WorldWideScience

Sample records for pancreas computed-tomographic sonographic

  1. Computer tomographic and sonographic diagnosis of echinococcus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, K.; Huebener, K.H.; Klott, K.; Jenss, H.; Baehr, R. (Tuebingen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Medizinisches Strahleninstitut und Roentgenabteilung; Tuebingen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Medizinische Klinik; Tuebingen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Chirurgische Klinik und Poliklinik)

    1980-05-01

    In 33 patients (18 cystic echinococci, 15 alveolar) both methods produced the following findings which could be correlated with the pathological results: single or multi-centric lesions, sharp or indefinite demarkation and abnormalities in the shape and size of the liver. The sonographic findings were analysed with respect to the echo characteristics, whereas the computer tomographically demonstrated lesions were examined densitometrically in order to show calcification. Both methods demonstrate the pathological changes satisfactorily. Computer tomography is more effective in alveolar echinococcus lesions by showing the different types of calcification, whereas sonography provides a more accurate picture of the internal structure of the cysts in cystic echinococcus. Comparison of the methods in 19 patients examined by both showed a high accuracy in each method, but sonography was relatively poor in demonstrating lesions in the spleen.

  2. Computed tomographic evaluation of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, R.J.; Sagel, S.S.

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of the clinical experience in the evaluation of the pancreas with computed tomography (CT) since October 1975 indicates that it is a reliable, often specific and relatively noninvasive method for the detection of pancreatic neoplasms and the varied manifestations of pancreatitis and its complications. The normal pancreas is clearly imaged in all but the leanest or uncooperative patients. Tumors of pancreas are identified as focal alteration in the size or contour of the gland. Obliteration of contiguous fat planes, areas of necrosis within the tumor, and secondary effects on the uninvolved parts of the pancreas and biliary tree can be identified. CBT has substantially reduced the need for pancreatic angiography, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, and endoscopic retrograde pancreatocholangiography at this medical center. Although a definitive comparison of ultrasound and CT has not yet been accomplished, initial experience indicates that a complementary rather than competitive relationship will develop between the two imaging methods. (orig.) 891 MG/orig. 892 MB [de

  3. Computed tomographic evaluation of the altered pancreas in dog and cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posch, B.

    2002-11-01

    Eighteen dogs and 12 cats of varying breed, age and sex underwent a computed tomographic study of the pancreas. Length, diameter and density of each lobe of the pancreas were measured. Further, the gained results were compared to the information established by the clinical examination, sonography, haematology and histology. Contrast CT improved evaluation of the pancreas in all cases of normal life controls. CT criteria such as changes in size, density, delimitation of the pancreas and the peripancreatic structures were analyzed. Increased pancreatic size was seen in inflammatory as well as in neoplastic diseases. There were no reliable computed tomographic criteria to differentiate pancreatic neoplasia from inflammation without peripancreatic findings. Ultrasonography proved to be a good screening method in this study: sonographic and computed tomographic results correlated in all cases with the exception of 5 cases. In contrast to ultrasonography CT could differentiate normal pancreas from pancreas atrophy. Computed tomography was superior to sonography in determining the full extent of pancreatic and peripancreatic signs due to the good overview and overall image of the abdominal structures. Serum chemistry of a- amylase and lipase were obtained in 28 animals. Assays of serum lipase and a- amylase activities were only able to detect acute pancreatitis in half of the canine cases. Despite morphological alterations detected with the help of sonography or CT, there were no significant increases in a- amylase and lipase in cats. Following computed tomography the pancreas of 10 animals was examined pathohistologically. With the exception of 2 cases the computed tomographic results correlated with the pathohistological findings. In conclusion, computed tomography (CT) proved to be a valuable method to evaluate the localization, the full extent and the seriousness of pancreatic lesions. (author)

  4. Computed Tomographic Angiography of the Pancreas in Cats with Chronic Diabetes Mellitus Compared to Normal Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secrest, S; Sharma, A; Bugbee, A

    2018-03-02

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common endocrinopathy in cats. No known diagnostic test or patient characteristic at the time of diagnosis can predict likely disease course, unlike in people in whom computed tomographic angiography (CTA) is used. No published data exist regarding the CTA appearance of the pancreas in cats with DM, and thus, it is unknown what if any CTA variables should be further assessed for associations with pancreatic endocrine function. A significant difference in pancreatic attenuation, volume, and size will be identified between normal cats and those with chronic DM on CTA. Ten healthy control cats and 15 cats with naturally occurring DM present for >12 months. Prospective cross-sectional study comparing pancreatic attenuation, enhancement pattern, size, volume, pancreatic volume-to-body weight ratio (V:BW), pancreatic arterial: portal phase ratio (A:P), time-to-arterial enhancement, and time-to-peak portal enhancement on CTA between sedated healthy control cats and those with chronic DM. The pancreas in cats with chronic DM was significantly larger, had higher volume, higher V:BW, and shorter time-to-peak portal enhancement on CTA when compared to normal cats. Peak portal enhancement time, pancreatic size, pancreatic volume, and V:BW can be used to differentiate normal sedated cats from those with chronic DM by CTA. These variables warrant further investigation to identify possible associations with endocrine function. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  5. Computed tomographic criteria for differential diagnosis between exacerbation of focal chronic pancreatitis and carcinoma located in the head of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.; Tonchev, Z.

    1995-01-01

    A group of 126 patients with CT-finding of tumor mass in the head of the pancreas is studied. Signs of acute exacerbation of focal chronic pancreatitis are found in 28 of them. Carcinoma of the head of pancreas is diagnosed in 98 patients. Surgical and histological verification is performed in 84 (86%) patients with carcinoma of the pancreas. In 77 (92%) cases the computed tomographic diagnosis coincides with the histological one, while in the remaining 7 (8%) it fails to coincide. The morphological and densitometric changes were analyzed with respect to their frequency. On account of the nonspecific character of the computed tomographic signs a symptom constellation is developed which facilitates the differential diagnosis of the acute exacerbation of focal pancreatitis and the carcinoma. The changes in density of lesions observed after application of contrast media were found to be of significant value. 16 refs., 6 figs. (author)

  6. Association of achondroplasia with Down syndrome: difficulty in prenatal diagnosis by sonographic and 3-D helical computed tomographic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaga, Akimune; Murotsuki, Jun; Kamimura, Miki; Kimura, Masato; Saito-Hakoda, Akiko; Kanno, Junko; Hoshi, Kazuhiko; Kure, Shigeo; Fujiwara, Ikuma

    2015-05-01

    Achondroplasia and Down syndrome are relatively common conditions individually. But co-occurrence of both conditions in the same patient is rare and there have been no reports of fetal analysis of this condition by prenatal sonographic and three-dimensional (3-D) helical computed tomography (CT). Prenatal sonographic findings seen in persons with Down syndrome, such as a thickened nuchal fold, cardiac defects, and echogenic bowel were not found in the patient. A prenatal 3-D helical CT revealed a large head with frontal bossing, metaphyseal flaring of the long bones, and small iliac wings, which suggested achondroplasia. In a case with combination of achondroplasia and Down syndrome, it may be difficult to diagnose the co-occurrence prenatally without typical markers of Down syndrome. © 2014 Japanese Teratology Society.

  7. Pancreatic changes in cystic fibrosis: CT and sonographic appearances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daneman, A.; Gaskin, K.; Martin, D.J.; Cutz, E.

    1983-01-01

    The computed tomographic (CT) and sonographic appearances of the late stages of pancreatic damage in three patients with cystic fibrosis are illustrated. All three had severe exocrine pancreatic insufficiency with steatorrhea. In two patients CT revealed complete fatty replacement of the entire pancreas. In the third, increased echogenicity of the pancreas on sonography and the inhomogeneous attenuation on CT were interpreted as being the result of a combination of fibrosis, fatty replacement, calcification, and probable cyst formation

  8. Sonographic evaluation of retroperitoneal pancreas transplants and their complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, B.K.; Rosnberg, R.; McDermott, J.C.; Sollinger, H.W.; Belzer, F.O.

    1986-01-01

    Pancreas transplantation is an experimental procedure performed to restore insulin secretion in patients with diabetes mellitus. The authors reviewed 65 real-time sonograms in 42 kidney transplant recipients who also had a homologous pancreas transplanted into the retroperitoneum. Sonograms were analyzed for size of the pancreas transplant, its echo texture, size of the pancreatic duct, fluid collections around the pancreas transplant, vascular pulsations, and anastomotic site between the pancreatic duct and the urinary bladder. A normal pancreas transplant is moderately echogenic and may have small hypoechoic areas (possibly representing fibrosis or infarcts) in the early postsurgical period (based on findings in 14 of 42 patients). Dilation of the pancreatic duct (3-9 mm) and air in the pancreatic duct were common postoperatively. Pancreatitis was also common (36 patients) and was recognized by an increase in the size of the pancreas transplant and by a focally or diffusely hypoechoic texture. Rejection of the pancreas transplant was uncommon (six patients) and was detected on the basis of reduced vascular flow, an increase in size of the pancreas transplant, and a nonhomogeneous echotexture. Infraction of the transplant was rare and had an irregular, nonhomogeneously hypoechoic appearance (two patients). Seromas (eight patients), abscesses (three), and hematomas (two) were detected on the basis of septa, floating debris, mural nodules, and irregular thick walls. Enzymatic fat necrosis was recognized from floating echogenic fat debris (two patients). Air-containing abscesses were identified and confirmed on CT or US-guided aspiration (three patients). US was extremely useful for detecting, localizing, and characterizing fluid collections and provided guidance for aspiration. It is the imaging modality of choice for screening pancreas transplant recipients for postoperative changes

  9. Emission computed tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Y.; Kanno, I.; Koga, K.; Miura, S.; Uemura, K.

    1981-01-01

    Emission computed tomograph wherein a pluralty of detectors surround an object to be examined so as to detect x- or gamma radiation emitted by said object. In front of each of said detectors there is provided a collimator which comprises a pair of main plates and a subsidiary plate interposed therebetween. The plates are made of a material capable of blocking penetration of the radiation therethrough and so supported as to be swingable over an angle sufficient to cover the whole of said object. The plates of all the collimators are simultaneously swung to the same side and at the same angular speed thereby to change the direction of incidence of said radiation on each of said detectors

  10. Computer tomographic diagnosis of echinococcosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haertel, M.; Fretz, C.; Fuchs, W.A.

    1980-08-01

    The computer tomographic appearances and differential diagnosis in 22 patients with echinococcosis are described; of these, twelve were of the cystic and ten of the alveolar type. The computer tomographic appearances are characterised by the presence of daughter cysts (66%) within the sharply demarkated parasitic cyst of water density. In the absence of daughter cysts, a definite aetiological diagnosis cannot be made, although there is a tendency to clasification of the occassionally multiple echinococcus cysts. The computer tomographic appearances of advanced alveolar echinococcosis are characterised by partial collequative necrosis, with clacification around the necrotic areas (90%). The absence of CT evidence of partial necrosis and calsification of the pseudotumour makes it difficult to establish a specific diagnosis. The conclusive and non-invasive character of the procedure and its reproducibility makes computer tomography the method of choice for the diagnosis and follow-up of echinococcosis.

  11. Computed tomographic appearances of cherubism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, S D; Boccardi, A; Mela, F; Romagnoli, R

    1987-01-01

    The computed tomographic (CT) aspects of six cases of cherubism are described. Through its optimal representation of the lesions, CT enabled certain characteristics of this disease to be substantiated, namely, limitation of the process to the bones of the jaw and primarily superficial development of the mandibular lesions, coupled with an unusual mandibular condylar impairment. Moreover, the composition of this series permitted investigation of the condition in its several stages of progression.

  12. Computer tomographic examinations in epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Villiers, J.F.K.

    1984-01-01

    Epileptic patients that was examined at the Universitas Hospital (Bloemfontein) by means of computerized tomography for the period July 1978 - December 1980, are divided into two groups: a) Patients with general epilepsy of convulsions - 507; b) Patients with vocal or partial epilepsy - 111. The method of examination and the results for both general and vocal epilepsy are discussed. A degenerative state was found in 35% of the positive computer tomographic examinations in general epilepsy and 22% of the positive examinations for vocal epilepsy. The purpose of the article was to explain the circumstances that can be expected when a epileptic patient is examined by means of computerized tomography

  13. Ovarian metastases: Computed tomographic appearances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megibow, A.J.; Hulnick, D.H.; Bosniak, M.A.; Balthazar, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    Computed tomographic scans of 34 patients with ovarian metastases were reviewed to assess the radiographic appearances and to correlate these with the primary neoplasms. Primary neoplasms were located in the colon (20 patients), breast (six), stomach (five), small bowel (one), bladder (one), and Wilms tumor of the kidney (one). The radiographic appearance of the metastatic lesions could be described as predominantly cystic (14 lesions), mixed (12 lesions), or solid (seven lesions). The cystic and mixed lesions tended to be larger in overall diameter than the solid. The metastases from gastric carcinoma appeared solid in four of five cases. The metastases from the other neoplasms had variable appearances simulating primary ovarian carcinoma

  14. Pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page Transplant Living > Organ facts and surgeries > Pancreas Pancreas Beneath your ribs, you’ll find the pancreas, ... shape. Location of the pancreas How does the pancreas work? The pancreas controls your sugar levels and ...

  15. Computed tomographic findings of intracranial gliosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisberg, L.

    1981-01-01

    The clinical and computed tomographic (CT) findings in eight patients with pathological evidence of cerebral gliosis are analyzed. CT findings do not permit differentiation of gliosis from other neoplastic and non-neoplastic conditions. (orig.)

  16. An unusual mixed tumor of the pancreas: sonographic and MDCT features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortelé, Koenraad J; Peters, Hope E; Odze, Robert D; Glickman, Jonathan N; Jajoo, Kunal; Banks, Peter A

    2009-03-09

    Mixed tumors of the pancreas are exceedingly rare. We herein report on a 54-year-old female who presented with an enlarging cystic lesion in the head of the pancreas. Right upper quadrant ultrasound and multidetector-row CT scan showed a well-defined unilocular cystic tumor located in the head of the pancreas and surrounded, in part, by a hypervascular solid mass. Although mixed exocrine/endocrine pancreatic tumors have been described previously, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of a pancreatic mixed intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm/endocrine tumor with illustration of its ultrasound and CT features. Moreover, the importance of preoperative analysis of imaging features in the assessment of pancreatic neoplasms is discussed.

  17. Advantages of computed tomographic guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casola, G.; Vansonnenberg, E.

    1987-01-01

    Both ultrasound and CT are successfully used to guide interventional procedures throughout the body. There are advantages and disadvantages to each modality and choosing one over the other will vary from case to case. Major factors influencing choice are discussed in this paper. As a general rule CT guidance is usually required for lesions in the thorax, the adrenals, the pancreas, lymph nodes, and for percutaneous abscess drainage. The authors feel that a complimentary use of ultrasound and CT is essential to optimize success and cost-effectiveness; therefore, the interventional radiologist should be familiar with both imaging modalities

  18. Hepatic Kaposi sarcoma. Sonographic and computed tomographic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defalque, D.; Menu, Y.; Nahum, H.; Matheron, S.; Girard, P.M.

    1988-01-01

    AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma is most often multicentric and extensive. Hepatic involvement is unusual and asymptomatic. An anicteric cholestasis may exist. Ultrasonography shows a pedicular echogenic infiltration and a heterogeneous parenchyma with small hyperechoic nodules. On CT, these hypodense lesions are related to the involvement of the hepatic pedicle. This is linked to angiosarcomatous tumorous tissue infiltration of the liver evolving along portal branches. In a patient suffering from cutaneous or digestive Kaposi sarcoma lesions, these radiological aspects are suggestive of hepatic involvement [fr

  19. Computed tomographic findings of intracranial pyogenic abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. J.; Suh, J. H.; Park, C. Y.; Lee, K. C.; Chung, S. S.

    1982-01-01

    The early diagnosis and effective treatment of brain abscess pose a difficult clinical problem. With the advent of computed tomography, however, it appears that mortality due to intracranial abscess has significantly diminished. 54 cases of intracranial pyogenic abscess are presented. Etiologic factors and computed tomographic findings are analyzed and following result are obtained. 1. The common etiologic factors are otitis media, post operation, and head trauma, in order of frequency. 2. The most common initial computed tomographic findings of brain abscess is ring contrast enhancement with surrounding brain edema. 3. The most characteristic computed tomographic finding of ring contrast enhancement is smooth thin walled ring contrast enhancement. 4. Most of thick irregular ring contrast enhancement are abscess associated with cyanotic heart disease or poor operation. 5. The most common findings of epidural and subdural empyema is crescentic radiolucent area with thin wall contrast enhancement without surrounding brain edema in convexity of brain

  20. Computed tomographic appearances of sternocostoclavicular hyperostosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chigira, Masaki; Shimizu, Toru (Gunma Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery)

    1989-08-01

    Computed tomographical analysis of sternocostoclavicular hyperostosis was performed in 27 patients. In the earliest stage hyperostosis occurred around the cartilaginous portion of the first ribs. The sternoclavicular joint space was preserved even in the late stage III of the disorder. It is also suggested that perichondritis and periostitis play important roles in the etiology of this disorder. (orig./GDG).

  1. Computed tomographic appearances of sternocostoclavicular hyperostosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chigira, Masaki; Shimizu, Toru

    1989-01-01

    Computed tomographical analysis of sternocostoclavicular hyperostosis was performed in 27 patients. In the earliest stage hyperostosis occurred around the cartilaginous portion of the first ribs. The sternoclavicular joint space was preserved even in the late stage III of the disorder. It is also suggested that perichondritis and periostitis play important roles in the etiology of this disorder. (orig./GDG)

  2. Case Report: Unusual computed tomographic features of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case report of a 57-year old woman who presented with signs and symptoms of intracranial mass. Computed tomographic (CT) and clinical features were unusual and suggestive of a parasaggital Meningioma. However an accurate diagnosis of a tuberculoma was made at surgery and histopathological examination.

  3. The role of multi-detector-row computed tomograph in the diagnosis of intraductal papillary-mucinous tumors of the pancreas in comparison to endoscopic retrograde pancreatography, endoscopic ultrasonography, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arikawa, Shunji; Uchida, Masafumi; Shinagawa, Masaharu

    2007-01-01

    Thirty patients with intraductal papillary-mucinous tumor (IPMT) of the pancreas underwent multidetector-row CT (MD-CT) in addition to endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP), and, in 27 cases magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS). The usefulness of MD-CT was investigated by comparing various imaging methods of the communication from the main pancreatic duct (MPD) to patulous/bulging papilla in addition to the indices for benign or malignant disease, the degree of dilation of the MPD, localization and size of cystic lesions, and presence or absence of neoplastic lesions, such as thickened walls and septa, intramural nodule, solid mass. With MD-CT, dilation of the MPD and localization and size of cystic lesions were accurately assessed, even in patients with obstruction of the main pancreatic duct in whom ERP was difficult to perform regardless of the presence or absence of massive amount of mucus. MD-CT with reconstructive imaging, such as multiplanar reformation (MPR) imaging and curred planar reformation (CPR) imaging, allowed us to assess communication with the MPD and patulous/bulging papilla easier than MRCP. In our study, MD-CT was useful in the evaluation of thickened walls and septa that are predictive factors of malignancy in IPMT. (author)

  4. The computed tomographic appearances of cherubism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, S.D.; Boccardi, A.; Mela, F.; Romagnoli, R.

    1987-01-01

    The computed tomographic (CT) aspects of six cases of cherubism are described. Through its optimal representation of the lesions, CT enabled certain characteristics of this disease to be substantiated, namely, limitation of the process to the bones of the jaw and primarily superficial development of the mandibular lesions, coupled with an unusual mandibular condylar impairment. Moreover, the composition of this series permitted investigation of the condition in its several stages of progression. (orig.)

  5. Computed tomographic findings in pancreatic pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frija, J.; Laval-Jeantet, M.; Larde, D.; Mathieu, D.

    1986-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is actually the most suitable examination for the study of the pancreas. The evolution during the life of its thickness is studied. For the same age group pancreas sharpens from the head to the body and the tail. Pancreas progressively sharpens during the life. The comparison of the efficacy of the other imaging modalities is studied. The indications of the radiological examinations of the pancreas are evaluated during acute and chronic pancreatitis, pseudocysts, adenocarcinoma of the pancreas and endocrine tumors of the pancreas [fr

  6. Computed tomographic findings of traumatic intracranial lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Seong Wook; Kim, Il Young; Lee, Byung Ho; Kim, Ki Jeoung; Yoon, Il Gyu [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-10-15

    Traumatic intracranial lesion has been one of the most frequent and serious problem in neurosurgical pathology. Computed tomography made it possible to get prompt diagnosis and surgical intervention of intracranial lesions by its safety, fastness and accuracy. Computed tomographic scan was carried out on 1309 cases at Soonchunhyang Chunan Hospital for 15 months from October 1983 to December 1984. We have reviewed the computed tomographic scans of 264 patients which showed traumatic intracranial lesion. The result were as follows: 1. Head trauma was the most frequent diagnosed disease using computed tomographic scans (57.8%) and among 264 cases the most frequent mode of injury was traffic accident (73.9%). 2. Skull fracture was accompanied in frequency of 69.7% and it was detected in CT in 38.6%: depression fracture was more easily detected in 81%. 3. Conutercoup lesion (9.5%) was usually accompanied with temporal and occipital fracture, and it appeared in lower incidence among pediatric group. 4. Intracranial lesions of all 264 cases were generalized cerebral swelling (24.6%), subdural hematoma (22.3%), epidural hematoma (20.8%), intracerebral hematoma (6.1%), and subarachnoid hemorrhage (3.0%). 5. The shape of hematoma was usually biconvex (92.7%) in acute epidural hematoma and cresentic (100%) in acute subdural hematoma, but the most chronic the case became, they showed planoconvex and bicconvex shapes. 6. Extra-axial hematoma was getting decreased in density as time gone by. 7. Hematoma density was not in direct proportion to serum hemoglobin level as single factor.

  7. Computed tomographic findings of traumatic intracranial lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Seong Wook; Kim, Il Young; Lee, Byung Ho; Kim, Ki Jeoung; Yoon, Il Gyu

    1985-01-01

    Traumatic intracranial lesion has been one of the most frequent and serious problem in neurosurgical pathology. Computed tomography made it possible to get prompt diagnosis and surgical intervention of intracranial lesions by its safety, fastness and accuracy. Computed tomographic scan was carried out on 1309 cases at Soonchunhyang Chunan Hospital for 15 months from October 1983 to December 1984. We have reviewed the computed tomographic scans of 264 patients which showed traumatic intracranial lesion. The result were as follows: 1. Head trauma was the most frequent diagnosed disease using computed tomographic scans (57.8%) and among 264 cases the most frequent mode of injury was traffic accident (73.9%). 2. Skull fracture was accompanied in frequency of 69.7% and it was detected in CT in 38.6%: depression fracture was more easily detected in 81%. 3. Conutercoup lesion (9.5%) was usually accompanied with temporal and occipital fracture, and it appeared in lower incidence among pediatric group. 4. Intracranial lesions of all 264 cases were generalized cerebral swelling (24.6%), subdural hematoma (22.3%), epidural hematoma (20.8%), intracerebral hematoma (6.1%), and subarachnoid hemorrhage (3.0%). 5. The shape of hematoma was usually biconvex (92.7%) in acute epidural hematoma and cresentic (100%) in acute subdural hematoma, but the most chronic the case became, they showed planoconvex and bicconvex shapes. 6. Extra-axial hematoma was getting decreased in density as time gone by. 7. Hematoma density was not in direct proportion to serum hemoglobin level as single factor

  8. Computer tomographic investigation of ancient Egyptian mummies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, K.H.; Pahl, W.M.; Tuebingen Univ.

    1981-01-01

    Radiological and computer tomographic examinations of Egyptian mummies have been carried out at the Institute of Anthropology and Human Genetics from 1975 to 1978. These have demonstrated the value of CT in medical archaeology. It enables one to study the soft tissues, the skin (if bandaged), the muscles and any organs retained in situ for magical or religious reason. Measurements of attenuation values indicate the materials which were used for mummifying the skin and organs. Characteristic examples are described and the early results of these examinations are discussed. (orig.) [de

  9. Computer tomographic investigation of ancient Egyptian mummies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebner, K H; Pahl, W M

    1981-08-01

    Radiological and computer tomographic examinations of Egyptian mummies have been carried out at the Institute of Anthropology and Human Genetics from 1975 to 1978. These have demonstrated the value of CT in medical archaeology. It enables one to study the soft tissues, the skin (if bandaged), the muscles and any organs retained in situ for magical or religious reason. Measurements of attenuation values indicate the materials which were used for mummifying the skin and organs. Characteristic examples are described and the early results of these examinations are discussed.

  10. Computed tomographic study in children with microcephaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Masatoshi; Okuno, Takehiko; Mikawa, Haruki

    1989-01-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) brain scanning was performed on fifty-eight infants and children with microcephaly. CT scans were useful for detecting unsuspected brain lesions and for diagnosing underlying diseases. The head size did not correlate with the CT findings, the degree of mental retardation, or the existence of motor disturbance or epilepsy. On the other hand, the CT findings were correlated with the degree of mental retardation, and the existence of motor disturbance or epilepsy. CT scans were useful for determining the prognosis of the microcephaly. (author)

  11. Computed tomographic findings in penetrating peptic ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madrazo, B.L.; Halpert, R.D.; Sandler, M.A.; Pearlberg, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    Four cases of peptic ulcer penetrating the head of the pancreas were diagnosed by computed tomography (CT). Findings common to 3 cases included (a) an ulcer crater, (b) a sinus tract, and (c) enlargement of the head of the pancreas. Unlike other modalities, the inherent spatial resolution of CT allows a convenient diagnosis of this important complication of peptic ulcer disease

  12. E-learn Computed Tomographic Angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havsteen, Inger; Christensen, Anders; Nielsen, Jens K

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Computed tomographic angiography (CTA) is widely available in emergency rooms to assess acute stroke patients. To standardize readings and educate new readers, we developed a 3-step e-learning tool based on the test-teach-retest methodology in 2 acute stroke scenarios: vascular...... occlusion and "spot sign" in acute intracerebral hemorrhage. We hypothesized that an e-learning program enhances reading skills in physicians of varying experience. METHODS: We developed an HTML-based program with a teaching segment and 2 matching test segments. Tests were taken before and after...... sign correctly 69% before versus 92% after teaching (P = .009) and reported a median self-perceived diagnostic certainty of 50% versus 75% (P = .030). Self-perceived diagnostic certainty revealed no significant increase for vascular occlusion. CONCLUSIONS: The e-learning program is a useful educational...

  13. Computed tomographic findings of cerebral arterial ectasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Woo Suk; Ko, Young Ho; Lim, Jae Hoon

    1987-01-01

    The computed tomographic findings of cerebral arterial ectasia in 8 patients, of which 5 cases were angiographically documented, are reported. The ecstatic arteries, located predominantly in the suprasellar and interpeduncular cisterns, appeared as serpignous, tubular structures on the unenhanced scan. The enhanced CT scan demonstrated dense, sharply defined, homogeneous intraluminal enhancement. Until recently, the diagnosis of cerebral arterial ectasia was usually established by angiography. With introduction of CT it has become possible to noninvasively identify and characterize this vascular disorder and its associated intracranial complications. The vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia may be diagnosed by CT as an extra-axial lesion in the cerebellopontine angle. It enhances in a tubular fashion after intravenous injection of contrast.

  14. Computed tomographic investigations on intraventricular hematomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laber-Szillat, S.

    1982-01-01

    This work investigated in 106 patients with intraventricular hematomas all the known factors which can have an influence on prognosis: age, sex, anamnesis of the patients, size, extent and localization of the intracranial bleeding, underlying angiopathy and differences between arterial and venous and spontaneous and traumatic bleedings. It was shown that the state of mind was the deciding prognostic factor, whereby viligance was the cumulative expression of all other investigated influences. A computed tomography (CT) examination is deciding in the question of operative hydrocephalus care. In 13 patients it was further shown, how clearly CT results and brain dissection allowed themselves to be compared. The computed tomographic examination method is best suited to achieve even physiological and more extensive prognostic possibilities. (orig.) [de

  15. Experience of computed tomographic myelography and discography in cervical problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatani, Shigeru; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Uratsuji, Masaaki; Suzuki, Kunio; Matsui, Eigo [Hyogo Prefectural Awaji Hospital, Sumoto, Hyogo (Japan); Kurihara, Akira

    1983-06-01

    CTM (computed tomographic myelography) was performed on 15 cases of cervical lesions, and on 5 of them, CTD (computed tomographic discography) was also made. CTM revealed the intervertebral state, and in combination with CTD, providing more accurate information. The combined method of CTM and CTD was useful for soft disc herniation.

  16. Computed tomographic findings of hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, In Su; Jong, Woo Yung; Lee, Jong Yul; Choi, Han Yong; Kim, Bong Ki

    1987-01-01

    With Development of Computed Tomography, detection of the Hepatocellular Carcinoma are easily performed and frequently used in the world. During 15 months, from December 1985 to February 1987, 59 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma were evaluated with computed tomography in department of radiology at Wallace Memorial Baptist Hospital. The results were as follow: 1. The most prevalent age group was 5th to 7th decades, male to female ratio was 4.9:1. 2. Classification with incidence of computed tomographic appearance of the hepatocellular carcinoma were solitary type 28 cases (48%), multinodular type 24 cases (40%), and diffuse type 7 cases (12%), Association with liver cirrhosis was noted in 22 cases (38%). 3. Inhomogenous internal consistency of hepatocellular carcinoma due to central necrosis were 35 cases (60%). Portal vein invasion by hepatocellular carcinoma was noted in 15 cases (25%), and particularly most common in diffuse type 4 cases (55%). 4. On precontrast scan, all hepatocellular carcinoma were seen as area of low density except for 3 cases(0.5%) of near isodensity which turned out to be remarkable low density on postcontrast scan. 5. In solitary type, posterior segment of right lobe was most common site of involvement 12 cases (43%). In diffuse type, bilobar involvement was most common, 6 cases (85%)

  17. Cone Beam Computed Tomographic imaging in orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarfe, W C; Azevedo, B; Toghyani, S; Farman, A G

    2017-03-01

    Over the last 15 years, cone beam computed tomographic (CBCT) imaging has emerged as an important supplemental radiographic technique for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning, especially in situations which require an understanding of the complex anatomic relationships and surrounding structures of the maxillofacial skeleton. CBCT imaging provides unique features and advantages to enhance orthodontic practice over conventional extraoral radiographic imaging. While it is the responsibility of each practitioner to make a decision, in tandem with the patient/family, consensus-derived, evidence-based clinical guidelines are available to assist the clinician in the decision-making process. Specific recommendations provide selection guidance based on variables such as phase of treatment, clinically-assessed treatment difficulty, the presence of dental and/or skeletal modifying conditions, and pathology. CBCT imaging in orthodontics should always be considered wisely as children have conservatively, on average, a three to five times greater radiation risk compared with adults for the same exposure. The purpose of this paper is to provide an understanding of the operation of CBCT equipment as it relates to image quality and dose, highlight the benefits of the technique in orthodontic practice, and provide guidance on appropriate clinical use with respect to radiation dose and relative risk, particularly for the paediatric patient. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  18. Computed tomographic findings of intracerebral cysticercosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jin Kyo; Lee, Sun Wha; Kim, Ho Kyun; Ahn, Chi Yul [School of Medicine, Kyung-Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-12-15

    Cysticercosis is a parasitic disease in which man serves as the intermediate host of Taenia Solium, the pork tapeworm. The computed tomographic findings of 25 cases of intracerebral cysticercosis proven by pathologic and/or clinical findings during past 2 years were analysed. The results were as follows; 1. The sex was 19 males and 6 females, and 56 percent of the patients were seen in fourth and fifth decades. The most common symptom was epilepsy (72%). 2. The C. T. findings in precontrast study were varied; such as ill defined low density (48%), cystic low density (20%), dilated ventricles (20%), ill defined low density with isodense nodule (18%), cystic low density with isodense mural nodule (12%) and calcification (8%). 3. The areas of involvement were 20 cases (80%) of parenchymal form, 3 cases (12%) of ventricular form and 2 cases (8%) of mixed form. 4. The contrast-enhanced 13 cases were 5 nodular, 5 ring or rim-like and 3 mixed type enhancements, while 12 cases were not enhanced. 5. C.T. scan demonstrated more precise location and extents of cerebral cysticercosis, especially in parenchymal form. It was considered to be important in determination of surgical feasibility and its approach.

  19. Computed tomographic findings of cerebral paragonimiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Nak Kwan; Nam, Kyung Jin; Park, Churl Min; Eun, Chung Kie; Lee, Sun Wha

    1983-01-01

    Paragonimiasis is widely distributed in Far East and Southeast Asia, particularly in Korea. The central nervous system is the most frequent location for paragonimiasis outside the lungs. We analyzed the computed tomographic findings of 17 cases which were diagnosed pathologically and clinically as cerebral paragonimiasis. The results were as follows: 1. The ratio of male to female was 10 : 7 and about 88% of cases were under the age of 40 years. 2. The common locations of cerebral paragonimiasis were the occipital (12 cases) and temporal (11 cases) lobes. 3. Precontrast CT findings of cerebral paragonimiasis were low density with calcifications in 6 cases, low and isodensities in 4 cases, mixed densities in 3 cases, only low density in 2 cases and only calcification in 2 cases. Hydrocephalus (7 cases), mass effect (6 cases), atrophic change (6 cases) and cyst formation (3 cases) were associated. 4. The shape of calcifications in CT scan were soap-bubble or ring in 6 cases, nodular or oval in 6 cases, stipple in 4 cases and amorphous conglomerated in 2 cases. 5. The contrast -enhanced 8 cases were 5 ring or rim like, 2 nodular and 1 irregular enhancements, while 9 cases were not enhanced

  20. Bone densitometry with the computer tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, T.

    1978-01-01

    This work tests the usefulness of the EMI head scanner MARK I for a quantitative detection of ossary mineral content. Twenty-three concentration levels of a aqueous K 2 HPO 4 -solution were positioned by means of a special clamping device at the EMI-scanner and examined at tubevoltages of 100, 120 and 140 kV. This produces an almost linear dependence between CT-unit and sample concentration, whereby it shows that the measured special element densities of samples with the same densities vary in dependence with the voltage. The examination of an anotomical fore-arm preperate served as a statement for the reproductability of computer tomographic densitometry at non-moving biological objects. The test of reproductability of bone densitometry measurements under clinical conditions was made on the occation of the six time examinations of the right hand fore-arm bone of a young dummy. Furthermore densitometric examination were made at the fore-arm shelton of 40 long-time dialysis patients in the age levels between 17 and 67 years. The reproductability of the technique presented here is at least not better with the EMI-head-scanner MARK I used here. A change is possible by using the new whole body tomographs. (orig./MG) [de

  1. Computed tomographic determination of tracheal dimensions in children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griscom, N.T.

    1982-01-01

    A computed tomographic system for determining the internal diameters, cross-sectional area, and length of the trachea in children and adolescents was developed. Intraluminal volumes were calculated from these measurements.The results of 18 analyses are reported

  2. Computed tomographic findings of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eun, Chung Kie [Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1982-09-15

    It is well known that CT is very useful in the evaluation of hepatocellular carcinoma. The computed tomographic findings of 56 patients diagnosed as hepatocellular carcinoma were reviewed and analyzed. The results were as follows: 1. The male to female ratio was 3 : 1 and the age ranged from 31 to 73 years with average age of 54 years. 2. Alpha-fetoprotein was positive in 19 out of 38 cases (50%). HBsAg was positive in 8 out of 33 cases (24%). 3. All lesions were seen as areas of low density except 1 case (0%) of isodensity, and 40 cases (72%) appeared to be solitary while 15 (26%) were multifocal. The low density was homogenous in 13 cases (24%) and inhomogenous in 42 cases (76%), and 18 cases out of 42 cases inhomogenous low density showed peripheal and/or central nodular enhancement. The additional findings were contour changes in 37 cases (66%), metastasis in 35 cases (63%), splenomegaly in 23 cases (42%) and ascities in 22 cases (39%). 4. In postcontrast scans, 41 cases (80%) out of 51 cases showed the change of density after contrast infusion. The presence and extent of tumors were better seen after contrast infusion in 30 cases (59%), better seen before contrast infusion in 11 cases (21%) and no significant difference before and after contrast infusion in 10 cases (20%). 5. The sites of involved lobe were right lobe in 38 cases (68%), left lobe in 5 cases (9%) and both lobes in 13 cases (23%). 6. 35 cases (63%) showed evidence of metastasis to regional lymph nodes, organ or tissues.

  3. Computed tomographic findings of cerebral paragonimiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Weon Tae; Jung, Min Ki; Kang, Heoung Keun; Chung, Hyon De

    1988-01-01

    Authors analyzed the computed tomographic (CT) findings of 19 cases pathologically and clinically proven cerebral paragonimiasis that were performed at Chonnam University Hospital from April 1983 through March 1987. The results were as follows: 1. Male to female ratio was 15:4 and the most prevalent age group was 3rd decade (7 cases). The common symptoms were epileptic seizure (16 cases) and headache (12 cases). 2. The multiplicity of cerebral paragonimiasis was 7 of 19 cases and the distributions of lesion were occipital (11 cases), temporal (6 cases), frontal (5 cases) and parietal (5 cases) lobe. 3. The calcification on CT scan were single (7 cases) or multiple (7 cases) and the shape of calcification were nodular (10 cases), soap babble of ring (8 cases), and stippled (6 cases). The pattern of contrast enhancement were ring (5 cases) or nodular (1 case), and along the basal cistern (1 case with arachnoiditis). 4. 12 out of 13 cases, had long clinical symptoms over 3 years with calcifications, could be analyzed according to Valentine's vascular territory; 6 cases in PCA territory, 3 in MCA and 3 in ACA. 5. CT findings were noted according to the duration of symptoms; 5 cases, had symptoms less than 1 year, showed abscess (5 cases) and arachnoiditis (1 case) with brain edema, mass effect, hydrocephalus and contrast enhancement but no calcification in all. One case, had symptom of 1 year and 2 months, showed partially calcified granulomatous lesion with perifocal edema and contrast enhancement, 13 cases, had symptoms over 3 years, showed multiple calcification with brain atrophy (10 cases), but no contrast enhancement in all cases.

  4. Computed Tomographic Perfusion Improves Diagnostic Power of Coronary Computed Tomographic Angiography in Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penagaluri, Ashritha; Higgins, Angela Y.; Vavere, Andrea L

    2016-01-01

    laboratories. Prevalence of flow-limiting CAD defined by invasive coronary angiography equal to 50% or greater with an associated single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging defect was 45% (114/252) and 23% (30/129) in males and females, respectively. Patient-based diagnostic......Background-Coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and myocardial perfusion imaging (CTP) is a validated approach for detection and exclusion of flow-limiting coronary artery disease (CAD), but little data are available on gender-specific performance of these modalities. In this study, we...... aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of combined coronary CTA and CTP in detecting flow-limiting CAD in women compared with men.  Methods and Results-Three hundred and eighty-one patients who underwent both CTA-CTP and single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging...

  5. Contrast enhancement by arterial perfusion during computed tomography (computed tomographic arteriography) of the pancreatic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaki, Yukiari

    1983-01-01

    Computed tomographic arteriography (CTA) was performed on 52 cases of pancreatic disease in which was suspected clinically, and in which other method failed to yield a definitive diagnosis. For CTA, 65% meglumine diatrizoate 20 ml, diluted 1:3, was injected via a catherter inserted in an artery connected with the pancreas and the change with time of the pacreas CT number was studied. The normal pancreas stains deeply and the best contrast enhancement was obtained between 17 to 21 seconds after instillation of contrast medium. In the CTA findings in pancreatic cancer, low density areas with irregular internal structures are characteristic, and these characteristics were seen even in minute pancreatic cancers which could not be recognized by CT or the intravenous bolus injection method. On the other hand, in chronic pancreatitis, even when differentiation from pancreatic cancer is difficult with arterial and venous encasement in angiography, as long as the chronic pancreatitis is not very advanced ischemic changes are not seen, and this permits differentiation form normal pancreas. This also facilitates differentiation between pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. In the intravenous bolus injection method, the chronological change of contrast enhancement in the pancreas was studied and the best contrast enhancement was obtained after 60 to 120 seconds. This method revealed no findings peculiar to pancreatic cancer. Based on the above, CTA was found to be useful for making in contributing to establishing a definitive diagnosis, detecting minute pancreatic cancer and to differentiate pancreatic cancer from chronic pancreatitis. (author)

  6. Radiographic test phantom for computed tomographic lung nodule analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerhouni, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a method for evaluating a computed tomograph scan of a nodule in a lung of a human or non-human animal. The method comprises generating a computer tomograph of a transverse section of the animal containing lung and nodule tissue, and generating a second computer tomograph of a test phantom comprising a device which simulates the transverse section of the animal. The tissue simulating portions of the device are constructed of materials having radiographic densities substantially identical to those of the corresponding tissue in the simulated transverse section of the animal and have voids therein which simulate, in size and shape, the lung cavities in the transverse section and which contain a test reference nodule constructed of a material of predetermined radiographic density which simulates in size, shape and position within a lung cavity void of the test phantom the nodule in the transverse section of the animal and comparing the respective tomographs

  7. Computed tomographic findings in manifesting carriers of Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Visser, M.; Verbeeten, B.

    1985-01-01

    Clinical and computed tomographic (CT) findings in 3 manifesting carriers of Duchenne muscular dystrophy are reported. CT proved to be an important adjunct to the clinical examination: in all our 3 cases a decrease in density was found in various non-paretic muscles

  8. Computed-tomographic determination of mineral content of bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delov, I.; Tabakov, S.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of precise computed-tomographic densitometry of the mineral content of bones is pointed out. A method is proposed including the use of standard density and observance of definite radiation, scanning and image estimation parameters. A good correlation of the results obtained for the mineral content of the lumbar vertebrae with literature data are reported. A method is also described for determining the mineral content of tubular bones based on densiprofile check-up of the computed-tomographic density. The procedure takes 10-15 minutes and includes 1 or 2 scans. It might therefore gain wide acceptance for the diagnosis and tracing of osteoporosis and other osteopathies associated with distrorted calcium metabolism

  9. The CDD system in computed tomographic diagnosis of diverticular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustelnik, Daniel; Elsholtz, Fabian Henry Juergen; Hamm, Bernd; Niehues, Stefan Markus; Bojarski, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Purpose cation in computed tomographic diagnosis and briefly recapitulates its targeted advantages over preliminary systems. Primarily, application of the CDD in computed tomography diagnostics is described. Differences with respect to the categories of the older systems are pointed out on the level of each CDD type using imaging examples. The presented images are derived from our institute according to the S2k criteria. Literature was researched on PubMed. Results The CDD constitutes an improvement compared to older systems for categorizing the stages of diverticular disease. It provides more discriminatory power on the descriptive-morphological level and defines as well as differentiates more courses of the disease. Furthermore, the categories translate more directly into state-of-the-art decision-making concerning hospitalization and therapy. The CDD should be applied routinely in the computed tomographic diagnosis of diverticular disease. Typical imaging patterns are presented.

  10. Computed tomographic diagnosis of abdominal abscess in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, J.P.; Berger, P.E.

    1980-01-01

    Twenty-eight children suspected clinically of having an abdominal abscess were examined by CT. Eighteen had gallium 67 citrate scans and 22 had ultrasound studies. Computed tomography was found to be the most accurate test for diagnosis and evaluation of an abscess and the computed tomographic appearance of abscess is illustrated. However, because of cost factors, radiation dose, and clinical considerations, computed tomography is not always the first modality of choice in evaluating a suspected abdominal abscess [fr

  11. Computer tomographic evaluation of digestive tract non-Hodgkin lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupescu, Ioana G; Grasu, Mugur; Goldis, Gheorghe; Popa, Gelu; Gheorghe, Cristian; Vasilescu, Catalin; Moicean, Andreea; Herlea, Vlad; Georgescu, Serban A

    2007-09-01

    Computer Tomographic (CT) study is crucial for defining distribution, characteristics and staging of primary gastrointestinal lymphomas. The presence of multifocal sites, the wall thickening with diffuse infiltration of the affected gastrointestinal (GI) segment in association with regional adenopathies, permit the orientation of the CT diagnosis for primary GI lymphomas. The gold standard for diagnosis remains, in all cases of digestive tract non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL), the histological examination, which allows a tissue diagnosis, performed preferably by transmural biopsy.

  12. ULTRASOUND AND COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC DIAGNOSIS OF OPTIC NERVE TUMORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Saakyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive examination was made in 93 patients, including 18 children, with tumors of the optic nerve (ON. Duplex ultrasound scanning was performed in 39 patients, of them there were 11 patients with ON gliomas and 28 with ON meningiomas. The specific computed tomographic and echographic signs of ON glioma and meningiomas were detected. The studies have shown that duplex ultrasound scanning and structural computed tomography of orbital sockets are highly informative complementary imaging procedures for ON tumors, which permits one to make their correct diagnosis, to specify surgical volume, and to plan adequate treatment.

  13. Development of the Shimadzu computed tomographic scanner SCT-200N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Hiroshi; Yamaoka, Nobuyuki; Saito, Masahiro

    1982-01-01

    The Shimadzu Computed Tomographic Scanner SCT-200N has been developed as an ideal CT scanner for diagnosing the head and spine. Due to the large aperture, moderate scan time and the Zoom Scan Mode, any part of the body can be scanned. High quality image can be obtained by adopting the precisely stabilized X-ray unit and densely packed array of 64-detectors. As for its operation, capability of computed radiography (CR) prior to patient positioning and real time reconstruction ensure efficient patient through-put. Details of the SCT-200N are described in this paper. (author)

  14. Computed tomographic spectrum of intracranial mycosis: correlation with histopathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, M.A.; Stern, J.; deNapoli, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    Four cases of intracerebral fungal infection are reviewed. The clinical course is outlined, and the computed tomographic (CT) characteristics are analyzed in light of known pathological data. The CT appearance of intracranial mycosis is dependent on the type of fungus as well as the dominant infecting form, i.e., yeast or hyphae. The hyphal form leads predominantly to a CT pattern consistent with vascular occlusion and secondary abscess formation; the yeast form generally results in noncaseating granulomas, which appear on CT scan as nodular enhancing lesions. If the patient survives the acute infective process, these fungal lesions undergo a prolonged subacute phase, and may eventually calcify

  15. Sonographic and computed tomographic features of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the biliary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedburg, H.; Kauffmann, G.W.; Boehm, N.; Fiedler, L.; Jobke, A.

    1984-01-01

    3-year-old child presented with vague abdominal pain, fever, leucocytosis and elevation of alkaline phosphatase. Ultrasonography revealed a space occupying process within the extrahepatic bile ducts surrounded by fluid. Various densities (between 15-25 Hounsfield units) were measured in this intrabiliary tumor by computed tomography. (orig.)

  16. Clinical significance of computed tomographic arteriography for minute hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, H; Matsui, O; Suzuki, M; Ida, M; Kitagawa, K [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1982-03-01

    Computed tomographic arteriography (CTA) can clearly demonstrate minute hepatocellular carcinoma (H.C.C.) more than 2 cm in diameter as an enhanced mass lesion. In this case the precise localization of H.C.C. becomes so obvious that CTA plays an important role to evaluate its resectability. However, H.C.C. of the size from 2 cm to 1 cm indiameter, which is visualized with celiac and infusion hepatic angiography, becomes more difficult in detection, and particularly H.C.C. of less than 1 cm in diameter can hardly be recognized, nor be diagnosed as a malignant nodule by CTA, therefore it appears that in these sizes of H.C.C. the detectability of CTA is not superior to the hepatic angiography.

  17. Computer tomographic and angiographic studies of histologically confirmed intrahepatic masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janson, R.; Lackner, K.; Paquet, K.J.; Thelen, M.; Thurn, P.

    1980-01-01

    The computer tomographic and angiographic findings in 53 patients with intrahepatic masses were compared. The histological findings show that 17 were due to echinococcus, 12 were due to hepatic carcinoma, ten were metastases, five patients had focal nodular hyperplasia, three an alveolar echinococcus and there were three cases with an haemangioma of the liver and a further three liver abscesses. Computer tomography proved superior in peripherally situated lesions, and in those in the left lobe of the liver. Arteriography was better at demonstrating lesions below 2 cm in size, particularly vascular tumours. As a pre-operative measure, angiography is to be preferred since it is able to demonstrate anatomic anomalies and variations in the blood supply, as well as invasion of the portal vein or of the inferior vena cava. (orig.) [de

  18. Computer tomographic and angiographic studies of histologically confirmed intrahepatic masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janson, R.; Lackner, K.; Paquet, K.J.; Thelen, M.; Thurn, P.

    1980-06-01

    The computer tomographic and angiographic findings in 53 patients with intrahepatic masses were compared. The histological findings show that 17 were due to echinococcus, 12 were due to hepatic carcinoma, ten were metastases, five patients had focal nodular hyperplasia, three an alveolar echinococcus and there were three cases with an haemangioma of the liver and a further three liver abscesses. Computer tomography proved superior in peripherally situated lesions, and in those in the left lobe of the liver. Arteriography was better at demonstrating lesions below 2 cm in size, particularly vascular tumours. As a pre-operative measure, angiography is to be preferred since it is able to demonstrate anatomic anomalies and variations in the blood supply, as well as invasion of the portal vein or of the inferior vena cava.

  19. Computed tomographic study of hormone-secreting microadenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemminghytt, S.; Kalkhoff, R.K.; Daniels, D.L.; Williams, A.L.; Grogan, J.P.; Haughton, V.M.

    1983-01-01

    A review was made of the computed tomographic (CT) studies of 33 patients with hormone-secreting microadenomas that had been verified by transsphenoidal surgery and endocrinologic evaluation. In previous studies in small series of patients, the CT appearance of pituitary microadenomas has been reported as hypodense, isodense, and hyperdense. In this study, CT showed a region of diminished enhancement and ususally an enlarged pituitary gland in cases of prolactin-secreting adenomas. HGH- or ACTH-secreting adenomas were less consistently hypodense. It is concluded that hypodensity and enlargement in the pituitary gland are the most useful criteria for identification of microadenomas. Some technical factors that may affect the CT appearance of microadenomas and lead to conflicting reports are discussed

  20. Central nervous system leukemia and lymphoma: computed tomographic manifestations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagani, J.J.; Libshitz, H.I.; Wallace, S.; Hayman, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) abnormalities in the brain were identified in 31 of 405 patients with leukemia or lymphoma. Abnormalities included neoplastic masses (15), hemorrhage (nine), abscess (two), other brain tumors (four), and methotrexate leukoencephalopathy (one). CT was normal in 374 patients including 148 with meningeal disease diagnosed by cerebrospinal fluid cytologic examination. Prior to treatment, malignant masses were isodense or of greater density with varying amounts of edema. Increase in size or number of the masses indicated worsening. Response to radiation and chemotherapy was manifested by development of a central low density region with an enhancing rim. CT findings correlated with clinical and cerebrospinal fluid findings. The differential diagnosis of the various abnormalities is considered

  1. Alveolar echinococcosis of the liver - computed tomographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkle, E.; Usadel, S.; Vogel, J.; Kern, P.; Friedrich, J.M.; Brambs, H.J.

    1995-01-01

    In order to ascertain the typical computed tomographic findings of hepatic alveolar echinococcosis, 24 computed tomograms of 19 patients were evaluated. The liver was involved in all cases whereas the diaphragma was infiltrated in 32%, and the retroperioteneal area in 42%. The right liver lobe was affected in 65%. Both before and after intravenous bolus contrast medium administration, the lesions were mainly inhomogeneous and of low density; a masking of the lesions due to the contrast medium administration was not observed; the enhancement pattern was irregular. Calcifications were detected in 96% of the cases, cystic structures in 50%, and cholestasis in 54%. On the basis of the crucial finding of calcifications in combination with the other typical observations, CT seems to be very suitable for the evaluation of hepatic alveolar echinococcosis. (orig.) [de

  2. Low-dose computed tomographic imaging in orbital trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, A.; Whitehouse, R.W. (Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology)

    1993-08-01

    The authors review findings in 75 computed tomographic (CT) examinations of 66 patients with orbital trauma who were imaged using a low-radiation-dose CT technique. Imaging was performed using a dynamic scan mode and exposure factors of 120 kVp and 80 mAs resulting in a skin dose of 11 mGy with an effective dose-equivalent of 0.22 mSv. Image quality was diagnostic in all cases and excellent in 73 examinations. Soft-tissue abnormalities within the orbit including muscle adhesions were well demonstrated both on primary axial and reconstructed multiplanar images. The benefits of multiplanar reconstructions are stressed and the contribution of soft-tissue injuries to symptomatic diplopia examined. (author).

  3. Computed tomographic findings in children with spastic diplegia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokochi, Kenji; Horie, Masayo; Inukai, Kazuhisa; Kito, Hideyuki; Shimabukuro, Satoshi; Kodama, Kazuo.

    1989-01-01

    Computed tomographic findings of 46 children with spastic diplegia examined at nine months to three years of age corrected for preterm births were analyzed. Both the size of the lateral ventricles measured by the width of the anterior horns, and the volume of the extracerebral low-density areas were enlarged in some patiens. Both enlargements did not, however, correlate to the severity of the motor abnormality in the patients. The low-density areas of the periventricular white matter, especially adjacent to the trigone, were reduced in many children, probably due to the atrophy of the cerebral white matter having periventricular leukomalacia. The anterior expansion of the white matter reduction from the trigone corresponded to the severer motor abnormality in the children with spastic diplegia. (author)

  4. Detectability in the presence of computed tomographic reconstruction noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, K.M.

    1977-01-01

    The multitude of commercial computed tomographic (CT) scanners which have recently been introduced for use in diagnostic radiology has given rise to a need to compare these different machines in terms of image quality and dose to the patient. It is therefore desirable to arrive at a figure of merit for a CT image which gives a measure of the diagnostic efficacy of that image. This figure of merit may well be dependent upon the specific visual task being performed. It is clearly important that the capabilities and deficiencies of the human observer as well as the interface between man and machine, namely the viewing system, be taken into account in formulating the figure of merit. Since the CT reconstruction is the result of computer processing, it is possible to use this processing to alter the characteristics of the displayed images. This image processing may improve or degrade the figure of merit

  5. Diagnostic accuracy of multi-slice computed tomographic angiography in the detection of cerebral aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haghighatkhah, H. R.; Sabouri, S.; Borzouyeh, F.; Bagherzadeh, M. H.; Bakhshandeh, H.; Jalali, A. H.

    2008-01-01

    Multislice computed tomographic angiography is a rapid and minimally invasive method for the detection of intracranial aneurysms. The purpose of this study was to compare Multislice computed tomographic angiography with digital subtraction angiography In the diagnosis of cerebral aneurysms. Patients and Methods: In this cross sectional study we evaluated 111 consecutive patients [42(37.8%) male and 69(62.2%) female], who were admitted under clinical symptoms and signs. suggestive of harboring an intracranial aneurysm by using a four detector Multislice computed tomographic angiography. Then we compared results of Multislice computed tomographic angiography with digital subtraction angiography results as a gold standard method. Digital subtraction angiography was performed by bilateral selective common carotid artery injections and either unilateral or bilateral vertebral artery injections, as necessary. Multislice computed tomographic angiography images were interpreted by one radiologist and digital subtraction angiography was performed by another radiologist who was blinded to the interpretation of the Multislice computed tomographic angiograms. Results: The mean ±S D age of the patients was 49.1±13.6 years (range: 12-84 years). We performed Multislice computed tomographic in 111 and digital subtraction angiography in 85 patients. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive and negative likelihood ratio of Multislice computed tomographic angiography, when compared with digital subtraction angiography as the gold standard, were 100%, 90%, 87.5%, 100%, 10 and 0, respectively. Conclusion: Multislice computed tomographic angiography seems to be an accurate and noninvasive imaging modality in the diagnosis of intracranial aneurysms

  6. Tuberculosis of the Parotid Gland: Computed Tomographic Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Y.; Xiao, J.; Pui, M.H.; Gong, Q.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) of the parotid gland is rare, even in endemic regions. Approximately 100 cases have been reported in the English literature. The computed tomographic (CT) features, however, have seldom been studied. Purpose: To determine the diagnostic CT features of tuberculosis of the parotid gland. Material and Methods: CT studies of four histologically proven cases of tuberculosis of the parotid gland were retrospectively reviewed. Results: A total of 15 enlarged lymph nodes were found in the superficial lobes of the parotid glands. The nodes were arranged linearly within the gland. Enhancement patterns included homogeneous enhancement (9/15, 60%), homogeneous enhancement with eccentric microcysts (3/15, 20%), and thick-walled rim enhancement with central lucency (3/15, 20%). Thickened adjacent fascial plane and platysma were seen in two patients. Ipsilateral cervical lymphadenopathy was seen in all patients. Conclusion: In patients presenting with unilateral parotid nodules, TB should be considered when linearly arranged enhancing nodules are demonstrated in the superficial lobes of the glands on CT scan

  7. The research of clinical application of computed tomographic virtual gastroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lei; Pan Zhenyu; Zhai Xiaoli; Gu Hua; Wang Yajie; Ding Yi; Wang Li; Liang Ying; Zhai Renyou

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the values, methods and findings of computed tomographic virtual gastroscopy (CTVG). Methods: Sixty-nine patients underwent the examination of spiral CT after charged air into stomachs in different cubage. The CT scan conditions were collimating width 3 mm, pitch 1.2 - 2.5, scanning speed 0.8 s/360 degree, the raw data of CT volume scan was reconstructed in overlapping rate 33% - 67%. Then the images of CTVG were built using navigator software (GE AG, USA). Results: The accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of CTVG were 92.8%, 96.4%, and 78.6%, respectively. CTVG corresponded well with fibrous gastroscopy and specimens in demonstrating the gastric lesions. CTVG was provided with the ability of revealing the tiny lesions of chronic atrophic gastritis, chronic erosive gastritis, chronic proliferative gastritis, and acute hemorrhagic gastritis in some degree. The high quality imaging of CTVG could be obtained in condition of collimating width 3 mm, pitch 1.2 - 1.5, overlapping 50% - 67%, well hold-breath, gastric cubage in full and feasible scan positions. Conclusion: CTVG is a rising means of gastric examination and has great value in clinic applications

  8. Brain computed tomographic findings in post-cardiopulmonary resuscitation patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Tsuguharu; Yoshinaga, Kazumasa; Horibe, Takashi; Kokubu, Kiyokazu; Kokura, Yoshihiro; Matsui, Konosuke; Inamoto, Kazuo.

    1986-01-01

    We retrospectively assessed the brain computed tomographic (CT) findings in 22 post-cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) patients excluding neonatal cases. On the basis of the CT findings, the patients were divided into two groups. Eight patients (36.4 %) had bilateral abnormal lowdensity areas in the basal ganglia (Group I). The remaining 14 patients (63.6 %) had no abnormalities in that area (Group II). In Group I, the incidence of primary cardiac arrest and duration of advanced life support (ALS) was significantly different (p < 0.05) from Group II. Sex, age, duration of basic life support (BLS), time elapsed from initiation of BLS to initial CT and from initiation of ALS to initial CT was not significantly different between the two groups. Outcome was very poor in both groups and no significant difference was noted between them. We conclude that primary cardiac arrest and long duration of ALS were predictors of abnormal bilateral low-density areas in the basal ganglia in post-CPR patients. However, their appearance was not related to outcome. (author)

  9. Double Colorectal Cancer Only Diagnosed by Computed Tomographic Colonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Nagata

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A 58-year-old woman presented to her physician with rectal bleeding and intermittent diarrhea. Optical colonoscopy revealed a bulky tumor which was diagnosed as rectal cancer. She was referred to our institution for further evaluation and treatment. Slim optical colonoscopy showed an obstructive cancer in the rectosigmoid junction and no information of the proximal side of the obstruction. The patient then underwent computed tomographic (CT colonography for further evaluation of the proximal side. Three-dimensional endoluminal ‘fly-through’ images revealed another protruded lesion in the proximal side of the obstruction. Diagnosis of synchronous double cancer was made by CT colonography. This CT data was not only used to create three-dimensional images but also to decide on a preoperative clinical staging. Laparoscopy-assisted high anterior resection was performed and T3 rectal cancer and T1 sigmoid colon cancer were confirmed in the resected specimen. Follow-up optical colonoscopy revealed no other tumors. CT colonography has recently become a popular preoperative examination tool with significant improvement in quality of image due to a rapid progress in computer technology. CT colonography correctly showed synchronous double cancer in our case and provided crucial information for planning surgery. We recommend that CT colonography should be used for evaluating the proximal side of obstructive colorectal cancer.

  10. Computed tomographic findings of liver injury in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Deok Gi; Lee, Hyeon Kyeong; Lee, Won Jae; Oh, Yeon Hee; Lee, Sung Hee; Yun, Jee Yeong; Lee, Tae Woo; Lee, Sung Woo; Park, Soo Soung

    1994-01-01

    We studied to compare computed tomographic(CT) findings of liver injury with management method in adults and, moreover, to present the CT basis for the management. We retrospectively reviewed CT scans of 43 adults diagnosed as liver injury during a 66 month period. Thirty-eight patients were hemodynamically stable. Thirty-two of them were managed conservatively, whereas six managed operatively. Five unstable patients underwent emergency operation. We classified CT findings according to the severity of liver injuries(ie, hematoma, laceration, and periportal tracking) and hemoperitoneum, ranging from grade 1 to 5 and from 0 to 3 +. respectively. Thus, we compared the CT classifications with their management(ie, operation rate), especially hemodynamically stable patients. Operation rates of all patients and hemodynamically stable patients were 26% and 16%, respectively. Operation rate at each grade of liver injury was low, especially in hemodynamically stable, despite relatively high operation rate in grade 4. Operation rate of 3+ homoperitoneum was 100%, including hemodynamically stable patients, in contrast to otherwise low operation rate of others. Most liver injury in adults, including grade 4, were managed conservatively, especially hemodynamically stable. Though large amount of hemoperitoneum(ie, 3+) required operation, most hemooperitoeum were managed conservatively. Thus, CT findings of liver injury is helpful in the decision for the management method

  11. On the computed tomographic diagnosis of pulmonary nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashi, Yuuichirou

    1988-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) was used to examine 53 pulmonary nodules which were considered not definitely calcified on plain radiographs or conventional tomograms. An average CT number was calculate for each lesion. For the primary lung cancers, the average CT number was 36 HU with a standard deviation of 6.6 HU, while the benign lesions had the mean CT number of 69 HU, with a standard deviation of 42.8 HU. The mean CT number separating lung malignancies from benign lesions was 78.8 HU. To evaluate the attenuation values within each nodule, iso-CT value map was obtained by using Siemens therapy planning system, MEVAPLAN. Nodules were classified into five categories, Type I to V. All of three nodules classified as Type IV were benign. Iso-CT value map was effective in establishing the benignancy of nodules. The quantitative computed tomographic analysis of pulmonary nodules was evaluated by dual-energy CT. Dual-energy CT has the potential to eliminate the effect of spectral hardening by use of monoenergic images derived from dual-kV data and to separate high CT numbers due to calcium from those due to high density organic material. (author)

  12. Computed tomographic mammography using a conventional body scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C H; Nesbit, D E; Fisher, D R; Fritz, S L; Dwyer, S J; Templeton, A W; Lin, F; Jewell, W R

    1982-03-01

    The technique for computed tomographic (CT) examination of the breasts using a conventional body scanner is described, and experience with 67 patients is reported. In the diagnosis of both malignant and benign breast lesions, the results with a body scanner were equal to those of a dedicated CT/M mammographic unit. Although the CT study of the breast cannot replace conventional mammography in screening or in routine diagnostic workup, the unique capability of demonstrating both anatomic changes and increased iodide concentration in a cancer provides many advantages over conventional mammography. CT mammography appears to have the capability to detect breast cancers that are occult to other methods. Indications for a CT study of the breasts are: (1) clinically suspected breast cancer, especially with a mammographically occult lesion; (2) questionable mammographic findings, including microcalcifications, tumor shape, architectural distortion, and uncertain lesion location; and (3) evaluation of postbiopsy or postlumpectomy breast cancers when a primary irradiation therapy is contemplated. Breast CT also appears to be a valuable diagnostic tool in searching for a second primary breast cancer, follow-up study of postirradiation of breast cancer, followup study for postmastectomy patients, and screening procedure for genetically high-risk patients, especially those with dense breasts.

  13. Blunt oesophageal perforation: treatment with surgical exclusion and percutaneous drainage under computed tomographic guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vauthey, J.N.; Lerut, J.; Laube, M.; Gertsch, P.

    1992-01-01

    We report a patient with a left thoracic contusion and rupture of the distal oesophagus. Persistent sepsis developed after oesophageal exclusion without closure. Two collection were drained percutaneously under computed tomographic guidance and the sepsis resolved. (11 refs., 1 fig.)

  14. Regrowth patterns of supratentorial gliomas: estimation from computed tomographic scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuboi, K.; Yoshii, Y.; Nakagawa, K.; Maki, Y.

    1986-12-01

    To clarify the regrowth patterns of benign and malignant gliomas, we chose 27 intervals (between two operations or between an operation and autopsy) from 21 patients with pathologically verified recurrent supratentorial gliomas. Serial computed tomographic (CT) scans of these cases were analyzed to determine the doubling time (Td) calculated from the change in volume of enhanced and low density areas, the enhancement effect graded from 0 to 4 according to the Hounsfield number, and the presence of dissemination and contralateral extension. We studied 5 benign gliomas (including 1 case of radiation necrosis), 8 malignant astrocytomas, and 8 glioblastomas. The Td's of enhanced areas on CT scans of benign gliomas, malignant astrocytomas, and glioblastomas were 937 +/- 66.5 days, 65.1 +/- 29.4 days, and 48.1 +/- 20.9 days, respectively. The Td's of low density areas were 895 +/- 130.6 days, 70.8 +/- 22.2 days, and 50.5 +/- 14.7 days. There was a significant correlation between the Td's of the enhanced and low density areas (0.97). The enhancement effect increased at recurrence in 55% of the cases, with an average increase of 1.1 grades. The increase in enhancement effect at recurrence showed a tendency to become smaller as the tumor's degree of anaplasia increased. Radiotherapy was effective in significantly retarding the growth rate of malignant gliomas, whose Td's were doubled. Although the Td's of both enhanced and low density areas of benign gliomas were significantly longer than those of malignant gliomas, there was no significant difference in the Td's of enhanced areas between malignant astrocytomas and glioblastomas.

  15. Regrowth patterns of supratentorial gliomas: estimation from computed tomographic scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuboi, K.; Yoshii, Y.; Nakagawa, K.; Maki, Y.

    1986-01-01

    To clarify the regrowth patterns of benign and malignant gliomas, we chose 27 intervals (between two operations or between an operation and autopsy) from 21 patients with pathologically verified recurrent supratentorial gliomas. Serial computed tomographic (CT) scans of these cases were analyzed to determine the doubling time (Td) calculated from the change in volume of enhanced and low density areas, the enhancement effect graded from 0 to 4 according to the Hounsfield number, and the presence of dissemination and contralateral extension. We studied 5 benign gliomas (including 1 case of radiation necrosis), 8 malignant astrocytomas, and 8 glioblastomas. The Td's of enhanced areas on CT scans of benign gliomas, malignant astrocytomas, and glioblastomas were 937 +/- 66.5 days, 65.1 +/- 29.4 days, and 48.1 +/- 20.9 days, respectively. The Td's of low density areas were 895 +/- 130.6 days, 70.8 +/- 22.2 days, and 50.5 +/- 14.7 days. There was a significant correlation between the Td's of the enhanced and low density areas (0.97). The enhancement effect increased at recurrence in 55% of the cases, with an average increase of 1.1 grades. The increase in enhancement effect at recurrence showed a tendency to become smaller as the tumor's degree of anaplasia increased. Radiotherapy was effective in significantly retarding the growth rate of malignant gliomas, whose Td's were doubled. Although the Td's of both enhanced and low density areas of benign gliomas were significantly longer than those of malignant gliomas, there was no significant difference in the Td's of enhanced areas between malignant astrocytomas and glioblastomas

  16. Microdose computed tomographic cardiac angiography in normal cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Kiira T; O'Brien, Mauria A; Hartman, Susan K; Mulherin, Allison C; McReynolds, Casie J; McMichael, Maureen; Rapoport, Gregg; O'Brien, Robert T

    2014-03-01

    To determine if microdose contrast-enhanced multi-detector computed tomographic angiography (MDCTA) allows characterization of cardiac chambers in lightly sedated normal cats. Seven healthy domestic cats. Lightly sedated normal cats were imaged pre-contrast and with microdose (0.22 ml/kg of non-ionic iodinated contrast medium, 300 mg I/ml) triple-phase MDCTA in a motion restriction device. On pre-contrast images, the aorta (median: 52.43 Hounsfield units [HU], range 27.35-76.74 HU) was outlined by significantly (p = 0.015) lower attenuating periaortic fat (-66.16 HU, -42.62 to -92.77 HU). On post-contrast images, median peak contrast enhancement in the right ventricle (111.77 HU, 36.09-141.60 HU) was achieved in 3.1 s (range 2.9-7.3 s), in the aorta (149.30 HU, 99.43-319.60 HU) and left atrium (180.83 HU, 88.53-266.84 HU) in 6.4 s (range 5.6-7.7 s) and in the left ventricle (147.89 HU, 57.23-245.77 HU) in 7.10 s (range 6.2-11.2 s). Significantly higher attenuation was measured between all chambers and walls, the right ventricular lumen and interventricular septum (median ratio 53.78 HU, range 0.21-83.20 HU), left ventricular lumen and left ventricular free wall (89.32 HU, 38.81-185.95 HU) and aorta and periaortic fat (190.43 HU, 143.22-425.44 HU) on post-contrast images. Sufficient biological contrast is available on survey CT to discriminate between the aorta and the left atrium, and microdose MDCTA provides sufficient contrast enhancement for adequate visualization of the heart chambers in normal cats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Computed tomographic features of lymphangioleiomyomatosis: Evaluation in 138 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobino, Kazunori, E-mail: tobino@juntendo.ac.jp [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Iizuka Hospital, 3-83 Yoshiomachi, Iizuka, Fukuoka 820-0018 (Japan); Division of Respiratory Medicine, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine & Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); The Study Group of Pneumothorax and Cystic Lung Diseases, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan); Johkoh, Takeshi [Department of Radiology, Kinki Central Hospital of Mutual Aid Association of Public School Teachers, Kurumazuka 3-1, Itami, Hyogo 664-0872 (Japan); Fujimoto, Kiminori [Department of Radiology, Kurume University School of Medicine and Center for Diagnostic Imaging, Kurume University Hospital, 67 Asahi-machi, Kurume, Fukuoka 830-0011 (Japan); Sakai, Fumikazu [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Saitama International Medical Center, Saitama Medical University, 1397-1 Yamane, Hidaka, Saitama 350-1298 (Japan); Arakawa, Hiroaki [Department of Radiology, Dokkyo Medical University, 880 Kita-Kobayashi, Mibu, Tochigi 321-0293 (Japan); Kurihara, Masatoshi [The Study Group of Pneumothorax and Cystic Lung Diseases, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan); Pneumothorax Center, Nissan Tamagawa Hospital, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan); Kumasaka, Toshio [The Study Group of Pneumothorax and Cystic Lung Diseases, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan); Department of Pathology, Japanese Red Cross Medical Center, 4-1-22 Hiroo, Shibuya-Ku, Tokyo 150-0012 (Japan); Koike, Kengo; Takahashi, Kazuhisa [Division of Respiratory Medicine, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine & Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Seyama, Kuniaki [Division of Respiratory Medicine, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine & Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); The Study Group of Pneumothorax and Cystic Lung Diseases, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: •In our series, the frequency of pulmonary nodules was higher than in the previous reports. •Our sporadic LAM patients had a lower frequency of renal AML than in that of previous reports. •LAM patients may have a high incidence of renal and hepatic cysts. •LAM cells may originate in the pelvis then spread via the axial lymphatic system. -- Abstract: Purpose: The aim was to characterize the computed tomographic (CT) findings from Japanese patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM). Materials and methods: CT scans of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis from 124 patients with sporadic LAM (S-LAM, mean age, 37.4 years) and 14 patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)-LAM (mean age, 35.6 years) were analyzed. Results: Pulmonary nodules (18.8%) and hepatic angiomyolipoma (AML, 24.3%) were more common in our patients than those in previous reports. Compared with TSC-LAM, S-LAM group had a higher frequency of pulmonary nodules (28.6% vs 32.3%, P < 0.01) and lower frequencies of air-space consolidation (21.4% vs 2.4%, P < 0.01), pneumothorax (28.6% vs 8.1%, P = 0.02), pulmonary hilar lymphadenopathy (14.3% vs 0.8%, P < 0.01), renal AML (85.7% vs 17.4%, P < 0.01), hepatic AML (71.4% vs 17.4%, P < 0.01), and retrocrural lymphadenopathy (14.3% vs 1.4%, P = 0.04). Axial lymphatic abnormalities (i.e., thoracic duct dilatation, lymphadenopathy, and lymphangioleiomyoma) were most common in the pelvis and tended to decrease in incidence with increased distance from the pelvis. Conclusion: The incidence of some CT findings in Japanese patients differed from those in previous reports. Axial lymphatic abnormalities noted here suggest that the origin of LAM cells may be the pelvis.

