WorldWideScience

Sample records for panama

  1. Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    Panama's territory is 77,381 square km or 29,762 square miles with a population of 2.4 million of whom 70% are mestizos or mixed Spanish and Indian. Literacy is 87%, infant mortality is 22/1000, and life expectancy is 72 years. Panama was part of the Spanish empire from 1538 to 1821. In 1903 Panama declared its independence from Colombia, and afterwards signed a treaty with the US to build a canal 10 miles wide. The existing 52-mile lock canal was completed in 1914. From the 1960s pressure mounted to renegotiate the treaty that was eventually accomplished in 1977. In 1989 the Noriega regime called elections and lost, but it did not accept the results, and continued repression until it was ousted by a 1989 US military action. Noriega surrendered and was indicted for drug trafficking. The economy was in disrepair after mismanagement and US sanctions. During 1990-91 the economy started to recover with the return of capital to banks, increase of exports and construction, and the decrease of government deficit and unemployment. The gross domestic product grew 3.45 in 1990 and 9.3% in 1991 with a low level of inflation. Government policies were proposed to stimulate foreign private investment, improve market conditions, and reduce tariffs and price controls. In 1992 the Endara government signed agreements with international financial institutions on credit that entailed tax, social security, and public investment reforms. The unemployment rate decreased from 35% in 1989 to 16% by 1992. The revenues from the canal have to be sustained, therefore the Panama Canal Commission approved a $200-million project to widen it over the next 20 years.

  2. Panama 2000

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Binnendijk, Hans

    1997-01-01

    When the last U.S. military element leaves Panama at noon on December31, 1999, that departure may create a vacuum which could threaten the efficient operation of the canal and the regional security in the strategic...

  3. Panama Papers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrington, Brooke

    2016-01-01

    Mossack Fonseca kept its clients largely on the right side of the law. Indeed, that’s entirely the point. This article for The Atlantic draws on my wealth management research to explain why most of what is revealed in the Panama Papers leak will not result in criminal prosecution for anyone...

  4. Panama: Democracy Under the Shadow of Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, Orlando J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In 2016 Panama was buffeted by corruption scandals and a decelerating economy, which had negative consequences for the political standing of President Juan Carlos Varela. The “Panama Papers” revealed the underlying pathology in Panama's political and economic system. After a decade of rapid economic growth, Panama's economy showed signs of slowing down. However, the completion of the Panama Canal expansion project provided hope for an economic boost as the waterway was able to servic...

  5. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estripeaut, Dora; Aramburú, María Gabriela; Sáez-Llorens, Xavier; Thompson, Herbert A; Dasch, Gregory A; Paddock, Christopher D; Zaki, Sherif; Eremeeva, Marina E

    2007-11-01

    We describe a fatal pediatric case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Panama, the first, to our knowledge, since the 1950s. Diagnosis was established by immunohistochemistry, PCR, and isolation of Rickettsia rickettsii from postmortem tissues. Molecular typing demonstrated strong relatedness of the isolate to strains of R. rickettsii from Central and South America.

  6. Some History and Hydrology of the Panama Canal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pabst, Arthur

    2000-01-01

    At the request of the Panama Canal Commission (now Panama Canal Authority), the Hydrologic Engineering Center participated in the development of a model to simulate the existing operation of the Panama Canal System...

  7. 78 FR 63052 - United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ...-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland... Trade Promotion Agreement entered into by the United States and the Republic of Panama. DATES: Interim... and the Republic of Panama (the ``Parties'') signed the United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement...

  8. Report from the Panama Canal Stakeholder Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This project assists the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) in assessing the potential impacts of the Panama Canal expansion on Texas ports and the landside transportation system. TxDOT formed a Panama Canal Stakeholder Working Group (PCSWG) ...

  9. Formation of the Isthmus of Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, Aaron; Aguilera, Orangel; Aubry, Marie-Pierre; Berggren, William A.; Cione, Alberto L.; Coates, Anthony G.; Collins, Laurel S.; Coppard, Simon E.; Cozzuol, Mario A.; de Queiroz, Alan; Duque-Caro, Herman; Eytan, Ron I.; Farris, David W.; Gasparini, German M.; Grosmman, Ethan L.; Jackson, Jeremy B. C.; Johnson, Kenneth G.; Keigwin, Lloyd D.; Knowlton, Nancy; Leigh, Egbert G.; Leonard-Pingel, Jill S.; Lessios, Hailaos A.; Marko, Peter B.; Norris, Richard D.; Rachello-Dolmen, Paola G.; Restrepo-Moreno, Sergio A.; Soibelzon, Leopoldo; Stallard, Robert F.; Todd, Jonathan A.; Vermeiju, Geerat J.; Woodburne, Michael O.

    2016-01-01

    The formation of the Isthmus of Panama stands as one of the greatest natural events of the Cenozoic, driving profound biotic transformations on land and in the oceans. Some recent studies suggest that the Isthmus formed many millions of years earlier than the widely recognized age of approximately 3 million years ago (Ma), a result that if true would revolutionize our understanding of environmental, ecological, and evolutionary change across the Americas. To bring clarity to the question of when the Isthmus of Panama formed, we provide an exhaustive review and reanalysis of geological, paleontological, and molecular records. These independent lines of evidence converge upon a cohesive narrative of gradually emerging land and constricting seaways, with formation of the Isthmus of Panama sensu stricto around 2.8 Ma. The evidence used to support an older isthmus is inconclusive, and we caution against the uncritical acceptance of an isthmus before the Pliocene.

  10. SAIL Panama Canal Zone Project 2008 : Biological Survey of Panama (1910-1912)

    OpenAIRE

    DeHart, Liz; Haas, Stephanie C.; Walton, Jennifer; Heil, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    During the 18th Annual 2008 SAIL meeting at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Panama, a suggestion was made for the need to digitize and make available through the Aquatic Commons some of the early documents related to the U.S. biological survey of Panama from 1910 to 1912. With SAIL’s endeavor, a new digital project was born and this presentation describes its process, beginning to final product. The main source consulted for determining copyright clear publications was: ...

  11. The Proposed U.S.-Panama Free Trade Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-23

    unique among Latin American countries. CRS-6 7 American Chamber of Commerce in Panama. [http://panamcham.com] and EIU. Panama: Country Profile 2003, p...Transportation Institute to USTR Robert Zoellick, June 10, 2004. Interestingly, the U.S. Chamber of Commerce in Panama, which represents a wide spectrum of U.S...facilities. Transparency in the bidding process for government contracts was listed as one of the most important issues by the U.S. Chamber of Commerce in

  12. Manuel Antonio Noriega. Panama kindral liigub vanglast vanglasse / Arko Olesk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Olesk, Arko, 1981-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 7. sept. lk. 13. Narkootikumide salakaubaveo, väljapressimise ja rahapesu eest USA vanglas viibiva Panama endise sõjaväejuhi Manuel Antonio Noriega vabanemisest, uuest kohtuteest Prantsusmaal, Panamas tagaselja tehtud kohtuotsusest mõrvade, inimõiguste rikkumise ja korruptsiooni eest. Panama sõjalise diktaatori eluteest, võimulepääsemisest ning USA sõjalisest invasioonist 1989. aastal, mis lõpetas kindrali võimu

  13. Area Handbook Series: Panama: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Transport Battalion (Batall6n de Transporte y Mantenimiento ); and the Military Engineering Battalion (Batall6n de Ingeneria Militar). The Military Health... Mantenimiento . Arnulfistay, x5 See Transport Battalion Arosemena, aros C., 22 Battalion 2000, 232, 245, 246, 258Arosemena, Florencio H., 28, 229 Bay of Panama...isthmian railroad, 97, 126 hibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin Transport Battalion (Batall6n de Trans- America porte y Mantenimiento ), 232 Tocumen, 106

  14. Exercising the Monroe Doctrine in Chinese-Influenced Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    with both China and the United States, allowing Panama to play its own ‗Taiwan card ‘ if necessary. Chinese influence and occupation in Panama pose...Trade Agreement ( FTA ) Now Domestically, the U.S. has economic interests in Panama, the fastest growing economy in Latin America and the fourth largest...a trade agreement is not reached.‖32 The FTA would give U.S. firms, farmers, and investors access to untaxed trade with Panama, making U.S. goods

  15. Ticks (Ixodida) on humans from central Panama, Panama (2010-2011)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bermudez, S.E.; Castro, A.; Esser, H.J.; Liefting, Y.; Garcia, G.; Miranda, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    From January 2010 to December 2011, a total of 138 cases of ticks feeding on humans were reported from 11 locations in central Panama. Five of these locations were situated in forest environments, three in rural landscapes and three in urban areas. The ticks were submitted to the Gorgas Memorial

  16. I've been shocked by the recent Panama [...

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benneworth, Paul Stephen

    2016-01-01

    I'VE been shocked by the recent Panama Papers revelations. We all knew that the rich stashed their wealth overseas away from the taxman, but the way it reaches to the top of British government is mind-boggling. The Panama Papers point up the media's importance as the Fourth Estate - a watchdog

  17. Is Panama on a sustainable development path?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel A. Zambrano Monserrate

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the long-term relationship between CO2 emissions, GDP and energy consumption in Panama during the period 1971-2011 through an autoregressive model of distributed delays to verify the cointegration of variables in the long term. The results confirm the presence of an environmental Kuznets curve and that CO2 emissions and energy consumption from primary sources do not affect economic growth and that environmental degradation increases with energy consumption. Finally, it makes some policy recommendations.

  18. The Agua Salud Project, Central Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, R. F.; Elsenbeer, H.; Ogden, F. L.; Hall, J. S.

    2007-12-01

    The Agua Salud Project utilizes the Panama Canal's central role in world commerce to focus global attention on the ecosystem services provided by tropical forests. It will be the largest field experiment of its kind in the tropics aimed at quantifying the environmental services (water, carbon, and biodiversity) provided by tropical forests. The Agua Salud Watershed is our principal field site. This watershed and the headwaters of several adjacent rivers include both protected mature forests and a wide variety of land uses that are typical of rural Panama. Experiments at the scale of entire catchments will permit complete water and carbon inventories and exchanges for different landscape uses. The following questions will be addressed: (1) How do landscape treatments and management approaches affect ecosystem services such as carbon storage, water quality and quantity, dry- season water supply, and biodiversity? (2) Can management techniques be designed to optimize forest production along with ecosystem services during reforestation? (3) Do different tree planting treatments and landscape management approaches influence groundwater storage, which is thought to be critical to maintaining dry-season flow, thus insuring the full operation of the Canal during periods of reduced rainfall and severe climatic events such as El Niño. In addition we anticipate expanding this project to address biodiversity, social, and economic values of these forests.

  19. Seismically observed seiching in the Panama Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, D.E.; Ringler, A.T.; Hutt, C.R.; Gee, L.S.

    2011-01-01

    A large portion of the seismic noise spectrum is dominated by water wave energy coupled into the solid Earth. Distinct mechanisms of water wave induced ground motions are distinguished by their spectral content. For example, cultural noise is generally Panama Canal there is an additional source of long-period noise generated by standing water waves, seiches, induced by disturbances such as passing ships and wind pressure. We compare seismic waveforms to water level records and relate these observations to changes in local tilt and gravity due to an oscillating seiche. The methods and observations discussed in this paper provide a first step toward quantifying the impact of water inundation as recorded by seismometers. This type of quantified understanding of water inundation will help in future estimates of similar phenomena such as the seismic observations of tsunami impact. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Panama välismajanduspoliitilised valikud / Sten Schwede

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Schwede, Sten

    2003-01-01

    Panama Vabariigi suhtelise isoleerituse majanduslikest põhjustest. Analüüsi aluseks on regiooni majandusintegratsioonis toimunud arengud 1960. aastast alates. Tabel: Tööstuse osakaal sisemajanduse kogutoodangust Ladina-Ameerikas aastatel 1945-1999 (%)

  1. Assessment of tobacco control measures and smuggling in Panama

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to describe the evolution of the demand for tobacco in Panama from ... informal market may benefit the tobacco industry. The research team also ... public service establishments (such as bars, restaurants, casinos, and hotels).

  2. 76 FR 52632 - Television Broadcasting Services; Panama City, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Panama City, FL AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Commission has before it a petition for rulemaking filed by Gray Television Licensee... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief...

  3. Fish survey data from Uva Island reef, Panama

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project examines an eastern Pacific fish assemblage associated with a 2.5 hectare coral reef located within the boundaries of Coiba National Park, Panama. From...

  4. Panama: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    improving the transparency of its financial system. It signed a Tax Information Exchange Agreement ( TIEA ) with the United States in November 2010, and by...work of money launderers. Both the signing of a TIEA with the United States and Panama’s approval of legislation related to “bearer shares” were...had wanted to delay consideration of the Panama FTA until the United States and Panama signed a Tax Information Exchange Agreement ( TIEA ). This

  5. Bacillus spp as a biological control agent against panama disease in banana

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gumede, WHN

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The decreased productivity levels in crop production as a consequence of disease infection have been a great concern amongst agricultural communities. A similar threat is facing the banana-cultivating community due to Panama disease. Panama disease...

  6. Radiological accident in Panama - IAEA to send assistance team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is sending a team of six international experts to assist the authorities of Panama to deal with the aftermath of a radiological accident that occurred at Panama's National Oncology Institute. The Government of Panama informed the IAEA on 22 May about the accident, reported that 28 patients have been affected, and requested IAEA's assistance under the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency, to which Panama is a party. The assistance to be provided by the expert mission will include: ensuring that the radiation source(s) involved in the accident is (are) in a safe and secure condition; evaluating the doses incurred by the affected patients, inter alia, by analysing the treatment records and physical measurements; undertaking a medical evaluation of the affected patients' prognosis and treatment, taking into account, inter alia, the autopsy findings for those who died; and identifying issues on which the IAEA could offer to provide and/or co-ordinate assistance to minimize the consequences of the accident. The team, which includes senior experts in radiology, radiotherapy, radiopathology, radiation dosimetry and radiation protection from France, USA and Japan, and the IAEA itself, will leave for Panama tomorrow, 26 May

  7. Descriptions of two new cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Panama, and coincident infection with Rickettsia rickettsii in Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. in an urban locality of Panama City, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Caballero, A; Moreno, B; González, C; Martínez, G; Adames, M; Pachar, J V; Varela-Petrucelli, J B; Martínez-Mandiche, J; Suárez, J A; Domínguez, L; Zaldívar, Y; Bermúdez, S

    2018-05-01

    The clinical and pathologic characterisation of two fatal cases of tick-borne rickettsiosis in rural (El Valle) and urban (City of Panama) Panama are described. Clinical and autopsy findings were non-specific, but the molecular analysis was used to identify Rickettsia rickettsii in both cases. No ticks were collected in El Valle, while in the urban case, R. rickettsii was detected in Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l., representing the first molecular finding in this tick in Panama and Central America.

  8. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Panama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-08-01

    About 20 percent of Panama has been covered by airborne radiometric surveys, largely in the Azuero-Petaquilia area. Essentially no ground examinations have been made. About one third of the country remains unmapped. Most of the rest has been examined only in rapid reconnaissance largely by the United Nations and oil companies. Detailed mapping has been confined to the Canal Zone. No uranium deposits or prospects of economic interest are known in Panama. There appears to be no information available on present exploration activities for uranium. Panama has no specific legislation relating to nuclear energy. However, all mineral deposits belong to the state, except for salt and similar materials, and are governed by the mineral resources code. There appears to be only one remote possibility for uranium mineralization in Panama, namely, sandstone-type deposits. Marginal marine and fluvial sediments, such as host sandstone-type deposits elsewhere, are most abundant 1n the lower Cenozoic parts of the Azuero and possibly Bocas del Toro basins and are probably absent or poorly developed in the Darien and Central basin. Rocks with even moderate background uranium concentrations to be leached and deposited in such sediments are confined to the silicic and alkaline Intrusive rocks of the La Yeguada Formation 1n western Panama and possibly the Rio Guayabo stock in the Sierra de Maje of eastern Panama. Only the La Yeguada Formation is extensive enough and near enough to a potential sedimentary ore host to be important. Uranium concentrations have not been measured in this unit but its silicic composition, relatively young age (with respect to other volcanic rocks in Panama) and high ash content suggest that it may have relatively high Teachable uranium content. The best areas for exploration for La Yeguada-derived sandstone-type uranium deposits would be in the Pese formation between Santiago and Chitre in the Azuero basin. Possibly favourable sandstone type exploration ground

  9. A new species of Anolis lizard (Squamata, Iguania from Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Poe

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Anolis is described from western Panama and eastern Costa Rica. Populations of the new form were previously allocated to A. chocorum. However, the new species differs from A. chocorum in characters of color pattern, scalation and proportion.

  10. Wild carnivores (Mammalia) as hosts for ticks (Ixodida) in Panama

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bermudez, S.E.; Esser, H.J.; Miranda, R.; Moreno, R.S.

    2015-01-01

    This study reports ticks collected from wild carnivores from different habitat types in Panama. We examined 94 individual wild carnivores and we found 87 parasitized by ticks: seven coyotes, six crab-eating foxes, 54 coatis, four raccoons, five ocelots, two pumas, two gray foxes, two skunks, and one

  11. GEOPOLITICS AND TRANSPORTATION. UNITED STATES AND PANAMA CANAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benea Ciprian Beniamin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the great connection which exists between the realization of Panama Canal and the rising power on United States; and how this state, after the construction of this canal, could promote efficiently at global level its interests.

  12. 76 FR 68117 - Television Broadcasting Services; Panama City, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Panama City, FL AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Commission grants a petition for rulemaking filed by Gray Television Licensee, LLC... the Congressional review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television...

  13. [Little epidemic caused by Salmonella panama (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienitz, M; Licht, W; Richter, M

    1977-05-06

    Between 8. 1. 1976 and 10. 8. 1976 16 new or premature born children got a gastroenteritis due to salmonella panama. All these children were together in one pediatric ward of the hospital. Most of them came directly for the labour ward or from the newborn-ward. They had antibiotic therapy due to the indication of the mother or the child. It was impossible to fine the source of the salmonella infection, therefore, finally the ward was closed. After radical desinfection new patients came to the ward. Again they were infected with salmonella panama. Now it became clear that contaminated milk (Humanan-Heilnahrung) was the source of infections. Most papers mention a mild benign course of the infections. In contrary we could see severe conditions dependent on the pre-damage of the child or his reduced immunity. The minimal number of germs of dietic food products needs to be examinated.

  14. Hydrological effects of tropical land use management incentives: Panama Canal Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fred Ogden; Jefferson S. Hall; Holly Barnard; Robert F. Stallard; Ell Fenichel; Vic Adamowicz; Brent Ewers; Ed Kempema; Julian Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Panama lies in the seasonal tropics and over 85 percent of annual precipitation falls during the May-December wet season. Extreme rainfall events near the end of the wet season can produce flooding that impact Panama Canal operations. During the December-April dry season, occasional water shortages limit the draft of ships passing through the Panama Canal, as well as...

  15. Role of the United States Military in Panama Beyond 2000 A.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-15

    national debt, deregulates the labor market, removes industrial protectionism, minimizes state interference in the market, lowers the high cost of...34Presentation to Asociacion Panamae na de Ejecutivos de Empresa ," Director J.S.A.I.D., Panama, 14 November 1990. 25 CHAPTER VII U.S. MILITARY’S ROLE IN...effort. For Panama, the continued U.S. presence at these bases would create jobs, stimulate small industry growth and enhance Panamanian

  16. The U.S.-Panama Free Trade Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-08

    with respect to the Panama Canal Area. Its status as an autonomous legal entity under the Panamanian Constitution required separate negotiations for...Congressional Research Service 16 the Panamanian agricultural sector. Sugar constitutes a third of Panama’s total agricultural exports, compared...that these provisions would be applied in the United States. Circumstances changed under NAFTA , when investor-state provisions gave rise to

  17. Overexposure of radiotherapy patients in Panama: Dosimetric aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borras, C.; Rudder, D.; Amer, A.

    2001-01-01

    In March 2001, after treatment received in the National Oncological Institute of Panama, 28 patients over reacted due to a radiation overdose calculated by mistake through the algorithm of a Computerized Therapy Planning System (TPS) with Radiotherapy. Medical Physicists planned a four blocks simultaneous digitization, even though the TPS briefings only allowed the digitization of one block per time, but the software didn't notified that the procedure was not authorized, producing serious medical consequences for all the patients [es

  18. "A Quantile Regression Analysis of Wages in Panama."

    OpenAIRE

    Evangelos M. Falaris

    2004-01-01

    I investigate differences in the effects of worker characteristics on wages in Panama at different points of the conditional wage distribution. Public sector employment increases wages of men and of women relatively more at lower quantiles. Public sector employment increases wages of the median worker in that sector and reduces wage inequality within the sector. The existence of a labor union at a worker’s workplace increases relatively more wages of men at lower quantiles. Labor unions reduc...

  19. Storm Impact Assessment for Beaches at Panama City, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Panama City Beaches, and they contain a wide variety of beach homes, condominiums, hotels, small commercial tourism - based enterprises, and resorts. The...exam Mexico Beach T O2.5 miles MaVO Ma KLLT GUL F OF MEXI CO Erosion Area No. 5I C EWoM Crooked Island 4.2 miles ECT Erosion Area No. 4 BAY Lwcmca.n

  20. Panama: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    underdevelopment. He was popular among younger voters and had a base of support in rural areas. Torrijos maintained that his first priority would be...Latin America, March 29, 2010. 24 U.N. Development Program, Informe Sobre Desarrollo Humano Para América Central 2009-2010: Abrir Espacios a la...Seguridad Ciudadana y el Desarrollo Humano, October 2009. 25 “Panama: Drug-Fueled Violence on the Increase,” Noticen, Central American & Caribbean

  1. Foraging Behavior of Odontomachus bauri on Barro Colorado Island, Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Ehmer

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Foraging behavior and partitioning of foraging areas of Odonomachus bauri were investigated on Barro Colorado Island in Panama. The activity of the ants did not show any daily pattern; foragers were active day and night. The type of prey captured by O. bauri supports the idea that in higher Odontomachus and Anochetus species, the high speed of mandible closure serves more for generating power than capturing elusive prey. Polydomous nests may enable O. bauri colonies to enlarge their foraging areas.

  2. Three new species of Anacroneuria Klapálek (Plecoptera: Perlidae) from Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Fonseca, Pablo E

    2015-05-13

    In Central America, the Plecoptera is represented by the genera Anacroneuria and Perlesta, both from the Perlidae family. A total of 45 species have been reported for the region, of which 16 have been found in Panama, all of the genus Anacroneuria. Three new species for Panama are described in this study: Anacroneuria darien, A. embera, and A. laru.

  3. 78 FR 65221 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: New Free Trade Agreement-Panama (DFARS Case...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... Supplement (DFARS) to implement the United States--Panama Trade Promotion Agreement. This Trade Promotion...--Panama Trade Promotion Agreement. No respondents submitted public comments in response to the interim... effects, distributive impacts, and equity). E.O. 13563 emphasizes the importance of quantifying both costs...

  4. 33 CFR 334.761 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. 334.761 Section 334.761 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.761 Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. (a) The areas—(1...

  5. 19 CFR 148.3 - Customs treatment after transiting the Panama Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Customs treatment after transiting the Panama Canal. 148.3 Section 148.3 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... § 148.3 Customs treatment after transiting the Panama Canal. Passengers' baggage and effects and...

  6. 46 CFR 69.7 - Vessels transiting the Panama and Suez Canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessels transiting the Panama and Suez Canals. 69.7... MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS General § 69.7 Vessels transiting the Panama and Suez Canals. (a... Canal must be measured and certificated under the Arab Republic of Egypt Suez Canal Authority Rules of...

  7. Tuberculosis remains a challenge despite economic growth in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarajia, M; Goodridge, A

    2014-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease associated with inequality, and wise investment of economic resources is considered critical to its control. Panama has recently secured its status as an upper-middle-income country with robust economic growth. However, the prioritisation of resources for TB control remains a major challenge. In this article, we highlight areas that urgently require action to effectively reduce TB burden to minimal levels. Our conclusions suggest the need for fund allocation and a multidisciplinary approach to ensure prompt laboratory diagnosis, treatment assurance and workforce reinforcement, complemented by applied and operational research, development and innovation.

  8. Nutrition, poverty alleviation, and development in Central America and Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immink, Maarten D C

    2010-03-01

    This paper reviews research with policy relevance for food and nutrition in Central America and similar areas. The research was conducted by the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP) during the last three decades of the past millennium (1970-99). Six policy areas were selected for this review: agricultural commercialization and rural development; wage and price policies; human resource development; social safety nets, particularly complementary food programs; multi-sectoral nutrition planning; and food and nutrition monitoring for policy formulation. The contents and major conclusions of the work are described, as well as their public policy implications.

  9. [Survey on avoidable blindness and visual impairment in Panama].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Maritza; Brea, Ileana; Yee, Rita; Yi, Rodolfo; Carles, Víctor; Broce, Alberto; Limburg, Hans; Silva, Juan Carlos

    2014-12-01

    Determine prevalence of blindness and visual impairment in adults aged ≥ 50 years in Panama, identify their main causes, and characterize eye health services. Cross-sectional population study using standard Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness methodology. Fifty people aged ≥ 50 years were selected from each of 84 clusters chosen through representative random sampling of the entire country. Visual acuity was assessed using a Snellen chart; lens and posterior pole status were assessed by direct ophthalmoscopy. Cataract surgery coverage was calculated and its quality assessed, along with causes of visual acuity blindness was 3.0% (95% CI: 2.3-3.6). The main cause of blindness was cataract (66.4%), followed by glaucoma (10.2%). Cataract (69.2%) was the main cause of severe visual impairment and uncorrected refractive errors were the main cause of moderate visual impairment (60.7%). Surgical cataract coverage in individuals was 76.3%. Of all eyes operated for cataract, 58.0% achieved visual acuity ≤ 20/60 with available correction. Prevalence of blindness in Panama is in line with average prevalence found in other countries of the Region. This problem can be reduced, since 76.2% of cases of blindness and 85.0% of cases of severe visual impairment result from avoidable causes.

  10. Investigation of the nutrition problems of Central America and Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyave, Guillermo

    2010-03-01

    From its earliest years, INCAP gave a high priority to a multidisciplinary effort to learn as much as possible about the dietary habits, nutritional status, and their consequences in the populations of Central America and Panama. Most of the papers in this Special Issue contain some of this information. The first studies were in schoolchildren but were soon extended to preschool children, pregnant and lactating women, and other adults. This paper describes the principal findings of the initial dietary, biochemical, and clinical community-based studies. From 1965-67, very extensive studies were carried out in all six countries including dietary, biochemical, clinical, and anthological studies were carried out in all six countries, the results of which are summarized.

  11. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Panama: a cluster description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribaldos, Maribel; Zaldivar, Yamitzel; Bermudez, Sergio; Samudio, Franklyn; Mendoza, Yaxelis; Martinez, Alexander A; Villalobos, Rodrigo; Eremeeva, Marina E; Paddock, Christopher D; Page, Kathleen; Smith, Rebecca E; Pascale, Juan Miguel

    2011-10-13

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a tick-borne infection caused by Rickettsia rickettsii. We report a cluster of fatal cases of RMSF in 2007 in Panama, involving a pregnant woman and two children from the same family.  The woman presented with a fever followed by respiratory distress, maculopapular rash, and an eschar at the site from which a tick had been removed.  She died four days after disease onset.  This is the second published report of an eschar in a patient confirmed by PCR to be infected with R. rickettsii.  One month later, the children presented within days of one another with fever and rash and died three and four days after disease onset. The diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistry, PCR and sequencing of the genes of R. rickettsii in tissues obtained at autopsy. 

  12. Smut fungi (Ustilaginomycetes and Microbotryales, Basidiomycota in Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike Piepenbring

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This is the first publication dedicated to the diversity of smut fungi in Panama bases on field work, the study of herbarium specimens, and referentes taken from literatura. It includes smuts parasitizing cultivated and wild plants. The latter are mostly found in rural vegetation. Among the 24 species cites here, 14 species are recorded for the first time for Panama. One of them, Sporisorium ovarium, is observes for the first time in Central America. Entyloma spilanthis is found on the host species Acmella papposa var. macrophylla (Asteraceae for the first time. Entyloma costaricense and Entyloma ecuadorense are considered synonyms of Entyloma compositarum and Entyloma spilanthis respectively. For the new conbination Sponsorium panamensis see note at the end of this publication. Descriptions of the species are complemented by some illustrations, a checklist, and a key.Esta es la primera publicación dedicada a la diversidad de carbones en Panamá. Tiene su base en trabajo de campo, estudio de especímenes herborizados y referencias de la literatura. Se incluyen carbones patógenos de plantas cultivadas y silvestres. Las últimas se encontraron sobre todo en zonas rurales. Entre las 24 especies citadas en este estudio, 14 especies son primeros registros para Panamá y una de éstas, Sporisorium ovarium, para América Central. Se encontró Entyloma spilanthis por primera vez en la planta hospedera Acmella papposa var.macrophylla (Asteraceac. Entyloma costaricense y Entyloma ecuadorense son sinónimos de Entyloma compositarum y Entyloma spilanthis respectivamente. "Sphacelotheca" panamensis es una especie dudosa. Se complementan las descripciones de las especies con algunas ilustraciones, una lista de especies y una clave.

  13. Bahia Las Minas, Panama Oil Spill Assessment, 1986-1991 (NODC Accession 9400033)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In April 1986 a major oil spill from a ruptured storage tank at a local refinery just east of the Caribbean entrance to the Panama Canal polluted an area of coral...

  14. Regional Specialization. The Middle Americas: Mexico, Panama, Central America and the Caribbean Basin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Owen, Mark H; Inman, Kenneth A

    1997-01-01

    .... Generally viewed as lagging in efforts to develop stable governments and self-sustaining economies, Mexico, Central America to include Panama and the Caribbean, henceforth Middle America, have in the...

  15. The Alleged Death of the Monroe Doctrine: Panama as a Case Study, 1977-1999

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Isenhower, James

    2002-01-01

    ... ceremony symbolizing the transfer of canal responsibility to the Panamanian government. The U.S. Senate had made the transfer possible twenty-one years earlier, after ratifying the Panama Canal treaties with just one vote to spare...

  16. 76 FR 55732 - Public Listening Sessions Regarding the Maritime Administration's Panama Canal Expansion Study...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Public Listening Sessions Regarding the Maritime Administration's Panama Canal Expansion Study and the America's Marine Highway Program AGENCY: Maritime Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The purpose of this notice is to announce a series...

  17. Bahia Las Minas, Panama Oil Spill Assessment 1986-1991, (NODC Accession 9400033)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In April 1986 a major oil spill from a ruptured storage tank at a local refinery just east of the Caribbean entrance to the Panama Canal polluted an area of coral...

  18. Fish survey data from Uva Island reef, Panama collected between 1980 and 2010 (NCEI Accession 0157563)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data contains an eastern Pacific fish assemblage associated with a 2.5 hectare coral reef located within the boundaries of Coiba National Park, Panama. From...

  19. Bibliography of the SAIL Panama Canal Zone Project 2008 : a selected bibliography.

    OpenAIRE

    DeHart, Liz

    2009-01-01

    During the 18th Annual 2008 SAIL meeting at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Panama, Vielka Chang-Yau, librarian, mentioned the need to digitize and make available through the Aquatic Commons some of the early documents related to the U.S. biological survey of Panama from 1910 to 1912. With the assistance of SAIL, a regional marine librarian’s group, a digital project developed and this select bibliography represents the sources used for the project. It will assist research...

  20. New species of Cerambycidae from Panama, with new distribution records (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezark, Larry G; Tyson, William H; Schiff, Nathan M

    2013-01-21

    Two new species of Cerambycidae, Tessaropa elizabeth Bezark, sp. nov. (subfamily Cerambycinae, tribe Methiini ) and Anelaphus cordiforme Tyson, sp. nov. (subfamily Cerambycinae, tribe Elaphidiini), are described from the western part of the Darien, Panama. Nine new country records for Panama are reported for the following species: Adetus linsleyi Mar-tins & Galileo, Estola strandiella Breuning, Nubosoplatus inbio Swift, Paranisopodus heterotarsus Monné & Martins, Pempteurys sericans Bates, Rosalba costaricensis (Melzer), Tomopterus brevicornis Giesbert, Psapharochrus nigricans (Lameere), and Oedudes bifasciata (Bates).

  1. Effects of Cocos Ridge Collision on the Western Caribbean: Is there a Panama Block?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, D.; La Femina, P. C.; Geirsson, H.; Chichaco, E.; Abrego M, A. A.; Fisher, D. M.; Camacho, E. I.

    2011-12-01

    It has been recognized that the subduction and collision of the Cocos Ridge, a 2 km high aseismic ridge standing on >20 km thick oceanic crust of the Cocos plate, drives upper plate deformation in southern Central America. Recent studies of Global Positioning System (GPS) derived horizontal velocities relative to the Caribbean Plate showed a radial pattern centered on the Cocos Ridge axis where Cocos-Caribbean convergence is orthogonal, and margin-parallel velocities to the northwest. Models of the full three-dimensional GPS velocity field and earthquake slip vectors demonstrate low mechanical coupling along the Middle America subduction zone in Nicaragua and El Salvador, and a broad zone of high coupling beneath the Osa Peninsula, where the Cocos Ridge intersects the margin. These results suggest that Cocos Ridge collision may be the main driver for trench-parallel motion of the fore arc to the northwest and for uplift and shortening of the outer fore arc in southern Central America, whereby thickened and hence buoyant Cocos Ridge crust acts as an indenter causing the tectonic escape of the fore arc. These studies, however, were not able to constrain well the pattern of surface deformation east-southeast of the ridge axis due to a lack of GPS stations, and Cocos Ridge collision may be responsible for the kinematics and deformation of the proposed Panama block. Recent reinforcement of the GPS network in southeastern Costa Rica and Panama has increased the spatial and temporal resolution of the network and made it possible to further investigate surface deformation of southern Central America and the Panama block. We present a new regional surface velocity field for Central America from geodetic GPS data collected at 11 recently-installed and 178 existing episodic, semi-continuous, and continuous GPS sites in Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. We investigate the effects of Cocos Ridge collision on the Panama block through kinematic block modeling. Published

  2. Phylogeography and connectivity of molluscan parasites: Perkinsus spp. in Panama and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagenkopp Lohan, Katrina M; Hill-Spanik, Kristina M; Torchin, Mark E; Fleischer, Robert C; Carnegie, Ryan B; Reece, Kimberly S; Ruiz, Gregory M

    2018-02-01

    Panama is a major hub for commercial shipping between two oceans, making it an ideal location to examine parasite biogeography, potential invasions, and the spread of infectious agents. Our goals were to (i) characterise the diversity and genetic connectivity of Perkinsus spp. haplotypes across the Panamanian Isthmus and (ii) combine these data with sequences from around the world to evaluate the current phylogeography and genetic connectivity of these widespread molluscan parasites. We collected 752 bivalves from 12 locations along the coast of Panama including locations around the Bocas del Toro archipelago and the Caribbean and Pacific entrances to the Panama Canal, from December 2012 to February 2013. We used molecular genetic methods to screen for Perkinsus spp. and obtained internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences for all positive samples. Our sequence data were used to evaluate regional haplotype diversity and distribution across both coasts of Panama, and were then combined with publicly available sequences to create global haplotype networks. We found 26 ITS haplotypes from four Perkinsus spp. (1-12 haplotypes per species) in Panama. Perkinsus beihaiensis haplotypes had the highest genetic diversity, were the most regionally widespread, and were associated with the greatest number of hosts. On a global scale, network analyses demonstrated that some haplotypes found in Panama were cosmopolitan (Perkinsus chesapeaki, Perkinsus marinus), while others were more geographically restricted (Perkinsus olseni, P. beihaiensis), indicating different levels of genetic connectivity and dispersal. We found some Perkinsus haplotypes were shared across the Isthmus of Panama and several regions around the world, including across ocean basins. We also found that haplotype diversity is currently underestimated and directly related to the number of sequences. Nevertheless, our results demonstrate long-range dispersal and global connectivity for

  3. Federacion de Universidades Privadas de America Central y Panama: Boletin Estadistico (Federation of Private Universities of Central America and Panama: Statistical Bulletin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Jorge A.

    This statistical bulletin provides details on the universities belonging to the Federation of Private Universities of Central America and Panama (FUPAC): Central American University, Rafael Landivar University, Saint John's College, University of Santa Maria La Antigua, Jose Simeon Canas University, Doctor Mariano Galvez University, and the…

  4. Methane emission by bubbling from Gatun Lake, Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Michael; Stallard, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    We studied methane emission by bubbling from Gatun Lake, Panama, at water depths of less than 1 m to about 10 m. Gas bubbles were collected in floating traps deployed during 12- to 60-hour observation periods. Comparison of floating traps and floating chambers showed that about 98% of methane emission occurred by bubbling and only 2% occurred by diffusion. Average methane concentration of bubbles at our sites varied from 67% to 77%. Methane emission by bubbling occurred episodically, with greatest rates primarily between the hours of 0800 and 1400 LT. Events appear to be triggered by wind. The flux of methane associated with bubbling was strongly anticorrelated with water depth. Seasonal changes in water depth caused seasonal variation of methane emission. Bubble methane fluxes through the lake surface into the atmosphere measured during 24-hour intervals were least (10-200 mg/m2/d) at deeper sites (greater than 7 m) and greatest (300-2000 mg/m2/d) at shallow sites (less than 2 m).

  5. Reduced Mtdna Diversity in the Ngobe Amerinds of Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolman, C. J.; Bermingham, E.; Cooke, R.; Ward, R. H.; Arias, T. D.; Guionneau-Sinclair, F.

    1995-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype diversity was determined for 46 Ngobe Amerinds sampled widely across their geographic range in western Panama. The Ngobe data were compared with mtDNA control region I sequences from two additional Amerind groups located at the northern and southern extremes of Amerind distribution, the Nuu-Chah-Nulth of the Pacific Northwest and the Chilean Mapuche and from one Na-Dene group, the Haida of the Pacific Northwest. The Ngobe exhibit the lowest mtDNA control region sequence diversity yet reported for an Amerind group. Moreover, they carry only two of the four Amerind founding lineages first described by Wallace and coworkers. We posit that the Ngobe passed through a population bottleneck caused by ethnogenesis from a small founding population and/or European conquest and colonization. Dating of the Ngobe population expansion using the HARPENDING et al. approach to the analysis of pairwise genetic differences indicates a Ngobe expansion at roughly 6800 years before present (range: 1850-14,000 years before present), a date more consistent with a bottleneck at Chibcha ethnogenesis than a conquest-based event. PMID:7635293

  6. The Public Good, the Market, and Academic Capitalism: U.S. Cross-Border Higher Education in Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoto, Lisette

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, U.S. colleges and universities have begun to extend their international presence through different models of cross-border higher education. This research explores three models of U.S. higher education in Panama City, Panama: a branch campus, a franchise model and merger/acquisition models. Using a qualitative approach, this study…

  7. 40 CFR 81.68 - Mobile (Alabama)-Pensacola-Panama City (Florida)-Southern Mississippi Interstate Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mobile (Alabama)-Pensacola-Panama City... QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.68 Mobile (Alabama)-Pensacola-Panama City (Florida)-Southern Mississippi Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Mobile (Alabama...

  8. Age and geochemistry of host rocks of the Cobre Panama porphyry Cu-Au deposit, central Panama: Implications for the Paleogene evolution of the Panamanian magmatic arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael J.; Hollings, Peter; Thompson, Jennifer A.; Thompson, Jay M.; Burge, Colin

    2016-04-01

    The Cobre Panama porphyry Cu-Au deposit, located in the Petaquilla district of central Panama, is hosted by a sequence of medium- to high-K calc-alkaline volcanic and sub-volcanic rocks. New crystallisation ages obtained from a granodiorite Petaquilla batholith and associated mineralised diorite to granodiorite porphyry stocks and dikes at Cobre Panama indicate that the batholith was emplaced as a multi-phase intrusion, over a period of 4 million years from 32.20 ± 0.76 Ma to 28.26 ± 0.61 Ma, while the porphyritic rocks were emplaced over a 2 million year period from 28.96 ± 0.62 Ma to 27.48 ± 0.68 Ma. Both the volcanic to sub-volcanic host rocks and intrusive rocks of the Cobre Panama deposit evolved via fractional crystallisation processes, as demonstrated by the major elements (e.g. Al2O3, Fe2O3, TiO2 and MgO) displaying negative trends with increasing SiO2. The Petaquilla intrusive rocks, including the diorite-granodiorite porphyries and granodiorite batholith, are geochemically evolved and appear to have formed from more hydrous magmas than the preceding host volcanic rocks, as evidenced by the presence of hornblende phenocrysts, higher degrees of large-ion lithophile element (LILE) and light rare earth element (LREE) enrichment and heavy rare earth element (HREE) depletion, and higher Sr/Y and La/Yb values. However, the degree of LREE enrichment, HREE depletion and La/Yb values are insufficient for the intrusive rocks to be considered as adakites. Collectively, the volcanic and intrusive rocks have LILE, REE and mobile trace element concentrations similar to enriched Miocene-age Cordilleran arc magmatism found throughout central and western Panama. Both the Petaquilla and Cordilleran arc magmatic suites are geochemically more evolved than the late Cretaceous to Eocene Chagres-Bayano arc magmas from northeastern Panama, as they display higher degrees of LILE and LREE enrichment. The geochemical similarities between the Petaquilla and Cordilleran arc magmas

  9. Bleaching of reef coelenterates in the San Blas Islands, Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasker, Howard R.; Peters, Esther C.; Coffroth, Mary Alice

    1984-12-01

    Starting in June 1983, 25 species of hermatypic corals, gorgonians, hydrocorals, anemones and zoanthids in the San Blas Islands, Panama, began showing signs of a loss of colour leading in some cases to a white “bleached” appearance. Histologic examination of six coral species indicated that bleaching was associated with drastic reductions in the density of zooxanthellae and with the atrophy and necrosis of the animal tissue. The severity of the bleaching varied among species and many species were unaffected. The species most extensively affected were: Agaricia spp., which became completely bleached and frequently died; Montastraea annularis which bleached and continued to survive; and Millepora spp. which bleached white but quickly regained their colouration. Shallow reefs dominated by Agaricia spp. suffered the most extensive bleaching. At one site, Pico Feo, 99% of the Agaricia (32% of the living cover) was bleached. On fore reers, which were dominated by Agaricia spp. and M. annularis, the proportion of M. annularis bleached ranged from 18 to 100% and that of Agaricia spp. from 30 to 53%. Transects at Sail Rock and House Reef were surveyed in August 1983 and January 1984. At those sites, 53% of the Agaricia cover died between August and January. The remaining living cover of Agaricia and of all other species exhibited normal colouration in January. Salinity and temperature were monitored every second day at 4 m depth between May 10 and August 28, 1983 at one of the localities. Bleaching was first observed within two weeks of a 2 °C rise in temperature which occurred in late May 1983. Temperatures remained at or above 31.5 °C for the following 3 weeks and were at or above 30 °C for an additional 4 weeks. The bleaching of corals in the San Blas was most likely due to those elevanted temperatures.

  10. From TBT to booster biocides: Levels and impacts of antifouling along coastal areas of Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista-Andrade, Jahir Antonio; Caldas, Sergiane Souza; Batista, Rodrigo Moço; Castro, Italo Braga; Fillmann, Gilberto; Primel, Ednei Gilberto

    2018-03-01

    Antifouling biocides in surface sediments and gastropod tissues were assessed for the first time along coastal areas of Panama under the influence of maritime activities, including one of the world's busiest shipping zones: the Panama Canal. Imposex incidence was also evaluated in five muricid species distributed along six coastal areas of Panama. This TBT-related biological alteration was detected in three species, including the first report in Purpura panama. Levels of organotins (TBT, DBT, and MBT) in gastropod tissues and surficial sediments ranged from TBT inputs were observed in areas considered as moderate to highly contaminated mainly by inputs from fishing and leisure boats. Regarding booster biocides, TCMTB and dichlofluanid were not detected in any sample, while irgarol 1051, diuron and DCOIT levels ranged from TBT (149 ng Sn g -1 ) and irgarol 1051 (2.8 ng g -1 ), as well as relevant level of DCOIT (5.7 ng g -1 ), were detected in a marina used by recreational boats. Additionally, relatively high diuron values (14.1 ng g -1 ) were also detected in the Panama Canal associate to a commercial port. DCOIT concentrations were associated with the presence of antifouling paint particles in sediments obtained nearby shipyard or boat maintenance sites. The highest levels of TBT, irgarol 1051, and diuron exceeded international sediment quality guidelines indicating that toxic effects could be expected in coastal areas of Panama. Thus, the simultaneous impacts produced by new and old generations of antifouling paints highlight a serious environmental issue in Panamanian coastal areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Panama fossil power plants generation system: Atmospheric pollution, general and legal aspects; El sistema de generacion termoelectrico en Panama: Contaminacion atmosferica, aspectos generales y legales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milciades, Concepcion [Instituto de Recursos Hidraulicos y Electrificacion, (Panama)

    1996-12-31

    The Thermal electric energy resource of Panama is administered by four Regional Managements and a group of Regional Systems comprising the fossil power plants supplying electric energy to the country`s marginal areas. The characteristics of the different fuels used in these fossil power plants, the results of the assessment of the polluting particles and sulfur and nitrogen oxides are presented. Finally, the alleviation measures and the environmental legislation implanted in these power plants are also presented [Espanol] El parque termico de Panama es administrado por cuatro Gerencias Regionales y un conjunto de Sistemas Regionales que comprenden las plantas termicas de menor capacidad destinadas a suplir de energia a las areas marginadas del pais. Se presentan las caracteristicas de los diferentes combustibles utilizados en estas unidades termicas; los resultados de las mediciones de particulas contaminantes y de oxidos de azufre y oxidos de nitrogeno. Por ultimo se presentan las medidas de mitigacion y legislacion ambiental implantadas en estas centrales termoelectricas

  12. The Panama fossil power plants generation system: Atmospheric pollution, general and legal aspects; El sistema de generacion termoelectrico en Panama: Contaminacion atmosferica, aspectos generales y legales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milciades, Concepcion [Instituto de Recursos Hidraulicos y Electrificacion, (Panama)

    1997-12-31

    The Thermal electric energy resource of Panama is administered by four Regional Managements and a group of Regional Systems comprising the fossil power plants supplying electric energy to the country`s marginal areas. The characteristics of the different fuels used in these fossil power plants, the results of the assessment of the polluting particles and sulfur and nitrogen oxides are presented. Finally, the alleviation measures and the environmental legislation implanted in these power plants are also presented [Espanol] El parque termico de Panama es administrado por cuatro Gerencias Regionales y un conjunto de Sistemas Regionales que comprenden las plantas termicas de menor capacidad destinadas a suplir de energia a las areas marginadas del pais. Se presentan las caracteristicas de los diferentes combustibles utilizados en estas unidades termicas; los resultados de las mediciones de particulas contaminantes y de oxidos de azufre y oxidos de nitrogeno. Por ultimo se presentan las medidas de mitigacion y legislacion ambiental implantadas en estas centrales termoelectricas

  13. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in captive Odocoileus virginianus and Tayassu tajacu from Panama Republic

    OpenAIRE

    VALDÉS SÁNCHEZ, Vanessa Vianeth; SALDAÑA PATIÑO, Azael; PINEDA SEGUNDO, Vanessa Jenny; CAMACHO SANDOVAL, Jorge Antonio; CHARPENTIER ESQUIVEL, Claudia Virginia; CRUZ SÁNCHEZ, Tonatiuh Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of the gastrointestinal parasites of Tayassu tajacu (Collared peccary) and Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed deer) in captivity in the Republic of Panama during the year 2008. The gastrointestinal parasites with major prevalence were Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba sp., Crystosporidium sp., Endolimax nana and Strongyloides sp.

  14. The Fog of Peace: Planning and Executing The Restoration of Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-15

    posean armas Ilegalus., CONSTITUCION Y LAS LEVES DE lO0limpleard Ia fuerza sdlo cuando sea necesarlo y cl mifnmtoPANAMA, ~~~ti ENDFNS ELA( ucrz.a...rcqucrldw, hacienda uso tic lit ftierm. mortal PANAM , ENDEFESA D LA nlcarriente coini ultima rcuurso. DEMOCRACIA Oath Commandments 99 APPENDIX G U.S

  15. Building Collaborative Research Opportunities into Study Abroad Programs: A Case Study from Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís, Patricia; Price, Marie; Adames de Newbill, María

    2015-01-01

    As universities increase their international study opportunities, enormous potential exists to create geography field courses that provide undergraduates and graduate students with primary research experience and intercultural collaboration. This paper draws from our experience leading a two-week collaborative field course in Panama. We outline…

  16. Bilingual Preschool Education in the United States and Panama: A Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia, Rebeca

    This paper compares bilingual education policy and practice in Panama and the United States. Particular issues studied include the following: the social context of bilingual education in the two countries; programming and policy differences; teacher qualifications; availability of age-appropriate materials; and administrative support, level of…

  17. Opinion Polls and the Panama Canal Treaties of 1977: A Critical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ted J., III; Hogan, J. Michael

    Noting that 1977 public opinion polls concerning the new Panama Canal treaties were interpreted as showing increased support for the treaties, this paper contends that this interpretation was erroneous and that the major outcome of the extensive polling was misleading data. The paper is divided into three major analytical sections. The first…

  18. "The Panama Canal Episode: An Encounter with a Question and Answers." Occasional Paper 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifman, Eli

    This is an account of the experience of a college instructor and a group of prospective social studies teachers as they answer a simple question concerned with direction of travel through the Panama Canal and explore the reactions of students. The situation originates in a class discussion focusing on ways of asking and responding to classroom…

  19. 78 FR 37695 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Free Trade Agreement (FTA)-Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... Central and South Asia). DoD also continues to implement the Balance of Payments Program, applying the... work with other companies for joint economic development projects and, as to Panama, make certain that..., and of promoting flexibility. This is a significant regulatory action and, therefore, was subject to...

  20. Situation Report--Hong Kong, Malawi, Pakistan, Panama, Philippines, Ryukyu Islands (Okinawa), Sabah, Sarawak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in eight foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Hong Kong, Malawi, Pakistan, Panama, Philippines, Ryukyu Islands (Okinawa), Sabah, and Sarawak. Information is provided where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning…

  1. Panama disease in banana and neoliberal governance: towards a political ecology of risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruz, de la Jaye

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of Panama disease Tropical Race 4 (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense) or TR4 – a fungal disease in banana that is considered by horticulture experts as not only one of the most destructive diseases in the world (Ploetz 1994) but one with no on-hand socio-cultural or chemical

  2. The impact of the New Panama Canal Locks on Texas ports and the Texas economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    This report examines the first year transits through the new Panama Canal locks and its impact on Texas deep water ports. It finds that the canal is operating efficiently and can accommodate 14,000 TEU containerships and bulk vessels up to 125,000 to...

