the composition and richness of Fusarium communities in soil.

  7. [Development of Plant Metabolomics and Medicinal Plant Genomics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuki

    2018-01-01

     A variety of chemicals produced by plants, often referred to as 'phytochemicals', have been used as medicines, food, fuels and industrial raw materials. Recent advances in the study of genomics and metabolomics in plant science have accelerated our understanding of the mechanisms, regulation and evolution of the biosynthesis of specialized plant products. We can now address such questions as how the metabolomic diversity of plants is originated at the levels of genome, and how we should apply this knowledge to drug discovery, industry and agriculture. Our research group has focused on metabolomics-based functional genomics over the last 15 years and we have developed a new research area called 'Phytochemical Genomics'. In this review, the development of a research platform for plant metabolomics is discussed first, to provide a better understanding of the chemical diversity of plants. Then, representative applications of metabolomics to functional genomics in a model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, are described. The extension of integrated multi-omics analyses to non-model specialized plants, e.g., medicinal plants, is presented, including the identification of novel genes, metabolites and networks for the biosynthesis of flavonoids, alkaloids, sulfur-containing metabolites and terpenoids. Further, functional genomics studies on a variety of medicinal plants is presented. I also discuss future trends in pharmacognosy and related sciences.

  8. The iPlant Collaborative: Cyberinfrastructure for Plant Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Stephen A.; Vaughn, Matthew; McKay, Sheldon; Lyons, Eric; Stapleton, Ann E.; Gessler, Damian; Matasci, Naim; Wang, Liya; Hanlon, Matthew; Lenards, Andrew; Muir, Andy; Merchant, Nirav; Lowry, Sonya; Mock, Stephen; Helmke, Matthew; Kubach, Adam; Narro, Martha; Hopkins, Nicole; Micklos, David; Hilgert, Uwe; Gonzales, Michael; Jordan, Chris; Skidmore, Edwin; Dooley, Rion; Cazes, John; McLay, Robert; Lu, Zhenyuan; Pasternak, Shiran; Koesterke, Lars; Piel, William H.; Grene, Ruth; Noutsos, Christos; Gendler, Karla; Feng, Xin; Tang, Chunlao; Lent, Monica; Kim, Seung-Jin; Kvilekval, Kristian; Manjunath, B. S.; Tannen, Val; Stamatakis, Alexandros; Sanderson, Michael; Welch, Stephen M.; Cranston, Karen A.; Soltis, Pamela; Soltis, Doug; O'Meara, Brian; Ane, Cecile; Brutnell, Tom; Kleibenstein, Daniel J.; White, Jeffery W.; Leebens-Mack, James; Donoghue, Michael J.; Spalding, Edgar P.; Vision, Todd J.; Myers, Christopher R.; Lowenthal, David; Enquist, Brian J.; Boyle, Brad; Akoglu, Ali; Andrews, Greg; Ram, Sudha; Ware, Doreen; Stein, Lincoln; Stanzione, Dan

    2011-01-01

    The iPlant Collaborative (iPlant) is a United States National Science Foundation (NSF) funded project that aims to create an innovative, comprehensive, and foundational cyberinfrastructure in support of plant biology research (PSCIC, 2006). iPlant is developing cyberinfrastructure that uniquely enables scientists throughout the diverse fields that comprise plant biology to address Grand Challenges in new ways, to stimulate and facilitate cross-disciplinary research, to promote biology and computer science research interactions, and to train the next generation of scientists on the use of cyberinfrastructure in research and education. Meeting humanity's projected demands for agricultural and forest products and the expectation that natural ecosystems be managed sustainably will require synergies from the application of information technologies. The iPlant cyberinfrastructure design is based on an unprecedented period of research community input, and leverages developments in high-performance computing, data storage, and cyberinfrastructure for the physical sciences. iPlant is an open-source project with application programming interfaces that allow the community to extend the infrastructure to meet its needs. iPlant is sponsoring community-driven workshops addressing specific scientific questions via analysis tool integration and hypothesis testing. These workshops teach researchers how to add bioinformatics tools and/or datasets into the iPlant cyberinfrastructure enabling plant scientists to perform complex analyses on large datasets without the need to master the command-line or high-performance computational services. PMID:22645531

  9. Pilot plant study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, M.E.

    1978-01-01

    Sandia Laboratories undertook the design and fabrication of an 8 ton/day dry sewage sludge irradiatior. The facility is intended (1) to function as a high-gamma-dose rate research facility; (2) to be a testbed for the unique electrical and mechanical components to be used in larger facilities; (3) to fulfill the formal requirements of a pilot plant so that design and construction of a demonstration facility could proceed; and (4) to provide accurate data base on construction and operating experience for the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), the Safety Analysis Report (SAR), and the cost analyses for a larger facility. The facility and its component systems are described in detail

  10. Nuclear Plant Data Bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booker, C.P.; Turner, M.R.; Spore, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Nuclear Plant Data Bank (NPDB) is being developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to assist analysts in the rapid and accurate creation of input decks for reactor transient analysis. The NPDB will reduce the time and cost of the creation or modification of a typical input deck. This data bank will be an invaluable tool in the timely investigation of recent and ongoing nuclear reactor safety analysis. This paper discusses the status and plans for the NPDB development and describes its anticipated structure and capabilities

  11. Triterpene biosynthesis in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thimmappa, Ramesha; Geisler, Katrin; Louveau, Thomas; O'Maille, Paul; Osbourn, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The triterpenes are one of the most numerous and diverse groups of plant natural products. They are complex molecules that are, for the most part, beyond the reach of chemical synthesis. Simple triterpenes are components of surface waxes and specialized membranes and may potentially act as signaling molecules, whereas complex glycosylated triterpenes (saponins) provide protection against pathogens and pests. Simple and conjugated triterpenes have a wide range of applications in the food, health, and industrial biotechnology sectors. Here, we review recent developments in the field of triterpene biosynthesis, give an overview of the genes and enzymes that have been identified to date, and discuss strategies for discovering new triterpene biosynthetic pathways.