  18. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF POSTERIOR REVERSIBLE ENCEPHALOPATHY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwaprem Raj

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES is a neurotoxic state that occurs secondary to the inability of posterior circulation to autoregulate. The clinical spectrum and the underlying pathophysiology are still poorly defined. No conclusive evidence has been put forward regarding the relationship between clinical conditions and specific imaging findings of severity or location of oedema. PURPOSE To assess the role of computed tomography in evaluation of Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS 55 patients referred to the Department of Radio-Diagnosis, with a history of neurological abnormalities, including altered mental function, visual loss, stupor with a predisposing history favouring PRES and followed up for a period of 10 – 30 days. RESULTS 21 patients (38.2% were females. 32 patients (58.1% were in the age group between 21 to 30 years. Predisposing condition; 16 (29.1% presented with pre-eclampsia, 12 (21.8% with post-partum status in altered sensorium, 9 (16.4% with seizures, 7 (12.7% with hypertension, 6 (10.9% with visual disturbances, 4 (7.3% with eclampsia and 1 (1.8% with uraemia. 20 cases (36.4% showed findings suggestive of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome on initial computed tomography examination. 35 cases showed no initial radiological evidence suggestive of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. Of the 20 cases which showed computed tomographic evidence of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, recovery was noted in 5 cases (9.1%. Persistence of findings detected on first CT was noted in 13 patients (23.6%. Regional predominance of the lesions was as follows. Frontal lobe (39%, Parietal lobe (32%, Temporal lobe (15% and occipital lobe (15%. CONCLUSION Varied clinical manifestations are associated with anatomical findings recognisable by neuro-imaging as PRES. Prompt imaging is necessary for the recognition of the condition and appropriate

  19. The Normal Fetal Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivilevitch, Zvi; Achiron, Reuven; Perlman, Sharon; Gilboa, Yinon

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the sonographic feasibility of measuring the fetal pancreas and its normal development throughout pregnancy. We conducted a cross-sectional prospective study between 19 and 36 weeks' gestation. The study included singleton pregnancies with normal pregnancy follow-up. The pancreas circumference was measured. The first 90 cases were tested to assess feasibility. Two hundred ninety-seven fetuses of nondiabetic mothers were recruited during a 3-year period. The overall satisfactory visualization rate was 61.6%. The intraobserver and interobserver variability had high interclass correlation coefficients of of 0.964 and 0.967, respectively. A cubic polynomial regression described best the correlation of pancreas circumference with gestational age (r = 0.744; P pancreas circumference percentiles for each week of gestation were calculated. During the study period, we detected 2 cases with overgrowth syndrome and 1 case with an annular pancreas. In this study, we assessed the feasibility of sonography for measuring the fetal pancreas and established a normal reference range for the fetal pancreas circumference throughout pregnancy. This database can be helpful when investigating fetomaternal disorders that can involve its normal development. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  20. Results of work of neurological clinic in first year of computer tomograph application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volejnik, V; Nettl, S; Heger, L [Karlova Univ., Hradec Kralove (Czechoslovakia). Lekarska Fakulta

    1980-11-01

    The results are analyzed of one year's use of a computer tomograph (CT) by a department of neurology. Detailed comparisons with corresponding PEG and CT findings showed the accuracy of CT examinations in the descriptions of the width of the subarachnoid spaces and of the ventricular system. The advantages of CT are assessed from the medical, economic, and ethical points of view.

  1. Cost-effectiveness of computed tomographic colonography screening for colorectal cancer in the medicare population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Knudsen (Amy); I. Lansdorp-Vogelaar (Iris); C.M. Rutter (Carolyn); J.E. Savarino (James); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein); K.M. Kuntz (Karen); A. Zauber (Ann)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) considered whether to reimburse computed tomographic colonography (CTC) for colorectal cancer screening of Medicare enrollees. To help inform its decision, we evaluated the reimbursement rate at which CTC screening could be

  2. Computed tomographic diagnosis of calcified inferior vena cava thrombus in a child with Wilm's tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirks, D R; Ponzi, J W; Korobkin, M

    1980-01-01

    A calcified thrombus in the inferior vena cava of infants and children may be imaged by computed tomography. The precise location of the calcification within the inferior vena cava may be confirmed by computed tomographic scanning during injection of intravenous contrast material.

  3. Correlation of computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings in cerebral infartion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsubara, Chizuko; Chuda, Moriyoshi; Taka, Toshihiko

    1989-01-01

    We evaluated neurological findings in 75 patients of cerebral infarction, and correlated computed tomographic (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. MRI was found to have the advantage when the lesion were multiple, or in the posterior fossa. MRI demonstrates the anatomical details, and lacks the bony artifact, so it is an excellent method for identification of cerebral infarction. (author)

  4. Spiral Computed Tomographic Imaging Related to Computerized Ultrasonographic Images of Carotid Plaque Morphology and Histology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønholdt, Marie-Louise M.; Wagner, Aase; Wiebe, Britt M.

    2001-01-01

    Echolucency of carotid atherosclerotic plaques, as evaluated by computerized B-mode ultrasonographic images, has been associated with an increased incidence of brain infarcts on cerebral computed tomographic scans. We tested the hypotheses that characterization of carotid plaques on spiral comput...

  5. Results of work of neurological clinic in first year of computer tomograph application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volejnik, V.; Nettl, S.; Heger, L.

    1980-01-01

    The results are analyzed of one year's use of a computer tomograph (CT) by a department of neurology. Detailed comparisons with corresponding PEG and CT findings showed the accuracy of CT examinations in the descriptions of the width of the subarachnoid spaces and of the ventricular system. The advantages of CT are assessed from the medical, economic, and ethical points of view. (author)

  6. Computed tomographic study of 50 patients with hypodense hepatic injuries in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Ines Minniti Rodrigues; Alvares, Beatriz Regina; Baracat, Jamal; Martins, Daniel Lahan; Pereira, Ricardo Minniti Rodrigues

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To describe the different tomographic findings in hypodense hepatic lesions in children and its differential diagnosis. Materials and methods: computed tomographic studies were obtained from 50 patients (age range: 0-16 years) with low-density liver lesions previously diagnosed by ultrasound. Images were made before and after administration of intravenous contrast medium. Image findings were analyzed and afterwards correlated with anatomopathological diagnosis. Results: forty-seven of 50 cases were confirmed, 30 by anatomopathological diagnosis. Most of then were benign lesions, hemangioma in 20%. Such lesions presented a homogeneous contrast absorption, mainly at the delayed phase, differing from malignant lesions. Metastasis was the most frequently found malignant lesion (18%). Conclusion: computed tomographic study is of great value in complementing the diagnosis of hypodense hepatic lesions in children, and must follow ultrasound diagnosis as a routine procedure. (author)

  7. Computed tomographic findings of progressive supranuclear palsy compared with Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuki, Nobuhiro; Sato, Shuzo; Yuasa, Tatsuhiko; Ito, Jusuke; Miyatake, Tadashi [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Dentistry

    1990-10-01

    We investigated computed tomographic (CT) films of 4 pathologically documented cases of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) in which the clinical presentations were atypical and compared the findings with those of 15 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Dilatation of the third ventricle, atrophy of the midbrain tegmentum, and enlargement of the interpeduncular cistern toward the aqueduct were found to be the characteristic findings in PSP. Thus, radiological findings can be useful when the differential diagnosis between PSP and PD is clinically difficult. (author).

  8. The Use of Chest Computed Tomographic Angiography in Blunt Trauma Pediatric Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasadia, Rabea; DuBose, Joseph; Peleg, Kobi; Stephenson, Jacob; Givon, Adi; Kessel, Boris

    2018-02-05

    Blunt chest trauma in children is common. Although rare, associated major thoracic vascular injuries (TVIs) are lethal potential sequelae of these mechanisms. The preferred study for definitive diagnosis of TVI in stable patients is computed tomographic angiography imaging of the chest. This imaging modality is, however, associated with high doses of ionizing radiation that represent significant carcinogenic risk for pediatric patients. The aim of the present investigation was to define the incidence of TVI among blunt pediatric trauma patients in an effort to better elucidate the usefulness of computed tomographic angiography use in this population. A retrospective cohort study was conducted including all blunt pediatric (age blunt trauma victims, 119,821patients were younger than 14 years. Twelve (0.0001%, 12/119821) of these children were diagnosed with TVI. The most common mechanism in this group was pedestrian hit by a car. Mortality was 41.7% (5/12). Thoracic vascular injury is exceptionally rare among pediatric blunt trauma victims but does contribute to the high morbidity and mortality seen with blunt chest trauma. Computed tomographic angiography, with its associated radiation exposure risk, should not be used as a standard tool after trauma in injured children. Clinical protocols are needed in this population to minimize radiation risk while allowing prompt identification of life-threatening injuries.

  9. Evaluation of paranasal sinus mucosa in coal worker's pneumoconiosis - A computed tomographic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozdemir, H.; Altin, R.; Mahmutyazicioglu, K.; Kart, L.; Uzun, L.; Savranlar, A.; Davcanci, H.; Gundogdu, S. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey). School of Medicine

    2004-09-01

    Objective: To evaluate by computed tomographic scanning the paranasal mucosal changes of coal workers with and without pneumoconiosis. Methods: Examination of images and scores from paranasal computed tomographic scans. The study participants were 26 coal workers with pneumoconiosis, 29 coal workers without pneumoconiosis, and 20 controls. All were men. The extent and patterns of inflamatory paranasal sinus disease were evaluated on computed, tomographic scans by 2 radiologists using the terminology and definitions of Newman and associates. Results: Interobserver agreement for the presence of abnormalities was from good to excellent (K, 0.63-0.89). The mucosal scores of individuals and groups were higher for coal workers than for control subjects. Both scores were significantly higher in the pneumoconiosis group than in the 2 other groups. Conclusions: This study shows that paranasal sinuses were affected more severely in coal workers than in control subjects. In coal workers with pneumoconiosis, the affection was most severe. The relationship between coal dust exposure and paranasal mucosal changes needs further study.

  10. Development of an electrical impedance computed tomographic two-phase flows analyzer. Annual technical report for program renewal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, O.C.

    1993-05-01

    This progress report details the theoretical development, numerical results, experimental design (mechanical), experimental design (electronic), and experimental results for the research program for the development of an electrical impedance computed tomographic two-phase flow analyzer.

  11. Pancreas Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pancreas is a gland behind your stomach and in front of your spine. It produces the juices that ... hormones that help control blood sugar levels. A pancreas transplant is surgery to place a healthy pancreas ...

  12. Computer tomographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedzwiedzki, M.

    1982-01-01

    Physical foundations and the developments in the transmission and emission computer tomography are presented. On the basis of the available literature and private communications a comparison is made of the various transmission tomographs. A new technique of computer emission tomography ECT, unknown in Poland, is described. The evaluation of two methods of ECT, namely those of positron and single photon emission tomography is made. (author)

  13. A Novel Quantitative Computed Tomographic Analysis Suggests How Sirolimus Stabilizes Progressive Air Trapping in Lymphangioleiomyomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argula, Rahul G; Kokosi, Maria; Lo, Pechin; Kim, Hyun J; Ravenel, James G; Meyer, Cristopher; Goldin, Jonathan; Lee, Hye-Seung; Strange, Charlie; McCormack, Francis X

    2016-03-01

    The Multicenter International Lymphangioleiomyomatosis Efficacy and Safety of Sirolimus (MILES) trial demonstrated that sirolimus stabilized lung function and improved measures of functional performance and quality of life in patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis. The physiologic mechanisms of these beneficial actions of sirolimus are incompletely understood. To prospectively determine the longitudinal computed tomographic lung imaging correlates of lung function change in MILES patients treated with placebo or sirolimus. We determined the baseline to 12-month change in computed tomographic image-derived lung volumes and the volume of the lung occupied by cysts in the 31 MILES participants (17 in sirolimus group, 14 in placebo group) with baseline and 12-month scans. There was a trend toward an increase in median expiratory cyst volume percentage in the placebo group and a reduction in the sirolimus group (+2.68% vs. +0.97%, respectively; P = 0.10). The computed tomographic image-derived residual volume and the ratio of residual volume to total lung capacity increased more in the placebo group than in the sirolimus group (+214.4 ml vs. +2.9 ml [P = 0.054] and +0.05 ml vs. -0.01 ml [P = 0.0498], respectively). A Markov transition chain analysis of respiratory cycle cyst volume changes revealed greater dynamic variation in the sirolimus group than in the placebo group at the 12-month time point. Collectively, these data suggest that sirolimus attenuates progressive gas trapping in lymphangioleiomyomatosis, consistent with a beneficial effect of the drug on airflow obstruction. We speculate that a reduction in lymphangioleiomyomatosis cell burden around small airways and cyst walls alleviates progressive airflow limitation and facilitates cyst emptying.

  14. Craniofacial fibrous dysplasia: Report of a case using computed tomographic scan diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Diwan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibro-osseous lesions are benign mesenchymal tumors in which mineralized tissue, blood vessels, and giant cells, in varying proportions, replace normal bone. Although this group of lesions includes reactive lesions, harmatomas, and neoplasms, they cannot be distinguished only on the basis of the histopathology which can only confirm their common fibro-osseous nature. Definitive diagnosis requires thorough radiological evaluation. Computed tomographic images of craniofacial fibrous dysplasia on bone windows may be helpful and allow precise pre-operative diagnosis and surgical planning.

  15. Development of a portable computed tomographic scanner for on-line imaging of industrial piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaafar Abdullah; Mohd Arif Hamzah; Mohd Soyapi Mohd Yusof; Mohd Fitri Abdul Rahman; Fadil IsmaiI; Rasif Mohd Zain

    2003-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) technology is being increasingly developed for industrial application. This paper presents the development of a portable computed tomographic scanner for on?line imaging of industrial piping systems. The theoretical approach, the system hardware, the data acquisition system and the adopted algorithm for image reconstruction are discussed. The scanner has large potential to be used to determine the extent of corrosion under insulation (CUI), to detect blockages, to measure the thickness of deposit/materials built-up on the walls and to improve understanding of material flow in pipelines. (Author)

  16. The computed tomographic appearance of cerebral cysticercosis in adults and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, S.E.; Locke, G.E.; Biggers, S.; Percy, A.K.

    1982-01-01

    The computed tomographic (CT) scans of 45 patients (30 adults, 15 children) with cerebral cysticercosis were reviewed. These patients had undergone complete diagnostic evaluations including skin tests, laboratory tests, plain skull radiography, radionuclide brain scanning, CT, and cerebral angiography. All of these tests were unrewarding except CT and the indirect hemagglutination tests on the serum. A classification of cerebral cysticercosis based on the location of the lesions in the brain and the CT appearance was developed. Cerebral cysticercosis can be diagnosed by CT findings when there is also a history of seizures and of the patient having lived in an area where the disease is endemic

  17. Comparative study of the macroscopic finding, conventional tomographic imaging, and computed tomographic imaging in locating the mandibular canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hang Moon; You, Dong Soo

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was comparison of conventional tomography with reformatted computed tomography for dental implant in locating the mandibular canal. Five dogs were used and after conventional tomographs and fitted computed tomographs were taken, four dentist traced all films. Mandibles were sectioned with 2 mm slice thickness and the sections were then radiographed (contact radiography). Each radiograpic image was traced and linear measurements were made from mandibular canal to alveolar crest, buccal cortex, lingual cortex, and inferior border. The following results were obtained; 1. Reformatted computed tomographs were exacter than conventional tomography by alveolar crest to canal length of -0.6 mm difference between real values and radiographs 2. The average measurements of buccal cortex to mandibular canal width and lingual cortex to mandibular canal width of conventional tomographs were exacter than reformatted computed tomographs, but standard deviations were higher than reformatted computed tomographs. 3. Standard deviations of reformatted computed tomographs were lower than conventional tomographs at all comparing sites 4. At reformatted computed tomography 62.5% of the measurements performed were within ±1 mm of the true value, and at conventional tomography 24.1% were. 5. Mandibular canal invisibility was 0.8% at reformatted computed tomography and 9.2% at conventional tomography. Reformatted computed tomography has been shown to be more useful radiographic technique for assessment of the mandibular canal than conventional tomography.

  18. Computed Tomographic Analysis of Ventral Atlantoaxial Optimal Safe Implantation Corridors in 27 Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblond, Guillaume; Gaitero, Luis; Moens, Noel M M; Zur Linden, Alex; James, Fiona M K; Monteith, Gabrielle J; Runciman, John

    2017-11-01

    Objectives  Ventral atlantoaxial stabilization techniques are challenging surgical procedures in dogs. Available surgical guidelines are based upon subjective anatomical landmarks, and limited radiographic and computed tomographic data. The aims of this study were (1) to provide detailed anatomical descriptions of atlantoaxial optimal safe implantation corridors to generate objective recommendations for optimal implant placements and (2) to compare anatomical data obtained in non-affected Toy breed dogs, affected Toy breed dogs suffering from atlantoaxial instability and non-affected Beagle dogs. Methods  Anatomical data were collected from a prospectively recruited population of 27 dogs using a previously validated method of optimal safe implantation corridor analysis using computed tomographic images. Results  Optimal implant positions and three-dimensional numerical data were generated successfully in all cases. Anatomical landmarks could be used to generate objective definitions of optimal insertion points which were applicable across all three groups. Overall the geometrical distribution of all implant sites was similar in all three groups with a few exceptions. Clinical Significance  This study provides extensive anatomical data available to facilitate surgical planning of implant placement for atlantoaxial stabilization. Our data suggest that non-affected Toy breed dogs and non-affected Beagle dogs constitute reasonable research models to study atlantoaxial stabilization constructs. Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart.

  19. Annular pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001142.htm Annular pancreas To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An annular pancreas is a ring of pancreatic tissue that encircles ...

  20. Microcystic adenoma of the pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Radoje B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Microcystic adenoma of the pancreas is a rare benign tumour of the pancreas without malignant potential which usually appears in older women. Pain weight loss, palpable mass and jaundice (if the tumor is localized in the head of the pancreas are the main symptoms. Thanks to the modern imaging techniques (US, CT, FNB the tumor is discovered and with rising frequency exactly preoperatively diagnosed. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice. In risk patients without symptoms surgery is not necessary but patients have to be regularly followed-up. The authors present a 70-year old woman in whom, because of constant epigastric pain, a multicystic mass of the pancreatic body, 58 x 40 mm in diameter, was discovered and removed by distal pancreatectomy. The spleen could not be saved. Histologic examination showed a microcystic adenoma. Three years after surgery the patient is symptom-free with normal ultra-sonographic findings.

  1. Prediction of Clinical Outcome After Acute Ischemic Stroke: The Value of Repeated Noncontrast Computed Tomography, Computed Tomographic Angiography, and Computed Tomographic Perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankbaar, Jan W; Horsch, Alexander D; van den Hoven, Andor F; Kappelle, L Jaap; van der Schaaf, Irene C; van Seeters, Tom; Velthuis, Birgitta K

    2017-09-01

    Early prediction of outcome in acute ischemic stroke is important for clinical management. This study aimed to compare the relationship between early follow-up multimodality computed tomographic (CT) imaging and clinical outcome at 90 days in a large multicenter stroke study. From the DUST study (Dutch Acute Stroke Study), patients were selected with (1) anterior circulation occlusion on CT angiography (CTA) and ischemic deficit on CT perfusion (CTP) on admission, and (2) day 3 follow-up noncontrast CT, CTP, and CTA. Follow-up infarct volume on noncontrast CT, poor recanalization on CTA, and poor reperfusion on CTP (mean transit time index ≤75%) were related to unfavorable outcome after 90 days defined as modified Rankin Scale 3 to 6. Four multivariable models were constructed: (1) only baseline variables (model 1), (2) model 1 with addition of infarct volume, (3) model 1 with addition of recanalization, and (4) model 1 with addition of reperfusion. Area under the curves of the receiver operating characteristic curves of the models were compared using the DeLong test. A total of 242 patients were included. Poor recanalization was found in 21%, poor reperfusion in 37%, and unfavorable outcome in 44%. The area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic curve without follow-up imaging was 0.81, with follow-up noncontrast CT 0.85 ( P =0.02), CTA 0.86 ( P =0.01), and CTP 0.86 ( P =0.01). All 3 follow-up imaging modalities improved outcome prediction compared with no imaging. There was no difference between the imaging models. Follow-up imaging after 3 days improves outcome prediction compared with prediction based on baseline variables alone. CTA recanalization and CTP reperfusion do not outperform noncontrast CT at this time point. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00880113. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Computed tomographic and cross-sectional anatomy of the normal pacu (Colossoma macroponum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Alaina; Weber, E P Scott; Murphy, Chris J; Zwingenberger, Alison

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare and define the normal cross-sectional gross and computed tomographic (CT) anatomy for a species of boney fish to better gain insight into the use of advanced diagnostic imaging for future clinical cases. The pacu (Colossoma macropomum) was used because of its widespread presence in the aquarium trade, its relatively large body size, and its importance in the research and aquaculture settings. Transverse 0.6-mm CT images of three cadaver fish were obtained and compared to corresponding frozen cross sections of the fish. Relevant anatomic structures were identified and labeled at each level; the Hounsfield unit density of major organs was established. The images presented good anatomic detail and provide a reference for future research and clinical investigation.

  3. Comparison between computed tomographic and surgical findings in nine large-breed dogs with lumbosacral stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.C.; Sorjonen, D.C.; Simpson, S.T.; Coates, J.R.; Lenz, S.D.; Hathcock, J.T.; Agee, M.W.; Bartels, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    In a three-year prospective study, computed tomographic (CT) and surgical findings were compared for nine large breed dogs with lumbosacral stenosis. Surgically-excised tissue was examined histologically in seven dogs and additional necropsy evaluation was performed in one dog. The CT abnormalities observed at sites of confirmed cauda equina compression were: loss of epidural fat, increased soft tissue opacity, bulging of the intervertebral disc margin, spondylosis, thecal sac displacement, narrowed intervertebral foramen, narrowed vertebral canal, thickened articular process, articular process subluxation, articular process osteophyte, and telescoped sacral lamina. The CT characteristics of lumbosacral degenerative disease and discospondylitis were similar to those described in humans. In three dogs, CT findings at the site of cauda equina compression were consistent with congenital or developmental spinal stenosis, but the method of surgical exposure precluded confirmation. Epidural fibrosis (eight dogs) and multi-level CT abnormalities (six dogs) were identified but the cause(s) and significance were unknown

  4. What Is the Pancreas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pancreas Function of the Pancreas What is the pancreas? The pancreas is a long flattened gland located ... controller of blood sugar levels. Where is the pancreas? The pancreas is located deep in the abdomen. ...

  5. Computed Tomographic Morphometry of the Internal Anatomy of Mandibular Second Primary Molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurthukoti, Ameet J; Sharma, Pranjal; Swamy, Dinesh Francis; Shashidara, R; Swamy, Elaine Barretto

    2015-01-01

    Need for the study: The most important procedure for a successful endodontic treatment is the cleaning and shaping of the canal system. Understanding the internal anatomy of teeth provides valuable information to the clinician that would help him achieve higher clinical success during endodontic therapy. To evaluate by computed tomography-the internal anatomy of mandibular second primary molars with respect to the number of canals, cross-sectional shape of canals, cross-sectional area of canals and the root dentin thickness. A total of 31 mandibular second primary molars were subjected to computed-tomographic evaluation in the transverse plane, after mounting them in a prefabricated template. The images, thus, obtained were analyzed using De-winter Bio-wizard® software. All the samples demonstrated two canals in the mesial root, while majority of the samples (65.48%) demonstrated two canals in the distal root. The cross-sectional images of the mesial canals demonstrated a round shape, while the distal canals demonstrated an irregular shape. The root dentin thickness was highly reduced on the distal aspect of mesial and mesial aspect of distal canals. The mandibular second primary molars demonstrated wide variation and complexities in their internal anatomy. A thorough understanding of the complexity of the root canal system is essential for understanding the principles and problems of shaping and cleaning, determining the apical limits and dimensions of canal preparations, and for performing successful endodontic procedures. How to cite this article: Kurthukoti AJ, Sharma P, Swamy DF, Shashidara R, Swamy EB. Computed Tomographic Morphometry of the Internal Anatomy of Mandibular Second Primary Molars. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3):202-207.

  6. Relationship of Hypertension to Coronary Atherosclerosis and Cardiac Events in Patients With Coronary Computed Tomographic Angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Rine; Baskaran, Lohendran; Gransar, Heidi; Budoff, Matthew J; Achenbach, Stephan; Al-Mallah, Mouaz; Cademartiri, Filippo; Callister, Tracy Q; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Chinnaiyan, Kavitha; Chow, Benjamin J W; DeLago, Augustin; Hadamitzky, Martin; Hausleiter, Joerg; Cury, Ricardo; Feuchtner, Gudrun; Kim, Yong-Jin; Leipsic, Jonathon; Kaufmann, Philipp A; Maffei, Erica; Raff, Gilbert; Shaw, Leslee J; Villines, Todd C; Dunning, Allison; Marques, Hugo; Pontone, Gianluca; Andreini, Daniele; Rubinshtein, Ronen; Bax, Jeroen; Jones, Erica; Hindoyan, Niree; Gomez, Millie; Lin, Fay Y; Min, James K; Berman, Daniel S

    2017-08-01

    Hypertension is an atherosclerosis factor and is associated with cardiovascular risk. We investigated the relationship between hypertension and the presence, extent, and severity of coronary atherosclerosis in coronary computed tomographic angiography and cardiac events risk. Of 17 181 patients enrolled in the CONFIRM registry (Coronary CT Angiography Evaluation for Clinical Outcomes: An International Multicenter Registry) who underwent ≥64-detector row coronary computed tomographic angiography, we identified 14 803 patients without known coronary artery disease. Of these, 1434 hypertensive patients were matched to 1434 patients without hypertension. Major adverse cardiac events risk of hypertension and non-hypertensive patients was evaluated with Cox proportional hazards models. The prognostic associations between hypertension and no-hypertension with increasing degree of coronary stenosis severity (nonobstructive or obstructive ≥50%) and extent of coronary artery disease (segment involvement score of 1-5, >5) was also assessed. Hypertension patients less commonly had no coronary atherosclerosis and more commonly had nonobstructive and 1-, 2-, and 3-vessel disease than the no-hypertension group. During a mean follow-up of 5.2±1.2 years, 180 patients experienced cardiac events, with 104 (2.0%) occurring in the hypertension group and 76 (1.5%) occurring in the no-hypertension group (hazard ratios, 1.4; 95% confidence intervals, 1.0-1.9). Compared with no-hypertension patients without coronary atherosclerosis, hypertension patients with no coronary atherosclerosis and obstructive coronary disease tended to have higher risk of cardiac events. Similar trends were observed with respect to extent of coronary artery disease. Compared with no-hypertension patients, hypertensive patients have increased presence, extent, and severity of coronary atherosclerosis and tend to have an increase in major adverse cardiac events. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Impact of Collateral Status Evaluated by Dynamic Computed Tomographic Angiography on Clinical Outcome in Patients With Ischemic Stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Wijngaard, Ido R.; Boiten, Jelis; Holswilder, Ghislaine; Algra, Ale; Dippel, Diederik W J; Velthuis, Birgitta K.; Wermer, Marieke J H; van Walderveen, Marianne A A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE—: Status of collateral circulation is a strong predictor of outcome after acute ischemic stroke. Our aim was to compare the predictive value of strategies for collateral blood flow assessment with dynamic computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and conventional single-phase CT

  8. Abdominal cocoon: sonographic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, S Boopathy; Palanivelu, Chinnusamy; Sendhilkumar, Karuppusamy; Parthasarathi, Ramakrishnan

    2003-07-01

    An abdominal cocoon is a rare condition in which the small bowel is encased in a membrane. The diagnosis is usually established at surgery. Here we describe the sonographic features of this condition.

  9. Analysis of computed tomographic manifestations of primary lung cancer by histologic types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyo Yeoun; Choe, Kyu Ok

    1988-01-01

    It is well known that primary lung cancer is one of the most common malignancies in Korea. With respect to the histologic type, primary lung carcinoma manifests itself in a number of different ways. The authors analyzed the computed tomographic (C-T) findings of 183 cases of pathologically confirmed primary lung cancer from 1983 to Aug. 1987 without prior information of histologic types. The results are as follows. 1. The distribution of histologic types of primary lung cancer was as follows: epidermoid carcinoma, 96 cases (52.5%); adenocarcinoma, 43 cases (23.5%); undifferentiated large cell carcinoma, 17 cases (9.2%) and undifferentiated small cell carcinoma, 27 cases (14.8%). 2. The male to female ratio was 3.9:1, the highest ratio occurring in undifferentiated small cell carcinoma 12.5:1 and the lowest ratio in adenocarcinoma 1.1:1 where there was no significant difference in the male to female ratio. 3. Chest computed tomographic findings by histologic type were as follows: (a) Epidermoid carcinoma (96 cases): The central type was the most prevalent (52 cases) with an incidence of 54%. Major air way obstruction was most frequently encountered in this type and was complete in 60% of the cases and partial in 25%. The incidence of cavitating malignancy was 10%, more common than other histologica types. (b) Adenocarcinoma (43 cases): The peripheral type was the most prevalent (28 cases) with an incidence of 63%. Lung to lung metastasis was 23%, more common than other histologic types. (c) Undifferentiated large cell carcinoma (17 cases): The highest incidence occurred in the peripheral type, 9 cases (53%). Chest wall involvement was 12%, more common than other histologic types. (d) Undifferentiated small cell carcinoma (27 cases): The central type (19 cases) presented the highest incidence (70%). Major air way obstruction was noted less severe than epidermoid carcinoma: complete 33%, partial 63%. The incidence of pericardial effusion and/or thickening was 18

  10. Shwachman-Diamond syndrome: clinical, radiological and sonographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrocal, T. [Servicio de Radiologia Pediatrica, Hospital Infantil `La Paz`, Madrid (Spain); Simon, M.J. [Servicio de Radiologia Pediatrica, Hospital Infantil `La Paz`, Madrid (Spain); Al-Assir, I. [Servicio de Radiologia Pediatrica, Hospital Infantil `La Paz`, Madrid (Spain); Prieto, C. [Servicio de Radiologia Pediatrica, Hospital Infantil `La Paz`, Madrid (Spain); Pastor, I. [Servicio de Radiologia Pediatrica, Hospital Infantil `La Paz`, Madrid (Spain); Pablo, L. de [Servicio de Radiologia Pediatrica, Hospital Infantil `La Paz`, Madrid (Spain); Lama, R. [Servicio de Gastroenterologia, Hospital Infantil `La Paz`, Madrid (Spain)

    1995-07-01

    Six children with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome have been diagnosed and treated in our hospital since 1986. We describe the radiological and sonographic findings of this rare disease, which is characterized by metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, neutropenia and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. It presents with varying extremity shortening, ``cup`` deformation of the ribs, metaphyseal widening and hypoplasia of the iliac bones, as well as increased echogenicity of the normal-sized pancreas. We discuss the differential diagnosis and review the literature. (orig.)

  11. Shwachman-Diamond syndrome: clinical, radiological and sonographic aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrocal, T. [Dept. of Pediatric Radiology, `La Paz` Children`s Hospital, Madrid (Spain); Simon, M.J. [Dept. of Pediatric Radiology, `La Paz` Children`s Hospital, Madrid (Spain); Al-Assir, I. [Dept. of Pediatric Radiology, `La Paz` Children`s Hospital, Madrid (Spain); Prieto, C. [Dept. of Pediatric Radiology, `La Paz` Children`s Hospital, Madrid (Spain); Pastor, I. [Dept. of Pediatric Radiology, `La Paz` Children`s Hospital, Madrid (Spain); Pablo, L. de [Dept. of Pediatric Radiology, `La Paz` Children`s Hospital, Madrid (Spain); Lama, R. [Dept. of Gastroenterology, `La Paz` Children`s Hospital, Madrid (Spain)

    1995-06-01

    Six children with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome have been diagnosed and treated in our hospital since 1986. We describe the radiological and sonographic findings of this rare disease which is characterized by metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, neutropenia and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. It presents with variable extremity shortening, ``cup`` deformation of the ribs, metaphyseal widening and hypoplasia of the iliac bones, and increased echogenicity of the pancreas without change in size. We discuss the differential diagnosis and review the literature. (orig.)

  12. Shwachman-Diamond syndrome: clinical, radiological and sonographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berrocal, T.; Simon, M.J.; Al-Assir, I.; Prieto, C.; Pastor, I.; Pablo, L. de; Lama, R.

    1995-01-01

    Six children with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome have been diagnosed and treated in our hospital since 1986. We describe the radiological and sonographic findings of this rare disease, which is characterized by metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, neutropenia and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. It presents with varying extremity shortening, ''cup'' deformation of the ribs, metaphyseal widening and hypoplasia of the iliac bones, as well as increased echogenicity of the normal-sized pancreas. We discuss the differential diagnosis and review the literature. (orig.)

  13. Shwachman-Diamond syndrome: clinical, radiological and sonographic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berrocal, T.; Simon, M.J.; Al-Assir, I.; Prieto, C.; Pastor, I.; Pablo, L. de; Lama, R.

    1995-01-01

    Six children with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome have been diagnosed and treated in our hospital since 1986. We describe the radiological and sonographic findings of this rare disease which is characterized by metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, neutropenia and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. It presents with variable extremity shortening, ''cup'' deformation of the ribs, metaphyseal widening and hypoplasia of the iliac bones, and increased echogenicity of the pancreas without change in size. We discuss the differential diagnosis and review the literature. (orig.)

  14. Heterotopic Pancreas: Histopathologic Features, Imaging Findings, and Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezvani, Maryam; Menias, Christine; Sandrasegaran, Kumaresan; Olpin, Jeffrey D; Elsayes, Khaled M; Shaaban, Akram M

    2017-01-01

    Heterotopic pancreas is a congenital anomaly in which pancreatic tissue is anatomically separate from the main gland. The most common locations of this displacement include the upper gastrointestinal tract-specifically, the stomach, duodenum, and proximal jejunum. Less common sites are the esophagus, ileum, Meckel diverticulum, biliary tree, mesentery, and spleen. Uncomplicated heterotopic pancreas is typically asymptomatic, with the lesion being discovered incidentally during an unrelated surgery, during an imaging examination, or at autopsy. The most common computed tomographic appearance of heterotopic pancreas is that of a small oval intramural mass with microlobulated margins and an endoluminal growth pattern. The attenuation and enhancement characteristics of these lesions parallel their histologic composition. Acinus-dominant lesions demonstrate avid homogeneous enhancement after intravenous contrast material administration, whereas duct-dominant lesions are hypovascular and heterogeneous. At magnetic resonance imaging, the heterotopic pancreas is isointense to the orthotopic pancreas, with characteristic T1 hyperintensity and early avid enhancement after intravenous gadolinium-based contrast material administration. Heterotopic pancreatic tissue has a rudimentary ductal system in which an orifice is sometimes visible at imaging as a central umbilication of the lesion. Complications of heterotopic pancreas include pancreatitis, pseudocyst formation, malignant degeneration, gastrointestinal bleeding, bowel obstruction, and intussusception. Certain complications may be erroneously diagnosed as malignancy. Paraduodenal pancreatitis is thought to be due to cystic degeneration of heterotopic pancreatic tissue in the medial wall of the duodenum. Recognizing the characteristic imaging features of heterotopic pancreas aids in differentiating it from cancer and thus in avoiding unnecessary surgery. © RSNA, 2017.

  15. A preoperative mathematic model for computed tomographic guided microwave ablation treatment of hepatic dome tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Wang, Guo-Bao; Xiang, Zhan-Wang; Yang, Bin; Xue, Jing-Bing; Mo, Zhi-Qiang; Zhong, Zhi-Hui; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Fu-Jun; Fan, Wei-Jun

    2016-05-03

    This study sought to prospectively evaluate the feasibility and safety of a preoperative mathematic model for computed tomographic(CT) guided microwave(MW) ablation treatment of hepatic dome tumors. This mathematic model was a regular cylinder quantifying appropriate puncture routes from the bottom up. A total of 103 patients with hepatic dome tumors were enrolled and randomly divided into 2 groups based on whether this model was used or not: Group A (using the model; n = 43) versus Group B (not using the model; n = 60). All tumors were treated by CT-guided MW ablation and follow-up contrast CT were reviewed. The average number of times for successful puncture, average ablation time, and incidence of right shoulder pain were less in Group A than Group B (1.4 vs. 2.5, P = 0.001; 8.8 vs. 11.1 minutes, P = 0.003; and 4.7% vs. 20%, P = 0.039). The technical success rate was higher in Group A than Group B (97.7% vs. 85.0%, P = 0.032). There were no significant differences between the two groups in primary and secondary technique efficacy rates (97.7% vs. 88.3%, P = 0.081; 90.0% vs. 72.7%, P = 0.314). No major complications occurred in both groups. The mathematic model of regular cylinder is feasible and safe for CT-guided MW ablation in treating hepatic dome tumors.

  16. Correlation between presumed sinusitis-induced pain and paranasal sinus computed tomographic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Shikha P; Wise, Scott W; Hopper, Kenneth D; Kasales, Claudia J; Mauger, David; Fornadley, John A

    2002-02-01

    The correlation between facial and/or head pain in patients clinically suspected of having sinusitis and actual localized findings on sinus computed tomographic (CT) imaging are poorly understood. To prospectively evaluate the relationship of paranasal sinus pain symptoms with CT imaging. Two hundred consecutive patients referred by otolaryngologists and internists for CT of the paranasal sinuses participated by completing a questionnaire immediately before undergoing CT. Three radiologists blinded to the patients' responses scored the degree of air/fluid level, mucosal thickening, bony reaction, and mucus retention cysts using a graded scale of severity (0 to 3 points). The osteomeatal complexes and nasolacrimal ducts were also evaluated for patency. Bivariate analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between patients' localized symptoms and CT findings in the respective sinus. One hundred sixty-three patients (82%) reported having some form of facial pain or headache. The right temple/forehead was the most frequently reported region of maximal pain. On CT imaging the maxillary sinus was the most frequently involved sinus. Bivariate analysis failed to show any relationship between patient symptoms and findings on CT. Patients with a normal CT reported a mean 5.88 sites of facial or head pain versus 5.45 sites for patients with an abnormal CT. Patient-based responses of sinonasal pain symptoms fail to correlate with findings in the respective sinuses. CT should therefore be reserved for delineating the anatomy and degree of sinus disease before surgical intervention.

  17. Clinical perspective of coronary computed tomographic angiography in diagnosis of coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Chung, Namsik

    2011-01-01

    Since a 4-detector row coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) was launched in 1998, CCTA has experienced rapid improvement of imaging qualities with the ongoing evolution of computed tomography (CT) technology. The diagnostic accuracy of CCTA to detect coronary artery stenosis is well established, whereas improvements are still needed to reduce the overestimation of coronary artery disease (CAD) and assess plaque composition. CCTA has been used to evaluate CAD in various clinical settings. For example, CCTA could be an efficient initial triage tool at emergency departments for patients with acute chest pain with low-to-intermediate risk because of its high negative predictive value. In patients with suspected CAD, CCTA could be a cost-effective alternative to myocardial perfusion imaging and exercise electrocardiogram for the initial coronary evaluation of patients with intermediate pre-test likelihood suspected CAD. However, in asymptomatic populations, there is a lack of studies that show an improved prognostic power of CCTA over other modalities. Therefore, the clinical use of CCTA to detect CAD for purposes of risk stratification in asymptomatic individuals should be discouraged. As CT technology evolves, CCTA will provide better quality coronary imaging and non-coronary information with lower radiation exposure. Future studies should cover these ongoing technical improvements and evaluate the prognostic power of CCTA in various clinical settings of CAD in large, well-designed, randomized trials. (author)

  18. Measurement of facial soft tissues thickness using 3D computed tomographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Ho Gul; Kim, Kee Deog; Shin, Dong Won; Hu, Kyung Seok; Lee, Jae Bum; Park, Hyok; Park, Chang Seo; Han, Seung Ho

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate accuracy and reliability of program to measure facial soft tissue thickness using 3D computed tomographic images by comparing with direct measurement. One cadaver was scanned with a Helical CT with 3 mm slice thickness and 3 mm/sec table speed. The acquired data was reconstructed with 1.5 mm reconstruction interval and the images were transferred to a personal computer. The facial soft tissue thickness were measured using a program developed newly in 3D image. For direct measurement, the cadaver was cut with a bone cutter and then a ruler was placed above the cut side. The procedure was followed by taking pictures of the facial soft tissues with a high-resolution digital camera. Then the measurements were done in the photographic images and repeated for ten times. A repeated measure analysis of variance was adopted to compare and analyze the measurements resulting from the two different methods. Comparison according to the areas was analyzed by Mann-Whitney test. There were no statistically significant differences between the direct measurements and those using the 3D images(p>0.05). There were statistical differences in the measurements on 17 points but all the points except 2 points showed a mean difference of 0.5 mm or less. The developed software program to measure the facial soft tissue thickness using 3D images was so accurate that it allows to measure facial soft tissue thickness more easily in forensic science and anthropology

  19. Computed tomographic analysis of vegetable during far infrared radiation drying process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maneechot, P.; Tojo, S.; Watanabe, K.

    2006-01-01

    Far Infrared Radiation (FIR) technology is widely used in the automotive industry to cure painted finishes during manufacturing. FIR drying is used not only in manufacturing but also in agricultural processing such as rice drying. At the present time, FIR drying technology has rarely been used for fruits and vegetables except in research laboratories. In this study, FIR drying and hot air convection drying were compared with respect to energy consumption and time requirement. The internal changes of the agricultural product were also observed during the FIR drying process. A Computed Tomographic (CT) scanner was employed for the observation of the tested material, carrot, and was used to analyze the structural deformation and the internal moisture distribution of the test material. CT data and the hardness of the sample were recorded at regular intervals during the drying experiment. For 200, 400 and 600W FIR drying, the maximum drying rates were 173, 459 and 724%d.b./hr respectively, and the required drying times were 26, 12 and 4.5 hours, respectively. The structure of the carrot sample shrank in accordance with the reduction of moisture content in 200W FIR drying as well as in hot air drying, whereas in 400W and 600W FIR drying the sample was dried without so much deformation

  20. Diagnostic performance of 64-slice multidetector coronary computed tomographic angiography in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jug, Borut; Gupta, Mohit; Papazian, Jenny; Li, Dong; Tsang, Janet; Bhatia, Harpreet; Karlsberg, Ronald; Budoff, Matthew

    2012-12-01

    Diagnostic approach to chest pain in women is challenging, but still under-investigated. The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic performance of 64-slice multidetector coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) in women with chest pain. We included 606 patients--255 women and 351 men (mean age 61 ± 12 years for both)--who had been referred for a CCTA and an invasive coronary angiography (diagnostic standard) because of chest pain, either as part of clinical work-up in two urban medical centers or as part of the multicenter ACCURACY trial. On a patient-based model, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value to detect ≥50% and ≥70% stenosis were 98%, 84%, 87%, and 97% and 96%, 83%, 77%, and 97%, respectively, for women and 97%, 83%, 89%, and 95% and 94%, 91%, 90%, and 94%, respectively, for men. There were no statistically significant differences between men and women in diagnostic performance measures except for the PPV of detecting a ≥70% stenosis (P = .007). In women with chest pain, 64-slice multidetector CCTA is at least as sensitive and specific as in men. Our findings suggest that CCTA is a promising diagnostic tool for timely detection and/or exclusion of CAD in symptomatic intermediate-risk female populations.

  1. Computed tomographic colonography (CTC); colorectal cancer diagnosis with CTC in an Auckland population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Helen; Dodd, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    To determine the sensitivity of computed tomographic colonography (CTC) in the detection of colorectal cancer in our population and evaluate the reasons why these lesions may be missed on CTC. All patients who underwent CTC in the 65-month period from 1 January 2004 to 1 July 2009 were included in the analysis. Demographic data and CTC findings were recorded, according to the CT Colonography Reporting and Data System. Data were cross-matched with the National Cancer Registry results for colorectal cancer cases between 1 January 2004 and 1 October 2009, 3 months longer to include any delayed diagnoses. There were 2026 consecutive CTC patients, comprising 52.6% female, average age of 60 years; range 19–87. Approximately 84% were symptomatic. There were 45 confirmed colorectal cancers among this patient group in the National Cancer Registry during the relevant time period compared with 43 suspected cancers on CTC, giving a miss rate of 2 of 45, or 4.4%. The sensitivity of 95% for CTC in the detection of colorectal cancer compares favourably with the published national and international data.

  2. Computed Tomographic Findings and Mortality in Patients With Pneumomediastinum From Blunt Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wayne S; Chong, Vincent E; Victorino, Gregory P

    2015-08-01

    The care of most patients with pneumomediastinum (PNM) due to trauma can be managed conservatively; however, owing to aerodigestive tract injury and other associated injuries, there is a subset of patients with PNM who are at higher risk of mortality but can be difficult to identify. To characterize computed tomographic (CT) findings associated with mortality in patients with PNM due to blunt trauma. A retrospective review of medical records from January 1, 2002, to December 31, 2011, was conducted at a university-based urban trauma center. The patients evaluated were those injured by blunt trauma and found to have PNM on initial chest CT scanning. Data analysis was performed July 2, 2013, to June 18, 2014. In-hospital mortality. During the study period, 3327 patients with blunt trauma underwent chest CT. Of these, 72 patients (2.2%) had PNM. Patients with PNM had higher Injury Severity Scores (P blunt trauma; however, CT findings of posterior PNM, air in all mediastinal compartments, and concurrent hemothorax are associated with increased mortality. These CT findings could be used as a triage tool to alert the trauma surgeon to a potentially lethal injury.

  3. Accuracy of computed tomographic intravenous cholangiography (CT-IVC) with iotroxate in the detection of choledocholithiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, Robert N.; Vincent, Janette M.; Speer, Tony; Noack, Keith; Collier, Neil A.

    2005-01-01

    To determine the accuracy of computed tomographic intravenous cholangiography (CT-IVC) for detection of choledocholithiasis. Sixty-five patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) underwent CT-IVC prior to ERC, using a single detector helical CT following intravenous infusion of 100 ml iotroxate. Patients with bilirubin levels >3 times normal were excluded. ERC was indeterminate in three patients (4.7%) and CT-IVC in four (6.3%). Twenty-three patients had ductal calculi at ERC, and CT-IVC was positive in 22, with two false positives and one false negative: sensitivity 95.6%, specificity 94.3%. Stones were multiple in nine and solitary in 14. Of the 14 solitary stones, ten were ≤5 mm and eight were ≤4 mm. The bilirubin level in positive cases was within normal in 20. Maximum intensity projection (MIP) reformats showed stones in only 27% of cases and surface rendered (SR) reformats in none. CT-IVC is highly accurate for detection of ductal calculi, including single small calculi, with a normal or near normal serum bilirubin. Axial images should be used for interpretation rather than MIP or SR reformats. (orig.)

  4. [Computed tomographic semiotics of respiratory tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, P V; Lazareva, A S; Malashenkov, E A

    2013-01-01

    to study the computed tomographic (CT) semiotics of respiratory tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients in relation to the degree of immunosuppression. The study enrolled 74 patients with verified respiratory tuberculosis in the presence of HIV infection. According to the degree of immunosuppression and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention classification (Atlanta, USA, 1993), the patients were divided into 3 groups: (1) CD4 > or = 500 cells/microl (n = 10); 2) CD4 200-499 cells/microl (n = 28); (3) CD4 <200 cells/microl (n = 36). With spiral CT, focal changes with a predominance of clear-cut foci are visualized at a high frequency in the patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in the presence of HIV infection. In progressive immunosuppression, the CT pattern displays atypical syndromes (frosted glass-type foci, interstitial infiltration, and thin-walled cavities) with the lower rate of alveolar infiltration with confluent foci, as well as lung tissue decay. Enlarged intrathoracic lymph nodes are characteristic of 70.0% of the patients with HIV infection and tuberculosis regardless of the level of CD4 cells. As immunosuppression progresses, the CT pattern of respiratory tuberculosis in the presence of HIV infection shows as atypical syndromes (unclearly defined frosted glass-type focal changes, interstitial infiltrations, and thin-walled cavernous masses). A marked polymorphism in changes and a high rate of lymph node involvement are characteristic.

  5. Computed tomographic findings of skeletal muscles in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Ryosuke; Imai, Terukuni; Sadashima, Hiromichi; Matsumoto, Sadayuki; Yamamoto, Toru; Kusaka, Hirobumi; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Maya, Kiyomi; Tanabe, Masaya

    1989-01-01

    We evaluated the Computed Tomographic (CT) findings of skeletal muscles in 12 cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), 1 case of spinal progressive muscular atrophy (SPMA), and 1 case of Kugelberg-Welander disease. CT examination was performed in the neck, shoulders, abdomen, pelvis, thighs, and lower legs, 15 muscles were selected for evaluation. The following muscles tended to be affected: m. transversospinalis (12 cases were abnormal), m. deltoideus (10), m. subscapularis (10), m. infraspinatus (10), mm. dorsi (12), hamstring muscles (14), m. tibialis anterior (14), and m. triceps surae (14). On the contrary, the following muscles tended to be preserved: m. sternocleidomastoideus (only 7 cases were abnormal), m. psoas major (7), m. gluteus maximus (7), m. rectus femoris (7), m. sartorius (7) and m. gracilis (6). The distribution of the muscles affected showed neither proximal nor distal dominancy. As the disease advanced, however, all the muscles became affected without any severity. CT findings of skeletal muscles in ALS were characterized by muscle atrophy and fat infiltration, which showed a patchy, linear, or moth-eaten appearance. In mildly affected cases, there was muscle atrophy without internal architectual changes. In moderately affected cases, muscle atrophy advanced and internal architectural changes (patchy, linear, and moth-eaten fat infiltration) became evident. In most advanced cases, every muscle showed a ragged appearance because of severe muscle atrophy and internal architectural changes. These findings were well distinguished from those of SPMA, which resembled the CT pattern of primary muscle diseases. (author)

  6. Noninvasive detection of coronary artery bypass graft patency by intravenous electron beam computed tomographic angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakami, Shoji; Toyama, Junji; Okamoto, Mitsuhiro; Matsushita, Toyoaki; Murakami, Yoshimasa; Ogata, Masaki; Ito, Shigenori; Fukutomi, Tatsuya; Okayama, Naotsuka; Itoh, Makoto

    2003-11-01

    This study evaluates the usefullness of intravenous electron beam computed tomographic angiography (EBA) for the detection of coronary artery bypass graft patency in 43 patients (33 men and 10 women, mean age, 65 years) who had coronary artery bypass graft surgery. EBA was performed a few days before selective bypass graft angiography (SGA). Forty axial cross-sections of angiographic images of the heart were acquired consecutively by an electrocardiographic trigger signal at 40% of the RR interval, which corresponds to the end-systolic phase. EBA data were reconstructed as a three-dimensional shaded surface display of the heart and bypass grafts. Detectability of the patency of bypass gratis was evaluated, taking selective angiographic images of the bypass grafts as a gold standard. One hundred and nine grafts (96%) out of 114 grafts were subjected to evaluation: 37 grafts were left internal mammary artery grafts (LIMA), 7 were right internal mammary artery grafts (RIMA), 6 were gastroepiploic artery grafts (GEA), 7 were free gastroepiploic artery grafts with venous drainage (free-GEA), 7 were radial artery grafts (RAG), and 45 were saphenous vein gratis (SVG). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of EBA were 98%, 100%, 100%, 91%, and 98%, respectively. EBA sampled at the end-systolic period was determined to be useful for the detection of coronary artery bypass graft patency and occlusion.

  7. [X-ray computed tomographic aspects of benign primary cerebral melanomas. Apropos of 4 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, P; Alberge, Y; Espagno, C; Bouzigues, J Y

    1986-02-01

    Benign primitive melanomas are rare tumours usually involving the leptomeninges. Four cranial localizations are reported: 2 tumours of the foramen magnum, 1 of the cerebellopontine angle and 1 supratentorial. The clinical symptomatology is variable according to the level. Slow medullary compression is frequent. One can emphasize the special and difficult problem of foramen magnum tumours that present with a very variable clinical status frequently simulating a non surgical disease of the central nervous system. The benign and primitive appearance of these tumours is evocated by the slow and favourable evolution and by the absence of extraneurologic melanotic tumour. Our purpose is essentially to emphasize the radiological and particularly the computed tomographic (CT) findings poorly described in the literature. Benign melanomas have resemblance with meningiomas: osseous or meningeal relationship, homogeneity and high density. On the other hand the angiography shows poor vascularization. One can think that a tumor simulating a meningioma by CT but not by angiography is perhaps a benign melanoma. The special problem of the radiological diagnosis of foramen magnum tumours is evocated: Computed myelography, tridimensional imaging by NMR.

  8. Computed tomographic features of 23 sporadic cases with Legionella pneumophila pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Hui; Higa, Futoshi; Hibiya, Kenji; Furugen, Makoto; Sato, Yoko; Shinzato, Takashi; Haranaga, Shusaku; Yara, Satomi; Tateyama, Masao; Fujita, Jiro; Li, Huiping

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe the chest computed tomographic (CT) findings of Legionella pneumophila pneumonia. Methods: CT scans obtained from 23 sporadic cases of L. pneumophila pneumonia were retrospectively reviewed. Chest CT findings were analyzed with regard to the patterns and distributions of pulmonary abnormalities. We also analyzed the histopathology of lungs from guinea pigs with experimentally induced L. pneumophila pneumonia. Results: Consolidation and ground-glass opacity (GGO) were the main findings of CT scans in L. pneumophila pneumonia. The distribution of opacities was categorized as non-segmental (n = 20) and segmental (n = 4). Non-segmental distribution may follow an onset of segmental distribution. Pleural effusion was observed in 14 (58.3%) patients, of which 13 were accompanied with non-segmental distribution. Abscess formation was observed in only one immunocompromised patient. In the animal pneumonia model, the lesions comprised of terminal bronchioles, alveolar spaces, and interstitia. Small bacilli were observed to be contained by many macrophages within the alveoli. Conclusion: Non-segmental distribution was significantly more frequent than segmental distribution in L. pneumophila pneumonia. It is possible that L. pneumophila infection initially results in segmental pneumonia, which progresses to typical non-segmental distribution.

  9. Computed tomographic features of 23 sporadic cases with Legionella pneumophila pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Hui [Department of Respiratory Diseases, Shanghai Pneumology Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai (China); Higa, Futoshi; Hibiya, Kenji; Furugen, Makoto [Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Control and Prevention of Infectious Diseases (First Department of Internal Medicine), Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Sato, Yoko [Tomishiro Chuo Hospital, Okinawa (Japan); Shinzato, Takashi [Nakagami General Hospital, Okinawa (Japan); Haranaga, Shusaku; Yara, Satomi; Tateyama, Masao [Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Control and Prevention of Infectious Diseases (First Department of Internal Medicine), Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Fujita, Jiro, E-mail: fujita@med.u-ryukyu.ac.j [Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Control and Prevention of Infectious Diseases (First Department of Internal Medicine), Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Li, Huiping [Department of Respiratory Diseases, Shanghai Pneumology Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai (China)

    2010-06-15

    Objective: To describe the chest computed tomographic (CT) findings of Legionella pneumophila pneumonia. Methods: CT scans obtained from 23 sporadic cases of L. pneumophila pneumonia were retrospectively reviewed. Chest CT findings were analyzed with regard to the patterns and distributions of pulmonary abnormalities. We also analyzed the histopathology of lungs from guinea pigs with experimentally induced L. pneumophila pneumonia. Results: Consolidation and ground-glass opacity (GGO) were the main findings of CT scans in L. pneumophila pneumonia. The distribution of opacities was categorized as non-segmental (n = 20) and segmental (n = 4). Non-segmental distribution may follow an onset of segmental distribution. Pleural effusion was observed in 14 (58.3%) patients, of which 13 were accompanied with non-segmental distribution. Abscess formation was observed in only one immunocompromised patient. In the animal pneumonia model, the lesions comprised of terminal bronchioles, alveolar spaces, and interstitia. Small bacilli were observed to be contained by many macrophages within the alveoli. Conclusion: Non-segmental distribution was significantly more frequent than segmental distribution in L. pneumophila pneumonia. It is possible that L. pneumophila infection initially results in segmental pneumonia, which progresses to typical non-segmental distribution.

  10. X-rays computed tomographic scans of lower limb and trunk muscles in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horikawa, Hirosei; Mano, Yukio; Takayanagi, Tetsuya [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan); Takahashi, Keiichi; Nishio, Hisahide

    1992-10-01

    X-rays computed tomographic (CT) scans of muscles of the lower limbs and the trunk in 14 patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSH) were studied. The CT scans showed that the affected muscles were decreased in density and size. The laterality of muscular involvement was sometimes observed. The muscular lesions in the lower limbs showed proximal distribution. In the thigh, the hamstrings were affected first, the adductor muscles second, and then the muscular involvement progressed to the quadriceps femoris muscle. In the lower leg, the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were relatively spared as compared with the tibialis anterior muscle. In the lumbar girdle, the abdominal muscles were involved first, the gluteal muscles second, the back muscles third, and the psoas major muscle were relatively spared. The muscular weakness of this distribution exacerbated lumbar lordosis. The neck muscles were less affected than those of the lumbar girdle. The CT scans in FSH demonstrated the characteristic pattern of muscular involvement, which differed from the inherited muscular diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, myotonic dystrophy, and others. (author).

  11. X-rays computed tomographic scans of lower limb and trunk muscles in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horikawa, Hirosei; Mano, Yukio; Takayanagi, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Keiichi; Nishio, Hisahide.

    1992-01-01

    X-rays computed tomographic (CT) scans of muscles of the lower limbs and the trunk in 14 patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSH) were studied. The CT scans showed that the affected muscles were decreased in density and size. The laterality of muscular involvement was sometimes observed. The muscular lesions in the lower limbs showed proximal distribution. In the thigh, the hamstrings were affected first, the adductor muscles second, and then the muscular involvement progressed to the quadriceps femoris muscle. In the lower leg, the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were relatively spared as compared with the tibialis anterior muscle. In the lumbar girdle, the abdominal muscles were involved first, the gluteal muscles second, the back muscles third, and the psoas major muscle were relatively spared. The muscular weakness of this distribution exacerbated lumbar lordosis. The neck muscles were less affected than those of the lumbar girdle. The CT scans in FSH demonstrated the characteristic pattern of muscular involvement, which differed from the inherited muscular diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, myotonic dystrophy, and others. (author)

  12. Measurement of facial soft tissues thickness using 3D computed tomographic images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ho Gul; Kim, Kee Deog; Shin, Dong Won; Hu, Kyung Seok; Lee, Jae Bum; Park, Hyok; Park, Chang Seo [Yonsei Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Seung Ho [Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    To evaluate accuracy and reliability of program to measure facial soft tissue thickness using 3D computed tomographic images by comparing with direct measurement. One cadaver was scanned with a Helical CT with 3 mm slice thickness and 3 mm/sec table speed. The acquired data was reconstructed with 1.5 mm reconstruction interval and the images were transferred to a personal computer. The facial soft tissue thickness were measured using a program developed newly in 3D image. For direct measurement, the cadaver was cut with a bone cutter and then a ruler was placed above the cut side. The procedure was followed by taking pictures of the facial soft tissues with a high-resolution digital camera. Then the measurements were done in the photographic images and repeated for ten times. A repeated measure analysis of variance was adopted to compare and analyze the measurements resulting from the two different methods. Comparison according to the areas was analyzed by Mann-Whitney test. There were no statistically significant differences between the direct measurements and those using the 3D images(p>0.05). There were statistical differences in the measurements on 17 points but all the points except 2 points showed a mean difference of 0.5 mm or less. The developed software program to measure the facial soft tissue thickness using 3D images was so accurate that it allows to measure facial soft tissue thickness more easily in forensic science and anthropology.

  13. Multislice coronary computed tomographic angiography in emergency department presentations of unsuspected acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Harvey S; Bhatti, Tandeep

    2009-01-01

    Coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) is not indicated in the setting of acute myocardial infarction in the emergency department (ED). Nonetheless, acute coronary syndromes may have atypical presentations, and CCTA may be inadvertently performed in this setting. This study was designed to determine the frequency and characteristics of CCTA imaging of unsuspected acute myocardial infarction in the ED. All CCTAs performed in the ED at Lenox Hill Hospital were reviewed for clinical indications and subsequent course; patients with documented acute myocardial infarction were identified. Of the 500 CCTAs performed on ED patients in the Lenox Hill laboratory, 5 patients (1%) were imaged during the initial phase of an unsuspected acute myocardial infarction; in all cases the CCTAs were key to the diagnosis. The imaging characteristics were (1) total or subtotal occlusion and (2) transmural hypodensity in the infarct area. Although acute myocardial infarction on CCTA in ED patients is an infrequent event, proper and prompt recognition is critical for appropriate patient care, particularly as applications to the ED increase.

  14. Seeing is believing: video classification for computed tomographic colonography using multiple-instance learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijun; McKenna, Matthew T; Nguyen, Tan B; Burns, Joseph E; Petrick, Nicholas; Sahiner, Berkman; Summers, Ronald M

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, we present development and testing results for a novel colonic polyp classification method for use as part of a computed tomographic colonography (CTC) computer-aided detection (CAD) system. Inspired by the interpretative methodology of radiologists using 3-D fly-through mode in CTC reading, we have developed an algorithm which utilizes sequences of images (referred to here as videos) for classification of CAD marks. For each CAD mark, we created a video composed of a series of intraluminal, volume-rendered images visualizing the detection from multiple viewpoints. We then framed the video classification question as a multiple-instance learning (MIL) problem. Since a positive (negative) bag may contain negative (positive) instances, which in our case depends on the viewing angles and camera distance to the target, we developed a novel MIL paradigm to accommodate this class of problems. We solved the new MIL problem by maximizing a L2-norm soft margin using semidefinite programming, which can optimize relevant parameters automatically. We tested our method by analyzing a CTC data set obtained from 50 patients from three medical centers. Our proposed method showed significantly better performance compared with several traditional MIL methods.

  15. Comparison of primary thyroid lymphoma with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma on computed tomographic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Mitsuhashi, Norio; Niibe, Hideo

    2002-01-01

    Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (LY) and anaplastic carcinoma (AC) of the thyroid gland are rare malignant tumors, and the initial symptoms of these diseases are very similar. The aim of our study was to compare the characteristics of the two diseases using computed tomographic (CT) scans in order to make an accurate differential diagnosis. Ten patients with LY and 10 with AC were analyzed. Differences in the CT findings of the two diseases were evaluated before treatment and statistically tested with either Student's t-test or the chi-square test. In the analysis of characteristics of CT imaging, the existence of calcification and necrosis, and heterogeneous tumor were dominant findings in AC, and there was a statistically significant difference in frequency between the two diseases (p<0.01). Calcification detected in AC was usually multiple and/or gross (mean size: φ8.2 mm). All lymphadenopathies were delineated as having the same homogeneous attenuation as the tumors in the thyroid gland in LY, but were shown as irregular rim enhancement in AC. The CT features of the two diseases are characteristic in terms of calcification, necrosis, and tumor composition. Evaluation by means of CT imaging is useful in distinguishing between LY and AC. (author)

  16. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors: retrospective analysis of the computer-tomographic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupescu, Ioana G; Grasu, Mugur; Boros, Mirela; Gheorghe, Cristian; Ionescu, Mihnea; Popescu, Irinel; Herlea, Vlad; Georgescu, Serban A

    2007-06-01

    To describe the computer-tomographic (CT) aspects of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) in correlation to their histology. The medical records of all patients at our hospital with a histologic diagnosis of GIST between January 2002 and June 2006, and investigated before surgery by CT, were reviewed. Two radiologists with knowledge of the diagnosis reviewed the CT findings. Amongst 15 cases of GISTs, 9 cases involved the stomach and 4 cases the small intestine. Location of the primary tumor could not be determined for 2 of 15 tumors, because of the presence of extensive peritoneal metastases. Most primary tumors were predominantly extraluminal (13 cases) while two were clearly endoluminal. The mean diameter of the primary tumor was 8 cm. The tumor margin was well defined in 12 patients and irregular in 3 cases. Central fluid attenuation was present in 11 tumors, while central gas was seen in two cases. Metastases were seen in 2 cases at presentation and in another 2 patients during follow-up. Spread was exclusive to the liver or peritoneum. Visceral obstruction was absent even in extensive peritoneal metastatic disease. Ascites was an unusual finding. CT plays an important role not only in the detection and the localization but also in the evaluation of the extension and follow-up of theses tumors. Using only CT aspects, we can only suspect the diagnosis to GISTs. Often other soft-tissue tumors with gastrointestinal involvement can mimic GISTs. In all cases histological diagnosis is essential.

  17. Evaluation of computed tomographic and radiographic myelography in normal miniature pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, M.H.; Lee, H.Y.; Kim, M.E.; Kim, J.Y.; Lee, N.S.; Chang, J.H.; Jung, J.H.; Choi, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    Evaluation of the myelography was studied in miniature pigs. Radiographs and computed tomographic (CT) images of the whole spine were obtained at clinically healthy twelve miniature pigs of 4 (8.7-10 kg) and 12 (26-31 kg) months. The assessments of the spinal cord were made in accordance with the Pavlov's method and compared area ratio [at spinal cord (SC), vertebral canal (VC) and vertebral body (VB)]. The Pavlov's ratio in the cervical spine was significant larger than that of thoracolumbar in radiographic myelography. On CT myelography, the area of the spinal cord had a significant difference between the cervical and thoracolumbar spine. Among the cervical spine, the ratios of spinal cord and vertebral body (SC : VB), vertebral canal and vertebral body (VC : VB) were minimum at the level of 4th cervical spine in both ages, while maximum at the level of 6th cervical spine in both months. In case of lumbar spine, the ratios of spinal cord and vertebral body (SC : VB) were the largest at the level of 4th lumbar spine in 4 months and at the level of 3rd lumbar spine in 12 months. In addition, the ratio of spinal cord and vertebral body (SC : VB) of the cervical spinal cord was significant lower at 4 months but the lumbar spinal cord showed lower pattern at 12 months old miniature pigs

  18. Development of x-ray computed tomographic scanner for iron and steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, Isamu; Nakamura, Shigeo.

    1985-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography is extensively used in medicine, but has rarely been applied to non-medical purposes. Steel specimens pose particularly difficult problems-very poor transmission of X-rays and the need for high resolving capability. There has thus been no effective tomographic method of examining steel specimens. Due to the growing need for non-destructive, non-contact methods for observing and analyzing the internal conditions of steel microscopically, however, we have developed an X-ray Computed Tomographic Scanner for Steel (CTS) system, specifically for examination of steel specimens. Its major specifications and functions are as follows. Type: the second-generation CT, 8-channels, Scanning method: 6 0 revolution, 30-times traversing, Slice width: 0.5 mm, Resolving capability: 0.25 x 0.25 mm, X-ray source: 420 kV, 3 mA, X-ray detector: BGO scintillator, Standard specimen shape: 50 mm dia., 100 mm high, Measuring time: 10.5 min. Porosity of a stainless steel (SUS 304) bloom was examined three-dimensionally by the CTS system. Corrosion procedure of a steel slab was also examined. (author)

  19. Morphologic analysis of Japanese adult sacroiliac joint using computed tomographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Xuanchao; Takayama, Akinori; Shibata, Yasuaki; Ito, Hiromoto

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to study the relationship of angles in adult sacroiliac joints (SJ) with laterality, age, gender, degeneration, childbearing in different locations. The study was performed in 92 healthy Japanese adult volunteers (46 males and 46 females, aged 21∼86 years) who had no low back complaints. Axial computed tomographic (CT) images were obtained using an X-VIGOR apparatus (Toshiba Medical Inc. Japan). The angle measurements were taken directly using soft National Institutes of Health (NIH) Image 1.61 (Scion Inc. USA). We examined possible factors. Statistical evaluation was calculated using t-test by soft SPSS (SPSS Inc. Japan). Our findings indicated that SJ angles had no relationships with laterality, gender. But from upper part to lower part, the average of SJ angle was 7.61 deg±8.7 deg, 5.16 deg±7.3 deg, -0.85 deg±7.3 deg respectively in the left and 6.56 deg±9.4 deg, 4.10 deg±7.2 deg, -2.30 deg±7.0 deg in the right. The difference is significant between lower part and upper-middle part (P<0.05). Our results provided new anatomic and morphological data for better understandings of SJ in the clinic work. (author)

  20. Computed tomographic findings of skeletal muscles in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Ryosuke; Imai, Terukuni; Sadashima, Hiromichi; Matsumoto, Sadayuki; Yamamoto, Toru; Kusaka, Hirobumi; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Maya, Kiyomi; Tanabe, Masaya (Kitano Hospital, Osaka (Japan))

    1989-04-01

    We evaluated the Computed Tomographic (CT) findings of skeletal muscles in 12 cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), 1 case of spinal progressive muscular atrophy (SPMA), and 1 case of Kugelberg-Welander disease. CT examination was performed in the neck, shoulders, abdomen, pelvis, thighs, and lower legs, 15 muscles were selected for evaluation. The following muscles tended to be affected: m. transversospinalis (12 cases were abnormal), m. deltoideus (10), m. subscapularis (10), m. infraspinatus (10), mm. dorsi (12), hamstring muscles (14), m. tibialis anterior (14), and m. triceps surae (14). On the contrary, the following muscles tended to be preserved: m. sternocleidomastoideus (only 7 cases were abnormal), m. psoas major (7), m. gluteus maximus (7), m. rectus femoris (7), m. sartorius (7) and m. gracilis (6). The distribution of the muscles affected showed neither proximal nor distal dominancy. As the disease advanced, however, all the muscles became affected without any severity. CT findings of skeletal muscles in ALS were characterized by muscle atrophy and fat infiltration, which showed a patchy, linear, or moth-eaten appearance. In mildly affected cases, there was muscle atrophy without internal architectual changes. In moderately affected cases, muscle atrophy advanced and internal architectural changes (patchy, linear, and moth-eaten fat infiltration) became evident. In most advanced cases, every muscle showed a ragged appearance because of severe muscle atrophy and internal architectural changes. These findings were well distinguished from those of SPMA, which resembled the CT pattern of primary muscle diseases. (author).

  1. Computed tomographic characteristics of collateral venous pathways in dogs with caudal vena cava obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specchi, Swan; d'Anjou, Marc-André; Carmel, Eric Norman; Bertolini, Giovanna

    2014-01-01

    Collateral venous pathways develop in dogs with obstruction or increased blood flow resistance at any level of the caudal vena cava in order to maintain venous drainage to the right atrium. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe the sites, causes of obstruction, and configurations of venous collateral pathways for a group of dogs with caudal vena cava obstruction. Computed tomography databases from two veterinary hospitals were searched for dogs with a diagnosis of caudal vena cava obstruction and multidetector row computed tomographic angiographic (CTA) scans that included the entire caudal vena cava. Images for each included dog were retrieved and collateral venous pathways were characterized using image postprocessing and a classification system previously reported for humans. A total of nine dogs met inclusion criteria and four major collateral venous pathways were identified: deep (n = 2), portal (n = 2), intermediate (n = 7), and superficial (n = 5). More than one collateral venous pathway was present in 5 dogs. An alternative pathway consisting of renal subcapsular collateral veins, arising mainly from the caudal pole of both kidneys, was found in three dogs. In conclusion, findings indicated that collateral venous pathway patterns similar to those described in humans are also present in dogs with caudal vena cava obstruction. These collateral pathways need to be distinguished from other vascular anomalies in dogs. Postprocessing of multidetector-row CTA images allowed delineation of the course of these complicated venous pathways and may be a helpful adjunct for treatment planning in future cases. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  2. A morphological study of the mandibular molar region using reconstructed helical computed tomographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuno, Hiroaki; Noguchi, Makoto; Noguchi, Akira; Yoshida, Keiko; Tachinami, Yasuharu

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the morphological variance in the mandibular molar region using reconstructed helical computed tomographic (CT) images. In addition, we discuss the necessity of CT scanning as part of the preoperative assessment process for dental implantation, by comparing the results with the findings of panoramic radiography. Sixty patients examined using CT as part of the preoperative assessment for dental implantation were analyzed. Reconstructed CT images were used to evaluate the bone quality and cross-sectional bone morphology of the mandibular molar region. The mandibular cortical index (MCI) and X-ray density ratio of this region were assessed using panoramic radiography in order to analyze the correlation between the findings of the CT images and panoramic radiography. CT images showed that there was a decrease in bone quality in cases with high MCI. Cross-sectional CT images revealed that the undercuts on the lingual side in the highly radiolucent areas in the basal portion were more frequent than those in the alveolar portion. This study showed that three-dimensional reconstructed CT images can help to detect variances in mandibular morphology that might be missed by panoramic radiography. In conclusion, it is suggested that CT should be included as an important examination tool before dental implantation. (author)

  3. Results of computer-tomographic examination in different forms and course of schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojchev, R.