  3. 77 FR 68699 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: New Free Trade Agreement-Panama (DFARS Case...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    .... 601, et seq. Although the rule now opens up Government procurement to the goods and services of Panama... Applicability of specified procurement procedures designed to ensure fairness in the acquisition of supplies and... as the WTO GPA threshold, no new clause alternates are required for the Balance of Payments Program...

  4. Agriculture in Pending U.S. Free Trade Agreements with Colombia, Panama, and South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    Panama, and South Korea Remy Jurenas Specialist in Agricultural Policy February 4, 2010 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov...Free Trade Agreement: Labor Issues. Author Contact Information Remy Jurenas Specialist in Agricultural Policy rjurenas@crs.loc.gov, 7-7281 .

  5. Water Resource Resilience in Two Cities of the Dry Arch of Panama ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will build resilience to water stress in the cities of Chitre and La Villa de los ... Climate-related risks in Panama Central American countries are highly ... The project team's work will help to develop municipal plans in the cities of ...

  6. Scorpionism in Central America, with special reference to the case of Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Borges

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpionism in the Americas occurs mainly in Mexico, northern South America and southeast Brazil. This article reviews the local scorpion fauna, available health statistics, and the literature to assess scorpionism in Central America. Notwithstanding its high toxicity in Mexico, most scorpion sting cases in Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica are produced by species in the genus Centruroides that are only mildly toxic to humans despite the existence of ion channel-active toxins in their venoms. Regional morbidity is low with the exception of Panama, where an incidence of 52 cases per 100,000 inhabitants was recorded for 2007, with 28 deaths from 1998 to 2006. Taxa belonging to the genus Tityus (also present in the Atlantic coast of Costa Rica are responsible for fatalities in Panama, with Tityus pachyurus being the most important species medically. Most Tityus species inhabiting Panama are also found in northern South America from which they probably migrated upon closure of the Panamanian isthmus in the Miocene era. Incorporation of Panama as part of the northern South American endemic area of scorpionism is thereby suggested based on the incidence of these accidents and the geographical distribution of Panamanian Tityus species.

  7. Dendroecological Analysis of Cordia alliodora, Pseudobombax septenatum and Annona spraguei in Central Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret S. Devall; Bernard R. Parresol; S. Joseph Wright

    1995-01-01

    Several plant communities in central Panama, each community located near a weather station, contain trees with annual growth rings, i.e. Cordia alliodora, Pseudobombax septenatum, and Annona spraguei. Tree-ring data are particularly valuable when concomitant weather information is readily available. Patterns of...

  8. Trend Analysis of Cancer Mortality and Incidence in Panama, Using Joinpoint Regression Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politis, Michael; Higuera, Gladys; Chang, Lissette Raquel; Gomez, Beatriz; Bares, Juan; Motta, Jorge

    2015-06-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and its incidence is expected to increase in the future. In Panama, cancer is also one of the leading causes of death. In 1964, a nationwide cancer registry was started and it was restructured and improved in 2012. The aim of this study is to utilize Joinpoint regression analysis to study the trends of the incidence and mortality of cancer in Panama in the last decade. Cancer mortality was estimated from the Panamanian National Institute of Census and Statistics Registry for the period 2001 to 2011. Cancer incidence was estimated from the Panamanian National Cancer Registry for the period 2000 to 2009. The Joinpoint Regression Analysis program, version 4.0.4, was used to calculate trends by age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates for selected cancers. Overall, the trend of age-adjusted cancer mortality in Panama has declined over the last 10 years (-1.12% per year). The cancers for which there was a significant increase in the trend of mortality were female breast cancer and ovarian cancer; while the highest increases in incidence were shown for breast cancer, liver cancer, and prostate cancer. Significant decrease in the trend of mortality was evidenced for the following: prostate cancer, lung and bronchus cancer, and cervical cancer; with respect to incidence, only oral and pharynx cancer in both sexes had a significant decrease. Some cancers showed no significant trends in incidence or mortality. This study reveals contrasting trends in cancer incidence and mortality in Panama in the last decade. Although Panama is considered an upper middle income nation, this study demonstrates that some cancer mortality trends, like the ones seen in cervical and lung cancer, behave similarly to the ones seen in high income countries. In contrast, other types, like breast cancer, follow a pattern seen in countries undergoing a transition to a developed economy with its associated lifestyle, nutrition, and body weight

  9. Use of maternal-child health services and contraception in Guatemala and Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, C W; Monteith, R S; Johnson, J T; Santiso, R; Guerra, F; Oberle, M W

    1987-04-01

    This paper presents data from 2 recent maternal-child health (MCH) and family planning surveys in Guatemala and Panama and examines the extent to which the use of contraception is influenced by the use of MCH services as compared with the influence of an increase in parity. Fieldwork was initiated in July 1984 but not completed until April 1985. A total of 8240 women aged 15-49 years, of all marital statuses, completed interviews, representing 91% of households with eligible respondents. The findings suggest that utilization of MCH services and parity independently are associated with a woman's decision to use contraception. The study also found 2 groups that appear to be particularly in need of both MCH and family planning services: high parity women and Indians. Nonuse of MCH and family planning services may be due in part to their strong cultural beliefs. In both Guatemala and Panama, improved health care services for these 2 groups should be a priority. Contraceptive use in Panama was over twice as high as in Guatemala. However, method choice and residence-ethnicity patterns of use were similar in each country. In both countries and in all residence-ethnicity groups, female sterilization was the most prevalent method in use, followed by oral contraceptives, except for Panama rural Indians. In Panama, contraceptive use increases up to ages 30-34 and then declines, with a sharp decline for women 40-44. In Guatemala, contraceptive use is generally low for ages 15-24, then increases to a fairly constant level for ages 25-39.

  10. Understanding the economic, environmental and energy consequences of the Panama Canal expansion on Midwest grain and agricultural exports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    The Panama Canal Authority (ACP) is currently building a third lock scheduled to open in 2014, significantly changing the capacity of the : canal for inter-ocean movements. Midwest specialty grain and agricultural product exporters will be directly a...

  11. A non-fatal case of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome imported into the UK (ex Panama), July 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, Barry; Jameson, Lisa J.; Bovill, Bego?a A.; Aarons, Emma J.; Clewlow, Jodie; Lumley, Sarah; Latham, Jennie; Jenkins, Megan H.; MacGowan, Alasdair P.; Simpson, Andrew J.; Ahmed, Javeed; Brooks, Timothy J.; Hewson, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Highlights ? Detection of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome imported into Europe. ? Additional evidence that Choclo hantavirus is currently circulating and causing human disease in Panama. ? Novel diagnostic and sequencing assays for identifying cases of Choclo hantavirus infection.

  12. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates from Single Outpatient Clinic in Panama City Exhibit Wide Genetic Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambrano, Dilcia; Correa, Ricardo; Almengor, Pedro; Domínguez, Amada; Vega, Silvio; Goodridge, Amador

    2014-01-01

    Understanding Mycobacterium tuberculosis biodiversity and transmission is significant for tuberculosis control. This short report aimed to determine the genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis isolates from an outpatient clinic in Panama City. A total of 62 M. tuberculosis isolates were genotyped by 12 loci mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) and Spoligotyping. Forty-five (72.6%) of the isolates showed unique MIRU-VNTR genotypes, and 13 (21%) of the isolates were grouped into four clusters. Four isolates showed polyclonal MIRU-VNTR genotypes. The MIRU-VNTR Hunter-Gaston discriminatory index reached 0.988. The Spoligotyping analysis revealed 16 M. tuberculosis families, including Latin American-Mediterranean, Harlem, and Beijing. These findings suggest a wide genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis isolates at one outpatient clinic. A detailed molecular epidemiology survey is now warranted, especially following second massive immigration for local Panama Canal expansion activities. PMID:24865686

  13. Echinoids of the Pacific waters of Panama: status of knowledge and new records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessios, H A

    2005-12-01

    This paper is primarily intended as a guide to researchers who wish to know what echinoid species are available in the Bay of Panama and in the Gulf of Chiriqui, how to recognize them, and what has been published about them up to 2004. Fifty seven species of echinoids have been reported in the literature as occurring in the Pacific waters of Panama, of which I have collected and examined 31, including two species, Caenopedina dìomedìae and Meoma frangibilis, that have hitherto only been mentioned in the literature from single type specimens. For the 31 species I was able to examine, I list the localities in which they were found, my impression as to their relative abundance, the characters that distinguish them, and what is known about their biology and evolution. Not surprisingly, most available information concerns abundant shallow water species, while little is known about deep water, rare, or infaunal species.

  14. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic pets from metropolitan regions of Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rengifo-Herrera Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease but information regarding domestic animals in Central America is scarce and fragmented. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic cats and dogs in different metropolitan regions of Panama. A total of 576 samples were collected; sera from 120 cats and 456 dogs were tested using a commercial indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The overall seroprevalence of IgG antibodies was 30.73%. There is high seroprevalence of T. gondii in cats and dogs in the metropolitan regions around the Panama Canal; however, differences between these species were not significant. Statistical analysis indicated that there are relevant variables, such as the age of animals, with a direct positive relationship with seroprevalence. None of the variables related to animal welfare (veterinary attention provided, type of dwelling, and access to green areas and drinking water were associated with seropositivity.

  15. Second Line of Defense Megaports Initiative Operational Testing and Evaluation Plan Colon Container Terminal (CCT) Panama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newhouse, Robert N.

    2010-01-01

    Report on the Operational Testing and Evaluation to validate and baseline an operable system that meets the Second Line of Defense (SLD) mission requirements. An SLD system is defined as the detection technology and associated equipment, the system operators from the host country, the standard operating procedures (SOPs), and other elements such as training and maintenance which support long-term system sustainment. To this end, the activities conducted during the OT&E phase must demonstrate that the Megaports System can be operated effectively in real-time by Panama Direccion General de Aduanas (DGA Panama Customs) personnel to the standards of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA).

  16. Richness and composition of gall-inducing arthropods at Coiba National Park, Panama

    OpenAIRE

    Nieves-Aldrey, José Luis; Enrique Medianero, Alicia Ibáñez

    2008-01-01

    Interest in studying galls and their arthropods inducers has been growing rapidly in the last two decades. However, the Neotropical region is probably the least studied region for gall-inducing arthropods. A study of the richness and composition of gall-inducing arthropods was carried out at Coiba National Park in the Republic of Panama. Field data come from samples obtained between August 1997 and September 1999, with three (two-week long) more intensive samplings. Seventeen sites, represent...

  17. Legalt eller legitimt? Om Nordeas krisekommunikation efter lækagen ’The Panama Papers’

    OpenAIRE

    Thomsen, Nynne Emilie Vinge

    2016-01-01

    This thesis examines the way in which Nordea sought to communicate regarding the leak ”The Panama Papers” and how appropriate this turned out to be. Based on William Benoit’s image restoration theory (2015), Timothy W. Coombs’ situational crisis communication theory (2012) and Susanne Holmström’s legitimacy theory (2013), this thesis finds that Nordea mainly used a defensive crisis communication strategy, which was mainly supposed to evade responsibility and minimalize the bank’s role in the ...

  18. China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC): Benefits For Pakistan And Comparison With Suez And Panama Canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    ECONOMIC CORRIDOR (CPEC): BENEFITS FOR PAKISTAN AND COMPARISON WITH SUEZ AND PANAMA CANALS by Hanif Ullah Khan December 2017 Thesis...DATE December 2017 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CHINA PAKISTAN ECONOMIC CORRIDOR (CPEC): BENEFITS FOR...The China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is part of China’s “One Belt, One Road” initiative and joins two major economic corridors: The Silk Road

  19. Notes on the Genus Cololejeunea (Lejeuneaceae in Panama. C. cingens (New Record and C. tamasii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sierra Adriel M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cololejeunea cingens (Herzog Bernecker & Pócs is recorded for the first time from Panama, extending its distribution in the Neotropics. Additional descriptions based on Panamanian material are provided for C. cingens and for C. tamasii Schäf.-Verw., a species only known from the type, for which dimorphic leaves and gynoecial bracts are first described. We therefore view subgen. Pedinolejeunea Benedix ex Mizut. as a better subgeneric placement for C. tamasii than subgen. Cololejeunea.

  20. Distribution and abundance of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) in the Panama Canal

    OpenAIRE

    Vianna, Juliana; Muschett, Giselle

    2015-01-01

    The present study was carried out to assess the distribution and current status of the West-Indian manatee Trichechus manatus, in Lake Gatun, the main body of water in the Panama Canal. We used four different methodologies: interviews, revision review of documents, aquatic and aerial surveys. Forty-four interviews carried out between March and July 2007 revealed 59 manatee sightings. Official documents revealed 19 manatee deaths between 1995 and 2008, while three aerial surveys yielded a tota...

  1. The Effects of Intermittent Drinking Water Supply in Arraiján, Panama

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, John Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Over three hundred million people throughout the world receive supply from piped drinking water distribution networks that operate intermittently. This dissertation evaluates the effects of intermittent supply on water quality, pipe damage and service reliability in four study zones (one continuous and three intermittent) in a peri-urban drinking water distribution network in Arraiján, Panama. Normal water quality in all zones was good, with 97% of routine water quality grab samples from the ...

  2. Successful public health response to four cases of imported measles in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Nestor; Guerra, Ilka; Abrego, Leyda; Cisneros, Julio; Castillo, Juan; Nieto-Guevara, Javier; Gálvez, Carlos; Moltó, Yadira; Smith, Rebecca E; Pascale, Juan Miguel

    2012-08-21

    In Panama, the last endemic cases of measles occurred in 1995. In this paper, we report four cases of imported measles in three girls and one boy after they returned from a trip to Poland and Israel between 28 April and 11 May 2011. The etiologic diagnosis of the four cases was confirmed by detection of IgM antibodies against measles virus and positive polymerase chain reaction using measles-specific primers. All cases had genotype D4 with close genetic similarity to virus reported from Poland. Public health interventions included isolation of the cases in their homes and an extensive search for and vaccination of contacts of the four cases, regardless of their vaccination status. A nationwide vaccination campaign was also implemented after the first case was identified. A total of 70,950 measles vaccine doses were administered in Panama in the two months following the identification of these cases. In addition, 94,179 persons were confirmed to have their immunization schedule up-to-date and did not receive the vaccine. No secondary cases were detected in Panama in the following six months.

  3. No evidence that boron influences tree species distributions in lowland tropical forests of Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Benjamin L; Zalamea, Paul-Camilo; Condit, Richard; Winter, Klaus; Wright, S Joseph; Dalling, James W

    2017-04-01

    It was recently proposed that boron might be the most important nutrient structuring tree species distributions in tropical forests. Here we combine observational and experimental studies to test this hypothesis for lowland tropical forests of Panama. Plant-available boron is uniformly low in tropical forest soils of Panama and is not significantly associated with any of the > 500 species in a regional network of forest dynamics plots. Experimental manipulation of boron supply to seedlings of three tropical tree species revealed no evidence of boron deficiency or toxicity at concentrations likely to occur in tropical forest soils. Foliar boron did not correlate with soil boron along a local scale gradient of boron availability. Fifteen years of boron addition to a tropical forest increased plant-available boron by 70% but did not significantly change tree productivity or boron concentrations in live leaves, wood or leaf litter. The annual input of boron in rainfall accounts for a considerable proportion of the boron in annual litterfall and is similar to the pool of plant-available boron in the soil, and is therefore sufficient to preclude boron deficiency. We conclude that boron does not influence tree species distributions in Panama and presumably elsewhere in the lowland tropics. No claim to original US government works New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Histopathological characteristics of cutaneous lesions caused by Leishmania Viannia panamensis in Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir González

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is an endemic disease in the Republic of Panama, caused by Leishmania (Viannia parasites, whose most common clinical manifestation is the presence of ulcerated lesions on the skin. These lesions usually present a chronic inflammatory reaction, sometimes granulomatous, with the presence of lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages. This study describes the histopathological characteristics found in the skin lesions of patients with CL caused by Leishmania (V. panamensis in Panama. We analyzed 49 skin biopsy samples from patients with clinical suspicion of CL, by molecular tests (PCR for subgenus Viannia and HSP-70 and by Hematoxylin-Eosin staining. Samples were characterized at the species level by PCR-HSP-70/RFLP. From the 49 samples studied, 46 (94% were positive by PCR and were characterized as Leishmania (V. panamensis. Of these, 48% were positive by Hematoxylin-Eosin staining with alterations being observed both, in the epidermis (85% and in the dermis (100% of skin biopsies. The inflammatory infiltrate was characterized according to histopathological patterns: lymphohistiocytic (50%, lymphoplasmacytic (61% and granulomatous (46% infiltration, being the combination of these patterns frequently found. The predominant histopathological characteristics observed in CL lesions caused by L. (V. panamensis in Panama were: an intense inflammatory reaction in the dermis with a combination of lymphohistiocytic, lymphoplasmacytic and granulomatous presentation patterns and the presence of ulcers, acanthosis, exocytosis and spongiosis in the epidermis.

  5. High blood pressure in Panama: prevalence, sociodemographic and biologic profile, treatment, and control (STROBE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Donald Posso, Anselmo J; Motta Borrel, Jorge A; Fontes, Flavia; Cruz Gonzalez, Clara E; Pachón Burgos, Alvaro A; Cumbrera Ortega, Alberto

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence, treatment, and control of high blood pressure, hypertension (HBP) in Panama and assess its associations with sociodemographic and biologic factors.A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted in Panama by administering a survey on cardiovascular risk factors to 3590 adults and measuring their blood pressure 3 times. A single-stage, probabilistic, and randomized sampling strategy with a multivariate stratification was used. The average blood pressure, confidence intervals (CIs), odds ratio (OR), and a value of P ≤ 0.05 were used for the analysis.The estimated prevalence of HBP was 29.6% (95% CI, 28.0-31.1); it was more prevalent in men than in women, OR = 1.37 (95% CI, 1.17-1.61); it increased with age and was more frequent among Afro-Panamanians (33.8%). HBP was associated with a family history of HBP with being physically inactive and a body mass index ≥25.0 kg/m or a waist circumference >90 cm in men and >88 cm in women (P control (<140/90 mm Hg).HBP is the most common cardiovascular risk factor among Panamanians and consequently an important public health problem in Panama. The health care system needs to give a high priority to HBP prevention programs and integrated care programs aimed at treating HBP, taking into consideration the changes in behavior that have been brought about by alterations in nutrition and sedentary lifestyles.

  6. Ethnomedical uses and pharmacological activities of most prevalent species of genus Piper in Panama: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant-Archibold, Armando A; Santana, Ana I; Gupta, Mahabir P

    2018-05-10

    Piperaceae is the fifth largest family of plants in Panama. This review focuses on the ethnomedical uses of the most prevalent Panamanian species and biological activities of their extracts and/or constituents both in Panama and worldwide. Many species have a plethora of ethnomedical uses such as antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-Helicobacter pylori, antiulcer, antiprotozoal, estrogenic, insecticidal, local anesthetic, diuretic, and for women's health conditions. The aim of this review is to compile all ethnomedical uses of most prevalent species of Piper in Panama, and their extracts or phytoconstituents worldwide, through a complete literature search, so that it may allow selection of potential unexplored Piper species for future research and development of phytotherapeuticals for important ailments. This review conducted a thorough search in books and databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, Sci-Finder, Scopus, ACS publications, Science Direct, and Reaxys (Elsevier), until October of 2017. The information provided in this review is based on peer-reviewed papers only in English. The key words used to search were: "Piper", "Piperaceae", "Panama", "Pharmacological activity", "Chemistry," "Toxicity," and "Clinical studies". Scientific names of the plants were validated through www.tropicos.org. Potential full-texts of eligible papers, irrespective of database, were identified. Study selection and data extraction were conducted by one author (AIS) and confirmed by others (MPG, ADA). The extracted data were summarized in tabular form and a narrative description was used to provide a summary of updated information. The ethnomedical uses of most prevalent 23 Panamanian species of Piper both in Panama as well in the world are provided. Of these species only Piper arboreum, Piper auritum, Piper cordulatum, Piper hispidum, Piper dariense, Piper multiplinervium and Piper umbellatum have ethnomedical uses in Panama. Some of the

  7. THE BUSINESS OF THE CANAL: THE ECONOMICS AND POLITICS OF THE CARTER ADMINISTRATION’S PANAMA CANAL ZONE INITIATIVE, 1978

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary C. Swilling

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Carter-Torrijos Treaty of 1978, the initiative to relinquish controi of the Panama Canal Zone to the Republic of Panama, allowed Panama for the first time in its short history to become an autonomous nation and to take control of its destiny as a global trading crossroads. Conservatives rallied against President Carter and accused him of jeopardizing U. S. security and hegemony. Fears were that Panama did not have the economic or technical resources to maintain Canal operations, lacked the administrative knowledge and resources to manage the business of the Canal, lacked the military presence to insure security of the Canal, and did not have the political and social will to maintain the environmental integrity of the region. In short, disastrous results were predicted. Carter prevailed. December 31, 1999 saw the surrender of the Canal Zone, and all its facilities, to Panama. This paper discusses events that precipitated Carter’s decision, economic and political arguments presented during the 1977-78 debate, implementation of the treaty, and an evaluation of the ‘business of the Canal’ today.

  8. Preliminary evaluation of thermal and nonthermal waters at selected sites in Panama, Central America. Evaluacion preliminar de aguas termales y no termales de sitios seleccionados en Panama, Centroamerica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevenell, L.

    1989-11-01

    Thirty-one thermal and nonthermal water samples were collected in Panama by the Instituto de Recursos Hidraulicos y Electrificacion and analyzed by the Earth and Space Sciences Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory to evaluate the geothermal potential of four different areas. Chemical and isotopic analyses were performed on each sample. Because samples from several areas were submitted, the chemistry of the samples is varied, with total dissolved solids of thermal fluids ranging from 900 to nearly 10,000 mg/{ell}. All water samples studied are meteoric in origin, and none of the thermal waters exhibit an {sup 18}O enrichment, which is characteristic of high-temperature isotopic, exchange between water and rock. At all four areas, calculated geothermometer temperatures within a reservoir of less than 160{degrees}C. 4 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Fishery of the Green Jack Caranx caballus (Osteichytes: Carangidae in Las Perlas Archipelago, Pacific Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Mair

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Green Jacks, Caranx caballus, are distributed along the Eastern Pacific coast. In Panama, C. caballus was heavily fished around Las Perlas Archipelago to sustain local markets until 2007, when the archipelago was declared a marine protected area. This first study in Panama, analyzed a sample of 4 990 individuals from Las Perlas, obtained monthly from June 2005 to June 2006, from landings at the central fish market. Average total length was 36.1±6.4cm and optimum length 38.9cm. Approximately 68% of fish lengths were within ±10% of the optimal length but only six (15% were considered mega-spawners. The von Bertalanffy parameters describe a long-lived and fast growing species, while mortality rates revealed that C. caballus is under high fishing pressure. Standard length at which half of the population is mature was 38.8cm, and the size at which individuals matured massively, 33cm. Only 10-13% of the fish were immature. C. caballus reproduces two to three times per year, with peaks in December, April, and probably September, and recruits to the population at least twice per year. Catch per unit effort (CPUE was best predicted by minimum annual values of the Multivariate ENSO/ LNSO Index (MEI (R²=0.54. Results show that C. caballus in Pacific Panama is overfished. We recommend the raising of the minimum capture/landing size of this species in order to increase the proportion of megaspawners in the population and guarantee the sustainability of this resource.

  10. Feeding Habits and Trophic Level of the Panama Grunt Pomadasys panamensis, an Important Bycatch Species from the Shrimp Trawl Fishery in the Gulf of California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Rodríguez-Preciado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Panama grunt is an abundant and commercially important species in the southeastern Gulf of California, but the research undertaken on this species is scarce despite its ecological and economic importance. We studied the feeding habits of Panama grunt through stomach content analyses as a first step towards understanding the biology of this species in the study area. Our results indicate that the Panama grunt is a benthic predator throughout its life cycle and feeds mainly on infaunal crustaceans. Diet differences among grunt were not found according to size, diet, or season. Shannon diversity index results indicate that Panama grunt has a limited trophic niche breadth with a diet dominated by a limited number of taxa as crustaceans. The estimated trophic level of this species is 3.59. Overall, the Panama grunt is a carnivorous fish occupying the intermediate levels of the trophic pyramid.

  11. Feeding habits and trophic level of the Panama grunt Pomadasys panamensis, an important bycatch species from the shrimp trawl fishery in the Gulf of California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Preciado, Jose A.; Amezcua-Martinez, Felipe; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Madrid-Vera, Juan

    2014-10-14

    The Panama grunt is an abundant and commercially important species in the SE Gulf of California, but the research undertaken on this species is scarce despite its ecological and economic importance. We studied the feeding habits of Panama grunt through stomach content analyses as a first step towards understanding the biology of this species in the study area. Our results show that the Panama grunt is a benthic predator throughout its life cycle and feeds mainly on infaunal crustaceans. Diet differences were not found according to size, diet or season. Shannon diversity index results indicate that Panama grunt have a limited trophic niche breadth with a diet dominated by a limited number of taxa. The estimated trophic level of this species is 3.59. Overall, the Panama grunt is a carnivorous fish occupying the intermediate levels of the trophic pyramid.

  12. Feeding habits and trophic level of the Panama grunt Pomadasys panamensis, an important bycatch species from the shrimp trawl fishery in the Gulf of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Preciado, José A; Amezcua, Felipe; Bellgraph, Brian; Madrid-Vera, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The Panama grunt is an abundant and commercially important species in the southeastern Gulf of California, but the research undertaken on this species is scarce despite its ecological and economic importance. We studied the feeding habits of Panama grunt through stomach content analyses as a first step towards understanding the biology of this species in the study area. Our results indicate that the Panama grunt is a benthic predator throughout its life cycle and feeds mainly on infaunal crustaceans. Diet differences among grunt were not found according to size, diet, or season. Shannon diversity index results indicate that Panama grunt has a limited trophic niche breadth with a diet dominated by a limited number of taxa as crustaceans. The estimated trophic level of this species is 3.59. Overall, the Panama grunt is a carnivorous fish occupying the intermediate levels of the trophic pyramid.

  13. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Panama 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Panama carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  14. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Panama 1985-1995 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Panama carried out during 1985-1995. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  15. Panama City 2003 Acoustic Coherence Experiments: Low Frequency Bottom Penetration Fluctuation Measurements in a Multipath Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Roger W.; Kennedy, E. Ted; Malley, Dexter; Fisher, Robert A.; Brown, Robert; Stanic, Steve

    2004-11-01

    This paper is part of a series of papers describing acoustic coherence and fluctuations measurements made by the Naval Research Laboratory in the Gulf of Mexico near Panama City Beach, FL during June 2003. This paper presents low frequency (1-10 kHz) buried hydrophone measurements and preliminary results for two source-receiver ranges with grazing angles less than two degrees (realtive to the direct-path to the seafloor at the receiver location). Results focus on fluctuations after acoustic penetration into the sediment. These fluctuations are correlated with environmental influences.

  16. Panama disease in banana and neoliberal governance: towards a political ecology of risk

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, de la, Jaye

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of Panama disease Tropical Race 4 (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense) or TR4 – a fungal disease in banana that is considered by horticulture experts as not only one of the most destructive diseases in the world (Ploetz 1994) but one with no on-hand socio-cultural or chemical method to control it satisfactorily (Ploetz 2015) – has generated conversations, dialogue, inquiry and at times controversy, on how this risk is to be managed. The onslaught of Tropical Race 1 (TR1) in the 19...

  17. Preliminary Hybrid Modeling of the Panama Canal: Operations and Salinity Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Rabelo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the initial modeling of water salinity and its diffusion into the lakes during lock operation on the Panama Canal. A hybrid operational model was implemented using the AnyLogic software simulation environment. This was accomplished by generating an operational discrete-event simulation model and a continuous simulation model based on differential equations, which modeled the salinity diffusion in the lakes. This paper presents that unique application and includes the effective integration of lock operations and its impact on the environment.

  18. Extracting Environmental Benefits from a New Canal in Nicaragua: Lessons from Panama.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Condit

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biologists have raised objections to a new canal in Nicaragua, but in this Essay I argue that dire predictions of environmental catastrophe are exaggerated. I present an alternative view based on my research experience in Panama, where Canal operations foster forest conservation. Currently in Nicaragua, the rate of forest loss is so rapid that the canal cannot make it worse. Rather, I contend, adoption of international standards in canal construction could lead to net environmental and social benefits for the country.

  19. Magmatic evolution of Panama Canal volcanic rocks: A record of arc processes and tectonic change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Farris

    Full Text Available Volcanic rocks along the Panama Canal present a world-class opportunity to examine the relationship between arc magmatism, tectonic forcing, wet and dry magmas, and volcanic structures. Major and trace element geochemistry of Canal volcanic rocks indicate a significant petrologic transition at 21-25 Ma. Oligocene Bas Obispo Fm. rocks have large negative Nb-Ta anomalies, low HREE, fluid mobile element enrichments, a THI of 0.88, and a H2Ocalc of >3 wt. %. In contrast, the Miocene Pedro Miguel and Late Basalt Fm. exhibit reduced Nb-Ta anomalies, flattened REE curves, depleted fluid mobile elements, a THI of 1.45, a H2Ocalc of <1 wt. %, and plot in mid-ocean ridge/back-arc basin fields. Geochemical modeling of Miocene rocks indicates 0.5-0.1 kbar crystallization depths of hot (1100-1190°C magmas in which most compositional diversity can be explained by fractional crystallization (F = 0.5. However, the most silicic lavas (Las Cascadas Fm. require an additional mechanism, and assimilation-fractional-crystallization can reproduce observed compositions at reasonable melt fractions. The Canal volcanic rocks, therefore, change from hydrous basaltic pyroclastic deposits typical of mantle-wedge-derived magmas, to hot, dry bi-modal magmatism at the Oligocene-Miocene boundary. We suggest the primary reason for the change is onset of arc perpendicular extension localized to central Panama. High-resolution mapping along the Panama Canal has revealed a sequence of inward dipping maar-diatreme pyroclastic pipes, large basaltic sills, and bedded silicic ignimbrites and tuff deposits. These volcanic bodies intrude into the sedimentary Canal Basin and are cut by normal and subsequently strike-slip faults. Such pyroclastic pipes and basaltic sills are most common in extensional arc and large igneous province environments. Overall, the change in volcanic edifice form and geochemistry are related to onset of arc perpendicular extension, and are consistent with the

  20. Impact of increased tobacco tax on revenue and prices in Panama 2009 - 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Hugo Herrera Ballesteros; Ilais Moreno; Beatriz Gómez; Reina Roa

    2018-01-01

    Background To demonstrate the impact of the increase of the Selective Tax on the Consumption of Cigarettes and other tobacco products (ISC) in the tax collection and increases in the prices of cigarettes, after 2009. Methods The primary source of information is the database of the 2015 cigarette market survey conducted in the districts of Panama, Colón, David, Barú, San Miguelito and the indigenous districts of Guna Yala and Ngäbe-Buglé in July 2015. The fiscal collection d...

  1. Magmatic evolution of Panama Canal volcanic rocks: A record of arc processes and tectonic change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Agustin; Montes, Camilo; Foster, David; Jaramillo, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Volcanic rocks along the Panama Canal present a world-class opportunity to examine the relationship between arc magmatism, tectonic forcing, wet and dry magmas, and volcanic structures. Major and trace element geochemistry of Canal volcanic rocks indicate a significant petrologic transition at 21–25 Ma. Oligocene Bas Obispo Fm. rocks have large negative Nb-Ta anomalies, low HREE, fluid mobile element enrichments, a THI of 0.88, and a H2Ocalc of >3 wt. %. In contrast, the Miocene Pedro Miguel and Late Basalt Fm. exhibit reduced Nb-Ta anomalies, flattened REE curves, depleted fluid mobile elements, a THI of 1.45, a H2Ocalc of arc basin fields. Geochemical modeling of Miocene rocks indicates 0.5–0.1 kbar crystallization depths of hot (1100–1190°C) magmas in which most compositional diversity can be explained by fractional crystallization (F = 0.5). However, the most silicic lavas (Las Cascadas Fm.) require an additional mechanism, and assimilation-fractional-crystallization can reproduce observed compositions at reasonable melt fractions. The Canal volcanic rocks, therefore, change from hydrous basaltic pyroclastic deposits typical of mantle-wedge-derived magmas, to hot, dry bi-modal magmatism at the Oligocene-Miocene boundary. We suggest the primary reason for the change is onset of arc perpendicular extension localized to central Panama. High-resolution mapping along the Panama Canal has revealed a sequence of inward dipping maar-diatreme pyroclastic pipes, large basaltic sills, and bedded silicic ignimbrites and tuff deposits. These volcanic bodies intrude into the sedimentary Canal Basin and are cut by normal and subsequently strike-slip faults. Such pyroclastic pipes and basaltic sills are most common in extensional arc and large igneous province environments. Overall, the change in volcanic edifice form and geochemistry are related to onset of arc perpendicular extension, and are consistent with the idea that Panama arc crust fractured during collision

  2. The problem of fuzzy cause-specific death rates in mortality context analysis: the case of Panama City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, S; Gans, P

    1993-05-01

    In studies of mortality, small and fluctuating numbers of deaths are problems which are caused by infrequent reporting and small spatial unit reporting. To use Panama City as an example, the paper will introduce a Monte Carlo simulation which allows for the analysis of mortality even with small absolute numbers. In addition, Panama City will be used as an example where good medical care is available in every city district, so that social class differences between the districts have a negligible effect on most cause-specific death rates and infant mortality.

  3. Report of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in a cutaneous-leishmaniasis-endemic area of Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrama, Anayansi; Tavares, Mara Garcia; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando

    2011-12-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis is the primary vector of the parasite responsible for visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. In the present study, Lu. longipalpis was found in a domiciliary area in Limón, a district in Capira, a region in which cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in Panama. Previously, this species has been found in a humid forest in this same region. Finding Lu. longipalpis in domiciliary areas indicates that this species may be adapting to new habitats and that it may play a role in the transmission of leishmaniasis in Panama.

  4. Building Participation in Large-scale Conservation: Lessons from Belize and Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Guite Hastings

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by biogeography and a desire for alignment with the funding priorities of donors, the twenty-first century has seen big international NGOs shifting towards a large-scale conservation approach. This shift has meant that even before stakeholders at the national and local scale are involved, conservation programmes often have their objectives defined and funding allocated. This paper uses the experiences of Conservation International′s Marine Management Area Science (MMAS programme in Belize and Panama to explore how to build participation at the national and local scale while working within the bounds of the current conservation paradigm. Qualitative data about MMAS was gathered through a multi-sited ethnographic research process, utilising document review, direct observation, and semi-structured interviews with 82 informants in Belize, Panama, and the United States of America. Results indicate that while a large-scale approach to conservation disadvantages early national and local stakeholder participation, this effect can be mediated through focusing engagement efforts, paying attention to context, building horizontal and vertical partnerships, and using deliberative processes that promote learning. While explicit consideration of geopolitics and local complexity alongside biogeography in the planning phase of a large-scale conservation programme is ideal, actions taken by programme managers during implementation can still have a substantial impact on conservation outcomes.

  5. The presence of coconut in southern Panama in pre-Columbian times: clearing up the confusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudouin, Luc; Gunn, Bee F; Olsen, Kenneth M

    2014-01-01

    The pre-Columbian presence of coconut on the Pacific coast of Panama is attested by a number of independent written accounts. However, recent papers question their accuracy and conclude that coconut was introduced to the region by the Spaniards after their conquests. Scope In order to examine the value of such claims, an extensive search was conducted of the relevant historical accounts of coconut in America and in the Orient. The Spanish chronicler Oviedo (1478-1557) is found to have effectively used fruit and seed size to distinguish coconut from other palms. In addition, it is shown that he has been inaccurately faulted with incorrectly representing a cluster of coconuts. The original drawing, a cluster of a native Bactris, was in the marginalia and was only assigned to coconut after Oviedo's death. Finally, the location is identified of a coastal Panamanian site described by Pedro Mártir de Anglería and where tidal dispersal of coconuts was observed. This previously overlooked evidence confirms the pre-historical presence of coconut in Panama. Genetic data indicate that it must have been brought there directly or indirectly from the Philippines. But when, where and by whom remains a subject of research. Further molecular marker studies, computer simulation of natural drift and archaeological research could contribute to this research.

  6. Risk factors associated with Trypanosoma cruzi exposure in domestic dogs from a rural community in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldaña, Azael; Calzada, José E; Pineda, Vanessa; Perea, Milixa; Rigg, Chystrie; González, Kadir; Santamaria, Ana Maria; Gottdenker, Nicole L; Chaves, Luis F

    2015-11-01

    Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi infection, is a zoonosis of humans, wild and domestic mammals, including dogs. In Panama, the main T. cruzi vector is Rhodnius pallescens, a triatomine bug whose main natural habitat is the royal palm, Attalea butyracea. In this paper, we present results from three T. cruzi serological tests (immunochromatographic dipstick, indirect immunofluorescence and ELISA) performed in 51 dogs from 24 houses in Trinidad de Las Minas, western Panama. We found that nine dogs were seropositive (17.6% prevalence). Dogs were 1.6 times more likely to become T. cruzi seropositive with each year of age and 11.6 times if royal palms where present in the peridomiciliary area of the dog's household or its two nearest neighbours. Mouse-baited-adhesive traps were employed to evaluate 12 peridomestic royal palms. All palms were found infested with R. pallescens with an average of 25.50 triatomines captured per palm. Of 35 adult bugs analysed, 88.6% showed protozoa flagellates in their intestinal contents. In addition, dogs were five times more likely to be infected by the presence of an additional domestic animal species in the dog's peridomiciliary environment. Our results suggest that interventions focused on royal palms might reduce the exposure to T. cruzi infection.

  7. Ark and Archive: Making a Place for Long-Term Research on Barro Colorado Island, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raby, Megan

    2015-12-01

    Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama, may be the most studied tropical forest in the world. A 1,560-hectare island created by the flooding of the Panama Canal, BCI became a nature reserve and biological research station in 1923. Contemporaries saw the island as an "ark" preserving a sample of primeval tropical nature for scientific study. BCI was not simply "set aside," however. The project of making it a place for science significantly reshaped the island through the twentieth century. This essay demonstrates that BCI was constructed specifically to allow long-term observation of tropical organisms--their complex behaviors, life histories, population dynamics, and changing species composition. An evolving system of monitoring and information technology transformed the island into a living scientific "archive," in which the landscape became both an object and a repository of scientific knowledge. As a research site, BCI enabled a long-term, place-based form of collective empiricism, focused on the study of the ecology of a single tropical island. This essay articulates tropical ecology as a "science of the archive" in order to examine the origins of practices of environmental surveillance that have become central to debates about global change and conservation.

  8. Identification and genetic analysis of Panama-genotype Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus subtype ID in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberste, M S; Weaver, S C; Watts, D M; Smith, J F

    1998-01-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus was isolated in 1993, 1994, and 1995 from human cases of acute, undifferentiated, febrile illness in the Peruvian Amazon Basin. Two virus isolates were recovered in 1994 from Peruvian soldiers at a jungle outpost near Pantoja in northern Peru, and 10 isolates were obtained from military personnel and civilians in 1993-1995 in Iquitos, an urban center in northeastern Peru. The genetic relationship of these isolates to other VEE virus strains was determined by sequencing 856-867 nucleotide reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction fragments derived from the PE2 glycoprotein gene. The sequences were compared with those of other VEE virus strains, including representatives of the IAB, IC, ID, IE, II, and IIIC subtypes. The two Pantoja isolates were most closely related to subtype IC and ID viruses previously isolated in Colombia and Venezuela, and to the ID viruses isolated during the 1970s in Iquitos. All of the recent Iquitos isolates were similar to one another, but they were more closely related to Panamanian ID strains than to isolates previously obtained in Iquitos, Peru, or in Colombia and Venezuela. The recent Iquitos VEE viral isolates were the first Panama-genotype VEE ID virus strains identified outside of the Republic of Panama.

  9. Corrosion study of steels exposed over five years to the humid tropical atmosphere of Panama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaén, Juan A., E-mail: juan.jaen@up.ac.pa [Departamento de Química Física, Edificio de Laboratorios Científicos-VIP (Panama); Iglesias, Josefina [Laboratorio de Análisis Industriales y Ciencias Ambientales (Panama)

    2017-11-15

    The results of assessing five-year corrosion of low-carbon and conventional weathering steels exposed to the Panamanian tropical atmosphere is presented. Two different test sites, one in Panama City: 5 km from the shoreline of the Pacific Ocean, and another in the marine environment of Fort Sherman, Caribbean coast of Panama; namely, Fort Sherman Coastal site: 100 m from coastline. The corrosion products, formed in the skyward and earthward faces in the studied tropical environment, were mainly identified using room temperature and low temperature (15 K) Mössbauer spectroscopy, and ATR-FTIR. In all samples, lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH) and goethite (α-FeOOH) were the main constituents. Some maghemite (γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), was also identified in Tocumen by Mössbauer spectroscopy and traces of feroxyhyte (δ-FeOOH) using ATR-FTIR. The corrosion rate values obtained are discussed in light of the atmospheric exposure conditions and atmospheric pollutants.

  10. Advances and limitations of the integrated water resources management in Panama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escalante Henriquez, Luis Carlos; Charpentier, Claudia; Diez Hernandez, Juan Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Panama competitiveness depends largely on quality and abundance of natural resources, which are being progressively degraded by a disordered urban and economic development. The availability of water in adequate quantity and quality poses serious problems in some areas of the country. This affects both the quality of life of the population and key sectors such as agriculture, industry, hydro and tourism; and stimulates social conflicts related to access, use and disposal of used water. To prevent the degradation of water resources has been promoted a holistic, known as integrated in water resources management (IWRM) strategy. From the Summit of Mar del Plata, Argentina (1977) until the 5th Forum world of the water in Istanbul in Turkey (2009), international meetings that have contributed to defining the principles and recommendations for the IWRM have been held. This work presents a methodological model of IWRM designed for Panama. Essentially consists of a perfected in how to manage water, requiring changes in the political, social, economic and administrative systems of water resource management approach

  11. Hydrometric, Hydrochemical, and Hydrogeophysical Runoff Characterization Across Multiple Land Covers in the Agua Salud Project, Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Guy Finley

    As the Panama Canal Authority faces sensitivity to water shortages, managing water resources becomes crucial for the global shipping industry's security. These studies address knowledge gaps in tropical water resources to aid hydrological model development and validation. Field-based hydrological investigations in the Agua Salud Project within the Panama Canal Watershed employed multiple tools across a variety of land covers to investigate hydrological processes. Geochemical tracers informed where storm runoff in a stream comes from and identified electrical conductivity (EC) as an economical, high sample frequency tracer during small storms. EC-based hydrograph separation coupled with hydrograph recession rate analyses identified shallow and deep groundwater storage-discharge relationships that varied by season and land cover. A series of plot-scale electrical resistivity imaging geophysical experiments coupled with rainfall simulation characterized subsurface flow pathway behavior and quantified respectively increasing infiltration rates across pasture, 10 year old secondary succession forest, teak (tectona grandis), and 30 year old secondary succession forest land covers. Additional soil water, groundwater, and geochemical studies informed conceptual model development in subsurface flow pathways and groundwater, and identified future research needs.

  12. Synanthropic Mammals as Potential Hosts of Tick-Borne Pathogens in Panama.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio E Bermúdez

    Full Text Available Synanthropic wild mammals can be important hosts for many vector-borne zoonotic pathogens. The aim of this study was determine the exposure of synanthropic mammals to two types of tick-borne pathogens in Panama, spotted fever group Rickettsia (SFGR and Borrelia relapsing fever (RF spirochetes. One hundred and thirty-one wild mammals were evaluated, including two gray foxes, two crab-eating foxes (from zoos, four coyotes, 62 opossum and 63 spiny rats captured close to rural towns. To evaluate exposure to SFGR, serum samples from the animals were tested by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA using Rickettsia rickettsii and Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii antigen. Immunoblotting was performed using Borrelia turicatae protein lysates and rGlpQ, to assess infection caused by RF spirochetes. One coyote (25% and 27 (43% opossums showed seroreactivity to SFGR. Of these opossums, 11 were seroreactive to C. R. amblyommii. Serological reactivity was not detected to B. turicatae in mammal samples. These findings may reflect a potential role of both mammals in the ecology of tick-borne pathogens in Panama.

  13. Catalogo General de Universidades, 1970-1971: Federacion de Universidades Privadas de America Central y Panama (General Catalog of Universities, 1970-1971: Federation of Private Universities of Central America and Panama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federacion de Universidades Privadas de America Central y Panama, Guatemala City (Guatemala).

    This document contains the 1970-1971 catalogues of five universities belonging to the Federation of Private Universities of Central America and Panama (FUPAC). The catalogues provide information on university administrators and staff, historical background, admission requirements, degree programs, scholarships, and courses. The catalogues included…

  14. 77 FR 66505 - To Implement the United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement and for Other Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... eligible for the benefits of the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP). 5. Consistent with section 201(a...) are necessary to reflect that Panama is no longer eligible to receive the benefits of the GSP, the... officials collectively exercising those functions are all to be officers required to be appointed by the...

  15. The Ritual "Play of the Congos" of North-Central Panama: Its Sociolinguistic Implications. Sociolinguistic Working Paper Number 85.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Luz Graciela

    An excerpt from the "Play of the Congos," given in Congo, Spanish, and English, exemplifies the sociolinguistic features of the combined play and ritual language used by the Afro-Hispanic population in the Caribbean region of the Costa Abajo in north-central Panama. The sociolinguistic norms are an important part of the "regulation…

  16. The Implications of the Transfer of Authority of the Panama Canal Zone on Us Southern Command's Theater Engagement Planning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hallengren, Charlotte

    2000-01-01

    .... As a result of the provisions of these treaties, U.S. Southern Command will need to compensate for the loss of forward basing in Panama in order to continue to perform its anti-drug regional mission. U.S...

  17. Radiation inactivation of Salmonella panama and Escherichia coli K 12 present on deep-frozen broiler carcasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, R.W.A.W.

    1976-01-01

    Low doses of ionizing radiation have been used to extend the shelf life of refrigerated poultry carcasses and to reduce the numbers of Salmonellae present. This report gives results of experiments on irradiation of deep-frozen poultry carcasses which were, before freezing, artificially contaminated with Salmonella panama and with a nalidixic acid-resistant Escherichia coli K 12. The D-values (decimal reduction) obtained with the inoculated carcasses were compared with D-values obtained with carcasses which were slaughtered in the normal way. The D-values for S.panama and for E.coli K 12 were 64.9 krad and 55.9 krad in the dripwater. Under commercial conditions approximately 100 krad were required for one decimal reduction of the Enterobacteriaceae present. The D-values estimated on the skin were higher for S.panama than for E.coli K 12 (128.6 krad vs 57.6 krad). If it is assumed that 1 positive carcass in 10,000 is allowed, the deep-frozen carcasses should be irradiated with doses of at least 700 krad to be sure of the absence of the tested S.panama strain. (orig.) [de

  18. An assessment of the terrestrial mammal communities in forests of Central Panama, using camera-trap surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, N.F.V.; Esser, H.J.; Moreno, R.; Langevelde, van F.; Liefting, Y.; Ros Oller, D.; Vogels, C.B.F.; Carver, A.D.; Nielsen, C.K.; Jansen, P.A.

    2015-01-01

    The Isthmus of Panama, part of the planet’s third largest megadiversity hotspot, and connecting the faunas of North and South America, has lost more than half of its forest due to agriculture and economicdevelopment. It is unknown to what degree the remaining forest, which is fragmented and subject

  19. Radiation inactivation of Salmonella panama and Escherichia coli K 12 present on deep-frozen broiler carcasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulder, R W.A.W. [Spelderholt Inst. for Poultry Research, Beekbergen (Netherlands). Processing Dept.

    1976-01-01

    Low doses of ionizing radiation have been used to extend the shelf life of refrigerated poultry carcasses and to reduce the numbers of Salmonellae present. This report gives results of experiments on irradiation of deep-frozen poultry carcasses which were, before freezing, artificially contaminated with Salmonella panama and with a nalidixic acid-resistant Escherichia coli K 12. The D-values (decimal reduction) obtained with the inoculated carcasses were compared with D-values obtained with carcasses which were slaughtered in the normal way. The D-values for S.panama and for E.coli K 12 were 64.9 krad and 55.9 krad in the dripwater. Under commercial conditions approximately 100 krad were required for one decimal reduction of the Enterobacteriaceae present. The D-values estimated on the skin were higher for S.panama than for E.coli K 12 (128.6 krad vs 57.6 krad). If it is assumed that 1 positive carcass in 10,000 is allowed, the deep-frozen carcasses should be irradiated with doses of at least 700 krad to be sure of the absence of the tested S.panama strain.

  20. 75 FR 34687 - Notice of Decision to Issue Permits for the Importation of Fresh False Coriander From Panama Into...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... continental United States of fresh false coriander from Panama. Based on the findings of a pest risk analysis..., based on the findings of a pest- risk analysis, can be safely imported subject to one or more of the... publishes a notice in the Federal Register announcing the availability of the pest risk analysis that...

  1. 77 FR 15600 - Special Local Regulation; Emerald Coast Super Boat Grand Prix; Saint Andrew Bay; Panama City, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Emerald Coast Super Boat Grand Prix; Saint Andrew Bay; Panama City, FL... navigable waters during the Emerald Coast Super Boat Grand Prix high speed boat races. Entry into... needed to safeguard persons and vessels from safety hazards associated with the Emerald Coast Super Boat...

