Sañudo, C; Nute, G R; Campo, M M; María, G; Baker, A; Sierra, I; Enser, M E; Wood, J D
Trained sensory panels in Britain and Spain assessed loin meat from commercial lambs purchased in Spain, which included Welsh lamb (imported from Britain) and two Spanish breeds (Merino and Rasa Aragonesa). The British panel also assessed British lamb purchased in local butcher shops and supermarkets. Sensory panels, in each country, received meat from the same lambs and used their local methods of cooking and assessment. Spanish panels used unstructured line scales to measure lamb odour intensity, tenderness, juiciness, lamb flavour intensity and two hedonic scales of flavour liking and overall liking. The British panel used 8 point category scales with the same attributes. Results from both panels in objective parameters were in agreement, hence showing that different trained sensory panels may arrive at the same conclusion. However, when panellists were allowed to make hedonic judgements (preference), the British panel preferred British lamb and the Spanish panel preferred Spanish lamb. This finding has important consequences for lamb producers who export their lambs and demonstrates that the underlying reasons for different preferences should be investigated. Production variables are discussed in relation to their influence on lamb eating quality and as a way to tailor lamb eating quality attributes familiar to consumers in the importing country.
Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña; Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J
This review deals with the two major aspects to be considered in the context of meat-based functional foods and human health. One involves the different strategies used to improve (increase or reduce) the presence of bioactive (healthy and unhealthy) compounds in meat and meat products in order to develop potential meat-based functional foods; these strategies are basically concerned with animal production practices, meat processing and storage, distribution and consumption conditions. Since the link between the consumption of those foods and their potentially beneficial effects (improving health and/or reducing the risk of several chronic diseases) needs to be demonstrated scientifically, the second aspect considered is related to intervention studies to examine the functional capacity of meat-based potentially functional foods in humans, discussing how the functionality of a food can be assessed in terms of its effects on health in relation to both target body functions and risk factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Edwards, R.A.; King, J.M.
The Government of Canada inaugurated an environmental assessment process in 1973. Since that time, the Department of Natural Resources, or its predecessor, the Department of Energy Mines and Resources, and industrial clients of the Department, have been major participants in the process. In 1995, the authors interviewed representatives of a number of client industries and selected individuals, to ask their opinion of the public hearing part of the environmental assessment process, with the objective of identifying shortcomings and proposing improvements. Respondents criticized the hearings as costly, time-wasting, bureaucratic, and uncertain in cost, time, and outcome. A number of observations on noted areas of shortcoming are presented in this paper, with suggestions for improvement
Edwards, R A; King, J M [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)
The Government of Canada inaugurated an environmental assessment process in 1973. Since that time, the Department of Natural Resources, or its predecessor, the Department of Energy Mines and Resources, and industrial clients of the Department, have been major participants in the process. In 1995, the authors interviewed representatives of a number of client industries and selected individuals, to ask their opinion of the public hearing part of the environmental assessment process, with the objective of identifying shortcomings and proposing improvements. Respondents criticized the hearings as costly, time-wasting, bureaucratic, and uncertain in cost, time, and outcome. A number of observations on noted areas of shortcoming are presented in this paper, with suggestions for improvement.
Rogberg-Muñoz, A; Wei, S; Ripoli, M V; Guo, B L; Carino, M H; Lirón, J P; Prando, A J; Vaca, R J A; Peral-García, P; Wei, Y M; Giovambattista, G
Breed assignment has proved to be useful to control meat trade and protect the value of special productions. Meat-related frauds have been detected in China; therefore, 95 SNPs selected from the ISAG core panel were evaluated to develop an automated and technologically updated tool to screen breed label fraud in the Chinese meat market. A total of 271 animals from four Chinese yellow cattle (CYC) populations, six Bos taurus breeds, two Bos indicus and one composite were used. The allocation test distinguished European, Japanese and Zebu breeds, and two Chinese genetic components. It correctly allocated Japanese Black, Zebu and British breeds in 100, 90 and 89% of samples, respectively. CYC evidenced the Zebu, Holstein and Limousin introgression. The test did not detect CYC components in any of the 25 samples from Argentinean butchers. The method could be useful to certify Angus, Hereford and Japanese Black meat, but a modification in the panel would be needed to differentiate other breeds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Laghi, Luca; Venturi, Luca; Dellarosa, Nicolò; Petracci, Massimiliano
In the quest for setting up rapid methods to evaluate water retention ability of meat microstructures, time domain nuclear magnetic resonance (TD-NMR) has gained a prominent role, due to the possibility to observe water located outside the myofibrils, easily lost upon storage or cooking. Diffusion weighted signals could be used to monitor the shape and dimension of the pores in which water is confined, thus boosting the information offered by TD-NMR. The work outlines a parsimonious model to describe relative abundance and diffusion coefficient of intra and extra myofibrillar water populations, exchange rate between them, diameter of the myofibrillar cells. To test our model, we registered diffusion and T 2 weighted NMR signals at 20MHz on fresh meat from pectoralis major muscle of 100days old female turkey. We then purposely altered water distribution and myofibrils shape by means of freezing. The model predicted nicely the consequences of the imposed modifications. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
These nutrient values determined in meat from red hartebeest could ... percentage of a-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) (Wiklund et al., 2001). .... system (1525 HPLC with a binary gradient delivery, 717 auto-sampler and Injector, 1500 ..... polyunsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid in lamb, beef and pork: A review.
Frogs are among the most threatened species of wildlife in IUCN red list. Its utilisation in Ibadan, a major depot in western Nigeria was therefore conducted with the aim of assessing the forms and trend of use; and amongst others, reasons for frog meat consumption. Data for the study were collected through questionnaire, ...
Nauta, Maarten; Hill, Andy; Rosenquist, Hanne
In recent years. several quantitative risk assessments for Campylobacter in broiler meat have been developed to support risk managers in controlling this pathogen. The models encompass some or all of the consecutive stages in the broiler meat production chain: primary production, industrial...... of slaughter, the prevalence is most likely to be either very low (95%). In evaluating control strategies, all models find a negligible effect of logistic slaughter, the separate processing of positive and negative flocks. Also, all risk assessments conclude that the most effective intervention measures aim...... processing, consumer food preparation,and the close-response relationship. The modelling approaches vary between the models, and this has supported the progress of risk assessment as a research discipline. The risk assessments are not only used to assess the human incidence of campylobacteriosis due...
Asakura, Hiroshi; Kawase, Jun; Ikeda, Tetsuya; Honda, Mioko; Sasaki, Yoshimasa; Uema, Masashi; Kabeya, Hidenori; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Igimi, Shizunobu; Takai, Shinji
In this study, we examined the prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. and the distribution of indicator bacteria in 248 samples of game meats (120 venison and 128 wild boar) retailed between November 2015 and March 2016 in Japan. No Salmonella spp. were detected in any of the samples, whereas Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli serotype OUT:H25 (stx 2d + , eae - ) was isolated from one deer meat sample, suggesting a possible source for human infection. Plate count assays indicated greater prevalence of coliforms and E. coli in wild boar meat than in venison, whereas their prevalence in processing facilities showed greater variation than in animal species. The 16S rRNA ion semiconductor sequencing analysis of 24 representative samples revealed that the abundances of Acinetobacter and Arthrobacter spp. significantly correlated with the prevalence of E. coli, and quantitative PCR analyses in combination with selective plate count assay verified these correlations. To our knowledge, this is the first report to characterize the diversity of microorganisms of game meats at retail in Japan, together with identification of dominant microbiota. Our data suggest the necessity of bottom-up hygienic assessment in areas of slaughtering and processing facilities to improve microbiological safety.
This contribution explores the clarifying provisions of the Amendment Act regarding the composition of assessment panels. Keywords: Criminal Procedure Amendment Act 4 of 2017, assessment panels, psychiatrists, clinical psychologists, section 79 of the Criminal Procedure Act, fitness to stand trial, criminal capacity, S v ...
Full Text Available Over the last twenty years, newly developed chemical sensor systems (so called “electronic noses” have made odor analyses possible. These systems involve various types of electronic chemical gas sensors with partial specificity, as well as suitable statistical methods enabling the recognition of complex odors. As commercial instruments have become available, a substantial increase in research into the application of electronic noses in the evaluation of volatile compounds in food, cosmetic and other items of everyday life is observed. At present, the commercial gas sensor technologies comprise metal oxide semiconductors, metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors, organic conducting polymers, and piezoelectric crystal sensors. Further sensors based on fibreoptic, electrochemical and bi-metal principles are still in the developmental stage. Statistical analysis techniques range from simple graphical evaluation to multivariate analysis such as artificial neural network and radial basis function. The introduction of electronic noses into the area of food is envisaged for quality control, process monitoring, freshness evaluation, shelf-life investigation and authenticity assessment. Considerable work has already been carried out on meat, grains, coffee, mushrooms, cheese, sugar, fish, beer and other beverages, as well as on the odor quality evaluation of food packaging material. This paper describes the applications of these systems for meat quality assessment, where fast detection methods are essential for appropriate product management. The results suggest the possibility of using this new technology in meat handling.
Ghasemi-Varnamkhasti, Mahdi; Mohtasebi, Seyed Saeid; Siadat, Maryam; Balasubramanian, Sundar
Over the last twenty years, newly developed chemical sensor systems (so called "electronic noses") have made odor analyses possible. These systems involve various types of electronic chemical gas sensors with partial specificity, as well as suitable statistical methods enabling the recognition of complex odors. As commercial instruments have become available, a substantial increase in research into the application of electronic noses in the evaluation of volatile compounds in food, cosmetic and other items of everyday life is observed. At present, the commercial gas sensor technologies comprise metal oxide semiconductors, metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors, organic conducting polymers, and piezoelectric crystal sensors. Further sensors based on fibreoptic, electrochemical and bi-metal principles are still in the developmental stage. Statistical analysis techniques range from simple graphical evaluation to multivariate analysis such as artificial neural network and radial basis function. The introduction of electronic noses into the area of food is envisaged for quality control, process monitoring, freshness evaluation, shelf-life investigation and authenticity assessment. Considerable work has already been carried out on meat, grains, coffee, mushrooms, cheese, sugar, fish, beer and other beverages, as well as on the odor quality evaluation of food packaging material. This paper describes the applications of these systems for meat quality assessment, where fast detection methods are essential for appropriate product management. The results suggest the possibility of using this new technology in meat handling.
Šuput Danijela Z.
Full Text Available After functional phase, packaging becomes waste that is recycled or disposed of in landfills. Recently, numerus packages have been developed for assessing the packaging risk on the environment. We applied Gabi 4 Education software on polymer product packaging for meat products. The objective of first part of the paper was characterization of materials used for meat and meat products packaging in terms of mechanical and barrier properties. Results show that tested materials are able to keep protective atmosphere and contribute to the quality and sustainability of the product. Air permeability was 3.60 and 26.60 ml/m224h, and water vapor was 6.90 and 9.50 ml/m224h, respectively, for foils 1 and 2, as a result of different film composition. In second part, based on real data, Gabi 4 Education software is applied. The obtained results showed that organic compounds emissions have the highest impact on human health and the most damaging environmental impact observed was the emission of CO2.
National Committee for Food Safety
Italian National Committee for Food Safety (CNSA) opinion No. 18 of 8 marzo 2017 on the Risk assessment of the presence of lead in hunted wild boar meat Wild game meat may have a higher content in lead than farmed animal meat, both due to the living and dietary habits of such animals and, especially, to the use of lead-based ammunition. The impact of wild game meat on the overall exposure of general consumers is negligible. However, the category of hunters eating meat of wild game sho...
Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau
The purpose of this assessment was to identify public health risks linked to mechanically separated meat (MSM) types from pork and poultry and compare them with fresh meat, minced meat and meat preparations (non-MSM); and to select, rank and suggest objective measurement methods and values...... is a promising method for distinction of MSM types, but further validation is needed. In order to improve methods for MSM identification, specifically designed studies for the collection of data obtained by standardised methods on indicators such as calcium and cholesterol should be undertaken, while studies...
Guo, Miao; Buchanan, Robert L; Dubey, Jitender P; Hill, Dolores E; Lambertini, Elisabetta; Ying, Yuqing; Gamble, H Ray; Jones, Jeffrey L; Pradhan, Abani K
Toxoplasma gondii is a global protozoan parasite capable of infecting most warm-blooded animals. Although healthy adult humans generally have no symptoms, severe illness does occur in certain groups, including congenitally infected fetuses and newborns, immunocompromised individuals including transplant patients. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that consumption of raw or undercooked meat products is one of the major sources of infection with T. gondii. The goal of this study was to develop a framework to qualitatively estimate the exposure risk to T. gondii from various meat products consumed in the United States. Risk estimates of various meats were analyzed by a farm-to-retail qualitative assessment that included evaluation of farm, abattoir, storage and transportation, meat processing, packaging, and retail modules. It was found that exposure risks associated with meats from free-range chickens, nonconfinement-raised pigs, goats, and lamb are higher than those from confinement-raised pigs, cattle, and caged chickens. For fresh meat products, risk at the retail level was similar to that at the farm level unless meats had been frozen or moisture enhanced. Our results showed that meat processing, such as salting, freezing, commercial hot air drying, long fermentation times, hot smoking, and cooking, are able to reduce T. gondii levels in meat products. whereas nitrite and/or nitrate, spice, low pH, and cold storage have no effect on the viability of T. gondii tissue cysts. Raw-fermented sausage, cured raw meat, meat that is not hot-air dried, and fresh processed meat were associated with higher exposure risks compared with cooked meat and frozen meat. This study provides a reference for meat management control programs to determine critical control points and serves as the foundation for future quantitative risk assessments.
Membré, Jeanne-Marie; Laroche, Michel; Magras, Catherine
The variations in prevalence and levels of pathogens and fecal contamination indicators in large wild game meat were studied to assess their potential impact on consumers. This analysis was based on hazard analysis, data generation and statistical analysis. A total of 2919 meat samples from three species (red deer, roe deer, wild boar) were collected at French game meat traders' facilities using two sampling protocols. Information was gathered on the types of meat cuts (forequarter or haunch; first sampling protocol) or type of retail-ready meat (stewing meat or roasting meat; second protocol), and also on the meat storage conditions (frozen or chilled), country of origin (eight countries) and shooting season (autumn, winter, spring). The samples were analyzed in both protocols for detection and enumeration of Escherichia coli, coagulase+staphylococci and Clostridium perfringens. In addition, detection and enumeration of thermotolerant coliforms and Listeria monocytogenes were performed for samples collected in the first and second protocols, respectively. The levels of bacterial contamination of the raw meat were determined by performing statistical analysis involving probabilistic techniques and Bayesian inference. C. perfringens was found in the highest numbers for the three indicators of microbial quality, hygiene and good handling, and L. monocytogenes in the lowest. Differences in contamination levels between game species and between meats distributed as chilled or frozen products were not significant. These results might be included in quantitative exposure assessments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau
A risk ranking process identified Toxoplasma gondii and pathogenic verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) as the most relevant biological hazards for meat inspection of sheep and goats. As these are not detected by traditional meat inspection, a meat safety assurance system using risk......-based interventions was proposed. Further studies are required on T. gondii and pathogenic VTEC. If new information confirms these hazards as a high risk to public health from meat from sheep or goats, setting targets at carcass level should be considered. Other elements of the system are risk...... the extensive production systems used, and the ranking of chemical substances, which should be regularly updated and include new hazards. Control programmes across the food chain, national residue control plans, feed control and monitoring of environmental contaminants should be better integrated. Meat...
Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Murtagh, Louise; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Stewart, Ian
The current study aimed to assess the implicit attitudes of vegetarians and non-vegetarians towards meat and vegetables, using the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP). Both measures involved asking participants to respond, under time pressure, to pictures of meat or vegetables as either positive…
Queeneth Odichi Ekeocha
Full Text Available The study is an assessment of the impact of technical standards on meat export in Nigeria. Several literatures were reviewed in relation to meat standards, issues associated with standards compliance, the effects of SPS standards on food exports in developing countries, causes of non-export of meat in Nigeria, amongst others. A survey method was used and a cross tabulation analysis was made to ascertain the relationship among various variables and how significant they were in relation to food product standards. The findings of the study among others include- sanitary conditions for meat processing is a significant factor for meat export; standards compliance is a step in the right direction towards agricultural export diversification, food standard compliance can create market access for meat exports, etc. The study concluded that technical standard is very significant to meat exports in Nigeria. Therefore, the study recommends among others that the government should invest in the productive capacity of SPS requirements for meat export, standard abattoirs should be built and maintained, policymakers should re-think flexible export diversification policy that could attract foreign investor and meat companies in Nigeria.
EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards, 2014. Scientific Opinion on the public health risks related to the maintenance of the cold chain during storage and transport of meat. Part 2 (minced meat from all species)
Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau
Fresh meat intended for the production of minced meat may be contaminated by a range of pathogens including Salmonella spp. and verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC). These may grow if the temperatures are not maintained below 5 °C along the continuum from carcass chilling to mincing. Moreove...
Naya, Yuka; Horiuchi, Motohiro; Ishiguro, Naotaka; Shinagawa, Morikazu
Bacterial tests were used to assess bacterial contamination of game meat from Japanese wild boars. The bacterial contamination of wild boar meat was less than that of domestic pork, as determined by aerobic plate counts (APC) and coliform counts. None of the meat examined in this study was contaminated by Salmonella or E. coli O-157. To detect adulteration by domestic pig meat or European wild boar meat, 46 samples of game meat sold as Japanese wild boar were examined genetically. A total of 17 samples showed genetic haplotypes of European and Asian domestic pigs in the D-loop of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and 16 samples showed nuclear glucosephosphate isomerase-processed pseudogene (GPIP) genotypes of European domestic pigs. The European GPIP genotypes of these samples were confirmed by PCR-RFLP analysis. These results indicate that some game meat sold as Japanese wild boar is adulterated by cross-breeding between pigs and wild boars or by contamination with meat from domestic pigs or European wild boars.
Savescu, Adriana; Cuny-Guerrier, Aude; Wild, Pascal; Reno, Gilles; Aublet-Cuvelier, Agnès; Claudon, Laurent
Knife sharpness is one of multiple factors involved in musculoskeletal disorders in industrial meat cutting. The aim of this study was to objectively evaluate, in real working situations, how knife sharpness changed over a working day cutting meat, and to analyse the impact of sharpening, steeling and meat-cutting activities on these variations. Twenty-two meat-cutting workers from three different companies participated in the study. The methods included measurements of knife sharpness in relation to real work situations and consideration of the way meat-cutting and sharpening operations were organised. Results showed that the type of meat-cutting activities, the steeling strategy adopted by the worker, including the types of tool used, and the overall organisation of the sharpening task all had a significant influence on how knife sharpness evolved over a 2-h period and over an entire working day. To improve MSD prevention, sharpening and steeling operations should not be considered as independent activities, but taken into account as a continuity of working actions. Appropriate assessment of knife sharpness by meat cutters affects how they organise meat-cutting and sharpening tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Knage-Rasmussen, K M; Rousing, T; Sørensen, J T; Houe, H
This paper aims to contribute to the development of a cost-effective alternative to expensive on-farm animal-based welfare assessment systems. The objective of the study was to design an animal welfare index based on central database information (DBWI), and to validate it against an animal welfare index based on-farm animal-based measurements (AWI). Data on 63 Danish sow herds with herd-sizes of 80 to 2500 sows and an average herd size of 501 were collected from three central databases containing: Meat inspection data collected at animal level in the abattoir, mortality data at herd level from the rendering plants of DAKA, and medicine records at both herd and animal group level (sow with piglets, weaners or finishers) from the central database Vetstat. Selected measurements taken from these central databases were used to construct the DBWI. The relative welfare impacts of both individual database measurements and the databases overall were assigned in consultation with a panel consisting of 12 experts. The experts were drawn from production advisory activities, animal science and in one case an animal welfare organization. The expert panel weighted each measurement on a scale from 1 (not-important) to 5 (very important). The experts also gave opinions on the relative weightings of measurements for each of the three databases by stating a relative weight of each database in the DBWI. On the basis of this, the aggregated DBWI was normalized. The aggregation of AWI was based on weighted summary of herd prevalence's of 20 clinical and behavioural measurements originating from a 1 day data collection. AWI did not show linear dependency of DBWI. This suggests that DBWI is not suited to replace an animal welfare index using on-farm animal-based measurements.
Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau
for the farm-to-chilled carcass continuum using a risk-based approach was proposed. Key elements of the system are risk-categorisation of slaughter animals for high-priority biological hazards based on improved food chain information, as well as risk-categorisation of slaughterhouses according......A risk ranking process identified Salmonella spp. and pathogenic verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) as current high-priority biological hazards for meat inspection of bovine animals. As these hazards are not detected by traditional meat inspection, a meat safety assurance system...... to their capability to control those hazards. Omission of palpation and incision during post-mortem inspection for animals subjected to routine slaughter may decrease spreading and cross-contamination with the high-priority biological hazards. For chemical hazards, dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls...
Noble, Bram F.
Assessment panels and expert judgment are playing increasing roles in the practice of strategic environmental assessment (SEA). Thus, the quality of an SEA decision rests considerably on the quality of the judgments of the assessment panel. However, there exists very little guidance in the SEA literature for practitioners concerning the treatment and integration of expert judgment into SEA decision-making processes. Subsequently, the performance of SEAs based on expert judgment is often less than satisfactory, and quality improvements are required in the SEA process. Based on the lessons learned from strategic- and project-level impact assessment practices, this paper outlines a number of principles concerning the use of assessment panels in SEA decision-making, and attempts to provide some guidance for SEA practitioners in this regard. Particular attention is given to the notion and value of consistency in assessment panel judgments
Endrikat, Sarah; Gallagher, Daniel; Pouillot, Régis; Hicks Quesenberry, Heather; Labarre, David; Schroeder, Carl M; Kause, Janell
Deli meat was ranked as the highest-risk ready-to-eat food vehicle of Listeria monocytogenes within the 2003 U.S. Food and Drug Administration and U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service risk assessment. The comparative risk of L. monocytogenes in retail-sliced versus prepackaged deli meats was evaluated with a modified version of this model. Other research has found that retail-sliced deli meats have both higher prevalence and levels of L. monocytogenes than have product sliced and packaged at the manufacturer level. The updated risk assessment model considered slicing location as well as the use of growth inhibitors. The per annum comparative risk ratio for the number of deaths from retail-sliced versus prepackaged deli meats was found to be 4.89, and the per-serving comparative risk ratio was 4.27. There was a significant interaction between the use of growth inhibitors and slicing location. Almost 70% of the estimated deaths occurred from retail-sliced product that did not possess a growth inhibitor. A sensitivity analysis, assessing the effect of the model's consumer storage time and shelf life assumptions, found that even if retail-sliced deli meats were stored for a quarter of the time prepackaged deli meats were stored, retail-sliced product is 1.7 times more likely to result in death from listeriosis. Sensitivity analysis also showed that the shelf life assumption had little effect on the comparative risk ratio.
Trinderup, Camilla Himmelstrup; Dahl, Anders Bjorholm; Jensen, Kirsten
The color assessment ability of a multispectral vision system is investigated by a comparison study with color measurements from a traditional colorimeter. The experiment involves fresh and processed meat samples. Meat is a complex material; heterogeneous with varying scattering and reflectance...... are equally capable of measuring color. Moreover the vision system provides a more color rich assessment of fresh meat samples with a glossier surface, than the colorimeter. Careful studies of the different sources of variation enable an assessment of the order of magnitude of the variability between methods...... accounting for other sources of variation leading to the conclusion that color assessment using a multispectral vision system is superior to traditional colorimeter assessments. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....
Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau
A risk ranking process identified Trichinella spp. as the most relevant biological hazard in the context of meat inspection of domestic solipeds. Without a full and reliable soliped traceability system, it is considered that either testing all slaughtered solipeds for Trichinella spp., or inactiv......A risk ranking process identified Trichinella spp. as the most relevant biological hazard in the context of meat inspection of domestic solipeds. Without a full and reliable soliped traceability system, it is considered that either testing all slaughtered solipeds for Trichinella spp...... for chemical hazards should be more flexible and based on the risk of occurrence, taking into account Food Chain Information (FCI), covering the specific on-farm environmental conditions and individual animal treatments, and the ranking of chemical substances, which should be regularly updated and include new...
Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau
ranked as medium or lower potential concern. More effective control of biological hazards could be achieved using an integrated farm to chilled carcass approach, including improved food chain information (FCI) and risk-based controls. Further studies are required on Salmonella spp. in farmed wild boar...... and T. gondii in farmed wild boar and farmed deer. If new information confirms a high risk to public health from meat from these species, setting targets at carcass level should be considered. Palpation and incision should be omitted, as it will not detect biological hazards considered to be a high......Salmonella spp. in farmed wild boar and Toxoplasma gondii in farmed deer and farmed wild boar were ranked as a high priority for meat inspection. Trichinella spp. in wild boar was ranked as low priority due to current controls, which should be continued. For chemical hazards, all substances were...
Dec 3, 2007 ... Bacteria load (CFU) of thigh muscle from broiler chickens fed diets containing varying levels of H. sabdariffa calyces. Diets. A. B. C. D. E. H. sabdariffa calyces level (%). Storage length at. 4oC (days). Meat condition. 0. 1.5. 3.0. 4.5. 6.0. Statistical significance. 1. Uncooked. 2.69a ± 0.12 x 108. 2.65a ± 0.23 x ...
Trinderup, Camilla H; Dahl, Anders; Jensen, Kirsten; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Conradsen, Knut
The color assessment ability of a multispectral vision system is investigated by a comparison study with color measurements from a traditional colorimeter. The experiment involves fresh and processed meat samples. Meat is a complex material; heterogeneous with varying scattering and reflectance properties, so several factors can influence the instrumental assessment of meat color. In order to assess whether two methods are equivalent, the variation due to these factors must be taken into account. A statistical analysis was conducted and showed that on a calibration sheet the two instruments are equally capable of measuring color. Moreover the vision system provides a more color rich assessment of fresh meat samples with a glossier surface, than the colorimeter. Careful studies of the different sources of variation enable an assessment of the order of magnitude of the variability between methods accounting for other sources of variation leading to the conclusion that color assessment using a multispectral vision system is superior to traditional colorimeter assessments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fachehoun, Richard Coovi; Lévesque, Benoit; Dumas, Pierre; St-Louis, Antoine; Dubé, Marjolaine; Ayotte, Pierre
Game meat from animals killed by lead ammunition may expose consumers to lead. We assessed the risk related to lead intake from meat consumption of white-tailed deer and moose killed by lead ammunition and documented the perception of hunters and butchers regarding this potential contamination. Information on cervid meat consumption and risk perception were collected using a mailed self-administrated questionnaire which was addressed to a random sample of Quebec hunters. In parallel, 72 samples of white-tailed deer (n = 35) and moose (n = 37) meats were collected from voluntary hunters and analysed for lead content using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. A risk assessment for people consuming lead shot game meat was performed using Monte Carlo simulations. Mean lead levels in white-tailed deer and moose killed by lead ammunition were 0.28 and 0.17 mg kg(-1) respectively. Risk assessment based on declared cervid meat consumption revealed that 1.7% of the surveyed hunters would exceed the dose associated with a 1 mmHg increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP). For consumers of moose meat once, twice or three times a week, simulations predicted that 0.5%, 0.9% and 1.5% of adults would be exposed to a dose associated with a 1 mmHg increase in SBP, whereas 0.9%, 1.9% and 3.3% of children would be exposed to a dose associated with 1 point intelligence quotient (IQ) decrease, respectively. For consumers of deer meat once, twice or three times a week, the proportions were 1.6%, 2.9% and 4% for adults and 2.9%, 5.8% and 7.7% for children, respectively. The consumption of meat from cervids killed with lead ammunition may increase lead exposure and its associated health risks. It would be important to inform the population, particularly hunters, about this potential risk and promote the use of lead-free ammunition.
Moslemian, Ramin; Berggreen, Christian; Quispitupa, Amilcar
with an implanted circular face/core debond. Compression tests were conducted on intact sandwich panels and panels with an implanted circular face/core debond with three different types of foam core materials (PVC H130, PVC H250 and PMI 51-IG). The strains and out-of-plane displacements of the debonded region were...
Van Damme, I.; De Zutter, L.; Jacxsens, L.
. enterocolitica in minced meat produced in industrial meat processing plants. The model described the production of minced pork starting from the contamination of pig carcasses with pathogenic Y. enterocolitica just before chilling. The endpoints of the assessment were (i) the proportion of 0.5 kg minced meat packages...... contamination and different decontamination procedures of carcasses have an important effect on the proportion of highly contaminated minced meat packages at the end of storage. The addition of pork cheeks and minimal quantities of tonsillar tissue into minced meat also had a large effect on the endpoint......This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different processing scenarios along the farm-to-fork chain on the contamination of minced pork with human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica. A modular process risk model (MPRM) was used to perform the assessment of the concentrations of pathogenic Y...
Reactor control panel design level on human factors must be considered by designer. The author evaluated the human factor design level of arrangement and combinations including the switch buttons, meter dials and indication lamps on Minjiang Reactor and High-Flux Engineer Test Reactor (HFETR) critical device by application of fuzzy synthetic assessment method in mathematics. From the assessment results, the advantages and shortcomings are fount, and some modification suggestions have also been proposed
Tian, Jing; Liu, Xiu-mei
To analysis risk from Listeria monocytogenes in deli meats and vegetable salads. Use Risk Ranger which is a software programme developed by the University of Hobart, Australia and answer 11 questions on affecting the risk from hazards in the specific foods by combining data from national foodborne diseases surveillance network and some references to make semi-quantitative risk assessment for the specific food. Relative risk from Listeria monocytogenes in deli meats and vegetable salads is 61 and 52, respectively. Incidence of listeriosis caused by deli meats-Listeria monocytogenes pairs and vegetable salads-Listeria monocytogenes pairs is 5.4 and 0.2 cases per million people, respectively. Risk from the former is 32 times than that from the latter. By changing the selection for some risk factors in the model, it was known that the risks from two food-hazard combinations could decrease 10 times, if taking necessary actions after processing. Deli meats is a kind of high risk food for listeriosis.
Charles G. Shaw
This paper describes the process used to conduct the 16 risk assessment panels and a subsistence working group held during revision of the Tongass land management plan. It provides an overview of how results from the panels were used by forest managers in plan-related decisionmaking, discusses some reactions to the effort, and identifies some opportunities to improve...
Sequeira, G J; Zbrun, M V; Soto, L P; Astesana, D M; Blajman, J E; Rosmini, M R; Frizzo, L S; Signorini, M L
In Argentina, there are three known species of genus Trichinella; however, Trichinella spiralis is most commonly associated with domestic pigs and it is recognized as the main cause of human trichinellosis by the consumption of products made with raw or insufficiently cooked pork meat. In some areas of Argentina, this disease is endemic and it is thus necessary to develop a more effective programme of prevention and control. Here, we developed a quantitative risk assessment of human trichinellosis following pork meat sausage consumption, which may be used to identify the stages with greater impact on the probability of acquiring the disease. The quantitative model was designed to describe the conditions in which the meat is produced, processed, transported, stored, sold and consumed in Argentina. The model predicted a risk of human trichinellosis of 4.88 × 10(-6) and an estimated annual number of trichinellosis cases of 109. The risk of human trichinellosis was sensitive to the number of Trichinella larvae that effectively survived the storage period (r = 0.89), the average probability of infection (PPinf ) (r = 0.44) and the storage time (Storage) (r = 0.08). This model allowed assessing the impact of different factors influencing the risk of acquiring trichinellosis. The model may thus help to select possible strategies to reduce the risk in the chain of by-products of pork production. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the public health risks related to the maintenance of the cold chain during storage and transport of meat. Part 1 (meat of domestic ungulates)
Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau
Salmonella spp., verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC), Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica are the most relevant microbial pathogens when assessing the effects of beef, pork and lamb carcass chilling regimes on the potential risk to public health. Moreover, as most bacterial c...
Subramaniyan, Sivakumar Allur; Kang, Da Rae; Belal, Shah Ahmed; Cho, Eun-So-Ri; Jung, Jong-Hyun; Jung, Young-Chul; Choi, Yang-Il; Shim, Kwan-Seob
In this study, we compared qualities and physiochemical traits of meat from Berkshire (black color) pigs with those of meat from 3-way Landrace (white color) ? Yorkshire (white color) ? Duroc (red color) crossbred pigs (LYD). Meat quality characteristics, including pH, color, drip loss, cooking loss, and free amino acid, fatty acid, vitamin, and mineral contents of longissimus dorsi muscles, were compared. Meat from Berkshire pigs had deeper meat color (redness), higher pH, and lower drip los...
Jilani, Muhammad Taha; Wen, Wong Peng; Cheong, Lee Yen; ur Rehman, Muhammad Zaka
The assessment of moisture loss from meat during the aging period is a critical issue for the meat industry. In this article, a non-invasive microwave ring-resonator sensor is presented to evaluate the moisture content, or more precisely water holding capacity (WHC) of broiler meat over a four-week period. The developed sensor has shown significant changes in its resonance frequency and return loss due to reduction in WHC in the studied duration. The obtained results are also confirmed by physical measurements. Further, these results are evaluated using the Fricke model, which provides a good fit for electric circuit components in biological tissue. Significant changes were observed in membrane integrity, where the corresponding capacitance decreases 30% in the early aging (0D-7D) period. Similarly, the losses associated with intracellular and extracellular fluids exhibit changed up to 42% and 53%, respectively. Ultimately, empirical polynomial models are developed to predict the electrical component values for a better understanding of aging effects. The measured and calculated values are found to be in good agreement. PMID:26805828
Muhammad Taha Jilnai
Full Text Available The assessment of moisture loss from meat during the aging period is a critical issue for the meat industry. In this article, a non-invasive microwave ring-resonator sensor is presented to evaluate the moisture content, or more precisely water holding capacity (WHC of broiler meat over a four-week period. The developed sensor has shown significant changes in its resonance frequency and return loss due to reduction in WHC in the studied duration. The obtained results are also confirmed by physical measurements. Further, these results are evaluated using the Fricke model, which provides a good fit for electric circuit components in biological tissue. Significant changes were observed in membrane integrity, where the corresponding capacitance decreases 30% in the early aging (0D-7D period. Similarly, the losses associated with intracellular and extracellular fluids exhibit changed up to 42% and 53%, respectively. Ultimately, empirical polynomial models are developed to predict the electrical component values for a better understanding of aging effects. The measured and calculated values are found to be in good agreement.
Full Text Available The aim of the study is to assess the fi nancial situation from the point of view of the bankruptcy risk of selected meat processing enterprises in Poland, such as: PKM Duda S.A., Indykpol S.A., Pamapol S.A. and Tarczyński S.A. For the analysis, 750 fi nancial data were collected, by means of which fi ve fi nancial variables in the fi rst model, four variables – in the second, the fourth and the fi fth model and six variables in the second model, were generated. The main criteria for the selection of the companies for testing were: carrying out the main business in the area of meat processing (companies belonging to group 15.11 according to the PKD classifi cation, legal status: limited liability company or joint stock company, which employs more than 50 people, and the availability of fi nancial data. The analysis shows that all surveyed meat industry companies were in a very good fi nancial situation. In 2008–2009 and 2012–2013 the most diffi cult fi nancial situation and, consequently, the greatest threat of bankruptcy, was faced by Pamapol S.A. Extremely sensitive to the deteriorating situation of surveyed companies, and thus to the most common threat of bankruptcy, proved to be: D. Wierzby model (for all companies, in 2009 and Pamapol S.A. (in 2008 and D. Hadasik model (Pamapol S.A. in the years 2008–2009
Jung, Youngkee; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Yuan H. Brad; Bae, Euiwon
Based on its integrated camera, new optical attachment, and inherent computing power, we propose an instrument design and validation that can potentially provide an objective and accurate method to determine surface meat color change and myoglobin redox forms using a smartphone-based spectrometer. System is designed to be used as a reflection spectrometer which mimics the conventional spectrometry commonly used for meat color assessment. We utilize a 3D printing technique to make an optical cradle which holds all of the optical components for light collection, collimation, dispersion, and a suitable chamber. A light, which reflects a sample, enters a pinhole and is subsequently collimated by a convex lens. A diffraction grating spreads the wavelength over the camera's pixels to display a high resolution of spectrum. Pixel values in the smartphone image are translated to calibrate the wavelength values through three laser pointers which have different wavelength; 405, 532, 650 nm. Using an in-house app, the camera images are converted into a spectrum in the visible wavelength range based on the exterior light source. A controlled experiment simulating the refrigeration and shelving of the meat has been conducted and the results showed the capability to accurately measure the color change in quantitative and spectroscopic manner. We expect that this technology can be adapted to any smartphone and used to conduct a field-deployable color spectrum assay as a more practical application tool for various food sectors.
Full Text Available First international conference on composites, biocomposites and nanocomposites, DUT, Durban, South Africa, 2-4 December 2013 SCREENING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT STUDY OFA SISAL FIBRE REINFORCED MICRO-CONCRETE STRUCTURAL INSULATED PANEL Naa Lamkai Ampofo...
Tressou, Jessica; Ben Abdallah, Nadia; Planche, Christelle; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Sans, Pierre; Engel, Erwan; Albert, Isabelle
In this paper, exposure to Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) related to bovine meat consumption is assessed based on multiples sources of data, namely data collected within the national research project "SoMeat" that objectively assesses the potential risks and benefits of organic and conventional food production systems in terms of contaminants respective contents. The work focuses on dioxin like PCBs in bovine meat in France. A modular Bayesian approach is proposed including measures after production, effect of cooking, levels and frequency of consumption and effect of digestion. In each module, a model is built and prior information can be integrated through previously acquired data commonly used in food risk assessment or vague priors. The output of the global model is the exposure including both production modes (organic and conventional) for three different cooking intensities (rare, medium, and well-done), before digestion and after digestion. The main results show that organic meat is more contaminated than conventional meat in mean after production stage and after cooking although cooking reduces the contamination level. This work is a first step of refined risk assessment integrating different steps such as cooking and digestion in the context of chemical risk assessment similarly to current microbiological risk assessments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Variants in numerous genes are thought to affect the success or failure of cancer chemotherapy. Interindividual variability can result from genes involved in drug metabolism and transport, drug targets (receptors, enzymes, etc, and proteins relevant to cell survival (e.g., cell cycle, DNA repair, and apoptosis. The purpose of the current study is to establish a flexible, cost-effective, high-throughput genotyping platform for candidate genes involved in chemoresistance and -sensitivity, and treatment outcomes. Methods We have adopted SNPlex for genotyping 432 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 160 candidate genes implicated in response to anticancer chemotherapy. Results The genotyping panels were applied to 39 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia undergoing flavopiridol chemotherapy, and 90 patients with colorectal cancer. 408 SNPs (94% produced successful genotyping results. Additional genotyping methods were established for polymorphisms undetectable by SNPlex, including multiplexed SNaPshot for CYP2D6 SNPs, and PCR amplification with fluorescently labeled primers for the UGT1A1 promoter (TAnTAA repeat polymorphism. Conclusion This genotyping panel is useful for supporting clinical anticancer drug trials to identify polymorphisms that contribute to interindividual variability in drug response. Availability of population genetic data across multiple studies has the potential to yield genetic biomarkers for optimizing anticancer therapy.
An application to the Canada-Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Board (CNOPB) was submitted by Petro-Canada on August 5, 1996, notifying of its intent to develop the petroleum resources located at the Terra Nova field. The provincial and federal governments jointly appointed the Terra Nova Project Environmental Panel, and the board of the CNOPB referred to it the application documents for review. The environmental effects, considerations of human safety incorporated into the design and operation of the Project, the general approach to the development and exploitation of the petroleum resources, and the employment and industrial benefits expected to be derived from the Project were the issues under review by the Panel. On April 22, 1997, public hearings into the review began, and the final report was submitted to governments and the Board in August 1997. The report included 75 recommendations. The Project was approved in Decision 97.02 in December 1997, and the Board dealt with each of the recommendations. The respective positions of the Governments of Canada and Newfoundland and Labrador with regard to the recommendations that fell outside the jurisdiction of the Board were made public. A status report on every one of the 75 recommendations is provided in the present report. The recommendation is repeated, the verbatim response taken from Decision 97.02 included, followed by the status of the response. The production operations phase of the Project accounts for approximately 65 per cent of the recommendations. January 20, 2002 was the date the Project was begun
Amaral, J.S.; Santos, Cristina G.; Melo, Vitor S.; Costa, Joana; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.; Mafra, I.
Game meat Alheira (Alheira de caça) sausage is a traditional fermented product typical from the Northeast region of Portugal, having bread and meats (including game) as main ingredients. It is a particularly appreciated product by consumers that commands higher prices, especially in comparison with the common Alheira produced with pork and poultry meats. Following our previous work in which several mammalian game meat species were successfully identified in game meat Alheira sausages for auth...
The objectives were to establish relationships between sensory juiciness intensity scores during chewing. Chicken breast meat was ground, made into 90g patties, and cooked to 78C. Sensory assessment for juiciness was made by a 7-member, trained descriptive panel using a time-intensity method followe...
Trinderup, Camilla Himmelstrup; Kim, Yuan H. Brad
an equivalent meat color assessment compared to the colorimeter. The CVS had a significantly higher correlation with the panel scores for the lighter and more color stable samples compared to the colorimeter. These results indicate that the CVS with structured light could be an appropriate alternative...... to the traditional colorimeter by offering improved precision and accuracy over the colorimeter....
Carrel, Margaret; Zhao, Chang; Thapaliya, Dipendra; Bitterman, Patrick; Kates, Ashley E.; Hanson, Blake M.; Smith, Tara C.
The role of household meat handling and consumption in the transfer of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) from livestock to consumers is not well understood. Examining the similarity of S. aureus colonizing humans and S. aureus in meat from the stores in which those individuals shop can provide insight into the role of meat in human S. aureus colonization. S. aureus isolates were collected from individuals in rural and urban communities in Iowa (n?=?3347) and contemporaneously from meat produc...
Zhuang, H; Savage, E M
Quality assessment results of cooked meat can be significantly affected by sample preparation with different cooking techniques. A combi oven is a relatively new cooking technique in the U.S. market. However, there was a lack of published data about its effect on quality measurements of chicken meat. Broiler breast fillets deboned at 24-h postmortem were cooked with one of the 3 methods to the core temperature of 80 degrees C. Cooking methods were evaluated based on cooking operation requirements, sensory profiles, Warner-Bratzler (WB) shear and cooking loss. Our results show that the average cooking time for the combi oven was 17 min compared with 31 min for the commercial oven method and 16 min for the hot water method. The combi oven did not result in a significant difference in the WB shear force values, although the cooking loss of the combi oven samples was significantly lower than the commercial oven and hot water samples. Sensory profiles of the combi oven samples did not significantly differ from those of the commercial oven and hot water samples. These results demonstrate that combi oven cooking did not significantly affect sensory profiles and WB shear force measurements of chicken breast muscle compared to the other 2 cooking methods. The combi oven method appears to be an acceptable alternative for preparing chicken breast fillets in a quality assessment.
Full Text Available Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, as an effective analytical technique for electrochemical system, has shown a wide application for food quality and safety assessment recently. Individual differences of livestock cause high variation in quality of raw meat and fish and their commercialized products. Therefore, in order to obtain the definite quality information and ensure the quality of each product, a fast and on-line detection technology is demanded to be developed to monitor product processing. EIS has advantages of being fast, nondestructive, inexpensive, and easily implemented and shows potential to develop on-line detecting instrument to replace traditional methods to realize time, cost, skilled persons saving and further quality grading. This review outlines the fundamental theories and two common measurement methods of EIS applied to biological tissue, summarizes its application specifically for quality assessment of meat and fish, and discusses challenges and future trends of EIS technology applied for meat and fish quality assessment.
Codell, R.B.; Baca, R.G.; Ahola, M.P.
The presentations in this panel discussion involve the general topic of near-field coupled processes and postclosure performance assessment with an emphasis on rock mechanics. The potential impact of near-field rock mass deformation on repository performance was discussed, as well as topics including long term excavation deterioration, the performance of geologic seals, and coupled processes concerning rock mechanics in performance assessments
Xu, Yun; Cheung, William; Winder, Catherine L; Dunn, Warwick B; Goodacre, Royston
Spoilage in meat is the result of the action of microorganisms and results in changes of meat and microbial metabolism. This process may include pathogenic food poisoning bacteria such as Salmonella typhimurium, and it is important that these are differentiated from the natural spoilage process caused by non-pathogenic microorganisms. In this study we investigated the application of metabolic profiling using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, to assess the microbial contamination of pork. Metabolite profiles were generated from microorganisms, originating from the natural spoilage process and from the artificial contamination with S. typhimurium. In an initial experiment, we investigated changes in the metabolic profiles over a 72 hour time course at 25 °C and established time points indicative of the spoilage process. A further experiment was performed to provide in-depth analysis of the metabolites characteristic of contamination by S. typhimurium. We applied a three-way PARAllel FACtor analysis 2 (PARAFAC2) multivariate algorithm to model the metabolic profiles. In addition, two univariate statistical tests, two-sample Wilcoxon signed rank test and Friedman test, were employed to identify metabolites which showed significant difference between natural spoiled and S. typhimurium contaminated samples. Consistent results from the two independent experiments were obtained showing the discrimination of the metabolic profiles of the natural spoiled pork chops and those contaminated with S. typhimurium. The analysis identified 17 metabolites of significant interest (including various types of amino acid and fatty acid) in the discrimination of pork contaminated with the pathogenic microorganism.
Kourtit, K.; Nijkamp, P.
International migration is a source of policy and research interest in many countries. This paper provides a review of experiences and findings from migration impact assessment worldwide. Various findings are briefly summarised in the context of a systematic migration SWOT analysis for five distinct
Henschler, D.; Bolt, H.M.; Jonker, D.; Pieters, M.N.; Groten, J.P.
Advancing our knowledge on the toxicology of combined exposures to chemicals and implementation of this knowledge in guidelines for health risk assessment of such combined exposures are necessities dictated by the simple fact that humans are continuously exposed to a multitude of chemicals. A
Christensen, Bjarke Bak; Nauta, Maarten; Korsgaard, Helle
In 2006, the Danish government decided to take new measures to control Salmonella and Campylobacter in Danish and imported retail meat. The legal basis for these new measures was article 14 in the EU food law, which states that food shall not be placed on the market if it is unsafe, among others...... broiler meat. Still this initiative has been successful in significantly reducing the occurrence of Campylobacter in fresh meat available on the Danish retail market....
Amaral, J.S.; Soares, S.; Mafra, I.; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.
Eighteen different brands of meat sausages including pork, poultry and the mixture of both meats (pork and poultry) in sausages, were analysed for their nutritional composition (total fat, moisture, crude protein and ash), cholesterol content and fatty acid composition. As expected, the pork Frankfurter sausages presented a higher fat content compared to sausages that include poultry meat in their composition. A multivariate statistical analysis was applied to the data showing the existence o...
Scientific integrity is the hallmark of any assessment and is a paramount consideration in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessment process. Procedures are in place for rigorous scientific review and to quantify confidence levels and uncertainty in the communication of key findings. However, the IPCC is unique in that its reports are formally accepted by governments through consensus agreement. This presentation will present the unique requirements of the IPCC intergovernmental assessment and discuss the advantages and challenges of its approach.
Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), as an effective analytical technique for electrochemical system, has shown a wide application for food quality and safety assessment recently. Individual differences of livestock cause high variation in quality of raw meat and fish and their commercialized pr...
Schwägele, F.C.; Andrée, S.; Beraquet, N.; Castrillon, M.; Winkel, C.; Garforth, D.; Cnossen, H.J.; Lucas Luijckx, N.B.; Ayalew, G.
The specific targeted European research project ΣChain (2006) addresses existing as well as potential vulnerabilities within food chains. One of the food chains within the focus of ΣChain is dealing with poultry meat. Fundamental for the assessment of potential vulnerabilities in the chain is basic
Carrel, Margaret; Zhao, Chang; Thapaliya, Dipendra; Bitterman, Patrick; Kates, Ashley E; Hanson, Blake M; Smith, Tara C
The role of household meat handling and consumption in the transfer of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) from livestock to consumers is not well understood. Examining the similarity of S. aureus colonizing humans and S. aureus in meat from the stores in which those individuals shop can provide insight into the role of meat in human S. aureus colonization. S. aureus isolates were collected from individuals in rural and urban communities in Iowa (n = 3347) and contemporaneously from meat products in stores where participants report purchasing meat (n = 913). The staphylococcal protein A (spa) gene was sequenced for all isolates to determine a spa type. Morisita indices and Permutational Multivariate Analysis of Variance Using Distance Matrices (PERMANOVA) were used to determine the relationship between spa type composition among human samples and meat samples. spa type composition was significantly different between households and meat sampled from their associated grocery stores. spa types found in meat were not significantly different regardless of the store or county in which they were sampled. spa types in people also exhibit high similarity regardless of residential location in urban or rural counties. Such findings suggest meat is not an important source of S. aureus colonization in shoppers.
Despite its imperfections, academic peer review has been accepted as a satisfactory process by which assessment panels comprised of different disciplinary representatives arrive at agreement through a system of shared rules and language that respects disciplinary plurality. Artistic researchers, whose output is required to meet both scholarly…
Sanders, Brenda; Ammann, Mike; Hoff, Rebecca; Huston, Mark; Jenkins, Kenneth; Palagyi, Tony; Pelto, Karen; Rettig, Todd; Wagner, Anne
Contaminated sites in the United States undergo remediation and restoration through regulatory programs that lead the 2 processes through independent but often parallel pathways with different objectives. The objective of remediation is to reduce risk to human health and the environment, whereas that of restoration is to restore injured resources and compensate the public for lost use of the services that natural resources provide. More complex sites, such as those associated with large river systems and urban waterways, have resulted in increasingly larger-scale ecological risk assessments (ERAs) and natural resource damage assessments (NRDAs) that take many years and involve diverse practitioners including scientists, economists, and engineers. Substantial levels of effort are now frequently required, creating a need for more efficient and cost-effective approaches to data collection, analyses, and assessments. Because there are commonalities in the data needs between ERAs and NRDAs, coordination of the design and implementation of site-specific studies that meet the needs of both programs could result in increased efficiency and lower costs. The Association for Environmental Health and Sciences Foundation convened a panel of environmental practitioners from industry, consulting, and regulatory bodies to examine the benefits and challenges associated with coordinating ERA and NRDA activities in the context of a broad range of regulatory programs. This brief communication presents the opinions and conclusions of the panelists on these issues and reports 2 case studies for which coordinated ERA and NRDA activities produced a positive outcome. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:616-621. © 2015 SETAC. © 2015 SETAC.
Francine Gomes Basso LOS
Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of slow (–18 °C and fast freezing (liquid nitrogen of pork meat, and the use of exudate released upon thawing, on the physicochemical, color, rheological, microbiological, histological, and sensory characteristics of cooked ham. The meat samples were frozen at –18 °C and thawed after 22 weeks for the production of cooked ham. No significant difference was observed regarding physicochemical, color and microbiological parameters or in sensory acceptance. The hardness and chewiness parameters showed significant differences when compared to the control sample (ham made from chilled meat. Light microscopy of cooked ham samples showed that changes in the tissues were caused by freezing and thawing the meat. The effect of exudate was significant on the sodium content and compression force parameters, but this difference was not perceived in the sensory analysis, confirming that frozen pork meat can be used to produce cooked ham without loss of quality.