    1991-01-01

    Data are reported of a clinical and computer-tomographic study of 103 schizophrenic patients. Those with simple form of the disease had most pronounced evidence of dilated III and lateral ventricles (41.8% of the cases for the III ventricle and 72.4% for the lateral ventricles). All patients with circular, simple and catatonic form had signs of pathology of the cortical sulci. Regarding the ventricular system evidences of pathology prevailed in cases of impetus-progredient and constantly progredient course, whereas in respect to cortical pathology, the results were almost identical in all three types of psychosis - 95.2% of cases of constantly progredient and 95.6% - of impetus-progredient course. Attention was called to the 'surprising' data of organic brain injury in patients with paranoid and circular form of the disease, as well as in the most benign (from clinical point of view) impetus course. It is assumed that morphologic changes in the brain of schizophrenic patients are a natural phenomenon, but so far have not been a subject of comprehensive studies, maybe because of prejudice or lack of appropriate methods for examination of the brain during life's time. 6 figs., 15 refs

  4. Bone mineral density and computer tomographic measurements in correlation with failure strength of equine metacarpal bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Tóth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Information regarding bone mineral density and fracture characteristics of the equine metacarpus are lacking. The aim of this study was to characterize the relationship between mechanical properties of the equine metacarpal bone and its biomechanical and morphometric properties. Third metacarpal bones were extracted from horses euthanized unrelated to musculoskeletal conditions. In total, bone specimens from 26 front limbs of 13 horses (7.8 ± 5.8 years old including Lipizzaner (n = 5, Hungarian Warmblood (n = 2, Holsteiner (n = 2, Thoroughbred (n = 1, Hungarian Sporthorse (n = 1, Friesian (n = 1, and Shagya Arabian (n = 1 were collected. The horses included 7 mares, 4 stallions and 2 geldings. Assessment of the bone mineral density of the whole bone across four specific regions of interest was performed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The bones were scanned using a computer tomographic scanner to measure cross-sectional morphometric properties such as bone mineral density and cross-sectional dimensions including cortical area and cortical width. Mechanical properties (breaking force, bending strength, elastic modulus were determined by a 3-point bending test. Significant positive linear correlations were found between the breaking force and bone mineral density of the entire third metacarpal bones (P P P in vivo investigations.

  5. Computed tomographic findings and treatment of a bull with pituitary gland abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Ueli; Malbon, Alexandra; Kochan, Manon; Riond, Barbara; Janett, Fredi; Iten, Cornelia; Dennler, Matthias

    2017-01-13

    In cattle, the prognosis of brain abscess is unfavourable and treatment is therefore not recommended. To the knowledge of the authors, there has been no report of successful treatment of a brain abscess in cattle.This report describes the clinical, computed tomographic and postmortem findings in a Holstein-Friesian bull with a hypophyseal abscess. The main clinical findings were generalised ataxia, ptyalism, prolapse of the tongue, dropped jaw, dysphagia, head tilt and unilateral ptosis. Cerebrospinal fluid evaluation revealed 2437 leukocytes/µl and severe pleocytosis. CT examination of the head showed a cavitary lesion consistent with an abscess in the hypophysis. Treatment consisted of gentamicin and flunixin meglumine for 3 days and amoxicillin for 40 days. The neurological signs resolved within 8 days of the start of treatment. The bull was slaughtered 11 months later because of infertility, and a postmortem examination was carried out. Histologically, a mild chronic non suppurative meningoencephalitis restricted to the ventral diencephalon was diagnosed. In addition, there was mild to moderate multifocal chronic lymphoplasmacytic hypophysitis with mild multifocal fibrosis. This case report stresses the significance of CT in confirming the clinical and laboratory diagnosis of central nervous system disorders in cattle and for localising brain lesions. Treatment of the brain abscess resulted, with respect to the central nervous disorder, in a successful outcome and was encouraging considering that most cases have an unfavourable prognosis.

  6. Three-dimensional computed tomographic volumetry precisely predicts the postoperative pulmonary function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Keisuke; Saeki, Yusuke; Kitazawa, Shinsuke; Kobayashi, Naohiro; Kikuchi, Shinji; Goto, Yukinobu; Sakai, Mitsuaki; Sato, Yukio

    2017-11-01

    It is important to accurately predict the patient's postoperative pulmonary function. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of predictions of the postoperative residual pulmonary function obtained with three-dimensional computed tomographic (3D-CT) volumetry with that of predictions obtained with the conventional segment-counting method. Fifty-three patients scheduled to undergo lung cancer resection, pulmonary function tests, and computed tomography were enrolled in this study. The postoperative residual pulmonary function was predicted based on the segment-counting and 3D-CT volumetry methods. The predicted postoperative values were compared with the results of postoperative pulmonary function tests. Regarding the linear correlation coefficients between the predicted postoperative values and the measured values, those obtained using the 3D-CT volumetry method tended to be higher than those acquired using the segment-counting method. In addition, the variations between the predicted and measured values were smaller with the 3D-CT volumetry method than with the segment-counting method. These results were more obvious in COPD patients than in non-COPD patients. Our findings suggested that the 3D-CT volumetry was able to predict the residual pulmonary function more accurately than the segment-counting method, especially in patients with COPD. This method might lead to the selection of appropriate candidates for surgery among patients with a marginal pulmonary function.

  7. Inspiratory and expiratory computed tomographic volumetry for lung volume reduction surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimura, Yuki; Chen, Fengshi; Sonobe, Makoto; Date, Hiroshi

    2013-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) computed tomographic (CT) volumetry has been introduced into the field of thoracic surgery, and a combination of inspiratory and expiratory 3D-CT volumetry provides useful data on regional pulmonary function as well as the volume of individual lung lobes. We report herein a case of a 62-year-old man with severe emphysema who had undergone lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) to assess this technique as a tool for the evaluation of regional lung function and volume before and after LVRS. His postoperative pulmonary function was maintained in good condition despite a gradual slight decrease 2 years after LVRS. This trend was also confirmed by a combination of inspiratory and expiratory 3D-CT volumetry. We confirm that a combination of inspiratory and expiratory 3D-CT volumetry might be effective for the preoperative assessment of LVRS in order to determine the amount of lung tissue to be resected as well as for postoperative evaluation. This novel technique could, therefore, be used more widely to assess local lung function.

  8. Computed tomographic (CT) study of watershed area supplied by the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, Junichi; Hirose, Satoshi; Hosotani, Kazuo; Kubota, Tetsuya; Kubota, Norihiko.

    1990-01-01

    Thirteen patients with clinical and computed tomographic (CT) evidence of cerebellar infarction were examined during 1987-1989. Six patients had onset of cerebellar infarction at ages ranging from 45 to 69, and seven patients had onset at ages over 70. In thirteen cases, we observed infarction in the inferior region of the cerebellum, and we studied these cases. CT demonstrated decreased density in 4 distinct anatomic areas. These areas are listed below, with estimation of the distribution of the hemispheric arteries of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA): Group 1 - posterior medial area, probably territory of the inferior vermian branch, tonsillar branch and/or medial artery of the hemispheric artery of the PICA; Group 2 - posterior intermediate area, probably territory of the intermediate artery of the hemispheric artery of the PICA; Group 3 - area including both areas of group 1 and group 3; Group 4 - lateral area, just posterior to pyramis, probably territory of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery and/or lateral artery of the hemispheric artery of PICA. The medial and intermedial cerebellar hemispheric segments were most commonly affected but the lateral segment was not. The PICA least frequently supplied the lateral segments. While the anterior inferior cerebellar artery usually anastomoses with the lateral artery of the hemispheric artery of the PICA. These vascular territories may provide good collateral circulation to this segment. And we also estimate the distribution of the PICA by the CT findings. (author)

  9. Anisakiasis presenting to the ED: clinical manifestations, time course, hematologic tests, computed tomographic findings, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabayashi, Takeshi; Mochizuki, Toshiaki; Otani, Norio; Nishiyama, Kei; Ishimatsu, Shinichi

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of anisakiasis is rare in the United States and Europe compared with that in Japan, with few reports of its presentation in the emergency department (ED). This study describes the clinical, hematologic, computed tomographic (CT) characteristics, and treatment in gastric and small intestinal anisakiasis patients in the ED. We retrospectively reviewed the data of 83 consecutive anisakiasis presentations in our ED between 2003 and 2012. Gastric anisakiasis was endoscopically diagnosed with the Anisakis polypide. Small intestinal anisakiasis was diagnosed based on both hematologic (Anisakis antibody) and CT findings. Of the 83 cases, 39 had gastric anisakiasis and 44 had small intestinal anisakiasis based on our diagnostic criteria. Although all patients had abdominal pain, the gastric anisakiasis group developed symptoms significantly earlier (peaking within 6 hours) than the small intestinal anisakiasis group (peaking within 48 hours), and fewer patients with gastric anisakiasis needed admission therapy (5% vs 57%, Pfindings revealed edematous wall thickening in all patients, and ascites and phlegmon of the mesenteric fat were more frequently observed in the small intestinal anisakiasis group. In the ED, early and accurate diagnosis of anisakiasis is important to treat and explain to the patient, and diagnosis can be facilitated by a history of raw seafood ingestion, evaluation of the time-to-symptom development, and classic CT findings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Computed tomographic fluoroscopy-guided transthoracic needle biopsy for diagnosis of pulmonary nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Takashi; Mori, Kiyoshi; Machida, Suguru; Tominaga, Keigo; Yokoi, Kohei; Adachi, Mitsuru

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of computed tomographic (CT) fluoroscopy-guided transthoracic needle biopsy (TTNB) with an 18-gauge automatic biopsy gun for the diagnosis of pulmonary nodules. Between March 1996 and January 1998, 50 patients in whom pulmonary lesions could not be diagnosed cytopathologically with fiberoptic bronchoscopy or were not clearly visualized with fluoroscopy underwent CT fluoroscopy-guided TTNB. Final pathological diagnoses were 23 lung carcinomas, five pulmonary metastases and 22 benign lesions. Sufficient tissue for analysis was obtained from 48 of the 50 lesions (96%). The overall diagnostic yield of CT fluoroscopy-guided TTNB was 90%. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for malignancy were 89%, 100% and 94%, respectively. In 20 of the 22 cases (91%) of benign lesions, histological analysis yielded correct and specific diagnoses. Complications occurred in 22 of the 50 cases (44%). The most common complication was pneumothorax, which occurred in 21 of the 50 cases (42%). Chest tube insertion was required in 6 (12%). Although CT fluoroscopy could not decrease the complication rate, CT fluoroscopy-guided TTNB with an automatic biopsy gun appears to be a promising technique for diagnosing pulmonary lesions, particularly benign lesions. (author)

  11. Tomographic anthropomorphic models. Pt. 2. Organ doses from computed tomographic examinations in paediatric radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zankl, M.; Panzer, W.; Drexler, G.

    1993-11-01

    This report provides a catalogue of organ dose conversion factors resulting from computed tomographic (CT) examinations of children. Two radiation qualities and two exposure geometries were simulated as well as the use of asymmetrical beams. The use of further beam shaping devices was not considered. The organ dose conversion factors are applicable to babies at the age of ca. 2 months and to children between 5 and 7 years but can be used for other ages as well with the appropriate adjustments. For the calculations, the patients were represented by the GSF tomographic anthropomorphic models BABY and CHILD. The radiation transport in the body was simulated using a Monte Carlo method. The doses are presented as conversion factors of mean organ doses per air kerma free in air on the axis of rotation. Mean organ dose conversion factors are given per organ and per scanned body section of 1 cm height. The mean dose to an organ resulting from a particular CT examination can be estimated by summing up the contributions to the organ dose from all relevant sections. To facilitate the selection of the appropriate sections, a table is given which relates the tomographic models' coordinates to certain anatomical landmarks in the human body. (orig.)

  12. Thoracic pathologies on scout views and bolus tracking slices for computed tomographic cerebral angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groth, M.; Fiehler, J.; Buhk, J.H. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology; Henes, F.O. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2015-08-15

    To evaluate the incidence of additional thoracic pathologic findings (TPF) detected on scout views and corresponding bolus tracking slices (SVBT) for computed tomographic cerebral angiography (CTCA) and to test the reliability and accuracy of these findings. The study collective included 505 consecutive patients who underwent multidetector CTCA. Appendant SVBT of all patients were reviewed for any pathologic findings and patient medical reports were analyzed, if any medical treatment was initiated for the detected pathologic findings. In 18 patients thoracic CT scans were performed in the same session. These were additionally reviewed by two blinded observers to test for intra- and interobserver reliability as well as for accuracy of detecting thoracic pathologies on SVBT. TPF were detected in 165 (33 %) SVBT. The five most common pathologic findings were: pleural effusion, 12 %; pneumonia, 8 %; atelectasis/dystelecatsis, 6 %; pericardial effusion, 2 % and elevated diaphragm, 1 %. For 48 % of these findings medical treatment was initiated. SVBT showed a sensitivity of 53 %, a specificity of 99 %, a positive predictive value of 89 %, a negative predictive value of 94 % and accuracy of 94 % for the detection of TPF. The intraobserver reliability was very good and the interobserver reliability showed moderate agreement. SVBT for CTCA should be reviewed with care by radiologists, since additional TPF can affect patient management. Nevertheless, despite a high specificity of SVBT for detecting TPF, an only moderate sensitivity has to be taken into account.

  13. Noncontrast computed tomographic Hounsfield unit evaluation of cerebral venous thrombosis: a quantitative evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besachio, David A. [University of Utah, Department of Radiology, Salt Lake City (United States); United States Navy, Bethesda, MD (United States); Quigley, Edward P.; Shah, Lubdha M.; Salzman, Karen L. [University of Utah, Department of Radiology, Salt Lake City (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Our objective is to determine the utility of noncontrast Hounsfield unit values, Hounsfield unit values corrected for the patient's hematocrit, and venoarterial Hounsfield unit difference measurements in the identification of intracranial venous thrombosis on noncontrast head computed tomography. We retrospectively reviewed noncontrast head computed tomography exams performed in both normal patients and those with cerebral venous thrombosis, acquiring Hounsfield unit values in normal and thrombosed cerebral venous structures. Also, we acquired Hounsfield unit values in the internal carotid artery for comparison to thrombosed and nonthrombosed venous structures and compared the venous Hounsfield unit values to the patient's hematocrit. A significant difference is identified between Hounsfield unit values in thrombosed and nonthrombosed venous structures. Applying Hounsfield unit threshold values of greater than 65, a Hounsfield unit to hematocrit ratio of greater than 1.7, and venoarterial difference values greater than 15 alone and in combination, the majority of cases of venous thrombosis are identifiable on noncontrast head computed tomography. Absolute Hounsfield unit values, Hounsfield unit to hematocrit ratios, and venoarterial Hounsfield unit value differences are a useful adjunct in noncontrast head computed tomographic evaluation of cerebral venous thrombosis. (orig.)

  14. Noncontrast computed tomographic Hounsfield unit evaluation of cerebral venous thrombosis: a quantitative evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besachio, David A.; Quigley, Edward P.; Shah, Lubdha M.; Salzman, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    Our objective is to determine the utility of noncontrast Hounsfield unit values, Hounsfield unit values corrected for the patient's hematocrit, and venoarterial Hounsfield unit difference measurements in the identification of intracranial venous thrombosis on noncontrast head computed tomography. We retrospectively reviewed noncontrast head computed tomography exams performed in both normal patients and those with cerebral venous thrombosis, acquiring Hounsfield unit values in normal and thrombosed cerebral venous structures. Also, we acquired Hounsfield unit values in the internal carotid artery for comparison to thrombosed and nonthrombosed venous structures and compared the venous Hounsfield unit values to the patient's hematocrit. A significant difference is identified between Hounsfield unit values in thrombosed and nonthrombosed venous structures. Applying Hounsfield unit threshold values of greater than 65, a Hounsfield unit to hematocrit ratio of greater than 1.7, and venoarterial difference values greater than 15 alone and in combination, the majority of cases of venous thrombosis are identifiable on noncontrast head computed tomography. Absolute Hounsfield unit values, Hounsfield unit to hematocrit ratios, and venoarterial Hounsfield unit value differences are a useful adjunct in noncontrast head computed tomographic evaluation of cerebral venous thrombosis. (orig.)

  15. The CDD system in computed tomographic diagnosis of diverticular disease; Das CDD-System in der computertomografischen Diagnostik der Divertikelkrankheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pustelnik, Daniel; Elsholtz, Fabian Henry Juergen; Hamm, Bernd; Niehues, Stefan Markus [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin, Berlin (Germany). Inst. of Radiology; Bojarski, Christian [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin, Berlin (Germany). Div. of Gastroenterology, Infectiology and Rheumatology

    2017-08-15

    Purpose cation in computed tomographic diagnosis and briefly recapitulates its targeted advantages over preliminary systems. Primarily, application of the CDD in computed tomography diagnostics is described. Differences with respect to the categories of the older systems are pointed out on the level of each CDD type using imaging examples. The presented images are derived from our institute according to the S2k criteria. Literature was researched on PubMed. Results The CDD constitutes an improvement compared to older systems for categorizing the stages of diverticular disease. It provides more discriminatory power on the descriptive-morphological level and defines as well as differentiates more courses of the disease. Furthermore, the categories translate more directly into state-of-the-art decision-making concerning hospitalization and therapy. The CDD should be applied routinely in the computed tomographic diagnosis of diverticular disease. Typical imaging patterns are presented.

  16. Three-dimensional multislice spiral computed tomographic angiography: a potentially useful tool for safer free tissue transfer to complicated regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demirtas, Yener; Cifci, Mehmet; Kelahmetoglu, Osman

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional multislice spiral computed tomographic angiography (3D-MSCTA) is a minimally invasive method of vascular mapping. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of this imaging technique in delineating the recipient vessels for safer free tissue transfer to compli......Three-dimensional multislice spiral computed tomographic angiography (3D-MSCTA) is a minimally invasive method of vascular mapping. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of this imaging technique in delineating the recipient vessels for safer free tissue transfer...... be kept in mind, especially inthe patients with peripheral vascular disease. 3D-MSCTA has the potential to replace digital subtraction angiography for planning of microvascular reconstructions and newer devices with higher resolutions will probably increase the reliability of this technique. (c) 2009...

  17. Use of computed tomography and computed tomographic myelography for assessment of spinal tumoral calcinosis in a dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, L.M. van; Bree, H.J. van; Tshamala, M.; Thoonen, H.

    1995-01-01

    Spinal tumoral calcinosis is reported in a Berner sennenhund puppy. The condition was manifested clinically as a non-ambulatory tetraparesis associated with neck pain. On survey radiographs there was a focal calcified mass at the atlantoaxial articulation. Computed tomography and computed tomographic myelography gave additional information on the extent of the mass and on the degree of spinal cord compression. The mass was removed surgically and the dog made a complete recovery

  18. The great imitator: IgG4 periaortitis masquerading as an acute aortic syndrome on computed tomographic angiography

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Drew W.; Hansen, Neil J.; DiMaio, Dominick J.; Harrison, William L.

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 52-year-old woman who presented to the emergency department with chest and neck pain. Initial cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging shows an abnormal flow void in the left vertebral artery, which prompted a computed tomographic angiogram. This demonstrated a hyperdense thickened ascending aortic wall, which extended into the great vessel origins. Clinically and radiographically interpreted as an acute aortic syndrome and/or intramural hematoma, the patient underwe...

  19. Radiographic and computed tomographic demonstration of pseudotumor cerebri due to rapid weight gain in a child with pelvic rhabdomyosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdon, W.E.; Barker, D.H.; Barash, F.S.

    1982-06-01

    Rapid weight gain in a malnourished child can be associated with suture diastasis in the pattern of pseudotumor cerebri; this has been previously reported in deprivational dwarfism and cystic fibrosis. In a child with pelvic rhabdomyosarcoma, skull radiographs and cranial computed tomographic (CT) scans were available prior to a period of rapid weight gain induced by hyperalimentation. Suture diastasis developed and repeat CT scans showed this to be accompanied by smaller ventricles.

  20. Permeability Surface of Deep Middle Cerebral Artery Territory on Computed Tomographic Perfusion Predicts Hemorrhagic Transformation After Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiao; Gao, Xinyi; Yao, Zhenwei; Feng, Xiaoyuan; He, Huijin; Xue, Jing; Gao, Peiyi; Yang, Lumeng; Cheng, Xin; Chen, Weijian; Yang, Yunjun

    2017-09-01

    Permeability surface (PS) on computed tomographic perfusion reflects blood-brain barrier permeability and is related to hemorrhagic transformation (HT). HT of deep middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory can occur after recanalization of proximal large-vessel occlusion. We aimed to determine the relationship between HT and PS of deep MCA territory. We retrospectively reviewed 70 consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients presenting with occlusion of the distal internal carotid artery or M1 segment of the MCA. All patients underwent computed tomographic perfusion within 6 hours after symptom onset. Computed tomographic perfusion data were postprocessed to generate maps of different perfusion parameters. Risk factors were identified for increased deep MCA territory PS. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to calculate the optimal PS threshold to predict HT of deep MCA territory. Increased PS was associated with HT of deep MCA territory. After adjustments for age, sex, onset time to computed tomographic perfusion, and baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, poor collateral status (odds ratio, 7.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.67-37.14; P =0.009) and proximal MCA-M1 occlusion (odds ratio, 4.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-16.52; P =0.045) were independently associated with increased deep MCA territory PS. Relative PS most accurately predicted HT of deep MCA territory (area under curve, 0.94; optimal threshold, 2.89). Increased PS can predict HT of deep MCA territory after recanalization therapy for cerebral proximal large-vessel occlusion. Proximal MCA-M1 complete occlusion and distal internal carotid artery occlusion in conjunction with poor collaterals elevate deep MCA territory PS. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Radiographic and computed tomographic demonstration of pseudotumor cerebri due to rapid weight gain in a child with pelvic rhabdomyosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdon, W.E.; Barker, D.H.; Barash, F.S.

    1982-01-01

    Rapid weight gain in a malnourished child can be associated with suture diastasis in the pattern of pseudotumor cerebri; this has been previously reported in deprivational dwarfism and cystic fibrosis. In a child with pelvic rhabdomyosarcoma, skull radiographs and cranial computed tomographic (CT) scans were available prior to a period of rapid weight gain induced by hyperalimentation. Suture diastasis developed and repeat CT scans showed this to be accompanied by smaller ventricles

  2. Fibromuscular dysplasia in living renal donors: Still a challenge to computed tomographic angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blondin, D.; Lanzman, R.; Schellhammer, F.; Oels, M.; Grotemeyer, D.; Baldus, S.E.; Rump, L.C.; Sandmann, W.; Voiculescu, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Computed tomographic angiography has become the standard evaluating method of potential living renal donors in most centers. Although incidence of fibromuscular dysplasia is low (3.5-6%), this pathology may be relevant for success of renal transplantation. The incidence of FMD in our population of LRD and reliability of CTA for detecting vascular pathology were the aims of this study. Materials and methods: 101 living renal donors, examined between 7/2004 and 9/2008 by CTA, were included in a retrospective evaluation. The examinations were carried out using a 64 Multi-detector CT (Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen). The presence or absence of the characteristic signs of fibromuscular dysplasia, as 'string-of-beads' appearance, focal stenosis or aneurysms, were assessed and graded from mild (=1) to severe (=3). Furthermore, vascular anatomy and arterial stenosis were investigated in this study. Retrospective analysis of CTA and ultrasound were compared with operative and histological reports. Results: Four cases of fibromuscular dysplasia (incidence 3.9%) in 101 renal donors were diagnosed by transplanting surgeons and histopathology, respectively. Three cases could be detected by CTA. In one donor even retrospective analysis of CTA was negative. Ten accessory arteries, 14 venous anomalies and 12 renal arteries stenosis due to atherosclerosis were diagnosed by CTA and could be confirmed by the operative report. Conclusion: CTA is sufficient for detection of hemodynamic relevant stenosis and vascular anatomy. Only one patient with a mild form of FMD was under estimated. Therefore, if the CTA shows slightest irregularities which are not typical for atherosclerotic lesions, further diagnostic work up by DSA might still be necessary.

  3. Paraquat-poisoning in the rabbit lungs: high resolution computed tomographic findings and pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Soo; Kim, Eui Han; Lee, Byoung Ho; Kim, Kun Sang

    1992-01-01

    The authors evaluated high resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) findings of the isolated rabbit lungs with paraquat poisoning, and the findings were correlated with pathologic specimens. The purposes of this study are 1) to obtain the HRCT findings of the normal rabbit lung. 2) to find out if pulmonary pathology can be induced in rabbits by paraquat, and 3) to correlate the HRCT findings to those of pathology. Thirty rabbits were divided into three groups: group I included four control rabbits; group II included 16 rabbits given paraquat intraperitoneally (IP group); and group III included 10 rabbits given paraquat intravenously (IV group). The rabbits were sacrificed seven, 10, and 14 days after injection of various amount of paraquat, and then the lungs were isolated for HRCT and pathologic studies. Gross and microscopic findings of the three groups of control and paraquat-injected rabbit lungs were correlated with HRCT findings. Pulmonary congestion, mild thickening of alveolar walls and septae, and multifocal micro-atelectasis were the man pathologic findings of the lungs in both groups of the rabbits. Pulmonary hemorrhage was noted in five (31%) of 16 rabbits of IP group and three (30%) of 10 IV group. Pulmonary edema was seen in one rabbits (6%) of IP and four (40%) of IV group. Typical pulmonary fibrosis was seen in one rabbit of IP (6%) and IV (10%) group, respectively. There was no correlation between the amount of paraquat and frequency of the pulmonary pathology. Pulmonary fibrosis was seen at least one week after the paraquat injection. On HRCT, pulmonary hemorrhage and edema appeared as diffuse air-space consolidation and pulmonary fibrosis as linear or band-like opacities. However, minimal changes such as mild congestion

  4. Computed Tomographic Virtual Colonoscopy to Screen for Colorectal Neoplasia in asymptomatic adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickhardt, Perry J.; Choi, J Richard; Hwang, Inku and others

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the performance characteristics of computed tomographic (CT) virtual colonospy for the detection of colorectal neoplasia in an average-risk screening population. A total of 1233 symptomatic adults (mean age, 57.8 years) underwent same-day virtual and optical colonoscopy. Radiologists used the three-dimensional endoluminal display for the initial detection of polyps on CT virtual colonoscopy. For the initial examination of each colonic segment, the colonoscopists were unaware of the findings on virtual colonoscopy, which were revealed to them before any subsequent reexamination. The sensitivity and specificity of virtual colonoscopy and the sensitivity of optical colonoscopy were calculated with the use of the findings of the final, unblinded optical colonoscopy as the reference standard. The sensitivity of virtual colonoscopy for adenomatous polyps was 93.8 percent for polyps at least 10 mm in diameter, 93.9 percent for polyps at least 8 mm in diameter, and 88.7 percent for polyps at least 6 mm in diameter. The sensitivity of optical colonoscopy for adenomatous polyps was 87.5 percent, 91.5 percent, and 92.3 percent for the three sizes of polyps, respectively. The specificity of virtual colonoscopy for adenomatous polyps was 96.0 percent for polyps at least 10 mm in diameter, 92.2 percent for polyps at least 8 mm in diameter, and 79.6 percent for polyps at least 6 mm in diameter.Two polyps were malignant; both were detected on virtual colonoscopy, and one of them was missed on optical colonoscopy before the results on virtual colonoscopy were revealed. CT virtual colonoscopy with the use of a three-dimensional approach is an accurate screening method for the detection of colorectal neoplasia in symptomatic average-risk adults and compares favorably with optical colonoscopy in terms of the detection of clinically relevant lesions

  5. Detection of intra-cardiac thrombi and congestive heart failure in cats using computed tomographic angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vititoe, Kyle P; Fries, Ryan C; Joslyn, Stephen; Selmic, Laura E; Howes, Mark; Vitt, Jordan P; O'Brien, Robert T

    2018-04-16

    Arterial thromboembolism is a life-threatening condition in cats most commonly secondary to cardiac disease. Echocardiography is the reference standard to evaluate for presence of a thrombus. In humans, computed tomographic (CT) angiography is becoming widely used to detect left atrial thrombi precluding the use of sedation. The purpose of this prospective, controlled, methods comparison pilot study was threefold: (1) describe new CT angiography protocol used in awake cats with cardiac disease and congestive heart failure; (2) determine accuracy of continuous and dynamic acquisition CT angiography to identify and characterize cardiac thrombi from spontaneous echocardiographic contrast using transthoracic echocardiography as our reference standard; (3) identify known negative prognostic factors and comorbidities of the thorax that CT angiography may provide that complement or supersede echocardiographic examination. Fourteen cats with heart disease were recruited; 7 with thrombi and 7 with spontaneous echocardiographic contrast. Echocardiography and awake CT angiography were performed using a microdose of contrast. Six of 7 thrombi were identified on CT angiography as filling defects by at least one reviewer within the left auricle (n = 6) and right heart (n = 1). Highest sensitivity (71.4%) was in continuous phase and highest specificity (85.7%) was in dynamic studies with fair to moderate interobserver agreement (0.38 and 0.44). CT angiography identified prognostic cardiac information (left atrial enlargement, congestive heart failure, arterial thromboembolism) and comorbidities (suspected idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, asthma). This study indicates CT angiography can readily identify cardiac thrombi, important prognostic information and comorbidities, and can be safely performed in cats with cardiac disease and congestive heart failure. © 2018 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  6. Clinical observations of the brain abscesses, especially on the computed tomographic brain scan findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitano, Masahiko; Kuroda, Ryotaro; Yamada, Yasufumi; Yorimae, Akira; Akai, Fumiharu; Watanabe, Masaru; Nakatani, Jiro; Ioku, Masahiko

    1988-01-01

    Fifteen cases with pyogenic brain abscess were experienced in our clinic during the last 7 years. The records of these patients were examined to evaluate the clinical stage and the result of several treatments. In 12 operative cases, diagnosis was made by fluid aspirated from the abscess. Bacteria were cultured from the fluid in 5 among these cases. In 3 other non-operative patients, diagnosis was based on computed tomographic (CT) brain scans and laboratory studies. Each volume of the brain abscess and surrounding brain edema was measured on serial CT scans to evaluate the clinical stage and the abscess evolution. In symptoms and signs, it has been thought that one of the factors contributing to mortality was the level of consciousness. In this study, the disturbance of consciousness did not correlate with the size of abscess, but with that of edema. The cases reported here were divided into 3 groups according to the volume of abscess and of edema on initial CT scans. The cases of group A had small surrounding edema ( 50 ml) and small abscess ( 25 ml). The group A had slight change in the clinical status and the size of edema, but the others had severe change. Three phase changes in edema size were seen in the group B regardless of therapeutic modalities ; showing almost constant increase in first 2 weeks, great decrease in second 2 weeks and moderate decrease following these 4 weeks. In the group C, however, these phases were seen only in early operation cases. (J.P.N.)

  7. Micro-computed Tomographic Analysis of Mandibular Second Molars with C-shaped Root Canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoroso-Silva, Pablo Andrés; Ordinola-Zapata, Ronald; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro; Gutmann, James L; del Carpio-Perochena, Aldo; Bramante, Clovis Monteiro; de Moraes, Ivaldo Gomes

    2015-06-01

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate the morphometric aspects of the internal anatomy of the root canal system of mandibular second molars with C-shaped canals. Fifty-two extracted second mandibular molars with C-shaped canals, fused roots, and radicular grooves were selected from a Brazilian population. The samples were scanned with a micro-computed tomographic scanner at a voxel size of 19.6 μm. The root canal cross sections were recorded as C1, C2, C3, and C4 root canal configurations according to the modified Melton classification. Morphometric parameters, including the major and minor diameters of the root canals, the aspect ratio, the roundness, and the tridimensional configuration (merging, symmetric, and asymmetric), were evaluated. The 3-dimensional reconstruction images of the teeth indicated an even distribution within the sample. The analysis of the prevalence of the different cross-sectional configurations of the C-shaped molars revealed that these were predominantly of the C4 and C3 configurations (1 mm from the apex) and the C1 and C2 configurations in the cervical third. According to the morphometric parameters, the C1 and the distal aspect of the C2 configurations exhibited the lowest roundness values and higher values for the area, major diameter, and aspect ratio in the apical third. Mandibular molars with C-shaped root canals exhibited similar distributions of symmetric, asymmetric, and merging type canals. The C1 configuration and the distal aspect of the C2 configuration exhibited the highest area values, low roundness values, and large apical diameters. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Computed tomographic colonography (CTC) performance: one-year clinical follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duff, S.E.; Murray, D.; Rate, A.J.; Richards, D.M.; Kumar, N.A. Mahesh

    2006-01-01

    Aim: Computed tomographic colonography (CTC) represents a valuable advance in imaging technology for patients with colonic symptoms who are unfit for or fail to complete investigation with conventional techniques of colonoscopy or barium enema. The aim of this study was to examine whether CTC was sufficient to exclude colorectal cancer in such a population. As our patients were unfit for or unable to complete conventional investigations, we used 1 year clinical follow-up to exclude colonic malignancy. Materials and Methods: CTC examination was performed using multi-slice CT in patients fitting pre-determined criteria. All patients who had completed 12 months of follow-up after CTC were included. Data were extracted from patient records and lack of presentation within the 12 months following a negative CTC was assumed to equate to lack of colorectal cancer at initial investigation. Results: One hundred and twelve patients underwent CTC with a median age of 78 years (range 39-95) and median follow-up of 18 months (range 12-26). CTC detected 7 colorectal cancers, with 3 false positives and 1 false negative, giving a sensitivity of 87.5% and specificity of 97.1% for the detection of colorectal cancer. Conclusions: CTC is a good imaging tool for the exclusion of colorectal cancer in a population unfit for or unable to complete colonoscopy or barium enema, with reasonable sensitivity and specificity for detection of colorectal cancer. However, the optimum investigative strategy for fitter symptomatic individuals is still debated and should be clarified by the results of ongoing randomised controlled trials

  9. Cost-Effectiveness of Computed Tomographic Colonography: A Prospective Comparison with Colonoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnesen, R.B.; Ginnerup-Pedersen, B.; Poulsen, P.B.; Benzon, K. von; Adamsen, S.; Laurberg, S.; Hart-Hansen, O.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of detecting colorectal polyps with computed tomographic colonography (CTC) and subsequent polypectomy with primary colonoscopy (CC), using CC as the alternative strategy. Material and Methods: A marginal analysis was performed regarding 103 patients who had had CTC prior to same-day CC at two hospitals, H-I (n 53) and H-II (n = 50). The patients were randomly chosen from surveillance and symptomatic study populations (148 at H-I and 231 at H-II). Populations, organizations, and procedures were compared. Cost data on time consumption, medication, and minor equipment were collected prospectively, while data on salaries and major equipment were collected retrospectively. The effect was the (previously published) sensitivities of CTC and CC for detection of colorectal polyps ≥6 mm (H-I, n = 148) or ≥5 mm (H-II, n = 231). Results: Thirteen patients at each center had at least one colorectal polyp ≥6 mm or ≥5 mm. CTC was the cost-effective alternative at H-I (Euro 187 vs. Euro 211), while CC was the cost-effective alternative at H-II (Euro 239 vs. Euro 192). The cost-effectiveness (costs per finding) mainly depended on the sensitivity of CTC and CC, but the depreciation of equipment and the staff's use of time were highly influential as well. Conclusion: Detection of colorectal polyps ≥6 mm or ≥5 mm with CTC, followed by polypectomy by CC, can be performed cost-effectively at some institutions with the appropriate hardware and organization keywords

  10. Availability, Indications, and Technical Performance of Computed Tomographic Colonography: A National Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisichella, V.; Hellstroem, M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the availability, indications, and technique of computed tomographic colonography (CTC) in Sweden and to investigate opinions on its future role in colon imaging. Material and Methods: In May 2004, a questionnaire on CTC was mailed to all Departments of Radiology in Sweden, and one year later a telephone interview was conducted with the departments that intended to start a CTC service. Results: Ninety-nine departments (83%) answered the questionnaire, indicating that 23/99 (23.2%) offered a CTC service. Reasons for non-implementation of CTC were lack of CTC training in 34/73 (46.6%) and non-availability of multi-detector row CT scanners in 33/73 (45.2%), while 26% were awaiting further scientific documentation on CTC. Incomplete colonoscopy was the main indication for CTC in 21/23 (91.3%) departments performing CTC. Dual positioning, room air insufflation, and thin-slice collimation were used in all the responding departments. The number of CTC studies performed varied from 1-5 (26.1%) to more than 200 (17.4%). Intravenous contrast material was routinely administered by 9/23 (39.1%) departments. Out of 30 (39.5%) departments that in 2004 intended to start CTC, 9 (30%) had done so by June 2005. A total of 32/99 (32.3%) departments had therefore started CTC by June 2005. Half of the departments that replied believed that CTC would absolutely or probably replace barium enema in the future. Conclusion: The survey shows relatively limited diffusion of CTC practice in Sweden, with approximately one-third of radiology departments offering a CTC service, mostly on a small scale. A wider dissemination of CTC requires further scientific documentation of its capability, intensified educational efforts, and additional funding

  11. Computed tomographic-guided iodine-125 interstitial implants for malignant thoracic tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Qiming [The Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, 20 Chazhong Road, Fuzhou 350005 (China); The Department of Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, 34 Zhongshan Bei Road, Quanzhou 362000 (China); Chen, Jin; Chen, Qunlin [The Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, 20 Chazhong Road, Fuzhou 350005 (China); Lai, Qingquan; Cai, Siqing [The Department of Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, 34 Zhongshan Bei Road, Quanzhou 362000 (China); Luo, Kaidong [The Department of Radiology, Longyan Hosptial of Traditional Chinese Medical, 59 Longteng Middle Road, Longyan 364000 (China); Lin, Zhengyu, E-mail: linsinlan@yahoo.com.cn [The Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, 20 Chazhong Road, Fuzhou 350005 (China)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of percutaneous interstitial brachytherapy using iodine-125 ({sup 125}I) radioactive seeds under computed tomographic (CT) guidance for malignant thoracic tumors. Materials and methods: Forty-one patients (34 males, 7 females; 18–90 years; mean, 63.7 years) with 77 lesions (3 in the mediastinum, 7 in the chest wall, 67 in the lung) underwent percutaneous interstitial implantation of {sup 125}I radioactive seeds under CT guidance. A treatment planning system (TPS) was employed to calculate the number and distribution of seeds preoperatively. An 18-G needle was inserted into the lesions under CT guidance and send the seeds according to TPS. Two patients with mediastinal lesions undergoing seed implantation received an artificial pneumothorax. One patient with lung carcinoma adjacent to the anterior mediastinum underwent seed implantation through the sternum. Follow-up CT was done every 2 months postoperatively. Results: The procedure was successful in all patients. No major procedure-associated death occurred. The mean duration of follow-up was 19.4 ± 1.3 months (3–49 months). A complete response (CR) was seen in 49 lesions (63.6%), partial response (PR) in 9 lesions (11.7%), stable disease (SD) in 12 lesions (12.8%), and progressive disease (PD) in 7 lesions (7.4%). The overall response rate (CR + PR) was 75.3%; the local control rate (CR + PR + SD) was 90.9%. The 1-, 2- and 3-year progression-free rates for local tumors were 91%, 88% and 88%, respectively. The 1-, 2- and 3-year survival rates were 87%, 74% and 68%, respectively. Conclusion: Implantation of CT-guided {sup 125}I seeds is feasible and effective for patients with malignant thoracic tumors.

  12. Fibromuscular dysplasia in living renal donors: Still a challenge to computed tomographic angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blondin, D., E-mail: blondin@med.uni-duesseldorf.d [Institute of Radiology, University Hospital Duesseldorf, Moorenstr. 5, D-40225 Duesseldorf (Germany); Lanzman, R.; Schellhammer, F. [Institute of Radiology, University Hospital Duesseldorf, Moorenstr. 5, D-40225 Duesseldorf (Germany); Oels, M. [Department of Nephrology (Germany); Grotemeyer, D. [Department of Vascular Surgery and Renal Transplantation (Germany); Baldus, S.E. [Institute of Pathology (Germany); Rump, L.C. [Department of Nephrology (Germany); Sandmann, W. [Department of Vascular Surgery and Renal Transplantation (Germany); Voiculescu, A. [Department of Nephrology (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    Background: Computed tomographic angiography has become the standard evaluating method of potential living renal donors in most centers. Although incidence of fibromuscular dysplasia is low (3.5-6%), this pathology may be relevant for success of renal transplantation. The incidence of FMD in our population of LRD and reliability of CTA for detecting vascular pathology were the aims of this study. Materials and methods: 101 living renal donors, examined between 7/2004 and 9/2008 by CTA, were included in a retrospective evaluation. The examinations were carried out using a 64 Multi-detector CT (Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen). The presence or absence of the characteristic signs of fibromuscular dysplasia, as 'string-of-beads' appearance, focal stenosis or aneurysms, were assessed and graded from mild (=1) to severe (=3). Furthermore, vascular anatomy and arterial stenosis were investigated in this study. Retrospective analysis of CTA and ultrasound were compared with operative and histological reports. Results: Four cases of fibromuscular dysplasia (incidence 3.9%) in 101 renal donors were diagnosed by transplanting surgeons and histopathology, respectively. Three cases could be detected by CTA. In one donor even retrospective analysis of CTA was negative. Ten accessory arteries, 14 venous anomalies and 12 renal arteries stenosis due to atherosclerosis were diagnosed by CTA and could be confirmed by the operative report. Conclusion: CTA is sufficient for detection of hemodynamic relevant stenosis and vascular anatomy. Only one patient with a mild form of FMD was under estimated. Therefore, if the CTA shows slightest irregularities which are not typical for atherosclerotic lesions, further diagnostic work up by DSA might still be necessary.

  13. High-resolution computed tomographic findings of Aspergillus infection in lung transplant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazzoni, Fernando Ferreira; Hochhegger, Bruno; Severo, Luiz Carlos; Marchiori, Edson; Pasqualotto, Alessandro; Sartori, Ana Paula Garcia; Schio, Sadi; Camargo, José

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess high-resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) findings at presentation in lung transplant patients diagnosed with pulmonary Aspergillus infection. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed HRCT findings from 23 patients diagnosed with pulmonary aspergillosis. Imaging studies were performed 2–5 days after the onset of symptoms. The patient sample comprised 12 men and 11 women aged 22–59 years (mean age, 43.6 years). All patients had dyspnea, tachypnea, and cough. Diagnoses were established with Platelia Aspergillus enzyme immunoassays for galactomannan antigen detection in bronchoalveolar lavage and recovery of symptoms, and HRCT findings after voriconazole treatment. The HRCT scans were reviewed independently by two observers who reached a consensus decision. Results: The main HRCT pattern, found in 65% (n = 15) of patients, was centrilobular tree-in-bud nodules associated with bronchial thickening. This pattern was described in association with areas of consolidation and ground-glass opacities in 13% (n = 3) of patients. Consolidation and ground-glass opacities were the main pattern in 22% (n = 5) of patients. The pattern of large nodules with and without the halo sign was observed in 13% (n = 3) of patients, and were associated with consolidation and ground-glass opacities in one case. Conclusion: The predominant HRCT findings in lung transplant patients with pulmonary aspergillosis were bilateral bronchial wall thickening and centrilobular opacities with the tree-in-bud pattern. Ground-glass opacities and/or bilateral areas of consolidation were also common findings. Pulmonary nodules with the halo sign were found in only 13% of patients

  14. Clinical usefulness of facial soft tissues thickness measurement using 3D computed tomographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Ho Gul; Kim, Kee Deog; Hu, Kyung Seok; Lee, Jae Bum; Park, Hyok; Han, Seung Ho; Choi, Seong Ho; Kim, Chong Kwan; Park, Chang Seo

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate clinical usefulness of facial soft tissue thickness measurement using 3D computed tomographic images. One cadaver that had sound facial soft tissues was chosen for the study. The cadaver was scanned with a Helical CT under following scanning protocols about slice thickness and table speed: 3 mm and 3 mm/sec, 5 mm and 5 mm/sec, 7 mm and 7 mm/sec. The acquired data were reconstructed 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 mm reconstruction interval respectively and the images were transferred to a personal computer. Using a program developed to measure facial soft tissue thickness in 3D image, the facial soft tissue thickness was measured. After the ten-time repeation of the measurement for ten times, repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) was adopted to compare and analyze the measurements using the three scanning protocols. Comparison according to the areas was analysed by Mann-Whitney test. There were no statistically significant intraobserver differences in the measurements of the facial soft tissue thickness using the three scanning protocols (p>0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between measurements in the 3 mm slice thickness and those in the 5 mm, 7 mm slice thickness (p>0.05). There were statistical differences in the 14 of the total 30 measured points in the 5 mm slice thickness and 22 in the 7 mm slice thickness. The facial soft tissue thickness measurement using 3D images of 7 mm slice thickness is acceptable clinically, but those of 5 mm slice thickness is recommended for the more accurate measurement

  15. Artifical Pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Jiangfeng

    2013-03-01

    In 2006, JDRF launched the Artificial Pancreas Project (APP) to accelerate the development of a commercially-viable artificial pancreas system to closely mimic the biological function of the pancreas individuals with insulin-dependent diabetes, particularly type 1 diabetes. By automating detection of blood sugar levels and delivery of insulin in response to those levels, an artificial pancreas has the potential to transform the lives of people with type 1 diabetes. The 6-step APP development pathway serves as JDRF's APP strategic funding plan and defines the priorities of product research and development. Each step in the plan represents incremental advances in automation beginning with devices that shut off insulin delivery to prevent episodes of low blood sugar and progressing ultimately to a fully automated ``closed loop'' system that maintains blood glucose at a target level without the need to bolus for meals or adjust for exercise.

  16. Pancreas cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Shigeru; Kato, Hirotoshi; Hara, Ryusuke

    2006-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the pancreas continues to be a significant source of cancer mortality in Japan, resulting in approximately 19,000 deaths a year. It is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Japan, with a less than 5% 5-year expected survival rate. About 70-75% of patients with pancreas cancer present with locally advanced disease or distant metastases and have a median survival time of only 6 months. For unresectable pancreas cancer, the median survival time with external beam radiation (EBRT) was better than with surgical bypass or stents alone. The median survival of EBRT alone was 4 to 7 months. The median survival with combined EBRT and chemotherapy for locally unresectable tumor are 8 to 10 months and better than with the EBRT alone. Local failure of these combined therapies was still 26 to 48%. On the other hand, surgery with curative intent is undertaken in 15-20% of patients. Even after resection, the predicted 5-year survival rates are still less than 20%. Local recurrences in the pancreatic bed are seen in 50% of the patients undergoing presumed curative resection. We examined the effect of carbon ion therapy in terms of reducing the rate of local recurrence in patients with locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the pancreas or undergoing resection for adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. (author)

  17. Computed tomographic scanning in patients presenting with chief complaint of headache without focal neurological signs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halim, A.; Khalid, W.; Haq, A.U.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the frequency of positive computed tomographic (CT)scan findings in patients presenting at PNS Shifa Hospital Karachi with chief complaint of headache without focal neurological signs. Study Design: Cross sectional descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the Radiology department, PNS Shifa Hospital Karachi from Dec 2011 to Jun 2012. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study included referred patients with complaint of headache of one month duration or more without focal neurological signs. No gender restriction was considered and patients of age more than 14 years were included. Patients with headache due to other known clinical disorders such as intracranial neoplasm and stroke were excluded. Patients with focal neurological signs such as hemiparesis, cerebellar signs and cranial nerve palsies were also excluded from the study. A total of 105 patients were included in the study through non probability consecutive sampling. Informed written consent was taken from the patients by explaining all the risks and benefits of the study and use of data for research and publication. Plain CT scan brain was done by trained CT technician and reporting of CT scan was done by consultant radiologist. CT scan was done on Toshiba Scanner Aquilion-64 CT Scan machine. The imaging protocol consisted of appropriately angled continuous 5mm thick axial slices for the posterior fossa and 10 mm thick slices for the rest of brain from the base of skull to the vertex. Data was collected through a specially structured proforma. Confidentiality of the patients record was maintained. Results: Majority of the patients were between 31-40 years of age i.e. 29.52 percent (n=31) and mean and SD was calculated as 34.24 +- 8.72 years, 54.29 percent (n=57) females and 45.71 percent (n=48) male patients, frequency of positive CT scan findings in patients with chief complaint of headache without focal neurological signs was recorded as

  18. Clear cell chondrosarcoma: radiographic, computed tomographic, and magnetic resonance findings in 34 patients with pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Mark S.; Koyama, Takashi; Swee, Ronald G.; Inwards, Carrie Y. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, MN 55905, Rochester (United States)

    2003-12-01

    To describe the radiographic features of clear cell chondrosarcoma (CCCS), including the computed tomographic (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) findings, and to correlate them with the histopathologic findings. A retrospective review was carried out of 72 patients with histopathologically confirmed CCCS. Imaging studies were available for 34 patients: conventional radiographs (n=28), CT scans (n=14), and MR images (n=15). Radiographic studies were reviewed by three radiologists who rendered a consensus opinion; the studies were correlated with the histopathologic findings. Of the 34 patients with imaging studies, 30 were male and 4 were female (mean age 38.6 years; range 11-74 years). Twenty-two lesions were in long bones (15, proximal femur; 1, distal femur; 1, proximal tibia; 5, proximal humerus) and 11 were in flat bones (5, vertebra; 4, rib; 1, scapula; 1, innominate). One lesion occurred in the tarsal navicular bone. Typically, long bone lesions were located in the epimetaphysis (19/22) and were lucent with a well-defined sclerotic margin and no cortical destruction or periosteal new bone formation. More than one-third of the long bone lesions contained matrix mineralization with a characteristic chondroid appearance. Pathologic fractures were present in six long bone lesions (4, humerus; 2, femur). Lesions in the proximal humerus were more likely to have indistinct margins (4/5) and extend into the diaphysis. Flat bone lesions were typically lytic and expansile and occasionally demonstrated areas of cortical disruption. Typically, matrix mineralization, when present, was amorphous. MR imaging, when available, was superior to conventional radiographs for demonstrating the intramedullary extent of a lesion as well as soft tissue extension. CT images better delineated the presence of cortical destruction and the character of matrix mineralization patterns. CCCS lesions were typically low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and moderately or significantly

  19. Multidetector computed tomographic pulmonary angiography in patients with a high clinical probability of pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moores, L; Kline, J; Portillo, A K; Resano, S; Vicente, A; Arrieta, P; Corres, J; Tapson, V; Yusen, R D; Jiménez, D

    2016-01-01

    ESSENTIALS: When high probability of pulmonary embolism (PE), sensitivity of computed tomography (CT) is unclear. We investigated the sensitivity of multidetector CT among 134 patients with a high probability of PE. A normal CT alone may not safely exclude PE in patients with a high clinical pretest probability. In patients with no clear alternative diagnosis after CTPA, further testing should be strongly considered. Whether patients with a negative multidetector computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA) result and a high clinical pretest probability of pulmonary embolism (PE) should be further investigated is controversial. This was a prospective investigation of the sensitivity of multidetector CTPA among patients with a priori clinical assessment of a high probability of PE according to the Wells criteria. Among patients with a negative CTPA result, the diagnosis of PE required at least one of the following conditions: ventilation/perfusion lung scan showing a high probability of PE in a patient with no history of PE, abnormal findings on venous ultrasonography in a patient without previous deep vein thrombosis at that site, or the occurrence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in a 3-month follow-up period after anticoagulation was withheld because of a negative multidetector CTPA result. We identified 498 patients with a priori clinical assessment of a high probability of PE and a completed CTPA study. CTPA excluded PE in 134 patients; in these patients, the pooled incidence of VTE was 5.2% (seven of 134 patients; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5-9.0). Five patients had VTEs that were confirmed by an additional imaging test despite a negative CTPA result (five of 48 patients; 10.4%; 95% CI 1.8-19.1), and two patients had objectively confirmed VTEs that occurred during clinical follow-up of at least 3 months (two of 86 patients; 2.3%; 95% CI 0-5.5). None of the patients had a fatal PE during follow-up. A normal multidetector CTPA result alone may not safely

  20. Clear cell chondrosarcoma: radiographic, computed tomographic, and magnetic resonance findings in 34 patients with pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, Mark S.; Koyama, Takashi; Swee, Ronald G.; Inwards, Carrie Y.

    2003-01-01

    To describe the radiographic features of clear cell chondrosarcoma (CCCS), including the computed tomographic (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) findings, and to correlate them with the histopathologic findings. A retrospective review was carried out of 72 patients with histopathologically confirmed CCCS. Imaging studies were available for 34 patients: conventional radiographs (n=28), CT scans (n=14), and MR images (n=15). Radiographic studies were reviewed by three radiologists who rendered a consensus opinion; the studies were correlated with the histopathologic findings. Of the 34 patients with imaging studies, 30 were male and 4 were female (mean age 38.6 years; range 11-74 years). Twenty-two lesions were in long bones (15, proximal femur; 1, distal femur; 1, proximal tibia; 5, proximal humerus) and 11 were in flat bones (5, vertebra; 4, rib; 1, scapula; 1, innominate). One lesion occurred in the tarsal navicular bone. Typically, long bone lesions were located in the epimetaphysis (19/22) and were lucent with a well-defined sclerotic margin and no cortical destruction or periosteal new bone formation. More than one-third of the long bone lesions contained matrix mineralization with a characteristic chondroid appearance. Pathologic fractures were present in six long bone lesions (4, humerus; 2, femur). Lesions in the proximal humerus were more likely to have indistinct margins (4/5) and extend into the diaphysis. Flat bone lesions were typically lytic and expansile and occasionally demonstrated areas of cortical disruption. Typically, matrix mineralization, when present, was amorphous. MR imaging, when available, was superior to conventional radiographs for demonstrating the intramedullary extent of a lesion as well as soft tissue extension. CT images better delineated the presence of cortical destruction and the character of matrix mineralization patterns. CCCS lesions were typically low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and moderately or significantly

  1. Computed tomographic analysis of temporal maxillary stability and pterygomaxillary generate formation following pediatric Le Fort III distraction advancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Richard A; Sandercoe, Gavin; Woo, Albert; Watts, Robyn; Kelley, Patrick; Ettinger, Russell E; Saltzman, Babette

    2010-11-01

    Le Fort III distraction requires generation of bone in the pterygomaxillary region. The authors performed retrospective digital analysis on temporal fine-cut computed tomographic images to quantify both radiographic evidence of pterygomaxillary region bone formation and relative maxillary stability. Fifteen patients with syndromic midface hypoplasia were included in the study. The average age of the patients was 8.7 years; 11 had either Crouzon or Apert syndrome. The average displacement of the maxilla during distraction was 16.2 mm (range, 7 to 31 mm). Digital analysis was performed on fine-cut computed tomographic scans before surgery, at device removal, and at annual follow-up. Seven patients also had mid-consolidation computed tomographic scans. Relative maxillary stability and density of radiographic bone in the pterygomaxillary region were calculated between each scan. There was no evidence of clinically significant maxillary relapse, rotation, or growth between the end of consolidation and 1-year follow-up, other than a relatively small 2-mm subnasal maxillary vertical growth. There was an average radiographic ossification of 0.5 mm/mm advancement at the time of device removal, with a 25th percentile value of 0.3 mm/mm. The time during consolidation that each patient reached the 25th percentile of pterygomaxillary region bone density observed in this series of clinically stable advancements ranged from 1.3 to 9.8 weeks (average, 3.7 weeks). There was high variability in the amount of bone formed in the pterygomaxillary region associated with clinical stability of the advanced Le Fort III segment. These data suggest that a subsection of patients generate the minimal amount of pterygomaxillary region bone formation associated with advancement stability as early as 4 weeks into consolidation.

  2. Reconstruction of computed tomographic image from a few x-ray projections by means of accelerative gradient method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Fujio; Yamaguchi, Shoichiro

    1982-01-01

    A method of the reconstruction of computed tomographic images was proposed to reduce the exposure dose to X-ray. The method is the small number of X-ray projection method by accelerative gradient method. The procedures of computation are described. The algorithm of these procedures is simple, the convergence of the computation is fast, and the required memory capacity is small. Numerical simulation was carried out to conform the validity of this method. A sample of simple shape was considered, projection data were given, and the images were reconstructed from 6 views. Good results were obtained, and the method is considered to be useful. (Kato, T.)

  3. Neonatal periventricular leukomalacia: real-time sonographic diagnosis with CT correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, P.P.; Horgan, J.G.; Taylor, K.J.W.

    1985-01-01

    The utility of real-time sonography in the diagnosis of neonatal periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) has been described only recently. Six cases are reported of PVL diagnosed by serial real-time scanning. The sonographic findings were correlated with the computed tomographic findings and the clinical history. In five of six infants in whom scanning was performed, characteristic multiseptated periventricular cavitations developed 2-3 weeks after birth or later. A transition from normal to increased periventricular echogenicity was often observed before the development of the periventricular cavitations in nonhemorrhagic PVL. The parenchymal abnormality demonstrated by sonography correlated well with an abnormal neurologic outcome. It is suggested that serial real-time scanning be performed in neonates whose history suggests the possibility of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Nonspecific predictors of PVL include seizures, apnea, disturbed mental status, abnormal muscle tone, and leg weakness

  4. The computed tomographic findings of bronchogenic carcinoma presenting as a solitary peripheral pulmonary mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hong; Kim, Ok Bae; Woo, Seong Ku; Suh, Soo Jhi; Kim, Sung Soo

    1985-01-01

    It is difficult to distinguish benign from malignant, ulmonary nodule by conventional roentgenologic examination. But CT makes it easier to evaluate adjacent parenchymal invasion, pleural or mediastinal extension, or early metastasis to intra- or extrathoracic lymph node as well as distant organs, although only a solitary peripheral pulmonary nodule is seen on plain radiograph. Authors reviewed CT of 22 cases of histopathologically confirmed primary lung cancer seen as a solitary peripheral pulmonary mass from May 1980 to September 1984 at Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University. The results are as follows: 1. The incidence was most common in the 6th decade (36%). Male to female ratio was 10 : 1 and 2 females all had bronchioloalveolar cell carcinoma. 2. The distribution of histologic cell type were as follows: squamous cell carcinoma 40%, adenocarcinoma, small cell carcinoma, bronchioloalveolar cell carcinoma and unclassified carcinoma 14% in each cases, and adenoid cystic carcinoma 4%. 3. The computed tomographic findings were as follows: a) Superior and posterior basal segments of both lower lobes were most frequently involved (68%). b) The mean diameter of the mass was 48 mm, and most common in the range of 30-49 mm in the greatest dimension (46%). c) The mean CT attenuation value was 57 H.U., and most common in the group of 41-70 H. U. (64%). d) Lymph node metastasis was found in 13 (59%) of 22 cases, and the involved nodes were as follows: hilar nodes 10 cases, paratracheal nodes 8 cases, subcarinal nodes 7 cases and extrathoracic nodes 3 cases. In 2 of 3 cases with small cell carcinoma, diffuse multiple lymph nodes were involved. e) Distant metastasis was seen relatively early in 3 cases: cerebral metastasis in 1 cases of squamous cell carcinoma, right adrenal metastasis without intrathoracic lymph node metastasis or invasion of adjacent structure in 1 case of bronchioloalveolar cell carcinoma, and liver and bone metastasis in 1 case of unclassified

  5. Sex Differences in Patients With CAM Deformities With Femoroacetabular Impingement: 3-Dimensional Computed Tomographic Quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanke, Adam B; Khair, M Michael; Stanley, Robert; Walton, David; Lee, Simon; Bush-Joseph, Charles A; Espinoza Orías, Alejandro; Espinosa Orias, Alejandro A; Inoue, Nozomu; Nho, Shane J

    2015-12-01

    To determine if significant differences exist between male and female CAM deformities using quantitative 3-dimensional (3D) volume and location analysis. Retrospective analysis of preoperative computed tomographic (CT) scans for 138 femurs (69 from male patients and 69 from female patients) diagnosed with impingement from November 2009 to November 2011 was completed. Those patients who presented with hip complaints and had a history, physical examination (limited range of motion, positive impingement signs), plain radiographs (anteroposterior pelvis, 90° Dunn view, false profile view), and magnetic resonance images consistent with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and in whom a minimum of 6 months of conservative therapy (oral anti-inflammatory agents, physical therapy, and activity modification) had failed were indicated for arthroscopic surgery and had a preoperative CT scan. Scans were segmented, converted to point cloud data, and analyzed with a custom-written computer program. Analysis included mean CAM height and volume, head radius, and femoral version. Differences were analyzed using an unpaired t test with significance set at P position ± the 2:51 o'clock position to the 3:28 o'clock position ± the 1:59 o'clock position, with an average span from the 3:06 o'clock position ± the 1:29 o'clock position (male patients, the 11:23 o'clock position ± the 0:46 o'clock position to the 3:05 o'clock position ± the 1:20 o'clock position; female patients, the 11:33 o'clock position ± the 0:37 o'clock position to the 2:27 o'clock position ± the 0:45 o'clock position). There were no differences in the posterior (P = .60) or anterior (P = .14) extent of CAM deformities. However, the span on the clock face of the CAM deformities varied when comparing men with women (male patients, the 3:43 o'clock position ± the 1:29 o'clock position; female patients, the 2:54 o'clock position ± the 1:09 o'clock position; P = .02). Our data show that female CAM deformities

  6. Sonographic evaluation of athletic pubalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Nicholas; Grant, Thomas; Blount, Kevin; Omar, Imran

    2016-05-01

    Athletic pubalgia, or "sports hernia", represents a constellation of pathologic conditions occurring at and around the pubic symphysis. These injuries are primarily seen in athletes or those involved in athletic activity. In this article, we review the sonographic appearance of the relevant complex anatomy, scanning technique for ultrasound evaluation of athletic pubalgia, and the sonographic appearances of associated pathologic conditions.

  7. Visual computed tomographic scoring of emphysema and its correlation with its diagnostic electrocardiographic sign: the frontal P vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Lovely; Sareen, Pooja; Gandagule, Amit; Spodick, David H

    2012-03-01

    Verticalization of the frontal P vector in patients older than 45 years is virtually diagnostic of pulmonary emphysema (sensitivity, 96%; specificity, 87%). We investigated the correlation of P vector and the computed tomographic visual score of emphysema (VSE) in patients with established diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease/emphysema. High-resolution computed tomographic scans of 26 patients with emphysema (age, >45 years) were reviewed to assess the type and extent of emphysema using the subjective visual scoring. Electrocardiograms were independently reviewed to determine the frontal P vector. The P vector and VSE were compared for statistical correlation. Both P vector and VSE were also directly compared with the forced expiratory volume at 1 second. The VSE and the orientation of the P vector (ÂP) had an overall significant positive correlation (r = +0.68; P = .0001) in all patients, but the correlation was very strong in patients with predominant lower-lobe emphysema (r = +0.88; P = .0004). Forced expiratory volume at 1 second and ÂP had almost a linear inverse correlation in predominant lower-lobe emphysema (r = -0.92; P vertical ÂP and predominant lower-lobe emphysema reflects severe obstructive lung dysfunction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of Heat Treatment of Nickel-Titanium Rotary Endodontic Instruments on Apical Preparation: A Micro-Computed Tomographic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Bernardo Corrêa; Ormiga, Fabíola; de Araújo, Marcos César Pimenta; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Lima, Inayá Corrêa Barbosa; dos Santos, Bernardo Camargo; Gusman, Heloisa

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to make a 3-dimensional comparison of the canal transportation and changes in apical geometry using micro-computed tomographic imaging after canal preparation with K3 (SybronEndo, Orange, CA) and K3XF (SybronEndo) file systems. Twenty-eight mandibular molars were randomly divided into 2 groups according to the rotary system used in instrumentation: K3 or K3XF. The specimens were scanned by micro-computed tomographic imaging before and after instrumentation. Images before and after instrumentation from each group were compared with regard to canal volume, surface area, and structure model index (SMI) (paired t test, P instrumentation, the canals from each group were compared regarding the changes in volume, surface area, SMI, and canal transportation in the last 4 apical mm (t test, P Instrumentation with the 2 rotary systems significantly changed the canal volume, surface area, and SMI (P instrument types concerning these parameters (P > .05). There were no significant differences between the 2 groups with regard to canal transportation in the last 4 apical mm (P > .05). Both rotary systems showed adequate canal preparations with reduced values of canal transportation. Heat treatment did not influence changes in root canal geometry in the apical region. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Heterotopic pregnancy: Sonographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Tae Hee

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the sonographic findings of the heterotopic pregnancy which is increasing recently. Thirty-nine cases of heterotopic pregnancy after ovulation induction and IVF-ET (In Vitro Fertilization-Embryo Transfer) during the recent 3 years were analyzed. They were diagnosed by ultrasonography and proved surgically afterwards. Sonographic findings were analyzed focusing on gestational week of intrauterine pregnancy and location of ectopic pregnancy. In particular, adnexal mass was evaluated with regard to size and the characteristic findings such as ectopic gestational sac (echogenic ring). Also, overian cyst and fluid collection in cul-de-sac space were reviewed carefully. Heterotopic pregnancy was proved surgically by salpingectomy in 33 cases and by resection of cornus in six cases. Sonographic diagnosis using transvaginal ultrasound was made from five weeks to nine weeks two days (six weeks and four days in average) from last menstral period in all 39 cases. Ectopic pregnancy was identified in ampullary part in 29 cases, in the isthmic portion of tube in four cases and in the cornus of uterus in six cases. The intrauterine pregnancy was diagnosed by identifying the intrauterine gestational saccontaining a yolk sac in seven cases and the embryo with fetal heart beat in the remaining 32 cases. Adnexal masses of heterotopic pregnancy were less than 3 cm in diameter in 2 cases (57%), 3-4 cm in 11 cases (28%) and more than 4 cm in 6 cases (15%). A characteristic finding of ectopic mass was echogenic ring which was visible in 33 (84.6%) cases by transvaginal ultrasound. Six cases had pelvic hematosalpinx and two had pelvic hematoma. Of 10 cases (26%) which were identified to have ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, eight (21%) had large amount of fluid collection in cul-de-sac and abdomen. Ultrasonographic identification of the intrauterine pregnancy and the ectopic chorion ring is effective for the early diagnosis of the heterotopic pregnancy.

  10. Computed tomographic and ultrasonographic diagnosis of portal vein tumor thrombus in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, H; Futagawa, S; Hayashi, K; Amagasaki, Y; Ochi, M [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1982-04-01

    Nine cases of hepatocellular carcinoma which have invaded the intra- and extrahepatic portal vein were evaluated by computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography (US). The outstanding CT and sonographic features of the portal vein tumor thrombus were described. In CT, contrast opacification of normal portal vein and its major tributaries were not observed, and they were replaced by a soft tissue density mass representing the tumor thrombus. The thrombus measured 35 - 45 Hounsfield units (HU) in precontrast scans and 60 - 80 HU in postcontrast scans. The portal vein tumor thrombus showed a branched pattern of low density in porta hepatis and intrahepatic region due to differences in attenuation coefficients of the thrombus and adjacent noncancerous hepatic parenchyma on postcontrast scans. In ultrasound study, tumor thrombus was recognized as an echogenic solid mass in the porta hepatis obliterating the normal portal venous structures, or as an intraluminal solid mass in the dilated portal vein and its branches. Numerous collateral venous channels surrounding the thrombosed portal vein were also demonstrated on both CT and US. Particular emphasis was placed on the clinical implications of these non-invasive detection of the portal vein tumor thrombosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

  11. Sonographic characterization of tenosynovitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Gwy Suk; Lim, Hyo Keum; Lee, In Jae; Lee, Kil Woo; Bae, Sang Hoon; Lee, Kyung Hwan [College of Medicine, Hallym University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-03-15

    Tenosynovitis of the extremities is not uncommon but its diagnosis is not easy owing to its non-specific clinical manifestation. Thus it was beyond the field of imaging diagnosis so far. Recently the development of high resolution ultrasonogram has aided preoperative imaging diagnosis of tenosynovitis. The authors performed a retrospective reviewed of 27 patients who had ultrasonography due to tendon pathology(including 18 tenosynovitis) by observing sonographic findings and evaluation the diagnosis value of each finding. The overall diagnostic accuracy was 81.1% and common sonographic findings were focal swelling of the tendon, well-defined margin of the lesion, preserved fibrillar pattern, echo change of the lesion site and fluid collection. Above all, fluid collection. was the only statistically significant criterion for diagnosis of tenosynovitis(p<0.05). But its sensitivity was as low as 50%. In conclusion the ultrasonography is useful in diagnosis of tenosynovitis and fluid collection is of diagnostic value, but the differentiation between nodular tenosynovitis without fluid collection and other benign tumor is still beyond the scope of ultrasonographic diagnosis.

  12. Sonographic characterization of tenosynovitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Gwy Suk; Lim, Hyo Keum; Lee, In Jae; Lee, Kil Woo; Bae, Sang Hoon; Lee, Kyung Hwan

    1992-01-01

    Tenosynovitis of the extremities is not uncommon but its diagnosis is not easy owing to its non-specific clinical manifestation. Thus it was beyond the field of imaging diagnosis so far. Recently the development of high resolution ultrasonogram has aided preoperative imaging diagnosis of tenosynovitis. The authors performed a retrospective reviewed of 27 patients who had ultrasonography due to tendon pathology(including 18 tenosynovitis) by observing sonographic findings and evaluation the diagnosis value of each finding. The overall diagnostic accuracy was 81.1% and common sonographic findings were focal swelling of the tendon, well-defined margin of the lesion, preserved fibrillar pattern, echo change of the lesion site and fluid collection. Above all, fluid collection. was the only statistically significant criterion for diagnosis of tenosynovitis(p<0.05). But its sensitivity was as low as 50%. In conclusion the ultrasonography is useful in diagnosis of tenosynovitis and fluid collection is of diagnostic value, but the differentiation between nodular tenosynovitis without fluid collection and other benign tumor is still beyond the scope of ultrasonographic diagnosis

  13. Endosonographic Features of Histologically Proven Gastric Ectopic Pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Wei Chou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric ectopic pancreas is an uncommon developmental anomaly and its histological diagnosis is usually difficult by using a conventional biopsy forceps. In the literature, most cases of gastric ectopic pancreas were usually diagnosed by gross pattern during endoscopic examination or features of endoscopic ultrasound. In contrast, this disease was seldom diagnosed by histology in clinical practice. Although the typical endoscopic ultrasonographic features of ectopic pancreas include heterogeneous echogenicity, indistinct borders, and a location within 2 or more layers, it can also exhibit hypoechoic homogeneous echogenicity and a distinct border within the fourth sonographic layer (muscularis propria similar to the endoscopic ultrasonographic features of gastrointestinal stromal tumors. In our study, we found that 53% of gastric ectopic pancreas originated within the fourth sonographic layer, demonstrating hypoechoic, homogeneous echogenicity, and distinct borders. Therefore, recognizing endoscopic ultrasonographic features, combining with deep biopsy, endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration/core needle biopsy can prevent conducting unnecessary resection. Surgical resection is the mainstay treatment for symptomatic gastric ectopic pancreas, but endoscopic resection using endoscopic mucosal resection or endoscopic submucosal dissection technique provides an alternative method of removing superficial-type and deep-type gastric ectopic pancreas.

  14. Dental computed tomographic imaging as age estimation: morphological analysis of the third molar of a group of Turkish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantekin, Kenan; Sekerci, Ahmet Ercan; Buyuk, Suleyman Kutalmis

    2013-12-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is capable of providing accurate and measurable 3-dimensional images of the third molar. The aims of this study were to analyze the development of the mandibular third molar and its relation to chronological age and to create new reference data for a group of Turkish participants aged 9 to 25 years on the basis of cone-beam CT images. All data were obtained from the patients' records including medical, social, and dental anamnesis and cone-beam CT images of 752 patients. Linear regression analysis was performed to obtain regression formulas for dental age calculation with chronological age and to determine the coefficient of determination (r) for each sex. Statistical analysis showed a strong correlation between age and third-molar development for the males (r2 = 0.80) and the females (r2 = 0.78). Computed tomographic images are clinically useful for accurate and reliable estimation of dental ages of children and youth.

  15. Normal Pancreas Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Pancreas Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: ... 1586x1534 View Download Large: 3172x3068 View Download Title: Pancreas Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the pancreas; drawing shows ...

  16. Preexisting Dentinal Microcracks in Nonendodontically Treated Teeth: An Ex Vivo Micro-computed Tomographic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PradeepKumar, Angambakkam Rajasekaran; Shemesh, Hagay; Chang, Jeffrey Wen-Wei; Bhowmik, Ahendita; Sibi, Swamy; Gopikrishna, Velayutham; Lakshmi-Narayanan, Lakshmikanthanbharathi; Kishen, Anil

    2017-06-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence, location, and pattern of preexisting dentinal microcracks in roots of extracted teeth without endodontic treatment in patients from 2 age groups using micro-computed tomographic imaging. Six hundred thirty-three nonendodontically treated teeth extracted using an atraumatic procedure because of reasons unrelated to this study were collected and divided based on the patient age. Teeth were scanned with micro-computed tomographic imaging (resolution of 26.7 μm) to examine the presence of preexisting dentinal microcracks in roots. The characteristic features of preexisting dentinal microcracks determined were location, extent, length, and coronoapical distribution. Chi-square bivariate analysis was performed to assess the association between various parameters. Forty-five of 633 nonendodontically treated teeth exhibited preexisting microcracks in roots with a prevalence of 7.1%. The prevalence of preexisting microcracks was found to be 8.3% in older patients (40-70 years) compared with 3.7% in younger patients (20-39 years) (P < .050). A significant association was found between the preexisting microcracks in mandibular teeth (10.3%) when compared with maxillary teeth (2.9%) (P < .001). All preexisting microcracks were located mesiodistally; 66% occurred in the cervical and middle thirds of root. Only 33% of the preexisting microcracks were complete in nature, showing canal involvement. Complete dentinal microcracks exhibited a mean length of 6.9 mm, whereas incomplete cracks had a mean length of 3.75 mm (P < .001). Preexisting dentinal microcracks in roots of nonendodontically treated teeth occurred more often in older patients (40-70 years) in the mesiodistal direction. They were predominantly found in the cervical and middle thirds of root and were more likely to be incomplete in nature. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Computed tomographic features of apical infection of equine maxillary cheek teeth: a retrospective study of 49 horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühler, M; Fürst, A; Lewis, F I; Kummer, M; Ohlerth, S

    2014-07-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) studies evaluating the relevance of individual CT features of apical infection in maxillary cheek teeth are lacking. To study the prevalence and relationship of single CT features in horses with and without clinical evidence of apical infection in maxillary cheek teeth. Retrospective case-control study. Multislice CT scans of the head of 49 horses were evaluated retrospectively. Changes of the infundibulum, pulp, root, lamina dura, periodontal space and alveolar bone in maxillary cheek teeth were recorded. Single CT changes were much more prevalent in the 28 horses with clinical signs. However, infundibular changes and a nondetectable lamina dura were also common in the 21 horses without clinical evidence of apical infection. Computed tomographic abnormalities of the pulp, root, periapical bone and periodontal space and the presence of a tooth fracture were significantly related. Infundibular changes were not associated with other CT signs of apical infection. Although nondetectable lamina dura was the most frequent CT change in all teeth in both studied groups, it was most commonly a solitary feature in otherwise normal teeth. Apical infections, defined as ≥3 CT changes, occurred mainly in the 108/208, 109/209 and 110/210 (Triadan numbers) and were found only in horses with clinical evidence of apical infection, except in one horse without clinical signs that had one affected root. Combined CT changes of the pulp, root, lamina dura, periapical bone and periodontal space and the presence of a tooth fracture appear to be reliable features to diagnose apical infection in maxillary cheek teeth. As a solitary feature, a nondetectable lamina dura should be interpreted cautiously and may even be considered normal due to its minor thickness and/or too low resolution of the imaging modality. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  18. Pancreas transplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, J.; Phillips, R.R.; Boardman, P.; Gleeson, F.V.; Anderson, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    Cadaveric, whole pancreas transplantation has proved an effective therapy in the treatment of long-standing type 1 diabetes mellitus and is capable of achieving an insulin-independent eugyclaemic state. As a result, this procedure is being increasingly performed. However, the surgical procedure is complex and unfamiliar to many radiologists. Imaging with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gives excellent results and can be used confidently to diagnose vascular, enteric, and immune-mediated complications. We present a review of the normal post-transplantation appearance and the features of early and late complications.