  2. In the Aftermath of War: US Support for Reconstruction and Nation-Building in Panama Following Just Cause

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Politics, 3d ed. (New York : University Press of America, 1988); Richard Shultz, "Can Democratic Governments Use Military Force in the War...Porras, Arnulfo Arias Madrid (Panama: Litho- Impresora , S. A., 1980); Ropp, Panamanian Politics ; and Milled . 10 . Nordlinger. While there is a rich

  3. Environmental radiological Monitoring to the Pb-210 in waters and soils in the Boquete region in Panama Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, E.; Scotland, E.E.; De Infante, M.; Fernandez, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Natural water samples were analyzed in Brazil Institutes and shows activities high to 1000 mBq/I in Polonium 210. Later on samples were analyzed in the Departamento de Salud Radiologica de la Caja de Seguro Social to Panama Republic and the results reported to 16.08 mBq/I and 2.4 Bq/Kg respectively

  4. Long-term scenario alternatives and their implications: LEAP model application of Panama's electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPherson, Madeleine; Karney, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Panama recently enacted a new law, which aims to promote wind energy by mandating long term power purchase tenders. The implications of this new law lend some uncertainty to Panama's electricity development pathway. This paper quantitatively analyzes the current status of power generation in Panama, and explores various potential future scenarios and the associated impacts on the system marginal cost, global warming potential, and resource diversity index. To this end, this study applies the scenario development methodology developed by Schwartz in the context of the energy-economic modeling platform ‘Long-range Energy Alternative Planning’ (LEAP). Four scenarios are developed and analyzed. The Business as Usual scenario extrapolates the electricity generation trend that has been observed over the last decade; it is compared to three alternative scenarios which have more specific objectives. Scenario 1 encourages climate mitigation without incorporating new technologies in the generation mix, Scenario 2 maximizes resource diversity, and Scenario 3 minimizes global warming potential. For each scenario, the composition of the electricity generation profile, system marginal cost, global warming potential, and resource diversity is predicted quantitatively. These scenarios to not attempt to forecast likely developments, but rather illuminate the tradeoffs that different development pathways entail. - Highlights: • This paper models Panama's electricity sector using the LEAP model platform. • Four scenarios are developed and analyzed. • Impact analysis includes: system cost, global warming potential, resource diversity index. • Panama can achieve a sustainable grid with existing technologies and costs. • There is an tradeoff between the resource diversity and global warming potential

  5. Lower Miocene stratigraphy along the Panama Canal and its bearing on the Central American Peninsula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Xavier Kirby

    Full Text Available Before the formation of the Central American Isthmus, there was a Central American Peninsula. Here we show that southern Central America existed as a peninsula as early as 19 Ma, based on new lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic and strontium chemostratigraphic analyses of the formations exposed along the Gaillard Cut of the Panama Canal. Land mammals found in the Miocene Cucaracha Formation have similar body sizes to conspecific taxa in North America, indicating that there existed a terrestrial connection with North America that allowed gene flow between populations during this time. How long did this peninsula last? The answer hinges on the outcome of a stratigraphic dispute: To wit, is the terrestrial Cucaracha Formation older or younger than the marine La Boca Formation? Previous stratigraphic studies of the Panama Canal Basin have suggested that the Cucaracha Formation lies stratigraphically between the shallow-marine Culebra Formation and the shallow-to-upper-bathyal La Boca Formation, the latter containing the Emperador Limestone. If the La Boca Formation is younger than the Cucaracha Formation, as many think, then the peninsula was short-lived (1-2 m.y., having been submerged in part by the transgression represented by the overlying La Boca Formation. On the other hand, our data support the view that the La Boca Formation is older than the Cucaracha Formation. Strontium dating shows that the La Boca Formation is older (23.07 to 20.62 Ma than both the Culebra (19.83-19.12 Ma and Cucaracha (Hemingfordian to Barstovian North American Land Mammal Ages; 19-14 Ma formations. The Emperador Limestone is also older (21.24-20.99 Ma than the Culebra and Cucaracha formations. What has been called the "La Boca Formation" (with the Emperador Limestone, is re-interpreted here as being the lower part of the Culebra Formation. Our new data sets demonstrate that the main axis of the volcanic arc in southern Central America more than likely existed as a

  6. Lower Miocene stratigraphy along the Panama Canal and its bearing on the Central American Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Michael Xavier; Jones, Douglas S; MacFadden, Bruce J

    2008-07-30

    Before the formation of the Central American Isthmus, there was a Central American Peninsula. Here we show that southern Central America existed as a peninsula as early as 19 Ma, based on new lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic and strontium chemostratigraphic analyses of the formations exposed along the Gaillard Cut of the Panama Canal. Land mammals found in the Miocene Cucaracha Formation have similar body sizes to conspecific taxa in North America, indicating that there existed a terrestrial connection with North America that allowed gene flow between populations during this time. How long did this peninsula last? The answer hinges on the outcome of a stratigraphic dispute: To wit, is the terrestrial Cucaracha Formation older or younger than the marine La Boca Formation? Previous stratigraphic studies of the Panama Canal Basin have suggested that the Cucaracha Formation lies stratigraphically between the shallow-marine Culebra Formation and the shallow-to-upper-bathyal La Boca Formation, the latter containing the Emperador Limestone. If the La Boca Formation is younger than the Cucaracha Formation, as many think, then the peninsula was short-lived (1-2 m.y.), having been submerged in part by the transgression represented by the overlying La Boca Formation. On the other hand, our data support the view that the La Boca Formation is older than the Cucaracha Formation. Strontium dating shows that the La Boca Formation is older (23.07 to 20.62 Ma) than both the Culebra (19.83-19.12 Ma) and Cucaracha (Hemingfordian to Barstovian North American Land Mammal Ages; 19-14 Ma) formations. The Emperador Limestone is also older (21.24-20.99 Ma) than the Culebra and Cucaracha formations. What has been called the "La Boca Formation" (with the Emperador Limestone), is re-interpreted here as being the lower part of the Culebra Formation. Our new data sets demonstrate that the main axis of the volcanic arc in southern Central America more than likely existed as a peninsula

  7. Early neogene history of the central American arc from Bocas del Toro, western Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Anthony G.; Aubry, Marie-Pierre; Berggren, William A.; Collins, Laurel S.; Kunk, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    A newly discovered sequence of lower to middle Miocene rocks from the eastern Bocas del Toro archipelago, western Panama, reveals the timing and environment of the earliest stages in the rise of the Isthmus of Panama in this region. Two new formations, the Punta Alegre Formation (lower Miocene, Aquitanian to Burdigalian) and the Valiente Formation (middle Miocene, Langhian to Serravallian), are here named and formally described. The Punta Alegre Formation contains a diagnostic microfauna of benthic and planktic foraminifera and calcareous nannofossils that indicate deposition in a 2000-m-deep pre-isthmian neotropical ocean from as old as 21.5–18.3 Ma. Its lithology varies from silty mudstone to muddy foraminiferal ooze with rare thin microturbidite layers near the top. The Valiente Formation, which ranges in age from 16.4 to ca. 12.0 Ma, lies with slight angular unconformity on the Punta Alegre Formation and consists of five lithofacies: (1) columnar basalt and flow breccia, (2) pyroclastic deposits, (3) coarse-grained volcaniclastic deposits, (4) coral-reef limestone with diverse large coral colonies, and (5) marine debris-flow deposits and microturbidites. These lithofacies are interpreted to indicate that after ca. 16 Ma a volcanic arc developed in the region of Bocas del Toro and that by ca. 12 Ma an extensively emergent archipelago of volcanic islands had formed. 39Ar/40Ar dating of basalt flows associated with the fossiliferous sedimentary rocks in the upper part of the Valiente Formation strongly confirms the ages derived from planktic foraminifera and nannofossils. Paleobathymetric analysis of the two new formations in the Valiente Peninsula and Popa Island, in the Bocas del Toro archipelago, shows a general shallowing from lower- through upper-bathyal to upper-neritic and emergent laharic and fluviatile deposits from ca. 19 to 12 Ma. The overlying nonconformable Bocas del Toro Group contains a lower transgressive sequence ranging from basal nearshore

  8. Anthropogenic mortality on coral reefs in Caribbean Panama predates coral disease and bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Katie L; Jackson, Jeremy B C; Angioletti, Christopher V; Leonard-Pingel, Jill; Guilderson, Thomas P

    2012-06-01

    Caribbean reef corals have declined precipitously since the 1980s due to regional episodes of bleaching, disease and algal overgrowth, but the extent of earlier degradation due to localised historical disturbances such as land clearing and overfishing remains unresolved. We analysed coral and molluscan fossil assemblages from reefs near Bocas del Toro, Panama to construct a timeline of ecological change from the 19th century-present. We report large changes before 1960 in coastal lagoons coincident with extensive deforestation, and after 1960 on offshore reefs. Striking changes include the demise of previously dominant staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis and oyster Dendrostrea frons that lives attached to gorgonians and staghorn corals. Reductions in bivalve size and simplification of gastropod trophic structure further implicate increasing environmental stress on reefs. Our paleoecological data strongly support the hypothesis, from extensive qualitative data, that Caribbean reef degradation predates coral bleaching and disease outbreaks linked to anthropogenic climate change. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  9. Evolving protected-area impacts in Panama: impact shifts show that plans require anticipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haruna, Akiko; Pfaff, Alexander; Van den Ende, Sander; Joppa, Lucas

    2014-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) are the leading forest conservation policy, so accurate evaluation of future PA impact is critical in conservation planning. Yet by necessity impact evaluations use past data. Here we argue that forward-looking plans should blend such evaluations with anticipation of shifts in threats. Applying improved methods to evaluate past impact, we provide rigorous support for that conceptual approach by showing that PAs’ impacts on deforestation shifted with land use. We study the Republic of Panama, where species-dense tropical forest faces real pressure. Facing variation in deforestation pressure, the PAs’ impacts varied across space and time. Thus, if shifts in pressure levels and patterns could be anticipated, that could raise impact. (paper)

  10. A Fuzzy Logic-Based Approach for Estimation of Dwelling Times of Panama Metro Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aranzazu Berbey Alvarez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Passenger flow modeling and station dwelling time estimation are significant elements for railway mass transit planning, but system operators usually have limited information to model the passenger flow. In this paper, an artificial-intelligence technique known as fuzzy logic is applied for the estimation of the elements of the origin-destination matrix and the dwelling time of stations in a railway transport system. The fuzzy inference engine used in the algorithm is based in the principle of maximum entropy. The approach considers passengers’ preferences to assign a level of congestion in each car of the train in function of the properties of the station platforms. This approach is implemented to estimate the passenger flow and dwelling times of the recently opened Line 1 of the Panama Metro. The dwelling times obtained from the simulation are compared to real measurements to validate the approach.

  11. Towards A Model Of Knowledge Extraction Of Text Mining For Palliative Care Patients In Panama.

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    Denis Cedeno Moreno

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Solutions using information technology is an innovative way to manage the information hospice patients in hospitals in Panama. The application of techniques of text mining for the domain of medicine especially information from electronic health records of patients in palliative care is one of the most recent and promising research areas for the analysis of textual data. Text mining is based on new knowledge extraction from unstructured natural language data. We may also create ontologies to describe the terminology and knowledge in a given domain. In an ontology conceptualization of a domain that may be general or specific formalized. Knowledge can be used for decision making by health specialists or can help in research topics for improving the health system.

  12. Isotopic paleoceanography of the Caribbean and east Pacific: role of Panama uplift in late Neogene time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keigwin, L.

    1982-01-01

    Comparisons of carbon isotopic data on benthic foraminifera from Deep Sea Drilling Project sites 502 (western Caribbean) and 503 (eastern Pacific) indicate that the difference between the Atlantic and the Pacific in the per mil enrichment in carbon-13 of total dissolved carbon dioxide increased about 6 million years ago and again 3 million years ago, when the difference reached the modern level (1 per mil). Comparisons of planktonic foraminiferal oxygen isotopic data for the Caribbean and the Pacific suggest that the salinity of Caribbean surface waters began increasing 4 million years ago, possibly in response to shoaling of the Panama isthmus. These results suggest that modern circulation patterns in the Caribbean and eastern Pacific developed by 3 million years ago in concert with changing tectonic, climatic, and biogeographic patterns

  13. Diagnosis of contagious ecthyma in goats in a quarantine station in Panama

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    Angie Magaña Ch.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We report an outbreak of contagious ecthyma (CE in a herd of goats at Paso Canoas quarantine station, Panama. The goats were adult intact females. Visible clinical signs became apparent from day 13 after the start of quarantine. We performed clinical examination. Serum biopsy and scabs were collected from crusted lesions in the epithelium of the lips, nose and eyelid corners. Samples were studied by histopathology,complement fixation test, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, DAS-ELISA, viral isolationand nucleic acid amplification tests. Histopathology revealed ortho and parakeratotic hyperkeratosis, epithelial hyperplasia, viral inclusion bodies, keratinocytes with balonoid degeneration, vesicles with neutrophils and degenerated cells, in superficial dermis there is marked neovascularization. Complement fixation test, DAS-ELISA and nucleic acid amplification tests resulted positive for contagious ecthyma. TEM showed viral particles, consistent with Parapoxvirus. Clinical and laboratory findings were consistent with poxvirus infection in the quarantine goat herd.

  14. Assessment of the dolphinfish Coryphaena hippurus(Perciformes: Coryphaenidae fishery in Pacific Panama

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    Héctor M Guzman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurusis a highly migratory pelagic species commercially exploited by industrial, artisanal and recreational fisheries in tropical and subtropical areas of the world's oceans. Herein, we evaluated the dolphinfish industrial fishery in Pacific Panama for the first time generating a growth model and examining fluctuations in annual total catch and in catch per unit effort (CPUE over a four-year period (2006-2009. Annual and monthly catch values and biological parameters of 14 913 individuals were obtained onboard industrial vessels, landing sites and records from processing plants. Size frequency for industrial vessels showed a normal distribution between 353 and 1 715 mm (average, 1 010.85 mm; n = 10 459. Fish weight averaged 4.94 kg (SD. Sex ratio was slightly biased toward females. More than 90% of the analyzed fish were sexually mature. The length-weight relationship was positive and significant, reflecting allometric growth. Growth parameters using the von Bertalanffy equation revealed a growth efficiency of 0 = 4.61, which is within the reported range for Coryphaena hippurus(3.95-4.70. The largest fish were between age classes 2 and 3 (7001 400 mm. Total catch per year and catch per unit effort (CPUE per year fluctuated, with the highest values recorded between 2008 and 2009. Catch values reported herein are preliminary and appear to be below those recorded elsewhere in the region and cautiously may represent an indicator of sustainable use of this marine resource even considering the absence of management actions in Panama.

  15. Land Cover Influence on Wet Season Storm Runoff Generation and Hydrologic Flowpaths in Central Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, A. L.; Stallard, R. F.; Barnard, H. R.

    2017-12-01

    While relationships between land use/land cover and hydrology are well studied and understood in temperate parts of the world, little research exists in the humid tropics, where hydrologic research is often decades behind. Specifically, quantitative information on how physical and biological differences across varying land covers influence runoff generation and hydrologic flowpaths in the humid tropics is scarce; frequently leading to poorly informed hydrologic modelling and water policy decision making. This research effort seeks to quantify how tropical land cover change may alter physical hydrologic processes in the economically important Panama Canal Watershed (Republic of Panama) by separating streamflow into its different runoff components using end member mixing analysis. The samples collected for this project come from small headwater catchments of four varying land covers (mature tropical forest, young secondary forest, active pasture, recently clear-cut tropical forest) within the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute's Agua Salud Project. During the past three years, samples have been collected at the four study catchments from streamflow and from a number of water sources within hillslope transects, and have been analyzed for stable water isotopes, major cations, and major anions. Major ion analysis of these samples has shown distinct geochemical differences for the potential runoff generating end members sampled (soil moisture/ preferential flow, groundwater, overland flow, throughfall, and precipitation). Based on this finding, an effort was made from May-August 2017 to intensively sample streamflow during wet season storm events, yielding a total of 5 events of varying intensity in each land cover/catchment, with sampling intensity ranging from sub-hourly to sub-daily. The focus of this poster presentation will be to present the result of hydrograph separation's done using end member mixing analysis from this May-August 2017 storm dataset. Expected

  16. New drug developments in the Latin Americas (Argentina, Costa Rica, Mexico and Panama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, T A; Galvan, L; Udabe, R U; Vergara, L; Zoch, C

    1974-07-01

    New drug developments in four Latin American countries, i.e. Argentina, Costa Rica, Mexico and Panama and the United States were compared. In contradistinction to the United States, clinical investigations with newly developed drugs in the four countries are based on contracts between individual investigators and the pharmaceutical industry without governmental interference. There are no adequate facilities to develop new psychoactive preparation in the four Latin American countries. Nevertheless, psychopharmacological practices are essentially the same as in the United States or Canada and all important psychoactive preparations used in the United States are available in the Latin Americas. Some of the newer-thioxanthene, butyrophenone and diphenylbutylpiperidine preparations which are still under clinical investigation in the United States are already available for clinical use in Argentina, Costa Rica, Mexico and Panama. While there is less governmental control than in the United States or Canada, with regard to clinical investigations of drugs or with regard to marketing newly developed preparations, there is no evidence of abuse. Finally, it should be noted that the introduction of psychotropic drugs brought about a new era in psychiatry in the Latin Americas. It becomes increasingly obvious that psychiatry today is practiced on the basis of knowledge derived from clinical impressions and on the basis of findings verified in clinical testings, i.e. on the basis of two different standards. Accordingly, as in Europe and North America, a re-examination of traditional concepts has begun in the Latin Americas. There are indications that biological psychiatry in general, and psychopharmacology in particular, are gaining increasing importance in the Latin Americas. This has led to the creation of a training program in biological psychiatry by the World Health Organization in Montreal, in cooperation with the Division of Psychopharmacology of the Department of

  17. Role of Temperature, Humidity and Rainfall on Influenza Transmission in Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soebiyanto, Radina P.; Bonilla, Luis; Jara, Jorge; McCracken, John; Azziz?-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Kiang, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, seasonal influenza causes about 500,000 deaths and 5 million severe illnesses per year. The environmental drivers of influenza transmission are poorly understood especially in the tropics. We aimed to identify meteorological factors for influenza transmission in tropical Central America. We gathered laboratory-confirmed influenza case-counts by week from Guatemala City, San Salvador Department (El Salvador) and Panama Province from 2006 to 2010. The average total cases per year were: 390 (Guatemala), 99 (San Salvador) and 129 (Panama). Meteorological factors including daily air temperature, rainfall, relative and absolute humidity (RH, AH) were obtained from ground stations, NASA satellites and land models. For these factors, we computed weekly averages and their deviation from the 5-yr means. We assessed the relationship between the number of influenza case-counts and the meteorological factors, including effects lagged by 1 to 4 weeks, using Poisson regression for each site. Our results showed influenza in San Salvador would increase by 1 case within a week of every 1 day with RH>75% (Relative Risk (RR)= 1.32, p=.001) and every 1C increase in minimum temperature (RR=1.29, p=.007) but it would decrease by 1 case for every 1mm-above mean weekly rainfall (RR=0.93,pGuatemala had 1 case increase for every 1C increase in minimum temperature in the previous week (RR=1.21, p<.001), and for every 1mm/day-above normal increase of rainfall rate (RR=1.03, p=.03) (model pseudo-R2=0.54). Our findings that cases increase with temperature and humidity differ from some temperate-zone studies. But they indicate that climate parameters such as humidity and temperature could be predictive of influenza activity and should be incorporated into country-specific influenza transmission models

  18. Ancient nursery area for the extinct giant shark megalodon from the Miocene of Panama.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Pimiento

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As we know from modern species, nursery areas are essential shark habitats for vulnerable young. Nurseries are typically highly productive, shallow-water habitats that are characterized by the presence of juveniles and neonates. It has been suggested that in these areas, sharks can find ample food resources and protection from predators. Based on the fossil record, we know that the extinct Carcharocles megalodon was the biggest shark that ever lived. Previous proposed paleo-nursery areas for this species were based on the anecdotal presence of juvenile fossil teeth accompanied by fossil marine mammals. We now present the first definitive evidence of ancient nurseries for C. megalodon from the late Miocene of Panama, about 10 million years ago. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We collected and measured fossil shark teeth of C. megalodon, within the highly productive, shallow marine Gatun Formation from the Miocene of Panama. Surprisingly, and in contrast to other fossil accumulations, the majority of the teeth from Gatun are very small. Here we compare the tooth sizes from the Gatun with specimens from different, but analogous localities. In addition we calculate the total length of the individuals found in Gatun. These comparisons and estimates suggest that the small size of Gatun's C. megalodon is neither related to a small population of this species nor the tooth position within the jaw. Thus, the individuals from Gatun were mostly juveniles and neonates, with estimated body lengths between 2 and 10.5 meters. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose that the Miocene Gatun Formation represents the first documented paleo-nursery area for C. megalodon from the Neotropics, and one of the few recorded in the fossil record for an extinct selachian. We therefore show that sharks have used nursery areas at least for 10 millions of years as an adaptive strategy during their life histories.

  19. Historical, Demographic, and Economic Correlates of Land-Use Change in the Republic of Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Joseph. Wright

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Panama recently experienced a limited forest transition. After five decades of decline, the total forest cover increased by 0.36% yr-1 between 1992 and 2000; however, mature forest cover simultaneously decreased by 1.3% yr-1. This limited forest transition at the national scale comprised two distinctly different patterns of recent forest-cover change related to historical land use. Districts that were largely deforested when the first national survey of forest cover was completed in 1947 experienced a strong forest transition between 1992 and 2000. In these, the proportion of the population employed in agriculture decreased by an average of 31% and natural secondary forest succession increased the total forest cover by an average of 85% between 1992 and 2000. In contrast, no forest transition was evident for districts that were largely forested in 1947. In these, the absolute number of people employed in agriculture remained constant, old-growth forest cover decreased by 8% on average, and natural secondary forest succession increased, so that the total forest cover tended to be static between 1992 and 2000. Historical land use, an index of human poverty, and the population density of agricultural workers explained 61% of the among-district variation in forest cover in 2000, with forest concentrated in areas where populations were small and poor. Historical land use and gross income per hectare from agriculture explained 23.5% of the among-district variation in forest-cover change between 1992 and 2000. The early history of forest loss, an uneven distribution of people, and disparities in farm income contributed to the limited forest transition observed in Panama.

  20. Genetic composition and connectivity of the Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) in Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Ferguson, Edgardo; Hunter, Margaret; Guzmán, Héctor M.

    2017-01-01

    Genetic diversity and haplotype composition of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) population from the San San Pond Sak wetland in Bocas del Toro, Panama was studied using a segment of mitochondrial DNA (D’loop). No genetic information has been published to date for Panamanian populations. Due to the secretive behavior and small population size of the species in the area, DNA extraction was conducted from opportunistically collected fecal (N=20), carcass tissue (N=4) and bone (N=4) samples. However, after DNA processing only 10 samples provided good quality DNA for sequencing (3 fecal, 4 tissue and 3 bone samples). We found three haplotypes in total; two of these haplotypes are reported for the first time, J02 (N=3) and J03 (N=4), and one J01 was previously published (N=3). Genetic diversity showed similar values to previous studies conducted in other Caribbean regions with moderate values of nucleotide diversity (π= 0.00152) and haplotipic diversity (Hd= 0.57). Connectivity assessment was based on sequence similarity, genetic distance and genetic differentiation between San San population and other manatee populations previously studied. The J01 haplotype found in the Panamanian population is shared with populations in the Caribbean mainland and the Gulf of Mexico showing a reduced differentiation corroborated with Fst value between HSSPS and this region of 0.0094. In contrast, comparisons between our sequences and populations in the Eastern Caribbean (South American populations) and North Western Caribbean showed fewer similarities (Fst =0.049 and 0.058, respectively). These results corroborate previous phylogeographic patterns already established for manatee populations and situate Panamanian populations into the Belize and Mexico cluster. In addition, these findings will be a baseline for future studies and comparisons with manatees in other areas of Panama and Central America. These results should be considered to inform management decisions

  1. Characterization and Modelling of a Tropical Groundwater Basin:La Villa Watershed, Republic of Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrellon Romero, M. G.; Foglia, L.; Fogg, G. E.; Pulido Silva, G.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater resources in the tropics are often poorly understood due to lack of systematic data gathering. In the case of Panama, abundance of water resources for many years created the myth that groundwater was "infinite" and no research had been done to characterize and quantify this resource until very recently. Therefore, basic information such as a complete database of all the wells in the country is missing and hydrogeological maps have been constructed only at a national scale, which is not enough to develop studies for regional groundwater analysis. The study area chosen, La Villa Watershed, is a predominantly agricultural and cattle farming watershed located in the Azuero Peninsula (South Central Panama). Average annual precipitation in this region corresponds to 1,400 mm/year, which is about half the national average of 2,924 mm/year. About 90% of the rain occurs during the wet season (May-December) and 10% occurs during the dry season (January-April). The geology is characterized by intercalation of volcanic rocks, volcaniclastic sediments and consolidated sedimentary rocks, thus, the aquifer characteristics likely depend on secondary permeability of the rocks. Understanding the groundwater dynamics in this complex system is crucial for securing water availability for future generations. The presented work illustrates the challenges of setting up effective monitoring and field-based data gathering campaigns and also explains our approach for characterizing and modelling a groundwater basin with fractured-rock hydrogeology and very little information. The model reveals a pattern of groundwater flow that closely follows the topography of the region and also gives insights of the volume of groundwater available for extraction.

  2. Mangrove forest composition and structure in Las Perlas Archipelago, Pacific Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Tom; Cunningham, Sarah L; Guzmán, Héctor M; Mair, James M; Guevara, José M; Betts, Tanja

    2010-09-01

    Mangrove forest is an important ecosystem that provides many services, but in Panama, as in other countries, they are under threat due to a variety of human activities. Nowadays, large areas of mangroves continue to be lost without been described and lack of management strategies. This study focused on the mangrove structure in the two largest islands, Isla del Rey and Isla San Jose, of Las Perlas Archipelago (LPA), Pacific Panama. Assessment of Landsat satellite imagery revealed loss of mangroves in the LPA of 965ha in the period 1974-1986, and 248ha in the period 1986-2000. The majority of the loss (>77%) from the two study islands was due to timber extraction and agricultural development. In May 2006, permanent plots following the CARICOMP protocol were established at two sites on Isla del Rey (R1 and R2) and one site on Isla San Jose (SJ) where standardized metrics such as species, height and diameter at breast height of adult trees and seedlings were recorded. Forest structure differed at the three sites, although R1 and R2 were most similar. At R1, Laguncularia racemosa was the important species and R2 was dominated by Pelliciera rhizophorae. Examination of the forest structure and classified imagery indicated that these sites are spatially dynamic and appear to be rejuvenating. The forest structure would indicate that the sites have been growth-limited previously by human activities and possibly by other factors. SJ was dominated by Rhizophora mangle and appears to have a mature forest with large adult trees and few seedlings. It does not appear to have shown the same extent of spatial regrowth as the other two sites between 1986 and 2000 and is relatively static. The establishment of permanent plots and monitoring will be useful as part of the management plan, as the LPA shows a variety of mangrove structures and could be subject to further coastal development.

  3. HIV transmitted drug resistance in adult and pediatric populations in Panama Farmacorresistencia transmitida del VIH en poblaciones adultas y pediátricas en Panamá

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Castillo; Griselda Arteaga; Yaxelis Mendoza; Alexander A. Martínez; Rigoberto Samaniego; Dora Estripeaut; Kathleen R. Page; Rebecca E. Smith; Nestor Sosa; Juan M. Pascale

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of transmitted drug-resistant HIV among adults in Panama by using a modified World Health Organization Threshold Survey (WHO-TS) and to investigate rates of initial resistance among HIV-positive infants in Panama. METHODS: At the Gorgas Memorial Institute, 47 HIV-positive adults were genotyped for mutations associated with transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in the reverse transcriptase and protease genes of HIV-1, according to WHO-TS guidelines, modifie...

  4. A new species of Heliconia (Heliconiaceae with pendent inflorescence, from Chucantí Private Nature Reserve, eastern Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Flores

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Heliconia berguidoi (Heliconiaceae, a new species from premontane forest of eastern Panama, is described, illustrated and its conservation status evaluated. H. berguidoi bears pink flowers, an uncommon color in this group. It differs from the Colombian species Heliconia rhodantha and Heliconia sanctae-theresae, the most similar taxa, by the combination of a petiole glabrous except for the woolly base, a very long peduncle, the perianth pubescent at the apex and staminode with cuspidate apex. H. berguidoi is also similar to Heliconia pogonantha in all four of its varieties and to Heliconia ramonensis in two of its four varieties, but differs by a combination of the long peduncle, pink flowers and staminode with cuspidate apex. Fifty-six Heliconia species have been found in Panama, eighteen of them endemic.

  5. Along the Road: The Ngäbe-Buglé Struggle to Protect Environmental Resources in Panama

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    Rogelio Cansari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous people in Panama do not enjoy full autonomy within their comarcas (traditional land reserves: they only control surface resources, while the state retains control of underground resources. This article analyses direct action by the Ngäbe-Buglé, who successfully defeated the latest attempt by the government to exploit underground resources within their comarcas. It describes government strategies for retaining control over Indigenous people’s land and analyses how the Ngäbe-Buglé counteracted these strategies with support from burgeoning civil society movements. We argue that this is due to an unprecedented alliance between Indigenous people and other social movements in Panama, as well as to the fact that Indigenous people have succeeded in federating all major civil society organizations around their discourses and actions.

  6. The Panama Canal: Writings of the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers Officers Who Conceived and Built It

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    which included the railroad), franchises , and equipment. During the following year the American-backed revolt against Colombia produced the... disadvantages of the proposed Nicaragua route. Published separately by the New York Evening Post Printing House,1898. 6 _____. “The New Panama Canal...June 1903):321-26. Followed by a reply by George S. Morison, “The Advantages of Lake Bohio at the Higher Level,” pp. 326-28. Abbot favors a dual

  7. Domestication of the neotropical tree Chrysophyllum cainito from a geographically limited yet genetically diverse gene pool in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Jennifer J; Parker, Ingrid M; Potter, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Species in the early stages of domestication, in which wild and cultivated forms co-occur, provide important opportunities to develop and test hypotheses about the origins of crop species. Chrysophyllum cainito (Sapotaceae), the star apple or caimito, is a semidomesticated tree widely cultivated for its edible fruits; it is known to be native to the neotropics, but its precise geographic origins have not been firmly established. Here, we report results of microsatellite marker analyses supporting the hypothesis that the center of domestication for caimito was the Isthmus of Panama, a region in which few crop species are believed to have originated, despite its importance as a crossroads for the dispersal of domesticated plants between North and South America. Our data suggest that caimito was domesticated in a geographically restricted area while incorporating a diverse gene pool. These results refute the generally accepted Antillean origin of caimito, as well as alternative hypotheses that the species was domesticated independently in the two areas or over a broad geographic range including both. Human-mediated dispersal from Panama to the north and east was accompanied by strong reductions in both genotypic and phenotypic diversity. Within Panama, cultivated and wild trees show little neutral genetic divergence, in contrast to striking phenotypic differentiation in fruit and seed traits. In addition to providing a rare example of data that support the hypothesis of a narrow geographic origin on the Isthmus of Panama for a now widespread cultivated plant species, this study is one of the first investigations of the origins of an edible species of the large pantropical family Sapotaceae.

  8. Estimating national landfill methane emissions: an application of the 2006 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Waste Model in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitz, Melissa; Coburn, Jeffrey B; Salinas, Edgar

    2008-05-01

    This paper estimates national methane emissions from solid waste disposal sites in Panama over the time period 1990-2020 using both the 2006 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Waste Model spreadsheet and the default emissions estimate approach presented in the 1996 IPCC Good Practice Guidelines. The IPCC Waste Model has the ability to calculate emissions from a variety of solid waste disposal site types, taking into account country- or region-specific waste composition and climate information, and can be used with a limited amount of data. Countries with detailed data can also run the model with country-specific values. The paper discusses methane emissions from solid waste disposal; explains the differences between the two methodologies in terms of data needs, assumptions, and results; describes solid waste disposal circumstances in Panama; and presents the results of this analysis. It also demonstrates the Waste Model's ability to incorporate landfill gas recovery data and to make projections. The former default method methane emissions estimates are 25 Gg in 1994, and range from 23.1 Gg in 1990 to a projected 37.5 Gg in 2020. The Waste Model estimates are 26.7 Gg in 1994, ranging from 24.6 Gg in 1990 to 41.6 Gg in 2020. Emissions estimates for Panama produced by the new model were, on average, 8% higher than estimates produced by the former default methodology. The increased estimate can be attributed to the inclusion of all solid waste disposal in Panama (as opposed to only disposal in managed landfills), but the increase was offset somewhat by the different default factors and regional waste values between the 1996 and 2006 IPCC guidelines, and the use of the first-order decay model with a time delay for waste degradation in the IPCC Waste Model.

  9. Information and Communications Technologies Health Projects in Panama: A Systematic Review and their Relation with Public Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Gema Anabel Castillo; Berbey, Aranzazu; de la Torre-Díez, Isabel; López-Coronado, Miguel

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a review about Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs) health projects in Panama. The main contribution is to provide a vision of the situation in Panama, allowing an understanding of the dynamics of health policies and how they have affected the implementation of ICT's Projects to improve the health of Panamanians. We analyze the projects found with ICT's in health of Panama, which allow us to see a perspective of projects information is obtained from 2000 to 2016, however it is important to highlight that there may be other projects that we do not know because we did not find enough information or evidence of the same. That is why this review has interviews with key personnel, who have guided us with the search for information. 56% of technology projects are concentrated in the capital city and only 16% in the province of Chiriquí. 64% of these projects are focused on the development of information systems, mainly focused on electronic patient registration. And 60% refers to projects related to primary health care. The MINSA and CSS both with a 20% participation in ICT project, in addition we can notice the dispersion of projects for hospitals, where each one is developing programs per their needs or priorities. The national information about ICT projects of Health, it has been notorious the state of dispersion and segmented of public health information. We consider that it is a natural consequence of Policy in Panamanian Health System. This situation limits the information retrieval and knowledge of ICT in Health of Panama. To stakeholders, this information is directed so that health policies are designed towards a more effective and integral management, administering the ICT's as tools for the well-being of most the Panamanian population, including indigenous group.

  10. American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Panama: a historical review of entomological studies on anthropophilic Lutzomyia sand fly species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    We review existing information on the epidemiology of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) in Panama, with emphasis on the bionomics of anthropophilic Lutzomyia sand fly species. Evidence from Panamanian studies suggests that there are six anthropophilic species in the country: Lutzomyia trapidoi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. gomezi, Lu. ylephiletor, Lu. sanguinaria and Lu. pessoana (Henceforth Lu. carrerai thula). In general, these taxa are abundant, widespread and feed opportunistically on their hosts, which make them potential transmitters of pathogens to a broad range of wildlife, domesticated animals and humans. Furthermore, nearly all man-biting species in Panama (with the exception of Lu. gomezi) expand demographically during the rainy season when transmission is likely higher due to elevated Leishmania infection rates in vector populations. Despite this, data on the distribution and prevalence of ACL suggest little influence of vector density on transmission intensity. Apart from Lu. trapidoi, anthropophilic species seem to be most active in the understory, but vertical stratification, as well as their opportunistic feeding behavior, could vary geographically. This in turn seems related to variation in host species composition and relative abundance across sites that have experienced different degrees of human alteration (e.g., deforestation) in leishmaniasis endemic regions of Panama. PMID:24886629

  11. Institutional Delivery and Satisfaction among Indigenous and Poor Women in Guatemala, Mexico, and Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombara, Danny V; Hernández, Bernardo; Schaefer, Alexandra; Zyznieuski, Nicholas; Bryant, Miranda F; Desai, Sima S; Gagnier, Marielle C; Johanns, Casey K; McNellan, Claire R; Palmisano, Erin B; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Iriarte, Emma; Mokdad, Ali H

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous women in Mesoamerica experience disproportionately high maternal mortality rates and are less likely to have institutional deliveries. Identifying correlates of institutional delivery, and satisfaction with institutional deliveries, may help improve facility utilization and health outcomes in this population. We used baseline surveys from the Salud Mesoamérica Initiative to analyze data from 10,895 indigenous and non-indigenous women in Guatemala and Mexico (Chiapas State) and indigenous women in Panama. We created multivariable Poisson regression models for indigenous (Guatemala, Mexico, Panama) and non-indigenous (Guatemala, Mexico) women to identify correlates of institutional delivery and satisfaction. Compared to their non-indigenous peers, indigenous women were substantially less likely to have an institutional delivery (15.2% vs. 41.5% in Guatemala (P<0.001), 29.1% vs. 73.9% in Mexico (P<0.001), and 70.3% among indigenous Panamanian women). Indigenous women who had at least one antenatal care visit were more than 90% more likely to have an institutional delivery (adjusted risk ratio (aRR) = 1.94, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.44-2.61), compared to those who had no visits. Indigenous women who were advised to give birth in a health facility (aRR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.18-1.81), primiparous (aRR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.24-1.68), informed that she should have a Caesarean section (aRR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.21-1.63), and had a secondary or higher level of education (aRR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.04-1.79) also had substantially higher likelihoods of institutional delivery. Satisfaction among indigenous women was associated with being able to be accompanied by a community health worker (aRR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.05-1.26) and facility staff speaking an indigenous language (aRR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02-1.19). Additional effort should be exerted to increase utilization of birthing facilities by indigenous and poor women in the region. Improving access to antenatal care and

  12. Institutional Delivery and Satisfaction among Indigenous and Poor Women in Guatemala, Mexico, and Panama.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny V Colombara

    Full Text Available Indigenous women in Mesoamerica experience disproportionately high maternal mortality rates and are less likely to have institutional deliveries. Identifying correlates of institutional delivery, and satisfaction with institutional deliveries, may help improve facility utilization and health outcomes in this population. We used baseline surveys from the Salud Mesoamérica Initiative to analyze data from 10,895 indigenous and non-indigenous women in Guatemala and Mexico (Chiapas State and indigenous women in Panama. We created multivariable Poisson regression models for indigenous (Guatemala, Mexico, Panama and non-indigenous (Guatemala, Mexico women to identify correlates of institutional delivery and satisfaction. Compared to their non-indigenous peers, indigenous women were substantially less likely to have an institutional delivery (15.2% vs. 41.5% in Guatemala (P<0.001, 29.1% vs. 73.9% in Mexico (P<0.001, and 70.3% among indigenous Panamanian women. Indigenous women who had at least one antenatal care visit were more than 90% more likely to have an institutional delivery (adjusted risk ratio (aRR = 1.94, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.44-2.61, compared to those who had no visits. Indigenous women who were advised to give birth in a health facility (aRR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.18-1.81, primiparous (aRR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.24-1.68, informed that she should have a Caesarean section (aRR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.21-1.63, and had a secondary or higher level of education (aRR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.04-1.79 also had substantially higher likelihoods of institutional delivery. Satisfaction among indigenous women was associated with being able to be accompanied by a community health worker (aRR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.05-1.26 and facility staff speaking an indigenous language (aRR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02-1.19. Additional effort should be exerted to increase utilization of birthing facilities by indigenous and poor women in the region. Improving access to antenatal care and

  13. Benthic foraminiferal response to the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama and coincident paleoceanographic changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, K.

    1996-01-01

    Late Cenozoic benthic foraminiferal faunas from the Caribbean Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Site 502 (3052 m) and East Pacific DSDP Site 503 (3572 m) were analyzed to interpret bottom-water masses and paleoceanographic changes occurring as the Isthmus of Panama emerged. Major changes during the past 7 Myr occur at 6.7-6.2, 3.4, 2.0, and 1.1 Ma in the Caribbean and 6.7-6.4, 4.0-3.2, 2.1, 1.4, and 0.7 Ma in the Pacific. Prior to 6.7 Ma, benthic foraminiferal faunas at both sites indicate the presence of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW). After 6.7 Ma benthic foraminiferal faunas indicate a shift to warmer water masses: North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) in the Caribbean and Pacific Deep Water (PDW) in the Pacific. Flow of NADW may have continued across the rising sill between the Caribbean and Pacific until 5.6 Ma when the Pacific benthic foraminiferal faunas suggest a decrease in bottom-water temperatures. After 5.6 Ma deep-water to intermediate-water flow across the sill appears to have stopped as the bottom-water masses on either side of the sill diverge. The second change recorded by benthic foraminiferal faunas occurs at 3.4 Ma in the Caribbean and 4.0-3.2 Ma in the Pacific. At this time the Caribbean is flooded with cold AABW, which is either gradually warmed or is replaced by Glacial Bottom Water (GBW) at 2.0 Ma and by NADW at 1.1 Ma. These changes are related to global climatic events and to the depth of the sill between the Caribbean and Atlantic rather than the rising Isthmus of Panama. Benthic foraminiferal faunas at East Pacific Site 503 indicate a gradual change from cold PDW to warmer PDW between 4.0 and 3.2 Ma. The PDW is replaced by the warmer, poorly oxygenated PIW at 2.1 Ma. Although the PDW affects the faunas during colder intervals between 1.4 and 0.7 Ma, the PIW remains the principal bottom- water mass in the Guatemala Basin of the East Pacific.

  14. Mangrove forest composition and structure in Las Perlas Archipelago, Pacific Panama

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    Tom McGowan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove forest is an important ecosystem that provides many services, but in Panama, as in other countries, they are under threat due to a variety of human activities. Nowadays, large areas of mangroves continue to be lost without been described and lack of management strategies. This study focused on the mangrove structure in the two largest islands, Isla del Rey and Isla San Jose, of Las Perlas Archipelago (LPA, Pacific Panama. Assessment of Landsat satellite imagery revealed loss of mangroves in the LPA of 965ha in the period 1974-1986, and 248ha in the period 1986-2000. The majority of the loss (>77% from the two study islands was due to timber extraction and agricultural development. In May 2006, permanent plots following the CARICOMP protocol were established at two sites on Isla del Rey (R1 and R2 and one site on Isla San Jose (SJ where standardized metrics such as species, height and diameter at breast height of adult trees and seedlings were recorded. Forest structure differed at the three sites, although R1 and R2 were most similar. At R1, Laguncularia racemosa was the important species and R2 was dominated by Pelliciera rhizophorae. Examination of the forest structure and classified imagery indicated that these sites are spatially dynamic and appear to be rejuvenating. The forest structure would indicate that the sites have been growth-limited previously by human activities and possibly by other factors. SJ was dominated by Rhizophora mangle and appears to have a mature forest with large adult trees and few seedlings. It does not appear to have shown the same extent of spatial regrowth as the other two sites between 1986 and 2000 and is relatively static. The establishment of permanent plots and monitoring will be useful as part of the management plan, as the LPA shows a variety of mangrove structures and could be subject to further coastal development. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (3: 857-869. Epub 2010 September 01.

  15. The Role of Temperature and Humidity on Seasonal Influenza in Tropical Areas: Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama, 2008-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soebiyanto, Radina P.; Clara, Wilfrido; Jara, Jorge; Castillo, Leticia; Sorto, Oscar Rene; Marinero, Sidia; Antinori, Maria E. Barnett de; McCracken, John P.; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; hide

    2014-01-01

    Background: The role of meteorological factors on influenza transmission in the tropics is less defined than in the temperate regions. We assessed the association between influenza activity and temperature, specific humidity and rainfall in 6 study areas that included 11 departments or provinces within 3 tropical Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama. Method/ Findings: Logistic regression was used to model the weekly proportion of laboratory-confirmed influenza positive samples during 2008 to 2013 (excluding pandemic year 2009). Meteorological data was obtained from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite and the Global Land Data Assimilation System. We found that specific humidity was positively associated with influenza activity in El Salvador (Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% Confidence Interval of 1.18 (1.07-1.31) and 1.32 (1.08-1.63)) and Panama (OR = 1.44 (1.08-1.93) and 1.97 (1.34-2.93)), but negatively associated with influenza activity in Guatemala (OR = 0.72 (0.6-0.86) and 0.79 (0.69-0.91)). Temperature was negatively associated with influenza in El Salvador's west-central departments (OR = 0.80 (0.7-0.91)) whilst rainfall was positively associated with influenza in Guatemala's central departments (OR = 1.05 (1.01-1.09)) and Panama province (OR = 1.10 (1.05-1.14)). In 4 out of the 6 locations, specific humidity had the highest contribution to the model as compared to temperature and rainfall. The model performed best in estimating 2013 influenza activity in Panama and west-central El Salvador departments (correlation coefficients: 0.5-0.9). Conclusions/Significance: The findings highlighted the association between influenza activity and specific humidity in these 3 tropical countries. Positive association with humidity was found in El Salvador and Panama. Negative association was found in the more subtropical Guatemala, similar to temperate regions. Of all the study locations, Guatemala had annual mean temperature and specific

  16. Mosquito-host interactions during and after an outbreak of equine viral encephalitis in Eastern Panama.

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    Wayra G Navia-Gine

    Full Text Available Mosquito blood meals provide information about the feeding habits and host preference of potential arthropod-borne disease vectors. Although mosquito-borne diseases are ubiquitous in the Neotropics, few studies in this region have assessed patterns of mosquito-host interactions, especially during actual disease outbreaks. Based on collections made during and after an outbreak of equine viral encephalitis, we identified the source of 338 blood meals from 10 species of mosquitoes from Aruza Abajo, a location in Darien province in eastern Panama. A PCR based method targeting three distinct mitochondrial targets and subsequent DNA sequencing was used in an effort to delineate vector-host relationships. At Aruza Abajo, large domesticated mammals dominated the assemblage of mosquito blood meals while wild bird and mammal species represented only a small portion of the blood meal pool. Most mosquito species fed on a variety of hosts; foraging index analysis indicates that eight of nine mosquito species utilize hosts at similar proportions while a stochastic model suggests dietary overlap among species was greater than would be expected by chance. The results from our null-model analysis of mosquito diet overlap are consistent with the hypothesis that in landscapes where large domestic animals dominate the local biomass, many mosquito species show little host specificity, and feed upon hosts in proportion to their biomass, which may have implications for the role of livestocking patterns in vector-borne disease ecology.

  17. Vanadium century record from Caribbean reef corals: A tracer of oil pollution in Panama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman, H.M.; Jarvis, K.E.

    1996-01-01

    The Caribbean region is potentially one of the largest oil-producing areas in the world, and contamination by petroleum is threatening the marine environment. Vanadium (V), an abundant element in crude oils, was used as proxy tracer of oil pollution along the Caribbean coast of Panama. We develop a century chronology based on the concentration of vanadium (using ICP-MS) incorporated into annual growth bands of coral skeletons. The chronology for vanadium showed a relatively clear pattern where background seawater concentrations were observed in the early history of the corals followed by an increase after 1962, the initiation of a refinery operation. The vanadium chronology suggests that a major degradation process in the coastal zone could have started around the 1960s, but we were unable to confirm such an assumption due to the lack of long-term ecological and pollution data. The gradual increase of vanadium into the marine environment might be used as a pointer to oil pollution. 46 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  18. Tree Carbohydrate Dynamics Across a Rainfall Gradient in Panama During the 2016 ENSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, L. T.; Xu, C.; Behar, H.; McDowell, N.

    2017-12-01

    Non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) provide a measure of the carbon supply available to support respiration, growth, and defense. Support for a role of carbon starvation - or depletion of NSC stores - in drought induced tree mortality is varied without consensus for the tropics. The 2016 ENSO drought provided a unique opportunity to capture drought impacts on tropical forest carbohydrate dynamics. To quantify these impacts, we collected monthly NSC samples across a rainfall gradient in Panama for the duration of the ENSO. We observed high variability in foliar NSC among species within sites. Foliage contained very little starch, indicating that total NSC dynamics are driven by soluble sugars. Foliar NSC depletion did not progress with drought duration as predicted, but showed little variation over course of the ENSO. Foliar NSC did, however, increase with rainfall, suggesting NSC depletion may occur with longer-term drought. These results suggest that, while short-term droughts like the 2016 ENSO may not have a significant impact on carbon dynamics, we may observe greater impacts as drought progresses over longer timescales. These results will be used to evaluate whether the current implementation of carbon starvation in climate models are capturing observed trends in tropical forest carbon allocation and mortality, and to tune model parameters for improved predictive capability.

  19. Functional classification of pulmonary hypertension in children: Report from the PVRI pediatric taskforce, Panama 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Astrid E; Adatia, Ian; Cerro, Maria Jesus Del; Diaz, Gabriel; Freudenthal, Alexandra Heath; Freudenthal, Franz; Harikrishnan, S; Ivy, Dunbar; Lopes, Antonio A; Raj, J Usha; Sandoval, Julio; Stenmark, Kurt; Haworth, Sheila G

    2011-08-02

    The members of the Pediatric Task Force of the Pulmonary Vascular Research Institute (PVRI) were aware of the need to develop a functional classification of pulmonary hypertension in children. The proposed classification follows the same pattern and uses the same criteria as the Dana Point pulmonary hypertension specific classification for adults. Modifications were necessary for children, since age, physical growth and maturation influences the way in which the functional effects of a disease are expressed. It is essential to encapsulate a child's clinical status, to make it possible to review progress with time as he/she grows up, as consistently and as objectively as possible. Particularly in younger children we sought to include objective indicators such as thriving, need for supplemental feeds and the record of school or nursery attendance. This helps monitor the clinical course of events and response to treatment over the years. It also facilitates the development of treatment algorithms for children. We present a consensus paper on a functional classification system for children with pulmonary hypertension, discussed at the Annual Meeting of the PVRI in Panama City, February 2011.

  20. Modiolarca lateralis (Pteryomorphia: Mytilidae: bivalve associated to six species of ascidians from Bocas del Toro, Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan I Cañete

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe the presence of the bivalve Modiolarca lateralis (Say, 1822 in six tropical ascidians Ascidia curvata, A. sydneiensis, A. panamensis, A. interrupta, Herdmania pallida and Polycarpa spongiabilis collected at depths of 1-3 m on coral reefs, mangrove roots and dock supports in Almirante Bay, Bocas del Toro, Panama (9°18'N, 82°13'W during June-July 2011. Bivalve prevalence varied between 9-30% across species, but was mainly associated with A. panamensis, P. spongiabilis and A. interrupta. Prevalence seems to be influenced by tunic thickness rather than by the ascidian size. Bivalves varied in size (0.6-11 mm shell length, with the smallest individual found in A. sydneiensis. There were only one or two bivalves per ascidians, although a maximum of 18 was found in one A. panamensis. M. lateralis seems to behave similarly to its temperate counterparts: it has a variety of hosts, occurs mainly in the anterior region of the ascidians, and has a variable abundance per host.

  1. Assistive Technologies for Improving Communication of Hearing Impairment in the Higher Education in Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lineth Alain

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability to communicate, specifically the gift of hearing, is a necessity often taken for granted. A lack of sense of hearing affects the intellectual and emotional development of the human being who suffers from it. It prevents the fluid exchange of knowledge, thoughts and ideas that allow personal growth and development. This article emerges due to an interest in providing assistive technologies that can be considered to improve communication among hearing impaired and normal hearing listeners in the class-room of a higher education level in the Republic of Panama. Information has been compiled from various primary and secondary sources highlighting the communication problem facing this group of disabled people. Information about the situation of hearing impairment, laws, organizations, the reality with the higher education system, and finally, we will talk about Information and Communication Technologies (TICs that will work as technology support in order to improve communication in the classroom in higher education among normal-hearing and deaf people.