Hamidi, Elliyana Nadia; Hajeb, Parvaneh; Selamat, Jinap; Abdull Razis, Ahmad Faizal
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are primarily formed as a result of thermal treatment of food, especially barbecuing or grilling. Contamination by PAHs is due to generation by direct pyrolysis of food nutrients and deposition from smoke produced through incomplete combustion of thermal agents. PAHs are ubiquitous compounds, well-known to be carcinogenic, which can reach the food in different ways. As an important human exposure pathway of contaminants, dietary intake of PAHs is of increasing concern for assessing cancer risk in the human body. In addition, the risks associated with consumption of barbecued meat may increase if consumers use cooking practices that enhance the concentrations of contaminants and their bioaccessibility. Since total PAHs always overestimate the actual amount that is available for absorption by the body, bioaccessibility of PAHs is to be preferred. Bioaccessibility of PAHs in food is the fraction of PAHs mobilized from food matrices during gastrointestinal digestion. An in vitro human digestion model was chosen for assessing the bioaccessibility of PAHs in food as it offers a simple, rapid, low cost alternative to human and animal studies; providing insights which may not be achievable in in vivo studies. Thus, this review aimed not only to provide an overview of general aspects of PAHs such as the formation, carcinogenicity, sources, occurrence, and factors affecting PAH concentrations, but also to enhance understanding of bioaccessibility assessment using an in vitro digestion model.
Mataragas, M.; Zwietering, M.H.; Skandamis, P.N.; Drosinos, E.H.
The presence of Listeria monocytogenes in a sliced cooked, cured ham-like meat product was quantitatively assessed. Sliced cooked, cured meat products are considered as high risk products. These ready-to-eat, RTE, products (no special preparation, e.g. thermal treatment, before eating is required),
Stubenrauch , C.J.; Rossow , W.B.; Kinne , S.; Ackerman , S.; Cesana , G.; Chepfer , H.; Di Girolamo , L.; Getzewich , B.; Guignard , A.; Heidinger , A.; Maddux , B.C.; Menzel , W.P.; Minnis , P.; Pearl , C.; Platnick , S.
International audience; The Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Radiation Panel initiated the GEWEX Cloud Assessment in 2005 to compare available, global, long-term cloud data products with the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). The GEWEX Cloud Assessment database included cloud properties retrieved from different satellite sensor measurements, taken at various local times and over various time periods. The relevant passive satellite sensors measured radia...
Legacy, Jim; And Others
This publication provides an introduction to meat processing for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in four chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the meat processing industry and the techniques of meat processing and butchering. The first chapter introduces the meat processing industry and…
Oliveira, C H A; Silva, A M; Silva, L M; van Tilburg, M F; Fernandes, C C L; Moura, A A; Moreno, F B M B; Monteiro-Moreira, A C O; Moreira, R A; Bezerra, F J; Rondina, D
Diet can influence both the qualitative and quantitative traits of ruminant meat. This study evaluated the effects of castor de-oiled cake on the meat of mixed-breed male goat kids. After 165days of diet treatment, no alterations (p>0.05) were observed in the in vivo performance, anatomic components, dissection and proximate composition of the Longissimus dorsi muscle, as well as in the color and pH of the carcasses. However, diet had an effect (pgoats led to alterations in meat quality, without compromising its consumption qualities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Klein, Thomas [URS-Professional Solutions, 4021 National Parks Highway Carlsbad, NM 88220 (United States); Patterson, Russell [Department of Energy-Carlsbad Field Office, 4021 National Parks Highway Carlsbad, NM 88220 (United States); Camphouse, Chris; Herrick, Courtney; Kirchner, Thomas; Malama, Bwalya; Zeitler, Todd [Sandia National Laboratories-Carlsbad, 4100 National Parks Highway Carlsbad, NM 88220 (United States); Kicker, Dwayne [SM Stoller Corporation-Carlsbad, 4100 National Parks Highway Carlsbad, NM (United States)
operations and a greater understanding of the waste and the behavior of the underground salt formation, the DOE has established a revised panel closure design. This revised design meets both the short-term NMED Permit requirements for the operational period, and also the Federal requirements for long-term repository performance. This new design is simpler, easier to construct and has less of an adverse impact on waste disposal operations than the originally approved Option D design. The Panel Closure Redesign is based on: (1) the results of in-situ constructability testing performed to determine run-of-mine salt reconsolidation parameters and how the characteristics of the bedded salt formation affect these parameters and, (2) the results of air flow analysis of the new design to determine that the limit for the migration of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) will be met at the compliance point. Waste panel closures comprise a repository feature that has been represented in WIPP performance assessment (PA) since the original Compliance Certification Application of 1996. Panel closures are included in WIPP PA models principally because they are a part of the disposal system, not because they play a substantive role in inhibiting the release of radionuclides to the outside environment. The 1998 rulemaking that certified WIPP to receive transuranic waste placed conditions on the panel closure design to be implemented in the repository. The revised panel closure design, termed the Run-of-Mine (ROM) Panel Closure System (ROMPCS), is comprised of 30.48 meters of ROM salt with barriers at each end. The ROM salt is generated from ongoing mining operations at the WIPP and may be compacted and/or moistened as it is emplaced in a panel entry. The barriers consist of bulkheads, similar to those currently used in the panels as room closures. A WIPP performance assessment has been completed that incorporates the ROMPCS design into the representation of the repository, and compares
Lempesi, Evangelia; Toulia, Electra; Pandis, Nikolaos
The aim of this study was to investigate the expert panel methodology applied in orthodontics and its reporting quality. Additionally, the relationship between the reporting quality and a range of variables was explored. PubMed was searched for orthodontic studies in which the final diagnosis or assessment was made by 2 or more experts published up to March 16, 2015. Reporting quality assessment was conducted using an established modified checklist. The relationship between potential predictors and the total score was assessed using univariable linear regression. We identified 237 studies with a mean score of 9.97 (SD, 1.12) out of a maximum of 15. Critical information about panel methodology was missing in all studies. The panel composition differed substantially across studies, ranging from 2 to 646 panel members, with large variations in the expertise represented. Only 17 studies (7.2%) reported sample size calculations to justify the panel size. Panel members were partly blinded in 65 (27.4%) studies. Most studies failed to report which statistic was used to compute intrarater (65.8%) and interrater (66.2%) agreements. Journal type (nonorthodontic: β, 0.23; 95% CI, -0.07 to 0.54 compared with orthodontic), publication year (β, 0; 95% CI, -0.02 to 0.02 for each additional year), number of authors (1-3: β, 0.30; 95% CI, -0.13 to 0.74 compared with at least 6; 4-5: β, 0.18; 95% CI, -0.29 to 0.33 compared with at least 6), and number of centers involved (single: β, 0.20; 95% CI, -0.14 to 0.54 compared with multicenter) were not significant predictors of improved reporting. Studies published in Asia and Australia had significantly lower scores compared with those published in Europe (β, -0.54; 95% CI, -0.92 to -0.17). Formal guidelines on methodology and reporting of studies involving expert panels are required. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
LOS, Francine Gomes Basso; PRESTES, Rosa Cristina; GRANATO, Daniel; SIMÕES, Deise Rosana Silva; ROMAN, Silvane Souza; DEMIATE, Ivo Mottin
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of slow (–18 °C) and fast freezing (liquid nitrogen) of pork meat, and the use of exudate released upon thawing, on the physicochemical, color, rheological, microbiological, histological, and sensory characteristics of cooked ham. The meat samples were frozen at –18 °C and thawed after 22 weeks for the production of cooked ham. No significant difference was observed regarding physicochemical, color and microbiological parameters or in senso...
Musatov, V. Yu.; Sysoev, V. V.; Sommer, M.; Kiselev, I.
In this report we estimate the ability of KAMINA e-nose, based on a metal oxide sensor (MOS) microarray and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) pattern recognition, to evaluate meat freshness. The received results show that, 1) one or two exposures of standard meat samples to the e-nose are enough for the instrument to recognize the fresh meat prepared by the same supplier with 100% probability; 2) the meat samples of two kinds, stored at 4 deg. C and 25 deg. C, are mutually recognized at early stages of decay with the help of the LDA model built independently under the e-nose training to each kind of meat; 3) the 3-4 training cycles of exposure to meat from different suppliers are necessary for the e-nose to build a reliable LDA model accounting for the supplier factor. This study approves that the MOS e-nose is ready to be currently utilised in food industry for evaluation of product freshness. The e-nose performance is characterized by low training cost, a confident recognition power of various product decay conditions and easy adjustment to changing conditions.
This document provides responses to the questions addressed to the proponents of the Terra Nova Development by the Environmental Assessment Panel. The questions and the responses concern hiring practices, labour relations, environmental and wildlife protection, impacts to the Grand Banks fishing industry, operating practices and the effects on offshore installations should extreme conditions of ice, weather, sea and wind occur simultaneously. References cited in response to individual questions are included following each response. Tabs., figs
Piñeiro, M; Gymnich, S; Knura, S; Piñeiro, C; Petersen, B
Quantification of acute phase proteins (APPs) in blood can be used for monitoring animal health and welfare on farms, and could be also of interest for the detection of diseased animals during the meat inspection process. However serum or plasma is not always available for end-point analysis at slaughter. Meat juice might provide an adequate, alternative matrix that can be easily obtained for post-mortem analysis at abattoirs. The concentrations of pig Major Acute phase Protein (pig-MAP) and haptoglobin, two of the main APPs in pigs, were determined in approximately 300 paired samples of plasma and meat juice from the diaphragm (pars costalis), obtained after freezing and thawing the muscle. APPs concentrations in meat juice were closely correlated to those in plasma (r=0.695 for haptoglobin, r=0.858 for pig-MAP, panimal health in pig production, with implications for food safety and meat quality.
Moon, Jong-Hwa; Kim, Sun-Ha; Chung, Yong-Sam; Lee, Ok-Hee
Selenium is a key constituent of enzyme in glutathione peroxidase, which is effective in decreasing various types of oxidative stress, Thus, the adequacy of selenium intake is very important in decreasing the risks of various degenerating diseases such as cardiovascular disease, or certain cancers. Lately, the intake of animal foods is increasing among Koreans owing to a dietary transition toward a western style. This study was conducted to measure the selenium content in meat and eggs, and then assessed the selenium intake from these foods. Forty frequently eaten items among meat and eggs were analyzed using an Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The selenium content in 100g of raw meat and eggs ranged from 8.1ug to 50.9ug. In particular, 100g of beef contained 12.4ug to 50.9ug of selenium; pork, 11.2ug to 22.6ug chicken, 10.2ug to 13.7ug and eggs, 28.6ug to 43.0ug. Thus, beef viscera and chicken eggs contain the highest amounts of selenium among these groups. 100g of Pork belly, the most frequently eaten meat type among Koreans, contains 14.6ug of selenium. An evaluation of dietary selenium intake shows that the total selenium supply from meats and eggs was 28.4ug/day and 27.5 ug/day in adult men and women, respectively. These are over one-half of the Korean RNI (Recommended Daily Intake) of 55ug/day. (author)
The Environmental Effects Assessment Panel (EEAP) is one of three Panels of experts that inform the Parties to the Montreal Protocol. The EEAP focuses on the effects of UV radiation on human health, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, air quality, and materials, as well as on the...
Speranza, Barbara; Bevilacqua, Antonio; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Sinigaglia, Milena
The performances of four autochthonous isolates of Lactobacillus plantarum were assessed to study the most important variables acting on acidification and to propose a possible step-by-step approach for the validation at laboratory scale. This main topic was addressed through three intermediate steps: (1) evaluation of acidification in liquid and solid media, as a function of salt, nitrites, nitrates, lactose, pepper and temperature; (2) assessing acidification in a pork-meat preparation; and (3) designing a protocol to improve the performances at sub-optimal temperatures. The concentration of the ingredients and the temperature were combined through a 3 k-p Fractional Factorial Design. Acidification and viable count were assessed and modelled through a multi-factorial ANOVA. In model systems acidification was affected by lactose and was maximum (ΔpH of ca. 2.8-3.0) in the combinations containing 0.4% lactose, 250 mg kg -1 nitrates or 150 mg kg -1 nitrites, 5% salt, and at 30 °C. Solid media caused a higher acidification. In the pork meat preparation, the effect of salt and nitrites was significant. At 10 °C the strains could not reduce pH, but this ability could be induced using an adaptation step. Acidification was affected by lactose in the model system, whereas in meat preparation the other variables were significant. In addition, a protocol to improve acidification at 10 °C was optimised. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
Seguel, F.; Meruane, V.
Different studies have demonstrated that vibration characteristics are sensitive to debonding in composite structures. Nevertheless, one of the main restrictions of vibration measurements is the number of degrees of freedom that can be acquired simultaneously, which restricts the size of the damage that can be identified. Recent studies have shown that it is possible to use high-speed three-dimensional (3-D) digital image correlation (DIC) techniques for full-field vibration measurements. With this technique, it is possible to take measurements at thousands of points on the surface of a structure with a single snapshot. The present article investigates the application of full-field vibration measurements in the debonding assessment of an aluminium honeycomb sandwich panel. Experimental data from an aluminium honeycomb panel containing different damage scenarios is acquired by a high-speed 3-D DIC system; four methodologies to compute damage indices are evaluated: mode shape curvatures, uniform load surface, modal strain energy and gapped smoothing.
Meinert, Lene; Tikk, Kaja; Tikk, Meelis
Flavour development and overall eating quality of pan-fried pork chops of longissimus dorsi from eight different raw meat qualities aged for 4 and IS days were assessed by a trained sensory panel. The raw meat qualities were obtained through combinations of strategic feeding/fasting (control vs...... the differences in sensory perception of the pan-fried pork chops. Overall, the differences were small....
Seys, Scott A; Sampedro, Fernando; Hedberg, Craig W
Data from the recalls of meat and poultry products from 2000 through 2012 due to Salmonella contamination were used to assess the factors associated with the recovery of the recalled product and to develop quantitative models to estimate the number of illnesses prevented by recalls. The percentage of product recovered following a recall action was not dependent on establishment size, recall expansions, complexity of the distribution chain, type of distribution, amount of time between the production and recall dates, or number of pounds of product recalled. However, illness-related recalls were associated with larger amounts of recalled product, smaller percentages of recalled product recovered, a greater number of days between the production date and recall date, and nationwide distribution than were recalls that were not illness related. In addition, the detection of recall-associated illnesses appeared to be enhanced in states with strong foodborne illness investigation systems. The number of Salmonella illnesses prevented by recalls was based on the number of illnesses occurring relative to the number of pounds consumed, which was then extrapolated to the number of pounds of recalled product recovered. A simulation using a program evaluation and review technique probability distribution with illness-related recalls from 2003 through 2012 estimated that there were 19,000 prevented Salmonella illnesses, after adjusting for underdiagnosis. Recalls not associated with illnesses from 2000 through 2012 prevented an estimated additional 8,300 Salmonella illnesses, after adjusting for underdiagnosis. Although further improvements to ensure accurate and complete reporting should be undertaken, our study demonstrates that recalls are an important tool for preventing additional Salmonella illnesses. Moreover, additional training resources dedicated to public health agencies for enhancing foodborne illness detection, investigations, and rapid response and reporting would
Toscano, Lydia; Montero, Gisela; Stoytcheva, Margarita; Campbell, Hector; Lambert, Alejandro
Oil derived fuels constituted a main energy source during the last fifty years, although their high price limited their accessibility. Prospective studies indicated that economic and environmental problems promoted biodiesel production using biomass and residues like animal fat, along with meat and bones, among others. The regional inventory of the available fat in meat industry, as well as the estimation of the biodiesel potential production demonstrated that the biodiesel generated from animal fat, combined with diesel from oil in a 2% biodiesel blend could power 25% of the trucks and passenger vehicles registered in 2007 in Baja California, Mexico. (author)
EFSA Panels on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ), on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM), and on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW); Scientific Opinion on the public health hazards to be covered by inspection of meat (poultry)
be risk categorisation of flocks based on FCI and classification of abattoirs according to their capability to reduce carcass faecal contamination. It is proposed that post-mortem visual inspection is replaced by setting targets for the main hazards on the carcass, and by verification of the food business......A qualitative risk assessment identified Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp. and ESBL/AmpC gene-carrying bacteria as the most relevant biological hazards in the context of meat inspection of poultry. As none of these are detected by traditional visual meat inspection, establishing an integrated...... food safety assurance system, achievable through improved food chain information (FCI) and risk-based interventions, was proposed. This includes setting targets at carcass level and, when appropriate, flock level indicating what should be achieved for a given hazard. Elements of the system would...
A report of the environmental assessment panel on Rabbit Lake, Saskatchewan. A review of the proposed development of the uranium mining facility at Rabbit Lake with respect to the environmental, health, safety, and socioeconomic impacts
A report of the environmental assessment panel on Rabbit Lake, Saskatchewan. A review of the proposed development of the uranium mining facility at Rabbit Lake with respect to the environmental, health, safety, and socioeconomic impacts.
Li, Zhonghai; Reed, Julie I.
A document entitled 'AP1000 Local Panels and Maintainability Human Factors Design Guidelines' was produced to aid the designers to specifically include human factors (HF) considerations in the design, operation, and maintenance of local control stations and plant equipment. To ensure that the applicable HF design guidelines are appropriately applied to the design of local panels and maintenance activities, and identify any HF improvement opportunities that can readily be implemented at the design stage, a HF assessment of maintenance activities and local plant operations is underway. This assessment gives priority to local control stations and equipment which have been identified as having a potential impact on safety. This includes risk-significant systems, structures and components (SSCs) identified through the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), and local operator actions as required by the Emergency Operating Procedures (EOPs). Local actions, maintenance activities and associated operator interfaces are reviewed against the relevant HF guidelines. The results of the assessment include a description of the component, associated local actions and/or required maintenance activities, good design features and/or potential issues, and recommendations for change or improvement. These results are communicated to responsible design engineers who evaluate the impact to plant design and implement design changes, if deemed necessary. (author)
Pourkhalili, Azin; Mirlohi, Maryam; Rahimi, Ebrahim
Lamb meat is regarded as an important source of highly bioavailable iron (heme iron) in the Iranians diet. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of traditional cooking methods on the iron changes in lamb meat. Four published experimental methods for the determination of heme iron were assessed analytically and statistically. Samples were selected from lambs' loin. Standard methods (AOAC) were used for proximate analysis. For measuring heme iron, the results of four experi...
Najam, Adil; Rahman, Atiq A.; Huq, Saleemul; Sokona, Youba
This paper reviews how sustainable development was treated in prior assessment reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and presents proposals on how it might be integrated into the forthcoming Fourth Assessment Report (AR4). There has been a steady, but slow, increase in the exposure and treatment of sustainable development in each subsequent IPCC assessment. However, much more remains to be done if the mandate provided in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is to be met. The paper argues that the AR4 can take three practical steps in making the integration more complete. First, at the conceptual level, equity concerns should be made a more pervasive, even central, focus of the AR4. Second, at the analytical level, the examination of alternative development pathways begun during the TAR process needs to be continued and expanded. Third, at the operational level, the AR4 should deal with sustainable development in all its chapters rather than relegating it to a peripheral few, should broaden the base of expertise reflected in its panels of authors and reviewers, and should commission a companion special report on climate change and sustainable development
Lorido, Laura; Estévez, Mario; Ventanas, Sonia
Although dynamic sensory techniques such as time-intensity (TI) have been applied to certain meat products, existing knowledge regarding the temporal sensory perception of muscle foods is still limited. The objective of the present study was to apply TI to the flavour and texture perception of three different Iberian meat products: liver pâté, dry-cured sausages ("salchichon") and dry-cured loin. Moreover, the advantages of using dynamic versus static sensory techniques were explored by subjecting the same products to a quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). TI was a suitable technique to assess the impact of composition and structure of the three meat products on flavour and texture perception from a dynamic perspective. TI parameters extracted from the TI-curves and related to temporal perception enabled the detection of clear differences in sensory temporal perception between the meat products and provided additional insight on sensory perception compared to the conventional static sensory technique (QDA). © 2013.
Kabwang a Mpalang, R.
Full Text Available The bacteriological quality of smoked game meat in Lubumbashi has not been studied much to date. The present study focused on the analysis of 182 samples of smoked game meat from three species, Syncerus caffer (n = 63, Phacochoerus aethiopicus (n = 60 and Sylvicapra grimmia (n = 59, sold at retail outlets in Lubumbashi. The isolation of Escherichia coli from 81.3% of samples (mean 4.87 ± 0.6 log10 CFU·g-1 of sample confirms significant faecal contamination of smoked game meat. The study has determined by culture prevalences of 0.0%, 4.3% [CI95% 1.4-7.4], 3.8% [CI95% 1.1-6.6] and 14.2% [CI95% 9.2-19.4] respectively for Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Using Polymerase Chain Reaction, these prevalences were of 2.2% [IC95% 0.1-4.3], 6.0% [IC95% 2.6-9.5], 3.8% [IC95% 1.1-6.6] and 15.9% [IC95% 10.6-21.3] respectively for STEC, Salmonella spp., C. jejuni and C. coli. Syncerus caffer was established as a potential vehicle of STEC carrying stx1 gene (3.2%, stx2 gene (1.6% and the combination of stx2 and eae genes (1.6%. On the basis of these data, we suggested the need for developing monitoring plans of the production, preparation, handling and distribution of smoked game meat in Lubumbashi.
Baharuddin, Azan Azuwan; Abdullah, Aminah
Goat Meat (chevon) has been used as a source of protein and its demand for consumption is increasing yearly in Malaysia. The objective of the research was to determine proximate composition namely moisture, protein, fat and ash level in chevon from different type of breed i.e. Boer and Katjang. The goat breed proximate analyses were compared with sheep meat (mutton). The results for goat breeds were showing that the percentage of moisture, fat, protein and ash were of 73.06 - 74.99, 2.76 - 2.94, 20.81 - 22.47 and 0.97 - 1.21 respectively. Meanwhile the concentration of moisture, fat, protein and ash for mutton were 73.52, 5.06, 22.50 and 1.17 respectively. The pilot study on perception survey indicated that the highest respondent percentage on consumption of chevon was once in a month. Based on the survey, Boer was the most known breed compared to the other breed. Majority of respondents reported that chevon was fairly expensive meat but easier to obtain in the survey area.
Tao, Feifei; Ngadi, Michael
Meat is an important food item in human diet. Its production and consumption has greatly increased in the last decades with the development of economies and improvement of peoples' living standards. However, most of the traditional methods for evaluation of meat quality are time-consuming, laborious, inconsistent and destructive to samples, which make them not appropriate for a fast-paced production and processing environment. Development of innovative and non-destructive optical sensing techniques to facilitate simple, fast, and accurate evaluation of quality are attracting increasing attention in the food industry. Hyperspectral imaging is one of the promising techniques. It integrates the combined merits of imaging and spectroscopic techniques. This paper provides a comprehensive review on recent advances in evaluation of the important quality attributes of meat including color, marbling, tenderness, pH, water holding capacity, and also chemical composition attributes such as moisture content, protein content and fat content in pork, beef and lamb. In addition, the future potential applications and trends of hyperspectral imaging are also discussed in this paper.
EFSA Panels on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ), on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM), and on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW); Scientific Opinion on the public health hazards to be covered by inspection of meat (swine)
A qualitative risk assessment identified Salmonella spp., Yersinia enterocolitica, Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spp. as the most relevant biological hazards in the context of meat inspection of swine. A comprehensive pork carcass safety assurance is the only way to ensure their effective...... treatments if necessary. At farm level, risk reduction measures are based on herd health programmes, closed breeding pyramids and GHP/GFP. Chemical substances listed in Council Directive 96/23/EC were ranked into four categories. Dioxins, dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls and chloramphenicol were ranked...
Maria Elena Marescotti
Our findings provide important inputs for the development of a real market for this type of meat. Therefore, the research seems to be relevant at both scientific and practical level. It proposes a new conceptual and practical option for a more sustainable development of Italian (and others mountain areas.
Pradhan, Abani K; Ivanek, Renata; Gröhn, Yrjö T; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Sofos, John N; Wiedmann, Martin
Foodborne disease associated with consumption of ready-to-eat foods contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes represents a considerable pubic health concern. In a risk assessment published in 2003, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service estimated that about 90% of human listeriosis cases in the United States are caused by consumption of contaminated deli meats. In this risk assessment, all deli meats were grouped into one of 23 categories of ready-to-eat foods, and only the postretail growth of L. monocytogenes was considered. To provide an improved risk assessment for L. monocytogenes in deli meats, we developed a revised risk assessment that (i) models risk for three subcategories of deli meats (i.e., ham, turkey, and roast beef) and (ii) models L. monocytogenes contamination and growth from production to consumption while considering subcategory-specific growth kinetics parameters (i.e., lag phase and exponential growth rate). This model also was used to assess how reformulation of the chosen deli meat subcategories with L. monocytogenes growth inhibitors (i.e., lactate and diacetate) would impact the number of human listeriosis cases. Use of product-specific growth parameters demonstrated how certain deli meat categories differ in the relative risk of causing listeriosis; products that support more rapid growth and have reduced lag phases (e.g., turkey) represent a higher risk. Although reformulation of deli meats with growth inhibitors was estimated to reduce by about 2.5- to 7.8-fold the number of human listeriosis cases linked to a given deli meat subcategory and thus would reduce the overall risk of human listeriosis, even with reformulation deli meats would still cause a considerable number of human listeriosis cases. A combination of strategies is thus needed to provide continued reduction of these cases. Risk assessment models such as that described here will be critical for evaluation of different control
Ruiz Orduna, Alberto; Husby, Erik; Yang, Charles T; Ghosh, Dipankar; Beaudry, Francis
In recent years a significant increase of food fraud has been observed, ranging from false label claims to the use of additives and fillers to increase profitability. Recently in 2013 horse and pig DNAs were detected in beef products sold from several retailers. Mass spectrometry (MS) has become the workhorse in protein research, and the detection of marker proteins could serve for both animal species and tissue authentication. Meat species authenticity is performed in this paper using a well-defined proteogenomic annotation, carefully chosen surrogate tryptic peptides and analysis using a hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap MS. Selected mammalian meat samples were homogenised and proteins were extracted and digested with trypsin. The samples were analysed using a high-resolution MS. Chromatography was achieved using a 30-min linear gradient along with a BioBasic C8 100 × 1 mm column at a flow rate of 75 µl min(-1). The MS was operated in full-scan high resolution and accurate mass. MS/MS spectra were collected for selected proteotypic peptides. Muscular proteins were methodically analysed in silico in order to generate tryptic peptide mass lists and theoretical MS/MS spectra. Following a comprehensive bottom-up proteomic analysis, we detected and identified a proteotypic myoglobin tryptic peptide (120-134) for each species with observed m/z below 1.3 ppm compared with theoretical values. Moreover, proteotypic peptides from myosin-1, myosin-2 and β-haemoglobin were also identified. This targeted method allowed comprehensive meat speciation down to 1% (w/w) of undesired product.
Jin Hyoung Cho
Full Text Available Meat quality is a complex trait influenced by many factors, including genetics, nutrition, feeding environment, animal handling, and their interactions. To elucidate relevant factors affecting pork quality associated with oxidative stress and muscle development, we analyzed protein expression in high quality longissimus dorsi muscles (HQLD and low quality longissimus dorsi muscles (LQLD from Duroc pigs by liquid chromatographytandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS–based proteomic analysis. Between HQLD (n = 20 and LQLD (n = 20 Duroc pigs, 24 differentially expressed proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS. A total of 10 and 14 proteins were highly expressed in HQLD and LQLD, respectively. The 24 proteins have putative functions in the following seven categories: catalytic activity (31%, ATPase activity (19%, oxidoreductase activity (13%, cytoskeletal protein binding (13%, actin binding (12%, calcium ion binding (6%, and structural constituent of muscle (6%. Silver-stained image analysis revealed significant differential expression of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA between HQLD and LQLD Duroc pigs. LDHA was subjected to in vitro study of myogenesis under oxidative stress conditions and LDH activity assay to verification its role in oxidative stress. No significant difference of mRNA expression level of LDHA was found between normal and oxidative stress condition. However, LDH activity was significantly higher under oxidative stress condition than at normal condition using in vitro model of myogenesis. The highly expressed LDHA was positively correlated with LQLD. Moreover, LDHA activity increased by oxidative stress was reduced by antioxidant resveratrol. This paper emphasizes the importance of differential expression patterns of proteins and their interaction for the development of meat quality traits. Our proteome data provides valuable information on important factors which might aid in the regulation of muscle development and the improvement of
Beatty, Mark E.; Beutels, Philippe; Meltzer, Martin I.; Shepard, Donald S.; Hombach, Joachim; Hutubessy, Raymond; Dessis, Damien; Coudeville, Laurent; Dervaux, Benoit; Wichmann, Ole; Margolis, Harold S.; Kuritsky, Joel N.
Dengue vaccines are currently in development and policymakers need appropriate economic studies to determine their potential financial and public health impact. We searched five databases (PubMed, EMBASE, LILAC, EconLit, and WHOLIS) to identify health economics studies of dengue. Forty-three manuscripts were identified that provided primary data: 32 report economic burden of dengue and nine are comparative economic analyses assessing various interventions. The remaining two were a willingness-to-pay study and a policymaker survey. An expert panel reviewed the existing dengue economic literature and recommended future research to fill information gaps. Although dengue is an important vector-borne disease, the economic literature is relatively sparse and results have often been conflicting because of use of inconsistent assumptions. Health economic research specific to dengue is urgently needed to ensure informed decision making on the various options for controlling and preventing this disease. PMID:21363989
Hong, Jinglan; Shaked, Shanna; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.
to develop and apply to both inventory and impact assessment an explicit and transparent analytical approach to uncertainty. This approach applies Taylor series expansions to the uncertainty propagation of lognormally distributed parameters. Materials and methods We first apply the Taylor series expansion...... determine a range and a best estimate of a) the squared geometric standard deviation on the ratio of the two scenario scores, "A/B", and b) the degree of confidence in the prediction that the impact of scenario A is lower than B (i.e., the probability that A/B75%). For the aluminum panel, the electricity...... and aluminum primary production, as well as the light oil consumption, are the dominant contributors to the uncertainty. The developed approach for scenario comparisons, differentiating between common and independent parameters, leads to results similar to those of a Monte Carlo analysis; for all tested cases...
Arbulú, Italo; Lozano, Javier; Rey-Maquieira, Javier
The relationship between tourism growth and municipal solid waste (MSW) generation has been, until now, the subject of little research. This is puzzling since the tourism sector is an important MSW generator and, at the same time, is willing to avoid negative impacts from MSW mismanagement. This paper aims to provide tools for tourism and MSW management by assessing the effects of tourism volume, tourism quality and tourism specialization on MSW generation in the UE. This is done using the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) framework. The study considers a panel data for 32 European economies in the 1997-2010 periods. Empirical results support the EKC hypothesis for MSW and shows that northern countries tend to have lower income elasticity than less developed countries; furthermore, results confirm a non-linear and significant effect of tourism arrivals, expenditure per tourist and tourism specialization on MSW generation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bekker, Gerben A.; Tobi, Hilde; Fischer, Arnout R.H.
In this cross-cultural study we investigated how study participants from China, Ethiopia and the Netherlands operationalize the concept of meat and to what extent cultured meat fits or does not fit into this operationalization. We argue that combining the conceptual approaches symbolic boundaries
Náira da Silva CAMPOS
Full Text Available Abstract A 32 factorial design was employed to develop an in vitro digestion method for estimation of Fe bioaccessible fractions in cooked chicken meat. The effects of sample size and the in vitro bioaccessible fractions of this essential element were evaluated. A sample preparation method employing a microwave assisted digestion with dilute nitric acid was used prior to total Fe determination. For the bioacessibility studies, the optimized procedure employed 7.5 g of sample and 6% w/v of an acid pepsin solution. This procedure was applied to two kinds of chicken meat samples: breast and liver. Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry was used to determine total and bioaccessible (chyme or soluble portion levels of iron in the samples. With respect to total Fe content, the bioaccessible fractions of Fe found in these samples were around 23% and 56 %, for breast and chicken liver, respectively. The chicken liver sample showed the highest total (400 ± 10 mg kg-1 and bioaccessible Fe contents (223 ± 18 mg kg-1 and stands out as a good source of this micronutrient.
Belaunzaran, Xabier; Lavín, Paz; Barron, Luis J R; Mantecón, Angel R; Kramer, John K G; Aldai, Noelia
The objective of the present study was to assess the fatty acid composition of horse-meat available at the retail market in northern Spain. Horse steaks (Longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle; n=82) were purchased from butcher-shops and large grocery stores throughout six northern regions of Spain in two different seasons. Fat content differed significantly among regions (1.12 to 2.77%). Samples with higher intramuscular fat content presented the highest percentages of total monounsaturated fatty acids and the lowest contents of dimethylacetal and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), while the opposite was found in the leanest samples. A high variability was observed in the muscle and subcutaneous n-3 PUFA content. Overall, total n-3 PUFA content ranged between 1.17% and 18.9% in muscle fat and between 1.52% and 27.9% in backfat. Interestingly, almost 5% of surveyed loins from horse carcasses (4 out of 82) contained over 300mg of linolenic acid per 100g of meat which could have been marketed as a "source" of n-3 FAs according to Commission Regulation (EU) No 116/2010. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Aim of the present study was to assess the microbial load of sausages prepared from different combination of spent duck and spent hen meat. The combination are 100% spent duck (T1, 75%+ 25% spent duck and spent hen (T2, 50%+50% spent duck and spent hen (T3, 25%+75% spent duck and spent hen (T4 and 100% spent hen (T5. All the samples of different combination were subjected to total plate count (TPC, total psychrophilic count (TPSC and total Coliform count (TCC. Mean of TPC for T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 were 4.69, 4.62, 4.60, 4.49 and 4.46 log 10 CFU/gm respectively, while mean TPSC were 4.46, 4.46, 4.43, 4.36 and 4.36 log CFU/gm respectively There were no significant (p<0.05 difference between the different group of combination of sausages for TPS as well as TPSC but varies significantly (p<0.05 from 14th day of storage in both cases. The coliform group of bacteria will not be detected in any combination of sausages. It is concluded that microbial load of sausage prepared from spent duck is high and it is decreases as the percentage of duck meat decreases but, the upper limit of bacteria in each group of sausages is within limit and hence it is safe for human consumption.
R. T. Timakova
Full Text Available In the world practice, the radiation technologies for food product processing are extensively used; with that, free radicals are found in products. Scientists have not made a final conclusion about the complete safety of the method of radiation sterilization, so it is very important to control irradiated food products to determinea fact of irradiation and residual effects. The experimental data obtained on the domestic spectrometer EPR series Labrador Expert X, which was developed by Spektr LLC with the assistance of the research team of the authors from the Institute of Natural Sciences of UrFU named after Yeltsin B. N., indicate the presence of free radicals in the samples of boneless beef, which is probably associated with °Ccurrence of ante-mortem technological and slaughter stress in animals. Irradiation of the chicken meat samples carried out in laboratory conditions allows a comparison of the spectra before and after irradiation. The dose of irradiation of poultry was 12 kGy. This dose was selected based on the practice of recognizing the radiation doses of 10-12 kGy as safe, which was established in many countries. It was found that in the range of the magnetic fields from 3272 to 3280 Gs, there was a weak EPR signal with an amplitude of 7.28 e-05 and D less than 1. Such a background signal can be explained by stress in the birds, peculiarities of feeding and other factors. After irradiation at a dose of 12 kGy, the ESR signal increased in the range of the magnetic fields from 3273 to 3286 Gs and D was higher than 1. This technology or, in other words, radappertization, is an industrialsterilization of food products for long storage at positive temperatures, which precludes re-contamination by microorganisms. After irradiation, the fivefold increase in the amplitude of the ESR signal was observed and two additional signals with small amplitude appeared. The fact of irradiation/absence of irradiation of the samples was also confirmed by
... A routine cardiac risk assessment typically includes a fasting lipid panel. Beyond that, research continues into the usefulness of other non-traditional markers of cardiac risk, such as Lp-PLA 2 . A health practitioner may choose to evaluate one or more ...
Raffaele Di Francia
Full Text Available Backbone: Paclitaxel and docetaxel are the primary taxane anticancer drugs regularly used to treat, breast, gastric, ovarian, head/neck, lung, and genitourinary neoplasm. Suspension of taxane treatments compromising patient benefits is more frequently caused by peripheral neuropathy and allergy, than to tumor progression. Several strategies for preventing toxicity have been investigated so far. Recently, findings on the genetic variants associated with toxicity and resistance to taxane-based chemotherapy have been reported.Methods: An extensive panel of five polymorphisms on four candidate genes (ABCB1, CYP2C8*3, CYP3A4*1B, XRCC3, previously validated as significant markers related to paclitaxel and Docetaxel toxicity, are analyzed and discussed. We genotyped 76 cancer patients, and 35 of them received paclitaxel or docetaxel-based therapy. What is more, an early outline evaluation of the genotyping costs and benefit was assessed.Results: Out of 35 patients treated with a taxane, six (17.1% had adverse neuropathy events. Pharmacogenomics analysis showed no correlation between candidate gene polymorphisms and toxicity, except for the XRCC3 AG+GG allele [OR 2.61 (95% CI: 0.91–7.61] which showed a weak significant trend of risk of neurotoxicities vs. the AG allele [OR 1.52 (95% CI: 0.51–4.91] P = 0.03.Summary: Based on our experimental results and data from the literature, we propose a useful and low-cost genotyping panel assay for the prevention of toxicity in patients undergoing taxane-based therapy. With the individual pharmacogenomics profile, clinicians will have additional information to plan the better treatment for their patients to minimize toxicity and maximize benefits, including determining cost-effectiveness for national healthcare sustainability.
deCamp, Allan; Hraber, Peter; Bailer, Robert T; Seaman, Michael S; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Kappes, John; Gottardo, Raphael; Edlefsen, Paul; Self, Steve; Tang, Haili; Greene, Kelli; Gao, Hongmei; Daniell, Xiaoju; Sarzotti-Kelsoe, Marcella; Gorny, Miroslaw K; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; LaBranche, Celia C; Mascola, John R; Korber, Bette T; Montefiori, David C
Standardized assessments of HIV-1 vaccine-elicited neutralizing antibody responses are complicated by the genetic and antigenic variability of the viral envelope glycoproteins (Envs). To address these issues, suitable reference strains are needed that are representative of the global epidemic. Several panels have been recommended previously, but no clear answers have been available on how many and which strains are best suited for this purpose. We used a statistical model selection method to identify a global panel of reference Env clones from among 219 Env-pseudotyped viruses assayed in TZM-bl cells with sera from 205 HIV-1-infected individuals. The Envs and sera were sampled globally from diverse geographic locations and represented all major genetic subtypes and circulating recombinant forms of the virus. Assays with a panel size of only nine viruses adequately represented the spectrum of HIV-1 serum neutralizing activity seen with the larger panel of 219 viruses. An optimal panel of nine viruses was selected and augmented with three additional viruses for greater genetic and antigenic coverage. The spectrum of HIV-1 serum neutralizing activity seen with the final 12-virus panel closely approximated the activity seen with subtype-matched viruses. Moreover, the final panel was highly sensitive for detection of many of the known broadly neutralizing antibodies. For broader assay applications, all 12 Env clones were converted to infectious molecular clones using a proviral backbone carrying a Renilla luciferase reporter gene (Env.IMC.LucR viruses). This global panel should facilitate highly standardized assessments of vaccine-elicited neutralizing antibodies across multiple HIV-1 vaccine platforms in different parts of the world. An effective HIV-1 vaccine will need to overcome the extraordinary genetic variability of the virus, where most variation occurs in the viral envelope glycoproteins that are the sole targets for neutralizing antibodies. Efforts to elicit
Barbiroli, Alberto; Musatti, Alida; Capretti, Giorgio; Iametti, Stefania; Rollini, Manuela
Minimally processed ready-to-eat products are considered a high-risk food because of the possibility of contamination with pathogenic bacteria, including Listeria monocytogenes from the animal reservoir, and the minimal processing they undergo. In this study, a sakacin-A anti-Listeria active package was developed and tested on thin-cut veal meat slices (carpaccio). Enriched food-grade sakacin-A was obtained from a cell-free supernatant of a Lactobacillus sakei culture and applied (0.63 mg cm -2 ) onto the surface of polyethylene-coated paper sheets to obtain an active antimicrobial package. The coating retained antimicrobial features, indicating that the process did not affect sakacin-A functionality, as evidenced in tests carried out in vitro. Thin-cut veal meat slices inoculated with Listeria innocua (a surrogate of pathogenic L. monocytogenes) were laid on active paper sheets. After 48 h incubation at 4 °C, the Listeria population was found to be 1.5 log units lower with respect to controls (3.05 vs 4.46 log colony-forming units (CFU) g -1 ). This study demonstrates the possibility of using an antimicrobial coating containing sakacin-A to inhibit or decrease the Listeria population in ready-to-eat products, thus lowering the risk of food-related diseases. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.
Full Text Available Five m. longissimus thoracis steaks from different breeds, purchased at retail, were cut into samples and simultaneously photographed under standard shooting conditions. The first photo was taken on samples just arrived at the laboratory, the second one on a freshly cut surface after blooming. Two consumer panels evaluated beef colour using respectively photo 1 and photo 2. Each consumer was asked to rank samples in order of preference. Rank sums were evaluated with Fridman’s test. Immediately after taking the photos, colour was measured with a colorimeter. Regarding photo 1, consumers were able to discriminate one sample, the worst, from all the others. Concerning photo 2, consumers discriminated the worst sample, as in photo 1, but also the best one. Therefore a more accurate colour evaluation can be obtained if the assessment is carried out on a fresh cut surface after blooming. In general consumers preferred samples with high lightness and a relatively high yellowness. The sensory evaluation of meat colour using photographs is a promising tool to overcome the difficulties when the meat is directly evaluated. But it is very important to standardize the shooting conditions to obtain a true reproduction of the meat. For this purpose the use of a colour target is useful to check the validity of the adopted parameters.
Clouds cover about 70% of the Earth's surface and play a dominant role in the energy and water cycle of our planet. Only satellite observations provide a continuous survey of the state of the atmosphere over the whole globe and across the wide range of spatial and temporal scales that comprise weather and climate variability. Satellite cloud data records now exceed more than 25 years in length. However, climatologies compiled from different satellite datasets can exhibit systematic biases. Questions therefore arise as to the accuracy and limitations of the various sensors. The Global Energy and Water cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Cloud Assessment, initiated in 2005 by the GEWEX Radiation Panel, provided the first coordinated intercomparison of publically available, standard global cloud products (gridded, monthly statistics) retrieved from measurements of multi-spectral imagers (some with multiangle view and polarization capabilities), IR sounders and lidar. Cloud properties under study include cloud amount, cloud height (in terms of pressure, temperature or altitude), cloud radiative properties (optical depth or emissivity), cloud thermodynamic phase and bulk microphysical properties (effective particle size and water path). Differences in average cloud properties, especially in the amount of high-level clouds, are mostly explained by the inherent instrument measurement capability for detecting and/or identifying optically thin cirrus, especially when overlying low-level clouds. The study of long-term variations with these datasets requires consideration of many factors. A monthly, gridded database, in common format, facilitates further assessments, climate studies and the evaluation of climate models.
Monden, C.W.S.; Uunk, W.J.G.
We investigate the association between union dissolution and self-assessed health in European panel data. Previous studies suggest that this association might be negative, yet it is unclear to what extent this reflects causation (an effect of union dissolution of health) and/or selection (an effect
Rosset, R.; Liger, P.; Roussel-Ciquard, N.
For the consumer, meat is characterized by a certain number of organoleptic qualities; among them, flavour -that is to say the association of both odour and taste- plays a leading part. This property is based upon a great number of chemical components: some volatile components are responsible for the aroma and some non-volatile ones for the taste. These substances are either made or released during the heating of the meat on account of components called precursors which are produced during the aging of the meat. The two main reactions which preside over the elaboration of flavour are: the Maillard's reaction and the autooxidation reactions. Meat flavour is associated with the animal characteristics; it is influenced by the ante- and post mortem treatments as well as by the technological treatments for storing it. The use of synthetical flavours is to be considered as possible in the future [fr
Ângela da Silva Borges
Full Text Available Foi avaliado o efeito do tipo de músculo e da maturação sobre algumas propriedades funcionais e sensoriais da carne caprina. Utilizaram-se os músculos longissimus dorsi, semimembranosus e biceps femoris de cabras com aproximadamente 20 meses de idade. A carne, sem maturar e maturada por sete dias, foi avaliada para perdas por cocção (PPC e força de cisalhamento (FC, por métodos instrumentais, e para dureza sensorial (DS e suculência sensorial (SS, por provadores treinados. As PPC não sofreram efeito significativo (p > 0,05 do tipo de músculo e da maturação da carne. A carne sem maturar do músculo semimembranosus apresentou maior FC que aquelas dos músculos longissimus dorsi e biceps femoris. Em relação ao tipo de músculo, após a maturação, as carnes dos músculos semimembranosus e biceps femoris se apresentaram mais macias que a do longissimus dorsi. Quanto ao efeito da maturação, a FC da carne do músculo semimembranosus diminuiu significativamente. A FC apresentou correlação positiva com DS e correlação negativa com SS. Dureza e suculência avaliadas de forma sensorial apresentaram correlação negativa. A maturação por 7 dias diminuiu a dureza, mas não afetou as PPC da carne dos músculos semimembranosus e bíceps femoris.The effect of muscle type and aging for seven days on certain functional and sensory properties of goat meat was evaluated. The experiment used meat from longissimus dorsi, semimembranosus and biceps femoris muscles from female goats that were approximately 20 months. After 24 h of being slaughtered and seven days, the aging meat was instrumentally analyzed for cooking losses (CL and shear force (SF, as well as for sensory firmness (F and juiciness (J by a trained panel. CL was not affected (p > 0.05 by the type of muscle and aging of the meat. Before aging, meat from semimembranosus muscles showed higher SF than those from longissimus dorsi or bicep femoris muscles. After aging, meat from
Douglas N. Swanston; Charles G. Shaw; Winston P. Smith; Kent R. Julin; Guy A. Cellier; Fred H. Everest
This document highlights key items of information obtained from the published literature and from specific assessments, workshops, resource analyses, and various risk assessment panels conducted as part of the Tongass land management planning process. None of this information dictates any particular decision; however, it is important to consider during decisionmaking...
Arroyo, Cristina; Eslami, Sara; Brunton, Nigel P; Arimi, Joshua M; Noci, Francesco; Lyng, James G
Pulsed electric fields (PEF) is a novel nonthermal technology that has the potential to cause physical disruption to muscle tissue which in turn could alter the sensorial aspects of meat in both a positive (e.g., enhanced tenderization) and a negative way (e.g., off-flavor development). If there is a risk of off-flavor development it should be identified prior to embarking on an extensive investigation on PEF in meat tenderization and turkey meat was chosen for this purpose as it is particularly prone to oxidation. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of various PEF treatments on the quality attributes of turkey breast meat. Turkey breast meat obtained 1 d postslaughter was treated in a batch PEF chamber with increasing electric field strength up to 3 kV/cm and analyzed for lipid oxidation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay (TBARS) with up to 5 d storage at 4°C in aerobic conditions. In a separate experiment, turkey breast meat samples were exposed to PEF under various combinations of pulse number, frequency, and voltage. Following PEF treatments weight loss, cook loss, lipid oxidation, texture, and color were assessed by instrumental methods. A sensory analysis was also performed to determine consumer acceptability for color, texture, and odor of the samples. Lipid oxidation in all PEF-treated samples progressed at the same rate with storage as the untreated samples and was not found to be significantly different to the control. Under the conditions examined PEF treatments did not induce differences in instrumentally measured weight loss, cook loss, lipid oxidation, texture, and color (raw and cooked) either on fresh or frozen samples. However, the sensory evaluation suggested that panelists could detect slight differences between the PEF-treated samples and the controls in terms of texture and odor. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Raabe, T; Jung, U; Wilhelm, H
Contrast studies can provide important knowledge for treatment decisions before surgery or for assessing the driving ability of professional drivers. Accordingly, high demands are placed on contrast panels to obtain reliable and reproducible results. The aim of the study is to find out if the contrast panels on the market meet the requirements. On the basis of measurement evaluation and schematic presentations potential sources of error can be identified. These sources of error may have a decisive influence on the assessment of contrast vision. Far-reaching analyses have shown that three parameters can have a significant influence on the accuracy and reproducibility of printed contrast panels. This holds for certain properties of the printing substrate, the type of representation of display element, and the choice of the colourant. Only the correct interaction between the substrate and the print colour effects an angle-independent contrast. A matt substrate is necessary, which has a low difference to the printed contrast element in respect of glow, so that possible angle differences have no influence on the contrast assessment. The contrast elements of a contrast panel vary in brightness. Conventional methods for typographical representation of different brightnesses use the method of screening. This causes undesirable edges, which weaken in particular the lower-contrast elements unintentionally. Use of special colours can avoid this effect. In the visible wavelength range the studied contrast elements have an irregular absorption behaviour. Because of differences between the lighting surroundings, this can lead to a differentiated stimulation of cones in practice. Appropriate colourants have a constant absorption behaviour. To get representative results of contrast studies the production of contrast panels needs more knowledge about the interaction between paper and colour than is typically required for print products. On the basis of a prototype optimisation
Horras, Stephan; Reimann, Peter; Schuetze, Andreas; Gaiotto, Alessandra; Mayer, Maria
Evaluation of strength and quality of smell is today still primarily done with human sensory panels. For a range of applications, technical systems for an objective smell assessment would provide a great benefit in R and D and also day-to-day application. The project presented here specifically addresses the problem of assessing the strength and unpleasantness of smell caused by sweat in shoes and socks by an E-nose system. The ultimate goal is to provide a tool for developing improved shoe/sock systems with optimized materials.The main approach to achieve this goal is to find a correlation between the assessment of a human sensory panel and the complex sensor response patterns of an E-Nose system to appraise the smell of sweat in shoes and socks. Therefore a range of test persons wear shoes and socks under defined ambient conditions in a controlled test environment as well as during everyday use. Afterwards the smell of the shoes and socks is both measured with the E-Nose system and assessed by a human sensory panel. We report here the results of the first larger test series and the identified correlation between the E-Nose system and the human assessment of the smell of sweat.
Young, A. T; Anderson, Edward; Bien, Lyle; Fogleman, Ronald R; Hall, Keith; Lyles, Lester; Mark, Hans
The Independent Assessment Panel (IAP) was chartered to review and assess the DoD management and organization of National Security in Space and make appropriate recommendations to strengthen the U.S. position...