  19. Pancreas transplants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, J.; Phillips, R.R.; Boardman, P.; Gleeson, F.V. [Department of Radiology, Churchill Hospital, Headington, Oxford (United Kingdom); Anderson, E.M. [Department of Radiology, Churchill Hospital, Headington, Oxford (United Kingdom)], E-mail: ewan.anderson@orh.nhs.uk

    2009-07-15

    Cadaveric, whole pancreas transplantation has proved an effective therapy in the treatment of long-standing type 1 diabetes mellitus and is capable of achieving an insulin-independent eugyclaemic state. As a result, this procedure is being increasingly performed. However, the surgical procedure is complex and unfamiliar to many radiologists. Imaging with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gives excellent results and can be used confidently to diagnose vascular, enteric, and immune-mediated complications. We present a review of the normal post-transplantation appearance and the features of early and late complications.

  20. Pancreas transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snider, J.F.; Hunter, D.W.; Castaneda-Zuniga, W.R.; Letourneau, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    Pancreas transplantation can be complicated by vascular thrombosis, stenosis, or anastomotic leak, complications that predispose to transplant pancreatectomy. The relative roles of noninvasive radiologic studies in such vascular complications have been correlated with angiographic or pathologic data. The results of 54 scintigraphic studies, 25 CT studies, 16 sonograms, and 23 color Doppler examinations have been correlated with those of 40 angiograms and 28 pathologic studies in a population of 185 recipients. CT (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 75%; accuracy, 92%) and US (sensitivity, 88%; specificity, 80%; accuracy, 85%) were most helpful in noninvasive screening for vascular complications, while angiography remains nearly definite in the radiographic diagnosis of these problems

  1. Pancreas grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, D.; Buell, U.; Land, W.; Unertl, K.

    1981-01-01

    Perfusion studies with sup(99m)Tc-DTPA, which has hitherto been used routinely to investigate renal grafts, have also proved useful for monitoring the perfusion of pancreas grafts. A total perfusion failure is equally reliably demonstrable as in renal grafts. Quantitatively smaller perfusion alterations can be demonstrated by monitoring the course. It seems possible to differentiate the salivary edema of a rejection reaction, well known from animal experiments, with the help of other paramters (e.g. creatinine). Further clinical studies are however necessary to confirm these results. (orig.) [de

  2. Transient ischemic attacks with and without a relevant infarct on computed tomographic scans cannot be distinguished clinically. Dutch Transient Ischemic Attack Study Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koudstaal, P. J.; van Gijn, J.; Lodder, J.; Frenken, W. G.; Vermeulen, M.; Franke, C. L.; Hijdra, A.; Bulens, C.

    1991-01-01

    We prospectively studied clinical and computed tomographic (CT) scan findings in 79 patients with a transient ischemic attack (TIA) and a relevant cerebral infarction on CT, also known as cerebral infarction with transient signs (CITS). We compared the results with those of 527 concurrent patients

  3. Hepatic Rupture Caused by Hemolysis, Elevated Liver Enzyme, and Low Platelet Count Syndrome: A Case Report with Computed Tomographic and Conventional Angiographic Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Cheong Bok; Ahn, Jae Hong; Choi, Soo Jung; Lee, Jong Hyeog; Park, Man Soo; Jung, Seung Mun; Ryu, Dae Sik [Dept. of Radiology, Asan Foundation, Gangneung Asan Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    The authors recently obtained successful clinical outcome after embolization of the hepatic artery and right inferior phrenic artery in a pregnant patient with hemolysis, elevated liver enzyme, and low platelet count (HELLP) syndrome causing hepatic rupture. We report the computed tomographic and conventional angiographic findings in a case of HELLP syndrome, resulting in hepatic infarction and rupture with active bleeding.

  4. Sonographic diagnosis of pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubna F Husain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung sonography has rapidly emerged as a reliable technique in the evaluation of various thoracic diseases. One important, well-established application is the diagnosis of a pneumothorax. Prompt and accurate diagnosis of a pneumothorax in the management of a critical patient can prevent the progression into a life-threatening situation. Sonographic signs, including ′lung sliding′, ′B-lines′ or ′comet tail artifacts′, ′A-lines′, and ′the lung point sign′ can help in the diagnosis of a pneumothorax. Ultrasound has a higher sensitivity than the traditional upright anteroposterior chest radiography (CXR for the detection of a pneumothorax. Small occult pneumothoraces may be missed on CXR during a busy trauma scenario, and CXR may not always be feasible in critically ill patients. Computed tomography, the gold standard for the detection of pneumothorax, requires patients to be transported out of the clinical area, compromising their hemodynamic stability and delaying the diagnosis. As ultrasound machines have become more portable and easier to use, lung sonography now allows a rapid evaluation of an unstable patient, at the bedside. These advantages combined with the low cost and ease of use, have allowed thoracic sonography to become a useful modality in many clinical settings.

  5. The Role of Bone Subtraction Computed Tomographic Angiography in Determining Intracranial Aneurysms in Non-Traumatic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayhan, Aysegul; Koc, Osman; Keskin, Suat; Keskin, Fatih

    2014-01-01

    The presence of blood in the subarachnoid space is an acute pathology with a serious risk of death and complications. The most common etiology (approximately 80%) is intracranial aneurysm. The aim of this study was to assess the role of bone subtracted computed tomographic angiography (BSCTA), a novel and noninvasive method for determining and characterizing intracranial aneurysms. Sixty consecutive patients with clinically suspected non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) were considered to enter the study. The subtraction quality was inadequate in ten patients; thus, they were excluded, leaving 50 patients (84.4%) in the study. Bone subtracted and non-subtracted 3D images were obtained from the BSCTA raw data sets. All images obtained by digital subtraction angiography (DSA), BSCTA, and computed tomographic angiography (CTA) were evaluated for the presence or absence of an aneurysm and the location, minimal sac diameter, and neck size ratio of the aneurysm. DSA was considered as the gold standard during the evaluation of the data. Of the 50 patients who participated in this study, 11 had no aneurysms as determined by both CTA and DSA. Examination of the remaining 39 patients revealed the presence of 51 aneurysms. While 3D-CTA could not detect six aneurysms that were located in the base of the skull, 3D-BSCTA easily detected them. Moreover, five aneurysms were only partially detected by 3D-CTA. According to this data, the sensitivity of 3D-BSCTA and 3D-CTA was calculated as 98% and 86.3%, respectively; the specificity was calculated as 100% and 90.9%, respectively, per aneurysm; and the sensitivity of 100% for 3D-BSCTA and 98% for 3D-CTA was achieved by using combined images with multi-planar reconstruction (MPR) and maximum intensity projection (MIP). BSCTA detected and characterized the aneurysms as well as DSA, and BSCTA and DSA gave concordant results in detecting aneurysms. BSCTA is easily accessible, less time consuming, and most importantly, a non

  6. The Role of Bone Subtraction Computed Tomographic Angiography in Determining Intracranial Aneurysms in Non-Traumatic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayhan, Aysegul; Koc, Osman; Keskin, Suat; Keskin, Fatih

    2014-01-01

    Background: The presence of blood in the subarachnoid space is an acute pathology with a serious risk of death and complications. The most common etiology (approximately 80%) is intracranial aneurysm. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the role of bone subtracted computed tomographic angiography (BSCTA), a novel and noninvasive method for determining and characterizing intracranial aneurysms. Patients and Methods: Sixty consecutive patients with clinically suspected non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) were considered to enter the study. The subtraction quality was inadequate in ten patients; thus, they were excluded, leaving 50 patients (84.4%) in the study. Bone subtracted and non-subtracted 3D images were obtained from the BSCTA raw data sets. All images obtained by digital subtraction angiography (DSA), BSCTA, and computed tomographic angiography (CTA) were evaluated for the presence or absence of an aneurysm and the location, minimal sac diameter, and neck size ratio of the aneurysm. DSA was considered as the gold standard during the evaluation of the data. Results: Of the 50 patients who participated in this study, 11 had no aneurysms as determined by both CTA and DSA. Examination of the remaining 39 patients revealed the presence of 51 aneurysms. While 3D-CTA could not detect six aneurysms that were located in the base of the skull, 3D-BSCTA easily detected them. Moreover, five aneurysms were only partially detected by 3D-CTA. According to this data, the sensitivity of 3D-BSCTA and 3D-CTA was calculated as 98% and 86.3%, respectively; the specificity was calculated as 100% and 90.9%, respectively, per aneurysm; and the sensitivity of 100% for 3D-BSCTA and 98% for 3D-CTA was achieved by using combined images with multi-planar reconstruction (MPR) and maximum intensity projection (MIP). BSCTA detected and characterized the aneurysms as well as DSA, and BSCTA and DSA gave concordant results in detecting aneurysms. Conclusions: BSCTA is

  7. Computed tomographic pulmonary angiography in the assessment of severity of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Min; Ma Zhanhong; Guo Xiaojuan; Zhang Hongxia; Yang Yuanhua; WangChen

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim was to investigate the role of computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA) in the assessment of severity and right ventricular function in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Materials and methods: Clinical and radiological data of 56 patients with CTEPH January 2006–October 2009 were retrospectively reviewed in the present study. All patients received CTPA with a 64-row CT using the retrospective ECG-Gated mode before digital subtraction pulmonary angiography and right-heart catheterization. CTPA findings including Right Ventricular diameter (RVd) and left ventricular diameter (LVd) were measured at the end diastole. CT Pulmonary Artery Obstruction Indexes including Qanadli Index and Mastora Index were used in the assessment of severity of pulmonary arterial obstruction. Hemodynamic parameters and pulmonary hypertension classification were evaluated by right-heart catheterization in all patients. Right ventricular function was measured with echocardiography in 49 patients. Results: Qanadli Index and Mastora Index respectively were (37.93 ± 14.74)% and (30.92 ± 16.91)%, which showed a significant difference (Z = −5.983, P = 0.000) and a good correlation (r = 0.881, P = 0.000). Neither Qanadli nor Mastora Index correlated with pulmonary hypertension classification (r = −0.009, P = 0.920) or New York Heart Association heart function classification (r = −0.031, P = 0.756). Neither Qanadli nor Mastora Index correlated with any echocardiographic right ventricular parameters (P > 0.05), while RVd/LVd by CTPA correlated with echocardiographic right ventricular functional parameters (P 2 . CTPA findings correlated with hemodynamic variables. Backward linear regression analysis revealed that the RVd/LVd, Right Ventricular Anterior Wall Thickness (RVAWT), Main Pulmonary Artery trunk diameter (MPAd) were shown to be independently associated with mean Pulmonary Artery Pressure (mPAP) levels (model: r 2 = 0.351, P = 0.025; RVd

  8. Analysis of factors influencing the integrated bolus peak timing in contrast-enhanced brain computed tomographic angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Soon Yong; Choi, Kwan Woo; Jeong, Hoi Woun; Jang, Seo Goo; Jung, Jae Young; Yun, Jung Soo; Kim, Ki Won; Lee, Young Ah; Son, Jin Hyun; Min, Jung Whan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the factors influencing integrated bolus peak timing in contrast- enhanced computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and to determine a method of calculating personal peak time. The optimal time was calculated by performing multiple linear regression analysis, after finding the influence factors through correlation analysis between integrated peak time of contrast medium and personal measured value by monitoring CTA scans. The radiation exposure dose in CTA was 716.53 mGy·cm and the radiation exposure dose in monitoring scan was 15.52 mGy (2 - 34 mGy). The results were statistically significant (p < .01). Regression analysis revealed, a -0.160 times decrease with a one-step increase in heart rate in male, and -0.004, -0.174, and 0.006 times decrease with one-step in DBP, heart rate, and blood sugar, respectively, in female. In a consistency test of peak time by calculating measured peak time and peak time by using the regression equation, the consistency was determined to be very high for male and female. This study could prevent unnecessary dose exposure by encouraging in clinic calculation of personal integrated peak time of contrast medium prior to examination

  9. Assessment of Normal Eyeball Protrusion Using Computed Tomographic Imaging and Three-Dimensional Reconstruction in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kang-Jae; Gil, Young-Chun; Lee, Shin-Hyo; Kim, Jeong-Nam; Yoo, Ja-Young; Kim, Soon-Heum; Choi, Hyun-Gon; Shin, Hyun Jin; Koh, Ki-Seok; Song, Wu-Chul

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess normal eyeball protrusion from the orbital rim using two- and three-dimensional images and demonstrate the better suitability of CT images for assessment of exophthalmos. The facial computed tomographic (CT) images of Korean adults were acquired in sagittal and transverse views. The CT images were used in reconstructing three-dimensional volume of faces using computer software. The protrusion distances from orbital rims and the diameters of eyeballs were measured in the two views of the CT image and three-dimensional volume of the face. Relative exophthalmometry was calculated by the difference in protrusion distance between the right and left sides. The eyeball protrusion was 4.9 and 12.5 mm in sagittal and transverse views, respectively. The protrusion distances were 2.9 mm in the three-dimensional volume of face. There were no significant differences between right and left sides in the degree of protrusion, and the difference was within 2 mm in more than 90% of the subjects. The results of the present study will provide reliable criteria for precise diagnosis and postoperative monitoring using CT imaging of diseases such as thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy and orbital tumors.

  10. 256-Slice coronary computed tomographic angiography in patients with atrial fibrillation: optimal reconstruction phase and image quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Seitaro; Yuki, Hideaki; Kidoh, Masafumi; Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Nakaura, Takeshi; Namimoto, Tomohiro; Yamashita, Yasuyuki [Kumamoto University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Chuou-ku, Kumamoto (Japan); Honda, Keiichi; Yoshimura, Akira; Katahira, Kazuhiro [Kumamoto Chuo Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Minami-ku, Kumamoto (Japan); Noda, Katsuo; Oshima, Shuichi [Kumamoto Chuo Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Minami-ku, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    To assess the optimal reconstruction phase and the image quality of coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We performed CCTA in 60 patients with AF and 60 controls with sinus rhythm. The images were reconstructed in multiple phases in all parts of the cardiac cycle, and the optimal reconstruction phase with the fewest motion artefacts was identified. The coronary artery segments were visually evaluated to investigate their assessability. In 46 (76.7 %) patients, the optimal reconstruction phase was end-diastole, whereas in 6 (10.0 %) patients it was end-systole or mid-diastole, and in 2 (3.3 %) patients it was another cardiac phase. In 53 (88.3 %) of the controls, the optimal reconstruction phase was mid-diastole, whereas it was end-systole in 4 (6.7 %), and in 3 (5.0 %) it was another cardiac phase. There was a significant difference between patients with AF and the controls in the optimal phase (p < 0.01) but not in the visual image quality score (p = 0.06). The optimal reconstruction phase in most patients with AF was the end-diastolic phase. The end-systolic phase tended to be optimal in AF patients with higher average heart rates. (orig.)

  11. Detection of common bile duct stones: comparison between endoscopic ultrasonography, magnetic resonance cholangiography, and helical-computed-tomographic cholangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Shintaro; Isayama, Hiroyuki; Akahane, Masaaki; Toda, Nobuo; Sasahira, Naoki; Nakai, Yosuke; Yamamoto, Natsuyo; Hirano, Kenji; Komatsu, Yutaka; Tada, Minoru; Yoshida, Haruhiko; Kawabe, Takao; Ohtomo, Kuni; Omata, Masao

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: New modalities, namely, endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS), magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), and helical computed-tomographic cholangiography (HCT-C), have been introduced recently for the detection of common bile duct (CBD) stones and shown improved detectability compared to conventional ultrasound or computed tomography. We conducted this study to compare the diagnostic ability of EUS, MRCP, and HCT-C in patients with suspected choledocholithiasis. Methods: Twenty-eight patients clinically suspected of having CBD stones were enrolled, excluding those with cholangitis or a definite history of choledocholithiasis. Each patient underwent EUS, MRCP, and HCT-C prior to endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP), the result of which served as the diagnostic gold standard. Results: CBD stones were detected in 24 (86%) of 28 patients by ERCP/IDUS. The sensitivity of EUS, MRCP, and HCT-C was 100%, 88%, and 88%, respectively. False negative cases for MRCP and HCT-C had a CBD stone smaller than 5 mm in diameter. No serious complications occurred while one patient complained of itching in the eyelids after the infusion of contrast agent on HCT-C. Conclusions: When examination can be scheduled, MRCP or HCT-C will be the first choice because they were less invasive than EUS. MRCP and HCT-C had similar detectability but the former may be preferable considering the possibility of allergic reaction in the latter. When MRCP is negative, EUS is recommended to check for small CBD stones

  12. The use of intraosseous needles for injection of contrast media for computed tomographic angiography of the thoracic aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Michael; Talley, Cynthia; Woodward, Connor; Kingsbury, Alexander; Appiah, Frank; Elbelasi, Hossam; Landwher, Kevin; Li, Xingzhe; Fleischmann, Dominik

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the safety and quality of computed tomographic angiography of the thoracic aorta (CTA-TA) exams performed using intraosseous needle intravenous access (ION-IVA) for contrast media injection (CMI). All CTA-TA exams at the study institution performed between 1/1/2013 and 8/14/2015 were reviewed retrospectively to identify those exams which had been performed using ION-IVA (ION-exams). ION-exams were then analyzed to determine aortic attenuation and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Linear regression was used to determine how injection rate and other variables affected image quality for ION-exams. Patient electronic medical records were reviewed to identify any adverse events related to CTA-TA or ION-IVA. 17 (∼0.2%) of 7401 exams were ION-exams. ION-exam CMI rates varied between 2.5 and 4 ml/s. Mean attenuation was 312 HU (SD 88 HU) and mean CNR was 25 (SD 9.9). A strong positive linear association between attenuation and injection rate was found. No immediate or delayed complications related to the ION-exams, or intraosseous needle use in general, occurred. For CTA-TA, ION-IVA appears to be a safe and effective route for CMI at rates up to 4 ml/s. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Deviations of Mesial Root Canals of Mandibular First Molar Teeth at the Apical Third: A Micro-computed Tomographic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keles, Ali; Keskin, Cangül

    2018-04-19

    The present study aimed to quantitatively analyze apical foramen deviations of mesial root canals of mandibular first molar teeth by means of micro-computed tomographic (micro-CT) imaging. Micro-CT images of the mesial roots of 109 mandibular first molar teeth with independent mesiobuccal (MB) and mesiolingual (ML) root canals were analyzed. The deviations of the apical foramina of the MB, ML, and middle mesial root canals from the anatomic apex were measured. The vertical distance between the apical foramina of each mesial root canal in relation to each other was also calculated. The distances from the apical foramina of the MB, ML, and middle mesial root canals to the anatomic apex of the mesial root were up to 2.51 mm, 3.21 mm, and 5.67 mm, respectively. There was no significant difference between the deviations of MB and ML root canals from each other (P > .05). The middle mesial root canal showed the greatest deviation compared with the MB and ML canals (P < .05). The apical foramina of mesial root canals of mandibular first molar teeth showed greater variations from each other and anatomic apices than previously reported. Clinically, the use of electronic apex locators for the detection of minor apical foramen of each mesial root canal is of the utmost important. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Detectability of Middle Mesial Root Canal Orifices by Troughing Technique in Mandibular Molars: A Micro-computed Tomographic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleş, Ali; Keskin, Cangül

    2017-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to measure the orifice depth of middle mesial canals (MMCs) and evaluate the detectability of orifices using troughing preparation. For this study, 85 mandibular molar teeth with MMCs were selected from the scanned micro-computed tomographic images. The MMCs were categorized, and the distances between the MMC orifices and the cementoenamel junctions (CEJ) were recorded as the depth of the orifice. Data were evaluated with frequency analysis and a chi-square test using SPSS (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL), and the results indicated a 5% significance level. It was found that 77.41% of the MMC orifices were at the CEJ level, whereas 5.38% and 9.69% of the MMC orifices were detectable within 1-mm and 2-mm depths from the CEJ, respectively. Of the specimens, 7.52% had MMC orifices deeper than 2 mm from the CEJ. Confluent anatomy was the most frequent configuration. No significant relation was detected between the orifice depth and MMC configuration (P > .05). It was concluded that 77.41% of the specimens did not require troughing preparation, the remaining 15.07% would require troughing, and 7.52% could not be accessed even with the troughing preparation. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Computed tomographic features of the bony canal of the cochlear nerve in pediatric patients with unilateral sensorineural hearing loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kono, Tatsuo

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diameters of the various bony canals of the inner ear in patients with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and establish criteria for detecting hypoplasia of the bony canal of the cochlear nerve. Measurements obtained in 118 patients without inner ear malformations among 160 patients with unilateral SNHL were analyzed. The diameters of the internal auditory canal and the bony canals of the cochlear, vestibular, and facial nerves were measured on transverse or coronal computed tomographic images. Mean values (±standard deviation (SD)) were compared between the affected and unaffected ears, and statistical analysis was done. The diameter of the bony canal of the cochlear nerve was significantly smaller in affected ears than in unaffected ears (P<0.01). The affected ears could be divided into groups with (72 ears) and without (46 ears) bony canal stenosis. Most (60%) of the patients with unilateral SNHL showed a significant difference in the diameters of the bony canals of the cochlear nerve between the affected and unaffected sides; moreover, the mean value was significantly smaller in affected ears. The diameter of <1.7 mm on transverse images or <1.8 mm on coronal images suggests hypoplasia. (author)

  16. Impact of Cardiac Computed Tomographic Angiography Findings on Planning of Cancer Therapy in Patients with Concomitant Structural Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyad N. Daher

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Exclusion of underlying coronary artery disease (CAD is essential in the diagnosis of chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy. Presence and severity of CAD can also impact the choice of therapy in cancer patients. The value of cardiac computed tomographic angiography (CCTA in this setting has not been reported. Methods. We collected data on the clinical presentation and indications for CCTA performed from January to December 2008 at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC. All examinations were performed using a 64-detector scanner. CCTA results and subsequent treatment decisions were examined. Results. A total of 80 patients underwent CCTA during the study period for the following indications (not mutually exclusive: cardiomyopathy of unknown etiology in 33 pts (41.3%, chest pain in 32 (40.0%, abnormal stress test in 16 (20.0%, abnormal cardiac markers in 8 (10.0%, suspected cardiac mass or thrombus in 7 (8.8%. Chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy was diagnosed in 18 pts (22.5%. Severe CAD was detected in 22 pts (27.5%; due to concomitant advanced cancer or patient refusal, only 12 underwent coronary angiogram. Of these, 4 pts (5% of total underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. A total of 41 pts (51.3% had their cancer management altered based on CCTA findings. Conclusion. CCTA is useful in evaluating cancer pts with structural heart disease and can have an impact on the management of cancer and cardiac disease.

  17. Is triple contrast computed tomographic scanning useful in the selective management of stab wounds to the back?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, E; Perez, M; Albrink, M H; Olsen, S M; Rosemurgy, A S

    1994-09-01

    We devised a protocol to prospectively manage stab wounds to the back with the hypothesis that the triple contrast computed tomographic (CT) scan is an effective means of detecting occult injury in these patients. All wounds to the back in hemodynamically stable adults were locally explored. All patients with muscular fascial penetration underwent triple contrast CT scanning utilizing oral, rectal, and IV contrast. Patients did not undergo surgical exploration if their CT scan was interpreted as negative or if the CT scan demonstrated injuries not requiring surgical intervention. Fifty-three patients were entered into the protocol. The time to complete the triple contrast CT scan ranged from 3 to 6 hours at a cost of $1050 for each scan. In 51 patients (96%), the CT scan either had negative findings (n = 31) or showed injuries not requiring exploration (n = 20). These patients did well with nonsurgical management. Two CT scans documented significant injury and led to surgical exploration and therapeutic celiotomies. Although triple contrast CT scanning was able to detect occult injury in patients with stab wounds to the back it did so at considerable cost and the results rarely altered clinical care. Therefore, its routine use in these patients is not recommended.

  18. Lung Ultrasonography in Patients With Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Evaluation of a Simplified Protocol With High-Resolution Computed Tomographic Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassalou, Evangelia E; Raissaki, Maria; Magkanas, Eleftherios; Antoniou, Katerina M; Karantanas, Apostolos H

    2018-03-01

    To compare a simplified ultrasonographic (US) protocol in 2 patient positions with the same-positioned comprehensive US assessments and high-resolution computed tomographic (CT) findings in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Twenty-five consecutive patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis were prospectively enrolled and examined in 2 sessions. During session 1, patients were examined with a US protocol including 56 lung intercostal spaces in supine/sitting (supine/sitting comprehensive protocol) and lateral decubitus (decubitus comprehensive protocol) positions. During session 2, patients were evaluated with a 16-intercostal space US protocol in sitting (sitting simplified protocol) and left/right decubitus (decubitus simplified protocol) positions. The 16 intercostal spaces were chosen according to the prevalence of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis-related changes on high-resolution CT. The sum of B-lines counted in each intercostal space formed the US scores for all 4 US protocols: supine/sitting and decubitus comprehensive US scores and sitting and decubitus simplified US scores. High-resolution CT-related Warrick scores (J Rheumatol 1991; 18:1520-1528) were compared to US scores. The duration of each protocol was recorded. A significant correlation was found between all US scores and Warrick scores and between simplified and corresponding comprehensive scores (P idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The 16-intercostal space simplified protocol in the lateral decubitus position correlated better with high-resolution CT findings and was less time-consuming compared to the sitting position. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  19. Image-guided microneurosurgical management of small cerebral arteriovenous malformations: the value of navigated computed tomographic angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coenen, V.A.; Reinges, M.H.T.; Gilsbach, J.M.; Rohde, V.; Dammert, S.; Mull, M.

    2005-01-01

    In small arteriovenous malformations (AVM) with large hematomas, surgery remains the main therapeutic option. However, intraoperative identification of the AVM, feeders, and draining veins could be difficult in the environment of substantial intracerebral blood. In those selected cases, we use navigated computed tomographic angiography (CTA) for the microneurosurgical management. It is our objective to report our initial experiences. Prior to operation a conventional CTA with superficial skin fiducials placed on a patient's head was acquired for diagnostic and neuronavigation purposes. Image data were transferred to a neuronavigation device with integrated volume rendering capacities which allows a three-dimensional reconstruction of the vascular tree and the AVM to be created. In all patients the AVM was removed successfully after having been localized with CTA-based neuronavigation. Navigated CTA is helpful for the operative management of small AVMs with large hematomas. The technique allows feeding arteries to be distinguished from draining veins thereby allowing the nidus of the AVM to be identified despite the presence of substantial intracerebral blood. CTA can be easily implemented into commercial neuronavigation systems. (orig.)

  20. Comparison of the Multidetector-row Computed Tomographic Angiography Axial and Coronal Planes' Usefulness for Detecting Thoracodorsal Artery Perforators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Gyu

    2012-01-01

    Background During the planning of a thoracodorsal artery perforator (TDAP) free flap, preoperative multidetector-row computed tomographic (MDCT) angiography is valuable for predicting the locations of perforators. However, CT-based perforator mapping of the thoracodorsal artery is not easy because of its small diameter. Thus, we evaluated 1-mm-thick MDCT images in multiple planes to search for reliable perforators accurately. Methods Between July 2010 and October 2011, 19 consecutive patients (13 males, 6 females) who underwent MDCT prior to TDAP free flap operations were enrolled in this study. Patients ranged in age from 10 to 75 years (mean, 39.3 years). MDCT images were acquired at a thickness of 1 mm in the axial, coronal, and sagittal planes. Results The thoracodorsal artery perforators were detected in all 19 cases. The reliable perforators originating from the descending branch were found in 14 cases, of which 6 had transverse branches. The former were well identified in the coronal view, and the latter in the axial view. The location of the most reliable perforators on MDCT images corresponded well with the surgical findings. Conclusions Though MDCT has been widely used in performing the abdominal perforator free flap for detecting reliable perforating vessels, it is not popular in the TDAP free flap. The results of this study suggest that multiple planes of MDCT may increase the probability of detecting the most reliable perforators, along with decreasing the probability of missing available vessels. PMID:22872839

  1. Clinical and high-resolution computed tomographic findings in five patients with pulmonary tuberculosis who developed respiratory failure following chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akira, Masanori; Sakatani, Mitsunori

    2001-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical and high-resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) findings in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis who developed respiratory failure after starting chemotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The clinical records, chest radiographs, and HRCT findings in five patients with non-miliary pulmonary tuberculosis who developed respiratory failure after starting chemotherapy were reviewed. RESULTS: Chest radiographs taken early in the course of acute respiratory failure showed progression of the original lesions with (n = 4) or without (n = 1) new areas of opacity away from the site of the original lesions. HRCT demonstrated widespread ground-glass attenuation with a reticular pattern as well as segmental or lobar consolidation with cavitation and nodules, consistent with active tuberculous foci in all five cases. Prominent interlobular septal thickening was seen in two cases. Four of the five patients had received corticosteroids. Of these five, two died and three recovered with continued corticosteroid therapy. Transbronchial biopsy in three cases showed evidence of acute alveolar damage. CONCLUSION: In selected patients with tuberculosis who develop respiratory failure following the initiation of antituberculous therapy, HRCT may be a helpful adjunct to clinical evaluation in differentiating hypersensitivity reactions (presumed to be due to the release of mycobacterial antigens) from other pulmonary complications. Akira, M. and Sakatani, M. (2001)

  2. The impact of reorienting cone-beam computed tomographic images in varied head positions on the coordinates of anatomical landmarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Hun; Jeong, Ho Gul; Hwang, Jae Joon; Lee, Jung Hee; Han, Sang Sun [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Yonsei University, College of Dentistry, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The aim of this study was to compare the coordinates of anatomical landmarks on cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) images in varied head positions before and after reorientation using image analysis software. CBCT images were taken in a normal position and four varied head positions using a dry skull marked with 3 points where gutta percha was fixed. In each of the five radiographic images, reference points were set, 20 anatomical landmarks were identified, and each set of coordinates was calculated. Coordinates in the images from the normally positioned head were compared with those in the images obtained from varied head positions using statistical methods. Post-reorientation coordinates calculated using a three-dimensional image analysis program were also compared to the reference coordinates. In the original images, statistically significant differences were found between coordinates in the normal-position and varied-position images. However, post-reorientation, no statistically significant differences were found between coordinates in the normal-position and varied-position images. The changes in head position impacted the coordinates of the anatomical landmarks in three-dimensional images. However, reorientation using image analysis software allowed accurate superimposition onto the reference positions.

  3. Verification of computed tomographic estimates of cochlear implant array position: a micro-CT and histologic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teymouri, Jessica; Hullar, Timothy E; Holden, Timothy A; Chole, Richard A

    2011-08-01

    To determine the efficacy of clinical computed tomographic (CT) imaging to verify postoperative electrode array placement in cochlear implant (CI) patients. Nine fresh cadaver heads underwent clinical CT scanning, followed by bilateral CI insertion and postoperative clinical CT scanning. Temporal bones were removed, trimmed, and scanned using micro-CT. Specimens were then dehydrated, embedded in either methyl methacrylate or LR White resin, and sectioned with a diamond wafering saw. Histology sections were examined by 3 blinded observers to determine the position of individual electrodes relative to soft tissue structures within the cochlea. Electrodes were judged to be within the scala tympani, scala vestibuli, or in an intermediate position between scalae. The position of the array could be estimated accurately from clinical CT scans in all specimens using micro-CT and histology as a criterion standard. Verification using micro-CT yielded 97% agreement, and histologic analysis revealed 95% agreement with clinical CT results. A composite, 3-dimensional image derived from a patient's preoperative and postoperative CT images using a clinical scanner accurately estimates the position of the electrode array as determined by micro-CT imaging and histologic analyses. Information obtained using the CT method provides valuable insight into numerous variables of interest to patient performance such as surgical technique, array design, and processor programming and troubleshooting.

  4. Positional relationship between the maxillary sinus floor and the apex of the maxillary first molar using cone beam computed tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung Hwa; Koh, Kwang Joon

    2008-01-01

    To assess the positional relationship between the maxillary sinus floor and the apex of the maxillary first molar using cone beam computed tomograph (CBCT). CBCTs from 127 subjects were analysed. A total of 134 maxillary first molars were classified according to their vertical and horizontal positional relationship to the maxillary sinus floor and measured according to the distance between the maxillary sinus floor and the maxillary first molar. Type III (The root projected laterally on the sinus cavity but its apex is outside the sinus boundaries) was dominated between 10 and 19 years and type I (The root apex was not in contact with the cortical borders of the sinus) was dominated (P<0.05) between 20 and 72 years on the vertical relationship between the maxillary sinus floor and the apex of the maxillary first molar. The maxillary sinus floor was located more at the apex (78.2%) than at the furcation (21.3%) for the palatal root. The distance from the root apex to the maxillary sinus floor confined to type I was increased according to the ages (P<0.05). Type M (The maxillary sinus floor was located between the buccal and the palatal root) was most common (72.4%) on the horizontal relationship between the maxillary sinus floor and the apex of the maxillary first molar. CBCT can provide highly qualified images for the maxillary sinus floor and the root apex of the maxillary first molar.

  5. Getting a New Pancreas: Facts about Pancreas Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2003 December 2006 March 2012 Getting A New Pancreas Facts About Pancreas Transplants American Society of Transplantation 1120 Route 73, ... the views of the Society. _________________________________________________________________ Getting a New Pancreas Facts About Pancreas Transplants When you get a ...

  6. Computed tomographic study of 50 patients with hypodense hepatic injuries in childhood; Estudo de 50 casos por tomografia computadorizada de lesoes hipodensas hepaticas fundamentais na infancia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Ines Minniti Rodrigues; Alvares, Beatriz Regina; Baracat, Jamal; Martins, Daniel Lahan [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: iminniti@fcm.unicamp.br; Pereira, Ricardo Minniti Rodrigues [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas

    2006-03-15

    Objective: To describe the different tomographic findings in hypodense hepatic lesions in children and its differential diagnosis. Materials and methods: computed tomographic studies were obtained from 50 patients (age range: 0-16 years) with low-density liver lesions previously diagnosed by ultrasound. Images were made before and after administration of intravenous contrast medium. Image findings were analyzed and afterwards correlated with anatomopathological diagnosis. Results: forty-seven of 50 cases were confirmed, 30 by anatomopathological diagnosis. Most of then were benign lesions, hemangioma in 20%. Such lesions presented a homogeneous contrast absorption, mainly at the delayed phase, differing from malignant lesions. Metastasis was the most frequently found malignant lesion (18%). Conclusion: computed tomographic study is of great value in complementing the diagnosis of hypodense hepatic lesions in children, and must follow ultrasound diagnosis as a routine procedure. (author)

  7. Middle east respiratory syndrome-corona virus infection: A case report of sieral computed tomographic findings in a young male patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Won Jin; Lee, Ki Nam; Kang, Eun Ju; Lee, Hyuck [Dong A University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Radiologic findings of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), a novel coronavirus infection, have been rarely reported. We report a 30-year-old male presented with fever, abdominal pain, and diarrhea, who was diagnosed with MERS. A chest computed tomographic scan revealed rapidly developed multifocal nodular consolidations with ground-glass opacity halo and mixed consolidation, mainly in the dependent and peripheral areas. After treatment, follow-up imaging showed that these abnormalities markedly decreased but fibrotic changes developed.

  8. Central tarsal bone fractures in horses not used for racing: Computed tomographic configuration and long-term outcome of lag screw fixation

    OpenAIRE

    Gunst, S; Del Chicca, Francesca; Fürst, Anton; Kuemmerle, Jan M

    2016-01-01

    REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: There are no reports on the configuration of equine central tarsal bone fractures based on cross-sectional imaging and clinical and radiographic long-term outcome after internal fixation. OBJECTIVES: To report clinical, radiographic and computed tomographic findings of equine central tarsal bone fractures and to evaluate the long-term outcome of internal fixation. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: All horses diagnosed with a central tarsa...

  9. Reciprocating vs Rotary Instrumentation in Pediatric Endodontics: Cone Beam Computed Tomographic Analysis of Deciduous Root Canals using Two Single-file Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, Attiguppe R; Yavagal, Chandrashekar; Dixit, Kratika; Naik, Saraswathi V

    2016-01-01

    Primary root canals are considered to be most challenging due to their complex anatomy. "Wave one" and "one shape" are single-file systems with reciprocating and rotary motion respectively. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare dentin thickness, centering ability, canal transportation, and instrumentation time of wave one and one shape files in primary root canals using a cone beam computed tomographic (CBCT) analysis. This is an experimental, in vitro study comparing the two groups. A total of 24 extracted human primary teeth with minimum 7 mm root length were included in the study. Cone beam computed tomographic images were taken before and after the instrumentation for each group. Dentin thickness, centering ability, canal transportation, and instrumentation times were evaluated for each group. A significant difference was found in instrumentation time and canal transportation measures between the two groups. Wave one showed less canal transportation as compared with one shape, and the mean instrumentation time of wave one was significantly less than one shape. Reciprocating single-file systems was found to be faster with much less procedural errors and can hence be recommended for shaping the root canals of primary teeth. How to cite this article: Prabhakar AR, Yavagal C, Dixit K, Naik SV. Reciprocating vs Rotary Instrumentation in Pediatric Endodontics: Cone Beam Computed Tomographic Analysis of Deciduous Root Canals using Two Single-File Systems. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):45-49.

  10. National Pancreas Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stay Informed - Join The Fight Animated Pancreas Patient Animations, Expert and Patient interviews on Pancreas Diseases State ... pancreatic experts at the American Pancreatic Association … Continue Reading More NPF News Social Media Post Read More ...

  11. Pancreas transplant - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100129.htm Pancreas transplant - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... to slide 6 out of 6 Overview The pancreas resides in the back of the abdomen. It ...

  12. Annular pancreas (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annular pancreas is an abnormal ring or collar of pancreatic tissue that encircles the duodenum (the part of the ... intestine that connects to stomach). This portion of pancreas can constrict the duodenum and block or impair ...

  13. Accessory Renal Artery Stenosis and Hypertension: Are These Correlated? Evaluation Using Multidetector-Row Computed Tomographic Angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saba, L.; Sanfilippo, R.; Montisci, R.; Conti, M.; Mallarini, G. (Dept. of Imaging Science and Dept. of Vascular Surgery, Policlinico Universitario, Cagliari (Italy))

    2008-04-15

    Background: Renal artery stenosis may produce hypertension, and this condition is referred to as renovascular hypertension (RVH). Purpose: To evaluate, by using multidetector-row spiral computed tomographic angiography (MDCTA), whether a relationship between accessory renal artery stenosis and hypertension may be hypothesized. Material and Methods: 214 patients (142 males, 72 females; mean age 66 years) who had previously undergone an MDCTA to study the abdominal vasculature were retrospectively studied. Patients with renal artery stenosis (RAS) were excluded from this analysis. The patients were studied by means of a four-detector-row CT, and scans were obtained after intravenous bolus administration of 110-140 ml of a nonionic contrast material with a 3-6 ml/s flow rate. As a second step, by means of statistical analysis, hypertension data were compared with findings of accessory artery stenosis. Two radiologists first independently reviewed the MDCTA images and then, in case of disagreement, in consensus. Interobserver agreement was calculated for all measurements. Results: The overall number of detected accessory renal arteries was 74 in 56 of the 214 patients. Accessory renal artery stenosis was detected in 21 of the 56 patients. There was a difference in the prevalence of hypertension between patients with (n = 21) and without (n = 35) accessory renal artery stenosis (P = 0.0187). Interobserver agreement was good (kappa value 0.733). Conclusion: Any statistical association between the presence of accessory renal artery stenosis and hypertension could not be disclosed. However, accessory renal artery stenosis, detected by MDCTA, is an important pathological sign that the radiologist has to assess in the light of its possible association with hypertension

  14. Computed tomographic angiography study of the relationship between the lingual artery and lingual markers in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, T.-N., E-mail: dr-htn@hotmail.co [Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Affiliated SIR RUN RUN SHAW Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310016 (China); Zhou, L.-N.; Hu, H.-J. [Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Affiliated SIR RUN RUN SHAW Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310016 (China)

    2011-06-15

    Aim: To determine the relationship between the lingual artery and lingual markers for preoperative evaluation of the lingual artery in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS). Methods: A 16-section computed tomographic angiography (CTA) of the lingual artery was performed in 87 inpatient cases with OSAHS, from December 2007 to May 2009. The course of the lingual artery and the anatomic relationship between the lingual artery and the lingual markers were analyzed using CTA imaging. Results: The course of the lingual artery with the tongue in a resting position was similar to that of the Big Dipper constellation (Plough) in the sagittal view of CTA imaging. The first segment of the lingual artery declined approximately 19.27 {+-} 5.24 mm, the middle segment of the lingual artery was forward approximately 19.30 {+-} 6.79 mm, and the ascending segment of the lingual artery rose approximately 52.49 {+-} 10.98 mm. The entry point where the lingual artery entered into the tongue was adjacent to the tip of the greater horn of the hyoid bone. The relationship between the second segment of the lingual artery and the greater horn of the hyoid bone was relatively steady with the tongue in whatever position. The interval between the bilateral greater horn of the hyoid bone equalled that between the bilateral lingual arteries. Conclusions: Recognizing some lingual markers in the patients with OSAHS, such as the greater horn of the hyoid bone, foramen cecum, circumvallate papilla, lingual vein and tongue midline, may facilitate the surgeon's ability to define the course of the lingual artery accurately in the treatment of OSAHS.

  15. Computed tomographic angiography criteria in the diagnosis of brain death - comparison of sensitivity and interobserver reliability of different evaluation scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawicki, Marcin; Walecka, A.; Bohatyrewicz, R.; Solek-Pastuszka, J.; Safranow, K.; Walecki, J.; Rowinski, O.; Czajkowski, Z.; Guzinski, M.; Burzynska, M.; Wojczal, J.

    2014-01-01

    The standardized diagnostic criteria for computed tomographic angiography (CTA) in diagnosis of brain death (BD) are not yet established. The aim of the study was to compare the sensitivity and interobserver agreement of the three previously used scales of CTA for the diagnosis of BD. Eighty-two clinically brain-dead patients underwent CTA with a delay of 40 s after contrast injection. Catheter angiography was used as the reference standard. CTA results were assessed by two radiologists, and the diagnosis of BD was established according to 10-, 7-, and 4-point scales. Catheter angiography confirmed the diagnosis of BD in all cases. Opacification of certain cerebral vessels as indicator of BD was highly sensitive: cortical segments of the middle cerebral artery (96.3 %), the internal cerebral vein (98.8 %), and the great cerebral vein (98.8 %). Other vessels were less sensitive: the pericallosal artery (74.4 %), cortical segments of the posterior cerebral artery (79.3 %), and the basilar artery (82.9 %). The sensitivities of the 10-, 7-, and 4-point scales were 67.1, 74.4, and 96.3 %, respectively (p < 0.001). Percentage interobserver agreement in diagnosis of BD reached 93 % for the 10-point scale, 89 % for the 7-point scale, and 95 % for the 4-point scale (p = 0.37). In the application of CTA to the diagnosis of BD, reducing the assessment of vascular opacification scale from a 10- to a 4-point scale significantly increases the sensitivity and maintains high interobserver reliability. (orig.)

  16. Observer Evaluation of a Metal Artifact Reduction Algorithm Applied to Head and Neck Cone Beam Computed Tomographic Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpics, Mark; Surucu, Murat; Mescioglu, Ibrahim; Alite, Fiori; Block, Alec M.; Choi, Mehee; Emami, Bahman; Harkenrider, Matthew M.; Solanki, Abhishek A.; Roeske, John C., E-mail: jroeske@lumc.edu

    2016-11-15

    Purpose and Objectives: To quantify, through an observer study, the reduction in metal artifacts on cone beam computed tomographic (CBCT) images using a projection-interpolation algorithm, on images containing metal artifacts from dental fillings and implants in patients treated for head and neck (H&N) cancer. Methods and Materials: An interpolation-substitution algorithm was applied to H&N CBCT images containing metal artifacts from dental fillings and implants. Image quality with respect to metal artifacts was evaluated subjectively and objectively. First, 6 independent radiation oncologists were asked to rank randomly sorted blinded images (before and after metal artifact reduction) using a 5-point rating scale (1 = severe artifacts; 5 = no artifacts). Second, the standard deviation of different regions of interest (ROI) within each image was calculated and compared with the mean rating scores. Results: The interpolation-substitution technique successfully reduced metal artifacts in 70% of the cases. From a total of 60 images from 15 H&N cancer patients undergoing image guided radiation therapy, the mean rating score on the uncorrected images was 2.3 ± 1.1, versus 3.3 ± 1.0 for the corrected images. The mean difference in ranking score between uncorrected and corrected images was 1.0 (95% confidence interval: 0.9-1.2, P<.05). The standard deviation of each ROI significantly decreased after artifact reduction (P<.01). Moreover, a negative correlation between the mean rating score for each image and the standard deviation of the oral cavity and bilateral cheeks was observed. Conclusion: The interpolation-substitution algorithm is efficient and effective for reducing metal artifacts caused by dental fillings and implants on CBCT images, as demonstrated by the statistically significant increase in observer image quality ranking and by the decrease in ROI standard deviation between uncorrected and corrected images.

  17. Differential diagnosis of solitary pulmonary inflammatory lesions and peripheral lung cancers with contrast-enhanced computed tomograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Zhi-gang; Sheng, Bo; Liu, Meng-qi; Lv, Fa-jin; Li, Qi; Ouyang, Yu, E-mail: cyscitg@163.com [Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Department of Radiology, Chongqing (China)

    2016-10-15

    Objectives: To clarify differences between solitary pulmonary inflammatory lesions and peripheral lung cancers with contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Methods: In total, 64 and 132 patients with solitary pulmonary inflammatory masses/nodules and peripheral lung cancers, respectively, were enrolled in this study. Their computed tomographic findings were summarized and compared retrospectively. Results: Compared with the peripheral lung cancers, the inflammatory lesions were located closer to the pleura (p<0.0001). The majority of the inflammatory lesions were patchy and oval-shaped (82.8%), whereas most of the tumors were lobulated (82.6%). Almost all the inflammatory cases were unclear (93.8%), whereas most of the tumors had speculated margins (72.7%). Computed tomography values were significantly higher for the inflammatory lesions than for the cancers (p<0.0001). More than half of the inflammatory lesions had defined necrosis (59.3%). Furthermore, 49.2% of the cancers enhanced inhomogeneously, but only 24.6% had ill-defined necrosis or cavities. The peripheral zones of 98.4% of the inflammatory lesions and 72.7% of the tumors were unclear, with peripheral scattered patches (92.2%) and beam-shaped opacity (66.7%) being the most common findings, respectively. Adjacent pleural thickening was more frequent for the inflammatory lesions than the cancers (95.3% vs. 21.1%, p<0.0001), whereas pleural indentation was found in 67.4% of the subjects with cancer. In addition, hilar (p=0.034) and mediastinal (p=0.003) lymphadenopathy were more commonly detected in the cancers than in the inflammatory cases. Conclusions: Contrast-enhanced computed tomography findings for pulmonary inflammatory lesions and peripheral lung cancers were significantly different in many aspects. Developing a comprehensive understanding of these differences is helpful for directing their management. (author)

  18. Chest Computed Tomographic Image Screening for Cystic Lung Diseases in Patients with Spontaneous Pneumothorax Is Cost Effective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nishant; Langenderfer, Dale; McCormack, Francis X; Schauer, Daniel P; Eckman, Mark H

    2017-01-01

    Patients without a known history of lung disease presenting with a spontaneous pneumothorax are generally diagnosed as having primary spontaneous pneumothorax. However, occult diffuse cystic lung diseases such as Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHD), lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), and pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) can also first present with a spontaneous pneumothorax, and their early identification by high-resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) chest imaging has implications for subsequent management. The objective of our study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of HRCT chest imaging to facilitate early diagnosis of LAM, BHD, and PLCH. We constructed a Markov state-transition model to assess the cost-effectiveness of screening HRCT to facilitate early diagnosis of diffuse cystic lung diseases in patients presenting with an apparent primary spontaneous pneumothorax. Baseline data for prevalence of BHD, LAM, and PLCH and rates of recurrent pneumothoraces in each of these diseases were derived from the literature. Costs were extracted from 2014 Medicare data. We compared a strategy of HRCT screening followed by pleurodesis in patients with LAM, BHD, or PLCH versus conventional management with no HRCT screening. In our base case analysis, screening for the presence of BHD, LAM, or PLCH in patients presenting with a spontaneous pneumothorax was cost effective, with a marginal cost-effectiveness ratio of $1,427 per quality-adjusted life-year gained. Sensitivity analysis showed that screening HRCT remained cost effective for diffuse cystic lung diseases prevalence as low as 0.01%. HRCT image screening for BHD, LAM, and PLCH in patients with apparent primary spontaneous pneumothorax is cost effective. Clinicians should consider performing a screening HRCT in patients presenting with apparent primary spontaneous pneumothorax.

  19. Computed tomographic angiography criteria in the diagnosis of brain death - comparison of sensitivity and interobserver reliability of different evaluation scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawicki, Marcin; Walecka, A. [Pomeranian Medical University, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Szczecin (Poland); Bohatyrewicz, R.; Solek-Pastuszka, J. [Pomeranian Medical University, Clinic of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Szczecin (Poland); Safranow, K. [Pomeranian Medical University, Department of Biochemistry and Medical Chemistry, Szczecin (Poland); Walecki, J. [The Centre of Postgraduate Medical Education, Warsaw (Poland); Rowinski, O. [Medical University of Warsaw, 2nd Department of Clinical Radiology, Warsaw (Poland); Czajkowski, Z. [Regional Joint Hospital, Szczecin (Poland); Guzinski, M. [Wroclaw Medical University, Department of General Radiology, Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Wroclaw (Poland); Burzynska, M. [Wroclaw Medical University, Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Therapy, Wroclaw (Poland); Wojczal, J. [Medical University of Lublin, Department of Neurology, Lublin (Poland)

    2014-08-15

    The standardized diagnostic criteria for computed tomographic angiography (CTA) in diagnosis of brain death (BD) are not yet established. The aim of the study was to compare the sensitivity and interobserver agreement of the three previously used scales of CTA for the diagnosis of BD. Eighty-two clinically brain-dead patients underwent CTA with a delay of 40 s after contrast injection. Catheter angiography was used as the reference standard. CTA results were assessed by two radiologists, and the diagnosis of BD was established according to 10-, 7-, and 4-point scales. Catheter angiography confirmed the diagnosis of BD in all cases. Opacification of certain cerebral vessels as indicator of BD was highly sensitive: cortical segments of the middle cerebral artery (96.3 %), the internal cerebral vein (98.8 %), and the great cerebral vein (98.8 %). Other vessels were less sensitive: the pericallosal artery (74.4 %), cortical segments of the posterior cerebral artery (79.3 %), and the basilar artery (82.9 %). The sensitivities of the 10-, 7-, and 4-point scales were 67.1, 74.4, and 96.3 %, respectively (p < 0.001). Percentage interobserver agreement in diagnosis of BD reached 93 % for the 10-point scale, 89 % for the 7-point scale, and 95 % for the 4-point scale (p = 0.37). In the application of CTA to the diagnosis of BD, reducing the assessment of vascular opacification scale from a 10- to a 4-point scale significantly increases the sensitivity and maintains high interobserver reliability. (orig.)

  20. 16-Detector row computed tomographic coronary angiography in patients undergoing evaluation for aortic valve replacement: comparison with catheter angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manghat, N.E.; Morgan-Hughes, G.J.; Broadley, A.J.; Undy, M.B.; Wright, D.; Marshall, A.J.; Roobottom, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of 16-detector row computed tomography (CT) in assessing haemodynamically significant coronary artery stenoses in patients under evaluation for aortic stenosis pre-aortic valve replacement. Subjects and methods: Forty consecutive patients under evaluation for severe aortic stenosis and listed for cardiac catheterization before potential aortic valve replacement underwent coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring and retrospective electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated multi-detector row computed tomographic coronary angiography (MDCTA) using a GE Lightspeed 16-detector row CT within 1 month of invasive coronary angiography (ICA) for comparative purposes. All 13 major coronary artery segments of the American Heart Association model were evaluated for the presence of ≥50% stenosis and compared to the reference standard. Data were analysed on a segment-by-segment basis and also in 'whole patient' terms. Results: A total of 412/450 segments from 35 patients were suitable for analysis. The overall accuracy of MDCTA for detection of segments with ≥50% stenosis was high, with a sensitivity of 81.3%, specificity 95.0%, positive predictive value (PPV) 57.8%, and negative predictive value (NPV) 98.4%. On a 'whole-patient' basis, 100% (19/19) of patients with significant coronary disease were correctly identified and there were no false-negatives. Excluding patients with CAC >1000 from the analysis improved the accuracy of MDCTA to: sensitivity 90%, specificity 98.1%, PPV 60%, NPV 99.7%. Conclusion: Non-invasive 16-detector row MDCTA accurately excludes significant coronary disease in patients with severe aortic stenosis undergoing evaluation before aortic valve replacement and in whom ICA can therefore be avoided. Its segment-by-segment accuracy is improved further if CAC > 1000 is used as a gatekeeper to MDCTA

  1. Fusion imaging of computed tomographic pulmonary angiography and SPECT ventilation/perfusion scintigraphy: initial experience and potential benefit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Benjamin; Bailey, Dale; Roach, Paul; Bailey, Elizabeth; King, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of fusing ventilation and perfusion data from single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) ventilation perfusion (V/Q) scintigraphy together with computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA) data. We sought to determine the accuracy of this fusion process. In addition, we correlated the findings of this technique with the final clinical diagnosis. Thirty consecutive patients (17 female, 13 male) who had undergone both CTPA and SPECT V/Q scintigraphy during their admission for investigation of potential pulmonary embolism were identified retrospectively. Image datasets from these two modalities were co-registered and fused using commercial software. Accuracy of the fusion process was determined subjectively by correlation between modalities of the anatomical boundaries and co-existent pleuro-parenchymal abnormalities. In all 30 cases, SPECT V/Q images were accurately fused with CTPA images. An automated registration algorithm was sufficient alone in 23 cases (77%). Additional linear z-axis scaling was applied in seven cases. There was accurate topographical co-localisation of vascular, parenchymal and pleural disease on the fused images. Nine patients who had positive CTPA performed as an initial investigation had co-localised perfusion defects on the subsequent fused CTPA/SPECT images. Three of the 11 V/Q scans initially reported as intermediate could be reinterpreted as low probability owing to co-localisation of defects with parenchymal or pleural pathology. Accurate fusion of SPECT V/Q scintigraphy to CTPA images is possible. This technique may be clinically useful in patients who have non-diagnostic initial investigations or in whom corroborative imaging is sought. (orig.)

  2. Echocardiographic and non-gated computed tomographic findings of intrapericardial tumor and mediastinal tumor adjacent to the heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Minoru; Yamada, Nobuyuki; Saito, Daiji; Haraoka, Shoichi; Tanetani, Setsuro.

    1981-01-01

    Echocardiographic and computed tomographic findings of a case of intrapericardial tumor are reported, and two other cases of mediastinal tumor are presented in a discussion of the differential diagnosis of intrapericardial from mediastinal tumors. Case report: A 7-year-old male complained of cough and dyspnea. Cardiomegaly had been pointed out at a mass X-ray examination about a month prior to the admission. Two-dimensional echocardiography revealed a massive anterior pericardial effusion and a fist-sized tumor with cystic structure. The tumor pushed the heart backward at the level of the aortic root. Non-gated computed tomography of the chest disclosed the size and location of the tumor, but failed to clarify the internal structure. The patient underwent successful removal of a tumor, 12 x 10 x 8 cm in size and 350 g in weight, originating from the left atrial wall. Histologically, the tumor was a fibrosarcomatous mesothelioma. Usually, an intrapericardial tumor is easily suspected by echocardiography by the presence of pericardial effusion, although there have been a few reports of intrapericardial tumors without pericardial effusion. Echocardiographic diagnosis of the intrapericardial tumor is difficult in such cases. Identification of the pericardium is necessary to diagnose whether a tumor is intra- or extrapericardial. This identification, however, is not always easy by echocardiography when the ultrasonic beams become tangent to the pericardium. The pericardium between the tumor and the heart could not be identified by echocardiography in our two cases of mediastinal tumor. Computed tomography is helpful in diagnosing the size and location of a mediastinal tumor. (author)

  3. Rapid estimation of split renal function in kidney donors using software developed for computed tomographic renal volumetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Fumi; Kamishima, Tamotsu; Morita, Ken; Muto, Natalia S.; Okamoto, Syozou; Omatsu, Tokuhiko; Oyama, Noriko; Terae, Satoshi; Kanegae, Kakuko; Nonomura, Katsuya; Shirato, Hiroki

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the speed and precision of split renal volume (SRV) measurement, which is the ratio of unilateral renal volume to bilateral renal volume, using a newly developed software for computed tomographic (CT) volumetry and to investigate the usefulness of SRV for the estimation of split renal function (SRF) in kidney donors. Method: Both dynamic CT and renal scintigraphy in 28 adult potential living renal donors were the subjects of this study. We calculated SRV using the newly developed volumetric software built into a PACS viewer (n-SRV), and compared it with SRV calculated using a conventional workstation, ZIOSOFT (z-SRV). The correlation with split renal function (SRF) using 99m Tc-DMSA scintigraphy was also investigated. Results: The time required for volumetry of bilateral kidneys with the newly developed software (16.7 ± 3.9 s) was significantly shorter than that of the workstation (102.6 ± 38.9 s, p < 0.0001). The results of n-SRV (49.7 ± 4.0%) were highly consistent with those of z-SRV (49.9 ± 3.6%), with a mean discrepancy of 0.12 ± 0.84%. The SRF also agreed well with the n-SRV, with a mean discrepancy of 0.25 ± 1.65%. The dominant side determined by SRF and n-SRV showed agreement in 26 of 28 cases (92.9%). Conclusion: The newly developed software for CT volumetry was more rapid than the conventional workstation volumetry and just as accurate, and was suggested to be useful for the estimation of SRF and thus the dominant side in kidney donors.

  4. Rapid estimation of split renal function in kidney donors using software developed for computed tomographic renal volumetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Fumi, E-mail: fumikato@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Kamishima, Tamotsu, E-mail: ktamotamo2@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Morita, Ken, E-mail: kenordic@carrot.ocn.ne.jp [Department of Urology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-8638 (Japan); Muto, Natalia S., E-mail: nataliamuto@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Okamoto, Syozou, E-mail: shozo@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-8638 (Japan); Omatsu, Tokuhiko, E-mail: omatoku@nirs.go.jp [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Oyama, Noriko, E-mail: ZAT04404@nifty.ne.jp [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Terae, Satoshi, E-mail: saterae@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Kanegae, Kakuko, E-mail: IZW00143@nifty.ne.jp [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-8638 (Japan); Nonomura, Katsuya, E-mail: k-nonno@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Urology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-8638 (Japan); Shirato, Hiroki, E-mail: shirato@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the speed and precision of split renal volume (SRV) measurement, which is the ratio of unilateral renal volume to bilateral renal volume, using a newly developed software for computed tomographic (CT) volumetry and to investigate the usefulness of SRV for the estimation of split renal function (SRF) in kidney donors. Method: Both dynamic CT and renal scintigraphy in 28 adult potential living renal donors were the subjects of this study. We calculated SRV using the newly developed volumetric software built into a PACS viewer (n-SRV), and compared it with SRV calculated using a conventional workstation, ZIOSOFT (z-SRV). The correlation with split renal function (SRF) using {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA scintigraphy was also investigated. Results: The time required for volumetry of bilateral kidneys with the newly developed software (16.7 {+-} 3.9 s) was significantly shorter than that of the workstation (102.6 {+-} 38.9 s, p < 0.0001). The results of n-SRV (49.7 {+-} 4.0%) were highly consistent with those of z-SRV (49.9 {+-} 3.6%), with a mean discrepancy of 0.12 {+-} 0.84%. The SRF also agreed well with the n-SRV, with a mean discrepancy of 0.25 {+-} 1.65%. The dominant side determined by SRF and n-SRV showed agreement in 26 of 28 cases (92.9%). Conclusion: The newly developed software for CT volumetry was more rapid than the conventional workstation volumetry and just as accurate, and was suggested to be useful for the estimation of SRF and thus the dominant side in kidney donors.

  5. Incremental prognostic value of coronary computed tomographic angiography high-risk plaque characteristics in newly symptomatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Shinichiro; Kondo, Takeshi; Takamura, Kazuhisa; Baber, Usman; Shinozaki, Tomohiro; Nishizaki, Yuji; Kawaguchi, Yuko; Matsumori, Rie; Hiki, Makoto; Miyauchi, Katsumi; Daida, Hiroyuki; Hecht, Harvey; Stone, Gregg W; Narula, Jagat

    2016-06-01

    The incremental prognostic value of the plaque features in coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) has not been well assessed. This study was designed to determine whether CTA high-risk plaques have prognostic value incremental to the Framingham risk score (FRS) and the severity of luminal obstruction. A total of 628 newly symptomatic patients without known coronary artery disease underwent CTA. They were followed for a median of 677 days during which there were 26 cardiac events, including cardiac death, acute myocardial infarction, and hospitalization for unstable angina. Incremental prognostic value of adding plaque characteristics to the number of diseased vessels and the FRS was evaluated using 3 Cox models and net reclassification indexes. The discrimination index was significantly increased by adding the number of diseased vessels to the FRS (change in c-statistic from 65.8% to 78.6%, p=0.028) but not significantly by further adding plaque characteristics (change in c-statistic from 78.6% to 80.0%, p=0.812). However, improved model-fitting by adding plaque characteristics into the linear combination with risk score and the number of diseased vessels (p=0.007 from likelihood ratio test) and the lowest value of Akaike's information criteria of that model indicated that plaque characteristics improved both predictive accuracy and discrimination perspective. More subjects reclassified by plaque characteristics were moved to directions consistent with their subsequent cardiac event status than in an inconsistent direction. Evaluation of CTA plaque characteristics may provide incremental prognostic value to the number of diseased vessels and the FRS. Copyright © 2015 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of Collateral Status Evaluated by Dynamic Computed Tomographic Angiography on Clinical Outcome in Patients With Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Wijngaard, Ido R; Boiten, Jelis; Holswilder, Ghislaine; Algra, Ale; Dippel, Diederik W J; Velthuis, Birgitta K; Wermer, Marieke J H; van Walderveen, Marianne A A

    2015-12-01

    Status of collateral circulation is a strong predictor of outcome after acute ischemic stroke. Our aim was to compare the predictive value of strategies for collateral blood flow assessment with dynamic computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and conventional single-phase CT angiography. Patients with a proximal middle cerebral artery occlusion underwent noncontrast CT, single-phase CTA and whole brain CT perfusion/dynamic CTA within 9 hours after stroke onset. We defined poor outcome as a score on the modified Rankin Scale score of ≥3. The association between collateral score and clinical outcome at 3 months was analyzed with Poisson regression. The prognostic value of collateral scoring with dynamic CTA and single-phase CTA in addition to age, stroke severity, and noncontrast CT was assessed with logistic regression and summarized with the area under the curve. Seventy patients were included, with a mean age of 68 years. We observed an increased risk of poor outcome in patients with poor collaterals on single-phase CTA (risk ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-3.1) and on dynamic CTA (risk ratio, 2.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-2.7). The prediction of poor clinical outcome by means of collateral adjustment was better with dynamic CTA (area under the curve, 0.84; likelihood ratio test PCollateral assessment with dynamic CTA better predicts clinical outcome at 3 months than single-phase conventional CTA. URL: http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg. Unique identifier: NTR1804. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00880113. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Accessory Renal Artery Stenosis and Hypertension: Are These Correlated? Evaluation Using Multidetector-Row Computed Tomographic Angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saba, L.; Sanfilippo, R.; Montisci, R.; Conti, M.; Mallarini, G.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Renal artery stenosis may produce hypertension, and this condition is referred to as renovascular hypertension (RVH). Purpose: To evaluate, by using multidetector-row spiral computed tomographic angiography (MDCTA), whether a relationship between accessory renal artery stenosis and hypertension may be hypothesized. Material and Methods: 214 patients (142 males, 72 females; mean age 66 years) who had previously undergone an MDCTA to study the abdominal vasculature were retrospectively studied. Patients with renal artery stenosis (RAS) were excluded from this analysis. The patients were studied by means of a four-detector-row CT, and scans were obtained after intravenous bolus administration of 110-140 ml of a nonionic contrast material with a 3-6 ml/s flow rate. As a second step, by means of statistical analysis, hypertension data were compared with findings of accessory artery stenosis. Two radiologists first independently reviewed the MDCTA images and then, in case of disagreement, in consensus. Interobserver agreement was calculated for all measurements. Results: The overall number of detected accessory renal arteries was 74 in 56 of the 214 patients. Accessory renal artery stenosis was detected in 21 of the 56 patients. There was a difference in the prevalence of hypertension between patients with (n = 21) and without (n = 35) accessory renal artery stenosis (P = 0.0187). Interobserver agreement was good (kappa value 0.733). Conclusion: Any statistical association between the presence of accessory renal artery stenosis and hypertension could not be disclosed. However, accessory renal artery stenosis, detected by MDCTA, is an important pathological sign that the radiologist has to assess in the light of its possible association with hypertension

  8. Localization of ectopic parathyroid glands using technetium-99m sestamibi imaging: comparison with magnetic resonance and computed tomographic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Masatoshi; Nishida, Hidemi; Hiromatsu Yuji; Kojima, Kazuyuki; Uchida, Masafumi; Hayabuvhi, Naofumi

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the accuracy of technetium-99m sestamibi imaging for localization of ectopic parathyroid glands in patients with hyperparathyroidism with that of magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomographic (CT) imaging. Eleven patients with primary (n=3) or secondary (n=8) hyperparathyroidism were studied with 99m Tc sestamibi parathyroid imaging CT and MR imaging. Images of the neck were acquired at 10 min and 2-3 after tracer injection. The three patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and five patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism underwent parathyroidectomy. The ectopic glands were confirmed by histopathological examination of the resected specimens. In respect of 20 parathyroid glands in the eight patients explored surgically, the sensitivity and specificity of sestamibi imaging were 70% (14/20) and 88%, respectively, those of CT, 40% (8/20) and 88%, and those of MR imaging, 60% (12/20) and 88%. Of these patients, three had parathyroid adenomas while five had hyperplasia (17 glands). Sestamibi imaging localized eight ectopic parathyroid glands, which were surgically confirmed (six were located in the thymus and two in the mediastinum). In one patient explored surgically, the ectopic gland was located outside the field of the MR coil. Although the remaining three cases of secondary hyperparathyroidism were not confirmed surgically, these patients demonstrated sestamibi uptake in five parathyroid glands, including three ectopic glands. MR imagedemonstrated abnormal parathyroid glands in the same regions as sestamibi imaging. Our data indicate that 99m Tc-sestamibi imaging should be used initially to localize the ectopic parathyroid glands in patients with hyperparathyroidism for anatomical guidance prior to MR or CT imaging

  9. Tiny staining spots in liver cirrhosis associated with HCV infection observed by computed tomographic hepatic arteriography. Follow-up study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiyama, Tomoya; Terasaki, Shuichi; Kaneko, Shuichi; Kaji, Kyosuke; Kobayashi, Kenichi; Matsui, Osamu [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). Hospital

    2002-10-01

    It is important to distinguish small lesions with increased arterial perfusion observed by computed tomographic arteriography (CT-A) from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the clinical characteristics and prognosis of such lesions have not been clarified. We retrospectively examined 200 patients with cirrhosis related to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection who had undergone both CT-A and CT arterioportography between 1995 and 1998, and found 80 tiny staining spots (TSS)s, with a diameter of 5-10 mm, by CT-A (35 patients). The mean TSS observation period was 29.0 months. If the major axis was larger than 10 mm and showed a 1.5-fold or more increase, the lesion was regarded as tumor growth (TG). The TSS lesions were divided into two groups according to whether the patient had or did not have HCC. The prognosis of TSS was classified into three groups; HCC-suspected group, nontumor group, and unclassified group, in which TG was negative although transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) had been performed. Of the 40 TSSs in 14 patients without HCC, 2 (5%) were suspected as HCC. Of the 40 TSSs in 21 patients with HCC, 13 (32.5%) were suspected as HCC. There were no significant differences in the size, position, and morphology of TSSs among the three prognostic groups. Of the 7 TSSs with a high signal intensity on T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images, 5 were in the HCC-suspected group. We recommend early treatment of TSSs accompanying HCC or showing features of malignancy at the imaging workup. (author)

  10. Pancreas preservation for pancreas and islet transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Yasuhiro; Sutherland, David E.R.; Harmon, James V.; Papas, Klearchos K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize advances and limitations in pancreas procurement and preservation for pancreas and islet transplantation, and review advances in islet protection and preservation. Recent findings Pancreases procured after cardiac death, with in-situ regional organ cooling, have been successfully used for islet transplantation. Colloid-free Celsior and histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate preservation solutions are comparable to University of Wisconsin solution when used for cold storage before pancreas transplantation. Colloid-free preservation solutions are inferior to University of Wisconsin solution for pancreas preservation prior to islet isolation and transplantation. Clinical reports on pancreas and islet transplants suggest that the two-layer method may not offer significant benefits over cold storage with the University of Wisconsin solution: improved oxygenation may depend on the graft size; benefits in experimental models may not translate to human organs. Improvements in islet yield and quality occurred from pancreases treated with inhibitors of stress-induced apoptosis during procurement, storage, isolation or culture. Pancreas perfusion may be desirable before islet isolation and transplantation and may improve islet yields and quality. Methods for real-time, noninvasive assessment of pancreas quality during preservation have been implemented and objective islet potency assays have been developed and validated. These innovations should contribute to objective evaluation and establishment of improved pancreas preservation and islet isolation strategies. Summary Cold storage may be adequate for preservation before pancreas transplants, but insufficient when pancreases are processed for islets or when expanded donors are used. Supplementation of cold storage solutions with cytoprotective agents and perfusion may improve pancreas and islet transplant outcomes. PMID:18685343

  11. Computer tomographic phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lonn, A.H.R.; Jacobsen, D.R.; Zech, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    A reference phantom for computer tomography employs a flexible member with means for urging the flexible member into contact along the curved surface of the lumbar region of a human patient. In one embodiment, the reference phantom is pre-curved in an arc greater than required. Pressure from the weight of a patient laying upon the reference phantom is effective for straightening out the curvature sufficiently to achieve substantial contact along the lumbar region. The curvature of the reference phantom may be additionally distorted by a resilient pad between the resilient phantom and a table for urging it into contact with the lumbar region. In a second embodiment of the invention, a flexible reference phantom is disposed in a slot in the top of a resilient cushion. The resilient cushion and reference phantom may be enclosed in a flexible container. A partially curved reference phantom in a slot in a resilient cushion is also contemplated. (author)

  12. Neuroblastoma: computed tomographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Choon Sik; Ahn, Chang Su; Kim, Myung Jun; Oh, Ki Keun

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the characteristic CT findings of neuroblastoma, we studied neuroblastomas. We analysed CT findings of available 25 cases among pathologically proved 51 neuroblastomas from Jan. 1983 to Sept. 1990. The most frequent site of origin is adrenal gland (40%) and the second is retroperitoneum (32%) and the third ismediastinum (16%). Characteristic CT findings are as follows: Calcifications within the tumor is detected in 86% of abdominal neuroblastomas and 50% of mediastinal origin. Hemorrhagic and necrotic changes within the tumor is noted at 86% in the tumor of abdominal origin and 25% in mediastinal neuroblastomas. Contrast enhanced study showed frequently seperated enhanced appearance with/without solid contrast enhancement. Encasements of major great vessels such as aorta and IVC with/without displacement by metastatic lymph nodes or tumor are frequently seen in 90% of abdominal neuroblastomas. Multiple lymphadenopathy are detected in 95% of abdominal neuroblastomas and 25% of mediastinal neuroblastomas. The most common organ or contiguous direct invasion is kidney in 6 cases and the next one is liver but intraspinal canal invasion is also noted in 2 cases. We concluded that diagnosis of neuroblastoma would be easily obtained in masses of pediatric group from recognition of above characteristic findings

  13. Pulmonary lymphatic drainage to the mediastinum based on computed tomographic observations of the primary complex of pulmonary histoplasmosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Koji; Sasaki, Tomoaki; Nabaa, Basim; Aburano, Tamio (Department of Radiology, Asahikawa Medical University and Hospital, Asahikawa (Japan)), Email: taka1019@asahikawa-med.ac.jp; Beek, Edwin Jr. von (Clinical Research Imaging Centre, Queen' s Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)); Stanford, William (Department of Radiology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City (United States))

    2012-03-15

    Background. In the primary infection of pulmonary histoplasmosis, pulmonary lesions are commonly solitary and associated with hilar and/or mediastinal nodal diseases, which spontaneously resolve, resulting in calcifications in individuals with normal cellular immunity. Purpose. To assess the lymphatic drainage to the mediastinum from each pulmonary segment and lobe using computed tomographic (CT) observations of a calcified primary complex pulmonary histoplasmosis and predict which patients with N2 disease that would benefit from surgery. Material and Methods. We collected 585 CT studies of patients with primary complex histoplasmosis consisting of solitary calcified pulmonary lesions and calcified hilar and/or mediastinal nodal disease. Using the N stage criteria of non-small cell lung cancer, we assessed the distribution of the involved hilar and mediastinal nodes depending on the pulmonary segment of the lesion, with a focus on skip involvement. We also assessed the correlation between the incidence of N1and skip N2 involvement and the mean number of involved mediastinal nodal stations in the non-skip N2 and skip N2 groups. Results. Skip involvement was common in the apical segment (9/45, 20.0%), posterior segment (7/31, 22.6%), and mediolbasal segment (13/20, 65.0%) in the right lung, and in the apicoposterior segment (7/55, 12.7%), lateral basal segment (6/26, 23.1%), and posterobasal segment (16/47, 34.0%) in the left lung. The incidence of skip involvement in each segment showed a significant inverse correlation with that of N1 involvement (r = -0.51, P <0.05) in both lungs. The mean number of involved mediastinal nodal stations in the non-skip N2 and skip N2 groups in all segments of both lungs were 1.4 (434/301) and 1.2 (93/77), and the former was significantly greater than the latter (P <0.01). Conclusion. Our data showed a predictable pattern of segmental and lobar lymphatic drainage to the mediastinum and suggested that skip involvement could represent

  14. Pulmonary lymphatic drainage to the mediastinum based on computed tomographic observations of the primary complex of pulmonary histoplasmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Koji; Sasaki, Tomoaki; Nabaa, Basim; Aburano, Tamio; Beek, Edwin Jr. von; Stanford, William

    2012-01-01

    Background. In the primary infection of pulmonary histoplasmosis, pulmonary lesions are commonly solitary and associated with hilar and/or mediastinal nodal diseases, which spontaneously resolve, resulting in calcifications in individuals with normal cellular immunity. Purpose. To assess the lymphatic drainage to the mediastinum from each pulmonary segment and lobe using computed tomographic (CT) observations of a calcified primary complex pulmonary histoplasmosis and predict which patients with N2 disease that would benefit from surgery. Material and Methods. We collected 585 CT studies of patients with primary complex histoplasmosis consisting of solitary calcified pulmonary lesions and calcified hilar and/or mediastinal nodal disease. Using the N stage criteria of non-small cell lung cancer, we assessed the distribution of the involved hilar and mediastinal nodes depending on the pulmonary segment of the lesion, with a focus on skip involvement. We also assessed the correlation between the incidence of N1and skip N2 involvement and the mean number of involved mediastinal nodal stations in the non-skip N2 and skip N2 groups. Results. Skip involvement was common in the apical segment (9/45, 20.0%), posterior segment (7/31, 22.6%), and mediolbasal segment (13/20, 65.0%) in the right lung, and in the apicoposterior segment (7/55, 12.7%), lateral basal segment (6/26, 23.1%), and posterobasal segment (16/47, 34.0%) in the left lung. The incidence of skip involvement in each segment showed a significant inverse correlation with that of N1 involvement (r = -0.51, P <0.05) in both lungs. The mean number of involved mediastinal nodal stations in the non-skip N2 and skip N2 groups in all segments of both lungs were 1.4 (434/301) and 1.2 (93/77), and the former was significantly greater than the latter (P <0.01). Conclusion. Our data showed a predictable pattern of segmental and lobar lymphatic drainage to the mediastinum and suggested that skip involvement could represent

  15. Spinopelvic dissociation: multidetector computed tomographic evaluation of fracture patterns and associated injuries at a single level 1 trauma center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pushpender; Barnwell, Jonathan C; Lenchik, Leon; Wuertzer, Scott D; Miller, Anna N

    2016-06-01

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate multidetector computed tomographic (MDCT) fracture patterns and associated injuries in patients with spinopelvic dissociation (SPD). Our institutional trauma registry database was reviewed from Jan. 1, 2006, to Sept. 30, 2012, specifically evaluating patients with sacral fractures. MDCT scans of patients with sacral fractures were reviewed to determine the presence of SPD. SPD cases were characterized into the following fracture patterns: U-shaped, Y-shaped, T-shaped, H-shaped, and burst. The following MDCT features were recorded: level of the horizontal fracture, location of vertical fracture, kyphosis between major fracture fragments, displacement of fracture fragment, narrowing of central spinal canal, narrowing of neural foramina, and extension into sacroiliac joints. Quantitative evaluation of the sacral fractures was performed in accordance with the consensus statement by the Spine Trauma Study Group. Medical records were reviewed to determine associated pelvic and non-pelvic fractures, bladder and bowel injuries, nerve injuries, and type of surgical intervention. Twenty-one patients had SPD, of whom 13 were men and eight were women. Mean age was 41.8 years (range 18.8 to 87.7). Five fractures (24 %) were U-shaped, six (29 %) H-shaped, four (19 %) Y-shaped, and six (29 %) burst. Nine patients (43 %) had central canal narrowing, and 19 (90 %) had neural foramina narrowing. Eleven patients (52 %) had kyphotic angulation between major fracture fragments, and seven patients (33 %) had either anterior (24 %) or posterior (10 %) displacement of the proximal fracture fragment. Fourteen patients (67 %) had associated pelvic fractures, and 20 (95 %) had associated non-pelvic fractures. Two patients (10 %) had associated urethral injuries, and one (5 %) had an associated colon injury. Seven patients (33 %) had associated nerve injuries. Six patients (29 %) had surgical fixation while 15 (71 %) were

  16. Effects of megavoltage computed tomographic scan methodology on setup verification and adaptive dose calculation in helical TomoTherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian; Bai, Tong; Gu, Jiabing; Sun, Ziwen; Wei, Yumei; Li, Baosheng; Yin, Yong

    2018-04-27

    To evaluate the effect of pretreatment megavoltage computed tomographic (MVCT) scan methodology on setup verification and adaptive dose calculation in helical TomoTherapy. Both anthropomorphic heterogeneous chest and pelvic phantoms were planned with virtual targets by TomoTherapy Physicist Station and were scanned with TomoTherapy megavoltage image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) system consisted of six groups of options: three different acquisition pitches (APs) of 'fine', 'normal' and 'coarse' were implemented by multiplying 2 different corresponding reconstruction intervals (RIs). In order to mimic patient setup variations, each phantom was shifted 5 mm away manually in three orthogonal directions respectively. The effect of MVCT scan options was analyzed in image quality (CT number and noise), adaptive dose calculation deviations and positional correction variations. MVCT scanning time with pitch of 'fine' was approximately twice of 'normal' and 3 times more than 'coarse' setting, all which will not be affected by different RIs. MVCT with different APs delivered almost identical CT numbers and image noise inside 7 selected regions with various densities. DVH curves from adaptive dose calculation with serial MVCT images acquired by varied pitches overlapped together, where as there are no significant difference in all p values of intercept & slope of emulational spinal cord (p = 0.761 & 0.277), heart (p = 0.984 & 0.978), lungs (p = 0.992 & 0.980), soft tissue (p = 0.319 & 0.951) and bony structures (p = 0.960 & 0.929) between the most elaborated and the roughest serials of MVCT. Furthermore, gamma index analysis shown that, compared to the dose distribution calculated on MVCT of 'fine', only 0.2% or 1.1% of the points analyzed on MVCT of 'normal' or 'coarse' do not meet the defined gamma criterion. On chest phantom, all registration errors larger than 1 mm appeared at superior-inferior axis, which cannot be avoided with the smallest AP and RI

  17. Influence of contrast media viscosity and temperature on injection pressure in computed tomographic angiography: a phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Madeleine; Mihl, Casper; Mingels, Alma A; Kietselaer, Bas L; Mühlenbruch, Georg; Seehofnerova, Anna; Wildberger, Joachim E; Das, Marco

    2014-04-01

    Iodinated contrast media (CM) in computed tomographic angiography is characterized by its concentration and, consecutively, by its viscosity. Viscosity itself is directly influenced by temperature, which will furthermore affect injection pressure. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to systematically evaluate the viscosity of different CM at different temperatures and to assess their impact on injection pressure in a circulation phantom. Initially, viscosity of different contrast media concentrations (240, 300, 370, and 400 mgI/mL) was measured at different temperatures (20°C-40°C) with a commercially available viscosimeter. In the next step, a circulation phantom with physical conditions was used. Contrast media were prepared at different temperatures (20°C, 30°C, 37°C) and injected through a standard 18-gauge needle. All other relevant parameters were kept constant (iodine delivery rate, 1.9 g I/s; total amount of iodine, 15 g I). Peak flow rate (in milliliter per second) and injection pressure (psi) were monitored. Differences in significance were tested using the Kruskal-Wallis test (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences). Viscosities for iodinated CM of 240, 300, 370, and 400 mg I/mL at 20°C were 5.1, 9.1, 21.2, and 28.8 mPa.s, respectively, whereas, at 40°C, these were substantially lower (2.8, 4.4, 8.7, and 11.2 mPa.s). In the circulation phantom, mean (SD) peak pressures for CM of 240 mg I/mL at 20°C, 30°C, and 37°C were 107 (1.5), 95 (0.6), and 92 (2.1) psi; for CM of 300 mg I/mL, 119 (1.5), 104 (0.6), and 100 (3.6) psi; for CM of 370 mg I/mL, 150 (0.6), 133 (4.4), and 120 (3.5) psi; and for CM of 400 mg I/mL, 169 (1.0), 140 (2.1), and 135 (2.9) psi, respectively, with all P values less than 0.05. Low concentration, low viscosity, and high temperatures of CM are beneficial in terms of injection pressure. This should also be considered for individually tailored contrast protocols in daily routine scanning.

