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Sample records for pantano crocodylus moreletii

  1. Observations on nests of Crocodylus moreletii in San Luis Potosí, Mexico Observaciones sobre nidos de Crocodylus moreletii en San Luis Potosí, México

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    Armando H. Escobedo-Galván

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Nesting ecology of Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii has been documented since 1940. However, only 2 nests constructed on floating vegetation have been recorded. Here, we presented additional information from a mainland population of C. moreletii in the Ciénega de Cabezas wetland, San Luis Potosí, describing 2 nests constructed on floating mats of cattails. The nests were constructed using Typha sp., close to the main channel. One nest was lost due to flooding, and contained 32 eggs. Seven eggs had a mean 72.6 ± 2.63 mm length (range = 70.0 -75.0 mm, 45.0 ± 2.30 mm width (range = 41.0-48.0 mm, and 140.7 ± 2.98 mm diameter (range = 136.0-145.0 mm. We suggest that the use of floating vegetation for nesting by C. moreletii is related to the availability of aquatic vegetation, combined with the lack of adequate nesting sites on land.La ecología de anidación del cocodrilo de pantano (Crocodylus moreletii ha sido documentada desde 1940. Sin embargo, sólo existen 2 registros de nidos construidos sobre vegetación acuática. Presentamos información adicional de 2 nidos (N1 y N2 construidos en este tipo de hábitat en una población ubicada en la Ciénega de Cabezas en el estado de San Luis Potosí. Los nidos fueron construidos sobre Typha sp., cerca del cauce principal de la ciénega. El N2 se perdió por inundación, en su interior encontramos 32 huevos, los promedios (± SD del largo, ancho y diámetro de 7 huevos fueron 72.6 ± 2.63 mm (rango = 70.0 -75.0 mm, 45.0 ± 2.30 mm (rango = 41.0-48.0 mm, 140.7 ± 2.98 mm (rango = 136.0-145.0 mm, respectivamente. Sugerimos que este tipo de sitios para anidar por parte de C. moreletii está relacionado con la disponibilidad de vegetación acuática, combinado con la ausencia de sitios adecuados en tierra firme.

  2. Nesting of Morelet’s crocodile, Crocodylus moreletii (Dumeril and Bibron), in Los Tuxtlas, Mexico

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    A. Villegas; G. D. Mendoza; J. L. Arcos-García; V. H. Reynoso

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We evaluated the nesting by Crocodylus moreletii in Lago de Catemaco, Veracruz, southeastern, Mexico. During the nesting and hatching seasons, we searched for nests along the northern margins of the lake and small associated streams. We investigated egg mortality by weekly monitoring each of the nests found, recording sign of predation (tracks and holes dug into the nest) and the effect of water level fluctuations. We not found differences to nest between inland or flooded zones. How...

  3. Body condition of Morelet’s Crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from northern Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzotti, Frank J.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Brandt, Laura A.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Hart, Kristen; Jeffery, Brian; McMurry, Scott T.; Platt, Steven G.; Rainwater, Thomas R.; Vinci, Joy

    2012-01-01

    Body condition factors have been used as an indicator of health and well-being of crocodilians. We evaluated body condition of Morelet's Crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) in northern Belize in relation to biotic (size, sex, and habitat) and abiotic (location, water level, and air temperature) factors. We also tested the hypothesis that high water levels and warm temperatures combine or interact to result in a decrease in body condition. Size class, temperature, and water level explained 20% of the variability in condition of Morelet's Crocodiles in this study. We found that adult crocodiles had higher condition scores than juveniles/subadults but that sex, habitat, and site had no effect. We confirmed our hypothesis that warm temperatures and high water levels interact to decrease body condition. We related body condition of Morelet's Crocodiles to natural fluctuations in air temperatures and water levels in northern Belize, providing baseline conditions for population and ecosystem monitoring.

  4. Nesting of Morelet's crocodile, Crocodylus moreletii (Dumeril and Bibron), in Los Tuxtlas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, A; Mendoza, G D; Arcos-García, J L; Reynoso, V H

    2017-11-01

    We evaluated the nesting by Crocodylus moreletii in Lago de Catemaco, Veracruz, southeastern, Mexico. During the nesting and hatching seasons, we searched for nests along the northern margins of the lake and small associated streams. We investigated egg mortality by weekly monitoring each of the nests found, recording sign of predation (tracks and holes dug into the nest) and the effect of water level fluctuations. We not found differences to nest between inland or flooded zones. However, we found that egg size varied among nests. In nests built inland, predation was the major cause of egg mortality whereas flooding resulted in more deaths of eggs in the flooding zone. Flooding killed 25% of eggs monitored in this study. We suggest that to increase nest success in the Morelet's crocodile it is necessary to promote conservation of nesting areas around the lake, recently occupied by urban or tourist developments.

  5. Nesting of Morelet’s crocodile, Crocodylus moreletii (Dumeril and Bibron, in Los Tuxtlas, Mexico

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    A. Villegas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We evaluated the nesting by Crocodylus moreletii in Lago de Catemaco, Veracruz, southeastern, Mexico. During the nesting and hatching seasons, we searched for nests along the northern margins of the lake and small associated streams. We investigated egg mortality by weekly monitoring each of the nests found, recording sign of predation (tracks and holes dug into the nest and the effect of water level fluctuations. We not found differences to nest between inland or flooded zones. However, we found that egg size varied among nests. In nests built inland, predation was the major cause of egg mortality whereas flooding resulted in more deaths of eggs in the flooding zone. Flooding killed 25% of eggs monitored in this study. We suggest that to increase nest success in the Morelet’s crocodile it is necessary to promote conservation of nesting areas around the lake, recently occupied by urban or tourist developments.

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS OF COMMERCIAL INTEREST IN THE MORELET'S CROCODILE (Crocodylus moreletii

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    Ricardo Serna-Lagunes

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Crocodylus moreletii is a species of commercial interest based on its skin. In this study, five morphological traits of commercial interest were characterized in 125 captivity-raised specimens of C. moreletii from four populations (Puente Chilapa, Gutiérrez Zamora, Villa Juárez and Puerto Vallarta. A canonical discriminant analysis (CDA was used to differentiate the populations according to their morphological traits, a cluster analysis (CA was used to infer which populations had the largest total length (TL, and a covariance analysis (ANCOVA was used to assess the allometry and detect which population was different in terms of TL. The CDA showed no significant effects, suggesting that the morphological traits were similar among populations; the CA grouped two populations which had the largest body size; the ANCOVA revealed a significant correlation between morphological traits and detected a TL effect significantly lower in males and females from Puente Chilapa, in comparison with the other three populations. In conclusion, the males from Gutiérrez Zamora and the females from Villa Juárez were morphologically outstanding in terms of TL, and they would be the right crocodiles to establish a breeding nucleus in order to obtain offspring with their phenotypic characteristics.

  7. Metals in the caudal scutes of Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) from the southern Gulf of Mexico.

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    Trillanes, C E; Pérez-Jiménez, J C; Rosíles-Martínez, R; González-Jáuregui, M

    2014-10-01

    Caudal scutes were collected from 92 Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) between May and August 2012, in three Wildlife Management and Use Units (UMAs, from its name in Spanish) and three wild sites in Campeche, Mexico. The UMAs are intensive, with an ex situ approach to manage crocodiles in captivity. The concentrations of arsenic, mercury, lead, nickel, cadmium and chromium were analyzed in each sample. As and Pb were detected in all samples, Hg in 86 and Ni in 74. The metal concentrations estimated were higher than most of the concentrations reported for skin, tail tip and caudal scutes in other crocodilians around the world. The concentration of As, Pb and Ni was significantly greater in the free-ranging groups than in the captive groups in UMAs (p < 0.05). Negative linear relationship was estimated between the snout-vent length and the concentration of Pb (in five groups) and Ni (in three groups). In this region C. moreletii is exposed to metals contamination and more studies are necessary to establish if represents a risk to their populations.

  8. Organochlorine contaminants in complete clutches of Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) eggs from Belize

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    Wu, Ted H. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775-6160 (United States); Canas, Jaclyn E. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Rainwater, Thomas R. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, PO Box 764, Jefferson, TX 75657 (United States); Platt, Steven G. [Department of Math and Science, Oglala Lakota College, 490 Piya Wiconi Road, Kyle, SD, 57752 (United States); McMurry, Scott T. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Anderson, Todd A. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)]. E-mail: todd.anderson@ttu.edu

    2006-11-15

    Seven complete clutches of Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) eggs were collected in northern Belize and examined for organochlorine (OC) pesticide residues. The primary OC detected, p,p-DDE, was found in every egg analyzed (n = 175). Other OCs detected included p,p-DDT, p,p-DDD, methoxychlor, aldrin, and endosulfan I. Concentrations of individual OCs ranged from 4 ppb (ng chemical/g egg wet weight) to greater than 500 ppb. A statistical evaluation of p,p-DDE levels in three complete clutches was used to derive the minimum number of eggs needed from a clutch to precisely determine the mean p,p-DDE concentration representative of that clutch. Sample sizes of 8 (80% confidence level) and 11 (90% confidence level) were determined to yield an accurate estimate of contaminant levels in a full clutch of eggs. The statistically recommended sample size of 11 eggs (at 90% confidence level) was successfully tested on the four additional clutches. -- Sampling the non-viable eggs of a clutch can provide a statistically reasonable estimation of both the organochlorine contaminant distribution and concentrations in that clutch.

  9. Variabilidad genética de poblaciones en cautiverio de Crocodylus moreletii (Crocodylia: Crocodylidae mediante el uso de marcadores microsatelitales Genetic variability in captive populations of Crocodylus moreletii (Crocodylia: Crocodylidae using microsatellites markers

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    Ricardo Serna-Lagunes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Crocodylus moreletii representa un emblema para los ecosistemas tropicales de México pero actualmente está amenazada por extinción. Sorprendentemente, hay una falta de información de su constitución genética, que debe ser evaluada para un manejo apropiado ex situ y para toma de decisiones en la liberación de cocodrilos a su hábitat natural. El objetivo del estudio fue caracterizar y comparar la variabilidad genética de cuatro grupos poblacionales de C. moreletii (dos silvestres y dos nacidas ex situ. Mediante PCR se amplificaron siete loci de microsatélites polimórficos, sin embargo se encontró déficit de heterocigotos en las poblaciones (promedio H O=0.02 mermado por la presencia de alelos nulos. El AMOVA indicó que la mayor proporción de variabilidad genética se encuentra dentro de las poblaciones y una limitada diferenciación genética entre poblaciones (promedio F ST =0.03, probablemente debida al alto índice de endogamia (promedio F IS=0.97. Al comparar la variabilidad genética inter e intra especies de cocodrilianos, encontramos que en C. moreletii está muy por debajo de los reportados. Se concluye que la limitada variabilidad genética de las poblaciones nacidas ex situ probablemente se debe al efecto fundador derivado de la estructura social de sus progenitores, y de las poblaciones silvestres, por el efecto cuello de botella, inferido por el limitado tamaño efectivo de población que presentó históricamente en su distribución natural.Genetic variability in captive populations of Crocodylus moreletii (Crocodylia: Crocodylidae using microsatellites markers. Crocodylus moreletii, an extinction threatened species, represents an emblem for tropical ecosystems in Mexico. Surprisingly, there is a lack of information about their genetic constitution, which should be evaluated for a proper management ex situ and for making decisions on the release of crocodiles into natural habitats. The aim of this study was to

  10. Reproducción en cautiverio de Crocodylus moreletii en Tabasco, México Reproduction of Crocodylus moreletii in captivity in Tabasco, Mexico

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    Gustavo Casas-Andreu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Entre 1990 y 1993 se estudió la reproducción de Crocodylus moreletii en cautiverio, con 27 machos y 109 hembras. Las hembras resultaron en longitud hocico-cloaca (LHC más grandes (60 a 140 cm que lo previamente conocido. Las hembras reproductivas más frecuentes presentaron tallas entre 81 y 100 cm de LHC. La longitud total mínima para la reproducción en hembras fue de 135 cm. El cortejo, apareamiento, anidación, incubación y eclosión ocurrieron entre febrero y septiembre. El 8.25% de las hembras anidaron durante los 4 años de estudio, el 11% en 3 años, el 28.44% en 2, y el 52.29% en un sólo año. Los eventos de cortejo y apareamiento mencionados se relacionaron con las temperaturas ambientales promedio más altas, y la anidación con el inicio de la temporada de lluvias. El número de huevos por nido varió entre 6 y 50 (29.24 ± 8.72. La talla (LT y LHC y la masa corporal son predictores regulares para las características reproductivas. No se encontró relación significativa entre las características del huevo y el tamaño de la nidada, siendo diferente a lo esperado. El tamaño y peso de las hembras no influyeron en el tamaño de la nidada, por lo que otros factores como los ambientales, la calidad reproductora de los machos, la condición física de las hembras, la carga de reproductores por estanque y la territorialidad pueden estar influyendo en este rasgo.Between 1990 and 1993 we studied the Morelet's crocodile reproduction in captivity, with a sample of 27 males and 109 females. Females were larger (60 to 140 cm SVL than previously known. Most frequent size of nesting females was between 81 and 100 cm of SVL. Sexual maturity in females was attained at a minimum size of 135 cm. The courtship, mating, nesting and hatching occurred between February and September. In the sample of females 8.25% nesting in each one of the 4 years of study, 11% in 3 years, 28.44% in 2, and 52.29% in one. The reproductive events mentioned were

  11. Oral and cloacal microflora of wild crocodiles Crocodylus acutus and C. moreletii in the Mexican Caribbean.

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    Charruau, Pierre; Pérez-Flores, Jonathan; Pérez-Juárez, José G; Cedeño-Vázquez, J Rogelio; Rosas-Carmona, Rebeca

    2012-02-17

    Bacterial cultures and chemical analyses were performed from cloacal and oral swabs taken from 43 American crocodiles Crocodylus acutus and 28 Morelet's crocodiles C. moreletii captured in Quintana Roo State, Mexico. We recovered 47 bacterial species (28 genera and 14 families) from all samples with 51.1% of these belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Fourteen species (29.8%) were detected in both crocodile species and 18 (38.3%) and 15 (31.9%) species were only detected in American and Morelet's crocodiles, respectively. We recovered 35 bacterial species from all oral samples, of which 9 (25.8%) were detected in both crocodile species. From all cloacal samples, we recovered 21 bacterial species, of which 8 (38.1%) were detected in both crocodile species. The most commonly isolated bacteria in cloacal samples were Aeromonas hydrophila and Escherichia coli, whereas in oral samples the most common bacteria were A. hydrophila and Arcanobacterium pyogenes. The bacteria isolated represent a potential threat to crocodile health during conditions of stress and a threat to human health through crocodile bites, crocodile meat consumption or carrying out activities in crocodile habitat. We especially warn about the presence of Salmonella arizonae and S. typhi, which cause enteritis and septicemia in crocodiles and salmonellosis and typhoid fever in humans. The risk of bacterial contamination from crocodiles to humans could increase in the future because of the accelerated destruction of crocodile habitat, which could lead to an augmentation of human-crocodile interactions. Information on bacterial diversity reported here could help in the choice of antibacterial products in case of infections that are of crocodile origin.

  12. Variabilidad genética de poblaciones en cautiverio de Crocodylus moreletii (Crocodylia: Crocodylidae mediante el uso de marcadores microsatelitales

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    Ricardo Serna-Lagunes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Crocodylus moreletii representa un emblema para los ecosistemas tropicales de México pero actualmente está amenazada por extinción. Sorprendentemente, hay una falta de información de su constitución genética, que debe ser evaluada para un manejo apropiado ex situ y para toma de decisiones en la liberación de cocodrilos a su hábitat natural. El objetivo del estudio fue caracterizar y comparar la variabilidad genética de cuatro grupos poblacionales de C. moreletii (dos silvestres y dos nacidas ex situ. Mediante PCR se amplificaron siete loci de microsatélites polimórficos, sin embargo se encontró déficit de heterocigotos en las poblaciones (promedio H O=0.02 mermado por la presencia de alelos nulos. El AMOVA indicó que la mayor proporción de variabilidad genética se encuentra dentro de las poblaciones y una limitada diferenciación genética entre poblaciones (promedio F ST =0.03, probablemente debida al alto índice de endogamia (promedio F IS=0.97. Al comparar la variabilidad genética inter e intra especies de cocodrilianos, encontramos que en C. moreletii está muy por debajo de los reportados. Se concluye que la limitada variabilidad genética de las poblaciones nacidas ex situ probablemente se debe al efecto fundador derivado de la estructura social de sus progenitores, y de las poblaciones silvestres, por el efecto cuello de botella, inferido por el limitado tamaño efectivo de población que presentó históricamente en su distribución natural.

  13. Concentración de Diclorodifeniltricloroetano (DDT) en poblaciones silvestres de Cocodrilos (Crocodylus acutus y C. Moreletti) en la zona Costera de México

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    Loa Loza, Eleazar

    2012-01-01

    Para determinar la concentración de DDT y sus metabolitos en ejemplares de cocodrilos (Crocodylus acutus y C. moreletii), durante el período de junio a diciembre de 2004 se tomaron 80 muestras de sangre en 37 localidades de 13 estados de la zona costera de México. En algunos de estos sitios, ha sido aplicado el DDT para el control del vector del paludismo. Las muestras fueron procesadas en el laboratorio mediante cromatografía de gases con detector de captura de electrones. Se realizó un anál...

  14. Adiciones a la fauna de protozoarios de los Pantanos de Villa, Lima, Perú

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    Gisella Guillén

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available En nueve estaciones ubicadas en los cuerpos de agua de los Pantanos de Villa, Chorrillos, Lima; fueron realizadas colectas mensuales entre octubre de 1999 y agosto del 2000. Se determinaron 128 especies de protozoarios distribuidos en 101 géneros, 69 familias y 28 órdenes. De las 128 especies, 73 especies son registros nuevos para los Pantanos de Villa, reportándose hasta la actualidad un total de 171 especies de protozoarios para este lugar. El grupo predominante fue el de los ciliados con el 61,72% de las especies registradas, seguidos por los mastigóforos con el 21,87% y los sarcodinos con el 16,41%. El grupo más abundante fué el de los mastigóforos con el 75% de los individuos seguido de los ciliados (19,5% y sarcodinos (4,5%.

  15. Blood biochemical of nile crocodile ( Crocodylus niloticus ) in Kano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates serum biochemistry of Nile crocodile from Kano Zoological Garden, Kano, Nigeria. Six (6) adult Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) were captured from crocodile pond. Blood was collected from post occipital sinus of the physically restrain crocodile and used for serum biochemical parameters.

  16. [Influence of three types of riparian vegetation on fluvial erosion control in Pantanos de Centla, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda-Lozada, Alejandra; Geissen, Violette; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana; Jarquín-Sánchez, Aarón; de la Cruz, Simón Hernández; Capetillo, Edward; Zamora-Cornelio, Luis Felipe

    2009-12-01

    Wetlands constitute very important ecological areas. The aim of this study was to quantify the soil losses due to fluvial erosion from 2006 to 2008 in two riverbanks under three types of vegetal coverage dominated by Haematoxylum campechianum, Dalbergia brownei and Brachiaria mutica, in the Pantanos de Centla Biosphere Reserve, SE Mexico. The relationship between the texture, organic matter and pH of soils and soil losses was evaluated. We used erosion sticks to estimate soil losses in 18 plots (three plots per type, three vegetation types, two riverbanks). Soil loss decreased in this order: H. campechianum>B. mutica>D. brownei indicating that D. brownei scrubland has the most potential to retain soil. The higher erosive impact within H. campechianum sites can be related with the low density of these trees in the study areas, as well as the lack of association with other types of vegetation that could reinforce the rooting of the soil profile. Furthermore, soil losses in H. campechianum sites were dependent on soil texture. The soils under this type of vegetal coverage were mainly sandy, which are more vulnerable to the erosive action in comparison with fine textured soils or soils with higher clay content, like the ones found in D. brownei and B. mutica sites. Soil losses of 100 % in the second year (B. mutica plots) can be attributed to the distribution of roots in the upper soil layer and also to livestock management along riverbanks. This study recognizes the importance of D. brownei scrublands in riverbank soil retention. Nevertheless it is necessary to consider the role of an entire vegetal community in future research.

  17. Crocodylus acutus (American Crocodile). Long distance juvenile movement

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    Crespo, Rafael; Beauchamp, Jeffrey S.; Mazzotti, Frank; Cherkiss, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Crocodylus acutus (American Crocodile) is the most widely distributed New World crocodilian species with its range extending from Peru in the south to the southern tip of peninsular Florida in the north. Crocodylus acutus occupies primarily coastal brackish water habitat, however it also occurs in freshwater to hypersaline habitats (Thorbjarnarson 2010. In Crocodiles. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. [Third Edition], American Crocodile Crocodylus acutus, pp. 46–53 S.C. Manolis and C. Stevenson. Crocodile Specialist Group, Darwin). There is limited literature on long distance movements of juvenile crocodilians worldwide and no literature on juvenile crocodiles in Florida. However, adult C. acutus in Florida have been documented to make seasonal movements of 5–15 km from preferred foraging habitat to nesting beaches (Mazzotti 1983. The Ecology of Crocodylus acutus in Florida. PhD Dissertation. The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania. 161pp), and one adult was documented making a 35 km trip from her nest site to preferred foraging habitat (Cherkiss et. al. 2006. Herpetol. Rev. 38:72–73). Rodda (1984. Herpetologica 40:444–451) reported on juvenile C. acutus movement in Gatun Lake, Panama, and found that juveniles stayed within 1 km of their nest site for the first month. Movements of juvenile Crocodylus porosus (Saltwater Crocodile) in a river system in Northern Australia showed a maximum movement of 38.9 km from a known nest site, with the majority of the crocodiles staying within 15.6 km downstream to 6.8 km upstream (Webb and Messel 1978. Aust. Wildlife Res. 5:263–283). Juvenile movement of Crocodylus niloticus (Nile Crocodile) in Lake Ngezi, Zimbabwe showed crocodiles restricted their movements from 1.0 km up to 4.5 km through the wet and dry seasons (Hutton 1989. Am. Zool. 29:1033–1049). Long distance movements of alligators were recorded for sizes ranging from 28 cm to 361 cm in a coastal refuge in Louisiana, where

  18. Geological record of tsunami inundations in Pantano Morghella (south-eastern Sicily both from near and far-field sources

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    F. Gerardi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of tsunami deposits from the Pantano Morghella area provided geological evidence for two inundations occurred along the south-eastern Ionian coast of Sicily. Pantano Morghella is a large pond characterised by a fine-grained sedimentation indicating a low-energy depositional environment. Two anomalous yellow sandy layers found at different depths indicate the occurrence of high-energy marine inundations. We studied sedimentological and paleontological features of the anomalous deposits as well as their spatial distribution observing the following properties: different facies with respect to the local stratigraphic sequence; erosive bases, rip-up clasts and broken elements testifying violent deposition mechanisms; macro and micro fauna of marine environment; relatively constant thickness throughout most of the depositional zone with thinning at the distal end; large sand sheets that extend inland. These observations, jointly with their infrequency in the sedimentary record and the age indicating a fast deposition, provided strong evidence for tsunami inundations. Correlations between anomalous layers and historical tsunamis are supported by radiocarbon and OSL dating results. The younger deposit is likely due to the 1908 near-source tsunami, whereas the flooding of the oldest event is most likely associated with a far and large source, the Crete 365 AD earthquake.

  19. Influencia de tres tipos de vegetación riberena en el control de la erosión fluvial en Pantanos de Centla, México

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sepúlveda, A.; Geissen, V.; Ochoa-Gaona, S.; Jarquin-Sanchez, A.; Hernandez de la Cruz, S.; Zamora-Cornelio, L.F.

    2009-01-01

    Influence of three types of riparian vegetation on fluvial erosion control in Pantanos de Centla, Mexico. Wetlands constitute very important ecological areas. The aim of this study was to quantify the soil losses due to fluvial erosion from 2006 to 2008 in two riverbanks under three types of vegetal

  20. Estado de la diversidad de la flora vascular de los Pantanos de Villa (Lima - Perú

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    Dámaso W. Ramirez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados del estudio de la flora vascular de los Pantanos de Villa realizadas en el 2007 y se analiza los cambios florísticos en los últimos años. Se registraron 47 especies silvestres comprendidas en 43 géneros y 27 familias. Las familias con mayor numero de especies fueron Poaceae (7, Cyperaceae (4 y Asteraceae (4. Se reportan 7 especies silvestres como nuevos registros para el humedal: Alternanthera pubiflora, Alternanthera halimifolia, Limnobium laevigatum, Colocasia esculenta, Rumex obtusifolius, Elodea potamogeton, Plantago major. Se encontraron 11 especies cultivadas en el ecosistema. En comparación con estudios anteriores, los resultados muestran una disminución en la riqueza florística, principalmente de las especies acuáticas. El análisis de similitud con anteriores estudios indica un cambio en la composición de la flora en el tiempo.

  1. Physical stability and clinical efficacy of Crocodylus niloticus oil lotion

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    Telanie Venter

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The stability and the anti-ageing, skin hydrating and anti-erythema effects of a commercialized Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti, 1768, Crocodylidae, oil lotion was determined. The lotion was stored at controlled conditions over six months during which several stability tests were performed. For the clinical efficacy studies lotion was applied on volar forearm skin (female volunteers and compared to a liquid paraffin-containing reference product. Skin hydrating and anti-ageing effects were determined with a Corneometer®, Cutometer® and Visioscan®, following single (3 h and multiple applications (12 weeks. The Vapometer® and Mexameter® were utilized to determine this lotion's anti-erythema effects on sodium lauryl sulfate irritated skin. The lotion demonstrated good stability over 6 months. The reference product increased skin hydration and decreased skin wrinkles to a larger extent than the C. niloticus lotion after a single application, whereas the C. niloticus lotion decreased skin scaliness better than the reference product. During the long-term study, the reference product overall increased skin hydration more than the C. niloticus lotion, whereas C. niloticus lotion increased skin elasticity to a larger extent than the reference product. C. niloticus lotion increased skin wrinkles and decreased skin scaliness over 12 weeks. Compared to non-treated, irritated skin, C. niloticus lotion demonstrated some potential anti-inflammatory characteristics.

  2. Abundance, distribution and population trends of Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) in Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zisadza-Gandiwa, P.; Gandiwa, E.; Jakarasi, J.; Westhuizen, van der H.; Muvengwi, J.

    2013-01-01

    The Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) is an iconic or keystone species in many aquatic ecosystems. In order to understand the abundance, distribution, and population trends of Nile crocodiles in Gonarezhou National Park (GNP), southeastern Zimbabwe, we carried out 4 annual aerial surveys, using

  3. Biometric observations of newborn Crocodylus acutus (Cuvier, 1807 obtained in captivity in, Tumbes, Peru

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    Oswaldo Pérez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, length and weigth measurements of 20 newborn Crocodylus acutus (Cuvier, 1807 hached in a pilot farm-bred of the aquaculture center La Tuna Carranza, Puerto Pizarro, Tumbes, Peru, in 2001 are presented. The information is compared with similar reports from others places.

  4. Algunos aspectos bioecológicos de la Trucha arcoiris en el embalse Pantano Redondo Cundinamarca, Colombia

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    Ángel Miguel Castro

    2004-07-01

    Pantano Redondo se encuentra ubicado a 6 km de Zipaquirá en la vía a Pacho, Cundinamarca. Coordenadas geográficas 5° 02’N 74° 02’O, a una altitud de 3.160 msnm., la vegetación circundante de coníferas y parches de vegetación nativa. La trucha arcoiris (Onchorhynchus mikiss es un salmonido que presenta cuerpo alargado, fusiforme y cabeza que termina en una boca grande puntiaguda, hendida hacia el nivel de los ojos y con una fila de dientes fuertes en cada una de las mandíbulas que le permiten aprisionar las presas. Onchorhynchus significa nariz ganchuda, característica que se manifiesta con mayor énfasis en los machos en la época de reproducción. Este estudio pretende ofrecer criterios para un adecuado manejo piscícola del embalse, conociendo cuantitativamente y cualitativamente el alimento natural ingerido por la trucha arcoiris. Teniendo en cuenta la inquietud de los pescadores en cuanto a la talla de las presas capturadas a través de todo el año, comparadas con las recolectadas en otros sitios del país. Los parámetros físico-químicos indican una gran uniformidad en cuanto a los componentes medidos y similares condiciones en todas las profundidades haciendo que los hábitats de las truchas sean similares, aunque los ambientes poco profundos originaran condiciones para que las macrófitas o plantas acuáticas originen un hábitat diferente y recurso alimentario para las truchas. La condición uniforme no es similar a las condiciones originarias de las truchas ya que la estacionalidad climática promueve una eutroficación de los hábitats mientras que la uniformidad de condiciones da como origen una disponibilidad de alimento semejante en todo el año. A través del desarrollo de este estudio se observó que la oferta  limenticia favorece los individuos de las tallas 23,2 cm a la 28,3 cm, además de que la zona litoral del embalse es la abastecedora del alimento y que son los insectos el ítem más importante dentro de su espectro

  5. Imaging 2D structures by the CSAMT method: application to the Pantano di S. Gregorio Magno faulted basin (Southern Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troiano, Antonio; Di Giuseppe, Maria Giulia; Petrillo, Zaccaria; Patella, Domenico

    2009-01-01

    A controlled source audiofrequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) survey has been undertaken in the Pantano di San Gregorio Magno faulted basin, an earthquake prone area of Southern Apennines in Italy. A dataset from 11 soundings, distributed along a nearly N-S 780 m long profile, was acquired in the basin's easternmost area, where the fewest data are available as to the faulting shallow features. A preliminary skew analysis allowed a prevailing 2D nature of the dataset to be ascertained. Then, using a single-site multi-frequency approach, Dantzig's simplex algorithm was introduced for the first time to estimate the CSAMT decomposition parameters. The simplex algorithm, freely available online, proved to be fast and efficient. By this approach, the TM and TE mode field diagrams were obtained and a N35°W ± 10° 2D strike mean direction was estimated along the profile, in substantial agreement with the fault traces within the basin. A 2D inversion of the apparent resistivity and phase curves at seven almost noise-free sites distributed along the central portion of the profile was finally elaborated, reinforced by a sensitivity analysis, which allowed the best resolved portion of the model to be imaged from the first few meters of depth down to a mean depth of 300 m b.g.l. From the inverted section, the following features have been outlined: (i) a cover layer with resistivity in the range 3–30 Ω m ascribed to the Quaternary lacustrine clayey deposits filling the basin, down to an average depth of about 35 m b.g.l., underlain by a structure with resistivity over 50 Ω m up to about 600 Ω m, ascribed to the Mesozoic carbonate bedrock; (ii) a system of two normal faults within the carbonate basement, extending down to the maximum best resolved depth of the order of 300 m b.g.l.; (iii) two wedge-shaped domains separating the opposite blocks of the faults with resistivity ranging between 30 Ω m and 50 Ω m and horizontal extent of the order of some tens of metres, likely

  6. A genetic linkage map for the saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus

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    Lance Stacey L

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome elucidation is now in high gear for many organisms, and whilst genetic maps have been developed for a broad array of species, surprisingly, no such maps exist for a crocodilian, or indeed any other non-avian member of the Class Reptilia. Genetic linkage maps are essential tools for the mapping and dissection of complex quantitative trait loci (QTL, and in order to permit systematic genome scans for the identification of genes affecting economically important traits in farmed crocodilians, a comprehensive genetic linage map will be necessary. Results A first-generation genetic linkage map for the saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus was constructed using 203 microsatellite markers amplified across a two-generation pedigree comprising ten full-sib families from a commercial population at Darwin Crocodile Farm, Northern Territory, Australia. Linkage analyses identified fourteen linkage groups comprising a total of 180 loci, with 23 loci remaining unlinked. Markers were ordered within linkage groups employing a heuristic approach using CRIMAP v3.0 software. The estimated female and male recombination map lengths were 1824.1 and 319.0 centimorgans (cM respectively, revealing an uncommonly large disparity in recombination map lengths between sexes (ratio of 5.7:1. Conclusion We have generated the first genetic linkage map for a crocodilian, or indeed any other non-avian reptile. The uncommonly large disparity in recombination map lengths confirms previous preliminary evidence of major differences in sex-specific recombination rates in a species that exhibits temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD. However, at this point the reason for this disparity in saltwater crocodiles remains unclear. This map will be a valuable resource for crocodilian researchers, facilitating the systematic genome scans necessary for identifying genes affecting complex traits of economic importance in the crocodile industry. In addition

  7. An outbreak of chlamydiosis in farmed Indopacific crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus : clinical communication

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    F.W. Huchzermeyer

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of chlamydiosis was diagnosed in hatchling and juvenile Indopacific crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus on a crocodile farm in Papua New Guinea. The outbreak was characterised by high mortality with hepatitis and exudative conjunctivitis. The agent appears to have been introduced with live wild-caught crocodiles, which are purchased routinely by the farm. Improved quarantine procedures and treatment with tetracycline led to a rapid reduction of losses on the farm.

  8. Studies on Tongue of Reptilian Species Psammophis sibilans, Tarentola annularis and Crocodylus niloticus

    OpenAIRE

    El-Sayyad, Hassan I.H; Sabry, Dalia A; Khalifa, Soad A; Abou-El-Naga, Amora M; Foda, Yosra A

    2011-01-01

    Three different reptilian species Psammophis sibilans (Order Ophidia), Tarentola annularis (Order Squamata and Crocodylus niloticus (Order Crocodylia) are used in the present study. Their tongue is removed and examined morphologically. Their lingual mucosa examined under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as well as processed for histological investigation. Gross morphological studies revealed variations of tongue gross structure being elongated with bifurcated end in P. sibilans or triangula...

  9. Gastric nematodes of Nile crocodiles, Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti, 1768, in the Okavango River, Botswana

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    K. Junker

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The ascaridoid nematodes Dujardinascaris madagascariensis Chabaud & Caballero, 1966, Dujardinascaris dujardini (Travassos, 1920, Gedoelstascaris vandenbrandeni (Baylis, 1929 Sprent, 1978 and Multicaecum agile (Wedl, 1861 Baylis, 1923 were recovered from the stomach contents of Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti, 1768 from the Okavango River, Botswana, together with Eustrongylides sp., a dioctophymatoid nematode usually parasitizing piscivorous birds. Dujardinascaris madagascariensis was present in most of the infected hosts, while the remaining species were mostly represented in single collections in one to three hosts. All four ascaridoid nematodes represent new geographic records.

  10. PRIMER REGISTRO DE EPIBIONTES EN EJEMPLARES JUVENILES DE CROCODYLUS ACUTUS EN EL MEDIO SILVESTRE

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    CUPUL-MAGAÑA FABIO GERMÁN

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Se registra por vez primera la presencia de cuatro géneros de diatomeas (Amphora, Cymbella, Navicula y Nitzschia, un alga azul-verde del género Trichodesmium y colonias de protozoarios ciliados del género Epistylis, como epibiontes de cocodrilos de río juveniles (Crocodylus acutus. Los epibiontes se encontraron en la región ventral del cuerpo de cocodrilos juveniles, menores de 75 cm de largo, capturados en el estero Boca Negra, Jalisco, México.

  11. Evaluating the effect of salinity on a simulated American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) population with applications to conservation and Everglades restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, P.M.; Mooij, W.M.; DeAngelis, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    Everglades restoration will alter the hydrology of South Florida, affecting both water depth and salinity levels in the southern fringes of the Everglades, the habitat of the endangered American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus). A key question is what the effects of these hydrologic changes will be on

  12. Identification of the Nile crocodile Crocodylus niloticus by the use of natural tail marks

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    D.G.J. Swanepoel

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available The tail marks of 190 Nile crocodiles Crocodylus niloticus were documented and processed into codes. The size of the crocodiles varied from 45 cm to 4.6 m in total length. Wherever possible, both sides of the tails were observed and the marks documented. In all remaining instances only one side could be identified. A total of 267 sides were identified. The natural marks on nine segments of a specific portion of the tail was recorded and compared as codes. For this comparison two methods were employed. Differences of 95.1 and 100 was found with the respective methods. This is an indication that every crocodile has a unique pattern of natural marks on its tail. The marks can therefore be used to allocate a code to an individual crocodile that partially eliminates the necessity of artificial marking methods.

  13. Osteoarthropathy of unknown aetiology in the long bones of farmed and wild Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus

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    Fritz W. Huchzermeyer

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Humeri of farmed and wild Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus collected during routine post-mortem examinations were boiled, cleaned and examined for lesions. Various degrees of gross bone and articular pathology were found. The lesions were situated predominantly at the proximal and distal epiphyseal and metaphyseal regions of the bone, where growth and bone remodelling occurs. In advanced cases partial collapse of the articular surface could be identified. From the collection of crocodile bones five particular cases are described. Because of the wide distribution of origin of the affected animals, nutritional or toxicological causes seem unlikely. One of the cases presented was associated with mycoplasmosis. These forms of crocodilian bone pathology need further investigation.