  2. Treatment of Displaced Indigenous Populations in Two Large Hydro Projects in Panama

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    Mary Finley-Brook

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Consultation practices with affected populations prior to hydro concessions often remained poor in the decade since the World Commission on Dams (WCD although, in some cases the involvement of local people in the details of resettlement has improved. Numerous international and national actors, such as state agencies, multilateral banks, corporate shareholders, and pro-business media, support the development of dams, but intergovernmental agencies struggle to assure the protection of fundamental civil, human, and indigenous rights at the permitting and construction stages. We analyse two large-scale Panamanian dams with persistent disrespect for indigenous land tenure. Free, prior, and informed consent was sidestepped even though each dam required or will require Ngöbe, Emberá, or Kuna villages to relocate. When populations protested, additional human rights violations occurred, including state-sponsored violence. International bodies are slowly identifying and denouncing this abuse of power. Simultaneously, many nongovernmental organisations (NGOs seek change in Panama consistent with WCD’s good-practice guidelines. A number of NGOs have tied hydro projects to unethical greenhouse gas (GHG emissions trade. As private and state institutions market formerly collective water and carbon resources for profit, these Panamanian cases have become central to a public debate over equitable and green hydro development. Media communication feeds disputes through frontline coverage of cooperation and confrontation.

  3. Understanding adaptation and transformation through indigenous practice: the case of the Guna of Panama

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    Marina J. Apgar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Resilience is emerging as a promising vehicle for improving management of social-ecological systems that can potentially lead to more sustainable arrangements between environmental and social spheres. Central to an understanding of how to support resilience is the need to understand social change and its links with adaptation and transformation. Our aim is to contribute to insights about and understanding of underlying social dynamics at play in social-ecological systems. We argue that longstanding indigenous practices provide opportunities for investigating processes of adaptation and transformation. We use in-depth analysis of adaptation and transformation through engagement in participatory action research, focusing on the role of cultural and social practices among the Guna indigenous peoples in Panama. Our findings reveal that cultural practices facilitating leadership development, personhood development, and social networking are critical for enabling both adaptation and transformation. Further, we argue that Guna ritual practice builds additional skills, such as critical self-reflection and creative innovation, that are important for supporting the deeper changes required by transformation.

  4. Diversity of Perceptions on REDD+ Implementation at the Agriculture Frontier in Panama

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    Guillaume Peterson St-Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Colonist farmers have been largely ignored to date in national consultations on reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+. Yet, good practices suggest that understanding all relevant stakeholders’ perspectives, goals, and issues is a precondition for the development of successful environmental policies. The present research documents perceptions of the civil society and the government on the possibility of successfully implementing REDD+ activities with colonist farmers. The focus is on Eastern Panama. The perceptions on REDD+ vary greatly depending on the stakeholders’ origins. The government perceives REDD+ as a possibility for improving laws, increasing control over the national territory, and investing more resources for conservation and public institutions, whereas respondents from colonist backgrounds mostly insist on the potential economic benefits and/or the negative implications that could encompass REDD+. Noncolonist participants from regional, national, and international organizations instead try to balance concerns of communities and conservation objectives. Because one of our results highlighted the difficulty of colonist farmers in speaking as a united voice, we carried out a case study of a successful colonists association in order to identify the characteristics and practices found to facilitate communal organization.

  5. Molluscan subfossil assemblages reveal the long-term deterioration of coral reef environments in Caribbean Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Katie L; Leonard-Pingel, Jill S; Rodríguez, Félix; Jackson, Jeremy B C

    2015-07-15

    Caribbean reef corals have declined sharply since the 1980s, but the lack of prior baseline data has hindered identification of drivers of change. To assess anthropogenic change in reef environments over the past century, we tracked the composition of subfossil assemblages of bivalve and gastropod mollusks excavated from pits below lagoonal and offshore reefs in Bocas del Toro, Panama. The higher prevalence of (a) infaunal suspension-feeding bivalves and herbivorous and omnivorous gastropods in lagoons and (b) epifaunal and suspension-feeding bivalves and carnivorous and suspension-feeding gastropods offshore reflected the greater influence of land-based nutrients/sediments within lagoons. Temporal changes indicated deteriorating environmental conditions pre-1960 in lagoons and post-1960 offshore, with offshore communities becoming more similar to lagoonal ones since 1960. Relative abundances of dominant bivalve species tracked those of their coral hosts, revealing broader ecosystem effects of coral community change. The nature and timing of changes implicate land-based runoff in reef deterioration. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Building Oncofertility Core Competency in Developing Countries: Experience From Egypt, Tunisia, Brazil, Peru, and Panama

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    Mahmoud Salama

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Little is known about oncofertility practice in developing countries that usually suffer from a shortage of health services, especially those related to cancer care. Materials and Methods: To learn more about oncofertility practice in developing countries, we generated a survey to explore the barriers and opportunities associated with oncofertility practice in five developing countries from Africa and Latin America within our Oncofertility Consortium Global Partners Network. Responses from Egypt, Tunisia, Brazil, Peru, and Panama were collected, reviewed, and discussed. Results: Common barriers were identified by each country, including financial barriers (lack of insurance coverage and high out-of-pocket costs for patients, lack of awareness among providers and patients, cultural and religious constraints, and lack of funding to help to support oncofertility programs. Conclusion: Despite barriers to care, many opportunities exist to grow the field of oncofertility in these five developing countries. It is important to continue to engage stakeholders in developing countries and use powerful networks in the United States and other developed countries to aid in the acceptance of oncofertility on a global level.

  7. Epidemic disease decimates amphibian abundance, species diversity, and evolutionary history in the highlands of central Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Andrew J; Lips, Karen R; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2010-08-03

    Amphibian populations around the world are experiencing unprecedented declines attributed to a chytrid fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Despite the severity of the crisis, quantitative analyses of the effects of the epidemic on amphibian abundance and diversity have been unavailable as a result of the lack of equivalent data collected before and following disease outbreak. We present a community-level assessment combining long-term field surveys and DNA barcode data describing changes in abundance and evolutionary diversity within the amphibian community of El Copé, Panama, following a disease epidemic and mass-mortality event. The epidemic reduced taxonomic, lineage, and phylogenetic diversity similarly. We discovered that 30 species were lost, including five undescribed species, representing 41% of total amphibian lineage diversity in El Copé. These extirpations represented 33% of the evolutionary history of amphibians within the community, and variation in the degree of population loss and decline among species was random with respect to the community phylogeny. Our approach provides a fast, economical, and informative analysis of loss in a community whether measured by species or phylogenetic diversity.

  8. Variation in mangrove forest structure and sediment characteristics in Bocas del Toro, Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelock, C.E.; Feller, Ilka C.; McKee, K.L.; Thompson, R.

    2005-01-01

    Mangrove forest structure and sediment characteristics were examined in the extensive mangroves of Bocas del Toro, Republic of Panama. Forest structure was characterized to determine if spatial vegetation patterns were repeated over the Bocas del Toro landscape. Using a series of permanent plots and transects we found that the forests of Bocas del Toro were dominated by Rhizophora mangle with very few individuals of Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa. Despite this low species diversity, there was large variation in forest structure and in edaphic conditions (salinity, concentration of available phosphorus, Eh and sulphide concentration). Aboveground biomass varied 20-fold, from 6.8 Mg ha-1 in dwarf forests to 194.3 Mg ha-1 in the forests fringing the land. But variation in forest structure was predictable across the intertidal zone. There was a strong tree height gradient from seaward fringe (mean tree height 3.9 m), decreasing in stature in the interior dwarf forests (mean tree height 0.7 m), and increasing in stature in forests adjacent to the terrestrial forest (mean tree height 4.1 m). The predictable variation in forest structure emerges due to the complex interactions among edaphic and plant factors. Identifying predictable patterns in forest structure will aid in scaling up the ecosystem services provided by mangrove forests in coastal landscapes. Copyright 2005 College of Arts and Sciences.

  9. Agreement between the Republic of Panama and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America. An agreement by exchange of letters of 6 November 1995 and 17 November 2003 with the Republic of Panama in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The text of the Exchange of Letters is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. This Exchange of Letters constitutes an agreement confirming that: the Safeguards Agreement of 23 March 1984, concluded between the Republic of Panama and the IAEA, pursuant to the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (the Tlatelolco Treaty), also satisfies the obligation of Panama under Article III of the Treaty on the Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) to conclude a safeguards agreement with the IAEA; the safeguards set forth in the Safeguards Agreement shall also apply, as regards Panama, in connection with the NPT; the provisions of the Safeguards Agreement shall apply as long as Panama is party to the NPT or the Tlatelolco Treaty or both. The agreement reflected in the Exchange of Letters was approved by the Board of Governors on 20 November 2003, and pursuant to its terms, entered into force on that date

  10. Richness and composition of gall-inducing arthropods at Coiba National Park, Panama

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    José Luis Nieves-Aldrey

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Interest in studying galls and their arthropods inducers has been growing rapidly in the last two decades. However, the Neotropical region is probably the least studied region for gall-inducing arthropods. A study of the richness and composition of gall-inducing arthropods was carried out at Coiba National Park in the Republic of Panama. Field data come from samples obtained between August 1997 and September 1999, with three (two-week long more intensive samplings. Seventeen sites, representing the main land habitats of Coiba National Park were surveyed. 4942 galls of 50 insect and 9 mite species inducing galls on 50 vascular plants from 30 botanical families were colleted. 62.7% of the galls were induced by gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, 15.3% by mites, Eriophyidae, 8.5% by Homoptera, Psyllidae, 6.8% by Coccidae and 5.1% by Phlaeothripidae (Tysanoptera. The host plant families with the most galls were Myrtaceae with seven, Bignoniaceae with five and Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae and Melastomataceae with four. Leaf galls accounted for about 93% of collected galls. Most leaf galls were pit/blister galls followed by covering and pouch galls. Gall richness per collecting site was between 1 and 19 species. Coiba’s gall diversity is discussed in relation to data available from other tropical sites from continental Panama and the Neotropical region. Our results support the idea that it may be premature to conclude that species richness of gall inducers declines near the equator. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (3: 1269-1286. Epub 2008 September 30.El interés por el estudio de las agallas y los artrópodos que las inducen ha crecido en todo el mundo en los últimos veinte años. Sin embargo, los artrópodos que inducen agallas en la región Neotropical son probablemente los menos estudiados. Un estudio de la riqueza y composición de artrópodos que inducen agallas fue desarrollado en el Parque Nacional Coiba en la Republica de Panamá. Los datos provienen de

  11. Decadal increase in seagrass biomass and temperature at the CARICOMP site in Bocas del Toro, Panama

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    Jorge M. López-Calderón

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Caribbean Coastal Marine Productivity Program (CARICOMP was launched in 1993 to study regional long-term interactions between land and sea, taking standardized measurements of productivity and biomass of mangroves, coral reefs and seagrasses. Since 1999 continuous measurements of seagrass (Thalassia testudinum parameters as well as environmental data have been recorded in Caribbean Panama. Replicate stations were selected near the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Bocas del Toro. Sediment cores and quadrants were placed there to estimate biomass and productivity, respectively. Mean values for productivity, standing crop, turnover rate, total dry biomass, and Leaf Area Index were 1.74gDW/m²/d, 66.6gDW/m², 2.62%/d, 1 481 gDW/m², and 4.65, respectively. Total dry biomass (shoots, rhizomes and roots and LAI of T. testudinum increased significantly during the study period. Mean values for total rainfall, Secchi disk depth, sea surface temperature, and salinity were 3 498mm, 8.24m, 28.79°C, and 32.26psu, respectively. Sea surface temperature was the only environmental variable with a statistically significant change, increasing from 1999 to 2010. Correlation between sea surface temperature and T. testudinum parameters (total biomass and LAI were both positive and significant. Human population has increased dramatically over the last ten years in Bocas del Toro region, increasing pressure (deforestation, runoff, wastewater over coastal ecosystems (seagrasses, mangroves, coral reefs. Change in the abundance of T. testudinum may be linked to ocean warming, as a consequence to satisfy plant’s metabolic requirements, although other local factors need to be analyzed (reduced grazing and increased eutrophication. A further warming of the ocean could have a negative effect on T. testudinum population, increasing respiratory demands and microbial metabolism.

  12. Assessing the ecological effects of human impacts on coral reefs in Bocas del Toro, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, Janina; González, Cindy T; Carballo-Bolaños, Rodrigo; Berry, Kathryn; Heiss, Georg A; Struck, Ulrich; Leinfelder, Reinhold R

    2014-03-01

    Environmental and biological reef monitoring was conducted in Almirante Bay (Bahía Almirante) in Bocas del Toro, Panama, to assess impacts from anthropogenic developments. An integrated monitoring investigated how seasonal temperature stress, turbidity, eutrophication and physical impacts threatened reef health and biodiversity throughout the region. Environmental parameters such as total suspended solids [TSS], carbon isotopes (δ(13)C), C/N ratios, chlorophyll a, irradiance, secchi depth, size fractions of the sediments and isotope composition of dissolved inorganic carbon [DIC] of the water were measured throughout the years 2010 and 2011 and were analysed in order to identify different impact sources. Compared to data from Collin et al. (Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences 38:324-334, 2009) chlorophyll a has doubled at sites close to the city and the port Almirante (from 0.46-0.49 to 0.78-0.97 μg l(-1)) and suspension load increased, visible by a decrease in secchi depth values. Visibility decreased from 9-13 m down to 4 m at the bay inlet Boca del Drago, which is strongly exposed to river run off and dredging for the shipping traffic. Eutrophication and turbidity levels seemed to be the determining factor for the loss of hard coral diversity, most significant at chlorophyll a levels higher than 0.5 μg l(-1) and TSS levels higher than 4.7 mg l(-1). Hard coral cover within the bay has also declined, at some sites down to turbidity and eutrophication compared to other hard coral species in the bay. Serious overfishing was detected in the region by a lack of adult and carnivorous fish species, such as grunts, snappers and groupers. Study sites less impacted by anthropogenic activities and/or those with local protection showed a higher hard coral cover and fish abundance; however, an overall loss of hard coral diversity was observed.

  13. Comparative genetic structure of two mangrove species in Caribbean and Pacific estuaries of Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerón-Souza Ivania

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mangroves are ecologically important and highly threatened forest communities. Observational and genetic evidence has confirmed the long distance dispersal capacity of water-dispersed mangrove seeds, but less is known about the relative importance of pollen vs. seed gene flow in connecting populations. We analyzed 980 Avicennia germinans for 11 microsatellite loci and 940 Rhizophora mangle for six microsatellite loci and subsampled two non-coding cpDNA regions in order to understand population structure, and gene flow within and among four major estuaries on the Caribbean and Pacific coasts of Panama. Results Both species showed similar rates of outcrossing (t= 0.7 in A. germinans and 0.8 in R. mangle and strong patterns of spatial genetic structure within estuaries, although A. germinans had greater genetic structure in nuclear and cpDNA markers (7 demes > 4 demes and Sp= 0.02 > 0.002, and much greater cpDNA diversity (Hd= 0.8 > 0.2 than R. mangle. The Central American Isthmus serves as an exceptionally strong barrier to gene flow, with high levels nuclear (FST= 0.3-0.5 and plastid (FST= 0.5-0.8 genetic differentiation observed within each species between coasts and no shared cpDNA haplotypes between species on each coast. Finally, evidence of low ratios of pollen to seed dispersal (r = −0.6 in A. germinans and 7.7 in R. mangle, coupled with the strong observed structure in nuclear and plastid DNA among most estuaries, suggests low levels of gene flow in these mangrove species. Conclusions We conclude that gene dispersal in mangroves is usually limited within estuaries and that coastal geomorphology and rare long distance dispersal events could also influence levels of structure.

  14. Comparative genetic structure of two mangrove species in Caribbean and Pacific estuaries of Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Mangroves are ecologically important and highly threatened forest communities. Observational and genetic evidence has confirmed the long distance dispersal capacity of water-dispersed mangrove seeds, but less is known about the relative importance of pollen vs. seed gene flow in connecting populations. We analyzed 980 Avicennia germinans for 11 microsatellite loci and 940 Rhizophora mangle for six microsatellite loci and subsampled two non-coding cpDNA regions in order to understand population structure, and gene flow within and among four major estuaries on the Caribbean and Pacific coasts of Panama. Results Both species showed similar rates of outcrossing (t= 0.7 in A. germinans and 0.8 in R. mangle) and strong patterns of spatial genetic structure within estuaries, although A. germinans had greater genetic structure in nuclear and cpDNA markers (7 demes > 4 demes and Sp= 0.02 > 0.002), and much greater cpDNA diversity (Hd= 0.8 > 0.2) than R. mangle. The Central American Isthmus serves as an exceptionally strong barrier to gene flow, with high levels nuclear (FST= 0.3-0.5) and plastid (FST= 0.5-0.8) genetic differentiation observed within each species between coasts and no shared cpDNA haplotypes between species on each coast. Finally, evidence of low ratios of pollen to seed dispersal (r = −0.6 in A. germinans and 7.7 in R. mangle), coupled with the strong observed structure in nuclear and plastid DNA among most estuaries, suggests low levels of gene flow in these mangrove species. Conclusions We conclude that gene dispersal in mangroves is usually limited within estuaries and that coastal geomorphology and rare long distance dispersal events could also influence levels of structure. PMID:23078287

  15. Overdose Problem Associated with Treatment Planning Software for High Energy Photons in Response of Panama's Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attalla, E.M.; Lotayef, M.M.; Khalil, E.M.; El-Hosiny, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify dose distribution errors by comparing actual dose measurements with the calculated values done by the software. To evaluate the outcome of radiation overexposure related to Panama's accident and in response to ensure that the treatment planning systems (T.P.S.) are being operated in accordance with the appropriate quality assurance programme, we studied the central axis and pripheral depth dose data using complex field shaped with blocks to quantify dose distribution errors. Material and Methods: Multi data T.P.S. software versions 2.35 and 2.40 and Helax T.P.S. software version 5.1 B were assesed. The calculated data of the software treatment planning systems were verified by comparing these data with the actual dose measurements for open and blocked high energy photon fields (Co-60, 6MV and 18MV photons). Results: Close calculated and measured results were obtained for the 2-D (Multi data) and 3-D treatment planning (TMS Helax). These results were correct within 1 to 2% for open fields and 0.5 to 2.5% for peripheral blocked fields. Discrepancies between calculated and measured data ranged between 13. to 36% along the central axis of complex blocked fields when normalisation point was selected at the Dmax, when the normalisation point was selected near or under the blocks, the variation between the calculated and the measured data was up to 500% difference. Conclusions: The present results emphasize the importance of the proper selection of the normalization point in the radiation field, as this facilitates detection of aberrant dose distribution (over exposure or under exposure)

  16. Overdose problem associated with treatment planning software for high energy photons in response of Panama's accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attalla, Ehab M; Lotayef, Mohamed M; Khalil, Ehab M; El-Hosiny, Hesham A; Nazmy, Mohamed S

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify dose distribution errors by comparing actual dose measurements with the calculated values done by the software. To evaluate the outcome of radiation overexposure related to Panama's accident and in response to ensure that the treatment planning systems (T.P.S.) are being operated in accordance with the appropriate quality assurance programme, we studied the central axis and pripheral depth dose data using complex field shaped with blocks to quantify dose distribution errors. Multidata T.P.S. software versions 2.35 and 2.40 and Helax T.P.S. software version 5.1 B were assesed. The calculated data of the software treatment planning systems were verified by comparing these data with the actual dose measurements for open and blocked high energy photon fields (Co-60, 6MV & 18MV photons). Close calculated and measured results were obtained for the 2-D (Multidata) and 3-D treatment planning (TMS Helax). These results were correct within 1 to 2% for open fields and 0.5 to 2.5% for peripheral blocked fields. Discrepancies between calculated and measured data ranged between 13. to 36% along the central axis of complex blocked fields when normalisation point was selected at the Dmax, when the normalisation point was selected near or under the blocks, the variation between the calculated and the measured data was up to 500% difference. The present results emphasize the importance of the proper selection of the normalization point in the radiation field, as this facilitates detection of aberrant dose distribution (over exposure or under exposure).

  17. Neogene reef coral assemblages of the Bocas del Toro region, Panama: the rise of Acropora palmata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, J. S.; McNeill, D. F.; Budd, A. F.; Coates, A. G.

    2012-03-01

    Temporal patterns are evaluated in Neogene reef coral assemblages from the Bocas del Toro Basin of Panama in order to understand how reef ecosystems respond to long-term environmental change. Analyses are based on a total of 1,702 zooxanthellate coral specimens collected from six coral-bearing units ranging in age from the earliest Late Miocene to the Early Pleistocene: (1) Valiente Formation (12-11 Ma), (2) Fish Hole Member of the Old Bank Formation (5.8-5.6 Ma), (3) La Gruta Member of the Isla Colon Formation (2.2-1.4 Ma), (4) Ground Creek Member of the Isla Colon Formation (2.2-1.4 Ma), (5) Mimitimbi Member of the Urracá Formation (1.2-0.8 Ma), and (6) Hill Point Member of the Urracá Formation (1.2-0.8 Ma). Over 100 coral species occur in the six units, with faunal assemblages ranging from less than 10% extant taxa (Valiente Formation) to over 85% extant taxa (Ground Creek Member). The collections provide new temporal constraints on the emergence of modern Caribbean reefs, with the La Gruta Member containing the earliest occurrence of large monospecific stands of the dominant Caribbean reef coral Acropora palmata, and the Urracá Formation containing the last fossil occurrences of 15 regionally extinct taxa. Canonical correspondence analysis of 41 Late Miocene to Recent reef coral assemblages from the Caribbean region suggests changes in community structure coincident with effective oceanic closure of the Central American Seaway (~3.5 Ma). These changes, including increased Acropora dominance, may have contributed to a protracted period of elevated extinction debt prior to the major peak in regional coral extinctions (~2-1 Ma).

  18. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Essential Oils from Different Species of Piper from Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Ana I; Vila, Roser; Cañigueral, Salvador; Gupta, Mahabir P

    2016-07-01

    The chemical composition of leaf essential oils from 11 species of Piper from Panama was analyzed by a combination GC-FID and GC-MS procedures. Six of them had sesquiterpene hydrocarbons as major constituents, three were characterized by monoterpene hydrocarbons, one by a diterpene, and one by a phenylpropanoid, dillapiole. The main components identified in each species were: cembratrienol (25.4 %) in Piper augustum; β-pinene (26.6 %) in Piper corrugatum; α-pinene (19.4 %) in Piper curtispicum; trans-β-farnesene (63.7 %) in Piper darienense; p-cymene (43.9 %) in Piper grande; dillapiole (57.7 %) in Piper hispidum; linalool (14.5 %), α-phellandrene (13.8 %), and limonene (12.2 %) in Piper jacquemontianum; β-caryophyllene (45.2 %) in Piper longispicum; linalool (16.5 %), α-phellandrene (11.8 %), limonene (11.4 %), and p-cymene (9.0 %) in Piper multiplinervium; β-selinene (19.0 %), β-elemene (16.1 %), and α-selinene (15.5 %) in Piper reticulatum; and germacrene D (19.7 %) in Piper trigonum. The essential oils of P. hispidum and P. longispicum at a concentration of 250 µg/mL showed larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti, while the oils from P. curtispicum, P. multiplinervium, P. reticulatum, and P. trigonum were inactive (LC100 ≥ 500 µg/mL). The essential oils of P. grande, P. jacquemontianum, and P. multiplinervium showed no significant antifungal activity (MIC > 250 µg/mL) against several yeasts and filamentous fungal strains. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Water quality effects of intermittent water supply in Arraiján, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, John J; Smith, Charlotte D; Goodridge, Amador; Nelson, Kara L

    2017-05-01

    Intermittent drinking water supply is common in low- and middle-income countries throughout the world and can cause water quality to degrade in the distribution system. In this study, we characterized water quality in one study zone with continuous supply and three zones with intermittent supply in the drinking water distribution network in Arraiján, Panama. Low or zero pressures occurred in all zones, and negative pressures occurred in the continuous zone and two of the intermittent zones. Despite hydraulic conditions that created risks for backflow and contaminant intrusion, only four of 423 (0.9%) grab samples collected at random times were positive for total coliform bacteria and only one was positive for E. coli. Only nine of 496 (1.8%) samples had turbidity >1.0 NTU and all samples had ≥0.2 mg/L free chlorine residual. In contrast, water quality was often degraded during the first-flush period (when supply first returned after an outage). Still, routine and first-flush water quality under intermittent supply was much better in Arraiján than that reported in a previous study conducted in India. Better water quality in Arraiján could be due to better water quality leaving the treatment plant, shorter supply outages, higher supply pressures, a more consistent and higher chlorine residual, and fewer contaminant sources near pipes. The results illustrate that intermittent supply and its effects on water quality can vary greatly between and within distribution networks. The study also demonstrated that monitoring techniques designed specifically for intermittent supply, such as continuous pressure monitoring and sampling the first flush, can detect water quality threats and degradation that would not likely be detected with conventional monitoring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Butterflies of Barro Colorado Island, Panama: Local Extinction since the 1930s.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Basset

    Full Text Available Few data are available about the regional or local extinction of tropical butterfly species. When confirmed, local extinction was often due to the loss of host-plant species. We used published lists and recent monitoring programs to evaluate changes in butterfly composition on Barro Colorado Island (BCI, Panama between an old (1923-1943 and a recent (1993-2013 period. Although 601 butterfly species have been recorded from BCI during the 1923-2013 period, we estimate that 390 species are currently breeding on the island, including 34 cryptic species, currently only known by their DNA Barcode Index Number. Twenty-three butterfly species that were considered abundant during the old period could not be collected during the recent period, despite a much higher sampling effort in recent times. We consider these species locally extinct from BCI and they conservatively represent 6% of the estimated local pool of resident species. Extinct species represent distant phylogenetic branches and several families. The butterfly traits most likely to influence the probability of extinction were host growth form, wing size and host specificity, independently of the phylogenetic relationships among butterfly species. On BCI, most likely candidates for extinction were small hesperiids feeding on herbs (35% of extinct species. However, contrary to our working hypothesis, extinction of these species on BCI cannot be attributed to loss of host plants. In most cases these host plants remain extant, but they probably subsist at lower or more fragmented densities. Coupled with low dispersal power, this reduced availability of host plants has probably caused the local extinction of some butterfly species. Many more bird than butterfly species have been lost from BCI recently, confirming that small preserves may be far more effective at conserving invertebrates than vertebrates and, therefore, should not necessarily be neglected from a conservation viewpoint.

  1. The Butterflies of Barro Colorado Island, Panama: Local Extinction since the 1930s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basset, Yves; Barrios, Héctor; Segar, Simon; Srygley, Robert B; Aiello, Annette; Warren, Andrew D; Delgado, Francisco; Coronado, James; Lezcano, Jorge; Arizala, Stephany; Rivera, Marleny; Perez, Filonila; Bobadilla, Ricardo; Lopez, Yacksecari; Ramirez, José Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Few data are available about the regional or local extinction of tropical butterfly species. When confirmed, local extinction was often due to the loss of host-plant species. We used published lists and recent monitoring programs to evaluate changes in butterfly composition on Barro Colorado Island (BCI, Panama) between an old (1923-1943) and a recent (1993-2013) period. Although 601 butterfly species have been recorded from BCI during the 1923-2013 period, we estimate that 390 species are currently breeding on the island, including 34 cryptic species, currently only known by their DNA Barcode Index Number. Twenty-three butterfly species that were considered abundant during the old period could not be collected during the recent period, despite a much higher sampling effort in recent times. We consider these species locally extinct from BCI and they conservatively represent 6% of the estimated local pool of resident species. Extinct species represent distant phylogenetic branches and several families. The butterfly traits most likely to influence the probability of extinction were host growth form, wing size and host specificity, independently of the phylogenetic relationships among butterfly species. On BCI, most likely candidates for extinction were small hesperiids feeding on herbs (35% of extinct species). However, contrary to our working hypothesis, extinction of these species on BCI cannot be attributed to loss of host plants. In most cases these host plants remain extant, but they probably subsist at lower or more fragmented densities. Coupled with low dispersal power, this reduced availability of host plants has probably caused the local extinction of some butterfly species. Many more bird than butterfly species have been lost from BCI recently, confirming that small preserves may be far more effective at conserving invertebrates than vertebrates and, therefore, should not necessarily be neglected from a conservation viewpoint.

  2. Reptiles as potential vectors and hosts of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn, Vanessa L; Ibáñez, Roberto; Green, David M

    2011-12-06

    Chytridiomycosis, the disease caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, is considered to be a disease exclusively of amphibians. However, B. dendrobatidis may also be capable of persisting in the environment, and non-amphibian vectors or hosts may contribute to disease transmission. Reptiles living in close proximity to amphibians and sharing similar ecological traits could serve as vectors or reservoir hosts for B. dendrobatidis, harbouring the organism on their skin without succumbing to disease. We surveyed for the presence of B. dendrobatidis DNA among 211 lizards and 8 snakes at 8 sites at varying elevations in Panama where the syntopic amphibians were at pre-epizootic, epizootic or post-epizootic stages of chytridiomycosis. Detection of B. dendrobatidis DNA was done using qPCR analysis. Evidence of the amphibian pathogen was present at varying intensities in 29 of 79 examined Anolis humilis lizards (32%) and 9 of 101 A. lionotus lizards (9%), and in one individual each of the snakes Pliocercus euryzonus, Imantodes cenchoa, and Nothopsis rugosus. In general, B. dendrobatidis DNA prevalence among reptiles was positively correlated with the infection prevalence among co-occurring anuran amphibians at any particular site (r = 0.88, p = 0.004). These reptiles, therefore, may likely be vectors or reservoir hosts for B. dendrobatidis and could serve as disease transmission agents. Although there is no evidence of B. dendrobatidis disease-induced declines in reptiles, cases of coincidence of reptile and amphibian declines suggest this potentiality. Our study is the first to provide evidence of non-amphibian carriers for B. dendrobatidis in a natural Neotropical environment.

  3. Maternal invasion history of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus into the Isthmus of Panama: Implications for the control of emergent viral disease agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskildsen, Gilberto A.; Rovira, Jose R.; Smith, Octavio; Miller, Matthew J.; Bennett, Kelly L.; McMillan, W. Owen

    2018-01-01

    Despite an increase in dengue outbreaks and the arrival of chikungunya and Zika disease in Panama, studies on the demographic history of the invasive Aedes mosquitoes that are the principle vectors of these diseases are still lacking in this region. Here, we assess the genetic diversity of these mosquitoes in order to decipher their invasion histories into the Isthmus of Panama. DNA sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase I gene obtained from 30 localities in 10 provinces confirmed the presence of more than one mitochondrial haplogroup (i.e., maternal lineage) in each species. The invasion of Aedes albopictus was likely from temperate European countries, as the most frequent and widespread haplogroup in Panama harbored variants that are uncommon elsewhere in the Americas. Two infrequent and geographically restricted Ae. albopictus haplotypes appear to have subsequently invaded Panama from neighboring Costa Rica and the USA, respectively. In addition, we recovered two deeply divergent mitochondrial clades in Panamanian Aedes aegypti. The geographic origins of these clades is unknown, given that divergence in the mitochondrial genome is probably due to ancient population processes within the native range of Ae. aegypti, rather than due to its global expansion out of Africa. However, Panamanian Ae. aegypti mitochondrial sequences within the first clade were closely related to others from Colombia, Bolivia, Brazil, Mexico and the USA, suggesting two separate invasions from Western Hemisphere source populations. The pattern of increased genetic diversity in Aedes mosquitoes in Panama is likely facilitated by the numerous land and water inter-connections across the country, which allows them to enter via sea- and land-transportation from Europe, North, Central and South America. Our results here should be considered in disease mitigation programs if emergent arboviruses are to be effectively diminished in Panama through vector suppression. PMID:29579112

  4. The formative platform of the Congress of Panama (1810-1826: the Pan-American conjecture revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán A. De la Reza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the formative platform of the Congress of Panama of 1826. It seeks to support the hypothesis that the nature and scope of the first test of integration in the Western Hemisphere depended critically on the platform created by Simón Bolívar and other Latin American Independence heroes from the Declaration of Independence of Venezuela in 1810 until the last bilateral agreement of 1826. In that respect, it corroborates the Latin American Identity of the initiative.

  5. The formative platform of the Congress of Panama (1810-1826): the Pan-American conjecture revisited

    OpenAIRE

    De la Reza, Germán A.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the formative platform of the Congress of Panama of 1826. It seeks to support the hypothesis that the nature and scope of the first test of integration in the Western Hemisphere depended critically on the platform created by Simón Bolívar and other Latin American Independence heroes from the Declaration of Independence of Venezuela in 1810 until the last bilateral agreement of 1826. In that respect, it corroborates the Latin American Identity of the initiative. Este a...

  6. Ancient ecology of 15-million-year-old browsing mammals within C3 plant communities from Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFadden, Bruce J; Higgins, Pennilyn

    2004-06-01

    Middle Miocene mammals are known from approximately 15 million-year-old sediments exposed along the Panama Canal of Central America, a region that otherwise has an exceedingly poor terrestrial fossil record. These land mammals, which represent a part of the ancient terrestrial herbivore community, include an oreodont Merycochoerus matthewi, small camel-like protoceratid artiodactyl Paratoceras wardi, two horses Anchitherium clarencei and Archaeohippus sp., and two rhinos Menoceras barbouri and Floridaceras whitei. Bulk and serial carbon and oxygen isotope analyses of the tooth enamel carbonate allow reconstruction of the ancient climate and ecology of these fossil mammals. Ancient Panama had an equable climate with seasonal temperature and rainfall fluctuations less than those seen today. The middle Miocene terrestrial community consisted predominantly, or exclusively, of C3 plants, i.e., there is no evidence for C4 grasses. Statistically different mean carbon isotope values for the mammalian herbivores indicate niche partitioning of the C3 plant food resources. The range of individual carbon isotope analyses, i.e., delta13C from -15.9 to -10.1 per thousand, indicates herbivores feeding on diverse plants from different habitats with extrapolated delta13C values of -29.9 to -24.2 per thousand, possibly ranging from dense forest to more open country woodland. The ecological niches of individual mammalian herbivore species were differentiated either by diet or body size.

  7. The importance of sponges and mangroves in supporting fish communities on degraded coral reefs in Caribbean Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, Janina; Yingst, Alexandra; Stuart-Smith, Rick D; Edgar, Graham J; Altieri, Andrew H

    2018-01-01

    Fish communities associated with coral reefs worldwide are threatened by habitat degradation and overexploitation. We assessed coral reefs, mangrove fringes, and seagrass meadows on the Caribbean coast of Panama to explore the influences of their proximity to one another, habitat cover, and environmental characteristics in sustaining biomass, species richness and trophic structure of fish communities in a degraded tropical ecosystem. We found 94% of all fish across all habitat types were of small body size (≤10 cm), with communities dominated by fishes that usually live in habitats of low complexity, such as Pomacentridae (damselfishes) and Gobiidae (gobies). Total fish biomass was very low, with the trend of small fishes from low trophic levels over-represented, and top predators under-represented, relative to coral reefs elsewhere in the Caribbean. For example, herbivorous fishes comprised 27% of total fish biomass in Panama relative to 10% in the wider Caribbean, and the small parrotfish Scarus iseri comprised 72% of the parrotfish biomass. We found evidence that non-coral biogenic habitats support reef-associated fish communities. In particular, the abundance of sponges on a given reef and proximity of mangroves were found to be important positive correlates of reef fish species richness, biomass, abundance and trophic structure. Our study indicates that a diverse fish community can persist on degraded coral reefs, and that the availability and arrangement within the seascape of other habitat-forming organisms, including sponges and mangroves, is critical to the maintenance of functional processes in such ecosystems.

  8. A distinctive avian assemblage (Aves: Passeriformes in Western Darién, Panama is uncovered through a disease surveillance program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Miller

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Basic knowledge about the distribution of flora and fauna is lacking for most tropical areas. Improving our knowledge of the tropical biota will help address contemporary global problems, including emerging tropical diseases. Less appreciated is the role that applied studies can have in improving our understanding of basic biological patterns and processes in the tropics. Here, I describe a novel avifauna assemblage uncovered in Western Darién province in the Republic of Panama that was uncovered during a vector-borne disease surveillance program. I compared the passerine bird species composition at 16 sites using records from recent ornithological expeditions sponsored by the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Central and Eastern Panama. Based on the results of a Mantel test, geographic distance did not correlate with pairwise distinctiveness of sites. Instead, based on an index of distinctiveness modified from the Chao-Jaccard index, most sites were more or less similarly distinctive, with one site, Aruza Abajo, significantly more distinctive than the rest. I found that the distinctiveness of this site was due not only to the presence of several rare and range-restricted taxa, but also to the absence of taxa that are common elsewhere. This finding provides more evidence of high species composition turnover (beta-diversity in the Panamanian biota, which appears to be driven by a combination of soil and climate differences over narrow distances. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (2: 711-717. Epub 2014 June 01.

  9. Evaluation of PCR for cutaneous leishmaniasis diagnosis and species identification using filter paper samples in Panama, Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, A; Saldaña, A; González, K; Paz, H; Santamaría, G; Samudio, F; Calzada, J E

    2012-09-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a major vectorborne disease in Panama. In this study, the diagnostic performance and usefulness of two DNA extraction procedures from skin scraping samples collected on FTA filter paper for subsequent PCR diagnosis of CL was evaluated. A positive CL laboratory diagnosis was based on a positive parasitological test (Giemsa-stained smears or in vitro culture) and/or positive PCR test performed from skin scrapings collected in TE buffer (PCR-TE). Of 100 patients with skin lesions suggestive of CL, 82 (82%) were confirmed as CL positive. The sensitivity was calculated for each of the PCR approaches from samples collected on filter paper. The highest sensitivity was achieved by PCR-FTA processed by Chelex 100 (PCR-Chelex) (0.94). PCR-FTA extracted using the FTA purification reagent presented a lower sensitivity (0.60). Good concordance between routine PCR-TE and PCR-Chelex was observed (percent agreement=0.88, κ index=0.65). In conclusion, use of FTA filter paper for skin scraping collection combined with PCR is a reliable and convenient method for CL diagnosis in Panama, with comparable performance to the routine PCR method and with improved sensitivity compared with those of conventional parasitological methods. Copyright © 2012 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Anthropogenic influence on the distribution, abundance and diversity of sandfly species (Diptera: Phlebotominae: Psychodidae, vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anayansi Valderrama

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In Panama, species of the genus Lutzomyia are vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL. There is no recent ecological information that may be used to develop tools for the control of this disease. Thus, the goal of this study was to determine the composition, distribution and diversity of Lutzomyia species that serve as vectors of ACL. Sandfly sampling was conducted in forests, fragmented forests and rural environments, in locations with records of ACL. Lutzomyia gomezi, Lutzomyia panamensis and Lutzomyia trapidoi were the most widely distributed and prevalent species. Analysis of each sampling point showed that the species abundance and diversity were greatest at points located in the fragmented forest landscape. However, when the samples were grouped according to the landscape characteristics of the locations, there was a greater diversity of species in the rural environment locations. The Kruskal Wallis analysis of species abundance found that Lu. gomezi and Lu. trapidoi were associated with fragmented environments, while Lu. panamensis, Lutzomyia olmeca bicolor and Lutzomyia ylephiletor were associated with forested environments. Therefore, we suggest that human activity influences the distribution, composition and diversity of the vector species responsible for leishmaniasis in Panama.

  11. "Estoy viejo" [I'm old]: internalized ageism as self-referential, negative, ageist speech in the Republic of Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Irma D; Stripling, Ashley M; Heesacker, Martin

    2012-12-01

    Ageism is a form of discrimination that anyone may experience at some point in life (Palmore 2004). Yet ageism is rarely the focus of behavioral research (Nelson 2005). Age can be understood as a social construct that reflects social norms (Lemus and Exposito 2005). Based on our review of the published literature, there were two studies on perceptions of aging among Latina/os in the United States (Beyene et al. 2002; Sarkisian et al. 2006). These studies investigated perceptions and expectations of aging among older Latina/o adults rather than direct experiences of ageism. It is important to note that Latina/os are not a homogenous group and that there are within-group differences. For this reason, this study explored internalized, negative ageism specifically in the Republic of Panama. Although Panama has unique characteristics, it also reflects Central American culture and therefore should provide initial insights regarding Central American self-referential, negative, ageist talk, which we labeled "Estoy viejo." Flanagan's Critical Incident Technique was used to access and understand participants' (ages 18-65) negative ageist talk (n=159). Participants who reported engaging in "Estoy viejo." (46.3% of those sampled) were significantly younger than participants who did not (pexplanation is that younger participants may have been more influenced by North American culture and its strongly negative ageist stereotypes than older participants, who may have identified primarily with Central American culture.

  12. Sediment redistribution and grainsize effects on 230Th-normalized mass accumulation rates and focusing factors in the Panama Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveley, Matthew R.; Marcantonio, Franco; Lyle, Mitchell; Ibrahim, Rami; Hertzberg, Jennifer E.; Schmidt, Matthew W.

    2017-12-01

    Here, we examine how redistribution of differing grain sizes by sediment focusing processes in Panama Basin sediments affects the use of 230Th as a constant-flux proxy. We study representative sediments of Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) time slices from four sediment cores from two different localities close to the ridges that bound the Panama Basin. Each locality contains paired sites that are seismically interpreted to have undergone extremes in sediment redistribution, i.e., focused versus winnowed sites. Both Holocene and LGM samples from sites where winnowing has occurred contain significant amounts (up to 50%) of the 230Th within the >63 μm grain size fraction, which makes up 40-70% of the bulk sediment analyzed. For sites where focusing has occurred, Holocene and LGM samples contain the greatest amounts of 230Th (up to 49%) in the finest grain-sized fraction (winnowed sites. Corrections made using a model by Kretschmer et al. (2010) suggest a maximum change of about 30% in 230Th-derived MARs and focusing factors at focused sites, except for our most focused site which requires an approximate 70% correction in one sample. Our 230Th-corrected 232Th flux results suggest that the boundary between hemipelagically- and pelagically-derived sediments falls between 350 and 600 km from the continental margin.

  13. An ecosystem report on the Panama Canal: Monitoring the status of the forest communities and the watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanez, R.; Condit, R.; Angehr, G.; Aguilar, S.; Garcia, T.; Martinez, R.; Sanjur, A.; Stallard, R.; Wright, S.J.; Rand, A.S.; Heckadon, S.

    2002-01-01

    In 1996, the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute and the Republic of Panama's Environmental Authority, with support from the United States Agency for International Development, undertook a comprehensive program to monitor the ecosystem of the Panama Canal watershed. The goals were to establish baseline indicators for the integrity of forest communities and rivers. Based on satellite image classification and ground surveys, the 2790 km2 watershed had 1570 km2 of forest in 1997, 1080 km2 of which was in national parks and nature monuments. Most of the 490 km2 of forest not currently in protected areas lies along the west bank of the Canal, and its management status after the year 2000 turnover of the Canal from the U.S. to Panama remains uncertain. In forest plots designed to monitor forest diversity and change, a total of 963 woody plant species were identified and mapped. We estimate there are a total of 850-1000 woody species in forests of the Canal corridor. Forests of the wetter upper reaches of the watershed are distinct in species composition from the Canal corridor, and have considerably higher diversity and many unknown species. These remote areas are extensively forested, poorly explored, and harbor an estimated 1400-2200 woody species. Vertebrate monitoring programs were also initiated, focusing on species threatened by hunting and forest fragmentation. Large mammals are heavily hunted in most forests of Canal corridor, and there was clear evidence that mammal density is greatly reduced in hunted areas and that this affects seed predation and dispersal. The human population of the watershed was 113 000 in 1990, and grew by nearly 4% per year from 1980 to 1990. Much of this growth was in a small region of the watershed on the outskirts of Panama City, but even rural areas, including villages near and within national parks, grew by 2% per year. There is no sewage treatment in the watershed, and many towns have no trash collection, thus streams near large

  14. Lutzomyia sand fly diversity and rates of infection by Wolbachia and an exotic Leishmania species on Barro Colorado Island, Panama.

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    Jorge Azpurua

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae in the genus Lutzomyia are the predominant vectors of the protozoan disease leishmaniasis in the New World. Within the watershed of the Panama Canal, the cutaneous form of leishmaniasis is a continuous health threat for residents, tourists and members of an international research community. Here we report the results of screening a tropical forest assemblage of sand fly species for infection by both Leishmania and a microbe that can potentially serve in vector population control, the cytoplasmically transmitted rickettsia, Wolbachia pipientis. Knowing accurately which Lutzomyia species are present, what their evolutionary relationships are, and how they are infected by strains of both Leishmania and Wolbachia is of critical value for building strategies to mitigate the impact of this disease in humans.We collected, sorted and then used DNA sequences to determine the diversity and probable phylogenetic relationships of the Phlebotominae occurring in the understory of Barro Colorado Island in the Republic of Panama. Sequence from CO1, the DNA barcoding gene, supported 18 morphology-based species determinations while revealing the presence of two possible "cryptic" species, one (Lu. sp. nr vespertilionis within the Vespertilionis group, the other (Lu. gomezi within the Lutzomyia-cruciata series. Using ITS-1 and "minicircle" primers we detected Leishmania DNA in 43.3% of Lu. trapidoi, 26.3% of Lu. gomezi individuals and in 0% of the other 18 sand fly species. Identical ITS-1 sequence was obtained from the Leishmania infecting Lu. trapidoi and Lu. gomezi, sequence which was 93% similar to Leishmania (viannia naiffi in GenBank, a species previously unknown in Panama, but recognized as a type of cutaneous leishmaniasis vectored broadly across northern and central South America. Distinct strains of the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia were detected in three of 20 sand fly species, including Lu. trapidoi

  15. Long-term ecology of euglossine orchid-bees (Apidae: Euglossini) in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubik, D W; Ackerman, J D

    1987-09-01

    Abundance patterns during 6-7 years and orchid visitation were determined for 51 species of the 57 local euglossine bees. Male bees were counted at 3 chemical attractants presented in the same manner each month. Sites were separated by 75 km but included wet Atlantic forest at 500 m elevation, moist forest at 180 m near Barro Colorado Island, and cloud forest at 900 m near the Pacific ocean. 1. From 15 to 30 euglossine species of 4 genera were active in each month and site; monthly species number and general bee abundance were positively correlated. Many species had 3 annual abundance peaks (range 1-4) and were active throughout the year, but peak annual abundances rarely occurred during late wet or early dry seasons. In contrast, Eufriesea generally were present as adults only 1-2 months in a year. 2. Euglossine populations were exceptionally stable. Species at each site were more stable than any known insect population, and stability and abundance were positively associated. However, year-to-year population stability and the degree of seasonality were not correlated. Among the three sites, the more diverse (species rich) bee assemblages displayed lower stability; these were the wetter and upland sites. 3. The most abundant bees visited more orchid species. Eg. and El. each visited and average of 4 orchid species (range 0-13); Ex. and Ef. visited 0-3. Stable populations did not visit more or fewer orchid species than did unstable populations. 4. Less than 68% of species at each site visited orchid flowers; less than a few dozen of the 100-800 bees counted in a day carried orchid pollinaria. Over 20% of the euglossine species never were seen with pollinaria at any site and probably seldom visit orchids in central Panama. 5. Most bee species visited 1 or no fragrance orchids in a given habitat. Orchids tended to utilize common pollinators that seldom included more than 1 species, and they utilized stable or unstable, seasonal or aseasonal bees. However, the most

  16. Study of the corrosion products formed on carbon steels in the tropical atmosphere of Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaén, J. A.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction (in selected samples have been used to characterize corrosion products on carbon steels after atmospheric exposure to the tropical Panamanian locations of Panama and Colon, classified according to ISO 9223 as C3 and C5, respectively. Goethite (α-FeOOH of intermediate particle size (20-100 nm, lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH, a spinel phase consisting of non-stoichiometric magnetite (Fe3-xO4 and/or maghemite (γ-Fe2O3 and nano-sized particles were identified in the corrosion products. The spinel phase is related to short term atmospheric exposure transforms in time to other corrosion products. The corrosion resistance increased with fraction of goethite following a saturation-type behavior.

    Se caracterizaron los productos de corrosión de aceros al carbono expuestos a las atmósferas tropicales panameñas localizadas en Panamá y Colón, mediante el uso de la espectroscopia Mössbauer y difracción de rayos-X (en muestras seleccionadas. Las atmósferas se clasifican como C3 y C5, respectivamente, de acuerdo a la norma ISO 9223. Se lograron identificar los compuestos goethita (α-FeOOH de tamaño de partícula intermedio (20-100 nm, lepidocrocita (γ-FeOOH, una fase de espinela consistente en magnetita no estequiométrica (Fe3-xO4 y/o maghemita (γ-Fe2O3, y nanopartículas. La fase de espinela se puede correlacionar con exposiciones cortas a la atmósfera, transformándose en el tiempo en otros productos de corrosión. La resistencia a la corrosión se incrementa con la cantidad de goethita siguiendo una conducta de saturación.

  17. New species of Diplectanum (Monogenoidea: Diplectanidae), and proposal of a new genus of the Dactylogyridae from the gills of gerreid fishes (Teleostei) from Mexico and Panama

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F.; Roche, D. G.; Torchin, M. E.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 3 (2008), 171-179 ISSN 0015-5683 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Monogenoidea * Diplectanidae * Dactylogyridae * Diplectanum * Octouncuhaptor * Diplectanum gatunense * Diplectanum mexicanum * Octouncuhaptor eugerrei * Eugerres brasilianus * Panama * Mexico Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.307, year: 2008

  18. Hantavirus Public Health outreach effectiveness in three populations: an overview of northwestern New Mexico, Los Santos Panama, and Region IX Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Marjorie S

    2014-02-27

    This research compared the effectiveness of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) outreach programs in New Mexico, Panama, and Chile. Understanding the role of human demographics, disease ecology, and human behavior in the disease process is critical to the examination of community responses in terms of behavior changes. Attitudes, knowledge, and behavior across three populations were measured through the implementation of a self-administered questionnaire (N = 601). Surveys implemented in Chile and Panama in 2004, followed by northwestern New Mexico in 2008, attempted to assess knowledge and behavior change with respect to hantavirus in high- and lower-risk prevalence areas during endemic periods. While levels of concern over contracting hantavirus were lowest in New Mexico, they were highest in Panama. Respondents in Chile showed mid-level concern and exhibited a tendency to practice proper cleaning methods more than in New Mexico and Panama. This indicates that public health messages appear to be more effective in Chile. However, since negative behavior changes, such as sweeping and vacuuming, occur at some level in all three populations, improved messages should help decrease risk of exposure to HPS.