  18. TH-AB-209-05: Validating Hemoglobin Saturation and Dissolved Oxygen in Tumors Using Photoacoustic Computed Tomographic Spectroscopic Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, J; Sick, J; Liu, B [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Cao, N [University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Nakshatri, H; Mendonca, M [Indiana University - Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Stantz, K [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Indiana University - Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Photoacoustic computed tomographic spectroscopy (PCT-S) provides intra-tumor measurements of oxygenation with high spatial resolution (0.2mm) and temporal fidelity (1–2 minutes) without the need for exogenous agents or ionizing radiation, thus providing a unique in vivo assay to measure SaO{sub 2} and investigate acute and chronic forms of hypoxia. The goal of this study is to validate in vivo SaO{sub 2} levels within tail artery of mice and the relationship between SaO{sub 2} and pO{sub 2} within subcutaneous breast tumors using PCT-S imaging, pulse oximetry and an OxyLite probe. Methods: A closed circuit phantom was fabricated to control blood oxygenation levels, where SaO{sub 2} was measured using a co-oximeter and pO{sub 2} using an Oxylite probe. Next, SaO{sub 2} levels within the tail arteries of mice (n=3) were measured using PCT-S and pulse oximetry while breathing high-to-low oxygen levels (6-cycles). Finally, PCT-S was used to measure SaO{sub 2} levels in MCF-7, MCF-7-VEGF165, and MDA-MB-231 xenograft breast tumors and compared to Oxylite pO{sub 2} levels values. Results: SaO{sub 2} and pO{sub 2} data obtained from the calibration phantom was fit to Hill’s equation: aO{sub 2} levels between 88 and 52% demonstrated a linear relationship (r2=0.96) and a 3.2% uncertainty between PCT-S values relative to pulse oximetry. Scatter plots of localized PCT-S measured SaO2 and Oxylite pO{sub 2} levels in MCF-7/MCF-7-VEGF165 and MDA-MD-231 breast tumors were fit to Hill’s equation: P50=17.2 and 20.7mmHg, and n=1.76 and 1.63. These results are consistent with sigmoidal form of Hill’s equation, where the lower P{sub 50} value is indicative of an acidic tumor microenvironment. Conclusion: The results demonstrate photoacoustic imaging can be used to measure SaO{sub 2} cycling and intra-tumor oxygenation, and provides a powerful in vivo assay to investigate the role of hypoxia in radiation, anti-angiogenic, and immunotherapies.

  19. Improving appropriate use of echocardiography and single-photon emission computed tomographic myocardial perfusion imaging: a continuous quality improvement initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Thomas V; Rose, Geoffrey A; Fenner, Deborah J; Rozario, Nigel L

    2014-07-01

    Appropriate use criteria for cardiovascular imaging have been published, but compliance in practice has been incomplete, with persistent high rates of inappropriate use. The aim of this study was to show the efficacy of a continuous quality improvement (CQI) initiative to favorably influence the appropriate use of outpatient transthoracic echocardiography and single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) in a large cardiovascular practice. In this prospective study, a multiphase CQI initiative was implemented, and its impact on ordering patterns for outpatient transthoracic echocardiography and SPECT MPI was assessed. Between November and December 2010, a baseline analysis of the application of appropriate use criteria to indications for outpatient transthoracic echocardiographic studies (n = 203) and SPECT MPI studies (n = 205) was performed, with studies categorized as "appropriate," "inappropriate," "uncertain," or "unclassified." The CQI initiative was then begun, with (1) clinician education, including didactic lectures and case-based presentations with audience participation; (2) system changes in ordering processes, with redesigned image ordering forms; and (3) peer review and feedback. A follow-up analysis was then performed between June and August 2012, with categorization of indications for transthoracic echocardiographic studies (n = 206) and SPECT MPI studies (n = 206). At baseline, 73.9% of echocardiographic studies were categorized as appropriate, 16.7% as inappropriate, 5.9% as uncertain, and 3.4% as unclassified. Similarly, for SPECT MPI studies 71.7% were categorized as appropriate, 18.5% as inappropriate, 7.8% as uncertain, and 1.9% as unclassified. Separate analysis of the two most important categories, appropriate and inappropriate, demonstrated a significant improvement after the CQI initiative, with a 63% reduction in inappropriate echocardiographic studies (18.5% vs 6.9%, P = .0010) and a 46% reduction

  20. Influence of using a single facial vein as outflow in full-face transplantation: A three-dimensional computed tomographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Lorenzo, Andres; Audolfsson, Thorir; Wong, Corrine; Cheng, Angela; Arbique, Gary; Nowinski, Daniel; Rozen, Shai

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of a single unilateral facial vein in the venous outflow of total-face allograft using three-dimensional computed tomographic imaging techniques to further elucidate the mechanisms of venous complications following total-face transplant. Full-face soft-tissue flaps were harvested from fresh adult human cadavers. A single facial vein was identified and injected distally to the submandibular gland with a radiopaque contrast (barium sulfate/gelatin mixture) in every specimen. Following vascular injections, three-dimensional computed tomographic venographies of the faces were performed. Images were viewed using TeraRecon Software (Teracon, Inc., San Mateo, CA, USA) allowing analysis of the venous anatomy and perfusion in different facial subunits by observing radiopaque filling venous patterns. Three-dimensional computed tomographic venographies demonstrated a venous network with different degrees of perfusion in subunits of the face in relation to the facial vein injection side: 100% of ipsilateral and contralateral forehead units, 100% of ipsilateral and 75% of contralateral periorbital units, 100% of ipsilateral and 25% of contralateral cheek units, 100% of ipsilateral and 75% of contralateral nose units, 100% of ipsilateral and 75% of contralateral upper lip units, 100% of ipsilateral and 25% of contralateral lower lip units, and 50% of ipsilateral and 25% of contralateral chin units. Venographies of the full-face grafts revealed better perfusion in the ipsilateral hemifaces from the facial vein in comparison with the contralateral hemifaces. Reduced perfusion was observed mostly in the contralateral cheek unit and contralateral lower face including the lower lip and chin units. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparative evaluation of the cadaveric, radiographic and computed tomographic anatomy of the heads of green iguana (Iguana iguana) , common tegu ( Tupinambis merianae) and bearded dragon ( Pogona vitticeps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Radiology and computed tomography are the most commonly available diagnostic tools for the diagnosis of pathologies affecting the head and skull in veterinary practice. Nevertheless, accurate interpretation of radiographic and CT studies requires a thorough knowledge of the gross and the cross-sectional anatomy. Despite the increasing success of reptiles as pets, only a few reports over their normal imaging features are currently available. The aim of this study is to describe the normal cadaveric, radiographic and computed tomographic features of the heads of the green iguana, tegu and bearded dragon. Results 6 adult green iguanas, 4 tegus, 3 bearded dragons, and, the adult cadavers of : 4 green iguana, 4 tegu, 4 bearded dragon were included in the study. 2 cadavers were dissected following a stratigraphic approach and 2 cadavers were cross-sectioned for each species. These latter specimens were stored in a freezer (−20°C) until completely frozen. Transversal sections at 5 mm intervals were obtained by means of an electric band-saw. Each section was cleaned and photographed on both sides. Radiographs of the head of each subject were obtained. Pre- and post- contrast computed tomographic studies of the head were performed on all the live animals. CT images were displayed in both bone and soft tissue windows. Individual anatomic structures were first recognised and labelled on the anatomic images and then matched on radiographs and CT images. Radiographic and CT images of the skull provided good detail of the bony structures in all species. In CT contrast medium injection enabled good detail of the soft tissues to be obtained in the iguana whereas only the eye was clearly distinguishable from the remaining soft tissues in both the tegu and the bearded dragon. Conclusions The results provide an atlas of the normal anatomical and in vivo radiographic and computed tomographic features of the heads of lizards, and this may be useful in interpreting any

  2. Comparative evaluation of the cadaveric, radiographic and computed tomographic anatomy of the heads of green iguana (Iguana iguana , common tegu ( Tupinambis merianae and bearded dragon ( Pogona vitticeps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banzato Tommaso

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiology and computed tomography are the most commonly available diagnostic tools for the diagnosis of pathologies affecting the head and skull in veterinary practice. Nevertheless, accurate interpretation of radiographic and CT studies requires a thorough knowledge of the gross and the cross-sectional anatomy. Despite the increasing success of reptiles as pets, only a few reports over their normal imaging features are currently available. The aim of this study is to describe the normal cadaveric, radiographic and computed tomographic features of the heads of the green iguana, tegu and bearded dragon. Results 6 adult green iguanas, 4 tegus, 3 bearded dragons, and, the adult cadavers of : 4 green iguana, 4 tegu, 4 bearded dragon were included in the study. 2 cadavers were dissected following a stratigraphic approach and 2 cadavers were cross-sectioned for each species. These latter specimens were stored in a freezer (−20°C until completely frozen. Transversal sections at 5 mm intervals were obtained by means of an electric band-saw. Each section was cleaned and photographed on both sides. Radiographs of the head of each subject were obtained. Pre- and post- contrast computed tomographic studies of the head were performed on all the live animals. CT images were displayed in both bone and soft tissue windows. Individual anatomic structures were first recognised and labelled on the anatomic images and then matched on radiographs and CT images. Radiographic and CT images of the skull provided good detail of the bony structures in all species. In CT contrast medium injection enabled good detail of the soft tissues to be obtained in the iguana whereas only the eye was clearly distinguishable from the remaining soft tissues in both the tegu and the bearded dragon. Conclusions The results provide an atlas of the normal anatomical and in vivo radiographic and computed tomographic features of the heads of lizards, and this may be

  3. Comparative evaluation of the cadaveric, radiographic and computed tomographic anatomy of the heads of green iguana (Iguana iguana), common tegu (Tupinambis merianae) and bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzato, Tommaso; Selleri, Paolo; Veladiano, Irene A; Martin, Andrea; Zanetti, Emanuele; Zotti, Alessandro

    2012-05-11

    Radiology and computed tomography are the most commonly available diagnostic tools for the diagnosis of pathologies affecting the head and skull in veterinary practice. Nevertheless, accurate interpretation of radiographic and CT studies requires a thorough knowledge of the gross and the cross-sectional anatomy. Despite the increasing success of reptiles as pets, only a few reports over their normal imaging features are currently available. The aim of this study is to describe the normal cadaveric, radiographic and computed tomographic features of the heads of the green iguana, tegu and bearded dragon. 6 adult green iguanas, 4 tegus, 3 bearded dragons, and, the adult cadavers of: 4 green iguana, 4 tegu, 4 bearded dragon were included in the study. 2 cadavers were dissected following a stratigraphic approach and 2 cadavers were cross-sectioned for each species. These latter specimens were stored in a freezer (-20°C) until completely frozen. Transversal sections at 5 mm intervals were obtained by means of an electric band-saw. Each section was cleaned and photographed on both sides. Radiographs of the head of each subject were obtained. Pre- and post- contrast computed tomographic studies of the head were performed on all the live animals. CT images were displayed in both bone and soft tissue windows. Individual anatomic structures were first recognised and labelled on the anatomic images and then matched on radiographs and CT images. Radiographic and CT images of the skull provided good detail of the bony structures in all species. In CT contrast medium injection enabled good detail of the soft tissues to be obtained in the iguana whereas only the eye was clearly distinguishable from the remaining soft tissues in both the tegu and the bearded dragon. The results provide an atlas of the normal anatomical and in vivo radiographic and computed tomographic features of the heads of lizards, and this may be useful in interpreting any imaging modality involving these

  4. Utility of cervical spinal and abdominal computed tomography in diagnosing occult pneumothorax in patients with blunt trauma: Computed tomographic imaging protocol matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoglu, Haldun; Akoglu, Ebru Unal; Evman, Serdar; Akoglu, Tayfun; Denizbasi, Arzu; Guneysel, Ozlem; Onur, Ozge; Onur, Ender

    2012-10-01

    Small pneumothoraces (PXs), which are not initially recognized with a chest x-ray film and diagnosed by a thoracic computed tomography (CT), are described as occult PX (OCPX). The objective of this study was to evaluate cervival spine (C-spine) and abdominal CT (ACT) for diagnosing OCPX and overt PX (OVPX). All patients with blunt trauma who presented consecutively to the emergency department during a 26-months period were included. Among all the chest CTs (CCTs) (6,155 patients) conducted during that period, 254 scans were confirmed to have a true PX. The findings in their C-spine CT and ACT were compared with the findings in CCTs. Among these patients, 254 had a diagnosis of PX confirmed with CCT. OCPXs were identified on the chest computed tomographic scan of 128 patients (70.3%), whereas OVPXs were evident in 54 patients (29.7%). Computed tomographic imaging of the C-spine was performed in 74% of patients with OCPX and 66.7% of patients with OVPX trauma. Only 45 (35.2%) cases of OCPX and 42 (77.8%) cases of OVPX were detected by C-spine CT. ACT was performed in almost all patients, and 121 (95.3%) of 127 of these correctly identified an existing OCPX. Sensitivity of C-spine CT and ACT was 35.1% and 96.5%, respectively; specificity was 100% and 100%, respectively. Almost all OCPXs, regardless of intrathoracic location, could be detected by ACT or by combining C-spine and abdominal computed tomographic screening for patients. If the junction of the first and second vertebra is used as the caudad extent, C-spine CT does not have sufficient power to diagnose more than a third of the cases. Diagnostic study, level III.

  5. Does the pancreatic volume reduction rate using serial computed tomographic volumetry predict new onset diabetes after pancreaticoduodenectomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Sung Pil; Seo, Hyung-Il; Kim, Suk; Kim, Dong Uk; Baek, Dong Hoon

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Volume reduction of the pancreatic tissues following a pancreatectomy can lead to the deterioration of glucose homeostasis. This is defined as pancreatogenic diabetes mellitus (DM). The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of new-onset DM (NODM) and evaluate the risk factors, including the pancreas volume reduction rate in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). Sixty-six patients without preoperative DM underwent PD for periampullary tumors between August 2007 and December 2012 and were included in this analysis. These patients underwent follow-up tests and abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan 7 days, 6 months, 12 months, 24 months, and 36 months after the operation. The pancreas volume reduction rate was calculated by CT volumetry. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to the postoperative development of DM. After PD, newly diagnosed DM occurred in 16 patients (24.2%). The incidence of DM was highest among patients with carcinomas with an advanced T stage. The pancreatic volume reduction rate after 6 and 12 months in the NODM group was significantly higher than the normal glucose group in the univariate analysis. In the multivariate analysis, the pancreatic volume reduction rate 6 months after PD was the only significant predictive factor for the development of NODM (P = 0.002). This study suggests that the pancreatic volume reduction rate 6 months after PD was the only significant predictive factor for the development of NODM. CT volumetry of the pancreas may be useful as a predictor of NODM after PD. PMID:28353594

  6. Pancreas Center Data Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Composite Allograft Organ Transport Living Donation Informing Patients Ethics Guidance Calendar of Events Glossary Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network Pancreas Home Data Organ Datasource ...

  7. Sonographically guided posteromedial approach for intra-articular knee injections: a safe, accurate, and efficient method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresley, Jonathan; Jose, Jean

    2015-04-01

    Osteoarthritis of the knee can be a debilitating and extremely painful condition. In patients who desire to postpone knee arthroplasty or in those who are not surgical candidates, percutaneous knee injection therapies have the potential to reduce pain and swelling, maintain joint mobility, and minimize disability. Published studies cite poor accuracy of intra-articular knee joint injections without imaging guidance. We present a sonographically guided posteromedial approach to intra-articular knee joint injections with 100% accuracy and no complications in a consecutive series of 67 patients undergoing subsequent computed tomographic or magnetic resonance arthrography. Although many other standard approaches are available, a posteromedial intra-articular technique is particularly useful in patients with a large body habitus and theoretically allows for simultaneous aspiration of Baker cysts with a single sterile preparation and without changing the patient's position. The posteromedial technique described in this paper is not compared or deemed superior to other standard approaches but, rather, is presented as a potentially safe and efficient alternative. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  8. Sonographic findings of renal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Chong Hyun; Lee, Chang Joon; Kim, Seung Hyun

    1990-01-01

    In order to determine sonographic characteristic of renal tuberculosis, we retrospectively collected 27 cases during a 5 year period. Infected kidneys showed large size (52%) and lobulating contour (76%). In 19 cases of increased parenchymal echogenicity, most of them (16 cases) showed decreased parenchymal thickness. We divided hydronephrotic patterns into 4 categories; predominant calyceal dilatation with mild or no pelvic dilatation (67%), focal calyectasis without pelvic dilation (15%), parenchymal cavitation without hydronephrosis (11%) and proportional hydronephrosis with calyceal deformity (7%). Our findings suggest that disproportional hydronephrosis would be the characteristic finding of renal tuberculosis

  9. Fibroadenomas: Sonographic-pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi Sung; Choi, Hye Young; Kim, Eun Ah; Lee, Sun Wha; Sung, Soon Hee

    1999-01-01

    To correlate sonographic appearance and histopathologic findings of fibroadenomas. Forty-one biopsy-proven fibroadenomas were retrospectively evaluate for sonographic-pathologic correlation. The fibroadenomas were histologically classified into sclerotic, myxoid, glandular and mixed type. The stromal cellularity and fibrosis were also classified into mild and severe. The internal echotexture and posterior acoustic enhancement of mass in ultrasonogram were correlated with histopathologic findings. The pathologic types of fibroadenomas were sclerotic in sixteen, myxoid in thirteen, and glandular or mixed in each of six cases. Most of the sclerotic type showed hypoechoic internal echotexture (68.8%) and myxoid and glandular types showed isoechoic internal echotexture (84.6%, 83.3% respectively). The hypoechoic masses showed 12 cases of mild (75.0%) and 4 cases of severe (25.0%) in cellularity and 3 cases of mild (18.7%) and 13 cases (81.3%) of sever degree in fibrosis. Most of the myxoid type (77%) showed posterior enhancement, and most of the sclerotic type (87.5%) did not show posterior enhancement on ultrasonogram. Posterior enhancement was absent in 22 cases, in which 4 cases (18.2%) showed mild and 18 cases (81.2%) showed severe degree of fibrosis. Sclerotic type with mild cellularity and severe fibrosis on histopathology showed hypoechogenicity on ultrasonogram; whereas myxoid and glandular types were predominantly isoechoic. Most of the myxoid type showed posterior enhancement. Sclerotic type with mild cellularity and severe fibrosis did not show posterior enhancement.

  10. Radiology of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baert, A.L.; Delorme, G.

    1994-01-01

    This book, written by internationally recognized experts, fully illustrates the diagnosis of both common and rarer diseases of the pancreas, the latest technical developments in relevant imaging modalities are thoroughly discussed and appraised with respect to the pancreas. The book will appeal to both clinicians and researchers in radiology and oncology. (orig.)

  11. Metastatic tumor of the pancreas: helical CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soon Jin; Lee, Won Jae; Lim, Hyo Keun; Kim, Seung Hoon; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Choi, Sang Hee; Jang, Hyun Jung; Lee, Ji Yeon

    2000-01-01

    To analyze the helical computed tomographic (CT) findings of distant metastatic tumors to the pancreas and to determine the differential points between these and primary pamcreatic carcinomas. We sruveyed 22 patients with metastatic tumor of the pancreas, proven on the basis of clinical and pathological findings. Seventeen patients were men, and five were women, and their ages ranged between 36 and 83 years. Their primary conditions were lung cancer (n=3D15), rectal cancer (n=3D2), melanoma of the foot, chondrosarcoma of the sacrum, cervical cancer, leiomyosarcoma of the uterus, and extragonadal choriocarcinoma of the mediastinum. We retrospectively reviewed the abdominal helical CT findings, analysing the number, location, size and attenuation of masses, as well as secondary change, which included dilatation of the pancreatic and biliary ducts and invasion of peripancreatic tissue or vessels. We also evaluated the differential findings of primary pancreatic cancer. Sixteen patients had a solitary focal mass, while in five, two masses were present. Among the 22 patients, low-density nodular masses were present in 21; in the other, in whom multiple metastasis from chondrosarcoma had occurred, there was dense calcification. The size of metastatic masses varied, ranging from 0.6 to 6 cm in diameter. The pancreatic duct proximal to the mass was dilated in ten cases, while the bile duct was dilated in six. The metastatic masses masses demonstrated no peripancreatic or vascular invasion, though they showed a discrete margin and contour bulging. Single metastasis to the pancreas was most common, and metastatic masses had a discrete margin, with contour bulging. There was no peripancreatic or vascular invasion. If the metastasis involved a single low-attenuated mass, however, with pancreatic or biliary dilatation, it was difficult to differentiate this from primary pancreatic cancer. (author)

  12. Sonographer practitioner development in Australia: Qualitative analysis of an Australian sonographers' survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGregor, Rodney; O'Loughlin, Kate; Cox, Jennifer; Clarke, Jill; Snowden, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Sonographer practitioner development involves the expansion and extension of the sonographer role to include reporting on ultrasound examinations. Australian sonographers have not seen the same degree of role extension and expansion as their counterparts in the United Kingdom, despite increasing levels of discussion regarding sonographer practitioner development. The aim of this study was to determine if Australian sonographers want to extend their professional role and what they consider are the important issues associated with role extension. This paper reports on qualitative data derived from a survey of Australian sonographers and investigates if Australian sonographers are interested in extending and expanding their professional role and responsibilities and, if they do, what might be necessary or desirable from a professional point of view for this change to occur. A survey was mailed to all members of the Australian Sonographers Association (ASA) in October 2006. The 31-item survey included 28 closed-ended and 3 opened-ended items to provide both quantitative and qualitative data. The quantitative data will be reported separately. Qualitative data was derived from responses to the opened-ended questions, which asked respondents to elaborate on their attitudes and feelings about role extension and development. Analysis used Nvivo7 software to aid in uncovering common themes from the qualitative data. The analysis focused on the reported incentives or motivations for becoming a sonographer practitioner as well as disincentives or perceived hurdles that would discourage respondents from becoming sonographer practitioners. The three most reported incentives or motivations for becoming a sonographer practitioner were professional recognition, remuneration and increased knowledge. The three most commonly reported disincentives or perceived hurdles that would discourage respondents from becoming sonographer practitioners were legal issues, insurance and further

  13. Assessment of pancreas cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanoss, C. J.

    1978-01-01

    Pancreatic islets were obtained from guinea pig pancreas by the collagenase method and kept alive in tissue culture prior to further studies. Pancreas cell morphology was studied by standard histochemical techniques using light microscopy. Preparative vertical electrophoresis-levitation of dispersed fetal guinea pig pancreas cells was conducted in phosphate buffer containing a heavy water (D20) gradient which does not cause clumping of cells or alter the osmolarity of the buffers. The faster migrating fractions tended to be enriched in beta-cell content. Alpha and delta cells were found to some degree in most fractions. A histogram showing the cell count distribution is included.

  14. Serous cystadenocarcinoma of pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathore, M. U.; Arif, A.; Umair, B.

    2013-01-01

    Serous cystic neoplasms of pancreas are relatively rare tumours. Malignancy in these tumours is even more rare which is confirmed by metastasis to other organs or by perineural, vascular or surrounding soft tissue invasion. A 60 years old lady presented with vague upper abdominal pain. Computed tomography scan showed multiloculated cystic mass in the body of pancreas measuring 9 x 6 x 5 cm and not involving spleen. Pancreatectomy specimen showed a multicystic tumour having sponge-like appearance which showed vascular and soft tissue invasion of surrounding stroma on microscopic examination and was diagnosed as serous cystadenocarcinoma of pancreas. (author)

  15. CCT and sonographic findings in congenital craniopharyngioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmke, K.; Hausdorf, G.; Moehrs, D.; Laas, R.

    1984-11-01

    In a case of congenital craniopharyngioma results of the sonographic and CCT examinations are reported and compared with postmortem macroscopic cuts. Comparison is made of clinical data from six cases with congenital craniopharyngioma as reported in the literature.

  16. CCT and sonographic findings in congenital craniopharyngioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmke, K.; Hausdorf, G.; Moehrs, D.; Laas, R.

    1984-01-01

    In a case of congenital craniopharyngioma results of the sonographic and CCT examinations are reported and compared with postmortem macroscopic cuts. Comparison is made of clinical data from six cases with congenital craniopharyngioma as reported in the literature. (orig.)

  17. Sonographic analysis of adult polycystic kidney disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-24

    Mar 24, 2014 ... local incidence and peculiarities in clinical and sonographic characteristics are unknown. ... Click here to download free Android application for this journal ..... as well as in the authors' country[15,16,58] must be a source.

  18. Soil physical and X-ray computed tomographic measurements to investigate small-scale structural differences under strip tillage compared to mulch till and no-till

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöhlitz, Julia; Rücknagel, Jan; Schlüter, Steffen; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

    2017-04-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing application of conservation tillage techniques where the soil is no longer turned, but only loosened or left completely untilled. Dead plant material remains on the soil surface, which provides environmental and economic benefits such as the conservation of water, preventing soil erosion and saving time during seedbed preparation. There is a variety of conservation tillage systems, e.g. mulch till, no-till and strip tillage, which is a special feature. In strip tillage, the seed bed is divided into a seed zone (strip-till within the seed row: STWS) and a soil management zone (strip-till between the seed row: STBS). However, each tillage application affects physical soil properties and processes. Here, the combined application of classical soil mechanical and computed tomographic methods is used on a Chernozem (texture 0-30 cm: silt loam) to show small-scale structural differences under strip tillage (STWS, STBS) compared to no-till (NT) and mulch till (MT). In addition to the classical soil physical parameters dry bulk density and saturated conductivity (years: 2012, 2014, 2015) at soil depths 2-8 and 12-18 cm, stress-strain tests were carried out to map mechanical behavior. The stress-strain tests were performed for a load range from 5-550 kPa at 12-18 cm depth (year 2015). Mechanical precompression stress was determined on the stress-dry bulk density curves. Further, CT image cross sections and computed tomographic examinations (average pore size, porosity, connectivity, and anisotropy) were used from the same soil samples. For STBS and NT, a significant increase in dry bulk density was observed over the course of time compared to STWS and MT, which was more pronounced at 2-8 cm than at 12-18 cm depth. Despite higher dry bulk density, STBS displayed higher saturated conductivity in contrast to STWS, which can be attributed to higher earthworm abundance. In strip tillage, structural differences were identified

  19. Costs and clinical outcomes in individuals without known coronary artery disease undergoing coronary computed tomographic angiography from an analysis of Medicare category III transaction codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, James K; Shaw, Leslee J; Berman, Daniel S; Gilmore, Amanda; Kang, Ning

    2008-09-15

    Multidetector coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) demonstrates high accuracy for the detection and exclusion of coronary artery disease (CAD) and predicts adverse prognosis. To date, opportunity costs relating the clinical and economic outcomes of CCTA compared with other methods of diagnosing CAD, such as myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), remain unknown. An observational, multicenter, patient-level analysis of patients without known CAD who underwent CCTA or SPECT was performed. Patients who underwent CCTA (n = 1,938) were matched to those who underwent SPECT (n = 7,752) on 8 demographic and clinical characteristics and 2 summary measures of cardiac medications and co-morbidities and were evaluated for 9-month expenditures and clinical outcomes. Adjusted total health care and CAD expenditures were 27% (p cost-efficient alternative to SPECT for the initial coronary evaluation of patients without known CAD.

  20. Computed tomographic, magnetic resonance imaging, and cross-sectional anatomic features of the manus in a normal American black bear (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ober, C P; Freeman, L E

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed description of cross-sectional anatomic structures of the manus of a black bear cadaver and correlate anatomic findings with corresponding features in computed tomographic (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) images. CT, MR imaging, and transverse sectioning were performed on the thoracic limb of a cadaver female black bear which had no evidence of lameness or thoracic limb abnormality prior to death. Features in CT and MR images corresponding to clinically important anatomic structures in anatomic sections were identified. Most of the structures identified in transverse anatomic sections were also identified using CT and MR imaging. Bones, muscles and tendons were generally easily identified with both imaging modalities, although divisions between adjacent muscles were rarely visible with CT and only visible sometimes with MR imaging. Vascular structures could not be identified with either imaging modality.

  1. Chiari Type II malformation: Prenatal sonographic findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadhanandham Shrinuvasan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chiari malformations (CM are a group of defects associated with the congenital caudal displacement of the cerebellum and brainstem. A thorough understanding of the sonographic findings is necessary for the diagnosis of CM in the developing fetus. Here, we present the classical imaging findings of CM Type II detected in a 25-year-old primigravida at 26 weeks of gestation by routine sonographic screening.

  2. Micro-computed Tomographic Analysis of Apical Microcracks before and after Root Canal Preparation by Hand, Rotary, and Reciprocating Instruments at Different Working Lengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Bruna Paloma; Câmara, Andréa Cruz; Duarte, Daniel Amancio; Heck, Richard John; Antonino, Antonio Celso Dantas; Aguiar, Carlos Menezes

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to compare apical microcrack formation after root canal shaping by hand, rotary, and reciprocating files at different working lengths using micro-computed tomographic analysis. Sixty mandibular incisors were randomly divided into 6 experimental groups (n = 10) according to the systems and working lengths used for the root canal preparation: ProTaper Universal for Hand Use (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), HyFlex CM (Coltene-Whaledent, Allstetten, Switzerland), and Reciproc (VDW, Munich, Germany) files working at the apical foramen (AF) and 1 mm short of the AF (AF - 1 mm). The teeth were imaged with micro-computed tomographic scanning at an isotropic resolution of 14 μm before and after root canal preparation, and the cross-sectional images generated were assessed to detect microcracks in the apical portion of the roots. Overall, 17 (28.3%) specimens presented microcracks before instrumentation. Apical microcracks were present in 1 (ProTaper Universal for Hand Use), 3 (Hyflex CM), and 2 (Reciproc) specimens when the instrumentation terminated at the AF. When instrumentation was terminated at AF - 1 mm, apical microcracks were detected in 3 (ProTaper Universal for Hand Use) and 4 (Hyflex CM and Reciproc) specimens. All these microcracks detected after root canal preparation were already present before instrumentation, and no new apical microcrack was visualized. For all groups, the number of slices presenting microcracks after root canal preparation was the same as before canal preparation. Root canal shaping with ProTaper Universal for Hand Use, HyFlex CM, and Reciproc systems, regardless of the working length, did not produce apical microcracks. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Variation in Location of the Mandibular Foramen/Inferior Alveolar Nerve Complex Given Anatomic Landmarks Using Cone-beam Computed Tomographic Scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacher, Jonathan; Van DaHuvel, Scott; Parashar, Vijay; Mitchell, John C

    2016-03-01

    The inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) injection is 1 of the most commonly administered and useful injections in the field of dentistry. Practitioners use intraoral anatomic landmarks, which vary greatly among patients. The objective of this study was to assist practitioners by identifying a range of normal variability within certain landmarks used in delivering IAN anesthesia. A total of 203 randomly selected retrospective cone-beam computed tomographic scans were obtained from the Midwestern University Dental Institute cone-beam computed tomographic database. InVivoDental5.0 volumetric imaging software (Anatomage, San Jose, CA) was used to measure 2 important parameters used in locating the mandibular foramen (MF)/IAN complex: (1) the angle from the contralateral premolar contact area to the MF and (2) the distance above the mandibular occlusal plane to the center of the MF. The variation of these measurements was compared with established reference values and statistically analyzed using a 1-sample t test. The angle from the contralateral premolar contact area to the MF for the right and left sides was 42.99° and 42.57°, respectively. The angulations varied significantly from the reference value of 45° (P < .001). The minimum height above the mandibular occlusal plane for the right and left sides was 9.85 mm and 9.81 mm, respectively. The heights varied significantly from the minimum reference value of 6 mm but not the maximum reference value of 10 mm (P < .001). Orienting the syringe barrel at an angulation slightly less than 45° and significantly higher than 6 mm above the mandibular occlusal plane can aid in successfully administering anesthesia to the MF/IAN complex. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparative validity and reproducibility study of various landmark-oriented reference planes in 3-dimensional computed tomographic analysis for patients receiving orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsiu-Hsia; Chuang, Ya-Fang; Weng, Jing-Ling; Lo, Lun-Jou

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional computed tomographic imaging has become popular in clinical evaluation, treatment planning, surgical simulation, and outcome assessment for maxillofacial intervention. The purposes of this study were to investigate whether there is any correlation among landmark-based horizontal reference planes and to validate the reproducibility and reliability of landmark identification. Preoperative and postoperative cone-beam computed tomographic images of patients who had undergone orthognathic surgery were collected. Landmark-oriented reference planes including the Frankfort horizontal plane (FHP) and the lateral semicircular canal plane (LSP) were established. Four FHPs were defined by selecting 3 points from the orbitale, porion, or midpoint of paired points. The LSP passed through both the lateral semicircular canal points and nasion. The distances between the maxillary or mandibular teeth and the reference planes were measured, and the differences between the 2 sides were calculated and compared. The precision in locating the landmarks was evaluated by performing repeated tests, and the intraobserver reproducibility and interobserver reliability were assessed. A total of 30 patients with facial deformity and malocclusion--10 patients with facial symmetry, 10 patients with facial asymmetry, and 10 patients with cleft lip and palate--were recruited. Comparing the differences among the 5 reference planes showed no statistically significant difference among all patient groups. Regarding intraobserver reproducibility, the mean differences in the 3 coordinates varied from 0 to 0.35 mm, with correlation coefficients between 0.96 and 1.0, showing high correlation between repeated tests. Regarding interobserver reliability, the mean differences among the 3 coordinates varied from 0 to 0.47 mm, with correlation coefficients between 0.88 and 1.0, exhibiting high correlation between the different examiners. The 5 horizontal reference planes were reliable and

  5. Arterioscanning of pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovskij, B.V.; Rabkin, I.Kh.; Matevosov, A.L.

    1980-01-01

    Investigated is the state of precapillary and capillary net of pancreas vessels by way of intra-arterial MAA 1 +H3+H1I injection. Posiible variants of pancreas form, shape and position, and the main sources of blood supply are presented. The knowledge of the above factors is necessary to avoid mistakes in the desiphering of arterioscannograms. Techniques for angiography and arterioscanning in cases of pancreas cancer, benign tumours, pancreas cyst and chronic pancreatitis are described. Arterioscanning is shown to be a valuable addition to angiography, which permits to judge on the angiographically invisible part of the organ arteriolocapillary channel, clarifying the nature of the process and damage length. The summary estimate of results of angiographic and arterioscannographic investigations considerably increases the diagnostic effectiveness

  6. Pancreas and cyst segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, Konstantin; Gutenko, Ievgeniia; Nadeem, Saad; Kaufman, Arie

    2016-03-01

    Accurate segmentation of abdominal organs from medical images is an essential part of surgical planning and computer-aided disease diagnosis. Many existing algorithms are specialized for the segmentation of healthy organs. Cystic pancreas segmentation is especially challenging due to its low contrast boundaries, variability in shape, location and the stage of the pancreatic cancer. We present a semi-automatic segmentation algorithm for pancreata with cysts. In contrast to existing automatic segmentation approaches for healthy pancreas segmentation which are amenable to atlas/statistical shape approaches, a pancreas with cysts can have even higher variability with respect to the shape of the pancreas due to the size and shape of the cyst(s). Hence, fine results are better attained with semi-automatic steerable approaches. We use a novel combination of random walker and region growing approaches to delineate the boundaries of the pancreas and cysts with respective best Dice coefficients of 85.1% and 86.7%, and respective best volumetric overlap errors of 26.0% and 23.5%. Results show that the proposed algorithm for pancreas and pancreatic cyst segmentation is accurate and stable.

  7. Solid and papillary epithelial neoplasm of the pancreas: radiologic and pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ik; Lim, Joo Won; Ko, Young Tae; Lim, Jae Hoon; Yang, Dal Mo; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kwak, Jeong Ho

    1994-01-01

    Computed tomographic(CT), ultrasonographic(US) findings of solid and papillary epithelial neoplasm of the pancreas were correlated with pathologic findings for the better understanding of this disease entity. A retrospective review of CT and US of 14 cases of solid and papillary epithelial neoplasm of the pancreas was carried out in terms of the margin, internal architecture, calcification and septation, and this was correlated with gross pathologic findings. CT and US findings were well defined round masses consisting of both solid and cystic components. Five cases were cystic, four cases were solid and five cases were mixed. Cystic portion of the tumor represented variable degree of hemorrhagic necrosis. Six cases contained foci of calcification, which were linear, marginal and amorphous. Marginal calcification interfered US examination of the mass in three cases. Internal septum was demonstrated in four cases on CT, one case on US and three cases on gross specimen. Our results indicate that calcification and internal septum were considered as a part of radiologic findings in solid and papillary epithelial neoplasm of the pancreas

  8. Portal Annular Pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnoss, Jonathan M.; Harnoss, Julian C.; Diener, Markus K.; Contin, Pietro; Ulrich, Alexis B.; Büchler, Markus W.; Schmitz-Winnenthal, Friedrich H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Portal annular pancreas (PAP) is an asymptomatic congenital pancreas anomaly, in which portal and/or mesenteric veins are encased by pancreas tissue. The aim of the study was to determine the role of PAP in pancreatic surgery as well as its management and potential complication, specifically, postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF). On the basis of a case report, the MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science databases were systematically reviewed up to September 2012. All articles describing a case of PAP were considered. In summary, 21 studies with 59 cases were included. The overall prevalence of PAP was 2.4% and the patients' mean (SD) age was 55.9 (16.2) years. The POPF rate in patients with PAP (12 pancreaticoduodenectomies and 3 distal pancreatectomies) was 46.7% (in accordance with the definition of the International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery). Portal annular pancreas is a quite unattended pancreatic variant with high prevalence and therefore still remains a clinical challenge to avoid postoperative complications. To decrease the risk for POPF, attentive preoperative diagnostics should also focus on PAP. In pancreaticoduodenectomy, a shift of the resection plane to the pancreas tail should be considered; in extensive pancreatectomy, coverage of the pancreatic remnant by the falciform ligament could be a treatment option. PMID:25207658

  9. Sonographic evaluation of plantar fasciitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Sook Ja; Choi, Yun Sun; Tien, Kuang Lung; Jung, Hye Jeon; Lee, Kyoung Tae; Yoon, Yong Kyu [Eulji College of Medicine Eulji Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-01

    To evaluate the sonographic findings of plantar fasciitis. Both feet of 30 patients(mean age, 44years) in whom plantar fasciitis had been clinically diagnosed, and those of healthy volunteers(mean age, 34years) were evaluated with ultrasound(US) using a 7.0MHz linear array transducer. Heel pain was unilateral in 26 patients and bilateral in four. Sagittal sonograms were obtained in the prone position, and the thickness of the plantar fascia was measured at its proximal end near its insertion into the calcaneus. We also evaluated hypoechoic fascia, perifascial fluid collection, fiber rupture, calcaneal spur and calcifications. Plantar fascia thickness was significantly greater in the heels of patients with plantar fasciitis(3.2-8mm; mean, 5.1{+-}1.12) than in their asymptomatic heels(1.3-5mm; mean, 3.5{+-}0.78)(p<0.0001), in which it was similar to that of heels of patients in the control group(1.8-5mm; mean, 3.0{+-}0.71)(p<0.0001). The proximal plantar fascia was hypoechoic in 31 symptomatic heels(91.2%), in four asymptomatic heels(15.4%), and in none of the patients in the control group. Calcaneal spurs were identified in sixteen symptomatic heels(47.1%), and in two which were asymptomatic(7.7%). Perifascial fluid collection was identified in only two symptomatic heels(5.9%). In plantar fasciitis, sonography demonstrates that the fascia is thicker as well as hypoechic. For the clinical diagnosis of planter fasciitis, US can therefore be used as an adjunct to clinical diagnosis.

  10. Sonographic evaluation of plantar fasciitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sook Ja; Choi, Yun Sun; Tien, Kuang Lung; Jung, Hye Jeon; Lee, Kyoung Tae; Yoon, Yong Kyu

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the sonographic findings of plantar fasciitis. Both feet of 30 patients(mean age, 44years) in whom plantar fasciitis had been clinically diagnosed, and those of healthy volunteers(mean age, 34years) were evaluated with ultrasound(US) using a 7.0MHz linear array transducer. Heel pain was unilateral in 26 patients and bilateral in four. Sagittal sonograms were obtained in the prone position, and the thickness of the plantar fascia was measured at its proximal end near its insertion into the calcaneus. We also evaluated hypoechoic fascia, perifascial fluid collection, fiber rupture, calcaneal spur and calcifications. Plantar fascia thickness was significantly greater in the heels of patients with plantar fasciitis(3.2-8mm; mean, 5.1±1.12) than in their asymptomatic heels(1.3-5mm; mean, 3.5±0.78)(p<0.0001), in which it was similar to that of heels of patients in the control group(1.8-5mm; mean, 3.0±0.71)(p<0.0001). The proximal plantar fascia was hypoechoic in 31 symptomatic heels(91.2%), in four asymptomatic heels(15.4%), and in none of the patients in the control group. Calcaneal spurs were identified in sixteen symptomatic heels(47.1%), and in two which were asymptomatic(7.7%). Perifascial fluid collection was identified in only two symptomatic heels(5.9%). In plantar fasciitis, sonography demonstrates that the fascia is thicker as well as hypoechic. For the clinical diagnosis of planter fasciitis, US can therefore be used as an adjunct to clinical diagnosis

  11. Identification of High-Risk Plaques Destined to Cause Acute Coronary Syndrome Using Coronary Computed Tomographic Angiography and Computational Fluid Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo Myung; Choi, Gilwoo; Koo, Bon-Kwon; Hwang, Doyeon; Park, Jonghanne; Zhang, Jinlong; Kim, Kyung-Jin; Tong, Yaliang; Kim, Hyun Jin; Grady, Leo; Doh, Joon-Hyung; Nam, Chang-Wook; Shin, Eun-Seok; Cho, Young-Seok; Choi, Su-Yeon; Chun, Eun Ju; Choi, Jin-Ho; Nørgaard, Bjarne L; Christiansen, Evald H; Niemen, Koen; Otake, Hiromasa; Penicka, Martin; de Bruyne, Bernard; Kubo, Takashi; Akasaka, Takashi; Narula, Jagat; Douglas, Pamela S; Taylor, Charles A; Kim, Hyo-Soo

    2018-03-14

    We investigated the utility of noninvasive hemodynamic assessment in the identification of high-risk plaques that caused subsequent acute coronary syndrome (ACS). ACS is a critical event that impacts the prognosis of patients with coronary artery disease. However, the role of hemodynamic factors in the development of ACS is not well-known. Seventy-two patients with clearly documented ACS and available coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) acquired between 1 month and 2 years before the development of ACS were included. In 66 culprit and 150 nonculprit lesions as a case-control design, the presence of adverse plaque characteristics (APC) was assessed and hemodynamic parameters (fractional flow reserve derived by coronary computed tomographic angiography [FFR CT ], change in FFR CT across the lesion [△FFR CT ], wall shear stress [WSS], and axial plaque stress) were analyzed using computational fluid dynamics. The best cut-off values for FFR CT , △FFR CT , WSS, and axial plaque stress were used to define the presence of adverse hemodynamic characteristics (AHC). The incremental discriminant and reclassification abilities for ACS prediction were compared among 3 models (model 1: percent diameter stenosis [%DS] and lesion length, model 2: model 1 + APC, and model 3: model 2 + AHC). The culprit lesions showed higher %DS (55.5 ± 15.4% vs. 43.1 ± 15.0%; p stress than nonculprit lesions (all p values statistic [c-index] 0.789 vs. 0.747; p = 0.014) and reclassification abilities (category-free net reclassification index 0.287; p = 0.047; relative integrated discrimination improvement 0.368; p < 0.001) than model 2. Lesions with both APC and AHC showed significantly higher risk of the culprit for subsequent ACS than those with no APC/AHC (hazard ratio: 11.75; 95% confidence interval: 2.85 to 48.51; p = 0.001) and with either APC or AHC (hazard ratio: 3.22; 95% confidence interval: 1.86 to 5.55; p < 0.001). Noninvasive hemodynamic assessment enhanced

  12. Comparative sonographic evaluation of the anteroposterior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The pancreas is an insulin‑producing gland and is prone to varying degrees of destruction and change in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Various morphological changes including reduction in the pancreas dimensions have been described in DM. Objectives: To determine pancreatic anteroposterior (AP) ...

  13. Method of pancreas scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michele, E.; Schmidt, H.A.E.

    1976-01-01

    Scintigraphy of the pancreas is important because of a lack of simple internal and x-ray pancreas diagnostic examination methods, non-burdening to the patient, yet providing sufficient evidence. We conceived a double isotope subtraction method aimed at widespread application; financially, it should be within the range even of smaller nuclear medicine departments. A scanner is combined with double impulse processing and a subtraction unit (Picker Dualscanner) and an adapted x-ray unit with the x-ray tube aimed at the scan-field. Commercial sup(Se-75)selenium methionine is used for pancreas imagining. sup(TC-99m)colloidal sulphur is used as a liver indicator. After barium-brei application orally, an x-ray is taken of the gastro-intestinal tract, so as to be able to delineate the pancreas from other epigastric organs also able to accumulate methionine. The subtraction photoscan is then inscribed on this pre-exposed film without any shift of the patient. It is also possible to use two parallel films (x-ray/photoscan) and then to superposition them

  14. Carcinoma of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphrey, L.J.; Hartman, G.V.

    1974-01-01

    Experience with 17 patients with incurable carcinoma of the pancreas treated by radiation therapy and immunotherapy is described. Results observed have prompted a program of aggressive surgery, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, and long-term chemotherapy. Optimism for significant palliation and survival for these patients with curable and incurable pancreatic carcinoma is warranted. (U.S.)

  15. Agenesis of pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldsgaard, P; Kryger-Baggesen, N; Lisse, I

    1994-01-01

    Complete agenesis of pancreas is a rare and lethal condition. Four cases have previously been reported in combination with other malformations, such as severe intrauterine growth retardation, hyperglycaemia and meconium ileus. We report a case of pancreatic agenesis as a single anomaly. The child...

  16. A unique case of Turner syndrome accompanying prolactinoma and unexpected elongated styloid process: Clinical and cone-beam computed tomographic features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evlice, Burcu; Tatli, Ufuk; Yazicioglu, Iffet; Oztunc, Haluk [Faculty of Dentistry, Cukurova University, Adana (Turkey); Evlice, Ahmet [Faculty of Medicine, Cukurova University, Adana (Turkey)

    2013-06-15

    Turner syndrome (TS) is one of the most common chromosomal abnormalities, with an estimated frequency among female live births of 1/2,000-3,000. The syndrome is characterized by the partial or complete absence of one X chromosome (45,X karyotype). We reported a unique case of a 40-year-old woman with TS accompanying unexpected elongated styloid process specific to Eagle syndrome (ES) and followed up-prolactinoma. The present article is the first report to define the cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) features of TS accompanying ES. Patients with TS carry various risks that make treatment more complicated; thus advanced imaging techniques for proper treatment and follow-up are extremely important. In the light of CBCT examination, craniofacial abnormalities specific to TS and accompanying syndromes such as the crowding of teeth especially in the maxillary anterior region caused by maxillary narrowness, micrognatic maxilla and mandible, relative mandibular retrusion, malocclusion, open-bite, and an elongated styloid process (length of 32.7 mm) on the right side were illustrated in detail.

  17. Cone Beam Computed Tomographic Analyses of the Position and Course of the Mandibular Canal: Relevance to the Sagittal Split Ramus Osteotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ercan Sekerci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to document the position and course of the mandibular canal through the region of the mandibular angle and body in dental patients, using cone beam computed tomographic imaging. Methods. The position and course of the mandibular canal from the region of the third molar to the first molar were measured at five specific locations in the same plane: at three different positions just between the first and second molars; between the second and third molars; and just distal to the third molar. Results. The study sample was composed of 500 hemimandibles from 250 dental patients with a mean age of 26.32. Significant differences were found between genders, distances, and positions. B decreased significantly from the anterior positions to the posterior positions in both females and males. The mean values of S and CB increased significantly from the posterior positions to the anterior positions in both females and males. Conclusion. Because the sagittal split ramus osteotomy is a technically difficult procedure, we hope that the findings of the present study will help the surgeon in choosing the safest surgical technique for the treatment of mandibular deformities.

  18. The Time Course of Dynamic Computed Tomographic Appearance of Radiation Injury to the Cirrhotic Liver Following Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoki Kimura

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the dynamic computed tomographic (CT appearance of focal radiation injury to cirrhotic liver tissue around the tumor following stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Seventy-seven patients with 92 HCCs were observed for >6 months. Sixty-four and 13 patients belonged to Child-Pugh class A and B, respectively. The median SBRT dose was 48 Gy/4fr. Dynamic CT scans were performed in non-enhanced, arterial, portal, and venous phases. The median follow-up period was 18 months. Dynamic CT appearances were classified into 3 types: type 1, hyperdensity in all enhanced phases; type 2, hypodensity in arterial and portal phases; type 3, isodensity in all enhanced phases. Half of the type 2 or 3 appearances significantly changed to type 1, particularly in patients belonging to Child-Pugh class A. After 3-6 months, Child-Pugh class B was a significant factor in type 3 patients. Thus, dynamic CT appearances were classified into 3 patterns and significantly changed over time into the enhancement group (type 1 in most patients belonging to Child-Pugh class A. Child-Pugh class B was a significant factor in the non-enhancement group (type 3.

  19. Three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography to predict weight and volume of deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap for breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosson, Gedge D; Shridharani, Sachin M; Magarakis, Michael; Manahan, Michele A; Stapleton, Sahael M; Gilson, Marta M; Flores, Jaime I; Basdag, Basak; Fishman, Elliot K

    2011-10-01

    Three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography (3D CTA) can be used preoperatively to evaluate the course and caliber of perforating blood vessels for abdominal free-flap breast reconstruction. For postmastectomy breast reconstruction, many women inquire whether the abdominal tissue volume will match that of the breast to be removed. Therefore, our goal was to estimate preoperative volume and weight of the proposed flap and compare them with the actual volume and weight to determine if diagnostic imaging can accurately identify the amount of tissue that could potentially to be harvested. Preoperative 3D CTA was performed in 15 patients, who underwent breast reconstruction using the deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap. Before each angiogram, stereotactic fiducials were placed on the planned flap outline. The radiologist reviewed each preoperative angiogram to estimate the volume, and thus, weight of the flap. These estimated weights were compared with the actual intraoperative weights. The average estimated weight was 99.7% of the actual weight. The interquartile range (25th to 75th percentile), which represents the "middle half" of the patients, was 91-109%, indicating that half of the patients had an estimated weight within 9% of the actual weight; however, there was a large range (70-133%). 3D CTA with stereotactic fiducials allows surgeons to adequately estimate abdominal flap volume before surgery, potentially giving guidance in the amount of tissue that can be harvested from a patient's lower abdomen. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Clinical indications for computed tomographic colonography: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) and European Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiology (ESGAR) Guideline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spada, Cristiano; Barbaro, Federico; Petruzziello, Lucio [Catholic University, Digestive Endoscopy Unit, Rome (Italy); Stoker, Jaap; Haan, Margriet C. de [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Alarcon, Onofre [Universidad de La Laguna, Department of Gastroenterology, Hospital Universitario de Canarias, Facultad de Medicina, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Bellini, Davide; Laghi, Andrea [Sapienza University of Rome, I.C.O.T. Hospital, Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology, Latina (Italy); Bretthauer, Michael [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Health Economy and Health Management, University of Oslo, and Department of Transplantation Medicine, Gastroenterology Unit, Oslo (Norway); Dumonceau, Jean-Marc [Gedyt Endoscopy Center, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ferlitsch, Monika [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Internal Medicine III, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Vienna (Austria); Halligan, Steve; Helbren, Emma; Plumb, Andrew; Taylor, Stuart A. [University College London, Centre for Medical Imaging, London (United Kingdom); Hellstrom, Mikael [Sahlgrenska University Hospital and Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Department of Radiology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Kuipers, Ernst J. [Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Lefere, Philippe [Virtual Colonoscopy Teaching Centre, Hooglede (Belgium); AZ Delta, Roeselare (Belgium); Mang, Thomas [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Neri, Emanuele [University of Pisa, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Pisa (Italy); Regge, Daniele [Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment, Candiolo-Torino (Italy); Hassan, Cesare [Catholic University, Digestive Endoscopy Unit, Rome (Italy); Ospedale Nuovo Regina Margherita, Department of Gastroenterology, Rome (Italy)

    2014-10-03

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality [1, 2]. CRC screening by fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) has been shown to reduce CRC mortality [3, 4], and is currently used in several European countries. Colonoscopy is highly effective for detecting advanced neoplasia, and endoscopic polypectomy reduces subsequent CRCspecific incidence and mortality [5]. In Europe, colonoscopy is mainly used to investigate FOBT-positive or symptomatic patients, or as a preventive strategy in those with increased CRC risk [6]. Computed tomographic colonography (CTC) is a minimally invasive imaging technique that is highly accurate for detecting colorectal cancer (CRC) and adenomatous polyps. The technique is standardized [7], and CTC is more easily performed than barium enema. Evidence-based data suggest that CTC is the natural replacement for barium enema and a complementary rather than an alternative examination to colonoscopy. However, the clinical scenarios for which CTC is indicated remain unclear. To address this uncertainty - 20 years after the first presentation of CTC at a radiological meeting [8] - the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) and the European Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiology (ESGAR) decided to produce a common guideline regarding indications for CTC in clinical practice. Technical and quality issues of CTC have been deliberately excluded from this work as these have already been discussed separately [7].

  1. The Influence of the Size, Age and Sex on the Computed Tomographic Measured Size of the Pituitary Gland in Normal Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crijns, C P; Van Bree, H J; Broeckx, B J G; Schauvliege, S; Van Loon, G; Martens, A; Vanderperren, K; Dingemanse, W B; Gielen, I M

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the influence of the size, age and sex of the horse on the size of the pituitary gland and determine the possibility of using the pituitary gland height-to-brain area ratio (P:B ratio) to allow comparison of different sized and aged horses. Thirty-two horses without pituitary pars inter-media dysfunction that underwent a contrast-enhanced computed tomographic (CT) examination were included in a cross-sectional study. On the CT images, the pituitary gland height was measured and the P:B ratio was calculated. These measurements were correlated to the size, age and sex of the horses. The pituitary gland height was significantly associated with the size (P horses. No significant association was found between the P:B ratio and the size (P = 0.25), the age (P = 0.06) or the sex (P = 0.25) of the horses. In conclusion, the pituitary gland size varies between different sized and aged horses. The use of the P:B ratio is a valuable metric for making comparisons between the pituitary glands of these horses. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Differences in clinical features and computed tomographic findings between embolic and non-embolic acute ischemic stroke. A quantitative differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Kentaro; Yamaguchi, Takenori; Minematsu, Kazuo; Sawada, Tohru; Omae, Teruo

    1998-01-01

    A diagnosis based on the presumed mechanism of stroke onset is useful for management strategies in acute ischemic stroke. Ninety-two patients with embolic (cardiac or artery-to-artery) and 107 with non-embolic (thrombotic or hemodynamic) stroke were diagnosed on strict cerebral angiographic criteria alone. To clearly discriminate between these two groups, the neurological and computed tomographic (CT) findings were then compared. Rapidity of onset, vomiting, urinary incontinence, level of consciousness, cervical bruit, anisocoria, tongue deviation, sensory disturbance, and CT findings (location of hypodense area, findings of brain edema and hemorrhagic transformation) were discriminatory factors between the two groups (p<0.01). According to these 11 items, we prepared a numerical table for quantitative differential diagnosis. A diagnostic accuracy of 98.9% for embolic and 87.9% for non-embolic stroke in internal verification, and 90.0% and 82.9%, respectively, in external verification was observed. The differences in clinical features and CT findings between embolic and non-embolic stroke may reflect the pathophysiological mechanisms of the occlusive process of cerebral artery as well as the extent and severity of ischemia. (author)

  3. Differences in clinical features and computed tomographic findings between embolic and non-embolic acute ischemic stroke. A quantitative differential diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takano, Kentaro; Yamaguchi, Takenori; Minematsu, Kazuo; Sawada, Tohru; Omae, Teruo [National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    A diagnosis based on the presumed mechanism of stroke onset is useful for management strategies in acute ischemic stroke. Ninety-two patients with embolic (cardiac or artery-to-artery) and 107 with non-embolic (thrombotic or hemodynamic) stroke were diagnosed on strict cerebral angiographic criteria alone. To clearly discriminate between these two groups, the neurological and computed tomographic (CT) findings were then compared. Rapidity of onset, vomiting, urinary incontinence, level of consciousness, cervical bruit, anisocoria, tongue deviation, sensory disturbance, and CT findings (location of hypodense area, findings of brain edema and hemorrhagic transformation) were discriminatory factors between the two groups (p<0.01). According to these 11 items, we prepared a numerical table for quantitative differential diagnosis. A diagnostic accuracy of 98.9% for embolic and 87.9% for non-embolic stroke in internal verification, and 90.0% and 82.9%, respectively, in external verification was observed. The differences in clinical features and CT findings between embolic and non-embolic stroke may reflect the pathophysiological mechanisms of the occlusive process of cerebral artery as well as the extent and severity of ischemia. (author)

  4. A unique case of Turner syndrome accompanying prolactinoma and unexpected elongated styloid process: Clinical and cone-beam computed tomographic features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evlice, Burcu; Tatli, Ufuk; Yazicioglu, Iffet; Oztunc, Haluk; Evlice, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    Turner syndrome (TS) is one of the most common chromosomal abnormalities, with an estimated frequency among female live births of 1/2,000-3,000. The syndrome is characterized by the partial or complete absence of one X chromosome (45,X karyotype). We reported a unique case of a 40-year-old woman with TS accompanying unexpected elongated styloid process specific to Eagle syndrome (ES) and followed up-prolactinoma. The present article is the first report to define the cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) features of TS accompanying ES. Patients with TS carry various risks that make treatment more complicated; thus advanced imaging techniques for proper treatment and follow-up are extremely important. In the light of CBCT examination, craniofacial abnormalities specific to TS and accompanying syndromes such as the crowding of teeth especially in the maxillary anterior region caused by maxillary narrowness, micrognatic maxilla and mandible, relative mandibular retrusion, malocclusion, open-bite, and an elongated styloid process (length of 32.7 mm) on the right side were illustrated in detail.

  5. The Japan Lung Cancer Society–Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology consensus-based computed tomographic atlas for defining regional lymph node stations in radiotherapy for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itazawa, Tomoko; Tamaki, Yukihisa; Komiyama, Takafumi; Nishimura, Yasumasa; Nakayama, Yuko; Ito, Hiroyuki; Ohde, Yasuhisa; Kusumoto, Masahiko; Sakai, Shuji; Suzuki, Kenji; Watanabe, Hirokazu; Asamura, Hisao

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a consensus-based computed tomographic (CT) atlas that defines lymph node stations in radiotherapy for lung cancer based on the lymph node map of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC). A project group in the Japanese Radiation Oncology Study Group (JROSG) initially prepared a draft of the atlas in which lymph node Stations 1–11 were illustrated on axial CT images. Subsequently, a joint committee of the Japan Lung Cancer Society (JLCS) and the Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology (JASTRO) was formulated to revise this draft. The committee consisted of four radiation oncologists, four thoracic surgeons and three thoracic radiologists. The draft prepared by the JROSG project group was intensively reviewed and discussed at four meetings of the committee over several months. Finally, we proposed definitions for the regional lymph node stations and the consensus-based CT atlas. This atlas was approved by the Board of Directors of JLCS and JASTRO. This resulted in the first official CT atlas for defining regional lymph node stations in radiotherapy for lung cancer authorized by the JLCS and JASTRO. In conclusion, the JLCS–JASTRO consensus-based CT atlas, which conforms to the IASLC lymph node map, was established.

  6. The use of stable xenon-enhanced computed tomographic studies of cerebral blood flow to define changes in cerebral carbon dioxide vasoresponsivity caused by a severe head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, D W; Bouma, G J

    1991-12-01

    Previous studies using the xenon-133 cerebral blood flow (CBF) method have documented the impairment of CO2 vasoresponsivity after a severe head injury, but only global values can be obtained reliably with this technique. We studied CO2 vasoresponsivity using the stable xenon-enhanced computed tomographic CBF method, which provided information about well-defined cortical regions and deep brain structures not available with the xenon-133 method. In 17 patients with admission Glasgow Coma Scale scores of 8 or less, hemispheric CO2 vasoresponsivity ranged from 1.3 to 8.5% per mm Hg change in partial CO2 pressure. Lobar, cerebellar, basal ganglia, and brain stem CO2 vasoresponsivity frequently varied from the mean global value by more than 25%. In all but one patient, local CO2 vasoresponsivity in one or more of these areas differed from the mean global value by more than 50%. The greatest variability occurred in patients with acute subdural hematomas and diffuse (bihemispheric) injuries. This variability in CO2 vasoresponsivity has important implications for the effective and safe management of intracranial hypertension that frequently accompanies severe head injury.

  7. Clinical indications for computed tomographic colonography: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) and European Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiology (ESGAR) Guideline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spada, Cristiano; Barbaro, Federico; Petruzziello, Lucio; Stoker, Jaap; Haan, Margriet C. de; Alarcon, Onofre; Bellini, Davide; Laghi, Andrea; Bretthauer, Michael; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc; Ferlitsch, Monika; Halligan, Steve; Helbren, Emma; Plumb, Andrew; Taylor, Stuart A.; Hellstrom, Mikael; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Lefere, Philippe; Mang, Thomas; Neri, Emanuele; Regge, Daniele; Hassan, Cesare

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality [1, 2]. CRC screening by fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) has been shown to reduce CRC mortality [3, 4], and is currently used in several European countries. Colonoscopy is highly effective for detecting advanced neoplasia, and endoscopic polypectomy reduces subsequent CRCspecific incidence and mortality [5]. In Europe, colonoscopy is mainly used to investigate FOBT-positive or symptomatic patients, or as a preventive strategy in those with increased CRC risk [6]. Computed tomographic colonography (CTC) is a minimally invasive imaging technique that is highly accurate for detecting colorectal cancer (CRC) and adenomatous polyps. The technique is standardized [7], and CTC is more easily performed than barium enema. Evidence-based data suggest that CTC is the natural replacement for barium enema and a complementary rather than an alternative examination to colonoscopy. However, the clinical scenarios for which CTC is indicated remain unclear. To address this uncertainty - 20 years after the first presentation of CTC at a radiological meeting [8] - the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) and the European Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiology (ESGAR) decided to produce a common guideline regarding indications for CTC in clinical practice. Technical and quality issues of CTC have been deliberately excluded from this work as these have already been discussed separately [7].