Babiker Yagoub Abdulkair
Full Text Available An accurate IPC-UV method was developed and validated for the determination of nitrite (NI and nitrate (NA in meat products. The best separation was achieved on a phenyl-hexyl column (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 3 µm with a mobile phase composed of 25% acetonitrile and 75% buffer (2 mM disodium hydrogen phosphate and 3 mM tetrabutylammonium bromide, pH = 4. Eluents were monitored at 205 nm. Linearity ranges were 1.86 × 10−6–7.5 µg·ml−1 and 0.09–5.0 µg·ml−1 for NI and NA, respectively. The correlation coefficients were greater than 0.999 for NI and NA. This method was applied to a number of processed meat products in Riyadh (n = 155. NI ranged from 1.78 to 129.69 mg·kg−1, and NA ranged from 0.76 to 96.64 mg·kg−1. Results showed extensive use of NI and NA; however, concentrations were within the legal limit of Saudi Arabia except for one sample. Further, the risk assessment and dietary exposure have been estimated for both NI and NA.
Balins, J.K.; Davis, J.B.; Payne, R.A.
Rio Algom's Panel Uranium Mine originally operated between 1958 and 1961. It was reactivated in 1979 and operated continuously until 1990. In all, the mine produced about 14 million tons of potentially acid generating, low level radioactive uranium tailings; about 5% pyrite (by weight) with less than 0.1% U 3 O 8 . The tailings area consists of two rock rimmed basins. Topographic lows around the perimeter are closed by a total of six containment dams. To minimize the acid generating potential within the tailings, a decommissioning plan to flood the impounded tailings is being implemented. The anticipated performance of engineered structures (dams, spillways, channels, etc.) and the flooded tailings concept, over time periods in the order of thousands of years, have been addressed using probabilistic methods, based on subjective probability distributions consistent with available site specific information. The probable costs associated with long-term inspection and maintenance of the facility, as well as the probable costs and environmental consequences (e.g. tailings releases) associated with potential dam failures due to disruptive events such as floods, droughts and earthquakes were determined using a probabilistic model which consists of five, essentially independent, sub-models: a Maintenance Model, an Earthquake Response Model, a Flood Response Model, a Drought Model and an Integration Model. The principal conclusion derived from this assessment is that, for a well designed, constructed and maintained facility, there is very little likelihood that water and/or tailings solids will be released as a result of a containment dam failure; annual probability of the order of 10 -6 . Failure to maintain the facility over the long-term significantly increases the likelihood of dam failure with resultant release of water and suspended tailings solids
Tetens, Inge; Hoppe, Camilla; Frost Andersen, Lene
The World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) recommended in 2007 that consumer intake of red meat is minimized and processed meat eliminated. The recommendation was based on a systematic review of the available literature on the association between meat consumption and cancer. The recommendation...... to individuals was to ingest less than 500 grams of red meat per weeks, and very little - if anything - processed meats. In a new study, National Food Institute has assessed the nutritional consequences from living the recommendations of the WCRF, in Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark. The current consumption...... of meat in the Nordic countries is not far from the level WCRF has proposed on an individual level. The study also shows that it will have no significant nutritional consequences to reduce the intake of meat to the recommended, neither when it comes to red meat nor processed meat....
Full Text Available Meat consumption during the first year of life is especially important to provide necessary iron requirements. The aim of the study was to assess meat and meat product consumption of Latvian infants during their first year of life, in relation to different factors. Data were collected by interview method using two types of questionnaires: food frequency questionnaires and food diary. The study included a representative sample of infants and toddlers from all regions of Latvia with a target sample of 560 participants. The study included 266 infants: 127 girls, 139 boys, aged from 0 to 12 month. Data were summarised using the Excel software and analysed using the SPSS software. For data analysis two age groups were created: 0–5.9 months and 6–12 months. Consumption was analysed by two parameters: frequency and amount per feeding. Meat products were defined as offal products, sausages, and meat in baby food. Meat was mainly consumed after 6 months of age and by 73% of infants (n = 107. Meat from baby food was consumed only after 6 months and by 23% (n = 34. Sausages and offal products were consumed after 6 months of age. Sausages were consumed by 18% (n = 28 and offal products by 11% (n = 16 of infants. Meat consumption for the majority of infants was introduced after 6 months and was in accordance with recommendations.
Danso, A S; Richardson, R I; Khalid, R
A total of fifteen male and fifteen female lambs were allocated to three groups of ten animals and subjected to: traditional Halal slaughter without stunning (TNS); slaughter following electric head-only stunning (EHOS) or; post-cut electric head-only stun (PCEHOS) and their meat quality was determined. Instrumental and sensory analyses were carried out on two muscles; M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) and M. triceps brachii (TB). Additionally, the effects of sex and muscle type were also assessed. No differences were found among slaughter methods for pH, drip loss and shear force. TB had a higher pHu and was more tender than LTL. Muscles from EHOS and PCEHOS lambs discoloured more quickly than TNS muscles. There were no differences in the measured sensory attributes, with the exception of EHOS meat being tougher than PCEHOS and TNS meat. This study showed that the three slaughter methods had no substantial effect on lamb meat quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Concentrations and geographical variations of selected toxic elements in meat from semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.) in mid- and northern Norway: evaluation of risk assessment.
Hassan, Ammar Ali; Brustad, Magritt; Sandanger, Torkjel M
Meat samples (n = 100) from semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.) were randomly collected from 10 grazing districts distributed over four Norwegian counties in 2008 and 2009. The main aim was to study concentrations and geographical variations in selected toxic elements; cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), arsenic (As), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and vanadium (V) in order to assess the risk associated with reindeer meat consumption. Sample solutions were analysed using an inductively coupled plasma high resolution mass spectrometer (ICP-HRMS), whereas analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for statistical analyses. Geographical variations in element concentrations were revealed, with As and Cd demonstrating the largest geographical differences. No clear geographical gradient was observed except for the east-west downward gradient for As. The As concentrations were highest in the vicinity of the Russian border, and only Cd was shown to increase with age (p < 0.05). Sex had no significant effect on the concentration of the studied elements. The concentrations of all the studied elements in reindeer meat were generally low and considerably below the maximum levels (ML) available for toxic elements set by the European Commission (EC). Thus, reindeer meat is not likely to be a significant contributor to the human body burden of toxic elements.
Danieli, P P; Serrani, F; Primi, R; Ponzetta, M P; Ronchi, B; Amici, A
Heavy metals are ubiquitous in soil, water, and air. Their entrance into the food chain is an important environmental issue that entails risks to humans. Several reports indicate that game meat can be an important source of heavy metals, particularly because of the increasing consumption of game meat, mainly by hunters. We performed an exposure assessment of hunters and members of their households, both adults and children, who consumed wild boar (WB) meat and offal. We estimated the amount of cadmium, lead, and chromium in the tissues of WB hunted in six areas within Viterbo Province (Italy) and gathered data on WB meat and offal consumption by conducting specific diet surveys in the same areas. The exposure to cadmium, lead, and chromium was simulated with specifically developed Monte Carlo simulation models. Cadmium and lead levels in WB liver and meat harvested in Viterbo Province (Italy) were similar to or lower than the values reported in other studies. However, some samples contained these metals at levels greater then the EU limits set for domestic animals. The chromium content of meat or liver cannot be evaluated against any regulatory limit, but our results suggest that the amounts of this metal found in WB products may reflect a moderate environmental load. Our survey of the hunter population confirmed that their consumption of WB meat and liver was greater than that of the general Italian population. This level of consumption was comparable with other European studies. Consumption of WB products contributes significantly to cadmium and lead exposure of both adults and children. More specifically, consumption of the WB liver contributed significantly to total cadmium and lead exposure of members of the households of WB hunters. As a general rule, liver consumption should be kept to a minimum, especially for children living in these hunter households. The exposure to chromium estimated for this population of hunters may be considered to be safe. However
Pérez-Rodríguez, F.; Asselt, van E.D.; García-Gimeno, R.M.; Zurera, G.; Zwietering, M.H.
The risk assessment study of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods conducted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration is an example of an extensive quantitative microbiological risk assessment that could be used by risk analysts and other scientists to obtain information and by managers and
Regan Á.; Henchion M; McIntyre B
Growing consumer concerns with modern farming and food production systems indicate a significant market opportunity for meat production practices that consider ethical, moral and social value traits. In the current study, we aimed to identify and characterise distinct segments of Irish consumers based on their perceptions of the quality of meat from different farm-level production practices (organic farming, high animal welfare standards, free range farming, and “natural”, treatment-free feed...
Luciene Aparecida Madeira
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess whether the inclusion of low amounts of ingredients such as wheat bran, corn gluten and yeast in the diet of laying hens can interfere with the traceability of meat and bone meal (MBM in eggs and its fractions (albumen and yolk. We used 256 laying hens distributed across eight treatment groups, which consisted of a diet based on corn-soybean-wheat (CSW bran meal and other diets that had additions comprising gluten and/or (MBM and/or yeast. To analyse the isotopic ratios (13C:12C and 15N:14N, on the 28th and 56th days, 16 eggs were randomly taken for each treatment (four for each repetition, where eight eggs (two for each repetition were used to harvest yolk and albumen samples and the remaining eight (two for each repetition were used to analyse the whole egg. We concluded that detection of 2.0% MBM in the egg and its fractions is possible; however, the results for treatments containing gluten and yeast were not different from those containing MBM. Therefore, the inclusion of 3.0% gluten and/or yeast does not result in different ?13C and ?15N isotopic values in the egg and its fractions compared to the values obtained with the addition of 2.0% MBM in the diet.
Savvilotidou, Vasiliki; Antoniou, Alexandra; Gidarakos, Evangelos
End-of-Life (EoL) photovoltaic (P/V) modules, which are recently included in the 2012/19/EU recast, require sound and sustainable treatment. Under this perspective, this paper deals with 2nd generation P/V waste modules, known as thin-film, via applying chemical treatment techniques. Two different types of modules are examined: (i) tandem a-Si:H/μc-Si:H panel and, (ii) Copper-Indium-Selenide (CIS) panel. Panels' pretreatment includes collection, manual dismantling and shredding; pulverization and digestion are further conducted to identify their chemical composition. A variety of elements is determined in the samples leachates' after both microwave-assisted total digestion and Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP test) using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analysis. The analysis reveals that several elements are detected in the two of panels, with no sample exceeds the TCLP test. Concentrations of precious and critical metals are also measured, which generates great incentives for recovery. Then, further experiments, for P/V recycling investigation, are presented using different acids or acid mixtures under a variety of temperatures and a stable S/L ratio, with or without agitation, in order to determine the optimal recycling conditions. The results verify that chemical treatment in P/V shredded samples is efficient since driving to ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) resin's dissolution, as well as valuable structural materials recovery (P/V glass, ribbons, cells, P/V intermediate layers). Among the solvents used, sulfuric acid and lactic acid demonstrate the most efficient and strongest performance on panels' treatment at gentle temperatures providing favorably low energy requirements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Olsen, Sherrlyn S.; Cordray, Joseph C.; Sapp, Stephen; Sebranek, Joseph G.; Anderson, Barbara; Wenger, Matt
Challenges arise when teaching food safety to culturally diverse employees working in meatpacking and food manufacturing industries. A food safety training program was developed in English, translated into Spanish, and administered to 1,265 adult learners. Assessments were conducted by comparing scores before and immediately following training.…
Cofrades, S; Benedí, J; Garcimartin, A; Sánchez-Muniz, F J; Jimenez-Colmenero, F
Meat consumption is influenced by various kinds of factors, among them health implications. Different strategies can be effective in developing meat-based functional foods. These basically entail reducing the presence of compounds with negative health implications and enhancing the presence of beneficial compounds. This article reviews a comprehensive model for the development of meat-based functional foods based on a presentation of the research achieved in terms of the design and development of qualitatively and quantitatively modified meat products (frankfurters, patties and restructured steaks). These were reformulated to incorporate nutrients associated with three different seaweeds (wakame-Undaria pinnatifida; nori-Porphyra umbilicalis; and sea spaghetti-Himanthalia elongata) as sources of bioactive substances, while simultaneously reducing sodium and fat and improving fatty acid profiles. Those seaweeds were chosen, because in terms of composition and health implications, abundance on Spanish coasts, relatively widespread consumption, and suitability in terms of flavour and colour they are better suited than others for use as ingredients in new products. It also discusses the consequences of the use of this type of meat-based functional foods (combination of pork meat and 5% of each seaweed with or without hypercholesterolaemic agent included in the diets) on growing animals (Wistar male rats), and their effects on different aspects of lipoprotein metabolism, oxidative stress and liver structure. This article, then, reports a comprehensive approach to the production of seaweed-enriched meat products, considering aspects of technological development aimed at achieving the functional effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Buffière, Caroline; Gaudichon, Claire; Hafnaoui, Noureddine; Migné, Carole; Scislowsky, Valérie; Khodorova, Nadezda; Mosoni, Laurent; Blot, Adeline; Boirie, Yves; Dardevet, Dominique; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique; Rémond, Didier
Background: Meat cooking conditions in in vitro and in vivo models have been shown to influence the rate of protein digestion, which is known to affect postprandial protein metabolism in the elderly. Objective: The present study was conducted to demonstrate the effect of cooking conditions on meat protein assimilation in the elderly. We used a single-meal protocol to assess the meat protein absorption rate and estimate postprandial meat protein utilization in elderly subjects. Design: The study recruited 10 elderly volunteers aged 70-82 y. Each received, on 2 separate occasions, a test meal exclusively composed of intrinsically 15 N-labeled bovine meat (30 g protein), cooked at 55°C for 5 min [rare meat (RM)] or at 90°C for 30 min [fully cooked meat (FCM)], and minced. Whole-body fluxes of leucine, before and after the meal, were determined with the use of a [1- 13 C]leucine intravenous infusion. Meat protein absorption was recorded with the use of 15 N enrichment of amino acids. Results: Postprandial time course observations showed a lower concentration in the plasma of indispensable amino acids ( P meat leucine in the plasma ( P meat nitrogen to plasma amino acid nitrogen ( P meat amino acids with RM than with FCM. This was associated with decreased postprandial whole-body protein synthesis with RM than with FCM (40% compared with 56% of leucine intake, respectively; P meat cooking conditions have little effect on postprandial protein utilization in young adults, the present work showed that the bioavailability and assimilation of meat amino acids in the elderly is lower when meat is poorly cooked. In view to preventing sarcopenia, elderly subjects should be advised to favor the consumption of well-cooked meat. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02157805. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.
Council on Bioethics . NNI member agencies and the National Nanotechnology Coordination Office (NNCO) also provided valuable information. The NNAP...societal aspects of nanotechnology. In consultation with the President’s Council on Bioethics , the panel concluded that at present, nanotechnology...biomarker. One is a magnetic particle probe that captures the target from complex media . The other is a gold nanoparticle probe that is specific to the
Smith, Andrew M.; LaVerde, Bruce; Teague, David W.
In the lower frequency range, where particular boundary conditions can make a significant difference to panel response characteristics Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) has never been the analytical tool of choice. In addition to boundary condition effects, SEA is not well suited in frequency bands where no modes or less than a few modes exist. The advent of the Hybrid Module has enabled integration of Finite Element Analysis to expand and enhance the capability for response calculations within VA One into the lower frequency range. Exploration of several additional modeling approaches was completed for the cylindrical orthogrid panel test article that was examined in Reference 1. Comparison of the new analytical response predictions with the measured response data from ground test and the pure SEA results from the reference will be presented. One approach that is considered promising is the periodic subsystem capability. Initially, a detailed FEM of just one region of the test article is defined. After evaluating this small region using symmetric boundary conditions, the FEM may be expanded to determine the properties of the entire system using similar connected regions that map over the entire test article. Another approach is the direct use of a very detailed finite element model of the entire panel, explicitly modeling pocket and rib details of the structure. A third approach is to approximate localized structure geometry details with a smeared property generalization using a PCOMP (NASTRAN card used to define layered composite structures) to define skin layer and ribbed layer for the orthogrid panel. The authors expect to demonstrate that the integrated Hybrid/FEM approach increases confidence in response prediction in the lower frequency range (for example from 20-300 Hz for the test article under consideration). In addition the strength and weakness of each additional approach will be highlighted and compared to those reported with those reported in an
Full Text Available Growing consumer concerns with modern farming and food production systems indicate a significant market opportunity for meat production practices that consider ethical, moral and social value traits. In the current study, we aimed to identify and characterise distinct segments of Irish consumers based on their perceptions of the quality of meat from different farm-level production practices (organic farming, high animal welfare standards, free range farming, and “natural”, treatment-free feeding regimes. An online survey was carried out with 251 Irish meat consumers. Using cluster analysis, we identified three distinct segments: “Target consumers”, “Purist consumers” and “Disinterested consumers”. Chi-square analyses revealed differences between the segments based on gender, age and meat-purchasing motivations. The results provide insight into the opportunities that exist for exploring new viable market segments as well as for engaging Irish consumers and empowering them with information around the ethical, social and moral aspects of farm-level practices related to meat production.
Williams, Gary M; Aardema, Marilyn; Acquavella, John; Berry, Sir Colin; Brusick, David; Burns, Michele M; de Camargo, Joao Lauro Viana; Garabrant, David; Greim, Helmut A; Kier, Larry D; Kirkland, David J; Marsh, Gary; Solomon, Keith R; Sorahan, Tom; Roberts, Ashley; Weed, Douglas L
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) published a monograph in 2015 concluding that glyphosate is "probably carcinogenic to humans" (Group 2A) based on limited evidence in humans and sufficient evidence in experimental animals. It was also concluded that there was strong evidence of genotoxicity and oxidative stress. Four Expert Panels have been convened for the purpose of conducting a detailed critique of the evidence in light of IARC's assessment and to review all relevant information pertaining to glyphosate exposure, animal carcinogenicity, genotoxicity, and epidemiologic studies. Two of the Panels (animal bioassay and genetic toxicology) also provided a critique of the IARC position with respect to conclusions made in these areas. The incidences of neoplasms in the animal bioassays were found not to be associated with glyphosate exposure on the basis that they lacked statistical strength, were inconsistent across studies, lacked dose-response relationships, were not associated with preneoplasia, and/or were not plausible from a mechanistic perspective. The overall weight of evidence from the genetic toxicology data supports a conclusion that glyphosate (including GBFs and AMPA) does not pose a genotoxic hazard and therefore, should not be considered support for the classification of glyphosate as a genotoxic carcinogen. The assessment of the epidemiological data found that the data do not support a causal relationship between glyphosate exposure and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma while the data were judged to be too sparse to assess a potential relationship between glyphosate exposure and multiple myeloma. As a result, following the review of the totality of the evidence, the Panels concluded that the data do not support IARC's conclusion that glyphosate is a "probable human carcinogen" and, consistent with previous regulatory assessments, further concluded that glyphosate is unlikely to pose a carcinogenic risk to humans.
de Vos, Clazien J; Heres, Lourens
The total ban on use of meat and bone meal (MBM) in livestock feed has been very successful in reducing bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) spread, but also implies a waste of high-quality proteins resulting in economic and ecological loss. Now that the BSE epidemic is fading out, a partial lifting of the MBM ban might be considered. The objective of this study was to assess the BSE risk for the Netherlands if MBM derived from animals fit for human consumption, i.e., category 3 MBM, would be used in nonruminant feed. A stochastic simulation model was constructed that calculates (1) the probability that infectivity of undetected BSE-infected cows ends up with calves and (2) the quantity of infectivity (Q(inf)) consumed by calves in case of such an incident. Three pathways were considered via which infectivity can reach cattle: (1) cross-contamination in the feed mill, (2) cross-contamination on the primary farm, and (3) pasture contamination. Model calculations indicate that the overall probability that infectivity ends up with calves is 3.2%. In most such incidents the Q(inf) is extremely small (median = 6.5 x 10(-12) ID(50); mean = 1.8 x 10(-4) ID(50)), corresponding to an average probability of 1.3 x 10(-4) that an incident results in >or=1 new BSE infections. Cross-contamination in the feed mill is the most risky pathway. Combining model results with Dutch BSE prevalence estimates for the coming years, it can be concluded that the BSE risk of using category 3 MBM derived from Dutch cattle in nonruminant feed is very low.
Full Text Available Moose is an important traditional food for members of the Swan River First Nation (SRFN, located in northern Alberta, Canada. As industrial development is encroaching on First Nations’ traditional territories in northern Alberta, community members are growing increasingly concerned for the sustainability and safety of their traditional foods. The Alberta Special Waste Treatment Centre (ASWTC is an industrial incineration facility located in the core of SRFN’s traditional territory. An accidental release at the ASWTC in 1996 resulted in a significant discharge of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs to the environment. In addition to this accident, the ongoing operation of the ASWTC is linked to routine low-level emissions of PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs. Since the 1996 release, levels of PCBs and PCDD/Fs have been measured in wild game tissues and the provincial government has issued consumption advisories. This study was undertaken to provide answers to the community regarding food safety and was designed to address concerns regarding PCB and PCDD/F concentrations in moose tissues. Samples of moose muscle (n=15, liver (n=13 and kidney (n=14 were collected as part of regular food harvesting activities of the SRFN in the summer and fall of 2015 and generously shared by the SRFN hunters and harvesters to allow for their inclusion into the study. A risk assessment approach was used to evaluate the potential risks to human health using hazard quotients (HQ. All HQs were below the benchmark level of 0.2 for a single pathway exposure. The results show that PCB and PCDD/F concentrations in moose tissues were low and comparable to those of meats available in Canadian supermarkets. Based on results from this study, community exposure to PCBs and PCDD/Fs from the consumption of moose tissue is low and consumption may continue at quantities documented in regional studies.
Pourkhalili, Azin; Mirlohi, Maryam; Rahimi, Ebrahim
Lamb meat is regarded as an important source of highly bioavailable iron (heme iron) in the Iranians diet. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of traditional cooking methods on the iron changes in lamb meat. Four published experimental methods for the determination of heme iron were assessed analytically and statistically. Samples were selected from lambs' loin. Standard methods (AOAC) were used for proximate analysis. For measuring heme iron, the results of four experimental methods were compared regarding their compliance to Ferrozine method which was used for the determination of nonheme iron. Among three cooking methods, the lowest total iron and heme iron were found in boiling method. The heme iron proportions to the total iron in raw, boiled lamb meat and grilled, were counted as 65.70%, 67.75%, and 76.01%, receptively. Measuring the heme iron, the comparison of the methods in use showed that the method in which heme extraction solution was composed of 90% acetone, 18% water, and 2% hydrochloric acid was more appropriate and more correlated with the heme iron content calculated by the difference between total iron and nonheme iron.
Full Text Available Lamb meat is regarded as an important source of highly bioavailable iron (heme iron in the Iranians diet. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of traditional cooking methods on the iron changes in lamb meat. Four published experimental methods for the determination of heme iron were assessed analytically and statistically. Samples were selected from lambs' loin. Standard methods (AOAC were used for proximate analysis. For measuring heme iron, the results of four experimental methods were compared regarding their compliance to Ferrozine method which was used for the determination of nonheme iron. Among three cooking methods, the lowest total iron and heme iron were found in boiling method. The heme iron proportions to the total iron in raw, boiled lamb meat and grilled, were counted as 65.70%, 67.75%, and 76.01%, receptively. Measuring the heme iron, the comparison of the methods in use showed that the method in which heme extraction solution was composed of 90% acetone, 18% water, and 2% hydrochloric acid was more appropriate and more correlated with the heme iron content calculated by the difference between total iron and nonheme iron.
Bossers, A.; Langeveld, J.P.M.
In light of the known ability of the BSE agent to cross the animal/human species barrier, the evidence establishing the presence of BSE in goat is especially alarming, as it represents a potential risk of food-born contamination to human consumers of goat milk and meat products. The main objective
Vos, de C.J.; Heres, L.
The total ban on use of meat and bone meal (MBM) in livestock feed has been very successful in reducing bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) spread, but also implies a waste of high-quality proteins resulting in economic and ecological loss. Now that the BSE epidemic is fading out, a partial
Full Text Available More effective construction technologies are needed nowadays in order to reduce construction energy consumption during the life-cycle of buildings. Besides which, it is necessary to consider the economic feasibility and associated costs within the framework of these alternative technologies so as to favouring their practical implementation in the construction sector. In this sense, this paper presents an economic and environmental comparison of a new non-bearing façade construction solution based on the extruded unfired stabilized clay panels as opposed to three traditional solutions with similar physical, thermal, and aesthetic characteristics in terms of the exterior cladding. The proposed panels are a sandwich type configuration with an intermediate insulating material and two exterior pieces manufactured by extrusion with raw earth stabilized with alginate and animal wool fibers. In this paper, details of the constructive technology of the system are provided. From the results obtained, it is possible to conclude that the solution is a valid alternative from the environmental point of view, considerably reducing the Global Warming Potential and the Cumulative Energy Demand. And although the environmental improvement of the system can be considered the primary objective of this investigation, on the other hand, once executed, it will also be a competitive constructive technology from the perspective of the system’s final costs.
Glotzer, S. C.; Kim, S.; Cummings, P. T.; Deshmukh, A.; Head-Gordon, M.; Karniadakis, G.; Petzold, L.; Sagui, C.; Shinozuka, M.
This WTEC panel report assesses the international research and development activities in the field of Simulation- Based Engineering and Science (SBE&S). SBE&S involves the use of computer modeling and simulation to solve mathematical formulations of physical models of engineered and natural systems. SBE&S today has reached a level of predictive capability that it now firmly complements the traditional pillars of theory and experimentation/observation. As a result, computer simulation is more pervasive today – and having more impact – than at any other time in human history. Many critical technologies, including those to develop new energy sources and to shift the cost-benefit factors in healthcare, are on the horizon that cannot be understood, developed, or utilized without simulation. A panel of experts reviewed and assessed the state of the art in SBE&S as well as levels of activity overseas in the broad thematic areas of life sciences and medicine, materials, and energy and sustainability; and in the crosscutting issues of next generation hardware and algorithms; software development; engineering simulations; validation, verification, and uncertainty quantification; multiscale modeling and simulation; and SBE&S education. The panel hosted a U.S. baseline workshop, conducted a bibliometric analysis, consulted numerous experts and reports, and visited 59 institutions and companies throughout East Asia and Western Europe to explore the active research projects in those institutions, the computational infrastructure used for the projects, the funding schemes that enable the research, the collaborative interactions among universities, national laboratories, and corporate research centers, and workforce needs and development for SBE&S.
Loens, K; van Loon, A M; Coenjaerts, F; van Aarle, Y; Goossens, H; Wallace, P; Claas, E J C; Ieven, M
An external quality assessment (EQA) panel consisting of a total of 48 samples in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid or transport medium was prepared in collaboration with Quality Control for Molecular Diagnostics (QCMD) (www.qcmd.org). The panel was used to assess the proficiency of the three laboratories that would be responsible for examining the 6,000 samples to be collected in the GRACE Network of Excellence (www.grace-lrti.org). The main objective was to decide on the best-performing testing approach for the detection of influenza viruses A and B, parainfluenza virus types 1 to 3, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus, coronavirus, rhinovirus, adenovirus, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophila by nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAATs). Two approaches were chosen: (i) laboratories testing samples using their in-house procedures for extraction and amplification and (ii) laboratories using their in-house amplification procedures on centrally extracted samples. Furthermore, three commercially available multiplex NAAT tests-the ResPlex (Qiagen GmbH, Hilden, Germany), RespiFinder plus (PathoFinder, Maastricht, The Netherlands), and RespiFinder Smart 21 (PathoFinder) tests-were evaluated by examination of the same EQA panel by the manufacturer. No large differences among the 3 laboratories were noticed when the performances of the assays developed in-house in combination with the in-house extraction procedures were compared. Also, the extraction procedure (central versus local) had little effect on performance. However, large differences in amplification efficacy were found between the commercially available tests; acceptable results were obtained by using the PathoFinder assays.
Full Text Available Reaction to fire of fire-retarded rigid PUR foams and two types of metal faced rigid polyurethane foam core sandwich panel was evaluated by using cone calorimeter test method. The tests were carried out in various radiative heat fluxes from 15 to 75 kW/m2. The radiation rate effect on reaction to fire parameters, including time to ignition (TTI, peak of heat release rate (PRHR, total heat release (THR, average heat release rate (Av.RHR and average heat of combustion (Av.EHC was investigated. The phenomenon of char forming, when the foam is exposed to heat, leads to the formation of a protective layer on the surface of foam and hence no direct relation exists between Av.RHR and average specific mass loss rate (Av.Spec.MLR of foam with increased radiation rate. In addition, the increased PRHR with foam density was also very smooth. The relation between TTI and heat flux was investigated for the foam and its corresponding correlation has been achieved with a specified density. Fire hazard assessment of foams and sandwitch panels was carried out by adopting Petrella and Richardson fire risk classification methods. The assessment results showed that rigid PUR foam and PUR sandwich panels may have a high contribution to bring the room to critical flashover condition, but the risk is intermediate from the viewpoint of fire endurance. The reasons of these risk levels are attributed to a very short TTI, relative high PRHR and an intermediate amount of THR. Decrease in foam density reduces heat release but it shows no significant effect on reducing flashover hazard.
Brænder, Morten; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh
Based on our 2013-article, ”Does Deployment to War Affect Soldiers' Public Service Motivation – A Panel Study of Soldiers Before and After their Service in Afghanistan”, we present Panel Analysis as a methodological discipline. Panels consist of multiple units of analysis, observed at two or more...... in research settings where it is not possible to distribute units of analysis randomly or where the independent variables cannot be manipulated. The greatest disadvantage in regard to using panel studies is that data may be difficult to obtain. This is most clearly vivid in regard to the use of panel surveys...... points in time. In comparison with traditional cross-sectional studies, the advantage of using panel studies is that the time dimension enables us to study effects. Whereas experimental designs may have a clear advantage in regard to causal inference, the strength of panel studies is difficult to match...
Moon, J.H.; Kim, S.H.; Chung, Y.S.; Okhee Lee
Thirty three frequently eaten items among meat and eggs were collected and pretreated. Selenium (Se) contents in the diet samples were analyzed using an instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). 100 g of beef contains 12.4-50.9 μg of Se; pork, 11.2-22.6 μg; chicken, 10.2-13.7 μg and eggs, 28.6-43.0 μg. Beef innards and chicken eggs contain the highest amounts of Se. This study reveals that Se intake of Korean adults are 28.7 μg/day in men and 27.6 μg/day in women from meat and eggs, which are over 1/2 of the Korean recommended Se intake. (author)
Comeau, Allison; Mittelhammer, Ronald C.; Wahl, Thomas I.
An Inverse Almost Ideal Demand System is utilized to determine the effectiveness of Market Promotion Program (MPP) and Target Export Assistance (TEA) advertising and promotion expenditures in the Japanese market for meat. Using annual data, it is found that beef advertising and promotion has had a positive and significant effect on the demand for beef. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that pork and poultry advertising and promotion increased the demand for either commodity.
Fegan, Narelle; Jenson, Ian
Meat has featured prominently as a source of foodborne disease and a public health concern. For about the past 20 years the risk management paradigm has dominated international thinking about food safety. Control through the supply chain is supported by risk management concepts, as the public health risk at the point of consumption becomes the accepted outcome based measure. Foodborne pathogens can be detected at several points in the supply chain and determining the source of where these pathogens arise and how they behave throughout meat production and processing are important parts of risk based approaches. Recent improvements in molecular and genetic based technologies and data analysis for investigating source attribution and pathogen behaviour have enabled greater insights into how foodborne outbreaks occur and where controls can be implemented. These new approaches will improve our understanding of the role of meat in foodborne disease and are expected to have a significant impact on our understanding in the coming years. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tuomisto, Hanna L; de Mattos, M Joost Teixeira
Cultured meat (i.e., meat produced in vitro using tissue engineering techniques) is being developed as a potentially healthier and more efficient alternative to conventional meat. Life cycle assessment (LCA) research method was used for assessing environmental impacts of large-scale cultured meat production. Cyanobacteria hydrolysate was assumed to be used as the nutrient and energy source for muscle cell growth. The results showed that production of 1000 kg cultured meat requires 26-33 GJ energy, 367-521 m(3) water, 190-230 m(2) land, and emits 1900-2240 kg CO(2)-eq GHG emissions. In comparison to conventionally produced European meat, cultured meat involves approximately 7-45% lower energy use (only poultry has lower energy use), 78-96% lower GHG emissions, 99% lower land use, and 82-96% lower water use depending on the product compared. Despite high uncertainty, it is concluded that the overall environmental impacts of cultured meat production are substantially lower than those of conventionally produced meat.
Andersen, F Alan; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W
Calendula officinalis extract, C officinalis flower, C officinalis flower extract, C officinalis flower oil, and C officinalis seed oil are cosmetic ingredients derived from C officinalis. These ingredients may contain minerals, carbohydrates, lipids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, coumarins, sterols and steroids, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, triterpenes, tocopherols, quinones, amino acids, and resins. These ingredients were not significantly toxic in single-dose oral studies using animals. The absence of reproductive/developmental toxicity was inferred from repeat-dose studies of coriander oil, with a similar composition. Overall, these ingredients were not genotoxic. They also were not irritating, sensitizing, or photosensitizing in animal or clinical tests but may be mild ocular irritants. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe for use in cosmetics in the practices of use and concentration given in this amended safety assessment.
Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the feasibility of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO microsatellite panel developed for chickens to assess genetic variability in turkeys. Genomic DNA was extracted from a total of 37 blood samples collected from turkey of different breeds [15 Brianzolo (BR; 12 Colli Euganei (EU; 10 Nero d’Italia (NI], and all 31 chicken microsatellite markers recommended by the FAO were tested. The results show that 22 chicken markers out of 31 suggested by FAO guidelines can be applied to turkey populations. In particular, the multiplex groups confirmed in the turkey were the Multiplex Master Mix 1 (ADL0268, ADL0278, LEI0094, MCW0216, MCW0248 and the Master Mix 2 (MCW0034, MCW0069, MCW0081, MCW0222, MCW0295, whereas 13 microsatellites were amplified only under single polymerase chain reaction (PCR conditions. No PCR products were obtained for 9 markers (LEI0166, MCW0020, MCW0078, MCW0080, MCW0104, MCW0123, MCW0248, MCW0284 and MCW0330, which is 29% of the total markers used. A panel of 22 markers was used to assess genetic diversity in three turkey breeds and a total number of 63 alleles were found. Observed (Ho and expected (He heterozygosity and polymorphism information content (PIC values for each microsatellite and the relative mean values were also calculated. The mean values were 0.210, 0.250, 0.203 for Ho; 0.301, 0.348, 0.228 for He; and 0.265, 0.313, 0.199 for PIC in NI, BR and EU, respectively.
Full Text Available Access to medicines is the lynchpin to realizing a range of human rights, public health and development imperatives. However, without strong policy action to increase access to affordable medicines, there is little hope of achieving the Sustainable Development Goals or of realizing the human right to health. Access to medicines is a fundamental element of the right to health, and the majority of states are bound by core obligations in this regard. Accordingly, states must ensure that this critical human rights, public health and development interest is appropriately prioritized against inadequate resource allocations and competing private or trade interests. This is an imperative which we have argued should have framed the deliberations of the UN High Level Panel on Access to Medicines, convened to propose solutions to the “policy incoherence” between international human rights, trade rules and public health that is impeding access to medicines and the right to health for millions. In this article we explore interpretations in international human rights law regarding state duties towards medicines that should have guided these deliberations, and which were presented by the first author in a submission to the panel. We argue that at least two clear right to health duties support the High Level Panel’s recommendations: (1 the duty to prevent unreasonably high costs for medicines from denying large segments of the population their rights to health; and (2 the core obligation to provide essential medicines. Consequently, we explore three areas of action implied by these duties: (1 consistent implementation of human rights impact assessment; (2 institutionalizing the Agreement on Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS flexibilities in law and policy; (3 making permanent the waiver of TRIPS for least developed countries (LDC, and waiving the application of TRIPS to essential medicines in low and middle-income countries. Finally, we
"Energy Department advisers plan to examine high-end computing in the coming year and assess how computing power could be used to further DOE's basic research agenda on combustion, fusion and other topics" (1 page).
Latiffi Nur Atikah Ahmad
Full Text Available This study is aimed to evaluate and access the growth rates and biomass productivity in different concentrations of microalgae Scenedesmus sp. using Industrial Meat Food Processing Wastewater as a media. The focus of this study is to determine the best concentrations of microalgae Scenedesmus sp. in raw wastewater in terms of kinetics of cells growth rates. The study verified that concentration of 1×106 cells/ml of microalgae gives the highest specific growth rates of biomass at 0.4488 day-1 and 1720 cells/ml/day compare to the other concentrations, while the lowest occurred at concentration of 1×103 cells/ml at 0.4108 day-1 and 14.9 cells/ml/day. The result shows the different concentration of microalgae Scenedesmus sp. culturing in Industrial Food Processing Wastewater influence the cells growth of biomass and the optimum were obtained at concentration of 1×106 cells/ml which suggested use for Industrial Meat Food Processing Wastewater Treatment purposed. With this finding, it should be seemly to adopt and applied efficiently in treating the wastewater especially for Scenedesmus sp. type of microalgae.
Osterman, Michael; Root, Steven; Li, F.; Modarres, Mohammad; Reinhart, F. Mark; Bradley, Biff; Calhoun, David J.
Full text of publication follows: New probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) applications promise to improve the overall safety and efficiency of nuclear plant operations. This discussion will explore the use of PRA in evaluating barrier integrity with respect to the consequences of natural phenomena such as tornadoes, floods, and harsh environments. Additionally, the session will explore proposals to improve fracture toughness techniques using PRA. (authors)
Le Page, Aurore; Cox, David N; Georgie Russell, C; Leppard, Phillip I
Means-end-chain theory seeks to understand how consumers make links between products and self-relevant consequences and values. To date, means-end-chain theory has remained a descriptive process and has not been applied to predicting product choice. Within the context of cooking meat, the main objective of this research was to assess the predictive value of the means-end-chain theory. In a two part study, we first undertook a laddering study (n=58 middle-aged women) focusing on cooking three different meat products, using small group administration and paper-and-pencil responses to elicit mean-end-chains (MEC). In the second part, we considered all the MEC independently and incorporated them into a questionnaire, which was also comprised of psycho-social predictors from a range of behavioural models. Responses were elicited from a sample of middle-aged women (n=247). Although MEC explained little of the variance in self-reported behaviour, they were shown to be an important predictor of attitude. Contrary to expectations, the least abstract levels of the MEC appeared to be the most predictive. A critical examination of the data suggested a need to reconsider the means-end-chain theory since it appears to take the respondents beyond their own awareness of their behaviours.
Gilsing, A.M.J.; Weijenberg, M.P.; Hughes, L.A.E.; Ambergen, T.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Goldbohm, A.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Schouten, L.J.
Hypotheses regarding the role of meat consumption in body weight modulation are contradictory. Prospective studies on an association between meat consumption and BMI change are limited. We assessed the association between meat consumption and change in BMI over time in 3902 men and women aged 55-69
Morrissey, P A; Sheehy, P J; Galvin, K; Kerry, J P; Buckley, D J
Lipid oxidation is one of the main factors limiting the quality and acceptability of meats and meat products. Oxidative damage to lipids occurs in the living animal because of an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species and the animal's defence mechanisms. This may be brought about by a high intake of oxidized lipids or poly-unsaturated fatty acids, or a low intake of nutrients involved in the antioxidant defence system. Damage to lipids may be accentuated in the immediate post-slaughter period and, in particular, during handling, processing, storage and cooking. In recent years, pressure to reduce artificial additive use in foods has led to attempts to increase meat stability by dietary strategies. These include supplementation of animal diets with vitamin E, ascorbic acid, or carotenoids, or withdrawal of trace mineral supplements. Dietary vitamin E supplementation reduces lipid and myoglobin oxidation, and, in certain situations, drip losses in meats. However, vitamin C supplementation appears to have little, if any, beneficial effects on meat stability. The effect of feeding higher levels of carotenoids on meat stability requires further study. Some studies have demonstrated that reducing the iron and copper content of feeds improves meat stability. Post-slaughter carnosine addition may be an effective means of improving lipid stability in processed meats, perhaps in combination with dietary vitamin E supplementation.
de Freitas Costa, Eduardo; Corbellini, Luis Gustavo; da Silva, Ana Paula Serafini Poeta
The objective of meat inspection is to promote animal and public health by preventing, detecting, and controlling hazards originating from animals. With the improvements of sanitary level in pig herds, the hazards profile has shifted and the inspection procedures no longer target major foodborne...... pathogens (i.e., not risk based). Additionally, carcass manipulations performed when searching for macroscopic lesions can lead to cross-contamination. We therefore developed a stochastic model to quantitatively describe cross-contamination when consecutive carcasses are submitted to classic inspection...... procedures. The microbial hazard used to illustrate the model was Salmonella, the data set was obtained from Brazilian slaughterhouses, and some simplifying assumptions were made. The model predicted that due to cross-contamination during inspection, the prevalence of contaminated carcass surfaces increased...
Bertelsen, Olav Wedege
In this panel session, four researchers will discuss the role of a theoretical foundation, in particular AT, in the design of information technology based artefacts. The general discussion will take of from a specific examination of the ActAD approach.......In this panel session, four researchers will discuss the role of a theoretical foundation, in particular AT, in the design of information technology based artefacts. The general discussion will take of from a specific examination of the ActAD approach....
Full Text Available Natural stone has been used as a building material for centuries. In the past, load bearing members were made of entirely of stone, but in the last 50 years new processing techniques have made the production and use of thin facade cladding a profitable venture. Unfortunately however, marble facades on buildings in Europe and elsewhere have undergone severe deterioration. The EC-financed TEAM project (2000-2005 studied the bowing observed on marble facades in both cold and warm climates. TEAMâs main objectives were to understand and explain the expansion, bowing, and strength loss mechanisms governing the decay of marble- and limestone-clad facades, and to draft new European standards to prevent the use of marble and limestone poorly suited to outdoor cladding. A survey of some 200 buildings afforded a clear picture of the geographical, geological and climatic scope of the problem. Detailed case studies of six buildings resulted in a facade assessment methodology that included a monitoring system and risk assessment. Both laboratory and field research was conducted on almost 100 different types of stone from different countries and in place in different climates. The outcome was the determination of the decay mechanisms and critical factors. Two test methods and respective precision statements, one for bowing and the other for irreversible thermal expansion in high humidity conditions, were prepared for submission to CEN TC 246.La piedra natural se ha empleado como material de construcción durante siglos. En el pasado, se solía utilizar en elementos de carga, pero en los últimos 50 años las nuevas técnicas de procesamiento han permitido que sea comercialmente rentable producir y utilizar revestimientos para fachadas de espesor reducido. Desafortunadamente, numerosas fachadas de mármol de edificios tanto en Europa como fuera de ella han sufrido graves problemas derivados del deterioro de la piedra. El proyecto TEAM (2000
Abdullah, Alida; Jamaludin, Shamsul Baharin; Anwar, Mohamed Iylia; Noor, Mazlee Mohd; Hussin, Kamarudin
This project was conducted to produce a cement panel with the addition of treated and untreated coconut fiber in cement panel. Coconut fiber was added to replace coarse aggregate (sand) in this cement panel. In this project, the ratios used to design the mixture were 1:1:0, 1:0.97:0.03, 1:0.94:0.06, 1:0.91:0.09 (cement: sand: coconut fiber). The water cement ratio was constant at 0.55. The sizes of sample tested were, 160 mm x 40 mm x 40 mm for compression test, and 100 mm x 100 mm x 40 mm for density, moisture content and water absorption tests. After curing samples for 28 days, it was found that the addition of coconut fiber, further increase in compressive strength of cement panel with untreated coconut fiber. Moisture content of cement panel with treated coconut fiber increased with increasing content of coconut fiber whereas water absorption of cement panel with untreated coconut fiber increased with increasing content of coconut fiber. The density of cement panel decreased with the addition of untreated and treated coconut fiber.
Guirao Abad, B.
Literature review shows that little research has done so far to estimate how tourism indicators are affected by new HSR lines. In 2012, a multivariate panel analysis developed by Chen and Haynes was applied to the Chinese regions to quantify the HSR impact on tourism output. The Chinese experience confirmed that, during the period 1999-2010, emerging high speed rail services did have significant positive impacts on boosting tourism in China. Since them, no similar empirical tool has ever been tested in Europe. The aim of this paper is to analyze and validate the suitability of this tool to assess empirically the effects of HSR on Spanish tourism during the period 1999-2014, and to enhance the abovementioned model with a tourism database. With more than 20 years’ HSR experience, and operating the longest HSR network in Europe (2,900 km), Spain offers a good scenario for this model application because Spanish tourism sector represents 10.2% of its gross domestic product (GDP). Results clearly show that there is a direct linkage between the evolution of certain Spanish tourism outputs and the construction of the HSR network. However, authors´ recommendations include future new research on some variables limitations like the type of tourism output considered or the consideration. (Author)
Guirao Abad, B.
Literature review shows that little research has done so far to estimate how tourism indicators are affected by new HSR lines. In 2012, a multivariate panel analysis developed by Chen and Haynes was applied to the Chinese regions to quantify the HSR impact on tourism output. The Chinese experience confirmed that, during the period 1999-2010, emerging high speed rail services did have significant positive impacts on boosting tourism in China. Since them, no similar empirical tool has ever been tested in Europe. The aim of this paper is to analyze and validate the suitability of this tool to assess empirically the effects of HSR on Spanish tourism during the period 1999-2014, and to enhance the abovementioned model with a tourism database. With more than 20 years’ HSR experience, and operating the longest HSR network in Europe (2,900 km), Spain offers a good scenario for this model application because Spanish tourism sector represents 10.2% of its gross domestic product (GDP). Results clearly show that there is a direct linkage between the evolution of certain Spanish tourism outputs and the construction of the HSR network. However, authors´ recommendations include future new research on some variables limitations like the type of tourism output considered or the consideration. (Author)
Granacher, U; Muehlbauer, T; Gschwind, Y J; Pfenninger, B; Kressig, R W
The proportion of elderly people in societies of western industrialized countries is continuously rising. Biologic aging induces deficits in balance and muscle strength/power in old age, which is responsible for an increased prevalence of falls. Therefore, nationwide and easy-to-administer fall prevention programs have to be developed in order to contribute to the autonomy and quality of life in old age and to help reduce the financial burden on the public health care system due to the treatment of fall-related injuries. This narrative (qualitative) literature review deals with a) the reasons for an increased prevalence of falls in old age, b) important clinical tests for fall-risk assessment, and c) evidence-based intervention/training programs for fall prevention in old age. The findings of this literature review are based on a cost-free practice guide that is available to the public (via the internet) and that was created by an expert panel (i.e., geriatricians, exercise scientists, physiotherapists, geriatric therapists). The present review provides the scientific foundation of the practice guide.
In November 1994, Dr. Martha Krebs, Director of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Research (OER), initiated a broad assessment of the current status and promise of the field of accelerator physics and technology with respect to five OER programs -- High Energy Physics, Nuclear Physics, Basic Energy Sciences, Fusion Energy, and Health and Environmental Research. Dr. Krebs asked the High Energy Physics Advisory Panel (HEPAP) to establish a composite subpanel with representation from the five OER advisory committees and with a balance of membership drawn broadly from both the accelerator community and from those scientific disciplines associated with the OER programs. The Subpanel was also charged to provide recommendations and guidance on appropriate future research and development needs, management issues, and funding requirements. The Subpanel finds that accelerator science and technology is a vital and intellectually exciting field. It has provided essential capabilities for the DOE/OER research programs with an enormous impact on the nation's scientific research, and it has significantly enhanced the nation's biomedical and industrial capabilities. Further progress in this field promises to open new possibilities for the scientific goals of the OER programs and to further benefit the nation. Sustained support of forefront accelerator research and development by the DOE's OER programs and the DOE's predecessor agencies has been responsible for much of this impact on research. This report documents these contributions to the DOE energy research mission and to the nation
Malav, O P; Talukder, S; Gokulakrishnan, P; Chand, S
The health-conscious consumers are in search of nutritious and convenient food item which can be best suited in their busy life. The vegetarianism is the key for the search of such food which resembles the meat in respect of nutrition and sensory characters, but not of animal origin and contains vegetable or its modified form, this is the point when meat analog evolved out and gets shape. The consumers gets full satisfaction by consumption of meat analog due to its typical meaty texture, appearance and the flavor which are being imparted during the skilled production of meat analog. The supplement of protein in vegetarian diet through meat alike food can be fulfilled by incorporating protein-rich vegetative food grade materials in meat analog and by adopting proper technological process which can promote the proper fabrication of meat analog with acceptable meat like texture, appearance, flavor, etc. The easily available vegetables, cereals, and pulses in India have great advantages and prospects to be used in food products and it can improve the nutritional and functional characters of the food items. The various form and functional characters of food items are available world over and attracts the meat technologists and the food processors to bring some innovativeness in meat analog and its presentation and marketability so that the acceptability of meat analog can be overgrown by the consumers.
This project evaluates the physical and economic feasibility of using existing traffic infrastructure to mount wind power : generators. Some possible places to mount a light weight wind generator and solar panel hybrid system are: i) Traffic : signal...
Severi, Gianluca; FitzGerald, Liesel M; Muller, David C; Pedersen, John; Longano, Anthony; Southey, Melissa C; Hopper, John L; English, Dallas R; Giles, Graham G; Mills, John
Only a minority of prostate cancers lead to death. Because no tissue biomarkers of aggressiveness other than Gleason score are available at diagnosis, many nonlethal cancers are treated aggressively. We evaluated whether a panel of biomarkers, associated with a range of disease outcomes in previous studies, could predict death from prostate cancer for men with localized disease. Using a case-only design, subjects were identified from three Australian epidemiological studies. Men who had died of their disease, “cases” (N = 83), were matched to “referents” (N = 232), those who had not died of prostate cancer, using incidence density sampling. Diagnostic tissue was retrieved to assess expression of AZGP1, MUC1, NKX3.1, p53, and PTEN by semiquantitative immunohistochemistry (IHC). Poisson regression was used to estimate mortality rate ratios (MRRs) adjusted for age, Gleason score, and stage and to estimate survival probabilities. Expression of MUC1 and p53 was associated with increased mortality (MRR 2.51, 95% CI 1.14–5.54, P = 0.02 and 3.08, 95% CI 1.41–6.95, P = 0.005, respectively), whereas AZGP1 expression was associated with decreased mortality (MRR 0.44, 95% CI 0.20–0.96, P = 0.04). Analyzing all markers under a combined model indicated that the three markers were independent predictors of prostate cancer death and survival. For men with localized disease at diagnosis, assessment of AZGP1, MUC1, and p53 expression in diagnostic tissue by IHC could potentially improve estimates of risk of dying from prostate cancer based only on Gleason score and clinical stage
This bachelor thesis is focused on the technological characteristics of meat, mainly viscosity of meat. At the beginning I dealt with construction of meat and various types of meat: beef, veal, pork, mutton, rabbit, poultry and venison. Then I described basic chemical composition of meat and it?s characteristic. In detail I dealt with viscosity of meat. Viscosity is the ability of meat to bind water both own and added. I mentioned influences, which effects viscosity and I presented the possib...