  19. Mangrove forest composition and structure in Las Perlas Archipelago, Pacific Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom McGowan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove forest is an important ecosystem that provides many services, but in Panama, as in other countries, they are under threat due to a variety of human activities. Nowadays, large areas of mangroves continue to be lost without been described and lack of management strategies. This study focused on the mangrove structure in the two largest islands, Isla del Rey and Isla San Jose, of Las Perlas Archipelago (LPA, Pacific Panama. Assessment of Landsat satellite imagery revealed loss of mangroves in the LPA of 965ha in the period 1974-1986, and 248ha in the period 1986-2000. The majority of the loss (>77% from the two study islands was due to timber extraction and agricultural development. In May 2006, permanent plots following the CARICOMP protocol were established at two sites on Isla del Rey (R1 and R2 and one site on Isla San Jose (SJ where standardized metrics such as species, height and diameter at breast height of adult trees and seedlings were recorded. Forest structure differed at the three sites, although R1 and R2 were most similar. At R1, Laguncularia racemosa was the important species and R2 was dominated by Pelliciera rhizophorae. Examination of the forest structure and classified imagery indicated that these sites are spatially dynamic and appear to be rejuvenating. The forest structure would indicate that the sites have been growth-limited previously by human activities and possibly by other factors. SJ was dominated by Rhizophora mangle and appears to have a mature forest with large adult trees and few seedlings. It does not appear to have shown the same extent of spatial regrowth as the other two sites between 1986 and 2000 and is relatively static. The establishment of permanent plots and monitoring will be useful as part of the management plan, as the LPA shows a variety of mangrove structures and could be subject to further coastal development. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (3: 857-869. Epub 2010 September 01.Los bosques de manglar

  20. An Eco-hydrologic Assessment of Small Experimental Catchments with Various Land Uses within the Panama Canal Watershed: Agua Salud Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, T. D.; Ogden, F. L.; Stallard, R. F.; Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama Canal Watershed Experiment, Agua Salud Project

    2010-12-01

    Hydrological processes in the humid tropics are poorly understood and an important topic when it comes to water management in the seasonal tropics. The Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama Canal Watershed Experiment, Agua Salud Project, seeks to understand these processes and quantify the long-term effects of different land cover and uses across the Panama Canal Watershed. One of the project’s main objectives is to understand how reforestation effects seasonal stream flows. To meet this objective, a baseline characterization of hydrology on the small catchment scale is being assessed across different land uses typical in rural Panama. The small experimental catchments are found within Panama’s protected Soberania National Park and the adjacent headwaters of the Agua Salud and Mendoza Rivers, all of which are part of the greater Panama Canal Watershed. The land uses being monitored include a variety of control catchments as well as treated pasture sites. The catchments used for this study include a mature old regrowth forest, a 50% deforested or mosaic regrowth site, an active pasture and a monoculture invasive grass site (saccharum spontaneum) as experimental controls and two treated catchments that were recently abandoned pastures converted to teak and native species timber plantations. Installed instrumentation includes a network of rain gauges, v-notched weirs, atmometers, an eddy covariance system and an assortment of meteorological and automated geochemical sampling systems. Spatial, rainfall, runoff and ET data across these six geologically and topographically similar catchments are available from 2009 and 2010. Classic water balance and paired catchment techniques were used to compare the catchments on an annual, seasonal, and event basis. This study sets the stage for hydrologic modeling and for better understanding the effects of vegetation and land-use history on rainfall-runoff processes for the Agua Salud Project and Panama Canal

  1. A new endemic focus of Chagas disease in the northern region of Veraguas Province, Western Half Panama, Central America.

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    Azael Saldaña

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chagas disease was originally reported in Panama in 1931. Currently, the best knowledge of this zoonosis is restricted to studies done in historically endemic regions. However, little is known about the distribution and epidemiology of Chagas disease in other rural areas of the country. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out between May 2005 - July 2008 in four rural communities of the Santa Fe District, Veraguas Province. The study included an entomologic search to collect triatomines, bloodmeal type identification and infection rate with trypanosomes in collected vectors using a dot- blot and PCR analysis, genotyping of circulating Trypanosoma cruzi (mini-exon gene PCR analysis and the detection of chagasic antibodies among inhabitants. The vector Rhodnius pallescens was more frequently found in La Culaca and El Pantano communities (788 specimens, where it was a sporadic household visitor. These triatomines presented darker coloration and larger sizescompared with typical specimens collected in Central Panama. Triatoma dimidiata was more common in Sabaneta de El Macho (162 specimens. In one small sub-region (El Macho, 60% of the houses were colonized by this vector. Of the examined R. pallescens, 54.7.0% (88/161 had fed on Didelphis marsupialis, and 24.6% (34/138 of T. dimidiata specimens collected inside houses were positive for human blood. R. pallescens presented an infection index with T. cruzi of 17.7% (24/136, with T. rangeli of 12.5% (17/136 and 50.7% (69/136 were mixed infections. In 117 T. dimidiata domestic specimens the infection index with T. cruzi was 21.4%. Lineage I of T. cruzi was confirmed circulating in these vectors. A T. cruzi infection seroprevalence of 2.3% (24/1,056 was found in this population. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of Chagas disease endemicity in Santa Fe District, and it should be considered a neglected public health problem in this area of Panama.

  2. Demography and natural history of the common fruit bat, Artibeus jamaicensis, on Barro Colorado Island, Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Bats were marked and monitored on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, to study seasonal and annual variation in distribution, abundance, and natural history from 1975 through 1980. Data gathered advances our knowledge about flocking; abundance; feeding strategies; social behavior; species richness; population structure and stability; age and sex ratios; life expectancy and longevity; nightly, seasonal, and annual movements; synchrony within and between species in reproductive activity; timing of reproductive cycles; survival and dispersal of recruits; intra-and inter-specific relationships; and day and night roost selection. Barro Colorado Island (BCI) harbors large populations of bats that feed on the fruit of canopy trees, especially figs. These trees are abundant, and the individual asynchrony of their fruiting rhythms results in a fairly uniform abundance of fruit. When figs are scarce, a variety of other fruits is available to replace them. This relatively dependable food supply attracts a remarkably rich guild of bats. Although we marked all bats caught, we tried to maximize the number of Artibeus jamaicensis netted, because it is abundant (2/3 of the total catch of bats on BCI), easily captured by conventional means (mist nets set at ground level), and responds well to handling and marking. An average Artibeus jamaicensis is a 45 g frugivore that eats roughly its weight in fruit every night. These bats prefer figs and often seek them out even when other types of fruit they might eat are far more abundant. They commute several hundred meters to feeding trees on the average, feeding on fruit from one to four trees each night, and returning to a single fruiting tree an average of four nights in succession. The bats tend to fly farther when fewer fig trees are bearing ripe fruit, and they feed from fewer trees, on the average, when the moon is nearly full. These bats, like their congeners, do not feed in the fruiting tree itself. Instead, they select a fruit and

  3. Strong congruence in tree and fern community turnover in response to soils and climate in central Panama

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Mirkka; Ferrier, Simon; Condit, Richard

    2013-01-01

    1. Plant species turnover in central Panamanian forests has been principally attributed to the effects of dispersal limitation and a strong Caribbean to Pacific gradient in rainfall seasonality. Despite marked geological heterogeneity, the role of soil variation has not been rigorously examined. 2....... We modelled the compositional turnover of trees and ferns in the Panama Canal watershed as a function of soil chemistry, climate and geographical separation, using generalized dissimilarity models (GDMs). 3. Predictability in both plant groups was strong, with 74% of turnover explained in trees...... and 49% in ferns. Major trends in the two plant groups were strikingly similar. The independent effects of soils, and of climate for trees, were sizeable, but those of geographical distance were minor. In both plant groups, distance and climatic effects on species turnover covaried strongly. 4. Including...

  4. Incidence of myiasis in Panama during the eradication of Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel 1858, Diptera: Calliphoridae (2002-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio E Bermúdez

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of a study on myiasis in Panama during the first years of a Cochliomyia hominivorax eradication program (1998-2005, with the aim of investigating the behavior of the flies that produce myiasis in animals and human beings. The hosts that registered positive for myiasis were cattle (46.4%, dogs (15.3%, humans (14.7%, birds (12%, pigs (6%, horses (4%, and sheep (1%. Six fly species caused myiasis: Dermatobia hominis (58%, Phaenicia spp. (20%, Cochliomyia macellaria (19%, Chrysomya rufifacies (0.4%, and maggots of unidentified species belonging to the Sarcophagidae (3% and Muscidae (0.3%. With the Dubois index, was no evidence that the absence of C. hominivorax allowed an increase in the cases of facultative myiasis.

  5. A new golden frog species of the genus Diasporus (Amphibia, Eleutherodactylidae from the Cordillera Central, western Panama

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    Andreas Hertz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe the frog species Diasporus citrinobapheus sp. n. from the Cordillera Central of western Panama. The new species differs from all other species in its genus in coloration, disk cover and disk pad shape, skin texture, advertisement call, and size. It is most similar to D. tigrillo, from which it differs in dorsal skin texture, relative tibia length, number of vomerine teeth, ventral coloration, dorsal markings, and relative tympanum size, and to D. gularis, from which it can be distinguished by the lack of membranes between the toes, adult size, posterior thigh coloration, and position of the choanae. We provide data on morphology, vocalization, and distribution of the new species, as well as brief information on its natural history.

  6. A new golden frog species of the genus Diasporus (Amphibia, Eleutherodactylidae) from the Cordillera Central, western Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Andreas; Hauenschild, Frank; Lotzkat, Sebastian; Köhler, Gunther

    2012-01-01

    We describe the frog species Diasporus citrinobapheussp. n. from the Cordillera Central of western Panama. The new species differs from all other species in its genus in coloration, disk cover and disk pad shape, skin texture, advertisement call, and size. It is most similar to Diasporus tigrillo, from which it differs in dorsal skin texture, relative tibia length, number of vomerine teeth, ventral coloration, dorsal markings, and relative tympanum size, and to Diasporus gularis, from which it can be distinguished by the lack of membranes between the toes, adult size, posterior thigh coloration, and position of the choanae. We provide data on morpho- logy, vocalization, and distribution of the new species, as well as brief information on its natural history.

  7. The distribution of fruit and seed toxicity during development for eleven neotropical trees and vines in Central Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, Noelle G

    2013-01-01

    Secondary compounds in fruit mediate interactions with natural enemies and seed dispersers, influencing plant survival and species distributions. The functions of secondary metabolites in plant defenses have been well-studied in green tissues, but not in reproductive structures of plants. In this study, the distribution of toxicity within plants was quantified and its influence on seed survival was determined in Central Panama. To investigate patterns of allocation to chemical defenses and shifts in allocation with fruit development, I quantified variation in toxicity between immature and mature fruit and between the seed and pericarp for eleven species. Toxicity of seed and pericarp was compared to leaf toxicity for five species. Toxicity was measured as reduced hyphal growth of two fungal pathogens, Phoma sp. and Fusarium sp., and reduced survivorship of brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, across a range of concentrations of crude extract. I used these measures of potential toxicity against generalist natural enemies to examine the effect of fruit toxicity on reductions of fruit development and seed survival by vertebrates, invertebrates, and pathogens measured for seven species in a natural enemy removal experiment. The seed or pericarp of all vertebrate- and wind-dispersed species reduced Artemia survivorship and hyphal growth of Fusarium during the immature and mature stages. Only mature fruit of two vertebrate-dispersed species reduced hyphal growth of Phoma. Predispersal seed survival increased with toxicity of immature fruit to Artemia during germination and decreased with toxicity to fungi during fruit development. This study suggests that fruit toxicity against generalist natural enemies may be common in Central Panama. These results support the hypothesis that secondary metabolites in fruit have adaptive value and are important in the evolution of fruit-frugivore interactions.

  8. The distribution of fruit and seed toxicity during development for eleven neotropical trees and vines in Central Panama.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelle G Beckman

    Full Text Available Secondary compounds in fruit mediate interactions with natural enemies and seed dispersers, influencing plant survival and species distributions. The functions of secondary metabolites in plant defenses have been well-studied in green tissues, but not in reproductive structures of plants. In this study, the distribution of toxicity within plants was quantified and its influence on seed survival was determined in Central Panama. To investigate patterns of allocation to chemical defenses and shifts in allocation with fruit development, I quantified variation in toxicity between immature and mature fruit and between the seed and pericarp for eleven species. Toxicity of seed and pericarp was compared to leaf toxicity for five species. Toxicity was measured as reduced hyphal growth of two fungal pathogens, Phoma sp. and Fusarium sp., and reduced survivorship of brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, across a range of concentrations of crude extract. I used these measures of potential toxicity against generalist natural enemies to examine the effect of fruit toxicity on reductions of fruit development and seed survival by vertebrates, invertebrates, and pathogens measured for seven species in a natural enemy removal experiment. The seed or pericarp of all vertebrate- and wind-dispersed species reduced Artemia survivorship and hyphal growth of Fusarium during the immature and mature stages. Only mature fruit of two vertebrate-dispersed species reduced hyphal growth of Phoma. Predispersal seed survival increased with toxicity of immature fruit to Artemia during germination and decreased with toxicity to fungi during fruit development. This study suggests that fruit toxicity against generalist natural enemies may be common in Central Panama. These results support the hypothesis that secondary metabolites in fruit have adaptive value and are important in the evolution of fruit-frugivore interactions.

  9. The importance of sponges and mangroves in supporting fish communities on degraded coral reefs in Caribbean Panama

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    Janina Seemann

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fish communities associated with coral reefs worldwide are threatened by habitat degradation and overexploitation. We assessed coral reefs, mangrove fringes, and seagrass meadows on the Caribbean coast of Panama to explore the influences of their proximity to one another, habitat cover, and environmental characteristics in sustaining biomass, species richness and trophic structure of fish communities in a degraded tropical ecosystem. We found 94% of all fish across all habitat types were of small body size (≤10 cm, with communities dominated by fishes that usually live in habitats of low complexity, such as Pomacentridae (damselfishes and Gobiidae (gobies. Total fish biomass was very low, with the trend of small fishes from low trophic levels over-represented, and top predators under-represented, relative to coral reefs elsewhere in the Caribbean. For example, herbivorous fishes comprised 27% of total fish biomass in Panama relative to 10% in the wider Caribbean, and the small parrotfish Scarus iseri comprised 72% of the parrotfish biomass. We found evidence that non-coral biogenic habitats support reef-associated fish communities. In particular, the abundance of sponges on a given reef and proximity of mangroves were found to be important positive correlates of reef fish species richness, biomass, abundance and trophic structure. Our study indicates that a diverse fish community can persist on degraded coral reefs, and that the availability and arrangement within the seascape of other habitat-forming organisms, including sponges and mangroves, is critical to the maintenance of functional processes in such ecosystems.

  10. Soil trace gas fluxes along orthogonal precipitation and soil fertility gradients in tropical lowland forests of Panama

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    A. L. Matson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Tropical lowland forest soils are significant sources and sinks of trace gases. In order to model soil trace gas flux for future climate scenarios, it is necessary to be able to predict changes in soil trace gas fluxes along natural gradients of soil fertility and climatic characteristics. We quantified trace gas fluxes in lowland forest soils at five locations in Panama, which encompassed orthogonal precipitation and soil fertility gradients. Soil trace gas fluxes were measured monthly for 1 (NO or 2 (CO2, CH4, N2O years (2010–2012 using vented dynamic (for NO only or static chambers with permanent bases. Across the five sites, annual fluxes ranged from 8.0 to 10.2 Mg CO2-C, −2.0 to −0.3 kg CH4-C, 0.4 to 1.3 kg N2O-N and −0.82 to −0.03 kg NO-N ha−1 yr−1. Soil CO2 emissions did not differ across sites, but they did exhibit clear seasonal differences and a parabolic pattern with soil moisture across sites. All sites were CH4 sinks; within-site fluxes were largely controlled by soil moisture, whereas fluxes across sites were positively correlated with an integrated index of soil fertility. Soil N2O fluxes were low throughout the measurement years, but the highest emissions occurred at a mid-precipitation site with high soil N availability. Net negative NO fluxes at the soil surface occurred at all sites, with the most negative fluxes at the low-precipitation site closest to Panama City; this was likely due to high ambient NO concentrations from anthropogenic sources. Our study highlights the importance of both short-term (climatic and long-term (soil and site characteristics factors in predicting soil trace gas fluxes.

  11. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Panama and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Safeguards Agreement 1 concluded between the Republic of Panama and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America (TLATELOLCO) is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 29 November 2001. It was signed in the City of Panama on 11 December 2001

  12. Predispersal home range shift of an ocelot Leopardus pardalis (Carnivora: Felidae on Barro Colorado Island, Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Mares

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Home range shifts prior to natal dispersal have been rarely documented, yet the events that lead a subadult to abandon a portion of its home range and venture into unfamiliar territories, before eventually setting off to look for a site to reproduce, are probably related to the causes of dispersal itself. Here, we used a combination of manual radio-tracking and an Automated Radio Telemetry System to continuously study the movements of a subadult male ocelot (Leopardus pardalis, a solitary carnivore with sex-biased dispersal, on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, for 18 months from May 2003 through October 2004. The subadult ocelot’s parents were also radio-tracked to record possible parent-offspring interactions within their home ranges. At the age of ca. 21 months the subadult gradually began to shift its natal home range, establishing a new one used until the end of the study, in an area that had previously been used by another dispersing subadult male. Only three parent-offspring interactions were recorded during the four months around the time the range-shift occurred. The apparent peaceful nature of these encounters, along with the slow transition out of a portion of his natal home range, suggest the subadult was not evicted from his natal area by his parents. The timing of the shift, along with the subadult’s increase in weight into the weight range of adult ocelots four months after establishing the new territory, suggests that predispersal home range shifts could act as a low risk and opportunistic strategy for reaching adult size, while minimizing competition with parents and siblings, in preparation for an eventual dispersal into a new breeding territory. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (2: 779-787. Epub 2008 June 30.Los desplazamientos del ámbito hogareño de mamíferos subadultos previos a la dispersión natal rara vez han sido documentados. Sin embargo, los eventos que llevan a un animal subadulto a abandonar una parte de su ámbito natal

  13. Testing a top-down strategy for establishing a sustainable telemedicine program in a developing country: the Arizona telemedicine program-US Army-Republic of Panama Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Silvio; Marciscano, Ivette; Holcomb, Michael; Erps, Kristine A; Major, Janet; Lopez, Ana Maria; Barker, Gail P; Weinstein, Ronald S

    2013-10-01

    Many developing countries have shown interest in embracing telemedicine and incorporating it into their healthcare systems. In 2000, the U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground (YPG) initiated a program to assist the Republic of Panama in establishing a demonstration Panamanian rural telemedicine program. YPG engaged the Arizona Telemedicine Program (ATP) to participate in the development and implementation of the program. The ATP recommended adoption of a "top-down" strategy for creating the program. Early buy-in of the Panamanian Ministry of Health and academic leaders was regarded as critical to the achievement of long-term success. High-level meetings with the Minister of Health and the Rectors (i.e., Presidents) of the national universities gained early program support. A telemedicine demonstration project was established on a mountainous Indian reservation 230 miles west of Panama City. Today, three rural telemedicine clinics are linked to a regional Ministry of Health hospital for teleconsultations. Real-time bidirectional videoconferencing utilizes videophones connected over Internet protocol networks at a data rate of 768 kilobits per second to the San Felix Hospital. Telepediatrics, tele-obstetrics, telepulmonology, teledermatology, and tele-emergency medicine services became available. Telemedicine services were provided to the three sites for a total of 1,013 cases, with numbers of cases increasing each year. These three demonstration sites remained in operation after discontinuation of the U.S. involvement in September 2009 and serve as a model program for other telemedicine initiatives in Panama. Access to the assets of a partner-nation was invaluable in the establishment of the first model telemedicine demonstration program in Panama. After 3 years, the Panamanian Telemedicine and Telehealth Program (PTTP) became self-sufficient. The successful achievement of sustainability of the PTTP after disengagement by the United States fits the Latifi-Weinstein model

  14. Impact of Hepatitis A vaccination with a two-dose schedule in Panama: Results of epidemiological surveillance and time trend analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estripeaut, Dora; Contreras, Rodolfo; Tinajeros, Olga; Castrejón, Maria Mercedes; Shafi, Fakrudeen; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo; DeAntonio, Rodrigo

    2015-06-22

    In April 2007, Panama introduced Hepatitis A universal vaccination using a two-dose schedule (Havrix(®)junior; GSK Vaccines, Belgium). We assessed the impact of this hepatitis A vaccine three years after it was recommended for universal mass vaccination in Panama. Hepatitis A vaccination impact was assessed using two different approaches. The first approach used retrospective data (incidence and number of cases for all age groups), collected from the passive surveillance of the Epidemiologic Surveillance System of the Ministry of Health of hepatitis A and unspecified hepatitis before (2000-2006) and after (2008-2010) introduction of hepatitis A vaccine. The second approach was a prospective hospital-based active surveillance for hepatitis cases conducted in subjects (0-14 years) during 2009-2011 at three sentinel hospitals in Panama. Overall, the annual incidence of hepatitis A and unspecified hepatitis in 2008, 2009 and 2010 were 13.1, 7.9 and 3.7 per 100,000 subjects, lower than the baseline incidence of 51.1 per 100,000 subjects. In comparison to the mean baseline period (2000-2006), there was an 82% mean reduction in the overall hepatitis-related outcomes (hepatitis A and unspecified hepatitis) after vaccine introduction (2008-2010) in all age groups. In the hospital-based surveillance (2009-2011), of the 42 probable viral hepatitis A cases, nine cases were confirmed as acute hepatitis A (8 in 2009, 1 in 2010). Of these confirmed cases, two belonged to the targeted vaccine group (1-4 years) but were not vaccinated. Our study suggests that the introduction of two-dose hepatitis A vaccines in Panama has contributed to the reduction in the incidence of overall hepatitis-related outcomes for all age groups, suggesting herd protection. Additional monitoring is required to document a sustained long-term effect. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Land Use Management in the Panama Canal Watershed to Maximize Hydrologic Ecosystem Services Benefits: Explicit Simulation of Preferential Flow Paths in an HPC Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regina, J. A.; Ogden, F. L.; Steinke, R. C.; Frazier, N.; Cheng, Y.; Zhu, J.

    2017-12-01

    Preferential flow paths (PFP) resulting from biotic and abiotic factors contribute significantly to the generation of runoff in moist lowland tropical watersheds. Flow through PFPs represents the dominant mechanism by which land use choices affect hydrological behavior. The relative influence of PFP varies depending upon land-use management practices. Assessing the possible effects of land-use and landcover change on flows, and other ecosystem services, in the humid tropics partially depends on adequate simulation of PFP across different land-uses. Currently, 5% of global trade passes through the Panama Canal, which is supplied with fresh water from the Panama Canal Watershed. A third set of locks, recently constructed, are expected to double the capacity of the Canal. We incorporated explicit simulation of PFPs in to the ADHydro HPC distributed hydrological model to simulate the effects of land-use and landcover change due to land management incentives on water resources availability in the Panama Canal Watershed. These simulations help to test hypotheses related to the effectiveness of various proposed payments for ecosystem services schemes. This presentation will focus on hydrological model formulation and performance in an HPC environment.

  16. Tracing the Sources of Atmospheric Phosphorus Deposition to a Tropical Rain Forest in Panama Using Stable Oxygen Isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, A; Turner, B L; Goren, T; Berry, A; Angert, A

    2016-02-02

    Atmospheric dust deposition can be a significant source of phosphorus (P) in some tropical forests, so information on the origins and solubility of atmospheric P is needed to understand and predict patterns of forest productivity under future climate scenarios. We characterized atmospheric dust P across a seasonal cycle in a tropical lowland rain forest on Barro Colorado Nature Monument (BCNM), Republic of Panama. We traced P sources by combining remote sensing imagery with the first measurements of stable oxygen isotopes in soluble inorganic phosphate (δ(18)OP) in dust. In addition, we measured soluble inorganic and organic P concentrations in fine (1 μm) aerosol fractions and used this data to estimate the contribution of P inputs from dust deposition to the forest P budget. Aerosol dry mass was greater in the dry season (December to April, 5.6-15.7 μg m(-3)) than the wet season (May to November, 3.1-7.1 μg m(-3)). In contrast, soluble P concentrations in the aerosols were lower in the dry season (980-1880 μg P g(-1)) than the wet season (1170-3380 μg P g(-1)). The δ(18)OP of dry-season aerosols resembled that of nearby forest soils (∼19.5‰), suggesting a local origin. In the wet season, when the Trans-Atlantic Saharan dust belt moves north close to Panama, the δ(18)OP of aerosols was considerably lower (∼15.5‰), suggesting a significant contribution of long-distance dust P transport. Using satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth (AOD) and the P concentrations in aerosols we sampled in periods when Saharan dust was evident we estimate that the monthly P input from long distance dust transport during the period with highest Saharan dust deposition is 88 ± 31 g P ha(-1) month(-1), equivalent to between 10 and 29% of the P in monthly litter fall in nearby forests. These findings have important implications for our understanding of modern nutrient budgets and the productivity of tropical forests in the region under future climate scenarios.

  17. Assessment of the Possible Association of Air Pollutants PM10, O3, NO2 With an Increase in Cardiovascular, Respiratory, and Diabetes Mortality in Panama City: A 2003 to 2013 Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga, Julio; Tarajia, Musharaf; Herrera, Víctor; Urriola, Wilfredo; Gómez, Beatriz; Motta, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, Panama has experienced a marked economic growth, and this, in turn, has been associated with rapid urban development and degradation of air quality. This study is the first evaluation done in Panama on the association between air pollution and mortality. Our objective was to assess the possible association between monthly levels of PM10, O3, and NO2, and cardiovascular, respiratory, and diabetes mortality, as well as the seasonal variation of mortality in Panama City, Panama.The study was conducted in Panama City, using air pollution data from January 2003 to December 2013. We utilized a Poisson regression model based on generalized linear models, to evaluate the association between PM10, NO2, and O3 exposure and mortality from diabetes, cardiovascular, and respiratory diseases. The sample size for PM10, NO2, and O2 was 132, 132, and 108 monthly averages, respectively.We found that levels of PM10, O3, and NO2 were associated with increases in cardiovascular, respiratory, and diabetes mortality. For PM10 levels ≥ 40 μg/m3, we found an increase in cardiovascular mortality of 9.7% (CI 5.8-13.6%), and an increase of 12.6% (CI 0.2-24.2%) in respiratory mortality. For O3 levels ≥ 20 μg/m3 we found an increase of 32.4% (IC 14.6-52.9) in respiratory mortality, after a 2-month lag period following exposure in the 65 to respiratory mortality of 11.2% (IC 1.9-21.3), after a 2-month lag period following exposure among those aged between 65 and pollution in Panama City and an increase in cardiovascular, respiratory, and diabetes mortality. This study confirms the urgent need to improve the measurement frequency of air pollutants in Panama.

  18. Long-term assessment of the oil spill at Bahia Las Minas, Panama. Interim report. Volume 2: Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, B.D.; Jackson, J.B.C.

    1991-10-01

    On April 27, 1986, at least 8 million liters of medium-weight crude oil spilled from a ruptured storage tank into the Bahia Las Minas on the Caribbean Coast of Panama. Coral reefs, seagrass communities, and mangroves were affected. The area of the spill was also the location of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute's Galeta Laboratory where resident and visiting scientists have been studying the ecology of the Bahia Las Minas and the adjacent areas for over 15 years. Because this was a unique opportunity to assess the immediate biological effects following a major spill in the Caribbean region and to monitor the subsequent recovery, the U.S. Department of the Interior Minerals Management Service supported a 5-year environmental study. The objectives of the study are to identify any long-term changes in the marine environment that may have resulted from the spill and to understand the ecological processes causing such changes. This is the first report from the study and addresses the effects observed during the first two years of the effort

  19. The genus Odontocynips Kieffer, 1910 (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, Cynipini in Panama, with redescription of Cynips championi Cameron, 1883

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujade-Villar, J.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Odontocynips Kieffer, 1910 (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, Cynipini is recorded for the first time in Panama, including two species, O. championi (Cameron and O. hansoni Pujade-Villar, that induce galls on Quercus bumelioides Liebm. and Q. lancifolia Schledl & Cham. (Fagaceae, sect. Quercus, White Oaks, respectively. Odontocynips championi (Cameron, 1833, originally described as Cynips championi Cameron based solely on galls, is redescribed including the first description of the adults, a neotype is designated and a new combination is established. The known distribution and host range of O. hansoni, recorded earlier from Costa Rica, are also expanded upon.Se cita por primera vez para Panamá el género Odontocynips Kieffer, 1910 (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, Cynipini, incluyendo dos especies: Odontocynips championi (Cameron y O. hansoni Pujade-Villar, que inducen agallas en Quercus bumelioides Liebm. y Q. lancifolia Schledl & Cham. (Fagaceae, sect. Quercus, robles blancos, respectivamente. Se redescribe Odontocynips championi (Cameron, 1833, descrita solo a partir de sus agallas como Cynips championi Cameron, se describen por primera vez los adultos, se designa un neotipo y se establece una nueva combinación taxonómica al transferirla al género Odontocynips. Por otra parte, se amplía la distribución geográfica y rango de hospedador de O. hansoni, previamente citada sólo de Costa Rica.

  20. Cognitive Impairment, Depression, and Cooccurrence of Both among the Elderly in Panama: Differential Associations with Multimorbidity and Functional Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcibiades E. Villarreal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment and depression are common mental health problems among the elderly, although few studies have examined their cooccurrence in older adults in Latin America. The purpose of this study was to examine cognitive impairment, depression, and cooccurrence of the two conditions and associated factors in a sample of older adults in Panama. This study included 304 community-dwelling elderly (≥65 years individuals. Participants underwent a clinical interview and assessments of cognitive function by the Minimental State Examination and depressive symptoms by the Geriatric Depression Scale. Limitations in basic (BADL and instrumental (IADL activities in daily living and the presence of chronic illnesses were recorded. Multinomial regression analysis revealed that cooccurrence of cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms was explained by increasing age (OR: 3.2, 95% CI: 1.20, 8.30, low education (OR: 3.3, 95% CI: 1.33, 8.38, having four or more chronic conditions (OR: 11.5, 95% CI: 2.84, 46.63, and BADL limitations (OR: 5.0, 95% CI: 1.26, 19.68. Less education and limitations in BADL and IADL increased the odds of cognitive impairment alone, while less education and three or more chronic conditions increased the odds of depression alone. These findings underscore the relevance of assessing cognitive impairment in the elderly as part of a long-term approach to managing depression and vice versa.

  1. Empowering the poor: A field study of the social psychological consequences of receiving autonomy or dependency aid in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Katherina; van Leeuwen, Esther; Montenegro-Montenegro, Esteban; van Vugt, Mark

    2018-04-01

    This field study investigated the consequences of receiving poverty aid through conditional transfer programmes in the form of autonomy-oriented help (i.e., cash) or dependency-oriented help (i.e., vouchers) in impoverished rural communities in Panama. The empowering effects of autonomy- (vs. dependency-) help have so far only been studied in laboratory settings, or in settings where help could easily be refused. Little is known about the reactions of people who rely on help for extended periods of time. This study provides insights into how aid recipients are influenced by the type of aid they receive. Results showed that, as expected, recipients of cash reported more autonomy, empowerment, and life improvements than recipients of vouchers. Training, another type of autonomy-oriented help, was positively related to empowerment, personal, and family change beliefs. These findings illustrate the benefits of autonomy-oriented help programmes in empowering people from extremely poor communities around the world, who rely on aid for extended periods of time. © 2018 The Authors. British Journal of Social Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.

  2. Long-term assessment of the oil spill at Bahia Las Minas, Panama. Interim report. Volume 1: Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, B.D.; Jackson, J.B.C.

    1991-10-01

    On April 27, 1986, at least 8 million liters of medium-weight crude oil spilled from a ruptured storage tank into the Bahia Las Minas on the Caribbean Coast of Panama. Coral reefs, seagrass communities, and mangroves were affected. The area of the spill was also the location of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute's Galeta Laboratory where resident and visiting scientists have been studying the ecology of the Bahia Las Minas and the adjacent areas for over 15 years. Because this was a unique opportunity to assess the immediate biological effects following a major spill in the Caribbean region and to monitor the subsequent recovery, the U.S. Department of the Interior Minerals Management Service supported a 5-year environmental study. The objectives of the study are to identify any long-term changes in the marine environment that may have resulted from the spill and to understand the ecological processes causing such changes. This is the first report from the study and addresses the effects observed during the first two years of the effort

  3. Viability of small seeds found in feces of the Central American tapir on Barro Colorado Island, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capece, Paula I; Aliaga-Rossel, Enzo; Jansen, Patrick A

    2013-03-01

    Tapirs are known as effective dispersers of large-seeded tree species, but their role in dispersing small-seeded plant species has yet to be established. Tapir feces have been reported to contain large numbers of small seeds, but whether these are viable has rarely been evaluated. We determined the abundance and viability of small seeds in feces of Central American tapir (Tapirus bairdii) on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. A total of 72 fecal samples were collected opportunistically from 4 tapir latrine sites. Seeds were manually extracted from feces and classified by size. Seed viability was estimated by opening each seed and examining for the presence of at least 1 intact firm white endosperm. In total, we obtained 8166 seeds of at least 16 plant species. Small-seeded species dominated, with 96% of all seeds found measuring tapirs potentially serve as effective dispersers of a wide range of small-seeded plant species. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd, ISZS and IOZ/CAS.

  4. Fruits and wood of Parinari from the early Miocene of Panama and the fossil record of Chrysobalanaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jud, Nathan A; Nelson, Chris W; Herrera, Fabiany

    2016-02-01

    Chrysobalanaceae are woody plants with over 500 species in 20 genera. They are among the most common trees in tropical forests, but a sparse fossil record has limited our ability to test evolutionary and biogeographic hypotheses, and several previous reports of Chrysobalanaceae megafossils are doubtful. We prepared fossil endocarps and wood collected from the lower Miocene beds along the Panama Canal using the cellulose acetate peel technique and examined them using light microscopy. We compared the fossil endocarps with previously published fossils and with fruits from herbarium specimens. We compared the fossil wood with photographs and descriptions of extant species. Parinari endocarps can be distinguished from other genera within Chrysobalanaceae by a suite of features, i.e., thick wall, a secondary septum, seminal cavities lined with dense, woolly trichomes, and two ovate to lingulate basal germination plugs. Fossil endocarps from the Cucaracha, Culebra, and La Boca Formations confirm that Parinari was present in the neotropics by the early Miocene. The earliest unequivocal evidence of crown-group Chrysobalanaceae is late Oligocene-early Miocene, and the genus Parinari was distinct by at least 19 million years ago. Parinari and other Chrysobalanaceae likely reached the neotropics via long-distance dispersal rather than vicariance. The presence of Parinari in the Cucaracha flora supports the interpretation of a riparian, moist tropical forest environment. Parinari was probably a canopy-dominant tree in the Cucaracha forest and took advantage of the local megafauna for seed dispersal. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  5. The demography of Atelopus decline: Harlequin frog survival and abundance in central Panama prior to and during a disease outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca McCaffery

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Harlequin frogs (Bufonidae: Atelopus are a species-rich genus of Neotropical toads that have experienced disproportionately severe population declines and extinctions caused by the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd. The genus Atelopus is of high conservation concern, but relatively little is known about the population dynamics and life history of the majority of species. We examined the demography of one population of Atelopus zeteki and two populations of A. varius in central Panama using three to six years of mark-recapture data collected prior to and during an outbreak of Bd. We estimated male survival probabilities prior to the arrival of Bd and sex-specific population sizes for these three populations using state-space Bayesian population models. Prior to the arrival of Bd, monthly apparent survival probabilities were higher for A. varius males than for A. zeteki males, and recaptures among years were low in both species. Abundance of both species varied over time and declined rapidly after the arrival of Bd. Male densities were generally greater than female densities, though female densities were higher or equivalent to males after the arrival of Bd. Estimates of survival and abundance over time may be explained by differences in the use of stream habitat by the two sexes and three populations, both during and between breeding seasons. These estimates provide key baseline population information that can be used to inform reintroductions from captive assurance colonies and studies of extant Atelopus populations as part of conservation and management programs.

  6. Embryo production in the sponge-dwelling snapping shrimp Synalpheus apioceros (Decapoda, Alpheidae from Bocas del Toro, Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Rebolledo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Caridean shrimps of the genus Synalpheus are abundant and widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, but knowledge of their reproductive biology remains scarce. We report reproductive traits of Synalpheus apioceros from Bocas del Toro, Panama, based on collections in August 2011. The 46 ovigerous females that were analyzed ranged in size from 3.8 to 7.4 mm in carapace length. Fecundity varied between 8 and 310 embryos and increased with female size. Females invested 18.6 ± 10.3% of their body weight in Embryo production. Embryo volume increased considerably (77.2% during embryogenesis, likely representing water uptake near the end of incubation period. Compared to Synalpheus species with abbreviated or direct development, S. apioceros produced substantially smaller embryos; however, S. apioceros seems to have a prolonged larval phase with at least five zoeal stages, which may explain the combination of relatively small and numerous embryos. We did not find nonviable, minute, chalky embryos, previously reported for S. apioceros specimens obtained from the northwestern Gulf of Mexico, which supports the hypothesis that the production of this type of embryos may be a physiological response of this warm-water species to the temperature decrease near to its latitudinal range limit.

  7. Agreement between the Republic of Panama and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America. An Agreement by Exchange of Letters with the Republic of Panama to amend the Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The text of the Exchange of Letters, constituting an agreement to amend the Protocol to the Agreement of 23 March 1984 between the Republic of Panama and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Member States of the Agency [fr

  8. Agreement between the Republic of Panama and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America. An Agreement by Exchange of Letters with the Republic of Panama to amend the Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The text of the Exchange of Letters, constituting an agreement to amend the Protocol to the Agreement of 23 March 1984 between the Republic of Panama and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Member States of the Agency [es

  9. Tropical land-sea couplings: Role of watershed deforestation, mangrove estuary processing, and marine inputs on N fluxes in coastal Pacific Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiela, Ivan; Elmstrom, Elizabeth; Lloret, Javier; Stone, Thomas; Camilli, Luis

    2018-07-15

    We review data from coastal Pacific Panama and other tropical coasts with two aims. First, we defined inputs and losses of nitrogen (N) mediating connectivity of watersheds, mangrove estuaries, and coastal sea. N entering watersheds-mainly via N fixation (79-86%)-was largely intercepted; N discharges to mangrove estuaries (3-6%), small compared to N inputs to watersheds, nonetheless significantly supplied N to mangrove estuaries. Inputs to mangrove estuaries (including watershed discharges, and marine inputs during flood tides) were matched by losses (mainly denitrification and export during ebb tides). Mangrove estuary subsidies of coastal marine food webs take place by export of forms of N [DON (62.5%), PN (9.1%), and litter N (12.9%)] that provide dissimilative and assimilative subsidies. N fixation, denitrification, and tidal exchanges were major processes, and DON was major form of N involved in connecting fluxes in and out of mangrove estuaries. Second, we assessed effects of watershed forest cover on connectivity. Decreased watershed forest cover lowered N inputs, interception, and discharge into receiving mangrove estuaries. These imprints of forest cover were erased during transit of N through estuaries, owing to internal N cycle transformations, and differences in relative area of watersheds and estuaries. Largest losses of N consisted of water transport of energy-rich compounds, particularly DON. N losses were similar in magnitude to N inputs from sea, calculated without considering contribution by intermittent coastal upwelling, and hence likely under-estimated. Pacific Panama mangrove estuaries are exposed to major inputs of N from land and sea, which emphasizes the high degree of bi-directional connectivity in these coupled ecosystems. Pacific Panama is still lightly affected by human or global changes. Increased deforestation can be expected, as well as changes in ENSO, which will surely raise watershed-derived loads of N, as well as significantly

  10. A tripartite survey of hyperparasitic fungi associated with ectoparasitic flies on bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in a neotropical cloud forest in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Melissa J; Dorrestein, Annabel; Camacho, Jasmin J; Meckler, Lauren A; Silas, Kirk A; Hiller, Thomas; Haelewaters, Danny

    2018-01-01

    The Darién province in eastern Panama is one of the most unexplored and biodiverse regions in the world. The Chucantí Nature Reserve, in Serranía de Majé, consists of a diverse tropical cloud forest ecosystem. The aim of this research was to explore and study host associations of a tripartite system of bats, ectoparasitic flies on bats (Diptera, Streblidae), and ectoparasitic fungi (Ascomycota, Laboulbeniales) that use bat flies as hosts. We captured bats at Chucantí, screened each bat for presence of bat flies, and screened collected bat flies for presence of Laboulbeniales. We mistnetted for 68 mistnet hours and captured 227 bats representing 17 species. We captured Micronycteris schmidtorum, a species previously unreported in Darién. In addition, we encountered the rarely collected Platyrrhinus dorsalis, representing the westernmost report for this species. Of all captured bats, 148 carried bat flies (65%). The number of sampled bat flies was 437, representing 16 species. One species represents a new country record (Trichobius anducei) and five species represent first reports for Darién (Basilia anceps, Anatrichobius scorzai, Nycterophilia parnelli, T. johnsonae, T. parasiticus). All 74 bat fly species currently reported in Panama are presented in tabulated form. Of all screened bat flies, 30 bore Laboulbeniales fungi (7%). Based on both morphology and large ribosomal subunit (LSU) sequence data, we delimited 7 species of Laboulbeniales: Gloeandromyces nycteribiidarum (newly reported for Panama), G. pageanus, G. streblae, Nycteromyces streblidinus, and 3 undescribed species. Of the 30 infected flies, 21 were Trichobius joblingi. This species was the only host on which we observed double infections of Laboulbeniales. © M.J. Walker et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2018.

  11. Fragmentation by Dams Threatens Diadromous Fauna in Upstream Protected Areas - the Case of the La Amistad World Heritage Site (Costa Rica and Panama)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLarney, W.; Mafla Herrera, M.; Arias Moreno, A. M.; Snyder, M. N.

    2016-12-01

    Biological consequences of fragmenting rivers with dams are especially acute for migratory species, and even moreso for diadromes (animals obliged to travel between marine and fresh water environments in order to complete their life cycles). Diadromy is a worldwide phenomenon, occurring wherever fresh water rivers run to the sea. Worldwide, diadromous behavior has been described for > 300 species of fish in 37 families, as well as for all of the > 800 species of so-called "freshwater" shrimp in 4 families, plus a few crabs and snails. Diadromy is especially prevalent on islands and isthmuses, where rivers are necessarily short and development of primary freshwater fauna limited. One example is the Mesoamerican isthmus, extending from southern Mexico to the Panama/Colombia border. A 2006 study showed more than 300 high (> 15 m.) dams planned for this 8 country region. One example of the consequences emerges from Asociacion ANAI's biomonitoring work over 17 years in one part of Mesoamerica - the watersheds draining the Caribbean slope of the La Amistad World Heritage Site in Costa Rica and Panama. Our work has shown that over 80 % of fish and all of the shrimp in rivers above 100 m. altitude are diadromes. If all currently planned dams are built, we predict that 11 species of fish and shrimp will be extirpated from >90% of the World Heritage Site. Precedent exists in Puerto Rico, where damming has eliminated diadromous fish and all but a remnant of the shrimp from 25% of the island's watersheds. In La Amistad, the consequences, for biodiversity and fishery resources relied upon by neighboring indigenous ethnias are obvious. In Panama, protected area boundaries were drawn to avoid the issue of dams and reservoirs in national parks; our research shows the need for more comprehensive design criteria to prevent extirpations in protected areas.

  12. A tripartite survey of hyperparasitic fungi associated with ectoparasitic flies on bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera in a neotropical cloud forest in Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Melissa J.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Darién province in eastern Panama is one of the most unexplored and biodiverse regions in the world. The Chucantí Nature Reserve, in Serranía de Majé, consists of a diverse tropical cloud forest ecosystem. The aim of this research was to explore and study host associations of a tripartite system of bats, ectoparasitic flies on bats (Diptera, Streblidae, and ectoparasitic fungi (Ascomycota, Laboulbeniales that use bat flies as hosts. We captured bats at Chucantí, screened each bat for presence of bat flies, and screened collected bat flies for presence of Laboulbeniales. We mistnetted for 68 mistnet hours and captured 227 bats representing 17 species. We captured Micronycteris schmidtorum, a species previously unreported in Darién. In addition, we encountered the rarely collected Platyrrhinus dorsalis, representing the westernmost report for this species. Of all captured bats, 148 carried bat flies (65%. The number of sampled bat flies was 437, representing 16 species. One species represents a new country record (Trichobius anducei and five species represent first reports for Darién (Basilia anceps, Anatrichobius scorzai, Nycterophilia parnelli, T. johnsonae, T. parasiticus. All 74 bat fly species currently reported in Panama are presented in tabulated form. Of all screened bat flies, 30 bore Laboulbeniales fungi (7%. Based on both morphology and large ribosomal subunit (LSU sequence data, we delimited 7 species of Laboulbeniales: Gloeandromyces nycteribiidarum (newly reported for Panama, G. pageanus, G. streblae, Nycteromyces streblidinus, and 3 undescribed species. Of the 30 infected flies, 21 were Trichobius joblingi. This species was the only host on which we observed double infections of Laboulbeniales.

  13. Valuation of solid phase extraction disks in the determination of pesticide residues in surface and groundwater in Panama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, V.; Ramos de Jimenez, J.; Rojas, B.

    1999-01-01

    In Panama large quantities of pesticides are used in agriculture and livestock farming and there is increasing concern about their impact on public health and the environment. Chiriqui is the Province that registers the largest number of producers whose activities have impact on the environment, especially on surface and groundwater. Systematic monitoring programmes are non-existent due, in part, to the high cost of laboratory determination of environmental residues of pesticides. Within the framework of the FAO/IAEA/SIDA Coordinated Research Programme, efforts were focused on evaluating and optimising the use of solid phase extraction C 18 membrane disks in the analysis of surface and groundwater samples to determine pesticide residues. Factors studied were the effect of pre-washing and conditioning of the disks, flow rates, concentration level and matrix effects of field samples. Four pesticides, carbofuran, chlorothalonil, ametryn and chlorpyrifos were selected for these tests because preliminary analysis showed their presence in surface and groundwater. The technique significantly reduces the amount of organic solvents used as compared with the liquid-liquid extraction method. Quantifiable detection limits (Q L ) for the method were found to be 0.003 μg/L carbofuran, 0.016 μg/L chlorothalonil, 0.007 μg/L ametryn and 0.003 μg/L chlorpyrifos, when using standard spiked solutions. Recovery (%) was high when standard mixtures were used for the test runs but low when real surface water samples were tested, especially for chlorothalonil which was not recovered at all. (author)

  14. Reductions in cost and greenhouse gas emissions with new bulk ship designs enabled by the Panama Canal expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstad, Haakon; Jullumstrø, Egil; Sandaas, Inge

    2013-01-01

    Historically, fuel costs have been small compared with the fixed costs of a bulk vessel, its crewing and management. Today, however, fuel accounts for more than 50% of the total costs. In combination with an introduction of stricter energy efficiency requirements for new vessels, this might make design improvement a necessity for all new bulk vessels. This is in contradiction to traditional bulk vessel designs, where the focus has been on maximizing the cargo-carrying capacity at the lowest possible building cost and not on minimizing the energy consumption. Moreover, the Panama Canal has historically been an important design criterion, while the new canal locks from 2014 will significantly increase the maximum size of vessels that can pass. The present paper provides an assessment of cost and emissions as a function of alternative bulk vessel designs with focus on a vessel's beam, length and hull slenderness, expressed by the length displacement ratio for three fuel price scenarios. The result shows that with slenderer hull forms the emissions drop. With today's fuel price of 600 USD per ton of fuel, emissions can thus be reduced by up to 15–25% at a negative abatement cost. - Highlights: • We have assessed cost and emissions as a function of alternative bulk vessel designs. • The design focus has been on vessel beam, length, hull slenderness and bow section length. • The assessment has taken into account three different fuel price scenarios. • When the block coefficient is reduced and the hull becomes more slender the emissions drop. • With a fuel price of 600 USD/t, emissions can be reduced by up to 15–25% at a negative abatement cost

  15. Pesticide patch test series for the assessment of allergic contact dermatitis among banana plantation workers in panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penagos, Homero; Ruepert, Clemens; Partanen, Timo; Wesseling, Catharina

    2004-09-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) are frequent among agricultural workers and require targeted interventions. Patch testing is necessary for differential diagnosis, but patch testing with pesticides is uncommon. This study explores the frequency of ACD and sensitization to pesticides among highly exposed banana plantation workers. Frequently and recently used pesticides on banana plantations in Divala, Panama, were documented. A pesticide patch test tray specific for this population was prepared. A structured interview was administered to 366 participants, followed by a complete skin examination. The pesticide patch test series, as well as a standard patch test series, was applied to 37 workers with dermatoses likely to be pesticide related and to 23 control workers without dermatoses. The pesticide patch tests identified 15 cases (41%) of ACD (20 positive reactions) among the 37 workers diagnosed with pesticide dermatosis. Three controls had allergic reactions to pesticides (4 positive reactions). The pesticides were carbaryl (5 cases), benomyl (4 cases), ethoprophos (3), chlorothalonil (2), imazalil (2), glyphosate (2), thiabendazole (2), chlorpyrifos (1), oxyfluorfen (1), propiconazole (1), and tridemorph (1). Ethoprophos and tridemorph had not been previously identified as sensitizers. Thus, the prevalence of ACD was 0.03 (15 of 366). On the basis of observed prevalences of positive patch-test reactions among the subgroups with and without dermatoses, we estimated that > or = 16% of the entire population may be sensitized to pesticides. Sensitization to pesticides among banana plantation workers is a frequent occupational health problem. Pesticide patch test trays should be used in assessing skin diseases in highly exposed workers.

  16. Diagnosing the uncertainty and detectability of emission reductions for REDD + under current capabilities: an example for Panama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelletier, Johanne; Potvin, Catherine; Ramankutty, Navin

    2011-01-01

    In preparation for the deployment of a new mechanism that could address as much as one fifth of global greenhouse gas emissions by reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD +), important work on methodological issues is still needed to secure the capacity to produce measurable, reportable, and verifiable emissions reductions from REDD + in developing countries. To contribute to this effort, we have diagnosed the main sources of uncertainty in the quantification of emission from deforestation for Panama, one of the first countries to be supported by the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility of the World Bank and by UN-REDD. Performing sensitivity analyses using a land-cover change emissions model, we identified forest carbon stocks and the quality of land-cover maps as the key parameters influencing model uncertainty. The time interval between two land-cover assessments, carbon density in fallow and secondary forest, and the accuracy of land-cover classifications also affect our ability to produce accurate estimates. Further, we used the model to compare emission reductions from five different deforestation reduction scenarios drawn from governmental input. Only the scenario simulating a reduction in deforestation by half succeeds in crossing outside the confidence bounds surrounding the baseline emission obtained from the uncertainty analysis. These results suggest that with current data, real emission reductions in developing countries could be obscured by their associated uncertainties. Ways of addressing the key sources of error are proposed, for developing countries involved in REDD + , for improving the accuracy of their estimates in the future. These new considerations confirm the importance of current efforts to establish forest monitoring systems and enhance capabilities for REDD + in developing countries.