  14. Current status of Marsh Crocodiles Crocodylus palustris (Reptilia: Crocodylidae in Vishwamitri River, Vadodara City, Gujarat, India

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    R. Vyas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Data presented here is based on a three year study (2008-2010 on a population of Mugger Crocodylus palustris inhabiting Vishwamitri River near Vadodara City, Gujarat State, India. In total, 155 Muggers were counted in the 25km river stretch during 2010. In all, 40 burrows were observed along the river bank, and the same were clumped in certain sections of the river. Muggers fed eight species of birds, and domestic livestock in addition to scavenging. Eight instances of human-crocodile conflicts were observed including four human causalities. A total 90 Muggers were rescued from the urban areas and the same were relocated elsewhere in the river system. Various types of threats to Mugger were also noticed including habitat loss, alteration and soil erosion and mortality due to rail traffic. The present study suggests further research to propose strategies to conserve this population.

  15. Identification of the Nile crocodile Crocodylus niloticus by the use of natural tail marks

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    D.G.J. Swanepoel

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The tail marks of 190 Nile crocodiles Crocodylus niloticus were documented and processed into codes. The size of the crocodiles varied from 45 cm to 4.6 m in total length. Wherever possible, both sides of the tails were observed and the marks documented. In all remaining instances only one side could be identified. A total of 267 sides were identified. The natural marks on nine segments of a specific portion of the tail was recorded and compared as codes. For this comparison two methods were employed. Differences of 95.1 and 100 was found with the respective methods. This is an indication that every crocodile has a unique pattern of natural marks on its tail. The marks can therefore be used to allocate a code to an individual crocodile that partially eliminates the necessity of artificial marking methods.

  16. Technique for the collection of clear urine from the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus

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    Jan G. Myburgh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Urine samples can be a very useful diagnostic tool for the evaluation of animal health. In this article, a simple technique to collect urine from the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus was described, based on a similar unpublished technique developed for the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis using a canine urinary catheter. With this technique, it was possible to collect relatively clean urine samples from Nile crocodiles of different sizes using canine urinary catheters or small diameter stomach tubes. Based on the gross anatomical features of the cloaca of the Nile crocodile, it was confirmed that urine accumulates in a chamber consisting of the urodeum and coprodeum. Faecal material is stored temporarily in the very short rectum, which is separated from the urinary chamber by the rectocoprodeal sphincter.

  17. Normal haematology and blood biochemistry of wild Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

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    C.J. Lovely

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Wild Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus of various size classes were captured in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Blood was collected from the post occipital sinus and used for the determination of a wide range of haematological and biochemical parameters. These values were compared between the sexes and between 3 size classes. The values were also compared with the limited data available from farmed Nile crocodiles, as well as from other wild Nile crocodiles. The Okavango crocodiles were comparatively anaemic, and had comparatively low total protein and blood glucose levels. There was a high prevalence of Hepatozoon pettiti infection, however, there was no significant difference in haematological values between the infected and uninfected crocodiles. The values reported here will be useful in diagnostic investigations in both zoo and farmed Nile crocodiles.

  18. Population genetics implications for the conservation of the Philippine Crocodile Crocodylus mindorensis Schmidt, 1935 (Crocodylia: Crocodylidae)

    OpenAIRE

    M.R.P. Hinlo; J.A.G. Tabora; C.A. Bailey; S. Trewick; G. Rebong; M.V. Weerd; C.C. Pomares; S.E. Engberg; R.A. Brenneman; E.E. Louis, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Limited information is available on the Philippine Crocodile, Crocodylus mindorensis, concerning levels of genetic diversity either relative to other crocodilian species or among populations of the species itself. With only two known extant populations of C. mindorensis remaining, potentially low levels of genetic diversity are a conservation concern. Here, we evaluated 619 putative Philippine Crocodiles using a suite of 11 microsatellite markers, and compared them to four other crocodilian s...

  19. Notas sobre la reproducción en cautiverio de Crocodylus acutus (Cuvier, 1807 en el Perú

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    Oswaldo Pérez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Durante los años 2001 y 2002 se realizaron observaciones sobre la reproducción de Crocodylus acutus (Cuvier, 1807 en el Centro de Acuicultura La Tuna Carranza, localizado en Puerto Pizarro, departamento de Tumbes. El tamaño mínimo de una hembra anidando fue de 2,30 m. El porcentaje de viabilidad y natalidad fue de 61,71% y 93,15% respectivamente.

  20. Evaluación del proteinograma plasmático del cocodrilo cubano (Crocodylus rhombifer

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    Vivian Morera

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available El cocodrilo cubano (Crocodylus rhombifer es una especie endémica de Cuba y en Peligro Crítico de extinción. Con el objetivo de preservar esta especie en la Ciénaga de Zapata, Matanzas, Cuba se mantiene una población en cautiverio. El manejo de una especie en esta categoría tiene como componente esencial el conocimiento del estado de salud de los animales en las diferentes etapas de la vida. El estudio de las proteínas plasmáticas constituye una herramienta eficaz en la clínica veterinaria para determinar la presencia de enfermedades en los cocodrilos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el proteinograma plasmático en cuanto a la concentración total de proteínas en el plasma de Crocodylus rhombifer y a las concentraciones de sus fracciones proteicas. Las muestras se tomaron de 35 ejemplares cautivos clínicamente sanos, divididos en dos categorías: juvenil (n=20 y sub-adulto (n=15. Adicionalmente, se tomaron muestras de 8 ejemplares procedentes del medio natural. La concentración total de proteínas en el plasma se determinó mediante el método colorimétrico del ácido bicinconílico. Las proteínas del plasma fueron fraccionadas empleando electroforesis en geles de agarosa y electroforesis en gel de poliacrilamida en presencia de dodecil sulfato sódico. Mediante espectrometría de masas se identificaron las principales proteínas plasmáticas. La identificación por espectrometría de masas mostró la presencia de albúmina fosforilada en el plasma de los animales. Los valores de concentración total de proteínas y de albúmina fueron mayores en los animales cautivos que en los de medio natural, siendo más altos los de la categoría sub-adulto. Contrariamente, las γ globulinas presentaron mayores valores de concentración en los animales procedentes del medio natural. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en la concentración de las fracciones proteicas entre animales en las distintas etapas del desarrollo. En la

  1. Forelimb muscle and joint actions in Archosauria: insights from Crocodylus johnstoni (Pseudosuchia and Mussaurus patagonicus (Sauropodomorpha

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    Alejandro Otero

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Many of the major locomotor transitions during the evolution of Archosauria, the lineage including crocodiles and birds as well as extinct Dinosauria, were shifts from quadrupedalism to bipedalism (and vice versa. Those occurred within a continuum between more sprawling and erect modes of locomotion and involved drastic changes of limb anatomy and function in several lineages, including sauropodomorph dinosaurs. We present biomechanical computer models of two locomotor extremes within Archosauria in an analysis of joint ranges of motion and the moment arms of the major forelimb muscles in order to quantify biomechanical differences between more sprawling, pseudosuchian (represented the crocodile Crocodylus johnstoni and more erect, dinosaurian (represented by the sauropodomorph Mussaurus patagonicus modes of forelimb function. We compare these two locomotor extremes in terms of the reconstructed musculoskeletal anatomy, ranges of motion of the forelimb joints and the moment arm patterns of muscles across those ranges of joint motion. We reconstructed the three-dimensional paths of 30 muscles acting around the shoulder, elbow and wrist joints. We explicitly evaluate how forelimb joint mobility and muscle actions may have changed with postural and anatomical alterations from basal archosaurs to early sauropodomorphs. We thus evaluate in which ways forelimb posture was correlated with muscle leverage, and how such differences fit into a broader evolutionary context (i.e. transition from sprawling quadrupedalism to erect bipedalism and then shifting to graviportal quadrupedalism. Our analysis reveals major differences of muscle actions between the more sprawling and erect models at the shoulder joint. These differences are related not only to the articular surfaces but also to the orientation of the scapula, in which extension/flexion movements in Crocodylus (e.g. protraction of the humerus correspond to elevation/depression in Mussaurus. Muscle

  2. Nesting ecology of Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus in the Olifants River, Kruger National Park

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    D.G.J. Swanepoel

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Data on the nesting behaviour of Crocodylus niloticus along the Olifants River in the Kruger National Park were collected over a period of six years (1993 to 1998. A total of 165 nests were investigated for soil type, exposure to sunlight, distance to and above water, presence of other nests and vegetation. An attempt was made to determine important factors in the placement of nests, and exposure to sunlight, vegetation and distance to water seemed to be crucial in selecting a nesting site. During the last two seasons 20 nests were opened and the nest contents recorded. Some 795 eggs were measured and the data compared to similar studies in Africa. No significant differences were found. A strong correlation was found between egg mass, length and female size with larger females producing larger eggs. Rainfall influenced the size of nesting females as only larger females (>3 m TL nested during the dry year. Breeding females along the Olifants were overall larger (TL than in Zimbabwe with 2.1 m as the smallest and 4.1 as the largest females that nested.

  3. Aeromonas hydrophila-associated skin lesions and septicaemia in a Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus : clinical communication

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    H. Turutoglu

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila is one of the most common bacteria associated with the aquatic environment. There are , however, limited data on A. hydrophila infection in crocodilians. The aim of this report is to describe a case of skin lesions and septicaemia associated with A. hydrophila in a Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus. A captive male crocodile in the Zoological Park of Antalya (Turkey was found dead without showing signs of any disease. Gross examination showed brown or red-spotted skin lesions of varying size. These lesions were mostly scattered over the abdomen and occasionally on the tail and feet. At necropsy, numerous white, multifocal and randomly distributed areas were seen on the liver. Gram-stained smears from skin and liver lesions showed Gram-negative bacilli arranged in clusters. Pure cultures of A. hydrophila were recovered from skin, internal organs and blood. Isolates were found to be susceptible to ceftiofur, amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, oxytetracycline, enrofloxacin, danofloxacin, neomycin, gentamicin, and lincomycin + neomycin. A pathogenicity test was performed using this isolate on 4 male 2-year-old New Zealand white rabbits. Local abscesses formed in 2 rabbits injected subcutaneously and the 2 that were injected intraperitoneally died as a result of septicaemia. In conclusion, this report has shown that A. hydrophila may cause skin lesions and even death due to septicaemia in crocodiles.

  4. Population genetics implications for the conservation of the Philippine Crocodile Crocodylus mindorensis Schmidt, 1935 (Crocodylia: Crocodylidae

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    M.R.P. Hinlo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Limited information is available on the Philippine Crocodile, Crocodylus mindorensis, concerning levels of genetic diversity either relative to other crocodilian species or among populations of the species itself. With only two known extant populations of C. mindorensis remaining, potentially low levels of genetic diversity are a conservation concern. Here, we evaluated 619 putative Philippine Crocodiles using a suite of 11 microsatellite markers, and compared them to four other crocodilian species sample sets. The two remaining populations from the island of Luzon and the island of Mindanao, representing the extremes of the former species’ distribution, appear to be differentiated as a result of genetic drift rather than selection. Both extant populations demonstrate lower genetic diversity and effective population sizes relative to other studied crocodilian species. The 57 C. mindorensis and C. porosus, Saltwater Crocodile, hybrids identified earlier from the Palawan Wildlife Rescue and Conservation Center were revalidated with a suite of 20 microsatellite loci; however, the timing of the event and the prevalence of hybridization in the species had yet to be fully determined. We defined the hybrids as one first cross from a C. porosus female and a C. mindorensis male and 56 C. mindorensis backcross individuals. This hybridization event appears to be confined to the PWRCC collection.

  5. Bioactive compounds from crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) white blood cells induced apoptotic cell death in hela cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patathananone, Supawadee; Thammasirirak, Sompong; Daduang, Jureerut; Chung, Jing Gung; Temsiripong, Yosapong; Daduang, Sakda

    2016-08-01

    Crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) white blood cell extracts (WBCex) were examined for anticancer activity in HeLa cell lines using the MTT assay. The percentage viability of HeLa cells significantly deceased after treatment with WBCex in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The IC50 dose was suggested to be approximately 225 μg/mL protein. Apoptotic cell death occurred in a time-dependent manner based on investigation by flow cytometry using annexin V-FITC and PI staining. DAPI nucleic acid staining indicated increased chromatin condensation. Caspase-3, -8 and -9 activities also increased, suggesting the induction of the caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway. Furthermore, the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm ) of HeLa cells was lost as a result of increasing levels of Bax and reduced levels of Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, Bcl-Xs, and XIAP. The decreased ΔΨm led to the release of cytochrome c and the activation of caspase-9 and -3. Apoptosis-inducing factor translocated into the nuclei, and endonuclease G (Endo G) was released from the mitochondria. These results suggest that anticancer agents in WBCex can induce apoptosis in HeLa cells via both caspase-dependent and -independent pathways. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 986-997, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Molecular structures of centromeric heterochromatin and karyotypic evolution in the Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) (Crocodylidae, Crocodylia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawagoshi, Taiki; Nishida, Chizuko; Ota, Hidetoshi; Kumazawa, Yoshinori; Endo, Hideki; Matsuda, Yoichi

    2008-01-01

    Crocodilians have several unique karyotypic features, such as small diploid chromosome numbers (30-42) and the absence of dot-shaped microchromosomes. Of the extant crocodilian species, the Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) has no more than 2n = 30, comprising mostly bi-armed chromosomes with large centromeric heterochromatin blocks. To investigate the molecular structures of C-heterochromatin and genomic compartmentalization in the karyotype, characterized by the disappearance of tiny microchromosomes and reduced chromosome number, we performed molecular cloning of centromeric repetitive sequences and chromosome mapping of the 18S-28S rDNA and telomeric (TTAGGG)( n ) sequences. The centromeric heterochromatin was composed mainly of two repetitive sequence families whose characteristics were quite different. Two types of GC-rich CSI-HindIII family sequences, the 305 bp CSI-HindIII-S (G+C content, 61.3%) and 424 bp CSI-HindIII-M (63.1%), were localized to the intensely PI-stained centric regions of all chromosomes, except for chromosome 2 with PI-negative heterochromatin. The 94 bp CSI-DraI (G+C content, 48.9%) was tandem-arrayed satellite DNA and localized to chromosome 2 and four pairs of small-sized chromosomes. The chromosomal size-dependent genomic compartmentalization that is supposedly unique to the Archosauromorpha was probably lost in the crocodilian lineage with the disappearance of microchromosomes followed by the homogenization of centromeric repetitive sequences between chromosomes, except for chromosome 2.

  7. Manejo de cocodrilos (Crocodylus acutus) en estanques de cultivo de tilapia en Cañas, Guanacaste

    OpenAIRE

    Bolaños, Juan Rafael

    2012-01-01

    En la cuenca baja del Tempisque se han incrementado los avistamientos de cocodrilos (Crocodylus acutus) en cuerpos de agua naturales y artificiales. Este trabajo describe un plan implementado para operacionalizar el control de cocodrilos en estanques con cultivo de tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). De acuerdo con él se redujo el consumo de producto por parte de cocodrilos y se potenció la seguridad de los trabajadores en esos estanques. Durante seis años de actividad, el plan evolucionó desde ...

  8. Continuous Infraclavicular Block for Forearm Amputation After Being Bitten by a Saltwater Crocodile (Crocodylus Porosus: A Case Report

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    Chin-Hsi Chiu

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Two important issues after a complete right forearm amputation are replantation and ongoing pain management. There are no reports of successful forearm replantation as a consequence of a crocodile bite. Here, we discuss our pain management in a case of complete forearm amputation after a bite from a saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus, which necessitated six further operations to achieve successful replantation. Continuous infraclavicular brachial plexus block was effective for acute pain control in this case. We strongly recommend performing the block with an indwelling catheter under ultrasound guidance for higher accuracy and safety.

  9. Recovery rates, serotypes, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Salmonellae isolated from cloacal swabs of wild Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) in Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mogens; Hangartner, P.; West, K.

    1998-01-01

    Samples from the cloaca and the ventral skin surface of 67 Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) captured in four uninhabited areas at Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe, were cultured for Salmonella. All the skin samples tested negative for Salmonella, whereas 18 of 67 (26.9%) cloacal samples grew Salmonell...

  10. Systemic infection by Spencermartinsiella sp. in a Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Furtado de Carvalho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Um crocodilo macho adulto (Crocodylus niloticus foi diagnosticado com infecção fúngica sustêmica. Histologicamente, havia extensas áreas de necrose no pulmão, que estavam associadas com infiltrado inflamatório linfo-plasmo-histiocitário, com numerosas células gigantes multinucleadas e miríade de pseudo-hifas e organismos leveduriformes intralesionais, dentro de favéolas distendidas. Focos necróticos também foram observados na mucosa do trato digestório, traquéia, túnica íntima de artérias, fígado e coração, com acentuado infiltrado inflamatório linfo-histiocitário, com grande número de macrófagos epitelioides e células gigantes e hifas e organismos leveduriformes intralesionais e intravasculares. Cortes corados por PAS e GMS evidenciaram estruturas leveduriformes ovais com 4 a 6 μm de diâmetro e pseudo-hifas de paredes espessas e paralelas com 5 a 8 μm. PCR realizado com DNA extraído de material parafinizado amplificou os domínios D1/D2 da subunidade maior do gene rRNA, cuja sequencia foi idêntica a sequências de uma nova espécie, isolada no Brasil de madeira em decomposição, do gênero Spencermartinsiella, cuja espécie mais próxima é Spencermartinsiella cellulosicola.

  11. Ecological aspects of the plains Cayman (Crocodylus Graves intermedius, 1819) in a sub areal distribution in the Arauca Department (Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonilla Centeno, Olga Patricia; Barahona Buitrago, Sandra I

    1999-01-01

    Some behavioral and ecological aspects were observed in a remaining population of Crocodylus intermedius found in a Colombian region called Arauca, in the rivers Cravo Norte, Ele, Lipa, Casanare and Cano Matepalma. The behaviors during the daily activity were different among the adult animals studied. These surveys were carried out during the dry season in 1994 and 1995. Behaviors of nesting and parental care were observed. The nesting period took place from late December in 1994 to mid January in 1995. The crocodilian eggs hatched from mid march to the beginning of April. According to the data collected, the clutch size for this region is 20 to 34 eggs. Seven zones of clutching were found. Big holes, observed after the hatching, suggest that maybe the female crocodiles open the nest when the young are emerging from the eggs. The group of animals found is placed in a zone, which has optimal biotic and a biotic aspects. However the inhabitants of this region are an enormous pressure factor upon Crocodylus intermedius

  12. Crecimiento del caimán del Orinoco (Crocodylus intermedius, Crocodylia: Crocodylidae en dos condiciones de cautiverio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldeima T Pérez T

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available para determinar el crecimiento del caimán del Orinoco (Crocodylus intermedius, en diferentes condiciones de cautiverio, se criaron 40 ejemplares durante 11 meses y 15 días. Se utilizaron dos tanques circulares, con una superficie de 28.3 m² y un volumen de 62.2 m³, construidos con bloques de concreto y protegidos con techo de láminas galvanizadas e internamente cubiertos con láminas de resina. Un tanque fue cubierto parcialmente con láminas galvanizadas (Tanque I y el otro se techó totalmente (Tanque II. Se colocaron 20 cocodrilos en cada tanque y a los dos grupos se les administró una dieta compuesta por 85% de carne de res, 10% de carne de pescado, 5% de huevos de gallina y mezcla de minerales y vitaminas. El crecimiento en longitud total y peso difirió entre grupos (p Growth of the Orinoco Caiman (Crocodylus intermedius, Crocodylia: Crocodylidae under two captivity conditions. In order to determine the growth of Caiman of the Orinoco (Crocodylus intermedius under two conditions of captivity, 40 specimens were raised during 11 months and 15 days in two circular tanks, with 28.3 m² of surface area and a volume of 62.2 m³ in each tank. The tanks were built with concrete walls and guarded blocks covered internally with sheets of myrrhlike resin, and a roof of galvanized sheets. One tank was covered partially with the galvanized sheets (tank I, the other was totally covered (tank II. Twenty caimans were placed in each tank, and both groups were fed with 85% beef, 10% fresh fish, 5% hen eggs and a mixture of minerals and vitamins. The length and weight differed significantly between the groups (p < 0.001. Mean growth (103.0 ± 6.81 cm and weight (3 987 ± 0.98 g were higher in tank II, (tank I: 88.9 ± 7.58 cm; 2 705 ± 0.69 g. The greater growth in tank II reflects higher air and water temperatures. The survival rate was 97.5%. These results can be used for rearing caimans in captivity for conservation and commercial purposes. Rev

  13. Antibacterial activity of plasma from crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis against pathogenic bacteria

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    Kommanee Jintana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis is a critically endangered species of freshwater crocodiles. Crocodilians live with opportunistic bacterial infection but normally suffer no adverse effects. They are not totally immune to microbial infection, but their resistance thereto is remarkably effective. In this study, crude and purified plasma extracted from the Siamese crocodile were examined for antibacterial activity against clinically isolated, human pathogenic bacterial strains and the related reference strains. Methods Crude plasma was prepared from whole blood of the Siamese crocodile by differential sedimentation. The crude plasma was examined for antibacterial activity by the liquid growth inhibition assay. The scanning electron microscopy was performed to confirm the effect of crude crocodile plasma on the cells of Salmonella typhi ATCC 11778. Effect of crude crocodile plasma on cell viability was tested by MTT assay. In addition, the plasma was purified by anion exchange column chromatography with DEAE-Toyopearl 650 M and the purified plasma was tested for antibacterial activity. Results Crude plasma was prepared from whole blood of the Siamese crocodile and exhibited substantial antibacterial activities of more than 40% growth inhibition against the six reference strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus epidermidis, and the four clinical isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, and Vibrio cholerae. Especially, more than 80% growth inhibition was found in the reference strains of Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholerae, and Staphylococcus epidermidis and in the clinical isolates of Salmonella typhi and Vibrio cholerae. The effect of the crude plasma on bacterial cells of Salmonella typhi, a certain antibacterial material probably penetrates progressively into the cytoplasmic space

  14. Aislamiento y serotipificación de Salmonella sp. en estanques con Crocodylus intermedius y testudines cautivos en Villavicencio - Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Pachón C.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la presencia de microorganismos del género Salmonella sp. en el ambiente acuático de los ejemplares Crocodylus intermedius y testudines en la Estación de Biología Tropical Roberto Franco (EBTRF. Materiales y métodos. En este estudio se utilizó la metodología estándar para aislar e identificar microorganismos del género Salmonella sp., a partir de muestras de agua y sedimento de 52 estanques (nEstanques Crocodylus=25; nEstanques testudines=27; se procedió a serotipificar los aislamientos por el método convencional de Kaufmann-White y se realizaron pruebas de sensibilidad a antimicrobianos por la técnica de Kirby Bauer. Resultados. Se determinó la presencia de Salmonella sp., en un 33% del total de estanques muestreados. El 29% de los aislamientos de Salmonella sp. serotipificados, correspondió al serogrupo B; los serogrupos C, C1, C2 y D1 presentaron menores porcentajes. Con las pruebas de sensibilidad a antimicrobianos se determinó que el 100% de los aislamientos fueron sensibles a norfloxacina. Conclusiones. La ocurrencia de Salmonella sp., en los estanques de la EBTRF fue del 33%, con la mayor presencia del serogrupo B, donde se encuentran especies con características ampliamente zoonóticas. Con los resultados obtenidos es necesario el seguimiento de las normas de bioseguridad establecidas en la estación para el manejo de las poblaciones allí mantenidas y evitar de esa manera la ocurrencia de cuadros zoonóticos.

  15. Evaluación espacio-temporal de la vegetación y uso del suelo en la Reserva de la Biosfera Pantanos de Centla, Tabasco (1990-2000

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    Verónica Guerra Martínez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Se identificó y cuantificó la variación espacial de los tipos de vegetación y usos del suelo en la Reserva de la Biosfera Pantanos de Centla, Tabasco durante 1990 y 2000. Se generaron bases geográficas digitales referentes a geología, edafología, hidrología, temperaturas mínimas, temperaturas máximas, precipitación, vías de comunicación y localidades. La información fue almacenada en un sistema de información geográfica. Se clasificaron escenas del satélite Landsat MSS −de 1992− y Landsat ETM −del 2000. Se generaron mapas de vegetación y uso del suelo para 1990 y 2000 basados en puntos de verificación. Los mapas generados fueron sobrepuestos para obtener un mapa de cambios y una matriz de variación. Las tasas de cambio por pérdida anual se estimaron en 6.06% (selva de puckté y 34.96% (selva de tinto; en tanto que la tasa de incremento anual fue de 1.15% (manglar, 0.72% (comunidades de hidrófitas y 27.82% (pastizal. Los cambios encontrados se relacionaron con la presencia de carreteras pavimentadas, localidades y canales, siendo éstos últimos los que más afectaron. Los resultados muestran que las comunidades de hidrófitas, pastizales y cuerpos de agua se desplazaron a todas las unidades de suelo y geología. Los cambios encontrados pueden atribuirse a diversas causas: los incendios, apertura de vías de comunicación, actividades petroleras, sobreexplotación de recursos, expansión ganadera, tala para extracción de madera y quema intencional para captura de especies.

  16. General morphology of the oral cavity of the Nile crocodile, Crocodylus niloticus (Laurenti, 1768. I. Palate and gingivae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F. Putterill

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The heads of nine 2.5 to 3-year-old Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus were obtained from a commercial farm where crocodiles are raised for their skins and meat. The animals from which these specimens originated were clinically healthy at the time they were slaughtered. A detailed description of the macroscopic and microscopic features of the palate and gingivae of the Nile crocodile is presented and the results are compared with published information on this species and other Crocodylia. The histological features are supplemented by information supplied by scanning electron microscopy. Macroscopic features of interest are the small conical process situated at the base of the first two incisors of the maxilla, the distribution of cobbled units on the palate, and the broad dentary shelf forming the rostral aspect of the mandible. Histologically the palate and gingivae did not differ significantly from each other and both regions showed a presence of Pacinian-type corpuscles. Two types of sensory structures (taste receptors and pressure receptors were identified in the regions examined, both involving modification of the epithelium and the underlying connective tissue.

  17. The mitochondrial genomes of the iguana (Iguana iguana) and the caiman (Caiman crocodylus): implications for amniote phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, A; Erpenbeck, D; Nilsson, M; Arnason, U

    2001-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genomes of two reptiles, the common iguana (Iguana iguana) and the caiman (Caiman crocodylus), were sequenced in order to investigate phylogenetic questions of tetrapod evolution. The addition of the two species allows analysis of reptilian relationships using data sets other than those including only fast-evolving species. The crocodilian mitochondrial genomes seem to have evolved generally at a higher rate than those of other vertebrates. Phylogenetic analyses of 2889 amino-acid sites from 35 mitochondrial genomes supported the bird-crocodile relationship, lending no support to the Haematotherma hypothesis (with birds and mammals representing sister groups). The analyses corroborated the view that turtles are at the base of the bird-crocodile branch. This position of the turtles makes Diapsida paraphyletic. The origin of the squamates was estimated at 294 million years (Myr) ago and that of the turtles at 278 Myr ago. Phylogenetic analysis of mammalian relationships using the additional outgroups corroborated the Marsupionta hypothesis, which joins the monotremes and the marsupials to the exclusion of the eutherians. PMID:11297180

  18. Digital dissection and three-dimensional interactive models of limb musculature in the Australian estuarine crocodile (Crocodylus porosus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada J Klinkhamer

    Full Text Available Digital dissection is a relatively new technique that has enabled scientists to gain a better understanding of vertebrate anatomy. It can be used to rapidly disseminate detailed, three-dimensional information in an easily accessible manner that reduces the need for destructive, traditional dissections. Here we present the results of a digital dissection on the appendicular musculature of the Australian estuarine crocodile (Crocodylus porosus. A better understanding of this until now poorly known system in C. porosus is important, not only because it will expand research into crocodilian locomotion, but because of its potential to inform muscle reconstructions in dinosaur taxa. Muscles of the forelimb and hindlimb are described and three-dimensional interactive models are included based on CT and MRI scans as well as fresh-tissue dissections. Differences in the arrangement of musculature between C. porosus and other groups within the Crocodylia were found. In the forelimb, differences are restricted to a single tendon of origin for triceps longus medialis. For the hindlimb, a reduction in the number of heads of ambiens was noted as well as changes to the location of origin and insertion for iliofibularis and gastrocnemius externus.

  19. Ecología poblacional de Crocodylus acutus en los sistemas estuarinos de San Blas, Nayarit, México Population ecology of Crocodylus acutus in the estuarine systems of San Blas, Nayarit, Mexico

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    Helios Hernández-Hurtado

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se realizó en los meses de junio 2005 y febrero 2006 (estiaje, y en octubre 2005 y octubre 2007 (lluvias, en los esteros de San Blas. El objetivo fue caracterizar la población de cocodrilos a partir de su distribución y abundancia, El método utilizado consistió en recorridos nocturnos en los esteros, para contabilizar el número de individuos por kilómetro. Se realizaron 6 transectos recorriendo un total de 89 kilómetros. Los transectos A, B y C presentaron una densidad que osciló entre 2.68 y 4.31 ind/km o 0.05 ind/ha con 26 nidos activos, 6 tipos de vegetación y salinidad de 11.03‰ en estiaje a 4.92‰ en lluvias. Los transectos D, E y F presentaron una densidad que osciló entre 0.014 y 0.36 ind/km o 0.002 ind/ha, sin nidos, 1 tipo de vegetación y salinidad qosciló de 35.85‰ en estiaje a 24.56‰ en lluvias. Se obtuvo la similitud estadística en A, B y C= 80%, D y E= 70% y en F= 10% respecto a los demás. La población estimada fue de 333 cocodrilos, registrando todas las clases-talla, donde el hábitat disponible presenta las características necesarias para que Crocodylus acutus realice su ciclo biológico.This study was conducted in San Blas estuaries during June 2005 and February 2006 (dry season and October 2005 and October 2007 (rainy season. The purpose was to describe the population of crocodiles according to its distribution and abundance. Spotlight surveys counting animals found per kilometer were done navigating 89 kilometers in 6 transects. Transects A, B and C had a density from 2.68 to 4.31 crocodiles/kilometer or 0.05 crocodiles/ha, with 26 active nests, 6 different types of vegetation and salinity from 11.03‰ in dry season to 4.92‰ in rainy season. Transects D, E and F had a density from 0.014 to 0.36 crocodiles/km or 0.002 crocodiles/ha, any nest was found, 1 single type of vegetation and salinity from 35.85‰ in dry season to 24.56‰ in rainy season. Statistical similarity in

  20. Population assessment of the American crocodile, Crocodylus acutus (Crocodilia: Crocodylidae on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie A. Mauger

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The American crocodile, Crocodylus acutus, is widely distributed in the American neotropics. It is endangered throughout most of its range and is listed as vulnerable by the International Union for the Conservation of Natural Fauna and Flora (IUCN and on Appendix I of the Convention for the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES. Despite this listing, there are few published reports on population status throughout most of its range. We investigated the status of the C. acutus, at several locations along the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. We carried out spotlight and nesting surveys from 2007-2009 along the Costa Rican Pacific coast in four distinct areas, coastal areas of Las Baulas (N=40 and Santa Rosa (N=9 National Parks and the Osa Conservation Area (N=13, and upriver in Palo Verde National Park (N=11. We recorded crocodile locations and standard environmental data at each observation. Encounter rates, population structure, distribution within each area and data on successful nesting (presence of hatchlings, nests, etc were determined. We attempted to capture all crocodiles to record standard morphometrics. A total of 586 crocodiles were observed along 185.8km of survey route. The majority of animals encountered (54.9% were either hatchlings (El cocodrilo americano, Crocodylus acutus, se encuentra ampliamente distribuido en el neotrópico Americano y hay pocos estudios publicados sobre el estado de sus poblaciones en la mayor parte de su rango de distribución. Investigamos el estado del Cocodylus acutus en varias ubicaciones a lo largo de la costa del Pacífico de Costa Rica. Se realizaron muestreos nocturnos y de anidación a lo largo de la Costa Pacífica de Costa Rica en cuatro áreas en particular desde 2007-2009,’áreas costeras en los Parque Nacionales de Las Baulas (N=40 y Santa Rosa (N=9, y en el Área de Conservación de la Osa (N=13 y en el curso alto del Parque Nacional de Palo Verde (N=11. Se

  1. Dead or Alive? Factors Affecting the Survival of Victims during Attacks by Saltwater Crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Fukuda

    Full Text Available Conflicts between humans and crocodilians are a widespread conservation challenge and the number of crocodile attacks is increasing worldwide. We identified the factors that most effectively decide whether a victim is injured or killed in a crocodile attack by fitting generalized linear models to a 42-year dataset of 87 attacks (27 fatal and 60 non-fatal by saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus in Australia. The models showed that the most influential factors were the difference in body mass between crocodile and victim, and the position of victim in relation to the water at the time of an attack. In-water position (for diving, swimming, and wading had a higher risk than on-water (boating or on-land (fishing, and hunting near the water's edge positions. In the in-water position a 75 kg person would have a relatively high probability of survival (0.81 if attacked by a 300 cm crocodile, but the probability becomes much lower (0.17 with a 400 cm crocodile. If attacked by a crocodile larger than 450 cm, the survival probability would be extremely low (<0.05 regardless of the victim's size. These results indicate that the main cause of death during a crocodile attack is drowning and larger crocodiles can drag a victim more easily into deeper water. A higher risk associated with a larger crocodile in relation to victim's size is highlighted by children's vulnerability to fatal attacks. Since the first recently recorded fatal attack involving a child in 2006, six out of nine fatal attacks (66.7% involved children, and the average body size of crocodiles responsible for these fatal attacks was considerably smaller (384 cm, 223 kg than that of crocodiles that killed adults (450 cm, 324 kg during the same period (2006-2014. These results suggest that culling programs targeting larger crocodiles may not be an effective management option to improve safety for children.

  2. Population assessment of the American crocodile, Crocodylus acutus (Crocodilia: Crocodylidae on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie A. Mauger

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The American crocodile, Crocodylus acutus, is widely distributed in the American neotropics. It is endangered throughout most of its range and is listed as vulnerable by the International Union for the Conservation of Natural Fauna and Flora (IUCN and on Appendix I of the Convention for the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES. Despite this listing, there are few published reports on population status throughout most of its range. We investigated the status of the C. acutus, at several locations along the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. We carried out spotlight and nesting surveys from 2007-2009 along the Costa Rican Pacific coast in four distinct areas, coastal areas of Las Baulas (N=40 and Santa Rosa (N=9 National Parks and the Osa Conservation Area (N=13, and upriver in Palo Verde National Park (N=11. We recorded crocodile locations and standard environmental data at each observation. Encounter rates, population structure, distribution within each area and data on successful nesting (presence of hatchlings, nests, etc were determined. We attempted to capture all crocodiles to record standard morphometrics. A total of 586 crocodiles were observed along 185.8km of survey route. The majority of animals encountered (54.9% were either hatchlings (<0.5m or juveniles (0.5-1.25m. The average non-hatchling encounter rate per survey for the Pacific coast was 3.1 crocodiles/km, with individual encounter rates ranging from 1.2 crocodiles/km to 4.3 crocodiles/ km in Las Baulas National Park and the Osa Conservation Area respectively. Distribution of size classes within the individual locations did not differ with the exception of Santa Rosa and Las Baulas National Parks, where hatchlings were found in water with lower salinities. These were the first systematic surveys in several of the areas studied and additional work is needed to further characterize the American crocodile population in Costa Rica.

  3. Purification, characterization, cloning and structural analysis of Crocodylus siamensis ovotransferrin for insight into functions of iron binding and autocleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaipayang, Sukanya; Songsiriritthigul, Chomphunuch; Chen, Chun-Jung; Palacios, Philip M; Pierce, Brad S; Jangpromma, Nisachon; Klaynongsruang, Sompong

    2017-10-01

    Ovotransferrin (OTf), the major protein constituent of egg white, is of great interest due to its pivotal role in biological iron transport and storage processes and its spontaneous autocleavage into peptidic fragments with alternative biological properties, such as antibacterial and antioxidant activities. However, despite being well-investigated in avian, a detailed elucidation of the structure-function relationship of ovotransferrins in the closely related order of Crocodilia has not been reported to date. In this study, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) confirmed the presence of two spectroscopically distinct ferric iron binding sites in Crocodylus siamensis OTf (cOTf), but implied a five-fold lower quantity of bound iron than in hen OTf (hOTf). In addition, quantitative estimation of free sulfhydryl groups revealed slight differences to hOTf. To gain a better structural understanding of cOTf, we found a cOTf gene consisting of an open reading frame of 2040bp and encoding a protein of 679 amino acids. In silico prediction of the three-dimensional structure of cOTf and comparison with hOTf revealed four evolutionarily conserved iron-binding sites in both N- and C-lobes, as well as the presence of only 13 of the 15 disulfide bonds in hOTf. This evolutionary loss of disulfide linkages in conjunction with the lack of hydrogen bonding from a dilysine trigger in the C-lobe are presumed to affect the iron binding and autocleavage character of cOTf. As a result, cOTf may be capable of exerting a more diverse array of functions compared to its avian counterparts; for instance, ion buffering, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Dead or Alive? Factors Affecting the Survival of Victims during Attacks by Saltwater Crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Yusuke; Manolis, Charlie; Saalfeld, Keith; Zuur, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Conflicts between humans and crocodilians are a widespread conservation challenge and the number of crocodile attacks is increasing worldwide. We identified the factors that most effectively decide whether a victim is injured or killed in a crocodile attack by fitting generalized linear models to a 42-year dataset of 87 attacks (27 fatal and 60 non-fatal) by saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) in Australia. The models showed that the most influential factors were the difference in body mass between crocodile and victim, and the position of victim in relation to the water at the time of an attack. In-water position (for diving, swimming, and wading) had a higher risk than on-water (boating) or on-land (fishing, and hunting near the water's edge) positions. In the in-water position a 75 kg person would have a relatively high probability of survival (0.81) if attacked by a 300 cm crocodile, but the probability becomes much lower (0.17) with a 400 cm crocodile. If attacked by a crocodile larger than 450 cm, the survival probability would be extremely low (drag a victim more easily into deeper water. A higher risk associated with a larger crocodile in relation to victim's size is highlighted by children's vulnerability to fatal attacks. Since the first recently recorded fatal attack involving a child in 2006, six out of nine fatal attacks (66.7%) involved children, and the average body size of crocodiles responsible for these fatal attacks was considerably smaller (384 cm, 223 kg) than that of crocodiles that killed adults (450 cm, 324 kg) during the same period (2006-2014). These results suggest that culling programs targeting larger crocodiles may not be an effective management option to improve safety for children.