  12. Nuclear power plant disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trott, K.R.

    1979-01-01

    The possibility of a nuclear power plant disaster is small but not excluded: in its event, assistance to the affected population mainly depends on local practitioners. Already existing diseases have to be diagnosed and treated; moreover, these physicians are responsible for the early detection of those individuals exposed to radiation doses high enough to induce acute illness. Here we present the pathogenesis, clinical development and possible diagnostic and therapeutical problems related to acute radiation-induced diseases. The differentiation of persons according to therapy need and prognosis is done on the sole base of the clinical evidence and the peripheral blood count. (orig.) [de

  13. Robots and plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, P.

    1996-02-01

    The application of robots in the harsh environments in which TELEMAN equipment will have to operate has large benefits, but also some drawbacks. The main benefit is the ability gained to perform tasks where people cannot go, while there is a possibility of inflicting damage to the equipment handled by the robot, and the plant when mobile robots are involved. The paper describes the types of possible damage and the precautions to be taken in order to reduce the frequency of the damaging events. A literature study for the topic only gave some insight into examples, but no means for a systematic treatment of the topic. (au) 16 refs

  14. Nuclear reactor plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schabert, H.P.; Laurer, E.

    1977-01-01

    The invention is concerned with a quick-closing valve on the main-steam pipe of a nuclear reactor plant. The quick-closing valve serves as isolating valve and as safety valve permitting depressurization in case of an accident. For normal operation a tube-shaped gate valve is provided as valve disc, enclosing an auxiliary valve disc to be used in case of accidents and which is opened at increased pressure to provide a smaller flow cross-section. The design features are described in detail. (RW) [de

  15. Demonstration tokamak power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.; Baker, C.; Brooks, J.; Ehst, D.; Mattas, R.; Smith, D.L.; DeFreece, D.; Morgan, G.D.; Trachsel, C.

    1983-01-01

    A conceptual design for a tokamak demonstration power plant (DEMO) was developed. A large part of the study focused on examining the key issues and identifying the R and D needs for: (1) current drive for steady-state operation, (2) impurity control and exhaust, (3) tritium breeding blanket, and (4) reactor configuration and maintenance. Impurity control and exhaust will not be covered in this paper but is discussed in another paper in these proceedings, entitled Key Issues of FED/INTOR Impurity Control System

  16. Air condensation plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelp, F.; Pohl, H.H.

    1978-01-01

    In this plant the steam is distributed by a ventilator from the bottom to symmetrically fixed, inclined cooling elements with tubes. The upper part of the current side of the cooling elements as well as the bottom part of the outflow side can be covered by cover plates via a control circuit. This way, part of the air amount is deviated and in case of unfavourable atmospheric conditions (cold) the air is heated. This heating is enough to prevent freezing of the condensate on the cooling tubes. (DG) [de

  17. Virtual power plant auctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ausubel, Lawrence M.; Cramton, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Since their advent in 2001, virtual power plant (VPP) auctions have been implemented widely. In this paper, we describe the simultaneous ascending-clock auction format that has been used for virtually all VPP auctions to date, elaborating on other design choices that most VPP auctions have had in common as well as discussing a few aspects that have varied significantly among VPP auctions. We then evaluate the various objectives of regulators in requiring VPP auctions, concluding that the auctions have been effective devices for facilitating new entry into electricity markets and for developing wholesale power markets. (author)

  18. Virtual power plant auctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ausubel, Lawrence M.; Cramton, Peter [Department of Economics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Since their advent in 2001, virtual power plant (VPP) auctions have been implemented widely. In this paper, we describe the simultaneous ascending-clock auction format that has been used for virtually all VPP auctions to date, elaborating on other design choices that most VPP auctions have had in common as well as discussing a few aspects that have varied significantly among VPP auctions. We then evaluate the various objectives of regulators in requiring VPP auctions, concluding that the auctions have been effective devices for facilitating new entry into electricity markets and for developing wholesale power markets. (author)

  19. 7 CFR 1126.7 - Pool plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... excluded from the supply plant's shipments in computing the plant's shipping percentage. (d) A plant... part, or the plant has automatic pooling status under the other Federal order; and (7) That portion of...

  20. 7 CFR 1005.7 - Pool plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-upon use other than Class I shall be excluded from the supply plant's shipments in computing the plant... other order than are made to plants regulated under the order in this part, or such plant has automatic...

  1. Plants with useful traits and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Sally Ann; De la Rosa Santamaria, Roberto

    2016-10-25

    The present invention provides methods for obtaining plants that exhibit useful traits by transient suppression of the MSH1 gene of the plants. Methods for identifying genetic loci that provide for useful traits in plants and plants produced with those loci are also provided. In addition, plants that exhibit the useful traits, parts of the plants including seeds, and products of the plants are provided as well as methods of using the plants.