  17. Centering Panama in Global Modernity: The Search for National Identity and the Imagining of the Orient in Rogelio Sinán’s “Sin novedad en Shanghai”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyoung Verónica Kim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Since its independence from Colombia in 1903 backed by the United States government, which resulted in a treaty that granted the US free rein to build, administer and control what would be known as the Panama Canal, Panama’s quest for modern nationhood has been severely called into question. More often than not it is posited as an artificial state with little organic unity and limited sovereignty: a state that is literally made in the USA. Panamanian intellectuals, such as Rogelio Sinán, responded to these discourses on the Panamanian nation-state by actively constructing a Panamanian national identity, and by calling attention to the central significance of Panama in the twentieth-century world of global modernity. Questioning the widespread narrative of Panama as a peripheral North American neo-colony that was at best a marginal actor in international history, Sinán positioned Panama at the center of the modern world where World Wars, international migrations and global capitalism connected. By exploring Sinán’s short story “Sin novedad en Shanghai” that takes place in East Asia during World War II, this study argues that the writer’s deployment of the Orient—as a geopolitical, cultural, symbolic and imaginary space—allows him to reposition Panama. In its symbolic relation to this Orient, Panama emerges not as the backwaters of global modernity, but at its center—a cosmopolis between the Orient and the Occident that reveals a microcosm of the modern world.

  18. New species of Diplectanum (Monogenoidea:Diplectanidae), and proposal of a new genus of the Dactylogyridae from the gills of gerreid fishes (Teleostei) from Mexico and Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Edgar F Mendoza; Roche, Dominique G; Torchin, Mark E

    2008-09-01

    While investigating the parasites of several marine fishes from the Western Atlantic, the Southern Gulf of Mexico and Central America (Panama), the following monogenoidean species from the gills of gerreid fishes (Gerreidae) were found: Diplec-tanum gatunense sp. n. (Diplectanidae) and Octouncuhaptor eugerrei gen. et sp. n. (Dactylogyridae) in Eugerres brasilianus (Cuvier) from Gatun Lake in the Panama Canal Watershed, and Diplectanum mexicanum sp. n. in Diapterus rhombeus (Cuvier) from the coast of Campeche State, Mexico. New diplectanid species are distinguished from other species of the genus by the general morphology of the copulatory complex and by the shape of the anchors and bars on the haptor. Octouncuhaptor gen. n. is proposed for its new species having slightly overlapping gonads (testis posterodorsal to the ovary), a dextrolateral vaginal aperture, a copulatory complex consisting of a coiled male copulatory organ with counterclockwise rings with the base articulated to the accessory piece, 8 pairs of hooks and the absence of anchors and bars on haptor. Our analysis of morphological features of Diplectanum species on gerreids evidences that these parasites more closely resemble each other than the known species from sciaenids suggesting that split between gerreids and sciaenids resulted in parasite speciation.

  19. Quantifying Hydrological Ecosystem Services of Various Land Covers and Uses on Small Experimental Catchments within the Panama Canal Watershed: The Agua Salud Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, T. D.; Ogden, F. L.; Agua Salud Project

    2011-12-01

    As a part of the Agua Salud Project, a baseline characterization of hydrologic processes on the small catchment scale (~0.24 to 2.0 km2) is assessed across different land uses and covers typical to rural Panama. The land covers being monitored include a mature secondary forest, a disturbed catchment with a mosaic of various aged secondary growth and agricultural use, an active pasture and a monoculture invasive grass site as experimental controls, and two treated catchments that were recently abandoned pastures converted to teak and native species timber plantations. The catchments are found within Panama's protected Soberania National Park and the adjacent headwaters of the Agua Salud and Mendoza Rivers, all part of the greater Panama Canal Watershed. Using hydrological data from the first two and a half years of the project, three main ecosystem services are observed. The forested area exhibited lower storm event peaks, decreased flashiness, and greater stream flow during the dry season compared to the disturbed mosaic site. Lower hydrograph peaks and flashiness mitigate the risk of substantial flood damage during the major flood events generally seen in Panama between October and December. The mature forest (1.35 km2) catchment has shown lower average flood peaks in comparison to the disturbed site. For storm peaks less than 6 mm/hr, flood peaks are on average 51% lower. For storm peaks greater than 6 mm/hr, flood peaks are approximately 40% lower. In 1998, draft restrictions were imposed in the Panama Canal because of a deficit of dry season water after an El Niño-Southern Oscillation resulted in decreased wet season rainfall. The water that is available during the end of the dry season has the potential to insure the full operation of the Canal during El Niño drought years. Toward the end of the dry season (March through May) our data shows that roughly 34% more water was available during a relatively dry year with respect to antecedent wet season rainfall

  20. Preferential Redistribution of Fine-Grained Particles in the Panama Basin and Potential Errors in 230Th-Derived Focusing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcantonio, F.; Lyle, M. W.; Ibrahim, R.

    2013-12-01

    The 230Th constant-flux proxy technique, commonly used in paleoceanography to estimate sediment fluxes, is thought to differentiate lateral from vertical fluxes of sediment at sites that have undergone sediment redistribution. However, redistribution processes (focusing or winnowing) are expected to fractionate fine particles from those that are coarse. Since fine particles with greater surface area are known to contain greater concentrations of 230Th, one might expect that sediment redistribution would bias 230Th-derived sediment mass accumulation rates (MARs). We investigate this possibility in two regions of the Panama Basin where significant sediment focusing has been hypothesized to occur. We examine multicore sediments from paired sites at two locations, one close to the equator at the southern limit of the Panama Basin (Carnegie Ridge) where upwelling and primary productivity are high, and one at 6°N at the northern boundary of the Panama Basin (Cocos Ridge), where primary productivity is lower. The multicores, which are constrained by radiocarbon ages that span the latest Holocene at each paired site, represent regions that have undergone potential winnowing and focusing (thin vs thick sediment drapes identified using seismic reflection) at each Panama Basin location. Since the distance separating the paired sites at each location is no more than about 50 km, one would expect the 230Th-derived MARs to be similar, i.e., the rain rate should not be significantly different at each of the paired sites. The radiocarbon-derived sand fraction (>63-μm) MARs, which likely represent the vertical rain of particles not transported by bottom currents, are identical at each of the paired sites, with fluxes at the Carnegie Ridge about 3.5 times greater than those at the Cocos Ridge over the past several thousand years. Over the same time period, the 230Th-normalized MARs are relatively similar at both the Carnegie and Cocos sites, but are different by about 60% at each

  1. Gene flow and geographic variation in natural populations of Alnus acuminata ssp. arguta (Fagales: Betulaceae in Costa Rica and Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olman Murillo

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen natural populations in Costa Rica and Panama were used to asses gene flow and geographic patterns of genetic variation in this tree species. Gene flow analysis was based on the methods of rare alleles and FST (Index of genetic similarity M, using the only four polymorphic gene loci among 22 investigated (PGI-B, PGM-A, MNR-A and IDH-A. The geographic variation analysis was based on Pearson`s correlations between four geographic and 14 genetic variables. Some evidence of isolation by distance and a weak gene flow among geographic regions was found. Patterns of clinal variation in relation to altitude (r = -0.62 for genetic diversity and latitude (r= -0.77 for PGI-B3 were also observed, supporting the hypothesis of isolation by distance. No private alleles were found at the single population level.Diecisiete poblaciones naturales de esta especie forestal en Costa Rica y Panamá, fueron investigadas en relación con sus patrones de flujo genético y de variación geográfica. El análisis de flujo genético fue basado en los métodos de los alelos raros y de FST (Indice de similaridad genética M. Los análisis fueron a su vez basados en los únicos cuatro loci genéticos de un total de 22 investigados que mostraron polimorfismo (PGI-B, PGM-A, MNR-A and IDH-A. Los análisis de variación geográfica fueron basados en el desarrollo de correlaciones de Pearson entre 4 variables geográficas y 14 variables genéticas. Alguna evidencia de aislamiento por distancia así como un débil flujo genético entre regiones geográficas fue encontrado. Fueron también observados patrones de variación clinal en relación con la altitud (r = -0.62 para la diversidad genética y latitud (r= -0.77 en PGI-B3, que apoyan la hipotesis de aislamiento por distancia para esta especie. No se encontraron alelos privados en ninguna de las poblaciones investigadas.

  2. Spatial-Temporal Distribution of Hantavirus Rodent-Borne Infection by Oligoryzomys fulvescens in the Agua Buena Region--Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armién, Blas; Ortiz, Paulo Lazaro; Gonzalez, Publio; Cumbrera, Alberto; Rivero, Alina; Avila, Mario; Armién, Aníbal G; Koster, Frederick; Glass, Gregory

    2016-02-01

    Hotspot detection and characterization has played an increasing role in understanding the maintenance and transmission of zoonotic pathogens. Identifying the specific environmental factors (or their correlates) that influence reservoir host abundance help increase understanding of how pathogens are maintained in natural systems and are crucial to identifying disease risk. However, most recent studies are performed at macro-scale and describe broad temporal patterns of population abundances. Few have been conducted at a microscale over short time periods that better capture the dynamical patterns of key populations. These finer resolution studies may better define the likelihood of local pathogen persistence. This study characterizes the landscape distribution and spatio-temporal dynamics of Oligoryzomys fulvescens (O. fulvescens), an important mammalian reservoir in Central America. Information collected in a longitudinal study of rodent populations in the community of Agua Buena in Tonosí, Panama, between April 2006 and December 2009 was analyzed using non-spatial analyses (box plots) and explicit spatial statistical tests (correlograms, SADIE and LISA). A 90 node grid was built (raster format) to design a base map. The area between the nodes was 0.09 km(2) and the total study area was 6.43 km(2) (2.39 x 2.69 km). The temporal assessment dataset was divided into four periods for each year studied: the dry season, rainy season, and two months-long transitions between seasons (the months of April and December). There were heterogeneous patterns in the population densities and degrees of dispersion of O. fulvescens that varied across seasons and among years. The species typically was locally absent during the late transitional months of the season, and re-established locally in subsequent years. These populations re-occurred in the same area during the first three years but subsequently re-established further south in the final year of the study. Spatial

  3. Spatial-Temporal Distribution of Hantavirus Rodent-Borne Infection by Oligoryzomys fulvescens in the Agua Buena Region - Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Publio; Cumbrera, Alberto; Rivero, Alina; Avila, Mario; Armién, Aníbal G.; Koster, Frederick; Glass, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Background Hotspot detection and characterization has played an increasing role in understanding the maintenance and transmission of zoonotic pathogens. Identifying the specific environmental factors (or their correlates) that influence reservoir host abundance help increase understanding of how pathogens are maintained in natural systems and are crucial to identifying disease risk. However, most recent studies are performed at macro-scale and describe broad temporal patterns of population abundances. Few have been conducted at a microscale over short time periods that better capture the dynamical patterns of key populations. These finer resolution studies may better define the likelihood of local pathogen persistence. This study characterizes the landscape distribution and spatio-temporal dynamics of Oligoryzomys fulvescens (O. fulvescens), an important mammalian reservoir in Central America. Methods Information collected in a longitudinal study of rodent populations in the community of Agua Buena in Tonosí, Panama, between April 2006 and December 2009 was analyzed using non-spatial analyses (box plots) and explicit spatial statistical tests (correlograms, SADIE and LISA). A 90 node grid was built (raster format) to design a base map. The area between the nodes was 0.09 km2 and the total study area was 6.43 km2 (2.39 x 2.69 km). The temporal assessment dataset was divided into four periods for each year studied: the dry season, rainy season, and two months-long transitions between seasons (the months of April and December). Results There were heterogeneous patterns in the population densities and degrees of dispersion of O. fulvescens that varied across seasons and among years. The species typically was locally absent during the late transitional months of the season, and re-established locally in subsequent years. These populations re-occurred in the same area during the first three years but subsequently re-established further south in the final year of the

  4. The morphology and structure of the Hannibal Bank fisheries management zone, Pacific Panama using acoustic seabed mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Cunningham

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Hannibal Bank sits within the Coiba UNESCO World Heritage Site in Pacific Panama and is also a fisheries management zone. Despite the protected status of the area and the importance of the Bank for commercial fish species such as snapper and tuna, the seamount has received no detailed survey except some collection of organisms. This study mapped the major topographic features and complexity of the Hannibal Bank seamount using acoustic remote sensing. A survey area of around 125km² was defined using existing charts and side-scan sonar data were collected during July 2008. A bathymetric output was imported to ArcGIS where a digital bathymetric model and slope map were created. The Benthic Terrain Modeler BTM extension for ArcGIS was used to calculate bathymetric position index and rugosity, and used to create a map of zones representing the various seabed morphology zones. The Hannibal bank is an elongated, triangular guyot flat topped seamount, which ranges in depth from 53m to 416m, covers an area of 76km² and is 14.4km long and 7.1km wide. Hannibal bank is composed of steep slopes, more gentle slopes, top of the seamount, crests elevated ridges at the top of the pinnacles, rugose areas on crests, top of seamount and slope, gullies and pinnacles. The bank is asymmetric in nature with the Northerly side having a relatively gentle slope with gullies across the surface compared to the SouthWest side which is far steeper and more rugose. There are two pinnacles to the North and South East of the bank that range in depth from 180 to 333m. Rocky substrate makes up 22.6km² of the bank and sediment 37.8km². The bank and its steeply sided, rugose areas and pinnacles provide upright structures which can disrupt and topographically enhance currents, increasing productivity. The rugose areas of Hannibal Bank should be primary targets for further research efforts as they may contain corals and their rugosity indicates that these should be some of the

  5. The morphology and structure of the Hannibal Bank fisheries management zone, Pacific Panama using acoustic seabed mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Sarah; Guzman, Hector M; Bates, Richard

    2013-12-01

    The Hannibal Bank sits within the Coiba UNESCO World Heritage Site in Pacific Panama and is also a fisheries management zone. Despite the protected status of the area and the importance of the Bank for commercial fish species such as snapper and tuna, the seamount has received no detailed survey except some collection of organisms. This study mapped the major topographic features and complexity of the Hannibal Bank seamount using acoustic remote sensing. A survey area of around 125 km2 was defined using existing charts and side-scan sonar data were collected during July 2008. A bathymetric output was imported to ArcGIS where a digital bathymetric model and slope map were created. The Benthic Terrain Modeler (BTM) extension for ArcGIS was used to calculate bathymetric position index and rugosity, and used to create a map of zones representing the various seabed morphology zones. The Hannibal bank is an elongated, triangular guyot (flat topped seamount), which ranges in depth from 53m to 416m, covers an area of 76 km2 and is 14.4 km long and 7.1 km wide. Hannibal bank is composed of steep slopes, more gentle slopes, top of the seamount, crests (elevated ridges at the top of the pinnacles), rugose areas (on crests, top of seamount and slope), gullies and pinnacles. The bank is asymmetric in nature with the Northerly side having a relatively gentle slope with gullies across the surface compared to the SouthWest side which is far steeper and more rugose. There are two pinnacles to the North and South East of the bank that range in depth from 180 to 333 m. Rocky substrate makes up 22.6 km2 of the bank and sediment 37.8 km2. The bank and its steeply sided, rugose areas and pinnacles provide upright structures which can disrupt and topographically enhance currents, increasing productivity. The rugose areas of Hannibal Bank should be primary targets for further research efforts as they may contain corals and their rugosity indicates that these should be some of the highest

  6. panama_city.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  7. Panama: Owning the Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    increasing the annual annuity from $250,000 to $430,000, and conveyance of complete control over immigration into the nation, including the zone.33...to Panamanian merchants. Not only did Washington renege on promises to send back West Indian immigrants , the United States actually imported more...2013. These countries are Brazil, Chile , China, Colombia, Czech Republic, Egypt, Greece, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, Peru

  8. First record of the oak gall wasp genus Neuroterus Hartig, 1840 (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, Cynipini from Central America with description of three new species from Panama and Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Medianero

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of Neuroterus Hartig, 1840 (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini are described from Panama and Costa Rica: Neuroterus elvisi sp. n., Neuroterus pulchrigalla sp. n., and Neuroterus glandiphilus sp. n. The new species are the first of the genus Neuroterus recorded from Central America and the Neotropical region. The new species induce galls on Quercus bumelioides Liebm. (Fagaceae, sect. Quercus, White Oaks. Additional evidence of the presence of other unidentified species of Neuroterus in the sampled area is presented. Diagnostic morphological characters, gall descriptions, distributions, host plant and other biological data of the new species are given and discussed. http://urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:48D0C1E1-1D0C-40D8-B890-FFC85AE7A213

  9. Predominance of Trypanosoma rangeli infection in children from a Chagas disease endemic area in the west-shore of the Panama canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azael Saldaña

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A total of 206 serum samples from children (3-14 years old living in the Amador County (La Chorrera District, Province of Panama were screened by indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT for the presence of antibodies against Trypanosoma cruzi. Positive sera were confirmed by recombinant enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and Western blot analysis. The presence of blood trypanosomes was investigated by hemoculture and subsequently identify by a duplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR followed by dot blot hybridization. The results indicated a prevalence of 9.7% for trypanosome infections, a seroprevalence of 2.9% against T. cruzi and a predominance of T. rangeli infection (6.8%. The immunological and clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  10. A participatory approach to elucidate the consequences of land invasions on REDD+ initiatives: A case study with Indigenous communities in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Asenjo, Gerardo; Mateo-Vega, Javier; Alvarado, Alexis; Potvin, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Land tenure and tenure security are among the most important factors determining the viability and success of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) initiatives. The premise of the present paper is that territorial conflicts lead to forest loss and compromise the successful implementation of REDD+. Within this context, the main objectives of this paper are to (i) document, relying on participatory methods, the extent to which land conflicts drive deforestation and (ii) reflect on the legal context of REDD+ examining if, from an Indigenous perspective, it offers tools to resolve such conflicts. We used the Upper Bayano Watershed in eastern Panama as a case study of complex land tenure dynamics, and their effects on forest conservation in the context of REDD+. Combining a range of participatory methods including participatory mapping and forest carbon stock assessment, we estimated the consequences of land invasions on forest carbon stocks. Our analysis shows that invasions of Indigenous territories amounted to 27.6% of the total deforestation for the period of 2001-2014. The situation is of paramount concern in the Embera territory of Majé where 95.4% of total deforestation was caused by colonist invaders. Using and validating the maps made freely available by the Global Forest Change initiative of the University of Maryland, we then developed a reference level for the watershed and carried out a back of the envelop estimation of likely REDD+ revenue, showing its potential to bring much needed income to Indigenous communities striving to protect their forest estate. Our analysis of current legislation in Panama highlights confusion and important legal voids and emphasizes the strong links between land tenure, carbon ownership, and territorial invasions. The options and shortcoming of implementing REDD+ in Indigenous territories is discussed in the conclusion taking our legal review into account.

  11. HIV transmitted drug resistance in adult and pediatric populations in Panama Farmacorresistencia transmitida del VIH en poblaciones adultas y pediátricas en Panamá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Castillo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of transmitted drug-resistant HIV among adults in Panama by using a modified World Health Organization Threshold Survey (WHO-TS and to investigate rates of initial resistance among HIV-positive infants in Panama. METHODS: At the Gorgas Memorial Institute, 47 HIV-positive adults were genotyped for mutations associated with transmitted drug resistance (TDR in the reverse transcriptase and protease genes of HIV-1, according to WHO-TS guidelines, modified to include patients ≤ 26 years old. Prevalence rates for drug-resistance mutations against three classes of antiretroviral drugs-nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs, and protease inhibitors-were calculated as low ( 15.0%. Twenty-five infant patients were also geno-typed and prevalence rates for drug-resistance mutations were calculated. RESULTS: TDR among Panamanian adults was moderate: 6 of 47 HIV-positive adults showed one or more mutations associated with TDR. Horizontal TDR mutations were moderate for NRTIs and NNRTIs and low for protease inhibitors. Vertical transmission of HIV in Panama has decreased for 2002-2007, but vertical HIV TDR prevalence is moderate (12.0% and is emerging as a problem due to incomplete antiretroviral coverage in pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HIV TDR indicated by this study, combined with known rates of HIV infection in Panama, suggests more extensive surveys are needed to identify risk factors associated with transmission of HIV drug resistance. Specific WHO-TS guidelines for monitoring vertical transmission of drug-resistant HIV should be established.OBJETIVO: Investigar la prevalencia de farmacorresistencia transmitida del VIH en adultos en Panamá mediante un estudio del umbral modificado de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS e investigar las tasas de resistencia inicial en lactantes seropositivos para el VIH en Panamá. M

  12. Community renewable energy in Panama: a sustainability assessment of the “Boca de Lura” PV-Wind-Battery hybrid power system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madriz-Vargas Rolando

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study of a community renewable energy project implemented in the community of “Boca de Lura” located in rural Panama. This is a 2.17 kW stand-alone PV-Wind-Battery hybrid power system supplying energy to a local school also serving as a community facility. A novel sustainability assessment framework is used to examine the Boca de Lura experience and future perspectives for the power system and the project as a whole. The main challenges for Boca de Lura are discussed and recommendations to overcome some of the obstacles encountered are provided. Findings suggest that, even though the project was successfully implemented, its long-term operation is jeopardized due to non-technical aspects rather than technical ones. A potential solution is upgrading the stand-alone system into a minigrid; however, more studies and external advice are required to understand the implications for Boca de Lura, local institutions and possible national and international sponsors.

  13. Three new species of Carychium O.F. Müller, 1773 from the Southeastern USA, Belize and Panama are described using computer tomography (CT) (Eupulmonata, Ellobioidea, Carychiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochum, Adrienne; Weigand, Alexander M; Bochud, Estee; Inäbnit, Thomas; Dörge, Dorian D; Ruthensteiner, Bernhard; Favre, Adrien; Martels, Gunhild; Kampschulte, Marian

    2017-01-01

    Three new species of the genus Carychium O.F. Müller, 1773, Carychium hardiei Jochum & Weigand, sp. n. , Carychium belizeense Jochum & Weigand, sp. n. and Carychium zarzaae Jochum & Weigand, sp. n. are described from the Southeastern United States, Belize and Panama, respectively. In two consecutive molecular phylogenetic studies of worldwide members of Carychiidae, the North and Central American morphospecies Carychium mexicanum Pilsbry, 1891 and Carychium costaricanum E. von Martens, 1898 were found to consist of several evolutionary lineages. Although the related lineages were found to be molecularly distinct from the two nominal species, the consequential morphological and taxonomic assessment of these lineages is still lacking. In the present paper, the shells of these uncovered Carychium lineages are assessed by comparing them with those of related species, using computer tomography for the first time for this genus. The interior diagnostic characters are emphasized, such as columellar configuration in conjunction with the columellar lamella and their relationship in context of the entire shell. These taxa are morphologically described and formally assigned their own names.

  14. Three new species of Carychium O.F. Müller, 1773 from the Southeastern USA, Belize and Panama are described using computer tomography (CT (Eupulmonata, Ellobioidea, Carychiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Jochum

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of the genus Carychium O.F. Müller, 1773, Carychium hardiei Jochum & Weigand, sp. n., Carychium belizeense Jochum & Weigand, sp. n. and Carychium zarzaae Jochum & Weigand, sp. n. are described from the Southeastern United States, Belize and Panama, respectively. In two consecutive molecular phylogenetic studies of worldwide members of Carychiidae, the North and Central American morphospecies Carychium mexicanum Pilsbry, 1891 and Carychium costaricanum E. von Martens, 1898 were found to consist of several evolutionary lineages. Although the related lineages were found to be molecularly distinct from the two nominal species, the consequential morphological and taxonomic assessment of these lineages is still lacking. In the present paper, the shells of these uncovered Carychium lineages are assessed by comparing them with those of related species, using computer tomography for the first time for this genus. The interior diagnostic characters are emphasized, such as columellar configuration in conjunction with the columellar lamella and their relationship in context of the entire shell. These taxa are morphologically described and formally assigned their own names.

  15. Plant water use responses along secondary forest succession during the 2015-2016 El Niño drought in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretfeld, Mario; Ewers, Brent E; Hall, Jefferson S

    2018-03-05

    Tropical forests are increasingly being subjected to hotter, drier conditions as a result of global climate change. The effects of drought on forests along successional gradients remain poorly understood. We took advantage of the 2015-2016 El Niño event to test for differences in drought response along a successional gradient by measuring the sap flow in 76 trees, representing 42 different species, in 8-, 25- and 80-yr-old secondary forests in the 15-km 2 'Agua Salud Project' study area, located in central Panama. Average sap velocities and sapwood-specific hydraulic conductivities were highest in the youngest forest. During the dry season drought, sap velocities increased significantly in the 80-yr-old forest as a result of higher evaporative demand, but not in younger forests. The main drivers of transpiration shifted from radiation to vapor pressure deficit with progressing forest succession. Soil volumetric water content was a limiting factor only in the youngest forest during the dry season, probably as a result of less root exploration in the soil. Trees in early-successional forests displayed stronger signs of regulatory responses to the 2015-2016 El Niño drought, and the limiting physiological processes for transpiration shifted from operating at the plant-soil interface to the plant-atmosphere interface with progressing forest succession. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. What´s in the tank? Nematodes and other major components of the meiofauna of bromeliad phytotelms in lowland Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotz, Gerhard; Traunspurger, Walter

    2016-03-15

    Nematodes are a very diverse and extremely abundant group of animals, but their occurrence in the tropics is surprisingly little understood. We investigated the meiofauna of epiphytic tank bromeliads in the lowlands of Panama with particular emphasis on nematodes. We encountered 89 morphospecies of nematodes in 54 bromeliad tanks, which were sampled in the wet and the dry season. Rotifers were by far the most abundant group in both the dry and the wet season (with up to 960 individual ml(-1)), followed by nematodes, annelids and harpacticoid copepods. Individual plants hosted up to 25 nematode species. These nematodes represented a diversity of feeding guilds, suction-feeders and deposit-feeders being most abundant. The relative abundances of feeding-types of nematodes differed considerably in the wet and dry season. Both species richness and abundance were strongly correlated with the size of the phytotelms and the season, while species diversity assessed with the Shannon-index was affected by neither of the two. This is the first study with a particular focus on the diversity of nematodes in tank bromeliads. We document a meiofauna of considerable abundance and diversity, which suggests important functional roles in ecological processes such as decomposition, which in turn warrants further study.

  17. Investigation of an accidental exposure of radiotherapy patients in Panama. Report of a team of experts, 26 May - 1 June 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-08-01

    The Instituto Oncologico Nacional (ION) in Panama provides treatment for cancer patients using radiotherapy. As is common practice in most radiotherapy departments, the ION uses blocks of shielding material to modify the shapes of the radiation beams to protect normal tissue, including critical structures, during treatment. A computerized treatment planning system (TPS) was used by the ION to calculate the resulting dose distributions and determine treatment times. The data for each shielding block should be entered into the TPS separately. The TPS allows a maximum of four shielding blocks per field to be taken into account when calculating treatment times and dose distributions. According to information provided to the IAEA Team, in order to satisfy the request of a radiation oncologist to include five blocks in the field, in August 2000 the method of digitizing 1 shielding blocks was changed. It was found that it was possible to enter data into the TPS for multiple shielding blocks together as if they were a single block 2 , thereby apparently overcoming the limitation of four blocks per field. As was found later, although the TPS accepted entry of the data for multiple shielding blocks as if they were a single block, at least one of the ways in which the data were entered the computer output indicated a treatment time substantially longer than it should have been. The result was that patients received a proportionately higher dose than that prescribed. The modified treatment protocol was used for 28 patients, who were treated between August 2000 and March 2001 for prostate cancer and cancer of the cervix. Several characteristics of the TPS made it relatively easy for the error to occur: It is questionable whether the information in the instructions is sufficiently clear to guide the user in detail on the way in which the blocks should be digitized; Several different ways of digitizing he blocks were accepted by the computer; There was no warning on the computer

  18. Land-use change effects on fluxes and isotopic composition of CO2 and CH4 in Panama, and possible insights into the atmospheric H2 cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendall, E.; Schwendenmann, L.; Potvin, C.

    2003-12-01

    Land-use changes in tropical regions are believed to release a quantity of C to the atmosphere which is similar in magnitude to the entire "missing" sink for anthropogenic CO2. Our research attempts to evaluate carbon cycling in three land-cover systems in central Panama: cow pasture, native tree plantation, and undisturbed moist forest. In this ongoing project, we are collecting samples of air from profiles in the stable, nocturnal boundary layer, which is dominated by ecosystem respiration. Samples are analyzed for CO2 and its isotopes, CH4 and its C isotopic composition, N2O, H2, CO, and SF6. We use a flux-gradient method to estimate ecosystem-scale fluxes of trace gases from soil to the atmosphere. Keeling plot intercepts reflect the respiratory contribution of C3 and C4 biomass under contrasting land cover systems, and how this varies with pronounced wet-dry seasonal cycles. C isotopes of methane and gradients of molecular hydrogen provide insight into the source of methane production from pasture and plantation soils. Rainforest soils, in contrast, are sinks for both atmospheric methane and hydrogen. The process oriented nature of this field experiment will contribute to parameterization of carbon cycle models at a variety of spatial scales.

  19. AFLP polymorphisms allow high resolution genetic analysis of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis agents circulating in Panama and other members of the Leishmania genus.

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    Carlos M Restrepo

    Full Text Available American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis is caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania, and causes significant health problems throughout the Americas. In Panama, Leishmania parasites are endemic, causing thousands of new cases every year, mostly of the cutaneous form. In the last years, the burden of the disease has increased, coincident with increasing disturbances in its natural sylvatic environments. The study of genetic variation in parasites is important for a better understanding of the biology, population genetics, and ultimately the evolution and epidemiology of these organisms. Very few attempts have been made to characterize genetic polymorphisms of parasites isolated from Panamanian patients of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Here we present data on the genetic variability of local isolates of Leishmania, as well as specimens from several other species, by means of Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLP, a technique seldom used to study genetic makeup of parasites. We demonstrate that this technique allows detection of very high levels of genetic variability in local isolates of Leishmania panamensis in a highly reproducible manner. The analysis of AFLP fingerprints generated by unique selective primer combinations in L. panamensis suggests a predominant clonal mode of reproduction. Using fluorescently labeled primers, many taxon-specific fragments were identified which may show potential as species diagnostic fragments. The AFLP permitted a high resolution genetic analysis of the Leishmania genus, clearly separating certain groups among L. panamensis specimens and highly related species such as L. panamensis and L. guyanensis. The phylogenetic networks reconstructed from our AFLP data are congruent with established taxonomy for the genus Leishmania, even when using single selective primer combinations. Results of this study demonstrate that AFLP polymorphisms can be informative for genetic characterization in Leishmania parasites, at

  20. Healthcare-seeking behaviour of primary caregivers for acute otitis media in children aged 6 months to Panama: results of a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Iris; Turner, Rosario; Jo, Hyejin; Park, Julie; Gemmen, Eric; Pirçon, Jean-Yves; Castrejon, Maria M; Hausdorff, William P

    2017-01-05

    Acute otitis media (AOM) is the most common bacterial childhood infection. However, caregivers with children having mild episodes often do not seek healthcare services, which may lead to an under-appreciation of the disease experienced by the community. The objectives of this survey were to estimate the proportion of primary caregivers who went to a healthcare facility when they suspected that their child aged 6 to Panama (March to May 2013). A 28-item paper questionnaire was administered to assess demographic data, AOM symptoms, as well as potential healthcare-seeking behaviour and factors influencing this behaviour. Potential confounding effects were individually assessed using Chi-squared or Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel tests, and all together in logistic regression models. The total number of eligible participants was 1330 (mean age 28.5 ± 8.0 years). Of these, 245 participants had at least one child whom they suspected had an AOM episode during the past 6 months. Of the 245 participants, 213 (86.9%) sought healthcare at a facility. Several factors were associated with healthcare usage: perceived severity of illness (p = 0.001), occupational status of the caregiver (p = 0.002), household income (p = 0.016) and length of time since the last suspected AOM episode (p = 0.032). When confronted with a child with obvious symptoms of AOM, the majority of caregivers reported seeking healthcare. This behaviour appeared to be associated with factors related to the severity of the illness, the length of time since the last episode, as well as with the income and occupational status of the caregivers themselves. As many episodes of AOM present with non-specific respiratory symptoms, our results apply only to caregivers who were confronted with children with an obvious symptom.

  1. Linking National Parks with its Gateway Communities for Tourism Development in Central America: Nindiri, Nicaragua, Bagazit, Costa Rica and Portobelo, Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre G., J. A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas and national parks are becoming one of the most important forms of land use in Central America. All the projections made by the World Tourism Organization seems to agree that by 2010 Central America, maybe receiving between eight and ten millions tourists, a figure that is almost twice what the region is receiving today. A study was conducted base on 369 direct field surveys conducted in three Central American communities: Bagazit gateway community to Palo Verde National Park, Costa Rica, Nindiri, gateway community to Volcan Masaya National Park, Nicaragua and Portobelo, gateway community to Por-tobelo National Park, Panama. The study found that relative to the socio-demographic variables, that there were no significance differences at the 95% probability level in all four variables, age, sex, education and monthly income of the family. Educational level seems to be the socio-demographic variables affecting more the state of relations. The perception variable being has taken into account in the decision that affects the communities and responsibility to help with community problems are present in two of the three models. The perception variables related to tourism, feel trained to take care of the tourist and existence of businesses that can caters to tourist seem to be key elements in the community perception about the state of relation. Tourism related economic activities and community participation in park decisions are today and will be in the future essential elements in the shaping of community/park relations in Central America as tourism becomes a major economic sector in the region economy.

  2. Human uses of forested watersheds and riparian corridors: hazard mitigation as an ecosystem service, with examples from Panama, Puerto Rico, and Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    Humans have long favored settlement along rivers for access to water supply for drinking and agriculture, for transport corridors, and for food sources. Additionally, settlement in or near montane forests include benefits such as food sources, wood supply, esthetic values, and high quality water resources derived from watersheds where upstream human disturbance and environmental degradation is generally reduced. However, the advantages afforded by these riparian and montane settings pose episodic risks for communities located there as floods, landslides, and wildfires cause loss of life, destroy infrastructure, and damage or destroy crops. A basic understanding of flood probability and magnitude as well as hillslope stability by residents in these environments can mitigate these risks. Early humans presumably developed some degree of knowledge about these risks by means of their long periods of occupation in these environments and their observations of seasonal and storm rainfall patterns and river discharge, which became more refined as agriculture developed over the past 10,000 years. Modern global urbanization, particularly in regions of rapid economic growth, has resulted in much of this "organic" knowledge being lost, as rural populations move into megacities, many of which encroach on floodplains and mountain fronts. Moreover, the most likely occupants of these hazardous locations are often economically constrained, increasing their vulnerabity. Effective stewardship of river floodplains and upstream montane forests yields a key ecosystem service, which in addition to the well-known services, ie. water, hydroelectric energy, etc., provides a risk mitigation service, by reducing hazard and vulnerability. Puerto Rico, Panama, and Venezuela illustrate a range of practices and results, providing useful examples for planners and land use managers.

  3. Concentration and accumulation of nutrients in the aerial biomass of teak plantations 3 to 18 old, in the Panama Canal watershed.

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    Rafael Murillo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tissue samples from aerial biomass compartments (bark, wood, primary and secondary branches, and foliage were taken from 16 dominant trees of teak in plantations of the Panama Canal watershed, whose volume yield ranged between 9.4 and 13.3 m3 ha-1. year-1 at ages 3 and 18 years, respectively, growing in clayey, red, and acid Ultisols. Wet and dry weight of the different tissues was measured and subsamples taken to be analyzed for macronutrients (N, K, Ca, Mg, P and S and micronutrients (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and B. Regression analyses allowed to relate nutrients accumulation with tree age. Dry biomass of the wood was 59.6% (C.V. 5% of total dry biomass, while primary branches, bark, foliage, and secondary branches represented 16.6, 9.4, 7.9, and 6.5, respectively. Larger concentrations of macronutrients were Ca (2.01% found in the bark, and N in the foliage (1.98%. As for micronutrients, larger concentrations were found in the bark, in the order of Fe (767 mg.kg-1, Mn (60 mg.kg-1 and Zn (50 mg.kg-1. At 18 years of age accumulation of macronutrients was 15.9 kg. tree-1 (7.3 kg Ca, 3.9 kg N, 2.6 kg K, 1.0 kg Mg, 0.7 kg P and 0.4 kg S and 124 g of micronutrients (89 g Fe, 18 g Zn, 9 g B, 5 g Mn and 3 g Cu.

  4. El presidente Mauricio Macri y los Panama Papers. Periodismo, justicia y política entre las denuncias y el escándalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Andrés Stefoni

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo aborda la magnitud y las limitaciones del “escándalo” producido alrededor del presidente argentino Mauricio Macri tras las revelaciones de los Panama Papers. Desde una perspectiva sociológico-pragmática, se recorrerán los marcos de situación generados por las denuncias, se evaluarán las intervenciones desde sus exigencias pragmáticas de justificación y se analizarán las legitimidades variables de los distintos actores involucrados en la dinámica denuncia-escándalo. Analizando dimensiones como I la articulación de la denuncia y la percepción del escándalo, II las características de la denuncia, III las particularidades del denunciado, IV el lugar de los medios de comunicación, V la movilización de la denuncia por parte de los distintos actores y VI las formas de legitimación de los denunciantes, se buscará explicar cuáles fueron las condiciones de felicidad del escándalo y por qué el develamiento estuvo lejos de corresponderse con las expectativas de sus impulsores. Como conclusión sostiene que fueron las características de la denuncia periodística y las condiciones contextuales en el ámbito periodístico-mediático, judicial y político las que atenuaron la denuncia, les imposibilitaron a varios actores acreditarse como intérpretes legítimos y terminaron por disminuir la magnitud del escándalo.

  5. The reproductive biology of Saccharum spontaneum L.: implications for management of this invasive weed in Panama

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    Graham Bonnett

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Saccharum spontaneum L. is an invasive grass that has spread extensively in disturbed areas throughout the Panama Canal watershed (PCW, where it has created a fire hazard and inhibited reforestation efforts. Currently physical removal of aboveground biomass is the primary means of controlling this weed, which is largely ineffective and does little to inhibit spread of the species. Little is known about reproduction of this species, although it is both rhizomatous and produces abundant seed. Here we report a series of studies looking at some of the basic reproductive mechanisms and strategies utilised by S. spontaneum to provide information to support development of better targeted management strategies.We found that seed produced between September and November was germinable both in the lab and in situ. Genetic diversity of mature stands was assessed using microsatellite markers and found to be high, even at small scales. Studies of vegetative reproduction showed that buds on stems that had been dried for up to six weeks were still capable of sprouting. Separate experiments showed that stem fragments could sprout when left on the surface or buried shallowly and that larger pieces sprouted more readily than smaller pieces.Collectively these results demonstrate that S. spontaneum in the PCW has the capability to produce many propagules that can successfully recruit and it is likely that seed dispersal drives the spread of the species. Timing of management actions to reduce flowering would significantly reduce the seed load into the environment and help to prevent spread to new sites. Similarly, where biomass is cut, cutting stems into smaller pieces will allow the stems to dry out and reduce the ability of buds to sprout. Additionally, attention should be paid to prevent accidental transport to new sites on machinery.

  6. Parasitism of Cuterebra sp. (Diptera: Oestridae s.l. on rodents of Central Panama Parasitismo de Cuterebra sp. (Diptera: Oestridae s.l. en roedores de Panamá Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio E. Bermúdez C.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, which we carried out between January 2007 and July 2008 on populations of 3 species of wild mammals in Tonosí, Los Santos province, Panama, we report the presence of larvae of Cuterebra sp. parasitizing Zygodontomys brevicauda, Liomys adspersus, and Oligoryzomys fulvescens; the prevalence values recorded in these rodent species were 1.77, 2.15, and 1.17, respectively. This is the first record of Cuterebra sp. as parasite of rodents in Panama, and L. adspersus represents a new host record.Entre enero 2007 y julio 2008 se desarrolló una investigación en las poblaciones de roedores silvestres de la localidad de Tonosí (Los Santos, Panamá central, encontrándose larvas de Cuterebra spp. parasitando a los roedores Zygodontomys brevicauda, Liomys adspersus y Oligoryzomys fulvescens, con una prevalencia de 1.77%, 2.15% y 1.71%, respectivamente. Este es el primer reporte de Cuterebra sp., parasitando roedores en Panamá, y el primero en presentar a L. adspersus como hospedero.

  7. [Project for the Creation of a Medical or Hospital Ethical Committee at a Local Level in the San Miguel Arcangel Hospital, District of San Miguelito, Province of Panama. Year 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Rivera, Yashiro A

    2015-01-01

    The next project was based on the design on the creation of a medical ethical Committee at a hospital. It was developed at the San Miguel Arcangel Hospital, District of San Miguelito, Province of Panama, in 2013. Insomuch as the creation of social projects requires unified international parameters, format is taken from the Unesco's guides for the establishing and working of bioethics committees; adapted to the socio-economic, political and cultural context of the San Miguelito District, Panama Province. Furthermore to adapting to socio-ecological aspect where the research project is carried out, the theoretical aspect includes from the ontological personalistic bioethics, where the cornerstone is the dignity of the human person. A study of perceptions of medical staff and nursing was developed on the management of the most common ethical dilemmas in the Hospital San Miguel Arcángel. The instrument used was a previously validated perception survey through a pilot test. Reliability was measured using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and validity was obtained from the content. Satisfactory statistical results, that verify the working hypotheses on the recognition of the importance of autonomy, confidentiality, protection of vulnerable population, occupational health staff welfare and integration of bioethics at the institutional agenda, were obtained. However, there were particular aspects that indicate some doubt as to the management of some realities that are presented in the context of health care.

  8. High genetic structure and low mitochondrial diversity in bottlenose dolphins of the Archipelago of Bocas del Toro, Panama: A population at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragán-Barrera, Dalia C; May-Collado, Laura J; Tezanos-Pinto, Gabriela; Islas-Villanueva, Valentina; Correa-Cárdenas, Camilo A; Caballero, Susana

    2017-01-01

    The current conservation status of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) under the IUCN is 'least concern'. However, in the Caribbean, small and localized populations of the 'inshore form' may be at higher risk of extinction than the 'worldwide distributed form' due to a combination of factors including small population size, high site fidelity, genetic isolation, and range overlap with human activities. Here, we study the population genetic structure of bottlenose dolphins from the Archipelago of Bocas del Toro in Panama. This is a small population characterized by high site fidelity and is currently heavily-impacted by the local dolphin-watching industry. We collected skin tissue samples from 25 dolphins to study the genetic diversity and structure of this population. We amplified a portion of the mitochondrial Control Region (mtDNA-CR) and nine microsatellite loci. The mtDNA-CR analyses revealed that dolphins in Bocas del Toro belong to the 'inshore form', grouped with the Bahamas-Colombia-Cuba-Mexico population unit. They also possess a unique haplotype new for the Caribbean. The microsatellite data indicated that the Bocas del Toro dolphin population is highly structured, likely due to restricted movement patterns. Previous abundance estimates obtained with mark-recapture methods reported a small population of 80 dolphins (95% CI = 72-87), which is similar to the contemporary effective population size estimated in this study (Ne = 73 individuals; CI = 18.0 - ∞; 0.05). The combination of small population size, high degree of genetic isolation, and intense daily interactions with dolphin-watching boats puts the Bocas del Toro dolphin to at high risk of extinction. Despite national guidelines to regulate the dolphin-watching industry in Bocas del Toro and ongoing educational programs for tour operators, only in 2012 seven animals have died due to boat collisions. Our results suggest that the conservation status of bottlenose dolphins in Bocas del Toro

  9. High genetic structure and low mitochondrial diversity in bottlenose dolphins of the Archipelago of Bocas del Toro, Panama: A population at risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia C Barragán-Barrera

    Full Text Available The current conservation status of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus under the IUCN is 'least concern'. However, in the Caribbean, small and localized populations of the 'inshore form' may be at higher risk of extinction than the 'worldwide distributed form' due to a combination of factors including small population size, high site fidelity, genetic isolation, and range overlap with human activities. Here, we study the population genetic structure of bottlenose dolphins from the Archipelago of Bocas del Toro in Panama. This is a small population characterized by high site fidelity and is currently heavily-impacted by the local dolphin-watching industry. We collected skin tissue samples from 25 dolphins to study the genetic diversity and structure of this population. We amplified a portion of the mitochondrial Control Region (mtDNA-CR and nine microsatellite loci. The mtDNA-CR analyses revealed that dolphins in Bocas del Toro belong to the 'inshore form', grouped with the Bahamas-Colombia-Cuba-Mexico population unit. They also possess a unique haplotype new for the Caribbean. The microsatellite data indicated that the Bocas del Toro dolphin population is highly structured, likely due to restricted movement patterns. Previous abundance estimates obtained with mark-recapture methods reported a small population of 80 dolphins (95% CI = 72-87, which is similar to the contemporary effective population size estimated in this study (Ne = 73 individuals; CI = 18.0 - ∞; 0.05. The combination of small population size, high degree of genetic isolation, and intense daily interactions with dolphin-watching boats puts the Bocas del Toro dolphin to at high risk of extinction. Despite national guidelines to regulate the dolphin-watching industry in Bocas del Toro and ongoing educational programs for tour operators, only in 2012 seven animals have died due to boat collisions. Our results suggest that the conservation status of bottlenose dolphins in

  10. Differences in Preferential Sorting of Fine Particles in the Panama Basin Over the Past 25 kyr: Effects on 230Th-derived Focusing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveley, M. R.; Marcantonio, F.; Lyle, M. W.; Wang, J. K.

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we attempt to understand how preferential sorting of fine particles during redistribution processes in the Panama Basin affects the 230Th constant-flux proxy. Fine particles likely contain greater amounts of 230Th, so that preferential sorting of fine particles may bias sediment mass accumulation rates (MARs). We examined sediments that span the past 25 kyr from two new sediment cores retrieved within about 56 km of each other in the northern part of the basin (MV1013-01-'4JC', 5° 44.699'N 85° 45.498' W, 1730 m depth; MV1014-01-'8JC', 6° 14.038'N 86° 2.613' W, 1993 m depth). Core 4JC, closer to the ridge top that bounds the basin (Cocos Ridge), has a thin sediment drape, while the deeper core 8JC, has a thicker sediment drape and lies further from the ridge top. 230Th-derived focusing factors from 4JC are similar and suggest winnowing with average values of about 0.5 and 0.6 during the Holocene and the last glacial, respectively. For 8JC, calculated average focusing factors are significantly different and suggest focusing with values of about 2 during the Holocene and 4 during the last glacial. Since the two sites are close to each other, one would expect similar rain rates and, therefore, similar 230Th-derived MARs within similar windows of time, i.e., the rain rate should not vary significantly at each site temporally. In addition, the radiocarbon-derived sand (>63μm) MARs should behave similarly since coarser particles are likely not transported by bottom currents. Sand MARs are, indeed, similar during the Holocene and the last glacial at each site. During the last glacial, however, sand MARs are about a factor of 3 higher than those during the Holocene. On the other hand, there is little variability in the 230Th-derived MARs both spatially and temporally. We interpret the discrepancies between the radiocarbon-derived sand and 230Th-derived MARs as being due to preferential sorting of fine particles during the redistribution of sediments by

  11. Panama: World Oil Report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that Texaco signed a contract to explore 1.1 million acres in Blocks 1 and 2, on and offshore the northwestern coast. The firm has not revealed any plans beyond conducting a preliminary analysis. No drilling was reported last year. Switzerland-based Idria Oil and Gas, which drilled and abandoned three offshore wells with oil and gas shows in 1989, the it has no plans for 1991. However, the firm the it may drill three wells in 1992

  12. Phlebotomus Fever Viruses in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    were not attempted. Dr. Howard Christensen of GML has recently completed blood meal determinations on four species of Lutzomyia whicb are thought to...t (): - j: - a - 1a r- > O O 00 004 i- H4 H () -4 -4-J rOQ W 4-) OU0 M 17 by Lutzomyia on sloths, rabbits, porcupines, primates and opossums. Blood...feeding upon them by Lutzomyia (to 65% in Lu. trapidoi) indicates that experimental infections of these hosts would also be justified. E. Conclusions

  13. PROGRAMAS DE EDUCACIÓN SEXUAL EN PANAMÁ PROGRAMAS DE EDUCAÇÃO SEXUAL NO PANAMÁ PROGRAMS ON SEXUAL EDUCATION IN PANAMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Vergès

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available ¿Cuál es el lugar del placer en los programas de educación sexual? En Panamá, como en otros países de América Latina, la violencia contra niños y niñas y contra las mujeres no les permite reconocer la propiedad de su propio cuerpo y menos su derecho al placer. Los programas actuales sobre educación sexual, prevención del embarazo y SIDA promueven el uso del preservativo y la abstinencia pero no hablan de la ética del placer. Frecuentemente, el personal sanitario y educativo no está preparado para hablar sobre el tema. El uso del placer sexual como mercancía en los medios de comunicación introduce mayor confusión. La bioética debe integrar los estudios de la psicología, la antropología y un sentido de humanidad que permitan a este personal trabajar con las personas hacia la apropiación de su integridad como ser humanoQual é o lugar do prazer nos programas de educação sexual? No Panamá, como em outros países da América Latina, a violência contra meninos e meninas e contra as mulheres não lhes permite reconhecer a propriedade dos seus corpos e muito menos os seus direitos ao prazer. Os atuais programas sobre educação sexual, contracepção e AIDS promovem o uso do preservativo e a abstinência, mas não se referem à ética do prazer. Frequentemente, os profissionais da saúde e da educação não se encontram preparados para tratar sobre o tema. O uso do prazer sexual como mercadoria nos meios de comunicação acende ainda mais o conflito. A bioética deve integrar os estudos da psicologia, da antropologia e o sentido de humanidade de modo a permitir que tais profissionais possam trabalhar com as pessoas a apropriação de sua integridade como ser humanoWhich place occupies pleasure in sexual education programs? In Panama, as in other Latin American countries, violence against children and women does not allow people to realize own bodylines and less their right to pleasure. Present programs about sexual education

  14. Myiasis by Philornis spp. (Diptera: Muscidae in Dendroica castanea (Aves: Parulidae in Panama Miasis ocasionada por Philornis spp. (Diptera: Muscidae in Dendroica castanea (Aves: Parulidae en Panamá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge M. Herrera

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the parasitism of an unidentified species of Philornis, extracted from a juvenile Dendroica castanea that was collected from Pipeline Road of the Soberania National Park of Panama. This finding is unusual since Philornis spp. parasitizes nested chicks. On the other hand, this is the first time that this parasite is reported in D. castanea.Registramos el parasitismo de una especie no identificada de Philornis extraída de un juvenil de Dendroica castanea, capturada en el Sendero del Oleoducto del Parque Nacional Soberanía. Este hallazgo es inusual ya que Philornis spp. parasita principalmente polluelos en nidos. Del mismo modo, el presente constituye el primer registro del parásito en D. castanea.