Full Text Available The paper objective was to assess the genetic merit for milk and meat production using a sample of 16 Romanian Friesian bulls and a BLUP simplified model as well as the contemporary comparison method. The bulls' 730 daughters (half-sisters registered during the 305 days first lactation 3,034.89 kg milk with 22.86 % variation coefficient, 3.79 % fat with 6.06 % variation and 115.72 kg fat with 23.49 % variation. The 249 sons (half-brothers recorded 138.05 kg atthe age of 6 months with 19.31 % variation coefficient, 293.41kg at the age of 12 months with 4.33 % variation, and 881.97 g/day daily gain with 3.14% variation. The heritability was 0.505 for milk yield, 0.741 for fat %, 0.567 for milk fat, 0.524 for the weight at 6 months, 0.642 for the weight at 12 months and 0.372 for daily gain. The genotypic correlations have been -0.245 between milk yield and fat % and 0.465 between milk and fat yield, -0.287 between the weight at 6 months and 12 months and 0.850 between the weight at 12 months and daily gain. Breeding value varied from 637.6 and -68.1 for milk yield and between 26.26 and -2.07 for milk fat. The breeding value precision ranged between 92 and 58 in case of milk traits. Breeding value varied between 48.6 and - 27.8 for the weight at 12 months and between 168.2 and 2.2. for daily gain. The accuracy of the breeding value for meat traits ranged between 76 and 60. Rank correlations between bull ranking for milk traits were 0.377** between milk fat and fat %, 0.974** between milk yield and fat yield. Rank correlations between bull ranking for meat traits were 0.766** between the weight at 6 months and at 12 months and 0.847** between the weight at 12 months and daily gain. The rank correlation between bull hierarchy by BLUP and contemporary comparison was 0.563 significantly for P=0.05 and P=0.01. As a conclusion, the high accuracy of BLUP model recommends it to be used for breeding value assessment. The position occupied by bulls in their
Pradhan, Abani K; Ivanek, Renata; Gröhn, Yrjö T; Bukowski, Robert; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Sofos, John N; Wiedmann, Martin
The objective of this study was to estimate the relative risk of listeriosis-associated deaths attributable to Listeria monocytogenes contamination in ham and turkey formulated without and with growth inhibitors (GIs). Two contamination scenarios were investigated: (i) prepackaged deli meats with contamination originating solely from manufacture at a frequency of 0.4% (based on reported data) and (ii) retail-sliced deli meats with contamination originating solely from retail at a frequency of 2.3% (based on reported data). Using a manufacture-to-consumption risk assessment with product-specific growth kinetic parameters (i.e., lag phase and exponential growth rate), reformulation with GIs was estimated to reduce human listeriosis deaths linked to ham and turkey by 2.8- and 9-fold, respectively, when contamination originated at manufacture and by 1.9- and 2.8-fold, respectively, for products contaminated at retail. Contamination originating at retail was estimated to account for 76 and 63% of listeriosis deaths caused by ham and turkey, respectively, when all products were formulated without GIs and for 83 and 84% of listeriosis deaths caused by ham and turkey, respectively, when all products were formulated with GIs. Sensitivity analyses indicated that storage temperature was the most important factor affecting the estimation of per annum relative risk. Scenario analyses suggested that reducing storage temperature in home refrigerators to consistently below 7 degrees C would greatly reduce the risk of human listeriosis deaths, whereas reducing storage time appeared to be less effective. Overall, our data indicate a critical need for further development and implementation of effective control strategies to reduce L. monocytogenes contamination at the retail level.
Rimal, Arbindra; Fletcher, Stanley M.
This paper addressed consumers' attitude toward meat labels and the influence of different aspects of meat labels on beef, poultry and seafood consumption using a national survey data. Nutrition and ingredient information on meat labels were positively related with attitude toward meat labels as well as meat consumption frequency.
Meat comprises of roughly 10-20% of energy intake in most meat-consuming ... linked to product development because it generates the products on which ... Total. 1060.00. 100.00. A 20-man consumer panel made up of undergraduate.
The status of knowledge of attempts to utilize hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal energy is summarized. It contains (1) descriptions or case histories of the ERDA-funded projects at Marysville, MT, Fenton Hill, NM, and Coso Hot Springs, CA; (2) a review of the status of existing techniques available for exploration and delineation of HDR; (3) descriptions of other potential HDR sites; (4) definitions of the probable types of HDR resource localities; and (5) an estimate of the magnitude of the HDR resource base in the conterminous United States. The scope is limited to that part of HDR resource assessment related to the determination of the extent and character of HDR, with emphasis on the igneous-related type. It is estimated that approximately 74 Q (1 Q = 1,000 Quads) of heat is stored in these sites within the conterminous U.S. at depths less than 10 km and temperatures above 150/sup 0/C, the minimum for power generation. (Q = 10/sup 18/ BTU = 10/sup 21/J; the total U.S. consumption for 1972 was approximately 0.07 Q). Approximately 6300 Q are stored in the conduction-dominated parts of the crust in the western U.S. (23% of the total surface area), again at depths less than 10 km and temperatures above 150/sup 0/C. Nearly 10,000 Q are believed to be contained in crustal rocks underlying the entire conterminous U.S., at temperatures above 150/sup 0/C. The resource base is significantly larger for lower grade heat. (JGB)
Cyrs, William D.; Avens, Heather J.; Capshaw, Zachary A.; Kingsbury, Robert A.; Sahmel, Jennifer; Tvermoes, Brooke E.
Grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) power is currently one of the fastest growing power-generation technologies in the world. While PV technologies provide the environmental benefit of zero emissions during use, the use of heavy metals in thin-film PV cells raises important health and environmental concerns regarding the end-of-life disposal of PV panels. To date, there is no published quantitative assessment of the potential human health risk due to cadmium leaching from cadmium telluride (CdTe) PV panels disposed in a landfill. Thus, we used a screening-level risk assessment tool to estimate possible human health risk associated with disposal of CdTe panels into landfills. In addition, we conducted a literature review of potential cadmium release from the recycling process in order to contrast the potential health risks from PV panel disposal in landfills to those from PV panel recycling. Based on the results of our literature review, a meaningful risk comparison cannot be performed at this time. Based on the human health risk estimates generated for PV panel disposal, our assessment indicated that landfill disposal of CdTe panels does not pose a human health hazard at current production volumes, although our results pointed to the importance of CdTe PV panel end-of-life management. - Highlights: • Analysis of possible human health risk posed by disposal of CdTe panels into landfills. • Qualitative comparison of risks associated with landfill disposal and recycling of CdTe panels. • Landfill disposal of CdTe panels does not pose a human health hazard at current production volumes. • There could be potential risks associated with recycling if not properly managed. • Factors other than concerns over toxic substances will likely drive the decisions of how to manage end-of-life PV panels
In Britain, and in cultures around the world, meat's significance extends beyond what might be anticipated from its nutritional utility. By looking at the academic and popular literature, and through a series of looselystructured interviews, this study investigates the range of ideas that people hold about meat in modern Britain for evidence as to what it is that makes animal flesh such an esteemed foodstuff. The principle conclusion is that meat's pre-eminence derives from ...
Jiménez Colmenero, Francisco; Carballo, José; Cofrades, Susana
This review deals with the implications of meat and meat products for human health. It analyses the effect of the presence or absence of various factors: fat, fatty acid composition, cholesterol, calorific value, salt, nitrite or lipid oxidation products that can cause health problems. Bearing in mind these considerations, it then describes the strategies used in animal production, treatment of meat raw material and reformulation of meat products to obtain healthier meat and meat products. Fu...
José Arturo García Macías
Full Text Available Meat is a high quality food due its higher protein content, besides to provide energy, vitamins particularly B complex, water and minerals, resulting in an appreciated food for humans. Even in same country, consumers search for different stuffs, since north consumers looks for meat cuts with fat and bone, whereas center-south consumers prefers fatless debones meat cuts. Modern consumers demand excellent appearance, color, taste and flavor in foods, microbiologically safe, minimal processed and curing salts, very nutritive and cheap. All these together in one single product are a hard challenge in the meat products area.
Miko, Angelika; Pries, Karin; Haby, Sabine; Steege, Katja; Albrecht, Nadine; Krause, Gladys; Beutin, Lothar
A total of 140 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains from wildlife meat (deer, wild boar, and hare) isolated in Germany between 1998 and 2006 were characterized with respect to their serotypes and virulence markers associated with human pathogenicity. The strains grouped into 38 serotypes, but eight O groups (21, 146, 128, 113, 22, 88, 6, and 91) and four H types (21, 28, 2, and 8) accounted for 71.4% and 75.7% of all STEC strains from game, respectively. Eighteen of the serotypes, including enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) O26:[H11] and O103:H2, were previously found to be associated with human illness. Genes linked to high-level virulence for humans (stx(2), stx(2d), and eae) were present in 46 (32.8%) STEC strains from game. Fifty-four STEC isolates from game belonged to serotypes which are frequently found in human patients (O103:H2, O26:H11, O113:H21, O91:H21, O128:H2, O146:H21, and O146:H28). These 54 STEC isolates were compared with 101 STEC isolates belonging to the same serotypes isolated from farm animals, from their food products, and from human patients. Within a given serotype, most STEC strains were similar with respect to their stx genotypes and other virulence attributes, regardless of origin. The 155 STEC strains were analyzed for genetic similarity by XbaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. O103:H2, O26:H11, O113:H21, O128:H2, and O146:H28 STEC isolates from game were 85 to 100% similar to STEC isolates of the same strains from human patients. By multilocus sequence typing, game EHEC O103:H2 strains were attributed to a clonal lineage associated with hemorrhagic diseases in humans. The results from our study indicate that game animals represent a reservoir for and a potential source of human pathogenic STEC and EHEC strains.
Miko, Angelika; Pries, Karin; Haby, Sabine; Steege, Katja; Albrecht, Nadine; Krause, Gladys; Beutin, Lothar
A total of 140 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains from wildlife meat (deer, wild boar, and hare) isolated in Germany between 1998 and 2006 were characterized with respect to their serotypes and virulence markers associated with human pathogenicity. The strains grouped into 38 serotypes, but eight O groups (21, 146, 128, 113, 22, 88, 6, and 91) and four H types (21, 28, 2, and 8) accounted for 71.4% and 75.7% of all STEC strains from game, respectively. Eighteen of the serotypes, including enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) O26:[H11] and O103:H2, were previously found to be associated with human illness. Genes linked to high-level virulence for humans (stx2, stx2d, and eae) were present in 46 (32.8%) STEC strains from game. Fifty-four STEC isolates from game belonged to serotypes which are frequently found in human patients (O103:H2, O26:H11, O113:H21, O91:H21, O128:H2, O146:H21, and O146:H28). These 54 STEC isolates were compared with 101 STEC isolates belonging to the same serotypes isolated from farm animals, from their food products, and from human patients. Within a given serotype, most STEC strains were similar with respect to their stx genotypes and other virulence attributes, regardless of origin. The 155 STEC strains were analyzed for genetic similarity by XbaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. O103:H2, O26:H11, O113:H21, O128:H2, and O146:H28 STEC isolates from game were 85 to 100% similar to STEC isolates of the same strains from human patients. By multilocus sequence typing, game EHEC O103:H2 strains were attributed to a clonal lineage associated with hemorrhagic diseases in humans. The results from our study indicate that game animals represent a reservoir for and a potential source of human pathogenic STEC and EHEC strains. PMID:19700552
Cassarly, Christy; Martin, Renee' H; Chimowitz, Marc; Peña, Edsel A; Ramakrishnan, Viswanathan; Palesch, Yuko Y
Ordinal outcomes collected at multiple follow-up visits are common in clinical trials. Sometimes, one visit is chosen for the primary analysis and the scale is dichotomized amounting to loss of information. Multistate Markov models describe how a process moves between states over time. Here, simulation studies are performed to investigate the type I error and power characteristics of multistate Markov models for panel data with limited non-adjacent state transitions. The results suggest that the multistate Markov models preserve the type I error and adequate power is achieved with modest sample sizes for panel data with limited non-adjacent state transitions.
Sheard, P R; Hope, E; Hughes, S I; Baker, A; Nute, G R
Thirty-six brands of pork sausage were purchased from a total of 10 retailers over a 4 months period and assessed for eating quality. The brands included 5 of the 10 most popular sausages in the UK, 4 basic, 14 standard, 10 premium and 8 healthy eating brands. The average price, meat content, fat content and salt content was 3.31 pounds/kg, 62%, 17% and 1.6%, respectively, but there were wide differences in price (1.08 pound/kg-5.23 pounds/kg), meat content (32-97%), fat content (2.1-29.1%) and salt content (0.5-2.5%). Sausages were assessed by a trained sensory panel using 100mm unstructured line scales and 14 descriptors (skin toughness, firmness, juiciness, pork flavour, fattiness, meatiness, particle size, cohesiveness, saltiness, sweet, acidic, bitter and metallic) including overall liking. The declared meat content was positively correlated with price, skin toughness, firmness, pork flavour, meatiness, particle size and perceived saltiness (r=0.5 or better). The declared fat content was positively correlated with fattiness and sweetness (r=0.42 or better) but not juiciness. There was no significant correlation between declared salt content and perceived saltiness. A principal component analysis showed that the first two principal components accounted for 51% of the variability in the data. Products could be separated into four quadrants according to their price, meat content, fat content and their associated eating quality attributes. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
HALL, H E; ANGELOTTI, R
A total of 262 specimens of meat and meat dishes were examined for the presence of Clostridium perfringens. Of this total, 161 were raw, unprocessed beef, veal, lamb, pork, or chicken; 101 were processed meats and meat dishes. C. perfringens was isolated from 113 (43.1%) of these specimens. The highest percentage of contamination (82%) was found in veal cuts, and the lowest (4.7%) in sliced sandwich meats and spreads. Only 2 of the 113 isolates were shown to produce heat-resistant spores, which indicates a very low incidence (0.8%) of contamination. These findings indicate that outbreaks of C. perfringens food-borne disease in the Cincinnati area are caused principally by the contamination of the food with vegetative cells or spores of the organism after cooking. Studies of the effects of various holding temperatures on the growth of C. perfringens indicated that, in the range of 5 to 15 C, no multiplication would occur, but that viable cells would still be present at the end of a 5-day holding period. Extremely rapid growth occurred at temperatures around 45 C, and complete inhibition of growth was accomplished between 49 and 52 C.
Full Text Available Heterocyclic amines (HA are the mutagenic/carcinogenic compounds which generate as a result of cooking of red meat, poultry meat and fish fillets at high temperatures. Up to 20 different HAs were detected and classified in the researches that conducted on these types of meats cooked at high temperatures. HAs are the products of Maillard reactions and the Strecker degredation of main precursors such as creatine/creatinine, aminoacid and the polysaccharides. Many physical and chemical factors effect the formation of HAs. Thus, it was reported by many researchers that utilizing coating and marination processes in addition to using natural and synthetic antioxidants and seasonings-plant extracts were effective on inhibiting/decreasing the formation of HAs. Additionally, boiling/steaming and microwave cooking methodologies were recommended instead of barbecuing, grilling or frying to inhibit/decrease the formation of HAs. The HAs formed in meat and meat products and the factors which have effects on the formation of HAs are presented in this review.
The panel discussion at the 10th Allianz Forum on 'Technology and Insurance' dealt with the following topics: New technologies: energy conversion (coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear energy, solar energy); infrastructure (transport, data processing); basic products (metallic materials, chemical products, pharmaceutical products); integrated products (microprocessors, production line machines) as well as new risks: political; general economic (financing, market structure); insurance-related, dangers to persons and property; reduction of risks. (orig.) [de
Maynard Participation in Alaska Forum on the Environment Panel Discussion on Increasing Input to the US National Climate Assessment (NCA) and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Processes from Alaska, with Emphasis on Indigenous Peoples Issues
Maynard, Nancy G.
Dr. Nancy Maynard was invited by the Alaska Forum on the Environment to participate in a Panel Discussion to discuss (1) background about what the US NCA and International IPCC assessments are, (2) the impact the assessments have on policy-making, (3) the process for participation in both assessments, (4) how we can increase participation by Indigenous Peoples such as Native Americans and Alaska Natives, (5) How we can increase historical and current impacts input from Native communities through stories, oral history, "grey" literature, etc. The session will be chaired by Dr. Bull Bennett, a cochair of the US NCA's chapter on "Native and Tribal Lands and Resources" and Dr. Maynard is the other co-chair of that chapter and they will discuss the latest activities under the NCA process relevant to Native Americans and Alaska Natives. Dr. Maynard is also a Lead Author of the "Polar Regions" chapter of the IPCC WG2 (5th Assessment) and she will describes some of the latest approaches by the IPCC to entrain more Indigenous peoples into the IPCC process.
Full Text Available Abstract Meaty flavor is composed of a few hundreds of volatile compounds, only minor part of which are responsible for the characteristic odor. It is developed as a result of multi-directional reactions proceeding between non-volatile precursors contained in raw meat under the influence of temperature. The volatile compounds are generated upon: Maillard reactions, lipid oxidation, interactions between Maillard reaction products and lipid oxidation products as well as upon thiamine degradation. The developed flavor is determined by many factors associated with: raw material (breed, sex, diet and age of animal, conditions and process of slaughter, duration and conditions of meat storage, type of muscle, additives applied and the course of the technological process. The objective of this review article is to draw attention to the issue of volatile compounds characteristic for meat products and factors that affect their synthesis.
Babio, N; Sorlí, M; Bulló, M; Basora, J; Ibarrola-Jurado, N; Fernández-Ballart, J; Martínez-González, M A; Serra-Majem, L; González-Pérez, R; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi
Little is known about the role that red meat and processed red meat (RM) consumption plays in the development of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim was to assess the relationship between RM consumption and the prevalence or incidence of the MetS and its components in a Mediterranean population at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Cross-sectional analyses were carried out at baseline and at 1-year follow-up and longitudinal analysis were conducted in a cohort of individuals at high risk of cardiovascular disease from the PREDIMED study. A 137-item validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose and lipid profile were evaluated both at baseline and after 1-year follow-up. The MetS was defined in accordance with the updated ATP III criteria. Subjects in the upper quartile of RM consumption were more likely to meet the criteria for the MetS at baseline (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.4-3.9; P-trend = 0.001) and after 1-year follow-up (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.3-3.7; P-trend = 0.034) compared with those in the quartile of reference, even after adjusting for potential confounders. The longitudinal analyses showed that individuals in the fourth quartile of RM consumption had an increased risk of MetS (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.1-6.8; P-trend = 0.009) or central obesity incidence (OR, 8.1; 95% CI, 1.4-46.0; P-trend = 0.077) at the end of the follow-up compared to the lowest quartile. Higher RM consumption is associated with a significantly higher prevalence and incidence of MetS and central obesity in individuals at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Brinkman, George L.
For many decades a major emphasis in public policy has been the assurance of food safety and security. Measurement of the economic returns to these programs is often difficult and challenging. In many cases the difficulty in obtaining data and the sheer complexity of the issues make the use of traditional econometric and programming approaches impractical for assessing these activities. This paper presents a summary of an innovative method for measuring benefits and costs of hard-to-assess pr...
Denis, S; Sayd, T; Georges, A; Chambon, C; Chalancon, S; Santé-Lhoutellier, V; Blanquet-Diot, S
In humans, meat ensures the supply of proteins with high nutritional value and indispensable amino acids. The main goal of the present study was to compare the degradation of meat proteins in adult and elderly digestive conditions. Cooked meat was subjected to in vitro digestion in the dynamic multi-compartmental TIM (TNO gastroIntestinal Model) system. Digestibility and bioaccessibility were determined using nitrogen balance and digestion products were identified using mass spectrometry. The TIM model was adapted according to in vivo data to mimic the specific digestive conditions of elderly people. Meat protein digestibility and bioaccessibility were around 96 and 60% respectively and were not influenced by age (P > 0.05). As much as 800 peptides were identified in the duodenal and jejunal compartments issued from 50 meat proteins with a percentage of coverage varying from 13 to 69%. Six proteins, mainly from the cytosol, were differentially hydrolyzed under the adult and elderly digestive conditions. Pyruvate kinase was the only protein clearly showing a delay in its degradation under elderly digestive conditions. This study provides significant insights into the understanding of meat protein dynamic digestion. Such data will be helpful to design in vivo studies aiming to evaluate dietary strategies that can attenuate muscle mass loss and more generally maintain a better quality of life in the elderly population.
Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Sinh, Dang Xuan; Phuc, Pham Duc; Ngan, Tran Thi; Van Tuat, Chu; Grace, Delia; Unger, Fred; Nguyen-Viet, Hung
This study assesses the risk of exposure to hazardous chemical residues in pork meat, liver, and kidney collected at wet markets in Nghe An and Hung Yen provinces and discusses health impact implication. 514 pig feed, kidney, liver, and pork samples were pooled and qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed for tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones, sulphonamide, chloramphenicol, β-agonists, and heavy metals. We compare the results with current regulations on chemical residues and discuss health implications. Legal antibiotics were found in feed. Tetracycline and fluoroquinolones were not present in pork, but 11% samples were positive with sulfamethazine above maximum residue limits (MRL); 11% of packaged feed and 4% of pork pooled samples were positive for chloramphenicol, a banned substance; two feed, two liver, and one pork samples were positive for β-agonists but did not exceed current MRL; 28% of pooled samples had lead, but all were below MRL; and all samples were negative for cadmium and arsenic. Thus, the health risks due to chemical hazards in pork in Hung Yen and Nghe An seemed not as serious as what were recently communicated to the public on the mass media. There is potential exposure to sulphonamide, chloramphenicol, and β-agonists from pork. Risk communication needs to focus on banned chemicals, while informing the public about the minimal risks associated with heavy metals.
Full Text Available Black bone syndrome (BBS affects poultry industry, and it is caused by the darkening of the tissue adjacent to the bone due to leak age of bone marrow contents during cooking. The objective of this experiment was to estimate BBS incidence in chicken thighs. A completely randomized experimental design, with two treatments (refrigerated or frozen of 50 replicates each, was applied. The influence of BBS on meat quality was assessed according to bone lightness (*L, and meat appearance and sensorial characteristics. Lightness was measured using a colorimeter (Minolta® 410R positioned on the proximal epiphyseal growth plate. Meat quality was evaluated after roasting by assigning scores for appearance (acceptable = no darkening, intermediate = little darkened, and unacceptable = severe darkening. Twelve refrigerated and 12 frozen thighs were used for sensorial analysis (adjacent muscle appearance, odor, tenderness, and flavor, assessed using a hedonic scale (1 = bad to 10 = very good by trained panelists. Lightness was submitted to ANOVA and Tukey's test (p37.5=normal. The incidence of BBS was 35%,with a 16%increase thighs were frozen. Meat taste was not influenced by the treatments. Meat appearance, flavor, and tenderness were not affected by freezing or refrigeration, only by BBS degree. It was concluded that freezing increases the incidence of BBS and chicken thighs with bones presenting lower luminosity have worse meat quality.
Guercio, J. G.; Haines, R. F.
Twelve commercial pilots were shown 50 high-fidelity slides of a standard aircraft instrument panel with the airspeed, altitude, ADI, VSI, and RMI needles in various realistic orientations. Fifty slides showing an integrated head-up display (HUD) symbology containing an equivalent number of flight parameters as above (with flight path replacing VSI) were also shown. Each subject was told what flight parameter to search for just before each slide was exposed and was given as long as needed (12 sec maximum) to respond by verbalizing the parameter's displayed value. The results for the 100-percent correct data indicated that: there was no significant difference in mean reaction time (averaged across all five flight parameters) between the instrument panel and HUD slides; and a statistically significant difference in mean reaction time was found in responding to different flight parameters.
A brief summary is given of experience with the preservation of meat and meat products by ionizing radiation, or by combined methods. The results of the research have proved that hygienically significant microorganisms (mainly salmonellas) are reliably destroyed and that the consumption of thus irradiated meat and meat products presents no danger to human health. (B.S.)
Cassarly, Christy; Martin, Renee’ H.; Chimowitz, Marc; Peña, Edsel A.; Ramakrishnan, Viswanathan; Palesch, Yuko Y.
Ordinal outcomes collected at multiple follow-up visits are common in clinical trials. Sometimes, one visit is chosen for the primary analysis and the scale is dichotomized amounting to loss of information. Multistate Markov models describe how a process moves between states over time. Here, simulation studies are performed to investigate the type I error and power characteristics of multistate Markov models for panel data with limited non-adjacent state transitions. The results suggest that ...
Schumm, S.A.; Costa, J.E.; Toy, T.; Knox, J.; Warner, R.; Scott, J.
The following report of the panel of geomorphologists is a summary of the principal findings of the geomorphological Workshop with respect to its three objectives: 1) examination of geomorphic controls on site stability, 2) demonstration of the application of the principles of geomorphology to the siting (and design) of stable tailings disposal containment systems, 3) development (in outline) of a procedure for the evaluation of long-term stability of tailing disposal sites
Flakemore, Aaron Ross; Malau-Aduli, Bunmi Sherifat; Nichols, Peter David; Malau-Aduli, Aduli Enoch Othniel
This study evaluated omega-3 intramuscular fatty acids in the longissimus thoracis et lumborum of commercially prepared Australian lamb loin chops. Meats, denuded of external fats were cooked by means of conductive dry-heat using a fry grilling hot plate, to a core temperature of 70°C. An untrained consumer panel assessed meat appearance, aroma, tenderness, juiciness, taste and overall liking. Results showed no compositional alterations (P>0.05) to omega-3 fatty acids due to cooking treatment, whereas on absolute terms (mg/100g muscle) omega-3 fatty acids significantly (Pcooked meat at 32.8±2.3mg/100g muscle exceeded the minimum 30mg/100g per edible portion required for the defined Australian classification as 'source' long-chain (≥C 20 ) omega-3 for cooked lamb. A 3.4% intramuscular fat content in the initial raw meat was sufficient to maintain acceptable overall sensory eating quality. Results endorse the application of this cooking method to enable delivery of health beneficial long-chain omega-3 fatty acids of commercially prepared Australian lamb loin chops to consumers without impediments to sensory eating properties. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
John, Esther M.; Stern, Mariana C.; Sinha, Rashmi; Koo, Jocelyn
Consumption of red meat, particularly well done meat, has been associated with increased prostate cancer risk. High temperature cooking methods such as grilling and barbequeing may produce heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which are known carcinogens. We assessed the association with meat consumption and estimated HCA and PAH exposure in a population-based case-control study of prostate cancer. Newly diagnosed cases aged 40–79 years (531 advanced cases, 195 localized cases) and 527 controls were asked about dietary intake, including usual meat cooking methods and doneness levels. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using multivariate logistic regression. For advanced prostate cancer, but not localized disease, increased risks were associated with higher consumption of hamburgers (OR=1.79. CI=1.10–2.92), processed meat (OR=1.57, CI=1.04, 2.36), grilled red meat (OR=1.63, CI=0.99–2.68), and well done red meat (OR=1.52, CI=0.93–2.46), and intermediate intake of 2-amino-1-methyl1-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) (quartile 2 vs. 1: OR=1.41, CI=0.98–2.01; quartile 3 vs. 1: OR=1.42, CI=0.98–2.04), but not for higher intake. White meat consumption was not associated with prostate cancer. These findings provide further evidence that consumption of processed meat and red meat cooked at high temperature is associated with increased risk of advanced, but not localized prostate cancer. PMID:21526454
Satheesh, S.; Wesley, S. Godwin
Biofouling is known to be one of the common problems in cooling water systems of power plants and several incidents of plant shutdown have been reported from various parts of the world. The settlement of marine organisms on an exposed hard surface depends obviously on the species, which are naturally present at a given site as well as their ability to attach and grow on that surface. Information on the organisms forming the fouling complex is necessary in view of the damages they cause to various marine structures and for devising protective measures. The present paper reports the results of the investigations of biofouling carried out for a period of two years from November 2003 to October 2004 at Kudankulam coast where a mega nuclear power project is under construction. Wooden test panels (10x10x3 cm) were fitted to a raft and submerged in the coastal waters. Total fouling biomass, thickness, coverage and community composition were analysed from the panels. Barnacles, mussels, ascidians, polychaetes, amphipods and seaweeds were the common fouling groups settled on the test panels. The total biomass reached to a maximum of 69.9 g.dm -2 (dry weight) after 330 days of exposure. The fouling thickness reached a maximum of 42.3 mm after 225 days of exposure. Results also showed a strong temporal variation in the fouling community recruitment. Based on the observations, Kudankulam coast could be categorized as a moderate fouling station mainly due to the low abundance of mussels in this region. (author)
MADRE, JL; ZUMKELLER, D; CHLOND, B; ARMOOGUM, J
l'analyse du comportement humain constitue un enjeu important dans le domaine des transports, lequel se transforme radicalement sous la pression des évolutions économique, écologique et démographique. les premières grandes études ont commence il y a plus d'une dizaine d'années : parc auto sofres en france, puget sound panel a seattle. cet article fait le bilan de ces expériences et met en évidence les principaux problèmes méthodologiques rencontres tout en proposant de nouvelles directions d'...
Rašeta, M.; Mrdović, B.; Janković, V.; Bečkei, Z.; Lakićević, B.; Vidanović, D.; Polaček, V.
This study aimed to determine Salmonella spp. prevalence in meat products, meat preparations and minced meat. Over a period of three years, a total of 300 samples were taken (100 RTE meat products, 100 meat preparations and 100 minced meat) and examined for the presence of Salmonella spp. Sampling was carried out at the warehouses of the food manufacturers. Salmonella spp. were not detected in RTE meat products, while 7% of semi-finished meat products (fresh sausages, grill meat formed and unformed) contained Salmonella, as did 18% of minced meats (minced pork II category, minced beef II category, mixed minced meat). The 25 Salmonella isolates obtained were examined for antibiotic resistance by the disk diffusion test, according to the NCCLS and CLSI guidelines. Isolates showed resistance to ampicillin and nalidixic acid (80%), tetracycline (72%), cefotaxime/clavulanic acid (48%), but not to gentamicin (8%) or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (0%).
Atalić, Bruno; Toth, Jurica; Atalić, Vlasta; Radanović, Danijela; Miskulin, Maja; Lucin, Ana
The British National Diet and Nutrition 2000/1 Survey data set records on 1,724 respondents (766 males and 958 females) were analyzed in order to assess the potential influences of red and processed meat intakes on cardiovascular risk factors. Linear regression of the associations of the red, processed, combination of red and processed, and total meat intakes with body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure and plasma total cholesterol as cardiovascular risk factors was conducted, paying due attention to the subject age and sex as potential confounders. Linear analyses showed the total meat intake and combined red and processed meat intake to cause a 1.03 kg/m2 rise in BMI each, while the red and processed meat intakes analyzed as separate categories caused 1.02 kg/m2 rise each. The greatest effects were observed on the systolic blood pressure with a 1.7 mm Hg rise for the total and the red and processed meat intakes, 1.5 mm Hg rise for the red meat intake, and 1.02 mm Hg rise for the processed meat intake. There were no associations between different meat intakes and plasma total cholesterol. Study results revealed the interquartile ranges of the mentioned meat type intakes to increase BMI by around 1 kg/m2 and systolic blood pressure by around 1.5 mm Hg, while they had no influence on plasma total cholesterol.
Silvius STANCIU; Nicoleta STANCIUC; Loredana DUMITRASCU; Roxana ION; Costel NISTOR
Sustainable business in the domestic production of meat must meet both the usual Requirements regarding quality, safety for customer and New Challenges in the European meat market. The Romanian food industry must meet the challenge of recent suspicions regarding the substitution of beef meat with horse meat. The modern applicable to meat traceability systems and authentication procedures can be considered as new ways to support fair trade and transparency, THUS, removing suspicions that appea...
Składanowska-Baryza, Joanna; Ludwiczak, Agnieszka; Pruszyńska-Oszmałek, Ewa; Kołodziejski, Paweł; Bykowska, Marta; Stanisz, Marek
The analyzed material included 40 hybrid rabbits slaughtered at the age of 90 days. The control group was transported directly after weaning, while the transport group was transported directly prior to slaughter. The experiment was designed to assess the transport stress, carcass and meat quality implications, taking into account the muscle type and sex. The transported animals were characterized by a higher level of blood cortisol, glucose and triglycerides (P meat were affected by the transport (P meat from the control group was characterized by greater plasticity compared to the transport group (P = 0.003). The chemical composition of rabbit meat was not changed by the effect of transport (P = 0.643-0.979). To conclude, the quality traits of meat from the transported hybrid rabbits clearly indicated the development of dark firm and dry-like lower quality of meat. © 2018 Japanese Society of Animal Science.
Boysen, Louise; Nauta, Maarten; Ribeiro Duarte, Ana Sofia
2005 to 2008 in the human risk from Danish produced broiler meat, and a decrease from 2005 to 2010 in the risk from imported chilled meat. This risk reduction coincides with control measures implemented to reduce Campylobacter in Danish and imported chilled broiler meat. The human risk...... providing the most relevant outcome for food safety risk managers.......This paper describes a new approach by which changes over time in the relative risk of human campylobacteriosis from broiler meat are evaluated through quantitative microbiological risk assessment modelling. Danish surveillance data collected at retail from 2001 to 2010 on numbers of thermotolerant...
This article investigates the emergence of the Copenhagen slaughterhouse, called the Meat City, during the late nineteenth century. This slaughterhouse was a product of a number of heterogeneous components: industrialization and new infrastructures were important, but hygiene and the significance...... of Danish bacon exports also played a key role. In the Meat City, this created a distinction between rising production and consumption on the one hand, and the isolation and closure of the slaughtering facility on the other. This friction mirrored an ambivalent attitude towards meat in the urban space: one...... where consumers demanded more meat than ever before, while animals were being removed from the public eye. These contradictions, it is argued, illustrate and underline the change of the city towards a ‘post-domestic’ culture. The article employs a variety of sources, but primarily the Copenhagen...
The advantages of gamma irradiation as a food preservation technique for meat are such that the author envisages its wide acceptance and application during this decade both locally and internationally
Nychas, George-John E; Skandamis, Panos N; Tassou, Chrysoula C; Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos P
Meat spoilage during distribution can be considered as an ecological phenomenon that encompasses the changes of the available substrata (e.g., low molecular compounds), during the prevailing of a particular microbial association, the so-called specific spoilage organisms (SSO). In fact, spoilage of meat depends on an even smaller fraction of SSO, called ephemeral spoilage organisms (ESO). These ESO are the consequence of factors that dynamically persist or imposed during, e.g., processing, transportation and storage in the market. Meanwhile spoilage is a subjective judgment by the consumer, which may be influenced by cultural and economic considerations and background as well as by the sensory acuity of the individual and the intensity of the change. Indeed, when spoilage progresses, most consumers would agree that gross discoloration, strong off-odors, and the development of slime would constitute the main qualitative criteria for meat rejection. On the other hand, meat industry needs rapid analytical methods or tools for quantification of these indicators to determine the type of processing needed for their raw material and to predict remaining shelf life of their products. The need of an objective evaluation of meat spoilage is of great importance. The use of metabolomics as a potential tool for the evaluation of meat spoilage can be of great importance. The microbial association of meat should be monitored in parallel with the estimation of changes occurring in the production and/or assimilation of certain compounds would allow us to evaluate spoilage found or produced during the storage of meat under different temperatures as well as packaging conditions.
McMillin, Kenneth W
Packaging of meat provides the same or similar benefits for raw chilled and processed meats as other types of food packaging. Although air-permeable packaging is most prevalent for raw chilled red meat, vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging offer longer shelf life. The major advancements in meat packaging have been in the widely used plastic polymers while biobased materials and their integration into composite packaging are receiving much attention for functionality and sustainability. At this time, active and intelligent packaging are not widely used for antioxidant, antimicrobial, and other functions to stabilize and enhance meat properties although many options are being developed and investigated. The advances being made in nanotechnology will be incorporated into food packaging and presumably into meat packaging when appropriate and useful. Intelligent packaging using sensors for transmission of desired information and prompting of subsequent changes in packaging materials, environments or the products to maintain safety and quality are still in developmental stages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The study analyzed the safety problems with household meat consumption in Odeda Local Government Area, Ogun state, Nigeria. The objectives were to describe the socioeconomic characteristics of the respondents; assess the level of awareness of safety issues in households' meat consumption; and evaluate the ...
Choi, Yun-Sang; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Park, Jong-Dae; Sung, Jung-Min; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei
The effect of reducing pork meat concentrations from 50% to 30% and replacing it with up to 20% pork head meat on chemical composition, cooking characteristics, physicochemical and textural properties, apparent viscosity, and sensory characteristics of frankfurters was determined. The highest moisture content in frankfurters was found in the control and T1 (frankfurter with 45% pork meat + 5% pork head). Protein and fat contents in frankfurters with pork head meat added were significantly (ppork head meat was increased from 0% to 20%, cooking loss, total expressible fluid separation, fat separation, and pH of frankfurters were increased, while the lightness, redness, yellowness, and apparent viscosity of frankfurters were decreased. Ash contents, cohesiveness, color, and tenderness of sensory characteristics of frankfurters added with different amounts of pork meat or pork head meat were not significantly (p>0.05) different from those of the control or there treatments. Frankfurters in T4 (frankfurter with 30% pork meat + 20% pork head) had the lowest (p0.05) from that in the control. Frankfurters with higher pork head meat concentrations had lower flavor, juiciness, and overall acceptability scores. Therefore, replacing pork meat with pork head meat in the formulation could successfully produce results similar to those of control frankfurters. The best results were obtained when 10% pork head meat was used to replace pork meat. PMID:27621683
Gilsing, A.M.J.; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Weijenberg, M.P.
To study how a vegetarian or low meat diet influences the risk of colorectal cancer compared to a high meat diet, and to assess the explanatory role of factors associated with these diets. In the Netherlands Cohort Study – Meat Investigation Cohort (NLCS-MIC) (cohort of 10,210 individuals including
Panelists: Arthur Bienenstock, Stanford University Cherry Ann Murray, Lucent Technologies Venkatesh Narayanamurti, University of California-Santa Barbara Paul Peercy, SEMI-SEMATECH Robert Richardson, Cornell University James Roberto, Oak Ridge National Laboratory The Board on Physics and Astronomy is undertaking a series of reassessments of all branches of physics as the foundation of a new physics survey. As part of this project, a Committee on Condensed Matter and Materials Physics has been established under the leadership of Venkatesh Narayanamurti of the University of California-Santa Barbara. The committee has been working since June on a study that will include an illustrative recounting of major recent achievements; identification of new opportunities and challenges facing the field; and articulation-for leaders in government, industry, universities, and the public at large-of the important roles played by the field in modern society. An especially urgent issue is how to maintain the intellectual vitality of condensed matter and materials physics, and its contributions to the well-being of the United States, in an era of limited resources. The forum will feature a panel of materials researchers who are members of the Committee on Condensed Matter and Materials Physics. They will give a brief report on the status of the study and engage in a dialogue with the audience about issues facing the condensed matter and materials physics community. Broad community input is vital to the success of the study. Please come and make your voice heard!
Santos, C.G.; Melo, V.S.; Amaral, J.S.; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.; Mafra, I.
Authenticity assessment and fraud detection in processed meat products have becn attracting an increased attention driven by public health, economic and legal cancems, and also for religiolls reasons. Currcntly, ooe af the major issues conceming adulterations in the meat indust:ry regards the fraudulent substitution af higher commercial valued meat species by less expensive oDes . The manufacture af traditional meat products is a long-established practice in the Northeast of Po...
... Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) ... kidneys ) is working. What Is a Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel? A liver function panel is a blood ...
Metabolic panel - comprehensive; Chem-20; SMA20; Sequential multi-channel analysis with computer-20; SMAC20; Metabolic panel 20 ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) - blood. In: ... Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. St Louis, MO: ...
Full Text Available Meat is a high protein content food, with great nutritional and biological value. Meat protein hydrolysis begins with the muscle to meat conversion, during meat ageing. After slaughter, endogen enzymes are responsible of meat softening since myofibrillar anchorage proteins are degraded. Protein hydrolysis continues during food preparation. When meat reaches the stomach, pepsin is the first enzyme to interact. As the food travel trough out gastrointestinal tract, pancreatic enzymes degraded the remained protein and the peptidases made the final proteolysis process. The small proteins or peptides are the absorbed to the circulatory system and distributed to the rest of the body. Bioactive peptides activity of meat and meat products is anti-hypertensive mainly, where histidine, carnosine and anserine are the main peptides identified. Another peptide with anti-oxidant activity is glutathione. The content depends on animal species.
Full Text Available The meat production and meat processing industry are the most important parts of the agribusiness in the Czech Republic. The problem of the industry is its low competitiveness towards foreign producers and processors which results in negative balance of foreign trade. The aim of the article is to evaluate long-term development of value and structure of Czech foreign trade flows of meat and meat products. The analysis covers the period of 2001–2014. The problems of the negative trade balance are revealed through description of the trade flows of meat and meat products, the RCA index and relations between import and export prices. The analysis points out the problems of low competitiveness of the intermediate and finalized meat. Alternatively, Czech Republic has comparative advantage in live animals, sausages and homogenized meat products.
Nakyinsige, Khadijah; Man, Yaakob Bin Che; Sazili, Awis Qurni
In the recent years, Muslims have become increasingly concerned about the meat they eat. Proper product description is very crucial for consumers to make informed choices and to ensure fair trade, particularly in the ever growing halal food market. Globally, Muslim consumers are concerned about a number of issues concerning meat and meat products such as pork substitution, undeclared blood plasma, use of prohibited ingredients, pork intestine casings and non-halal methods of slaughter. Analytical techniques which are appropriate and specific have been developed to deal with particular issues. The most suitable technique for any particular sample is often determined by the nature of the sample itself. This paper sets out to identify what makes meat halal, highlight the halal authenticity issues that occur in meat and meat products and provide an overview of the possible analytical methods for halal authentication of meat and meat products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Choi, Yun-Sang; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Park, Jong-Dae; Sung, Jung-Min; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei
The effect of reducing pork meat concentrations from 50% to 30% and replacing it with up to 20% pork head meat on chemical composition, cooking characteristics, physicochemical and textural properties, apparent viscosity, and sensory characteristics of frankfurters was determined. The highest moisture content in frankfurters was found in the control and T1 (frankfurter with 45% pork meat + 5% pork head). Protein and fat contents in frankfurters with pork head meat added were significantly (p0...
Aan Den Toorn, S. I.; Van Den Broek, M. A.; Worrell, E.
Consumption of meat is an important source of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and deep decarbonisation of the whole meat production chain is required to be able to meet global climate change (CC) mitigation goals. Emissions happen in different stages of meat production ranging from agricultural
Kehlet, Ursula Nana
effects of new formulations of pork products. Different strategies can be applied to potentially enhance the satiating properties of pork. Processed meat products such as meatballs can serve as a matrix for the addition of fiber ingredients. Based on their high protein and fiber contents, high......-fibre meatballs could provide a dual mechanistic action that would lead to greater satiety. For whole muscles, cooking is known to induce structural, physical and chemical changes of the meat proteins, which in turn may affect protein digestibility and potentially affect satiety. The overall aim of this Ph......D thesis was to investigate the effects of fiber addition to meatballs and the effects of cooking methods of pork on appetite regulation. The PhD thesis is based on three human meal test studies and one analytical study related to the characteristics of fiber meat products. In paper I, the objective...
Suman, Surendranath P; Joseph, Poulson
Consumers rely heavily on fresh meat color as an indicator of wholesomeness at the point of sale, whereas cooked color is exploited as an indicator of doneness at the point of consumption. Deviations from the bright cherry-red color of fresh meat lead to product rejection and revenue loss. Myoglobin is the sarcoplasmic heme protein primarily responsible for the meat color, and the chemistry of myoglobin is species specific. The mechanistic interactions between myoglobin and multiple extrinsic and intrinsic factors govern the color of raw as well as cooked meats. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the current research in meat color and how the findings are applied in the meat industry. Characterizing the fundamental basis of myoglobin's interactions with biomolecules in postmortem skeletal muscles is necessary to interpret the chemistry of meat color phenomena and to engineer innovative processing strategies to minimize meat discoloration-induced revenue loss to the agricultural economy.
A. K. Mikhailenko
The level of toxicants was studied, and the biological value of sheep meat in the area of anthropogenic influence was checked up. The level of toxicants in meat depends straight on the age of animals.
Long, Nguyen Phuoc; Jung, Kyung Hee; Yoon, Sang Jun; Anh, Nguyen Hoang; Nghi, Tran Diem; Kang, Yun Pyo; Yan, Hong Hua; Min, Jung Eun; Hong, Soon-Sun; Kwon, Sung Won
Although many outstanding achievements in the management of cervical cancer (CxCa) have obtained, it still imposes a major burden which has prompted scientists to discover and validate new CxCa biomarkers to improve the diagnostic and prognostic assessment of CxCa. In this study, eight different gene expression data sets containing 202 cancer, 115 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and 105 normal samples were utilized for an integrative systems biology assessment in a multi-stage carcinogenesis manner. Deep learning-based diagnostic models were established based on the genetic panels of intrinsic genes of cervical carcinogenesis as well as on the unbiased variable selection approach. Survival analysis was also conducted to explore the potential biomarker candidates for prognostic assessment. Our results showed that cell cycle, RNA transport, mRNA surveillance, and one carbon pool by folate were the key regulatory mechanisms involved in the initiation, progression, and metastasis of CxCa. Various genetic panels combined with machine learning algorithms successfully differentiated CxCa from CIN and normalcy in cross-study normalized data sets. In particular, the 168-gene deep learning model for the differentiation of cancer from normalcy achieved an externally validated accuracy of 97.96% (99.01% sensitivity and 95.65% specificity). Survival analysis revealed that ZNF281 and EPHB6 were the two most promising prognostic genetic markers for CxCa among others. Our findings open new opportunities to enhance current understanding of the characteristics of CxCa pathobiology. In addition, the combination of transcriptomics-based signatures and deep learning classification may become an important approach to improve CxCa diagnosis and management in clinical practice.
Dagevos, H.; Voordouw, J.
Meat is critical with respect to sustainability because meat products are among the most energy-intensive and ecologically burdensome foods. Empirical studies of the meat-consumption frequency of Dutch consumers show that, apart from meat-avoiders and meat-eaters, many people are meat-reducers that
Paisley, Larry; Hostrup-Pedersen, J.
and slag are incorporated into the cement or concrete. Our goal was to assess with a Monte Carlo simulation model the bovine spongiform, encephalopathy (BSE) risk to cattle and humans posed by the ash and slag. The results will be used by decision makers to evaluate the need for disposal of the fly ash......It has been recommended that meat-and-bone meal (MBM) be incinerated at 850 degrees C for at least 2 s and the ashes and slag disposed of in controlled landfills, to dispose of animal-derived proteins. Most commonly, the MBM is incinerated in cement works or coal-fired power plants and the ashes...
Mistura, Liliana Perazzini Furtado
The irradiation is often used, nowadays, for meat conservation and it is important to know how much this process interferes with the nutritional quality of the meat. In this study round cut meat, ground and steaks (from a local supermarket) was irradiated with doses of O; 1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 7,5 and 10 kGy (JS-7500 Nordium Inc -Canada) and the interference of irradiation and the process of food preparation on heme-iron (H Fe) content was determined. Half of the sample was kept raw and the other half was grilled in a pre-warmed oven at 250 deg C for 9 min and a controlled humidity of 70%. The chemical composition, the total iron (T Fe) (EM) and the heme iron concentration were determined (Hornsey,1956) and the sensorial quality evaluated. The average T Fe concentration of raw and ground , ground and grilled, raw steaks and grilled steak meat, on dry and degreased basis was 113 mug/g, 121 mug/g , 91 mug/g and 77 mug/g; and the H Fe concentration 105 mug/g (93% of T Fe) , 88 mug/g (73% of T Fe), 90 mug/g (99% of T Fe) and 52 mug/g (68% of T Fe) respectively. Data were evaluated by ANOVA with fixed effects and multiple comparisons. The irradiation neither altered the chemical composition nor the proportion of heme iron of meat. The preparation conditions (temperature, cooking time, environment humidity, meat presentation) of the sample interfered more with the heme iron content than the irradiation. With the sensorial analysis we verified that meats irradiated with doses of 3 kGy were better evaluated in softness and succulency attributes than the others. Meat submitted to irradiation doses up to 3 kGy were accepted by the specialists' panel. (author)
Hoek, Annet C; Luning, Pieternel A; Stafleu, Annette; de Graaf, Cees
The aim was to investigate socio-demographic characteristics, and attitudes to food and health of vegetarians, non-vegetarian consumers of meat substitutes, and meat consumers in The Netherlands. The sample used for this study (participants > or =18 years) was taken from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey, 1997/1998. Vegetarians (n = 63) and consumers of meat substitutes (n = 39) had similar socio-demographic profiles: higher education levels, higher social economic status, smaller households, and more urbanised residential areas, compared to meat consumers (n = 4313). Attitudes to food were assessed by the food-related lifestyle instrument. We found that vegetarians (n = 32) had more positive attitudes towards importance of product information, speciality shops, health, novelty, ecological products, social event, and social relationships than meat consumers (n = 1638). The health consciousness scale, which was used to assess attitudes to health, supported earlier findings that vegetarians are more occupied by health. Food-related lifestyle and health attitudes of meat substitute consumers (n = 17) were predominantly in-between those from vegetarians and meat consumers. The outcome of this study suggests that in strategies to promote meat substitutes for non-vegetarian consumers, the focus should not only be on health and ecological aspects of foods.
Gedeeva, Darina; Babaev, Andrei
In the past, the Kalmyks ate beef and horse meat. The poor ate camel meat. People who ate camel meat had pimples on their faces. The camel’s pelt and humps were used to make vessels. The intestines were cleaned, stretched and dried. It was used to make strings for dombra instruments. Arcadia
The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is intended to receive, handle, and permanently dispose of transuranic (TRU) waste. To fulfill this mission, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) constructed a full-scale facility to demonstrate both technical and operational principles of the permanent isolation of TRU waste. The WIPP consists of surface and underground facilities. Panel 1 is situated in the underground facility horizon which is located approximately 2,150 feet below the surface in the predominantly halite Salado Formation. The Panel 1 Utilization Plan provides a strategy for the optimum use of Panel 1 which is consistent with the priorities established by the DOE to accomplish the WIPP mission. These priorities, which include maintaining personnel safety, conducting performance assessment, and continued operational enhancements, are the guiding premise for the decisions on the planned usage of the WIPP underground facility. The continuation of ongoing investigations along with the planned testing and training to be carried out in Panel 1 will enhance the current knowledge and understanding of the operational and geotechnical aspects of the panel configuration. This enhancement will ultimately lead to safer, more efficient, and more cost-effective methods of operation. Excavation of the waste storage area began in May 1986 with the mining of entries to Panel 1. The original design for the waste storage rooms at the WIPP provided a limited period of time during which to mine the openings and to emplace waste. Each panel, consisting of seven storage rooms, was scheduled to be mined and filled in less than 5 years. Panel 1 was developed to receive waste for a demonstration phase that was scheduled to start in October 1988. The demonstration phase was deferred, and the experimental test program was modified to use contact-handled (CH) transuranic waste in bin-scale tests, planned for Room 1, Panel 1
Ristori, Christiane Asturiano; Rowlands, Ruth Estela Gravato; Martins, Cecília Geraldes; Barbosa, Maria Luisa; Dos Santos, Luis Fernando; Jakabi, Miyoko; de Melo Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy
Meat products may be vehicles of bacterial pathogens to humans, and Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are the most relevant. The aim of this study was to generate data on prevalence of these three pathogens in 552 samples of meat products (hot dogs, pork sausages, raw ground beef, and raw chicken legs) sold at retail in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Salmonella spp. was detected in 5.8% (32/552) of samples, comprising pork sausages 62.5% (20/32) and chicken legs 37.5% (12/32). The counts of Salmonella spp. were low, ranging from Salmonella Typhimurium (28.1%), Salmonella I 4,,12:i:- (15.6%), Salmonella Enteritidis (12.5%), Salmonella Derby, and Salmonella Brandenburg (9.4%). Campylobacter spp. was detected in 33 samples (6.0%), comprising chicken legs (82%) and ground beef (18%). All samples were negative for STEC. These results suggest that meat products when subjected to inadequate cooking and/or cross-contamination with other products ready for consumption can lead to occurrence of outbreaks, highlighting the risks associated with them.