  5. Distribution patterns and predilection muscles of Trichinella zimbabwensis larvae in experimentally infected Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti

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    Louis J. La Grange

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available No controlled studies have been conducted to determine the predilection muscles of Trichinella zimbabwensis larvae in Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus or the influence of infection intensity on the distribution of the larvae in crocodiles. The distribution of larvae in muscles of naturally infected Nile crocodiles and experimentally infected caimans (Caiman crocodilus and varans (Varanus exanthematicus have been reported in literature. To determine the distribution patterns of T. zimbabwensis larvae and predilection muscles, 15 crocodiles were randomly divided into three cohorts of five animals each, representing high infection (642 larvae/kg of bodyweight average, medium infection (414 larvae/kg of bodyweight average and low infection (134 larvae/kg of bodyweight average cohorts. In the high infection cohort, high percentages of larvae were observed in the triceps muscles (26% and hind limb muscles (13%. In the medium infection cohort, high percentages of larvae were found in the triceps muscles (50%, sternomastoid (18% and hind limb muscles (13%. In the low infection cohort, larvae were mainly found in the intercostal muscles (36%, longissimus complex (27%, forelimb muscles (20% and hind limb muscles (10%. Predilection muscles in the high and medium infection cohorts were similar to those reported in naturally infected crocodiles despite changes in infection intensity. The high infection cohort had significantly higher numbers of larvae in the sternomastoid, triceps, intercostal, longissimus complex, external tibial flexor, longissimus caudalis and caudal femoral muscles (p < 0.05 compared with the medium infection cohort. In comparison with the low infection cohort, the high infection cohort harboured significantly higher numbers of larvae in all muscles (p < 0.05 except for the tongue. The high infection cohort harboured significantly higher numbers of larvae (p < 0.05 in the sternomastoid, triceps, intercostal, longissimus complex

  6. Life histories and conservation of long-lived reptiles, an illustration with the American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs-Gonzalez, Venetia; Bonefant, Christophe; Basille, Mathieu; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Beauchamp, Jeff; Mazzotti, Frank J.

    2017-01-01

    Successful species conservation is dependent on adequate estimates of population dynamics, but age-specific demographics are generally lacking for many long-lived iteroparous species such as large reptiles. Accurate demographic information allows estimation of population growth rate, as well as projection of future population sizes and quantitative analyses of fitness trade-offs involved in the evolution of life-history strategies.Here, a long-term capture–recapture study was conducted from 1978 to 2014 on the American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) in southern Florida. Over the study period, 7,427 hatchlings were marked and 380 individuals were recaptured for as many as 25 years. We estimated survival to be strongly age dependent with hatchlings having the lowest survival rates (16%) but increasing to nearly 90% at adulthood based on mark–recapture models. More than 5% of the female population were predicted to be reproductive by age 8 years; the age-specific proportion of reproductive females steadily increased until age 18 when more than 95% of females were predicted to be reproductive. Population growth rate, estimated from a Leslie–Lefkovitch stage-class model, showed a positive annual growth rate of 4% over the study period.Using a prospective sensitivity analysis, we revealed that the adult stage, as expected, was the most critical stage for population growth rate; however, the survival of younger crocodiles before they became reproductive also had a surprisingly high elasticity. We found that variation in age-specific fecundity has very limited impact on population growth rate in American crocodiles.We used a comparative approach to show that the original life-history strategy of American crocodiles is actually shared by other large, long-lived reptiles: while adult survival rates always have a large impact on population growth, this decreases with declining increasing growth rates, in favour of a higher elasticity of the juvenile stage.Crocodiles, as

  7. Abundancia y estructura poblacional de Crocodylus acutus (Reptilia: Crocodylidae en la laguna Palmasola, Oaxaca, México

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    Jesús García-Grajales

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available La abundancia y estructura poblacional son pará-metros importantes para evaluar y comparar el estatus de conservación de una población a través del tiempo en un área determinada. Este estudio describe la abundancia y estructura poblacional de Crocodylus acutus en la laguna Palmasola, Oaxaca. El trabajo consistió en recorridos nocturnos, entre las 21 y 24h, durante la fase de luna nueva para contabilizar el número de individuos y obtener estimaciones poblacionales. El tamaño poblacional estimado fluctuó de 32.7 a 93 individuos según el modelo utilizado. Las tasas de encuentro registradas fluctuaron de 32 a 109.3 ind/km lineal durante los 40 recorridos efectuados con un tiempo promedio de navegación de 18 minutos. Existió una marcada dominancia de la clase III (subadultos, seguido por la clase II y en menor proporción las clases IV y V, así como aquellos individuos en los que no se pudo determinar el tamaño corporal, en ambas épocas del año. Mientras tanto, los individuos juveniles (Clase II se observaron en mayor proporción asociados al manglar que cubre las orillas del cuerpo de agua (26.1%, los individuos subadultos (Clase III a menudo se observaron sobre el espejo de agua sin vegetación flotante (22.7% y entre el manglar que cubre las orillas del cuerpo de agua (15.7%, mientras que los ejemplares adultos se observaron con mayor frecuencia sobre el espejo de agua sin vegetación flotante (9.7%. Con la presente información se contribuye al conocimiento de la ecología poblacional de C. acutus en la laguna Palmasola donde el tamaño poblacional estimado parece mostrar valores altos con respecto a lo reportado en otros estados de la República Mexicana.

  8. Extensive homology of chicken macrochromosomes in the karyotypes of Trachemys scripta elegans and Crocodylus niloticus revealed by chromosome painting despite long divergence times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, F; O'Brien, P C M; Martin, S; Ferguson-Smith, M A

    2012-01-01

    We report extensive chromosome homology revealed by chromosome painting between chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus, GGA, 2n = 78) macrochromosomes (representing 70% of the chicken genome) and the chromosomes of a turtle, the red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans, TSC, 2n = 50), and the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus, CNI, 2n = 32). Our data show that GGA1-8 arms seem to be conserved in the arms of TSC chromosomes, GGA1-2 arms are separated and homologous to CNI1p, 3q, 4q and 5q. In addition to GGAZ homologues in our previous study, large-scale GGA autosome syntenies have been conserved in turtle and crocodile despite hundreds of millions of years divergence time. Based on phylogenetic hypotheses that crocodiles diverged after the divergence of birds and turtles, our results in CNI suggest that GGA1-2 and TSC1-2 represent the ancestral state and that chromosome fissions followed by fusions have been the mechanisms responsible for the reduction of chromosome number in crocodiles. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. The post-occipital spinal venous sinus of the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus: Its anatomy and use for blood sample collection and intravenous infusions

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    Jan G. Myburgh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The post-occipital sinus of the spinal vein is often used for the collection of blood samples from crocodilians. Although this sampling method has been reported for several crocodilian species, the technique and associated anatomy has not been described in detail in any crocodilian, including the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus. The anatomy of the cranial neck region was investigated macroscopically, microscopically, radiographically and by means of computed tomography. Latex was injected into the spinal vein and spinal venous sinus of crocodiles to visualise the regional vasculature. The spinal vein ran within the vertebral canal, dorsal to and closely associated with the spinal cord and changed into a venous sinus cranially in the post-occipital region. For blood collection, the spinal venous sinus was accessed through the interarcuate space between the atlas and axis (C1 and C2 by inserting a needle angled just off the perpendicular in the midline through the craniodorsal cervical skin, just cranial to the cranial borders of the first cervical osteoderms. The most convenient method of blood collection was with a syringe and hypodermic needle. In addition, the suitability of the spinal venous sinus for intravenous injections and infusions in live crocodiles was evaluated. The internal diameter of the commercial human epidural catheters used during these investigations was relatively small, resulting in very slow infusion rates. Care should be taken not to puncture the spinal cord or to lacerate the blood vessel wall using this route for blood collection or intravenous infusions.

  10. Biotransformation and Oxidative Stress Responses in Captive Nile Crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus Exposed to Organic Contaminants from the Natural Environment in South Africa.

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    Augustine Arukwe

    Full Text Available In the present study, the biotransformation and oxidative stress responses in relation to chemical burden in the liver of male and female Nile crocodiles--Crocodylus niloticus--from a commercial crocodile farm passively exposed to various anthropogenic aquatic pollutants was investigated. In general, the data showed that male crocodiles consistently produced higher biotransformation and oxidative stress responses compared to females. Relationships between these responses and concentrations of aliphatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were also observed. Specifically, the catalytic assays for EROD and BROD (not PROD and MROD showed sex-differences between male and female crocodiles and paralleled immunochemically determined CYP1A and CYP3A protein levels; the relatively similar levels of PAHs in both sexes suggest an estrogen-mediated reduction of this pathway in females. The antioxidant system exhibited higher levels in male crocodiles with slight or significant higher values for catalase (CAT, glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidases-H2O2 (GPx-H2O2, glutathione peroxidases-Cu (GPx-Cu, total antioxidant capacity towards peroxyl radicals (TOSC-ROO and hydroxyl radicals (TOSC-HO, total glutathione (GSH and malondialdehyde (MDA. On the other hand, the activities of acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX and glutathione S-transferases (GST were significantly higher in females. Principal component analysis (PCA produced significant groupings that revealed correlative relationships (both positive and negative between biotransformation/oxidative stress variables and liver PAHs and aliphatic hydrocarbon burden. The overall results suggest that these captive pre-slaughter crocodiles exhibited adverse exposure responses to anthropogenic aquatic contaminants with potentially relevant effects on key cellular pathways, and these responses may be established as relevant species biomarkers of exposure and effects in this endangered species.

  11. Biotransformation and Oxidative Stress Responses in Captive Nile Crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) Exposed to Organic Contaminants from the Natural Environment in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arukwe, Augustine; Røsbak, Randi; Adeogun, Aina O.; Langberg, Håkon A.; Venter, Annette; Myburgh, Jan; Botha, Christo; Benedetti, Maura; Regoli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the biotransformation and oxidative stress responses in relation to chemical burden in the liver of male and female Nile crocodiles—Crocodylus niloticus—from a commercial crocodile farm passively exposed to various anthropogenic aquatic pollutants was investigated. In general, the data showed that male crocodiles consistently produced higher biotransformation and oxidative stress responses compared to females. Relationships between these responses and concentrations of aliphatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were also observed. Specifically, the catalytic assays for EROD and BROD (not PROD and MROD) showed sex-differences between male and female crocodiles and paralleled immunochemically determined CYP1A and CYP3A protein levels; the relatively similar levels of PAHs in both sexes suggest an estrogen-mediated reduction of this pathway in females. The antioxidant system exhibited higher levels in male crocodiles with slight or significant higher values for catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidases-H2O2 (GPx-H2O2), glutathione peroxidases-Cu (GPx-Cu), total antioxidant capacity towards peroxyl radicals (TOSC-ROO) and hydroxyl radicals (TOSC-HO), total glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA). On the other hand, the activities of acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX) and glutathione S-transferases (GST) were significantly higher in females. Principal component analysis (PCA) produced significant groupings that revealed correlative relationships (both positive and negative) between biotransformation/oxidative stress variables and liver PAHs and aliphatic hydrocarbon burden. The overall results suggest that these captive pre-slaughter crocodiles exhibited adverse exposure responses to anthropogenic aquatic contaminants with potentially relevant effects on key cellular pathways, and these responses may be established as relevant species biomarkers of exposure and effects in this endangered species. PMID

  12. Multiple Paternity in a Reintroduced Population of the Orinoco Crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius) at the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi Lafferriere, Natalia A; Antelo, Rafael; Alda, Fernando; Mårtensson, Dick; Hailer, Frank; Castroviejo-Fisher, Santiago; Ayarzagüena, José; Ginsberg, Joshua R; Castroviejo, Javier; Doadrio, Ignacio; Vilá, Carles; Amato, George

    2016-01-01

    The success of a reintroduction program is determined by the ability of individuals to reproduce and thrive. Hence, an understanding of the mating system and breeding strategies of reintroduced species can be critical to the success, evaluation and effective management of reintroduction programs. As one of the most threatened crocodile species in the world, the Orinoco crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius) has been reduced to only a few wild populations in the Llanos of Venezuela and Colombia. One of these populations was founded by reintroduction at Caño Macanillal and La Ramera lagoon within the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela. Twenty egg clutches of C. intermedius were collected at the El Frío Biological Station for incubation in the lab and release of juveniles after one year. Analyzing 17 polymorphic microsatellite loci from 335 hatchlings we found multiple paternity in C. intermedius, with half of the 20 clutches fathered by two or three males. Sixteen mothers and 14 fathers were inferred by reconstruction of multilocus parental genotypes. Our findings showed skewed paternal contributions to multiple-sired clutches in four of the clutches (40%), leading to an overall unequal contribution of offspring among fathers with six of the 14 inferred males fathering 90% of the total offspring, and three of those six males fathering more than 70% of the total offspring. Our results provide the first evidence of multiple paternity occurring in the Orinoco crocodile and confirm the success of reintroduction efforts of this critically endangered species in the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela.

  13. Multiple Paternity in a Reintroduced Population of the Orinoco Crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius at the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela.

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    Natalia A Rossi Lafferriere

    Full Text Available The success of a reintroduction program is determined by the ability of individuals to reproduce and thrive. Hence, an understanding of the mating system and breeding strategies of reintroduced species can be critical to the success, evaluation and effective management of reintroduction programs. As one of the most threatened crocodile species in the world, the Orinoco crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius has been reduced to only a few wild populations in the Llanos of Venezuela and Colombia. One of these populations was founded by reintroduction at Caño Macanillal and La Ramera lagoon within the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela. Twenty egg clutches of C. intermedius were collected at the El Frío Biological Station for incubation in the lab and release of juveniles after one year. Analyzing 17 polymorphic microsatellite loci from 335 hatchlings we found multiple paternity in C. intermedius, with half of the 20 clutches fathered by two or three males. Sixteen mothers and 14 fathers were inferred by reconstruction of multilocus parental genotypes. Our findings showed skewed paternal contributions to multiple-sired clutches in four of the clutches (40%, leading to an overall unequal contribution of offspring among fathers with six of the 14 inferred males fathering 90% of the total offspring, and three of those six males fathering more than 70% of the total offspring. Our results provide the first evidence of multiple paternity occurring in the Orinoco crocodile and confirm the success of reintroduction efforts of this critically endangered species in the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela.

  14. Informe sobre reptiles colombianos. III: investigaciones sobre la anatomía craneal; distribución geográfica y ecología de Crocodylus Intermedius (Graves en Colombia Informe sobre reptiles colombianos. III: investigaciones sobre la anatomía craneal; distribución geográfica y ecología de Crocodylus Intermedius (Graves en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medem Fred

    1958-09-01

    Full Text Available 1. The present paper includes studies about the Cranial Anatomy, Geographical Distribution and Ecology of Crocodylus intermedius in Colombia.    2. The material has been collected from the areas of the rivers Guaviare, Ariari, Güéjar and Cunimía. It consists of sixteen skulls and fifty-four fetus-containing eggs.                                                          3. A detailed description of the skulls is given, the lengths of which range between 25.4 cm. and 70.7 cm.                                                                                 4. Concerning the scalation: there is a single row of occipitals containing between 2 and 6 individual scutes: two rows of cervicals, the first containing 4 and the second 2 scales. The dorsals are in 16-17 transverse rows, the broadest of which contains 5-6 individual scales. The ventrals are in 25 to 27½ transverse, rows, the broadest of which contains between 14 and 18 individual scales. The tail has between 17 and 19 double-crested, and 17 to 19 single-crested segments.  The scalation of 4 fetus does not show any special characteristics.              5. The coloration of Cr. intermedius varies between light-grey in juveniles and greyish green, light brown to yellowish in adults. The greenish color is due to the extensive growth of algae on the dorsal side. There are dark marks and spots on the entire dorsal and lateral sides as well as on the ventral side of the tail. The throat and belly are white and without marks. The colour of living specimens on sand banks, in bright sun appears almost white.               6. Cr. intermedius ranges, in Colombia, between the Rio Arauca in the east and the lower course of the Río Duda in the west. No intermedius are to be found in the rivers Vaupés. Caquetá and Putumayo (tributaries of

  15. Variación genética y flujo de genes entre poblaciones de Crocodylus acutus (Crocodylia: Crocodylidae en tres ríos del Pacífico Central, Costa Rica

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    Laura Patricia Porras Murillo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizó la técnica de ADN Polimórfico Amplificado al Azar (RAPD para analizar muestras de ADN de 70 individuos de C. acutus provenientes de los ríos Jesús María, Tárcoles y Tusubres en el Pacífico Central de Costa Rica para estimar la diversidad genética, la diferenciación entre poblaciones, el flujo genético y la distancia genética. La diversidad genética fue baja en los tres ríos H = 0.2201 en el río Jesús María, 0.2358 en el río Tárcoles y 0.2589 en el río Tusubres. La diversidad genética para el total de los individuos también fue baja, H = 0.2452. Entre las tres poblaciones hay una dinámica metapoblacional (G ST = 0.0367 principalmente en las poblaciones de los ríos Jesús María y Tárcoles. El valor de flujo genético (Nm = 13.1361 y el número de individuos registrado para cada río por Porras (2004 sugieren que la población del río Tárcoles está cumpliendo el papel de fuente y las de Jesús María y Tusubres constituyen los sumideros. Hubo relación directa entre la distancia genética y la distancia geográfica (z = 1.1449, r = 0.9731, pThe crocodylid Crocodylus acutus is found in the Central Pacific of Costa Rica only in small populations, and the species is protected by law. RAPD was used to analyze 70 DNA samples of Crocodylus acutus from the rivers Jesus Maria, Tarcoles and Tusubres in the Central Pacific of Costa Rica in order to estimate genetic diversity, differentiation among populations, gene flow and genetic distance between them. Genetic diversity was low in the three rivers, H = 0.2201 in the Jesus Maria river, 0.2358 in the Tarcoles river and 0.2589 in the Tusubres river. Among the three populations there is a metapopulational dynamic (GST = 0.0367, mainly between the populations of the Jesus Maria and Tarcoles rivers. The value of gene flow (Nm = 13.1361 and the number of individuals reported for each river in 2004 suggests that the population of the Tarcoles river is the source and those

  16. Aislamiento e identificación de microorganismos entéricos en muestras ambientales y cloacales en Crocodylus intermedius y testudines de la Estación de Biología Tropical Roberto Franco en Villavicencio, Colombia

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    C. A. Moreno

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Los microorganismos entéricos han sido frecuentemente reportados como patógenos enmamíferos, aves, peces, reptiles y humanos, a pesar de hacer parte de su flora normal intestinal.La Estación de Biología Tropical Roberto Franco (EBTRF, lidera el programade recuperación del Caimán Llanero (Crocodylus intermedius, que se encuentra en inminentepeligro de extinción; adicionalmente cuenta con una colección viva de Testudinesque comprende más de 20 especies. Con el fin de determinar la presencia de potencialesenteropatógenos en el hábitat de los ejemplares, se obtuvieron 129 muestras ambientalesy cloacales de las especies allí encontradas; se utilizó el medio de cultivo CHROMagarOrientaciónBD® para realizar los aislamientos y la identificación microbiológica. Los resultadosmuestran una mayor presentación de flora gram negativa predominando microorganismosde los géneros (28%, Klebsiella sp (26%, Salmonella sp.(6%, Proteus sp (3% y Citrobacter sp. (1% Sin embargo, microorganismos del géneroEnterococcus sp. (gram positivo, fueron hallados en un mayor porcentaje (31% en todaslas muestras sin importar el origen de las mismas. Conscientes del riesgo que implica elaislamiento de microorganismos entéricos que pueden presentar un carácter zoonótico,se dio inicio a la implementación de un manual de bioseguridad para la Estación con elfin disminuir el riesgo para la población humana y animal.

  17. Aislamiento e identificación de microorganismos entéricos en muestras ambientales y cloacales en Crocodylus intermedius y Testudines de la Estación de Biología Tropical Roberto Franco en Villav icencio, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Pachón

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Los microorganismos entéricos han sido frecuentemente reportados como patógenos en mamíferos, aves, peces, reptiles y humanos, a pesar de hacer parte de su flora normal intestinal. La Estación de Biología Tropical Roberto Franco (EBTRF, lidera el programa de recuperación del Caimán Llanero ( Crocodylus intermedius , que se encuentra en inminente peligro de extinción; adicionalmente cuenta con una colección viva de Testudines que comprende más de 20 especies. Con el fin de determinar la presencia de potenciales enteropatógenos en el hábitat de los ejemplares, se obtuvieron 129 muestras ambientales y cloacales de las especies allí encontradas; se utilizó el medio de cultivo CHROMagar Orientación BD® para realizar los aislamientos y la identificación microbiológica. Los resultados muestran una mayor presentación de flora gram negativa predominando microorganismos de los géneros Escherichia coli (28%, Klebsiella sp (26%, Salmonella sp. (6%, Proteus sp (3% y Citrobacter sp. (1% Sin embargo, microorganismos del género Enterococcus sp. (gram positivo, fueron hallados en un mayor porcentaje (31% en todas las muestras sin importar el origen de las mismas. Conscientes del riesgo que implica el aislamiento de microorganismos entéricos que pueden presentar un carácter zoonótico, se dio inicio a la implementación de un manual de bioseguridad para la Estación con el fin disminuir el riesgo para la población humana y animal.

  18. Evidence for Wild Crocodiles as a Risk for Human Leptospirosis, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Flores, Jonathan; Charruau, Pierre; Cedeño-Vázquez, Rogelio; Atilano, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    Sentinel species such as crocodilians are used to monitor the health of ecosystems. However, few studies have documented the presence of zoonotic diseases in wild populations of these reptiles. Herein we analyzed 48 serum samples from Crocodylus acutus (n = 34) and C. moreletii (n = 14) from different sites in the state of Quintana Roo (Mexico) to detect antibodies to Leptospira interrogans by means of a microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Crocodylus acutus and C. moreletii tested positive to 11 and 9 serovars, respectively, with Grippotyphosa being the serovar with the highest prevalence in Cozumel island (100%), Banco Chinchorro Biosphere Reserve (70.6%), and Río Hondo (100%), while in Chichankanab Lake, it was Bratislava (75%). Titers ranged from 1:50 to 1:3200, and the most frequent was 1:50 in all study sites. Leptospira is present in fresh and saltwater individuals due to the resistance of the bacterium in both environments. Cases of infected people involved with crocodile handling and egg collection suggest that these reptiles could play an important role in the transmission of leptospirosis. Preventive medicine programs should consider the monitoring of reptiles, and testing the soil and water, to prevent outbreaks of leptospirosis in facilities containing crocodiles.

  19. A third case of amelia in Morelet's crocodile from the Yucatan Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charruau, Pierre; Niño-Torres, Carlos A

    2014-07-03

    Congenital defects in crocodilians have received little interest. In the context of global change and increasing threats to biodiversity, data on birth defects occurring in wildlife could be of importance for estimating the health of species populations and their ecosystems. Herein, we report the first case of amelia (i.e. absence of limbs) in Morelet's crocodiles Crocodylus moreletii from Mexico and the third on the southern Yucatan Peninsula. The crocodile in question was a juvenile (41 cm total length) captured in July 2012 in the Río Hondo, the river that forms the border between Mexico and Belize south of the state of Quintana Roo. The prevalence of this malformation in the C. moreletii population of Río Hondo (0.35%) is similar to that reported in 2 previous cases in Belize. Several causes of birth defects in crocodilians have previously been cited in the literature. Although we do not have relevant information to elucidate this case, we discuss some plausible explanations for this birth defect.

  20. Analysis of Siamese Crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) Eggshell Proteome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikšík, Ivan; Pataridis, Statis; Eckhardt, Adam; Sedmera, David

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 1 (2018), s. 21-37 ISSN 1572-3887 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01948S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02972S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : protein s of eggshell * eggshell pigment * crocodile Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 1.139, year: 2016

  1. Assessment of Captive Management of Nile Crocodile, Crocodylus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The number of crocodiles and the number of eggs were of the constraints faced in managing them in captivity. The constraints mentioned includes inadequate space (75%) and inadequate funds (62.5%). Others includes problems of water, fighting among the crocodiles, diseases and parasites. The main recommendation is ...

  2. Prenatal Development of Crocodylus niloticus niloticus Laurenti, 1768

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peterka, Miroslav; Sire, J. Y.; Hovořáková, Mária; Procházka, Jan; Fougeirol, L.; Peterková, Renata; Viriot, L.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 314, č. 5 (2010), s. 353-368 ISSN 1552-5007 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/07/0223 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : crocodile s * prenatal development Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 2.373, year: 2010

  3. CONSERVACIÓN INTEGRAL DEL PATRIMONIO ARQUEOLÓGICO BAJO UNA PERPESCTIVA DE MANEJO EN LOS PANTANOS DE CENTLA, TABASCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Feria C.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad las necesidades de conservación y protección se han acentuado, existe ahora la participación de agentes culturales y organismos nacionales e internacionales interesados en la preservación de los bienes culturales como transmisores importantes de un legado histórico. Es aquí donde el Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia debe generar diferentes estrategias para regular el funcionamiento del mismo a través de una adecuada estrategia de gestión basada en la conservación integral involucrando de manera planificada todos aquellos proyectos enfocados a proteger el patrimonio arqueológico; abarcando desde la investigación arqueológica y la restauración, pasando por todo el ámbito de educación y difusión, hasta todo lo que tiene que ver con cuestiones administrativas y las cuestiones legales con una visión sustentable. Se hace así una propuesta metodológica para elaborar un documento de manejo tomando como referente el caso del Municipio de Centla, Tabasco, conformada por una serie de programas que contempla: Programa de Investigación, Programa de Conservación, Programa de Interpretación, Programa de Participación Social, Programa de Infraestructura y Servicios. Considerando que las primeras acciones que se deben de llevar a cabo previas a integrar esta propuesta de manejo sean: Identificación del patrimonio, Diagnóstico del patrimonio, Identificación de actores e Identificar la puesta en valor del patrimonio.Una vez que se obtenga esta información se podrá continuar con la elaboración de un esquema de manejo que deberá de finalizar en un documento avalado por todas las áreas sustantivas del Instituto.

  4. Sobre la memoria, la conciencia y el pensamiento en América Latina. Entre la laguga y el pantano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Tasso

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available En el presente texto se desarrollan algunas rutas de análisis en torno a la pregunta ¿cómo incorporar éticamente el problema en sus acciones cotidianas, y del mismo modo, cómo evitar las exitosas estrategias del olvido y la indiferencia?; Se hace énfasis en la ganada importancia que tienen los procesos populares sobre todo juveniles, en tanto que, gracias a sus narrativas, acrecientan y triunfan cotidianamente sobre las retóricas autoritarias que buscan silenciar la memoria. Some routes of analyses around the following question: How to incorporate ethically the problem in their daily actions, and similarly, how to avoid the successful strategies of oblivion and indifference? are addressed in this paper. Certain emphasis is made on the gained importance that the popular processes have specially those related to the youth, while, thanks to their narratives, they increase and succeed, on a daily basis, over the authoritarian rhetoric seeking to silence memory.

  5. Mercury and metallothioneins in blood fractions and tissues of captive Morelet's crocodiles in Quintana Roo, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buenfil-Rojas, A M; Alvarez-Legorreta, T; Cedeño-Vázquez, J R

    2018-05-01

    Even though studies of heavy metals and their relation with metallothioneins (MTs) in reptile tissues have been conducted, research on heavy metals and MTs in organs and blood fractions of crocodylians is limited. To date there are no studies on the distribution of MTs in organs and their relation with mercury (Hg), or the concentration of MTs in plasma and erythrocytes of crocodylians. In order to understand the role of MTs in crocodiles, our aim was to assess the detoxification mechanisms for exposure to metals in Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) by using two biomarkers (Hg and MTs) in blood fractions and tissues, and comparing them with concentrations between two populations of crocodiles, one previously wild and currently captive (Theme Park) and another raised in a Wildlife Management Unit (WMU). The caudal scutes from the Theme Park showed higher concentrations of Hg than those from the skin in the WMU samples, and significant negative relationships were observed between the total length (TL) and Hg in the scutes. The significant negative relationship between Hg and hemoglobin (Hb) may be due to disorders in the oxidation process and even denature of this protein, while the positive trend observed between MTs and Hb is consistent with the detoxifying functions and the protection against oxidative damage. This study is the first to report Hg in the erythrocytes of crocodylians and the use of MTs for testing the potential of these biomarkers as a tool to assess Hg exposure in crocodile's habitats. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Plasma vitellogenin in Morelet's crocodiles from contaminated habitats in northern Belize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rainwater, Thomas R. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States)], E-mail: thomas.rainwater@gmail.com; Selcer, Kyle W. [Department of Biological Sciences, Bayer School of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA 15282 (United States)], E-mail: selcer@duq.edu; Nespoli, Lisa M. [Department of Biological Sciences, Bayer School of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA 15282 (United States)], E-mail: nespoli345@duq.edu; Finger, Adam G. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States)], E-mail: agfinger@tiehh.ttu.edu; Ray, David A. [Department of Biological Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)], E-mail: david.ray@mail.wvu.edu; Platt, Steven G. [Department of Biology, P.O. Box C-64, Sul Ross State University, Alpine, TX 79832 (United States)], E-mail: splatt@sulross.edu; Smith, Philip N. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States)], E-mail: philip.smith@tiehh.ttu.edu; Densmore, Llewellyn D. [Department of Biological Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)], E-mail: lou.densmore@ttu.edu; Anderson, Todd A. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States)], E-mail: todd.anderson@tiehh.ttu.edu; McMurry, Scott T. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States)], E-mail: scott.mcmurry@tiehh.ttu.edu

    2008-05-15

    Vitellogenin induction has been widely used as a biomarker of endocrine disruption in wildlife, but few studies have investigated its use in wild reptiles living in contaminated habitats. This study examined vitellogenin induction in Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from wetlands in northern Belize contaminated with organochlorine (OC) pesticides. Vitellogenin was measured in 381 crocodile plasma samples using a vitellogenin ELISA previously developed for this species. Vitellogenin was detected in nine samples, all from adult females sampled during the breeding season. Males and juvenile females did not contain detectable levels of vitellogenin; however, many of these animals contained OC pesticides in their caudal scutes, confirming contaminant exposure. The lack of a vitellogenic response in these animals may be attributable to several factors related to the timing and magnitude of exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals and should not be interpreted as an absence of other contaminant-induced biological responses. - Wild crocodiles living in habitats polluted with organochlorine pesticides did not exhibit contaminant-induced vitellogenin induction in blood plasma.

  7. Plasma vitellogenin in Morelet's crocodiles from contaminated habitats in northern Belize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainwater, Thomas R.; Selcer, Kyle W.; Nespoli, Lisa M.; Finger, Adam G.; Ray, David A.; Platt, Steven G.; Smith, Philip N.; Densmore, Llewellyn D.; Anderson, Todd A.; McMurry, Scott T.

    2008-01-01

    Vitellogenin induction has been widely used as a biomarker of endocrine disruption in wildlife, but few studies have investigated its use in wild reptiles living in contaminated habitats. This study examined vitellogenin induction in Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from wetlands in northern Belize contaminated with organochlorine (OC) pesticides. Vitellogenin was measured in 381 crocodile plasma samples using a vitellogenin ELISA previously developed for this species. Vitellogenin was detected in nine samples, all from adult females sampled during the breeding season. Males and juvenile females did not contain detectable levels of vitellogenin; however, many of these animals contained OC pesticides in their caudal scutes, confirming contaminant exposure. The lack of a vitellogenic response in these animals may be attributable to several factors related to the timing and magnitude of exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals and should not be interpreted as an absence of other contaminant-induced biological responses. - Wild crocodiles living in habitats polluted with organochlorine pesticides did not exhibit contaminant-induced vitellogenin induction in blood plasma

  8. A Holocene pollen record of vegetation change and human impact from Pantano de Vargas, an intra-Andean basin of Duitama, Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez, A.; Berrio, J.C.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Becerra, M.; Marchant, R.

    2007-01-01

    Holocene environments in the intra-Andean basin of Duitama (Eastern Cordillera of Colombia, 2510 m altitude) are presented based on the 620 cm long Vargas pollen and sediment record. Seven AMS radiocarbon dates show these lake and swamp sediments represent the period from 8800 to 2610 14C yr BP. We

  9. Inventory of medium-sized and large mammals in the wetlands of Laguna de Terminos and Pantanos de Centla, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Hidalgo-Mihart,Mircea G.; Contreras-Moreno,Fernando M.; Jesús-de la Cruz,Alejandro; Juárez-López,Rugieri; Bravata de la Cruz,Yaribeth; Pérez-Solano,Luz A.; Hernández-Lara,Carolina; Friedeberg,Diana; Thornton,Dan; Koller-González,Juan M.

    2017-01-01

    Wetlands are one of the most productive ecosystems in the world. However, they have received little attention in the tropics. Biodiversity data from the Terminos-Centla wetlands is limited despite the conservation efforts to protect these wetlands. In this study we list the medium-szied and large mammals from 8 sites within the Terminos-Centla wetlands. We recorded 30 native and 1 introduced species, representing 9 orders, 14 families, and 27 genera. Four of the recorded species are Threatene...

  10. The relationship between early growth and survival of hatchling saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus in captivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L Brien

    Full Text Available Hatchling fitness in crocodilians is affected by "runtism" or failure to thrive syndrome (FTT in captivity. In this study, 300 hatchling C. porosus, artificially incubated at 32°C for most of their embryonic development, were raised in semi-controlled conditions, with growth criteria derived for the early detection of FTT (within 24 days. Body mass, four days after hatching (BM4d, was correlated with egg size and was highly clutch specific, while snout-vent length (SVL4d was much more variable within and between clutches. For the majority of hatchlings growth trajectories within the first 24 days continued to 90 days and could be used to predict FTT affliction up to 300 days, highlighting the importance of early growth. Growth and survival of hatchling C. porosus in captivity was not influenced by initial size (BM4d, with a slight tendency for smaller hatchlings to grow faster in the immediate post-hatching period. Strong clutch effects (12 clutches on affliction with FTT were apparent, but could not be explained by measured clutch variables or other factors. Among individuals not afflicted by FTT (N = 245, mean growth was highly clutch specific, and the variation could be explained by an interaction between clutch and season. FTT affliction was 2.5 times higher among clutches (N = 7 that hatched later in the year when mean minimum air temperatures were lower, compared with those clutches (N = 5 that hatched early in the year. The results of this study highlight the importance of early growth in hatchling C. porosus, which has implications for the captive management of this species.

  11. Normal intestinal flora of wild Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J. Lovely

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial and fungal cultures were performed from cloacal swabs collected from 29 wild Nile crocodiles, captured in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Sixteen species of bacteria and 6 fungal species were cultured. Individual crocodiles yielded 1-4 bacterial species, and 0-2 fungal species. The most commonly isolated bacteria were Microbacterium, Enterococcus faecalis, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Escherichia coli. No salmonellae were cultured. The most commonly occurring fungus was Cladosporium. Several of the bacterial and fungal species isolated have been implicated in cases of septicaemia in crocodilians. Knowledge of the normal intestinal flora will contribute towards the development of a crocodile-specific probiotic for use in farmed crocodiles.

  12. Spatial Ecology of Estuarine Crocodile (Crocodylus porosus Nesting in a Fragmented Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke J. Evans

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The role that oil palm plays in the Lower Kinabatangan region of Eastern Sabah is of considerable scientific and conservation interest, providing a model habitat for many tropical regions as they become increasingly fragmented. Crocodilians, as apex predators, widely distributed throughout the tropics, are ideal indicator species for ecosystem health. Drones (or unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs were used to identify crocodile nests in a fragmented landscape. Flights were targeted through the use of fuzzy overlay models and nests located primarily in areas indicated as suitable habitat. Nests displayed a number of similarities in terms of habitat characteristics allowing for refined modelling of survey locations. As well as being more cost-effective compared to traditional methods of nesting survey, the use of drones also enabled a larger survey area to be completed albeit with a limited number of flights. The study provides a methodology for targeted nest surveying, as well as a low-cost repeatable flight methodology. This approach has potential for widespread applicability across a range of species and for a variety of study designs.