  15. El traslado del Congreso anfictiónico de Panamá al poblado de Tacubaya (1826-1828 The transfer of the Panama Congress to the town of Tacubaya (1826-1828

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán A. de la Reza

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available El artículo estudia el traslado del Congreso anfictiónico de Panamá a Tacubaya y los diversos intentos de instalación de la 'Asamblea americana' en México entre 1826 y 1828. Su propósito es escalonado: primero identifica los significados decisionales relevantes para comprender el fracaso del proyecto y, enseguida, delimita la autonomía analítica del episodio mexicano del Congreso de Bolívar.This article studies the transfer of the Anfictionic Congress from Panama to Tacubaya and the diverse intents of installation of the 'American Assembly' in Mexico between 1826 and 1828. Its purposes are staggered: first, it identifies the decision-making meanings of the failure of the project and, then, it defines the analytic autonomy of the Mexican episode of Bolivar's Congress.

  16. Estimated occurrence of tobacco, alcohol, and other drug use among 12- to 18-year-old students in Panama: results of Panama's 1996 National Youth Survey on Alcohol and Drug Use Uso estimado de tabaco, alcohol y otras drogas en estudiantes panameños de12 a 18 años: resultados de la Encuesta Nacional de Panamá sobre el Uso de Alcohol y Drogas en la Juventud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo B. González

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This report provides the first epidemiological evidence on tobacco, alcohol, and other drug use among school students in Panama, using data from a student survey completed in 1996. Specifically, we examine sex, age, grade level, type of school, and urban-rural variations in the occurrence of tobacco, alcohol, and other drug use. Estimates of lifetime prevalence and past-year use of these products were obtained using data from Panama's 1996 National Youth Survey on Alcohol and Drug Use (n = 6477. To account for the multistage sampling design of the survey, all estimates and respective standard errors are derived by the Taylor series approximation method using Epi Info 6.0 CSAMPLE software. In general, more males, more older students, and more students in higher grades have used licit and illicit drugs, even though male-female differences tend to be small. Public-private school differences and urban-rural trends vary depending on the drug. The findings of this study are discussed in relation to the epidemiology and prevention of drug use in Panama. Based on these data, we seek to provide information to be used by the Government of Panama in its planning for prevention programs directed toward students in Panamanian schools.Este informe presenta las primeras pruebas epidemiológicas del consumo de tabaco, alcohol y otras drogas en alumnos de escuelas panameñas, usando datos obtenidos mediante una encuesta estudiantil completada en 1996. En particular hemos examinado las diferencias por sexo, edad, grado escolar, tipo de escuela y residencia urbana o rural en el uso de tabaco, alcohol y otras drogas. Se estimaron la prevalencia vitalicia y el consumo previo de estos productos a partir de una encuesta nacional de la juventud efectuada en 1996 (n = 6 477. Debido al diseño muestral multietápico aplicado en la encuesta, todas las estimaciones y sus respectivos errores estándar se derivaron por el método de Taylor de series aproximadas aplicando el

  17. Altitudinal distribution and advertisement call of Colostethus latinasus (Amphibia: Dendrobatidae), endemic species from eastern Panama and type species of Colostethus , with a molecular assessment of similar sympatric species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Roberto D; Griffith, Edgardo J; Lips, Karen R; Crawford, Andrew J

    2017-04-12

    We conducted a molecular assessment of Colostethus-like frogs along an elevational gradient in the Serranía de Pirre, above Santa Cruz de Cana, eastern Panama, aiming to establish their species identity and to determine the altitudinal distribution of C. latinasus. Our findings confirm the view of C. latinasus as an endemic species restricted to the highlands of this mountain range, i.e., 1350-1475 m.a.s.l., considered to be type locality of this species. We described the advertisement call of C. latinasus that consists of a series of 4-18 single, short and relatively loud "peep"-like notes given in rapid succession, and its spectral and temporal features were compared with calls of congeneric species. For the first time, DNA sequences from C. latinasus were obtained, since previously reported sequences were based on misidentified specimens. This is particularly important because C. latinasus is the type species of Colostethus, a genus considered paraphyletic according to recent phylogenetic analyses based on molecular data.

  18. Molecular characterisation of Trypanosoma rangeli strains isolated from Rhodnius ecuadoriensis in Peru, R. colombiensis in Colombia and R. pallescens in Panama, supports a co-evolutionary association between parasites and vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrea, D A; Carranza, J C; Cuba, C A Cuba; Gurgel-Gonçalves, R; Guhl, F; Schofield, C J; Triana, O; Vallejo, G A

    2005-03-01

    We present data on the molecular characterisation of strains of Trypanosoma rangeli isolated from naturally infected Rhodnius ecuadoriensis in Peru, from Rhodnius colombiensis, Rhodnius pallescens and Rhodnius prolixus in Colombia, and from Rhodnius pallescens in Panama. Strain characterisation involved a duplex PCR with S35/S36/KP1L primers. Mini-exon gene analysis was also carried out using TrINT-1/TrINT-2 oligonucleotides. kDNA and mini-exon amplification indicated dimorphism within both DNA sequences: (i) KP1, KP2 and KP3 or (ii) KP2 and KP3 products for kDNA, and 380 bp or 340 bp products for the mini-exon. All T. rangeli strains isolated from R. prolixus presented KP1, KP2 and KP3 products with the 340 bp mini-exon product. By contrast, all T. rangeli strains isolated from R. ecuadoriensis, R. pallescens and R. colombiensis, presented profiles with KP2 and KP3 kDNA products and the 380 bp mini-exon product. Combined with other studies, these results provide evidence of co-evolution of T. rangeli strains associated with different Rhodnius species groups east and west of the Andean mountains.

  19. Eco-epidemiological aspects of Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma rangeli and their vector (Rhodnius pallescens in Panama Generalidades do Trypanosoma cruzi, do Trypanosoma rangeli e do seu vetor (Rhodnius pallescens no Panamá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria de Vasquez

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The eco-epidemiology of T. cruzi infection was investigated in the Eastern border of the Panama Canal in Central Panama. Between 1999 and 2000, 1110 triatomines were collected: 1050 triatomines (94.6% from palm trees, 27 (2.4% from periurban habitats and 33 (3.0% inside houses. All specimens were identified as R. pallescens. There was no evidence of vector domiciliation. Salivary glands from 380 R. pallescens revealed a trypanosome natural infection rate of 7.6%, while rectal ampoule content from 373 triatomines was 45%. Isoenzyme profiles on isolated trypanosomes demonstrated that 85.4% (n = 88 were T. cruzi and 14.6% (n = 15 were T. rangeli. Blood meal analysis from 829 R. pallescens demonstrated a zoophilic vector behavior, with opossums as the preferential blood source. Seroprevalence in human samples from both study sites was less than 2%. Our results demonstrate that T. cruzi survives in the area in balanced association with R. pallescens, and with several different species of mammals in their natural niches. However, the area is an imminent risk of infection for its population, consequently it is important to implement a community educational program regarding disease knowledge and control measures.A epidemiologia da infecção do T. cruzi foi investigada na margem oriental do canal do Panamá, na região central da Republica do Panamá. A informação obtida durante o estudo avaliou fatores de risco da doença de Chagas nesta área. Entre 1999 e 2000, 1110 triatomíneos foram coletados: 1050 triatomíneos (94,6% em palmeiras, 27 (2,4% em habitats periurbanos e 33 (3,0% no interior de casas. Todos os espécimens foram identificados como R. pallescens. Não havia nenhuma evidência de domiciliação do vetor. O exame de glândulas salivares de 380 R. pallescens revelaram taxa de infecção natural por Trypanosoma de 7,6%, mas o conteúdo da ampola rectal de 373 triatomíneos mostrou 45% de positividade. Os perfis de isoenzimas em

  20. Overexposure of radiation therapy patients in Panama: problem recognition and follow-up measures La sobreexposición de pacientes tratados con radioterapia en Panamá: reconocimiento del problema y medidas de seguimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cari Borrás

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This report summarizes and analyzes the responses of various organizations that provided assistance to the National Oncology Institute (Instituto Oncológico Nacional, ION of Panama following the overexposure of 28 radiation therapy patients at the ION in late 2000 and early 2001. The report also looks at the long-term measures that were adopted at the ION in response to the overexposure incident, as well as implications that the incident has for other cancer treatment centers worldwide. In March 2001, the director of the ION was notified of serious overreactions in patients undergoing radiation therapy for cancer treatment. Of the 478 patients treated for pelvic cancers between August 2000 and March 2001, 3 of them had died, possibly from an overdose of radiation. In response, the Government of Panama invited international experts to carry out a full investigation of the situation. Medical physicists from the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO were among those invited. They ascertained that 56 patients treated with partially blocked teletherapy fields for cancers of the uterine cervix, endometrium, prostate, or rectum, had had their treatment times calculated using a computerized treatment planning system. PAHO's medical physicists calculated the absorbed doses received by the patients and found that, of these 56 patients, only 11 had been treated with acceptable errors of ±5%. The doses received by 28 of the 56 patients had errors ranging from +10 to +105%. These are the patients identified by ION physicists as overexposed. Twenty-three of the 28 overexposed patients had died by September 2005, with at least 18 of the deaths being from radiation effects, mostly rectal complications. The clinical, psychological, and legal consequences of the overexposures crippled cancer treatments in Panama and prompted PAHO to assess radiation oncology practices in the countries of Latin American and the Caribbean. ION clinicians evaluated the outcome of

  1. Panama City, Florida Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  2. panama disease resistance through genetic manipulation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1993-05-17

    May 17, 1993 ... spots/0.5 ml cells, and stable transformants have also been selected. Optimisation of the ... possible for large plantations at high cost (between. 600 and 1800 ... have been produced from zygotic embryos from banana seed ...

  3. Mechanics of the Panama Canal slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, George F.

    1917-01-01

    Dr. Becker visited the Canal Zone in 1913 as a geologist of the United States Geological Survey and since that time has given the problem the benefit of his study. His appointment as a member of the committee of the National Academy of Sciences has made it appropriate for his conclusions, based upon his personal observations and already reported in part to the Canal Commission, to be stated for the benefit of his associates and other American scientists and engineers.

  4. Conserving biodiversity, supporting livelihoods in Panama's rainforest

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-02-02

    Feb 2, 2011 ... Black palm is important for both cultural and economic reasons. ... the answer to the decline in this resource seemed obvious: plant more black palm. .... Farmers and researchers work together to improve rice and maize.

  5. Conserving biodiversity, supporting livelihoods in Panama's rainforest

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    "All the work we've developed has been trying to do that. ... forms a land-bridge between the Central and South American continents, is home to the largest national park in Central America: Darién National Park. .... Le stress vous tenaille ?

  6. Respuesta ambiental en el Pacífico frente a la subducción de la dorsal asísmica de Cocos (Panamá y Costa Rica Environmental response in the Pacific to aseismic Cocos Ridge subduction (Panama and Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos De Gracia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de evaluar el efecto de la Subducción de la Dorsal Asísmica de Cocos (DAC durante las etapas finales de la formación del Istmo. Realizamos muestreos con bultos en afloramientos fosilíferos en las penínsulas de Burica y Nicoya. Las condiciones paleoecológicas y paleoambientales fueron reconstruidas a partir de la comparación entre la estructura de las comunidades fósiles, con las comunidades modernas dragadas de los mares de Panamá, usando análisis de componentes principales. Los resultados indican que antes del cierre del Istmo, existieron islas oceánicas y un afloramiento moderado en Burica. Posterior al cierre, el choque de la DAC provocó la elevación del fondo marino y las aguas que se encontraban a 2 300m pasaron a 40m. El afloramiento se intensificaba en mar abierto pero la dorsal había formado islas en Burica que limitaban el efecto del afloramiento en la costa. La subducción de la DAC continuó y las islas se unieron gradualmente a tierra firme y desaparecieron, permitiendo el afloramiento. Durante el Pleistoceno medio un segundo proceso de levantamiento acelerado continuó elevando el fondo marino y formó la Cordillera de Talamanca. La cordillera creó una barrera que bloqueó el paso de los vientos Alisios y originó condiciones ecológicas y optimas que permiten el crecimiento de los mejores arrecifes de coral costeros del Pacífico oriental tropical (POT entre Panamá y Costa Rica.Environmental response in the Pacific to aseismic Cocos Ridge subduction (Panama and Costa Rica. The evolution of the marine communities along the Pacific coast of Central America, may have changed in response to the formation of the Isthmus of Panama. To evaluate the effect of the Aseismic Cocos Ridge (DAC subduction on the marine benthic communities, we reconstructed benthic assemblages from Neogene fossiliferous formations in Burica and Nicoya peninsulas of Panama and Costa Rica. Paleoecological and paleoenvironmental conditions

  7. Impacto de la introducción de la vacuna contra el rotavirus en la hospitalización por gastroenteritis aguda grave en el Hospital del Niño de la Ciudad de Panamá Impact of rotavirus vaccine introduction on hospital admissions for severe acute gastroenteritis at the Children's Hospital in Panama City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Nieto Guevara

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Determinar si la introducción de la vacunación infantil contra el rotavirus en Panamá permitió reducir la tasa de hospitalización por gastroenteritis en niños menores de 5 años. MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional de corte transversal en dos períodos: del 1 de enero al 31 de agosto de 2005 (antes de la introducción de la vacunación contra el rotavirus y del 1 de enero al 31 de agosto de 2007 (un año después de la introducción. Se estudiaron todos los niños y niñas entre 2 meses y 5 años de edad hospitalizados con diagnóstico de gastroenteritis aguda grave en la sala de corta estancia de gastroenteritis del Hospital del Niño, en Ciudad de Panamá, Panamá. Las variables fueron: número de episodios de gastroenteritis, número de casos hospitalizados por gastroenteritis aguda grave, días de hospitalización y uso de antibióticos, según dos grupos de edad (de 2 meses a 1 año y de más de 1 año a 5 años. Se calculó el riesgo relativo (RR con intervalos de confianza de 95% (IC95% y un nivel de significación P OBJECTIVES: To determine if infant rotavirus vaccination in Panama has reduced the rate of hospital admission for gastroenteritis among children under 5 years of age. METHODS: An observational, cross-sectional study of two time periods: 1 January-31 August 2005 (prior to initiating rotavirus vaccination and 1 January-31 August 2007 (one year after introducing rotavirus vaccination. All the children from 2 months-5 years of age admitted with a diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis to the short-stay gastroenteritis area of the Children's Hospital in Panama City, Panama, were studied. The variables were: number of gastroenteritis episodes; number of cases admitted for severe acute gastroenteritis; number of days hospitalized; and antibiotics treatment for each of the two age groups (2 months-1 year and >1-5 years. The relative risk (RR was calculated with a 95% confidence interval (95%CI and a significance level of P

  8. Ganhos relativos ou política doméstica? Os tratados do Canal do Panamá como um jogo de dois níveis Relative gains or domestic politics? The Panama Canal Treaties as a two-level game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Duarte Villa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tenta discutir a eficiência explicativa do enfoque dos jogos de dois níveis em um estudo de caso de barganha que trata de variáveis estratégicas e de segurança nacional: o caso das negociações em torno do Canal do Panamá entre os governos americano e panamenho em meados dos anos 70. Tentaremos mostrar algumas das limitações desse enfoque na compreensão dos desdobramentos empíricos de fenômenos que incorporam a problemática da segurança. No aspecto metodológico, a discussão será baseada em evidências históricas que rodearam as negociações em torno do Canal do Panamá entre 1973 e 1978.The goal of this article is to test the explanatory efficacy of the two-level game analytical approach in cases involving strategic interests and national security. To accomplish this, the article presents a case study of the negotiations between the United States and Panama over the Canal Treaties during the mid-70s.

  9. Feeding sources and trypanosome infection index of Rhodnius pallescens in a Chagas disease endemic area of Amador County, Panama Fontes de alimentação de R. pallescens e índice de infecção por Trypanosoma em área endêmica da doença de Chagas em Amador, região central do Panamá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Pineda

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The sylvatic triatomine Rhodnius pallescens is considered to be the most important and widespread vector of Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli in Panama. However, its behavior and biological characteristics have only been partially investigated. Thus, to achieve sustainable and efficient control over Chagas disease in Panama, a better understanding of the ecology and biology of R. pallescens is essential. In this study we evaluated R. pallescens host feeding sources using a dot-blot assay, and the trypanosome infection index by PCR analysis in a Chagas disease endemic area of central Panama. It was found that in peridomestic palm trees, 20.3% of the examined bugs had fed on opossums (Didelphis marsupialis. However, we observed an increased anthropophagy (25.4% for those bugs collected inside houses. Considering the domestic and peridomestic habitats as a whole, the proportion of collected R. pallescens infected with trypanosomes was 87.4%. In the two habitats the predominant infection was with T. cruzi (80-90%. Between 47-51% of the analyzed triatomines were infected with T. rangeli. Mixed infections (40-51% were also detected. These findings provide a better basis for the implementation of a rational control and surveillance program for Chagas disease in regions where R. pallescens is endemic.O triatomíneo silvestre Rhodnius pallescens é considerado o mais importante vetor do Trypanosoma cruzi e Trypanosoma rangeli no Panamá. Entretanto, seu comportamento e características biológicas são pouco estudados. Para controlar a doença de Chagas no Panamá é necessário melhorar a compreensão dos aspectos eco-biológicos do R. pallescens. Neste estudo, investigaram-se as fontes de alimentação de R. pallescens usando dot-blot e o índice de infecção por Trypanosoma por metodologia molecular, em área endêmica da doença de Chagas na região central do Panamá. Foi observado que 20,3% dos barbeiros coletados em palmeiras peridom

  10. ESTUDIO COMPARATIVO SOBRE COMPETENCIAS GENERICAS EN MODALIDAD PRESENCIAL Y VIRTUAL EN UN CURSO DE PREGRADO DE LA UNIVERSIDAD TECNOLÓGICA DE PANAMÁ (COMPARATIVE STUDY ABOUT COMPETENCES IN CLASSROOM AND ON LINE EDUCATION IN AN UNDERGRADUATE COURSE AT UNIVERSIDAD TECNOLOGICA DE PANAMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durán Rodríguez, Rodrigo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El presente artículo describe el estudio comparativo entre modalidades presencial y virtual de dieciocho competencias genéricas del modelo de competencias Alfa Tuning de Latinoamérica. El estudio se realizó con estudiantes de Licenciatura en Redes y Comunicaciones de la Universidad Tecnológica de Panamá, quienes participaron en un proceso de investigación que los involucraba a prácticas presenciales y a prácticas virtuales. Los resultados revelaron las diferencias existentes al momento de implementar un mecanismo que introduce competencias a través de medios presenciales versus medios virtuales. Se observó que la mayoría de las competencias genéricas mantienen el mismo nivel de desarrollo en ambas modalidades y que además un 44% de las competencias genéricas obtienen un mejor nivel de consecución en la modalidad virtual y un 6% de las competencias genéricas lograron una mejor evaluación en la modalidad presencial. El estudio concluye que las competencias genéricas según Alfa Tuning se pueden desarrollar tanto en los entornos virtuales de aprendizaje como en el tradicional salón de clases, lo que apunta a que ambas opciones pueden ser empleadas por las universidades cuando se diseñan este tipo de curriculum.Abstract: This paper describes a comparative study of eighteen generic skills from Latin America Alfa Tuning project applied in a case using classroom and virtual education. The study was conducted with students of Bachelor of Communications Networks registered at Universidad Tecnologica de Panama, whom participated in a research process that were subjected to virtual and classroom practices. The results revealed differences when implementing a mechanism to introduce competences through means-face versus virtual means. It was observed that most of the generic competences maintain the same level of development in both types of education and also 44% of generic competences get better level of achievement in virtual

  11. Iguana farming in Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eilers, C.H.A.M.; Koops, W.J.; Udo, H.M.J.; Keulen, van H.; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.

    2001-01-01

    Present and former iguana farmers and neighbours were interviewed to find conditions important for iguana farming. Social aspects that facilitated it included few people working off-farm, as iguana farming was time-consuming; co-operative farming, which increases access to technical knowledge;

  12. Chaperoning: Practices of collaboration in the Panama Canal Expansion Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, K.C.M.; van Marrewijk, A.H.

    2012-01-01

    PurposeThe purpose of this paper is to examine how project partners respond to contractually agreed collaboration in an infrastructural megaproject. Problematic performances of megaprojects have shifted away attention from the instrumental towards the interpretative, focusing on daily work life,

  13. INVESTIGATIONS IN PANAMA DURING THE SUMMER OF 1930.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, E C

    1931-01-09

    The material obtained from these investigations has indicated to the writer that the area studied offers extremely valuable opportunities for helminthological and protozoological work. The data obtained will serve as the basis for several important papers which will be published in the near future.

  14. Panama City/U. of West FL spotted seatrout study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets contain raw and processed data, including collection location (bay) date, individual data for all trout collected, including FL, TL, whole weight,...

  15. A new species of Epidendrum (Orchidaceae from Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolanowska Marta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Epidendrum is described and illustrated based on Panamanian material. The new entity belongs to the E. nocturnum complex and is distinguished by its oblong-elliptic leaves and by lip shape.

  16. Science and Technology Policy Review 2005-2009 (Panama ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Outputs. Studies. Revisión del plan estratégico nacional de ciencia y tecnología de Panamá (2005-2009) y propuestas para el quinquenio 2010-2015 : informe. 48041. Reports. Revisión del plan estratégico nacional de ciencia y tecnología de Panamá (2005-2009) y propuestas para el quinquenio 2010-2015 : informe.

  17. 76 FR 52544 - Importation of Peppers From Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... 319 Coffee, Cotton, Fruits, Imports, Logs, Nursery stock, Plant diseases and pests, Quarantine... disease outbreak from imported commodities should be invited to participate in site visits prior to the...

  18. Panama: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Mark P

    2006-01-01

    ...), was elected in May 2004 and inaugurated to a 4-year term on September 1, 2004. The most significant challenges facing the Torrijos government have included dealing with the funding deficits of the country's social security fund...

  19. 75 FR 30303 - Importation of Peppers From Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... adults are external feeders and, as a result, easily observed. Pea leafminers spend a majority of their... unmarketable. More mature larvae create large exit holes in the fruit that can be easily detected. In addition, the screen size required by the systems approach in Sec. 319.56-40 is too small to allow the entry of...

  20. Soil conservation in Central America and Panama: current problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popenoe, H

    1976-06-01

    Soil conservation measures in Central America go back to the Maya civilization, in which terracing was employed. After the Spanish conquest, plowing, livestock raising, and the succession of social and political changes all contributed to accelerate erosion. Through the past few decades, awareness of the need for soil conservation has again increased; El Salvador and Costa Rica began efforts in that direction in 1943. For sometime, the use of machinery and chemical fertilizers has masked the loss of topsoil, but under recent increases in population pressures, soil conservation measures are gaining in importance. Important agents of erosion in the tropics are heavy seasonal rains at high elevations, alternating with long dry seasons; wind erosion; and landslides after saturation of the soil during prolonged rains. Modern machinery often hastens soil removal, as do also overgrazing, deforestation and vertical crop rows. Under the present energy crisis, human labor is becoming again a significant element in crop production, and soil conservation becomes thereby more feasible and more important.

  1. The Attack on Panama City by Henry Morgan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-05

    ambush his force before reaching the city. Morgan and his men moved all morning until they came to a small village called Venta de Cruces. As the...Morgan rested his men at Venta de Cruces while he prepared for what was still ahead. Venta de Cruces was the last stop on the Chagres river for Morgan...The men who broke the restriction were an example to the rest that perhaps their leader did know what he was doing. Morgan remained in Venta de Cruces

  2. The Proposed U.S.-Panama Free Trade Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    Agreement ( TIEA ), which provides greater tax transparency in support of curbing illicit financial transactions associated with money laundering activities...Exchange Agreement ( TIEA ) with the United States, and took other measures necessary to be removed from the OECD “Gray List,” including implementing tax...resolution on the tax transparency issue on November 30, 2010, when they signed a TIEA . The TIEA permits either country to request information on most types

  3. Colonização micorrízica arbuscular e tolerância ao mal-do-Panamá em mudas de banana-maçã Colonisation of arbuscular mycorrhiza and tolerance to Panama disease in seedlings of the maçã banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deusiane Batista Sampaio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da colonização micorrízica arbuscular na tolerância da bananeira, cv. Maçã, ao mal-do-Panamá, sob diferentes fontes de nutrientes. Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com fatorial 2 x 4 [2 densidades de esporos de FMA nativos (D1 - 3.500 esporos kg-1 solo e D2 - 7.000 esporos kg-1 solo e 4 diferentes concentrações de fontes de nutrientes - três de solução nutritiva (SN 40%, SN 70% e SN 100% e uma de biofertilizante 100% (B4] com três repetições. Após o plantio inoculou-se Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense e posteriormente avaliou-se matéria seca da parte aérea (MSPA, o teor de fósforo foliar (P, a colonização micorrízica, o pH do solo e o índice de severidade da doença (ID. As diferentes fontes de nutrientes influenciaram a matéria seca da parte aérea, o teor de fósforo, a colonização micorrízica e o índice de severidade da doença, porém não influenciaram o pH da solução do solo. O biofertilizante não atendeu à demanda nutricional das plantas, as quais se mostraram pouco desenvolvidas. Porém proporcionou intensa colonização micorrízica e menor índice de severidade da fusariose, o qual aumentou com a adubação mineral.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the colonization of arbuscular mycorrhiza on the tolerance to Panama disease of the banana plant cv. maçã under different sources of nutrients. A completely randomized design was employed, having a 2 x 4 factorial [2 densities of native FMA spores (D1 - 3,500 spores kg-1 soil and D2 - 7000 spores kg-1 soil and four different concentrations of nutrient sources - three of a nutrient solution (SN 40%, SN 70% and SN 100% and a 100% solution of bio-fertiliser (B4], with three replications. After planting, the seedlings were inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense, and later the shoot dry matter, leaf phosphorus content, mycorrhizal colonization, soil pH and disease

  4. Clasificación funcional de la hipertensión pulmonar en niños: informe del task force pediátrico del Pulmonary Vascular Research Institute (PVRI, Panamá 2011 Functional classification of pulmonary hypertension in children: Report from the PVRI pediatric taskforce, Panama 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid E Lammers

    2012-12-01

    up, as consistently and as objectively as possible. Particularly in younger children we sought to include objective indicators such as thriving, need for supplemental feeds and the record of school or nursery attendance. This helps monitor the clinical course of events and response to treatment over the years. It also facilitates the development of treatment algorithms for children. We present a consensus paper on a functional classification system for children with pulmonary hypertension, discussed at the Annual Meeting of the PVRI in Panama City, February 2011.

  5. H08521J: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Norfolk, VA via Panama Canal, Virginia-Washington (Panama Canal), 1960-04-18

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  6. H08521K: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Norfolk, VA via Panama Canal, Virginia-Washington (Panama Canal), 1960-04-18

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  7. H08521M: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Norfolk, VA via Panama Canal, Virginia-Washington (Panama Canal), 1960-04-18

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  8. H08521H: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Norfolk, VA via Panama Canal, Virginia-Washington (Panama Canal), 1960-04-18

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  9. H08516: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Norfolk, VA via Panama Canal, Virginia-Washington (Panama Canal), 1960-03-19

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  10. 77 FR 71778 - U.S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama; Bogotá, Columbia and Panama City...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... should maintain 4% in 2012. Colombia is attracting record amounts of foreign direct investment (FDI... with neighboring countries and zero foreign exchange risk. Its government is stable and democratic and actively seeks foreign investment in all sectors, especially services, tourism and retirement properties...

  11. H08521I: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Norfolk, VA via Panama Canal, Virginia-Washington (Panama Canal), 1960-04-18

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  12. H08521F: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Norfolk, VA via Panama Canal, Virginia-Washington (Panama Canal), 1960-04-18

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  13. The roles of cats and dogs in the transmission of Toxoplasma infection in Kuna and Embera children in eastern Panama El papel de los perros y gatos en la transmisión de la infección por Toxoplasma en niños kunas y emberas del este de Panamá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina D. Etheredge

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between antibody status and various hypothesized risk factors for Toxoplasma gondiiinfection among two different Amerindian populations in eastern Panama. Following up on earlier research that we conducted, we now explore the role of dogs in the natural transmission of Toxoplasma,the role that dogs play in promoting transmission, the interactive effect of cats and dogs, and the accessibility of infective material to children. METHODS: In 1991, 10 Panamanian medical students conducted interviews and took blood samples from 760 Kuna and Embera children aged 2 through 12 years in the Upper Bayano River Basin and the San Blas Islands. Serologic assays were performed using direct agglutination. The data analyses in the 1990s included univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses, without regard to data on dogs. Further bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed in 2003 to examine the contribution of dogs. RESULTS: In communities with high Toxoplasmaantibody prevalence in children, logistic regression suggested that the factors predictive of antibody presence were: compacted soil floors of huts (P= 0.001, having a dog (P= 0.038, and the interviewer seeing a cat in the house (P= 0.049. Our results suggest that the villagers' dogs play a significant role in facilitating the transmission of Toxoplasma gondiito humans, most often in the presence of cats in the houses, and only in those communities with higher Toxoplasmas eroprevalence in children. CONCLUSIONS: Dogs may act as mechanical vectors, by rolling in foul-smelling substances and by ingesting fecal material. In areas of high Toxoplasma prevalence in children and where dogs and cats are plentiful, immunocompromised individuals and pregnant women should be warned of the possibility of acquiring Toxoplasma gondii from dogs as well as from soil contaminated by cats. People should be encouraged to wash their hands after contact with soil, dogs, or cats

  14. Las concepciones sobre el desarrollo regional en las políticas públicas del sur-sureste mexicano y en los proyectos autogestivos de las comunidades locales: una contrastación a la luz de las inconsistencias del Plan Puebla-Panamá (Conceptions on the regional development in the southern-southeast Mexican public policies and in the self-managed projects of the local communities: a contrasting in view of the weaknesses of the Plan Puebla-Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Enríquez Pérez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo se orienta a explicar e interpretar el sentido de la acción social ejercida por actores y agentes socioeconómicos y políticos que intervienen en el proceso de planeación, tomando como punto de partida el reconocimiento y comprensión de las concepciones sobre el desarrollo regional esbozadas por ellos en sus comunicados, directrices y documentos estratégicos que emplean para incidir en una macrorregión como el Sur-Sureste mexicano en el marco de lo que se denominó como Plan Puebla-Panamá. Se plantea la tesis de que el desarrollo regional no es un proceso espontáneo, sino que es un proceso dirigido y gestionado mediante políticas públicas en las cuales convergen múltiples actores y agentes que hacen valer sus prioridades e intereses en los procesos de construcción de mercados y redistribución de la riqueza. Se trata pues de interpretar y contrastar la naturaleza, los alcances y limitaciones de las concepciones sobre el desarrollo regional expresadas por los gobiernos locales y las fuerzas sociales opositoras en el contexto de políticas públicas transfronterizas promovidas en espacios de reserva.This paper is oriented to explain and interpret the meanings of social action performed by actors and agents socio-economic and political involved in the process planning, taking as its starting point the recognition and comprehension of conceptions of regional development outlined in their communications, guidelines and strategic documents that they use to impact in a macro-region as the South-Southeast of Mexico under what is termed as the Plan Puebla-Panama. The thesis is that regional development is not a spontaneous process, but a process designed and managed through public policies in which multiple actors and agents converge, who assert their priorities and interests in the process of building markets and redistribution of wealth. The question is to interpret and compare the nature, scope and limitations of the

  15. Science Education & Cultural Environments in the Americas. Report of the Inter-American Seminar on Science Education (Panama City, Panama, December 10-14, 1984).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, James J., Ed.; Dawson, George, Ed.

    The impact of cultural background on science learning is explored in this compilation of papers and reports from an inter-American Seminar on science education. For the purposes of enriching science program planning, teacher education, research, and practice in the schools, varying ideas are offered on the effects of cultural background on science…

  16. Multibeam collection for AT11L03: Multibeam data collected aboard Atlantis from 2003-10-31 to 2003-11-24, Panama City, Panama to Manzanillo, Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  17. Multibeam collection for EW0305: Multibeam data collected aboard Maurice Ewing from 2003-07-03 to 2003-07-28, Balboa, Panama to Balboa, Panama

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  18. Oral anaphylaxis by ingestion of mite contaminated food in Panama City, 2011-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga M Barrera

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: The pancakes were the most incriminated food in the cases of OMA in our study. Suidasia pontifica and Blomia tropicalis seem to be the mites species of greater relevance related with this syndrome in our country.

  19. An Analysis of Air Photo and Radar Imagery of Barro Colorado Island, Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    changes (flats, hills, mountains , etc.), they cannot provide the shape information that can be obtained from stereo imagery. Referring to figure 14, one...field patterns. These are shown in figure 20. Figure 21 shows a portion of a 1979 Landsat MSS color composite scene of this alea . It has a continuous red

  20. U.S. - Latin American Relations Beyond Cuba, Panama, Nicaragua and El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-08

    be foolish for the Peruvian Armed Forces to salvage president Garcia’s reputation by ousting him, and face a catastrophic economic situation and world...traditions are well known, admired and imitated worldwide. Millions would gladly immigrate to this country. Private enterprise inundate television, cinema

  1. Evaluation of Sugar Cane Genotypes in different Environments in Ingenio Ofelina, Republic of Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Jorge Suárez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge and classification of the different test sites and their evaluation for the study of the genotypes becomes obligatory, in the breeding programs, also the knowledge of the adaptability of the cultivars allows to maximize their production. The objective of the work was to determine the adaptability and phenotypic stability of new cultivars introduced in CALESA by means of the Twodimensional Representation method (Biplot, in two crops, as well as recommending those with the best agroproductive behavior under soil and climate conditions, of the Ingenio Ofelina. Twenty cultivars were planted in red Ferralitic, Brown without carbonate and Ferralitic quartzitic soils. The crop variables studied were: cane yield, pol yield and percentage of pol in cane. The environmental effect and the genotype-environment interaction were superior to that of the genotypes in the contribution to the total phenotypic variation. The cultivars E07-04, E07-09, BT84102 and Na56-42 in the three agrosugar characters were stable and adapted to the different environmental conditions and showed a sugar content similar or superior to the controls. The main component’s analysis offered the formation of six different groups which correspond to the environments evaluated, there being a small approach between environment 2 and 4.

  2. Epidemic disease decimates amphibian abundance, species diversity, and evolutionary history in the highlands of central Panama

    OpenAIRE

    Crawford, Andrew J.; Lips, Karen R.; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2010-01-01

    Amphibian populations around the world are experiencing unprecedented declines attributed to a chytrid fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Despite the severity of the crisis, quantitative analyses of the effects of the epidemic on amphibian abundance and diversity have been unavailable as a result of the lack of equivalent data collected before and following disease outbreak. We present a community-level assessment combining long-term field surveys and DNA barcode data describing...

  3. 77 FR 69723 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Free Trade Agreement-Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... exceeding) exceeding) exceeding) WTO GPA $202,000 $202,000 $7,777,000 FTAs: Australia FTA 77,494 77,494 7...,000 NAFTA: --Canada 25,000 77,494 10,074,262 --Mexico 77,494 77,494 10,074,262 Oman FTA 202,000 202... ADMINISTRATION 48 CFR Parts 25 and 52 [FAC 2005-62; FAR Case 2012-027; Item III; Docket 2012-0027, Sequence 01...

  4. Tree planting by small producers in the tropics: A comparative study of Brazil and Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia S. Simmons; Robert T. Walker; Charles H. Wood

    2002-01-01

    Forest regrowth is a notable phenomenon across the tropical forest latitudes. Such reforestation takes place in the wake of land abandonment, occurs cyclically in a rotational agricultural system, and may result from the deliberate planting of trees by farmers. Although less extensive than successional forest regeneration, tree planting by small farmers can have...

  5. Medical Trends: An Evaluation of Medical Support Given in Vietnam, Grenada, Panama and Vietnam

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richards, Donn

    1999-01-01

    .... This paper reviews medical support given in four previous conflicts. Analysis includes predeployment, logistics, communication, patient evacuation, preventive medicine, veterinary services, civilian assistance and post-deployment...

  6. Outbreak of acute renal failure in Panama in 2006: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentz, E Danielle; Lewis, Lauren; Mujica, Oscar J; Barr, Dana B; Schier, Joshua G; Weerasekera, Gayanga; Kuklenyik, Peter; McGeehin, Michael; Osterloh, John; Wamsley, Jacob; Lum, Washington; Alleyne, Camilo; Sosa, Nestor; Motta, Jorge; Rubin, Carol

    2008-10-01

    In September 2006, a Panamanian physician reported an unusual number of patients with unexplained acute renal failure frequently accompanied by severe neurological dysfunction. Twelve (57%) of 21 patients had died of the illness. This paper describes the investigation into the cause of the illness and the source of the outbreak. Case-control and laboratory investigations were implemented. Case patients (with acute renal failure of unknown etiology and serum creatinine > 2 mg/dl) were individually matched to hospitalized controls for age (+/- 5 years), sex and admission date (< 2 days before the case patient). Questionnaire and biological data were collected. The main outcome measure was the odds of ingesting prescription cough syrup in cases and controls. Forty-two case patients and 140 control patients participated. The median age of cases was 68 years (range: 25-91 years); 64% were male. After controlling for pre-existing hypertension and renal disease and the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, a significant association was found between ingestion of prescription cough syrup and illness onset (adjusted odds ratio: 31.0, 95% confidence interval: 6.93-138). Laboratory analyses confirmed the presence of diethylene glycol (DEG) in biological samples from case patients, 8% DEG contamination in cough syrup samples and 22% contamination in the glycerin used to prepare the cough syrup. The source of the outbreak was DEG-contaminated cough syrup. This investigation led to the recall of approximately 60 000 bottles of contaminated cough syrup, widespread screening of potentially exposed consumers and treatment of over 100 affected patients.

  7. PANAMA PAPERS DAN DISKURSUS TENTANG PERLINDUNGAN DATA DI INDONESIA: SUATU PERSPEKTIF TEORI KEADILAN BERMARTABAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeferson Kameo

    2016-10-01

    “Setiap orang berhak atas perlindungan diri pribadi, keluarga, kehormatan, martabat, dan harta benda yang di bawah kekuasaannya, serta berhak atas rasa aman dan perlindungan dari ancaman ketakutan untuk berbuat atau tidak berbuat sesuatu yang merupakan hak asasi”. Inilah rumusan dari Pasal 28 G Ayat (1 dari Undang-Undang Dasar, yang dinyatakan Perubahannya yang Kedua dalam suatu Ketetapan Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat Republik Indonesia. Dalam rumusan ketentuan ini orang dapat menyuling semua asas yang mengatur perlindungan data dalam Sistem Hukum Pancasila.Di samping rumusan ketentuan di atas, sejumlah rumusan kaedah hukum lainnya berisi asas-asas yang sama dapat juga ditemukan dalam beberapa Undang-Undang yang berlaku dalam sistem hukum Indonesia. Antara lain, UU No. 8 tahun 2011 tentang ITE. Penulis artikel ini berpendapat bahwa seluruh rumusan ketentuan dimaksud adalah bentuk-bentuk perwujudan diri dari jiwa bangsa (Volksgeist tempat orang dapat menemukan asas-asas dan kaidah yang mengatur perlindungan data dalam Sistem Hukum Pancasila. Satu dari asas hukum yang melindungi data pribadi dapat digunakan untuk memecahkan skandal terkini, yaitu Panamapapers. Abstract “Every person has the rights to get protection on his personal/privacy, family, honor, dignity and properties under his power, and has rights to feel secure and to get protection from fear of any threat in order to do or not to do something related to their fundamental rights. This is the formulation of the Article 28 G (1 of the Indonesian Basic Act, mentioned in its Second Amendment mentioned in the Decision of the People's Consultative Assembly of the Republic of Indonesia. In this stipulation one could distil all the legal principles governing data protection in the Pancasila Legal System. Apart from the stipulation mentioned above, some further formulation of legal rules contained similar principles may also be found in several Acts in the Indonesian legal system. Among those Acts, is the Act number 8 of 2011 concerning Information and Electronic Transaction. This writer argues that all of the stipulations are forms of manifestation of the spirit of the Indonesian people (Volksgeist in which one could find rules and principles governing data protection in the Pancasila Legal System. One of the principles of Law that protect the personal data could be used in order to solve the rescent scandal called Panamapapers.

  8. Ten-Year Aging of Elastomeric Vulcanizates in Panama, Alaska, and Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-07-01

    aginp resis- tance at all three sites. 8 e Polymeric antiozonants (EPM) are more effective than chemical antiozonants m protecting SBR, NBR , and M...was initiated in 196l to determine the effects of environ- mental conditions on rubber vulcanizates since rubber end-items prepared for military...since 1968. APPROACH The first group of 6 inch by 6 inch by .O80 inch test pads of rubber vulcanizates selected for this program were exposed outdoors

  9. The impact of the climatic change in the sector health of Panama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulloa, Jacqueline; Ortiz Bulto, Paulo Lazaro

    2001-01-01

    multivariate analysis with seasonal multiplicative models with an exogenous variable-ARMA (P,Q) and autoregressive with non-constant variance -was made to determine the impact of the climate change in Azuero on influenza and severe diarrheic diseases, using a climate index. The evaluation gave the following results: environmental deterioration, precipitation increase tendency, and increase in the variations during the rainy period; a shift in the dry season toward the month of December; spatio-temporal spread of the spell in El Nino years; intensification and shift by one month ahead of the little summer of San Juan, variation of geographical distribution of certain microorganisms and vectors that cause infectious diseases and others; change in the epidemiological pattern of the diseases studied. The important increases of cases due to the climate change are expected, whose costs are estimated

  10. New species of Schulzia (Nematoda: Molineidae) in Ptychoglossus festae (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) from Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R; Telford, Sam R

    2006-10-01

    Schulzia ptychoglossi n. sp. (Strongylida: Molineidae) from the intestines of Ptychoglossus festae (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) is described and illustrated. Schulzia ptychoglossi n. sp. represents the fourth species assigned to the genus and is most similar to the Venezuelan species S. usu by possessing a cervical inflation that begins a short distance from the anterior end of the body. Schulzia ptychoglossi differs from S. usu in that ray 8 separates midway between the root and tip of the dorsal ray in S. ptychoglossi, but separates close to the root of the dorsal ray in S. usu.

  11. Minding the Factors of Public Support: How Lessons From Panama Could Prevent Future Iraqs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    similarities among the policy options available, and the overlap among strategic decision-makers involved in both cases . We will consider why, despite...Gray, “ Concept Failure? COIN, Counterinsurgency, and Strategic Theory,” Prism: A Journal of the Center for Complex Operations 3, no. 3 (June 2012): 29...the top three management layers of any ministry, government-run corporation, university, or hospital .” In other words, anyone “who was a party member

  12. Panama City, Florida 1/3 Arc-second MHW Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions in the Gulf of Mexico....

  13. Panama City, Florida 1/3 Arc-second NAVD 88 Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions in the Gulf of Mexico....

  14. Ancient Nursery Area for the Extinct Giant Shark Megalodon from the Miocene of Panama

    OpenAIRE

    Pimiento, Catalina; Ehret, Dana J.; MacFadden, Bruce J.; Hubbell, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As we know from modern species, nursery areas are essential shark habitats for vulnerable young. Nurseries are typically highly productive, shallow-water habitats that are characterized by the presence of juveniles and neonates. It has been suggested that in these areas, sharks can find ample food resources and protection from predators. Based on the fossil record, we know that the extinct Carcharocles megalodon was the biggest shark that ever lived. Previous proposed paleo-nurser...

  15. 33 CFR 334.763 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., 085°47′29″ W; West point—30°07′55″ N, 085°51′05″ W, then northerly to point of origin. (b) The restrictions. (1) For the purposes of this section, “military security zones” are specific portion/s within any... both military and civilian personnel during exercises conducted within the restricted area by...

  16. Prioritizing Infrastructure Investments in Panama : Pilot Application of the World Bank Infrastructure Prioritization Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo, Darwin; Mandri-Perrott, Cledan; House, Schuyler

    2016-01-01

    Infrastructure services are significant determinants of economic development, social welfare, trade, and public health. As such, they typically feature strongly in national development plans. While governments may receive many infrastructure project proposals, however, resources are often insufficient to finance the full set of proposals in the short term. Leading up to 2020, an estimated US$836 ...

  17. Mineral deposits of Central America, with a section on manganese deposits of Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Ralph Jackson; Irving, Earl Montgomery; Simons, F.S.

    1957-01-01

    The mineral deposits of Central America were studied between 1942 and 1945, in cooperation with the United States Department of State and the Foreign Economic Administration. Emphasis was originally placed on the study of strategic-mineral deposits, especially of antimony, chromite, manganese, quartz, and mica, but deposits of other minerals that offered promise of significant future production were also studied. A brief appraisal of the base-metal deposits was made, and deposits of iron ore in Honduras and of lead and zinc ores in Guatemala were mapped. In addition, studies were made of the regional geology of some areas, data were collected from many sources, and a new map of the geology of Central America was compiled.

  18. 75 FR 9578 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama; Change to Mission Dates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... not considered during the selection process. Timeframe for Recruitment and Applications Mission recruitment will be conducted in an open and public manner. Outreach will include publication in the Federal..., symposia, conferences, and trade shows. Recruitment will begin immediately and conclude no later than...

  19. The butterflies of Barro Colorado Islands, Panama: Local extinction since the 1930s

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Basset, Yves; Barrios, H.; Segar, Simon Tristram; Srygley, R. B.; Aiello, A.; Warren, A. D.; Delgado, F.; Coronado, J.; Lezcano, J.; Arizala, A.; Rivera, M.; Perez, F.; Bobadilla, R.; Lopez, Y.; Ramirez, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 8 (2015), e0136623 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36098G Grant - others:USB Postdoc project(CZ) CZ1.07/2.3.00/30.0006 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tropical rain-forests Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.057, year: 2015 http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0136623

  20. The Emberá, tourism and indigenous archaeology: "rediscovering" the past in Eastern Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Mendizábal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo nos referimos al interés de los Emberá (un grupo indígena Amerindio en adquirir conocimientos de los restos materiales del pasado - como fragmentos cerámicos coloniales y prehispánicos - que se encuentran fácilmente en el Panamá Oriental. Situamos el interés de los Emberá (y su deseo de aprender más del pasado en el contexto del turismo indígena, que ha inspirado la articulación de nuevas narrativas sobre la historia e identidad de los Emberá. Adicionalmente, el descubrimiento accidental por los Emberá de restos materiales de períodos pasados ha instigado y facilitado la investigación arqueológica, un proceso que ha resultado en el intercambio recíproco de conocimientos entre los Emberá e investigadores académicos. Argumentamos aquí que esta relación recíproca puede contribuir a la descolonización de la arqueología, crear sinergias entre la antropología y la arqueología e incrementar la representación indígena en el turismo.

  1. 78 FR 6810 - U.S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama-Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... Foreign Commercial Service (CS) is publishing this supplement to the Notice of the U.S. Infrastructure... December, 2012. Due to the December holiday season, it has been determined that an additional time is... releases to general and trade media, direct mail, broadcast fax, notices by industry trade associations and...

  2. 78 FR 16470 - U.S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama-Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... Foreign Commercial Service (CS) is publishing this supplement to the Notice of the U.S. Healthcare Trade.... Due to the recent snow closures and upcoming Easter holiday season, it has been determined that an..., notices by industry trade associations and other multiplier groups, and publicity at industry meetings...

  3. Panama: 100 Jahre Unabhängigkeit, Handlungsspielräume und Transformationsprozesse einer Kanalrepublik

    OpenAIRE

    Zoller, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    Während der 1990er Jahre standen die interamerikanischen Beziehungen auf Initiative des Amerikanisten Prof. Dr. Helmbrecht Breinig im Brennpunkt einer Reihe interdisziplinärer, von der DFG geförderter Forschungsvorhaben an der Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg. Den gemeinsamen konzeptionellen Rahmen für diese Teilprojekte entwickelte Prof. Dr. Friedrich von Krosigk mit seinen Überlegungen zu "Macht und Gegenmacht im Wandel interamerikanischer Beziehungen". Er selbst beteiligte sich mit einem Teil...

  4. The Department of Defense Press Pool: Did in Work in Panama?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    who would physically attack a paper and its printer that did not reflect their opinion (Tebbel, 5). Politicians rarely brought the papers to task...Rico single-handedly and James Creelman , a reporter for Hearst, leading a bayonet charge outside Santiago. Military and press relations were good. The

  5. 2013 NOAA Ortho-rectified Near-Infrared Mosaic of the Port of Panama City, Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative. The source imagery...

  6. A Picture Guide to Trees of the Gamboa Area, Republic of Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-01

    THEIR LEAVES Plants that Lose Their Leaves In Wet Season In Dry Season Cordia aliodora (Laurel) Annona spraguei (Cherimoya) Ochroma pyramidale (Balsa...Zanthoxylum species. 77 Cordia aliodora Laurel Boraginaceae Leaves The leaves (13 by 6 cm) are simple, clustered in whorls, pointed at both ends, and...flowers (5mm) lk ri 6m Figure 41. Cordia aliodora. 79 Bursera simarouba Gumbo Limbo Burseraceae I Leaves The leaves are alternate and pinnately compound

  7. panama_city_fl_1-3_arc-second_mhw_netcdf.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  8. Seizing the Lodgment: Forcible Entry Lessons from Panama and the Falklands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-10

    Advanced Military Studies Henry A. Arnold III, COL Accepted this 10th day of May 2016 by ________________________________________, Director, Graduate...Falkland Islands Source: Max Hastings and Simon Jenkins , The Battle for the Falklands (New York: WW Norton & Company, 1983), 95. The British strategy...Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1992), 98-99. 127 Ibid., 184, 270. 128 Freedman, 421. 129 Max Hastings and Simon Jenkins , The Battle for the

  9. Observations of Runoff Generation During the Dry/Wet Seasonal Transition in Panama

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ogden, Fred L

    2005-01-01

    .... Instrumentation installed include an eddy-correlation flux system on a 36 m tall tower near Cerro Pelado, and throughfall troughs, soil moisture sensors, rain gages, interflow collector, piezometers...