Molognoni, Luciano; Daguer, Heitor; de Sá Ploêncio, Leandro Antunes; Yotsuyanagi, Suzana Eri; da Silva Correa Lemos, Ana Lucia; Joussef, Antonio Carlos; De Dea Lindner, Juliano
The use of sorbate and nitrite in meat processing may lead to the formation of 2-methyl-1,4-dinitro-pyrrole (DNMP), a mutagenic compound. This work was aimed at developing and validating an analytical method for the quantitation of DNMP by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Full validation was performed in accordance to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and method applicability was checked in several samples of meat products. A simple procedure, with low temperature partitioning solid-liquid extraction, was developed. The nitrosation during the extraction was monitored by the N-nitroso-DL-pipecolic acid content. Chromatographic separation was achieved in 8 min with di-isopropyl-3-aminopropyl silane bound to hydroxylated silica as stationary phase. Samples of bacon and cooked sausage yielded the highest concentrations of DNMP (68 ± 3 and 50 ± 3 μg kg -1 , respectively). The developed method proved to be a reliable, selective, and sensitive tool for DNMP measurements in meat products. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Sustainable business in the domestic production of meat must meet both the usual Requirements regarding quality, safety for customer and New Challenges in the European meat market. The Romanian food industry must meet the challenge of recent suspicions regarding the substitution of beef meat with horse meat. The modern applicable to meat traceability systems and authentication procedures can be considered as new ways to support fair trade and transparency, THUS, removing suspicions that appeared lately. Lack of safety measures in the field can affect business continuity critically, creating significant losses.
Linden, Henry R.
The alarmist propaganda following release of the Policymakers Summary of the Fourth Assessment Report of Working Group 1 of the IPCC this year is unjustified. We had this information since 2001, when the Third Assessment Report was released. However, this does not mean that we should ignore the potential consequences of increasing the impact of the current interglacial period. (author)
van den Akker, Edmée F M M; van't Hul, Alex J.; Birnie, Erwin; Chavannes, Niels H.; Rutten-van Mölken, Maureen P M H; In't Veen, Johannes C C M
A comprehensive diagnostic assessment is needed to improve understanding of the health status of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma. Therefore, this study investigated which components and subsequent instruments should be part of a holistic assessment in secondary
A total of 50 sticks of Suya weighing from 38.10 - 59.30 grams of sliced meat per stick were prepared for .... prolong shelflife and provide a natural alternative (or supplement) to chemical preservatives. Its antimicrobial ... Although O. gratissimum appears safe to use in both food and as medicine, its level of inclusion in food.
Löfström, Charlotta; Hansen, Flemming; Mansdal, Susanne
Cost-effective and rapid monitoring of Salmonella in the meat production chain can contribute to food safety. The objective of this study was to validate an easy-to-use pre-PCR sample preparation method based on a simple boiling protocol for screening of Salmonella in meat and carcass swab samples...... obtained (SP, SE, and AC were 100, 95, and 97%, respectively). This test is under implementation by the Danish meat industry, and can be useful for screening of large number of samples in the meat production, especially for fast release of minced meat with a short shelf life....
Gas hydrates form when water and natural gas combine at low temperatures and high pressures in regions of permafrost and in marine subseafloor sediments. Estimates suggest that the total amount of natural gas bound in hydrate form may exceed all conventional gas resources, or even the amount of all combined hydrocarbon energy. Gas from gas hydrate could provide a potentially vast new source of energy to offset declining supplies of conventional natural gas in North America and to provide greater energy security for countries such as Japan and India that have limited domestic sources. However, complex issues would need to be addressed if gas hydrate were to become a large part of the energy future of Canada. Natural Resources Canada asked the Council of Canadian Academies to assemble a panel of experts to examine the challenges for an acceptable operational extraction of gas hydrates in Canada. This report presented an overview of relevant contextual background, including some basic science; the medium-term outlook for supply and demand in markets for natural gas; broad environmental issues related to gas hydrate in its natural state and as a fuel; and an overview of Canada's contribution to knowledge about gas hydrate in the context of ongoing international research activity. The report also presented current information on the subject and what would be required to delineate and quantify the resource. Techniques for extracting gas from gas hydrate were also outlined. The report also addressed safety issues related to gas hydrate dissociation during drilling operations or release into the atmosphere; the environmental issues associated with potential leakage of methane into the atmosphere and with the large volumes of water produced during gas hydrate dissociation; and jurisdictional and local community issues that would need to be resolved in order to proceed with the commercial exploitation of gas hydrate. It was concluded that there does not appear to be
Richardson, N J; Macfie, H J; Shepherd, R
This study reports on current meat consumption in the UK and the factors that are percieved by the subjects to be influential in their choice of diet. A random sample of individuals from the population (n-1018) were questioned on their consumption and attitudes towards meat by a postal survey. The study revealed that 28·3% of the population considered themselves to be reducing meat consumption; attitudes found to be determinant in changes in the consumption of meat were healthiness, taste and concerns over additives. Hypothetical future events were found to affect people's estimated meat-eating. Knowledge of meat-related information was investigated with specific reference to the respondents' trust in the various sources used; food package labels were found to be an influential source of meat-related information. Copyright © 1993. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Hoffman, Howard J; Daly, Kathleen A; Bainbridge, Kathleen E
The First International Symposium on Recent Advances in Otitis Media (OM) with Effusion was held in Columbus, Ohio, in 1975. The symposium has been organized in the United States every 4 years since, followed by a research conference to (a) assess major research accomplishments, (b) identify impo...... important research questions and opportunities, (c) develop consensus on definitions and terminology, and (d) establish priorities with short- and long-term research goals. One of the principal areas reviewed quadrennially is Epidemiology, Natural History, and Risk Factors....
Originality/value: The obtained values of the indicators of methane risk assessment and analysis of their changes showed that the proposed method can be an important element in the design and construction of a modern methane safety system in coal mines. It provides the possibility of controlling this risk and enables the minimization of its consequences in accordance with the criteria of their acceptance, adopted in this paper. The method does not replace the currently used methods of methane risk assessment, but complements them in a significant and modern way.
Damez, Jean-Louis; Clerjon, Sylvie
The meat industry needs reliable meat quality information throughout the production process in order to guarantee high-quality meat products for consumers. Besides laboratory researches, food scientists often try to adapt their tools to industrial conditions and easy handling devices useable on-line and in slaughterhouses already exist. This paper overviews the recently developed approaches and latest research efforts related to assessing the quality of different meat products by electromagnetic waves and examines the potential for their deployment. The main meat quality traits that can be assessed using electromagnetic waves are sensory characteristics, chemical composition, physicochemical properties, health-protecting properties, nutritional characteristics and safety. A wide range of techniques, from low frequency, high frequency impedance measurement, microwaves, NMR, IR and UV light, to X-ray interaction, involves a wide range of physical interactions between the electromagnetic wave and the sample. Some of these techniques are now in a period of transition between experimental and applied utilization and several sensors and instruments are reviewed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kaur, Mandeep; Shang, Hongshan; Tamplin, Mark; Ross, Tom; Bowman, John P
Packaging and storage temperature are important factors that influence the shelf-life of vacuum packed (VP) meat. In this study the shelf-life of VP bone-in lamb hind shanks stored at 8 °C and -1.2 °C was determined in parallel to analyses of starting and eventual spoilage bacterial communities via Illumina MiSeq based 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. The mean total viable counts (TVC) and lactic acid bacterial viable counts (LAB) were observed to increase to log 7.5 CFU/cm 2 and 7 CFU/cm 2 after 6 and 42 days at 8 °C and -1.2 °C and stayed stable until shelf-life termination after 13 and 124 days, respectively. The sequence data showed initial communities were patchily distributed and were mainly derived from skin microbiome taxa likely prevalent within the abattoir. A broad diversity of VP meat associated specific spoilage organisms (SSO) were comparatively abundant in this initial population. Overtime meat spoilage communities developed a distinctive and stable microbiome. At -1.2 °C SSO included mainly Carnobacterium, Yersinia and Clostridium spp. while at 8 °C SSO expanded to include Hafnia, Lactococcus, Providencia spp. Growth curves inferred from the sequence data after taking into account rRNA copy number suggested that SSO growth rates were consistent with overall growth rates determined from TVC and LAB data and are predictable. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ballester-Costa, Carmen; Sendra, Esther; Fernández-López, Juana; Pérez-Álvarez, Jose A; Viuda-Martos, Manuel
In the organic food industry, no chemical additives can be used to prevent microbial spoilage. As a consequence, the essential oils (EOs) obtained from organic aromatic herbs and spices are gaining interest for their potential as preservatives. The organic Thymus zygis , Thymus mastichina , Thymus capitatus and Thymus vulgaris EOs, which are common in Spain and widely used in the meat industry, could be used as antibacterial agents in food preservation. The aims of this study were to determine (i) the antibacterial activity using, as culture medium, extracts from meat homogenates (minced beef, cooked ham or dry-cured sausage); and (ii) the antioxidant properties of organic EOs obtained from T. zygis , T. mastichina , T. capitatus and T. vulgaris . The antioxidant activity was determined using different methodologies, such as Ferrous ion-chelating ability assay, Ferric reducing antioxidant power, ABTS radical cation (ABTS • +) scavenging activity assay and 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method; while the antibacterial activity was determined against 10 bacteria using the agar diffusion method in different meat model media. All EOs analyzed, at all concentrations, showed antioxidant activity. T. capitatus and T. zygis EOs were the most active. The IC 50 values, for DPPH, ABTS and FIC assays were 0.60, 1.41 and 4.44 mg/mL, respectively, for T. capitatus whilst for T. zygis were 0.90, 2.07 and 4.95 mg/mL, respectively. Regarding antibacterial activity, T. zygis and T. capitatus EOs, in all culture media, had the highest inhibition halos against all tested bacteria. In general terms, the antibacterial activity of all EOs assayed was higher in the medium made with minced beef than with the medium elaborated with cooked ham or dry-cured sausage.
This Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment (QMRA) represents a major step forward in terms of modelling Salmonella in pigs from farm to consumption as it takes into account the variability between and within EU Member States (MSs). Around 10-20% of human Salmonella infections in EU may...
Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau
of verocytotoxins alone or genes encoding such verocytotoxins does not provide a sound scientific basis on which to assess risk to the consumer because there is no single or combination of marker(s) that fully define a ‘pathogenic’ VTEC. Strains positive for verocytotoxin 2 gene(vtx2)- and eae (intimin production...
Stocker, Thomas F.; Qin, Dahe; Plattner, Gian-Kasper; Tignor, Melinda M.B.; Allen, Simon K.; Boschung, Judith; Nauels, Alexander; Xia, Yu; Bex, Vincent; Midgley, Pauline M.; Alexander, Lisa V.; Allen, Simon K.; Bindoff, Nathaniel L.; Breon, Francois-Marie; Church, John A.; Cubasch, Ulrich; Emori, Seita; Forster, Piers; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gillett, Nathan; Gregory, Jonathan M.; Hartmann, Dennis L.; Jansen, Eystein; Kirtman, Ben; Knutti, Reto; Kumar Kanikicharla, Krishna; Lemke, Peter; Marotzke, Jochem; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Meehl, Gerald A.; Mokhov, Igor I.; Piao, Shilong; Plattner, Gian-Kasper; Dahe, Qin; Ramaswamy, Venkatachalam; Randall, David; Rhein, Monika; Rojas, Maisa; Sabine, Christopher; Shindell, Drew; Stocker, Thomas F.; Talley, Lynne D.; Vaughan, David G.; Xie, Shang-Ping; Allen, Myles R.; Boucher, Olivier; Chambers, Don; Hesselbjerg Christensen, Jens; Ciais, Philippe; Clark, Peter U.; Collins, Matthew; Comiso, Josefino C.; Vasconcellos de Menezes, Viviane; Feely, Richard A.; Fichefet, Thierry; Fiore, Arlene M.; Flato, Gregory; Fuglestvedt, Jan; Hegerl, Gabriele; Hezel, Paul J.; Johnson, Gregory C.; Kaser, Georg; Kattsov, Vladimir; Kennedy, John; Klein Tank, Albert M.G.; Le Quere, Corinne; Myhre, Gunnar; Osborn, Timothy; Payne, Antony J.; Perlwitz, Judith; Power, Scott; Prather, Michael; Rintoul, Stephen R.; Rogelj, Joeri; Rusticucci, Matilde; Schulz, Michael; Sedlacek, Jan; Stott, Peter A.; Sutton, Rowan; Thorne, Peter W.; Wuebbles, Donald
The Working Group I contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) provides a comprehensive assessment of the physical science basis of climate change. It builds upon the Working Group I contribution to the IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report in 2007 and incorporates subsequent new findings from the Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation, as well as from research published in the extensive scientific and technical literature. The assessment considers new evidence of past, present and projected future climate change based on many independent scientific analyses from observations of the climate system, paleo-climate archives, theoretical studies of climate processes and simulations using climate models. During the process of scoping and approving the outline of its Fifth Assessment Report, the IPCC focussed on those aspects of the current understanding of the science of climate change that were judged to be most relevant to policy-makers. In this report, Working Group I has extended coverage of future climate change compared to earlier reports by assessing near-term projections and predictability as well as long-term projections and irreversibility in two separate chapters. Following the decisions made by the Panel during the scoping and outline approval, a set of new scenarios, the Representative Concentration Pathways, are used across all three Working Groups for projections of climate change over the 21. century. The coverage of regional information in the Working Group I report is expanded by specifically assessing climate phenomena such as monsoon systems and their relevance to future climate change in the regions. The Working Group I Report is an assessment, not a review or a text book of climate science, and is based on the published scientific and technical literature available up to 15 March 2013. Underlying all aspects of the report is a
Tryland, M; Nesbakken, T; Robertson, L; Grahek-Ogden, D; Lunestad, B T
Only a few countries worldwide hunt seals and whales commercially. In Norway, hooded and harp seals and minke whales are commercially harvested, and coastal seals (harbour and grey seals) are hunted as game. Marine mammal meat is sold to the public and thus included in general microbiological meat control regulations. Slaughtering and dressing of marine mammals are performed in the open air on deck, and many factors on board sealing or whaling vessels may affect meat quality, such as the ice used for cooling whale meat and the seawater used for cleaning, storage of whale meat in the open air until ambient temperature is reached, and the hygienic conditions of equipment, decks, and other surfaces. Based on existing reports, it appears that meat of seal and whale does not usually represent a microbiological hazard to consumers in Norway, because human disease has not been associated with consumption of such foods. However, as hygienic control on marine mammal meat is ad hoc, mainly based on spot-testing, and addresses very few human pathogens, this conclusion may be premature. Additionally, few data from surveys or systematic quality control screenings have been published. This review examines the occurrence of potential human pathogens in marine mammals, as well as critical points for contamination of meat during the slaughter, dressing, cooling, storage and processing of meat. Some zoonotic agents are of particular relevance as foodborne pathogens, such as Trichinella spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Salmonella and Leptospira spp. In addition, Mycoplasma spp. parapoxvirus and Mycobacterium spp. constitute occupational risks during handling of marine mammals and marine mammal products. Adequate training in hygienic procedures is necessary to minimize the risk of contamination on board, and acquiring further data is essential for obtaining a realistic assessment of the microbiological risk to humans from consuming marine mammal meat.
Full Text Available An enlarged range of scallop products on the market allows the consumer to buy lower priced alternatives, which often raises the question of quality and control. Frozen meat of king scallops (Pecten maximus and Atlantic sea scallops (Placopecten magellanicus were purchased on the German market and compared with fresh shell-on king scallops of various origin. The approximate composition, inclusive citric acid and phosphates, minerals, free amino acids (FAA and fatty acid profiles were examined in the muscle to identify changes as a result of processing. The FAA glycine and taurine as well the fatty acids 20:5n-3 (EPA and 22:6n-3 (DHA were the most abundant, but were reduced in processed samples. Di- and triphosphate contents were not detectable (<0.01 g·kg−1 in untreated meats. Most frozen scallop products contained added citrates and polyphosphates and had distinctly higher water contents (up to 89% and an increased moisture to protein ratio (M/P (up to 9 compared with the fresh king scallops (78%, M/P < 5. Labelling of species, verified by PCR-based DNA analysis, and ingredients were not correct in each case. Overall results indicated no relevant differences in mineral content, except high sodium contents, resulting from additives. Labelling does not readily allow the consumer to recognize the extent of processing effects.
The effects of pre-slaughter adrenalization and of treatment with additives of semifinished poultry products were studied with a view to improving the storage quality of irradiated poultry. It was found that pre-slaughter adrenalization, pre-irradiation treatment with phosphates and, particularly, a combination of these two methods considerably delayed the formation of carbonyl compounds, the delay being somewhat greater in white meat. (E.T.)
Manca, Maria Grazia
The fatty acid composition of dietary fat has an important role in human nutrition because can help to reduce the risk of appearance of some diseases. In this work fatty acid profile of meat of Sarda suckling lamb was studied in order to improve meat fat quality in relation to human health. Aim of this thesis was firstly to assess the effect of different management systems, indoor vs. outdoor, on fatty acid profile of meat of Sarda suckling lamb. Lambs which followed their mother on pasture h...
Farouk, Mustafa M; Yoo, Michelle J Y; Hamid, Nazimah S A; Staincliffe, Maryann; Davies, Briar; Knowles, Scott O
Red meat enriched versions of bread, spaghetti, yoghurt, ice cream and chocolate were prototyped and assessed for some of their physical, chemical and microbiological properties, as well as sensory appeal. The protein content of the products were significantly increased and their colour went darker with meat enrichment (pice cream meltability and yoghurt apparent viscosity decreased with meat enrichment (pice cream and spaghetti were not affected (p>0.05) but that of non-flavoured ice cream and yoghurt went down (pindustry stretch its established business models, and encouraging further development of novel food choices for elderly and other groups of consumers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Whitburn, K.D.; Hoffman, M.Z.; Taub, I.A.
In ''A Re-Evaluation of the Products of Gamma Irradiation of Beef Ferrimyoglobin'', J. Food Sci. 46:1814 (1981), authors Whitburn, Hoffman and Taub state that color pigment myoglobin (Mb) undergoes chemical changes during irradiation that cause color changes in meat. They also state that they are in disagreement with Giddings and Markakis, J. Food Sci. 47:361 (1972) in regard to generation of MbO 2 in deaerated solutions, claiming their analysis demonstrates only Mb and Mb(IV) production. Giddings, in a letter, suggests that Whitburn, et al may have used differing systems and approaches which critically changed the radiation chemistry. He also states that radiation sterilization of aerobically packaged meats affects color only slightly. Whitburn, in a reply, shares Dr. Giddings concern for caution in interpretation of results for this system. The compositional changes are dependent on identity of free radicals, dose, O 2 and the time of analysis after irradiation. The quantification of these parameters in pure systems, sarcoplasma extracts and in meat samples should lead to a better understanding of color change mechanisms and how to minimize them
Full Text Available There is an increasing consumer demand for food products which are free of chemical additives, reduced in salt and processed as little as possible. These minimally processed foods require special application to assure their microbiological safety. The use of microorganisms and enzymes for food preservatives is called biopreservation. The most important group of microorganisms with antimicrobial effect used in the production of foods is the lactic acid bacteria. In meats although lactic acid bacteria constitue apart of the initial microflora, they become dominant during the processing of meats. In this research bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria and their usage in meat and meat products for biopreservation are discussed.
Komariah (Komariah); Sri Rahayu; Sarjito (Sarjito)
Physical characteristic of meat is very important in processing since it will determine the quality and type of processing being made. Meat characteristics of each livestock may different, but it is thought to be the same. Society in general assess the characteristics of buffalo and lamb meat with reference to the characteristics of beef, so that the processing of meat into processed meat products often have different outcomes. The aim of the experiment was to study the physical character...
Huang, Huiting; Gao, Lirong; Zheng, Minghui; Li, Jingguang; Zhang, Lei; Wu, Yongning; Wang, Runhua; Xia, Dan; Qiao, Lin; Cui, Lili; Su, Guijin; Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Guorui
Food intake is one of the main pathways of human exposure to chlorinated paraffins (CPs). This study assessed the dietary exposure for the general Chinese population to short-chain chlorinated paraffin (SCCPs) and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (MCCPs) through meat and meat products. Twenty samples of meat and meat products from 20 Chinese provinces were collected in 2011. As the sampling sites covered about two-thirds of the Chinese population, the meat samples were considered to be representative of the true characteristics of CPs contamination in Chinese meat products. The concentrations of SCCPs and MCCPs in the meat samples were measured using the comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography electron capture negative ionization high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry method. Forty-eight SCCP and MCCP homolog groups were detected in the meat samples. The mean SCCP and MCCP concentrations in all meat samples were 129 ± 4.1 ng g -1 wet weight and 5.7 ± 0.59 ng g -1 wet weight, respectively. The concentrations of SCCPs and MCCPs varied in samples from different provinces. The geographical distribution of CP concentrations was similar to the distribution of CPs manufacturing plants in China. The most abundant groups of SCCPs in all samples were C 10-11 Cl 6-7 , and the most abundant groups of MCCPs in most samples were C 14 Cl 7-8 . The possible sources of SCCPs and MCCPs in meat and meat products might be CP-42 and CP-52. The 50th percentile estimated daily intakes of SCCPs and MCCPs through meat consumption for a "standard" Chinese adult male were 0.13 and 0.0047 μg kg -1 bw d -1 , respectively, both much lower than the tolerable daily intakes (TDIs) for SCCPs and MCCPs. This preliminary risk assessment has indicated that the indirect exposure of SCCPs and MCCPs through meat consumption does not pose significant risk to human health in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L
The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a
Eigensatz, Michael; Kilian, Martin; Schiftner, Alexander; Mitra, Niloy J.; Pottmann, Helmut; Pauly, Mark
with a selected technology at reasonable cost, while meeting the design intent and achieving the desired aesthetic quality of panel layout and surface smoothness. The production of curved panels is mostly based on molds. Since the cost of mold fabrication
Hoek, A.C.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Voordouw, J.; Luning, P.A.
New meat substitutes need to be recognized as alternatives to meat. We therefore investigated which category representations consumers have of meat and meat substitutes. Thirty-four non-vegetarian participants performed a free sorting task with 17 meat products and 19 commercially available meat
By means of a panel discussion and extensive audience interaction, explore the current challenges and progress to date in applying risk considerations to decisionmaking related to low-level waste. This topic is especially timely because of the proposed legislation pertaining to risk-based decisionmaking and because of the increased emphasis placed on radiological performance assessments of low-level waste disposal.
Hall, Michael J; Forman, Andrea D; Pilarski, Robert; Wiesner, Georgia; Giri, Veda N
Next-generation sequencing technologies have ushered in the capability to assess multiple genes in parallel for genetic alterations that may contribute to inherited risk for cancers in families. Thus, gene panel testing is now an option in the setting of genetic counseling and testing for cancer risk. This article describes the many gene panel testing options clinically available to assess inherited cancer susceptibility, the potential advantages and challenges associated with various types of panels, clinical scenarios in which gene panels may be particularly useful in cancer risk assessment, and testing and counseling considerations. Given the potential issues for patients and their families, gene panel testing for inherited cancer risk is recommended to be offered in conjunction or consultation with an experienced cancer genetic specialist, such as a certified genetic counselor or geneticist, as an integral part of the testing process. Copyright © 2014 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.
controls. Neither Polyisobutene nor Hydrogenated Polyisobutene were ocular irritants, nor were they dermal irritants or sensitizers. Polyisobutene was not comedogenic in a rabbit ear study. Polyisobutene did not induce transformation in the Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cell transformation assay, but did enhance 3-methylcholanthrene-induced transformation of C3H/10T1/2 cells. In a carcinogenicity study in mice, Polyisobutene was not carcinogenic, nor did it promote the carcinogenicity of 7,12-dimethylbenz(alpha)anthracene. Clinical patch tests uncovered no evidence of dermal irritation and repeat-insult patch tests with a product containing 4% Hydrogenated Polyisobutene or 1.44% Hydrogenated Polyisobutene found no reactions greater than slight erythema. These products also were not phototoxic or photoallergenic. The product containing 4% Hydrogenated Polyisobutene was not an ocular irritant in a clinical test. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel recognized that there are data gaps regarding use and concentration of these ingredients. However, the overall information available on the types of products in which these ingredients are used and at what concentrations indicate a pattern of use, which was considered by the Expert Panel in assessing safety. Although there is an absence of dermal absorption data for Polyisobutene and Hydrogenated Polyisobutene, the available octanol water partition coefficient data and the low solubility in water suggest very slow absorption, so additional data are not needed. Gastrointestinal absorption is also not a major concern due to the low solubility of these chemicals. Although one in vitro study did report that Polyisobutene did promote cellular transformation, a mouse study did not find evidence of tumor promotion. Because lifetime exposure studies using rats and dogs exposed to Polybutene failed to demonstrate any carcinogenic or tumor promotion effect, and a three-generation reproductive/developmental toxicity study produced
R. F. Galin
Full Text Available The article presents the results of studying the chemical composition of mullards duck meat in comparison with the ducks of the Beijingg white breed and musk ducks. The chemical analysis results allow us to note the high moisture content for mullard duck meat. The low fat content for white and red mullard duck meat opens up wide opportunities for the development of an assortment of meat products with a functional orientation. The limited amino acids are determined. The total number of essential amino acids in the mullard duck meat is higher than in musk (by 1.02 g / 100 g protein and Beijingg (by 0.86 g / 100 g protein, which indicates a higher biological value. The limiting amino acid is methionine and cysteine. The article presents the results of the raw material aroma assessment using the "MAG 8" - "electronic nose" analyzer. The content of easily volatile compounds in the equilibrium gas phase for samples of muscle and fat tissue from ducks of different breeding was compared and evaluated. The most informative in the matrix are sensors with films of polydiethylene glycol succinate, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyethylene glycol PEG-2000, 18-crown-6, trioctylphosphine oxidase, which show maximum sensitivity to polar and nitrogen-containing compounds, aromatic hydrocarbons. This is explained by the fact that the easily volatile fraction of both meat and fat of the samples under study is represented by a variety of organic compounds of different concentrations. Such a variety of substances can be perceived by tasters as "a noticeable smell, difficult". In accordance with the results obtained, we concluded that the aroma of muscle and fat tissue of mulard ducks is more intense, more saturated than the Beijingg duck. The obtained data on the chemical composition indicate possible dietary properties of meat of ducks of mullards. The rich, pronounced aroma of muscle and fatty tissue causes high organoleptic parameters of the finished product, which is
A. B. Lisitsyn
Full Text Available Abstract Use of the prediction technologies is one of the directions of the research work carried out both in Russia and abroad. Meat processing is accompanied by the complex physico-chemical, biochemical and mechanical processes. To predict the behavior of meat raw material during the technological processing, a complex of physico-technological and structural-mechanical indicators, which objectively reflects its quality, is used. Among these indicators are pH value, water binding and fat holding capacities, water activity, adhesiveness, viscosity, plasticity and so on. The paper demonstrates the influence of animal proteins (beef and pork on the physico-chemical and functional properties before and after thermal treatment of minced meat made from meat raw material with different content of the connective and fat tissues. On the basis of the experimental data, the model (stochastic dependence parameters linking the quantitative resultant and factor variables were obtained using the regression analysis, and the degree of the correlation with the experimental data was assessed. The maximum allowable levels of meat raw material replacement with animal proteins (beef and pork were established by the methods of mathematical programming. Use of the information technologies will significantly reduce the costs of the experimental search and substantiation of the optimal level of replacement of meat raw material with animal proteins (beef, pork, and will also allow establishing a relationship of product quality indicators with quantity and quality of minced meat ingredients.
Vera Lúcia Ferreira de Souza; Jaqueline Yumi Sasaki; Maria Luiza Rodrigues de Souza Franco; Maria José Baptista Barbosa; Rejane Machado Cardozo
The objective of this study was to assess the potential utilization of ostrich meat trimming in hamburger preparation, as well as its physicochemical and sensory characterization. Using ostrich meat trimmings from the legs and neck, four different formulations were prepared with varied amounts of bacon and textured soybean protein. Physical analysis of yield, shrinkage percentage, and water retention capacity and chemical analysis of proximate composition, cholesterol levels, and calories wer...
ATALIĆ, BRUNO; TOTH, JURICA; ATALIĆ, VLASTA; RADANOVIĆ, DANIJELA; MIŠKULIN, MAJA; LUČIN, ANA
Aims: The British National Diet and Nutrition 2000/1 Survey data set records on 1,724 respondents (766 males and 958 females) were analyzed in order to assess the potential influences of red and processed meat intakes on cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: Linear regression of the associations of the red, processed, combination of red and processed, and total meat intakes with body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure and plasma total cholesterol as cardiovascular risk factors was cond...
Fenger, Morten H. J.; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Hansen, Flemming
related to stimulation seeking and hedonism and with a tendency towards variety seeking – reacted positively to the new product, others were less interested. The introduction of elements of storytelling, however, had a favorable effect on choice for the segment previously less interested. Thus......Continuous food product improvements require communication that induces consumers to test the new products. The paper presents an experiment that investigated the characteristics of consumers who reacted positively to variations of a new meat product, and explores the effect of short storytelling...... messages on choice. 1087 Danish consumers were presented with binary choice sets consisting of conventional and new variations of a cubed ham product; half of the respondents in addition saw short storytelling messages. It was found that while some consumers – especially those characterized by values...
Manthey-Karl, Monika; Lehmann, Ines; Ostermeyer, Ute; Rehbein, Hartmut; Schröder, Ute
An enlarged range of scallop products on the market allows the consumer to buy lower priced alternatives, which often raises the question of quality and control. Frozen meat of king scallops (Pecten maximus) and Atlantic sea scallops (Placopecten magellanicus) were purchased on the German market and compared with fresh shell-on king scallops of various origin. The approximate composition, inclusive citric acid and phosphates, minerals, free amino acids (FAA) and fatty acid profiles were examined in the muscle to identify changes as a result of processing. The FAA glycine and taurine as well the fatty acids 20:5n-3 (EPA) and 22:6n-3 (DHA) were the most abundant, but were reduced in processed samples. Di- and triphosphate contents were not detectable (additives. Labelling does not readily allow the consumer to recognize the extent of processing effects. PMID:28231221
Ferrucci, Leah M; Sinha, Rashmi; Graubard, Barry I; Mayne, Susan T; Ma, Xiaomei; Schatzkin, Arthur; Schoenfeld, Philip S; Cash, Brooks D; Flood, Andrew; Cross, Amanda J
No previous study has concurrently assessed the associations between meat intake, meat-cooking methods and doneness levels, meat mutagens (heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), heme iron, and nitrite from meat and colorectal adenoma in asymptomatic women undergoing colonoscopy. Of the 807 eligible women in a cross-sectional multicenter colonoscopy screening study, 158 prevalent colorectal adenoma cases and 649 controls satisfactorily completed the validated food frequency and meat questionnaires. Using an established meat mutagen database and new heme iron and nitrite databases, we comprehensively investigated the components of meat that may be involved in carcinogenesis. Using logistic regression, we estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) within quartiles of meat-related variables. Red meat was associated positively with colorectal adenoma (OR fourth vs. first quartile = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.06-3.83; P trend = 0.38). Intake of pan-fried meat (OR = 1.72; 95% CI = 0.96-3.07; P trend = 0.01) and the HCA: 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) (OR = 1.90; 95% CI = 1.05-3.42; P trend = 0.07) were also associated with an increased risk of colorectal adenoma. The new databases yielded lower estimates of heme iron and nitrite than previous assessment methods, although the two methods were highly correlated for both exposures. Although not statistically significant, there were positive associations between iron and heme iron from meat and colorectal adenoma. In asymptomatic women undergoing colonoscopy, colorectal adenomas were associated with high intake of red meat, pan-fried meat, and the HCA MeIQx. Other meat-related exposures require further investigation.
Bekker, Gerben A; Fischer, Arnout R H; Tobi, Hilde; van Trijp, Hans C M
Cultured meat is an unfamiliar emerging food technology that could provide a near endless supply of high quality protein with a relatively small ecological footprint. To understand consumer acceptance of cultured meat, this study investigated the influence of information provision on the explicit and implicit attitude toward cultured meat. Three experiments were conducted using a Solomon four-group design to rule out pretest sensitization effects. The first experiment (N = 190) showed that positive or negative information about cultured meat changed the explicit attitude in the direction of the information. This effect was smaller for participants who were more familiar with cultured meat. In the second experiment (N = 194) positive information was provided about solar panels, an attitude object belonging to the same sustainable product category as sustainable food products such as cultured meat. Positive information about solar panels was found to change the explicit attitude in the direction of the information. Using mood induction, the third experiment (N = 192) ruled out the alternative explanation that explicit attitude change in experiment 1 and 2 was caused by content free affect rather than category based inferences. The implicit attitude appeared insensitive to both information or mood state in all three experiments. These findings show that the explicit attitude toward cultured meat can be influenced by information about the sustainability of cultured meat and information about a positively perceived sustainable product. This effect was shown to be content based rather than merely affect based. Content based information in a relevant context could therefore contribute to the commercial success of cultured meat. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Borch, E.; Kant-Muermans, M.L.T.; Blixt, Y.
The influence of environmental factors (product composition and storage conditions) on the selection, growth rate and metabolic activity of the bacterial flora is presented for meat (pork and beef) and cooked, cured meat products. The predominant bacteria associated with spoilage of refrigerated
Breast meat yield, chemical composition, mineral profile and linear measurement of the resultant breast meat Supracoracoides and Pectoralis thoracicus of one hundred and eighty (28 days old BUT) male turkeys fed diet containing wheat or sorghum as sole cereal source were studied. One hundred and eighty 28-days old ...
Z. Tolušić; T. Florijančić; I. Kralik; M. Sesar; M. Tolušić
In the Republic of Croatia, game meat is consumed far less than meat of domestic animals. Yearly game meat consumption amounts to only 0.55 kg per household member. Consumers prefer meat of domestic animals, because it is cheaper, not paying attention to specific nutritive advantages of game meat. A research on the game meat market and consumers’ preferences was carried out on 101 examinees, chosen among inhabitants of Slavonia and Baranja. The majority of questioned inhabitants did consume g...
Stroes, Erik S.; Thompson, Paul D.; Corsini, Alberto; Vladutiu, Georgirene D.; Raal, Frederick J.; Ray, Kausik K.; Roden, Michael; Stein, Evan; Tokgözoğlu, Lale; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Bruckert, Eric; de Backer, Guy; Krauss, Ronald M.; Laufs, Ulrich; Santos, Raul D.; Hegele, Robert A.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Leiter, Lawrence A.; Mach, Francois; März, Winfried; Newman, Connie B.; Wiklund, Olov; Jacobson, Terry A.; Catapano, Alberico L.; Chapman, M. John; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Leiter, Lawrence
Statin-associated muscle symptoms (SAMS) are one of the principal reasons for statin non-adherence and/or discontinuation, contributing to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. This European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) Consensus Panel overviews current understanding of the pathophysiology of
The Federal Court noted four deficiencies in the joint EUB-CEAA environmental review dated September 12, 2000 for the Cheviot Coal Project. The Joint Review Panel reconvened to hear additional evidence about these deficiencies. This memorandum to cabinet comprises the Government of Canada's response to the additional evidence. Some of the Panel's recommendations are accepted. Comments are included regarding migratory birds, protection of traditional aboriginal sites, economic benefits, grizzly bears, and fish habitat.
... color. It can also occur when vegetables containing nitrites are cooked along with the meat. Because doneness and safety cannot be judged by ... or greenish cast when exposed to heat and processing. Wrapping the meat in airtight packages and storing it away from ...
A. K. Mikhailenko
Full Text Available The level of toxicants was studied, and the biological value of sheep meat in the area of anthropogenic influence was checked up. The level of toxicants in meat depends straight on the age of animals.
Mensvoort, van K.M.; Grievink, H.J.
With the world's population expected to reach nine billion people by 2050, it becomes impossible to produce and consume meat like we do today. In vitro meat, grown from cells in a laboratory, could provide a sustainable and animal-friendly alternative. Yet, before we can decide if we are willing to
Hamdan, Mohammad Naqib; Post, Mark J; Ramli, Mohd Anuar; Mustafa, Amin Rukaini
Cultured meat is a promising product that is derived through biotechnology that partially circumvents animal physiology, thereby being potentially more sustainable, environmentally friendly and animal friendly than traditional livestock meat. Such a novel technology that can impact many consumers evokes ethical, philosophical and religious discussions. For the Islamic community, the crucial question is whether cultured meat is halal, meaning compliant with Islamic laws. Since the culturing of meat is a new discovery, invention and innovation by scientists that has never been discussed by classical jurists (fuqaha'), an ijtihad by contemporary jurists must look for and provide answers for every technology introduced, whether it comply the requirements of Islamic law or not. So, this article will discuss an Islamic perspective on cultured meat based on the original scripture in the Qur'an and interpretations by authoritative Islamic jurists. The halal status of cultured meat can be resolve through identifying the source cell and culture medium used in culturing the meat. The halal cultured meat can be obtained if the stem cell is extracted from a (Halal) slaughtered animal, and no blood or serum is used in the process. The impact of this innovation will give positive results in the environmental and sustain the livestock industry.
Wang, Z H; Zhai, F Y; Wang, H J; Zhang, J G; Du, W W; Su, C; Zhang, J; Jiang, H R; Zhang, B
Several studies have suggested differential health effects in relation to different meat composition in Western population. The purpose of the study was to examine secular trends in meat and seafood consumption patterns among Chinese adults between 1991 and 2011. Our longitudinal data are from 21,144 adults aged 18-75 in the China Health and Nutrition Survey, prospective cohort study. We assessed the intakes of meat and subtypes with three 24-h dietary recalls. We conducted multilevel mixed-effect logistic and linear regression models to examine meat consumption dynamics. The proportions of Chinese adults who consumed red meat, poultry and seafood increased from 65.7% in 1991 to 86.1% in 2011, from 7.5 to 20.9% and from 27.4 to 37.8%, respectively. With rapid decrease in meat intakes since 2009, the intakes of total meat, red meat, poultry and seafood among their consumers were 86.7 g/day, 86.4 g/day, 71.0 g/day and 70.3 g/day in 2011, respectively, which were just slightly higher compared with those in 1991. Fatty fresh pork has been predominantly component of total meat overtime, which consituted 54.0% of total meat intake, 80.0% of fresh red meat intake and 98.7% of fatty fresh red meat intake in 2011. Over the past two decades, meat consumption patterns of Chinese adults have been characterized by having a predominant intake of fatty fresh pork, suboptimal intakes of seafood and increased proportion of adults having excessive intakes of red meat and poultry overtime.
Van Loo, Ellen J; Alali, Walid; Ricke, Steven C
The organic meat industry in the United States has grown substantially in the past decade in response to consumer demand for nonconventionally produced products. Consumers are often not aware that the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) organic standards are based only on the methods used for production and processing of the product and not on the product's safety. Food safety hazards associated with organic meats remain unclear because of the limited research conducted to determine the safety of organic meat from farm-to-fork. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the published results on the microbiological safety of organic meats. In addition, antimicrobial resistance of microbes in organic food animal production is addressed. Determining the food safety risks associated with organic meat production requires systematic longitudinal studies that quantify the risks of microbial and nonmicrobial hazards from farm-to-fork.
Bogdanov, Bogdan; Gonev, Mihajlo; Tadzher, Isak
Iodine deficiency in Macedonia still persists in a mild form. In 1999 the iodination of salt rose to 20 m gr iodine in Kg salt. The consumption of salt diminished after the last war from 20-30 gr salt per day to 10-20 gr salt daily. This shows that the problem of the elimination of iodine deficiency is being vigorously tackled. Since 1956 the iodine in salt in Macedonia rose to 10 m gr KI/Kg salt. The content of iodine in the Macedonian diet seems to be important. The amount of iodine in milk, eggs and bread is low as found by the investigation of MANU. The content of iodine in meat is low, compared to British meat is 10 times lower. The average iodine content in Macedonian meat is 95.15 micro gr per Kg, whereas in British meat it is 850-1510 micro gr iodine per k gr meat. (Original)
This paper discusses the management of meat tenderness using a carcass grading scheme which utilizes the concept of total quality management of those factors which impact on beef palatability. The scheme called Meat Standards Australia (MSA) has identified the Critical Control Points (CCPs) from the production, pre-slaughter, processing and value adding sectors of the beef supply chain and quantified their relative importance using large-scale consumer testing. These CCPs have been used to manage beef palatability in two ways. Firstly, CCPs from the pre-slaughter and processing sectors have been used as mandatory criteria for carcasses to be graded. Secondly, other CCPs from the production and processing sectors have been incorporated into a model to predict palatability for individual muscles. The evidence for the importance of CCPs from the production (breed, growth path and HGP implants), pre-slaughter and processing (pH/temperature window, alternative carcass suspension, marbling and ageing) sectors are reviewed and the accuracy of the model to predict palatability for specific muscle×cooking techniques is presented.
Gallagher, Daniel; Ebel, Eric D; Gallagher, Owen; Labarre, David; Williams, Michael S; Golden, Neal J; Pouillot, Régis; Dearfield, Kerry L; Kause, Janell
This report illustrates how the uncertainty about food safety metrics may influence the selection of a performance objective (PO). To accomplish this goal, we developed a model concerning Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat (RTE) deli meats. This application used a second order Monte Carlo model that simulates L. monocytogenes concentrations through a series of steps: the food-processing establishment, transport, retail, the consumer's home and consumption. The model accounted for growth inhibitor use, retail cross contamination, and applied an FAO/WHO dose response model for evaluating the probability of illness. An appropriate level of protection (ALOP) risk metric was selected as the average risk of illness per serving across all consumed servings-per-annum and the model was used to solve for the corresponding performance objective (PO) risk metric as the maximum allowable L. monocytogenes concentration (cfu/g) at the processing establishment where regulatory monitoring would occur. Given uncertainty about model inputs, an uncertainty distribution of the PO was estimated. Additionally, we considered how RTE deli meats contaminated at levels above the PO would be handled by the industry using three alternative approaches. Points on the PO distribution represent the probability that - if the industry complies with a particular PO - the resulting risk-per-serving is less than or equal to the target ALOP. For example, assuming (1) a target ALOP of -6.41 log10 risk of illness per serving, (2) industry concentrations above the PO that are re-distributed throughout the remaining concentration distribution and (3) no dose response uncertainty, establishment PO's of -4.98 and -4.39 log10 cfu/g would be required for 90% and 75% confidence that the target ALOP is met, respectively. The PO concentrations from this example scenario are more stringent than the current typical monitoring level of an absence in 25 g (i.e., -1.40 log10 cfu/g) or a stricter criteria of absence
Santos, Ana; Cardoso, Margarida Fonseca; Costa, José M Correia da; Gomes-Neves, Eduarda
Butcher shops are end points in the meat chain, and they can have a determinant role in cross-contamination control. This study aims to determine whether Portuguese butcher shops comply with European and Portuguese law regarding the sale of fresh meat and meat products. Butcher shops (n = 73) were assessed for meat handler and facility hygiene and for maintenance of the premises. Handlers (n = 88) were given a questionnaire composed of questions about knowledge and practice, including hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) and good practice in food industry, to assess their knowledge of and compliance with food safety practices. A checklist of 27 items was used to evaluate facility and meat handler hygiene and butcher shop maintenance. Our results revealed some lack of compliance in all the areas evaluated. The mean knowledge and practice score among the operators was 68.0%, and the mean "visual inspection" score for the butcher shops was 64.0%. Severe deficiencies were observed in the mandatory implementation of HACCP principles in this type of small food business. These findings indicate a need to modify training to enhance compliance with European food safety regulations at this step of the meat chain.
The emergence of large-scale freeform shapes in architecture poses big challenges to the fabrication of such structures. A key problem is the approximation of the design surface by a union of patches, socalled panels, that can be manufactured with a selected technology at reasonable cost, while meeting the design intent and achieving the desired aesthetic quality of panel layout and surface smoothness. The production of curved panels is mostly based on molds. Since the cost of mold fabrication often dominates the panel cost, there is strong incentive to use the same mold for multiple panels. We cast the major practical requirements for architectural surface paneling, including mold reuse, into a global optimization framework that interleaves discrete and continuous optimization steps to minimize production cost while meeting user-specified quality constraints. The search space for optimization is mainly generated through controlled deviation from the design surface and tolerances on positional and normal continuity between neighboring panels. A novel 6-dimensional metric space allows us to quickly compute approximate inter-panel distances, which dramatically improves the performance of the optimization and enables the handling of complex arrangements with thousands of panels. The practical relevance of our system is demonstrated by paneling solutions for real, cutting-edge architectural freeform design projects. © 2010 ACM.
The emergence of large-scale freeform shapes in architecture poses big challenges to the fabrication of such structures. A key problem is the approximation of the design surface by a union of patches, so-called panels, that can be manufactured with a selected technology at reasonable cost, while meeting the design intent and achieving the desired aesthetic quality of panel layout and surface smoothness. The production of curved panels is mostly based on molds. Since the cost of mold fabrication often dominates the panel cost, there is strong incentive to use the same mold for multiple panels. We cast the major practical requirements for architectural surface paneling, including mold reuse, into a global optimization framework that interleaves discrete and continuous optimization steps to minimize production cost while meeting user-specified quality constraints. The search space for optimization is mainly generated through controlled deviation from the design surface and tolerances on positional and normal continuity between neighboring panels. A novel 6-dimensional metric space allows us to quickly compute approximate inter-panel distances, which dramatically improves the performance of the optimization and enables the handling of complex arrangements with thousands of panels. The practical relevance of our system is demonstrated by paneling solutions for real, cutting-edge architectural freeform design projects.
Paulos, Kátia; Rodrigues, Sandra; Oliveira, António Filipe; Leite, Ana; Pereira, Etelvina; Teixeira, Alfredo
The main objective of this study was the sensory characterization, by a taste and a consumers' panel, of fresh sausages from 140 culled goats and 140 culled ewes. Species and type of preparation effects were studied. All data were previously analyzed by analysis of variance. Taste panel data were analyzed by a Generalized Procrustes Analysis (GPA). Consumers' panel data were analyzed by Preference Mapping. The 1st 2 factors explained 88.22% of total variation in GPA. Different sausages samples were perfectly differentiated by assessors. Goat sausages have been considered harder, more fibrous, and less juicy than sheep sausages. The panelists observed that sheep sausages without paprika had greater intensity of flavor, tasted spicy, and had an off-odor, while goat sausages with paprika were considered sweeter. Consumers' panel did not show any preference for the different types of sausages. This means that all types of sausages can have market opportunity. The present study was a result of a project in co-promotion between 2 breeder associations, an industry unit and a research center. Results indicated that the meat from animals out of quality commercial brands could be useful as processed meat in a product with consumer acceptability. Also these new meat products brought diversity to meat industry to reach new markets and originating 2 new meat brands recorded at INPI (Instituto Nacional da Propriedade Industrial—Natl. Industrial Property Inst.) with the numbers of 489664 and 489662 of National Brands of sheep and goat meat, respectively. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®
Macfarlane, J.J.; Eustace, I.J.; Grau, F.H.
The radiation treatments that have received most attention with respect to red meats are radappertization, i.e. radiation sterilization (25-70 kGy), to enable the long term storage of meat without refrigeration, and radurization (0.5-10 kGy) in which a sufficient proportion of spoilage organisms are inactivated to enable the storage life of chilled meat to be extended. Shelf-stable radappertized meats cannot be produced in the fresh-like condition; they need to be heated to about 70 deg. C to inactivate endogenous enzymes that would otherwise cause flavour and texture defects. The products should be vacuum sealed in oxgyen-impermeable packages and irradiated in the frozen state, otherwise pronounced off-flavours and off-odours are formed. The radiation dose required to give a useful degree of microbial inactivation and permit an increase of storage life depends upon treatment and storage conditions. The dose required is likely to be in the range 0.25 to 1.0 kGy if aerobic conditions apply, and 1 to 4 kGy if anaerobic conditions apply. An acceleration in the rate of development of rancidity in meat as a result of irradiation may be of concern when meat is treated under aerobic conditions. At the highest dose indicated above for meat irradiated under anaerobic conditions (4 kGy), effects on the organoleptic attributes of mutton have been detected
Fogelholm, M; Kanerva, N; Männistö, S
High consumption of meat has been linked with the risk for obesity and chronic diseases. This could partly be explained by the association between meat and lower-quality diet. We studied whether high intake of red and processed meat was associated with lower-quality dietary habits, assessed against selected nutrients, other food groups and total diet. Moreover, we studied whether meat consumption was associated with obesity, after adjustment for all identified associations between meat and food consumption. The nationally representative cross-sectional study population consisted of 2190 Finnish men and 2530 women, aged 25-74 years. Food consumption over the previous 12 months was assessed using a validated 131-item Food Frequency Questionnaire. Associations between nutrients, foods, a modified Baltic Sea Diet Score and meat consumption (quintile classification) were analysed using linear regression. The models were adjusted for age and energy intake and additionally for education, physical activity and smoking. High consumption of red and processed meat was inversely associated with fruits, whole grain and nuts, and positively with potatoes, oil and coffee in both sexes. Results separately for the two types of meat were essentially similar. In a linear regression analysis, high consumption of meat was positively associated with body mass index in both men and women, even when using a model adjusted for all foods with a significant association with meat consumption in both sexes identified in this study. The association between meat consumption and a lower-quality diet may complicate studies on meat and health.
Full Text Available Abstract Electronic noses are devices able to characterize and differentiate the aroma profiles of various food, especially meat and meat products. During recent years e-noses have been widely used in food analysis and proved to provide a fast, simple, non-expensive and non-destructive method of food assessment and quality control. The aim of this study is to summarize the most important features of this analytic tool and to present basic fields and typical areas of e-nose use as well as most commonly used sensor types and patterns for e-nose design. Prospects for the future development of this technique are presented. Methods and research results presented in this manuscript may be a guideline for practical e-nose use.
Wada, Keiko; Oba, Shino; Tsuji, Michiko; Tamura, Takashi; Konishi, Kie; Goto, Yuko; Mizuta, Fumi; Koda, Sachi; Hori, Akihiro; Tanabashi, Shinobu; Matsushita, Shogen; Tokimitsu, Naoki; Nagata, Chisato
Compared with the abundant data from Western countries, evidence regarding meat consumption and colorectal cancer is limited in the Japanese population. We evaluated colorectal cancer risk in relation to meat consumption in a population?based prospective cohort study in Japan. Participants were 13 957 men and 16 374 women aged ?35 years in September 1992. Meat intake, assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire, was controlled for the total energy intake. The incidence of colorecta...