  8. Comparative evaluation of the cadaveric and computed tomographic features of the coelomic cavity in the green iguana (Iguana iguana), black and white tegu (Tupinambis merianae) and bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzato, T; Selleri, P; Veladiano, I A; Zotti, A

    2013-12-01

    Contrast-enhanced computed tomographic studies of the coelomic cavity in four green iguanas, four black and white tegus and four bearded dragons were performed using a conventional CT scanner. Anatomical reference cross sections were obtained from four green iguana, four black and white tegu and six bearded dragon cadavers; the specimens were stored in a -20°C freezer for 24 h then sliced into 5-mm intervals. The frozen sections were cleaned with water and photographed on both sides. The individual anatomical structures were identified by means of the available literature; these were labelled first on the anatomical images and then matched to the corresponding computed tomography images. The results provide an atlas of the normal cross-sectional and computed tomographic anatomy of the coelomic cavity in the green iguana, the black and white tegu and the bearded dragon, which is useful in the interpretation of any imaging modality. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Sonographic ally Detected Architectural Distortion: Clinical Significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Shin Kee; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Yi, Ann; Cha, Sang Hoon; Kim, Baek Hyun; Cho, Kyu Ran; Kim, Young Sik; Son, Gil Soo; Kim, Young Soo; Kim, Hee Young [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Architectural distortion is a suspicious abnormality for the diagnosis of breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of sonographic ally detected architectural distortion. From January 2006 to June 2008, 20 patients were identified who had sonographic ally detected architectural distortions without a history of trauma or surgery and abnormal mammographic findings related to an architectural distortion. All of the lesions were pathologically verified. We evaluated the clinical and pathological findings and then assessed the clinical significance of the sonographic ally detected architectural distortions. Based on the clinical findings, one (5%) of the 20 patients had a palpable lump and the remaining 19 patients had no symptoms. No patient had a family history of breast cancer. Based on the pathological findings, three (15%) patients had malignancies. The malignant lesions included invasive ductal carcinomas (n = 2) and ductal carcinoma in situ (n = 1). Four (20%) patients had high-risk lesions: atypical ductal hyperplasia (n = 3) and lobular carcinoma in situ (n = 1). The remaining 13 (65%) patients had benign lesions, however, seven (35%) out of 13 patients had mild-risk lesions (three intraductal papillomas, three moderate or florid epithelial hyperplasia and one sclerosing adenosis). Of the sonographic ally detected architectural distortions, 35% were breast cancers or high-risk lesions and 35% were mild-risk lesions. Thus, a biopsy might be needed for an architectural distortion without an associated mass as depicted on breast ultrasound, even though the mammographic findings are normal

  10. Sonographic measurements of ocular biometry of indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at conducting ophthalmic sonographic examination of Nigerian indigenous dogs to provide baseline information on some major ocular parameters. Healthy eyes of eighty (80) indigenous dogs were used for the study. The dogs were adequately restrained physically and the structure of the ocular ...

  11. Sonographic ally Detected Architectural Distortion: Clinical Significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Shin Kee; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Yi, Ann; Cha, Sang Hoon; Kim, Baek Hyun; Cho, Kyu Ran; Kim, Young Sik; Son, Gil Soo; Kim, Young Soo; Kim, Hee Young

    2008-01-01

    Architectural distortion is a suspicious abnormality for the diagnosis of breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of sonographic ally detected architectural distortion. From January 2006 to June 2008, 20 patients were identified who had sonographic ally detected architectural distortions without a history of trauma or surgery and abnormal mammographic findings related to an architectural distortion. All of the lesions were pathologically verified. We evaluated the clinical and pathological findings and then assessed the clinical significance of the sonographic ally detected architectural distortions. Based on the clinical findings, one (5%) of the 20 patients had a palpable lump and the remaining 19 patients had no symptoms. No patient had a family history of breast cancer. Based on the pathological findings, three (15%) patients had malignancies. The malignant lesions included invasive ductal carcinomas (n = 2) and ductal carcinoma in situ (n = 1). Four (20%) patients had high-risk lesions: atypical ductal hyperplasia (n = 3) and lobular carcinoma in situ (n = 1). The remaining 13 (65%) patients had benign lesions, however, seven (35%) out of 13 patients had mild-risk lesions (three intraductal papillomas, three moderate or florid epithelial hyperplasia and one sclerosing adenosis). Of the sonographic ally detected architectural distortions, 35% were breast cancers or high-risk lesions and 35% were mild-risk lesions. Thus, a biopsy might be needed for an architectural distortion without an associated mass as depicted on breast ultrasound, even though the mammographic findings are normal

  12. Sonographic evaluation of the chest in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reither, M.

    1983-02-01

    Although limited by osseous structures and gas the sonographic evaluation of the chest may be useful for certain conditions. Illustrated by three cases - supradiaphragmatic and parasternal tumor, subpulmonic effusion, and pleural effusion combined with a mediastinal tumor - the indications for ultrasound studies in children are discussed. In many cases the ultrasound may be helpful considering the diagnostic procedure and therapeutic consequences.

  13. Sonographic Features of Nodular Hashimoto Thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Daniel Corey; Giampoli, Ellen; Montoya, Simone; Patel, Swapnil; Dogra, Vikram

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the sonographic features of nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) in patients with diffuse background thyroiditis and normal background thyroid parenchyma. Eighty-six patients who had fine-needle aspiration biopsy of 100 thyroid nodules confirmed to be HT and a thyroid ultrasound within 1 year of the biopsy were included in the study. Retrospective analysis of several sonographic features of each nodule was then performed. The mean age of patients with nodular HT was 53 years, 84% of which were female. Nodular HT occurred in a background of diffuse thyroiditis in 85% and in a homogeneous normal background in 15%. Ninety-three percent of nodules were completely solid and 7% of nodules were cystic and solid. Although the sonographic appearance of nodular HT was variable, the most common appearance was a solid (93/100) and hypoechoic nodule (44/100) with a thin hypoechoic halo (42/100) without calcifications (96/100). On color Doppler, 17% of nodules showed peripheral hypervascularity, 14% of nodules were diffusely hypervascular, 34% were iso vascular, 32% were hypovascular, and 3% were avascular. The sonographic appearance of nodular HT was not significantly different in patients with diffuse background thyroiditis compared with those without background thyroiditis. The sonographic appearance of nodular HT is variable, but the most common appearance is a solid sharply circumscribed hypoechoic nodule with thin hypoechoic halo without calcification. There was no significant difference in the appearance of nodular HT in patients with diffuse background thyroiditis compared with patients with normal background thyroid parenchyma.

  14. Is the size of the pancreas useful in diagnosing chronic pancreatitis? An ultrasound based, retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiber, Matthias; Einwächter, Henrik; Phillip, Veit; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Schmid, Roland M; Lersch, Christian

    2016-01-01

    According to the widely accepted "Cambridge Classification", one of the morphological criteria for chronic pancreatitis (CP) is enlargement of the pancreas. Increased size seems to be an obvious feature of an inflammatory disease. However, it has never been validated so far, if CP is indeed accompanied by significant enlargement of the pancreas. In this retrospective study, reference values for the size of the pancreas (head, body and tail measured in the transverse plane by transabdominal ultrasound) were established from 921 patients without pancreatic disease. Measurements were performed by a single investigator. Subsequently, the size of the pancreas from 72 patients with CP was compared to age- and sex-matched controls. Calculating the 5th and 95th percentile, reference values of the pancreatic size were as follows: head 1.5-3.1 cm (mean: 2.2); body 0.6-1.6 cm (mean: 1.1); tail 1.4-3.0 cm (mean: 2.1). The size of the pancreas correlated significantly with body height, weight and body mass index. Patients with CP had only a slightly but statistically significantly larger pancreas than controls. Mean values from the CP group were still between the 5th and 95th percentile of matched controls. Although the pancreas from patients with CP was statistically significantly larger compared to controls, the difference was only marginally. According to these data, it is at least questionable if pancreatic size is a helpful parameter for sonographic evaluation to discriminate chronic pancreatitis from healthy pancreas. Copyright © 2016 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Pancreas transplantation: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Ibrahim David

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Pancreas transplantation is the only treatment able to reestablish normal glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels in insulin-dependent diabetic patients without the use of exogenous insulin. The evolution of pancreas transplantation in treatment of diabetes was determined by advances in the fields of surgical technique, organ preservation and immunosuppressants. The main complication leading to graft loss is technical failure followed by acute or chronic rejection. Technical failure means graft loss within the first three months following transplantation due to vascular thrombosis (50%, pancreatitis (20%, infection (18%, fistula (6.5% and bleeding (2.4%. Immunological complications still affect 30% of patients, and rejection is the cause of graft loss in 10% of cases. Chronic rejection is the most common late complication. Cardiovascular diseases are the most common causes of late mortality in pancreas transplantation, so it remains the most effective treatment for type 1 diabetes patients. There is a significant improvement in quality of life and in patient’s survival rates. The development of islet transplantation could eliminate or minimize surgical complications and immunosuppression.

  16. Quantification of normative ranges and baseline predictors of aortoventricular interface dimensions using multi-detector computed tomographic imaging in patients without aortic valve disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gooley, Robert P.; Cameron, James D.; Soon, Jennifer; Loi, Duncan; Chitale, Gauri; Syeda, Rifath; Meredith, Ian T.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • MDCT imaging of the aortoventricular interface is increasingly common. • We present normative ranges for aortoventricular interface dimensions. • Such techniques and ranges should be used to standardise reporting and research. - Abstract: Background: Multidetector computed tomographic (MDCT) assessment of the aortoventricular interface has gained increased importance with the advent of minimally invasive treatment modalities for aortic and mitral valve disease. This has included a standardised technique of identifying a plane through the nadir of each coronary cusp, the basal plane, and taking further measurements in relation to this plane. Despite this there is no published data defining normal ranges for these aortoventricular metrics in a healthy cohort. This study seeks to quantify normative ranges for MDCT derived aortoventricular dimensions and evaluate baseline demographic and anthropomorphic associates of these measurements in a normal cohort. Methods: 250 consecutive patients undergoing MDCT coronary angiography were included. Aortoventricular dimensions at multiple levels of the aortoventricular interface were assessed and normative ranges quantified. Multivariate linear regression was performed to identify baseline predictors of each metric. Results: The mean age was 59 ± 12 years. The basal plane was eccentric (EI = 0.22 ± 0.06) while the left ventricular outflow tract was more eccentric (EI = 0.32 ±0.06), with no correlation to gender, age or hypertension. Male gender, height and body mass index were consistent independent predictors of larger aortoventricular dimensions at all anatomical levels, while age was predictive of supra-annular measurements. Conclusions: Male gender, height and BMI are independent predictors of all aortoventricular dimensions while age predicts only supra-annular dimensions. Use of defined metrics such as the basal plane and formation of normative ranges for these metrics allows reference for clinical

  17. Use of a hybrid iterative reconstruction technique to reduce image noise and improve image quality in obese patients undergoing computed tomographic pulmonary angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kligerman, Seth; Mehta, Dhruv; Farnadesh, Mahmmoudreza; Jeudy, Jean; Olsen, Kathryn; White, Charles

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether an iterative reconstruction (IR) technique (iDose, Philips Healthcare) can reduce image noise and improve image quality in obese patients undergoing computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA). The study was Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant and approved by our institutional review board. A total of 33 obese patients (average body mass index: 42.7) underwent CTPA studies following standard departmental protocols. The data were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) and 3 iDose strengths (iDoseL1, iDoseL3, and iDoseL5) for a total of 132 studies. FBP data were collected from 33 controls (average body mass index: 22) undergoing CTPA. Regions of interest were drawn at 6 identical levels in the pulmonary artery (PA), from the main PA to a subsegmental branch, in both the control group and study groups using each algorithm. Noise and attenuation were measured at all PA levels. Three thoracic radiologists graded each study on a scale of 1 (very poor) to 5 (ideal) by 4 categories: image quality, noise, PA enhancement, and "plastic" appearance. Statistical analysis was performed using an unpaired t test, 1-way analysis of variance, and linear weighted κ. Compared with the control group, there was significantly higher noise with FBP, iDoseL1, and iDoseL3 algorithms (Pnoise in the control group and iDoseL5 algorithm in the study group. Analysis within the study group showed a significant and progressive decrease in noise and increase in the contrast-to-noise ratio as the level of IR was increased (Pnoise and PA enhancement with increasing levels of iDose. The use of an IR technique leads to qualitative and quantitative improvements in image noise and image quality in obese patients undergoing CTPA.

  18. Quantification of normative ranges and baseline predictors of aortoventricular interface dimensions using multi-detector computed tomographic imaging in patients without aortic valve disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gooley, Robert P., E-mail: robert.gooley@monashhealth.org [MonashHeart, Monash Health, Melbourne 3168 (Australia); Monash Cardiovascular Research Centre, Department of Medicine (MMC), Monash University, Melbourne 3168 (Australia); Cameron, James D., E-mail: james.cameron@monash.edu [MonashHeart, Monash Health, Melbourne 3168 (Australia); Monash Cardiovascular Research Centre, Department of Medicine (MMC), Monash University, Melbourne 3168 (Australia); Soon, Jennifer, E-mail: jenn.sa@gmail.com [MonashHeart, Monash Health, Melbourne 3168 (Australia); Monash Cardiovascular Research Centre, Department of Medicine (MMC), Monash University, Melbourne 3168 (Australia); Loi, Duncan, E-mail: dloi2@student.monash.edu [Monash Cardiovascular Research Centre, Department of Medicine (MMC), Monash University, Melbourne 3168 (Australia); Chitale, Gauri, E-mail: gchi21@student.monash.edu [Monash Cardiovascular Research Centre, Department of Medicine (MMC), Monash University, Melbourne 3168 (Australia); Syeda, Rifath, E-mail: rssye1@student.monash.edu [Monash Cardiovascular Research Centre, Department of Medicine (MMC), Monash University, Melbourne 3168 (Australia); Meredith, Ian T., E-mail: ian.meredith@myheart.id.au [MonashHeart, Monash Health, Melbourne 3168 (Australia); Monash Cardiovascular Research Centre, Department of Medicine (MMC), Monash University, Melbourne 3168 (Australia)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • MDCT imaging of the aortoventricular interface is increasingly common. • We present normative ranges for aortoventricular interface dimensions. • Such techniques and ranges should be used to standardise reporting and research. - Abstract: Background: Multidetector computed tomographic (MDCT) assessment of the aortoventricular interface has gained increased importance with the advent of minimally invasive treatment modalities for aortic and mitral valve disease. This has included a standardised technique of identifying a plane through the nadir of each coronary cusp, the basal plane, and taking further measurements in relation to this plane. Despite this there is no published data defining normal ranges for these aortoventricular metrics in a healthy cohort. This study seeks to quantify normative ranges for MDCT derived aortoventricular dimensions and evaluate baseline demographic and anthropomorphic associates of these measurements in a normal cohort. Methods: 250 consecutive patients undergoing MDCT coronary angiography were included. Aortoventricular dimensions at multiple levels of the aortoventricular interface were assessed and normative ranges quantified. Multivariate linear regression was performed to identify baseline predictors of each metric. Results: The mean age was 59 ± 12 years. The basal plane was eccentric (EI = 0.22 ± 0.06) while the left ventricular outflow tract was more eccentric (EI = 0.32 ±0.06), with no correlation to gender, age or hypertension. Male gender, height and body mass index were consistent independent predictors of larger aortoventricular dimensions at all anatomical levels, while age was predictive of supra-annular measurements. Conclusions: Male gender, height and BMI are independent predictors of all aortoventricular dimensions while age predicts only supra-annular dimensions. Use of defined metrics such as the basal plane and formation of normative ranges for these metrics allows reference for clinical

  19. Effect of Post Space Preparation on Apical Obturation Quality of Teeth Obturated with Different Techniques: A Micro-computed Tomographic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçükkaya Eren, Selen; Askerbeyli Örs, Sevinc; Yılmaz, Zeliha

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the obturation quality of root canals filled with different techniques and to determine whether post space preparation had an effect on the quality of apical obturation using micro-computed tomographic (micro-CT) imaging. The root canals of 30 human mandibular premolar teeth were instrumented, and the specimens were divided into 3 groups according to the obturation technique used: cold lateral compaction (CLC), warm vertical compaction (WVC), or single-cone (SC) techniques. The specimens were stored at 37°C and 100% humidity for 1 week. Then, the coronal root filling material was removed in order to create a post space. Micro-CT scans were performed before and after post space preparation for the volumetric analysis of voids and filling materials. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance and Bonferroni tests. The CLC and SC groups showed a significantly greater percentage volume of voids than the WVC group (P space preparation (P > .05). The post space preparation caused a significant increase in the percentage volume of voids in the CLC and SC groups (P space preparation (P > .05). No root fillings were void free. The WVC group presented the best obturation quality. The post space preparation negatively influenced the apical integrity of the filling materials in the CLC and SC groups, whereas it had no significant effect in the WVC group. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography combined with whole-body computed tomographic angiography in critically ill patients with suspected severe sepsis with no definite diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandry, Damien [CHU Nancy, Pole d' imagerie, Nancy (France); University of Lorraine, Faculty of Medicine, Nancy (France); INSERM, UMR 947, Nancy (France); Tatopoulos, Alexis; Lemarie, Jeremie; Bollaert, Pierre-Edouard; Gibot, Sebastien [University of Lorraine, Faculty of Medicine, Nancy (France); CHU de Nancy - Hopital Central, Service de Reanimation Medicale, Nancy (France); INSERM, UMR 1116, Nancy (France); Chevalier-Mathias, Elodie [CHU Nancy, Pole d' imagerie, Nancy (France); INSERM, UMR 947, Nancy (France); Nancyclotep, Experimental Imaging Platform, Nancy (France); Roch, Veronique [CHU Nancy, Pole d' imagerie, Nancy (France); Nancyclotep, Experimental Imaging Platform, Nancy (France); Olivier, Pierre [CHU Nancy, Pole d' imagerie, Nancy (France); University of Lorraine, Faculty of Medicine, Nancy (France); Nancyclotep, Experimental Imaging Platform, Nancy (France); Marie, Pierre-Yves [CHU Nancy, Pole d' imagerie, Nancy (France); University of Lorraine, Faculty of Medicine, Nancy (France); INSERM, UMR 1116, Nancy (France); Nancyclotep, Experimental Imaging Platform, Nancy (France)

    2014-10-15

    Timely identification of septic foci is critical in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock of unknown origin. This prospective pilot study aimed to assess {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), combined with whole-body computed tomographic angiography (CTA), in patients with suspected severe sepsis and for whom the prior diagnostic workup had been inconclusive. Patients hospitalized in an intensive care unit with a suspected severe sepsis but no definite diagnosis after 48 h of extensive investigations were prospectively included and referred for a whole body FDG-PET/CTA. Results from FDG-PET/CTA were assessed according to the final diagnosis obtained after follow-up and additional diagnostic workup. Seventeen patients were prospectively included, all on mechanical ventilation and 14 under vasopressor drugs. The FDG-PET/CTA exam 1) was responsible for only one desaturation and one hypotension, both quickly reversible under treatment; 2) led to suspect 16 infectious sites among which 13 (81 %) could be confirmed by further diagnostic procedures; and 3) triggered beneficial changes in the medical management of 12 of the 17 study patients (71 %). The FDG-PET/CTA images showed a single or predominant infectious focus in two cases where CTA was negative and in three cases where CTA exhibited multiple possible foci. Whole-body FDG-PET/CTA appears to be feasible, relatively safe, and provides reliable and useful information, when prospectively planned in patients with suspected severe sepsis and for whom prior diagnostic workup had been inconclusive. The FDG-PET images are particularly helpful when CTA exhibits no or multiple possible sites. (orig.)

  1. Use of a Diagnostic Score to Prioritize Computed Tomographic (CT Imaging for Patients Suspected of Ischemic Stroke Who May Benefit from Thrombolytic Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Yea Hwong

    Full Text Available A shortage of computed tomographic (CT machines in low and middle income countries often results in delayed CT imaging for patients suspected of a stroke. Yet, time constraint is one of the most important aspects for patients with an ischemic stroke to benefit from thrombolytic therapy. We set out to assess whether application of the Siriraj Stroke Score is able to assist physicians in prioritizing patients with a high probability of having an ischemic stroke for urgent CT imaging.From the Malaysian National Neurology Registry, we selected patients aged 18 years and over with clinical features suggesting of a stroke, who arrived in the hospital 4.5 hours or less from ictus. The prioritization of receiving CT imaging was left to the discretion of the treating physician. We applied the Siriraj Stroke Score to all patients, refitted the score and defined a cut-off value to best distinguish an ischemic stroke from a hemorrhagic stroke.Of the 2176 patients included, 73% had an ischemic stroke. Only 33% of the ischemic stroke patients had CT imaging within 4.5 hours. The median door-to-scan time for these patients was 4 hours (IQR: 1;16. With the recalibrated score, it would have been possible to prioritize 95% (95% CI: 94%-96% of patients with an ischemic stroke for urgent CT imaging.In settings where CT imaging capacity is limited, we propose the use of the Siriraj Stroke Score to prioritize patients with a probable ischemic stroke for urgent CT imaging.

  2. Coronary Computed Tomographic Angiography at Low Concentration of Contrast Agent and Low Tube Voltage in Patients with Obesity:: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yu-Ning; Li, Ai-Jing; Chen, Xiao-Min; Wang, Jian; Ren, Da-Wei; Huang, Qiu-Li

    2016-04-01

    Using lower tube voltage can reduce the exposure to radiation and the dose of contrast agent. However, lower tube voltage is often linked to more noise and poor image quality, which create a need for more effective technology to resolve this problem. To explore the feasibility of coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) in patients with obesity at low tube voltage (100 kV) and low contrast agent concentration (270 mg/mL) using iterative reconstruction. A total of 48 patients with body mass index greater than 30 kg/m(2) were included and randomly divided into two groups. Group A received a traditional protocol (iopromide 370 mg/mL + 120 kV); group B received a protocol with low tube voltage (100 kV), low contrast agent concentration (270 mg/mL), and iterative reconstruction. The effective dose (ED), average attenuation values, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), the figure of merit (FOM), image quality scores, and the total iodine intake were compared. No significant differences in average CT attenuations, SNR, CNR, and subjective scores were noticed between the two groups (P > 0.05), whereas the FOM of group B was significantly higher than that of group A. Effective radiation dose, total iodine, and iodine injection rate in group B were lower than those of group A (P contrast agent with low iodine concentration and low-dose CCTA were feasible. Substantial reduction in radiation dose and the iodine intake could be achieved without compromising the image quality. Copyright © 2016 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Central tarsal bone fractures in horses not used for racing: Computed tomographic configuration and long-term outcome of lag screw fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunst, S; Del Chicca, F; Fürst, A E; Kuemmerle, J M

    2016-09-01

    There are no reports on the configuration of equine central tarsal bone fractures based on cross-sectional imaging and clinical and radiographic long-term outcome after internal fixation. To report clinical, radiographic and computed tomographic findings of equine central tarsal bone fractures and to evaluate the long-term outcome of internal fixation. Retrospective case series. All horses diagnosed with a central tarsal bone fracture at our institution in 2009-2013 were included. Computed tomography and internal fixation using lag screw technique was performed in all patients. Medical records and diagnostic images were reviewed retrospectively. A clinical and radiographic follow-up examination was performed at least 1 year post operatively. A central tarsal bone fracture was diagnosed in 6 horses. Five were Warmbloods used for showjumping and one was a Quarter Horse used for reining. All horses had sagittal slab fractures that began dorsally, ran in a plantar or plantaromedial direction and exited the plantar cortex at the plantar or plantaromedial indentation of the central tarsal bone. Marked sclerosis of the central tarsal bone was diagnosed in all patients. At long-term follow-up, 5/6 horses were sound and used as intended although mild osteophyte formation at the distal intertarsal joint was commonly observed. Central tarsal bone fractures in nonracehorses had a distinct configuration but radiographically subtle additional fracture lines can occur. A chronic stress related aetiology seems likely. Internal fixation of these fractures based on an accurate diagnosis of the individual fracture configuration resulted in a very good prognosis. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  4. Double-nuclide subtraction scintiscanning of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streithoff, E.C.

    1978-01-01

    The paper intends to find out if there is a correlation between clinical pancreas diagnoses and diagnoses by subtraction scintiscanning; furthermore, the findings of scintiscanning are compared with those of radiological and sonographic methods. In order to get a picture of the efficiency of the methods applied, not only their accuracy is determined but also their validity sum and validity product. The best results are achieved here with angiography, ERCP, and sonography. In the case of pancreatic scintiscanning, an optimal result well above the international standard is only obtained for sensitivity. On the basis of these results, the indications for an optimal and useful application of pancreatic scintiscanning are determined. (orig./AJ) [de

  5. CT diagnosis of annular pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Eiko; Isobe, Yoshinori; Niimi, Akiko; Shimizu, Yasushi; Yamada, Akiyoshi; Hanyu, Fujio

    1987-01-01

    CT scan was performed in two cases of annular pancreas which could be found in one case preoperatively and in the other case retrospectively. CT scan demonstrated secondary changes of annular pancreas such as medial displacement and dilatation of the duodenal bulb in the former case and stenosis of the duodenal loop and thickened soft tissue density around the narrow segment of the duodenal loop in the latter case, although it failed to demonstrate the peninsular protrusion of the parenchyma of the pancreas head. These findings suggest high possibility of diagnosing annular pancreas by CT scan. (author)

  6. Intrauterine shelves in pregnancy: sonographic observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D L; Felker, R E; Emerson, D S

    1989-10-01

    Twenty-five shelves of tissue, all having a free edge within the uterine cavity, were identified by sonography in 24 singleton pregnancies. In no case did the shelf attach to the fetus or restrict fetal motion. The fetus was sonographically normal in 23 pregnancies, and no fetus developed amniotic-band syndrome. One fetus had anencephaly, probably unrelated to amniotic-band syndrome. Although these shelves may be due to synechiae, only eight (32%) of the patients had a history of dilatation and curettage or cesarean delivery, which predispose the patient to formation of synechiae. This experience suggests that when a shelf of tissue with a free edge is present within the pregnant uterus, there should be no concern for the development of amniotic-band syndrome as long as a complete sonographic survey of the fetus reveals no abnormalities.

  7. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of diastrophic dwarfism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongsong, Theera; Wanapirak, Chanane; Sirichotiyakul, Supatra; Chanprapaph, Pharuhas

    2002-02-01

    A healthy 27-year-old pregnant woman underwent sonographic examination because her uterine size was large for 20 weeks' menstrual age. Sonograms showed short fetal limbs with hitchhiker thumbs and toes, thoracic scoliosis, clubbed feet, and polyhydramnios. The ossification of all bony structures appeared normal, and there was no evidence of fractures. On the basis of these sonographic findings, we diagnosed skeletal dysplasia and short-limbed dwarfism, most likely diastrophic dwarfism. We counseled the parents, and the pregnancy was continued. At 37 weeks menstrual age, the patient vaginally delivered a male infant that weighed 2,560 g. The infant survived with respiratory support during his first few days of life. Postnatal physical and radiologic examinations confirmed the prenatal diagnosis of diastrophic dwarfism. Sonography is the modality of choice for prenatal detection of diastrophic dwarfism. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  8. The sonographic findings of the scrotal pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Hyen Sook; Han, Chun Hee; Lee, Jung Hee; Chung, Kyu Byung; Suh, Won Hyuck

    1988-01-01

    Clinical differentiation of the various pathological conditions affecting scrotal contents can be difficult. The superficial location of scrotum is suited for sonographic examination. March, 1984 to december, 1987 authors experienced 23 cases of the inflammatory and tumorous condition, which were confirmed by operation and clinical follow up. The results are as follows : 1. Sonographic examination is safe, noninvasive, and useful in screening test of scrotum. 2. Sonography is useful for the confirmation of complicated epididymitis. 3. In palpable mass cases, sonography can differentiate intratesticular and extratesticular lesions. 4. Sonography is useful for detection of primary tumor in clinically uncertain conditions. 5. In epididymitis, sonography shows enlargement and decreased echogenecity of epididymis, reactive hydrocele, and thickening of scrotal wall. 6. In testicular tumor : Seminoma shows hypoechoic solid mass lesion with enlargement. Embryonal cell carcinoma shows ill defined hypoechoic testicular enlargement. Rhabdomyosarcoma shows ill defined hypoechoic mass with central necrosis. Metastatic testicular tumor shows bilaterallity and ill defined abnormal echogenecity, more older age distribution

  9. [Sonographic semiotics of ureterohydronephrosis in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakkulov, E B

    2016-04-01

    To identify typical sonographic semiotics of ureterohydronephrosis in children having importance in determining the severity of disease and the choice of treatment strategy in this category of patients. Sonographic images of the kidneys and urinary tract of 158 children with ureterohydronephrosis were examined. Unilateral and bilateral ureterohydronephrosis was found in 75 and 83 children, respectively. There were 100 (63.3%) boys and 58 (36.7%) girls. The age of patients ranged from 3 months to 14 years (mean 4.15+/-3.21). Ultrasound examination enables the upper 193 (80.1%) and lower 167 (69.3%) third of ureters to be visualized. At the same time more than half of the visualized ureters had a diameter greater than 1 cm, and one-tenth of the affected ureters had diameters greater than 2 cm. If direct visualization of the ureters was impossible, pelvicalyceal system was evaluated, which was expanded on the affected side in all examined children. The morpho-sonographic changes of renal parenchymal in children with III-IV degree ureterohydronephrosis are described in details. Ultrasound examination can be regarded as a screening method for initial evaluation of patients with ureterohydronephrosis. It provides a rough estimation of the extent, level and nature of disturbances of urinary excretion, a preliminary assessment of the renal parenchyma and identification of anomalies of the urinary tract. These findings can be useful in choosing an optimal algorithm of diagnosis and surgical treatment of the disease.

  10. Prenatal Sonographic Diagnosis of Acardiac Twins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Ah; Song, Mi Jin [Cheil General Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    This study was performed to present the prenatal sonographic findings and the associated abnormalities of acardiac twins. Seven cases of acardiac twins were reviewed retrospectively. Prenatal ultrasonography was performed in all patients at a gestational age between 12 and 27 weeks (mean 17.6 weeks). Autopsy was performed in four cases. The sonographic and autopsy findings were reviewed to report the associated abnormalities of the acardiac and donor fetuses. The diagnosis of acardiac twins was made on the basis of ultrasonography (n=6) or autopsy (n=1). The associated abnormalities of the acardiac fetuses were single umbilical artery (SUA) (n=5), abdominal wall defect (n=4), club feet (n=4), scoliosis (n=1), cleft lip and palate (n=1), digital anomaly (n=1), and umbilical cord cyst (n=1). In four of the donor fetuses, sonographic abnormalities were found. Autopsy was performed in three of the four cases to reveal hydropic change (n=2), diaphragmatic hernia (n=1) and multiple structural abnormalities of interventricular septal defect, polydactyly, club feet and SUA (n=1). Intrauterine fetal death occurred in five donors and follow-up was lost in the remaining two. Meticulous sonography enables the diagnosis of acardiac twins at an early gestational age and can reveal the associated abnormalities of the donor fetus as well as the acardiac fetus

  11. Prenatal Sonographic Diagnosis of Acardiac Twins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Ah; Song, Mi Jin

    2006-01-01

    This study was performed to present the prenatal sonographic findings and the associated abnormalities of acardiac twins. Seven cases of acardiac twins were reviewed retrospectively. Prenatal ultrasonography was performed in all patients at a gestational age between 12 and 27 weeks (mean 17.6 weeks). Autopsy was performed in four cases. The sonographic and autopsy findings were reviewed to report the associated abnormalities of the acardiac and donor fetuses. The diagnosis of acardiac twins was made on the basis of ultrasonography (n=6) or autopsy (n=1). The associated abnormalities of the acardiac fetuses were single umbilical artery (SUA) (n=5), abdominal wall defect (n=4), club feet (n=4), scoliosis (n=1), cleft lip and palate (n=1), digital anomaly (n=1), and umbilical cord cyst (n=1). In four of the donor fetuses, sonographic abnormalities were found. Autopsy was performed in three of the four cases to reveal hydropic change (n=2), diaphragmatic hernia (n=1) and multiple structural abnormalities of interventricular septal defect, polydactyly, club feet and SUA (n=1). Intrauterine fetal death occurred in five donors and follow-up was lost in the remaining two. Meticulous sonography enables the diagnosis of acardiac twins at an early gestational age and can reveal the associated abnormalities of the donor fetus as well as the acardiac fetus

  12. Computer tomographic findings in alcoholism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnoli, A.L.; Tzavaras, N.; Reisig, L. (Giessen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Neuroradiologie)

    1980-05-01

    The normal variations in the size of the ventricular systems was determined on technically satisfactory computer tomograms in 275 patients who were psychologically and neurologically normal. Ages range from one to 80 years and the data classified in decades. A physiological increase in the width of the ventricular system was found after the 50sup(t)sup(h) year. The normal patients, who acted as a control group, were compared with 65 alcoholics. A significant increase in size (simple variance) was found in alcoholics after the fourth decade, as compared with normals. Correlation between the width of the ventricular system and cerebral function, and between liver damage and the ventricular system could not be established.

  13. Computed tomographic appearance of mucormycosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogl, T.J.; Hinrichs, T.; Jacobi, V.; Boehme, A.; Hoelzer, D.

    2000-01-01

    Aim: Analysis of the morphological characteristics of pulmonary mucormycosis using computed tomography (CT). Material and methods: Prospective analysis of CT studies in 9 patients out of 19 patients with proven pulmonary mucormycosis. Results: Pulmonary mucormycosis was most frequently found in the upper lobe bilaterally (51% of all nodules). In 22% of the manifestations, the morphological criterion of a 'bird's nest' could be verified in CT, in 37% central necrotic areas were detected. In 37% an open bronchus was diagnosed, in 6% we observed bronchiectases. 43% of all nodules presented with a halo sign. In three patients we found pleural effusions, enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes were diagnosed in one patient. Conclusion: Computed tomography allows an improved diagnosis and therapeutic follow-up in patients suffering from pulmonary mucormycosis. (orig.) [de

  14. Interpretation of computed tomographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stickle, R.L.; Hathcock, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    This article discusses the production of optimal CT images in small animal patients as well as principles of radiographic interpretation. Technical factors affecting image quality and aiding image interpretation are included. Specific considerations for scanning various anatomic areas are given, including indications and potential pitfalls. Principles of radiographic interpretation are discussed. Selected patient images are illustrated

  15. Complete pancreas traumatic transsection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hodžić

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This report presents a case of a twenty-year old male with complete pancreas breakdown in the middle of its corpus, which was caused by a strong abdomen compression, with injuries of the spleen, the firstjejunumcurve,mesocolon transversum, left kidney, and appereance of retroperitoneal haemathoma. Surgical treatment started 70 minutes after the injury. The treatment consisted of left pancreatectomy with previous spleenectomy, haemostasis of ruptured mesocolon transversum blood vessels, left kidney exploration, suturing of the firstjejunumcurvelession and double abdomen drainage. Posttraumatic pancreatitis which appeared on the second postoperative day and prolonged drain secretion were successfully solved by conservative treatment.

  16. Sonographic Analysis of the Collapsed Gall Bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Sang Suk; Choi, Jae Young; Choi, Seok Jin; Eun, Chung Ki; Nam, Kyung Jin; Lee, Jeong Mi

    1996-01-01

    This study was done to find answers for further following questions in cases of the collapsed gallbladder (GB) : What is the probability of the presence of stone when stony echo is visible in GB area? What is the probability of the presence of stone when only acoustic shadow is visible from GB area? What are the associated GB pathologies except stone or cholecystitis in previously mentioned situations and is it possible to differentiate them? What are the underlying pathologies of GB collapse without stony echo or acoustic shadow and is it possible to differentiate them sonographic ally? What are the rate and causes of re-expansion of the collapsed GB on follow-up study? Prospective study was done in 157 cases of collapsed GB with no visible or nearly no visible bile filled lumen in recent 3 years. Sonographic analysis for GB lesions was done in 61 confirmed cases. Changing pattern of GB lumen on follow-up study and their underlying pathologies were analyzed in 28 cases. Initial sonographic examination was done with 3 or 3.5 MHz transducer. No other transducer was used in cases showing stony echo or acoustic shadow in GB area, but additional examination was done with 5 or 7-4 MHz transducer in cases without stony echo or acoustic shadow. Among 31 cases, which showed stony echo, stone was found in 30 cases and milk of calcium bile in one case. Stone was present in all of the 11 cases which showed only acoustic shadow from the collapsed GB without stony echo. GB cancer was accompanied in 2 cases among upper 42 cases, and its possibility could be suspected sonographic ally. Underlying pathologies of the 19cases without stony echo or acoustic shadow were as follows : GB stone (3), cholecystitis (6), GB cancer (1), bile plug syndrome (1), hepatitis (5), and ascites (3). And sonographic differentiation of the underlying causes for the collapse was possible in only 1 case of GB cancer. Among 28 cases of the follow-up study, 20 cases showed re-expansion of the GB lumen and

  17. Cervix Motion in 50 Cervical Cancer Patients Assessed by Daily Cone Beam Computed Tomographic Imaging of a New Type of Marker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langerak, Thomas, E-mail: t.langerak@erasmusmc.nl; Mens, Jan Willem; Quint, Sandra; Bondar, Luiza; Heijkoop, Sabrina; Heijmen, Ben; Hoogeman, Mischa

    2015-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a new type of marker and a new method of marker implantation and to assess interfraction cervix motion for a large population of patients with locally advanced cervical cancer by daily cone beam computed tomographic (CBCT) imaging. Methods and Materials: We investigated the position of markers in 50 patients treated in prone position during at least 23 fractions. To reduce streaking artifacts in the planning CT scan, a new type of polymeric marker was used and compared with conventional gold markers. In addition, a new method of implantation was used in an attempt to reduce marker loss. In each fraction, a CT scan was acquired before dose delivery and aligned to the bony anatomy of the planning CT scan, simulating the clinical setup protocol. First, sufficient visibility of the markers was verified. Then, systematic and random displacement of the marker centroids was recorded and analyzed in 3 directions with regard to the planning CT and the first CBCT (to evaluate the presence of a vaginal catheter in the planning CT). Streaking artifacts were quantified with the standard deviation of the mean squared intensity difference in a radius around the marker. Results: Marker loss was minimal during treatment: in only 3 of the 50 patients 1 marker was lost. Streaking artifacts for the new markers were reduced compared with conventional gold markers. For the planning CT, M/Σ/σ were 0.4/3.4/2.2 mm, 1.0/5.5/4.5 mm, and −3.9/5.1/3.6 mm for the left-right, anterior-posterior, and cranial-caudal directions, respectively. With regard to the first CBCT scan, M/Σ/σ were 0.8/2.8/2.1, 0.6/4.4/4.4, and −1.3/4.5/3.6 mm. Conclusions: A new type of marker and implantation method was shown to have significantly reduced marker loss and streaking artifacts compared with gold fiducial markers. The recorded marker displacement confirms results reported in the existing literature but for a larger dataset.

  18. Comparison of computed tomographic urography, magnetic resonance urography and the combination of diffusion weighted imaging in diagnosis of upper urinary tract cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Guang-yu; Lu, Qing; Wu, Lian-ming [Department of Radiology, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, No. 1630, Dongfang Road, Pudong, Shanghai 200120 (China); Zhang, Jin [Department of Urinary Surgery, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, No. 1630, Dongfang Road, Pudong, Shanghai 200120 (China); Chen, Xiao-xi [Department of Radiology, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, No. 1630, Dongfang Road, Pudong, Shanghai 200120 (China); Xu, Jian-rong, E-mail: renjixujr@163.com [Department of Radiology, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, No. 1630, Dongfang Road, Pudong, Shanghai 200120 (China)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of computed tomographic urography (CTU), static-fluid magnetic resonance urography (static-fluid MRU) and combinations of CTU, static-fluid MRU and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in the diagnosis of upper urinary tract cancer. Material and Methods: Between January 2010 and June 2011, patients with suspected UUT cancer underwent CTU, static-fluid MRU and DWI (b = 1000 s/mm{sup 2}) within a 1-week period. The diagnostic performances of CTU, static-fluid MRU and combinations of CTU, static-fluid MRU and DWI for upper urinary tract cancer were prospectively evaluated. The ureteroscopic and histopathologic findings were compared with the imaging findings. Results: Compared to static-fluid MRU alone (sensitivity: 76/75%, reader 1/reader 2), combining DWI with MRI can increase the sensitivity (sensitivity: 84/84%, p = 0.031/p = 0.016) of upper urinary tract cancer diagnosis. CTU had greater sensitivity (95/94%) and accuracy (92/91%) than both static-fluid MRU (sensitivity: p < 0.001/p < 0.001 and accuracy: 83/81%, p = 0.001/p < 0.001) and static-fluid MRU with DWI (sensitivity: p = 0.023/p = 0.039 and accuracy: 87/85%, p = 0.042/p = 0.049) for the diagnosis of upper urinary tract cancers. Compared with CTU alone, CTU with DWI did not significantly increase sensitivity, specificity or accuracy. However, the diagnostic confidence was improved when the combined technique was used (p = 0.031/p = 0.024). Moreover, there was no significant change in sensitivity, specificity, accuracy or diagnostic confidence when static-fluid MRU was used in combination with CTU and DWI. Conclusion: Although there is a potential role for static-fluid MRU and static-fluid MRU with DWI in urinary tract imaging, CTU is still the better choice for the diagnosis of upper urinary tract cancer. Combining DWI with CTU can help improve confidence in upper urinary tract cancer diagnoses.

  19. A critical comparison of clinical decision instruments for computed tomographic scanning in mild closed traumatic brain injury in adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Sherman C; Fabbri, Andrea; Servadei, Franco; Glick, Henry A

    2009-02-01

    A number of clinical decision aids have been introduced to limit unnecessary computed tomographic scans in patients with mild traumatic brain injury. These aids differ in the risk factors they use to recommend a scan. We compare the instruments according to their sensitivity and specificity and recommend ones based on incremental benefit of correctly classifying patients as having surgical, nonsurgical, or no intracranial lesions. We performed a secondary analysis of prospectively collected database from 7,955 patients aged 10 years or older with mild traumatic brain injury to compare sensitivity and specificity of 6 common clinical decision strategies: the Canadian CT Head Rule, the Neurotraumatology Committee of the World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies, the New Orleans, the National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study II (NEXUS-II), the National Institute of Clinical Excellence guideline, and the Scandinavian Neurotrauma Committee guideline. Excluded from the database were patients for whom the history of trauma was unclear, the initial Glasgow Coma Scale score was less than 14, the injury was penetrating, vital signs were unstable, or who refused diagnostic tests. Patients revisiting the emergency department within 7 days were counted only once. The percentage of scans that would have been required by applying each of the 6 aids were Canadian CT head rule (high risk only) 53%, Canadian (medium & high risk) 56%, the Neurotraumatology Committee of the World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies 56%, New Orleans 69%, NEXUS-II 56%, National Institute of Clinical Excellence 71%, and the Scandinavian 50%. The 6 decision aids' sensitivities for surgical hematomas could not be distinguished statistically (P>.05). Sensitivity was 100% (95% confidence interval [CI] 96% to 100%) for NEXUS-II, 98.1% (95% CI 93% to 100%) for National Institute of Clinical Excellence, and 99.1% (95% CI 94% to 100%) for the other 4 clinical decision instruments. Sensitivity for

  20. Video-assisted breast surgery and 3-dimensional computed tomographic mammary lymphography (2). Sentinel node biopsy with 3D-CT mammary lymphography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Koji

    2010-01-01

    I have studied endoscopic surgery for breast diseases and 3-dimensional (3D) computed tomographic (CT) lymphography for sentinel node (SN) biopsy. In this second in a series of reports, I explain the techniques of 3D-CT lymphography. 3D-CT lymphography can show the detailed lymphatic flow from the breast tumor toward the SNs and the exact local relation between axillary lymph nodes. I have developed this 3D image-processing system to more precisely depict the anatomical structures of the mammary lymphovascular system. This system allows us to systematically collect axillary lymph nodes, including SNs. 3D-CT lymphography was performed to mark SNs on the skin on the day before surgery. Above the tumor and near the areola, 2 ml of Iopamiron 300 was injected subcutaneously. Sixteen-channel multidetector-row helical CT scan images were obtained 1 minute after injection to detect SNs, and after 3 and 5 minutes to observe lymph flow into the venous angle. The scan images were reconstructed to produce 3D images. SN biopsy was performed with the dye-staining method and endoscopy. 3D-CT lymphography accurately showed lymphatic flow from the tumor to SNs. We classified the relationship between the lymph ducts and the drained SNs into 4 patterns. Following up 3 and 5 minutes after injection of the contrast agent, we can follow the lymph ducts beyond the SN into the second and third nodes toward the venous angle with the complex plexus. The figure of the axillary nodes shows 5 beads-like grouped nodes. 3D-CT lymphography can also recognize the metastatic patterns of the enhanced lymph node. These patterns will predict the metastasis before SN biopsy. 3D-CT lymphography can also be used to detect lymph flow from the arm to avoid harming the arm lymph channel during axillary node dissection and SN biopsy. With 3D-CT lymphography, we can more accurately and precisely recognize lymph flow and the positional relations of SN and axillary nodes to surrounding anatomical structures

  1. Sonographic Findings of Hashimoto's Thyroiditis and Associated Nodular Lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Bong Joo; Park, Young Ha; Jung, So Lyung; Chung, Soo Kyo

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the sonographic findings of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and associated nodular lesions. We retrospectively reviewed the sonographic findings of twenty patients who had surgically confirmed Hashimoto's thyroiditis between 1 March 2005, and 26 November 2005. In these patients, we reviewed the sonographic findings of the associated focal nodular lesion. Assessed were size, homogeneity, and echogenicity of the diseased thyroid gland and shape, echogenicity, margin, rim, microcal cification of the associated nodules. Without knowledge of the pathological diagnosis of the nodular lesions, based on the sonographic criteria, the nodules were classified as either malignant or benign. Hashimoto's thyroiditis demonstrates a variety of sonographic findings for size, homogeneity, and echogenicity. Among the nineteen nodules that were sonographically diagnosed and pathologically confirmed, nine papillary cancers, seven nodular hyperplasias, two Huthle cell adenomas, and one focal hyalinized fibrosing nodule were included. All of the nine papillary cancers showed more than one malignant finding such as marked hypoechogenicity, an irregular shape, a taller than wide shape, a spiculated margin, or microcalcifications that were classified as malignant nodulea, and all of the ten benign nodules showed no malignant findings. Circumscribed isoechoic, hyperechoic, or hypoechoic nodules without calcification were classified as bending nodules. Hashimoto's thyroiditis demonstrates various findings on a sonographic examination,and associated various benign and malignant lesions. Moreover, a sonographic examination is helpful to differentiate between malignant and benign lesions in Hashimoto's thyroiditis as in the normal thyroid

  2. Sonographic evaluation of recurrent parotitis in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Eun Ju; Lee, Sun Wha

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the sonographic features and assess the diagnostic value of ultrasonography in recurrent parotitis during childhood which is characterized by intermittent, unilateral or bilateral painful swellings of the parotid glands. Ten children (5 boys and 5 girls, age between 2-14 yrs), who complained for more than two times of painful swellings in the parotid gland without underlying systemic diseases, were studied by a high resolution with 7MHz linear transducer. The parotid glands (n=20) were evaluated in their size, parenchymal echogenecity and vascular signals on the color Doppler study. CT was also performed at 3 children and sialography was used on 1 child. Follow-ups on ultrasonography were performed on 5 children from 3 months to 2 years since the initial sonographic examination. Ultrasonography demonstrated abnormalities in the 13 parotid glands, enlarged diffusion (n=9); decrease in diffusion of parenchymal echoes with multiple small round hypoechoic lesions measuring about 1-4 mm in diameter (n=13); increased color Doppler vascular signals (n=10). There was symptomatic glands (n=12) and an asymptomatic gland (n=1). CT revealed multiple tiny low density lesions scattered about in the inhomogenously enhanced parotid glands. Sialography showed minimal sialectasis of the peripheral ducts. Follow-ups on sonogreaphy demonstrated near complete subsidence of enlargement, increased Doppler vascular signals, and persistence of multiple small hypoechoic lesions of the parotid glands in 6 cases who were clinically free of symptoms. In 1 case, multiple hypoechoic lesions were newly developed in the previously healthy parotid gland. The sonography features of features of recurrent parotitis in childhood were decreased diffusion of the parenchymal echoes with multiple small round hypoechoic areas and increased Doppler flow signals. We consider the sonographic evaluation of the parotid gland with the color Doppler study to be useful in diagnosing and monitoring the

  3. The prevalence and causes of MSI amongst sonographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, Becky; Delf, Penny

    2008-01-01

    The concept for this article came from the observation of sonographers at work and by reviewing the literature; it aims to consider the prevalence and causes of musculoskeletal injuries amongst sonographers. Emerging themes were analysed using the comparison of study results to verify and validate findings. Several important themes were identified in the literature: symptoms, prevalence and causes of musculoskeletal injury (MSI) among sonographers. The prevalence of MSI is apparently high; the average from the literature being 81%. However, many sonographers have not been diagnosed with musculoskeletal injuries, seeing their pain and discomfort as part of their job. Many areas of a sonographers' job have been reported as being possible causes of MSI. Posture, equipment, increased workload, and lack of breaks are just a few causes which are explored below

  4. Sonographic features of gastrointestinal lymphoma in 15 dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frances, M; Lane, A E; Lenard, Z M

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the sonographic appearance of lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract in dogs. A retrospective review was conducted and patients with gastrointestinal lymphoma diagnosed by histopathology (including immunohistochemistry, where available) or cytology that had an abdominal ultrasound were included. Four of 15 (26·7%) cases with histopathologically confirmed lymphoma exhibited no sonographic abnormalities. In the dogs with sonographic abnormalities, features including intestinal wall thickness and the presence or absence of wall layering were highly variable. Clinical signs pertaining to the gastrointestinal tract were also unreliable markers of gastrointestinal lymphoma, with weight loss, vomiting, and diarrhoea being uncommon presenting complaints; intestinal obstruction was not present in any patient. The sonographic appearance of gastrointestinal lymphoma in dogs is non-specific. Gastrointestinal lymphoma in dogs should be maintained as a differential diagnosis despite a sonographically normal appearing bowel. © 2013 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  5. Sonographic demonstration of a gallstone ileus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uebel, H.E.; Wilhelm, F.

    1987-01-01

    A woman of 60 years of age with acute abdominal pain, vomiting, constipation and radiological signs of small bowel obstruction was subjected to sonographic examination. Careful examination of the entire abdomen demonstrated a hyperechoic object within the distended terminal ileum with an intensive acoustic shadow. The gallbladder was not visible. This strongly suggested gallstone ileus, especially since the patient had a history of gallbladder disease. She was treated immediately by enterotomy and extraction of a noncalcified obstructing stone. The value of ultrasound in detecting gallstones causing small bowel obstruction is discussed. (orig.) [de

  6. Sonographic demonstration of a gallstone ileus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uebel, H.E.; Wilhelm, F.

    1987-04-01

    A woman of 60 years of age with acute abdominal pain, vomiting, constipation and radiological signs of small bowel obstruction was subjected to sonographic examination. Careful examination of the entire abdomen demonstrated a hyperechoic object within the distended terminal ileum with an intensive acoustic shadow. The gallbladder was not visible. This strongly suggested gallstone ileus, especially since the patient had a history of gallbladder disease. She was treated immediately by enterotomy and extraction of a noncalcified obstructing stone. The value of ultrasound in detecting gallstones causing small bowel obstruction is discussed.

  7. Sonographic evaluation of acute osteomyelitis in infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ji Young; Lee, Sun Wha; Kim, Yoo Kyung [College of Medicine, Ewha Womans Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-01

    To analyze the related sonographic findings and to determine the value of sonography in establishing the diagnosis of acute osteomyelitis in infants. The sonographic findings of eleven infants aged 10 days-4 months (mean, 45 days) with acute osteomyelitis were retrospectively evaluated. The involved bones were the femur (n=5), humerus (n=2), tibia (n=2), rib(n=1), sternum (n=1), and calcaneus (n=1). Discontinuity or destruction of cortical margins, echotexture of the metaphysis and epiphysis, the presence of subperiosteal hypoechoic lesion, adjacent soft tissue swelling, distension of the joint capsule, the echotexture of joint effusion, and dislocation or subluxation of the involved joint were evaluated. The sonographic findings were compared with the plain radiographic (n=12) and MR (n=5) findings, with special attention to the identification of the metaphyseal or epiphyseal bony lesions and the involvement of adjacent joints. The sonographic findings of osteomyelitis were cortical discontinuity or destruction (n=12), hypoechoic lesions with an echogenic rim in the metaphysis (n=12), subperiosteal hypoechoic lesions (n=8), soft tissue swelling (n=9), a distended hip joint, with echogenic fluid (n=5), ill-demarcated echogenic lesions in the capital femoral epiphysis (n=5), and a subluxated hip joint (n=3). Plain radiographs revealed well or ill-defined osteolytic lesions in the metaphysis, accompanied by cortical destruction (n=8), new periosteal bone formation (n=3) and reactive sclerosis (n=2). Abnormality of the femoral epiphyses and joint involvement were not detected on plain radiographs, and in four cases no abnormality was noted. MR imaging showed that at T1WI, affected bony lesions were of low signal intensity and enhaned, with high signal intensity at T2WI. In all cases, both metaphyseal and epiphyseal lesions were demonstrated at MRI, but in one of the three cases in which an epiphyseal lesion was seen at MRI, this was not detected at US. Sonography is

  8. Sonographic evaluation of acute osteomyelitis in infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Ji Young; Lee, Sun Wha; Kim, Yoo Kyung

    2002-01-01

    To analyze the related sonographic findings and to determine the value of sonography in establishing the diagnosis of acute osteomyelitis in infants. The sonographic findings of eleven infants aged 10 days-4 months (mean, 45 days) with acute osteomyelitis were retrospectively evaluated. The involved bones were the femur (n=5), humerus (n=2), tibia (n=2), rib(n=1), sternum (n=1), and calcaneus (n=1). Discontinuity or destruction of cortical margins, echotexture of the metaphysis and epiphysis, the presence of subperiosteal hypoechoic lesion, adjacent soft tissue swelling, distension of the joint capsule, the echotexture of joint effusion, and dislocation or subluxation of the involved joint were evaluated. The sonographic findings were compared with the plain radiographic (n=12) and MR (n=5) findings, with special attention to the identification of the metaphyseal or epiphyseal bony lesions and the involvement of adjacent joints. The sonographic findings of osteomyelitis were cortical discontinuity or destruction (n=12), hypoechoic lesions with an echogenic rim in the metaphysis (n=12), subperiosteal hypoechoic lesions (n=8), soft tissue swelling (n=9), a distended hip joint, with echogenic fluid (n=5), ill-demarcated echogenic lesions in the capital femoral epiphysis (n=5), and a subluxated hip joint (n=3). Plain radiographs revealed well or ill-defined osteolytic lesions in the metaphysis, accompanied by cortical destruction (n=8), new periosteal bone formation (n=3) and reactive sclerosis (n=2). Abnormality of the femoral epiphyses and joint involvement were not detected on plain radiographs, and in four cases no abnormality was noted. MR imaging showed that at T1WI, affected bony lesions were of low signal intensity and enhaned, with high signal intensity at T2WI. In all cases, both metaphyseal and epiphyseal lesions were demonstrated at MRI, but in one of the three cases in which an epiphyseal lesion was seen at MRI, this was not detected at US. Sonography is

  9. Sonographic detection of portal venous gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Wang Yul; Lee, S. K.; Cho, O. K.

    1989-01-01

    Portal venous gas suggests underlying bowel disease such as strangulating intestinal obstruction and its demonstration carries with it an important implications with respect to patient management. Radiography has been the gold standard for the detection of portal venous gas. We have experienced two cases of portal venous gas diagnosed by ultrasound. Sonographic findings were floating echoes in the main portal vein and highly echogenic linear or patchy echoes within the hepatic parenchyma. Simple abdominal films of those cases failed to demonstrate gas in the portal venous system

  10. Computed tomography of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolmannskog, F.; Kolbenstvedt, A.; Aakhus, T.; Bergan, A.; Fausa, O.; Elgjo, K.

    1980-01-01

    The findings by computed tomography in 203 cases of suspected pancreatic tumours, pancreatitis or peripancreatic abnormalities were evaluated. The appearances of the normal and the diseased pancreas are described. Computed tomography is highly accurate in detecting pancreatic masses, but can not differentiate neoplastic from inflammatory disease. The only reliable signs of pancreatic carcinoma are a focal mass in the pancreas, together with liver metastasis. When a pancreatic mass is revealed by computed tomography, CT-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the pancreas is recommended. Thus the need for more invasive diagnostic procedures and explorative laparotomy may be avoided in some patients. (Auth.)

  11. Radiation and contrast agent doses reductions by using 80-kV tube voltage in coronary computed tomographic angiography: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Jian-xin [Department of Radiology, Wuhan 161th Hospital, Wuhan (China); Wang, Yi-min, E-mail: wym6669@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Wuhan 161th Hospital, Wuhan (China); Lu, Jin-guo [Department of Cardiology, Asia Heart Hospital, Wuhan (China); Zhang, Yu; Wang, Peng; Yang, Cheng [Department of Radiology, Wuhan 161th Hospital, Wuhan (China)

    2014-02-15

    Objective: To investigate the effects of 80-kilovoltage (kV) tube voltage coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) with a reduced amount of contrast agent on qualitative and quantitative image quality parameters and on radiation dose in patients with a body mass index (BMI) <23.0 kg/m{sup 2}. Methods: One hundred and twenty consecutive patients with a BMI <23.0 kg/m{sup 2} and a low calcium load undergoing retrospective electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated dual-source CCTA were randomized into two groups [standard-tube voltage (120-kV) vs. low-tube voltage (80-kV)]. The injection flow rate of contrast agent (350 mg I/mL) was adjusted to body weight of each patient (4.5–5.5 mL/s in the 120-kV group and 2.8–3.8 mL/s in the 80-kV group). Radiation and contrast agent doses were evaluated. Quantitative image quality parameters and figure of merit (FOM) of coronary artery were evaluated. Each coronary segment was evaluated for image quality on a 4-point scale. Results: Compared with the 120-kV group, effective dose and amount of contrast agent in the 80-kV group were decreased by 57.8% and 30.5% (effective dose:2.7 ± 0.5vs. 6.4 ± 1.3 mSv; amount of contrast agent:57.1 ± 3.2 vs. 82.1 ± 6.1 mL; both p < 0.0001), respectively. Image noise was 22.7 ± 2.1 HU for 120-kV images and 33.2 ± 5.2 HU for 80-kV images (p < 0.0001). Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in the proximal right coronary artery (RCA) and left main coronary artery (LMA) were all lower in 80-kV than 120-kV images (SNR in the proximal RCA: 16.5 ± 1.8 vs. 19.4 ± 2.8; SNR in the LMA: 16.3 ± 2.0 vs.19.6 ± 2.7; CNR in the proximal RCA: 19.4 ± 2.3 vs.22.9 ± 3.0; CNR in the LMA: 18.8 ± 2.4 vs. 22.7 ± 2.9; all p < 0.0001). FOM were all significantly higher in 80-kV than 120-kV images (proximal RCA: 146.7 ± 45.1 vs. 93.4 ± 32.0; LMA: 139.1 ± 47.2 vs. 91.6 ± 31.1; all p < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in image quality score between the two groups (3.3 ± 0

  12. Positron emission tomography/computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging in a murine model of progressive atherosclerosis using (64)Cu-labeled glycoprotein VI-Fc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigalke, Boris; Phinikaridou, Alkystis; Andia, Marcelo E; Cooper, Margaret S; Schuster, Andreas; Schönberger, Tanja; Griessinger, Christoph M; Wurster, Thomas; Onthank, David; Ungerer, Martin; Gawaz, Meinrad; Nagel, Eike; Botnar, Rene M

    2013-11-01

    Plaque erosion leads to exposure of subendothelial collagen, which may be targeted by glycoprotein VI (GPVI). We aimed to detect plaque erosion using (64)Cu-labeled GPVI-Fc (fragment crystallized). Four-week-old male apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice (n=6) were fed a high-fat diet for 12 weeks. C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) mice served as controls (n=6). Another group of WT mice received a ligation injury of the left carotid artery (n=6) or sham procedure (n=4). All mice received a total activity of ≈12 MBq (64)Cu-GPVI-Fc by tail vein injection followed by delayed (24 hours) positron emission tomography using a NanoPET/computed tomographic scanner (Mediso, Hungary; Bioscan, USA) with an acquisition time of 1800 seconds. Seventy-two hours after positron emission tomography/computed tomography, all mice were scanned 2 hours after intravenous administration of 0.2 mmol/kg body weight of a gadolinium-based elastin-specific MR contrast agent. MRI was performed on a 3-T clinical scanner (Philips Healthcare, Best, The Netherlands). In ApoE(-/-) mice, the (64)Cu-GPVI-Fc uptake in the aortic arch was significantly higher compared with WT mice (ApoE(-/-): 13.2±1.5 Bq/cm(3) versus WT mice: 5.1±0.5 Bq/cm(3); P=0.028). (64)Cu-GPVI-Fc uptake was also higher in the injured left carotid artery wall compared with the intact right carotid artery of WT mice and as a trend compared with sham procedure (injured: 20.7±1.3 Bq/cm(3) versus intact: 2.3±0.5 Bq/cm(3); P=0.028 versus sham: 12.7±1.7 Bq/cm(3); P=0.068). Results were confirmed by ex vivo histology and in vivo MRI with elastin-specific MR contrast agent that measures plaque burden and vessel wall remodeling. Higher R1 relaxation rates were found in the injured carotid wall with a T1 mapping sequence (injured: 1.44±0.08 s(-1) versus intact: 0.91±0.02 s(-1); P=0.028 versus sham: 0.97±0.05 s(-1); P=0.068) and in the aortic arch of ApoE(-/-) mice compared with WT mice (ApoE(-/-): 1.49±0.05 s(-1) versus WT: 0.92±0.04 s

  13. Radiation and contrast agent doses reductions by using 80-kV tube voltage in coronary computed tomographic angiography: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Jian-xin; Wang, Yi-min; Lu, Jin-guo; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Peng; Yang, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of 80-kilovoltage (kV) tube voltage coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) with a reduced amount of contrast agent on qualitative and quantitative image quality parameters and on radiation dose in patients with a body mass index (BMI) <23.0 kg/m 2 . Methods: One hundred and twenty consecutive patients with a BMI <23.0 kg/m 2 and a low calcium load undergoing retrospective electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated dual-source CCTA were randomized into two groups [standard-tube voltage (120-kV) vs. low-tube voltage (80-kV)]. The injection flow rate of contrast agent (350 mg I/mL) was adjusted to body weight of each patient (4.5–5.5 mL/s in the 120-kV group and 2.8–3.8 mL/s in the 80-kV group). Radiation and contrast agent doses were evaluated. Quantitative image quality parameters and figure of merit (FOM) of coronary artery were evaluated. Each coronary segment was evaluated for image quality on a 4-point scale. Results: Compared with the 120-kV group, effective dose and amount of contrast agent in the 80-kV group were decreased by 57.8% and 30.5% (effective dose:2.7 ± 0.5vs. 6.4 ± 1.3 mSv; amount of contrast agent:57.1 ± 3.2 vs. 82.1 ± 6.1 mL; both p < 0.0001), respectively. Image noise was 22.7 ± 2.1 HU for 120-kV images and 33.2 ± 5.2 HU for 80-kV images (p < 0.0001). Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in the proximal right coronary artery (RCA) and left main coronary artery (LMA) were all lower in 80-kV than 120-kV images (SNR in the proximal RCA: 16.5 ± 1.8 vs. 19.4 ± 2.8; SNR in the LMA: 16.3 ± 2.0 vs.19.6 ± 2.7; CNR in the proximal RCA: 19.4 ± 2.3 vs.22.9 ± 3.0; CNR in the LMA: 18.8 ± 2.4 vs. 22.7 ± 2.9; all p < 0.0001). FOM were all significantly higher in 80-kV than 120-kV images (proximal RCA: 146.7 ± 45.1 vs. 93.4 ± 32.0; LMA: 139.1 ± 47.2 vs. 91.6 ± 31.1; all p < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in image quality score between the two groups (3.3 ± 0.8 vs. 3

  14. A Comparison of Computed Tomographic, Radiographic, Gross and Histological, Dental, and Alveolar Findings in 30 Abnormal Cheek Teeth from Equine Cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liuti, Tiziana; Smith, Sionagh; Dixon, Padraic M

    2017-01-01

    Equine cheek teeth disorders, especially pulpar/apical infections, can have very serious consequences due to the frequent extension of infection to the supporting bones and/or adjacent paranasal sinuses. Limited studies have assessed the accuracy of computed tomographic (CT) imaging in the diagnosis of these disorders, and no study has directly compared imaging and pathological findings of the alveoli of diseased equine cheek teeth. To validate the accuracy of CT and radiographic imaging of cheek teeth disorders by comparing CT and radiographic imaging, gross and histological findings in abnormal cheek teeth and their alveoli extracted from equine cadaver heads. Ex vivo original study. Fifty-four cadaver heads from horses with unknown histories that had died or been euthanized on humane grounds obtained from a rendering plant had radiography, CT imaging, and gross pathological examinations performed. Based on imaging and gross examination findings, 30 abnormal cheek teeth (26 maxillary and 4 mandibular) identified in 26 heads were extracted along with their dental alveoli where possible, and further CT imaging, gross, and histological examinations were performed. Eight maxillary cheek teeth (including four with attached alveolar bone) from these heads, that were normal on gross and CT examinations, were used as controls. Gross pathological and histological examinations indicated that 28/30 teeth, including two supernumerary teeth, had pulpar/apical infection, including pulpar and apical changes. A further supernumerary and a dysplastic tooth were also identified. Abnormal calcified tissue architecture was present in all three supernumerary and in the dysplastic tooth. CT imaging strongly indicated the presence of pulpar/apical infection in 27 of the 28 (96.4%) pulpar/apically infected teeth, including the presence of intrapulpar gas ( N  = 19/28), apical clubbing ( N  = 20), periapical halo ( N  = 4), root lysis or fragmentation ( N  = 7), and

  15. Computerized tomography of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dondelinger, R.; Campos, R.O.; Lamarque, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    Pancreatic anatomy is briefly reviewed. Tomographic images from normal pancreas and from pathological states (different kinds of pancreatitis; pancreatic tumors) of this organ are discussed. (M.A.) [pt

  16. Endoscopic ultrasound and pancreas divisum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rana, Surinder S; Gonen, Can; Vilmann, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Pancreas divisum is the most common congenital anatomic variation of the pancreatic ductal anatomy and in most of the individuals it is asymptomatic. However, in minority of individuals it is presumed to cause recurrent acute pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiop......Pancreas divisum is the most common congenital anatomic variation of the pancreatic ductal anatomy and in most of the individuals it is asymptomatic. However, in minority of individuals it is presumed to cause recurrent acute pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis. Endoscopic retrograde...... of the parenchyma also. Therefore EUS, both radial and linear, has potential for being a minimally invasive diagnostic modality for pancreas divisum. A number of EUS criteria have been suggested for the diagnosis of pancreas divisum. These criteria have varying sensitivity and specificity and hence there is a need...

  17. A 'snapshot' of the visual search behaviours of medical sonographers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrigan, Ann J; Brennan, Patrick C; Pietrzyk, Mariusz; Clarke, Jillian; Chekaluk, Eugene

    2015-05-01

    Introduction : Visual search is a task that humans perform in everyday life. Whether it involves looking for a pen on a desk or a mass in a mammogram, the cognitive and perceptual processes that underpin these tasks are identical. Radiologists are experts in visual search of medical images and studies on their visual search behaviours have revealed some interesting findings with regard to diagnostic errors. In Australia, within the modality of ultrasound, sonographers perform the diagnostic scan, select images and present to the radiologist for reporting. Therefore the visual task and potential for errors is similar to a radiologist. Our aim was to explore and understand the detection, localisation and eye-gaze behaviours of a group of qualified sonographers. Method : We measured clinical performance and analysed diagnostic errors by presenting fifty sonographic breast images that varied on cancer present and degree of difficulty to a group of sonographers in their clinical workplace. For a sub-set of sonographers we obtained eye-tracking metrics such as time-to-first fixation, total visit duration and cumulative dwell time heat maps. Results : The results indicate that the sonographers' clinical performance was high and the eye-tracking metrics showed diagnostic error types similar to those found in studies on radiologist visual search. Conclusion : This study informs us about sonographer visual search patterns and highlights possible ways to improve diagnostic performance via targeted education.

  18. Hepatic abscess versus peripheral cholangiocarcinoma: Sonographic differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Hwan Hoon; Kim, Yun Hwan; Kang, Chang Ho; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Suh, Won Hyuck [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang Hee [Kunkuk University College of Medicine, Chung-Ju Hospital, Chung-Ju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    To find out the sonographic findings that are useful to differentiate hepatic abscess from peripheral cholangiocarcinoma. Twenty-two hepatic abscesses and 22 peripheral cholangiocarcinomas which had been confirmed histologically were included in this study. Objective points were echo characteristics of the lesion, internal septation, presence of peripheral low echoic rim, demarcation from normal liver(well or poorly defined), posterior enhancement, multiplicity, dilatation of bile duct(obstructive or non-obstructive), intrahepatic duct stone, pleural effusion, and intra-abdominal fluid collection. Echo characteristics of the lesion were classified in-to four types. Type I; Predominantly echogenic with hypoechoic portion, type II; Echogenic without hypoechoic portion, type III; Predominantly hypoechoic with echogenic portion, type IV; Hypoechoic without echogenic portion. 1)Nine abscesses and 2 peripheral cholangiocarcinomas were type I(p=0.037), 2)One abscess and 18 peripheral cholangiocarcinomas were type II(p=0.001), 3)Seven abscesses and none of peripheral cholangiocarcinomas were type III(p=0.001), 4)Five abscesses and 2 peripheral cholangiocarcinomas were type IV(p=0.410). Only 7 abscesses showed internal septations(p=0.013). One abscess and 9 peripheral cholangiocarcinomas showed peripheral hypoechoic halos(p=0.012). Only 9 peripheral cholangiocarcinomas showed obstructive bile duct dilatation (p=0.001). There were no statistically significant differences between abscess and peripheral cholangiocarcinoma on other objective points. Predominantly echogenic with hypoechoic portion, predominantly hypoechoic with echogenic portion, and internal septation are the features suggestive of hepatic abscess, and echogenic without hypoechoic portion, peripheral hypoechoic halo, obstructive bile duct dilatation are suggestive of peripheral cholangiocarcinoma. Therefore these sonographic findings are helpful to differentiate hepatic abscess from peripheral

  19. Sonographic findings of space occupying lesions in liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In One; Choi, B I; Kim, J W [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1982-12-15

    Gray scale ultrasonography is used with increasing frequency for the detection and characterization of hepatic space occupying lesions. Authors analyzed sonographic findings of 73 cases of hepatic space occupying lesions,which had been confirmed histologically or diagnosed clinically. The results were summarized as follows: 1. Most common sonographic pattern of hepatic neoplasms was well-defined increased echogenic mass. No significant sonographic difference was noted between primary and metastatic tumor. Splenomegaly and distortion of hepatic echoes favored hepatocellular carcinoma, and multiplicity favored metastatic tumor. 2. Most common sonographic pattern of hepatic abscess was well-defined decreased echogenecity or echoless cystic lesion containing fine low level echoes with posterior enhancement. 3. Hepatic cyst showed sharply defined echoless cystic lesion with strong posterior enhancement

  20. Sonographic Evaluation of Renal Parameters in Individuals with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-05-22

    May 22, 2018 ... sonographic parameters can be used to indirectly assess renal function or status. Ultrasound is an ... Hypertension seems to have more effect in the renal cortex than the medulla. ..... due to cost and use of ionizing radiation.

  1. Does Motion Assessment With 4-Dimensional Computed Tomographic Imaging for Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer Radiotherapy Improve Target Volume Coverage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseer Ahmed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Modern radiotherapy with 4-dimensional computed tomographic (4D-CT image acquisition for non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC captures respiratory-mediated tumor motion to provide more accurate target delineation. This study compares conventional 3-dimensional (3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT plans generated with standard helical free-breathing CT (FBCT with plans generated on 4D-CT contoured volumes to determine whether target volume coverage is affected. Materials and methods: Fifteen patients with stage I to IV NSCLC were enrolled in the study. Free-breathing CT and 4D-CT data sets were acquired at the same simulation session and with the same immobilization. Gross tumor volume (GTV for primary and/or nodal disease was contoured on FBCT (GTV_3D. The 3DCRT plans were obtained, and the patients were treated according to our institution’s standard protocol using FBCT imaging. Gross tumor volume was contoured on 4D-CT for primary and/or nodal disease on all 10 respiratory phases and merged to create internal gross tumor volume (IGTV_4D. Clinical target volume margin was 5 mm in both plans, whereas planning tumor volume (PTV expansion was 1 cm axially and 1.5 cm superior/inferior for FBCT-based plans to incorporate setup errors and an estimate of respiratory-mediated tumor motion vs 8 mm isotropic margin for setup error only in all 4D-CT plans. The 3DCRT plans generated from the FBCT scan were copied on the 4D-CT data set with the same beam parameters. GTV_3D, IGTV_4D, PTV, and dose volume histogram from both data sets were analyzed and compared. Dice coefficient evaluated PTV similarity between FBCT and 4D-CT data sets. Results: In total, 14 of the 15 patients were analyzed. One patient was excluded as there was no measurable GTV. Mean GTV_3D was 115.3 cm 3 and mean IGTV_4D was 152.5 cm 3 ( P = .001. Mean PTV_3D was 530.0 cm 3 and PTV_4D was 499.8 cm 3 ( P = .40. Both gross primary and nodal disease analyzed separately were larger

  2. Sonographic features of lethal multiple pterygium syndrome at 14 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Chan, Gavin Shueng Wai; Lee, Chin Peng; Tang, Mary Hoi Yin

    2005-06-01

    Lethal multiple pterygium syndrome is a rare inherited disorder. Previous reports suggest that the diagnosis may be based on prenatal sonographic demonstration of severe limb flexion, absence of fetal motion, and a large cystic hygroma in the second and third trimesters. We present the sonographic features and postmortem features of a fetus with lethal multiple pterygium syndrome at 13 weeks of gestation, which shows that the condition can possibly be diagnosed in the first trimester of pregnancy.