  13. Crecimiento en cautiverio de Crocodylus acutus (Cuvier, 1807 en Tumbes, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Pérez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el crecimiento en peso y longitud en 40 individuos del Cocodrilo de Tumbes en el Centro de Acuicultura La Tuna Carranza, localizado en Puerto Pizarro, Departamento de Tumbes. No se observó una diferencia en el incremento en longitud por clases de edad, mientras que en peso si presentaron diferencias siendo mayor en adultos. El crecimiento promedio de longitud y peso fue de 1,44% y 0,18% en crías, 1,30% y 0,10% en reclutas, 1,24 y 0,22% en juveniles, 1,24 y 0,48% en subadultos, y 1,01 y 0,75% en adultos. En general las hembras presentan un mayor crecimiento que los machos.

  14. Micropleura australiensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Micropleuridae) from the body cavity of Crocodylus johnsoni in Western Australia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Kay, W. R.; Hobbs, R. P.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 2 (2004), s. 322-326 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/03/0061 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : parasitic nematode * Philometra * marine fishes Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.439, year: 2004

  15. Development of transient head cavities during early organogenesis of the Nile Crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kundrát, M.; Janáček, Jiří; Martin, S.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 270, č. 9 (2009), s. 1069-1083 ISSN 0362-2525 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB6111301 Grant - others:Univerzita Karlova(CZ) 122/2003-B; NATO Fellowship Programme and Center for Higher Education Studies(CZ) MK2003-13 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : Nile Crocodile * head cavities * organogenesis Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.706, year: 2009

  16. Quantitative analysis of production traits in saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus): II. age at slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isberg, S R; Thomson, P C; Nicholas, F W; Barker, S G; Moran, C

    2005-12-01

    Crocodile morphometric (head, snout-vent and total length) measurements were recorded at three stages during the production chain: hatching, inventory [average age (+/-SE) is 265.1 +/- 0.4 days] and slaughter (average age is 1037.8 +/- 0.4 days). Crocodile skins are used for the manufacture of exclusive leather products, with the most common-sized skin sold having 35-45 cm in belly width. One of the breeding objectives for inclusion into a multitrait genetic improvement programme for saltwater crocodiles is the time taken for a juvenile to reach this size or age at slaughter. A multivariate restricted maximum likelihood analysis provided (co)variance components for estimating the first published genetic parameter estimates for these traits. Heritability (+/-SE) estimates for the traits hatchling snout-vent length, inventory head length and age at slaughter were 0.60 (0.15), 0.59 (0.12) and 0.40 (0.10) respectively. There were strong negative genetic (-0.81 +/- 0.08) and phenotypic (-0.82 +/- 0.02) correlations between age at slaughter and inventory head length.

  17. Metals and organochlorine pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rainwater, Thomas R. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)]. E-mail: thomas.rainwater@tiehh.ttu.edu; Wu, Ted H. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Finger, Adam G. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Canas, Jaclyn E. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Yu Lu [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Reynolds, Kevin D. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Coimbatore, Gopal [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Barr, Brady [National Geographic Channel, 1145 17th St. NW Washington, DC 20036 (United States); Platt, Steven G. [Department of Biology, Box C-64, Sul Ross State University, Alpine, TX 79832 (United States); Cobb, George P. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Anderson, Todd A. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); McMurry, Scott T. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)

    2007-02-01

    Despite high animal diversity in the Neotropics and the largely unregulated use and disposal of pesticides and industrial chemicals in Central America, few data exist regarding accumulation of environmental contaminants in Central American wildlife. In this study we examined accumulation of metals and organochlorine (OC) pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica. Scutes from Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from two sites in northern Belize were analyzed for metals, and scutes from American crocodiles (C. acutus) from one site in Costa Rica were analyzed for metals and OC pesticides. All scutes (n = 25; one scute from each of 25 individuals) contained multiple contaminants. Mercury was the predominant metal detected, occurring in all scutes examined from both species. Other metals detected include cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. American crocodile scutes from Costa Rica contained multiple OC pesticides, including endrin, methoxychlor, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT, all of which occurred in 100% of scutes analyzed (n = 6). Mean metal and OC concentrations varied in relation to those previously reported in crocodilian scutes from other localities in North, Central, and South America. OC concentrations in American crocodile scutes were generally higher than those previously reported for other Costa Rican wildlife. Currently, caudal scutes may serve as general, non-lethal indicators of contaminant accumulation in crocodilians and their areas of occurrence. However, a better understanding of the relationships between pollutant concentrations in scutes, internal tissues, and environmental matrices at sample collection sites are needed to improve the utility of scutes in future ecotoxicological investigations.

  18. Thermal fluctuation within nests and predicted sex ratio of Morelet's Crocodile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo-Galván, Armando H; López-Luna, Marco A; Cupul-Magaña, Fabio G

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the interplay between thermal variations and sex ratio in reptiles with temperature-dependent sex determination is the first step for developing long-term conservation strategies. In case of crocodilians, the information is fragmentary and insufficient for establishing a general framework to consider how thermal fluctuation influence sex determination under natural conditions. The main goal of this study was to analyze thermal variation in nests of Crocodylus moreletii and to discuss the potential implications for predicting offspring sex ratio. The study was carried out at the Centro de Estudios Tecnológicos del Mar N° 2 and at the Sistemas Productivos Cocodrilo, Campeche, Mexico. Data was collected in the nesting season of Morelet's Crocodiles during three consecutive seasons (2007-2009). Thermal fluctuations for multiple areas of the nest chamber were registered by data loggers. We calculate the constant temperature equivalent based on thermal profiles among nests to assess whether there are differences between the nest temperature and its equivalent to constant temperature. We observed that mean nest temperature was only different among nests, while daily thermal fluctuations vary depending on the depth position within the nest chamber, years and nests. The constant temperature equivalent was different among and within nests, but not among survey years. We observed differences between constant temperature equivalent and mean nest temperature both at the top and in the middle of the nest cavities, but were not significantly different at the bottom of nest cavities. Our results enable examine and discuss the relevance of daily thermal fluctuations to predict sex ratio of the Morelet's Crocodile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Metals and organochlorine pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainwater, Thomas R.; Wu, Ted H.; Finger, Adam G.; Canas, Jaclyn E.; Yu Lu; Reynolds, Kevin D.; Coimbatore, Gopal; Barr, Brady; Platt, Steven G.; Cobb, George P.; Anderson, Todd A.; McMurry, Scott T.

    2007-01-01

    Despite high animal diversity in the Neotropics and the largely unregulated use and disposal of pesticides and industrial chemicals in Central America, few data exist regarding accumulation of environmental contaminants in Central American wildlife. In this study we examined accumulation of metals and organochlorine (OC) pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica. Scutes from Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from two sites in northern Belize were analyzed for metals, and scutes from American crocodiles (C. acutus) from one site in Costa Rica were analyzed for metals and OC pesticides. All scutes (n = 25; one scute from each of 25 individuals) contained multiple contaminants. Mercury was the predominant metal detected, occurring in all scutes examined from both species. Other metals detected include cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. American crocodile scutes from Costa Rica contained multiple OC pesticides, including endrin, methoxychlor, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT, all of which occurred in 100% of scutes analyzed (n = 6). Mean metal and OC concentrations varied in relation to those previously reported in crocodilian scutes from other localities in North, Central, and South America. OC concentrations in American crocodile scutes were generally higher than those previously reported for other Costa Rican wildlife. Currently, caudal scutes may serve as general, non-lethal indicators of contaminant accumulation in crocodilians and their areas of occurrence. However, a better understanding of the relationships between pollutant concentrations in scutes, internal tissues, and environmental matrices at sample collection sites are needed to improve the utility of scutes in future ecotoxicological investigations

  20. Hepatic and renal concentrations of 10 trace elements in crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) in the Kafue and Luangwa rivers in Zambia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almli, Bjorn [National Veterinary Institute, POB 8156 Dep., N-0033 Oslo (Norway)]. E-mail: bjorn.almli@vetinst.no; Mwase, Maxwell [Samora Machel School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zambia, POB 32379, Lusaka (Zambia); Sivertsen, Tore [Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, POB 8146 Dep., N-0033 Oslo (Norway); Musonda, Mike [Samora Machel School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zambia, POB 32379, Lusaka (Zambia); Flaoyen, Arne [National Veterinary Institute, POB 8156 Dep., N-0033 Oslo (Norway); Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, POB 8146 Dep., N-0033 Oslo (Norway)

    2005-01-20

    Hepatic and renal concentrations of the elements arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, selenium and zinc were determined in samples collected from four crocodiles from the Kafue River, Kafue National Park and five crocodiles from the Luangwa River, Luangwa National Park, Zambia. The concentrations of the essential elements were similar to those reported in other vertebrates. Arsenic and cadmium concentrations were low (medians below 0.05 {mu}g As/g and below 0.16 {mu}g Cd/g, wet wt.). Mercury and lead concentrations were several orders of magnitude higher (medians up to 3.7 {mu}g Hg/g, and up to 8.7 {mu}g Pb/g, all wet wt.) than in hippopotami from the same rivers, probably as a result of food-chain biomagnification. Judging by the results obtained in this study, pollution from the mining activity around the Kafue River drainage area in the Copperbelt region has not significantly influenced the trace element concentrations in tissues of the crocodiles in the Kafue National Park. The trace element concentrations measured may serve as reference values in future studies on crocodilians.

  1. A preliminary disease survey in the wild Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus population in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Leslie

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to conduct a preliminary survey of diseases that might be present in the wild Nile crocodile population in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Blood samples were collected from crocodiles ranging in size from 34.0cmto 463.0cmtotal length. Samples were examined for blood parasites and underwent a haematological analysis. Before release the crocodiles were examined for various clinical abnormalities. Of the 144 crocodiles examined, none were visibly sick or displayed any signs of disease. No antibodies to Mycoplasma crocodyli were detected. Hepatozoon pettiti was present in 55.3 % of blood smears examined, but there was no significant difference in any of the haematological values between the infected and uninfected crocodiles, and a high prevalence of Hepatozoon infection is not uncommon in other species. Only 7.6 % of the examined crocodiles were infested with leeches. Further research is required for several of the crocodilian diseases, in particular to elucidate the role of wild crocodilians as reservoirs of infection.

  2. Human-crocodile conflict and conservation implications of Saltwater Crocodiles Crocodylus porosus (Reptilia: Crocodylia: Crocodylidae in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Thasun Amarasinghe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Human-wildlife conflict occurs when human requirements encroach on those of wildlife populations, with potential costs to both humans and wild animals.  As top predators in most inland waters, crocodilians are involved in human-wildlife conflicts in many countries.  Here we present findings of a 5-year survey on human-crocodile conflict on the island of Sri Lanka and relate the results to improving management practices. We aimed to quantify and understand the causes of human-crocodile conflict in Sri Lanka, and propose solutions to mitigate it.  Visual encounter surveys were carried out to estimate the population size of Saltwater Crocodiles. We recorded 778 sightings of Saltwater Crocodiles at 262 of 400 locations surveyed, and estimate the total population to comprise more than 2000 non-hatchlings and to have increased at an average rate of 5% p.a. since 1978. We propose four crocodile vigilance zones within the wet zone and one crocodile vigilance zone within the dry zone of the country. Specific threats to Saltwater Crocodiles identified in crocodile vigilance zones were: habitat destruction and loss; illegal killing and harvesting (17 killings out of fear, ~200 incidents of killing for meat and skins, ~800 eggs annually for consumption; unplanned translocations; and, interaction with urbanization (10 incidents of crocodiles being run over by trains/vehicles and electrocution. Additionally, 33 cases of crocodile attacks on humans were recorded [8 fatal, 25 non-fatal (minor to grievous injuries] and more than 50 incidents of attacks on farm and pet animals. 

  3. Identification and partial sequencing of a crocodile poxvirus associated with deeply penetrating skin lesions in farmed Nile crocodiles, Crocodylus niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huchzermeyer, F W; Wallace, D B; Putterill, J F; Gerdes, G H

    2009-09-01

    When large numbers of crocodile skins were downgraded because of the presence of small pin prick-like holes, collapsed epidermal cysts were found deep in the dermis of juvenile crocodiles while forming cysts were observed in hatchlings. Histopathology of these forming cysts showed the presence of intracytoplasmic inclusions in proliferating and ballooning epidermal cells. Pox virions were seen in electron microscope preparations made from the scabs of such early lesions. The partial sequencing of virus material from scrapings of these lesions and comparison of it with the published sequence of crocodile poxvirus showed the virus associated with the deep lesions to be closely related, but different. To differentiate between the two forms of crocodile pox infection it is suggested that the previously known form should be called "classical crocodile pox" and the newly discovered form "atypical crocodile pox". The application of strict hygiene measures brought about a decline in the percentage of downgraded skins.

  4. Identification and partial sequencing of a crocodile poxvirus associated with deeply penetrating skin lesions in farmed Nile crocodiles, Crocodylus niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.W. Huchzermeyer

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available When large numbers of crocodile skins were downgraded because of the presence of small pin pricklike holes, collapsed epidermal cysts were found deep in the dermis of juvenile crocodiles while forming cysts were observed in hatchlings. Histopathology of these forming cysts showed the presence of intracytoplasmic inclusions in proliferating and ballooning epidermal cells. Pox virions were seen in electron microscope preparations made from the scabs of such early lesions. The partial sequencing of virus material from scrapings of these lesions and comparison of it with the published sequence of crocodile poxvirus showed the virus associated with the deep lesions to be closely related, but different. To differentiate between the two forms of crocodile pox infection it is suggested that the previously known form should be called ''classical crocodile pox'' and the newly discovered form ''atypical crocodile pox''. The application of strict hygiene measures brought about a decline in the percentage of downgraded skins.

  5. Learning to hunt Crocodiles: social organization in the process of knowledge generation and the emergence of management practices among Mayan of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamudio, Fernando; Bello-Baltazar, Eduardo; Estrada-Lugo, Erin I J

    2013-05-24

    New kinds of knowledge, usage patterns and management strategies of natural resources emerge in local communities as a way of coping with uncertainty in a changing world. Studying how human groups adapt and create new livelihoods strategies are important research topics for creating policies in natural resources management. Here, we study the adoption and development of lagartos (Crocodylus moreletii) commercial hunting by Mayan people from a communal land in Quintana Roo state. Two questions guided our work: how did the Mayan learn to hunt lagartos? And how, and in what context, did knowledge and management practices emerge? We believe that social structures, knowledge and preexisting skills facilitate the hunting learning process, but lagarto ecological knowledge and organizational practice were developed in a "learning by doing" process. We conducted free, semi-structured and in-depth interviews over 17 prestigious lagartos hunters who reconstructed the activity through oral history. Then, we analyzed the sources of information and routes of learning and investigated the role of previous knowledge and social organization in the development of this novel activity. Finally, we discussed the emergence of hunting in relation to the characteristic of natural resource and the tenure system. Lagarto hunting for skin selling was a short-term activity, which represented an alternative source of money for some Mayans known as lagarteros. They acquired different types of knowledge and skills through various sources of experience (individual practice, or from foreign hunters and other Mayan hunters). The developed management system involved a set of local knowledge about lagartos ecology and a social organization structure that was then articulated in the formation of "working groups" with particular hunting locations (rumbos and trabajaderos), rotation strategies and collaboration among them. Access rules and regulations identified were in an incipient state of development

  6. Avances en el conocimiento y el estado actual de conservación del Cocodrilo de Tumbes (Crocodylus acutus Cuvier, 1807

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando H. Escobedo Galván

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available En esta nota se describe el estado de conservación del Cocodrilo de Tumbes en Perú, donde la especie encuentra su límite sur de distribución, por lo que es catalogada como especie rara en la zona. Esto ha generado que se lleven a cabo programas de manejo ex situ para apoyar su conservación. Sin embargo el desconocimiento de los beneficios que brinda la especie, junto con la deforestación, el cambio climático y las actividades antropogénicas, han ocasionado que su población disminuya y se encuentre amenazada.

  7. Analysis of nutritional and odor components in muscle of Siam alligator (Crocodylus siamensis) .%暹罗鳄肌肉营养及腥味成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阙婷婷; 谢妍; 郑家闻; 胡庆兰; 胡亚芹; 罗自生

    2013-01-01

      利用顶空固相微萃取与气质联用技术对暹罗鳄肌肉脱腥前后的挥发性成分及其变化进行测定,并利用常规肌肉营养测试方法对鳄肉营养成分进行分析.结果表明:在暹罗鳄肌肉中共检测出72种挥发性成分,其中,正己醛为鳄肉腥味的主要成分,与其他成分一起构成鳄肉的特有腥味;在鳄鱼肌肉中水分占76.8%,蛋白质占19.8%,脂肪占2.0%,灰分占1.0%;肌肉中含有16种氨基酸,占肌肉干质量的70.44%,其中必需氨基酸7种,且必需氨基酸的构成比例基本符合联合国粮食与农业组织标准,必需氨基酸指数为60.63%;鳄肉中还富含多种不饱和脂肪酸,二十碳五烯酸( eicosapentaenoic acid , EPA)和二十二碳六烯酸( docosahexaenoic acid , DHA)含量丰富,分别为1.44%和2.96%,且矿物质和微量元素含量丰富,尤其以钙含量最多.表明暹罗鳄肉是一种低脂肪、高蛋白、富含多种不饱和脂肪酸以及矿物质的高品质肉类.%Summary Crocodile is covered in treasure . Its leather has a high reputation in the world , and its armour contains a lot of bone collagen , protein , calcium , phosphorus and so on , and its gallbladder contains more than 20 kinds of bile acids and bilichols , which has a great medicine value . Its blood with antibacterial and antitumor activity is getting the attention of researchers both at home and abroad . There has been growing interest in commercial marketing of the crocodiles meat for human consumption in China , Thailand , America and Australia , which are all artificially breeding Siam alligator , Estuarine crocodile and Nile crocodile etc . Siam alligator is also called Siam freshwater crocodile , Singapore small crocodile , and is commonly known as Thai crocodile . It is getting more and more attention in China . With the increased amount of breeding , the deep processing for the meat of Siam alligator will be the focus of future research . Hence , our objectives were to identify the volatile components of Siam alligator muscle and evaluate its nutritional value . Odors in the muscle of Siam alligator were collected and determined by solid phase micro‐extraction ( SPME)and gas chromatography‐mass spectrometry ( GC‐MS ) before and after deodorization , and the nutritional components in the muscle of Siam alligator were analyzed by common methods . The result showed that there were 72 kinds of volatile compounds detected , in which hexaldehyde was the main component of the odors , along with others constituted the peculiar smell of Siam alligator meat . The contents of moisture , protein , fat and ash in Siam alligator meat were 76 .8% , 19 .8% , 2 .0% and 1 .0% respectively . Sixteen types of amino acids in muscle were contained with accounting for 70 .44% of the muscle dry matter content and including seven essential ones for human being . The constitutional rate of the essential amino acids was in accordance with the FAO ( Food and Agriculture Organization ) standard . According to the nutrition evaluation in amino acid score ( AAS ) and chemical score ( CS ) ,the essential amino acid index ( EAAI) was 60 .63% . The muscle also contained a variety amount of unsaturated fatty acids , in which the contents of eicosapentaenoic acid ( EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were 1 .44% and 2 .96% , respectively . The Siam alligator meat also contained rich minerals and trace elements , especially the most calcium content . Consequently , the meat of Siam alligator is a kind of high‐quality one with high protein and low fat , rich in a variety of unsaturated fatty acids and minerals .

  8. Demise of the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) as a keystone species for aquatic ecosystem conservation in South Africa: the case of the Olifants River

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ashton, PJ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available of the catchment (Middleton and Bailey, 2009). The upper reaches of the Olifants catchment (Figure 1) are characterized by large-scale coal mining, coal-fired power generation plants, irrigated agriculture and a diverse array of heavy and light industries... trade in crocodile products is subject to Appendix I of the CITES Convention (Groombridge, 1982). Prior to the promulgation of South African reptile protection legislation in 1969, Nile crocodiles were regarded as vermin, to be shot on sight (Pooley...

  9. Redescription and molecular characterisation of Dujardinascaris madagascariensis and a note on D. dujardini (Nematoda: Heterocheilidae), parasites of Crocodylus niloticus, with a key to Dujardinascaris spp. in crocodilians

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mašová, Š.; Baruš, V.; Seifertová, M.; Malala, J. O.; Jirků, Miloslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 3893, č. 3 (2014), s. 261-276 ISSN 1175-5326 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Lake Turkana * Omo River delta * Kenya * Africa * bar-coding * 18S rDNA * ITS2 Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.906, year: 2014

  10. Molecular cloning and 3D model of first cytochrome P450 from CYP3A subfamily in saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Rabia

    2017-10-18

    Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) play critical role in oxidative metabolism of numerous xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. The first CYP3A subfamily member in saltwater crocodile has been cloned and modelled for three-dimensional (3D) structure. The full-length cDNA was obtained employing reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) strategy and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The cDNA sequence of 1659 nucleotides includes 132 nucleotides from 5' untranslated region (UTR), an open reading frame of 1527 nucleotides encoding 509 amino acids designated as CYP3A163. The alignment of CYP3A163 sequence with CYP3A subfamily across the lineages exhibit the loss of 1 residue in birds and 7 residues in mammals in comparison to reptiles suggesting the adaptation processes during evolution. The amino acid identity of CYP3A163 with Alligator mississippiensis CYP3A77 and Homo sapiens CYP3A4 is 91% and 62% respectively. The 3D structure of CYP3A163 modelled using human CYP3A4 structure as a template with Phyre 2 software, represents high similarity with its functionally important motifs and catalytic domain. Both sequence and structure of CYP3A163 display the common and conserved features of CYP3A subfamily. Overall, this study provides primary molecular and structural data of CYP3A163 required to investigate the xenobiotic metabolism in saltwater crocodiles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Surveys of tidal river systems in the northern territory of Australia and their crocodile populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorlicek, G.C.; Messel, H.; Green, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides an update on the population dynamics of Crocodylus porous in the tidal waterways of Van Diemen Gulf and the Southern Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia, during 1984 and 1985. Contents: Prologue; Dedication; Introduction; Status of Crocodylus porous. July 1984, in the tidal waterways of the Alligator Region and in the Adelaide River System of Northern Australia: recovery underway; Resurvey of Crocodylus porous populations in the tidal waterways of the southern Gulf of Carpentaria, September - October 1985; Local knowledge - Northern Australia style.

  12. PERÍODOS DE ACTIVIDAD Y EFECTO DE LAS VARIABLES AMBIENTALES EN COCODRILOS (Crocodylus acutus Cuvier 1807): EVALUANDO LOS MÉTODOS DE DETERMINACIÓN DE LA FRACCIÓN VISIBLE.

    OpenAIRE

    Escobedo Galván, Armando H.; Escuela de Ciencias Ambientales, Universidad Latina de Costa Rica y Asociación Costarricense de Investigadores en Crocodilidos. (Costa Rica).

    2016-01-01

    Se realizaron un total de 8 muestreos durante los meses de Octubre y Noviembre de 2000, en La Estación Experimental La Rambla ubicada en Río Frío de Sarapiquí en la provincia de Heredia, Costa Rica. Se determinó que los cocodrilos presentan un pico de actividad durante la noche, y que el número de cocodrilos observados se ve afectado por condiciones climáticas previas y durante los muestreos. Se comparó los diferentes métodos estadísticos para calcular la fracción visible, determinando que no...

  13. The Gelechiidae of the Longarini salt marsh in the “Pantani della Sicilia Sud-Orientale” nature reserve in southeastern Sicily, Italy (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bella, S.; Karsholt, Ole

    2015-01-01

    The authors report the results of field research on Gelechiidae from the “Pantano Longarini” salt marsh (southeastern Sicily). The area is located inland to the “Pantani della Sicilia Sud-Orientale” regional nature reserve. A total of twenty-four species are recognized; among the recorded taxa...

  14. METHODOLOGY OF THE AUDIT OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT OF THE WETLANDSOF PERÚ WTHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE RAMSAR CONVENTION

    OpenAIRE

    Mogrovejo Espinoza, Martín Edmundo

    2014-01-01

    The study formulates how the technical/operative alignments of the Ramsar Convention facilitate the implementation of the environmental and audit management methodology of the wetlands of Peru. It’s an investigation on an explanatory level, developed in a sample of five wetlands: Reserva Nacional de Paracas (Ica), Refugio de Vida Silvestre Los Pantanos de Villa (Lima), Santuario Nacional Lagunas de Mejia (Arequipa), Santuario Nacional Manglares de Tumbes (Tumbes) y Reserva Nacional Junín ( Ju...

  15. Role of Chromosome Changes in Evolution and Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornsorn Srikulnath

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The karyotypes of most species of crocodilians were studied using conventional and molecular cytogenetics. These provided an important contribution of chromosomal rearrangements for the evolutionary processes of Crocodylia and Sauropsida (birds and reptiles. The karyotypic features of crocodilians contain small diploid chromosome numbers (30~42, with little interspecific variation of the chromosome arm number (fundamental number among crocodiles (56~60. This suggested that centric fusion and/or fission events occurred in the lineage, leading to crocodilian evolution and diversity. The chromosome numbers of Alligator, Caiman, Melanosuchus, Paleosuchus, Gavialis, Tomistoma, Mecistops, and Osteolaemus were stable within each genus, whereas those of Crocodylus (crocodylians varied within the taxa. This agreed with molecular phylogeny that suggested a highly recent radiation of Crocodylus species. Karyotype analysis also suggests the direction of molecular phylogenetic placement among Crocodylus species and their migration from the Indo-Pacific to Africa and The New World. Crocodylus species originated from an ancestor in the Indo-Pacific around 9~16 million years ago (MYA in the mid-Miocene, with a rapid radiation and dispersion into Africa 8~12 MYA. This was followed by a trans-Atlantic dispersion to the New World between 4~8 MYA in the Pliocene. The chromosomes provided a better understanding of crocodilian evolution and diversity, which will be useful for further study of the genome evolution in Crocodylia.

  16. Effects of Different Rearing Strategies and Ages on Levels of Natural Antibodies in Saliva of the Philippine Crocodile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groffen, J.; Parmentier, H.K.; Ven, van de W.A.C.; Weerd, van M.

    2013-01-01

    The endemic Philippine crocodile (Crocodylus mindorensis) is a relatively small, critically endangered freshwater crocodile. In a head start program, crocodile hatchlings are caught in the wild, reared in captivity, and released back into the wild after two years. The current study aimed to

  17. The decline of the Nile crocodile population in Loskop Dam, Olifants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-05-18

    May 18, 2010 ... 3 Department of Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA. 4 Department of Paraclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of ..... Crocodylus porosus Schneider, in tidal wetlands of the Northern. Territory: a mark-recapture experiment to correct spotlight counts to absolute ...

  18. From little known area to the extinction race: A survey of herpetofauna in Prevab, Kutai National Park (KNP), Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, Nia; Roziah, Noviati; Fauzi, Muhammad Alif; Kurnianto, Agung Sih

    2017-11-01

    We develop research focused on the environmental quality through a survey of herpetofauna in a threatened area with minimum data. The collected data supported by literature was used to predict the highest threat in the Prevab forest and to recommend a conservation area according to priority. The survey was conducted on three main sites: Senadam lake, camp area, and Buntu river. Each location was surveyed using a Visual Encounter Survey in a 1 km transect, from 7 to 11 p.m. for 3 days (21-23 October 2016). This study has identified 25 species herpetofauna from 76 individuals, consisting of 3 orders: Squamata, Anura, and Crocodilia. The highest number of individuals found were Chalcorana raniceps (n:18), Hemidactylus frenatus (n:7), Hemidactylus platyurus (n:10), Eutropis sp. (n:5), Cyrtodactylus yoshii (n:4), Crocodylus porosus (n:4), Hylarana erythraea (n:3), Varanus salvator (n:3). Two species were categorized as `Threatened' species in the IUCN Red List, and one (Ptychozoon horsfieldii) was categorized as `Data Deficient.' One species, Limnonectes paramacrodon, was categorized as `Near Threatened'. There were 2 species categorized as Appendix II CITES: Varanus salvator and Crocodylus porosus. Only one species, Crocodylus porosus, was protected by Indonesia's regulation. Chalcorana raniceps and Limnonectes paramacrodon were found in high numbers in Buntu river, while the camp area was mostly visited by Hemidactylus platyurus, Hemidactylus frenatus, and Ptychozoon horsfieldii. Senadam lake was found to be the habitat for Crocodylus porosus.

  19. New observations on Micropleura australiensis (Nematoda, Dracunculoidea), a parasite of crocodiles in Australia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Spratt, D. M.; Kay, W. R.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 4 (2006), s. 273-278 ISSN 1230-2821 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/0170 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Micropleura * Crocodylus * Australia Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.772, year: 2006

  20. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ityavyar, JA. Vol 3, No 2 (2011) - Articles Assessment of Captive Management of Nile Crocodile, Crocodylus Niloticus, In three towns of Benue State, Nigeria Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2141-1778. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  1. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Anurag Kumar Mishra. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 27 Issue 3 June 2002 pp 251-259 Articles. Cloning and sequencing of complete -crystallin cDNA from embryonic lens of Crocodylus palustris · Raman Agrawal Reena Chandrashekhar Anurag Kumar Mishra ...

  2. Comparative serum biochemistry of captive mugger crocodiles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Standard serum biochemical parameters were determined for 28 mugger crocodiles (Crocodylus palustris) using Supra-occipital plexus technique and/or Cardiocentesis technique at the Arignar Anna Zoological Park, Vandalur, Chennai, Guindy Snake Park Trust and Amaravathy Crocodile farm, Tamilnadu, India (13° 0´ N; ...

  3. A check-list of the pentastomid parasites of crocodilians and freshwater chelonians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Junker

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on published records and own data a summary is given of the geographical distribution of the currently known species of pentastomid parasites infecting crocodiles and alligators, as well as freshwater chelonians. A brief generic diagnosis is provided for each genus. Fourteen out of the currently 23 living crocodilian species have been recorded as being host to one or more pentastomes. Out of the 32 pentastome species six are considered species inquirendae. Presently, six genera of crocodilian pentastomes, Agema, Alofia, Leiperia, Sebekia, Selfia and Subtriquetra are recognized. African crocodiles harbour eight pentastome species, six of which have been recorded from the Nile crocodile, Crocodylus niloticus. Three species belong to the genus Sebekia, Alofia being represented by two and Leiperia by only one species. Two species, Alofia parva and Agema silvaepalustris, occur in the dwarf crocodile, Osteolaemus tetraspis, and the slender-snouted crocodile, Crocodylus cataphractus, exclusively, but a single Sebekia species is shared with the Nile crocodile. The genus Agema is endemic to the African region. Infective stages of the pentastome Sub triquetra rileyi, thought to utilize Nile crocodiles as final hosts, have been recovered only from fishes. The largest number of pentastome species is found in the Australasian region. Of these, the Indo-Pacific croc odile, Crocodylus porosus, harbours seven, representing the genera Alofia, Sebekia, Lei peria and Selfia. Selfia is exclusive to the latter host. The genus Subtriquetra has been reported from "Indian crocodiles", a term possibly referring to either Crocodylus palustris, Crocodylus porosus or Gavialis gangeticus. Ten species of pentastomes parasitizing the crocodilian genera Alligator, Caiman, Crocodylus and Melanosuchus have been recorded from the Neotropical region including the southern states of the North American continent. The two most wide-spread pentastome genera, Alofia and Sebekia

  4. Check-list of the pentastomid parasites crocodilians and freshwater chelonians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junker, K; Boomker, J

    2006-03-01

    Based on published records and own data a summary is given of the geographical distribution of the currently known species of pentastomid parasites infecting crocodiles and alligators, as well as freshwater chelonians. A brief generic diagnosis is provided for each genus. Fourteen out of the currently 23 living crocodilian species have been recorded as being host to one or more pentastomes. Out of the 32 pentastome species six are considered species inquirendae. Presently, six genera of crocodilian pentastomes, Agema, Alofia, Leiperia, Sebekia, Selfia and Subtriquetra are recognized. African crocodiles harbour eight pentastome species, six of which have been recorded from the Nile crocodile, Crocodylus niloticus. Three species belong to the genus Sebekia, Alofia being represented by two and Leiperia by only one species. Two species, Alofia parva and Agema silvae-palustris, occur in the dwarf crocodile, Osteolaemus tetraspis, and the slender-snouted crocodile, Crocodylus cataphractus, exclusively, but a single Sebekia species is shared with the Nile crocodile. The genus Agema is endemic to the African region. Infective stages of the pentastome Subtriquetra rileyi, thought to utilize Nile crocodiles as final hosts, have been recovered only from fishes. The largest number of pentastome species is found in the Australasian region. Of these, the Indo-Pacific crocodile, Crocodylus porosus, harbours seven, representing the genera Alofia, Sebekia, Leiperia and Selfia. Selfia is exclusive to the latter host. The genus Subtriquetra has been reported from "Indian crocodiles", a term possibly referring to either Crocodylus palustris, Crocodylus porosus or Gavialis gangeticus. Ten species of pentastomes parasitizing the crocodilian genera Alligator, Caiman, Crocodylus and Melanosuchus have been recorded from the Neotropical region including the southern states of the North American continent. The two most wide-spread pentastome genera, Alofia and Sebekia, have been recorded

  5. Reconstrucción paleoambiental y asociaciones de foraminiferos de la formación Tubará (plioceno temprano), sección Arroyo Piedras (norte de Colombia)

    OpenAIRE

    Molinares Blanco, Carlos Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    La Formación Tubará en el Arroyo Piedras (169 m) es dividida en tres segmentos, interpretados como producto de la sedimentación en ambientes marino marginales relacionados con la evolución del paleo-delta del río Magdalena durante el Plioceno Temprano: El segmento inferior, es interpretado como resultado de sedimentación siliciclástica en una llanura aluvial/deltaica; el segmento intermedio, como el resultado de sedimentación lagunar y/o en pantanos costeros y el superior, como la transición ...

  6. Percepción y patronos de uso de la fauna silvestre o comunidades indigenas Embera - Katíos en la cuenca del río San Jorge, zona amortiguadora del PNN - Paramillo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Alfonso Racero - Casarrubia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In workshops with four indigenous communities in the Embera-Katíos communal lands (resguardo , located in the upper San Jorge River Valley (Tres Playitas, Las Piedras, Boca San Cipriano, San Juan Medio, information about the wild fauna that they recognized inside their hunting grounds was collected. Mammals, reptiles, and birds, especially the Psittacidae family, are the vertebrates most used by the indigenous communities. No kind of use was found for amphibians. The consumption of reptiles such as Iguana iguana, Tupinambis teguixin, Caiman crocodylus fuscus, and Crocodylus acutus show them to be an important part of their culture. The indigenous communities associate environmental problems with habitat destruction due to the cultivation of illicit crops and forest clearing in the buffer zone around Paramillo National Park.

  7. The late Pleistocene horned crocodile Voay robustus (Grandidier & Vaillant, 1872 from Madagascar in the Museum für Naturkunde Berlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bickelmann

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Crocodylian material from late Pleistocene localities around Antsirabe, Madagascar, stored in the collection of the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin, was surveyed. Several skeletal elements, including skull bones, vertebrae, ribs, osteoderms, and limb bones from at least three large individuals could be unambiguously assigned to the genus Voay Brochu, 2007. Furthermore, the simultaneous occurrence of Voay robustus Grandidier & Vaillant, 1872 and Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti, 1768 in Madagascar is discussed. Voay robustus and Crocodylus niloticus are systematically separate but similar in stature and size, which would make them direct rivals for ecological resources. Our hypothesis on the extinction of the species Voay, which was endemic to Madagascar, suggests that C. niloticus invaded Madagascar only after V. robustus became extinct. doi:10.1002/mmng.200800007

  8. Morphological and molecular identification of Gnathostoma binucleatum (Nematoda: Gnathostomatidae) advanced third stage larvae (AdvL3) in the state of Colima, Mexico Determinación morfológica y molecular de larvas del tercer estadio larvario (L3A) de Gnathostoma binucleatum (Nematoda: Gnathostomatidae) del estado de Colima, México

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Jorge García-Márquez; Rafael Lamothe-Argumedo; David Osorio-Sarabia; Luis García-Prieto; Virginia León-Règagnon

    2009-01-01

    As a part of an ongoing project to understand the current distribution of Gnathostoma species in Mexico, 22 species of vertebrates were examined for this nematode in the state of Colima. The fish species Dormitator latifrons ("chococo") and Sciades guatemalensis ("cuatete") from Cuyutlán Lagoon and the reptile Crocodylus acutus from the Amela Lagoon were positive for infection. Morphometric characteristics of the larvae collected in Colima were similar to those of G. binucleatum larvae collec...

  9. Impact of temporary desiccation on the mobility of nutrients and metals from sediments of Loskop Reservoir, Olifants River

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dabrowski, J

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available (Crocodylus niloticus) and Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) were diagnosed with pansteatitis (yellow fat disease; Dabrowski et al., 2013). Pansteatitis was responsible for > 180 crocodile deaths at around the same time downstream... that is rarely exposed to desiccation except in extreme drawdown events. Samples were stored in plastic bags and kept on ice while transported to the laboratory. At the laboratory, replicates were pooled, homogenised and then re-divided to ensure...