Full Text Available A study was conducted to investigate the effect of two dietary energy sources, soy bean oil, and sucrose on regulatory mechanisms of meat preservation. Twenty one day-old Hubbard commercial broilers were randomly allocated into two dietary treatment groups with six replicates per treatment, and four broilers per replicate. All birds were coded for the influence of energy source: fat based diet (FD, and sugar based diet (SD. Formulated grower diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. The chickens were slaughtered and then boneless, skinless ground chicken tight meat was prepared. Both raw and cooked meats were analyzed for lipid and protein oxidation, and sensory panel evaluation. In addition, meat from the small muscles of the raw thigh was used to evaluate other meat quality characteristics. Proximate analyses showed no significant differences between both dietary treatments on protein, ash and moisture percentage values. Meat samples of the group that was fed FD showed higher significant values of both TBARS and total carbonyl at day 7 of storage time. However, samples of the second group (Fed SD showed lower values of both ultimate pH and water separation % using raw thigh meat. The effect of FD treatment on the meat composition appeared clearly especially on fat percentage content. In addition, meat samples obtained from chickens fed SD showed better significant values of the overall acceptability attribute. According to the current findings, sucrose could be an excellent alternative to oil in dietary broilers which improved the meat preservation bio-system, and post-mortem storage stability.
A composite panel having front and back faces, the panel comprising facing reinforcement, backing reinforcement and matrix material binding to the facing and backing reinforcements, the facing and backing reinforcements each independently comprising one or more reinforcing sheets, the facing rein...... by matrix material, the facing and backing reinforcements being interconnected to resist out-of-plane relative movement. The reinforced composite panel is useful as a barrier element for shielding structures, equipment and personnel from blast and/or ballistic impact damage....
Mousing, Jan; Kyrval, J.; Jensen, Tim Kåre
The consequences of a change from a traditional meat inspection procedure, including manual handling, palpation and incision, to an entirely postmortem meat inspection procedure in Danish slaughter pigs were assessed by a comparative study of the two methods in 188,383 slaughter pigs. Out of 58...... lesion codes (selected with a prevalence less-than-or-equal-to 5.5 x 10(-5)), 26 (45 percent) were assessed either as merely aesthetic or as the healed stage of an earlier lesion and nine (15 percent) as active, but local processes, occurring only in non-edible tissue. Five lesion codes (9 percent) were...... assessed as active, non-abscessal processes occurring in edible tissue, caused by swine-specific pathogens and 10 (17 percent) were abscessal or pyaemic lesions occurring in edible tissue. Seven lesion codes (12 percent) may be associated with consumer health hazards (two frequently and five rarely...
Diver, Jr., Richard B.; Grossman, James W [Albuquerque, NM; Reshetnik, Michael [Boulder, CO
A solar collector comprising a glass mirror, and a composite panel, wherein the back of the mirror is affixed to a front surface of the composite panel. The composite panel comprises a front sheet affixed to a surface of a core material, preferably a core material comprising a honeycomb structure, and a back sheet affixed to an opposite surface of the core material. The invention may further comprise a sealing strip, preferably comprising EPDM, positioned between the glass mirror and the front surface of the composite panel. The invention also is of methods of making such solar collectors.
The consumption of animal flesh food in Ethiopia has associated with cultural practices. Meat plays pivotal and vital parts in special occasions and its cultural symbolic weight is markedly greater than that accorded to most other food. Processing and cooking of poultry is a gender based duty and has socio-cultural roles. Ethiopians are dependent on limited types of animals for meats due to the taboo associated culturally. Moreover, the consumption of meat and meat products has a very tidy association with religious beliefs, and are influenced by religions. The main religions of Ethiopia have their own peculiar doctrines of setting the feeding habits and customs of their followers. They influence meat products consumption through dictating the source animals that should be used or not be used for food, and scheduling the days of the years in periodical permeation and restriction of consumptions which in turn influences the pattern of meat consumption in the country. In Ethiopia, a cow or an ox is commonly butchered for the sole purpose of selling within the community. In special occasions, people have a cultural ceremony of slaughtering cow or ox and sharing among the group, called Kircha, which is a very common option of the people in rural area where access of meat is challenging frequently. PMID:26760739
H. O. Abdalla, N. N. A. Ali, F. S. Siddig and S. A. M. Ali*
Full Text Available Two experiments were performed to study the use of papaya leaves as a meat tenderizer. The first experiment was to evaluate the effect of papaya dry leaves added to hen’s diet before slaughter. Spent hens (n=48 were used, half of them were fed a concentrate ration containing10% dried papaya leaves powder (DPLP while others received layer ration (Control, for 10 days. The second experiment involved a comparison between papaya leaves juice (PLJ, fresh papaya leaves (FPL and vinegar solution (VS as marinades applied to meat for one or two hours before cooking. Spent layer hens (n=42 were used for tenderness evaluation method. After slaughtering and preparing the chickens two methods of cooking were used (oven and moist cooking. The cooked parts (breast, thigh and drumstick were subjected to a panel test evaluation according to a designed questionnaire. Addition of dried papaya leaves powder to spent layer hens ration significantly (P≤0.05 increased the level of meat tenderness. Moist cooking had significantly (P≤0.05 improved meat tenderization compared to oven cooking. Meat treated with fresh papaya leaves had significantly (P≤0.05 improved tenderness. It was concluded that wrapping the tough meat of spent layer hens with fresh papaya leaves for one hour and moist cooking improve tenderness of meat.
Christiansen, Asger Nyman; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Papadopoulou, Olga
classification methods: Naive Bayes Classifier as a reference model, Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA) and Support Vector Classification (SVC). As the final step, generalization of the models was performed using k-fold validation (k=10). Results showed that image analysis provided good discrimination of meat......In the present study, fresh beef fillets were purchased from a local butcher shop and stored aerobically and in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP, CO2 40%/O2 30%/N2 30%) at six different temperatures (0, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20°C). Microbiological analysis in terms of total viable counts (TVC......) was performed in parallel with videometer image snapshots and sensory analysis. Odour and colour characteristics of meat were determined by a test panel and attributed into three pre-characterized quality classes, namely Fresh; Semi Fresh and Spoiled during the days of its shelf life. So far, different...
Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevárez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto; Saenz-Soto, Leandro
Contact with raw meat could represent a risk for Toxocara infection. We assessed the association of Toxocara infection with an occupation of meat worker though a case-control seroprevalence study of 124 meat workers and 248 subjects without this occupation. Sera of participants was analyzed for the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies. One (0.8%) of the 124 meat workers, and 5 (2.0%) of the 248 controls were positive for anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies (OR=0.39; 95% CI: 0.04-3.41; P=0.66). The seropositive meat worker was a male aged 28 years old, without vision impairment. None of the work characteristics i.e. frequency of contact with raw meat, use of safety practices, history of splashes at face with blood or raw meat, and injuries with sharp material at work was associated with Toxocara exposure. Seroprevalence of Toxocara infection was significantly higher (P=0.04) in meat workers with consumption of boar meat (1/6: 16.7%) than in those without this consumption (0/117: 0%). We conclude that meat workers do not have a higher risk for Toxocara infection than subjects without this occupation do. The 2% seroprevalence of Toxocara infection found in control subjects might suggest a low seroprevalence of this infection among people with other occupations in Durango City. However, additional case-control studies with larger sample sizes to confirm our results are needed. PMID:26508909
... CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Meats § 319.80 Barbecued meats. Barbecued meats, such as product labeled “Beef Barbecue” or “Barbecued Pork,” shall be cooked by the direct... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Barbecued meats. 319.80 Section 319.80...
Full Text Available In the Republic of Croatia, game meat is consumed far less than meat of domestic animals. Yearly game meat consumption amounts to only 0.55 kg per household member. Consumers prefer meat of domestic animals, because it is cheaper, not paying attention to specific nutritive advantages of game meat. A research on the game meat market and consumers’ preferences was carried out on 101 examinees, chosen among inhabitants of Slavonia and Baranja. The majority of questioned inhabitants did consume game meat (92%, of whom 66% consider game meat to be of better quality than meat of domestic animals. Significant number of examinees considers game meat as healthy food, being also convinced that game was healthier to consume if hunted in their natural environment, than if reared on specialized farms (90%. Irrespective of quality, only 22% of examinees buy game meat, and 51% think such meat is too expensive. This is the main reason why consumers have game meat only once a month (51%. Taking into consideration monthly income of their respective household, 58% of examinees can afford game meat only once a month, and, if having an opportunity, they would opt for meat of roe deer (55% and rabbit (25%. When asked what would stimulate the game meat market in Croatia, 56% of examinees believe this could be achieved by lowering of prices, 27% think the issue could be addressed by opening of specialty stores, and only 17% opted for more aggressive marketing activities.
A number of beneficial effects can be achieved by irradiating meats and poultry under different conditions. It is possible, for example, to extend the market life of both fresh and processed meats by applying radiation doses sufficient to reduce the microbial population, thereby delaying onset of spoilage; higher doses aimed at destroying both spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms can also be applied to meats, packaged to prevent recontamination, resulting in a shelf-stable product; the objective may also be to inactivate pathogenic bacteria, parasites and viruses in order to obtain a product which is acceptable from the point of view of public health. (orig.) [de
Petracci, M; Fletcher, D L
The importance of poultry skin and meat color (both absolute and variations in color) in the market place have been well established. It has also been reported that these colors change over time. With the development of computer-assisted vision grading systems, the changes in skin and meat color during and after processing have become important, based on calibrations and assessment values based on color. Four independent experiments were conducted to determine the pattern of color change in broiler skin and meat during processing and storage. Skin color change was measured on subscald (57 C) and semiscald (50 C) breast skin surfaces and on breast and leg meat, on the carcass and following deboning and packaging. A reflectance colorimeter was used to determine lightness (L*), redness (a*), and yellowness (b*) at 20-min intervals for the first 3 h, at 30-min intervals between 3 and 8 h, hourly between 8 and 12 h, and daily up to 8 d postmortem. Results clearly show that color values for both skin and meat changed dramatically for the first 6 h postmortem, after which the changes were less pronounced. The skin from semiscalded birds showed less change than the skin from subscalded birds. These results indicate that on-line vision systems need to take into account the dramatic changes in skin and meat color during the first 6 h postmortem, after which the color changes may be less important.
Full Text Available Surgical castration of male pigs has become increasingly less accepted at present due to the fact that it is a direct animal welfare concern. UE welfare conditions demand that this method be dropped starting 2018 in order to eliminate the stress and associated pain it induces. Immunocastration is one of the alternatives to surgical castration that ensures male pig welfare and eliminates the boar smell of the meat. The objective of this research has been to identify the immunocastration effects on meat quality, compared with the meat from surgically castrated pigs. The animals assessed during research were fattening PIC pigs, grouped into two lots: surgically castrated pigs (SC and immunocastrated pigs (IC. Pig immunization was achieved by means of ImprovacTM. The results have shown that immunocastrated pigs recorded a 60.2% carcass meat compared to the 59.69% carcass meat achieved in surgically castrated pigs, thus displaying statistically insignificant differences (p≥0.05. Fat layer thickness was significantly lower in immunocastrated pigs compared to the marker lot (p≤0.05. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae lung lesions recorded were lower in immunocastrated pigs compared to the surgically castrated animals (p≥0.05. Despite the fact that differences have been statistically insignificant, we are able to confirm that immunocastrated pigs display a lower incidence of respiratory disease compared to surgically castrated pigs. In this study there were not significant differences in meat quality between surgically castrated pigs and immunocastrated pigs.
Advantages and disadvantages of stressed skin panels, also known as structural insulated panels (SIPs), are discussed as material and labour-saving alternatives to traditional stick framing. Stressed skin panels are manufactured 'sandwich' assemblies with a rigid insulating polystyrene foam core, whose interior and exterior surfaces are bonded into panels. The skins distribute and carry the structural loading while the bonded foam core provides insulation and keeps the two skins aligned. Since there are fewer framing members, there is little thermal bridging and the R-value remains high. SIPs are usually manufactured in four feet by eight feet panels, although some manufacturers can produce panels up to eight feet by forty feet. SIPs are resource efficient as they use less wood than conventional framing (about 25 per cent less); can structurally cover large spans, requiring less supplementary framing. Use of SIPs eliminate the need for headers over small openings; provide the ability to nail anywhere; create less scrap and waste; lessen vulnerability to unfavourable weather and other job-site hazards, can reduce delays, and often can produce significant savings in material and labour costs. Limitations include the more complex approaches to plumbing and electrical systems, although this can be minimized by designers by incorporating much of the plumbing and electrical work on interior (non-panel) walls. Most stressed skin panels require one-half inch interior gypsum drywall. If become wet, stressed skin panels take a long time to dry out and may harbour mold growth. Larger stressed-skin panels used in floors and roofs, may require cranes or other machinery for handling because of their weight. Although not without some environmental impact, overall, stressed skin panels are judged to be a resource-efficient building technology with significant energy-efficiency benefits and distinct advantages over stick framing. 3 photos.
Zhang, Wangang; Xiao, Shan; Samaraweera, Himali; Lee, Eun Joo; Ahn, Dong U
In recent years, much attention has been paid to develop meat and meat products with physiological functions to promote health conditions and prevent the risk of diseases. This review focuses on strategies to improve the functional value of meat and meat products. Value improvement can be realized by adding functional compounds including conjugated linoneleic acid, vitamin E, n3 fatty acids and selenium in animal diets to improve animal production, carcass composition and fresh meat quality. In addition, functional ingredients such as vegetable proteins, dietary fibers, herbs and spices, and lactic acid bacteria can be directly incorporated into meat products during processing to improve their functional value for consumers. Functional compounds, especially peptides, can also be generated from meat and meat products during processing such as fermentation, curing and aging, and enzymatic hydrolysis. This review further discusses the current status, consumer acceptance, and market for functional foods from the global viewpoints. Future prospects for functional meat and meat products are also discussed.
Li, Jiaqi; Feng, Jinsong; Ma, Lina; de la Fuente Núñez, César; Gölz, Greta; Lu, Xiaonan
Campylobacter and Salmonella are leading causes of foodborne illnesses worldwide, vastly harboured by raw meat as their common food reservoir. Both microbes are prevalent in meat processing environments in the form of biofilms that contribute to cross-contamination and foodborne infection. This study applied raw meat juice (chicken juice and pork juice) as a minimally processed food model to study its effects on bacterial biofilm formation. Meat juice was collected during the freeze-thaw process of raw meat and sterilized by filtration. In 96-well polystyrene plates and glass chambers, supplementation of over 25% meat juice (v/v) in laboratory media led to an increase in biofilm formation of Campylobacter and Salmonella. During the initial attachment stage of biofilm development, more bacterial cells were present on surfaces treated with meat juice residues compared to control surfaces. Meat juice particulates on abiotic surfaces facilitated biofilm formation of Campylobacter and Salmonella under both static and flow conditions, with the latter being assessed using a microfluidic platform. Further, the deficiency in biofilm formation of selected Campylobacter and Salmonella mutant strains was restored in the presence of meat juice particulates. These results suggested that meat juice residues on the abiotic surfaces might act as a surface conditioner to support initial attachment and biofilm formation of Campylobacter and Salmonella. This study sheds light on a possible survival mechanism of Campylobacter and Salmonella in meat processing environments, and indicates that thorough cleaning of meat residues during meat production and handling is critical to reduce the bacterial load of Campylobacter and Salmonella. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Meat with high pH values, so called DFD (Dark, Firm, Dry meat, is a persistent quality defect foundmin all meat species. DFD shortens shelf life, especially for vacuum-packed meat and affects meat colour, tenderness and water-holding properties. High pH values in reindeer meat have been related to pre-slaughter handling stress and poor nutritional status of the animals. There are numerous reports that variation in muscle pH and glycogen content give rise to considerable variations in meat tenderness in species such as beef and lamb. In contrast, reindeer meat has been found to be extremely tender regardless of ultimate pH. This phenomenon has been related to the speed of post mortem protein degradation and the small muscle fibre size in reindeer. Previous research has demonstrated that the fatty acid composition of meat changes in response to diets. Generally, a higher proportion of long, unsaturated fatty acids were found in meat from grazing animals compared with animals fed a grain-based diet. Reindeer meat has been found to contain moderate amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, especially so-called n-3 (or omega-3 PUFAs. The PUFAs are known to be susceptible to oxidation and may therefore be easily oxidized during processing by techniques like smoking and drying. A trained sensory panel concluded that meat from reindeer fed commercial feed scored higher for liverish and sweet flavours and lower for off-flavou (i.e. ‘grass’, ‘wild’ and ‘game’ compared with meat from grazing animals. Consumer preference tests on reindeer meat showed that 50 per cent of the consumers preferred meat from grazing reindeer and 50 per cent meat from pellet-fed animals. Recent reindeer meat research has included new feed mixtures using ingredients like linseed and fishmeal. Crushed linseed in the feed gave meat with a fat composition similar to that of natural pasture, which meant more PUFA than in meat from reindeer fed the normal grain
Full Text Available With the aim to assess if some molecular markers can help to select animals for meat characteristics, we studied 84 individuals equally representing the Marchigiana, Maremmana, and Holstein Friesian cattle breeds genotyped at 288 SNPs located within candidate genes. Several SNPs were found associated with meat quality parameters but with P which was higher than the Bonferroni threshold. However, several SNPs had a low P at different times during meat maturation, suggesting their involvement in the meat quality variation. Of particular interest for the biological role and potential for selection were: cathepsin G affecting MFI, IGF1R affecting pH and collagen XVIII affecting colour.
Schaefer, G Owen; Savulescu, Julian
The prospect of consumable meat produced in a laboratory setting without the need to raise and slaughter animals is both realistic and exciting. Not only could such in vitro meat become popular due to potential cost savings, but it also avoids many of the ethical and environmental problems with traditional meat productions. However, as with any new technology, in vitro meat is likely to face some detractors. We examine in detail three potential objections: 1) in vitro meat is disrespectful, e...
Ewelina Pogorzelska-Nowicka; Atanas G. Atanasov; Jarosław Horbańczuk; Agnieszka Wierzbicka
Meat and meat products are a good source of bioactive compounds with positive effect on human health such as vitamins, minerals, peptides or fatty acids. Growing food consumer awareness and intensified global meat producers competition puts pressure on creating new healthier meat products. In order to meet these expectations, producers use supplements with functional properties for animal diet and as direct additives for meat products. In the presented work seven groups of key functional cons...
A transportable solar panel foundation device which has a bottom member, at least one upstanding side member, and an essentially open top. The side members are angled to permit nesting of a plurality of the foundation devices, and reinforcement pads are carried by the foundation device to support legs for one or more solar panels.
Murphy, Timothy F.; Chonmaitree, Tasnee; Barenkamp, Stephen; Kyd, Jennelle; Nokso-Koivisto, Johanna; Patel, Janak A.; Heikkinen, Terho; Yamanaka, Noboru; Ogra, Pearay; Swords, W. Edward; Sih, Tania; Pettigrew, Melinda M.
Objective The objective is to perform a comprehensive review of the literature from January 2007 through June 2011 on the virology, bacteriology, and immunology related to otitis media. Data Sources PubMed database of the National Library of Medicine. Review Methods Three subpanels with co-chairs comprising experts in the virology, bacteriology, and immunology of otitis media were formed. Each of the panels reviewed the literature in their respective fields and wrote draft reviews. The reviews were shared with all panel members, and a second draft was created. The entire panel met at the 10th International Symposium on Recent Advances in Otitis Media in June 2011 and discussed the review and refined the content further. A final draft was created, circulated, and approved by the panel. Conclusion Excellent progress has been made in the past 4 years in advancing an understanding of the microbiology and immunology of otitis media. Advances include laboratory-based basic studies, cell-based assays, work in animal models, and clinical studies. Implications for Practice The advances of the past 4 years formed the basis of a series of short-term and long-term research goals in an effort to guide the field. Accomplishing these goals will provide opportunities for the development of novel interventions, including new ways to better treat and prevent otitis media. PMID:23536533
Jefferson C. de Barros
Full Text Available This study assessed the occurrence of an enhancing inhibitory effect of the combined application of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil and lactic acid against Staphylococcus aureus by the determination of Fractional Inhibitory Concentration (FIC index and cell viability in meat broth and meat model. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC of the oil was 0.6 and 1.25 µL.mL-1, respectively. Lactic acid showed MIC and MBC of 2.5 and 5µL.mL-1, respectively. FIC indices of the combined application of the oil and lactic acid were 0.5 showing a synergic interaction. The essential oil and lactic acid showed similar (p>0.05 anti-S. aureus effect in meat broth over 96 h of exposure. Treatment with essential oil or lactic acid presented a smaller anti-staphylococcal effect in meat in comparison to meat broth. No significant difference (p>0.05 was found for the microbial counts in meat treated with each antimicrobial alone or in mixture. These results could arise as an interesting approach for the improvement of food preservation using more natural procedures, considering the current demand of consumer and sensory quality of foods.
Full Text Available En este artículo se estudia la fabricación y el comportamiento mecánico de paneles a base de papel reciclado. El objetivo principal del proyecto es producir un prototipo de panel que emplee elementos provenientes de residuos sólidos (papel periódico y de un material conglomerante (cemento Portland blanco. El panel debe ser económico, debe tener buenas propiedades mecánicas y debe tener dimensiones comerciales para su uso en muros tabiques y en cielos falsos en la industria de la construcción. El Recipanel es un panel no estructural a base de papel reciclado. El Recipanel cumple las normas colombianas en lo relativo a los paneles de uso no estructural y presenta además unas excelentes características mecánicas.
Glass, R.E.; Longenbaugh, R.S.
Sandia National Laboratories developed the TRansUranic PACkage Transporter (TRUPACT) to transport defense contact-handled transuranic wastes. The package has been designed to meet the normal and hypothetical accident conditions in 10CFR71 which includes the demonstrated ability to survive a 1-meter drop onto a mild steel pin. The puncture protection is provided by puncture resistant panels. In conjunction with the development of TRUPACT, a series of experiments has been conducted to reduce the weight of the puncture resistant panels. The initial scoping tests resulted in a preliminary design incorporating 30 layers of Kevlar. This design has been shown to meet the regulatory puncture test. To reduce the weight of this panel, subscale tests were conducted on panels utilizing Kevlar yarns with varying mass per unit length (denier) as well as different resins. This paper reviews the testing undertaken in the original panel development and discusses the results obtained from the recent subscale and full-scale optimization tests
Nalladhimmu, Pavan Kumar Reddy; Priyadarshini, S.
As the demand of electricity is increasing, there is need to using the renewable sources to produce the energy at present of power shortage, the use of solar energy could be beneficial to great extent and easy to get the maximum efficiency. There is an urgent in improving the efficiency of solar power generation. Current solar panels setups take a major power loss when unwanted obstructions cover the surface of the panels. To make solar energy more efficiency of solar array systems must be maximized efficiency evaluation of PV panels, that has been discussed with particular attention to the presence of dust on the efficiency of the PV panels have been highlighted. This paper gives the how the solar panel cleaning system works and designing of the cleaning system.
Victor M. Toledo-Lopez
Full Text Available The evolution of meat production in Mexico during the last decade is the result of the complex interaction between different areas of livestock production and consumers’ preferences, being the former widely influenced by new tendencies and purchasing capacity. In Yucatan, there are two meat product processing plants. Yucatan’s research projects are basically focused to production, handling and genetics. This research is developed in Research Centers like Universidad Autonoma Yucatan’s Ciencias Biologicas Agropecuarias Campus, INIFAP Mococha, Instituto Tecnologico Conkal and Instituto Tecnologoco Merida. Many projects are inter-institutional and others by Cuerpos Academicos inside the institutions. Grants are provided by state, national or international dependencies. In the Instituto Tecnologico Merida research projects are on different animals’ meat quality and novel meat products.
Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Mogensen, Lisbeth
This paper aims to address two questions: First, what is the real cost of meat to society if taking into account the environmental costs arising throughout the product life cycle; and second, whether and how the environmental costs related to meat production can be reduced. In addressing the issues...... to be the main contributor to the costs (55%), followed by global warming (21%) and respiratory inorganics (18%). A viable option combining improvement measures in three aspects: feed use, manure management, and manure utilization, reduces the environmental costs by a factor of 1.4. This results in an equal size......, we use pig meat production in the EU as a case study. The environmental costs of meat are displayed first as characterized results at different midpoint categories e.g. global warming, nature occupation, acidification, eutrophication, ecotoxicity, etc., and then aggregated into a single score using...
Bruce G. Marcot; Chris S. Allen; Steve Morey; Dan Shively; Rollie. White
The bull trout Salvelinus confluentus is an apex predator in native fish communities in the western USA and is listed as threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Restoration of this species has raised concerns over its potential predatory impacts on native fish fauna. We held a five-person expert panel to help determine potential...
Graça, João; Calheiros, Maria Manuela; Oliveira, Abílio
In response to calls to expand knowledge on consumer willingness to reduce meat consumption and to adopt a more plant-based diet, this work advances the construct of meat attachment and the Meat Attachment Questionnaire (MAQ). The MAQ is a new measure referring to a positive bond towards meat consumption. It was developed and validated through three sequential studies following from an in-depth approach to consumer representations of meat. The construct and initial pool of items were firstly developed drawing on qualitative data from 410 participants in a previous work on consumers' valuation of meat. Afterwards, 1023 participants completed these items and other measures, providing data to assess item selection, factor structure, reliability, convergent and concurrent validity, and predictive ability. Finally, a sample of 318 participants from a different cultural background completed the final version of the MAQ along with other measures to assess measurement invariance, reliability and predictive ability. Across samples, a four-factor solution (i.e., hedonism, affinity, entitlement, and dependence) with 16 items and a second-order global dimension of meat attachment fully met criteria for good model fit. The MAQ subscales and global scale were associated with attitudes towards meat, subjective norm, human supremacy beliefs, eating habits, and dietary identity. They also provided additional explanatory variance above and beyond the core TPB variables (i.e. attitudes, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control) in willingness and intentions concerning meat substitution. Overall, the findings point towards the relevance of the MAQ for the study of meat consumption and meat substitution, and lend support to the idea that holding a pattern of attachment towards meat may hinder a shift towards a more plant-based diet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... mule meat by-product. 355.42 Section 355.42 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Meat and Animal Food, Mule Meat By-Product § 355.42 Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product. All mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product inspected under this part shall be marked and...
Background: Allergy to hen's egg and meat contributes significantly to the manifestations of food allergy all over the world. Objectives: This study was performed to assess the presence of hen's egg and meat specific IgE antibodies among patients investigated for various allergic disorders. Methods. This is a retrospective ...
A Preliminary survey was carried out in the Tamale Metropolis to assess the influence of meat products served at major drinking bars on sales of beverages. Structured questionnaire and interviews were used to elicit information from consumers (51) and bar operators (20). Data collected included types of meat and ...
Abstract. Background: Allergy to hen's egg and meat contributes significantly to the manifestations of food allergy all over the world. Objectives: This study was performed to assess the presence of hen's egg and meat specific IgE antibodies among patients investigated for various allergic disorders. Methods. This is a ...
Girolami, Antonio; Napolitano, Fabio; Faraone, Daniela; Braghieri, Ada
The limits of the colorimeter and a technique of image analysis in evaluating the color of beef, pork, and chicken were investigated. The Minolta CR-400 colorimeter and a computer vision system (CVS) were employed to measure colorimetric characteristics. To evaluate the chromatic fidelity of the image of the sample displayed on the monitor, a similarity test was carried out using a trained panel. The panelists found the digital images of the samples visualized on the monitor very similar to the actual ones (Pmeat sample and the sample image on the monitor in order to evaluate the similarity between them (test A). Moreover, the panelists were asked to evaluate the similarity between two colors, both generated by the software Adobe Photoshop CS3 one using the L, a and b values read by the colorimeter and the other obtained using the CVS (test B); which of the two colors was more similar to the sample visualized on the monitor was also assessed (test C). The panelists found the digital images very similar to the actual samples (Pcolors the panelists found significant differences between them (Pcolor of the sample on the monitor was more similar to the CVS generated color than to the colorimeter generated color. The differences between the values of the L, a, b, hue angle and chroma obtained with the CVS and the colorimeter were statistically significant (Pcolor of meat. Instead, the CVS method seemed to give valid measurements that reproduced a color very similar to the real one. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Presents an activity in which students make a simulated solar panel to learn about the principles behind energy production using solar panels. Provides information about how solar panels function to produce energy. (MCO)
Kanatt, Sweetie R.; Chawla, S.P.; Sharma, Arun
The effect of radiation processing (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 kGy) on the tenderness of three types of popularly consumed meat in India namely chicken, lamb and buffalo was investigated. In irradiated meat samples dose dependant reduction in water holding capacity, cooking yield and shear force was observed. Reduction in shear force upon radiation processing was more pronounced in buffalo meat. Protein and collagen solubility as well as TCA soluble protein content increased on irradiation. Radiation processing of meat samples resulted in some change in colour of meat. Results suggested that irradiation leads to dose dependant tenderization of meat. Radiation processing of meat at a dose of 2.5 kGy improved its texture and had acceptable odour. - Highlights: • Effect of radiation processing on tenderness of three meat systems was evaluated. • Dose dependant reduction in shear force seen in buffalo meat. • Collagen solubility increased with irradiation
The panel discussion opened with a question concerning whether true quantification of myocardial sympathetic presynaptic function or receptor density can be obtained with currently available radiopharmaceuticals. What are the relative advantages of the two general approaches that have been proposed for quantification: (1) The assessment of tracer distribution volume in tissue following bolus injection and (2) quantification based on tracer displacement kinetics following administration of excess unlabeled tracer. It was pointed out that tracer kinetics for the delineation of presynaptic and postsynaptic binding sites by radiopharmaceuticals or radiolabeled receptor antagonists are rather complex, reflecting several physiologic processes that are difficult to separate. Several approaches were examined. The possibility of regional definition of receptor density by PET was questioned and it was noted that regions of interest can be applied to calculate regional receptor kinetics. However, due to the limited spatial resolution of PET, only average transmural values can be determined. The discussion then turned to the discrepancy between the known sparse parasympathetic innervation of the heart and the high density of muscarinic receptors observed with PET. Experiences with MIBG imaging were reported, including uptake in the transplanted heart and interaction of drugs with MIBG uptake
Dempster, J F
The World Health Organisation (WHO) in 1980 clarified the position regarding the medical acceptability of irradiated foods when it said'…no health hazard results from consuming any food irradiated up to a dose of one megarad (1 Mrad)'. This resulted in renewed interest in irradiation as a cost-effective alternative to traditional preservation methods such as canning and freezing. Thus, radurisation (the application of ionising radiation at a dose level which substantially reduces the microbial population) increases the shelf life of poultry, comminuted meat and meat dishes significantly. Low dose irradiation, or radicidation, eliminates parasites such as Trichinae and cysticerci in pork and, very importantly, salmonella organisms in poultry and red meat. Therefore, irradiation has an important rôle to play in public health protection. High dose irradiation, or radappertisation ('cold sterilisation'), uses doses in excess of 1 Mrad and is analogous to retorting as understood in the canning industry. However, it can adversely affect quality in producing 'free radicals' in high protein foods such as meat. To prevent this, special precautions are necessary, e.g. irradiation is conducted at very low temperatures and the product is usually vacuum packed. A further potential use of irradiation is its ability to reduce the quantity of nitrite necessary in cured meats. This may become of practical significance if legislation further reduces the amount of nitrite permitted in these products. Copyright © 1985. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available The Authenticity of meat products is very important for religious and health reasons in Iran. According to legislation in Iran, the consumption and importation of pork, horse, donkey and cat products should be banned. Therefore, the identification of meat products cannot be judged solely by its appearance. This issue led to the authenticity of bovine, sheep, pig, horse, donkey, chicken and soya (Glycine max in raw and processed meat products.In this study, specific primers were designed for the identification of pig ( base pair, donkey (325 base pair, chicken (391 base pair, sheep (499 base pair, horse (607 base pair, soya (707 base pair and bovine (853 base pair by Polymerase chain reaction. Following PCR, expected,, , 499,, and base pair fragments were detectable in pig, donkey, chicken, sheep, horse, soya and bovine, respectively. This protocol can be used for identification of raw and processed meat products in various animal species for replication to regulatory obligations for meat species safety in Iran.
Full Text Available The consumption of snail meat goes back to prehistoric times. Different ancient nations had snails on their menu, but Helices culture as a productive activity was born as a Roman culture. Some of the most economically important edible species are: Helix aspersa (Mtiller Helixpomatia (Linne, Helix iucorum (Linne, Helix aperta (Born, Eobania vermiculata (Miiller. Together with its tasie, snail meat has several advantages over others: quite low lipid rate and calorie values versus rich mineral, essential amino acid and fatty acid content. The composition of snail meat is presented. In addition, the composition of different snail species and the part analyzed (pedal mass and visceral mass is presented. Also, the differences in composition according to the species (snail meat horse/chicken meat, beef, swine meat, fish meat are presented. The French are the world's leading consumers of snails. !n France snails come to market in a variety of ways. Estimated consumption of snails in France is around 40 000 tones/year. Total French imports account for 25% of world imports. France is also the leading exporter of prepared snails, mainly sold as preserved snails and prepared dishes. Snail imports have been much higher than exports (65 tones exported in 2002. vs. 2.700 tones imported. Despite the large consumption, only 3% of snails in France come from production (farming. Italy is in second place in the world consumption of snails, and Spain and Germany are in the third and fourth place. The development of snails consumption in Italy is followed with the same amount of production of snails in the whole biological circle. In 2001, from 24,700 tons, 9,350 tons (37.8% came from production, 6 00 tons (2.4% came from nature, and 14,750 tons (59.70% came from imports (frozen, fresh and prepared snails. In Serbia, at the beginning of 2005, we had over 400 registered farms for snail production.
Full Text Available The consumption of ostrich meat was introduced into Europe in a relatively short time. Considered even today as an exotic meat, its inclusion in the usual sources of animal protein in our context has been repeatedly assessed, because it converge some of the most interesting nutritional characteristics of poultry and red meat. Over ten years later, the consumption of ostrich meat continues crossing a road that lies increasingly away from the exotic to become very slow, in usual. Although information on their nutritional value is still limited, we have more data showing protein values quite similar to other meats but with a smaller proportion of histidine and serine; fat values close to poultry meat low in fat; cholesterol values, vary according to the court, but similar to beef or chicken, and an improved lipid profile compared to the meat of turkey meat, lamb or beef. The information on its vitamins and minerals throws elevated iron and vitamin B12, higher amounts of vitamin E and Zn than other types of meat and a low concentration of sodium.
Stroes, Erik S.; Thompson, Paul D.; Corsini, Alberto; Vladutiu, Georgirene D.; Raal, Frederick J.; Ray, Kausik K.; Roden, Michael; Stein, Evan; Tokgözoğlu, Lale; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Bruckert, Eric; De Backer, Guy; Krauss, Ronald M.; Laufs, Ulrich; Santos, Raul D.; Hegele, Robert A.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Leiter, Lawrence A.; Mach, Francois; März, Winfried; Newman, Connie B.; Wiklund, Olov; Jacobson, Terry A.; Catapano, Alberico L.; Chapman, M. John; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Stroes, Erik; Thompson, Paul D.; Corsini, Alberto; Vladutiu, Georgirene D.; Raal, Frederick J.; Ray, Kausik K.; Roden, Michael; Stein, Evan; Tokgözoğlu, Lale; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Bruckert, Eric; Krauss, Ronald M.; Laufs, Ulrich; Santos, Raul D.; März, Winfried; Newman, Connie B.; John Chapman, M.; Ginsberg, Henry N.; John Chapman, M.; Ginsberg, Henry N.; de Backer, Guy; Catapano, Alberico L.; Hegele, Robert A.; Kees Hovingh, G.; Jacobson, Terry A.; Leiter, Lawrence; Mach, Francois; Wiklund, Olov
Statin-associated muscle symptoms (SAMS) are one of the principal reasons for statin non-adherence and/or discontinuation, contributing to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. This European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) Consensus Panel overviews current understanding of the pathophysiology of statin-associated myopathy, and provides guidance for diagnosis and management of SAMS. Statin-associated myopathy, with significant elevation of serum creatine kinase (CK), is a rare but serious side effect of statins, affecting 1 per 1000 to 1 per 10 000 people on standard statin doses. Statin-associated muscle symptoms cover a broader range of clinical presentations, usually with normal or minimally elevated CK levels, with a prevalence of 7–29% in registries and observational studies. Preclinical studies show that statins decrease mitochondrial function, attenuate energy production, and alter muscle protein degradation, thereby providing a potential link between statins and muscle symptoms; controlled mechanistic and genetic studies in humans are necessary to further understanding. The Panel proposes to identify SAMS by symptoms typical of statin myalgia (i.e. muscle pain or aching) and their temporal association with discontinuation and response to repetitive statin re-challenge. In people with SAMS, the Panel recommends the use of a maximally tolerated statin dose combined with non-statin lipid-lowering therapies to attain recommended low-density lipoprotein cholesterol targets. The Panel recommends a structured work-up to identify individuals with clinically relevant SAMS generally to at least three different statins, so that they can be offered therapeutic regimens to satisfactorily address their cardiovascular risk. Further research into the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms may offer future therapeutic potential. PMID:25694464
Stroes, Erik S; Thompson, Paul D; Corsini, Alberto; Vladutiu, Georgirene D; Raal, Frederick J; Ray, Kausik K; Roden, Michael; Stein, Evan; Tokgözoğlu, Lale; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Bruckert, Eric; De Backer, Guy; Krauss, Ronald M; Laufs, Ulrich; Santos, Raul D; Hegele, Robert A; Hovingh, G Kees; Leiter, Lawrence A; Mach, Francois; März, Winfried; Newman, Connie B; Wiklund, Olov; Jacobson, Terry A; Catapano, Alberico L; Chapman, M John; Ginsberg, Henry N
Statin-associated muscle symptoms (SAMS) are one of the principal reasons for statin non-adherence and/or discontinuation, contributing to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. This European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) Consensus Panel overviews current understanding of the pathophysiology of statin-associated myopathy, and provides guidance for diagnosis and management of SAMS. Statin-associated myopathy, with significant elevation of serum creatine kinase (CK), is a rare but serious side effect of statins, affecting 1 per 1000 to 1 per 10 000 people on standard statin doses. Statin-associated muscle symptoms cover a broader range of clinical presentations, usually with normal or minimally elevated CK levels, with a prevalence of 7-29% in registries and observational studies. Preclinical studies show that statins decrease mitochondrial function, attenuate energy production, and alter muscle protein degradation, thereby providing a potential link between statins and muscle symptoms; controlled mechanistic and genetic studies in humans are necessary to further understanding. The Panel proposes to identify SAMS by symptoms typical of statin myalgia (i.e. muscle pain or aching) and their temporal association with discontinuation and response to repetitive statin re-challenge. In people with SAMS, the Panel recommends the use of a maximally tolerated statin dose combined with non-statin lipid-lowering therapies to attain recommended low-density lipoprotein cholesterol targets. The Panel recommends a structured work-up to identify individuals with clinically relevant SAMS generally to at least three different statins, so that they can be offered therapeutic regimens to satisfactorily address their cardiovascular risk. Further research into the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms may offer future therapeutic potential. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.
An NCI Cancer Currents blog by the NCI acting director thanking the cancer community for contributing to the Cancer Moonshot Blue Ribbon Panel report, which was presented to the National Cancer Advisory Board on September 7.
Wu, Sean F; Natarajan, Logesh Kumar
Formulations are derived to analyze the relative panel acoustic contributions of a vibrating structure. The essence of this analysis is to correlate the acoustic power flow from each panel to the radiated acoustic pressure at any field point. The acoustic power is obtained by integrating the normal component of the surface acoustic intensity, which is the product of the surface acoustic pressure and normal surface velocity reconstructed by using the Helmholtz equation least squares based nearfield acoustical holography, over each panel. The significance of this methodology is that it enables one to analyze and rank relative acoustic contributions of individual panels of a complex vibrating structure to acoustic radiation anywhere in the field based on a single set of the acoustic pressures measured in the near field. Moreover, this approach is valid for both interior and exterior regions. Examples of using this method to analyze and rank the relative acoustic contributions of a scaled vehicle cabin are demonstrated.
Liver disease test panel - autoimmune ... Autoimmune disorders are a possible cause of liver disease. The most common of these diseases are autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cholangitis (formerly called primary biliary cirrhosis). This group of tests ...
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs; “Dioxins”), or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widely recognized environmental and food contaminants. More than 90% of PCDD/Fs and PCB exposure of the average population stem from animal based food including meat. While average PCDD/F and PCB levels have decreased compared to levels 1980s, still contamination above regulatory limits are observed and a share of the population is above the tolerable daily intake recommended by the WHO. For PCBs the contamination of feed and food along the life cycle from production, use, recycling, end of life and related contaminated sites has been documented and can be seen as a model. Furthermore, it has been recently discovered that levels of PCBs in feed and soil below regulatory limits can result in meat contamination above EU regulatory limits. In particular, beef meat and chicken meat/eggs have been found very sensitive towards PCB contamination in the environment (soil and feed) but also in stables (paints and sealants). For PCDD/Fs, the major exposure pathways are feed, feed additives and contaminated sites. Chlorinated paraffins have substituted PCBs the last 40 years in open application and short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) were recently (05/2017) listed in the Stockholm Convention. Furthermore, brominated and fluorinated POPs have been listed in the Convention. All these POPs groups can accumulate in meat animals. For these new listed POPs no regulatory limits in food including meat has been established yet. Initial information on presence and risk of new listed POPs to food animals is compiled. A more systematic assessment of exposure and risks of POPs to food animals/meat is needed.
Rubin, I. (Inventor)
A solar energy panel support is described upon which silicon cells are arrayed. The cells are wafer thin and of two geometrical types, both of the same area and electrical rating, namely hexagon cells and hourglass cells. The hourglass cells are composites of half hexagons. A near perfect nesting relationship of the cells achieves a high density packing whereby optimum energy production per panel area is achieved.
Bianca, Carmelo J.; Miner, Robert; Johnston, Lawrence M.; Bruce, R.; Dennies, Daniel P.; Dickenson, W.; Dreshfield, Robert; Karakulko, Walt; Mcgaw, Mike; Munafo, Paul M.
The Propulsion Systems Panel was established because of the specialized nature of many of the materials and structures technology issues related to propulsion systems. This panel was co-chaired by Carmelo Bianca, MSFC, and Bob Miner, LeRC. Because of the diverse range of missions anticipated for the Space Transportation program, three distinct propulsion system types were identified in the workshop planning process: liquid propulsion systems, solid propulsion systems and nuclear electric/nuclear thermal propulsion systems.
Product constituted by a honeycomb metal panel that can be employed to advantage for manufacturing lagging by sandwiching it between two plane sheets, utilized in particular in the nuclear industry where lagging has to have a very long life strength. The honeycomb metal panel is made of an expanded metal extrusion previously cut so as to form, after additional drawing, a honeycomb structure with square or rectangular cells with a plane surface [fr
Jääskeläinen, Elina; Johansson, Per; Kostiainen, Olli; Nieminen, Timo; Schmidt, Georg; Somervuo, Panu; Mohsina, Marzia; Vanninen, Paula; Auvinen, Petri; Björkroth, Johanna
Leuconostoc gasicomitatum is a psychrotrophic lactic acid bacterium (LAB) which causes spoilage in cold-stored modified-atmosphere-packaged (MAP) meat products. In addition to the fermentative metabolism, L. gasicomitatum is able to respire when exogenous heme and oxygen are available. In this study, we investigated the respiration effects on growth rate, biomass, gene expression, and volatile organic compound (VOC) production in laboratory media and pork loin. The meat samples were evaluated by a sensory panel every second or third day for 29 days. We observed that functional respiration increased the growth (rate and yield) of L. gasicomitatum in laboratory media with added heme and in situ meat with endogenous heme. Respiration increased enormously (up to 2,600-fold) the accumulation of acetoin and diacetyl, which are buttery off-odor compounds in meat. Our transcriptome analyses showed that the gene expression patterns were quite similar, irrespective of whether respiration was turned off by excluding heme from the medium or mutating the cydB gene, which is essential in the respiratory chain. The respiration-based growth of L. gasicomitatum in meat was obtained in terms of population development and subsequent development of sensory characteristics. Respiration is thus a key factor explaining why L. gasicomitatum is so well adapted in high-oxygen packed meat.
Full Text Available The Total Antibiotics test is a microbial inhibition test which has been recently introduced for the detection of antibiotics in meat. The aim of this study was to determine whether it would be suitable for the detection of coccidiostats in poultry meat. A comparison with the Premi®Test was assessed also for the suitability of the detection of coccidiostats in poultry meat. A selection of poultry meat samples of different organ parts were assessed with 14 samples from Slovakian farms that had previously been tested for coccidiostats by the Veterinary and Food Institute in Košice. In addition, another 8 samples from varied Slovakian supermarkets such as Lidl, Billa and Tesco with samples of chicken or duck meat, were tested. Each prepared sample was added to the Total Antibiotics kit tubes and incubated. The samples from all sources showed a mixture of positive and negative results for the detection of coccidiostats.
Merritt, C. Jr.; Angelini, P.; Graham, R.A.
Analytical chemical methods, employing gas and liquid chromatography for separation and mass spectrometry for identification, have been used to study the formation of radiolysis products in various meats such as beef and pork and in fats and proteins derived from meat. In this study the dependency of the amount of product formed in beef is evaluated as a function of various parameters such as radiation dose, dose rate, temperature of irradiation, precursor concentration, and various other factors. Statistical analysis of data accumulated from a large number of samples is provided by means of a laboratory automation computer. The significance of the data is assessed with particular regard to the wholesomeness of the irradiated product
Tanaka, Takeo; Nishiwaki, Kôji; Kakuda, Kitonari; Tomimatsu, Takao
Frozen southern bluefin tuna meat discolors easily and sometimes contracts when thawed caused by thaw rigor. These phenomenon often become problematic in the transaction or handling of this kind of frozen tuna. Frozen meat blocks of southern Bluefin tuna were thawed separately by air thawing, running water thawing and microwave thawing. Changes occurring during thawing were checked for meat color by met-myoglobin ratio determination and for contract by microscopic observation. Results are as follows : (1) Discoloration scarcely occurred in the process of running water thawing (at 10°C for 50 min, or at 0°C for 6 hr). (2) No contraction was observed during thawing with running water described above and air thawing (at 18-20°C for 6 hr). (3) Discoloration and contraction seemed to be minimized, as to latently contractile blocks, when meat temperature passed through rapidly between -10°C and -5°C, and slowly (for 5-6 hr) between -5°C and -1°C. When the block was originally not contractile, discloration was minimized by rising meat temperature rapidly from -10°C to -l°C.
In recent years, much attention has been paid to physiological functions of foods due to increasing concerns for health. Although there has been limited information of physiological functions of meat until recently, several attractive meat-based bioactive compounds, such as carnosine, anserine, l-carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid, have been studied. Emphasizing these activities is one possible approach for improving the health image of meat and developing functional meat products. This article provides potential benefits of representative meat-based bioactive compounds on human health and an overview of meat-based functional products. Strategies for designing novel functional meat products utilizing bioactive peptides and/or probiotic bacteria, is also discussed. This article focuses particularly on the possibility of meat protein-derived bioactive peptides, such as antihypertensive peptides. There are still some hurdles in developing and marketing novel functional meat products since such products are unconventional and consumers in many countries recognize meat and meat products to be bad for health. Along with accumulation of scientific data, there is an urgent need to inform consumers of the exact functional value of meat and meat products including novel functional foods.
Brannon, Nathan Gregory; L. Bertolini, N. Brannon, J. Olsen, B. Price, M. Steinzig, R. Wardle, & M. Winfield
Consolidated Nuclear Security (CNS) Pantex took the initiative to organize a Review Panel of subject matter experts to independently assess the adequacy of the Pantex Tripping Man Analysis methodology. The purpose of this report is to capture the details of the assessment including the scope, approach, results, and detailed Appendices. Along with the assessment of the analysis methodology, the panel evaluated the adequacy with which the methodology was applied as well as congruence with Department of Energy (DOE) standards 3009 and 3016. The approach included the review of relevant documentation, interactive discussion with Pantex staff, and the iterative process of evaluating critical lines of inquiry.
Stadig, Lisanne M; Rodenburg, T Bas; Reubens, Bert; Aerts, Johan; Duquenne, Barbara; Tuyttens, Frank A M
Demand for meat from free-range broiler chickens is increasing in several countries. Consumers are motivated by better animal welfare and other product attributes such as quality and taste. However, scientific literature is not unanimous about whether free-range access influences quality, composition, and taste of the meat. Because chickens normally do not use free-range areas optimally, it is possible that provision of more suitable shelter will lead to more pronounced differences between chickens raised indoors and outdoors. In this study, an experiment with 2 production rounds of 600 slow-growing broilers each was performed. In each round, 200 chickens were raised indoors (IN), 200 had free-range access to grassland with artificial shelter (AS), and 200 had free-range access to short-rotation coppice with willow (SRC). Free-range use, feed intake, and growth were monitored, and after slaughter (d72) meat quality, composition, and taste were assessed. Free-range use was higher in SRC than in AS chickens (42.8 vs. 35.1%, P free-range access was darker (P = 0.021) and yellower (P = 0.001) than that of IN chickens. Ultimate pH was lower (5.73 vs. 5.79; P = 0.006) and drip loss higher (1.29 vs. 1.09%; P = 0.05) in IN versus AS chickens. The percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids was higher in AS than in IN meat (35.84 vs. 34.59%; P = 0.021). The taste panel judged breast meat of SRC chickens to be more tender (P = 0.003) and less fibrous (P = 0.013) compared to that of AS and IN chickens, and juicier compared to the IN chickens (P = 0.017). Overall, free-range access negatively affected slaughter weight, but positively affected meat quality, taste, and composition. Only a few differences between AS and SRC were found, possibly due to limited differences in free-range use. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Alarcon-Rojo, A D; Janacua, H; Rodriguez, J C; Paniwnyk, L; Mason, T J
Ultrasound has a wide range of applications in various agricultural sectors. In food processing, it is considered to be an emerging technology with the potential to speed up processes without damaging the quality of foodstuffs. Here we review the reports on the applications of ultrasound specifically with a view to its use in meat processing. Emphasis is placed on the effects on quality and technological properties such as texture, water retention, colour, curing, marinating, cooking yield, freezing, thawing and microbial inhibition. After the literature review it is concluded that ultrasound is a useful tool for the meat industry as it helps in tenderisation, accelerates maturation and mass transfer, reduces cooking energy, increases shelf life of meat without affecting other quality properties, improves functional properties of emulsified products, eases mould cleaning and improves the sterilisation of equipment surfaces. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Venison is becoming more and more interesting for consumers. Although treatment procedures of hunted game differ from slaughtered livestock, the hygienic quality of game meat must still be ensured. Potential indicators of meat hygienic quality include the content of biogenic amines. The aim of the present study was to assess the content and changes of biogenic amines in the muscles of selected kinds of small game (common pheasant and brown hare during storage, and based on the obtained results, to assess the hygienic quality of the meat. Biogenic amines (putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, phenylethylamine, and tryptamine in the breast and thigh muscles separated by reverse phase liquid chromatography and consequently were detected using tandem mass spectrometry. Based on the determined content of biogenic amines, both pheasant and hare meats complied with values of high quality meat. The sum of biogenic amines did not exceed the value of 5 mg/kg after 7 days at 0 °C or 7 °C in pheasant meat, and after 21 days at 0 °C or after 14 days at 7 °C in brown hare meat. The biogenic amine content and the speed of their formation in venison can be very helpful for the evaluation of both meat hygienic quality and safety of these foods during storage.