  2. Construction technique for a chemical plant (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-08-01

    This book mentions the order of plant construction, building plant and related regulations, basic engineering design data, provide of equipment, plan and management on building plant, quality control, the budget and contract for building plant, public works for building chemical plant like road construction, basic plan and building for a chemical plant, introduction and principle on foundation improvement method, including pile foundation and design for footing, construction and installation for a chemical plant and a rotary machine for a chemical plant.

  3. Power Plant Replacement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University's aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  4. Waste treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adesanmi, C.A

    2009-01-01

    Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) is designed to provide appropriate systems for processing, immobilization and storage of low and medium radioactive waste arising from the operation of the research facilities of the Nuclear Technology Centre (NTC). It will serve as central collection station processing active waste generated through application of radionuclide in science, medicine and industry in the country. WTP building and structures will house the main waste processing systems and supporting facilities. All facilities will be interconnected. The interim storage building for processed waste drums will be located separately nearby. The separate interim storage building is located near the waste treatment building. Considering the low radiation level of the waste, storage building is large with no solid partitioning walls and with no services or extra facilities other than lighting and smoke alarm sensors. The building will be designed such that drums(200-1)are stacked 3 units high using handling by fork lift truck. To prevent radiation exposure to on-site personnel, the interim storage building will be erected apart from waste treatment plant or other buildings. The interim storage building will also be ready for buffer storage of unconditioned waste waiting for processing or decay and for storage material from the WTP

  5. Transuranium processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    The Transuranium Processing Plant (TRU) is a remotely operated, hot-cell, chemical processing facility of advanced design. The heart of TRU is a battery of nine heavily shielded process cells housed in a two-story building. Each cell, with its 54-inch-thick walls of a special high-density concrete, has enough shielding to stop the neutrons and gamma radiation from 1 gram of 252/sub Cf/ and associated fission products. Four cells contain chemical processing equipment, three contain equipment for the preparation and inspection of HFIR targets, and two cells are used for analytical chemistry operations. In addition, there are eight laboratories used for process development, for part of the process-control analyses, and for product finishing operations. Although the Transuranium Processing Plant was built for the purpose of recovering transuranium elements from targets irradiated in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), it is also a highly versatile facility which has extensive provisions for changing and modifying equipment. Thus, it was a relatively simple matter to install a Solvent Extraction Test Facility (SETF) in one of the TRU chemical processing cells for use in the evaluation and demonstration of solvent extraction flowsheets for the recovery of fissile and fertile materials from irradiated reactor fuels. The equipment in the SETF has been designed for process development and demonstrations and the particular type of mixer-settler contactors was chosen because it is easy to observe and sample

  6. The plant tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crocomo, O.J.; Sharp, W.R.

    1973-01-01

    Progress in the field of plant tissue culture at the Plant Biochemistry Sector, Centro de Energia na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, S.P., Brazil, pertains to the simplification of development in 'Phaseolus vulgaris' by dividing the organism into its component organs, tissues, and cells and the maintenance of these components on defined culture media 'in vitro'. This achievement has set the stage for probing the basis for the stability of the differentiated states and/or the reentry of mature differentiated cells into the mitotic cell cycle and their subsequent redifferentiation. Data from such studies at the cytological and biochemical level have been invaluable in the elucidation of the control mechanisms responsible for expression of the cellular phenotype. Unlimited possibilities exist for the application of tissue culture in the vegetative propagation of 'Phaseolus' and other important cultivars in providing genocopies or a large scale and/or readily obtaining plantlets from haploid cell lines or from protoplast (wall-less cells) hybridization products following genetic manipulation. These tools are being applied in this laboratory for the development and selection of high protein synthesizing 'Phaseolus' cultivars

  7. Nuclear Power Plant 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Again this year, our magazine presents the details of the conference on Spanish nuclear power plant operation held in February and that was devoted to 1996 operating results. The Protocol for Establishment of a New Electrical Sector Regulation that was signed last December will undoubtedly represent a new challenge for the nuclear industry. By clearing stating that current standards of quality and safety should be maintained or even increased if possible, the Protocol will force the Sector to improve its productivity, which is already high as demonstrated by the results of the last few years described during this conference and by recent sectorial economic studies. Generation of a nuclear kWh that can compete with other types of power plants is the new challenge for the Sector's professionals, who do not fear the new liberalization policies and approaching competition. Lower inflation and the resulting lower interest rates, apart from being representative indices of our economy's marked improvement, will be very helpful in facing this challenge. (Author)

  8. Power plant removal costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    The financial, regulatory and political significance of the estimated high removal costs of nuclear power plants has generated considerable interest in recent years, and the political significance has resulted in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) eliminating the use of conventional depreciation accounting for the decontamination portion of the removal (decommissioning). While nuclear plant licensees are not precluded from utilizing conventional depreciation accounting for the demolition of non-radioactive structures and site restoration, state and federal utility regulators have not been favorably inclined to requests for this distinction. The realization that steam-generating units will be more expensive to remove, relative to their original cost, predates the realization that nuclear units will be expensive. However, the nuclear issues have overshadowed this realization, but are unlikely to continue to do so. Numerous utilities have prepared cost estimates for steam generating units, and this presentation discusses the implications of a number of such estimates that are a matter of public record. The estimates cover nearly 400 gas, oil, coal and lignite generating units. The earliest estimate was made in 1978, and for analysis purposes the author has segregated them between gas and oil units, and coal and lignite units