  10. A new horned crocodile from the Plio-Pleistocene hominid sites at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Brochu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The fossil record reveals surprising crocodile diversity in the Neogene of Africa, but relationships with their living relatives and the biogeographic origins of the modern African crocodylian fauna are poorly understood. A Plio-Pleistocene crocodile from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, represents a new extinct species and shows that high crocodylian diversity in Africa persisted after the Miocene. It had prominent triangular "horns" over the ears and a relatively deep snout, these resemble those of the recently extinct Malagasy crocodile Voay robustus, but the new species lacks features found among osteolaemines and shares derived similarities with living species of Crocodylus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The holotype consists of a partial skull and skeleton and was collected on the surface between two tuffs dated to approximately 1.84 million years (Ma, in the same interval near the type localities for the hominids Homo habilis and Australopithecus boisei. It was compared with previously-collected material from Olduvai Gorge referable to the same species. Phylogenetic analysis places the new form within or adjacent to crown Crocodylus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The new crocodile species was the largest predator encountered by our ancestors at Olduvai Gorge, as indicated by hominid specimens preserving crocodile bite marks from these sites. The new species also reinforces the emerging view of high crocodylian diversity throughout the Neogene, and it represents one of the few extinct species referable to crown genus Crocodylus.

  11. Del Plan General de 1902 a la planificación hidrológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gil Olcina

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available El Avance de un Plan General de Pantanos y Canales de Riego de 1899, el Plan Generalde Canales de Riego y Pantanos de 1902, con sus aditamentos de 1909, 1916, 1919 y 1922,la actuación de las Confederaciones Sindicales Hidrográficas a partir de 1926, el I PlanNacional de Obras Hidráulicas (1933 y el Plan General de Obras Hidráulicas, incluido en elNacional de Obras Públicas de 1940, tienen en común, además de su carácter hidráulico, laimpronta regeneracionista y su elaboración en el marco de la Ley de Aguas de 13 de juniode 1879, vigente por más de un siglo.Naturaleza hidráulica era también, a pesar de su calificativo, la del Anteproyecto del PlanHidrológico de 1993, que, ampliamente deudor del legado regeneracionista, pretendía, a tra-vés del SIEHNA, una sustancial reestructuración hidrográfica del territorio español peninsu-lar. Desechado este planteamiento, el 5 de septiembre pasado fue remitido al ConsejoNacional del Agua un nuevo Anteproyecto del Plan Hidrológico Nacional, con procedi-miento de elaboración y contenido novedosos

  12. Egg banks in hypersaline lakes of the South-East Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscatello, Salvatore; Belmonte, Genuario

    2009-01-01

    The cyst banks of 6 coastal hypersaline lakes of South-East Europe have been investigated. The study concerned the bottom sediments of Khersonesskoe and Koyashskoe lakes in the Crimea (Ukraine), Nartë saltworks (Albania), Vecchia Salina at Torre Colimena (Apulia, Italy), Pantano Grande and Pantano Roveto at Vendicari (Sicily, Italy). A total of 19 cyst types were recognised. The cyst banks of lakes were found to be well separated in the representation derived from a statistical multivariate data analysis. For all the lakes examined a comparison was possible between the resting community in sediments (cyst bank) and the active one in the water. The cyst banks contained more species than those recorded over a multi-year sampling effort in the water column. The study of cyst hatching, performed on 5 cyst types under lab conditions, demonstrated that cysts do not hatch under the same conditions. Furthermore, each cyst type shows a wide range of preferential hatching conditions, which allow us to confirm the ecological generalism of salt lake species. PMID:19292906

  13. Flora vascular y vegetación del humedal de Santa Rosa (Chancay, Lima

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    Dámaso W. Ramirez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo muestra los resultados de un estudio de la flora y vegetación del humedal de Santa Rosa (Chancay, Lima realizado entre los años 2007 y 2009. La flora vascular estuvo conformada por 66 especies agrupadas en 57 géneros y 26 familias. Las Poaceae (16, Cyperaceae (6 y Asteraceae (6 fueron las familias más diversas y constituyeron el 42% de la flora total. En comparación con los principales humedales de Lima, Santa Rosa presenta un mayor número de especies (Pantanos de Villa (65, Paraíso (26 y Medio Mundo (16. El análisis de similitud florística muestra que Santa Rosa es más semejante a Los Pantanos de Villa (Lima. El Análisis de Correspondencia (AC determinó tres comunidades vegetales predominantes: a Comunidad de acuáticas flotantes, b Totoral y asociadas y c Vega Mixta. Se considera que los cambios en la estructura de las comunidades vegetales y el número de especies introducidas son indicadores del impacto antrópico al que está sometido este ecosistema. Se identifican las fuentes de impacto humano y se considera a la agricultura como la principal amenaza del humedal.

  14. Warragamba. Sydney, Australia

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    Seshadri, B.

    1959-02-01

    Full Text Available El pantano de Warragamba, cuyo objeto es el de producir energía hidroeléctrica en su primera fase de explotación y solamente agua potable cuando las necesidades de ésta así lo requieran, se haya situado en las proximidades de Sydney (Australia. Su extensa cuenca está constituida por una serie de ríos en cuyas cabeceras se han construido diques de retención, que no solamente almacenan grandes cantidades de agua, sino que sirven parcialmente para la regularización de caudales, función de gran interés en esta zona donde las avenidas, seguidas de extensas inundaciones, se hacen sentir con relativa frecuencia.

  15. Tres patos ocasionales en la Sabana de Bogotá y la Laguna de Fúquene

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    Borrero José Ignacio

    1944-12-01

    Full Text Available Agradezco al Dr. Armando Dugand la ayuda que se sirvió dispensarme para la presentación de este articulo. Creo de interes, para principiar, hacer una breve descripción de las condiciones de la Sabana de Bogotá y la Laguna de Fúquene, como localidades de paso o estacionamiento temporal para las especies migratorias de Anátidas.  La Sabana de Bogotá ocupa una vasta altiplanicie de unos 2000 kilómetros cuadrados a 2600 mts. de altura media, rodeada de montanas o cerros en toda su extensión y cruzada por pequeños rios. El rio Bogotá, que la atraviesa, forma en sus riberas y en casi toda su extensión grandes lagunas y pantanos apropiados para la llegada de los patos y otras aves acuáticas que anualmente vienen del Norte y otras regiones.

  16. El porro pelayero: De las gaitas y tambores a las bandas de viento

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    Amparo Lotero Botero

    1989-04-01

    Full Text Available Cuando en los primeros moradores de la costa atlántica la alegría se hizo fiestas, no había con qué amenizarlas. Eran los días en que empezaban a confundirse las expresiones culturales de los esclavos traídos del África, de los europeos llegados a América y de los nativos de estas tierras. Carecían de instrumentos para producir música pero debían ahuyentar la fatiga, las penalidades y el terror de la muerte. Entonces hicieron flautas y gaitas con las cañas que crecen en los pantanos. tambores con troncos de árboles y cueros de animales, y les saca ron música a los primitivos instrumentos con las remembranzas de estos primigenios grupos de habitantes.

  17. CONTAMINACIÓN MINERA EN BOLIVIA: ALTERNATIVAS DE REMEDIACIÓN DE AGUAS ÁCIDAS

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    Ramiro Escalera Vásquez

    2008-01-01

    Se ha realizado una revisión de los procesos tecnológicos activos y pasivos comúnmente disponibles para el tratamiento o remediación de aguas ácidas mineras, donde se comparan sus ventajas y desventajas técnicas y económicas. Dentro de los sistemas activos, la comparación favorece a la oxidación solar por su capacidad de convertir el As (III más soluble a As (V menos soluble. En ausencia de As, la neutralización con caliza y posterior precipitación de metales pesados es más recomendable. Ambos procesos son simples y más económicos que las otras alternativas. El tratamiento pasivo más auto sustentable es el provisto por humedales o pantanos artificiales.

  18. Hematology and serum biochemistry comparison in wild and captive Central American river turtles (Dermatemys mawii) in Tabasco, Mexico.

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    Rangel-Mendoza, Judith; Weber, Manuel; Zenteno-Ruiz, Claudia E; López-Luna, Marco A; Barba-Macías, Everardo

    2009-10-01

    Hematological and serum biochemistry analyses were determined on 51 Central American river turtles (Dermatemys mawii) during the dry and rainy seasons of 2006. Turtles came from two sites: Pantanos de Centla Biosphere Reserve and a turtle breeding farm, both located in Tabasco State, Mexico. Physical examination and body measures of animals were performed. Incidence and prevalence of hemoparasites were explored. Captive organisms were in poor physical condition while wild turtles were apparently healthy. There were differences in several hematological parameters related with the condition and the season. During the dry season captive turtles exhibited higher levels of uric acid and urea, as well as lower levels of glucose. Haemogregarina sp. was detected in 100% of the wild individuals, but not in captive individuals. Its incidence was greater during the rainy season. This is the first health assessment and hematology study of this critically endangered species.

  19. A juvenile subfossil crocodylian from Anjohibe Cave, Northwestern Madagascar

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    Joshua C. Mathews

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Madagascar’s subfossil record preserves a diverse community of animals including elephant birds, pygmy hippopotamus, giant lemurs, turtles, crocodiles, bats, rodents, and carnivorans. These fossil accumulations give us a window into the island’s past from 80,000 years ago to a mere few hundred years ago, recording the extinction of some groups and the persistence of others. The crocodylian subfossil record is limited to two taxa, Voay robustus and Crocodylus niloticus, found at sites distributed throughout the island. V. robustus is extinct while C. niloticus is still found on the island today, but whether these two species overlapped temporally, or if Voay was driven to extinction by competing with Crocodylus remains unknown. While their size and presumed behavior was similar to each other, nearly nothing is known about the growth and development of Voay, as the overwhelming majority of fossil specimens represent mature adult individuals. Here we describe a nearly complete juvenile crocodylian specimen from Anjohibe Cave, northwestern Madagascar. The specimen is referred to Crocodylus based on the presence of caviconchal recesses on the medial wall of the maxillae, and to C. niloticus based on the presence of an oval shaped internal choana, lack of rostral ornamentation and a long narrow snout. However, as there are currently no described juvenile specimens of Voay robustus, it is important to recognize that some of the defining characteristics of that genus may have changed through ontogeny. Elements include a nearly complete skull and many postcranial elements (cervical, thoracic, sacral, and caudal vertebrae, pectoral elements, pelvic elements, forelimb and hindlimb elements, osteoderms. Crocodylus niloticus currently inhabits Madagascar but is locally extinct from this particular region; radiometric dating indicates an age of ∼460–310 years before present (BP. This specimen clearly represents a juvenile based on the extremely small

  20. Streamflow in the upper Santa Cruz River basin, Santa Cruz and Pima Counties, Arizona

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    Condes de la Torre, Alberto

    1970-01-01

    Streamflow records obtained in the upper Santa Cruz River basin of southern Arizona, United States, and northern Sonora, Mexico, have been analyzed to aid in the appraisal of the surface-water resources of the area. Records are available for 15 sites, and the length of record ranges from 60 years for the gaging station on the Santa .Cruz River at Tucson to 6 years for Pantano Wash near Vail. The analysis provides information on flow duration, low-flow frequency magnitude, flood-volume frequency and magnitude, and storage requirements to maintain selected draft rates. Flood-peak information collected from the gaging stations has been projected on a regional basis from which estimates of flood magnitude and frequency may be made for any site in the basin. Most streams in the 3,503-square-mile basin are ephemeral. Ground water sustains low flows only at Santa Cruz River near Nogales, Sonoita Creek near Patagonia, and Pantano Wash near Vail. Elsewhere, flow occurs only in direct response to precipitation. The median number of days per year in which there is no flow ranges from 4 at Sonoita Creek near Patagonia to 335 at Rillito Creek near Tomson. The streamflow is extremely variable from year to year, and annual flows have a coefficient of variation close to or exceeding unity at most stations. Although the amount of flow in the basin is small most of the time, the area is subject to floods. Most floods result from high-intensity precipitation caused by thunderstorms during the period ,July to September. Occasionally, when snowfall at the lower altitudes is followed by rain, winter floods produce large volumes of flow.

  1. Molecular identification of Indian crocodile species: PCR-RFLP method for forensic authentication*.

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    Meganathan, P R; Dubey, Bhawna; Haque, Ikramul

    2009-09-01

    South East Asian countries are known for illegal poaching and trade of crocodiles clandestinely, to be used in skin, medicinal, and cosmetic industries. Besides crocodiles being listed in the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, India has its Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 for conservation of crocodile species. Hitherto, lack of any rapid and reliable technique for examinations of crocodile-based crime exhibits such as skin, bones, etc. has been a major problem for an effective promulgation of law on illegal trade. DNA-based identification of species using PCR-RFLP technique for an apt identification of all the three Indian crocodile species namely, Crocodylus porosus, Crocodylus palustris and Gavialis gangeticus is presented here. A 628 bp segment of cytochrome b gene was amplified using novel primers followed by restriction digestion with three enzymes i.e., HaeIII, MboI, and MwoI, separately and in combination. The technique has produced a species-specific pattern for identifying the three crocodile species individually, which fulfills the requirement for its forensic application. It is expected that the technique will prove handy in identification of all the three Indian crocodile species and strengthen conservation efforts.

  2. Extended mitogenomic phylogenetic analyses yield new insight into crocodylian evolution and their survival of the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Jonas; Aggarwal, Ramesh K; Janke, Axel

    2007-11-01

    The mitochondrial genomes of the dwarf crocodile, Osteolaemus tetraspis, and two species of dwarf caimans, the smooth-fronted caiman, Paleosuchus trigonatus, and Cuvier's dwarf caiman, Paleosuchus palpebrosus, were sequenced and included in a mitogenomic phylogenetic study. The phylogenetic analyses, which included a total of ten crocodylian species, yielded strong support to a basal split between Crocodylidae and Alligatoridae. Osteolaemus fell within the Crocodylidae as the sister group to Crocodylus. Gavialis and Tomistoma, which joined on a common branch, constituted a sister group to Crocodylus/Osteolaemus. This suggests that extant crocodylians are organized in two families: Alligatoridae and Crocodylidae. Within the Alligatoridae there was a basal split between Alligator and a branch that contained Paleosuchus and Caiman. The analyses also provided molecular estimates of various divergences applying recently established crocodylian and outgroup fossil calibration points. Molecular estimates based on amino acid data placed the divergence between Crocodylidae and Alligatoridae at 97-103 million years ago and that between Alligator and Caiman/Paleosuchus at 65-72 million years ago. Other crocodilian divergences were placed after the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Thus, according to the molecular estimates, three extant crocodylian lineages have their roots in the Cretaceous. Considering the crocodylian diversification in the Cretaceous the molecular datings suggest that the extinction of the dinosaurs was also to some extent paralleled in the crocodylian evolution. However, for whatever reason, some crocodylian lineages survived into the Tertiary.

  3. Structural diversity of nuptial pads in Phyllomedusinae (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae).

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    Luna, Maria Celeste; Taboada, Carlos; Baêta, Délio; Faivovich, Julián

    2012-07-01

    We studied the morphological variation of the nuptial pads using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in 26 species of phyllomedusines (Anura: Hylidae), representing the five currently recognized genera. All phyllomedusines have single nuptial pads with dark colored epidermal projections (EPs). Spine-shaped EPs occur in Cruziohyla calcarifer, Phrynomedusa appendiculata and in one species of Phasmahyla. The other species have roundish EPs. The density of the EPs on the pad is variable. Species in the Phyllomedusa hypochondrialis Group have EPs with a density that varies between 764 ± 58/mm(2) and 923 ± 160/mm(2). In all other studied species (including the Phyllomedusa burmeisteri and Phyllomedusa perinesos groups, Phyllomedusa camba, Phyllomedusa boliviana, Phyllomedusa sauvagii, Phyllomedusa bicolor, and Phyllomedusa tomopterna) the density of EPs varies between 108 ± 20/mm(2) and 552 ± 97/mm(2). Pores were observed with SEM in C. calcarifer, Agalychnis lemur, Agalychnis moreletii, but its presence is confirmed through histological sections on several other species. Its visibility using SEM seems to be related with the level of separation between adjacent EPs. The pores in the four studied species of Agalychnis are shown with SEM and histological sections to have a characteristic epidermal rim, that is absent in the otherphyllomedusines. Unlike most previous reports on breeding glands, those of phyllomedusines are alcian blue positive, indicating the presence of acidic mucosubstances on its secretions. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Caracterización espacio-temporal del hábitat y presencia de Dermatemys mawii (Testudines: Dermatemydidae en la cuenca del Grijalva-Usumacinta, Tabasco, México

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    Claudia Elena Zenteno Ruiz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La tortuga centroamericana (Dermatemys mawii es una especie en peligro de extinción pobremente estudiada. En el presente trabajo se analizaron las variaciones estacionales y espaciales del hábitat y se relacionaron con la presencia/ausencia de D. mawii en tres ríos de la Reserva de la Biosfera Pantanos de Centla (Tabasco, México. Para caracterizar el hábitat se evaluaron 11 variables (hidrológicas, fisicoquímicas del agua y de la vegetación en dos temporadas (seca y lluviosa. Para determinar la presencia/ ausencia de la especie se colocaron 8 trampas de desvío acuáticas, empleando la captura por unidad de esfuerzo (CPUE como indicador de la abundancia relativa. Los resultados indicaron variaciones espacio-temporales. El análisis de componentes principales (ACP permitió determinar la variabilidad ambiental. La presencia de la especie se confirmó en los tres ríos, sin embargo la mayor abundancia relativa se registró en el Río Tabasquillo. Cuatro variables tuvieron el mayor peso como variables predictoras de la presencia de la especie. Con los resultados obtenidos, es evidente la importancia que tiene el ambiente ribereño como hábitat para Dermatemys, asimismo es posible hacer el primer acercamiento a un plan de acción para la protección de la especie y su hábitat en esta reserva.Presence and spatio-temporal habitat characterization of Dermatemys mawii (Testudines: Dermatemydidae in the Grijalva-Usumacinta watershed, Tabasco, Mexico. The Central American River Turtle (Dermatemys mawii is an endangered species that has been poorly studied. There are no reports on their population status, habitat condition, and the species distribution area is still unknown. This study analyzes the seasonal and spatial variations of their habitat and the presence/absence of D. mawii in three rivers within the Pantanos de Centla Biosphere Reserve (Tabasco, Mexico. For habitat characterization, natural segmentation of rivers was used and three

  5. Assesment of pesticide fluxes to surface water using Uranine in Colombia

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    Garcia-Santos, G.; Scheiben, D.; Diaz, J.; Leuenberger, F.; Binder, C. R.

    2009-04-01

    In the highlands of Colombia, potato farmers maximize their yields by the application of pesticides. Properly applied pesticides can significantly reduce yield loss and improve product quality; however their misuse leads to human health and environmental problems, i.e. water bodies contaminated with pesticides. Due to the lack of control regarding local pesticide use, unmeasured hydrological parameters and use of local water runoff as a drinking water supply, an assessment of the impact of agricultural practice on water quality is mandatory as first stage. In order to accomplish this, our study assesses pesticide fluxes to surface water using the tracer Uranine. The experimental area La Hoya main basin (3 km2) contains the Pantano Verde river which flows into the Teatinos river in the Boyaca region (Colombia). Some facts such as the deep soils in the area and the importance of the unsaturated zone for the sorption and degradation of pesticides suggest a lack of contaminants in groundwater. However, due to the humid conditions, steep slopes and an intensive agricultural with high pesticide use, we expect surface water to be highly contaminated. In order to assess pesticide pathways, a tracer (Uranine), detectable at very low amount was used. Four local farmers applied the tracer instead of the pesticide mixture covering a total surface of 1.2 10-2 km2. Meteorological data were measured every 15 min with one compact meteorological station installed within the basin and water flow and water sampling were obtained using an ISCO-6700 water sampler, during one week every 10 min in the outlet of Pantano Verde River. In addition, three pairs of membranes were installed down the river and collected 1 week, one month and 4 months after the experiment to measure tracer accumulation. The tracer in water was analysed using a fluorescent spectrometer. Results of this study show first variations of tracer concentration in water in La Hoya basin and constitute an initial steep in

  6. Distribución y abundancia de crustáceos en humedales de Tabasco, México Abundance and distribution of crustaceans in wetlands of Tabasco

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    Everardo Barba

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available El estado de Tabasco presenta una compleja y alta diversidad de humedales que incluye tipos palustres (20.72%, costeros (3.93%, lacustres (1.74% y ribereños (1.37%, los cuales cubren el 27% del territorio estatal. La diversidad faunística en estos ambientes comprende invertebrados y vertebrados, donde la mayor parte de los registros son de especies de interés comercial. Se presenta el inventario de crustáceos recolectados desde 2003 hasta la fecha en las subregiones Sierra, Ríos y Pantanos. La recolección fue diurna, en 14 localidades (ambientes lóticos y lénticos, mediante nucleador y draga para la infauna, y arrastres con diferentes artes para la epifauna. Se obtuvieron 2 370 organismos que pertenecen a 4 órdenes, 15 familias, 17 géneros y 17 especies. Las especies más abundantes fueron Discapseudes holthuisi Bacescu y Gutu, 1975 (62%, Macrobrachium acanthurus (Wiegmann, 1836 (12%, Leptochirus sp. Zaddach, 1844 (8% y Palaemonetes vulgaris (Say, 1818 (7%, sumando el 89% del total. El 67% de la abundancia correspondió a la infauna y el 33% a la epifauna. El 81% de los crustáceos se capturaron en sistemas lénticos y el resto en sistemas lóticos. Este trabajo contribuye con nuevos registros de crustáceos en humedales de Tabasco.The state of Tabasco is characterised by complex and diverse wetlands of different types: palustrine (20.72%, coastal (3.93%, lacustrine (1.74% and riverine (1.37%, covering 27% of its surface. Faunal diversity of these wetlands includes invertebrates and vertebrates, most of the available records come from species with commercial importance. The list of crustaceans collected from 2003 to date in the subregions Sierra, Ríos and Pantanos, is presented. The sampling at 14 localities was diurnal (lotic and lentic environments, using cores and dredges for the infauna and different nets for epifauna. A total of 2 370 organisms belonging to 4 orders, 15 families, 17 genera and 17 species, was obtained. The most

  7. Gnathostoma binucleatum (Spirurida: Gnathostomatidae en peces dulceacuícolas de Tabasco, México

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    Teiji Kifune

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available La gnatostomiasis humana se adquiere al ingerir pescado de agua dulce crudo o insuficientemente cocido, infectado con larvas de tercer estadio avanzado (L3A de nemátodos del género Gnathostoma. En el sureste de Asia, este padecimiento tiene una importancia relativa; en México, se le considera un problema de salud pública emergente desde 1970, cuando fueron registrados los primeros casos. Hasta la fecha, no se han establecido con precisión los caracteres morfométricos para diferenciar las L3A de las tres especies del género distribuidas en este país. Recientemente, se registraron larvas del parásito en peces dulceacuícolas de los Pantanos de Centla, Tabasco, sin definir su identidad específica. El análisis de cuatro especies de peces de la misma localidad reveló que tres de ellos: Petenia splendida (n=58, Cichlasoma managuense (n=35 y Gobiomorus dormitor (n=9, resultaron positivas a la infección por Gnathostoma binucleatum. La identificación del parásito se obtuvo comparando la secuencia del espaciador interno 2 (ITS2 del ADN ribosomal del material de Tabasco, con secuencias disponibles en Genbank. Este trabajo constituye el primer registro de G. binucleatum en P. splendida y G. dormitor de Tabasco y la primera determinación a nivel específico del parásito en la localidadHuman gnathostomiasis is a food-born parasitic disease of relative importance in many countries in Southeast Asia. It is caused by several species of nematodes of the genus Gnathostoma. In Mexico is an emerging public health problem since 1970, when first cases were reported. Until today, larval morphometric characters that have been proposed to differentiate between the three species of Gnathostoma present in this country, are not satisfactory. Recently, the presence of advanced third-stage larvae AdvL 3 (infective form for humans in freshwater fishes from Pantanos de Centla, Tabasco, was recorded but their specific identity was not clarified. Examination of

  8. Producción y calidad de la leche bubalina

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    Exequiel Maria Patiño

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available El búfalo, al igual que los bovinos, son clasificados zoológicamente en la familia Bovidae y en la subfamilia bovinae. Los bovinos pertenecen a la especie Bos taurus y los búfalos a la Bubalus. Dentro de esta última encontramos a su vez tres sub especies, Bubalis, Karebau o Carabao y Fulvus.La especie Bubalus también es clasificada como búfalo de agua (Bubalus bubalis bubalis y de pantano (Bubalus bubalis karebau.El Bubalus bubalis sp. también denominado búfalo doméstico o asiático muchas veces es confundido con el bisonte americano (Bison bison, mal llamado búfalo americano o con el búfalo africano (Syncerus caffer también conocido como búfalo salvaje de África.El búfalo doméstico posee un número menor de cromosomas que el bovino (50 en lugar de 60, lo que hace incompatible su cruzamiento, aclarando a su vez que el búfalo de río o agua tiene 50 cromosomas, y el de pantano 48, lo cual hace viable su cruzamiento. El búfalo se encuentra actualmente en todos los continentes. Tuvo su origen en Asia y se registran datos de su existencia como animal doméstico desde hace 4.500 años, en la región ocupada actualmente por India y Pakistán.De Asia fue llevado a África, luego a Europa, Oceanía y posteriormente a América. La población bubalina actual en el mundo según la FAO (2008 es de 180,7 millones de cabezas, de las cuales Asia tiene el 96,40% del total de dicha existencia, África cuenta con el 2,78%, América con 0,63%, Europa con el 0,18% y Oceanía con el 0,001%.

  9. Occurrence of Amblyomma dissimile on wild crocodylians in southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charruau, Pierre; Pérez-Flores, Jonathan; Cedeño-Vázquez, J Rogelio; Gonzalez-Solis, David; González-Desales, Giovany A; Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio; Desales-Lara, Marco A

    2016-09-26

    Ticks are common ectoparasites of amphibians and reptiles but very few reports of such parasites on crocodylians exist worldwide. Herein, we report the first detailed observations of Amblyomma dissimile Koch, 1844 on the 3 crocodylian species present in Mexico, with the first report of tick parasitism on Crocodylus acutus and the second on Caiman crocodilus chiapasius. This is also the first report of A. dissimile in the state of Quintana Roo. Proportions of infested individuals found in this study ranged from 0.51 to 1.96%, suggesting that tick parasitism in crocodylians is likely opportunistic and occurs when individuals leave the water for terrestrial activities. Tick parasitism does not represent a major threat to crocodylians. The increasing habitat destruction/fragmentation and cattle expansion in southeastern Mexico, however, could increase tick populations and trigger tick parasitism and tick-borne diseases in herpetofauna and other vertebrates, including humans. Thus, studies are needed to better understand these relationships.

  10. WILDLIFE USE BY RURAL COMMUNITIES IN THE CATAZAJÁ - LA LIBERTAD WETLANDS, CHIAPAS, MÉXICO

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    Yasminda García-Del Valle

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of wild vertebrates was analyzed for rural communities in Catazajá and La Libertad municipalities, Chiapas state. From interviews (n=190 and two workshops (January 2007-December 2008 applied to four communities (Playas, Punta Arena, Morelos and La Libertad, species, uses, sites and hunting seasons were recorder. A total of 24 species were recognized by local people as resources for food, sale, pet, craft and traditional medicine. Jicotea tortoise (Trachemys scripta, nine banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcintus, Morelet´s crocodile (Crocodylus moreletti, green iguana (Iguana iguana and white front parrot (Amazona albifrons were recognized as species with high use value. We analyzed the problematic and the communities propose some strategies that would favor the population increment and the diversity maintenance of wildlife in this region.

  11. FOSSIL REPTILES FROM THE PLEISTOCENE HOMO-BEARING LOCALITY OF BUIA (ERITREA, NORTHERN DANAKIL DEPRESSION

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    MASSIMO DELFINO

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The early to early-Middle Pleistocene fossil assemblage form the Buia area (Northern Danakil Depression, Eritrea hosts, along with Homo and several other large mammal taxa, the following reptiles: Nile Crocodile, Crocodylus niloticus, Serrated Hinged Terrapin, Pelusios cf. P. sinuatus, Nile Monitor, Varanus niloticus and African Rock Python, Python gr. sebae. All the identified taxa belong to living species. At present, these taxa do not occur in the Northern Danakil depression since it is an arid area. P. sinuatus is not a member of the Eritrean herpetofauna. Although the marked preponderance of the crocodile remains is probably connected to the taphonomy of the sites and the collecting methods used, the ecological value of the reptile fauna corroborates that of the mammals, in indicating a lacustrine or fluvio-deltaic palaeoenvironment and a tropical/subtropical or even sub-Sahelic climate. The Buia remains represent the first reported Eritrean palaeoherpetofauna. 

  12. Tupinambis merianae as nest predators of crocodilians and turtles in Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzotti, Frank J.; McEachern, Michelle A.; Rochford, Michael; Reed, Robert; Ketterlin Eckles, Jennifer; Vinci, Joy; Edwards, Jake; Wasilewki, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Tupinambis merianae, is a large, omnivorous tegu lizard native to South America. Two populations of tegus are established in the state of Florida, USA, but impacts to native species are poorly documented. During summer 2013, we placed automated cameras overlooking one American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) nest, which also contained a clutch of Florida red-bellied cooter (Pseudemys nelsoni) eggs, and one American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) nest at a site in southeastern Florida where tegus are established. We documented tegu activity and predation on alligator and turtle eggs at the alligator nest, and tegu activity at the crocodile nest. Our finding that one of the first two crocodilian nests to be monitored was depredated by tegus suggests that tegus should be further evaluated as a threat to nesting reptiles in Florida.

  13. An 11-digit identification system for individual Nile crocodiles using natural markings

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    Hindrik Bouwman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Research and conservation of wild crocodiles and husbandry of captive crocodiles requires the reliable identification of individuals. We present a method using the individual colour markings on the first 10 single-crest scutes on the tails of Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus. The scutes are scored by number for colour, with a prefix for left or right providing a binary 11-digit identification number (identification numbers [IDs]; e.g. 12232232242 and 22333233232 per crocodile. A survey of 359 captive Nile crocodiles showed no duplication. However, 42% had asymmetrical scute markings requiring a binary approach. There does not seem to be a change in patterns with age, except that the number of missing scutes increased. A small trial showed that this method can be applied in the field, although more work is needed to determine observer bias and establish parameters for observability in the field. It is unlikely that both left and right IDs would be obtainable for each individual, but other distinctive markings such as scute shape and damage can be used to register the two IDs to one individual. Having two independent IDs for each crocodile provides the possibility of two independent population estimates for equal effort without having to link left and right IDs to individuals. Our proposed method would be useful in conservation, individual tracking and husbandry. Conservation implications: A non-invasive marking and recapture method for Nile crocodile is presented whereby the first 10 single-crest scutes are scored for colour, allowing conservation practitioners to count and monitor crocodile populations and individuals. This method provides two equal-effort estimations of population size, as left and right hand sides are scored independently. Keywords: Crocodylus niloticus; identification; mark - recapture; mark - resight

  14. Morphological and molecular identification of Gnathostoma binucleatum (Nematoda: Gnathostomatidae advanced third stage larvae (AdvL3 in the state of Colima, Mexico Determinación morfológica y molecular de larvas del tercer estadio larvario (L3A de Gnathostoma binucleatum (Nematoda: Gnathostomatidae del estado de Colima, México

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    Luis Jorge García-Márquez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available As a part of an ongoing project to understand the current distribution of Gnathostoma species in Mexico, 22 species of vertebrates were examined for this nematode in the state of Colima. The fish species Dormitator latifrons ("chococo" and Sciades guatemalensis ("cuatete" from Cuyutlán Lagoon and the reptile Crocodylus acutus from the Amela Lagoon were positive for infection. Morphometric characteristics of the larvae collected in Colima were similar to those of G. binucleatum larvae collected from other regions and host species in Mexico. The low divergence of the ITS sequence obtained in this study from that of G. binucleatum (0.19% indicates that our material belongs to this species. This is the first record of the AdvL3 of G. binucleatum in Colima, the tenth state in Mexico in which this species has been recorded in wild vertebrates.Como parte de un proyecto para definir la distribución actual de las especies de Gnathostoma en México, examinamos 22 especies de vertebrados en el estado de Colima en busca de este nematodo. Las especies de peces Dormitator latifrons ("chococo" y Sciades guatemalensis ("cuatete" de la laguna de Cuyutlán y el reptil Crocodylus acutus de la laguna de Amela resultaron positivos a la infección. Las características morfométricas de las larvas encontradas en Colima son similares a las de las larvas de G. binucleatum recolectadas en otras regiones y especies de hospederos en México. La escasa divergencia entre las secuencias del ITS obtenidas en este estudio con aquella de G. binucleatum (0.19% indica que nuestro material pertenece a esta especie. Este es el primer registro de la L3A de G. binucleatum en Colima, siendo éste el décimo estado en México en donde se ha registrado a esta especie en vertebrados silvestres.

  15. Experiences of digital documentation of Carsulae on the Flaminian way in Umbria

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    Stefano Bertocci

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Umbrian territory crossed by one track of the ancient Roman Flaminia Way,  presents settlements, monuments and art works connected with the old road network. During the centuries, the road track called Martana, which was marked in 223 a.C. by the Consul Flaminio, has coagulate an amount of settlements, like the town of Carsulae (Terni e Acquasparta, Sangemini, the settlement near S. Maria in Pantano (Massamartana, and monuments, like the Massamartana catacombs, rural churches, monasteries and castles. The conservation and the accessibility of all the sites lay down problems not only concerning merely the management of the survey, study and conservation campaign, but also, if the aim is to create a museum network, those related on one side with the improvement of a correct use of the sites, on the other with the realization of an executive program of digital documentation in order to guarantee the dissemination of the data in a Virtual Museum of the heritage itself. 

  16. Estudios ecológicos en la Cordillera Oriental – II: Las comunidades vegetales de los alrededores de la laguna de Chingaza (Cundinamarca Estudios ecológicos en la Cordillera Oriental – II: Las comunidades vegetales de los alrededores de la laguna de Chingaza (Cundinamarca

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    Franco R. Pilar

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available The plant communities present along an altitudinal transect between 3.000-3.600 m above sea level around Chingaza lake, Cundinamarca, Colombia, are described following the Zurich-Montpellier System. The zonal plant communities (WALTER. 1964 belong to the life zones refered to as "Paramo" and "Andean" by CUATRECASAS (1934, 1958 and RANGEL et al., (1982.  The azonal plant communities (marsh communities are briefly studied.  New information about synecological aspects and geographic distribution is provided together with a provisional sintaxonomic classification of the vegetation of the area. Mediante la utilización de los lineamientos metodológicos de la Escuela, Zurich-Montpellier, se tipifican y describen las comunidades vegetales de los alrededores de la Laguna de Chingaza (Cundinamarca entre 3.000 y 3.600 m.  Las comunidades zonales (WALTER, 1964 se pueden ubicar según los esquemas propuestos por CUATRECASAS (1934, 1958  y por RANGEL et al., (1982 en las zonas de vida Paramuna y Andina (franja alto-andina; la vegetación azonal (de pantano también se reseña.  Igualmente se presenta información adicional que incluye aspectos sinecológicos y corológicos y se propone un arreglo sintaxonómico provisional de la vegetación estudiada.

  17. A territorialização da política nacional de assistência social e a proteção social das pessoas idosas usuárias do benefício de prestação continuada no Corede do Vale do Rio Pardo - RS = The territorialization of national policy for social assistance and the social protection of the elderly users of the continuous installment benefit Programme on Corede of Rio Pardo - RS Valley

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    Piovesan, Alice Raquel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é fruto da pesquisa que teve como objetivo analisar a Proteção Social das pessoas idosas usuárias do BPC, nos municípios de Santa Cruz do Sul, Pantano Grande e Vale Verde, a partir do processo de territorialização da Política Nacional de Assistência Social (PNAS. O estudo teve enfoque qualitativo com base no método dialético crítico. Realizaram-se entrevistas semiestruturadas com 15 pessoas idosas e com sete profissionais dos CRAS nos municípios referidos, e do INSS de Santa Cruz do Sul. A análise dos dados ocorreu através da análise de conteúdo. Constatou-se que a territorialização da PNAS apresenta muitos desafios, como a necessidade de articulação com os demais agentes do território; o aumento de profissionais e sua capacitação; o esclarecimento sobre o acesso, a revisão e a manutenção do BPC; a definição de ações e estratégias que garantam a proteção social da população idosa, entre outros aspectos

  18. La televisión Colombia es de autor

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    Omar Rincón

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Colombia tiene una marca narrativa en televisión. Somos el país de Yo soy Betty, la fea y Café con aroma de mujer y por eso Fernando Gaitán es nuestro gran contador cultural, así como lo fue antes García Márquez y su realismo mágico o Botero y sus gorditos divertidos. Nuestra marca Colombia de ficción televisiva se caracteriza por ser esa que hace otro melodrama e intenta otras éticas y estéticas, que innova y emociona distinto. Una ficción de autor. Eso comenzó desde el 13 de junio de 1954 cuando se inauguró la pequeña pantalla para conmemorar el primer año de gobierno del general Rojas Pinilla. En la primera emisión El niño del pantano, una breve de ficción adaptada para televisión de un cuento original de Bernardo Romero Lozano, ya marcaba el rumbo. Desde ese primer día la televisión colombiana buscó ser una mezcla entre lo de élite y lo popular, entre el gran drama y la comedia.