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. 317.308 Section 317.308 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Nutrition Labeling § 317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. The label of...
... Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products. (a) Nutrition labeling shall be... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products. 317.300 Section 317.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE...
Meat production places a heavy burden on the environment and therefore options are sought to reduce meat consumption. One option is to let new meat substitutes take the place of meat on the plate. This can only succeed when these products are acceptable to consumers. The thesis investigated which
Keywords: meat ball, protein, mineral content. This work was carried out to determine the effectiveness of the use of clay meat balls (an African traditional method of preserving meat) in extending the shelf life of meat over a period of months against microbial (bacterial and fungal) spoilage and contamination without ...
Vegetarian diets are defined by the absence of meat and fish, but differences in the intake of other foods between meat-eaters and low or non-meat eaters are also important to document. We examined intakes of high-protein foods (meat, poultry, fish, legumes, nuts, vegetarian protein alternatives, dairy products, and eggs) and other major food groups (fruit, vegetables, bread, pasta, rice, snack foods, and beverages) in regular meat-eaters, low meat-eaters, poultry-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans of white ethnicity participating in UK Biobank who had completed at least one web-based 24-h dietary assessment (n = 199,944). In regular meat-eaters, around 25% of total energy came from meat, fish, dairy and plant milk, cheese, yogurt, and eggs. In vegetarians, around 20% of energy came from dairy and plant milk, cheese, yoghurt, eggs, legumes, nuts, and vegetarian protein alternatives, and in vegans around 15% came from plant milk, legumes, vegetarian alternatives, and nuts. Low and non-meat eaters had higher intakes of fruit and vegetables and lower intakes of roast or fried potatoes compared to regular meat-eaters. The differences in the intakes of meat, plant-based high-protein foods, and other foods between meat-eaters and low and non-meat eaters in UK Biobank may contribute to differences in health outcomes. PMID:29207491
Bradbury, Kathryn E; Tong, Tammy Y N; Key, Timothy J
Vegetarian diets are defined by the absence of meat and fish, but differences in the intake of other foods between meat-eaters and low or non-meat eaters are also important to document. We examined intakes of high-protein foods (meat, poultry, fish, legumes, nuts, vegetarian protein alternatives, dairy products, and eggs) and other major food groups (fruit, vegetables, bread, pasta, rice, snack foods, and beverages) in regular meat-eaters, low meat-eaters, poultry-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans of white ethnicity participating in UK Biobank who had completed at least one web-based 24-h dietary assessment ( n = 199,944). In regular meat-eaters, around 25% of total energy came from meat, fish, dairy and plant milk, cheese, yogurt, and eggs. In vegetarians, around 20% of energy came from dairy and plant milk, cheese, yoghurt, eggs, legumes, nuts, and vegetarian protein alternatives, and in vegans around 15% came from plant milk, legumes, vegetarian alternatives, and nuts. Low and non-meat eaters had higher intakes of fruit and vegetables and lower intakes of roast or fried potatoes compared to regular meat-eaters. The differences in the intakes of meat, plant-based high-protein foods, and other foods between meat-eaters and low and non-meat eaters in UK Biobank may contribute to differences in health outcomes.
Kathryn E. Bradbury
Full Text Available Vegetarian diets are defined by the absence of meat and fish, but differences in the intake of other foods between meat-eaters and low or non-meat eaters are also important to document. We examined intakes of high-protein foods (meat, poultry, fish, legumes, nuts, vegetarian protein alternatives, dairy products, and eggs and other major food groups (fruit, vegetables, bread, pasta, rice, snack foods, and beverages in regular meat-eaters, low meat-eaters, poultry-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans of white ethnicity participating in UK Biobank who had completed at least one web-based 24-h dietary assessment (n = 199,944. In regular meat-eaters, around 25% of total energy came from meat, fish, dairy and plant milk, cheese, yogurt, and eggs. In vegetarians, around 20% of energy came from dairy and plant milk, cheese, yoghurt, eggs, legumes, nuts, and vegetarian protein alternatives, and in vegans around 15% came from plant milk, legumes, vegetarian alternatives, and nuts. Low and non-meat eaters had higher intakes of fruit and vegetables and lower intakes of roast or fried potatoes compared to regular meat-eaters. The differences in the intakes of meat, plant-based high-protein foods, and other foods between meat-eaters and low and non-meat eaters in UK Biobank may contribute to differences in health outcomes.
Trinderup, Camilla Himmelstrup
transformations to the CIELAB color space, the common color space within food science. The results show that meat color assessment with a multispectral imaging is a great alternative to the traditional colorimeter, i.e. the vision system meets some of the limitations that the colorimeter possesses. To mention one...
Afeiche, Myriam C; Williams, Paige L; Gaskins, Audrey J
interval = -67 to 37), -14 (-82 to 28), and -78 (-202 to -5) million (test for trend, P = 0.01). This association was strongest among men with abstinence time less than 2 days and was driven by a strong inverse relation between processed red meat intake and ejaculate volume (test for trend, P = 0......BACKGROUND: In the United States, anabolic sex steroids are administered to cattle for growth promotion. There is concern regarding the reproductive consequences of this practice in men who eat beef. We investigated whether meat consumption was associated with semen quality parameters...... and reproductive hormone levels in young men. METHODS: Semen samples were obtained from 189 men aged 18-22 years. Diet was assessed with a previously validated food frequency questionnaire. We used linear regression to analyze the cross-sectional associations of meat intake with semen quality parameters...
In June 1998, a joint review panel released a report on a dam and diversion project proposed by Alberta Public Works, Supply and Services. This document is the response to that report addressing its recommendations to the federal government and other recommendations or statements pertinent to federal areas of jurisdiction and interest. It begins with background on the proposed project, then presents the report's recommendations or statements along with the federal responses with regard to the following issue areas: Regulatory approval; navigable waters and the public right of navigation; fish and fish habitat; wetlands and wildlife; and Aboriginal concerns
Bal-Prilipko L. V.; Leonova B. I.
The analysis of literature and patents related to the possibilities of biotechnology for optimizing the domestic meat processing plants was the aim of the article. The analysis of the results of the use of biotechnological methods in the meat processing industry is given. The prospects for their implementation are evaluated. The main development strategy of technological meat processing to develop the methods of obtaining high quality and safe meat products is highlighted. Targeted use of spe...
Ekanem, Enefiok; Mafuyai-Ekanem, Mary; Tagegne, Fisseha; Singh, Surendra; Favors, Delicia
Goat meat has become an increasingly good source of protein for meat eaters in the global marketplace. Goat meat constitutes about 63% of all red meat consumed worldwide. It is the main source of animal protein in many North African, Middle Eastern nations, Southeast Asia, the Caribbean, and other tropical regions. This notwithstanding, goat meat is yet to take such prominence in the U.S. diet. Despite the acknowledgement of the meat as lean, tasty and less fatty than other meats (USDA 2001),...
A description is given of a reflecting variable opening insulating panel assembly, comprising a static panel assembly of reflecting insulation sheets forming a cavity along one side of the panel and a movable panel opening out by sliding from the cavity of the static panel, and a locking device for holding the movable panel in a position extending from the cavity of the static panel. This can apply to a nuclear reactor of which the base might require maintenance and periodical checking and for which it is desirable to have available certain processes for the partial dismantling of the insulation [fr
Weidema, Bo Pedersen; Hermansen, John Erik; Eder, P.
The overall environmental impacts from consumption of meat and dairy products in EU-27 have been assessed by the use of hybrid life cycle assessment (input-output data supplemented by specific process data). For the impact assessment, we applied a flexible model that allows results to be presented...... both in 15 traditional environmental midpoint indicators (global warming potentials, photochemical ozone creation potential, etc.) and in monetary units (Euro). Specifically for this project, a damage model for aquatic eutrophication was developed. We identified and quantified the improvement options...... for all processes contributing more than 10% to each of the midpoint impact categories. Rebound effects, synergies and dysergies of the different options were taken into account and we show the importance of rebound effects and interrelationships of the improvement options, as well as market constraints...
Migdal, W.; Owczarczyk, H.B.
There is an increasing demand for a powder soups and sauces composed with lyophylizated meat. Technology of lyophylization is not always accompanied by thermal treatment of raw materials. That is the reason the meat lyophylization process does not ensure as good microbiological quality as is required. Degree of microbiological decontamination and organoleptic properties of lyophilized meat were investigated after radiation treatment
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat loaf. 319.261 Section 319.261... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied Products...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies, and...
The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of improving pig meat quality by selection. Therefore, literature is reviewed to determine the meat quality traits to be used and genetic parameters of those meat quality traits are calculated. A method is described to obtain
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat stews. 319.304 Section 319.304... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Luncheon meat. 319.260 Section 319.260... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied Products...
Feskens, E.J.M.; Sluik, D.; Woudenbergh, van G.J.
Several prospective studies have reported that risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is elevated in meat consumers, especially when processed meats are consumed. Elevated risks of coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke in meat consumers have also been reported. In this overview, the evidence regarding
Riber, Hans Jørgen
A non-linear structural model for composite panels is presented. The non-linear terms in the lateral displacements are modelled as an additional set of lateral loads acting on the panel. Hence the solution is reduced to that of an equivalent panel with small displacements In order to treat sandwich...... Norske Veritas', DNV, building rules concerning high-speed light craft, in which the panel scantlings are often restricted by a maximum lateral deflection connected with the panel span....
Westbrooke, Victoria; Guenther, Meike; Bewsell, Denise; Greer, Glen
Purpose: Meat processing companies have the potential to raise farm and sector productivity by directly working with farmers. This study assesses how commercial companies can undertake the roles of innovation intermediaries to increase productivity in New Zealand's sheep and beef sector. Design/methodology/approach: This study uses a case study…
Juni Sumarmono; Samsu Wasito
Spent ducks produce nutritive meat; however the meat possesses undesirable characteristics such as strong odor and tough. Hence, appropriate yet simple processing technologies need to be developed in order to maximize the use of duck meat. The experiment was conducted to evaluate functional characteristics of spent duck meat as raw material for the production of emulsion-type meat products, such as nugget and sausage. Chilled carcasses of 96 spent ducks were deboned manually, then mixed thor...
Caro, Dario; Caldeira, Ken; LoPresti, Anna; Davis, Steven J; Bastianoni, Simone
Although previous studies have quantified carbon dioxide emissions embodied in products traded internationally, there has been limited attention to other greenhouse gases such as methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O). Following IPCC guidelines, we estimate non-CO 2 emissions from beef, pork and chicken produced in 237 countries over the period 1990–2010, and assign these emissions to the country where the meat is ultimately consumed. We find that, between 1990 and 2010, an average of 32.8 Mt CO 2 -eq emissions (using 100 year global warming potentials) are embodied in beef, pork and chicken traded internationally. Further, over the 20 year period, the quantity of CO 2 -eq emissions embodied in traded meat increased by 19%. The largest trade flows of emissions embodied in meat were from Brazil and Argentina to Russia (2.8 and 1.4 Mt of CO 2 -eq, respectively). Trade flows within the European region are also substantial: beef and pork exported from France embodied 3.3 Mt and 0.4 Mt of CO 2 -eq, respectively. Emissions factor of meat production (i.e. CO 2 -eq emissions per kg of meat) produced depend on ambient temperature, development level, livestock category (e.g. cattle, pork, and chicken) and livestock management practices. Thus, trade may result in an overall increase of GHG emissions when meat-consuming countries import meat from countries with a greater emissions intensity of meat production rather than producing the meat domestically. Comparing the emissions intensity of meat production of trading partners, we assess trade flows according to whether they tend to reduce or increase global emissions from meat production. (letter)
Hassan, I.M.; Mahmoud, A.A.; Emam, O.A.
Sensory and objective texture properties of 0, 2, 5, and 10 KGy irradiated beef meat were followed throughout different cold periods at 4 plus or minus 1 degree. Irradiation doses up to KGy caused slight toughness which could only be detected by plasticity measurements. When soaking treatment in 250 ppm butylated hydroxy toluene and 0.5% sodium pyrophosphate was combined with the irradiation treatments in all the tested levels, the texture was not significantly affected. Progressive increase in the meat tenderness was detected during cold storage. The higher the irradiation dose the much less meat tenderness was observed during cold storage. The magnitude of the differently used texture-measurement method responses to ageing was varied. Plasticity measurements gave higher correlation coefficients with sensory panels than intron measurements
Dupuy, C; Morignat, E; Dorea, F; Ducrot, C; Calavas, D; Gay, E
The objective of this study was to assess the performance of several algorithms for outbreak detection based on weekly proportions of whole carcass condemnations. Data from one French slaughterhouse over the 2005-2009 period were used (177 098 slaughtered cattle, 0.97% of whole carcass condemnations). The method involved three steps: (i) preparation of an outbreak-free historical baseline over 5 years, (ii) simulation of over 100 years of baseline time series with injection of artificial outbreak signals with several shapes, durations and magnitudes, and (iii) assessment of the performance (sensitivity, specificity, outbreak detection precocity) of several algorithms to detect these artificial outbreak signals. The algorithms tested included the Shewart p chart, confidence interval of the negative binomial model, the exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA); and cumulative sum (CUSUM). The highest sensitivity was obtained using a negative binomial algorithm and the highest specificity with CUSUM or EWMA. EWMA sensitivity was too low to select this algorithm for efficient outbreak detection. CUSUM's performance was complementary to the negative binomial algorithm. The use of both algorithms on real data for a prospective investigation of the whole carcass condemnation rate as a syndromic surveillance indicator could be relevant. Shewart could also be a good option considering its high sensitivity and simplicity of implementation.
McWilliams, J.A.; Morgan, D.E.; Jackson, J.D.J.
Microporous thermal insulation materials have a lattice structure in which the average interstitial dimension is less than the mean free path of the molecules of air or other gas in which the material is arranged. This results in a heat flow which is less than that attributable to the molecular heat diffusion of the gas. According to this invention, a method is provided for manufacturing panels of microporous thermal insulation, in particular such panels in which the insulation material is bonded to a substrate. The method comprises the steps of applying a film of polyvinyl acetate emulsion to a non-porous substrate, and compacting powdery microporous thermal insulation material against the film so as to cause the consolidated insulation material to bond to the substrate and form a panel. The polyvinyl acetate may be applied by brushing or spraying, and is preferably allowed to dry prior to compacting the insulation material. 1 fig.
Ralph, E. L.; Linder, E.
This paper describes solar cell panel designs that utilize new hgih efficiency solar cells along with lightweight rigid panel technology. The resulting designs push the W/kg and W/sq m parameters to new high levels. These new designs are well suited to meet the demand for higher performance small satellites. This paper reports on progress made on two SBIR Phase 1 contracts. One panel design involved the use of large area (5.5 cm x 6.5 cm) GaAs/Ge solar cells of 19% efficiency combined with a lightweight rigid graphite fiber epoxy isogrid substrate configuration. A coupon (38 cm x 38 cm) was fabricated and tested which demonstrated an array specific power level of 60 W/kg with a potential of reaching 80 W/kg. The second panel design involved the use of newly developed high efficiency (22%) dual junction GaInP2/GaAs/Ge solar cells combined with an advanced lightweight rigid substrate using aluminum honeycomb core with high strength graphite fiber mesh facesheets. A coupon (38 cm x 38 cm) was fabricated and tested which demonstrated an array specific power of 105 W/kg and 230 W/sq m. This paper will address the construction details of the panels and an a analysis of the component weights. A strawman array design suitable for a typical small-sat mission is described for each of the two panel design technologies being studied. Benefits in respect to weight reduction, area reduction, and system cost reduction are analyzed and compared to conventional arrays.
Borgogno, Monica; Corazzin, Mirco; Saccà, Elena; Bovolenta, Stefano; Piasentier, Edi
The research aimed at assessing liking and preference for capretto and chevon as a function of consumer familiarity with goat meat. Five meats were produced: traditional milk capretto (MC), heavy summer capretto (HSC), summering (SCh), fall (FCh) and late fall chevon (LFCh). HSC was the most tender meat, having less cooking losses than both MC and redder chevon types. The instrumental profile corresponded with the appearance and texture attributes perceived by panellists. With aging of kids, meat lost its milk aroma (MC) and sweet taste (HSC) and acquired an increasing intensity of goat flavour and livery notes, partially related to feeding regime and fatty acid profile. A niche market preferred chevon over capretto, while the cluster of consumers who were unfamiliar with chevon showed a decrease in pleasantness when tasting chevon, the familiar group reduced their ratings only for meat from the oldest kids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Casaburi, Annalisa; Nasi, Antonella; Ferrocino, Ilario; Di Monaco, Rossella; Mauriello, Gianluigi; Villani, Francesco; Ercolini, Danilo
One hundred three isolates of Carnobacterium spp. from raw meat were analyzed by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and PCR and were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Forty-five strains of Carnobacterium maltaromaticum were characterized for their growth capabilities at different temperatures, NaCl concentrations, and pH values and for in vitro lipolytic and proteolytic activities. Moreover, their spoilage potential in meat was investigated by analyzing the release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in meat stored in air or vacuum packs. Almost all the strains were able to grow at 4, 10, and 20°C, at pH values of 6 to 9, and in the presence of 2.5% NaCl. The release of VOCs by each strain in beef stored at 4°C in air and vacuum packs was evaluated by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME)-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. All the meat samples inoculated and stored in air showed higher numbers of VOCs than the vacuum-packed meat samples. Acetoin, 1-octen-3-ol, and butanoic acid were the compounds most frequently found under both storage conditions. The contaminated meat samples were evaluated by a sensory panel; the results indicated that for all sensory odors, no effect of strain was significant (P > 0.05). The storage conditions significantly affected (P meat, and mozzarella cheese odors, which were more intense in meat stored in air than in vacuum packs but were never very intense. In conclusion, different strains of C. maltaromaticum can grow efficiently in meat stored at low temperatures both in air and in vacuum packs, producing volatile molecules with low sensory impacts, with a negligible contribution to meat spoilage overall.
Casaburi, Annalisa; Nasi, Antonella; Ferrocino, Ilario; Di Monaco, Rossella; Mauriello, Gianluigi; Villani, Francesco; Ercolini, Danilo
One hundred three isolates of Carnobacterium spp. from raw meat were analyzed by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and PCR and were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Forty-five strains of Carnobacterium maltaromaticum were characterized for their growth capabilities at different temperatures, NaCl concentrations, and pH values and for in vitro lipolytic and proteolytic activities. Moreover, their spoilage potential in meat was investigated by analyzing the release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in meat stored in air or vacuum packs. Almost all the strains were able to grow at 4, 10, and 20°C, at pH values of 6 to 9, and in the presence of 2.5% NaCl. The release of VOCs by each strain in beef stored at 4°C in air and vacuum packs was evaluated by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME)-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. All the meat samples inoculated and stored in air showed higher numbers of VOCs than the vacuum-packed meat samples. Acetoin, 1-octen-3-ol, and butanoic acid were the compounds most frequently found under both storage conditions. The contaminated meat samples were evaluated by a sensory panel; the results indicated that for all sensory odors, no effect of strain was significant (P > 0.05). The storage conditions significantly affected (P meat, and mozzarella cheese odors, which were more intense in meat stored in air than in vacuum packs but were never very intense. In conclusion, different strains of C. maltaromaticum can grow efficiently in meat stored at low temperatures both in air and in vacuum packs, producing volatile molecules with low sensory impacts, with a negligible contribution to meat spoilage overall. PMID:21784913
Erck, R.A.; Erdemir, A.; Janghsing Hsieh; Lee, R.H.; Xian Zheng Pan; Deming Shu [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Feldman, A. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Glass, J.T. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh (United States); Kleimer, R. [Coors Ceramics Co., Golden, CO (United States); Lawton, E.A. [JPL/Caltech, Pasadena, CA (United States); McHargue, C.J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States)
The task of this panel was to identify and prioritize needs in the area of characterization of diamond and diamond-like-carbon (DLC) films for use in the transportation industry. Until recent advances in production of inexpensive films of diamonds and DLC, it was not feasible that these materials could be mass produced. The Characterization Panel is restricting itself to identifying needs in areas that would be most useful to manufacturers and users in producing and utilizing diamond and DLC coatings in industry. These characterization needs include in-situ monitoring during growth, relation of structure to performance, and standards and definitions.
Panel data models have become increasingly popular among applied researchers due to their heightened capacity for capturing the complexity of human behavior, as compared to cross-sectional or time series data models. This second edition represents a substantial revision of the highly successful first edition (1986). Recent advances in panel data research are presented in an accessible manner and are carefully integrated with the older material. The thorough discussion of theory and the judicious use of empirical examples make this book useful to graduate students and advanced researchers in economics, business, sociology and political science.
Abid, Zaynah; Cross, Amanda J; Sinha, Rashmi
In 2007 the World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) report judged that the evidence for an association between red and processed meat consumption and colorectal cancer was convincing. In addition, the effect of other animal products on cancer risk has been studied, and the WCRF/AICR report concluded that milk probably decreases the risk of colorectal cancer but diets high in calcium probably increase the risk of prostate cancer, whereas there was limited evidence for an association between milk and bladder cancer and insufficient evidence for other cancers. There are several potential mechanisms relating meat to cancer, including heterocyclic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, N-nitroso compounds, and heme iron. Although the evidence in favor of a link between red and processed meat and colorectal cancer is convincing, the relations with other cancers are unclear. In this review, we summarize cohort studies conducted by the National Cancer Institute on meat and dairy intake in relation to cancer since the 2007 WCRF/AICR report. We also report the findings of meta-analyses published since 2007. PMID:24847855
Clostridium difficile is a common cause of diarrhea in healthcare settings but little is known about what causes cases in the community. In this podcast, CDC's Dr. L. Clifford McDonald discusses two papers in the May 2009 edition of Emerging Infectious Diseases that explore whether the organism could be found in meat samples purchased in grocery stores in Arizona and Canada.
Grossi, Alberto; Christensen, Mette; Ertbjerg, Per
the rheological properties of pork meat batters by inducing formation of protein gels. HP induced protein gels are suggested to be formed by high molecular weight myofibrillar protein aggregates and by peptides formed by lysosomal enzyme-induced cleavage of myofibrillar proteins. Perspectives: The data presented...
Du, Min; Wang, Bo; Fu, Xing; Yang, Qiyuan; Zhu, Mei-Jun
Nutrient fluctuations during the fetal stage affects fetal development, which has long-term impacts on the production efficiency and quality of meat. During the early development, a pool of mesenchymal progenitor cells proliferate and then diverge into either myogenic or adipogenic/fibrogenic lineages. Myogenic progenitor cells further develop into muscle fibers and satellite cells, while adipogenic/fibrogenic lineage cells develop into adipocytes, fibroblasts and resident fibro-adipogenic progenitor cells. Enhancing the proliferation and myogenic commitment of progenitor cells during fetal development enhances muscle growth and lean production in offspring. On the other hand, promoting the adipogenic differentiation of adipogenic/fibrogenic progenitor cells inside the muscle increases intramuscular adipocytes and reduces connective tissue, which improves meat marbling and tenderness. Available studies in mammalian livestock, including cattle, sheep and pigs, clearly show the link between maternal nutrition and the quantity and quality of meat production. Similarly, chicken muscle fibers develop before hatching and, thus, egg and yolk sizes and hatching temperature affect long-term growth performance and meat production of chicken. On the contrary, because fishes are able to generate new muscle fibers lifelong, the impact of early nutrition on fish growth performance is expected to be minor, which requires further studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Renewed fears expressed by the United Nations about worldwide population growth have coincided with international concerns about the increased consumption of meat. This article, which draws upon long-term fieldwork in the Guatemalan highlands and ongoing scientific research in the Netherlands,
Albritton, D.; Levy, J.
Contents: introduction -the IPCC and NOAA; NOAA contributions to the IPCC 1995 science assessment; NOAA contributions to the IPCC 1995 impacts, adaptation, and mitigation assessment; NOAA contributions to the 1995 IPCC economics and greenhouse-gas scenario assessment
Full Text Available Objective This study evaluated inclusion of buckwheat silage to the diet of growing lambs in terms of meat quality as compared to maize silage. Methods Buckwheat, rich in total phenols (TP, 33 g/kg dry matter [DM], was harvested at the end of the milk stage and ensiled in 40 kg plastic bags after wilting (294 g/kg silage DM. A total of 18 growing lambs (21.6±1.2 were individually fed isonitrogenous and isoenergetic total mixed rations (TMR for 75 d that either contained buckwheat or maize silage at DM proportions of 0.50. At the end of feeding trail all lambs were slaughtered to assess carcass characteristics and meat quality. Results Buckwheat silage increased (p0.05 on live weight gain and feed efficiency. Carcass weight, dressing percentage, meat pH, water holding capacity, cooking loss, shear force (kg/cm2, and total viable bacteria count of meat did not differ (p>0.05 between the treatments. However, TP content of meat increased (p<0.001 by feeding buckwheat TMR. Feeding buckwheat TMR also decreased (p<0.05 the b* values of meat. Conclusion The results provide that buckwheat silage is palatable and could successfully include TMR of growing lambs with no adverse effects on performance, carcass and meat quality. Additionally, feeding buckwheat silage to lambs offers increased TP in meat.
Wang, Chaojun; Jiang, Hai
Meat consumption is inconsistently associated with the development of bladder cancer in several epidemiological studies. We performed a meta-analysis of evidence for relationships of meat consumption with risk of bladder cancer. Literature searches were conducted to identify peer-reviewed manuscripts published up to October 2010. Twenty publications from 10 cohort studies and 11 case-control studies were included in the analyses. We quantified associations with bladder cancer using meta-analysis of relative risk (RR) associated with the highest versus the lowest category of meat intake using random effect model. Pooled results indicate that overall meat intake was not related to the risk of bladder cancer (RR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.80-1.27), while high red and processed meat consumer had a significantly increased 17 and 10% risk, respectively, when comparing the highest with the lowest category of meat intake. In subgroup analyses, studies conduced in Unites States/Canada exhibited a positive relationship between high meat intake and bladder cancer risk, and studies using self-administered questionnaires for exposure assessment also showed a significant increased relative risk for high meat consumers. However, because of borderline significance and small number of publications in individual analyses, more studies, particularly well-designed prospective studies, are needed to confirm these findings.
Kapovsky, B. R.; Pchelkina, V. A.; Plyasheshnik, P. I.; Dydykin, A. S.; Lazarev, A. A.
A design for an automatic line for minced meat production according to new production technology based on an innovative meat milling method is proposed. This method allows the necessary degree of raw material comminution at the stage of raw material preparation to be obtained, which leads to production intensification due to the traditional meat mass comminution equipment being unnecessary. To ensure consistent quality of the product obtained, the use of on-line automatic control of the technological process for minced meat production is envisaged. This system has been developed using artificial intelligence methods and technologies. The system is trainable during the operation process, adapts to changes in processed raw material characteristics and to external impacts that affect the system operation, and manufactures meat shavings with minimal dispersion of the typical particle size. The control system includes equipment for express analysis of the chemical composition of the minced meat and its temperature after comminution. In this case, the minced meat production process can be controlled strictly as a function of time, which excludes subjective factors for assessing the degree of finished product readiness. This will allow finished meat products with consistent, targeted high quality to be produced.
Carlos Pasqualin Cavalheiro
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the colorimetric and sensory characteristics of a fermented cured sausage containing ostrich meat (Struthio camelus and pork meat. Four treatments were performed: one with no ostrich meat (TC and the others containing 19.08 (T1, 38.34 (T2, and 57.60% (T3 of ostrich meat and pork meat. Colorimetric analyses were measuring L*, a*, b*, C*, and hº. Sensory analysis was conducted assessing color, aroma, flavor, and texture at the end of the sausages' processing. The sausages containing ostrich meat were statistically different from the control in the instrumental colorimetric analysis. In the sensory analysis, no significant differences were observed between the treatments for aroma, flavor, and texture. However, significant differences were found in the color of the sausages due to the high myoglobin content present in the ostrich meat, which resulted in a very dark color in the treatment with the highest percentage of this type of meat.
Rodrigues, S; Teixeira, A
The main purpose of this work was the characterization of Cabrito Transmontana goat kid carcass and meat, which is a Protected Origin Designation product. The effects of sex and carcass weight were studied. Sensory attributes of toughness, juiciness, flavor intensity, flavor quality, odor intensity, fiber presence (stringy), sweet intensity, and overall acceptability were evaluated in 60 males and females allocated to 3 carcass weight groups: 4, 6, and 8 kg. Sensory quality of meat was evaluated by a trained taste panel of 11 experts in 5 sessions. Generalized Procrustes analysis was performed, and 93% of total variability was explained by the 2 first factors (axes). Correlation between sensory traits and factors 1 and 2 allowed the factors to be renamed as toughness/aroma and juiciness/acceptability, respectively. Procrustes analysis indicated that a sex effect was detected by experts. Meat from males presented greater juiciness, flavor quality, and general acceptability than did meat from females. Cabrito Transmontano Protected Origin Designation includes animals from 4 to 9 kg of carcass weight. However, differences among them can be important, because the taste panel found differences between animals from distinct carcass weight ranges. Lighter weight carcasses were considered more tender with less flavor and odor intensity than heavier carcasses.
Griffith, Garry R.; Thompson, John M.; Polkinghorne, Rod; Gunner, Richard
Variable eating quality was identified as a major contributor to declining Australian beef consumption in the early 1990s. The primary issue was the inability to predict the eating quality of cooked beef before consumption. A R&D program funded by industry and Meat and Livestock Australia investigated the relationships between critical control points along the supply chain, cooking methods and beef palatability. These relationships were underpinned by extensive consumer taste panels. Out of t...
Chen, Fur-Chi; Godwin, Sandria; Chambers, Edgar
Raw chicken products often are contaminated with Salmonella and Campylobacter , which can be transmitted from packages to contact surfaces. Raw meat juices from these packages also provide potential media for cross-contamination. There are limited quantitative data on the levels of consumer exposure to raw meat juice during shopping for and handling of chicken products. An exposure assessment is needed to quantify the levels of transmission and to assess the risk. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed and validated for quantitative detection of raw meat juice on hands and various food contact surfaces. Analytical procedures were designed to maximize the recovery of raw meat juice from various surfaces: hands, plastic, wood, stainless steel, laminated countertops, glass, and ceramics. The ELISA was based on the detection of a soluble muscle protein, troponin I (TnI), in the raw meat juice. The assay can detect levels as low as 1.25 ng of TnI, which is equivalent to less than 1 μl of the raw meat juice. The concentrations of TnI in the raw meat juices from 10 retail chicken packages, as determined by ELISA, were between 0.46 and 3.56 ng/μl, with an average of 1.69 ng/μl. The analytical procedures, which include swabbing, extraction, and concentration, enable the detection of TnI from various surfaces. The recoveries of raw meat juice from surfaces of hands were 92%, and recoveries from other tested surfaces were from 55% on plastic cutting boards to 75% on laminated countertops. The ELISA developed has been used for monitoring the transfer of raw meat juice during shopping for and handling of raw chicken products in our studies. The assay also can be applied to other raw meat products, such as pork and beef.
Quintana Pacheco, Daniel A; Sookthai, Disorn; Wittenbecher, Clemens; Graf, Mirja E; Schübel, Ruth; Johnson, Theron; Katzke, Verena; Jakszyn, Paula; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kühn, Tilman
High iron load and red meat consumption could increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). As red meat is the main source of heme iron, which is in turn a major determinant of increased iron load, adverse cardiometabolic effects of meat consumption could be mediated by increased iron load. The object of the study was to assess whether associations between red meat consumption and CVD risk are mediated by iron load in a population-based human study. We evaluated relations between red meat consumption, iron load (plasma ferritin), and risk of CVD in the prospective EPIC-Heidelberg Study using a case-cohort sample including a random subcohort (n = 2738) and incident cases of myocardial infarction (MI, n = 555), stroke (n = 513), and CVD mortality (n = 381). Following a 4-step mediation analysis, associations between red meat consumption and iron load, red meat consumption and CVD risk, and iron load and CVD risk were assessed by multivariable regression models before finally testing to which degree associations between red meat consumption and CVD risk were attenuated by adjustment for iron status. Red meat consumption was significantly positively associated with ferritin concentrations and MI risk [HR per 50 g daily intake: 1.18 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.33)], but no significant associations with stroke risk and CVD mortality were observed. While direct associations between ferritin concentrations and MI risk as well as CVD mortality were significant in age- and sex-adjusted Cox regression models, these associations were substantially attenuated and no longer significant after multivariable adjustment for classical CVD risk factors. Strikingly, ferritin concentrations were positively associated with a majority of classical CVD risk factors (age, male sex, alcohol intake, obesity, inflammation, and lower education). Increased ferritin concentrations may be a marker of an overall unfavorable risk factor profile rather than a mediator of greater CVD risk due to meat
Grace, Delia; Olowoye, Janice; Dipeolu, Morenike; Odebode, Stella; Randolph, Thomas
We describe a study to assess the bacteriological quality and safety of meat in Bodija market in Ibadan and to investigate the influence of gender and group membership on food safety. Mixed methods were used to gather information on meat safety and related socioeconomic factors. These methods included a participatory urban appraisal, focus group discussions with eight butchers' associations, in depth discussions with six key informants, a questionnaire study of 269 meat sellers and a cross-sectional survey of meat quality (200 samples from ten associations). We found that slaughter, processing and sale of beef meat take place under unhygienic conditions. The activities involve both men and women, with some task differentiation by gender. Meat sold by association members is of unacceptable quality. However, some groups have consistently better quality meat and this is positively correlated with the proportion of women members. Women also have significantly better food safety practice than men, though there was no significant difference in their knowledge of and attitude towards food safety. Most meat sellers (85 %) reported being ill in the last 2 weeks and 47 % reported experiencing gastrointestinal illness. Eating beef, eating chicken, eating offal, consuming one's own products and belonging to a group with poor quality of meat were all strong and significant predictors of self-reported gastrointestinal illness. We include that gender and group membership influence meat quality and self-reported gastrointestinal illness and that butchers' associations are promising entry points for interventions to improve food safety.
Mateescu, R G; Oltenacu, P A; Garmyn, A J; Mafi, G G; VanOverbeke, D L
Product quality is a high priority for the beef industry because of its importance as a major driver of consumer demand for beef and the ability of the industry to improve it. A 2-prong approach based on implementation of a genetic program to improve eating quality and a system to communicate eating quality and increase the probability that consumers' eating quality expectations are met is outlined. The objectives of this study were 1) to identify the best carcass and meat composition traits to be used in a selection program to improve eating quality and 2) to develop a relatively small number of classes that reflect real and perceptible differences in eating quality that can be communicated to consumers and identify a subset of carcass and meat composition traits with the highest predictive accuracy across all eating quality classes. Carcass traits, meat composition, including Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), intramuscular fat content (IMFC), trained sensory panel scores, and mineral composition traits of 1,666 Angus cattle were used in this study. Three eating quality indexes, EATQ1, EATQ2, and EATQ3, were generated by using different weights for the sensory traits (emphasis on tenderness, flavor, and juiciness, respectively). The best model for predicting eating quality explained 37%, 9%, and 19% of the variability of EATQ1, EATQ2, and EATQ3, and 2 traits, WBSF and IMFC, accounted for most of the variability explained by the best models. EATQ1 combines tenderness, juiciness, and flavor assessed by trained panels with 0.60, 0.15, and 0.25 weights, best describes North American consumers, and has a moderate heritability (0.18 ± 0.06). A selection index (I= -0.5[WBSF] + 0.3[IMFC]) based on phenotypic and genetic variances and covariances can be used to improve eating quality as a correlated trait. The 3 indexes (EATQ1, EATQ2, and EATQ3) were used to generate 3 equal (33.3%) low, medium, and high eating quality classes, and linear combinations of traits that
Pegg, R B; Shahidi, F
This review examines the chemistry of nitrite curing of meat and meat products as it relates to the development of cured meat color and provides a detailed account of how nitrite-free processed meats could be prepared using the preformed cooked cured-meat pigment (CCMP). Thus, a chemical description of meat color, both raw and cooked, and characterization of nitrosylheme pigments follows. Based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), visible and infrared spectroscopic studies, evidence has been provided to support the hypothesis that the chemical structure of the preformed CCMP is identical to that of the pigment prepared in situ after thermal processing of nitrite-cured meat and is in fact a mononitrosylheme complex. An appendix, which describes the basic principles of EPR spectroscopy used in the context of this review, is attached.
Kanatt, Sweetie R.; Chawla, S. P.; Sharma, Arun
The effect of radiation processing (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 kGy) on the tenderness of three types of popularly consumed meat in India namely chicken, lamb and buffalo was investigated. In irradiated meat samples dose dependant reduction in water holding capacity, cooking yield and shear force was observed. Reduction in shear force upon radiation processing was more pronounced in buffalo meat. Protein and collagen solubility as well as TCA soluble protein content increased on irradiation. Radiation processing of meat samples resulted in some change in colour of meat. Results suggested that irradiation leads to dose dependant tenderization of meat. Radiation processing of meat at a dose of 2.5 kGy improved its texture and had acceptable odour.
Nørrung, Birgit; Andersen, Jens Kirk; Buncic, Sava
Although various foods can serve as sources of foodborne illness, meat and meat products are important sources of human infections with a variety of foodborne pathogens, i.e. Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni/coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Verotoxigenic E. coli and, to some extent, Listeria monocytogenes. All these may be harboured in the gastrointestinal tract of food-producing animals. The most frequent chain of events leading to meat-borne illness involves food animals, which are healthy carriers of the pathogens that are subsequently transferred to humans through production, handling and consumption of meat and meat products. Occurrences of Salmonella spp., C. jejuni/coli, Y. enterocolitica and Verotoxigenic E. coli in fresh red meat vary relatively widely, although most often are between 1 and 10%, depending on a range of factors including the organism, geographical factors, farming and/or meat production practices.
Luís Carlos Oliveira dos Santos Júnior
Full Text Available
Ralph, E. L.; Linder, E. B.
Solar panel designs that utilize new high-efficiency solar cells and lightweight rigid panel technologies are described. The resulting designs increase the specific power (W/kg) achievable in the near-term and are well suited to meet the demands of higher performance small satellites (smallsats). Advanced solar panel designs have been developed and demonstrated on two NASA SBIR contracts at Applied Solar. The first used 19% efficient, large area (5.5 cm x 6.5 cm) GaAs/Ge solar cells with a lightweight rigid graphite epoxy isogrid substrate configuration. A 1,445 sq cm coupon was fabricated and tested to demonstrate 60 W/kg with a high potential of achieving 80 W/kg. The second panel design used new 22% efficiency, dual-junction GaInP2/GaAs/Ge solar cells combined with a lightweight aluminum core/graphite fiber mesh facesheet substrate. A 1,445 sq cm coupon was fabricated and tested to demonstrate 105 W/kg with the potential of achieving 115 W/kg.
At the meeting of the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA), in Geneva in July, Chairman A.N. Skrinsky of Novosibirsk reviewed ICFA progress, particularly the activities of the specialist Panels which pursue specific Committee objectives in guiding worldwide collaboration in high energy physics
At the meeting of the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA), in Geneva in July, Chairman A.N. Skrinsky of Novosibirsk reviewed ICFA progress, particularly the activities of the specialist Panels which pursue specific Committee objectives in guiding worldwide collaboration in high energy physics.
In September 1976 the Africa Regional Council (ARC) of IPPF created a Law Panel to 1) advise the ARC on the emphasis of laws and parenthood programs in the region, 2) investigate legal obstacles to family planning and ways of removing them, 3) institute a monitoring service on laws and court decisions affecting planned parenthood, and 4) prepare a list of lawyers and legal reformers by country. The panel has 1) recommended adoption of an IPPF Central Medical Committee and Central Law Panel statement on sterilization, adolescent fertility control, and the use of medical and auxiliary personnel in family planning services with guidelines for Africa; 2) appointed National Legal Correspondents to carry on the monitoring service mentioned above in 18 countries; and 3) discussed solutions to problems in delivering family planning services with family planning associations in Tanzania, Zambia, Mauritius, Madagascar, and Kenya. Laws governing family planning education and services, marriage, divorce, and maternity benefits in these countries are summarized. In 1978 the panel will hold 2 workshops on law and the status of women.
Eigensatz, Michael; Kilian, Martin; Schiftner, Alexander; Mitra, Niloy J.; Pottmann, Helmut; Pauly, Mark
The emergence of large-scale freeform shapes in architecture poses big challenges to the fabrication of such structures. A key problem is the approximation of the design surface by a union of patches, socalled panels, that can be manufactured with a
Two-piece unit heats and presses protective layers to form laminate. Rubber diaphragm between upper and lower vacuum chambers alternates between neutral position and one that presses against solar-cell array, supplying distributed force necessary to press layers of laminate together. Encapsulation helps to protect cells from environment and to ensure long panel life while allowing efficient generation of electricity from Sunlight.
Bun, M.J.G.; Sarafidis, V.
This Chapter reviews the recent literature on dynamic panel data models with a short time span and a large cross-section. Throughout the discussion we considerlinear models with additional endogenous covariates. First we give a broad overview of available inference methods placing emphasis on GMM.
Mcelroy, Paul; Helms, Rich
Parametric computer studies can be use in a cost effective manner to determine optimized composite mirror panel designs. An InterDisciplinary computer Model (IDM) was created to aid in the development of high precision reflector panels for LDR. The materials properties, thermal responses, structural geometries, and radio/optical precision are synergistically analyzed for specific panel designs. Promising panels designs are fabricated and tested so that comparison with panel test results can be used to verify performance prediction models and accommodate design refinement. The iterative approach of computer design and model refinement with performance testing and materials optimization has shown good results for LDR panels.
This report covers the activities of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) for calendar year 1998-a year of sharp contrasts and significant successes at NASA. The year opened with the announcement of large workforce cutbacks. The slip in the schedule for launching the International Space Station (ISS) created a five-month hiatus in Space Shuttle launches. This slack period ended with the successful and highly publicized launch of the STS-95 mission. As the year closed, ISS assembly began with the successful orbiting and joining of the Functional Cargo Block (FGB), Zarya, from Russia and the Unity Node from the United States. Throughout the year, the Panel maintained its scrutiny of NASA's safety processes. Of particular interest were the potential effects on safety of workforce reductions and the continued transition of functions to the Space Flight Operations Contractor. Attention was also given to the risk management plans of the Aero-Space Technology programs, including the X-33, X-34, and X-38. Overall, the Panel concluded that safety is well served for the present. The picture is not as clear for the future. Cutbacks have limited the depth of talent available. In many cases, technical specialties are 'one deep.' The extended hiring freeze has resulted in an older workforce that will inevitably suffer significant departures from retirements in the near future. The resulting 'brain drain' could represent a future safety risk unless appropriate succession planning is started expeditiously. This and other topics are covered in the section addressing workforce. The major NASA programs are also limited in their ability to plan property for the future. This is of particular concern for the Space Shuttle and ISS because these programs are scheduled to operate well into the next century. In the case of the Space Shuttle, beneficial and mandatory safety and operational upgrades are being delayed because of a lack of sufficient present funding. Likewise, the ISS has
Hamish J. Love
Full Text Available Modern attitudes to meat in both men and women reflect a strong meat-masculinity association. Sex differences in the relationship between meat and masculinity have not been previously explored. In the current study we used two IATs (implicit association tasks, a visual search task, and a questionnaire to measure implicit and explicit attitudes toward meat in men and women. Men exhibited stronger implicit associations between meat and healthiness than did women, but both sexes associated meat more strongly with ‘healthy’ than ‘unhealthy’ concepts. As ‘healthy’ was operationalized in the current study using terms such as “virile” and “powerful,” this suggests that a meat-strength/power association may mediate the meat-masculinity link readily observed across western cultures. The sex difference was not related to explicit attitudes to meat, nor was it attributable to a variety of other factors, such as a generally more positive disposition toward meat in men than women. Men also exhibited an attention bias toward meats, compared to non-meat foods, while females exhibited more caution when searching for non-meat foods, compared to meat. These biases were not related to implicit attitudes, but did tend to increase with increasing hunger levels. Potential ultimate explanations for these differences, including sex differences in bio-physiological needs and receptivity to social signals are discussed.
Mele, Prof. Marcello; Morbidini, Prof. Luciano; Cozza, Dr. Francesca; Pauselli, Prof. Mariano; Pollicardo, Dr. Alice
Meat quality of Maremmana young bulls and steers was evaluated during three consecutive years, according to an extension service experimental program. Cooking loss values of meat samples were lower in meat from steers, whereas shear force values were higher. Meat from steers was darker than meat from young bulls, as a consequence of a low level of Lightness and a high level of Chroma. Meat chemical composition showed a higher content of intramuscular fat in steer meat, which showed also a low...
This paper highlights the importance of food irradiation in the protection of the public against food poisoning from eating meat or meat products contaminated with salmonella. Salmonella infections are increasing at an alarming rate (2000 in 1952 to 12000 reported cases in 1982 in England and Wales alone). Dr. Dempster reports that 50% of the chicken carcasses examined by workers in America were found to be salmonella contaminated. Use of irradiation in conjunction with mild refrigeration can extend the shelf-life of vacuum packed chicken by a factor of three. Important legislation now under discussion in the U.S.A. is likely to extend the applicability of food irradiation rapidly in the near future
Herrmann, Susan Strange; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Granby, Kit
Nitrite and nitrate have for many decades been used for preservation of meat. However, nitrite can react with secondary amines in meat to form N-Nitrosamines (NAs), many of which have been shown to be genotoxic1 . The use of nitrite therefore ought to be limited as much as possible. To maintain...... a high level of consumer protection Denmark obtains National low limits of the nitrite use in meat products. An estimation of the dietary exposure to volatile NAs (VNA) and non-volatile NAs (NVNA) is necessary when performing a risk assessment of the use of nitrite and nitrate for meat preservation....
Baldi, G; Soglia, F; Mazzoni, M; Sirri, F; Canonico, L; Babini, E; Laghi, L; Cavani, C; Petracci, M
During the past few years, there has been an increasing prevalence of broiler breast muscle abnormalities, such as white striping (WS) and wooden breast conditions. More recently, a new muscular abnormality termed as spaghetti meat (SM) because of the altered structural integrity of the Pectoralis major muscle often associated with WS has emerged. Thus, this study aimed at evaluating the effects of WS and SM conditions, occurring alone or combined within the same P. major muscle, on meat quality traits and muscle histology. In two replications, 96 P. major muscles were classified into four classes: normal (N), WS, SM and WS/SM. The whole fillet was used for weight assessment and morphometric measurements, then each sample was cut in order to separate the superficial layer from the deep one and used to evaluate proximate composition, histological features, nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation times, functional properties and both myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins profile. Fillets affected by WS and SM abnormalities exhibited higher weights and increased thickness and length. SM condition was associated with a relevant decrease in protein content coupled with a significant increase in moisture level, whereas fat content was affected only by the simultaneous presence of WS. Histological evaluations revealed that abnormal samples were characterized by several degenerative aspects that almost completely concerned the superficial layer of the fillets. White striped fillets exhibited necrosis and lysis of fibers, fibrosis, lipidosis, loss of cross striation and vacuolar degeneration. Moreover, SM samples were characterized by poor fiber uniformity and a progressive rarefaction of the endo- and peri-mysial connective tissue, whereas WS/SM fillets showed intermediate histological features. Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation analysis revealed a higher proportion of extra-myofibrillar water in the superficial section of all the abnormal fillets, especially in SM
Panel shear strength along the thickness and planar shear along the length of wood panels laminated softwood oriented OSB 10 mm thick, conditioned at different moisture contents (anhydrous medium, ambient temperature and humid medium) was measured on standardized test specimens, cut in half lengthwise panel ...
Changes in protein abundance between tender and tough meat from bovine Longissimus thoracis muscle assessed by isobaric Tag for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) and 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis
Bjarnadóttir, S G; Hollung, K; Høy, M
The aim of this study was to find potential biomarkers for meat tenderness in bovine Longissimus thoracis muscle and to compare results from isobaric Tag for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) and 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis. The experiment included 4 tender and 4...
Dilip Ranjan Nath
Full Text Available Aim: An attempt was made to develop a desirable meat pickle from the less tender and low demand spent chicken meat with the prime objective of its better marketability and wider acceptability amongst the non-vegetarian masses. Materials and Methods: Lean of culled spent meat was marinated for overnight and then pressure cooked and fried with spices and condiments to prepare a shelf stable meat pickle. Proximate composition, pH, TBA Values, Total viable plate count, Counts for yeast and moulds and sensory quality of the pickles were studied as per standard procedure. Results: The mean per cent moisture, crude protein, ether extract and total ash contents were 61.89±0.12, 17.28±0.56, 14.65±0.16 and 3.35±0.17 respectively. The product pH and the yeast and mould counts though did not differ significantly amongst the storage periods, yet there were significant differences (p<0.01 in TBA and total viable plate count amongst the storage periods. Organoleptic studies with score card method recorded a progressive decrease in the mean panel scores along with the increased storage periods. Conclusion: The spent chicken meat pickle was found to be acceptable for consumption up-to 90 days of storage at room temperature. [Vet World 2013; 6(3.000: 156-158
Alur, M.D.; Kamat, A.S.; Doke, S.N.; Nair, P.M.
Processed meat products including pork salami, luncheon meat, ham and cocktail sausages maintained at sub-zero temperatures in retail cold storage were found to possess counts of mesophilic aerobes, Staphylococcus and Salmonella counts in the ranges of 10 6 - 10 7 and 10 4 - 10 5 and 10 - 100 cfu/g, respectively. When these processed meat products were subjected to a gamma radiation dose of 2.5 kGy, under cryogenic condition, counts of mesophilic aerobes and Staphylococcus of the samples were reduced by 3-4 log cycles. At the same time, products were completely free from Salmonella. Inoculated pack studies indicated that gamma radiation dose of 4 kGy would suffice to eliminate Salmonella completely even in the case of samples, which were artificially inoculated with a heavy initial inoculum of 10 6 cfu/g. A trained taste panel gave high organoleptic ratings, the radicidized meat products in terms of odour, colour and texture, establishing 4 kGy as an optimum radicidation dose for frozen pork meat products. (author)
Hathwar, Swapna C; Rai, Amit Kumar; Modi, Vinod Kumar; Narayan, Bhaskar
Awareness of health and nutrition has led to the development of "functional foods" which is a new approach to achieve healthier status thus reducing the risk of diseases. Meat has been highly exploited as a functional ingredient/food in recent years wherein meat has either been modified or incorporated into non meat products. Changing consumer demand has influenced the market for all types of meat. The development and marketing the functional foods can be, however, very challenging compared to the foods that conventionally have a high health image. This review gives the overall perception about importance of using meat/meat products as a functional food.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The qualitative properties of the meat are of major importance for poultry breeding, since meat is now widely consumed as cuts or as processed products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic parameters of several breast meat quality traits and their genetic relationships with muscle characteristics in a heavy commercial line of broilers. Results Significant levels of heritability (averaging 0.3 were obtained for breast meat quality traits such as pH at 15 min post-slaughter, ultimate pH (pHu, color assessed by lightness L*, redness a* and yellowness b*, drip loss, thawing-cooking loss and shear-force. The rate of decrease in pH early post-mortem and the final pH of the meat were shown to be key factors of chicken meat quality. In particular, a decrease in the final pH led to paler, more exudative and tougher breast meat. The level of glycogen stored in breast muscle estimated by the Glycolytic Potential (GP at slaughter time was shown to be highly heritable (h2 0.43. There was a very strong negative genetic correlation (rg with ultimate meat pH (rg -0.97, suggesting a common genetic control for GP and pHu. While breast muscle weight was genetically positively correlated with fiber size (rg 0.76, it was negatively correlated with the level of glycogen stored in the muscle (rg -0.58, and as a consequence it was positively correlated with the final pH of the meat (rg 0.84. Conclusion This genetic study confirmed that selection should be useful to improve meat characteristics of meat-type chickens without impairing profitability because no genetic conflict was detected between meat quality and meat quantity. Moreover, the results suggested relevant selection criteria such as ultimate pH, which is strongly related to color, water-holding capacity and texture of the meat in this heavy chicken line.