  9. Power Plant Replacement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University’s aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  10. Radiation hormesis in plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Sung; Lee, Young Keun; Lee, Sang Jae and others; Park, Youn Il; Kwon, Soon Tae

    2003-05-01

    This research was performed to investigate the effects of low dose gamma radiation on germination, early growth and yield in a wide range of vegetable crops. The stimulating effects of gamma radiation was evaluated through investigating germination rate, early growth and physiological activities such as enzyme activities, hormones and photosynthetic responses etc. Induction of increased shikonin production in the plants by low dose gamma radiation was challenged to open up the possibility of applying radiation hormesis to the industrial mass production system of the natural materials useful to humans. Effects of natural radiation emitted from solid ceramics was compared on the plants with those of low dose gamma radiation. Finally, activation of aged seeds by low dose gamma radiation, probably facilitating their commercial circulation in the agriculture, was challenged in association with an industrial seed company. Moreover, the shift in resistance of the crops to environmental stresses including UV and low temperature was addressed as well as DNA damage, repair and protein expression after gamma irradiation

  11. The Marcoule pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faugeras, P.; Calame Longjean, A.; Le Bouhellec, J.; Revol, G.

    1986-06-01

    The Marcoule spent fuel reprocessing pilot facility was built in 1960-1961 for extended testing of the PUREX process with various types of fuel under conditions similar to those encountered in a production plant. Extensive modification work was undertaken on the facility in 1983 in the scope of the TOR project, designed with the following objectives: - increase the throughput capacity to at least 5 metric tons of PHENIX equivalent fuel per year, - extend equipment and process R and D capability, - improve job safety by maximum use of remote handling facilities, - maximize waste conditioning treatments to produce waste forms suitable for direct storage, - provide a true industrial process demonstration in continuous operation under centralized control using computerized procedures. The redesigned plant is scheduled to begin operation during the second half of 1986. The proximity of the Industrial Prototypes Service and the ATALANTE radiochemical research laboratory scheduled to begin operation in 1990, will provide a synergistic environment in which R and D program may be carried out under exceptional conditions

  12. Accident prevention in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyrer, H.

    Large thermal power plants are insured to a great extent at the Industrial Injuries Insurance Institute of Instrument and Electric Engineering. Approximately 4800 employees are registered. The accident frequency according to an evaluation over 12 months lies around 79.8 per year and 1000 employees in fossil-fired power plants, around 34.1 per year and 1000 employees in nuclear power plants, as in nuclear power plants coal handling and ash removal are excluded. Injuries due to radiation were not registered. The crucial points of accidents are mechanical injuries received on solid, sharp-edged and pointed objects (fossil-fired power plants 28.6%, nuclear power plants 41.5%), stumbling, twisting or slipping (fossil-fired power plants 21.8%, nuclear power plants 19.5%) and injuries due to moving machine parts (only nuclear power plants 12.2%). However, accidents due to burns or scalds obtain with 4.2% and less a lower portion than expected. The accident statistics can explain this fact in a way that the typical power plant accident does not exist. (orig./GL) [de

  13. Antimalarial Activity of Plant Metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wen-Hui; Xu, Xin-Ya; Shi, Ni; Tsang, Siu Wai; Zhang, Hong-Jie

    2018-05-06

    Malaria, as a major global health problem, continues to affect a large number of people each year, especially those in developing countries. Effective drug discovery is still one of the main efforts to control malaria. As natural products are still considered as a key source for discovery and development of therapeutic agents, we have evaluated more than 2000 plant extracts against Plasmodium falciparum . As a result, we discovered dozens of plant leads that displayed antimalarial activity. Our phytochemical study of some of these plant extracts led to the identification of several potent antimalarial compounds. The prior comprehensive review article entitled “Antimalarial activity of plant metabolites” by Schwikkard and Van Heerden (2002) reported structures of plant-derived compounds with antiplasmodial activity and covered literature up to the year 2000. As a continuation of this effort, the present review covers the antimalarial compounds isolated from plants, including marine plants, reported in the literature from 2001 to the end of 2017. During the span of the last 17 years, 175 antiplasmodial compounds were discovered from plants. These active compounds are organized in our review article according to their plant families. In addition, we also include ethnobotanical information of the antimalarial plants discussed.

  14. Antimalarial Activity of Plant Metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hui Pan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Malaria, as a major global health problem, continues to affect a large number of people each year, especially those in developing countries. Effective drug discovery is still one of the main efforts to control malaria. As natural products are still considered as a key source for discovery and development of therapeutic agents, we have evaluated more than 2000 plant extracts against Plasmodium falciparum. As a result, we discovered dozens of plant leads that displayed antimalarial activity. Our phytochemical study of some of these plant extracts led to the identification of several potent antimalarial compounds. The prior comprehensive review article entitled “Antimalarial activity of plant metabolites” by Schwikkard and Van Heerden (2002 reported structures of plant-derived compounds with antiplasmodial activity and covered literature up to the year 2000. As a continuation of this effort, the present review covers the antimalarial compounds isolated from plants, including marine plants, reported in the literature from 2001 to the end of 2017. During the span of the last 17 years, 175 antiplasmodial compounds were discovered from plants. These active compounds are organized in our review article according to their plant families. In addition, we also include ethnobotanical information of the antimalarial plants discussed.