  19. Diseño de un sistema de logística inversa para la recolección de envases y empaques vacíos de plaguicidas

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    Eduin Dionisio Contreras Castañeda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Este documento presenta los resultados finales de una investigación adelantada en el sector del Pantano de Vargas del Departamento de Boyacá – Colombia, el cual enfrenta un problema a causa del mal manejo y tratamiento que se le viene dando a los envases y empaques vacíos de plaguicidas por parte de los agricultores, causando contaminación en el medio ambiente. Debido a lo anterior, se planteó como objetivo principal realizar el diagnóstico del proceso de recolección y disposición final de los residuos generados, que permita el diseño de un proceso de Logística Inversa para los envases y empaques vacíos de plaguicidas en esta unidad de riego. Para lograr el objetivo propuesto se recolectó información mediante rastreo bibliográfico, observación directa y encuestas dirigidas a proveedores, agricultores y recolectores de los residuos en la zona de estudio. Además, se revisó la normativa legal aplicable a la recolección de envases vacíos de plaguicidas. Asimismo, se obtuvo la descripción gráfica de la recolección actual y se plantea la caracterización de un proceso de Logística Inversa. Entre los principales hallazgos, se evidenció que los actores que participan en el proceso de recolección y disposición final de los residuos de plaguicidas, no están cumplimiento con la normativa estipulada, y se observa que el proceso realizado actualmente es empírico y no tiene en cuenta actividades propias de la logística inversa. Se propone un proceso documentado bajo los lineamientos de la norma NTC-ISO 9001:2008, que permita la mejora continua del mismo. This paper shows the outcomes of a research process that was implemented in the Pantano de Vargas area, in Boyacá – Colombia. This place faces a big issue due to bad management and treatment that farmers are giving to empty containers and packaging of pesticides, producing environmental pollution.Because of this, the main objective of this research project was carrying out a

  20. Estacionalidad de la densidad larval del mosquito Anopheles aquasalis (Diptera: Culicidae y otros insectos asociados a su hábitat en Sucre, Venezuela

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    Jesús Berti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles aquasalis es considerado como el principal vector de malaria humana en el norte de Venezuela. El estudio longitudinal se llevó a cabo en áreas costeras de la Península de Paria, estado Sucre. El hábitat de las larvas de A. aquasalis fue clasificado como: manglar salobre y pantano herbáceo. Muestreos para recolectar larvas de mosquitos e insectos asociados se realizaron mensualmente en ambos criaderos desde enero hasta diciembre de 1999 (30 muestras. Simultáneamente se midieron cinco variables seleccionadas del agua: conductividad, salinidad, oxígeno disuelto, temperatura y pH. En ambos criaderos de determinaron las variaciones estacionales y temporales de las larvas de A. aquasalis e insectos acuáticos. Para el período de estudio, la abundancia de larvas fue mayor en el manglar. El análisis de correspondencia mostró una fuerte relación entre algunos factores químicos del agua y la abundancia de las larvas. La abundancia de las larvas de A. aquasalis en ambas épocas, se correlacionó positivamente con la salinidad del agua, pH y conductividad, y negativamente con el oxígeno disuelto, en la estación seca. La presencia de larvas se correlacionó positivamente con la presencia de Avicennia germinans. En el manglar existió una asociación positiva entre la abundancia de larvas y la abundancia de la familia Scirtidae y una correlación negativa entre la abundancia de larvas y la precipitación mensual (Spearman, así como una correlación negativa significativa entre la abundancia de Gerridae y la precipitación mensual. En el pantano herbáceo, no había asociaciones significativas entre la abundancia de las larvas de A. aquasalis y la abundancia de otros insectos acuáticos asociados al hábitat.Larval seasonality of the mosquito Anopheles aquasalis (Diptera: Culicidae and other insects associated to its habitat in Sucre, Venezuela. Anopheles aquasalis Curry is considered the main vector of human malaria in Northern

  1. EL MODO DE VIDA LACUSTRE: ETNOGRAFÍA DE LAS CUENCAS LACUSTRES DE MICHOACÁN (Ethnographic Perspectives on the Aquatic Lifeway in Michoacan, Western Mexico

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    Eduardo Williams

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mesoamérica fue la única civilización en el mundo antiguo que careció de fuentes importantes de proteína animal como el ganado, los cerdos y los borregos. Por lo tanto, las abundantes especies acuáticas (peces, aves, reptiles, anfibios, insectos y plantas, entre otros tuvieron un papel estratégico en la dieta y la economía de la mayoría de las culturas mesoamericanas, incluyendo a los tarascos. Este estudio de actividades de subsistencia (pesca, caza, recolección y manufactura en los lagos de Cuitzeo y Pátzcuaro (Michoacán, México enfatiza la relevancia de la etnografía, la arqueología y la etnohistoria como herramientas para entender el modo de vida lacustre tradicional de los tarascos; que vivían en un entorno dominado por lagos, ríos, pantanos y otros paisajes acuáticos. ENGLISH: Mesoamerica was the only civilization in the ancient world that lacked major domesticated sources of animal protein, such as cattle, pigs, and sheep. Therefore, the abundant wild aquatic species (fish, birds, reptiles, amphibians, insects, and plants, among others had a strategic role in the diet and economy of most Mesoamerican cultures, including the Tarascans. This study of subsistence activities (fishing, hunting, gathering, and manufacture around the Cuitzeo and Pátzcuaro lakes (Michoacán, Mexico underscores the value of ethnography, archaeology, and ethnohistory as tools for understanding the traditional aquatic lifeway of the Tarascans; who lived in an environment dominated by lakes, rivers, marshes and other wetlands.

  2. La ecología de Vibrio cholerae serogrupo 01 en ambientes acuáticos

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    Borroto René J.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available El carácter endémico y estacional del cólera depende de la supervivencia de Vibrio cholerae serogrupo 01 en estado viable, pero no necesariamente cultivable, en nichos ecológicos localizados en ambientes acuáticos durante períodos interepidémicos. Para comprender la ecología de V. cholerae es preciso conocer los ecosistemas acuáticos que pudieran albergarlo y contribuir a la presencia endémica del cólera en América Latina. El presente artículo tiene por objetivo presentar, en términos resumidos, la ecología de V. cholerae 01 organizada según los factores abióticos y bióticos que desempeñan funciones relevantes en la supervivencia del microbio en ambientes acuáticos. Este agente patógeno encuentra condiciones favorables en aguas caracterizadas por niveles moderados de salinidad, un alto contenido de nutrientes, temperaturas cálidas, un pH neutro o ligeramente alcalino y la presencia de macrófitas acuáticas, fitoplancton, zooplancton, peces, moluscos y crustáceos. Estas condiciones ecológicas son propias de los ecosistemas acuáticos de estuarios y pantanos costeros, de cuya flora microbiana V. cholerae 01 toxígeno se considera actualmente un miembro autóctono. Este microorganismo también se ha mostrado capaz de colonizar ecosistemas de agua dulce en su forma viable, aunque no necesariamente cultivable, si encuentra sustratos orgánicos e inorgánicos que favorezcan su supervivencia.

  3. The dam in Garganta del Ciervo, 12th century (Segura de la Sierra, Jaén, España: contributions to Andalusian hydraulic engineering | La presa de la Garganta del Ciervo, s. XII (Segura de la Sierra, Jaén, España: aportaciones a la ingeniería hidráulica andalusí

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    Vicente Salvatierra Cuenca

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this text we analyze a remarkable Islamic dam located in Sierra de Segura, dated from the 12th century. The size of the dam, 11 m high and 9 m thick, its location in a mostly flat area, the technique used to build it, the reservoir that it created, etc. makes dams a very singular element among the irrigation architecture in Al-Andalus. In addition to describing the dam, we also intend to discuss to which point the purpose of this structure was truly different from what was usually done at that time, and, therefore, if it means both a technological and social change, or if its configuration hid other objectives. | En este texto analizamos una notable presa islámica localizada en la Sierra de Segura, fechada en el siglo XII. Su envergadura, 11 m de altura y 9 m de grosor, su situación en una zona sustancialmente llana, su técnica de fabricación, el pantano que generaba, etc. la convierten en principio en un elemento muy atípico dentro de la arquitectura de regadío andalusí. Además de realizar su descripción, nos proponemos discutir hasta qué punto la finalidad de esta estructura era realmente diferente a lo que se hacía en la época, y si supone por tanto un cambio tecnológico y social. O si su configuración escondía otros objetivos.

  4. Aguas residuales y contaminación del lago de Amatitlán: Villa Canales y Villa Nueva (2005-2014

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    Luis F. Olayo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available La contaminación y destrucción del lago de Amatitlán es un problema ambiental actual y de gran magnitud en el Área Metropolitana de la Ciudad de Guatemala, un fenómeno antrópico que crece aceleradamente, derivado del crecimiento demográfico y urbano que experimentan los lugares poblados de los 14 municipios que se localizan en la cuenca del lago de Amatitlán. La vivienda urbana -que se cuantifica por miles- es una de las fuentes productoras de las aguas residuales domiciliares que se depositan en el citado lago desde el traslado y asentamiento de la ciudad de Guatemala de la Asunción al Valle de la Ermita en el año de 1776 hasta el año 2016 (240 años, las que nunca han recibido un tratamiento apropiado; esta tendencia hará que en el corto plazo, el lago se pierda, convirtiéndose en un pantano insalubre que hará inhabitables sus tierras adyacentes. Mediante estimaciones de población urbana municipal y datos recientes de la cantidad de viviendas construidas en las áreas urbanas de los municipios de Villa Canales y Villa Nueva en el período 2005-2014, se estimó la producción de aguas residuales domiciliares (caudales o volúmenes, útiles para ilustrar y dimensionar este problema, débilmente visibilizado, considerado y valorado por la población, la iniciativa privada e instituciones del estado -municipalidades, instituciones y ministerios-, involucradas en este problema.

  5. La ecología de Vibrio cholerae serogrupo 01 en ambientes acuáticos

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    René J. Borroto

    Full Text Available El carácter endémico y estacional del cólera depende de la supervivencia de Vibrio cholerae serogrupo 01 en estado viable, pero no necesariamente cultivable, en nichos ecológicos localizados en ambientes acuáticos durante períodos interepidémicos. Para comprender la ecología de V. cholerae es preciso conocer los ecosistemas acuáticos que pudieran albergarlo y contribuir a la presencia endémica del cólera en América Latina. El presente artículo tiene por objetivo presentar, en términos resumidos, la ecología de V. cholerae 01 organizada según los factores abióticos y bióticos que desempeñan funciones relevantes en la supervivencia del microbio en ambientes acuáticos. Este agente patógeno encuentra condiciones favorables en aguas caracterizadas por niveles moderados de salinidad, un alto contenido de nutrientes, temperaturas cálidas, un pH neutro o ligeramente alcalino y la presencia de macrófitas acuáticas, fitoplancton, zooplancton, peces, moluscos y crustáceos. Estas condiciones ecológicas son propias de los ecosistemas acuáticos de estuarios y pantanos costeros, de cuya flora microbiana V. cholerae 01 toxígeno se considera actualmente un miembro autóctono. Este microorganismo también se ha mostrado capaz de colonizar ecosistemas de agua dulce en su forma viable, aunque no necesariamente cultivable, si encuentra sustratos orgánicos e inorgánicos que favorezcan su supervivencia.

  6. Caracterización espacio-temporal del hábitat y presencia de Dermatemys mawii (Testudines: Dermatemydidae en la cuenca del Grijalva-Usumacinta, Tabasco, México

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    Claudia Elena Zenteno Ruiz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La tortuga centroamericana (Dermatemys mawii es una especie en peligro de extinción pobremente estudiada. En el presente trabajo se analizaron las variaciones estacionales y espaciales del hábitat y se relacionaron con la presencia/ausencia de D. mawii en tres ríos de la Reserva de la Biosfera Pantanos de Centla (Tabasco, México. Para caracterizar el hábitat se evaluaron 11 variables (hidrológicas, fisicoquímicas del agua y de la vegetación en dos temporadas (seca y lluviosa. Para determinar la presencia/ ausencia de la especie se colocaron 8 trampas de desvío acuáticas, empleando la captura por unidad de esfuerzo (CPUE como indicador de la abundancia relativa. Los resultados indicaron variaciones espacio-temporales. El análisis de componentes principales (ACP permitió determinar la variabilidad ambiental. La presencia de la especie se confirmó en los tres ríos, sin embargo la mayor abundancia relativa se registró en el Río Tabasquillo. Cuatro variables tuvieron el mayor peso como variables predictoras de la presencia de la especie. Con los resultados obtenidos, es evidente la importancia que tiene el ambiente ribereño como hábitat para Dermatemys, asimismo es posible hacer el primer acercamiento a un plan de acción para la protección de la especie y su hábitat en esta reserva.

  7. Tipos de vegetación del llano de Paletará. Cordillera Central Colombia Tipos de vegetación del llano de Paletará. Cordillera Central Colombia

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    Restrepo Carla

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available We studied the vegetation found in the Llano de Paletará, municipality of Coconuco, department of Cauca, Colombia. Based on the physiognomy and floristic composition of the vegetation we identified 8 paramo vegetation types. These units represent the most extensive azonal paramo vegetation types described up to now for the Cordillera Central. Four of the 8 vegetation types are herbaceous ("frailejonal-pajonal" with Espeletia, "chuscal abierto" with Chusquea,"swamp" with Carex, and "grassland" with Calamagrostis , three are bush tickets (thicket with Hypericum, thicket with Ageratina, and thicket with Diplostephium, and one is a forest of low stature (forest with Escallonia. We analyze some aspects of the ecology and distribution of the vegetation types and evaluate their degree of peril and value of conservation. Se estudiaron los tipos de vegetación del Llano de Paletará, municipio de Coconuco, departamento del Cauca, Colombia. Basados en la fisonomía y composición florística de la vegetación identificamos 8 tipos de vegetación, los cuales representan los tipos de vegetación paramunos de carácter azonal más extensos de la Cordillera Central registrados hasta el momento. De los 8 tipos de vegetación, cuatro son de porte herbáceo (''frailejonalpajonal'' con Espeletia. "chuscal abierto" con Chusquea. "pantano" con Carex y un "pajonal" con Calamagrostis, tres son de porte arbustivo (matorral con Hypericum, matorral con Ageratina y matorral con Diplostephium y uno es de porte arbóreo (bosque con Escallonia. Se analizan algunos aspectos de la ecología y distribución de los tipos de vegetación y se evalúa su grado de amenaza y valor de conservación.

  8. Dynamic least-squares kernel density modeling of Fokker-Planck equations with application to neural population.

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    Shotorban, Babak

    2010-04-01

    The dynamic least-squares kernel density (LSQKD) model [C. Pantano and B. Shotorban, Phys. Rev. E 76, 066705 (2007)] is used to solve the Fokker-Planck equations. In this model the probability density function (PDF) is approximated by a linear combination of basis functions with unknown parameters whose governing equations are determined by a global least-squares approximation of the PDF in the phase space. In this work basis functions are set to be Gaussian for which the mean, variance, and covariances are governed by a set of partial differential equations (PDEs) or ordinary differential equations (ODEs) depending on what phase-space variables are approximated by Gaussian functions. Three sample problems of univariate double-well potential, bivariate bistable neurodynamical system [G. Deco and D. Martí, Phys. Rev. E 75, 031913 (2007)], and bivariate Brownian particles in a nonuniform gas are studied. The LSQKD is verified for these problems as its results are compared against the results of the method of characteristics in nondiffusive cases and the stochastic particle method in diffusive cases. For the double-well potential problem it is observed that for low to moderate diffusivity the dynamic LSQKD well predicts the stationary PDF for which there is an exact solution. A similar observation is made for the bistable neurodynamical system. In both these problems least-squares approximation is made on all phase-space variables resulting in a set of ODEs with time as the independent variable for the Gaussian function parameters. In the problem of Brownian particles in a nonuniform gas, this approximation is made only for the particle velocity variable leading to a set of PDEs with time and particle position as independent variables. Solving these PDEs, a very good performance by LSQKD is observed for a wide range of diffusivities.

  9. LA VEGETACIÓN DEL HUMEDAL DE JABOQUE (BOGOTÁ, D.C.

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    Hernández Juliana

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Con base en los lineamientos metodológicos de la escuela sigmatista-Zurich-Montpellier, se diferenciaron 14 comunidades vegetales que se distribuyen en losdiferentes ambientes que incluye una serie ecológica hídrica en el humedal deJaboque, Bogotá, Colombia. En la vegetación de ribera predominan los juncalesde Schoenoplectus californicus, de Juncus effusus y el totoral de Typha latifolia.En ambientes pantanosos ya sea en las orillas o en zonas que se han terrizado alinterior de la cubeta, arraigan los herbazales de Polypogon elongatum, de Rumexconglomeratus y el cortaderal de Carex luridiformis. En las zonas de transiciónentre los ambientes acuáticos y continentales, se ubican los camalotales, vegetaciónsemiarraigada dominada por Bidens laevis, que se asocia con Ludwigia peploides,Hydrocotyle ranunculoides y Polygonum punctatum. En los reducidos espejos deagua, se establecen las comunidades fl otantes de Eichhornia crassipes, Limnobiumlaevigatum y Lemna gibba. En general la diversidad fl orística de especies y decomunidades es mayor en la parte más amplia y en mejor estado de conservación delhumedal, en cercanías al Parque de La Florida, donde se encuentran representadascasi todas las comunidades vegetales reseñadas en esta contribución. En la zonade mayor transformación (área canalizada, se establecen pocas comunidades,predominan el camalotal de Bidens laevis, el herbazal de Polygonum punctatum(barbasco y los pastizales con Pennisetum clandestinum (kikuyo y Polypogonelongatus. La mayoría de las comunidades vegetales registradas en Jaboque tienendistribución amplia en lagos, lagunas y pantanos andinos, con especial signifi canciaen la sabana de Bogotá y en el altiplano cundi-boyacense.

  10. Determinants of habitat selection by hatchling Australian freshwater crocodiles.

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    Ruchira Somaweera

    Full Text Available Animals almost always use habitats non-randomly, but the costs and benefits of using specific habitat types remain unknown for many types of organisms. In a large lake in northwestern Australia (Lake Argyle, most hatchling (<12-month-old freshwater crocodiles (Crocodylus johnstoni are found in floating vegetation mats or grassy banks rather than the more widely available open banks. Mean body sizes of young crocodiles did not differ among the three habitat types. We tested four potential explanations for non-random habitat selection: proximity to nesting sites, thermal conditions, food availability, and exposure to predation. The three alternative habitat types did not differ in proximity to nesting sites, or in thermal conditions. Habitats with higher food availability harboured more hatchlings, and feeding rates (obtained by stomach-flushing of recently-captured crocodiles were highest in such areas. Predation risk may also differ among habitats: we were twice as likely to capture a crocodile after seeing it in open-bank sites than in the other two habitat types. Thus, habitat selection of hatchling crocodiles in this system may be driven both by prey availability and by predation risk.

  11. Characterization of Serum Phospholipase A2 Activity in Three Diverse Species of West African Crocodiles

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    Mark Merchant

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Secretory phospholipase A2, an enzyme that exhibits substantial immunological activity, was measured in the serum of three species of diverse West African crocodiles. Incubation of different volumes of crocodile serum with bacteria labeled with a fluorescent fatty acid in the sn-2 position of membrane lipids resulted in a volume-dependent liberation of fluorescent probe. Serum from the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus exhibited slightly higher activity than that of the slender-snouted crocodile (Mecistops cataphractus and the African dwarf crocodile (Osteolaemus tetraspis. Product formation was inhibited by BPB, a specific PLA2 inhibitor, confirming that the activity was a direct result of the presence of serum PLA2. Kinetic analysis showed that C. niloticus serum produced product more rapidly than M. cataphractus or O. tetraspis. Serum from all three species exhibited temperature-dependent PLA2 activities but with slightly different thermal profiles. All three crocodilian species showed high levels of activity against eight different species of bacteria.

  12. Riparian vegetation structure and the hunting behavior of adult estuarine crocodiles.

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    Luke J Evans

    Full Text Available Riparian ecosystems are amongst the most biodiverse tropical habitats. They are important, and essential, ecological corridors, linking remnant forest fragments. In this study, we hypothesised that crocodile's actively select nocturnal resting locations based on increased macaque predation potential. We examined the importance of riparian vegetation structure in the maintenance of crocodile hunting behaviours. Using airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR and GPS telemetry on animal movement, we identified the repeated use of nocturnal resting sites by adult estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus throughout the fragmented Lower Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary in Sabah, Malaysia. Crocodile resting locations were found to resemble, in terms of habitat characteristics, the sleeping sites of long-tailed macaque; positioned in an attempt to avoid predation by terrestrial predators. We found individual crocodiles were actively selecting overhanging vegetation and that the protrusion of trees from the tree line was key to site selection by crocodiles, as well as influencing both the presence and group size of sleeping macaques. Although these findings are correlational, they have broad management implications, with the suggestion that riparian corridor maintenance and quality can have implications beyond that of terrestrial fauna. We further place our findings in the context of the wider ecosystem and the maintenance of trophic interactions, and discuss how future habitat management has the potential to mitigate human-wildlife conflict.

  13. Macro-habitat preferences by the African manatee and crocodiles – ecological and conservation implications

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    L. Luiselli

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available African manatees (Trichechus senegalensis and crocodiles are threatened species in parts of their range. In West Africa, crocodiles may constitute the main predators for manatees apart from humans. Here, we explore the macro-habitat selection of manatees and two species of crocodiles (West African crocodiles Crocodylus suchus and dwarf crocodile Osteolaemus tetraspis in the Niger Delta (Nigeria, testing the hypotheses that (i manatees may avoid crocodiles in order to minimize risks of predation, and (ii the two crocodile species do compete. The study was carried out between 1994 and 2010 with a suite of different field techniques. We observed that the main macro-habitat types were freshwater rivers and coastal lagoons for manatees, mangroves for West African crocodiles, and rivers and creeks for dwarf crocodiles, with (i the three species differing significantly in terms of their macro-habitat type selection, and (ii significant seasonal influence on habitat selection of each species. Null models for niche overlap showed a significantly lower overlap in macro-habitat type use between manatee and crocodiles, whereas the two crocodiles were relatively similar. Null model analyses did not indicate any competitive interactions between crocodiles. On the other hand, manatees avoided macro-habitats where crocodiles, and especially West African crocodiles, are abundant.

  14. Should I stay or should I go? Dispersal and population structure in small, isolated desert populations of West African crocodiles.

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    Guillermo Velo-Antón

    Full Text Available The maintenance of both spatial and genetic connectivity is paramount to the long-term persistence of small, isolated populations living in environments with extreme climates. We aim to identify the distribution of genetic diversity and assess population sub-structuring and dispersal across dwarfed desert populations of Crocodylus suchus, which occur in isolated groups, usually less than five individuals, along the mountains of Mauritania (West Africa. We used both invasive and non-invasive sampling methods and a combination of mitochondrial DNA (12 S and ND4 and microsatellite markers (32 loci and a subset of 12 loci. Our results showed high genetic differentiation and geographic structure in Mauritanian populations of C. suchus. We identified a metapopulation system acting within four river sub-basins (high gene flow and absence of genetic structure and considerable genetic differentiation between sub-basins (FST range: 0.12-0.24 with rare dispersal events. Effective population sizes tend to be low within sub-basins while genetic diversity is maintained. Our study suggests that hydrographic networks (temporal connections along seasonal rivers during rainy periods allow C. suchus to disperse and maintain metapopulation dynamics within sub-basins, which attenuate the loss of genetic diversity and the risk of extinction. We highlight the need of hydrographic conservation to protect vulnerable crocodiles isolated in small water bodies. We propose C. suchus as an umbrella species in Mauritania based on ecological affinities shared with other water-dependent species in desert environments.

  15. The Gavialis-Tomistoma debate: the contribution of skull ontogenetic allometry and growth trajectories to the study of crocodylian relationships.

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    Piras, Paolo; Colangelo, Paolo; Adams, Dean C; Buscalioni, Angela; Cubo, Jorge; Kotsakis, Tassos; Meloro, Carlo; Raia, Pasquale

    2010-01-01

    The phylogenetic placement of Tomistoma and Gavialis crocodiles depends largely upon whether molecular or morphological data are utilized. Molecular analyses consider them as sister taxa, whereas morphological/paleontological analyses set Gavialis apart from Tomistoma and other crocodylian species. Here skull allometric trajectories of Tomistoma and Gavialis were contrasted with those of two longirostral crocodylian taxa, Crocodylus acutus and Mecistops cataphractus, to examine similarities in growth trajectories in light of this phylogenetic controversy. Entire skull shape and its two main modules, rostrum and postrostrum, were analyzed separately. We tested differences for both multivariate angles between trajectories and for shape differences at early and late stages of development. Based on a multivariate regression of shape data and size, Tomistoma seems to possess a peculiar rate of growth in comparison to the remaining taxa. However, its morphology at both juvenile and adult sizes is always closer to those of Brevirostres crocodylians, for the entire head shape, as well as the shape of the postrostrum and rostrum. By contrast, the allometric trajectory of Gavialis always begins and ends in a unique region of the multidimensional morphospace. These findings concur with a morphological hypothesis that places Gavialis separate from Brevirostres, and Tomistoma closer to other crocodylids, and provides an additional, and independent, data set to inform on this ongoing phylogenetic discussion. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. HNK-1 immunoreactivity during early morphogenesis of the head region in a nonmodel vertebrate, crocodile embryo

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    Kundrát, Martin

    2008-11-01

    The present study examines HNK-1 immunoidentification of a population of the neural crest (NC) during early head morphogenesis in the nonmodel vertebrate, the crocodile ( Crocodylus niloticus) embryos. Although HNK-1 is not an exclusive NC marker among vertebrates, temporospatial immunoreactive patterns found in the crocodile are almost consistent with NC patterns derived from gene expression studies known in birds (the closest living relatives of crocodiles) and mammals. In contrast to birds, the HNK-1 epitope is immunoreactive in NC cells at the neural fold level in crocodile embryos and therefore provides sufficient base to assess early migratory events of the cephalic NC. I found that crocodile NC forms three classic migratory pathways in the head: mandibular, hyoid, and branchial. Further, I demonstrate that, besides this classic phenotype, there is also a forebrain-derived migratory population, which consolidates into a premandibular stream in the crocodile. In contrast to the closely related chick model, crocodilian premandibular and mandibular NC cells arise from the open neural tube suggesting that species-specific heterochronic behavior of NC may be involved in the formation of different vertebrate facial phenotypes.

  17. The Middle Pleistocene vertebrate fauna from Khok Sung (Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand): biochronological and paleobiogeographical implications

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    Suraprasit, Kantapon; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques; Chaimanee, Yaowalak; Chavasseau, Olivier; Yamee, Chotima; Tian, Pannipa; Panha, Somsak

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The fluviatile terrace deposits of Khok Sung, Nakhon Ratchasima province, have yielded more than one thousand fossils, making this the richest Pleistocene vertebrate fauna of Thailand. The excellent preservation of the specimens allows precise characterization of the faunal composition. The mammalian fauna consists of fifteen species in thirteen genera, including a primate, a canid, a hyaenid, proboscideans, rhinoceroses, a suid, cervids, and bovids. Most species correspond to living taxa but globally (Stegodon cf. orientalis) and locally (Crocuta crocuta ultima, Rhinoceros unicornis, Sus barbatus, and Axis axis) extinct taxa were also present. The identification of Axis axis in Khok Sung, a chital currently restricted to the Indian Subcontinent, represents the first record of the species in Southeast Asia. Three reptilian taxa: Crocodylus cf. siamensis, Python sp., and Varanus sp., are also identified. Faunal correlations with other Southeast Asian sites suggest a late Middle to early Late Pleistocene age for the Khok Sung assemblage. However, the Khok Sung mammalian fauna is most similar to that of Thum Wiman Nakin, dated to older than 169 ka. The Khok Sung large mammal assemblage mostly comprises mainland Southeast Asian taxa that migrated to Java during the latest Middle Pleistocene, supporting the hypothesis that Thailand was a biogeographic pathway for the Sino-Malayan migration event from South China to Java. PMID:27667928

  18. NIDIFICACIÓN Y EFICIENCIA REPRODUCTIVA DEL COCODRILO AMERICANO EN UNA RESERVA ECOLÓGICA DE MANATÍ

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    Leticia Torres Martínez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se caracteriza la variación espacial y temporal de los patrones reproductivos del cocodrilo americano (Crocodylus acutus Cuvier, entre 2008 y 2010, para las localidades de La Isleta y Los Coquitos, en la Reserva Ecológica Bahía de Nuevas Grandes-La Isleta en Manatí, Las Tunas. Se describen las conductas de nidificación, desove y atención al nido. Además, se analiza la dinámica de las puestas, eclosiones y la morfometría de los huevos. Se detectó que las hembras no despliegan la misma conducta para la construcción del nido, pero en todos los casos la nidificación implica la transformación del paisaje. En ambas localidades las curvas de acumulación de puestas y eclosiones se dividen en tres etapas: inicial, aceleración y meseta. En general, existe consistencia de la correlación entre el largo y ancho de los huevos con tendencia a que los huevos largos y pesados incrementen su natalidad y viabilidad. En La Isleta la altura y tipo de suelo aseguran una elevada eficiencia de reproducción, lo que sugiere mayor estabilidad temporal de factores bióticos y abióticos.

  19. Three crocodilian genomes reveal ancestral patterns of evolution among archosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Richard E; Braun, Edward L; Armstrong, Joel; Earl, Dent; Nguyen, Ngan; Hickey, Glenn; Vandewege, Michael W; St John, John A; Capella-Gutiérrez, Salvador; Castoe, Todd A; Kern, Colin; Fujita, Matthew K; Opazo, Juan C; Jurka, Jerzy; Kojima, Kenji K; Caballero, Juan; Hubley, Robert M; Smit, Arian F; Platt, Roy N; Lavoie, Christine A; Ramakodi, Meganathan P; Finger, John W; Suh, Alexander; Isberg, Sally R; Miles, Lee; Chong, Amanda Y; Jaratlerdsiri, Weerachai; Gongora, Jaime; Moran, Christopher; Iriarte, Andrés; McCormack, John; Burgess, Shane C; Edwards, Scott V; Lyons, Eric; Williams, Christina; Breen, Matthew; Howard, Jason T; Gresham, Cathy R; Peterson, Daniel G; Schmitz, Jürgen; Pollock, David D; Haussler, David; Triplett, Eric W; Zhang, Guojie; Irie, Naoki; Jarvis, Erich D; Brochu, Christopher A; Schmidt, Carl J; McCarthy, Fiona M; Faircloth, Brant C; Hoffmann, Federico G; Glenn, Travis C; Gabaldón, Toni; Paten, Benedict; Ray, David A

    2015-01-01

    To provide context for the diversifications of archosaurs, the group that includes crocodilians, dinosaurs and birds, we generated draft genomes of three crocodilians, Alligator mississippiensis (the American alligator), Crocodylus porosus (the saltwater crocodile), and Gavialis gangeticus (the Indian gharial). We observed an exceptionally slow rate of genome evolution within crocodilians at all levels, including nucleotide substitutions, indels, transposable element content and movement, gene family evolution, and chromosomal synteny. When placed within the context of related taxa including birds and turtles, this suggests that the common ancestor of all of these taxa also exhibited slow genome evolution and that the relatively rapid evolution of bird genomes represents an autapomorphy within that clade. The data also provided the opportunity to analyze heterozygosity in crocodilians, which indicates a likely reduction in population size for all three taxa through the Pleistocene. Finally, these new data combined with newly published bird genomes allowed us to reconstruct the partial genome of the common ancestor of archosaurs providing a tool to investigate the genetic starting material of crocodilians, birds, and dinosaurs. PMID:25504731

  20. Reassessment of genome size in turtle and crocodile based on chromosome measurement by flow karyotyping: close similarity to chicken

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    Kasai, Fumio; O'Brien, Patricia C. M.; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A.

    2012-01-01

    The genome size in turtles and crocodiles is thought to be much larger than the 1.2 Gb of the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus, GGA), according to the animal genome size database. However, GGA macrochromosomes show extensive homology in the karyotypes of the red eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans, TSC) and the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus, CNI), and bird and reptile genomes have been highly conserved during evolution. In this study, size and GC content of all chromosomes are measured from the flow karyotypes of GGA, TSC and CNI. Genome sizes estimated from the total chromosome size demonstrate that TSC and CNI are 1.21 Gb and 1.29 Gb, respectively. This refines previous overestimations and reveals similar genome sizes in chicken, turtle and crocodile. Analysis of chromosome GC content in each of these three species shows a higher GC content in smaller chromosomes than in larger chromosomes. This contrasts with mammals and squamates in which GC content does not correlate with chromosome size. These data suggest that a common ancestor of birds, turtles and crocodiles had a small genome size and a chromosomal size-dependent GC bias, distinct from the squamate lineage. PMID:22491763

  1. Crocodylians evolved scattered multi-sensory micro-organs

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    2013-01-01

    Background During their evolution towards a complete life cycle on land, stem reptiles developed both an impermeable multi-layered keratinized epidermis and skin appendages (scales) providing mechanical, thermal, and chemical protection. Previous studies have demonstrated that, despite the presence of a particularly armored skin, crocodylians have exquisite mechanosensory abilities thanks to the presence of small integumentary sensory organs (ISOs) distributed on postcranial and/or cranial scales. Results Here, we analyze and compare the structure, innervation, embryonic morphogenesis and sensory functions of postcranial, cranial, and lingual sensory organs of the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) and the spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus). Our molecular analyses indicate that sensory neurons of crocodylian ISOs express a large repertoire of transduction channels involved in mechano-, thermo-, and chemosensory functions, and our electrophysiological analyses confirm that each ISO exhibits a combined sensitivity to mechanical, thermal and pH stimuli (but not hyper-osmotic salinity), making them remarkable multi-sensorial micro-organs with no equivalent in the sensory systems of other vertebrate lineages. We also show that ISOs all exhibit similar morphologies and modes of development, despite forming at different stages of scale morphogenesis across the body. Conclusions The ancestral vertebrate diffused sensory system of the skin was transformed in the crocodylian lineages into an array of discrete multi-sensory micro-organs innervated by multiple pools of sensory neurons. This discretization of skin sensory expression sites is unique among vertebrates and allowed crocodylians to develop a highly-armored, but very sensitive, skin. PMID:23819918

  2. Nuclear microprobe analysis of lead profile in crocodile bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlic, I. E-mail: ivo@ansto.gov.au; Siegele, R.; Hammerton, K.; Jeffree, R.A.; Cohen, D.D

    2003-09-01

    Elevated concentrations of lead were found in Australian free ranging saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) bone and flesh. Lead shots were found as potential source of lead in these animals. ANSTO's heavy ion nuclear microprobe was used to measure the distribution of Pb in a number of bones and osteoderms. The aim was to find out if elevated Pb concentration remains in growth rings and if the concentration is correlated with the blood levels recorded at the time. Results of our study show a very distinct distribution of accumulated Pb in bones and osteoderms as well as good correlation with the level of lead concentration in blood. To investigate influence of ion species on detection limits measurements of the same sample were performed by using 3 MeV protons, 9 MeV He ions and 20 MeV carbon ions. Peak to background ratios, detection limits and the overall 'quality' of obtained spectra are compared and discussed.

  3. Ethnozoological study of traditional medicinal appreciation of animals and their products among the indigenous people of Metema Woreda, North-Western Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendie, Fasil Adugna; Mekuriaw, Sileshi Andualem; Dagnew, Melkamu Andargie

    2018-05-23

    Using animals for different purposes goes back to the dawn of mankind. Animals served as a source of food, medicine, and clothing for humans and provided other services. This study was designed to undertake a cross-sectional ethnozoological field survey among the residents of Metema Woreda from November 2015 to May 2016. Data were collected through studied questionnaires, interviews, and focus group discussions with 36 purposively selected respondents. Ethnozoological data were collected of the local name of the animals, part of the animal used, mode of preparation and administration, and of additional information deemed useful. A total of 51 animal species were identified to treat around 36 different ailments. Of the animals used therapeutically, 27 species were mammals, 9 were birds, 7 arthropods, 6 reptiles, and 1 species each represented fish and annelids. Furthermore, the honey of the bee Apis mellifera was used to relieve many ailments and scored the highest fidelity value (n = 35.97%). The snake (Naja naja) and the teeth of crocodiles (Crocodylus spp.) had the lowest fidelity value (n = 2.56%). The results show that there is a wealth of ethnozoological knowledge to be documented which could be of use in developing new drugs. Hence, it is hoped that the information contained in this paper will be useful in future ethnozoological, ethnopharmacological, and conservation-related research of the region.

  4. Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) transport and retention in tropical, rain forest streams draining a volcanic landscape in Costa Rica: In situ SRP amendment to streams and laboratory studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triska, F.; Pringle, C.M.; Duff, J.H.; Avanzino, R.J.; Zellweger, G.