Obermayr, Eva; Heinze, Georg; Tong, Dan; Zeillinger, Robert; Sanchez-Cabo, Fatima; Tea, Muy-Kheng M; Singer, Christian F; Krainer, Michael; Fischer, Michael B; Sehouli, Jalid; Reinthaller, Alexander; Horvat, Reinhard
The presence of circulating tumor cells (CTC) in the peripheral blood of cancer patients has been described for various solid tumors and their clinical relevance has been shown. CTC detection based on the analysis of epithelial antigens might be hampered by the genetic heterogeneity of the primary tumor and loss of epithelial antigens. Therefore, we aimed to identify new gene markers for the PCR-based detection of CTC in female cancer patients. Gene expression of 38 cancer cell lines (breast, ovarian, cervical and endometrial) and of 10 peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples from healthy female donors was measured using microarray technology (Applied Biosystems). Differentially expressed genes were identified using the maxT test and the 50% one-sided trimmed maxT-test. Confirmatory RT-qPCR was performed for 380 gene targets using the AB TaqMan ® Low Density Arrays. Then, 93 gene targets were analyzed using the same RT-qPCR platform in tumor tissues of 126 patients with primary breast, ovarian or endometrial cancer. Finally, blood samples from 26 healthy women and from 125 patients (primary breast, ovarian, cervical, or endometrial cancer, and advanced breast cancer) were analyzed following OncoQuick enrichment and RNA pre-amplification. Likewise, hMAM and EpCAM gene expression was analyzed in the blood of breast and ovarian cancer patients. For each gene, a cut-off threshold value was set at three standard deviations from the mean expression level of the healthy controls to identify potential markers for CTC detection. Six genes were over-expressed in blood samples from 81% of patients with advanced and 29% of patients with primary breast cancer. EpCAM gene expression was detected in 19% and 5% of patients, respectively, whereas hMAM gene expression was observed in the advanced group (39%) only. Multimarker analysis using the new six gene panel positively identified 44% of the cervical, 64% of the endometrial and 19% of the ovarian cancer patients. The
Davis, Gregg S.; Waits, Kara; Nordstrom, Lora; Weaver, Brett; Aziz, Maliha; Gauld, Lori; Grande, Heidi; Bigler, Rick; Horwinski, Joseph; Porter, Stephen; Stegger, Marc; Johnson, James R.; Liu, Cindy M.; Price, Lance B.
Background. Klebsiella pneumoniae is a common colonizer of the gastrointestinal tract of humans, companion animals, and livestock. To better understand potential contributions of foodborne K. pneumoniae to human clinical infections, we compared K. pneumoniae isolates from retail meat products and human clinical specimens to assess their similarity based on antibiotic resistance, genetic relatedness, and virulence. Methods. Klebsiella pneumoniae was isolated from retail meats from Flagstaff grocery stores in 2012 and from urine and blood specimens from Flagstaff Medical Center in 2011–2012. Isolates underwent antibiotic susceptibility testing and whole-genome sequencing. Genetic relatedness of the isolates was assessed using multilocus sequence typing and phylogenetic analyses. Extraintestinal virulence of several closely related meat-source and urine isolates was assessed using a murine sepsis model. Results. Meat-source isolates were significantly more likely to be multidrug resistant and resistant to tetracycline and gentamicin than clinical isolates. Four sequence types occurred among both meat-source and clinical isolates. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed close relationships among meat-source and clinical isolates. Isolates from both sources showed similar virulence in the mouse sepsis model. Conclusions. Meat-source K. pneumoniae isolates were more likely than clinical isolates to be antibiotic resistant, which could reflect selective pressures from antibiotic use in food-animal production. The close genetic relatedness of meat-source and clinical isolates, coupled with similarities in virulence, suggest that the barriers to transmission between these 2 sources are low. Taken together, our results suggest that retail meat is a potential vehicle for transmitting virulent, antibiotic-resistant K. pneumoniae from food animals to humans. PMID:26206847
Barak, Farzaneh; Falahi, Ebrahim; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Yazdannik, Ahmadreza; Saneei, Parvane; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad
Few data, with conflicting findings, are available linking red meat consumption to indicators of insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. This study aimed to investigate the association of red meat consumption with insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction among a sample of female nurses in Isfahan, Iran. This cross-sectional study was carried out among 420 female nurses who were selected by a multistage cluster random sampling method. Usual dietary intakes were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Red meat intake was calculated by summing up the consumption of all kinds of red meat in foods and processed meat in sausages and fast foods. To measure serum concentrations of adhesion molecules and glycemic indexes, a fasting blood sample was taken. After adjustment for potential confounders, high red meat intake was significantly associated with higher fasting plasma glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and lower quantitative insulin sensitivity check index. Although high red meat intake was significantly associated with higher serum insulin levels and lower homeostasis model assessment of beta-cell function in the crude model, after controlling for BMI, the association was no longer significant. Red meat consumption was associated with high concentrations of E-selectin, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) after adjustment for different potential confounders. We found that increased red meat intake was associated with high concentrations of plasma endothelial dysfunction biomarkers and abnormal glucose homeostasis among Iranian women. Prospective studies are required to confirm these findings. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer contains information about the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) panel areas. The spatial entities representing FIRM panels are polygons. The polygon for...
Gallimore, Simon; Gier, Jochen; Heitland, Greg; Povinelli, Louis; Sharma, Om; VandeWall, Allen
A final report is presented from the industry panel group. The contents include: 1) General comments; 2) Positive progress since Minnowbrook IV; 3) Industry panel outcome; 4) Prioritized turbine projects; 5) Prioritized compressor projects; and 6) Miscellaneous.
Wada, Keiko; Oba, Shino; Tsuji, Michiko; Tamura, Takashi; Konishi, Kie; Goto, Yuko; Mizuta, Fumi; Koda, Sachi; Hori, Akihiro; Tanabashi, Shinobu; Matsushita, Shogen; Tokimitsu, Naoki; Nagata, Chisato
Compared with the abundant data from Western countries, evidence regarding meat consumption and colorectal cancer is limited in the Japanese population. We evaluated colorectal cancer risk in relation to meat consumption in a population-based prospective cohort study in Japan. Participants were 13 957 men and 16 374 women aged ≥35 years in September 1992. Meat intake, assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire, was controlled for the total energy intake. The incidence of colorectal cancer was confirmed through regional population-based cancer registries and histological identification from colonoscopy in two main hospitals in the study area. From September 1992 to March 2008, 429 men and 343 women developed colorectal cancer. After adjustments for multiple confounders, a significantly increased relative risk of colorectal cancer was observed in the highest versus lowest quartile of the intake of total and red meat among men; the estimated hazard ratios were 1.36 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.79) for total meat (P for trend = 0.022), and 1.44 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.89) for red meat (P for trend = 0.009). A positive association between processed meat intake and colon cancer risk was also observed in men. There was no significant association between colorectal cancer and meat consumption in women. These results suggest that the intake of red and processed meat increases the risk of colorectal or colon cancer among Japanese men. Abstaining from excessive consumption of meat might be protective against developing colorectal cancer. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.
Sevillano Morales, Jesus; Moreno-Ortega, Alicia; Amaro Lopez, Manual Angel; Arenas Casas, Antonio; Cámara-Martos, Fernando; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael
This study aimed to estimate the consumption of meat and products derived from hunting by the consumer population and, specifically, by hunters and their relatives. For this purpose, a survey was conducted on the frequency of consuming meat from the four most representative game species in Spain, two of big game, wild boar (Sus scrofa) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) and two of small game, rabbit (Oryctolagus cunulucus) and red partridge (Alectoris rufa), as well as of processed meat products (salami-type sausage) made from those big game species. The survey was carried out on 337 habitual consumers of these types of products (hunters and their relatives). The total mean game meat consumption, per capita in this population group, is 6.87 kg/person/year of meat and 8.57 kg/person/year if the processed meat products are also considered. Consumption of rabbit, red partridge, red deer and wild boar, individually, was 1.85, 0.82, 2.28 and 1.92 kg/person/year, respectively. It was observed that hunters generally registered a larger intake of game meat, this being statistically significant in the case of rabbit meat consumption. Using probabilistic methods, the meat consumption frequency distributions for each hunting species studied were estimated, as well as the products made from big game species and the total consumption both of meat by itself and that including the products made from it. The consumption frequency distributions were adjusted to exponential ones, verified by the test suitable for it according to Akaike Information Criterion, Bayesian Information Criterion, the Chi-Squared and Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistics. In addition, the consumption percentiles of the different distributions were obtained. The latter could be a good tool when making nutrition or contaminant studies since they permit the assessment of exposure to the compound in question.
Lenighan, Yvonne M; Nugent, Anne P; Li, Kaifeng F; Brennan, Lorraine; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert; Roche, Helen M; McNulty, Breige A
Evidence suggests that processed red meat consumption is a risk factor for CVD and type 2 diabetes (T2D). This analysis investigates the association between dietary patterns, their processed red meat contributions, and association with blood biomarkers of CVD and T2D, in 786 Irish adults (18-90 years) using cross-sectional data from a 2011 national food consumption survey. All meat-containing foods consumed were assigned to four food groups (n 502) on the basis of whether they contained red or white meat and whether they were processed or unprocessed. The remaining foods (n 2050) were assigned to twenty-nine food groups. Two-step and k-means cluster analyses were applied to derive dietary patterns. Nutrient intakes, plasma fatty acids and biomarkers of CVD and T2D were assessed. A total of four dietary patterns were derived. In comparison with the pattern with lower contributions from processed red meat, the dietary pattern with greater processed red meat intakes presented a poorer Alternate Healthy Eating Index (21·2 (sd 7·7)), a greater proportion of smokers (29 %) and lower plasma EPA (1·34 (sd 0·72) %) and DHA (2·21 (sd 0·84) %) levels (Pprocessed red meat consumption as a risk factor for CVD and T2D may need to be re-assessed.
Husak, R L; Sebranek, J G; Bregendahl, K
The objective of this survey was to investigate qualitative and quantitative properties of meat from organic, free-range, and conventional broilers as currently provided to consumers. Fifteen broilers from 4 suppliers of each type were evaluated for raw meat yield, cooked meat yield, proximate composition, pH, color, lipid oxidation, fatty acid composition, and sensory attributes. Organic broilers yielded more dark (thigh) meat (P free-range or conventional, when compared on a raw-meat basis, but conventional and free-range broilers yielded more (P free-range or conventional. Organic breast and thigh meat was less yellow (P free-range or conventional. Fatty acid analysis showed that organic breasts and thighs were lower (P free-range and conventional broilers. Shear force measurements were less (P free-range and organic broilers. Sensory panel results indicated that thighs from conventional broilers were more tender (P free-range and organic broilers, whereas other sensory properties did not differ. At the time of the study, March through May of 2006, the average retail prices for US broilers were USD 3.19, USD 2.78, and USD 1.29 per pound (USD 7.03, USD 6.13, and USD 2.84/kg) for organic, free-range, and conventional, respectively. Whereas a difference in the fatty acid composition was the largest difference observed between retail broilers in this survey, it is important to note that diets and production environments within the study were not controlled. It is apparent that the market prices for broilers at the time of this study are not fully reflected in the quantitative and qualitative measurements included in this study. It appears that consumers may be placing significant value on more intangible attributes associated with broilers marketed as organic and free-range chicken than on those attributes measured in this study.
Slegers, P.M.; Wijffels, R.H.; Straten, van G.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.
Evaluation of the potential of algae production for biofuel and other products at various locations throughout the world requires assessment of algae productivity under varying light conditions and different reactor layouts. A model was developed to predict algae biomass production in flat panel
Sadler, D H; Young, O A
Tendon from beef hind leg muscles was used to replace some of the lean in a conventional emulsion formulation. The tendon was homogenized and either used raw or preheated for 2·5 h at a range of temperatures (50, 60, 70, 80°C) before use. Texture analysis and sensory evaluation were performed on cylinders of cooked sausage. Texture analysis was carried out on formulations which had 20% of meat protein replaced by 20% tendons which were raw or had been preheated to 50, 60, 70, or 80°C. Fracturability decreased by about 40% with raw tendon, but was restored to within 20% of the no-replacement control if the tendon had been preheated. Hardness was approximately doubled by replacement with raw tendon or tendon heated at 50°C. At temperatures higher than that, hardness returned to approximately no-replacement levels. For sensory evaluation (0-25% replacement; preheating at 70°C), sausages were assessed by a 12-member panel for texture, flavour and overall acceptability. All attributes decreased with increasing collagen content, the decrease being less marked with preheated tendon. Thus more connective tissue could be added for the same panel score if the tissue was preheated. Comparison of the texture profile and the panel scores for texture at the same lean replacement level suggested that reduced fracturability was the texture parameter that panellists objected to when heated tendon replaced some of the lean. Other researchers have shown that connective tissue preheated to 100°C before addition in emulsion sausages results in improved yields and better sensory attributes, but the present results show that temperatures as low as 60°C can be effective for beef tendon. Copyright © 1993. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Cavieres, Andres; Al-Haddad, Tristan; Goodman, Joseph
A photovoltaic panel mounting clip comprising a base, central indexing tabs, flanges, lateral indexing tabs, and vertical indexing tabs. The mounting clip removably attaches one or more panels to a beam or the like structure, both mechanically and electrically. It provides secure locking of the panels in all directions, while providing guidance in all directions for accurate installation of the panels to the beam or the like structure.
Pachón, Helena; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Glahn, Raymond P
The effect of processing (homogenization, lyophilization, acid-extraction) meat products on iron uptake from meat combined with uncooked iron-fortified cereal was evaluated using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. Beef was cooked, blended to create smaller meat particles, and combined with electrolytic iron-fortified infant rice cereal. Chicken liver was cooked and blended, lyophilized, or acid-extracted, and combined with FeSO4-fortified wheat flour. In the beef-cereal combination, Caco-2 cell iron uptake, assessed by measuring the ferritin formed by cells, was greater when the beef was blended for the greatest amount of time (360 s) compared with 30 s (P meat products on iron absorption in iron-fortified cereals.
Domingo, José L
Meat and meat products is one of the most relevant food groups in an important number of human diets. Recently, the IARC, based on results of a number of epidemiological studies, classified the consumptions of red meat and processed meat as "probably carcinogenic to humans" and as "carcinogenic to humans", respectively. It was suggested that the substances responsible of the potential carcinogenicity would be mainly generated during meat processing, such as curing and smoking, or when meat is heated at high temperatures. However, the exposure to environmental pollutants through meat consumption was not discussed. The purpose of the present paper was to review recent studies reporting the concentrations of PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs and PAHs in meat and meat products, as well as the human exposure to these pollutants through the diet. It is concluded that the health risks derived from exposure to carcinogenic environmental contaminants must be considered in the context of each specific diet, which besides meat and meat products, includes other foodstuffs containing also chemical pollutants, some of them with carcinogenic potential. Anyhow, meat and meat products are not the main food group responsible of the dietary exposure to carcinogenic (or probably carcinogenic) environmental organic pollutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ignalina Safety Panel was created to define, monitor and supervise the scope and production of the Ignalina Safety Analysis Report (SAR) and its Review (RSR); to review results of in-depth safety assessment addressing important contradictory statements; to give Lithuanian Government recommendations in view of further licensing process. In this paper General and Specific Recommendations provided by the Panel are presented
R. Bergman; D. Kaestner; A. Taylor
Manufacturing building products such as wood panels has environmental impacts, including contributions to climate change. This paper is a compilation of four studies quantifying these impacts using the life-cycle assessment (LCA) method on five wood-based panel products made in North America during 2012. LCA is an internationally accepted and standardized method for...
In May 1999, 200 delegates attended a four-day UK Consensus Conference on radioactive waste management, which was organised by the UK Centre for Economic and Environmental Development (UK CEED) and supported by the government, industry and environmental groups. The event brought together a Citizens' Panel of fifteen people, randomly selected to represent a cross section of the British public, together with the major players in the debate. The four-day conference saw the panel cross-examine expert witnesses from organisations such as NIREX, British Nuclear Fuels Limited, the Ministry of Defence, Greenpeace and Friends of the Earth. The findings of their investigations were put together in a report containing detailed recommendations for government and industry and presented to the Minister on the final day. (author)
Makris, S. E.; Dym, C. L.; MacGregor Smith, J.
Considering the sound transmission loss (TL) of a sandwich panel as the single objective, different optimization techniques are examined and a sophisticated computer program is used to find the optimum TL. Also, for one of the possible case studies such as core optimization, closed-form expressions are given between TL and the core-design variables for different sets of skins. The significance of these functional relationships lies in the fact that the panel designer can bypass the necessity of using a sophisticated software package in order to assess explicitly the dependence of the TL on core thickness and density.
Derevitskay, O. K.; Dydykin, A. S.
Enteral nutrition is widely used in hospitals as a means of nutritional support and therapy for different diseases. Enteral nutrition must fulfil the energy needs of the body, be balanced by the nutrient composition and meet patient’s nutritional needs. Meat is a source of full-value animal protein, vitamins and minerals. On the basis of this research, recipes and technology for a meat-based enteral nutrition product were developed. The product is a ready-to-eat sterilised mixture in the form of a liquid homogeneous mass, which is of full value in terms of composition and enriched with vitamins and minerals, consists of particles with a size of not more than 0.3 mm and has the modified fat composition and rheological characteristics that are necessary for passage through enteral feeding tubes. The study presents experimental data on the content of the main macro- and micro-nutrients in the developed product. The new product is characterised by a balanced fatty acid composition, which plays an important role in correction of lipid metabolism disorders and protein-energy deficiency, and it is capable of satisfying patients’ daily requirements for vitamins and the main macro- and microelements when consuming 1500-2000 ml. Meat-based enteral nutrition can be used in diets as a standard mixture for effective correction of the energy and anabolic requirements of the body and support of the nutritional status of patients, including those with operated stomach syndrome.
Ibidhi, R.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Chouchane, Hatem
Meat production puts larger demands on water and land and results in larger greenhouse gas emissions than alternative forms of food. This study uses footprint indicators, the water, land and carbon footprint, to assess natural resources use and greenhouse gas emissions for sheep and chicken meat
Burger, Joanna; Fleischer, Jennifer; Gochfeld, Michael
Understanding different patterns of fish consumption is an important component of the assessment of risk from contaminants in fish. While there have been extensive studies of fish consumption in Western cultures, less attention has been devoted to the role of fish and meat in the diets of people in other cultures. A survey of 212 people living in Singapore was conducted to examine the relative importance of fish, shellfish, and other meat in their diets and to ascertain whether there were differences as a function of age, income, education or gender. As expected, fish and shellfish played an important role in their daily diets. On average, people ate fish in about 10 meals a week, chicken for eight meals, and shrimp and pork for about six meals each. While nearly 8% never ate fish, 18% ate fish at all 21 meals a week and over 20% ate shellfish for all 21 meals. Income explained about 14% of the variation in the number of fish meals consumed, and age explained about 8% of the variation in number of chicken meals per week. There were no gender differences in the number of meals of each type. People less than 26 years old ate significantly more pork, chicken, and other meat meals and fewer shellfish meals than older people. People with higher incomes ate significantly more fish meals than those with lower incomes. Chinese individuals ate significantly more meals of pork, chicken, and other meat than other ethnic groups, and they ate only 26% of their meals at home, while others ate 33% of their meals at home. The data indicate a great deal of variation in the number of meals of fish, shellfish, and other meats eaten by the people interviewed, making dietary and risk assessments challenging
Holmes, Michelle D; Colditz, Graham A; Hunter, David J; Hankinson, Susan E; Rosner, Bernard; Speizer, Frank E; Willett, Walter C
Intakes of animal protein, meat, and eggs have been associated with breast cancer incidence and mortality in ecological studies, but data from long-term prospective studies are limited. We therefore examined these relationships in the Nurses' Health Study. We followed 88,647 women for 18 years, with 5 assessments of diet by food frequency questionnaire, cumulatively averaged and updated over time. We calculated the relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for risk of developing invasive breast cancer, over categories of nutrient and food intake. During follow-up, 4,107 women developed invasive breast cancer. Compared to the lowest quintile of intake, the RR and 95% CI for the highest quintile of intake were 1.02 (0.92-1.14) for animal protein, 0.93 (0.83-1.05) for red meat and 0.89 (0.79-1.00) for all meat. Results did not differ by menopausal status or family history of breast cancer. We found no evidence that intake of meat or fish during mid-life and later was associated with risk of breast cancer. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Schaefer, G Owen; Savulescu, Julian
The prospect of consumable meat produced in a laboratory setting without the need to raise and slaughter animals is both realistic and exciting. Not only could such in vitro meat become popular due to potential cost savings, but it also avoids many of the ethical and environmental problems with traditional meat productions. However, as with any new technology, in vitro meat is likely to face some detractors. We examine in detail three potential objections: 1) in vitro meat is disrespectful, either to nature or to animals; 2) it will reduce the number of happy animals in the world; and 3) it will open the door to cannibalism. While each objection has some attraction, we ultimately find that all can be overcome. The upshot is that in vitro meat production is generally permissible and, especially for ethical vegetarians, worth promoting.
Hill, M J
In early epidemiological studies of diet and cancer the stress was on the search for causal factors. Population (ecological) studies tended to show a strong correlation between meat intake, particularly red meat, and the risk of colo-rectal cancer. They also tended to show meat to be strongly inversely correlated with cancers of the stomach and oesophagus and liver. Early case-control studies tended to support the postulated role for red meat in colo-rectal carcinogenesis, although more recent case-control studies, particularly those from Europe, have tended to show no relationship. The cohort studies in general failed to detect any relationship between meat intake and colo-rectal cancer risk. The available evidence points to the intake of protective factors such as vegetables and whole-grain cereals being the main determinants of colo-rectal cancer risk, with meat intake only coincidentally related.
Full Text Available Cultured meat, or in vitro meat, is one of the ideas that are being proposed to help solve the problems associated with the ever-growing global meat consumption. The prospect may bring benefit for the environment, climate, and animal ethics, but has also generated doubts and criticism. A discussion of the possible environmental benefit and of animal ethics issues in relation to cultured meat production will be given. A perceived 'unnaturalness' of cultured meat may be one of the strongest barriers for public acceptance. This will be discussed and rejected. As to our relations with nature and animals, it is plausible that cultured meat will lead to improvement rather than to deterioration. The issue of public acceptance and some of the problems of introducing this new product on the market will also be discussed.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v7i1.1788
Harikumar, P.; Ninjoor, V.; Kumta, U.S.
Process parameters for the preservation of chicken meat by low dose γ-radiation have been defined. Leg muscle and breast muscle samples were separately packed in polythylene pouches with without vacuum and exposed to γ-radiation (0.10 - 0.25 Mrad) at ice temperature. The irradiated samples along with the unirradiated controls were stored at 0-4 degC. The quality attributes of the samples were assessed in terms of the organoleptic score and biochemical parameters such as TMAN, TVBN and TBA values. The results showed that the unirradiated samples spoiled during 10 days storage while irradiated samples were acceptable upto 21 days. Vacuum packaging prior to irradiation was found to suppress the TVBN, and TBA values throughout the storage period. This resulted in the enhanced acceptibility of the product during storage. (author)
Slegers, P.M.; Wijffels, R.H.; Straten, G. van; Boxtel, A.J.B. van
Evaluation of the potential of algae production for biofuel and other products at various locations throughout the world requires assessment of algae productivity under varying light conditions and different reactor layouts. A model was developed to predict algae biomass production in flat panel photobioreactors using the interaction between light and algae growth for the algae species Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Thalassiosira pseudonana. The effect of location, variable sunlight and reactor layout on biomass production in single standing and parallel positioned flat panels was considered. Three latitudes were studied representing the Netherlands, France and Algeria. In single standing reactors the highest yearly biomass production is achieved in Algeria. During the year biomass production fluctuates the most in the Netherlands, while it is almost constant in Algeria. Several combinations of path lengths and biomass concentrations can result in the same optimal biomass production. The productivity in parallel place flat panels is strongly influenced by shading and diffuse light penetration between the panels. Panel orientation has a large effect on productivity and at higher latitudes the difference between north-south and east-west orientation may go up to 50%.
Li, D; Sinclair, A; Mann, N; Turner, A; Ball, M; Kelly, F; Abedin, L; Wilson, A
The aim of this study was to assess thrombosis tendency in subjects who were habitual meat-eaters compared with those who were habitual vegetarians. Cross-sectional comparison of habitual meat-eaters and habitual vegetarians. Free living subjects. One hundred and thirty-nine healthy male subjects (vegans n = 18, ovolacto vegetarians n = 43, moderate-meat-eaters n = 60 and high-meat-eaters n = 18) aged 20-55 y who were recruited in Melbourne. Dietary intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire. The parameters of thrombosis were measured by standard methods. Saturated fat and cholesterol intakes were significantly higher and polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) was significantly lower in the meat-eaters compared with vegetarians. In the meat-eaters, the platelet phospholipids AA levels were significantly higher than in the vegetarians, but there was no increase in ex vivo platelet aggregation and plasma 11-dehydro thromboxane B2 levels. Vegetarians, especially the vegans, had a significantly increased mean collagen and ADP stimulated ex vivo whole blood platelet aggregation compared with meat-eaters. The vegan group had a significantly higher mean platelet volume than the other three dietary groups. However, meat-eaters had a significantly higher cluster of cardiovascular risk factors compared with vegetarians, including increased body mass index, waist to hip ratio, plasma total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol and LDL-C levels, ratio of TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C and plasma factor VII activity. Consumption of meat is not associated with an increased platelet aggregation compared with vegetarian subjects.
Full Text Available Spent ducks produce nutritive meat; however the meat possesses undesirable characteristics such as strong odor and tough. Hence, appropriate yet simple processing technologies need to be developed in order to maximize the use of duck meat. The experiment was conducted to evaluate functional characteristics of spent duck meat as raw material for the production of emulsion-type meat products, such as nugget and sausage. Chilled carcasses of 96 spent ducks were deboned manually, then mixed thoroughly and ground using a 5 mm diameter grinding plate. The ground meat was divided into 4 batches (group of treatments; one batch was treated with iced tap water (M1, one batch with 0.1% NaCl solution (M2, one batch with 0.5% NaHCO3 solution (M3, and one batch was left as is as control (M4. Variables measured were water holding capacity (WHC, pH, emulsion capacity and stability of the meat; and firmness and tenderness of the meat gel. Results showed that M1 meat has significantly higher WHC (less percentage of free water than control (M4, whereas M2 and M3 meat has similar WHC to control. Processing caused the ground duck meat to have significantly higher pH than control. The highest meat pH was observed in M3, followed by M2, M1 and control. Processing duck meat with iced tap water, NaCl or NaHCO3 produced significantly more tender meat gel compared to untreated meat (as is. Tenderness of meat gel of M3 was the most tender followed by M2 and M1. Similar results for meat gel firmness were observed. No significant differences were observed in term of emulsion capacity (expressed as ml oil/gr protein and ml oil/gr fresh meat, emulsion stability (expressed as ml oil and total liquid released per 100 gr emulsion, and cooking recovery (%. The study reported in this paper offers simple processing technologies to improve functional characteristics of spent duck meat to be use as raw material for the production of emulsion type meat products. (Animal Production 12
Yang Kai; Huang, Shih-Ying; Packard, Nathan J.; Boone, John M. [Department of Radiology, University of California, Davis Medical Center, 4860 Y Street, Suite 3100 Ellison Building, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of California, Davis Medical Center, 4860 Y Street, Suite 3100 Ellison Building, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States) and Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis, Davis, California, 95616 (United States)
Purpose: A simplified linear model approach was proposed to accurately model the response of a flat panel detector used for breast CT (bCT). Methods: Individual detector pixel mean and variance were measured from bCT projection images acquired both in air and with a polyethylene cylinder, with the detector operating in both fixed low gain and dynamic gain mode. Once the coefficients of the linear model are determined, the fractional additive noise can be used as a quantitative metric to evaluate the system's efficiency in utilizing x-ray photons, including the performance of different gain modes of the detector. Results: Fractional additive noise increases as the object thickness increases or as the radiation dose to the detector decreases. For bCT scan techniques on the UC Davis prototype scanner (80 kVp, 500 views total, 30 frames/s), in the low gain mode, additive noise contributes 21% of the total pixel noise variance for a 10 cm object and 44% for a 17 cm object. With the dynamic gain mode, additive noise only represents approximately 2.6% of the total pixel noise variance for a 10 cm object and 7.3% for a 17 cm object. Conclusions: The existence of the signal-independent additive noise is the primary cause for a quadratic relationship between bCT noise variance and the inverse of radiation dose at the detector. With the knowledge of the additive noise contribution to experimentally acquired images, system modifications can be made to reduce the impact of additive noise and improve the quantum noise efficiency of the bCT system.
Agung, I Gusti Ngurah
A comprehensive and accessible guide to panel data analysis using EViews software This book explores the use of EViews software in creating panel data analysis using appropriate empirical models and real datasets. Guidance is given on developing alternative descriptive statistical summaries for evaluation and providing policy analysis based on pool panel data. Various alternative models based on panel data are explored, including univariate general linear models, fixed effect models and causal models, and guidance on the advantages and disadvantages of each one is given. Panel Data Analysis
Eisen, Howard J.; Hickey, Gregory; Wen, Liang-Chi; Layman, William E.; Rainen, Richard A.; Birur, Gajanana C.
Lightweight, thermally insulating panels that also serve as structural members developed. Honeycomb-core panel filled with low-thermal-conductivity, opacified silica aerogel preventing convection and minimizes internal radiation. Copper coating on face sheets reduces radiation. Overall thermal conductivities of panels smaller than state-of-art commercial non-structurally-supporting foam and fibrous insulations. On Earth, panels suitable for use in low-air-pressure environments in which lightweight, compact, structurally supporting insulation needed; for example, aboard high-altitude aircraft or in partially evacuated panels in refrigerators.
Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun
Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds res...
Jeffrey Fisher; Richard Stock; David A. Mangione; Larry A. Nye
Six focus groups were conducted with each having ten people who attend different Islamic Centers in Ohio. The objective of the focus groups was to understand Halal meat purchase patterns and consumption patterns of the Moslem population with special attention to goat. The Ohio State University Extension personnel are utilizing these results to work with meat goat producers to understand and meet the requirements of the Halal meat market. Â Participants discussed the Zabiha approach to slaught...
Today, in vitro (Latin: in glass) meat researchers strive to overhaul meat production technologies by producing meat outside animal bodies, primarily by culturing cells. In the process, meat should become healthier, more environmentally friendly and kinder to animals. In this article, I scrutinize (and problematize) this promissory discourse by examining the world that proponents envision alongside the world from which promises emerge. First, I trace the increasing number of publications stri...
Hathwar, Swapna C.; Rai, Amit Kumar; Modi, Vinod Kumar; Narayan, Bhaskar
Awareness of health and nutrition has led to the development of “functional foods” which is a new approach to achieve healthier status thus reducing the risk of diseases. Meat has been highly exploited as a functional ingredient/food in recent years wherein meat has either been modified or incorporated into non meat products. Changing consumer demand has influenced the market for all types of meat. The development and marketing the functional foods can be, however, very challenging compared t...
Sohaib, Muhammad; Jamil, Faraz
Livestock is considered central component in agricultural sector of Pakistan, provides employment to more than 8 million families. Meat and meat products holds pivotal significance in meeting dietary requirements serving as major protein source and provide essential vitamins and minerals. Globally, consumer demand is increasing for healthy, hygienic and safe meat and meat products due to growing population, income level and food choices. As, food choices are mainly influenced by region, relig...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat and meat byproducts from... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.38 Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have been...
Weinberg, David J. (Inventor); Myers, Franklin K. (Inventor); Tran, Tu T. (Inventor)
A protective panel for a reusable launch vehicle provides enhanced moisture protection, simplified maintenance, and increased temperature resistance. The protective panel includes an outer ceramic matrix composite (CMC) panel, and an insulative bag assembly coupled to the outer CMC panel for isolating the launch vehicle from elevated temperatures and moisture. A standoff attachment system attaches the outer CMC panel and the bag assembly to the primary structure of the launch vehicle. The insulative bag assembly includes a foil bag having a first opening shrink fitted to the outer CMC panel such that the first opening and the outer CMC panel form a water tight seal at temperatures below a desired temperature threshold. Fibrous insulation is contained within the foil bag for protecting the launch vehicle from elevated temperatures. The insulative bag assembly further includes a back panel coupled to a second opening of the foil bag such that the fibrous insulation is encapsulated by the back panel, the foil bag, and the outer CMC panel. The use of a CMC material for the outer panel in conjunction with the insulative bag assembly eliminates the need for waterproofing processes, and ultimately allows for more efficient reentry profiles.
Full Text Available In France, some cases of severe toxoplasmosis have been linked to the consumption of horse meat that had been imported from the American continent where atypical strains of Toxoplasma gondii are more common than in Europe. Many seroprevalence studies are presented in the literature but risk assessment of T. gondii infection after horse meat consumption is not possible in the absence of validated serological tests and the unknown correlation between detection of antibodies against T. gondii and presence of tissue cysts. We performed magnetic-capture polymerase chain reaction (MC-PCR to detect T. gondii DNA in 231 horse meat samples purchased in supermarkets in France and evaluated the performance and level of agreement of the modified agglutination test (MAT and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA in the meat juices. The serological tests lacked sensitivity, specificity, and agreement between them, and there was no correlation with the presence of T. gondii DNA in horse meat, raising concerns about the reliability of T. gondii seroprevalence data in horses from the literature. T. gondii DNA was detected in 43% of horse meat samples but the absence of strain isolation in mice following inoculation of more than 100 horse meat samples suggests a low distribution of cysts in skeletal muscles and a low risk of T. gondii infection associated with horse meat consumption. However, to avoid any risk of toxoplasmosis, thorough cooking of horse meat is recommended.
Aroussi, Abdelkrim; Vignoles, Philippe; Dalmay, François; Wimel, Laurence; Dardé, Marie-Laure; Mercier, Aurélien; Ajzenberg, Daniel
In France, some cases of severe toxoplasmosis have been linked to the consumption of horse meat that had been imported from the American continent where atypical strains of Toxoplasma gondii are more common than in Europe. Many seroprevalence studies are presented in the literature but risk assessment of T. gondii infection after horse meat consumption is not possible in the absence of validated serological tests and the unknown correlation between detection of antibodies against T. gondii and presence of tissue cysts. We performed magnetic-capture polymerase chain reaction (MC-PCR) to detect T. gondii DNA in 231 horse meat samples purchased in supermarkets in France and evaluated the performance and level of agreement of the modified agglutination test (MAT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the meat juices. The serological tests lacked sensitivity, specificity, and agreement between them, and there was no correlation with the presence of T. gondii DNA in horse meat, raising concerns about the reliability of T. gondii seroprevalence data in horses from the literature. T. gondii DNA was detected in 43% of horse meat samples but the absence of strain isolation in mice following inoculation of more than 100 horse meat samples suggests a low distribution of cysts in skeletal muscles and a low risk of T. gondii infection associated with horse meat consumption. However, to avoid any risk of toxoplasmosis, thorough cooking of horse meat is recommended. © A. Aroussi et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2015.
Turner, K E; Cassida, K A; Zerby, H N; Brown, M A
This study was conducted during the 2009 and 2010 grazing seasons to assess carcass parameters and chevon (goat meat) quality when meat-goat kids (n=72) were finished on pastures of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.; RCL), birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.; BFT), or chicory (Cichorium intybus L.; CHIC). Final live weight (Pgoats were finished on RCL compared to CHIC with BFT being intermediate. Ribeye area, backfat thickness, body wall thickness, internal fat score, and leg score were not different (P>0.10) among treatments when adjusted for the covariate of carcass weight. Finishing meat-goat kids on RCL, BFT, or CHIC impacted concentrations of fatty acids (FAs) 18:1 trans-10, 18:1 cis-11, 18:2, 18:3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), omega-6, omega-3, and PUFA:saturated fatty acid ratio in longissimus lumborum samples. Finishing meat-goat kids on CHIC, RCL, or BFT pastures produced carcass weights acceptable for most ethnic markets in the USA. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Piotrowska, Anna; Swiader, Katarzyna; Waszkiewicz-Robak, Bozena; Swiderski, Franciszek
The paper characterizes pro-health properties of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and assesses the possibility of increasing their content in pork and pork meat products. Studies conducted on animals indicate antitumor, antiatherosclerotic and antiinflammatory effect ofCLA, also find impact on reducing body fat and increasing muscle growth. However, the number of observations concerning human populations is insufficient to fully evaluate the relationship between CLA intake and reducing the risk of lifestyle diseases. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct further research. Literature data indicate that the use in pigs feed suplementation with CLA preparations, can increase the content of these compounds in the meat and also show, that isomer cis-9, trans-11 is accumulated at significantly higher level. However, these changes were accompanied by increased the share of saturated fatty acids at the expense of monounsaturated which is unfavorable for human health. A better way to increase the CLA content in pork meat appears to be the addition of CLA preparation during the production process, because it does not affect the level of saturated fats. Pork and pork meat products enriched in CLA are characterized by low susceptibility to oxidation, which may result from the coupling of double bonds, antioxidantive properties of conjugated linoleic acid and the increased content of saturated fatty acids. The issue of beneficial effects on human health of pork and pork products with a higher content of CLA, requires further studies conducted on humans. Only then these products can be classified as a functional foods.
The aim of the research: to improve the food value indicators of cold-smoked organic meat and implement the quality requirements, which are raised for a national meat products of the company X. To answer the purpose it has been created a new recipe for cold-smoked sausage and cold-smoked minced sausage by using the produced meat in the farm X. It has been evaluated the compliance of the national products quality with the index of food value of improved cold-smoked meat products. It has bee...
Assessment of phthalates/phthalate alternatives in children's toys and childcare articles: Review of the report including conclusions and recommendation of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel of the Consumer Product Safety Commission.
Lioy, Paul J; Hauser, Russ; Gennings, Chris; Koch, Holger M; Mirkes, Philip E; Schwetz, Bernard A; Kortenkamp, Andreas
The Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) convened a Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel (CHAP) on Phthalates found in children's toys, and childcare products, and in products used by women of childbearing age. The CHAP conducted a risk assessment on phthalates and phthalate substitutes, and made recommendations to either ban, impose an interim ban, or allow the continued use of phthalates and phthalate substitutes in the above products. After a review of the literature, the evaluation included toxic end points of primary concern, biomonitoring results, extant exposure reconstruction, and epidemiological results. The health end points chosen were associated with the rat phthalate syndrome, which is characterized by malformations of the epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate, external genitalia (hypospadias), and by cryptorchidism (undescended testes), retention of nipples/areolae, and demasculinization (~incomplete masculinization) of the perineum, resulting in reduced anogenital distance. Risk assessment demonstrated that some phthalates should be permanently banned, removed from the banned list, or remain interim banned. Biomonitoring and toxicology data provided the strongest basis for a mixture risk assessment. In contrast, external exposure data were the weakest and need to be upgraded for epidemiological studies and risk assessments. Such studies would focus on routes and sources. The review presents recommendations and uncertainties.
Pas, te M.F.W.; Keuning, E.; Hulsegge, B.; Hoving-Bolink, A.H.; Evans, G.; Mulder, H.A.
High quality pork is consumed as fresh meat while other carcasses are used in the processing industry. Meat quality is determined measuring technical muscle parameters. The objective of this research was to investigate the molecular regulatory mechanisms underlying meat quality differences of pork
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY...
De Stefani, Eduardo; Ronco, Alvaro L; Boffetta, Paolo; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo; Acosta, Gisele; Mendilaharsu, María
A case-control study was conducted in Uruguay, including 876 male cases of lung cancer and 876 male hospitalized controls, frequency matched for age (ten-year intervals), residence and hospital. The following explanatory variables were included in the study: fried red meat, barbecued red meat, boiled red meat, and salted red meat. These items were log transformed and energy-adjusted by the residuals method. The following potential confounders were included into the models: age, residence, hospital, education, family history of lung cancer, body mass index, smoking index, alcohol drinking, mate consumption, total energy intake, non-meat fatty foods and total fruits. The main objective was to estimate the odds ratios associated with lung cancer risk. Whereas fried meat, barbecued meat, and salted meat were positively associated with risk (OR of the highest quartile of salted meat versus the lowest, 2.90, 95 % CI 1.99-4.25, p-value for trend<0.0001), boiled red meat was mainly protective. We conclude that salted meat was the main risk factor. The mechanisms could be related to the content of N-nitroso compounds in salted meat.
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat. 319.311 Section 319.311 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY...
Sohaib, Muhammad; Jamil, Faraz
Livestock is considered central component in agricultural sector of Pakistan, provides employment to more than 8 million families. Meat and meat products holds pivotal significance in meeting dietary requirements serving as major protein source and provide essential vitamins and minerals. Globally, consumer demand is increasing for healthy, hygienic and safe meat and meat products due to growing population, income level and food choices. As, food choices are mainly influenced by region, religion and economic level. However, religion is one of the major factor to influence the food choices. In this context, halal foods a growing trend, trade estimated to cross USD $ 3 trillion and among this, meat sector contribute about US$ 600 billion. Halal meat and allied products is requirement from Muslims but it is also accepted by non-Muslims due to safe and hygienic nature, nutritious value and superior quality. Pakistan meat industry is vibrant and has seen rigorous developments during last decade as government also showed interest to boost livestock production and processing facilities to meet increasing local and global demand. The industry has potential to grow owing to its natural animal rearing capability, muslim majority country (96% of total population), improvisation of market and consumer preference towards halal meat. Current review debates Pakistan meat industry scenario, production trend, global trade as well as future potential with respect to modernization, processing, distribution and trade. The data presented here is useful for meat producers, processors and people involved in export of Pakistani meat and meat based products.
de Boer, J.; Boersema, J.J.; Aiking, H.
The present paper analyzed the motivational orientations of consumers who choose to eat (1) small portions of meat or (2) ethically distinctive meat, such as free-range meat, in relation to the motivational orientations of their opposites. Going beyond the conventional approach to consumer behavior,
Petracci, Massimiliano; Bianchi, Maurizio; Cavani, Claudio
Rabbit meat is a highly digestible, tasty, low-calorie food, often recommended by nutritionists over other meats. Currently research in the rabbit sector is interested in developing feeding strategies aiming to further increase the nutritional value of rabbit meat as a "functional food" by including n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), vitamins and antioxidants in rabbit diets and assessing their effects on both raw and stored/processed meat quality properties. Our recent studies indicate that the dietary inclusion from 3 to 6% of linseed might be considered as a way to achieve the enrichment of the meat with α-linolenic acid and to guarantee satisfactory product stability during further processing and storage. Considering that 6% dietary linseed corresponds to a n-3 PUFA content of 8.5% of the total fatty acids and a lipid content of 4.7 g/100 g of leg meat, a content of 396 mg n-3 PUFA/100g meat can be estimated, which represents about 19% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA) for n-3 PUFA.
Full Text Available Rabbit meat is a highly digestible, tasty, low-calorie food, often recommended by nutritionists over other meats. Currently research in the rabbit sector is interested in developing feeding strategies aiming to further increase the nutritional value of rabbit meat as a “functional food” by including n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, vitamins and antioxidants in rabbit diets and assessing their effects on both raw and stored/processed meat quality properties. Our recent studies indicate that the dietary inclusion from 3 to 6% of linseed might be considered as a way to achieve the enrichment of the meat with α-linolenic acid and to guarantee satisfactory product stability during further processing and storage. Considering that 6% dietary linseed corresponds to a n-3 PUFA content of 8.5% of the total fatty acids and a lipid content of 4.7 g/100 g of leg meat, a content of 396 mg n-3 PUFA/100g meat can be estimated, which represents about 19% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA for n-3 PUFA.
Davis, Gregg S.; Waits, Kara; Nordstrom, Lora; Weaver, Brett; Aziz, Maliha; Gauld, Lori; Grande, Heidi; Bigler, Rick; Horwinski, Joseph; Porter, Stephen; Stegger, Marc; Johnson, James R.; Liu, Cindy M.; Price, Lance B.
Background. ?Klebsiella pneumoniae is a common colonizer of the gastrointestinal tract of humans, companion animals, and livestock. To better understand potential contributions of foodborne K. pneumoniae to human clinical infections, we compared K. pneumoniae isolates from retail meat products and human clinical specimens to assess their similarity based on antibiotic resistance, genetic relatedness, and virulence. Methods. ?Klebsiella pneumoniae was isolated from retail meats from Flagstaff ...
Luna C, P.C.
In this report the benefits that presents the irradiation process in the conservation of meat products, as the chicken, head meat and pig meat are analysed, also the implications that it brings in health and economical aspects. (Author)
The Inspection Panel
The Inspection Panel, the World Bank’s independent accountability mechanism, has released the third report in its Emerging Lessons Series. The latest report identifies lessons from Panel cases related to environmental assessment (EA) issues. The Panel is an impartial fact-finding body, independent from the World Bank management and staff, reporting directly to the Board. In response to com...
Full Text Available Poultry meat can be contaminated with a variety of microorganisms, including those capable of spoiling the product during chill storage, and certain foodborne pathogens. Human illness may follow from handling of raw meat, undercooking or mishandling of the cooked product. While Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. remain the organisms of greatest global concern in this respect, others present include the more recently reported Arcobacter and Helicobacter spp. and, occasionally, verotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Also considered here is the growing problem of antimicrobial resistance among poultry-associated pathogens. Because of the need for a systematic and universally applicable approach to food safety control, the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP concept is increasingly being introduced into the Poultry Industry, and Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA is being applied to microbial hazards. Among a number of completed and on-going studies on QRA are those undertaken by FAO/WHO on Salmonella and Campylobacter in broilers. In the case of Campylobacter, however, any QRA must assume at present that all strains have the same pathogenic potential for humans and comparable survival capabilities, even though this is unlikely to be the case. Implementation of the HACCP system in poultry processing plants addresses zoonotic agents that are not detectable by conventional meat inspection procedures and can help to control contamination of carcasses with spoilage organisms. The system brings obvious benefits in optimising plant hygiene, ensuring compliance with legislation and providing evidence of 'due diligence' on the part of the processor. It is now being applied globally in two different situations: in one, such as that occurring in the USA, carcass contamination is clearly reduced as carcasses pass through the process and are finally chilled in super-chlorinated water. There is also the option to use a chemical-rinse treatment for further
Angstman, Kurt B; Horn, Jennifer L; Bernard, Matthew E; Kresin, Molly M; Klavetter, Eric W; Maxson, Julie; Willis, Floyd B; Grover, Michael L; Bryan, Michael J; Thacher, Tom D
The demand for comprehensive primary health care continues to expand. The development of team-based practice allows for improved capacity within a collective, collaborative environment. Our hypothesis was to determine the relationship between panel size and access, quality, patient satisfaction, and cost in a large family medicine group practice using a team-based care model. Data were retrospectively collected from 36 family physicians and included total panel size of patients, percentage of time spent on patient care, cost of care, access metrics, diabetic quality metrics, patient satisfaction surveys, and patient care complexity scores. We used linear regression analysis to assess the relationship between adjusted physician panel size, panel complexity, and outcomes. The third available appointments (P size. Patient satisfaction, cost, and percentage fill rate were not affected by panel size. A physician-adjusted panel size larger than the current mean (2959 patients) was associated with a greater likelihood of poor-quality rankings (≤25th percentile) compared with those with a less than average panel size (odds ratio [OR], 7.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-51.46). Increased panel size was associated with a longer time to the third available appointment (OR, 10.9; 95% CI, 1.36-87.26) compared with physicians with panel sizes smaller than the mean. We demonstrated a negative impact of larger panel size on diabetic quality results and available appointment access. Evaluation of a family medicine practice parameters while controlling for panel size and patient complexity may help determine the optimal panel size for a practice. © Copyright 2016 by the American Board of Family Medicine.
A panel of thermal insulation material has at least one main portion which comprises a dry particulate insulation material compressed within a porous envelope so that it is rigid or substantially rigid and at least one auxiliary portion which is secured to and extends along at least one of the edges of the main portions. The auxiliary portions comprise a substantially uncompressed dry particulate insulation material contained within an envelope. The insulation material of the auxiliary portion may be the same as or may be different from the insulation material of the main portion. The envelope of the auxiliary portion may be made of a porous or a non-porous material. (author).
Cashion, Steven A; Bowser, Michael R; Farrelly, Mark B; Hines, Braden E; Holmes, Howard C; Johnson, Jr., Richard L; Russell, Richard J; Turk, Michael F
The present invention relates to photovoltaic power systems, photovoltaic concentrator modules, and related methods. In particular, the present invention features concentrator modules having interior points of attachment for an articulating mechanism and/or an articulating mechanism that has a unique arrangement of chassis members so as to isolate bending, etc. from being transferred among the chassis members. The present invention also features adjustable solar panel mounting features and/or mounting features with two or more degrees of freedom. The present invention also features a mechanical fastener for secondary optics in a concentrator module.
Mittan, Margaret Birmingham [Oakland, CA; Miros, Robert H. J. [Fairfax, CA; Brown, Malcolm P [San Francisco, CA; Stancel, Robert [Loss Altos Hills, CA
A photovoltaic panel clamp includes an upper and lower section. The interface between the assembled clamp halves and the module edge is filled by a flexible gasket material, such as EPDM rubber. The gasket preferably has small, finger like protrusions that allow for easy insertion onto the module edge while being reversed makes it more difficult to remove them from the module once installed. The clamp includes mounting posts or an integral axle to engage a bracket. The clamp also may include a locking tongue to secure the clamp to a bracket.
Bekker, G.A.; Tobi, H.; Fischer, A.R.
In this cross-cultural study we investigated how study participants from China, Ethiopia and the Netherlands operationalize the concept of meat and to what extent cultured meat fits or does not fit into this operationalization. We argue that combining the conceptual approaches symbolic boundaries