  15. [Plant hydroponics and its application prospect in medicinal plants study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yan; Guo, Lan-Ping; Huang, Lu-Qi; Sun, Yu-Zhang

    2007-03-01

    This article introduced the theorem and method of hydroponics. Some examples of studies in agriculture and forestry were presented, the effects of elements, environmental stress and hormones on physiology of medicinal plants by using hydroponics were analyzed. It also introduced the feasibility and advantage of hydroponics in intermediate propagation and allelopathy of medicinal plant. And finally it made the conclusion that the way of hydroponics would be widely used in medicinal plant study.

  16. [Distribution of HCB discharged from a chemical plant in plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Wang, Lin-Ling; Lu, Xiao-Hua; Yuan, Song-Hu; Liu, Xi-Xiang; Wang, Yue; Zhao, Qian; Mei, Ling-Fang

    2009-04-15

    The distribution characteristics of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in plant and rhizosphere soil in contamination conduit, a nearby river and a cropland were studied and the impact factors were also discussed. The results are summarized as follows: the range of the HCB concentration in plant and rhizosphere soil in investigation area were respectively from 4.45 microg x kg(-1) to 1,189.89 microg x kg(-1) (dw) and from 27.93 microg x kg(-1) to 3,480.71 microg x kg(-1) (dw). Higher enrichment of HCB in woodplant than herbs due to higher fat concentration in woodplant in the contamination conduit and the rich concentrtion factor of woodplant and herbs were 0.41-2.55 and 0.01-1.34. The range of HCB concentrations in plants in nearby croplands was significantly wide (4.45-333.1 microg x kg(-1)) while HCB concentrations in different parts of plant were various, e.g. HCB concentrations in fruit, root and shoot of taro were 318.77 microg x kg(-1), 281.02 microg x kg(-1) and 10.94 microg x kg(-1). There was a remarkable positive relation between the concentrations of HCB in plant and fat concentration of plant while no relativity between the concentrations of HCB in plant and those in ground soils in the contamination conduit and cropland. The concentration levels of HCB in plant and rhizosphere soil in river were dramatically decreased with increasing distance from contaminated conduit. There was a remarkable positive relation between the concentrations of HCB in plant and those in ground soils but no relation between concentrations of HCB in plant and fat concentration of plant in river. The distribution characteristics of HCB in plants were influenced by contaminated levels, fat concentration and Partition-transfer model.

  17. Comparative studies between nuclear power plants and hydroelectric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menegassi, J.

    1984-01-01

    This paper shows the quantitative evolution of the power plants in the main countries of the world. The Brazilian situation is analysed, with emphasys in the technical and economical aspects related to power production by hidroelectric or nuclear power plants. The conclusion is that the electricity produced by hidro power plants becomes not economics when is intended to be produced at large distances from the demand centers. (Author) [pt

  18. Attention "Blinks" Differently for Plants and Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, Benjamin; Momsen, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Plants, to many, are simply not as interesting as animals. Students typically prefer to study animals rather than plants and recall plants more poorly, and plants are underrepresented in the classroom. The observed paucity of interest for plants has been described as "plant blindness," a term that is meant to encapsulate both the…

  19. Plant life management and maintenance technologies for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikegami, Tsukasa; Aoki, Masataka; Shimura, Takao; Kaimori, Kimihiro; Koike, Masahiro

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear power generation occupying an important position for energy source in Japan and supplying about one third of total electric power usage is now required for further upgrading of its economics under regulation relaxation of electric power business. And, under execution retardation of its new planning plant, it becomes important to operate the already established plants for longer term and to secure their stability. Therefore, technical development in response to the plant life elongation is promoted under cooperation of the Ministry of Economics and Industries, electric power companies, literate, and plant manufacturers. Under such conditions, the Hitachi, Ltd. has progressed some technical developments on check inspection, repairs and maintenance for succession of the already established nuclear power plants for longer term under securing of their safety and reliability. And in future, by proposing the check inspection and maintenance program combined with these technologies, it is planned to exert promotion of maintenance program with minimum total cost from a viewpoint of its plant life. Here were described on technologies exerted in the Hitachi, Ltd. such as construction of plant maintenance program in response to plant life elongation agreeing with actual condition of each plant, yearly change mechanism grasping, life evaluation on instruments and materials necessary for maintenance, adequate check inspection, repairs and exchange, and so forth. (G.K.)

  20. Top 10 plant viruses in molecular plant pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholthof, Karen-Beth G; Adkins, Scott; Czosnek, Henryk; Palukaitis, Peter; Jacquot, Emmanuel; Hohn, Thomas; Hohn, Barbara; Saunders, Keith; Candresse, Thierry; Ahlquist, Paul; Hemenway, Cynthia; Foster, Gary D

    2011-12-01

    Many scientists, if not all, feel that their particular plant virus should appear in any list of the most important plant viruses. However, to our knowledge, no such list exists. The aim of this review was to survey all plant virologists with an association with Molecular Plant Pathology and ask them to nominate which plant viruses they would place in a 'Top 10' based on scientific/economic importance. The survey generated more than 250 votes from the international community, and allowed the generation of a Top 10 plant virus list for Molecular Plant Pathology. The Top 10 list includes, in rank order, (1) Tobacco mosaic virus, (2) Tomato spotted wilt virus, (3) Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, (4) Cucumber mosaic virus, (5) Potato virus Y, (6) Cauliflower mosaic virus, (7) African cassava mosaic virus, (8) Plum pox virus, (9) Brome mosaic virus and (10) Potato virus X, with honourable mentions for viruses just missing out on the Top 10, including Citrus tristeza virus, Barley yellow dwarf virus, Potato leafroll virus and Tomato bushy stunt virus. This review article presents a short review on each virus of the Top 10 list and its importance, with the intent of initiating discussion and debate amongst the plant virology community, as well as laying down a benchmark, as it will be interesting to see in future years how perceptions change and which viruses enter and leave the Top 10. © 2011 The Authors. Molecular Plant Pathology © 2011 BSPP and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Plants, plant pathogens, and microgravity--a deadly trio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, J. E.; Ryba-White, M.; Sun, Q.; Wu, C. J.; Hilaire, E.; Gartner, C.; Nedukha, O.; Kordyum, E.; Keck, M.; Leung, H.; hide