    2006-01-01

    Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) transport/retention was determined in two rain forest streams (Salto, Pantano) draining La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. There, SRP levels can be naturally high due to groundwater enriched by geothermal activity within the surfically dormant volcanic landscape, and subsequently discharged at ambient temperature. Combined field and laboratory approaches simulated high but natural geothermal SRP input with the objective of estimating the magnitude of amended SRP retention within high and low SRP settings and determining the underlying mechanisms of SRP retention. First, we examined short-term SRP retention/transport using combined SRP-conservative tracer additions at high natural in situ concentrations. Second, we attempted to observe a DIN response during SRP amendment as an indicator of biological uptake. Third, we determined SRP release/retention using laboratory sediment assays under control and biologically inhibited conditions. Short-term in situ tracer-SRP additions indicated retention in both naturally high and low SRP reaches. Retention of added SRP mass in Upper Salto (low SRP) was 17% (7.5 mg-P m-2 h-1), and 20% (10.9 mg-P m-2 h -1) in Lower Salto (high SRP). No DIN response in either nitrate or ammonium was observed. Laboratory assays using fresh Lower Salto sediments indicated SRP release (15.4 ?? 5.9 ??g-P g dry wt.-1 h -1), when incubated in filter sterilized Salto water at ambient P concentration, but retention when incubated in filter sterilized river water amended to 2.0 mg SRP l-1 (233.2 ?? 5.8 ??g-P g dry wt. -1 h-1). SRP uptake/release was similar in both control- and biocide-treated sediments indicating predominantly abiotic retention. High SRP retention even under biologically saturated conditions, absence of a DIN response to amendment, patterns of desorption following amendment, and similar patterns of retention and release under control and biologically inhibited conditions all indicated

  5. Comportamiento de picadura de Anopheles darlingi Root, 1926 (Diptera: Culicidae y su asociación con la transmisión de malaria en Villavicencio (Colombia

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    Martha Liliana Ahumada

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Anopheles darlingi es el principal vector de la malaria, o paludismo, en el neotrópico. Esta especie es reconocida por presentar un comportamiento antropofílico y variabilidad en sus hábitos de picadura a lo largo de su rango de distribución. Objetivo. Caracterizar el comportamiento de picadura de An. darlingi y establecer su relación con latransmisión de la malaria en Villavicencio. Materiales y métodos. Entre 2008 y 2009 se llevaron a cabo un estudio de tipo transversal y uno longitudinal, en cinco localidades de Villavicencio con transmisión de malaria. Estos incluyeron recolección de ejemplares inmaduros y de adultos en las viviendas. Se utilizó la prueba ELISA para la detección de infección con Plasmodium spp. Resultados. Se recolectaron 2.772 mosquitos. Anopheles darlingi fue la especie predominante enlas capturas con atrayente humano. Los criaderos identificados para esta especie fueron pantanos, caños, lagunas y estanques piscícolas. Anopheles darlingi estuvo presente durante todo el año, con densidades mensuales promedio entre 2,2 y 55,5 mosquitos por persona por noche. Presentó actividad hematofágica durante toda la noche en el intradomicilio y en el peridomicilio. De las 18:00 a las 22:00, se registraron entre el 47 % y el 81 % de los mosquitos capturados en 12 horas de observación. Se encontró una tasa de infección con Plasmodium falciparum de 0,05 % y se estimó una tasa entomológica de inoculación de 2,9 picaduras infecciosas por persona al año. Conclusión. Anopheles darlingi se encontró infectado con P. falciparum, estuvo presente durante todo el año y exhibió características en su comportamiento de picadura que favorecen el contacto entre humano y vector, lo cual es un riesgo permanente para la transmisión de la malaria en Villavicencio.   doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v33i2.1492

  6. A new endemic focus of Chagas disease in the northern region of Veraguas Province, Western Half Panama, Central America.

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    Azael Saldaña

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chagas disease was originally reported in Panama in 1931. Currently, the best knowledge of this zoonosis is restricted to studies done in historically endemic regions. However, little is known about the distribution and epidemiology of Chagas disease in other rural areas of the country. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out between May 2005 - July 2008 in four rural communities of the Santa Fe District, Veraguas Province. The study included an entomologic search to collect triatomines, bloodmeal type identification and infection rate with trypanosomes in collected vectors using a dot- blot and PCR analysis, genotyping of circulating Trypanosoma cruzi (mini-exon gene PCR analysis and the detection of chagasic antibodies among inhabitants. The vector Rhodnius pallescens was more frequently found in La Culaca and El Pantano communities (788 specimens, where it was a sporadic household visitor. These triatomines presented darker coloration and larger sizescompared with typical specimens collected in Central Panama. Triatoma dimidiata was more common in Sabaneta de El Macho (162 specimens. In one small sub-region (El Macho, 60% of the houses were colonized by this vector. Of the examined R. pallescens, 54.7.0% (88/161 had fed on Didelphis marsupialis, and 24.6% (34/138 of T. dimidiata specimens collected inside houses were positive for human blood. R. pallescens presented an infection index with T. cruzi of 17.7% (24/136, with T. rangeli of 12.5% (17/136 and 50.7% (69/136 were mixed infections. In 117 T. dimidiata domestic specimens the infection index with T. cruzi was 21.4%. Lineage I of T. cruzi was confirmed circulating in these vectors. A T. cruzi infection seroprevalence of 2.3% (24/1,056 was found in this population. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of Chagas disease endemicity in Santa Fe District, and it should be considered a neglected public health problem in this area of Panama.

  7. A new record of Equus (Mammalia: Equidae from the Late Pleistocene of central-south Chile Un nuevo registro de Equus (Mammalia: Equidae para el Pleistoceno Superior de Osorno, Chile

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    OMAR P RECABARREN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen dental and bone parts of a horse excavated from the Pilauco paleontological site, Osorno (40°39' S-73°07' W are analysed and interpreted. This site was formed in association with a peat bog located on the banks of the old Damas River and has conserved abundant late Pleistocene mammalian fauna and flora materials. A date of 11457 ± 140 14C yrs B.P. was obtained from a molar and agrees with our stratigraphic age model. We have identified the fossils as pertaining to the species Equus (Amerhippus andium, which confirms its presence in central-south Chile. Furthermore, the recorded geographic location indicate that the metapodial adaptations of the specimens previously described agree with the reconstructed late Pleistocene landscape of Pilauco, dominated by soft volcanic soils and isolated forest patches over large extensions of grasslands.Se analizan e interpretan 14 fósiles correspondientes a dientes y huesos de caballo registrados en el sitio Pilauco, Osorno (40°39' S-73°07' W. El sitio se formó asociado a un pantano en un borde del antiguo río Damas; en él se ha conservado abundante material de mastofauna y flora pleistocénica. Una fecha radiocarbónica de 11457 ± 140 A.P obtenida de un molar, es concordante con el modelo de edad del sitio. La identificación taxonómica permite asociar a los fósiles a la especie Equus (Amerhippus andium, lo que confirma la presencia de la especie en el centro-sur de Chile. Por otra parte, la posición geográfica de los hallazgos y la reconstrucción del paisaje indicarían que se trata de ejemplares cuyas adaptaciones en los metapodios son concordantes para el paisaje pleistocénico de Pilauco dominado por suelos volcánicos blandos, con presencia de bosquetes dispersos en grandes extensiones de praderas de gramíneas.

  8. Estudios ecológicos en la Cordillera Oriental IV: Aspectos sinecológicos de la brioflora de los depósitos turbosos paramunos de los alrededores de Bogotá Estudios ecológicos en la Cordillera Oriental IV: Aspectos sinecológicos de la brioflora de los depósitos turbosos paramunos de los alrededores de Bogotá

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    Sánchez M. Roberto

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available Mediante los lineamientos metodológicos de la escuela Zurich-Montpellier (Braun-Blanquet, 1979 se realizaron 102 levantamientos de la vegetación que se establece en los pantanos, turberas o depósitos turbosos de los páramos de los alrededores de Bogotá. En la caracterización de esta vegetación, los musgos y las hepáticas desempeñan un papel importante; varias especies de Sphagnum son dominantes en diferentes fases del proceso de sucesión sobre esos ambientes originados de cubetas y lagunas glaciares. EI sustrato es muy variable en su constitución y en las características físico-químicas; en general, prevalece un contenido alto de materia orgánica, aceptable cantidad de nitrógeno y valores reducidos de elementos como magnesio, calcio y potasio. En esta contribución se presenta una reseña a nivel regional de las características primordiales de los sitios investigados en cuanto al papel desempeñado por las especies de briófitas en la composición florística, y a las condiciones físico-químicas del sustrato. The vegetation established on" peat deposits "or marshes in the paramos around Bogota is treated following the Zurich-Montpellier system. 102 releves of vegetation were realized. Mosses and liverVllorths play an important role in the structure and floristic composition of this vegetation.  Several Sphagnum species are dominant in some steps of the sucession process from open water and small lake to marsh. The constitution of the substrate and its physical and chemical characteristics vary in the places investigated, but in general terms there is a high content of organic matter, fair content of nitrogen and low content of magnesium, calcium and potassium.  

  9. Artrópodos hematófagos del río Raposo, Valle, Colombia: I - Aspectos Ecológicos Artrópodos hematófagos del río Raposo, Valle, Colombia: I - Aspectos Ecológicos

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    Lee V. H.

    1969-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudios serológicos en la población de la Costa del Pacífico de Colombia, cuya actividad ofrece contacto permanente con artrópodos hematófagos, demostraron anticuerpos para varios virus transmitidos por artrópodos, Para investigar los diferentes factores de este hallazgo, se elige una zona de bosque pluvial tropical como representativa de la costa.  Se discuten y analizan los caracteres geográficos, físicos y climatológicosde la región, que cuenta con abundancia de reservorios potenciales de arbovirus: aves y mamíferos. Se describen tres situaciones ecológicas distintas: manglar, pantanos de agua salobre-agua dulce y bosque pluvial tropical; en todas hay numerosos artrópodos: mosquitos, tabanos, etc.  Al considerar los criaderos de mosquitos se encuentra que el agua acumulada en recipientes vegetales altos produce mayoría de especies, Los insectos adultos se capturan con cebos humano o animal, a nivel del suelo o en plataformas bajo el dosel del bosque, durante el día y en la noche.  Tambien se utilizan diversos modelos de trampas de luz. Así se obtienen,además de especies ya conocidas en Colombia, otras no registradas previamente y algunas nuevas. En relación con arbovirus se logran varios aislamientos positivos en mosquitos y flebótomos.Serological studies of the population having continuous contact with blood-sucking arthropods on the Pacific Coast of Colombia, showed antibodies against a variety of arthropod-borne viruses. In order to investigate some factors related to this finding, a tropical rain forest area representative of this portion of the coast was selected.  We have discussed and analyzed the geographical, physical and climatological characteristics of this region that has an abundance of potential arbovirus reservoirs, i. e., birds and mammals. There are three distinct ecological patterns: mangrove swamps, brackish water swamps and tropical rain forest. There is a variety of arthropods (mosquitoes

  10. EDUCAÇÃO AMBIENTAL NA AMAZÔNIA: as contribuições da EA na Reserva Extrativista Marinha de São João da Ponta – PA

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    Indiara da Silva Oliveira

    2016-03-01

       EDUCACIÓN AMBIENTAL EN EL AMAZONAS: Las contribuciones de la EA en la Reserva Extractiva Marina de São João da Ponta – PA  RESUMEN Environmental educación es una práctica pedagógica dirigida a todos los segmentos de la sociedad y sus acciones se debe practicar con el objetivo de resolver o minimizar los problemas ambientales existentes en el nivel y / o global local. En este sentido, debido a la necesidad de la conservación de los recursos naturales y la solución o minimización de los problemas ambientales de manera que: depredadora pesca del cangrejo, la deforestación y la sedimentación en los bordes de los pantanos y arroyos, la desaparición de especies de flora y fauna y la presencia de vertederos, la Reserva Extractiva Marina de São João da Ponta - PA, las actividades de EA se llevaron a cabo a partir de la extensión universitaria, el Grupo de Estudio de Paisaje y Medio Ambiente Planificación (GEPPAM de la Facultad de Geografía y Cartografía (FGC, la Universidad Federal de Pará (UFPA. Y le tocó a este trabajo científico llamado Educación Ambiental en la Amazonía: el caso de Reserva Extractiva Marina de São João da Ponta - PA analizar estas actividades en ese RESEX, basado en los principios y objetivos de la educación ambiental, según lo definido por la Ley 9.795 / 99, el establecimiento de la Política Nacional de Educación Ambiental, así como la contribución de estas prácticas educativas para la Gestión Ambiental de la reserva en cuestión. Para el presente estudio se había utilizado la literatura y documentos, entrevistas con agentes ambientales voluntarias y el trabajo de laboratorio para la fabricación de tablas y gráficos. Sus resultados fueron prometedores, aunque todavía queda mucho por hacer para resolverlos problemas sociales y ambientales encontradas en la Reserva Extractiva Marina de São João da Ponta - PA. Palabras clave: Medio Ambiente; Gestión; Unidad de Conservación.

  11. Captivity Shapes the Gut Microbiota of Andean Bears: Insights into Health Surveillance

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    Andrea Borbón-García

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Andean bear is an endemic species of the tropical Andes who has an almost exclusively plant-based diet. Since herbivorous mammals do not carry enzymes for fiber degradation, the establishment of symbiosis with cellulolytic microorganisms in their gastrointestinal (GI tract is necessary to help them fulfill their nutritional needs. Furthermore, as described for other mammals, a stable, diverse, and balanced gut microbial composition is an indicator of a healthy status of the host; under disturbances this balance can be lost, leading to potential diseases of the host. The goal of this study was to describe the gut microbiota of wild and captive Andean bears and determine how habitat status influences the composition and diversity of the gut symbiotic community. Fecal samples from wild (n = 28 and captive (n = 8 Andean bears were collected in “Reserva Pantano de Martos” and “Fundación Bioandina”, Colombia. Composition and diversity analyses were performed using amplicons from the V4 region of the 16S rDNA gene sequenced using the Ion PGM platform. PICRUSt algorithm was applied to predict the gene content of the gut microbiome of wild and captive Andean bears. A total of 5,411 and 838 OTUs were identified for wild and captive bears, respectively. Captive bears contained a lower number of bacterial phyla (n = 7 compared to wild individuals (n = 9. Proteobacteria (59.03% and Firmicutes (14.03% were the phyla that contributed the most to differences between wild and captive bears (overall dissimilarity = 87.72%. At family level, Enterobacteriaceae drove the main differences between the two groups (13.7%. PICRUSt metagenomics predictions suggested a similar pattern of relative abundance of gene families associated with the metabolism of carbohydrates across samples in wild individuals, despite the taxonomic differences of their gut microbiota. Captivity alters the availability and diversity of food resources, which likely reduces microbiota

  12. Crocodiles in the Sahara desert: an update of distribution, habitats and population status for conservation planning in Mauritania.

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    José C Brito

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Relict populations of Crocodylus niloticus persist in Chad, Egypt and Mauritania. Although crocodiles were widespread throughout the Sahara until the early 20(th century, increased aridity combined with human persecution led to local extinction. Knowledge on distribution, occupied habitats, population size and prey availability is scarce in most populations. This study evaluates the status of Saharan crocodiles and provides new data for Mauritania to assist conservation planning. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A series of surveys in Mauritania detected crocodile presence in 78 localities dispersed across 10 river basins and most tended to be isolated within river basins. Permanent gueltas and seasonal tâmoûrts were the most common occupied habitats. Crocodile encounters ranged from one to more than 20 individuals, but in most localities less than five crocodiles were observed. Larger numbers were observed after the rainy season and during night sampling. Crocodiles were found dead in between water points along dry river-beds suggesting the occurrence of dispersal. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Research priorities in Chad and Egypt should focus on quantifying population size and pressures exerted on habitats. The present study increased in by 35% the number of known crocodile localities in Mauritania. Gueltas are crucial for the persistence of mountain populations. Oscillations in water availability throughout the year and the small dimensions of gueltas affect biological traits, including activity and body size. Studies are needed to understand adaptation traits of desert populations. Molecular analyses are needed to quantify genetic variability, population sub-structuring and effective population size, and detect the occurrence of gene flow. Monitoring is needed to detect demographical and genetical trends in completely isolated populations. Crocodiles are apparently vulnerable during dispersal events. Awareness campaigns focusing on

  13. Long-term surgical anaesthesia with isoflurane in human habituated Nile Crocodiles

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    George F. Stegmann

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A suitable long-term anaesthetic technique was required for implantation of physiological sensors and telemetric devices in sub-adult Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus to allow the collection of physiological data. Five Nile crocodiles with a median body mass of 24 kg were used. After manual capture, they were blindfolded and 0.2 mL (1 mg/mL medetomidine was administered intramuscularly in four of the animals which had an estimated body mass between 20 kg and 30 kg. One crocodile with an estimated body mass of 50 kg received 0.5 mL. For induction, 5 mL propofol (10 mg/mL was injected intravenously into the occipital sinus. Additional doses were given when required to ensure adequate anaesthesia. Anaesthesia was maintained with 1.5% isoflurane. Ventilation was controlled. Local anaesthesia was administered for surgical incision and external placement of the radio transmitter. Medetomidine was antagonised with atipamezole at the end of surgery. Median heart rate during surgery was 22 beats/min, at extubation 32 beats per min and 30 beats per min the following day at the same body temperature as under anaesthesia. Median body temperature of the animals increased from 27.3 °C to 27.9 °C during anaesthesia, as room temperature increased from 24.5 °C to 29.0 °C during surgery. Anaesthesia was successfully induced with intramuscular medetomidine and intravenous propofol and was maintained with isoflurane for the placement of telemetric implants. Intraoperative analgesia was supplemented with lidocaine infiltration. Perioperative physiological parameters remained stable and within acceptable clinical limits. Multiple factors appear to influence these variables during the recovery period, including residual anaesthetic effects, environmental temperature and physical activity.

  14. Home range utilisation and long-range movement of estuarine crocodiles during the breeding and nesting season.

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    Hamish A Campbell

    Full Text Available The estuarine crocodile (Crocodylus porosus is the apex-predator in waterways and coastlines throughout south-east Asia and Australasia. C. porosus pose a potential risk to humans, and management strategies are implemented to control their movement and distribution. Here we used GPS-based telemetry to accurately record geographical location of adult C. porosus during the breeding and nesting season. The purpose of the study was to assess how C. porosus movement and distribution may be influenced by localised social conditions. During breeding, the females (2.92 ± 0.013 metres total length (TL, mean ± S.E., n = 4 occupied an area<1 km length of river, but to nest they travelled up to 54 km away from the breeding area. All tagged male C. porosus sustained high rates of movement (6.49 ± 0.9 km d(-1; n = 8 during the breeding and nesting period. The orientation of the daily movements differed between individuals revealing two discontinuous behavioural strategies. Five tagged male C. porosus (4.17 ± 0.14 m TL exhibited a 'site-fidelic' strategy and moved within well-defined zones around the female home range areas. In contrast, three males (3.81 ± 0.08 m TL exhibited 'nomadic' behaviour where they travelled continually throughout hundreds of kilometres of waterway. We argue that the 'site-fidelic' males patrolled territories around the female home ranges to maximise reproductive success, whilst the 'nomadic' males were subordinate animals that were forced to range over a far greater area in search of unguarded females. We conclude that C. porosus are highly mobile animals existing within a complex social system, and mate/con-specific interactions are likely to have a profound effect upon population density and distribution, and an individual's travel potential. We recommend that impacts on socio-spatial behaviour are considered prior to the implementation of management interventions.

  15. High genetic diversity and demographic history of captive Siamese and Saltwater crocodiles suggest the first step toward the establishment of a breeding and reintroduction program in Thailand.

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    Sorravis Lapbenjakul

    Full Text Available The Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis and Saltwater crocodile (C. porosus are two of the most endangered animals in Thailand. Their numbers have been reduced severely by hunting and habitat fragmentation. A reintroduction plan involving captive-bred populations that are used commercially is important and necessary as a conservation strategy to aid in the recovery of wild populations. Here, the genetic diversity and population structure of 69 individual crocodiles, mostly members of captive populations, were analyzed using both mitochondrial D-loop DNA and microsatellite markers. The overall haplotype diversity was 0.924-0.971 and the mean expected heterozygosity across 22 microsatellite loci was 0.578-0.701 for the two species. This agreed with the star-like shaped topology of the haplotype network, which suggests a high level of genetic diversity. The mean ratio of the number of alleles to the allelic range (M ratio for the populations of both species was considerably lower than the threshold of 0.68, which was interpreted as indicative of a historical genetic bottleneck. Microsatellite markers provided evidence of introgression for three individual crocodiles, which suggest that hybridization might have occurred between C. siamensis and C. porosus. D-loop sequence analysis detected bi-directional hybridization between male and female individuals of the parent species. Therefore, identification of genetically non-hybrid and hybrid individuals is important for long-term conservation management. Relatedness values were low within the captive populations, which supported their genetic integrity and the viability of a breeding and reintroduction management plan. This work constitutes the first step in establishing an appropriate source population from a scientifically managed perspective for an in situ/ex situ conservation program and reintroduction of crocodile individuals to the wild in Thailand.

  16. Movement and Home Range of Nile Crocodiles in Ndumo Game Reserve, South Africa

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    Peter M. Calverley

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of movement patterns and home range is fundamental in understanding the spatial requirements of animals and is important in generating information for the conservation and management of threatened species. Ndumo Game Reserve, in north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal, bordering Mozambique, has the third largest Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus population in South Africa. Movement patterns of 50 Nile crocodiles with a total length of between 202 cm and 472 cm were followed over a period of 18 months, using mark-resight, radio and satellite telemetry. The duration of radio transmitter attachment (131 ± 11.4 days was significantly and negatively related to total length and reproductive status. Satellite transmitters failed after an average of 15 ± 12.5 days. Home range was calculated for individuals with 10 or more radio locations, spanning a period of at least 6 months. There was a significant relationship between home range size and total length, with sub-adults (1.5 m – 2.5 m occupying smaller, more localised home ranges than adults (> 2.5 m. The largest home ranges were for adults (> 2.5 m. Home ranges overlapped extensively, suggesting that territoriality, if present, does not result in spatially discrete home ranges of Nile crocodiles in Ndumo Game Reserve during the dry season. Larger crocodiles moved farther and more frequently than smaller crocodiles. The reserve acts as a winter refuge and spring breeding site for an estimated 846 crocodiles, which also inhabit the Rio Maputo during the summer months. Nile crocodile movement out of the reserve and into the Rio Maputo starts in November and crocodiles return to the reserve as water levels in the floodplain recede in May. Conservation implications: Movement patterns of Nile crocodiles show the important role the reserve plays in the conservation of Nile crocodile populations within the greater Ndumo Game Reserve–Rio Maputo area.

  17. Pathogenicity in six Australian reptile species following experimental inoculation with Bohle iridovirus.

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    Ariel, E; Wirth, W; Burgess, G; Scott, J; Owens, L

    2015-08-20

    Ranaviruses are able to infect multiple species of fish, amphibian and reptile, and some strains are capable of interclass transmission. These numerous potential carriers and reservoir species compound efforts to control and contain infections in cultured and wild populations, and a comprehensive knowledge of susceptible species and life stage is necessary to inform such processes. Here we report on the challenge of 6 water-associated reptiles with Bohle iridovirus (BIV) to investigate its potential pathogenicity in common native reptiles of the aquatic and riparian fauna of northern Queensland, Australia. Adult tortoises Elseya latisternum and Emydura krefftii, snakes Boiga irregularis, Dendrelaphis punctulatus and Amphiesma mairii, and yearling crocodiles Crocodylus johnstoni were exposed via intracoelomic inoculation or co-habitation with infected con-specifics, but none were adversely affected by the challenge conditions applied here. Bohle iridovirus was found to be extremely virulent in hatchling tortoises E. latisternum and E. krefftii via intracoelomic challenge, as demonstrated by distinct lesions in multiple organs associated with specific immunohistochemistry staining and a lethal outcome (10/17) of the challenge. Virus was re-isolated from 2/5 E. latisternum, 4/12 E. krefftii and 1/3 brown tree snakes B. irregularis. Focal necrosis, haemorrhage and infiltration of granulocytes were frequently observed histologically in the pancreas, liver and sub-mucosa of the intestine of challenged tortoise hatchlings. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated the presence of ranavirus antigens in the necrotic lesions and in individual cells of the vascular endothelium, the connective tissue and in granulocytes associated with necrosis or present along serosal surfaces. The outcome of this study confirms hatchling tortoises are susceptible to BIV, thereby adding Australian reptiles to the host range of ranaviruses. Additionally, given that BIV was originally isolated from an

  18. Pulmonary anatomy in the Nile crocodile and the evolution of unidirectional airflow in Archosauria

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    Emma R. Schachner

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The lungs of birds have long been known to move air in only one direction during both inspiration and expiration through most of the tubular gas-exchanging bronchi (parabronchi. Recently a similar pattern of airflow has been observed in American alligators, a sister taxon to birds. The pattern of flow appears to be due to the arrangement of the primary and secondary bronchi, which, via their branching angles, generate inspiratory and expiratory aerodynamic valves. Both the anatomical similarity of the avian and alligator lung and the similarity in the patterns of airflow raise the possibility that these features are plesiomorphic for Archosauria and therefore did not evolve in response to selection for flapping flight or an endothermic metabolism, as has been generally assumed. To further test the hypothesis that unidirectional airflow is ancestral for Archosauria, we measured airflow in the lungs of the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus. As in birds and alligators, air flows cranially to caudally in the cervical ventral bronchus, and caudally to cranially in the dorsobronchi in the lungs of Nile crocodiles. We also visualized the gross anatomy of the primary, secondary and tertiary pulmonary bronchi of C. niloticus using computed tomography (CT and microCT. The cervical ventral bronchus, cranial dorsobronchi and cranial medial bronchi display similar characteristics to their proposed homologues in the alligator, while there is considerable variation in the tertiary and caudal group bronchi. Our data indicate that the aspects of the crocodilian bronchial tree that maintain the aerodynamic valves and thus generate unidirectional airflow, are ancestral for Archosauria.

  19. Inference of the protokaryotypes of amniotes and tetrapods and the evolutionary processes of microchromosomes from comparative gene mapping.

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    Yoshinobu Uno

    Full Text Available Comparative genome analysis of non-avian reptiles and amphibians provides important clues about the process of genome evolution in tetrapods. However, there is still only limited information available on the genome structures of these organisms. Consequently, the protokaryotypes of amniotes and tetrapods and the evolutionary processes of microchromosomes in tetrapods remain poorly understood. We constructed chromosome maps of functional genes for the Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis, the Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis, and the Western clawed frog (Xenopus tropicalis and compared them with genome and/or chromosome maps of other tetrapod species (salamander, lizard, snake, chicken, and human. This is the first report on the protokaryotypes of amniotes and tetrapods and the evolutionary processes of microchromosomes inferred from comparative genomic analysis of vertebrates, which cover all major non-avian reptilian taxa (Squamata, Crocodilia, Testudines. The eight largest macrochromosomes of the turtle and chicken were equivalent, and 11 linkage groups had also remained intact in the crocodile. Linkage groups of the chicken macrochromosomes were also highly conserved in X. tropicalis, two squamates, and the salamander, but not in human. Chicken microchromosomal linkages were conserved in the squamates, which have fewer microchromosomes than chicken, and also in Xenopus and the salamander, which both lack microchromosomes; in the latter, the chicken microchromosomal segments have been integrated into macrochromosomes. Our present findings open up the possibility that the ancestral amniotes and tetrapods had at least 10 large genetic linkage groups and many microchromosomes, which corresponded to the chicken macro- and microchromosomes, respectively. The turtle and chicken might retain the microchromosomes of the amniote protokaryotype almost intact. The decrease in number and/or disappearance of microchromosomes by repeated

  20. Trace element concentrations of wild saltwater crocodile eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manolis, S.C.; Webb, G.J.; Britton, A.R.; Jeffree, R.A.; Markich, S.J.

    2002-01-01

    Saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) accumulate trace elements from the environment into their flesh and bones (Jeffree et al., 2001a). Elevated levels of metals (e.g. Hg, Zn, Pb), organochlorines (e.g. DDT) and radionuclides (e.g. radiocesium) have been recorded in blood, tissues and eggs of several crocodilian species (Manolis et al., this volume). In this study the concentrations of various elements (including metals) were measured in the yolk of C. porosus eggs collected from the Finniss River and two other distant nesting sites (Melacca Swamp, a spring-fed freshwater swamp; Adelaide River, a tidal river) during the 2000- 01 nesting season. Infertile eggs from 30 clutches (Adelaide 12, Melacca 8, Finniss 10) were opened and the yolk contents removed (after Webb et al., 1987) and frozen. Samples of yolk were then oven-dried, digested in nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The digest solutions were then analysed for 20 elements (see Table 1) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Similarities between the elemental composition of eggs from the three areas suggests that downstream contamination from Rum Jungle Mine is not apparent in C. porosus nesting in the Finniss River. These nesting areas are some 60 km downstream of the mine site, and contaminants are probably greatly diluted during the wet season. C. porosus were also intensively hunted in the Finniss River area during the 1950s and 1960s, until their protection in 1971 (Webb et al. 1984). Some females would have been recruited into the population after the period of mining. Long-term effects of the mine may be apparent in areas with Australian freshwater crocodiles (C. johnstoni), mainly upstream of C. porosus nesting areas and up to the mine. Examination of tissues and eggs of C. johnstoni may provide more information on the historical effects of the mine

  1. Measuring behavioral responses of sea turtles, saltwater crocodiles, and crested terns to drone disturbance to define ethical operating thresholds.

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    Bevan, Elizabeth; Whiting, Scott; Tucker, Tony; Guinea, Michael; Raith, Andrew; Douglas, Ryan

    2018-01-01

    Drones are being increasingly used in innovative ways to enhance environmental research and conservation. Despite their widespread use for wildlife studies, there are few scientifically justified guidelines that provide minimum distances at which wildlife can be approached to minimize visual and auditory disturbance. These distances are essential to ensure that behavioral and survey data have no observer bias and form the basis of requirements for animal ethics and scientific permit approvals. In the present study, we documented the behaviors of three species of sea turtle (green turtles, Chelonia mydas, flatback turtles, Natator depressus, hawksbill turtles, Eretmochelys imbricata), saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus), and crested terns (Thalasseus bergii) in response to a small commercially available (1.4 kg) multirotor drone flown in Northern Territory and Western Australia. Sea turtles in nearshore waters off nesting beaches or in foraging habitats exhibited no evasive behaviors (e.g. rapid diving) in response to the drone at or above 20-30 m altitude, and at or above 10 m altitude for juvenile green and hawksbill turtles foraging on shallow, algae-covered reefs. Adult female flatback sea turtles were not deterred by drones flying forward or stationary at 10 m altitude when crawling up the beach to nest or digging a body pit or egg chamber. In contrast, flyovers elicited a range of behaviors from crocodiles, including minor, lateral head movements, fleeing, or complete submergence when a drone was present below 50 m altitude. Similarly, a colony of crested terns resting on a sand-bank displayed disturbance behaviors (e.g. flight response) when a drone was flown below 60 m altitude. The current study demonstrates a variety of behavioral disturbance thresholds for diverse species and should be considered when establishing operating conditions for drones in behavioral and conservation studies.

  2. Comparative genome analyses reveal distinct structure in the saltwater crocodile MHC.

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    Weerachai Jaratlerdsiri

    Full Text Available The major histocompatibility complex (MHC is a dynamic genome region with an essential role in the adaptive immunity of vertebrates, especially antigen presentation. The MHC is generally divided into subregions (classes I, II and III containing genes of similar function across species, but with different gene number and organisation. Crocodylia (crocodilians are widely distributed and represent an evolutionary distinct group among higher vertebrates, but the genomic organisation of MHC within this lineage has been largely unexplored. Here, we studied the MHC region of the saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus and compared it with that of other taxa. We characterised genomic clusters encompassing MHC class I and class II genes in the saltwater crocodile based on sequencing of bacterial artificial chromosomes. Six gene clusters spanning ∼452 kb were identified to contain nine MHC class I genes, six MHC class II genes, three TAP genes, and a TRIM gene. These MHC class I and class II genes were in separate scaffold regions and were greater in length (2-6 times longer than their counterparts in well-studied fowl B loci, suggesting that the compaction of avian MHC occurred after the crocodilian-avian split. Comparative analyses between the saltwater crocodile MHC and that from the alligator and gharial showed large syntenic areas (>80% identity with similar gene order. Comparisons with other vertebrates showed that the saltwater crocodile had MHC class I genes located along with TAP, consistent with birds studied. Linkage between MHC class I and TRIM39 observed in the saltwater crocodile resembled MHC in eutherians compared, but absent in avian MHC, suggesting that the saltwater crocodile MHC appears to have gene organisation intermediate between these two lineages. These observations suggest that the structure of the saltwater crocodile MHC, and other crocodilians, can help determine the MHC that was present in the ancestors of archosaurs.

  3. Extracellular histones identified in crocodile blood inhibit in-vitro HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Hannah N; Lai, Eric T L; Havugimana, Pierre C; White, Carl; Emili, Andrew; Sakac, Darinka; Binnington, Beth; Neschadim, Anton; McCarthy, Stephen D S; Branch, Donald R

    2016-08-24

    It has been reported that crocodile blood contains potent antibacterial and antiviral properties. However, its effects on HIV-1 infection remain unknown. We obtained blood from saltwater crocodiles to examine whether serum or plasma could inhibit HIV-1 infection. We purified plasma fractions then used liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to identify the inhibitory protein factor(s). We then analyzed the ability of recombinant proteins to recapitulate HIV-1 inhibition and determine their mechanism of action. Crocodylus porosus plasma was tested for inhibition of Jurkat T-cell HIV-1 infection. Inhibitor(s) were purified by reverse-phase chromatography then identified by protein liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Anti-HIV-1 activity of purified plasma or recombinant proteins were measured by p24 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and luciferase readouts, and mechanism of action was determined by measuring HIV-1 RNA, cDNA and transcription (using 1G5 cells). Crocodile plasma contains potent inhibitors of HIV-1IIIB infection, which were identified as histones. Recombinant human histones H1 and H2A significantly reduced HIV-1JR-FL infection (IC50 of 0.79 and 0.45 μmol/l, respectively), whereas H4 enhanced JR-FL luciferase activity. The inhibitory effects of crocodile plasma, recombinant H1 or recombinant H2A on HIV-1 infection were during or post-viral transcription. Circulating histones in crocodile blood, possibly released by neutrophil extracellular traps, are significant inhibitors of HIV-1 infection in-vitro. Extracellular recombinant histones have different effects on HIV-1 transcription and protein expression and are downregulated in HIV-1 patients. Circulating histones may be a novel resistance factor during HIV-1 infection, and peptide versions should be explored as future HIV-1 therapeutics that modulate viral transcription.