  3. Clinical imaging of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, G.; Gardiner, R.

    1987-01-01

    Featuring more than 300 high-quality radiographs and scan images, clinical imaging of the pancreas systematically reviews all appropriate imaging modalities for diagnosing and evaluating a variety of commonly encountered pancreatic disorders. After presenting a succinct overview of pancreatic embryology, anatomy, and physiology, the authors establish the clinical indications-including postoperative patient evaluation-for radiologic examination of the pancreas. The diagnostic capabilities and limitations of currently available imaging techniques for the pancreas are thoroughly assessed, with carefully selected illustrations depicting the types of images and data obtained using these different techniques. The review of acute and chronic pancreatitis considers the clinical features and possible complications of their variant forms and offers guidance in selecting appropriate imaging studies

  4. Design of a bioartificial pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareta, Rajesh A; Farney, Alan C; Opara, Emmanuel C

    2013-01-01

    Summary Islet transplantation has been shown to be a viable treatment option for patients afflicted with Type 1 diabetes. However, the severe shortage of human pancreas and the need to use risky immunosuppressive drugs to prevent transplant rejection remain two major obstacles to routine use of islet transplantation in diabetic patients. Successful development of a bioartificial pancreas using the approach of microencapsulation with perm-selective coating of islets in hydrogels for graft immunoisolation holds tremendous promise for diabetic patients because it has great potential to overcome these two barriers. In this review article, we will discuss the need for bioartificial pancreas, provide a detailed description of the microencapsulation process, and review the status of the technology in clinical development. We will also critically review the various factors that need to be taken into consideration in order to achieve the ultimate goal of routine clinical application. PMID:23652283

  5. Research utilisation in sonographic practice: Attitudes and barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, Vicki; Wilson, Stephanie E.; Svensson, Jon; Brennan, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Statutory agents have stipulated that research activity is a fundamental component of the healthcare professional's activity. Whilst the College of Radiographers have emphasised the importance of imaging personnel embracing this research ethos, there is little available data on the level of research activity within sonographic practice or on the factors that influence a sonographer's involvement in research activities. This work attempts to address these deficiencies. A questionnaire was sent to 300 UK-based sonographers of whom 218 responded (72%). The questionnaire was specifically designed to establish the level of involvement in research, the utilisation of research findings, attitudes towards research and perceived barriers to active research involvement. Responses were analysed investigating any correlations with the population demographics. The data collected showed the majority of sonographers (89%) were enthusiastic about research but with only 33% and 60% currently or previously performing research, respectively, and 73% using research findings to modify their clinical practice. Certain barriers to an active research involvement were shown, with 63%, 55% and 40% citing lack of time, education and collegial support, respectively. A range of statistical findings were linked to particular sonographer groups. The importance of good organisational structures and effective support from fellow health professionals was highlighted. The results confirm sonographers' appreciation of the benefits of research and it is suggested that if this enthusiasm is translated into effective research strategies, research output from ultrasound and other clinical departments should be enhanced.

  6. Sonographic Characteristics and Interval Changes of Subacute Thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoo Jin; Kim, Dong Wook

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to assess the sonographic characteristics and interval changes of subacute thyroiditis using follow-up sonography. From January 2008 to December 2014, 85 patients with clinically suspected subacute thyroiditis underwent sonographic examinations by a single radiologist. Subacute thyroiditis was confirmed on the basis of the clinical, sonographic, and cytohistopathologic findings. On the initial and follow-up sonograms, the individual sonographic findings and interval changes were retrospectively investigated by the same radiologist. According to the sonographic configuration, subacute thyroiditis lesions were categorized as nodular or non-nodular. The interval changes in the lesions were classified as follows: "disappeared," "decreased," "increased," "eventually smaller," "eventually larger," or "no interval change." Subacute thyroiditis was confirmed in 64 of the 85 patients. In these 64 patients, nodular (n = 39) and non-nodular (n = 35) lesions were found; 10 patients had both nodular and non-nodular lesions. Of the 64 patients, 41 underwent sonographic follow-up. In both nodular and non-nodular lesions, the common interval changes included disappeared, decreased, and eventually smaller patterns. Although the increased pattern was found only in 4 nodular lesions, there was no significant difference in the interval changes between nodular and non-nodular lesions. On follow-up sonography, a new lesion was detected in 6 patients. The prevalence rate of nodular subacute thyroiditis lesions on sonography was high, and the interval changes in the lesions were variable.

  7. The economics of pancreas surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Charles M

    2013-06-01

    Pancreas surgery is a paradigm for high-acuity surgical specialization. Given the current intrigue over containing health care expenditures, pancreas surgery provides an ideal model to investigate the cost of care. This article explores the economics of this field from literature accrued over the last 2 decades. The cost of performing a pancreatic resection is established and then embellished with a discussion of the effects of clinical care paths. Then the influence of complications on costs is explored. Next, cost is investigated as an emerging outcome metric regarding variations in pancreatic surgical care. Finally, the societal-level fiscal impact is considered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Tachykinins in the porcine pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, P T; Tornøe, K; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    2000-01-01

    The localization, release, and effects of substance P and neurokinin A were studied in the porcine pancreas and the localization of substance P immunoreactive nerve fibers was examined by immunohistochemistry. The effects of electrical vagus stimulation and capsaicin infusion on tachykinin release...... and the effects of substance P and neurokinin A infusion on insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and exocrine secretion were studied using the isolated perfused porcine pancreas with intact vagal innervation. NK-1 and NK-2 receptor antagonists were used to investigate receptor involvement. Substance P immunoreactive...

  9. MR imaging of pancreas in cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, S.; Robinson, A.E.; Mulvihill, D.M.; Stallworth, J.M.; Goyco, P.G.; Beckerman, R.C.; Hines, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    The pancreatic regions of 18 patients with cystic fibrosis were analyzed with a 1.5 Tesla MR unit. Signal intensity of the pancreas was correlated with clinical data and ultrasound. A hyperintense pancreas on T1-weighted image was consistent with fatty replacement of pancreatic insufficiency. A pancreas of normal soft tissue intensity was found in two asymptomatic and one symptomatic patient. A very hypointense pancreas on any pulse sequence was considered to be an intermediate stage of pancreatic degeneration. (orig.)

  10. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF HUMAN PANCREAS WITH OTHER MAMMALIAN PANCREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotsna Bhuyan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Human pancreas is the largest digestive gland in the body. It has both endocrine and exocrine functions. Pancreas secretes the hormones insulin and glucagon. Insulin keeps the body in euglycaemic state as the main function of insulin is metabolism of carbohydrate. Diabetes is a disease of altered carbohydrate metabolism. At present, pancreatic transplantation is the only definitive therapy that can establish a euglycaemic state. AIM AND OBJECTIVE Keeping the importance of pancreatic hormones in human, the present study was carried out where we compared the pancreatic morphology of human with that of pig and goat in terms of length, breadth and weight. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was conducted in the Department of Anatomy, Assam Medical College, Dibrugarh. A total of 90 specimens were included in the study and these were obtained from human, pig and goat. The human specimen (30 in number were collected from the Forensic Medicine Department of AMCH after fulfilling the official requirements. The specimen of pig and goat (30 each in number were collected from the local slaughter house after obtaining ethical clearance from the concerned authority. In all specimens, the length, breadth and weight was recorded with the help of measuring tape, vernier callipers and electronic weighing machine. INCLUSION AND EXCLUSION CRITERIA Specimen showing signs of putrefaction, any cut or crush injury and congenital anomalies were excluded from the study. RESULT AND OBSERVATIONS In human, the length of the pancreas ranged from 12.11 to 15.09 cm. Maximum breadth of the human pancreas ranged from 4.03 to 5.12 cm and the weight ranged from 79.13 to 102.22 gram. In goat, the length of the pancreas ranged from 12.43 to 13.79 cm, the breadth ranged from 3.03 to 4.93 cm and the weight ranged from 48.43 to 70.03 gram. In pig, the length of the pancreas ranged from 12.46 to 15.87 cm. Maximum breadth of pig pancreas ranged from 3.76 to 4.78 cm and the weight ranged

  11. Sonographic appearance of anal cushions of hemorrhoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimaiti, Adilijiang; A Ba Bai Ke Re, Ma Mu Ti Jiang; Ibrahim, Irshat; Chen, Hui; Tuerdi, Maimaitituerxun; Mayinuer

    2017-05-28

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of different sonographic methods in hemorrhoids. Forty-two healthy volunteers and sixty-two patients with grades I-IV hemorrhoids received two different sonographic examinations from January 2013 to January 2016 at the First and Second Hospitals of Xinjiang Medical University in a prospective way. We analyzed the ultrasonographic findings of these participants and evaluated the outcomes. Resected grades III and IV hemorrhoid tissues were pathologically examined. The concordance of ultrasonographic results with pathology results was assessed with the Cohen's kappa coefficient. All healthy volunteers and all patients had no particular complications related to sonography. There were no statistically significant differences between the participants regarding age ( P = 0.5919), gender ( P = 0.4183), and persistent symptoms ( P > 0.8692). All healthy control participants had no special findings. However, 30 patients with hemorrhoids showed blood signals around the dentate line on ultrasonography. When grades I and II hemorrhoids were analyzed, there were no significant differences between transrectal ultrasound (TRUS), transperianal ultrasound (TPUS), and transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) ( P > 0.05). Grades III and IV hemorrhoids revealed blood flow with different directions which could be observed as a "mosaic pattern". In patients with grades III and IV hemorrhoids, the number of patients with "mosaic pattern" as revealed by TRUS, TPUS and TVUS was 22, 12, and 4, respectively. Patients with grades III and IV disease presented with a pathologically abnormal cushion which usually appeared as a "mosaic pattern" in TPUS and an arteriovenous fistula in pathology. Subepithelial vessels of resected grades III and IV hemorrhoid tissues were manifested by obvious structural impairment and retrograde and ruptured changes of internal elastic lamina. Some parts of the Trietz's muscle showed hypertrophy and distortion. Arteriovenous fistulas and

  12. Comparison of computerized tomography to sonography, applied in diseases of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluge, K.

    1982-01-01

    The examination results of 418 patients whose epigastria had been examined both by computerized tomography and sonography over 1 week in the time from beginning January 1978 until and of July 1979 were compared with regard to the imaging of the pancreas, reliability, and the specificity and sensitivity in establishing the diagnosis. For the sonographic examination, a compound and a real-time unit were used; the computerized tomography was carried out by means of an equipment of the 3rd generation with a scan time of 4 sec. The screening of the pancreas was significantly better using computerized tomography (99.3% US. 84% with US). As for accuracy, computerized tomography had 92.5% exact diagnoses versus 79.9% obtained by sonography. If, however, we look at the cases in which the pancreas could be screened with both methods the accuracy was almost the same (93.7 CT and 93.3% US). Specificity was almost of the same quality, however, the method of computerized tomography with 0.963 was slightly better than ultrasound with 0.943. As for sensitivity, sonography with 0.838 was better than CT with 0.721. The reason for that is the fact that a big part of the chronic pancreatites (30.3%) were not recognized by means of computerized tomography. (orig.) [de

  13. Ultrasound-guided biopsy of transplanted pancreas: evaluation of 20 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Vieira da Nóbrega

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report the experience with percutaneous biopsies of pancreatic grafts guided by ultrasonography. Methods: Series of cases referred from outpatient’s clinic for biopsy of pancreas transplant, between December 2006 and March 2008. Data were collected from medical electronic records for age, sex and histopathology. The indication for the procedure was obtained from medical and laboratory records. Doppler ultrasonography was performed for control and to guide biopsy in real time. Rresults: Twenty patients referred for biopsy of their transplanted pancreas over a one-year period were evaluated. In one patient, biopsy was not performed for having no safe access for ultrasound. It was used 18 gauge needles, mostly automatic-cut type. The main indications were increased blood glucose and pancreatic enzyme levels as well as reduction of urinary amylase. The sonographic aspect of the pancreatic graft was normal in 18 cases. In all 19 biopsies performed, satisfactory samples for histopathological study were obtained. There were no complications. Cconclusions: This series of cases demonstrated low sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound in diagnosis of pancreatic transplants disorders, but showed to be very useful to guide transplanted pancreas biopsies. Although no complications occurred in this experience, the risk-benefit relation should always be assessed for every patient.

  14. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jung-Kyu; Cho, Jeong-Yeon; Choi, Jong-Sun

    2003-01-01

    Focal musculoskeletal anomalies vary, and can manifest as part of a syndrome or be accompanied by numerous other conditions such as genetic disorders, karyotype abnormalities, central nervous system anomalies and other skeletal anomalies, lsolated focal musculoskeletal anomaly does, however, also occur; its early prenatal diagnosis is important in deciding prenatal care, and also helps in counseling parents about the postnatal effects of numerous possible associated anomalies. We have encountered 50 cases involving focal musculoskeletal anomalies, including total limb dysplasia [radial ray abnormality (n=3), mesomelic dysplasia (n=1)]; anomalies of the hand [polydactyly (n=8), syndactyly (n=3), ectrodactyly (n=1), clinodactyly (n=6), clenched hand (n=5)]; anomalies of the foot [clubfoot (n=10), rockerbottom foot (n=5), sandal gap deformity (n=1), curly toe (n=2)]; amniotic band syndrome (n=3); and anomalies of the focal spine [block vertebra (n=1), hemivertebra (n=1)]. Among these 50 cases, five [polydactyly (n=1), syndactyly (n=2) and curly toe (n=2) were confirmed by postnatal physical evaluation, two (focal spine anomalies) were diagnosed after postnatal radiologic examination, and the remaining 43 were proven at autopsy. For each condition, we describe the prenatal sonographic findings, and include a brief review

  15. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jung-Kyu; Cho, Jeong-Yeon; Choi, Jong-Sun [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    Focal musculoskeletal anomalies vary, and can manifest as part of a syndrome or be accompanied by numerous other conditions such as genetic disorders, karyotype abnormalities, central nervous system anomalies and other skeletal anomalies, lsolated focal musculoskeletal anomaly does, however, also occur; its early prenatal diagnosis is important in deciding prenatal care, and also helps in counseling parents about the postnatal effects of numerous possible associated anomalies. We have encountered 50 cases involving focal musculoskeletal anomalies, including total limb dysplasia [radial ray abnormality (n=3), mesomelic dysplasia (n=1)]; anomalies of the hand [polydactyly (n=8), syndactyly (n=3), ectrodactyly (n=1), clinodactyly (n=6), clenched hand (n=5)]; anomalies of the foot [clubfoot (n=10), rockerbottom foot (n=5), sandal gap deformity (n=1), curly toe (n=2)]; amniotic band syndrome (n=3); and anomalies of the focal spine [block vertebra (n=1), hemivertebra (n=1)]. Among these 50 cases, five [polydactyly (n=1), syndactyly (n=2) and curly toe (n=2) were confirmed by postnatal physical evaluation, two (focal spine anomalies) were diagnosed after postnatal radiologic examination, and the remaining 43 were proven at autopsy. For each condition, we describe the prenatal sonographic findings, and include a brief review.

  16. Sonographic evaluation of digital annular pulley tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinoli, C.; Derchi, L.E.; Bianchi, S.; Garcia, J.F.; Nebiolo, M.

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the sonographic (US) appearance of digital annular pulley (DAP) tears in high-level rock climbers. Design and patients. We performed a retrospective analysis of the US examinations of 16 high-level rock climbers with clinical signs of DAP lesions. MRI and surgical evaluation were performed in five and three patients respectively. The normal US and MRI appearances of DAP were evaluated in 40 and three normal fingers respectively. Results. Nine of 16 patients presented a DAP tear. In eight subjects (seven with complete tears involving the fourth finger and one the fifth finger), US diagnosis was based on the indirect sign of volar bowstringing of the flexor tendons. Injured pulleys were not appreciated by US. Tears concerned the A2 and A3 in six patients and the A3 and A4 in two patients. A2 pulley thickening and hypoechogenicity compatible with a partial tear was demonstrated in one patient. MRI and surgical data correlated well with the US findings. Four patients had tenosynovitis of the flexor tendons but no evidence of pulley disruption. US examinations of three patients were normal. In the healthy subjects US demonstrated DAP in 16 of 40 digits. Conclusion. US can diagnose DAP tears and correlates with the MRI and surgical data. Because of its low cost and non-invasiveness we suggest US as the first imaging modality in the evaluation of injuries of the digital pulley. (orig.)

  17. Sonographic evaluation of digital annular pulley tears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinoli, C.; Derchi, L.E. [Istituto di Radiologia, Universita di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Bianchi, S.; Garcia, J.F. [Dept. de Radiologie, Hopital Cantonal Universitaire de Geneve (Switzerland); Nebiolo, M. [Reparto Pronto Soccorso Medico, Pietra Ligure (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    Objective. To evaluate the sonographic (US) appearance of digital annular pulley (DAP) tears in high-level rock climbers. Design and patients. We performed a retrospective analysis of the US examinations of 16 high-level rock climbers with clinical signs of DAP lesions. MRI and surgical evaluation were performed in five and three patients respectively. The normal US and MRI appearances of DAP were evaluated in 40 and three normal fingers respectively. Results. Nine of 16 patients presented a DAP tear. In eight subjects (seven with complete tears involving the fourth finger and one the fifth finger), US diagnosis was based on the indirect sign of volar bowstringing of the flexor tendons. Injured pulleys were not appreciated by US. Tears concerned the A2 and A3 in six patients and the A3 and A4 in two patients. A2 pulley thickening and hypoechogenicity compatible with a partial tear was demonstrated in one patient. MRI and surgical data correlated well with the US findings. Four patients had tenosynovitis of the flexor tendons but no evidence of pulley disruption. US examinations of three patients were normal. In the healthy subjects US demonstrated DAP in 16 of 40 digits. Conclusion. US can diagnose DAP tears and correlates with the MRI and surgical data. Because of its low cost and non-invasiveness we suggest US as the first imaging modality in the evaluation of injuries of the digital pulley. (orig.)

  18. Transvaginal sonographic findings of the ectopic pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Soon Ae; Youn, Chang Seon; Han, Sei Yul; Cho, Joo Youn; Chang, Sang Sik; Cha, Kwang Yul; Cha, Kyung Sub [Cha Women' s Hospital, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-08-15

    Transvaginal(TV) sonography uses high-frequency transducer and allows access to the uterus and adnexa, provides better resolution and more accurate diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy. To determine the value and the utility of TV sonography for a suspected ectopic pregnancy, we studied 56 women during 4 months from January to April 1989. Of 56 patients 46 had an surgically confirmed ectopic pregnancy, 5 had not an ectopic pregnancy and 5 had not follow up. TV sonography provides definite sonographic diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy including an extrauterine gestational sac 34 cases(74%), extrauterine embryo 9 caes(19.7%), hematosalpinx 10 cases(21.7%). Overall adnexal mass was detected in 38 cases(82.6%) at initial TV sonography and in 44 cases(95.6%) at follow up TV sonography. Additional findings were uterine decidual reaction 19 cases(41.3%), pseudo G-sac 4 cases(8.7%), cul-de-sac fluid 42 cases(91.2%). Follow-up TV sonography showed newly developed or growing adnexal mass in 8 among 9 cases. False positive 5 cases were two ovarian cysts, one incomplete abortion, two parametrial thickening due to previous ectopic pregnancy and salpingectomy. TV sonography may improve the govality of patient management by early diagnosis and early surgical treatment, so may preserve fertility. In conclusion, we may suggest that TV sonography is an integral part of diagnostic modality in suspected ectopic pregnancy.

  19. Transvaginal sonographic findings of the ectopic pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Soon Ae; Youn, Chang Seon; Han, Sei Yul; Cho, Joo Youn; Chang, Sang Sik; Cha, Kwang Yul; Cha, Kyung Sub

    1989-01-01

    Transvaginal(TV) sonography uses high-frequency transducer and allows access to the uterus and adnexa, provides better resolution and more accurate diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy. To determine the value and the utility of TV sonography for a suspected ectopic pregnancy, we studied 56 women during 4 months from January to April 1989. Of 56 patients 46 had an surgically confirmed ectopic pregnancy, 5 had not an ectopic pregnancy and 5 had not follow up. TV sonography provides definite sonographic diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy including an extrauterine gestational sac 34 cases(74%), extrauterine embryo 9 caes(19.7%), hematosalpinx 10 cases(21.7%). Overall adnexal mass was detected in 38 cases(82.6%) at initial TV sonography and in 44 cases(95.6%) at follow up TV sonography. Additional findings were uterine decidual reaction 19 cases(41.3%), pseudo G-sac 4 cases(8.7%), cul-de-sac fluid 42 cases(91.2%). Follow-up TV sonography showed newly developed or growing adnexal mass in 8 among 9 cases. False positive 5 cases were two ovarian cysts, one incomplete abortion, two parametrial thickening due to previous ectopic pregnancy and salpingectomy. TV sonography may improve the govality of patient management by early diagnosis and early surgical treatment, so may preserve fertility. In conclusion, we may suggest that TV sonography is an integral part of diagnostic modality in suspected ectopic pregnancy

  20. Circumscribed breast carcinoma: Mammographic and sonographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Soo Young; Lee, Yul; Park, Ki Soon; Lee, Ke Sook [College of Medicine, Hallym University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-03-15

    Circumscribe breast cancer is a well demarcated mass with or without a lobulated border simulating a benign tumor like fibroadenoma on mammography or breast US and is reported as approximate 10% of the incidence among primary breast carcinoma(1.2). Pathologically medullary, colloid, papillary, intraductal and rarely invasive ductal carcinomas are included in this group which show the less intense desmoplastic reaction than the scirrhous type cancer, resulting in the most favorable prognosis of all carcinoma of the breast. Among 214 primary breast carcinoma during the past 8 years, we experienced 6 case of pathologically proven circumscribed breast cancer(2 cases of medullary carcinoma, 1 of colloid carcinoma, 1 of intracystic papillary carcinoma, 2 of comedo type intraductal carcinoma). Clinically 2 cases showed bloody nipple discharge from one hole of a unilateral nipple orifice. Mammography showed a well circumscribed nodule with or without partial lobular contour and no pathologic calcification. Breast sonographic findings were a well defined heterogeneous hypoechoic nodule with weak posterior acoustic enhancement. Characteristically a thin dilated lactiferous duct between the mass and the nipple on US could be detected in 2 cases which clinically was accompanied by bloody nipple discharge. Although the mammographic criteria is promising as benign tumor, the possibility of circumscribed as benign tumor, the possibility of circumscribed breast carcinoma must be considered in heterogeneous hypoechoic nodule with weak posterior acoustic enhancement in US, especially in the presence of a dilated lactiferous duct between the mass and the nipple with bloody nipple discharge.

  1. Sonographic templates of newborn perforator stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abels, Lyanne; Lequin, Maarten; Govaert, Paul

    2006-07-01

    Many paediatric strokes occur in the perinatal period. Improvement in neuroimaging has increased detection in newborns with neurological symptoms. To define sonographic templates of neonatal stroke in the territory of perforators of the anterior choroidal artery (AChA) and the anterior (ACA), middle (MCA) and posterior (PCA) cerebral arteries. In 24 neonates with perforator stroke, we retrospectively studied antenatal and perinatal events. Brain sonography was performed with an 8.5-MHz probe. Only hyperechoic lesions in the thalamus and/or striatum and/or centrum semiovale were included. MRI was obtained using a 1.5-T machine. We detected 28 perforator strokes in 24 infants (6 preterm): 5 MCA medial striate, 8 MCA lateral striate, 3 MCA centrum semiovale, 4 ACA Heubner's, 5 PCA thalamic arteries, 1 AChA, and 2 hypothalamic perforators. We attributed clinical seizures to stroke in two infants only. Catheter-related embolism (certain in three, possible in six others) and birth trauma (two) were probable causes. Specific conditions were found in six others. Only one infant (in nine evaluated) had an increased prothrombotic risk (fII mutation). In describing the lesions, we focused on the templates of infarction as seen in a parasagittal US sweep. Infarcts were confirmed by MRI in 21 patients. Our study showed that infarct topography can be evaluated reliably with brain sonography. This is important given the asymptomatic character of most lesions.

  2. Sonographic diagnosis of juvenile polyps in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Li, Shi-Xing; Xie, Li-Mei; Shi, Bo; Ju, Hao; Bai, Yu-Zuo; Zhang, Shu-Cheng

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of ultrasonography for juvenile polyps in children and their sonographic characteristics. A retrospective analysis was performed of the ultrasound findings in 27 children who were diagnosed preoperatively with juvenile polyp within the intestinal tract by ultrasonography and then confirmed by colonoscopy, laparotomy and histopathology. The ultrasonic finding common to all polyps was an isolated intraluminal nodular or massive protrusion, associated with multiple mesh-like fluid areas of different sizes. In 25 children, surrounding pedicle-like low echoes of varying lengths were seen connecting with the polyps to form "mushroom" sign. The color Doppler showed abundant blood flow signals within all polyps and pedicles in a shape of a branch or an umbrella. For seven children with an intussusception, the polyp shadow was detected in the cervical part or interior of the intussusception. Ultrasonography is, thus, considered to be a feasible method for diagnosing intestinal juvenile polyp. Copyright © 2012 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Prenatal Sonographic Findings of Polysplenic Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jeong Hyun; Suh, Jeong Soo; Lee, Young Ho

    2004-01-01

    We report 6 cases of polysplenic syndrome diagnosed on prenatal sonography. The mean menstrual age at the time of presentation was 275 weeks (range 184 to 38 weeks). All cases were examined using level-II prenatal sonography. The sonographic findings of polysplenic syndrome were retrograde analyzed and compared to the autopsy or postnatal findings. Polysplenia was detected in 5 cases on the prenatal sonography. Associated cardiovascular anomalies were detected in all 6 cases, all of which had more than one anomaly, namely complete atrioventricular septal defect in two cases, double outlet right ventricle combined with rudimentary LV or mitral atresia in two cases and VSD and ASD in one case each. There were three cases of interrupted IVC with azygous continuation of the posterior thorax. Bradycardia was observed in 2 cases, one of which showed AV dissociation of rhythm. Visceral abnormalities were present in all cases and there were combined anomalies such as echogenic bowel, pelviectasia, horseshoe kidney, and posterior neck cystic hygroma and fetal hydrops. Four cases terminated pregnancy. The autopsy results of 2 cases were comparable to those of the prenatal sonography, however autopsies were not performed in 2 cases. One fetus near term was delivered and the baby subsequently underwent heart surgery and was still alive at the last follow-up. The remaining one case was lost to follow-up. If multiple fetal anomalies, including complex heart disease and polysplenia, are detected in the prenatal sonography, a diagnosis of polysplenic syndrome can be made. IVC interruption with azygous continuation can also be helpful in the diagnosis of polysplenic syndrome, and this can be observed by detecting the double vessel of the posterior thorax

  4. Sonographic evaluation of children with congenital hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise de Almeida Sedassari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective:To establish benchmarks and study some sonographic characteristics of the thyroid gland in a group of euthyroid children aged up to 5 years as compared with age-matched children with congenital hypothyroidism.Materials and Methods:Thirty-six children (17 female and 19 male aged between 2 months and 5 years were divided into two groups – 23 euthyroid children and 13 children with congenital hypothyroidism – and were called to undergo ultrasonography.Results:In the group of euthyroid children (n = 23, mean total volume of the thyroid gland was 1.12 mL (minimum, 0.39 mL; maximum, 2.72 mL; a homogeneous gland was found in 17 children (73.91% and 6 children (26.08% had a heterogeneous gland. In the group of children with congenital hypothyroidism (n = 13, mean total volume of the thyroid gland was 2.73 mL (minimum, 0.20 mL; maximum, 11.00 mL. As regards thyroid location, 3 patients (23.07% had ectopic thyroid, and 10 (69.23% had topic thyroid, and out of the latter, 5 had a homogeneous gland (50% and 5, a heterogeneous gland (50%. In the group with congenital hypothyroidism, 6 (46.15% children had etiological diagnosis of dyshormoniogenesis, 3 (23.07%, of ectopic thyroid, and 4 (30.76%, of thyroid hypoplasia.Conclusion:Thyroid ultrasonography is a noninvasive imaging method, widely available, easy to perform and for these reasons could, and should, be performed at any time, including at birth, with no preparation or treatment discontinuation, to aid in the early etiological definition of congenital hypothyroidism.

  5. Computed tomography in pancreas cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Nobuyuki; Matsuoka, Yoshisuke; Choji, Kiyoshi; Mizuo, Hideyo; Shinohara, Masahiro; Morita, Yutaka; Irie, Goro

    1985-01-01

    We reviewed CT pictures of 31 cases of pancreas cancer to examine detectability of vascular involvement. To demonstrate vascular abnormalities distinctly, we performed bolus injection of contrast medium, followed by drip infusion. The vessels included in this study were portal vein, superior mesenteric vein, and splenic vein. We concluded as below, 1) CT is valuable tool for detection of the vascular abnormality, and can demonstrate vascular involvement distinctly in a case of pancreas cancer. 2) The detectability of the vascular abnormality was correlated well with the result of angiography. 3) The differentiation between stenosis and obstruction was thought to be impossible only with the local vascular changes. But with an information of the collateral pathway, the diagnosis of obstruction was possible. CT can demonstrate these collaterals in 7 of 8 cases. (author)

  6. Neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzapfel, Konstantin; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Gaertner, Florian C.

    2011-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NET) of the pancreas are rare entities. Functioning tumors tend to present early with specific symptoms and typical abnormalities in laboratory values. In contrast, non-functioning NET are often diagnosed with delay and become evident by tumor-related symptoms like pain, weight-loss or jaundice. The role of imaging is to localize and delineate the primary tumor and to detect metastases. In the diagnosis of NET radiologic techniques like computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are applied. In certain cases nuclear medicine techniques like somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) and positron emission tomography (PET) using radioactively labelled somatostatin analogues are used. The present article reviews characteristic imaging findings of both functioning and non-functioning NET of the pancreas. (orig.)

  7. Ultrasonography of the canine pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L Avante

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the ultrasonographic techniques currently used in the evaluation of the canine pancreas. Ultrasonography was the first method to enable direct visualization of the pancreas in humans and it has been subsequently applied to animals. Currently, it is the method of choice for pancreatic evaluation and is essential as a diagnostic tool in the detection of abnormalities, especially tumors. Innovative equipment technology has led to the emergence of techniques complementary to B-mode ultrasound; such as Doppler, elastography, and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, which have enabled more accurate diagnosis. Doppler provides information on vascular architecture and the hemodynamic aspect of blood vessels in multiple organs. ARFI elastography provides detailed images of the alterations detected by conventional examination (qualitative method and assists in differentiating between benign and malignant processes (quantitative method. Microbubble contrast agents determine parameters related to homogeneous and heterogeneous filling of organs with microbubbles, mainly nodular areas, thus defining high and low intensity patterns.

  8. COMBINED MAMMOGRAPHIC AND SONOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF PALPABLE BREAST MASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena Mathur

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Breast diseases are common in females. In developing countries like India, females are unaware of breast pathologies hence they are detected usually in advanced stages. We have studied 100 patients of palpable breast masses presenting to our department and evaluate the role of combined mammographic and sonographic imaging in patients with palpable abnormalities of the breast, which help in decision making by clinician as to lesion go for biopsy or follow up. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was conducted at Department of Radiodiagnosis J. L.N. Medical College & Associated Groups of Hospitals, Ajmer. We included women equal to or more than 30 years referred to this centre with palpable abnormalities of breast during a period from March 2015 to August 2016. All these women underwent a combined mammographic and sonographic evaluation of breast. RESULTS 50 (50% of the 100 palpable abnormalities had benign assessment, 30 (60% of the benign lesions were visible both on mammography and sonography; 18 (36% of the 50 benign lesions were mammographically occult and identified at sonographic evaluation. 2 lesion was sonographically occult (4% and visualized on mammography. In 14 (14% of the 100 cases, imaging evaluation resulted in a suspicious assessment and all these lesions underwent biopsy and 4 were diagnosed as having malignancy. 36(36% of the 100 palpable abnormalities had negative imaging assessment finding: of these 14 patients underwent biopsy and all had benign findings. The sensitivity and negative predictive value for combined mammographic and sonographic assessment were 100%; the specificity was 78.26%. CONCLUSION Combined use of mammography and sonography plays an important role in the management of palpable breast lesions. It characterizes the palpable mass lesion, avoids unnecessary interventions in which imaging findings are unequivocally benign. Negative findings on combined mammographic and sonographic imaging have very high

  9. Fibromyxoid sarcoma of the pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Radoje

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Fibromyxoid sarcoma is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm, usually appearing in the soft tissue of the extremities, less frequently in the groin, trunk, neck, and upper extremities. Within the abdomen, the tumour is usually localised within the retroperitoneum. Case OutlineWe present a 56-year-old woman in whom, during the routinely performed investigation for atacks of choking with lots of bronchial secretion, and arterial hypertension, an ultrasonographer found a tumour within the head of the pancreas 6×6 cm in diameter. At operation, a dark pink, lobulated soft tumour, surrounded by a tiny capsule, clearly different from the completely normal pancreatic tissue of the posterior side of the head of the pancreas, was easily and ideally excised.The postoperative recovery was stormy. She developed postoperative pancreatitis, temporary biliary and duodenal fistula, which all settled by conservative treatment. The histology of the 80 g weighing tumour showed a circumscribed fibromyxoid sarcoma of low malignancy. Immunohistochemistry showed diffuse vimentin and CD34 strong positivity, as well as focal anti-SMA and anti-EMA immunopositivity. Six months after surgery, she died with signs of cerebrovascular insult, asthmatic status, and recurrent suppurative abdominal fistula, probably related to the previous pancreatitis. Ultrasonography showed a possible liver secondary. The exact cause of death was not confirmed as the autopsy was refused by the family. Conclusion Primary sarcomas of the pancreas are very rare, but should be considered in differential diagnosis of pancreatic neoplasms. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no previously described fibromyxoid sarcoma of the pancreas. .

  10. "Ductal adenocarcinoma in anular pancreas".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassai, Giacomo; Perrotta, Stefano; Furino, Ermenegildo; De Werra, Carlo; Aloia, Sergio; Del Giudice, Roberto; Amato, Bruno; Vigliotti, Gabriele; Limite, Gennaro; Quarto, Gennaro

    2015-09-01

    The annular pancreas is a congenital anomaly in which pancreatic tissue partially or completely surrounds the second portion of the duodenum. Its often located above of papilla of Vater (85%), rarely below (15%). This pancreatic tissue is often easily dissociable to the duodenum but there is same cases where it the tissue is into the muscolaris wall of the duodenum. We describe three case of annular pancreas hospitalized in our facility between January 2004 and January 2009. There were 2 male 65 and 69 years old respectively and 1 female of 60 years old, presented complaining of repeated episodes of mild epigastric pain. Laboratory tests (including tumor markers), a direct abdomen X-ray with enema, EGDS and total body CT scan were performed to study to better define the diagnosis. EUS showed the presence of tissue infiltrating the muscle layer all around the first part of duodenum. Biopsies performed found the presence of pancreatic tissue with focal areas of adenocarcinoma. Subtotal gastrectomy with Roux was performed. The histological examinations shows an annular pancreas of D1 with multiple focal area of adenocarcinoma. (T1aN0M0). We performed a follow up at 5 years. One patients died after 36 months for cardiovascular hit. Two patients, one male and one female, was 5-years disease-free. Annular pancreas is an uncommon congenital anomaly which usually presents itself in infants and newborn. Rarely it can present in late adult life with wide range of clinical severities thereby making its diagnosis difficult. Pre-operative diagnosis is often difficult. CT scan can illustrate the pancreatic tissue encircling the duodenum. ERCP and MRCP are useful in outlining the annular pancreatic duct. Surgery still remains necessary to confirm diagnosis and bypassing the obstructed segment. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. PPARγ regulates exocrine pancreas lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danino, Hila; Naor, Ronny Peri-; Fogel, Chen; Ben-Harosh, Yael; Kadir, Rotem; Salem, Hagit; Birk, Ruth

    2016-12-01

    Pancreatic lipase (triacylglycerol lipase EC 3.1.1.3) is an essential enzyme in hydrolysis of dietary fat. Dietary fat, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), regulate pancreatic lipase (PNLIP); however, the molecular mechanism underlying this regulation is mostly unknown. As PUFA are known to regulate expression of proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), and as we identified in-silico putative PPARγ binding sites within the putative PNLIP promoter sequence, we hypothesized that PUFA regulation of PNLIP might be mediated by PPARγ. We used in silico bioinformatics tools, reporter luciferase assay, PPARγ agonists and antagonists, PPARγ overexpression in exocrine pancreas AR42J and primary cells to study PPARγ regulation of PNLIP. Using in silico bioinformatics tools we mapped PPARγ binding sites (PPRE) to the putative promoter region of PNLIP. Reporter luciferase assay in AR42J rat exocrine pancreas acinar cells transfected with various constructs of the putative PNLIP promoter showed that PNLIP transcription is significantly enhanced by PPARγ dose-dependently, reaching maximal levels with multi PPRE sites. This effect was significantly augmented in the presence of PPARγ agonists and reduced by PPARγ antagonists or mutagenesis abrogating PPRE sites. Over-expression of PPARγ significantly elevated PNLIP transcript and protein levels in AR42J cells and in primary pancreas cells. Moreover, PNLIP expression was up-regulated by PPARγ agonists (pioglitazone and 15dPGJ2) and significantly down-regulated by PPARγ antagonists in non-transfected rat exocrine pancreas AR42J cell line cells. PPARγ transcriptionally regulates PNLIP gene expression. This transcript regulation resolves part of the missing link between dietary PUFA direct regulation of PNLIP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Physiology of fish endocrine pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plisetskaya, E M

    1989-06-01

    From the very beginning of physiological studies on the endocine pancreas, fish have been used as experimental subjects. Fish insulin was one of the first vertebrate insulins isolated and one of the first insulins whose primary and then tertiary structures were reported. Before a second pancreatic hormone, glucagon, was characterized, a physiologically active 'impurity', similar to that in mammalian insulin preparations, was found in fish insulins.Fish have become the most widely used model for studies of biosynthesis and processing of the pancreatic hormones. It seems inconceivable, therefore, that until the recent past cod and tuna insulins have been the only purified piscine islet hormones available for physiological experiments. The situation has changed remarkably during the last decade.In this review the contemporary status of physiological studies on the fish pancreas is outlined with an emphasis on the following topics: 1) contents of pancreatic peptides in plasma and in islet tissue; 2) actions of piscine pancreatic hormones in fish; 3) specific metabolic consequences of an acute insufficiency of pancreatic peptides; 4) functional interrelations among pancreatic peptides which differ from those of mammals. The pitfalls, lacunae and the perspectives of contemporary physiological studies on fish endocrine pancreas are outlined.

  13. Agenesis of the dorsal pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnedl, Wolfgang J; Piswanger-Soelkner, Claudia; Wallner, Sandra J; Krause, Robert; Lipp, Rainer W

    2009-01-01

    During the last 100 years in medical literature, there are only 54 reports, including the report of Pasaoglu et al (World J Gastroenterol 2008; 14: 2915-2916), with clinical descriptions of agenesis of the dorsal pancreas in humans. Agenesis of the dorsal pancreas, a rare congenital pancreatic malformation, is associated with some other medical conditions such as hyperglycemia, abdominal pain, pancreatitis and a few other diseases. In approximately 50% of reported patients with this congenital malformation, hyperglycemia was demonstrated. Evaluation of hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus in all patients with agenesis of the dorsal pancreas including description of fasting blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, glycated hemoglobin and medical treatment would be a future goal. Since autosomal dominant transmission has been suggested in single families, more family studies including imaging technologies with demonstration of the pancreatic duct system are needed for evaluation of this disease. With this letter to the editor, we aim to increase available information for the better understanding of this rare disease. PMID:19140241

  14. Cystic tumors of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambs, H.J.; Juchems, M.

    2008-01-01

    Cystic lesions of the pancreas encompass a broad spectrum of benign, premalignant, and malignant tumors which are primarily cystic or result from cystic necroses of solid neoplasms. Because of the wide use of cross-sectional imaging techniques they are increasingly being identified in asymptomatic patients as well as in patients presenting with abdominal pain, jaundice or pancreatitis. Among these lesions, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, serous cystic neoplasms and mucinous cystic neoplasms represent the majority of cases. With increasing experience with these tumors, a refinement of our understanding of their morphology and of their natural course has emerged. It is important to be familiar with the CT and MR imaging features of these lesions to differentiate these tumors and to orient the diagnosis towards benign or malignant forms. Because characterization of cystic tumors of the pancreas can sometimes be difficult due to overlapping imaging features, additional criteria such as clinical symptoms, localization, age and gender have to be taken into account. If appropriately treated, these tumors can usually be cured by resection and the decreasing risk of pancreatic surgery has led to an increasing number of resections of pancreatic tumors. The management of cystic tumors of the pancreas has not yet been standardized and the correct evaluation and subsequent management of the disease in asymptomatic patients have not been fully defined. (orig.) [de

  15. Sonographic evaluation of penile in patients with erectile dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urena Trigueros, Christian

    2012-01-01

    A review of the current state of knowledge is made on sonographic evaluation of penile in patients with erectile dysfunction. This sonography is developed with high resolution ultrasound on gray scale, combined with color Doppler ultrasonography; which the arteries of penile are examined before and during the erection. The penile ultrasonography has meant an important tool in the evaluation of specific patients who have submitted erectile dysfunction, particularly, in those with record of trauma and history of Peyronie's disease. In addition, through a sonographic evaluation has permitted to prove manifestations of the pathophysiological phenomena of the patient in order to establish their classification and guide their treatment [es

  16. Annular pancreas in adult: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira Neto, M.

    1992-01-01

    A case of a patient complaining of recurrent symptomatology of the upper abdomen and sub occlusion of the gastrointestinal tract with stenosis of the second portion of duodenum and mass evolving the head of pancreas at echographic study, confirmed by CT is presented. Contrasted oral studies confirmed that the mass evolved the stenotic segment, suggesting annular pancreas. Surgery confirmed the presence of annular pancreas surrounding the second portion of duodenum. (author)

  17. Uterine myoma and adenomyosis: sonographic findings and differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yeong Hwan; Yun, Kwang Myeong; Kim, Ok Dong; Chung, Duck Soo [College of Medicine, Taegu Catholic Hospital, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-07-15

    Uterine myoma and adenomyosis are the two most likely diagnoses in women with hypermenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, and an enlarged uterus, but it is often not possible to make a distinction between them preoperatively. But their treatments can differ : myoma can be treated through myomectomy whereas adenomyosis require hysterectomy. In order to establish the characteristic and differential findings of myoma and adenomyosis sonographically, sonographic findings of 125 cases of pathologically proven myoma and adenomyosis were reviewed retrospectively. Histologic diagnosis were myoma in 94 patients and adenomyosis in 31 patients. The results were as follows : 1. The common sonographic findings of uterine myoma were globular enlargement or bulging contour of uterus 77.8%, loss of central endometrial echoes 66.0%, and homogeneous decreased internal echoes 35.1% or heterogeneous internal echoes 44.7%. 2. The common sonographic findings of adenomyosis were diffuse enlargement without contour change 80.6%, homogeneous hypoechoic or isoechoic internal textures 96.8%, preserved central endometrial echoes 80.6%, and thickening of posterior uterine wall 64.5%. 3. Adenomyosis was highly suggested if the uterus showed diffuse enlargement without contour change or visible nodule, homogeneous hypoechoic textures, and especially thickened posterior wall with anteriorly displaced central endometrial echoes. 4. Adenomyosis could be excluded if the patient was under 30 or above 50 years old, and especially had no previous obstetric history.

  18. Uterine myoma and adenomyosis: sonographic findings and differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yeong Hwan; Yun, Kwang Myeong; Kim, Ok Dong; Chung, Duck Soo

    1990-01-01

    Uterine myoma and adenomyosis are the two most likely diagnoses in women with hypermenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, and an enlarged uterus, but it is often not possible to make a distinction between them preoperatively. But their treatments can differ : myoma can be treated through myomectomy whereas adenomyosis require hysterectomy. In order to establish the characteristic and differential findings of myoma and adenomyosis sonographically, sonographic findings of 125 cases of pathologically proven myoma and adenomyosis were reviewed retrospectively. Histologic diagnosis were myoma in 94 patients and adenomyosis in 31 patients. The results were as follows : 1. The common sonographic findings of uterine myoma were globular enlargement or bulging contour of uterus 77.8%, loss of central endometrial echoes 66.0%, and homogeneous decreased internal echoes 35.1% or heterogeneous internal echoes 44.7%. 2. The common sonographic findings of adenomyosis were diffuse enlargement without contour change 80.6%, homogeneous hypoechoic or isoechoic internal textures 96.8%, preserved central endometrial echoes 80.6%, and thickening of posterior uterine wall 64.5%. 3. Adenomyosis was highly suggested if the uterus showed diffuse enlargement without contour change or visible nodule, homogeneous hypoechoic textures, and especially thickened posterior wall with anteriorly displaced central endometrial echoes. 4. Adenomyosis could be excluded if the patient was under 30 or above 50 years old, and especially had no previous obstetric history

  19. Sonographic Findings of Paratesticular Tumors - Report of Three Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Mi; Kim, Sung Tae; Choi, Moon Hwan; Koh, Byung Hee; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Cho, On Koo; Hahm, Chang Kok [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-06-15

    Paratesticular tumors are tumors that arise from the spermatic cord, epididymis, and scrotal tunics. The malignant, rate of paratesticular tumor is lower than that of testicular tumor. We report three paratesticulartumors (one lipo sarcoma, one mesothelioma, one leiomyoma) with special emphasis on sonographic findings

  20. Sonographic Evaluation of the Splenic Length in Normal Pregnancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A prospective descriptive cross sectional study of the sonographic measurements of the splenic length was performed on 150 healthy normal pregnant women correlating this with the body mass index, gestational age and parity. Data were analyzed using software SPSS version 15 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA).

  1. Mammographic and sonographic spectrum of non-puerperal mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H. Lequin (Maarten); J. van Spengler (J.); R. van Pel; C.H.J. van Eijck (Casper); H. van Overhagen (H.)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe goal of this study was to explore possible specific mammographic and sonographic features in women with non-puerperal mastitis (NPM), in order to make an accurate diagnosis and prevent unnecessary surgical procedures. From a group of 93 patients with NPM diagnosed between 1987 and

  2. Sonographic demonstration of stomach pathology: Reviewing the cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: The stomach can be the source of complaints for many patients attending for upper abdominal ultrasound. It is not routinely imaged as part of most upper abdominal ultrasound protocols, with sonographers and sonologists alike commonly muttering the line; “I can't see the stomach on ultrasound”. However, this is incorrect, as the gastric antrum can almost always be visualised sonographically. Discussion: It is possible to detect a range of pathologies affecting the stomach sonographically, from common, largely tolerable conditions such as hiatus hernias through to life‐threatening neoplasms. Conclusion: The stomach can easily be assessed during routine abdominal ultrasound providing the sonographer has knowledge of stomach anatomy, normal ultrasound appearances and limitations to its visualisation. While endoscopy is the gold standard for investigation of the stomach and upper gastrointestinal tract, many patients will initially present for abdominal ultrasound due to its easy, non‐invasive nature, ready availability and low cost. For patients with mild abdominal symptoms, a normal abdominal ultrasound may be the extent of their imaging investigations meaning stomach pathologies may go undiagnosed. PMID:28191199

  3. Sonographic and Endoscopic Findings in Cocaine-Induced Ischemic Colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Thomas; Wilkens, Rune; Bonderup, Ole Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine-induced ischemic colitis is a recognized entity. The diagnosis is based on clinical and endoscopic findings. However, diagnostic imaging is helpful in the evaluation of abdominal symptoms and prior studies have suggested specific sonographic findings in ischemic colitis. We report...

  4. Sonographic Appearance of a Solitary Intramuscular Cysticercosis: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Ju Hee; Joo, Seung Ho; Shim, Joo Eun; Kim, Yee Jeong; Oh, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Tae Hwan

    2009-01-01

    The development of antiparasitic drugs and public health strategies has reduced the prevalence of cysticercosis in South Korea. In contrast, the disease is still endemic in Southeast Asia. The influx of immigrants from endemic areas has been on the increase. We report the sonographic and pathological findings of cysticercosis that presented as an intramuscular solitary mass in a 27-year-old Philippine woman

  5. Sonographic Appearance of a Solitary Intramuscular Cysticercosis: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Ju Hee; Joo, Seung Ho; Shim, Joo Eun; Kim, Yee Jeong; Oh, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Tae Hwan [NHIC Ilsan Hospital, Ilsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    The development of antiparasitic drugs and public health strategies has reduced the prevalence of cysticercosis in South Korea. In contrast, the disease is still endemic in Southeast Asia. The influx of immigrants from endemic areas has been on the increase. We report the sonographic and pathological findings of cysticercosis that presented as an intramuscular solitary mass in a 27-year-old Philippine woman

  6. Potential of modern sonographic techniques in paediatric uroradiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riccabona, Michael E-mail: michael.riccabona@kfunigraz.ac.at

    2002-08-01

    Objective: To describe the potential of modern sonographic techniques in paediatric uroradiology. Method: Ultrasound (US)--now being the primary imaging tool--has revolutionised imaging diagnostic in the urinary tract. Constant developments and technical refinements have secured the role of US in uroradiology. Colour Doppler Sonography (CDS) and innovative applications such as the transperineal approach or application of m-mode US to the urinary tract have helped to develop US from just a basic tool to a sophisticated and respected method. The ongoing introduction of new and even more sophisticated methods further enhance the sonographic potential, which shall be demonstrated by a more detailed discussion of these methods. Results: Harmonic imaging, extended field of view US, amplitude coded CDS, echo-enhanced US, and three-dimensional US as the most recent new sonographic techniques are successfully applicable to paediatric urinary tract disease. They improve sonographic diagnosis in many conditions, such as detection of vesico-ureteral reflux, renal parenchymal volume assessment, comprehensive visualisation of hydronephrosis and complex pathology, evaluation of renal perfusional disturbances or defects, superior documentation with improved comparability for follow-up, or simply by offering clearer tissue delineation and differentiation. Conclusion: Modern US techniques are successfully applicable to neonates, infants, and children, further boosting the value of US in the paediatric urinary tract. However, as handling became more sophisticated, and artefacts have to be considered, modern urosonography became not only a more powerful, but also a more demanding method, with the need for expert knowledge and dedicated training.

  7. Potential of modern sonographic techniques in paediatric uroradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riccabona, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe the potential of modern sonographic techniques in paediatric uroradiology. Method: Ultrasound (US)--now being the primary imaging tool--has revolutionised imaging diagnostic in the urinary tract. Constant developments and technical refinements have secured the role of US in uroradiology. Colour Doppler Sonography (CDS) and innovative applications such as the transperineal approach or application of m-mode US to the urinary tract have helped to develop US from just a basic tool to a sophisticated and respected method. The ongoing introduction of new and even more sophisticated methods further enhance the sonographic potential, which shall be demonstrated by a more detailed discussion of these methods. Results: Harmonic imaging, extended field of view US, amplitude coded CDS, echo-enhanced US, and three-dimensional US as the most recent new sonographic techniques are successfully applicable to paediatric urinary tract disease. They improve sonographic diagnosis in many conditions, such as detection of vesico-ureteral reflux, renal parenchymal volume assessment, comprehensive visualisation of hydronephrosis and complex pathology, evaluation of renal perfusional disturbances or defects, superior documentation with improved comparability for follow-up, or simply by offering clearer tissue delineation and differentiation. Conclusion: Modern US techniques are successfully applicable to neonates, infants, and children, further boosting the value of US in the paediatric urinary tract. However, as handling became more sophisticated, and artefacts have to be considered, modern urosonography became not only a more powerful, but also a more demanding method, with the need for expert knowledge and dedicated training

  8. Atypical sonographic patterns of fibroadenoma of the breast : pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kook, Shin Ho; Kim, Myung Sook; Pae, Won Kil [Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-01

    To correlate the atypical sonographic patterns of fibroadenoma of the breast with the pathologic findings. Among 203 surgically proven 43 which were sonographically atypical fibroadenomas, were retrospectively reviewed. The diagnostic criteria for atypical variety, as seen on sonography, were an ill-defined margin, microlobulated or irregular shape, heterogeneous internal echo-pattern, posterior shadowing, microcalcification, and clefts. The atypical sonographic patterns of these 43 fibroadenomas were analysed and compared with the pathologic findings. Among 43 lesions, ill-defined margins or irregular shapes were seen in 15 cases, heterogeneous internal echo-patterns in 27, posterior attenuation in nine, and clefts in seven. Thirty-seven (86%) of the 43 were predominantly ductal or had a mixed ductal and stromal component. Eleven (73.3%) of fifteen ill-defined margin or irregular shaped lesions were caused by interdigitation of surrounding normal breast parenchyma and mass. Twenty two (81.5%) of 27 heterogeneous internal echo-pat-terns were related to dilated ducts, phyllodes features, collagen bundles, adenosis, microcalcification, or fat vacuoles. Eight (88.9%) of nine posterior attenuations were caused by collagen bundles, microcalcification, ductal proliferation or dilatation. All seven cases showing clefts revealed phyllodes features and dilated ducts. Most atypical fibroadenomas had a predominantly ductal or mixed component. Ill-defined margin or irregular shape was mainly due to interdigitation of normal surrounding parenchyma. Variable histologic features were related to the heterogeneous internal echo-pattern, posterior shadowing, and the clefts revealed by atypical sonographic findings.

  9. Atypical sonographic patterns of fibroadenoma of the breast : pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kook, Shin Ho; Kim, Myung Sook; Pae, Won Kil

    1999-01-01

    To correlate the atypical sonographic patterns of fibroadenoma of the breast with the pathologic findings. Among 203 surgically proven 43 which were sonographically atypical fibroadenomas, were retrospectively reviewed. The diagnostic criteria for atypical variety, as seen on sonography, were an ill-defined margin, microlobulated or irregular shape, heterogeneous internal echo-pattern, posterior shadowing, microcalcification, and clefts. The atypical sonographic patterns of these 43 fibroadenomas were analysed and compared with the pathologic findings. Among 43 lesions, ill-defined margins or irregular shapes were seen in 15 cases, heterogeneous internal echo-patterns in 27, posterior attenuation in nine, and clefts in seven. Thirty-seven (86%) of the 43 were predominantly ductal or had a mixed ductal and stromal component. Eleven (73.3%) of fifteen ill-defined margin or irregular shaped lesions were caused by interdigitation of surrounding normal breast parenchyma and mass. Twenty two (81.5%) of 27 heterogeneous internal echo-pat-terns were related to dilated ducts, phyllodes features, collagen bundles, adenosis, microcalcification, or fat vacuoles. Eight (88.9%) of nine posterior attenuations were caused by collagen bundles, microcalcification, ductal proliferation or dilatation. All seven cases showing clefts revealed phyllodes features and dilated ducts. Most atypical fibroadenomas had a predominantly ductal or mixed component. Ill-defined margin or irregular shape was mainly due to interdigitation of normal surrounding parenchyma. Variable histologic features were related to the heterogeneous internal echo-pattern, posterior shadowing, and the clefts revealed by atypical sonographic findings

  10. Sonographic Determination of Spleen to Left Kidney Ratio among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Clinical determination of mild splenomegaly is notoriously inaccurate. Objectives: To determine sonographically the spleen to left kidney ratio according to age and somatometric parameters among school age children in a tropical environment. Methods: A cross sectional study and convenience sampling were ...

  11. Prospective electrocardiogram-gated axial 64-detector computed tomographic angiography vs retrospective gated helical technique to assess coronary artery bypass graft anastomosis. Comparison of image quality and patient radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, Haruhiko; Masukawa, Ai; Tanaka, Isao; Fukui, Rika; Suzuki, Kazufumi; Ueno, Eiko; Kodera, Kojiro; Nakano, Kiyoharu; Shen, Y.

    2010-01-01

    In the present study the effective dose and image quality at distal anastomoses were retrospectively compared between prospective electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated axial and retrospective ECG-gated helical techniques on 64-detector computed tomographic (CT) angiography following coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Following bypass surgery, 52 patients with a heart rate <65 beats/min underwent CT angiography: 26 patients each with prospective and retrospective ECG gating techniques. The effective dose was compared between the 2 groups using a 4-point scale (4, excellent; 1, poor) to grade the quality of curved multiplanar reformation images at distal anastomoses. Patient characteristics of the 2 groups were well matched, and the same CT scan parameters were used for both, except for the interval between surgery and CT examination, tube current, and image noise index. Image quality scores did not differ significantly (3.26±0.95 vs 3.35±0.87; P=0.63), but the effective dose was significantly lower in the prospective (7.3±1.8 mSv) than in the retrospective gating group (23.6±4.5 mSv) (P<0.0001). Following bypass surgery, 64-detector CT angiography using prospective ECG gating is superior to retrospective gating in limiting the radiation dose and maintaining the image quality of distal anastomoses. (author)

  12. Relationship between lung-to-heart uptake ratio of technetium-99m-tetrofosmin during exercise myocardial single photon emission computed tomographic imaging and the number of diseased coronary arteries in patients with effort angina pectoris without myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okajima, Toshiya; Ueshima, Kenji; Nishiyama, Osamu; Ogawa, Muneyoshi; Ohuchi, Mami; Saitoh, Masahiko; Hiramori, Katsuhiko

    2004-01-01

    Increased lung uptake of thallium-201 in exercise myocardial perfusion imaging is a reliable marker of multivessel disease in patients with ischemic heart disease. This study investigated whether the lung-to-heart uptake ratio with technetium-99m ( 99m Tc)-tetrofosmin also provides valuable information to detect patients with multivessel disease. Fifty-three consecutive patients (35 men, 18 women, mean age 66±11 years; single-vessel disease: 29, double-vessel disease: 16, triple-vessel disease: 8) with stable effort angina pectoris without prior myocardial infarction and 17 control subjects (12 men, 5 women, mean age 62±9 years) underwent exercise myocardial perfusion imaging with 99m Tc-tetrofosmin and coronary angiography in January 2000 to December 2002. The lung-to-heart uptake ratio was calculated on an anterior projection before reconstruction of the exercise single photon emission computed tomographic images. The mean lung-to-heart uptake ratio was 0.34±0.04, 0.38±0.07, 0.41±0.05, and 0.46±0.09, in patients with normal coronary, single-vessel disease, double-vessel disease, and triple-vessel disease, respectively. Significantly higher lung-to-heart uptake ratio was associated with more diseased vessels (p 99m Tc-tetrofosmin can provide clinically useful information to detect multivessel disease in patients with ischemic heart disease. (author)

  13. Genetics Home Reference: Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome is a severe disorder that usually begins ...

  14. The pancreas from Aristotle to Galen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Ryoichi; Kuroki, Tamotsu; Eguchi, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    The first description of the pancreas in literature is found in Aristotle's Historia Animalium, but it is modified by "so-called". Therefore, the origin is pursued more extensively. The Greek-English Lexicon recommends three treatises as a possible original source. These three and Galen's other papers are investigated. In 2005, Sachs et al. suggested an origin of the pancreas might have derived from the intestinal divination using the avian pancreas. This report is evaluated. The avian pancreas which is the intraperitoneal organ, might have been well known by the intestinal divination, and people have called the organ pankreas or kallikreas. Anatomical dissection on human body was not accepted before the Aristotle's time. "So-called pancreas" in Historia must have been interpolated by Theophrastus. He was the most faithful and reliable disciple of Aristotle and succeeded the Aristotle's school. He and Macedonian ruler of Egypt Ptolemy I had known each other and there had been a strong link between them. The contemporary Herophilus performed many public dissections on both human and animal bodies in Alexandria. He named the various parts of the human body and designated the beginning intestine as duodenum. Yet in his extant works, the pancreas is not found. It is surmised that Herophilus may be the first to recognize the human pancreas, which is fixed with retroperitoneal tissue, and he named it "so-called pancreas". Theophrastus might have interpolated Herophilus' designation in Historia Animalium. Galen also uses "so-called pancreas" to designate the human pancreas. Galen's descriptions, that is, "Nature created 'so-called pancreas 'and spread it beneath all vessels" are not generally acceptable but propose the very rare portal vein anomalies. Since the early years of the 20th century, cases with a preduodenal portal vein or a prepancreatic portal vein have been reported. Although the incidence is very rare, its surgical importance is emphasized. Copyright © 2014

  15. CT-arteriography of pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Jun; Matsui, Osamu; Kitagawa, Kiyohide; Kamimura, Ryoichi; Kadoya, Masumi; Suzuki, Masayuki; Takashima, Tutomu

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate diagnostic effectiveness of CT-arteriography (CTA) in pancreatic disease, the pictures of pancreatic CTA were analysed in 50 cases without pancreatic disease. In the pancreatic body, irregular spotty stain was seen in 15 out of 50 cases(30%). Especially, in patients who had dorsal pancreatic artery arising from superior mesenteric artery, this stain was seen in 9 out of 13 cases(69%) and its mechanism was considered to be double blood supply both from celiac artery and superior mesenteric artery. As a consequence, we think that CTA of pancreas is unusefull in diagnosis of pancreatic insulinomas or carcinomas. (author)

  16. Physiology of the endocrine pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelking, L R

    1997-11-01

    The endocrine pancreas is composed of nests of cells called the islets of Langerhans, which comprise only about 20% of pancreatic cell mass and secrete insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide. Insulin is anabolic, increasing storage of glucose, fatty acids and amino acids, while glucagon namely stimulates hepatic glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and ketogenesis. Somatostatin acts as a paracrine agent to inhibit both insulin and glucagon release, and, therefore, to modulate their output. This article explores factors controlling release of these hormones, as well as the way in which they affect fuel metabolism in the whole animal.

  17. Diagnostic imaging of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Tsutomu; Itai, Yuji

    1981-01-01

    Diagnostic imaging of the pancreas, ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), radionuclide (RN) scintigraphy, angiography, and endoscopic retrograde pancreaticography (ERP). First three noninvasive methods, were the most effective to diagnose psudo-cyst or cystoadenoma. Especially, CT gives the clear image of inflammation and shows pancreatic stones and calcification, with high sensitivity. As for pancreatic carcinomas there was no noninvasive methods to apply at an early stage. In order to diagnose the cancer the combination of angiography and ERP was preferable. The problem was how to select the candidates for the investigation of combined method out of the patients with negative CT or US. (Tsunoda, M.)

  18. Cybersecurity in Artificial Pancreas Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, Derek T; Maraka, Spyridoula; Basu, Ananda; Keith-Hynes, Patrick; Kudva, Yogish C

    2015-09-01

    Medical devices have transformed modern health care, and ongoing experimental medical technology trials (such as the artificial pancreas) have the potential to significantly improve the treatment of several chronic conditions, including diabetes mellitus. However, we suggest that, to date, the essential concept of cybersecurity has not been adequately addressed in this field. This article discusses several key issues of cybersecurity in medical devices and proposes some solutions. In addition, it outlines the current requirements and efforts of regulatory agencies to increase awareness of this topic and to improve cybersecurity.

  19. CT-arteriography of pancreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Jun; Matsui, Osamu; Kitagawa, Kiyohide; Kamimura, Ryoichi; Kadoya, Masumi; Suzuki, Masayuki; Takashima, Tutomu

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate diagnostic effectiveness of CT-arteriography (CTA) in pancreatic disease, the pictures of pancreatic CTA were analysed in 50 cases without pancreatic disease. In the pancreatic body, irregular spotty stain was seen in 15 out of 50 cases(30%). Especially, in patients who had dorsal pancreatic artery arising from superior mesenteric artery, this stain was seen in 9 out of 13 cases(69%) and its mechanism was considered to be double blood supply both from celiac artery and superior mesenteric artery. As a consequence, we think that CTA of pancreas is unusefull in diagnosis of pancreatic insulinomas or carcinomas. (author).

  20. Arteriovenous Malformation of the Pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Charalabopoulos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic arteriovenous malformation (PAVM is a very rare and mostly congenital lesion, with less than 80 cases described in the English-published literature. It is defined as a tumorous vascular abnormality that is constructed between an anomalous bypass anastomosis of the arterial and venous networks within the pancreas. It represents about 5% of all arteriovenous malformations found in the gastrointestinal tract. Herein, we present a 64-year-old patient with symptomatic PAVM involving the body and tail of the organ, which was successfully treated by transcatheter arterial embolization. The disease spectrum and review of the literature are also presented.

  1. Ectopic pancreas with pseudocyst and pseudoaneurysm formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surov, A.; Hainz, M.; Hinz, L.; Holzhausen, H.-J.; Finke, R.; Spielmann, R.-P.; Kunze, C.

    2009-01-01

    Ectopic pancreas is a rare congenital anomaly. It is usually asymptomatic, or presents with non specific gastrointestinal symptoms. We describe here a case of ectopic pancreas in the gastric antrum, with pseudocyst and pseudoaneurysm formation. This entity has not been reported previously in the literature.

  2. Ectopic pancreas in a giant mediastinal cyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Wilson W.; van Boven, Wim Jan; Jurhill, Roy R.; Bonta, Peter I.; Annema, Jouke T.; de Mol, Bas A.

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic pancreas located in the mediastium is an extremely rare anomaly. We present a case of an ectopic pancreas located in a giant mediastinal cyst in an 18-year-old man. He presented with symptoms of dyspnea due to external compression of the cyst on the left main bronchus. Complete surgical

  3. Developmental biology of the Psammomys obesus pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedtofte, Louise; Bödvarsdóttir, Thóra B; Karlsen, Allan E

    2007-01-01

    The desert gerbil Psammomys obesus, an established model of type 2 diabetes (T2D), has previously been shown to lack pancreatic and duodenal homeobox gene 1 (Pdx-1) expression. Pdx-1 deficiency leads to pancreas agenesis in both mice and humans. We have therefore further examined the pancreas of ...

  4. Primary hydatid cysts of the pancreas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kurt

    Hydatid cysts of the pancreas are rare. The reported incidence varies from 0.1% to 2% of patients with hydatid disease.4-7. Management may be diffi- cult as a hydatid cyst in the head of the pancreas may closely simulate a cystic tumour. In this study we report 4 cases of primary hydatid cysts involving the head of the ...

  5. Resection for secondary malignancy of the pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Jui-Hsia; Wang, Shin-E; Shyr, Yi-Ming; Su, Cheng-Hsi; Chen, Tien-Hua; Wu, Chew-Wun

    2012-01-01

    This study tried to clarify the role of pancreatic resection in the treatment of secondary malignancy with metastasis or local invasion to the pancreas in terms of surgical risk and survival benefit. Data of secondary malignancy of the pancreas from our 19 patients and cases reported in the English literature were pooled together for analysis. There were 329 cases of resected secondary malignancy of the pancreas, including 241 cases of metastasis and 88 cases of local invasion. The most common primary tumor metastatic to the pancreas and amenable to resection was renal cell carcinoma (RCC) (73.9%). More than half (52.3%) of the primary cancers with local invasion to the pancreas were colon cancer, and nearly half (40.9%) were stomach cancer. The median metastatic interval was 84 months (7 years) for overall primary tumors and 108 months (9 years) for RCC. The 5-year survival for secondary malignancy of the pancreas after resection was 61.1% for metastasis and 58.9% for local invasion, with 72.8% for RCC metastasis, 69.0% for colon cancer, and 43.8% for stomach cancer with local invasion to the pancreas. Pancreatic resection should not be precluded for secondary malignancy of the pancreas because long-term survival could be achieved with acceptable surgical risk in selected patients.

  6. Minimally Invasive Management of Ectopic Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitiello, Gerardo A; Cavnar, Michael J; Hajdu, Cristina; Khaykis, Inessa; Newman, Elliot; Melis, Marcovalerio; Pachter, H Leon; Cohen, Steven M

    2017-03-01

    The management of ectopic pancreas is not well defined. This study aims to determine the prevalence of symptomatic ectopic pancreas and identify those who may benefit from treatment, with a particular focus on robotically assisted surgical management. Our institutional pathology database was queried to identify a cohort of ectopic pancreas specimens. Additional clinical data regarding clinical symptomatology, diagnostic studies, and treatment were obtained through chart review. Nineteen cases of ectopic pancreas were found incidentally during surgery for another condition or found incidentally in a pathologic specimen (65.5%). Eleven patients (37.9%) reported prior symptoms, notably abdominal pain and/or gastrointestinal bleeding. The most common locations for ectopic pancreas were the duodenum and small bowel (31% and 27.6%, respectively). Three out of 29 cases (10.3%) had no symptoms, but had evidence of preneoplastic changes on pathology, while one harbored pancreatic cancer. Over the years, treatment of ectopic pancreas has shifted from open to laparoscopic and more recently to robotic surgery. Our experience is in line with existing evidence supporting surgical treatment of symptomatic or complicated ectopic pancreas. In the current era, minimally invasive and robotic surgery can be used safely and successfully for treatment of ectopic pancreas.

  7. Functional imaging of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Fumiko

    1984-01-01

    An image processing technique for functional imaging of the pancreas was developed and is here reported. In this paper, clinical efficacy of the technique for detecting pancreatic abnormality is evaluated in comparison with conventional pancreatic scintigraphy and CT. For quantitative evaluation, functional rate, i.e. the rate of normal functioning pancreatic area, was calculated from the functional image and subtraction image. Two hundred and ninety-five cases were studied using this technique. Conventional image had a sensitivity of 65 % and a specificity of 78 %, while the use of functional imaging improved sensitivity to 88 % and specificity to 88 %. The mean functional rate in patients with pancreatic disease was significantly lower (33.3+-24.5 in patients with chronic pancreatitis, 28.1+-26.9 in patients with acute pancreatitis, 43.4+-22.3 in patients with diabetes mellitus, 20.4+-23.4 in patients with pancreatic cancer) than the mean functional rate in cases without pancreatic disease (86.4+-14.2). It is suggested that functional image of the pancreas reflecting pancreatic exocrine function and functional rate is a useful indicator of pancreatic exocrine function. (author)

  8. Postoperative CT in pancreas transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, F.E.; Harper, S.J.F.; Callaghan, C.J.; Shaw, A.; Godfrey, E.M.; Bradley, J.A.; Watson, C.J.E.; Pettigrew, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To examine the usage and value of computed tomography (CT) following simultaneous pancreas and kidney (SPK) transplantation. Materials and methods: Indications for postoperative CT, key findings, and their influence on management were determined by retrospective analysis. Results: Ninety-eight patients underwent 313 CT examinations. Common indications for the examinations included suspected intra-abdominal collection (31.1%) and elevated serum amylase/lipase (24.1%). CT findings most frequently showed non-specific mild inflammation (27.6%), a normal scan (17.1%) and fluid collections (16.3%). High capillary blood glucose (CBG) was associated with resultant CT demonstration of graft vascular abnormalities, but otherwise, particular clinical indications were not associated with specific CT findings. Conclusion: Clinical findings in patients with SPK transplants are non-specific. The pattern of abnormalities encountered is significantly different to those seen in native pancreatic disease and demands a tailored protocol. CT enables accurate depiction of vascular abnormalities and fluid collections, thus reducing the number of surgical interventions that might otherwise be required. Elevated CBG should prompt urgent CT to exclude potentially reversible vascular complications. - Highlights: • The value of CT following simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation was assessed. • 313 CT scans were performed on 98 patients between January 2005 and August 2010. • Elevated blood glucose was associated with CT findings of graft vascular anomalities. • CT was particularly useful in directing operative versus non-operative intervention.