    2001-01-01

    Plants grown in spaceflight conditions are more susceptible to colonization by plant pathogens. The underlying causes for this enhanced susceptibility are not known. Possibly the formation of structural barriers and the activation of plant defense response components are impaired in spaceflight conditions. Either condition would result from altered gene expression of the plant. Because of the tools available, past studies focused on a few physiological responses or biochemical pathways. With recent advances in genomics research, new tools, including microarray technologies, are available to examine the global impact of growth in the spacecraft on the plant's gene expression profile. In ground-based studies, we have developed cDNA subtraction libraries of rice that are enriched for genes induced during pathogen infection and the defense response. Arrays of these genes are being used to dissect plant defense response pathways in a model system involving wild-type rice plants and lesion mimic mutants. The lesion mimic mutants are ideal experimental tools because they erratically develop defense response-like lesions in the absence of pathogens. The gene expression profiles from these ground-based studies will provide the molecular basis for understanding the biochemical and physiological impacts of spaceflight on plant growth, development and disease defense responses. This, in turn, will allow the development of strategies to manage plant disease for life in the space environment.

  2. Life management plants at nuclear power plants PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban, G.

    2014-01-01

    Since in 2009 the CSN published the Safety Instruction IS-22 (1) which established the regulatory framework the Spanish nuclear power plants must meet in regard to Life Management, most of Spanish nuclear plants began a process of convergence of their Life Management Plants to practice 10 CFR 54 (2), which is the current standard of Spanish nuclear industry for Ageing Management, either during the design lifetime of the plant, as well as for Long-Term Operation. This article describe how Life Management Plans are being implemented in Spanish PWR NPP. (Author)

  3. Perspectives on plant vulnerabilities ampersand other plant and containment improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaChance, J.; Kolaczkowski, A.; Kahn, J.

    1996-01-01

    The primary goal of the Individual Plant Examination (IPE) Program was for licensees to identify plant-unique vulnerabilities and actions to address these vulnerabilities. A review of these vulnerabilities and plant improvements that were identified in the IPEs was performed as part of the IPE Insights Program sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The purpose of this effort was to characterize the identified vulnerabilities and the impact of suggested plant improvements. No specific definition for open-quotes vulnerabilityclose quotes was provided in NRC Generic Letter 88-20 or in the subsequent NRC IPE submittal guidance documented in NUREG-1335. Thus licensees were left to use their own definitions. Only 20% of the plants explicitly stated that they had vulnerabilities. However, most licensees identified other plant improvements to address issues not explicitly classified as vulnerabilities, but pertaining to areas in which overall plant safety could potentially be increased. The various definitions of open-quotes vulnerabilityclose quotes used by the licensees, explicitly identified vulnerabilities, proposed plant improvements to address these vulnerabilities, and other plant improvements are summarized and discussed

  4. Plant photomorphogenesis and canopy growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballare, Carlos L.; Scopel, Ana L.

    1994-01-01

    An important motivation for studying photomorphogenesis is to understand the relationships among plant photophysiology in canopies, canopy productivity, and agronomic yield. This understanding is essential to optimize lighting systems used for plant farming in controlled environments (CE) and for the design of genetically engineered crop strains with altered photoresponses. This article provides an overview of some basic principles of plant photomorphogenesis in canopies and discusses their implications for (1) scaling up information on plant photophysiology from individual plants in CE to whole canopies in the field, and (2) designing lighting conditions to increase plant productivity in CE used for agronomic purposes (e.g. space farming in CE Life Support Systems). We concentrate on the visible (lambda between 400 and 700 nm) and far-infrared (FR; lambda greater than 700 nm) spectral regions, since the ultraviolet (UV; 280 to 400 nm) is covered by other authors in this volume.

  5. Translational plant proteomics: a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Pedreschi, Romina; Barkla, Bronwyn J; Bindschedler, Laurence Veronique; Cramer, Rainer; Sarkar, Abhijit; Renaut, Jenny; Job, Dominique; Rakwal, Randeep

    2012-08-03

    Translational proteomics is an emerging sub-discipline of the proteomics field in the biological sciences. Translational plant proteomics aims to integrate knowledge from basic sciences to translate it into field applications to solve issues related but not limited to the recreational and economic values of plants, food security and safety, and energy sustainability. In this review, we highlight the substantial progress reached in plant proteomics during the past decade which has paved the way for translational plant proteomics. Increasing proteomics knowledge in plants is not limited to model and non-model plants, proteogenomics, crop improvement, and food analysis, safety, and nutrition but to many more potential applications. Given the wealth of information generated and to some extent applied, there is the need for more efficient and broader channels to freely disseminate the information to the scientific community. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Translational Proteomics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Plant photomorphogenesis and canopy growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballare, C.L.; Scopel, A.L. [Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1994-12-31