  4. Measuring behavioral responses of sea turtles, saltwater crocodiles, and crested terns to drone disturbance to define ethical operating thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Scott; Tucker, Tony; Guinea, Michael; Raith, Andrew; Douglas, Ryan

    2018-01-01

    Drones are being increasingly used in innovative ways to enhance environmental research and conservation. Despite their widespread use for wildlife studies, there are few scientifically justified guidelines that provide minimum distances at which wildlife can be approached to minimize visual and auditory disturbance. These distances are essential to ensure that behavioral and survey data have no observer bias and form the basis of requirements for animal ethics and scientific permit approvals. In the present study, we documented the behaviors of three species of sea turtle (green turtles, Chelonia mydas, flatback turtles, Natator depressus, hawksbill turtles, Eretmochelys imbricata), saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus), and crested terns (Thalasseus bergii) in response to a small commercially available (1.4 kg) multirotor drone flown in Northern Territory and Western Australia. Sea turtles in nearshore waters off nesting beaches or in foraging habitats exhibited no evasive behaviors (e.g. rapid diving) in response to the drone at or above 20–30 m altitude, and at or above 10 m altitude for juvenile green and hawksbill turtles foraging on shallow, algae-covered reefs. Adult female flatback sea turtles were not deterred by drones flying forward or stationary at 10 m altitude when crawling up the beach to nest or digging a body pit or egg chamber. In contrast, flyovers elicited a range of behaviors from crocodiles, including minor, lateral head movements, fleeing, or complete submergence when a drone was present below 50 m altitude. Similarly, a colony of crested terns resting on a sand-bank displayed disturbance behaviors (e.g. flight response) when a drone was flown below 60 m altitude. The current study demonstrates a variety of behavioral disturbance thresholds for diverse species and should be considered when establishing operating conditions for drones in behavioral and conservation studies. PMID:29561901

  5. Marine protected area design for Bahia Portete - La Guajira, Colombian Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez Moreno, Carolina; Alonso C, David; Segura Quintero, Carolina

    2008-01-01

    Using an ecorregional planning process for the selection of conservation priority sites in the Colombian Caribbean region and the qualification of ecological criteria, Bahia Portete was identified as a potential site for the establishment of a new Marine Protected Area (MPA). This bay encompass a great variety of marine and coastal ecosystems, including fish, planktonic, and benthic communities as well as species that in conjunction with the environmental features form an area of high heterogeneity and unique biodiversity in the province of La Guajira. The purpose of this research was to design the first MPA in the north of the Province through the evaluation of ecologic criteria, as well as proposed conservation and management objectives; setting up a management category within the existing National Protected Areas System (SINAP in Spanish). Therefore, based on secondary information and following the The five S framework, methodology design by The Nature Conservancy for site planning, five conservation objectives (OdC) of coarse-filter or habitats were identified: corals, sea grasses, sandy beaches, rocky coasts and mangroves ecosystems, and three OdC of fine filter: areas with presence of Crocodylus acutus, sea turtles feeding areas, and areas of birds congregation. A viability analysis was developed for each healthy object found within the area, thus reflecting the biodiversity health of the area. The analysis of criteria, viability and the definition of the management objectives for the area, allowed the election of National Natural Park as the most appropriate management category for the area. Based on a systematic process and with the use of the MARXAN (University of Queensland) Decision Support System (DSS), three no-take zones were identified, with which the protection of a minimum of 30% of the coverage area for each of the objects is guaranteed as the initial contribution to the internal zoning of the new MPA

  6. Geochemistry, processes and environmental impact caused by the mining and auriferous ore process in the Marmato District (Caldas Department, Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto Rincon, Gloria

    1995-01-01

    Colombia is the third gold producer in Latin America, Mining and processing of gold ore bodies are backward and it is well known that produce great deal of effects on the environment. This study puts emphasis on heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Ag, As, Hg, Sb. Bi) released from mining, processing and tailings of gold-sulfide ore bodies from the Marmato Area, and the main objective is research about the geochemical behavior of such heavy metals (sources, dispersion, accumulation, chemical speciation, deposition and accumulation rates) taking surface waters, sediments and suspended particulate matter as geochemical sampling media. In order to asses the fate of these heavy metals, was planned a sampling programmed (summer and winter seasons) of surface waters. Sediments and suspended particulate matter, in streams (Aguas Claras. CascabeI, Pantanos. Marmato, Arquia, Chirapoto), two mine drainages and two processing effluents from the Marmato gold District (vein type), and in the Cauca River (Marmato Area). Analytical work in surface waters was carried out in the field, (physical-chemical parameters: temperature, pH, conductivity, turbidity, sulfides and flow) and in specialized analytical laboratories of Colombia (cyanides, COD - Chemical Oxygen Demand, TOC - Total Organic Carbon, TS - Total Solids. DS - Dissolved solids, NH 3 , chlorides. Dissolved heavy metals - Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Ag, As, Hg, Sb. Bi). In sediments and suspended particulate matter is carrying out a gross geochemical speciation (non-detrital or geochemically reactive fraction and residual or inactive fraction) by leaching with HCl 0.5N and total contents analysis (acidic digestion -HF/ Perchloric acid) in specialized Laboratories of Colombia and Canada. Preliminary results of summer season sampling, showed that surface waters flowing from the Marmato Area are not appropriated neither as domestic supply, agriculture irrigation, aquatic life or industrial use (Cyanides (0.13 -3.8 mg/L), TS (9422-39952 mg

  7. Conducta de búfalos en pastoreo en humedales de Ciego de Ávila, Cuba Behavior of grazing buffaloes in wetlands of Ciego de Ávila, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Caraballoso¹

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de caracterizar la conducta de búfalos en pastoreo en el humedal avileño se realizó el presente estudio en áreas de la Empresa Agropecuaria del municipio Bolivia, en el Humedal Norte de la provincia Ciego de Ávila, Cuba. Se emplearon búfalos de río, de pantano y bufalipso mestizo, clínicamente sanos. Para determinar la composición florística se hicieron diferentes transeptos por el procedimiento de la línea intercepto. Se evaluó el comportamiento bufalino en pastoreo durante 10 días consecutivos y en ambas épocas del año, a través del método visual adaptado para esta especie. Se identificaron en el área de pastoreo de los búfalos un total de 165 especies vegetales correspondientes a 20 familias. Los animales dedicaron la mayor parte del tiempo al pastoreo en ambos períodos (58,5 y 64,3% para los períodos I y II, respectivamente, seguido de la rumia (13,2 y 15,1%, respectivamente. Se concluye que el estudio de la conducta resulta una herramienta importante en la explotación y manejo del búfalo; se apreció que los búfalos dedicaron el mayor porcentaje del tiempo a la actividad de pastoreo, con tendencia a su incremento en las tres primeras horas del día. Se recomienda intensificar la siembra de la cobertura vegetal para evitar su deterioro, así como la migración de los animales a otros ecosistemas.With the objective of characterizing the behavior of grazing buffaloes in a Ciego de Ávila wetland, this study was conducted in areas of the Livestock Production Enterprise of the Bolivia municipality, in the Northern Wetland of the Ciego de Ávila province. Clinically healthy river, swamp and crossbred Buffalypso buffaloes were used. In order to determine the floristic composition different transepts were made through the intercept line procedure. The behavior of the grazing buffaloes was evaluated for 10 consecutive days and in both seasons, through the visual method adapted for this species. A total of 165

  8. Puerto Rico, humedales [Puerto Rico, wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, D. Briane; Hefner, John M.; Dopazo, Teresa

    1999-01-01

    descanso y la alimentación de cientos de aves migratorias en ruta entre Norte y Suramérica. Antes del drenaje de los humedales costeros para propósitos agrícolas, pantanos de agua dulce como los de la Laguna Cartagena, Laguna Guánica y Ciénaga El Anegado proveían hábitat a más de 1 00 especies de aves residentes y migratorias . Los humedales de las tierras altas del área central son el último refugio de la cotorra puertorriqueña, una especie en peligro de extinción. Aún los humedales del área metropolitana de San Juan (Laguna La Torrecilla, Torrecilla Baja, Laguna de Piñones hasta Punta Vacía Talega) proveen un hábitat excelente para la vida silvestre, mantienen criaderos de peces de alto valor económico y proveen recreación y oportunidades educativas a la población urbana.Treintiocho especies de vertebrados, moluscos y crustáceos, y 46 especies de aves, algunos raros o en peligro de extinción como la mariquita, el alcatraz, el pato dominicano, el pato silbón y la paloma cabeciblanca han sido observados en el área . También las playas asociadas con estos humedales urbanos proveen sitios de anidaje para las tortugas carey de concha y tinglar, ambas en peligro de extinción (Del Llano y otros, 1986).

  9. "Zaragoza,ciudad ahorradora de agua"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viñuales Edo, Victor

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available In the year before the project was initiated, 11 million Spaniards were undergoing daily water restrictions. There were serious inter-regional conflicts over this scarce commodity. There seemed to be only one solution: more reservoirs and more water trans-shipments, what means high costs and harm to the environment. In Zaragoza, a city of 700.000 inhabitants in the north -cast of Spain, as in other cities in Spain, a triple paradox was to emerge: rainfall was scarce and irregular. water was cheap, and it was being misused. February 1997 saw the beginning of the "Zaragoza, the water-saving city" project. This aimed to promote a new water-saving consciousness through a more efficient management of this resource. It emphasised, above all, the importance of simple technological change to achieve a sustainable reduction in water consumption. The project was to issue a challenge to the city: to save 1.000 million litres of domestic water consumption in one year The project has shown that it is possible to deal with the shortage of water incities, using a cheap, ecological, fast and contentious-free app roach, by increasing efficiency in consumption. The most important lesson to be learnt is that the shared responsibility between the main players (manufacturers, retailers, consumers, distributors. plumbers, etc. has managed to create a new synergy which favours water-use efficiency. 1176 million litres of water have been saved. Spanish cities now have a successful model to follow for the most ecologically-so und method of facing up to the next drought.EI año anterior al inicio del proyecto, 11 millones de españoles sufrieron restricciones diarias de agua. Los conflictos entre regiones por el agua escasa fueron muy graves. Parecía que solo había una solución: mas pantanos y mas trasvases. Y su consecuencia inevitable: inversiones multintillonarias, daños al medio ambiente, larguisimos plazos de ejecución. En Zaragoza, ciudad del nordeste de Espa

  10. Presencia y perspectivas de los búfalos en Cuba Presence and perspective of buffaloes in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Simón

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Los búfalos fueron introducidos en el país a principios de la década de los 80, con el objetivo de producir alimentos para el consumo humano. Los criterios para su introducción fueron: su rusticidad y el aprovechamiento de alimentos de baja calidad nutritiva, sus posibilidades para la cría extensiva en lugares donde los bovinos y otras especies no podían producir, además de las cualidades nutritivas e industriales de sus productos. Las razas que se encuentran en el país son el Buffalypso y el de pantano o Carabao, este último utilizado para la producción de carne por su pobre rendimiento lechero, por lo que se realiza un programa genético de cruzamiento entre ellos para mejorar sus características lecheras. Se ha demostrado que pueden disipar el calor a la sombra de los árboles de los potreros y mantener una elevada tasa de natalidad (más del 80% que supera la de los bovinos; no obstante, su producción de leche resulta extensiva por las bajas cargas (0,6-0,8 UGM/ha que hay que emplear en pastoreo, debido a su hábito alimentario y a la capacidad productiva de los Buffalypsos (700 y 1 000 kg de leche por lactancia. Por ello el mejoramiento lechero mediante cruzamientos con razas de mayor potencial y la transformación de la base alimentaria en los lugares que se encuentren, podrían aportar positivamente en la intensificación de su producción y hacerlos más competitivos con los bovinos en producción de leche.Buffaloes were introduced in the country in the early 80's, in order to produce food for human consumption. The criteria followed for their introduction were their rusticity and utilization of feedstuffs with low nutritional quality, their possibilities for extensive rearing in places where cattle and other species could not produce, in addition to the nutritional and industrial qualities of their products. The breeds present in Cuba are Buffalypso and the swamp buffalo or Carabao, the latter used for meat production due to

  11. Heavy metal pathways and archives in biological tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlic, I. E-mail: ivo@ansto.gov.au; Siegele, R.; Menon, D.D.; Markich, S.J.; Cohen, D.D.; Jeffree, R.A.; McPhail, D.C.; Sarbutt, A.; Stelcer, E

    2002-05-01

    Nuclear milli and microprobes at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) were used to determine lead accumulation in native Australian plants and animals. Three species of eucalypt plants (Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus lesouefii), one species of salt bush (Atriplex burbhanyana) and one species each of acacia (Acacia saligna) and estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) were investigated. Experimentally grown plants were subjected to a nutrient solution with a pH of 5 and spiked with a 200 {mu}mol concentration of Pb. Lead concentrations in leaves of both E. globulus and E. camaldulensis showed an almost exponential decrease from the base of the main vein to the tip. Similarly, Pb concentrations decreased from the main vein to secondary veins. Concentrations of essential elements such as K, Fe, Zn and Br in the main and secondary veins were constant within experimental uncertainty. In contrast, the concentrations of Pb in the leaf veins of E. lesouefii were much lower and showed no systematic pattern. In stem and root samples the highest concentration of Pb was found in roots and stem of E. globulus and A. burbhanyana followed by E. camaldulensis. Some Pb was found in roots of A. saligna and only very low concentration in stem of the same plant. More detailed analysis of thin cross-sectional samples of roots and stem showed that Pb is present in much higher concentration in the growth area of the plant structure (i.e. meristemic region) and in relatively low concentration within the pith region and outer cortex. The osteoderms (dermal bones) of estuarine crocodiles, exposed to lead ammunition in food from the hunting activities of traditional Aboriginal owners, were sampled at two sites in Kakadu National Park, northern Australia. PIXE analyses showed enhanced, but relatively constant, ratios of Pb/Ca in the annual laminations. This was consistent with both their history of long term exposure to elevated

  12. Conservation status and regional habitat priorities for the Orinoco crocodile: Past, present, and future.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio A Balaguera-Reina

    Full Text Available Conservation of large predator species has historically been a challenge because they often overlap in resource utilization with humans; furthermore, there is a general lack of in-depth knowledge of their ecology and natural history. We assessed the conservation status of the Orinoco crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius, defining regional habitat priorities/crocodile conservation units (RHP/CCU and regional research priorities (RRP for this species. We also estimated a species distribution model (SDM to define current suitable areas where the species might inhabit and/or that might be successfully colonized. The SDM area obtained with a suitable habitat probability ≥ 0.5 was 23,621 km2. Out of 2,562 km2 are included within protected areas in both Colombia (1,643 km2 and Venezuela (919 km2, which represents only 10.8% of C. intermedius' potential range. Areas such as Laguna de Chigüichigüe (flood plain lagoon exhibited an increase in population abundance. In contrast, localities such as the Cojedes and Manapire Rivers reported a significant reduction in relative abundance values. In Colombia, disparity in previous survey methods prevented accurate estimation of population trends. Only one study in this country described an increase over a 13 years span in the Ele, Lipa, and Cravo Norte River populations based on nest surveys. We defined 34 critical areas (16 in Colombia, 17 in Venezuela, and one covering both countries where we need to preserve/research/monitor and/or generate management actions, 10 RHP/CCU (six from Venezuela and four from Colombia and 24 RRP (11 from Venezuela, 12 from Colombia, and one in both countries. Caño Guaritico (Creek and the Capanaparo River in Venezuela and the Ele, Lipa, Cravo Norte River System and the Guayabero River in Colombia were defined as areas with the most optimal conditions for long-term preservation and maintenance of C. intermedius populations. We conclude that the conservation status of this species

  13. Conservation status and regional habitat priorities for the Orinoco crocodile: Past, present, and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Blanco, Ariel S.; Morales-Betancourt, Mónica A.; Seijas, Andrés E.; Lasso, Carlos A.; Antelo, Rafael; Densmore, Llewellyn D.

    2017-01-01

    Conservation of large predator species has historically been a challenge because they often overlap in resource utilization with humans; furthermore, there is a general lack of in-depth knowledge of their ecology and natural history. We assessed the conservation status of the Orinoco crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius), defining regional habitat priorities/crocodile conservation units (RHP/CCU) and regional research priorities (RRP) for this species. We also estimated a species distribution model (SDM) to define current suitable areas where the species might inhabit and/or that might be successfully colonized. The SDM area obtained with a suitable habitat probability ≥ 0.5 was 23,621 km2. Out of 2,562 km2 are included within protected areas in both Colombia (1,643 km2) and Venezuela (919 km2), which represents only 10.8% of C. intermedius’ potential range. Areas such as Laguna de Chigüichigüe (flood plain lagoon) exhibited an increase in population abundance. In contrast, localities such as the Cojedes and Manapire Rivers reported a significant reduction in relative abundance values. In Colombia, disparity in previous survey methods prevented accurate estimation of population trends. Only one study in this country described an increase over a 13 years span in the Ele, Lipa, and Cravo Norte River populations based on nest surveys. We defined 34 critical areas (16 in Colombia, 17 in Venezuela, and one covering both countries) where we need to preserve/research/monitor and/or generate management actions, 10 RHP/CCU (six from Venezuela and four from Colombia) and 24 RRP (11 from Venezuela, 12 from Colombia, and one in both countries). Caño Guaritico (Creek) and the Capanaparo River in Venezuela and the Ele, Lipa, Cravo Norte River System and the Guayabero River in Colombia were defined as areas with the most optimal conditions for long-term preservation and maintenance of C. intermedius populations. We conclude that the conservation status of this species is

  14. Heavy metal pathways and archives in biological tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlic, I.; Siegele, R.; Menon, D.D.; Markich, S.J.; Cohen, D.D.; Jeffree, R.A.; McPhail, D.C.; Sarbutt, A.; Stelcer, E.

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear milli and microprobes at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) were used to determine lead accumulation in native Australian plants and animals. Three species of eucalypt plants (Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus lesouefii), one species of salt bush (Atriplex burbhanyana) and one species each of acacia (Acacia saligna) and estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) were investigated. Experimentally grown plants were subjected to a nutrient solution with a pH of 5 and spiked with a 200 μmol concentration of Pb. Lead concentrations in leaves of both E. globulus and E. camaldulensis showed an almost exponential decrease from the base of the main vein to the tip. Similarly, Pb concentrations decreased from the main vein to secondary veins. Concentrations of essential elements such as K, Fe, Zn and Br in the main and secondary veins were constant within experimental uncertainty. In contrast, the concentrations of Pb in the leaf veins of E. lesouefii were much lower and showed no systematic pattern. In stem and root samples the highest concentration of Pb was found in roots and stem of E. globulus and A. burbhanyana followed by E. camaldulensis. Some Pb was found in roots of A. saligna and only very low concentration in stem of the same plant. More detailed analysis of thin cross-sectional samples of roots and stem showed that Pb is present in much higher concentration in the growth area of the plant structure (i.e. meristemic region) and in relatively low concentration within the pith region and outer cortex. The osteoderms (dermal bones) of estuarine crocodiles, exposed to lead ammunition in food from the hunting activities of traditional Aboriginal owners, were sampled at two sites in Kakadu National Park, northern Australia. PIXE analyses showed enhanced, but relatively constant, ratios of Pb/Ca in the annual laminations. This was consistent with both their history of long term exposure to elevated

  15. Spatial Ecology of the American Crocodile in a Tropical Pacific Island in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguera-Reina, Sergio A; Venegas-Anaya, Miryam; Sánchez, Andrés; Arbelaez, Italo; Lessios, Harilaos A; Densmore, Llewellyn D

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of large predators has long been a challenge for biologists due to the limited information we have about their ecology, generally low numbers in the wild, large home ranges and the continuous expansion of human settlements. The American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) is a typical apex predator, that has suffered from all of these characteristic problems, especially the latter one. Humans have had a major impact on the recovery of this species throughout its range, even though most of the countries it inhabits have banned hunting. The last decade has made it clear that in order to implement sound conservation and management programs, we must increase our understanding of crocodile spatial ecology. However, in only two countries where American crocodiles have telemetry studies even been published. Herein we have characterized the spatial ecology of C. acutus on Coiba Island, Panama, by radio-tracking (VHF transmitters) 24 individuals between 2010 and 2013, to determine movement patterns, home range, and habitat use. We have then compared our findings with those of previous studies to develop the most comprehensive assessment of American crocodile spatial ecology to date. Females showed a higher average movement distance (AMD) than males; similarly, adults showed a higher AMD than sub-adults and juveniles. However, males exhibited larger home ranges than females, and concomitantly sub-adults had larger home ranges than juveniles, hatchlings, and adults. There was an obvious relationship between seasonal precipitation and AMD, with increased AMD in the dry and "low-wet" seasons, and reduced AMD during the "true" wet season. We found disaggregate distributions according to age groups throughout the 9 habitat types in the study area; adults and hatchlings inhabited fewer habitat types than juveniles and sub-adults. These sex- and age-group discrepancies in movement and habitat choice are likely due to the influences of reproductive biology and Coiba

  16. Alligators and Crocodiles Have High Paracellular Absorption of Nutrients, But Differ in Digestive Morphology and Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Christopher R; McWhorter, Todd J; Gienger, C M; Starck, J Matthias; Medley, Peter; Manolis, S Charlie; Webb, Grahame J W; Christian, Keith A

    2015-12-01

    Much of what is known about crocodilian nutrition and growth has come from animals propagated in captivity, but captive animals from the families Crocodilidae and Alligatoridae respond differently to similar diets. Since there are few comparative studies of crocodilian digestive physiology to help explain these differences, we investigated young Alligator mississippiensis and Crocodylus porosus in terms of (1) gross and microscopic morphology of the intestine, (2) activity of the membrane-bound digestive enzymes aminopeptidase-N, maltase, and sucrase, and (3) nutrient absorption by carrier-mediated and paracellular pathways. We also measured gut morphology of animals over a larger range of body sizes. The two species showed different allometry of length and mass of the gut, with A. mississippiensis having a steeper increase in intestinal mass with body size, and C. porosus having a steeper increase in intestinal length with body size. Both species showed similar patterns of magnification of the intestinal surface area, with decreasing magnification from the proximal to distal ends of the intestine. Although A. mississippiensis had significantly greater surface-area magnification overall, a compensating significant difference in gut length between species meant that total surface area of the intestine was not significantly different from that of C. porosus. The species differed in enzyme activities, with A. mississippiensis having significantly greater ability to digest carbohydrates relative to protein than did C. porosus. These differences in enzyme activity may help explain the differences in performance between the crocodilian families when on artificial diets. Both A. mississippiensis and C. porosus showed high absorption of 3-O methyl d-glucose (absorbed via both carrier-mediated and paracellular transport), as expected. Both species also showed surprisingly high levels of l-glucose-uptake (absorbed paracellularly), with fractional absorptions as high as those

  17. Spatial and stage-structured population model of the American crocodile for comparison of comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Timothy W.; Slone, Daniel H.; Swain, Eric D.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Lohmann, Melinda; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Rice, Kenneth G.

    2010-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey Priority Ecosystems Science (PES) initiative to provide the ecological science required during Everglades restoration, we have integrated current regional hydrologic models with American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) research and monitoring data to create a model that assesses the potential impact of Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) efforts on the American crocodile. A list of indicators was created by the Restoration Coordination and Verification (RECOVER) component of CERP to help determine the success of interim restoration goals. The American crocodile was established as an indicator of the ecological condition of mangrove estuaries due to its reliance upon estuarine environments characterized by low salinity and adequate freshwater inflow. To gain a better understanding of the potential impact of CERP restoration efforts on the American crocodile, a spatially explicit crocodile population model has been created that has the ability to simulate the response of crocodiles to various management strategies for the South Florida ecosystem. The crocodile model uses output from the Tides and Inflows in the Mangroves of the Everglades (TIME) model, an application of the Flow and Transport in a Linked Overland/Aquifer Density Dependent System (FTLOADDS) simulator. TIME has the capability to link to the South Florida Water Management Model (SFWMM), which is the primary regional tool used to assess CERP restoration scenarios. A crocodile habitat suitability index and spatial parameter maps that reflect salinity, water depth, habitat, and nesting locations are used as driving functions to construct crocodile finite rate of increase maps under different management scenarios. Local stage-structured models are integrated with a spatial landscape grid to display crocodile movement behavior in response to changing environmental conditions. Restoration efforts are expected to affect salinity levels throughout the habitat of

  18. Evolution of ice-dammed proglacial lakes in Última Esperanza, Chile: implications from the late-glacial R1 eruption of Reclús volcano, Andean Austral Volcanic Zone Evolución de lagos proglaciales embalsados por hielo en Última Esperanza, Chile: Implicancias de la explosión volcánica tardiglacial R1 del volcán Reclús, Zona Volcánica Austral Andina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R Stern

    2011-01-01

    highest ones (170-125 m a.s.l. and much lower ones (at only 30 m a.s.l. on Península Antonio Varas and 20 m a.s.l. along the coast north and south of Puerto Natales, suggests abrupt changes in the lake level after the Rl eruption. The likely mechanism for producing these changes in Ultima Esperanza was the catastrophic failure and subsequent re-sealing of an ice dam in Paso Kirke, the only below sea-level pathway west to the Pacific north of Fjordo Obstrucción. The final stage of lake drainage, from the lower terrace level (20-30 m a.s.l. oceurred at 10.3 cal kyrs BP.En este trabajo reportamos hallazgos de tefras derivadas de la gran explosión volcánica tardiglacial Rl del volcán Reclús situado en la Zona Volcánica Austral Andina, a partir de nuevos afloramientos, excavaciones y testigos sedimentarios de lagos y pantanos, obtenidos en la región de Ultima Esperanza, Magallanes. Nuevas fechas asociadas a estos depósitos permiten refrnar su edad a 14,9 ka cal AP (12.670±240 14C años AP y su volumen a >5 km³. Además, la ubicación geográfica y estratigráfica de Rl permite acotar la evolución del lago proglacial represado por hielo que se desarrolló al este de la cordillera al intervalo temporal entre el término del Ultimo Máximo Glacial y el Holoceno. Este lago proglacial generó terrazas y cuevas, producto de la acción del oleaje, como la Cueva de Mlodón, a lo largo de la terraza más alta y conspicua. La altitud actual de estas terrazas depende de la cantidad total de rebote isostático posglacial, el cual se desconoce. Debido a las variaciones en el rebote isostático posglacial, las terrazas lacustres más altas y prominentes disminuyen en altitud de oeste a este, desde -170 m s.n.m. en la Península Antonio Varas, al oeste del Seno Ultima Esperanza, a 150 m s.n.m. alrededor del lago Sofía y descienden hasta -125 m s.n.m. a lo largo de su margen más oriental. La presencia de grandes depósitos de la tefra Rl en algunas de las cuevas alrededor del

  19. Pescadores-recolectores arcaicos del extremo sur peruano. Excavaciones en La Quebrada de los burros (Tacna, Perú. Primeros resultados 1995-1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available PÊCHEURS-COLLECTEURS ARCHAÏQUES DE L’EXTRÊME SUD PÉRUVIEN. LES FOUILLES DE LA QUEBRADA DE LOS BURROS (TACNA, PEROU. PREMIERS RESULTATS, 1995-1997. Au début de l´Archaïque, des groupes humains vivant des ressources marines et, en moindre mesure, de chasse terrestre, s’installent régulièrement sur la côte sud du Pérou. Dans la Quebrada de los Burros, les datations 14C situent ces occupations entre 9800 et 3200 BP, durant une période climatique calme et relativement humide la formation, dans la vallée, entre 120 et 200 m d’altitude, de lagunes d’eau douce ou de marécages constitue alors un facteur très favorable à une implantation humaine (voir Usselmann et al., ce volume. Les niveaux d’occupation exploités sur de larges surfaces ont livré des foyers, un abondant matériel lithique taillé, des accumulations de coquilles (Concholepas concholepas, Mesodesma donacium, Fissurella sp., Choromytilus chorus etc. et de nombreux restes de poissons très diversifiés, impliquant diverses techniques halieutiques. Sont également attestés quelques restes de mammifères terrestres et d’oiseaux. Diverses analyses en cours sur les coquilles détermineront s’il s’agissait d’installations saisonnières ou permanentes. Al inicio del Arcaico, grupos humanos que viven de los recursos del medio marítimo y, en escala menor, de la caza terrestre (camélidos, aves, están instalados en la costa sur del Perú. En la Quebrada de los Burros, fechados 14C sitúan estas ocupaciones entre 9800 y 3200 BP, durante un período climático tranquilo y relativamente húmedo en el fondo del valle, entre 120 y 200 msnm, la formación de lagunas de agua dulce o de pantanos constituye entonces un elemento muy favorable para una implantación humana (véase Usselmann et al., este volumen. Los niveles de ocupación excavados en un área extensa contenían fogones, un abundante material lítico tallado, acumulaciones de conchas marinas (Concholepas concholepas

  20. La moneda como ofrenda en los manantiales

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    Manuel Abad Varela

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A la vista de como se han producido la mayoría de los hallazgos analizados y según se desprende de las fuentes escritas, diríamos que en la península ibérica y sobre todo en la parte Occidental se realizaron en la Antigüedad ofrendas monetales a divinidades de las aguas y fundamentalmente, por las referencias que tenemos, a las divinidades de las fuentes termales. Únicamente nos queda la duda de si la fuente de Peña Cutral en Retortillo (Reinosa, Santander es termal o no, pues si no lo fuese sería el único hallazgo dentro de una fuente no termal. Se podría entender, con ciertos reparos en algún caso, que también se hicieron arrojándolas al curso de los ríos, depositándolas en la orilla y lanzándolas a las charcas o pantanos. Por otro lado, las monedas que se han encontrado en las fuentes, en contraposición con las recogidas en los ríos, suelen estar en muy mala conservación, hasta el punto de que muchas se desintegran en las manos al estar muy atacadas por los ácidos. A juzgar por algunos de los hallazgos, se podría creer que las ofrendas más valiosas se procuró depositarlas en lugares seguros o resguardados, como es el caso de la Hermida, de la Fuente de El Sarso, del Balneario de Fortuna y podríamos recordar también el hallazgo del conocido depósito de Oñate. De acuerdo con la cronología de las monedas y según sus resultados estadísticos, la costumbre o rito de depositar o arrojar «stips» a las aguas, principalmente termales, se practicó en la península Ibérica más intensamente entre los siglos i a. C. al ii d. C. Este período coincide con el momento que más estuvo en boga el uso de las aguas termales, a juzgar por lo que se trató el tema en las fuentes escritas. Al mismo tiempo que se percibe esta moda en la vida diaria, pues Suetonio nos dice que Augusto, a pesar de que por su naturaleza enfermiza no abusaba de los baños, sin embargo, cuando necesitaba templar los nervios tomaba baños de mar o las

  1. The measure in the reading of the Romanesque churches of Pistoia

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    Erica Ganghereti

    2015-07-01

    period. Plans and elevations reveal hidden numbers and geometric systems referring to infinity principles, double area square expansion, buildings that easily allowed the builders to estimate the amounts of the materials required. Besides these technical aspects, the medieval culture aimed at approaching the divine magnificence through numbers, by building such architectural works. Knowing about the world and the mysteries it represented was the issue being mostly tested, studied and debated in the town ofPistoia, too. Towns ofLuccaandPisaturn out to become travelling companions along the way of knowledge and experimentation that alsoPistoiawas going through.            Measuring, based on numbers and geometries, is the real language for building. To know the measurement unit according to which the architectural works to be examined have been worked out is one of the main aspects. As far asPistoiais concerned, in the past several hypotheses had been worked out starting both from the documentary data and the handmade structures themselves. These hypotheses, however, turned out to be incomplete, since they were the result of a detailed study of the components but not of the handmade product as a whole. Therefore, research has been based on a backward process starting from the surveys carried out. The various architectural works were compared, and a multiple and submultiples apparatus was defined, so as to systematize all the components included in the architectural works studied. Measurement and geometry form a whole, the one supporting the other and vice versa. Therefore the research carried out made it possible to work out a hypothesis both as regards geometries that seem to be at the basis of the Romanesque architecture works inPistoia, and as regards the measurement that allows them to be defined by small and whole numbers. The case of San Bartolomeo in Pantano, that is the specific issue addressed in this article, is a clear example. Maybe thanks to more

  2. Paleoecología de alta resolución del Holoceno tardío en el Páramo de Frontino, Antioquia, Colombia

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    César Augusto Velásquez Ruiz

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo central reconstruir las condiciones climáticas y la vegetaci6n durante los últimos 4.000 años en el norte de la cordillera Occidental de Colombia con base en dos perforaciones realizadas en los sectores Llano Grande y Puente Largo del paramo de Frontino y su correlación con otras perforaciones llevadas a cabo en el mismo paramo y en el macizo de Tatama. La buena resolución metodológica empleada (elección adecuada de los sitios de muestreo, sonda que no compacta los sedimentos, submuestreo al centímetro y conteo de alícuotas, acetolisis suave y buen numero de radiodataciones hizo posible detectar y caracterizar tanto en duración como en amplitud, cambios en la vegetación y el clima cuyo registro en el trópico es objeto de debate. En general los períodos mas fríos fueron húmedos (vegetación regional dominante: paramo; local: acuáticas y de pantano y los mas cálidos secos (vegetación regional dominante: bosque; local: cojines. Los principales cambios climáticos ocurridos en estos cuatro milenios fueron los siguientes: La transición entre el Holoceno Medio y Tardío (4.000-3.200 arias interpol. I•C BP fue la fase mas húmeda, con pulsos menos húmedos y cálidos alrededor de 3.900, 3.800, 3.500-3.600 y 3.300-3.200 años interpol. I•C BP. El período comprendido entre 3.200-2.650 años interpol. I"C BP fue el mas seco y cálido interrumpido únicamente por un pulso húmedo alrededor de 3.000 años interpol. I•C BP. Este calentamiento solamente es superado por los registros de temperatura de los pasados 50 años. Entre 2.650-2.300 años interpol. "C BP el clima tendió a ser frio y húmedo. De 2.300-1.900 artos interpol. I•C BP se hizo un poco mas cálido y seco con un pulso fuerte de sequía cerca a 2.200-2.100 afros interpol. I•C BP. Entre 1.900-1.200 arms interpol14C BP, fue humedo y con una tendencia progresiva de hacerse cada vez mas frio, de tal suerte que podemos considerar el per

  3. Don Gonzalo Jimenez de Quesada. El Fundador

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    Alvaro López Pardo

    1989-09-01

    , Gracias a estos fracasos debió enrolarse en la expedición de Don Pedro Fernández de Lugo- como Teniente y Justicia Mayor, para dirigirse al enigmático Nuevo Mundo.

    Vendrá en su mente el recuerdo del vistoso desembarco de las tropas en Santa Martha, en gra contraste con los harapos que vestirían esas mismas tropas más tarde al enfrentarse al territorio americano. Recordará vivamente Don Gonzalo cómo su idea de seguir adelante para conquistar el corazón de América dio muchos ánimos a la gente y fue así como para su empresa logró reunir ochocientos soldados, de a pie y a caballo, acompañados por muchos indios. También dotó una pequeña flotilla que debía subir por el Río Grande de la Magdalena.

    Aquí vendría una parte negra de los ensueños del Mariscal, una pesadilla de fracasos y sufrimientos que comenzó el6 de abril de 1536. Su flota zozobró quedando tan sólo dos naves. Su tropa, que iba por tierra, guiada por expertos Capitanes: Suárez Rendón, Juan del Junco, Antón de Olaya, Juan de Céspedes, etc., sufre todas las inclemencias del tiempo, debe atravesar pantanos, cruzar selvas, hacer caminos al aundar. Las fieras, no menos terribles que las flechas de algunas tribus indígenas, van terminando con la soldadesca. El hambre les lleva a comer de todo. Fiebres desconocidas los asaltaban. Porque, pensaría Don Gonzalo, que en este enfrentamiento de dos mundos, que se desconocen, se causan admiración, se temen, no sólo van a intercambiar disparos y dardos, espejos por esmeraldas, religión por agüeros, sino también a intercambiar enfermedades, que destruyeron a los unos y a los otros.

    Volverá a la mente del adelantado, quien en el fondo estimaba a los indios, la variada conducta de las distintas tribus, los unos los atacan, ocultándose entre el follaje, otros muchos les huyen como a bestias salvajes, otros los reciben como a los dioses blancos prometidos. Pero quizás el recuerdo más impresionante sea el episodio que sucedi

  4. MEMORIAS III Encuentro Científico de Estudiantes de Biología

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    Biológica Colombiana Acta

    2003-07-01

    de regeneración en un bosque intervenido de la Amazonía Colombiana / Estudio preliminar de la comunidad macrobentónica del mesolitoral rocoso de bahía Concha (Parque Nacional Natural Tayrona,Magdalena, Colombia / Caracterización florística de un bosque pluvial tropical en el corregimiento de Pacurita, Quibdó, Chocó (Colombia / Revisión preliminar de la familia procyonidaeen Colombia / Evaluación y dinámica de uso del recurso hídrico en el corregimiento de Barú (Cartagena, Bolívar, Colombia / Viabilidad de la liberación de ardillas cola roja sciurus granatensisen el arboretum Francisco Bayón - Universidad Nacional de Colombia / Los rastros del megaterio comparación anatómica entre eremotherium rusconiiy bradypus variegatus / Comportamiento reproductivo de chiroxiphia lanceolata(pipridae:aves en un bosque intervenido del Tolima, Colombia / índice de agresividad en apis mellifera(hymenoptera: aapidae / Inserción de proteínas en membrana: algunas características del proceso / Comportamiento de félidos en cautiverio en el Zoológico de Santa Cruz, Colombia / Efecto de la forma tridimensional y el fenómeno de iluminación mutua en la percepción del color en el hombre / Tasa de hidratación de Physalaemus pustulosusR / Algunas serpientes venenosas presentes en la cuenca hidrográfica del Río Cabí, Chocó, Colombia / Embriogénesis somática y regeneración de plantas enepidendrum ruizianum (Orchidaceae / Germinación y crecimiento de una planta foránea, satureja sp.(labiaceae sobre tres sustratos orgánicos bajo condiciones controladas en la Sabana de Bogotá, Colombia / Caracterización de la comunidad de arañas (arachnida: aranae presente en bosque alto andino y en frailejonal del Parque Nacional Natural Chingaza, Colombia / Transporte de biomasa por una colonia de atta laevigatasmith 1958 (hymenoptera: formicidae en los Llanos Orientales (Puerto López, Meta, Colombia / Manejo ex situde crías de crocodylus intermedius(crocodylidae, una

  5. Rasgos morfoestructurales de la llanura amazónica del Perú: efecto de la Neotectónica sobre los cambios fluviales y la delimitación de las provincias morfológicas

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    1992-01-01

    del cratón sudamericano. Los ríos con fuerte dinámica fluvial (Marañón, Ucayali y Tapiche tienen aguas blancas (limosas provenientes de los Andes. Las áreas interfluviales son drenadas por ríos pequeños de aguas negras (con ácidos orgánicos, como el Pacaya y el Samiria. El patrón subadaptado de estos ríos de aguas negras se interpreta por la presencia anterior de cursos de aguas blancas en estas partes. La posición que ocupan los ríos subadaptados de aguas negras en la Depresión Ucamara sugiere una migración del Marañón hacia al Norte (50km y del Ucayali hacia el Sureste (100km durante la época reciente, probablemente el Holoceno. Se describe los grandes pantanos y lagos de la Depresión Ucamara, y se discute sus relaciones con el patrón estructural del basamento. Se discuten varios ejemplos de campo característicos y se intenta definir el efecto relativo de las deformaciones neotectónicas sobre el drenaje fluvial y las actuales morfoestructuras. MORPHOSTRUCTURAL TRENDS OF THE AMAZONIAN REGIONS OF PERU: THE EFFECT OF NEOTECTONICS ON FLUVIAL CHANGES AND UPLAND WETLAND BOUNDARIES. The Amazonian regions of Peru are discussed within the context of current knowledge on recent Andean tectonics and their impact on river drainage. The main morphostructural provinces are the foothills or Subandean Zone, which are bordered on the east by large depressions in the Marañon Basin of northeastern Peru, the Madre de Dios region of southern Peru and further to the east the Brazilian craton (Iquitos Geanticline. The structural framework of the Subandean Zone consists of the Subandean Thrust and Fold Belt (STFB West which crops out mostly in the Upper Foothills, and the Subandean Tilted Block Zone (STBZ East which is concentrated mainly in the Lower Foothills. The main rivers which cross the STFB are antecedent or superimposed, but the secondary drainage channels conform to these structures and are subsequent. The STBZ river basins run parallel to the structural