  9. Cellular and molecular mechanisms coordinating pancreas development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastidas-Ponce, Aimée; Scheibner, Katharina; Lickert, Heiko; Bakhti, Mostafa

    2017-08-15

    The pancreas is an endoderm-derived glandular organ that participates in the regulation of systemic glucose metabolism and food digestion through the function of its endocrine and exocrine compartments, respectively. While intensive research has explored the signaling pathways and transcriptional programs that govern pancreas development, much remains to be discovered regarding the cellular processes that orchestrate pancreas morphogenesis. Here, we discuss the developmental mechanisms and principles that are known to underlie pancreas development, from induction and lineage formation to morphogenesis and organogenesis. Elucidating such principles will help to identify novel candidate disease genes and unravel the pathogenesis of pancreas-related diseases, such as diabetes, pancreatitis and cancer. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Relationship between lung function and quantitative computed tomographic parameters of airway remodeling, air trapping, and emphysema in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A single-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Ruth A; Barker, Bethan L; Newby, Chris; Pakkal, Mini; Baldi, Simonetta; Kajekar, Radhika; Kay, Richard; Laurencin, Marie; Marshall, Richard P; Sousa, Ana R; Parmar, Harsukh; Siddiqui, Salman; Gupta, Sumit; Brightling, Chris E

    2016-05-01

    There is a paucity of studies comparing asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) based on thoracic quantitative computed tomographic (QCT) parameters. We sought to compare QCT parameters of airway remodeling, air trapping, and emphysema between asthmatic patients and patients with COPD and explore their relationship with airflow limitation. Asthmatic patients (n = 171), patients with COPD (n = 81), and healthy subjects (n = 49) recruited from a single center underwent QCT and clinical characterization. Proximal airway percentage wall area (%WA) was significantly increased in asthmatic patients (62.5% [SD, 2.2]) and patients with COPD (62.7% [SD, 2.3]) compared with that in healthy control subjects (60.3% [SD, 2.2], P Emphysema assessed based on lung density measured by using Hounsfield units below which 15% of the voxels lie (Perc15) was a feature of COPD only (patients with COPD: mean, -964 [SD, 19.62] vs asthmatic patients: mean, -937 [SD, 22.7] and healthy subjects: mean, -937 [SD, 17.1], P < .001). Multiple regression analyses showed that the strongest predictor of lung function impairment in asthmatic patients was %WA, whereas in the COPD and asthma subgrouped with postbronchodilator FEV1 percent predicted value of less than 80%, it was air trapping. Factor analysis of QCT parameters in asthmatic patients and patients with COPD combined determined 3 components, with %WA, air trapping, and Perc15 values being the highest loading factors. Cluster analysis identified 3 clusters with mild, moderate, or severe lung function impairment with corresponding decreased lung density (Perc15 values) and increased air trapping. In asthmatic patients and patients with COPD, lung function impairment is strongly associated with air trapping, with a contribution from proximal airway narrowing in asthmatic patients. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Three-dimensional computed tomographic evaluation of bilateral sagittal split osteotomy lingual fracture line and le fort I pterygomaxillary separation in orthognathic surgery using cadaver heads: ultrasonic osteotome versus conventional saw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammous, Sophie; Dupont, Quentin; Gilles, Roland

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the quality of the fracture line on the lingual side of the mandible after sagittal split osteotomy and the quality of pterygomaxillary separation after Le Fort I osteotomy using the BoneScalpel ultrasonic osteotome. Bimaxillary procedures, according to the standard protocol, were performed using 10 fresh cadaver heads. The ultrasonic osteotome was used in the study group, and a reciprocating saw was used in the control group. Three-dimensional reconstructions of postoperative computed tomographic scans were obtained. The lingual ramus fracture pattern and the pterygomaxillary separation pattern were observed, classified, and compared. Postoperative dissections of the skulls were performed to assess the integrity of the infra-alveolar nerve and the descending palatine artery. No significant differences were found in the cutting time of bone between the BoneScalpel and the sagittal saw. Of the sagittal split osteotomies in the study group, 90% showed a good pattern (vertical pattern of fracture line extending to the inferior border of the mandible running behind the mandibular canal) compared with 50% of the sagittal split osteotomies in the control group. Ideal separation of the pterygoid plates without fractures was observed in 80% of the Le Fort I osteotomies in the study group compared with 50% of the osteotomies in the control group. High-level fractures occurred in 30% of cases in the control group compared with none in the study group. The integrities of the infra-alveolar nerve and the descending palatine artery were preserved in all cases. Use of the ultrasonic BoneScalpel did not require more time than the conventional method. An improved pattern of lingual fracture lines in mandibular sagittal split osteotomy procedures and the pattern of pterygomaxillary separation in Le Fort I osteotomy procedures were observed. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc

  12. Mid-cervical flame-shaped pseudo-occlusion: diagnostic performance of mid-cervical flame-shaped extracranial internal carotid artery sign on computed tomographic angiography in hyperacute ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakkamakul, Supada; Pitakvej, Nantaporn [King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital the Thai Red Cross Society, Department of Radiology, Bangkok (Thailand); Dumrongpisutikul, Netsiri; Lerdlum, Sukalaya [King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital the Thai Red Cross Society, Department of Radiology, Bangkok (Thailand); Chulalongkorn University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2017-10-15

    Flame-shaped pseudo-occlusion of the extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) is a flow-related phenomenon that creates computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) findings that mimic tandem intracranial-extracranial ICA occlusion or dissection. We aim to determine the diagnostic performance of mid-cervical flame-shaped extracranial ICA sign on CTA in hyperacute ischemic stroke patients. We retrospectively included consecutive anterior circulation ischemic stroke patients presenting within 6 h of symptom onset who underwent 4D brain CTA and arterial-phase neck CTA using a 320-detector CT scanner during August 2012 to July 2015. Two blinded readers independently reviewed arterial-phase neck CTA and characterized the extracranial ICA configurations into mid-cervical flame-shaped, proximal blunt/beak-shaped, and tubular-shaped groups. 4D whole brain CTA was used as a reference standard for intracranial ICA occlusion detection. Diagnostic performance of the mid-cervical flame-shaped extracranial ICA sign and interobserver reliability were calculated. Of the 81 cases, 11 had isolated intracranial ICA occlusion, and 6 had true extracranial ICA occlusion. Mid-cervical flame-shaped extracranial ICA sign was found in 45.5% (5/11) of isolated intracranial ICA occlusions but none in the true extracranial ICA occlusion group. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of the mid-cervical flame-shaped extracranial ICA sign for the detection of isolated intracranial ICA occlusion were 45.5, 100, 100, 92.1, and 92.6%, respectively. Interobserver reliability was 0.90. The mid-cervical flame-shaped extracranial ICA sign may suggest the presence of isolated intracranial ICA occlusion and allow reliable exclusion of tandem extracranial-intracranial ICA occlusion in hyperacute ischemic stroke setting. (orig.)

  13. Mid-cervical flame-shaped pseudo-occlusion: diagnostic performance of mid-cervical flame-shaped extracranial internal carotid artery sign on computed tomographic angiography in hyperacute ischemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakkamakul, Supada; Pitakvej, Nantaporn; Dumrongpisutikul, Netsiri; Lerdlum, Sukalaya

    2017-01-01

    Flame-shaped pseudo-occlusion of the extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) is a flow-related phenomenon that creates computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) findings that mimic tandem intracranial-extracranial ICA occlusion or dissection. We aim to determine the diagnostic performance of mid-cervical flame-shaped extracranial ICA sign on CTA in hyperacute ischemic stroke patients. We retrospectively included consecutive anterior circulation ischemic stroke patients presenting within 6 h of symptom onset who underwent 4D brain CTA and arterial-phase neck CTA using a 320-detector CT scanner during August 2012 to July 2015. Two blinded readers independently reviewed arterial-phase neck CTA and characterized the extracranial ICA configurations into mid-cervical flame-shaped, proximal blunt/beak-shaped, and tubular-shaped groups. 4D whole brain CTA was used as a reference standard for intracranial ICA occlusion detection. Diagnostic performance of the mid-cervical flame-shaped extracranial ICA sign and interobserver reliability were calculated. Of the 81 cases, 11 had isolated intracranial ICA occlusion, and 6 had true extracranial ICA occlusion. Mid-cervical flame-shaped extracranial ICA sign was found in 45.5% (5/11) of isolated intracranial ICA occlusions but none in the true extracranial ICA occlusion group. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of the mid-cervical flame-shaped extracranial ICA sign for the detection of isolated intracranial ICA occlusion were 45.5, 100, 100, 92.1, and 92.6%, respectively. Interobserver reliability was 0.90. The mid-cervical flame-shaped extracranial ICA sign may suggest the presence of isolated intracranial ICA occlusion and allow reliable exclusion of tandem extracranial-intracranial ICA occlusion in hyperacute ischemic stroke setting. (orig.)

  14. Normal sonographic anatomy of the abdomen of coatis (Nasua nasua Linnaeus 1766).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Rejane G; Costa, Ana Paula A; Bragato, Nathália; Fonseca, Angela M; Duque, Juan C M; Prado, Tales D; Silva, Andrea C R; Borges, Naida C

    2013-06-23

    The use of ultrasound in veterinary medicine is widespread as a diagnostic supplement in the clinical routine of small animals, but there are few reports in wild animals. The objective of this study was to describe the anatomy, topography and abdominal sonographic features of coatis. The urinary bladder wall measured 0.11 ± 0.03 cm. The symmetrical kidneys were in the left and right cranial quadrant of the abdomen and the cortical, medullary and renal pelvis regions were recognized and in all sections. The medullary rim sign was visualized in the left kidney of two coatis. The liver had homogeneous texture and was in the cranial abdomen under the rib cage. The gallbladder, rounded and filled with anechoic content was visualized in all coatis, to the right of the midline. The spleen was identified in the left cranial abdomen following the greater curvature of the stomach. The parenchyma was homogeneous and hyperechogenic compared to the liver and kidney cortex. The stomach was in the cranial abdomen, limited cranially by the liver and caudo-laterally by the spleen. The left adrenal glands of five coatis were seen in the cranial pole of the left kidney showing hypoechogenic parenchyma without distinction of cortex and medulla. The pancreas was visualized in only two coatis. The left ovary (0.92 cm x 0.56 cm) was visualized on a single coati in the caudal pole of the kidney. The uterus, right adrenal, right ovary and intestines were not visualized. Ultrasound examination of the abdomen of coatis may be accomplished by following the recommendations for dogs and cats. It is possible to evaluate the anatomical and topographical relationships of the abdominal organs together with the knowledge of the peculiarities of parenchymal echogenicity and echotexture of the viscera.

  15. Breast abscess after nipple piercing: sonographic findings with clinical correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibman, A Jill; Misra, Monika; Castaldi, Maria

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this series was to review the spectrum of clinical and sonographic features associated with infection after nipple piercing. Between 2002 and 2010, 6 patients presented to our breast center with a breast abscess after nipple piercing. A retrospective analysis of the imaging findings was performed with clinical and pathologic correlation. Patients with breast infections after nipple piercing tend to be young, and the timing since piercing varies from 2 weeks to 17 months. Sonography showed a complex or hypoechoic mass in 5 of 6 patients. Treatment of breast abscesses included surgical incision and drainage, percutaneous drainage, and antibiotic therapy. Surgical evacuation is commonly performed; however, sonographically guided aspiration may be an appropriate management strategy.

  16. Sonographic diagnosis of intestinal obstruction in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manczur, F; Vörös, K; Vrabély, T; Wladár, S; Németh, T; Fenyves, B

    1998-01-01

    Ultrasonography was performed on 44 dogs to decide whether small bowel obstruction was present. The sonographic criteria for small bowel obstruction were (1) the presence of pendulous movement of the ingesta inside the dilated bowel, (2) observation of invaginated intestines or an ingested intraluminal foreign body, (3) observation of non-uniform peristaltic activity of the dilated intestines, or (4) observation of akinetic intestinal loops together with abdominal fluid accumulation. By using these criteria, obstruction was correctly diagnosed by ultrasonography in 11 of the 13 dogs with mechanical ileus, and obstruction was correctly excluded in 29 of the 31 non-obstructive cases. Thus, the above-mentioned sonographic criteria had 85% sensitivity and positive predictive value, and 94% specificity and negative predictive value. The present study suggests that ultrasonography is a valuable tool for diagnosing small intestinal obstruction in the dog.

  17. Cystic tumours of the pancreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itai, Y. [Dept. of Radiology, Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba Univ. (Japan); Ohtomo, K. [Univ. of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    In this pictorial essay we present the typical appearances of cystic pancreatic tumours, the wide spectrum of their features, and differential features among cystic pancreatic masses with an emphasis on CT. Pseudocysts are the most common cystic lesion in the pancreas and can be induced by pancreatitis, trauma or surgery. Pseudocysts appear as a round cystic mass with a definite wall. However, they can mimic cystic tumours associated with internal septation and/or necrotic mass of various shapes. Conversely, cystic tumours can appear as a simple cyst lacking any thickening of wall, septation or mural nodule. Pancreatic carcinoma not infrequently induces secondary cysts upstream of the obstructed pancreatic duct. The cysts are pseudocysts or retention cysts in nature. When cysts are formed in the pancreatic parenchyma or adjacent to pancreatic carcinoma they may mimic cystic tumour. (orig./VHE)

  18. Cystic tumours of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itai, Y.; Ohtomo, K.

    1996-01-01

    In this pictorial essay we present the typical appearances of cystic pancreatic tumours, the wide spectrum of their features, and differential features among cystic pancreatic masses with an emphasis on CT. Pseudocysts are the most common cystic lesion in the pancreas and can be induced by pancreatitis, trauma or surgery. Pseudocysts appear as a round cystic mass with a definite wall. However, they can mimic cystic tumours associated with internal septation and/or necrotic mass of various shapes. Conversely, cystic tumours can appear as a simple cyst lacking any thickening of wall, septation or mural nodule. Pancreatic carcinoma not infrequently induces secondary cysts upstream of the obstructed pancreatic duct. The cysts are pseudocysts or retention cysts in nature. When cysts are formed in the pancreatic parenchyma or adjacent to pancreatic carcinoma they may mimic cystic tumour. (orig./VHE)

  19. Robotic surgery of the pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Daniel; Morris-Stiff, Gareth; Falk, Gavin A; El-Hayek, Kevin; Chalikonda, Sricharan; Walsh, R Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic surgery is one of the most challenging and complex fields in general surgery. While minimally invasive surgery has become the standard of care for many intra-abdominal pathologies the overwhelming majority of pancreatic surgery is performed in an open fashion. This is attributed to the retroperitoneal location of the pancreas, its intimate relationship to major vasculature and the complexity of reconstruction in the case of pancreatoduodenectomy. Herein, we describe the application of robotic technology to minimally invasive pancreatic surgery. The unique capabilities of the robotic platform have made the minimally invasive approach feasible and safe with equivalent if not better outcomes (e.g., decreased length of stay, less surgical site infections) to conventional open surgery. However, it is unclear whether the robotic approach is truly superior to traditional laparoscopy; this is a key point given the substantial costs associated with procuring and maintaining robotic capabilities. PMID:25356035

  20. Laryngeal schwannoma: a case report with emphasis on sonographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Luis Ronan Marquez Ferreira de, E-mail: luisronan@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Triangulo Mineiro (UFTM), Uberaba, MG (Brazil); De Nicola, Harley; Yamasaki, Rosiane; Pedroso, Jose Eduardo; Brasil, Osiris de Oliveira Campones do; Yamashita, Helio [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina

    2014-05-15

    Schwannomas are benign nerve sheath tumors composed of Schwann cells, which normally produce the insulating myelin sheath covering peripheral, cranial and autonomic nerves. Twenty-five to forty-five percent of all schwannomas occur in the head and neck region, but location of such tumors in the larynx is rarely observed. The present report is aimed at describing a clinical case of laryngeal schwannoma, with emphasis on sonographic findings. (author)

  1. A ?snapshot? of the visual search behaviours of medical sonographers

    OpenAIRE

    Carrigan, Ann J; Brennan, Patrick C; Pietrzyk, Mariusz; Clarke, Jillian; Chekaluk, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Visual search is a task that humans perform in everyday life. Whether it involves looking for a pen on a desk or a mass in a mammogram, the cognitive and perceptual processes that underpin these tasks are identical. Radiologists are experts in visual search of medical images and studies on their visual search behaviours have revealed some interesting findings with regard to diagnostic errors. In Australia, within the modality of ultrasound, sonographers perform the diag...

  2. Sonographic appearance of a partial rupture of the supinator muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Chun; Chiou, Hong-Jen; Kao, Chung-Lan; Chan, Rai-Chi

    2008-05-01

    We report the case of a 51-year-old woman who experienced pain and swelling in the right forearm after spinning cotton. History taking and physical examinations helped identify a tear of the supinator muscle, which was confirmed via sonographic examination. To our knowledge, this article is the first report of a supinator muscle tear diagnosed with sonography. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound, 2008.

  3. Comparing Physical Examination With Sonographic Versions of the Same Examination Techniques for Splenomegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cessford, Tara; Meneilly, Graydon S; Arishenkoff, Shane; Eddy, Christopher; Chen, Luke Y C; Kim, Daniel J; Ma, Irene W Y

    2017-12-08

    To determine whether sonographic versions of physical examination techniques can accurately identify splenomegaly, Castell's method (Ann Intern Med 1967; 67:1265-1267), the sonographic Castell's method, spleen tip palpation, and the sonographic spleen tip technique were compared with reference measurements. Two clinicians trained in bedside sonography patients recruited from an urban hematology clinic. Each patient was examined for splenomegaly using conventional percussion and palpation techniques (Castell's method and spleen tip palpation, respectively), as well as the sonographic versions of these maneuvers (sonographic Castell's method and sonographic spleen tip technique). Results were compared with a reference standard based on professional sonographer measurements. The sonographic Castell's method had greater sensitivity (91.7% [95% confidence interval, 61.5% to 99.8%]) than the traditional Castell's method (83.3% [95% confidence interval, 51.6% to 97.9%]) but took longer to perform [mean ± SD, 28.8 ± 18.6 versus 18.8 ± 8.1 seconds; P = .01). Palpable and positive sonographic spleen tip results were both 100% specific, but the sonographic spleen tip method was more sensitive (58.3% [95% confidence interval, 27.7% to 84.8%] versus 33.3% [95% confidence interval, 9.9% to 65.1%]). Sonographic versions of traditional physical examination maneuvers have greater diagnostic accuracy than the physical examination maneuvers from which they are derived but may take longer to perform. We recommend a combination of traditional physical examination and sonographic techniques when evaluating for splenomegaly at the bedside. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  4. Adult Intussusception Caused by Heterotopic Pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Va-Kei Kok

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Heterotopic pancreas causing small bowel intussusception is rare. We report the case of a 24-year-old woman who presented with intermittent episodes of abdominal cramping and pain that had persisted for 10 days. A target-shaped lesion consisting of multiple concentric rings was found on the left side on contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Surgical intervention demonstrated jejunal intussusception caused by a jejunal heterotopic pancreas. Microscopically, several nesidioblastoses of pancreas were identified. Although very rare, small intestinal pancreatic rests may cause subacute bowel obstruction.

  5. Lymphangiomas in children: correlation of sonographic and pathologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sun Wha; Ryu, Kyung Nam; Yoon, Yup; Yu, Pil Mun

    1992-01-01

    The sonographic features of 23 lymphangiomas (19 pediatric patients) were compared with the pathologic findings. Nineteen lymphangiomas appeared as unicameral (n = 2) and multiloculated (n = 17) cystic masses. Remaining lesions were inhomogeneously echogenic mass with small cystic portions (n 3) and a mixed pattern (n = 1). Fourteen of the multiloculated tumors had thin septa and 6 had solid echogenic foci. The fluid within the majority of the cyst was anechoic in 8 cases and echogenic in 11 cases. Correlation of the sonographic features with the pathologic findings demonstrated that the cystic spaces corresponded to the dilated lymphatic spaces lined with endothelium, separated by septa. Echogenic fluid represented hemorrhage. The echogenic components corresponded to clusters of very smaller dilated lymphatic channels, thick fibro-fatty septa, or blood clot. The author's experience suggests that the most characteristic sonographic appearance of lymphangioma is a multiloculated cystic mass with thin septa, reflecting the preponderance of fluid-filled spaces. An atypical appearance usually reflects the presence of blood or dominancy of cavernous type. The information obtained with US imaging can help in providing a preoperative diagnosis and in planning surgical resection

  6. Lymphangiomas in children: correlation of sonographic and pathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sun Wha; Ryu, Kyung Nam; Yoon, Yup [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Pil Mun [Dankuk University College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-11-15

    The sonographic features of 23 lymphangiomas (19 pediatric patients) were compared with the pathologic findings. Nineteen lymphangiomas appeared as unicameral (n = 2) and multiloculated (n = 17) cystic masses. Remaining lesions were inhomogeneously echogenic mass with small cystic portions (n 3) and a mixed pattern (n = 1). Fourteen of the multiloculated tumors had thin septa and 6 had solid echogenic foci. The fluid within the majority of the cyst was anechoic in 8 cases and echogenic in 11 cases. Correlation of the sonographic features with the pathologic findings demonstrated that the cystic spaces corresponded to the dilated lymphatic spaces lined with endothelium, separated by septa. Echogenic fluid represented hemorrhage. The echogenic components corresponded to clusters of very smaller dilated lymphatic channels, thick fibro-fatty septa, or blood clot. The author's experience suggests that the most characteristic sonographic appearance of lymphangioma is a multiloculated cystic mass with thin septa, reflecting the preponderance of fluid-filled spaces. An atypical appearance usually reflects the presence of blood or dominancy of cavernous type. The information obtained with US imaging can help in providing a preoperative diagnosis and in planning surgical resection.

  7. Fibrocystic disease of the breast: Analysis of sonographic findings with histopathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Kyoung Suk; Kim, Chung Hyun; Lee, Chung Keun; Oh, Young Ran; Cho, June Sik; Rhee, Byung Chull; Kang, Dong Wook [Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-15

    To evaluate the sonographic findings of fibrocystic disease with histopathologic correlation, we retrospectively analyzed the sonographic findings and pathologic findings of 48 cases with histopathologically proven fibrocystic disease. The sonographic pattern of the lesions were classified into type I (ill define disoechoic lesion), Type IIa (ill defined hypoechoic lesion with heterogeneity), Type IIb (ill defined hypoechoiclesion with nodularities), Type III (mass lesion with thick or thin boundary echoes). The pathologic feature was classified into stromal hyperplasia, mixed, proliferative and fibroadenomatosis patterns. In sonographic type I,stromal hyperplasia and mixed patterns were seen in 77% and 23% , respectively. In sonographic Type IIa, stromal hyperplasia, mixed and proliferative patterns were seen in 57%, 29% and 14%, respectively. In sonographic TypeIIb, stromal hyperplasia and mixed patterns were seen in 17% and 83%, respectively. In sonographic type III, stromal hyperplasia, mixed, proliferative and fire-and-brimstone patterns were seen in 10%, 23%,13% and 54%, respectively.In conclusion, the sonographic findings of fibrocystic disease were variable and were not correlated good with histopathologic patterns. Sonography might to be helpful in the diagnosis of fibrocystic disease in conjunction with other imaging modalities in cases with Type I or Type II sonographic patterns. However, in cases with Type III patterns, biopsy should be performed to differentiate them from other benign or malignant masses

  8. Fibrocystic disease of the breast: Analysis of sonographic findings with histopathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Kyoung Suk; Kim, Chung Hyun; Lee, Chung Keun; Oh, Young Ran; Cho, June Sik; Rhee, Byung Chull; Kang, Dong Wook

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the sonographic findings of fibrocystic disease with histopathologic correlation, we retrospectively analyzed the sonographic findings and pathologic findings of 48 cases with histopathologically proven fibrocystic disease. The sonographic pattern of the lesions were classified into type I (ill define disoechoic lesion), Type IIa (ill defined hypoechoic lesion with heterogeneity), Type IIb (ill defined hypoechoiclesion with nodularities), Type III (mass lesion with thick or thin boundary echoes). The pathologic feature was classified into stromal hyperplasia, mixed, proliferative and fibroadenomatosis patterns. In sonographic type I,stromal hyperplasia and mixed patterns were seen in 77% and 23% , respectively. In sonographic Type IIa, stromal hyperplasia, mixed and proliferative patterns were seen in 57%, 29% and 14%, respectively. In sonographic TypeIIb, stromal hyperplasia and mixed patterns were seen in 17% and 83%, respectively. In sonographic type III, stromal hyperplasia, mixed, proliferative and fire-and-brimstone patterns were seen in 10%, 23%,13% and 54%, respectively.In conclusion, the sonographic findings of fibrocystic disease were variable and were not correlated good with histopathologic patterns. Sonography might to be helpful in the diagnosis of fibrocystic disease in conjunction with other imaging modalities in cases with Type I or Type II sonographic patterns. However, in cases with Type III patterns, biopsy should be performed to differentiate them from other benign or malignant masses

  9. Cardiovascular System Sonographic Evaluation Algorithm: A New Sonographic Algorithm for Evaluation of the Fetal Cardiovascular System in the Second Trimester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De León-Luis, Juan; Bravo, Coral; Gámez, Francisco; Ortiz-Quintana, Luis

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the reproducibility and feasibility of the new cardiovascular system sonographic evaluation algorithm for studying the extended fetal cardiovascular system, including the portal, thymic, and supra-aortic areas, in the second trimester of pregnancy (19-22 weeks). We performed a cross-sectional study of pregnant women with healthy fetuses (singleton and twin pregnancies) attending our center from March to August 2011. The extended fetal cardiovascular system was evaluated by following the new algorithm, a sequential acquisition of axial views comprising the following (caudal to cranial): I, portal sinus; II, ductus venosus; III, hepatic veins; IV, 4-chamber view; V, left ventricular outflow tract; VI, right ventricular outflow tract; VII, 3-vessel and trachea view; VIII, thy-box; and IX, subclavian arteries. Interobserver agreement on the feasibility and exploration time was estimated in a subgroup of patients. The feasibility and exploration time were determined for the main cohort. Maternal, fetal, and sonographic factors affecting both features were evaluated. Interobserver agreement was excellent for all views except view VIII; the difference in the mean exploration time between observers was 1.5 minutes (95% confidence interval, 0.7-2.1 minutes; P cardiovascular system sonographic evaluation algorithm is a reproducible and feasible approach for exploration of the extended fetal cardiovascular system in a second-trimester scan. It can be used to explore these areas in normal and abnormal conditions and provides an integrated image of extended fetal cardiovascular anatomy. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  10. Case Study: Pancreas cancer with Whipple's operation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: pancreas cancer, Whipple procedure, SASPEN case study ..... Grade A. Grade B. Grade C. Nasogastric tube required. 4-7 days or reinserted > postoperative day 3 .... malabsorption and vitamin and mineral deficiencies are the most.

  11. Computed tomographic metrizamide myelography in spinal disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isu, T.; Ito, T.; Iwasaki, Y.; Tsuru, M. (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine); Kitaoka, K.

    1981-03-01

    Methods: Either EMT Head Scanner, CT 1010 (slice thickness 10 mm) or EMI Body Scanner, CT 5005 (slice thickness 13 mm) was used. The concentration of metrizamide was 170 - 250 mgI/ml and the amount was 7 - 10 ml. Either lumbar puncture or lateral C sub(1 - 2) puncture was made. Materials: 26 cases were included in this study. 1) disc disease: 11 cases, 2) spinal cord tumor: 6 cases, 3) Arnold-Chiari malformation: 3 cases, 4) atlantoaxial dislocation: 3 cases, 5) ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (associated with ossification of the ligamentum flavum): 2 cases (1 case), 6) spinal foreign body (acupuncture needle): 1 case. Results: 1) CT metrizamide myelography visualizes the subarachnoid space and makes it possible to know the lesion in the spinal canal in relation to the spinal cord in transverse plane. 2) It is difficult to determine the exact level of the lesion in axial plane. 3) The present technique does not allow to visualize the root sleeves. 4) It is difficult to delineate a compression of the subarachnoid space by small localized lesions (esp., disc diseases) due to overlapping the patent adjacent subarachnoid space within a slice 10 mm to 13 mm thick.

  12. Computed tomographic metrizamide myelography in spinal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isu, Toyohiko; Ito, Terufumi; Iwasaki, Yoshinobu; Tsuru, Mitsuo; Kitaoka, Kenichi.

    1981-01-01

    Methods: Either EMT Head Scanner, CT 1010 (slice thickness 10 mm) or EMI Body Scanner, CT 5005 (slice thickness 13 mm) was used. The concentration of metrizamide was 170 - 250 mgI/ml and the amount was 7 - 10 ml. Either lumbar puncture or lateral C sub(1 - 2) puncture was made. Materials: 26 cases were included in this study. 1) disc disease: 11 cases, 2) spinal cord tumor: 6 cases, 3) Arnold-Chiari malformation: 3 cases, 4) atlantoaxial dislocation: 3 cases, 5) ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (associated with ossification of the ligamentum flavum): 2 cases (1 case), 6) spinal foreign body (acupuncture needle): 1 case. Results: 1) CT metrizamide myelography visualizes the subarachnoid space and makes it possible to know the lesion in the spinal canal in relation to the spinal cord in transverse plane. 2) It is difficult to determine the exact level of the lesion in axial plane. 3) The present technique does not allow to visualize the root sleeves. 4) It is difficult to delineate a compression of the subarachnoid space by small localized lesions (esp., disc diseases) due to overlapping the patent adjacent subarachnoid space within a slice 10 mm to 13 mm thick. (author)

  13. Computed tomographic diagnosis of the splenic trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Masayuki; Takashima, Tsutomu; Funaki, Hiromi; Uogishi, Makoto; Isobe, Tsugimasa; Kanno, Shoichi; Ushitani, Kenji; Fuchuh, Kosei; Sakita, Tsuyoshi.

    1985-01-01

    Three cases (3-year-old, 51-year-old and 17-year-old males) in which splenic trauma was diagnosed by plain computed tomography (CT) are presented. CT images revealed retention of fluid in the abdominal cavity in all cases and clear splenic hematoma and laceration in one case. CT is superior in the visualization of splenic hematoma and hemorrhage in the abdominal cavity accompanied by splenic trauma. It should, however, be noted that the presence of laceration is frequently difficult to detect due to artifacts. Indication for surgery should be decided by evaluating the severity of clinical symptoms. (Namekawa, K.)

  14. Computed tomographic diagnosis of the splenic trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Masayuki; Takashima, Tsutomu; Funaki, Hiromi; Uogishi, Makoto; Isobe, Tsugimasa; Kanno, Shoichi; Ushitani, Kenji; Fuchuh, Kosei; Sakita, Tsuyoshi

    1985-01-01

    Three cases (3-year-old, 51-year-old and 17-year-old males) in which splenic trauma was diagnosed by plain computed tomography (CT) are presented. CT images revealed retention of fluid in the abdominal cavity in all cases and clear splenic hematoma and laceration in one case. CT is superior in the visualization of splenic hematoma and hemorrhage in the abdominal cavity accompanied by splenic trauma. It should, however, be noted that the presence of laceration is frequently difficult to detect due to artifacts. Indication for surgery should be decided by evaluating the severity of clinical symptoms. (Namekawa, K.).

  15. Computed tomographic diagnosis of Echinococcus alveolaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, W.

    1983-01-01

    CT was performed in seventeen cases of E, alveolaris of the liver, and two cases of E. alveolaris of the lung. The scans provided considerable detailed information which, when taken together, enabled a specific diagnosis of echinococcus infestation to be made in most cases. The extent of intra- and extrahepatic infiltration by E. alveolaris can be well defined by CT. (orig.)

  16. Computed tomographic diagnosis of Echinococcus alveolaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, W.

    1983-01-01

    CT was performed in seventeen cases of E, alveolaris of the liver, and two cases of E. alveolaris of the lung. The scans provided considerable detailed information which, when taken together, enabled a specific diagnosis of echinococcus infestation to be made in most cases. The extent of intra- and extrahepatic infiltration by E. alveolaris can be well defined by CT.

  17. Computer tomographic determination of femoral anteversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jend, H.H.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-two macerated femora were examined by CT in order to determine the degree of anteversion and to relate this to the position of the femur and to the various reference lines quoted in the literature. The accuracy of CT is the same as that of the Rippstein method, provided the following conditions are met: 1. Position of the femur with its long axis perpendicular to the image plane. 2. Demonstration of the maximal configuration of the femoral condyles to enable one to construct a tangent to the dorsal aspect of the condyle. 3. Demonstration of the head and neck by a plane which divides the neck into approximately equal portions and sections the femoral head. These conditions are more easily met, even in immobile patients, than the requirements for the Rippstein method. (orig.) [de

  18. Computed tomographic localization of pelvic hydatid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotoulas, G.; Gouliamos, A.; Kalovidouris, A.; Vlahos, L.; Papavasiliou, C.

    1990-01-01

    Nine patients with history of hydatid disease have been examined by CT. Localization of the hydatid cysts in the pelvis was established by anatomical criteria. Occasionally, the transverse plane can be confusing the precise localization of a lesion. A central location, close to the boundaries of the bladder and rectum, can define peritoneal location. Further posterolateral retrovesical location can be considered retroperitoneal. Using these criteria, 8 cysts were situated within the peritoneum an 1 within the retroperitoneum. (authoer). 16 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab

  19. Computed tomographic localization of pelvic hydatid disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotoulas, G.; Gouliamos, A.; Kalovidouris, A.; Vlahos, L.; Papavasiliou, C. (Athens University (Greece). Areteion Hospital, Department of Radiology)

    Nine patients with history of hydatid disease have been examined by CT. Localization of the hydatid cysts in the pelvis was established by anatomical criteria. Occasionally, the transverse plane can be confusing the precise localization of a lesion. A central location, close to the boundaries of the bladder and rectum, can define peritoneal location. Further posterolateral retrovesical location can be considered retroperitoneal. Using these criteria, 8 cysts were situated within the peritoneum an 1 within the retroperitoneum. (authoer). 16 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab.

  20. A computed tomographic study on epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Hoon Sik

    1980-01-01

    140 patients with epileptic seizure were studied by computed tomography during the period from Feb. 1979 to Aug. 1979 in the Department or Radiology, College of Medicine, Hangyang University. Those findings on CT and clinical records including EEG findings were reviewed. The results were as follows: 1. Age distribution of the total 140 patients was broad ranging from 1 month to 63 years. 73.5% of patients was below the age of 30. The patient population was comprised of 93 males and 47 females, and its male to female ratio was 2 : 1. 2. The type of epileptic seizure were classified according to the International League against Epilepsy. 42.9% of patients had primary generalized seizure, 47.1% with partial seizure, and 10% with non classifiable seizure. 3. As additional symptoms and signs except seizure, headache was most common, and the next was nausea and vomiting. Uncommonly, there were also insomnia, personality change, and memory disturbance. 4. 37.1% of patients had less than 1 month of seizure history, 19.3% between 1 year and 5 years. 5. EEG findings were available in 41 patients, and normal in 15 cases. 26 patients revealed abnormal findings. Among those abnormal findings focal slowing was appeared in 19.5% and generalized slowing in 17.1%. 6. 52% of patients showed abnormal findings on CT. The most common abnormal findings was focal low density (30%), and the next was diffuse hydrocephalus (7.1%). After contrast infusion, contrast enhancement was occurred in cases with focal low density, focal high or isodense mass density. In patients with focal low density, ring or nodular enhancement were common, and diffuse or serpentime enhancement in focal high or isodence mass density. 7. The frequency of structural abnormalities on CT was more common in patients below the age of 10 and over 30 than other age groups. The epilepsy starting below 10 and over 30 years of age showed structural abnormalities in 63.6-100%. 8. The patients who had less than 6 months of history revealed more abnormal findings than the patients with over 6 months of history. And most of the abnormal findings in the latter were atrophic lesion. 50% of patients with primary generalized seizure and 54.5% of patients with partial seizure revealed abnormal findings on CT. 9. EEG was done in 41 cases. 23 out of 41 patients revealed normal CT and 18 patients revealed abnormal CT. In patients with normal EEG, 9 patients revealed abnormal findings on CT. 8 out of those 9 patients showed focal low density. So there was no significant correlation between EEG and CT. 10. Most of the lesions on CT were located in the supratentorial region, particularly in the frontal and parietal lobe. There were patients who had lesions in the posterior fossa, one in the brain stem and the other in the vermis. 11. The diagnosis based on the CT finidnigs included brain tumor (9.3%), cerebral infarct (7.9%), granuloma (5.7%), cortical atrophy (5%), and calcification (5%) respectively.

  1. Computed tomographic findings of ovarian tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Kwi Ryeon; Lee, Ki Man; Woo, Seong Ku; Suh, Soo Jhi [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Duk Sik [Kyungpook National University College of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-08-15

    The diagnosis of ovarian tumor has been mainly dependent on manual pelvic examination and ultrasonography. But in case of malignant ovarian tumor, CT has more advantages over ultrasonography in assessing anatomic details, relationships to bowel loops, precise extents of tumors and follow-up examinations after surgery. Authors analyzed CT features of 46 cases of pathologically proven ovarian tumors for recent 4 years at Keimyung University Dongsan Hospital. The results were as follows: 1. The most common tumor was serous cyst adenocarcinoma (9 cases: 20%), followed by metastases (8 cases: 17%), mucinous cyst adenocarcinoma (7 cases: 15%), mucinous cyst adenocarcinoma (5 cases: 11%), teratoma (5 cases: 11%), lymphoma (3 cases: 7%) and dysgerminoma (2 cases: 4%). 2. The ovarian tumors were variable in size from 2.5 cm to 33 cm in diameter. Most of the solid tumors were smaller than 10 cm in diameter and most of the cystic tumors were larger than 10 cm in diameter. Usually mucinous tumors were much larger than serous tumors. Mucinous cyst adenomas were the largest tumors. 3. Unilateral tumors (left 19, right 13 cases) were more common than bilateral tumors (12 cases). Bilateral tumors were seen in serous and mucinous cyst adenocarcinoma, metastases and lymphoma. 4. CT features of mucinous cyst adenomas were smooth margins and thin wall of the tumor masses and multifaceted cysts with internal septa in all 7 cases. 5. In contrast, CT demonstration of bilaterally, irregular margin, thick wall, enhancing solid lesion, septal irregularity, adhesion to adjacent structures, peritoneal/omental implantation, ascites and hydronephrosis were signs suggesting malignancy. CT features of the serous cyst adenocarcinoma were mostly solid to mixed nature (83%), irregular margin (75%), enhancing solid lesion (67%), papillary growth (75%), internal septa (58%), multilocularity (58%) and calcification (25%) in descending order of frequency. 6. On CT, mucinous cystadenocarcinoma were irregular-marginated, thick-walled, cystic tumors with enhancing solid lesion, septal irregularity and signs of metastasis, although there were some cases having similar features of benign. 7. Among the extrapelvic CT findings of malignant epithelial ovarian tumor, peritoneal/omental implants (11 cases: 79%) and ascites (10 cases: 71%) were the most common, and indistinct uterus (6 cases: 43%), bowel adhesion (5 cases: 36%) and pseucomyxoma peritonei (2 cases) were descending order of frequency. 8. CT features of teratoma were diagnostic having at least three more of different tissue densities among fat, water, soft tissue and calcific densities. Also there were thick wall (4 cases) and fat-fluid level (1 case). 9. In 8 cases of ovarian metastases, there were solid type tumor smaller than 10cm in 4 cases and huge cystic in 2 cases. The site of primary cancer were stomach in 4 cases, colon, cervix, endometrium and unknown in each one case. 10. In 3 cases of malignant lymphoma, the CT features were solid in appearance, smaller than 10cm and accompanied by lymphadenopathy in all cases.

  2. Computed tomographic localization of Rt. Juxtadiaphragmatic lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Doo; Choe, Kyu Ok; Kim, Ki Whang; Hong, In Soo

    1989-01-01

    Since several reports were published about CT differentiation of peridiaphragmatic fluid collection using 4 useful signs-diaphragm, displaced crus, bare area and interface signs. Transverse CT scans of 20 patients with abnormal diaphragmatic position due to large intrathoracic or intraabdominal lesion were analysed on the basis of those signs. Difficulties were encounted with differentiation when laterally located lesions did not extend to as far medially as crus, and when diaphragmatic stripe could not be distinguished from thickened pleura or adjacent wall of lesions. As a result, limited cases can be adequately assessed by diaphragm or displaced crus sign. Furthermore, bare area and interface signs seemed to be not useful at all. However relationship between caudal tip of lesions and thoracoabdominal wall was always constant in each thoracic or abdominal lesions. All of intrathoracic masses or empyemas were attached to thoracic wall displacing properitoneal and perirenal fat medially or inferiorly. By contraries, all of intraabdominal masses were separated from abdominal wall displacing properitoneal fat or peritoneum laterally. The key to accurate localization seemed to be identification of such relationship

  3. Computed tomographic appearance of resectable pancreatic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itai, Y.; Araki, T.; Tasaka, A.; Maruyama, M.

    1982-01-01

    Thirteen patients with resectable pancreatic carcinoma were examined by computed tomography (CT). Nine had a mass, 2 had dilatation of the main pancreatic duct, 1 appeared to have ductal dilatation, and 1 had no sign of abnormality. Resectable carcinoma was diagnosed retrospectively in 8 cases, based on the following criteria: a mass with a distinct contour, frequently containing a tiny or irregular low-density area and accompanied by dilatation of the caudal portion of the main pancreatic duct without involvement of the large vessels, liver, or lymph nodes. Including unresectable cancer, chronic pancreatitis, and obstructive jaundice from causes other than cancer, the false-positive rate was less than 6%. However, a small cancer without change in pancreatic contour is difficult to detect with CT

  4. [Multispiral computed tomographic semiotics of laryngeal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'ev, P V; Iudin, A L; Sdvizhkov, A M; Kozhanov, L G

    2007-01-01

    Multispiral computed tomography (MSCT) with intravenous bolus contrasting is a currently available method for radiodiagnosis of laryngeal cancer. MSCT is of much higher informative value in estimating the extent of a tumorous lesion than the traditional radiodiagnostic techniques: linear tomography, lateral X-ray study, roentgenoscopy and roentgenography of the laryngopharynx and esophagus with barium meal.

  5. Computed Tomographic Measurement of Splenic Size in

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Nak Kwan; Woo, Seong Ku; Ko, Young Tae; Kim, Soon Young

    2010-01-01

    Authors analyzed 72 cases of abdominal computed tomography of Korean adults who didn't have any medical reasons to believe the spleen was abnormal. The following criteria were measured with multiple transverse scanning of the entire length of spleen (height, breadth, thickness) relationship with fixed midline structure, the spine (the shortest distance from midline to medial edge of spleen, the longest distance from anterior margin of vertebral body to anterior tip of spleen). The results were as follows: 1. The average size in adult was 8.0±1.5cm in height, 8.6±1.2cm in breadth and 3.4±0.6cm in thickness; in adult female, 7.8±1.1cm, 8.4±1.0cm and 3.4±0.6cm, respectively; total average, 7.9±1.3cm, 8.5±1.1cm and 3.4±0.6cm, respectively. No remarkable difference was noted between both sexes and age groups. 2. The shortest distance from midline to medial edge of spleen was 4.1±1.1cm in male, 3.6±1.0cm in female and total average of 3.9±1.1cm. There was remarkable difference between both sexes (P<0.005) but not between age groups. 3. The longest distance from anterior margin of vertebral body to anterior adge of spleen was 2.3±1.7cm in male, 2.0±1.4cm in female and total average of 2.2±1.6cm. No remarkable difference was seen between both sexes and age groups.

  6. ASSESSMENT OF COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC UROGRAPHY IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FOBUR

    optimize both detection and characterization, renal masses are best examined during the nephrographic phase (when both the renal cortex and the medulla are ..... ureter and bladder region Nepal Med. Coll. J. 2013;15: 5-7. 18. Stamatelou KK, Francis ME, Jones CA et al. Time trends in reported prevalence of kidney.

  7. Computed tomographic analysis of urinary calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Akira; Ito, Katsuhide; Ito, Shouko

    1986-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) was employed in an effort to analyze the chemical composition of urinary calculi. Twenty-three surgically removed calculi were scanned in a water bath (in vitro study). Forteen of them in the body were scanned (in vivo study). The calculi consisted of four types: mixed calcium oxalate and phosphate, mixed calcium carbonate and phosphate, magnesium ammonium phosphate, and uric acid. The in vitro study showed that the mean and maximum CT values of uric acid stones were significantly lower than those of the other three types of stones. This indicated that stones with less than 450 HU are composed of uric acid. In an in vivo study, CT did not help to differentiate the three types of urinary calculi, except for uric acid stones. Regarding the mean CT values, there was no correlation between in vitro and in vivo studies. An experiment with commercially available drugs showed that CT values of urinary calculi were not dependent upon the composition, but dependent upon the density of the calculi. (Namekawa, K.)

  8. Computed tomographic findings of intrahepatic peripheral cholangiocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Seong Ku; Suh, Soo Jhi; Kim, Ho Joon; Chun, Byung Hee

    1986-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma is synonymous with bile duct carcinoma, and can originate in a small intrahepatic bile duct (peripheral type), a major intrahepatic duct including the hepatic hills, an extrahepatic duct, or near the papilla of Vater (central type). In a sense bile duct carcinoma of the peripheral type is cholangiocarcinoma of the liver; it has the same gross configuration as hepatocellular carcinoma, resulting in difficulty to differentiate on the CT. The authors studied CT findings of 14 cases of pathologically proven peripheral type cholangiocarcinoma of the liver during the last 4 years. The results were as follows: 1. Of 14 cases, 8 were female and 6 were male, and the age ranged from 5th to 7th decades. 2. Preoperative clinical diagnosis were as follows: hepatoma 8 cases, abscess 5 cases and metastasis 1 case in order of frequency. 3. Diagnosis were confirmed by hepatic lobectomy in 7 cases, wedge resection in 5 cases and needle biopsy in 2 case. 4. Laboratory findings were not specific, but there were only 2 cases with elevated alpha-fetoprotein level. 5. Associated diseases were gallstones in 1 case, intrahepatic duct stones in 1 case, extrahepatic duct stones in 2 cases, acute or chronic cholecystitis in 5 cases and CS in 3 cases. 6. Angiographic and scintigraphic findings were helpful in differential diagnosis from hepatoma but ultrasonography was non-specific. 7. The number of tumor were solitary in 12 cases and multiple in 2 cases. Among solitary cases, the site of involvement of the liver were right lobe in 8 cases and left lobe in 4 cases. 8. Common CT features of the intrahepatic peripheral cholangiocinoma of the liver were irregular, inhomogeneous, occasionally peripherally enhancing, low density liver mass, frequently accompanied by diffuse or segmental dilatation of the intrahepatic bile duct. If there were normal alpha fetoprotein level, positive skin and/or stool examination for CS and diffuse or segmental dilatation of the intrahepatic duct in low density liver tumor on the CT, one should consider peripheral cholangiocarcinoma of the liver than hepatoma.

  9. Soil structure characterized using computed tomographic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhanqi Cheng; Stephen H. Anderson; Clark J. Gantzer; J. W. Van Sambeek

    2003-01-01

    Fractal analysis of soil structure is a relatively new method for quantifying the effects of management systems on soil properties and quality. The objective of this work was to explore several methods of studying images to describe and quantify structure of soils under forest management. This research uses computed tomography and a topological method called Multiple...

  10. Computed tomographic diagnosis of parotid gland tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunaga, Hitoki; Nishimura, Tadao; Takasu, Akihiko; Yagizawa, Mikio; Suzuki, Akio

    1983-01-01

    Investigation with CT has been performed on 20 cases of parotid gland tumors. The intravenous contrast enhancement method was performed in all cases. Six cases were examined by CT and simultaneous sialography. The results were as follows: 1) If and when the margin of the tumor was indistinct and irregular, malignancy was suspected. However, it was difficult to diagnose malignancy by CT examination only. 2) CT for parotid gland tumor was effective in indentifying invasion of tumor into the parapharyngeal space and intracranial space. 3) CT with simultaneous sialography was very effective in locating the parotid gland tumor. 4) CT of axial sections for parotid gland tumor was more reliable if coronaly sections are taken together. 5) CT of malignant and benign tumors were diffusely enhanced by the intravenous contrast enhancement method. However, this was not an indispensable method. (author)

  11. Computed tomographic study of aged schizophrenic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seno, Haruo; Fujimoto, Akihiko; Ishino, Hiroshi; Shibata, Masahiro; Kuroda, Hiroyuki; Kanno, Hiroshi.

    1997-01-01

    The width of interhemispheric fissure, lateral ventricles and third ventricle were measured using cranial computed tomography (CT; linear method) in 45 elderly inpatients with chronic schizophrenia and in 28 age-matched control subjects. Twenty-three patients were men and 22 were women. In addition, Mini-Mental State Examination, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and a subclass of BPRS were undertaken in all patients. There is a significant enlargement of the maximum width of the interhemispheric fissure (in both male and female) and a significant enlargement of ventricular system (more severe in men than in women) in aged schizophrenics, as seen with CT, compared with normal controls. These findings are consistent with previous studies of non-aged schizophrenic patients. Based upon the relation between psychiatric symptoms and CT findings, the most striking is a significant negative correlation between the third ventricle enlargement and the positive and depressive symptoms in all patients. This result suggests that the advanced third ventricle enlargement may decrease these symptoms in aged schizophrenics. (author)

  12. Computed tomographic findings in progressive supranuclear palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saitoh, H; Yoshii, F; Shinohara, Y

    1987-03-01

    CT findings of 6 patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) are described, with emphasis on their supratentorial changes in comparison with those of control subjects and patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). As estimated from CT films, the lateral ventricles, third ventricle and prepontine cistern were significantly enlarged in PSP patients compared with both controls and PD patients. It is suggested that the patients with PSP have not only infratentorial but also supratentorial lesions.

  13. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF CANINE PHARYNGEAL NEOPLASIA

    OpenAIRE

    Carozzi, Gregorio

    2016-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is commonly used to investigate head tumours in dogs, and is a fundamental part of the diagnostic work-up, for diagnosis, staging and planning therapy in neoplastic disease. Nasal diseases, either neoplastic or non-neoplastic diseases, oral neoplasia, brain disease, thyroid or carotid body neoplasia have been extensively studied. However little information are available for lesions of the pharyngeal area. In this thesis, cases of dogs affected by pharyngeal neoplas...

  14. Computed tomographic pelvimetry in English bulldogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobak, Tetyda P; Voorhout, George; Vernooij, Johannes C M; Boroffka, Susanne A E B

    2018-05-31

    English bulldogs have been reported to have a high incidence of dystocia and caesarean section is often performed electively in this breed. A narrow pelvic canal is the major maternal factor contributing to obstructive dystocia. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess the pelvic dimensions of 40 clinically healthy English bulldogs using computed tomography pelvimetry. A control group consisting of 30 non-brachycephalic dogs that underwent pelvic computed tomography was retrospectively collected from the patient archive system. Univariate analysis of variance was used to compare computed tomography pelvimetry of both groups and the effects of weight and gender on the measurements. In addition, ratios were obtained to address pelvic shape differences. A significantly (P = 0.00) smaller pelvic size was found in English bulldogs compared to the control group for all computed tomography measurements: width and length of the pelvis, pelvic inlet and caudal pelvic aperture. The pelvic conformation was significantly different between the groups, English bulldogs had an overall shorter pelvis and pelvic canal and a narrower pelvic outlet. Weight had a significant effect on all measurements whereas gender that only had a significant effect on some (4/11) pelvic dimensions. Our findings prove that English bulldogs have a generally reduced pelvic size as well as a shorter pelvis and narrower pelvic outlet when compared to non-brachycephalic breeds. We suggest that some of our measurements may serve as a baseline for pelvic dimensions in English bulldogs and may be useful for future studies on dystocia in this breed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A computed tomographic study on epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Hoon Sik [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-06-15

    140 patients with epileptic seizure were studied by computed tomography during the period from Feb. 1979 to Aug. 1979 in the Department or Radiology, College of Medicine, Hangyang University. Those findings on CT and clinical records including EEG findings were reviewed. The results were as follows: 1. Age distribution of the total 140 patients was broad ranging from 1 month to 63 years. 73.5% of patients was below the age of 30. The patient population was comprised of 93 males and 47 females, and its male to female ratio was 2 : 1. 2. The type of epileptic seizure were classified according to the International League against Epilepsy. 42.9% of patients had primary generalized seizure, 47.1% with partial seizure, and 10% with non classifiable seizure. 3. As additional symptoms and signs except seizure, headache was most common, and the next was nausea and vomiting. Uncommonly, there were also insomnia, personality change, and memory disturbance. 4. 37.1% of patients had less than 1 month of seizure history, 19.3% between 1 year and 5 years. 5. EEG findings were available in 41 patients, and normal in 15 cases. 26 patients revealed abnormal findings. Among those abnormal findings focal slowing was appeared in 19.5% and generalized slowing in 17.1%. 6. 52% of patients showed abnormal findings on CT. The most common abnormal findings was focal low density (30%), and the next was diffuse hydrocephalus (7.1%). After contrast infusion, contrast enhancement was occurred in cases with focal low density, focal high or isodense mass density. In patients with focal low density, ring or nodular enhancement were common, and diffuse or serpentime enhancement in focal high or isodence mass density. 7. The frequency of structural abnormalities on CT was more common in patients below the age of 10 and over 30 than other age groups. The epilepsy starting below 10 and over 30 years of age showed structural abnormalities in 63.6-100%. 8. The patients who had less than 6 months of history revealed more abnormal findings than the patients with over 6 months of history. And most of the abnormal findings in the latter were atrophic lesion. 50% of patients with primary generalized seizure and 54.5% of patients with partial seizure revealed abnormal findings on CT. 9. EEG was done in 41 cases. 23 out of 41 patients revealed normal CT and 18 patients revealed abnormal CT. In patients with normal EEG, 9 patients revealed abnormal findings on CT. 8 out of those 9 patients showed focal low density. So there was no significant correlation between EEG and CT. 10. Most of the lesions on CT were located in the supratentorial region, particularly in the frontal and parietal lobe. There were patients who had lesions in the posterior fossa, one in the brain stem and the other in the vermis. 11. The diagnosis based on the CT finidnigs included brain tumor (9.3%), cerebral infarct (7.9%), granuloma (5.7%), cortical atrophy (5%), and calcification (5%) respectively.

  16. Computed tomographic diagnosis of pulmonary nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoue, Masataka

    1986-01-01

    One hundred and fifty-two pulmonary nodules (PNs) were examined by thin-section computed tomography (CT) and conventional tomography (tomography). In this study, 109 PNs were analyzed to assess tissue density by calculating the representative CT number (RCT no.) from a computer printout. For the primary malignancies, the mean RCT no. was 72 HU, with a standard deviation (SD) of 21 HU, and for metastases, it was 66 ± 19 HU. The RCT no. separating primary malignancy from benign lesions was 157 HU, the one including metastasis was 183 HU. In addition, dual-energy CT scan was performed to evaluate capability of diagnosing calcification in 35 PNs. Dual-energy CT scan had increased the reliability of CT diagnosis for PNs with RCT no. between 100 HU and 300 HU. The descriptive criteria of CT and tomography for 127 PNs were analyzed and statistical diagnoses by CT and tomography were compared with the results of their final diagnoses. CT and tomography had domonstrated similar sensitivities in the evaluation of primary malignancies; 86 % in CT and 90 % in tomography, and the same sensitivities (86 %) in diagnosing metastases. In evaluating benign PNs, CT was superior to tomography with capability to detect minimal calcification and fat density; the specificity was 80 % with CT, and 52 % with tomography (p < 0.025). Overall accuracy in the diagnosis for PNs was 82 % with CT, and 73 % with tomography, which was not different statistically. It can be concluded that CT is a reliable examination in the evaluation of PNs, and there is an advantage to the use of CT over tomography in diagnosing benign lesions. (author)

  17. Typical computer tomographic findings in neurofibromatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allgayer, B.; Reiser, M.; Kramann, B.

    1984-01-01

    Three pateints with neurofibromatosis (Recklinghausen's disease) were examined by computer tomography. In this way, the exact extent and localisation of the neurofibromatous tumours could be demonstrated. In one patient, CT provided evidence of malignant change; this was verified histologically. The appearances of neurofibromatosis associated with elephantiasis is described. In each patient, treatment was significantly influenced by computer tomography. (orig.) [de

  18. Typical computer tomographic findings in neurofibromatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgayer, B.; Reiser, M.; Kramann, B.

    1984-06-01

    Three pateints with neurofibromatosis (Recklinghausen's disease) were examined by computer tomography. In this way, the exact extent and localisation of the neurofibromatous tumours could be demonstrated. In one patient, CT provided evidence of malignant change; this was verified histologically. The appearances of neurofibromatosis associated with elephantiasis is described. In each patient, treatment was significantly influenced by computer tomography.

  19. Lymphadenopathy in celiac disease: computed tomographic observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.; Bayless, T.M.; Fishman, E.K.; Siegelman, S.S.

    1984-01-01

    Lymphadenopathy in patients with celiac disease is generally viewed with alarm due to the association between celiac disease and intestinal lymphoma. Four patients with celiac disease are described in whom significant mesenteric and paraaortic adenopathy was demonstrated by computed tomogrophy (CT). The subsequent clinical course of these patients revealed no evidence of lymphoma. In two patients with longstanding celiac disease and recent relapse, exploratory laparotomy revealed reactive hyperplasia in the enlarged glands; in one patient this was associated with intestinal ulceration, and in the other no underlying pathology was found. Follow-up CT scans in both these patients demonstrated regression of the findings with clinical improvement. In the other two patients, CT was performed as part of the initial evaluation

  20. Computer tomographic anatomy of the neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, R.

    1984-01-01

    The structures in the neck which can be recognised by computer tomography, and their course, is described. The cartilagenous larynx and trachea, the oesophagus, thyroid, sternocleidomastoid muscle, common carotid arteries and internal jugular veins can be recognised regularly. In addition, one can identify smaller muscles, vessels and nerves, such as the sterno-hyoid, omo-hyoid, anterior and medial scalenus muscles, the superior and inferior thyroid arteries and the suprascapular, internal thoracic and vertebral arteries, the thyro-cervical trunk and the vagus and phrenic nerves. An accurate knowledge of the anatomy is essential for the recognition of enlarged parathyroid glands. (orig.) [de

  1. Computed tomographical evaluation of diabetic nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubara, Yoshifumi; Hara, Shigeko; Arizono, Kenji; Katori, Hideyuki; Yamada, Akira; Mimura, Nobuhide; Hagura, Ryoko.

    1996-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy can be regarded mainly as a type of microangiopathy, but is a disease that may also include aspects of macroangiopathy. This is especially true of renal disease in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), which is characterized not only by diabetic glomerulosclerosis, but also by atherosclerosis. We performed morphological studies on the kidney, using computed tomography (CT), focusing on such points as: abdominal aortic calcifications at the level of kidney, calcifications in the renal artery, and wedge-shaped defects on the renal surface. We noted that these findings became more prominent in NIDDM patients during end-stage renal failure than during normal renal function, and were significantly more common in those two NIDDM groups than in age-matched nondiabetic patients without hypertension, hyperlipidemia or gout. NIDDM patients exhibited these features more frequently than IDDM patients. (author)

  2. Lymphadenopathy in celiac disease: computed tomographic observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, B.; Bayless, T.M.; Fishman, E.K.; Siegelman, S.S.

    1984-06-01

    Lymphadenopathy in patients with celiac disease is generally viewed with alarm due to the association between celiac disease and intestinal lymphoma. Four patients with celiac disease are described in whom significant mesenteric and paraaortic adenopathy was demonstrated by computed tomogrophy (CT). The subsequent clinical course of these patients revealed no evidence of lymphoma. In two patients with longstanding celiac disease and recent relapse, exploratory laparotomy revealed reactive hyperplasia in the enlarged glands; in one patient this was associated with intestinal ulceration, and in the other no underlying pathology was found. Follow-up CT scans in both these patients demonstrated regression of the findings with clinical improvement. In the other two patients, CT was performed as part of the initial evaluation.

  3. Computed tomographic findings of intramural hematoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chan Hoon; Kim, Hong; Woo, Seong Ku; Suh, Soo Jhi [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-10-15

    The CT findings of eleven patients with intramural hematoma of the gastrointestinal tract are presented. The most frequent site of intramural hematoma was duodenum(7/11). followed jejunum(2/11), ascending colon(2/11), stomach(1/11), and rectum(1/11). Blunt abdominal trauma was the prime etiologic factor(7/11). others included pancreatitis, iatrogenic and unknown. Intramural hematoma showed three patterns of CT characteristics: intramural mass(8/11), thickened bowel wall(1/11), and both(2/11). There were variable attenuation value of 10 cases of intramural mass; homogenous hyperdensity or hypodensity in each 3 cases, inhomogeneous or mixed density in 4 cases. Also there were peripheral lucent halo(1/10), pseudocapsule or dense rim(5/10), crescentic hyperdensity(2/10) and central hyperdense area(4/10). Associated CT features were hemoperitoneum(4), mesenteric infiltration, fatty liver, pancreatic confusion, and chronic pancreatitis. CT is the most accurate method in establishing the diagnosis or intramural hematoma, evaluating the extent of bleeding and its effect on adjacent organs, demonstrating regression after treatment, and detecting associating injury.

  4. Computer tomographic examination of the thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, C.; Dinkel, E.; Wimmer, B.; Grosser, G.; Schildge, J.

    1987-01-01

    The diagnostic value of CT in follicular thymic hyperplasia and in thymomas in 8 patients with myasthenia gravis and in 12 patients without myasthenia gravis suffering from thymic tumors was evaluated by correlating CT-findings to surgical results and pathological-histological findings. Thymic size of the six patients with histologically proven follicular hyperplasia were scattered within the normal range, but half of them were at the upper limit. Thymic tumors were differentiated between invasive and non invasive tumors by CT staging. Solid tumors with different histology could not be further classified; the attenuation values ranging from 15-55 HU were the same in tumors, follicular hyperplasia and normal thymus. (orig.) [de

  5. Putaminal hemorrhage: Clinical-computed tomographic correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisberg, L.A.; Stazio, A.; Elliott, D.; Shamsnia, M.; Veterans Administration Hospital, New Orleans, LA

    1990-01-01

    Ninety-two percent of 100 patients with putaminal hemorrhage were hypertensive. Of the eight normotensive patients, seven were substance abusers or had bilateral putaminal hemorrhages. The one other normotensive patient was less than 40 years old. The 100 hemorrhages had the following locations: 1. Medial putaminal (17 cases; six were normotensive and less than 40 years old and five were substance abusers); 2. lateral putaminal extending through the external capsule (eleven cases); 3. putaminal-capsular and subcortical white matter (32 cases); 4. putaminal cerebral hemispheric (19 cases); 5. putaminal-thalamic (19 cases); 6. bilateral (two cases). A disproportionate number of black patients suffered hematoma extension to the cerebral hemispheres or thalamus (46%) compared to Caucasians (23%). Overall mortality was 20% (17 blacks and three Caucasians) and occurred in patients with hematoma extension to the thalamus or cerebral hemispheres. Contrast-enhanced CT was performed in all 100 patients and provided no additional diagnostic yield. This indicates limited use for enhanced CT in hypertensive patients with putaminal hemorrhage who have a characteristic appearance of the acute hemorrhage on the nonenhanced CT. (orig.)

  6. Computed tomographic diagnosis of pulmonary artery aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeno, Kouji; Kontani, Kazuhiro; Ito, Makoto; Sakurai, Noboru; Sawada, Taisei; Fukeda, Yasuhiko; Takata, Shigeo; Ikeda, Takayuki; Hattori, Nobu.

    1986-01-01

    Pulmonary artery aneurysms are rare lesions. Clagett et al reported that one aneurysm of the pulmonary artery may be found in approximately 14,000 necropsies. We have experienced a case of giant pulmonary artery aneurysm confirmed by computed tomography. A 38 year-old man with atrial septal defect admitted to Kanazawa City Hospital. He had been pointed out of a right hilar mass when he was 26 years old. His complaint was bloody sputum and cough. Pulmonary angiography was not useful for the definite diagnosis because of its mural thrombi. Enhanced computed tomography showed a giant pulmonary artery aneurysm with a mural thrombi in its cavity. This shows that enhanced computed tomography is very useful for the diagnosis of a pulmonary artery aneurysm with a mural thrombi in its cavity. (author)

  7. Computer tomographic investigations of cervical spinal stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodiek, S.O.

    1983-10-01

    Computed tomography was applied in 29 patients with cervical spinal stenosis. In 8 cases there was a congenital narrowed spinal canal. In 18 cases we found dorsal spondylotic ridges of the vertebral bodies and in three cases an atlanto-dental dislocation. The complaints showed either radicular character or in case of myelopathy came out as para- and quadriplegia. In 25 cases the spinal sagittal diamter was a lot below a critical borderline of about 13 mm. The kind and localisation of the underlying process can be demonstrated very excellent by computed tomography.

  8. Computer tomographic investigations of cervical spinal stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodiek, S.O.

    1983-01-01

    Computed tomography was applied in 29 patients with cervical spinal stenosis. In 8 cases there was a congenital narrowed spinal canal. In 18 cases we found dorsal spondylotic ridges of the vertebral bodies and in three cases an atlanto-dental dislocation. The complaints showed either radicular character or in case of myelopathy came out as para- and quadriplegia. In 25 cases the spinal sagittal diamter was a lot below a critical borderline of about 13 mm. The kind and localisation of the underlying process can be demonstrated very excellent by computed tomography. (orig.) [de

  9. Computed tomographic study on Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Koba, Hiroyuki; Mori, Takuji; Mori, Masaki; Tsunematsu, Kazunori; Natori, Hiroshi; Asakawa, Mitsuo; Suzuki, Akira; Doi, Mikio.

    1985-01-01

    Serologically proven 21 patients with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia that showed infiltrative shadows on chest radiograms were studied by computed tomography (CT). Localization of the lesion and the fashion of its progression through the lung were analyzed. Following 3 loci were defined on the basis of the investigations of critical analysis of the chest radiograms, and of radiopathological analysis of the experimental animal model of mycoplasmal pneumonia with soft X-ray image. I: Peribronchial and periarterial interstitium. II: Bronchiole and its surroundings. III: Lung parenchyma, on hilar area as IIIh, on marginal area as IIIm. Even in the early phase of this disease, radiopathological findings on CT have been distributed in all loci mentioned above. The Shadow disappeared from locus III approximately 14th day from the onset. The shadow have remained, however, loci I, II for a long period. Those findings suggest that locus I and II are one of the major focus of Mycoplasma neumoniae pneumonia. Volume loss in the locus III was observed 78 % of the cases at 28th day from the onset. The shadow on locus IIIh was more prominent than locus IIIm. Reported analytical method with CT could be widely applied to disclose a radiopathological details in other infectious diseases of the lung. (author)

  10. Computed tomographic feature of tuberculous arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hak Hee; Lee, Hae Giu; Cha, Eun Suk; Kang, Kyung Jin; Jeon, Jeong Su; Park, Young Ha; Yim, Jung Ik; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1992-01-01

    The sparsity of publication concerning CT findings of tuberculous arthritis prompted authors to retrospectively evaluate 12 patients with tuberculous arthritis for characteristic CT findings. In each patients, the diagnosis of tuberculous arthritis was confirmed by surgery or biopsy. The CT examinations were evaluated by two radiologists retrospectively. Involved joints were the hip joint in seven patients, the sacroiliac joint in three patients, and the shoulder and ankle joint in one patient each. CT features included subchondral bony erosion(12 patients), soft tissue mass in the joint space(nine), widening of the joint space(eight), ipsilateral music atrophy(eight), thickening of the joint capsule(seven), intra-articular effusion(six), soft tissue abscess(five), and bony sclerosis(four). In seven patients with the duration of symptoms less than 1 year, thickening of joint capsule and intra-articular effusion were the predominant findings, while bony sclerosis, gross bone destruction, and soft tissue mass in joint space were seen in five patients with the duration of symptoms longer than 1 year. Our results indicate that CT is useful in the diagnosis of tuberculous arthritis by demonstrating characteristic pathologic changes of the joint space, soft tissue abnormality and bony involvement

  11. Computed tomographic findings of intramural hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chan Hoon; Kim, Hong; Woo, Seong Ku; Suh, Soo Jhi

    1990-01-01

    The CT findings of eleven patients with intramural hematoma of the gastrointestinal tract are presented. The most frequent site of intramural hematoma was duodenum(7/11). followed jejunum(2/11), ascending colon(2/11), stomach(1/11), and rectum(1/11). Blunt abdominal trauma was the prime etiologic factor(7/11). others included pancreatitis, iatrogenic and unknown. Intramural hematoma showed three patterns of CT characteristics: intramural mass(8/11), thickened bowel wall(1/11), and both(2/11). There were variable attenuation value of 10 cases of intramural mass; homogenous hyperdensity or hypodensity in each 3 cases, inhomogeneous or mixed density in 4 cases. Also there were peripheral lucent halo(1/10), pseudocapsule or dense rim(5/10), crescentic hyperdensity(2/10) and central hyperdense area(4/10). Associated CT features were hemoperitoneum(4), mesenteric infiltration, fatty liver, pancreatic confusion, and chronic pancreatitis. CT is the most accurate method in establishing the diagnosis or intramural hematoma, evaluating the extent of bleeding and its effect on adjacent organs, demonstrating regression after treatment, and detecting associating injury

  12. Computed tomographic findings in carcinoma of cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung Hee; Lee, Jae Moon; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1985-01-01

    Accurate staging as well as diagnosis of cervix carcinoma is of paramount importance in planning treatment. Cervical smear cytologic studies have increased the detection rate of cervix carcinoma, but current radiologic techniques are limited in staging cervix carcinoma and precise visualization of lymphnodal metastasis. The CT scan can display the precise transaxial anatomical structures, permitting us not only to know the tumor size, shape and its extent but also lymphnodal enlargement in the pelvic cavity and around the abdominal aorta and secondary changes of the kidney. The authors have tested the usefulness of CT in staging cervix carcinoma and detecting lymphatic involvement by analysis of 24 cases diagnosed by CT and confirmed histologically at St. Mary's hospital during the period from October 1982 to May 1984. The conclusions are as follows: 1. The accuracy of CT in staging of cervix carcinoma was 79%. 2. The accuracy of CT diagnosis of lymphatic involvement was 87.5%, sensitivity was 85.7%, and specificity was 88.2%

  13. Computed tomographic diagnosis of pulmonary artery aneurysm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeno, Kouji; Kontani, Kazuhiro; Ito, Makoto; Sakurai, Noboru; Sawada, Taisei; Fukeda, Yasuhiko; Takata, Shigeo; Ikeda, Takayuki; Hattori, Nobu

    1986-05-01

    Pulmonary artery aneurysms are rare lesions. Clagett et al reported that one aneurysm of the pulmonary artery may be found in approximately 14,000 necropsies. We have experienced a case of giant pulmonary artery aneurysm confirmed by computed tomography. A 38 year-old man with atrial septal defect admitted to Kanazawa City Hospital. He had been pointed out of a right hilar mass when he was 26 years old. His complaint was bloody sputum and cough. Pulmonary angiography was not useful for the definite diagnosis because of its mural thrombi. Enhanced computed tomography showed a giant pulmonary artery aneurysm with a mural thrombi in its cavity. This shows that enhanced computed tomography is very useful for the diagnosis of a pulmonary artery aneurysm with a mural thrombi in its cavity.

  14. Computed tomographic features of orbital lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, C.M. de; Hoch, H.; Azevedo, M. de L.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this m anuscript is to present the use of CT in the evaluation of 42 cases of orbital lesions studied at the National Institute of Cancer in an one year and half period. Correlation with clinical and pathological data was performed and the results compared with those of the literature. Four cases of rare lesions are shown: alveolar soft tissue sarcoma, giant cell tumor and hematogenic metastatic deposits of a clear cell sarcoma and epidermoid carcinoma. The value of CT in the evaluation of all orbital masses is emphasized. (author) [pt

  15. Computer tomographic anatomy of the neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, R.

    1984-01-01

    The structures in the neck which can be recognised by computer tomography, and their course, is described. The cartilagenous larynx and trachea, the oesophagus, thyroid, sternocleidomastoid muscle, common carotid arteries and internal jugular veins can be recognised regularly. In addition, one can identify smaller muscles, vessels and nerves, such as the sterno-hyoid, omo-hyoid, anterior and medial scalenus muscles, the superior and inferior thyroid arteries and the suprascapular, internal thoracic and vertebral arteries, the thyro-cervical trunk and the vagus and phrenic nerves. An accurate knowledge of the anatomy is essential for the recognition of enlarged parathyroid glands.

  16. Solitary pancreas retransplant: Study of 22 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tércio Genzini

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present our experience with pancreas retransplantin patients previously submitted to simultaneous pancreas-kidneytransplant, pancreas after kidney transplant and pancreastransplant alone. Methods: Between January/1996 and December/2005, 330 pancreas transplants were performed: 308 primarytransplants and 22 (6% retransplants of solitary pancreas. Thefollowing variables were analyzed: patient age; time elapsedbetween the first and the second transplant; causes of loss of thefirst graft; technical characteristics of the transplant andretransplant and the criteria for selecting donors for retransplant.These clinical data were submitted to statistical analysis. Results:The mean age of patients was 34.3 years and the mean elapsedtime between the first and second transplant was 19.3 months.The causes of the first graft loss were venous (8; 35% and arterial(5; 23% thrombosis, chronic rejection (4; 18%, ischemia/reperfusion injury (2, reflux pancreatitis (1, primary non-function(1 and sepsis (1. A second transplant was performed in thesame iliac fossa in 16 patients (72%. Venous drainage wasperformed in the iliac vein in 16 patients (72%, in the inferior venacava in 5 patients (22% and in the portal vein in one patient. 6 allbladder drainage was the technique used in 18 (82% cases andenteric drainage, in 4 patients (18%. Immunosuppressive regimenapplied to all cases was quadruple therapy with antilymphocyteinduction, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and steroids. Therewas one early death due to sepsis. One-year patient and pancreasgraft survival rates for retransplants were, respectively, 95% and85%. There was no additional risk for removing the pancreas graftat retransplant. Conclusion: Pancreas retransplant was technicallyfeasible in all cases and results similar to those described in theliterature were found for primary pancreas transplant.

  17. Diagnosis and surgical therapy of pancreas tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heid, A.

    1981-01-01

    The efficiency of surgery and presurgical diagnosis on several tumorous diseases of the pancreas is investigated. If there is the clinical suspicion of a pancreas carcinoma, sonography computerized tomography, and endoscopic-retrograde cholangio-pancreaticography (ERCP) bring the best diagnostic results. In case of pancreatogenic hyperinsulinism a selective angiography should be carried out in any case for an exact presurgical localisation. (orig./MG) [de

  18. Gatekeepers of pancreas: TEAD and YAP

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Seguí, Santiago Andrés; Bessa, José

    2017-01-01

    The pancreas hosts some of the most debilitating and deadly diseases, including pancreatic cancer and diabetes mellitus. In autoimmune diabetes, for example, there is a massive destruction of the insulin producing cells of the pancreas. Pancreatic developmental defects can also result in a deficit of this cell type. To revert these important pancreatic diseases, researchers are currently trying to artificially generate insulin producing beta-cells for implantation and, in this way, suppress i...

  19. CT features of gastric heterotopic pancreas