    An important motivation for studying photomorphogenesis is to understand the relationships among plant photophysiology in canopies, canopy productivity, and agronomic yield. This understanding is essential to optimize lighting systems used for plant farming in controlled environments (CE) and for the design of genetically engineered crop strains with altered photoresponses. This article provides an overview of some basic principles of plant photomorphogenesis in canopies and discusses their implications for (1) scaling up information on plant photophysiology from individual plants in CE to whole canopies in the field, and (2), designing lighting conditions to increase plant productivity in CE used for agronomic purposes [e.g. space farming in CE Life-Support-Systems]. We concentrate on the visible ({lambda} between 400 and 700 nm) and far red (FR; {lambda} > 700 nm) spectral regions, since the ultraviolet (UV; 280 to 400 nm) is covered by other authors in this volume.

  7. Plant life management at Loviisa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hytoenen, Y.; Savikoski, A.

    1998-01-01

    IVO, Power Engineering Ltd. has developed a company-wide approach to plant life management. The first stage of plant life management comprises operational and maintenance histories, design and plant inspection data using advanced computer systems. The life of the plant can be controlled by maintenance, refurbishment and inspection programs, and by varying the method of plant operation. On-line monitoring is needed, and cost control and training must be taken into account if the life of the plant is to be managed efficiently. Identifying the life-limiting factors is essential at Loviisa. It has been concentrated on the aging in the form of materials degradation due to fatigue, erosion, corrosion, radiation and thermal effects. Certain other life-limiting factors are also mentioned

  8. Carbohydrate Microarrays in Plant Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik; Pedersen, H.L.; Vidal-Melgosa, S.

    2012-01-01

    Almost all plant cells are surrounded by glycan-rich cell walls, which form much of the plant body and collectively are the largest source of biomass on earth. Plants use polysaccharides for support, defense, signaling, cell adhesion, and as energy storage, and many plant glycans are also important...... industrially and nutritionally. Understanding the biological roles of plant glycans and the effective exploitation of their useful properties requires a detailed understanding of their structures, occurrence, and molecular interactions. Microarray technology has revolutionized the massively high...... for plant research and can be used to map glycan populations across large numbers of samples to screen antibodies, carbohydrate binding proteins, and carbohydrate binding modules and to investigate enzyme activities....

  9. Of plants and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider Horst

    2009-01-01

    Behind the political statements made about the transformer event at the Kruemmel nuclear power station (KKK) in the summer of 2009 there are fundamental issues of atomic law. Pursuant to Articles 20 and 28 of its Basic Law, Germany is a state in which the rule of law applies. Consequently, the aspects of atomic law associated with the incident merit a closer look, all the more so as the items concerned have been known for many years. Important aspects in the debate about the Kruemmel nuclear power plant are the fact that the transformer is considered part of the nuclear power station under atomic law and thus a ''plant'' subject to surveillance by the nuclear regulatory agencies, on the one hand, and the reliability under atomic law of the operator and the executive personnel responsible, on the other hand. Both ''plant'' and ''reliability'' are terms focusing on nuclear safety. Hence the question to what extent safety was affected in the Kruemmel incident. The classification of the event as 0 = no or only a very slight safety impact on the INES scale (INES = International Nuclear Event Scale) should not be used to put aside the safety issue once and for all. Points of fact and their technical significance must be considered prior to any legal assessment. Legal assessments and regulations are associated with facts and circumstances. Any legal examination is based on the facts as determined and elucidated. Any other procedure would be tantamount to an inadmissible legal advance conviction. Now, what is the position of political statements, i.e. political assessments and political responsibility? If everything is done the correct way, they come at the end, after exploration of the facts and evaluation under applicable law. Sometimes things are handled differently, with consequences which are not very helpful. In the light of the provisions about the rule of law as laid down in the Basic Law, the new federal government should be made to observe the proper sequence of

  10. Base case industrial reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This paper briefly describes an industrial scale plant for reprocessing thermal oxide fuel. This description was used as a base case by the Group for their later assessments and for comparing actual national plans for reprocessing plants. The plant described uses the Purex process and assumes an annual throughput of 1000 t/U. The maintenance, safety and safeguards philosophy is described. An indication of the construction schedule and capital and operating costs is also given

  11. Description of reference (model) plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    For the workshop on Safeguards System design for a fuel fabrication plant, a generic example of a LEU bulk-handling facility that is based on the Exxon LWR fuel fabrication plants is used. The model plant information is given in the following separate sections: (1) process assumptions; (2) six-month material balance model; (3) measurements; (4) error parameters, measurements, and sigma MUF calculations; (5) material control areas; (6) accounting, records, and reports; (7) tamper-safing; and (8) measurement control program

  12. Siting nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yellin, J.; Joskow, P.L.

    1980-01-01

    The first edition of this journal is devoted to the policies and problems of siting nuclear power plants and the question of how far commercial reactors should be placed from urban areas. The article is divided into four major siting issues: policies, risk evaluation, accident consequences, and economic and physical constraints. One concern is how to treat currently operating reactors and those under construction that were established under less-stringent criteria if siting is to be used as a way to limit the consequences of accidents. Mehanical cost-benefit analyses are not as appropriate as the systematic use of empirical observations in assessing the values involved. Stricter siting rules are justified because (1) opposition because of safety is growing: (2) remote siting will make the industry more stable; (3) the conflict is eliminated between regulatory policies and the probability basis for nuclear insurance; and (4) joint ownership of utilities and power-pooling are increasing. 227 references, 7 tables

  13. Tropical Plant Collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Balslev, Henrik

    that involved Germany, Britain and France, until independence, which was brightened by exemplary collaboration. Muasya focussed on South Africa, which is the most developed country in sub-Saharan Africa with a well-functioning network of herbaria that covers widely different biota. Sanjappa outlined the history...... crisis. Friis gave a broad overview of the history of herbaria and botanical gardens and the changing conceptual frameworks behind their existence. Baldini talked about early Italian botanical collectors and the fate of their collections. Baas accounted for the Golden Age of Dutch botany during pre......-colonial and early colonial periods. With the presentation by Cribb on the botany of the British Empire we were fully into the colonial period, focussing on the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. The situation in North America was treated by Funk, who illustrated the development of collections of tropical plants...

  14. (Photosynthesis in intact plants)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    Progress in the two years since the last renewal application has been excellent. We have made substantial contributions on both main fronts of the projects, and are particularly happy with the progress of our research on intact plants. The approach of basing our field work on a sound foundation of laboratory studies has enabled is to use methods which provide unambiguous assays of well characterized reactions. We have also made excellent progress in several laboratory studies which will have direct applications in future field work, and have introduced to the laboratory a range of molecular genetics techniques which will allow us to explore new options in the attempt to understand function at the level of molecular structure.

  15. Wuergassen nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The decision of the Federal Court of Administration concerns an application for immediate decommissioning of a nuclear power plant (Wuergassen reactor): The repeal of the permit granted. The decision dismisses the appeal for non-admission lodged by the plaintiffs against the ruling of the Higher Court of Administration (OVG) of North-Rhine Westphalia of December 19th 1988 (File no. 21 AK 8/88). As to the matter in dispute, the Federal Court of Administration confirms the opinion of the Higher Court of Administration. As to the headnotes, reference can be made to that decision. Federal Court of Administration, decision of April 5th 1989 - 7 B 47.89. Lower instance: OVG NW, Az.: 21 AK 8/88. (orig./RST) [de

  16. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uruma, Hiroshi

    1998-01-01

    In the first embodiment of the present invention, elements less activated by neutrons are used as reactor core structural materials placed under high neutron irradiation. In the second embodiment of the present invention, materials less activated by neutrons when corrosive materials intrude to a reactor core are used as structural materials constituting portions where corrosion products are generated. In the third embodiment, chemical species comprising elements less activated by neutrons are used as chemical species to be added to reactor water with an aim of controlling water quality. A nuclear power plant causing less radioactivity can be provided by using structural materials comprising a group of specific elements hardly forming radioactivity by activation of neutrons or by controlling isotope ratios. (N.H.)

  17. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schabert, H.P.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear power plant is described which includes a steam generator supplied via an input inlet with feedwater heated by reactor coolant to generate steam, the steam being conducted to a steam engine having a high pressure stage to which the steam is supplied, and which exhausts the steam through a reheater to a low pressure stage. The reheater is a heat exchanger requiring a supply of hot fluid. To avoid the extra load that would be placed on the steam generator by using a portion of its steam output as such heating fluid, a portion of the water in the steam generator is removed and passed through the reheater, this water having received at least adequate heating in the steam generator to make the reheater effective, but not at the time of its removal being in a boiling condition

  18. Atomic power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Hiroto.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To permit decay heat to be reliably removed after reactor shut-down at such instance as occurrence of loss of power by means of an emergency water supply pump. Structure: An atomic power plant having a closed cycle constructed by connecting a vapor generator, a vapor valve, a turbine having a generator, a condenser, and a water supply pump in the mentioned order, and provided with an emergency water supply pump operated when there is a loss of power to the water supply pump, a degasifier pressure holding means for holding the pressure of the degasifier by introducing part of the vapor produced from said vapor generator, and a valve for discharge to atmosphere provided on the downstream side of said vapor generator. (Kamimura, M.)

  19. Nuclear plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The four-member New York Power Pool Panel concluded that, for a number of reasons, no nuclear power plant in New York State is prone to the type of accident that occurred at Three Mile Island (TMI). The Panel further concluded that changes in operating practices, both regulatory and voluntary, and heightened sensitivity to reactor-core-cooling requirements will substantially reduce the chances for another such accident anywhere. Panel members found that New York State utilities have taken a responsible attitude with regard to requirements set forth by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a result of the TMI accident. In a cover letter that accompanied the report to Federal and New York state officials, New York Power Pool Executive Committee Chairman Francis E. Drake, Jr. expressed hope that the report will alleviate public fears of nuclear reactors and promote wider acceptance of nuclear energy as an economic and safe means of power production. 17 references

  20. Nuclear plants - military hostages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramberg, B.

    1986-01-01

    Recent events suggest that nuclear reactors could make tempting military or terrorist targets. Despite the care with which most reactors are built, studies document their vulnerability to willful destruction through disruption of coolant mechanisms both inside and outside the containment building. In addition to reactors, such nuclear support facilities as fuel fabrication, reprocessing, and waste storage installations may be attractive military targets. A nuclear bomb which exploded in the vicinity of a reactor could increase its lethal effects by one-third. The implications of this is vulnerability for Middle East stability as well as to other volatile regions. The author suggests several avenues for controlling the dangers: international law, military and civil defense, facility siting, increasing plant safety, and the international management of nuclear energy. 21 references