  10. Analysis of Volatile Compounds from Solanumbetaceum Cav. Fruits from Panama by Head-Space Micro Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando A. Durant

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of the volatile compounds of two varieties of Solanum betaceum Cav. by means of headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ( GC-MS i s presented. The HS-SPME method for extraction of the volatiles compounds was optimized by using a 2 3 central composite design. Maximum extraction of volatile compounds was achieved by using a divinylbenzene-carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber, extraction temperature 76° C, incubation time 44 min, and extraction time of 46 min. The main types of compounds detected in both varieties are terpenoids, followed by aromatics, esters, and aldehydes. Golden-yellow cultivars contained higher levels of esters and terpenes, while the reddish-purple variety contained a significant amount of aromatic compounds. The data structure of the chemical information obtained as well as the relationship between variables was evaluated by means of principal component analysis and cluster analysis.

  11. Understanding cultural practices of governing in the Panama Canal Expansion Megaproject

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Marrewijk, A.H.; Smits, K.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    The academic debate on governance in project management is dominated by research that looks at the structure of governance regimes, but there is very little research on the micro-practices of governance as it actually takes place. This paper fills this gap by focusing on the governance practices of

  12. Aias sadas saia = A man, a plan, a canal : Panama / Indrek Grigor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Grigor, Indrek, 1981-

    2015-01-01

    Kunstnik Margus Tamme uus loominguline etapp 2013-2014: installatsioonid "Never odd or even" Hobusepea galeriis, "Novella" Haapsalu Linnagaleriis, "Raymond the diamond" Tartu Kunstimajas ja "Kolm esimest minutit" Tallinna Kunstihoone galeriis

  13. Variabilidad mensual de la velocidad de surgencia y clorofila a en la región del Panama Bight (Monthly rate variation upwelling and chlorophyll a in the region of Panama Bight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Villegas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Las zonas de surgencia y la presencia de clorofila a en la región del Panamá Bight (golfo de Panamá fueron comparadas en una escala mensual. Las variables utilizadas fueron la velocidad vertical de surgencia estimada mediante el software EVA. V.2.0 y la concentración de clorofila a obtenida de imágenes satelitales SeaWifs. El estudio fue realizado para el área costera entre 6° 30’ y 2° N y en los tres principales focos de ascenso de agua, el primero ubicado entre 83-84° W y 1° 30’-2° 30’ N, el segundo entre 81-82° W y 1° 30’-2° 30’ N, y el tercero entre 82-83° W y 2° 30’-3° 30’ N. Los resultados muestran la asociación directa entre la concentración de clorofila a y la surgencia durante todo el año. El estudio también resalta que el desplazamiento de la zona de convergencia intertropical ZCIT determina la variabilidad estacional del proceso de ascenso, atenuándolo cuando pasa sobre el área de estudio y reforzándolo mientras se aleja. El análisis de correlación entre las variables bajo estudio dio como resultado coeficientes estadísticamente significativos entre 0.5 y 0.9 en los tres focos principales y valores no significativos en la zona costera. (Abstract. The influence of the migration of the ITCZ on the climatic variability of the upwelling vertical velocity (Vz and the spatial-temporal behavior of upwelling spots over the CPO was determined. This influence was corroborated by the presence of chlorophyll a in the upwelling zones. Vz values were calculated with EVA . V.2.0 software. The chlorophyll a content was extracted from satellite images for 1997-2000. A comparison between the upwelling zones distribution, the migration of ITCZ and chlorophyll a was made. This comparison was based on the correlation between variables of three upwelling focuses and a coastal upwelling. The first focus was located between 83-84° W and 1° 30’-2° 30’ N, the second one between 81-82° W and 1° 30’- 2° 30’ N, the third between 82-83° W and 2° 30’-3° 30’ N. Upwelling coastal zone was located on 6° 30’ and 2° N. This work showed that while the ITCZ is far from the CPO, the upwelling is favored. It was determined that, when the ITCZ is on the region, the upwelling is attenuated due to weak winds. It was corroborated that chlorophyll a concentration is high in every month throughout coastal upwelling and around three upwelling focuses.

  14. Multibeam collection for M-1-01-GM: Multibeam data collected aboard Moana Wave from 2001-09-03 to 2001-10-11, Panama City, FL to Panama City, FL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  15. Ärma talu ehitanud Aus Invest müüdi Panama riiulifirmale maha / Kadri Paas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Kadri, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Ärma talu ehitanud Aus Invest OÜ ei ole maksnud tööde eest kõigile alltöövõtjatele. Proua Evelin Ilvese sõnul on Ermamaa peatöövõtjale kõigi kokkulepitud tööde eest maksnud. 2007. a. mais müüsid Aivar Aus ja Mait Aus Tartu maakohtu registriosakonna andmetel Aus Invest OÜ Panamal registreeritud riiulifirmale Arliana Enterprises Corp. Vt. samas: Nõunik sekkus presidendi teleintervjuusse. Kui telekanali TV3 Lõuna-Eesti reporter Valgamaal visiidil viibivalt Toomas Hendrik Ilveselt ja proua Evelin Ilveselt Ärma talu ehitusega kaasnenud võlgade kohta aru päris, sekkus kõnelusse presidendi avalike suhete nõunik Toomas Sildam. Vt. ka lk. 10: Urmo Soonvald. Ärma triibulised. Ajakirjanik ootab Ärma talu probleemidega seoses suuremat avalikustamist

  16. 75 FR 3395 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; U.S. Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... and at least 200 yards (183 m) from marine mammals other than whales, and avoid approaching animals...) behavior of marine animals sighted; (7) direction of travel; (8) environmental information associated with... of marine animals. These transect data will provide an opportunity to collect data of marine mammals...

  17. 78 FR 15346 - Secretarial Infrastructure Business Development Mission to Brazil, Colombia and Panama; May 12-18...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    ... project management and engineering services (including construction, architecture and design... industries deemed to be strategic, including increased use of local content and technology transfer... transportation infrastructure. Colombia's traditional acceptance of U.S. brands as well as U.S. and international...

  18. Attack for aquatic animals (shark and alligator): Report of two fatal cases in the Bocas del Toro province (Panama)

    OpenAIRE

    Mendieta, C.; Duarte, A.

    2009-01-01

    Los ataques por animales acuáticos, y especialmente los producidos por tiburón y cocodrilo, son muy poco frecuentes. Se han descrito ataques por tiburón en países como Australia, Sudáfrica, Brasil, Bahamas, México y Puerto Rico, algunos con resultado fatal en los últimos cinco años. En Panamá, los casos descritos de ataques por escualo son escasos, siendo el último descrito con resultado no fatal en julio de 2008 en una playa de la localidad de San Carlos mientras que el último caso fatal se ...

  19. The Saturniidae of Barro Colorado Islands, Panama: A model taxon for studying the long-term effects of climate change?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Basset, Y.; Lamarre, Greg P. A.; Ratz, T.; Segar, Simon Tristram; Decaëns, T.; Rougerie, R.; Miller, S. E.; Perez, F.; Bobadilla, R.; Lopez, Y.; Ramirez, J. A.; Aiello, A.; Barrios, H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 23 (2017), s. 9991-10004 ISSN 2045-7758 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36098G EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 669609 - Diversity6continents Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : climatic anomalies * DNA barcoding * functional groups Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 2.440, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ece3.3515/epdf

  20. Viability of small seeds found in feces of the Central American tapir on Barro Colorado Island, Panama

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capece, P.I.; Aliaga-Rossel, E.; Jansen, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    Tapirs are known as effective dispersers of large-seeded tree species, but their role in dispersing small-seeded plant species has yet to be established. Tapir feces have been reported to contain large numbers of small seeds, but whether these are viable has rarely been evaluated. We determined the

  1. 75 FR 5761 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama; November 15-18, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    .... exports in the region, after Mexico, Brazil, Venezuela, and Chile, and is ranked 26th as a market for U.S... government policies, steady economic growth, moderate inflation and a wide range of opportunities make it...

  2. 78 FR 70276 - Trade Mission to Colombia, Peru, Chile, Panama, and Ecuador in Conjunction With Trade Winds-The...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... processing and packaging equipment and medical equipment. Peru Peru's long-term economic stability and very.... Known for its political and economic stability, Chile has posted average GDP growth of 5 percent per..., stable economic and political environment, affinity for U.S. goods and services and a high level of...

  3. 76 FR 72499 - Actions Taken Pursuant to Executive Order 13382 Related to the Islamic Republic of Iran Shipping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... Aquino de la Guardia and Calle 47, Bella Vista, Panama City, Panama; c/o Hafiz Darya Shipping Co, No. 60... Number 1404, Calle Aquino de la Guardia and Calle 47, Bella Vista, Panama City, Panama; c/o Hafiz Darya... Banesco Floor 14, Office Number 1404, Calle Aquino de la Guardia and Calle 47, Bella Vista, Panama City...

  4. 76 FR 39902 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Open Axis Group...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... Airlines, Panama City, Republic of Panama; and Association of Retail Travel Agents, Scottsdale, AZ, have... plaintiffs to actual damages under specified circumstances. Specifically, TravelSky Technology Limited...

  5. Multibeam collection for EW0212: Multibeam data collected aboard Maurice Ewing from 2002-11-17 to 2002-11-20, Puntarenas, Costa Rica to Balboa, Panama

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  6. Multibeam collection for EW9603: Multibeam data collected aboard Maurice Ewing from 1996-05-14 to 1996-05-31, Papeete, French Polynesia to Balboa, Panama

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  7. Multibeam collection for EW9706: Multibeam data collected aboard Maurice Ewing from 1997-08-20 to 1997-09-05, Lisbon, Portugal to Cristobal, Panama

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  8. Multibeam collection for EW9501: Multibeam data collected aboard Maurice Ewing from 1995-02-16 to 1995-03-21, Tampa, FL to Balboa, Panama

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  9. Multibeam collection for EW9903: Multibeam data collected aboard Maurice Ewing from 1999-03-10 to 1999-04-12, Cristobal, Panama to San Diego, CA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  10. Multibeam collection for EW0103: Multibeam data collected aboard Maurice Ewing from 2001-04-08 to 2001-04-12, San Juan, Puerto Rico to Colon, Panama

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  11. Multibeam collection for EW9707: Multibeam data collected aboard Maurice Ewing from 1997-09-09 to 1997-10-24, Balboa, Panama to Manzanillo, Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  12. Multibeam collection for EW9404: Multibeam data collected aboard Maurice Ewing from 1994-04-09 to 1994-04-14, Bridgetown, Barbados to Cristobal, Panama

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  13. Multibeam collection for EW9502: Multibeam data collected aboard Maurice Ewing from 1995-03-27 to 1995-04-27, Balboa, Panama to Manzanillo, Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  14. Multibeam collection for EW0005: Multibeam data collected aboard Maurice Ewing from 2000-05-27 to 2000-06-27, Puntarenas, Costa Rica to Balboa, Panama

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  15. Multibeam collection for EW9206: Multibeam data collected aboard Maurice Ewing from 1992-05-27 to 1992-05-31, Cristobal, Panama to Bridgetown, Barbados

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  16. Multibeam collection for EW0104: Multibeam data collected aboard Maurice Ewing from 2001-04-14 to 2001-05-19, Cristobal, Panama to Costa Rica

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  17. Multibeam collection for EW9902: Multibeam data collected aboard Maurice Ewing from 1999-02-28 to 1999-03-05, Bridgetown, Barbados to Cristobal, Panama

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  18. Multibeam collection for EW9205: Multibeam data collected aboard Maurice Ewing from 1992-05-12 to 1992-05-26, Budhypramono, Marquesas Islands to Balboa, Panama

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  19. Multibeam collection for RB09TR: Multibeam data collected aboard Ronald H. Brown from 2009-01-15 to 2009-04-15, Rodman, Panama to Charleston, SC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  20. Multibeam collection for AT18-12: Multibeam data collected aboard Atlantis from 2011-10-04 to 2011-10-28, San Diego, CA to Balboa, Panama

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  1. Characterizing concentrations of diethylene glycol and suspected metabolites in human serum, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid samples from the Panama DEG mass poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schier, J G; Hunt, D R; Perala, A; McMartin, K E; Bartels, M J; Lewis, L S; McGeehin, M A; Flanders, W D

    2013-12-01

    Diethylene glycol (DEG) mass poisoning is a persistent public health problem. Unfortunately, there are no human biological data on DEG and its suspected metabolites in poisoning. If present and associated with poisoning, the evidence for use of traditional therapies such as fomepizole and/or hemodialysis would be much stronger. To characterize DEG and its metabolites in stored serum, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens obtained from human DEG poisoning victims enrolled in a 2006 case-control study. In the 2006 study, biological samples from persons enrolled in a case-control study (42 cases with new-onset, unexplained AKI and 140 age-, sex-, and admission date-matched controls without AKI) were collected and shipped to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta for various analyses and were then frozen in storage. For this study, when sufficient volume of the original specimen remained, the following analytes were quantitatively measured in serum, urine, and CSF: DEG, 2-hydroxyethoxyacetic acid (HEAA), diglycolic acid, ethylene glycol, glycolic acid, and oxalic acid. Analytes were measured using low resolution GC/MS, descriptive statistics calculated and case results compared with controls when appropriate. Specimens were de-identified so previously collected demographic, exposure, and health data were not available. The Wilcoxon Rank Sum test (with exact p-values) and bivariable exact logistic regression were used in SAS v9.2 for data analysis. The following samples were analyzed: serum, 20 case, and 20 controls; urine, 11 case and 22 controls; and CSF, 11 samples from 10 cases and no controls. Diglycolic acid was detected in all case serum samples (median, 40.7 mcg/mL; range, 22.6-75.2) and no controls, and in all case urine samples (median, 28.7 mcg/mL; range, 14-118.4) and only five (23%) controls (median, urine diglycolic acid (both OR > 999; exact p sample results were excluded and two from the same case were averaged, yielding eight samples from eight cases. Diglycolic acid was detected in seven (88%) of case CSF samples (median, 2.03 mcg/mL; range, urine) concentrations were identified among cases, which is consistent with animal data. Low urinary glycolic acid concentrations in cases may have been due to concurrent AKI. Although serum glycolic concentrations among cases may have initially increased, further metabolism to oxalic acid may have occurred thereby explaining the similar glycolic acid concentrations in cases and controls. The increased serum oxalic acid concentration results in cases versus controls are consistent with this hypothesis. Diglycolic acid is associated with human DEG poisoning and may be a biomarker for poisoning. These findings add to animal data suggesting a possible role for traditional antidotal therapies. The detection of HEAA and diglycolic acid in the CSF of cases suggests a possible association with signs and symptoms of DEG-associated neurotoxicity. Further work characterizing the pathophysiology of DEG-associated neurotoxicity and the role of traditional toxic alcohol therapies such as fomepizole and hemodialysis is needed.

  2. Origin and evolution of mineralizing fluids and exploration of the Cerro Quema Au-Cu deposit (Azuero Peninsula, Panama) from a fluid inclusion and stable isotope perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, Isaac; Cardellach, Esteve; Corbella, Merce; Canals, Angels; Griera, Albert; Gomez-Gras, David; Johnson, Craig A.

    2017-01-01

    Cerro Quema is a high sulfidation epithermal Au-Cu deposit with a measured, indicated and inferred resource of 35.98 Mt. @ 0.77 g/t Au containing 893,600 oz. Au (including 183,930 oz. Au equiv. of Cu ore). It is characterized by a large hydrothermal alteration zone which is interpreted to represent the lithocap of a porphyry system. The innermost zone of the lithocap is constituted by vuggy quartz with advanced argillic alteration locally developed on its margin, enclosed by a well-developed zone of argillic alteration, grading to an external halo of propylitic alteration. The mineralization occurs in the form of disseminations and microveinlets of pyrite, chalcopyrite, enargite, tennantite, and trace sphalerite, crosscut by quartz, barite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite and galena veins.Microthermometric analyses of two phase (L + V) secondary fluid inclusions in igneous quartz phenocrysts in vuggy quartz and advanced argillically altered samples indicate low temperature (140–216 °C) and low salinity (0.5–4.8 wt% NaCl eq.) fluids, with hotter and more saline fluids identified in the east half of the deposit (Cerro Quema area).Stable isotope analyses (S, O, H) were performed on mineralization and alteration minerals, including pyrite, chalcopyrite, enargite, alunite, barite, kaolinite, dickite and vuggy quartz. The range of δ34S of sulfides is from − 4.8 to − 12.7‰, whereas δ34S of sulfates range from 14.1 to 17.4‰. The estimated δ34SΣS of the hydrothermal fluid is − 0.5‰. Within the advanced argillic altered zone the δ34S values of sulfides and sulfates are interpreted to reflect isotopic equilibrium at temperatures of ~ 240 °C. The δ18O values of vuggy quartz range from 9.0 to 17.5‰, and the δ18O values estimated for the vuggy quartz-forming fluid range from − 2.3 to 3.0‰, indicating that it precipitated from mixing of magmatic fluids with surficial fluids. The δ18O of kaolinite ranges from 12.7 to 18.1‰ and δD from − 103.3 to − 35.2‰, whereas the δ18O of dickite varies between 12.7 and 16.3‰ and δD from − 44 to − 30. Based on δ18O and δD, two types of kaolinite/dickite can be distinguished, a supergene type and a hypogene type. Combined, the analytical data indicate that the Cerro Quema deposit formed from magmatic-hydrothermal fluids derived from a porphyry copper-like intrusion located at depth likely towards the east of the deposit. The combination of stable isotope geochemistry and fluid inclusion analysis may provide useful exploration vectors for porphyry copper targets in the high sulfidation/lithocap environment.

  3. The Relationship of Diet to the Performance of the Combat Soldier. Minimal Calorie Intake during Combat Patrols in a Hot Humid Environment (Panama)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-01

    the planning and execution of maneuvers in combat situations. The daily military activities were carried out in spite of severe environmental ...is unfortunate that tests were not performed to evaluate the impact of diet upon other forms of performance, eg - mental acuity, cognition, etc...8217 -4 1- J4"eq 0000 000 weC ;U) 4 , * ~4)6 r)3 01 +1. +1 +1+1 +1 +1 +1+1 + + + +W +1 +1 +1+1 41 -4 ccw 10 u 0L %D - OC’ r4 Ln%0-7t z .- anc’ 4 1’ 4OVC-4

  4. Proceedings of the Conference on the Environmental Chemistry of Hydrazine Fuels (3rd) Held in Panama City Beach, Florida on 15-17 September 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    aqueous or alcoholic hydrazine. It is interesting to note that no chromium (II) hydrazine complex has been prepared directly from a chromium (III...S.E. Bowden, " Oxydation of Hydrazine in Aqueous Solutions", CEEDO-TR-78-11 (1978). AD-A058239. N72-12242. 117p VIBRATIONAL SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY OF THE...phthalocyanlne. Stearyl alcohol was added to improve the transfer, The response to hydrazine was fast, but the sensors were very slow to recover.(3) The

  5. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Interaction of Nonnuclear Munitions with Structures (6th), Held in Panama City Beach, Florida on 3-7 May 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-07

    4454/45/4 1I 44 7 4I) 21 1 X SI I/SR/I IS/NIF 𔃼 111 4 4 . 1. 444, I4/SR/ IVIS /NI 3.7 ,114 ’( 2 4, 6 21 , SI I/ R/4I IS/NI: .H 1 171/104/I2 4 - 5 1 H...College, Mississippi, 1963, pp 195-196 Time After Arrival (sec) Denson, R.H., Ledbetter , W B., and Saylak, D, Six CandidateFigure 10. Comparison of...34, DNA-TR-91-96, Defense Nuclear 93, Defense Nuclear Agency, November 1992 AgencyMay 1991. Hookham, P.A., Lee , H.S., Hatfield, D.W., " Non- Rosenblatt

  6. Multibeam collection for EW9417: Multibeam data collected aboard Maurice Ewing from 1994-11-27 to 1994-12-08, Balboa, Panama to Tampa, FL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  7. A new moss salamander, genus Nototriton (Caudata: Plethodontidae), from the Cordillera de Talamanca, in the Costa Rica-Panama border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Erick; Kubicki, Brian

    2018-01-07

    A new salamander belonging to the genus Nototriton, subgenus Nototriton, is described from the Caribbean slopes of the southeastern Cordillera de Talamanca in Costa Rica, within Parque Internacional La Amistad, at an elevation ca. 1500 m a.s.l. This new taxon is distinguished from its congeners by its morphological characteristics and by its differentiation in DNA sequences of the 16S rRNA, cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI), and cytochrome b mitochondrial genes. This new species represents the southernmost extension known for the genus Nototriton.

  8. Effects of an oil spill on some organisms living on mangrove (Rhizophora mangle L. ) roots in low wave-energy habitats in Caribbean Panama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrity, S.D.; Levings, S.C. (Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst., Balboa (Panama))

    1993-01-01

    Following the discharge of more than 50000 barrels of crude oil into a tropical, mangrove-fringed estuary, we examined the effects of oiling on the epibiota of mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) prop roots. Using data taken four years before the spill and for a year after the spill, we assessed the possible value of four bivalves and one barnacle as indicators of damage from oiling. Quarterly comparisons of abundances at matched oiled and unoiled sites showed strong indirect evidence of population reductions in six of seven comparisons. However, the shells of only two species persisted long enough on roots (3-6 months) to be useful direct indicators of recent mortality. Knowledge of conditions four years before oiling was important in establishing the extent of damage from this oil spill. Population reductions were most striking in brackish streams, where intertidal and subtidal mussels and barnacles were quickly devastated at oiled sites and showed no recovery during the year after the spill, and for an intertidal oyster in channels and lagoons. All other species showed at least some negative effects of oiling, but the strength of the evidence varied over time and among species. (author)

  9. Effects of an oil spill on some organisms living on mangrove (Rhizophora mangle L.) roots in low wave-energy habitats in Caribbean Panama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrity, S.D.; Levings, S.C.

    1993-01-01

    Following the discharge of more than 50000 barrels of crude oil into a tropical, mangrove-fringed estuary, we examined the effects of oiling on the epibiota of mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) prop roots. Using data taken four years before the spill and for a year after the spill, we assessed the possible value of four bivalves and one barnacle as indicators of damage from oiling. Quarterly comparisons of abundances at matched oiled and unoiled sites showed strong indirect evidence of population reductions in six of seven comparisons. However, the shells of only two species persisted long enough on roots (3-6 months) to be useful direct indicators of recent mortality. Knowledge of conditions four years before oiling was important in establishing the extent of damage from this oil spill. Population reductions were most striking in brackish streams, where intertidal and subtidal mussels and barnacles were quickly devastated at oiled sites and showed no recovery during the year after the spill, and for an intertidal oyster in channels and lagoons. All other species showed at least some negative effects of oiling, but the strength of the evidence varied over time and among species. (author)

  10. Six new and one previously described species of pseudorhabdosynochus (Monogenoidea, Diplectanidae) infecting the gills of groupers (Perciformes, Serranidae) from the Pacific Coasts of Mexico and Panama

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F.; Violante-González, J.; Rojas Herrera, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 1 (2011), 20-35 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : N. SP MONOGENEA * SOUTH CHINA SEA * EPINEPHELUS-MACULATUS PERCIFORMES * E-MERRA PERCIFORMES * SP-NOV MONOGENEA * NEW-CALEDONIA * CYCLOPLECTANUM OLIVER * DAPENG BAY * YUCATAN PENINSULA * YAMAGUTI Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.405, year: 2011

  11. Noel Maurer and Carlos Yu.  The Big Ditch:  How America Took, Built, Ran, and Ultimately Gave Away the Panama Canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Michael Gratale

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1959, William Appleman Williams published The Tragedy of American Diplomacy.  It was a book that boldly set out to trace the contours of America’s imperial trajectory from the late nineteenth century to the middle of the twentieth century.  Williams’ approach to U.S. foreign policy put him in the vanguard of what would become New Left historical revisionism during the 1960s.  His reassessment of American history which in part involved his deployment of such concepts as imperialism and empi...

  12. Multibeam collection for EX1103: Multibeam data collected aboard Okeanos Explorer from 2011-06-11 to 2011-07-28, San Diego, CA to Rousseau, Panama

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  13. Multibeam collection for KN182L05: Multibeam data collected aboard Knorr from 2005-07-14 to 2005-08-02, Panama to Galapagos, Ecuador

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  14. Multibeam collection for EW0306: Multibeam data collected aboard Maurice Ewing from 2003-08-01 to 2003-08-19, Balboa, Panama to Bergen, Norway

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  15. Comparison of the Media Coverage of the Vietnam War to the Media Coverage of the Invasions of Grenada and Panama: A Question of Legacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    television report that the raids had ’demolished the myth ’ that allied military strength controlled South Vietnam" (Hammond, 1988, p. 345). This new...last week with considerable fanfare" (Time, November 14 1983). 3. "There is an aura of scary smugness about Bush these days, a schoolboyish delight...articles were either favorable or unfavorable to the military. This singular fact seems to dispel the myth that the media lambasted the military in

  16. Multibeam collection for EW0501: Multibeam data collected aboard Maurice Ewing from 2005-01-07 to 2005-02-01, Colon, Panama to Progresso, Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  17. A comparison of methods for determining soil water availability in two sites in Panama with similar rainfall but distinct tree communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Kursar; Bettina M. J. Engelbrecht; Melvin T. Tyree

    2005-01-01

    Plant productivity, distribution and diversity in tropical rain forests correlate with water availability. Water availability is determined by rainfall and also by the available water capacity of the soil. However, while rainfall is recognized as important, linkages between plant distribution and differences among soils in available water capacity have not been...

  18. Ascaris and hookworm transmission in preschool children from rural Panama: role of yard environment, soil eggs/larvae and hygiene and play behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Rachel J; Koski, Kristine G; Pons, Emérita; Sandoval, Nidia; Sinisterra, Odalis; Scott, Marilyn E

    2015-10-01

    This study explored whether the yard environment and child hygiene and play behaviours were associated with presence and intensity of Ascaris and hookworm in preschool children and with eggs and larvae in soil. Data were collected using questionnaires, a visual survey of the yard, soil samples and fecal samples collected at baseline and following re-infection. The presence of eggs/larvae in soil was associated negatively with water storage (eggs) but positively with dogs (eggs) and distance from home to latrine (larvae). Baseline and re-infection prevalences were: hookworm (28.0%, 3.4%); Ascaris (16.9%, 9.5%); Trichuris (0.9%, 0.7%). Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models revealed a higher baseline hookworm infection if yards had eggs or larvae, more vegetation or garbage, and if the child played with soil. Baseline Ascaris was associated with dirt floor, dogs, exposed soil in yard, open defecation and with less time playing outdoors, whereas Ascaris re-infection was associated with water storage, vegetation cover and garbage near the home and not playing with animals. Our results show complex interactions between infection, the yard environment and child behaviours, and indicate that transmission would be reduced if latrines were closer to the home, and if open defecation and water spillage were reduced.

  19. Aplicación de normas de ergonomia informatica en paginas web en Panama con miras a la creacion de ambientes usables por personas con discapacidad

    OpenAIRE

    de Fuertes, Laila V.; de Clunie, Gisela T

    2012-01-01

    En este trabajo presentamos un estudio, realizado en la República de Panamá, sobre la aplicación de normas de ergonomía informática en el diseño de páginas web y el nivel de aplicación de las regulaciones de ergonomía de software para páginas web en personas con discapacidad. A manera de contribución, introducimos algunos indicadores relativos al desarrollo de páginas web en Panamá, en el contexto del estudio. Un referente importante para el diagnóstico realizado, lo constituyen las Normas IS...

  20. Proceedings of Symposium on the Interaction of Non-Nuclear Munitions with Structures (2nd), Held at Panama City Beach, Florida on April 15-18, 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    abovemen- * was 1:63 in comparison to the GRAMAT device. The tioned base curve. Looking on the diaqrams it must simplification consists of only one driver...version they first peak overpressure, i.e. 0.01 ms later, is ab- * agree with the GRAMAT device, except for the adapt- solute an effect of the...d’Etudes de GRAMAT : Description et Utilisation Operationelle 7. Int. Syup. on Milit. Appi. of Blast Simu- Fig. 14 Time-correct Pressure-time-history on

  1. Multibeam collection for MRTN15WT: Multibeam data collected aboard Thomas Washington from 1985-05-22 to 1985-06-12, Balboa, Panama to San Diego, CA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  2. Multibeam collection for CERE04WT: Multibeam data collected aboard Thomas Washington from 1982-09-15 to 1982-10-26, Balboa, Panama to San Diego, CA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  3. Multibeam collection for DELV02RR: Multibeam data collected aboard Roger Revelle from 1996-07-19 to 1996-07-31, Balboa, Panama to San Diego, CA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  4. Multibeam collection for MV1109: Multibeam data collected aboard Melville from 2011-08-24 to 2011-08-30, Balboa, Panama to Bridgetown, Barbados

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  5. Diversity and abundance of aquatics macroinvertebrates and water quality from high and low watersheds of Gariche River, Chiriqui province, Republic of Panama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinard, Johana del C; Rios, Tomas; Bernal Vega, Juan A

    2013-01-01

    Diversity and abundance of aquatic microinvertebrate and quality of water in four sampling stations located in Gariche river high and low watersheds, during the dry season (January to April) and the rainy season (July to October) of 2010, were determined using methods described by Pino and Bernal (2009). A total of 4 964 individuals, belonging to 50 genera, 30 families and nine orders of class Insecta were identified. The average of the Shannon-Weaver Diversity Index in the dry season was 2.36 and 1.95 in rainy season, representing a middle diversity in this ecosystem. In dry season, the abundance of individuals was higher in the order Hemiptera, family Veliidae, and genus Rhagovelia followed by Trichoptera, family Hydroptilidae, and genus Atanatolica. In rainy season, the most representative orders were Ephemeroptera, family Leptophlebiidae and genus Thraulodes, followed by Hemiptera, family Veliidae and genus Rhagovelia. The Jaccard Index indicated that the stations with the greatest similarity were 1 and 2, with a 65.2 % (dry season) and 76.9 % (rainy season), while the similarity was low between stations 1 and 3, with 33.3 % (dry season) and 41.7 % (rainy season). The Biotic Index BMWP/PAN for the dry and rainy seasons, indicated a regular water quality for stations 1 and 2, but with acceptable quality at stations 3 and 4. The physic and chemical variables showed values within acceptable limits during the dry season, while in the rainy season the levels were low, according to the values established by the primary environmental quality standards and quality levels for freshwater recreational use without direct contact, influencing in the heterogeneity of aquatic macroinvertebrates in each sampling station.

  6. The Impact of Drug Trafficking on the Socio Cultural Milieu of the Indigenous Population of Darien in the Republic of Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-23

    restricciones en su país de origen, en cuyo caso, la publicación posterior o venta de este manuscrito con derecho de autor no es permisible. ii REPORT ...el planteamiento del problema hasta la elaboración de los reportes de resultados.36 El inquisidor con este método de investigación, analiza un mundo...la pobreza para que exista una prosperidad, equidad y sostenibilidad en la sociedad. En el análisis hecho el por Atlas de Desarrollo Humano 2015

  7. 76 FR 70448 - Publication of Inaccurate or Inactive Ocean Common Carrier Tariffs; Order to Show Cause

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... competing carriers, and an administrative burden upon our staff for ``paper'' tariffs to be kept on file... Shipping Corporation S.A., Torre Universal, Ave 013897 Federico Boyd, Panama City, Panama BSLE Malta...

  8. En gyllen mulighet til å lære å avsløre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Wigan, Duncan

    2016-01-01

    Panama papers. Bør internasjonale organisasjoner slutte å støtte land og bedrifter som undergraver skatt?......Panama papers. Bør internasjonale organisasjoner slutte å støtte land og bedrifter som undergraver skatt?...

  9. EX1104: Mid-Cayman Rise Exploration on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer between 20110802 and 20110818

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This cruise will embark from Balboa, Panama, will transit and collect underway data through the Panama Canal toward the primary operating area, will focus its...

  10. Optimized Waterspace Management and Scheduling Using Mixed-Integer Linear Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    PANAMA CITY DIVISION PANAMA CITY, FLORIDA 32407-7001 5(3257...task. This paper is outlined as follows: in Section 2, we discuss the general setup of the the MCM scheduling problem, including the definition of the...Suite 1425 Arlington, VA 22203-1995 Naval Surface Warfare Center, Panama City Division 1 ATTN: Technical Library 110 Vernon Avenue Panama City, FL 32407 27

  11. 77 FR 838 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... & EXPORT, S.A. (GTI); c/o MICRO EMPRESA ASHQUI; DOB 9 Jan 1971; alt. DOB 9 Jan 1970; POB Ghobeiri, Lebanon..., Panama; Edificio Servicios Aeroportuarios, Segundo Piso, Local 12, Panama City, Panama; RUC 1652278-1... 18 Norte, No. 3N-24, Oficina 602, Cali, Colombia; NIT 9000420320 (Colombia) [SDNTK]. 33. MICRO...

  12. Identifying Overlapping Language Communities: The Case of Chiriquí and Panamanian Signed Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Elizabeth S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I use a holographic metaphor to explain the identification of overlapping sign language communities in Panama. By visualizing Panama's complex signing communities as emitting community "hotspots" through social drama on multiple stages, I employ ethnographic methods to explore overlapping contours of Panama's sign language…

  13. The Chameleon Concept: Modeling Quaternary Geomorphic Surfaces Using Laboratory, Field, and Imaging Spectrometry in the Lower Colorado Sonoran Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-01

    Oblique aerial photographs of dry deciduous tropical forest at the STRI Tropical Research Crane at the Parque Natural Metropolitano, Republic of Panama...Research Crane at the Parque Natural Metropolitano, Republic of Panama. ......................... 134 58. Original (a) and synthetic (b and c) tropical... Parque Natural Metropolitano, Republic of Panama. 133 b. Double canopy tropical forest diversity as seen from the can- opy crane gondola

  14. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, Volumes 1 and 2 (18th, Panama City, Florida, October 12-15, 1996).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Elizabeth, Ed.; And Others

    This proceedings contains 75 research reports, 8 discussion groups, 32 oral reports, and 28 poster presentation entries from the 1996 Annual Meeting of the American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. A one-page synopsis is included for discussion groups, oral reports, and poster presentations. Topic…

  15. Environmental Assessment: Relocation and Construction of the Panama City-Bay County International Airport (PFN) Doppler Very High Frequency Omni-Directional Radio Range Tactical Air Navigation Aid (VORTAC) to Tyndall Air Force Base (TAFB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Chickasaw Nation of Oklahoma Tribal Historic Preservation Officer David O’Brien, III Tyndall AFB Cultural Resources Lead, 325 CES / CEV Terrell Rooks...Preservation Officer Seminole Tribe of Florida Direct routine inquiries to: Anne Mullins, Compliance Review Supervisor annemullins@semtribe.com Ah

  16. Proceedings of the Annual Military Librarians’ Workshop (28th): Cost of Library Operations 1984 and Beyond Held at Panama City Beach, Florida on 17-19 October 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-01

    1985 EXECUTIVE BOARD Paul Klinefelter , Deferie Technical Information Center, Chairman Tony Dakan, Air Force Manpower and Personnel Center Betty L. Fox...with too many alerts being sounded (the Cry-Wolf Syndrome ); it will be necessary to filter out minor alerts so the really important ones can be

  17. Programa de Cooperacion sur - sur Convenio de Cooperacion Tecnica y Cientifica a Mexico-Panama. Proyecto: Producción de Semilla de Moluscos y Cultivos en el Mar

    OpenAIRE

    Mazón Suástegui, J.M.,; Guerra-Lima, Z.I.,

    2012-01-01

    Este documento presenta 4 aspectos importantes 1. Generación de nuevo conocimiento: Estudios básicos sobre crecimiento, supervivencia, reproducción, nutrición, cultivo larvario de moluscos bivalvos y evaluación de dietas para juveniles. 2. Aplicación del conocimiento: Diseño de instalaciones y equipos para el cultivo de moluscos bivalvos. Asesoría internacional para el cultivo de moluscos nativos, financiados por PNUD, SENACYT-CCP (Ciencia Contra Pobreza), GEF-PNUD. Participan producto...

  18. Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on the Interaction of Non-Nuclear Munitions with Structures Held in Panama City Beach, Florida on 17- 21 April 1989. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-21

    hinge with a rigid idea plastic would give more likely a positive yaw angle. caracteristic corresponding ,o the yield bending strength of the GP bombs...STRUCTURAL ASSESSMENT WITHIN A LARGE SCALE DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM LARGE PLASTIC DEFORMATION OF STEEL 145 FOR POST ATTACK ENVIRONMENTS PLATES AT...steel-fiber concrete, The general trend of the material behavior polymer-impregnated concrete, reinforced plastics , under rapid strain rate (with t

  19. Dos viajes del " Jesús María " a Panama (1823-1824). Aporte del conocimiento del comercio exterior del valle central de Costa Rica en la epoca de la independencia

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Jiménez, Iván

    1985-01-01

    Este artículo, preso en el campo de la microeconomía, no va más allá del análisis de un caso particular: el transporte maritimo de mercancías y pasajeros de puntarenas a Panamá y viceversa llevado acabo por la empresa formada por el Panameño Manuel Cacheda y el josefino Gregorio José Ramírez. UCR::Investigación::Unidades de Investigación::Artes y Letras::Centro de Investigación en Identidad y Cultura Latinoamérica (CIICLA)

  20. Résilience de l'approvisionnement en eau de deux villes de l'arche ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Résilience de l'approvisionnement en eau de deux villes de l'arche sèche du Panama. Ce projet augmentera la résilience au stress hydrique des villes de Chitré et de La Villa de los Santos, au Panama, face aux effets négatifs de la variabilité du climat et des changements climatiques. Risques liés au climat au Panama

  1. 19 CFR 4.22 - Exemptions from special tonnage taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belgium Belize Bermuda Bolivia Brazil Bulgaria Burma Canada Chile Colombia... Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay People's Republic of China Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Qatar...

  2. 15 CFR 748.14 - Import Certificate for firearms destined for Organization of American States member countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, St. Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint...

  3. 78 FR 16245 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... take corrective action to protect the viability of the domestic textile or apparel industry subject to... Textile and Apparel Safeguard Actions on Imports from Panama. OMB Control Number: None. Form Number(s): N... textile and apparel safeguard provisions, provided for in Article 3.24 of the United States-Panama Trade...

  4. Triple helix interactions for eco-innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Roberto Rivas; Riisgaard, Henrik; Remmen, Arne

    the role of science parks in promoting eco-innovation. This study uses qualitative data gathered in two units of analysis: Panama Canal Authority and City of Knowledge Science Park. The study examines how Triple Helix interactions have built the regional system of eco-innovation at the Panama Canal...

  5. How Tobacco Control Measures and Smuggling Influence Demand ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    How Tobacco Control Measures and Smuggling Influence Demand in Panama. Panama's tobacco epidemic demonstrates ... Their goal: establish a new threshold for increasing the luxury tax on tobacco products, including cigarettes, based on the monthly evolution of cigarette sales. The researchers will survey brands in ...

  6. 77 FR 2606 - Unblocking of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons Pursuant to Executive Order 12978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... OVERSEAS INC., Panama City, Panama; c/o FINANZAS DEL NORTE LUIS SAIEH Y CIA. S.C.A., Barranquilla, Colombia.... FINANZAS DEL NORTE LUIS SAIEH Y CIA. S.C.A. (f.k.a. FINANZAS DEL NORTE LTDA.), Calle 77 B No. 57-141, Ofc...

  7. Country Reports on Terrorism 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    by stronger government responses. Ecuador and Panama have responded with a mix of containment and non-confrontation with Colombian narco-terrorist...Spanish government officials, security and military forces, politicians, and judicial figures, but the group also targeted journalists and tourist areas...Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador Guatemala Haiti Honduras Jamaica Mexico Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Peru Suriname Trinidad and

  8. 77 FR 70527 - Request for Comments Concerning Compliance With Telecommunications Trade Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... Australia, Bahrain, Chile, Colombia, Korea, Morocco, Oman, Panama, Peru, and Singapore; the Dominican... Paper on Pro-Competitive Regulatory Principles; the WTO Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing... CAFTA-DR; (4) Whether Australia, Bahrain, Chile, Colombia, Korea, Morocco, Oman, Panama, Peru, or...

  9. A new genus and two new species of Tingidae (Heteroptera) from Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montemayor, Sara I

    2008-04-01

    A new genus, Ceratotingis, distributed in Central America, is described to accommodate two new species, C. rafaeli from Panama and C. costarriquense from Costa Rica and to include Macrotingis zeteki from Panama. This paper includes descriptions of the new genus and its species, a redescription of C. zeteki, an identification key, and habitus photographs.

  10. The 1 Percent Under Siege?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrington, Brooke

    2016-01-01

    By exposing the sheer scale of offshore finance, the Panama Papers have re-fuelled global resentment towards tax-avoiding elites. Are the rich immoral?......By exposing the sheer scale of offshore finance, the Panama Papers have re-fuelled global resentment towards tax-avoiding elites. Are the rich immoral?...

  11. 76 FR 37750 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Electronic Dealer Reporting Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... Virginia, reports have been submitted in a paper format to the Southeast Fisheries Science Center (SEFSC..., 901 Airline Drive, Kenner, LA 70062. Panama City, FL July 18, 2011 5-7 p.m Bay County Public Library, 898 West 11th Street, Panama City, FL 32401. Orlando, FL July 19, 2011 5:30-7:30 p.m Jean Rhein...

  12. 75 FR 27239 - Federal Government Participation in the Automated Clearing House

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... process is a manual, paper-based process in which Treasury sends out a Notice of Reclamation (FMS Form 133... recipients in Mexico, Canada and Panama through the FedGlobal\\SM\\ ACH Payment Services, we do not foresee any... rule for Federal benefit payments delivered to Mexico, Canada and Panama through the FedGlobal\\SM\\ ACH...

  13. 78 FR 73583 - Request for Comments Concerning Compliance With Telecommunications Trade Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... Australia, Bahrain, Chile, Colombia, Korea, Morocco, Oman, Panama, Peru, and Singapore; the Dominican... Paper on Pro-Competitive Regulatory Principles; the WTO Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing... CAFTA-DR; (4) Whether Australia, Bahrain, Chile, Colombia, Korea, Morocco, Oman, Panama, Peru, or...

  14. 40 CFR 62.2353 - Identification of sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Champion International Corporation (Formerly St. Regis Paper Company) in Cantonment (d) Container... Paper Company in Jacksonville (g) St. Joe Paper Company in Port St. Joe (h) Southwest Forest Industries in Panama City (i) Arizona Chemical Company (Tall Oil Plant) in Panama City (j) Sylvachem Corporation...

  15. 76 FR 32997 - Privacy Act of 1974: Update Existing System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... are located within the employing agency. Records maintained in paper may also be located at OPM or... still responsible for the maintenance of their records. Former Federal employees' paper Official... former Panama Canal Commission employees to the Republic of Panama for use in employment matters. oo. To...

  16. Modular Algorithm Testbed Suite (MATS): A Software Framework for Automatic Target Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    NAVAL SURFACE WARFARE CENTER PANAMA CITY DIVISION PANAMA CITY, FL 32407-7001 TECHNICAL REPORT NSWC PCD TR-2017-004 MODULAR ...31-01-2017 Technical Modular Algorithm Testbed Suite (MATS): A Software Framework for Automatic Target Recognition DR...flexible platform to facilitate the development and testing of ATR algorithms. To that end, NSWC PCD has created the Modular Algorithm Testbed Suite

  17. 78 FR 73234 - Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ..., El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Peru, Colombia, and Panama AGENCY: Office of the United... Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Peru, Colombia, and Panama. As described below, the level of a...); (iv) the United States- Peru Trade Promotion Agreement (Peru TPA); (v) the United States- Colombia...

  18. 78 FR 146 - Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ..., El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Peru, Colombia, and Panama; Correction AGENCY: Office of... Chile, Morocco, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Peru, Colombia, and Panama. The document contained an error. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ann Heilman-Dahl...

  19. The Fatal Five? Five Factors That Enhance Effectiveness of Stability Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    Panama Canal for the efficiency of intercontinental commerce.106 Beginning in 1987, favorable relations with Panama, specifically Manuel Noriega’s...Liberation Organization (PLO), and proxy wars in the Congo and Angola. The Reagan administration’s policy illustrated a general reluctance to

  20. 75 FR 6345 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh False Coriander From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ...] Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh False Coriander From Panama...: Notice. SUMMARY: We are advising the public that we have prepared a pest risk analysis that evaluates the... weeds via the importation of fresh false coriander from Panama. We are making the pest risk analysis...

  1. 5 CFR 330.1201 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND... Employees § 330.1201 Purpose. This subpart implements Section 1232 of Public Law 96-70 (the Panama Canal Act of 1979) and provides eligible displaced employees of the former Panama Canal Zone with interagency...

  2. 5 CFR 330.1203 - Eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Employees § 330.1203 Eligibility. (a) In order to be eligible for special selection priority, an eligible...) Eligibility for special selection priority as an eligible displaced employee of the former Panama Canal Zone...) Eligibility for special selection priority as an eligible displaced employee of the former Panama Canal Zone...

  3. 50 CFR 223.102 - Enumeration of threatened marine and anadromous species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Panama, Venezuela and all the islands of the West Indies. 71 FR 26852, May 9, 2006 73 FR 72210, Nov. 26..., Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Venezuela and all the islands of the West Indies. 71 FR 26852, May 9... segments (DPSs) (for a policy statement, see 61 FR 4722, February 7, 1996), and evolutionarily significant...

  4. 78 FR 31886 - Interim Procedures for Considering Requests From the Public for Textile and Apparel Safeguard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... Trade Promotion Agreement (``US-Panama TPA''). Title III, Subtitle B, Section 321 through Section 328 of the United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement Implementation Act (``Implementation Act'') [Pub. L... changes in productivity, utilization of capacity, inventories, exports, wages, employment, domestic prices...

  5. The Coast Guard Proceedings of the Marine Safety and Security Council. Volume 71, Number 3, Fall 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    challenging and undermining the security of the United States and its pri- mary allies in the region (Colombia, Chile , Peru, Panama, and Guatemala...democracy reversal, trade and energy, counterfeiting and contraband, immigration and refugees, hostile states seeking advantage, or alterations in the mili...South are Brazil, Canada, Chile , Columbia, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, France, Mexico, Panama, Peru, the Netherlands, Spain

  6. Panamá Viejo: una experiencia exitosa de gestión patrimonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Guillermo Martín

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Beginning in late 1995, the archaeological site of Panama Viejo was managed by Patronato Panama Viejo, a mixed, nonprofit organization whose main objectives focused on the protection, conservation, research and enhancement of the ruins of first Spanish port on the American Pacific coast. After more than fifteen years of work, the institution established the only permanent archaeological project in Panama, protected the site and its surroundings by passing a national law, and brokered, in 2003, its status as World Archaeological Heritage by Unesco. Such a task effectively involved specialists and various public and private sectors, in a joint effort that has become an example of cultural resources management at national and, probably, regional levels. Currently, Panama Viejo is one of the most visited tourist destinations in the country, surpassed only by the Panama Canal, and has established itself, as of 2010, as a regional center for archaeological research and specialized training.

  7. New species of Diabrotica Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae and a key to Diabrotica and related genera: results of a synopsis of North and Central American Diabrotica species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Derunkov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The following 18 new species of Diabrotica are described and illustrated as a result of the synopsis of North and Central American species: D. barclayi sp. nov., Guatemala; D. caveyi sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. costaricensis sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. dmitryogloblini sp. nov., Mexico; D. duckworthorum sp. nov., Honduras; D. hartjei sp. nov., Panama; D. josephbalyi sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. lawrencei sp. nov., Mexico; D. mantillerii sp. nov., Panama; D. martinjacobyi sp. nov., Honduras; D. mitteri sp. nov., Panama; D. perkinsi sp. nov., Guatemala; D. redfordae sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. reysmithi sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. salvadorensis sp. nov., El Salvador; D. sel sp. nov., Panama; D. spangleri sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. waltersi sp. nov., Panama. In addition, a key to separate Diabrotica from related genera is presented.

  8. Du soutenable à l’insoutenable : le tourisme à Bocas del Toro (Panama. L’impact des logiques nationales et globales dans la déstructuration progressive d’une société d’accueil From sustainable to the unsustainable: tourism in Bocas del Toro (Panama. The impact of national and global logic in the gradual collapse of a host society Del sostenible al insostenible : el turismo en Bocas del Toro (Panamá. El impacto de la lógica nacional y mundial en el colapso gradual de una sociedad de acogida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Le Masne

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available L’objectif poursuivi par cet article, issu d’une enquête d’un mois sur l’archipel de Bocas del Toro en février 2009, est d’évaluer les mutations engendrées par l’avènement du tourisme sur l’île de Colon depuis une vingtaine d’année. Le développement de ce boom touristique en deux étapes assez différenciées – celle du tourisme dit soutenable de 1990 à 2002, puis seconde phase avec un  tourisme non contrôlé – nous a permis de dresser une analyse historique des rapports qu’entretiennent les populations à l’activité touristique. Notre enquête, qui porte sur les perceptions des habitants actuels de l’île, a mis en lumière les acteurs et leur rôle en fonction de leur temps d’arrivée dans l’île, lui-même lié au basculement d’une conception du tourisme à une autre.The aim of this article, based on a survey of one month on the archipelago of Bocas del Toro in February 2009, is to assess the changes brought by the advent of tourism on Colon’ island for twenty year. The development of the tourism boom in two phases sufficiently differentiated - that of sustainable tourism, says 1990 to 2002, then second phase with a non-tourism control - allowed us to develop a historical analysis of the relationship between populations and tourism. Our investigation, which focuses on the perceptions of the present inhabitants of the island, has highlighted the actors and their role according to their time of arrival on the island; itself linked to the changeover of a concept of tourism another.El objetivo de este artículo, basado en una encuesta de un mes en el archipiélago de Bocas del Toro en febrero de 2009, es evaluar los cambios producidos por la llegada del turismo en la isla de Colon durante veinte año. El desarrollo del auge del turismo en dos fases suficientemente diferenciados - la de un turismo sostenible, dijo desde 1990 hasta 2002, entonces la segunda fase con un turismo no contol - nos ha permitido desarrollar un análisis histórico de la relación de la actividad de la población turismo. Nuestra investigación, que se centra en las percepciones de los actuales habitantes de la isla, ha destacado los actores y su papel de acuerdo con su tiempo de llegada de la isla, se vinculaba con el paso de un concepto de turismo a otro concepto

  9. Chinese Organized Crime in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Rafáel Rodríguez, “Cárcel para miembros de la ‘mafia china,’” La Estrella (Panama City), November 9, 2008. 15 “Caso de los asiáticos asesinados es...un hecho aislado, ministro Mulino,” La Estrella (Panama City), September 19, 2011. 16 ana-Lisa Paul, “Police deny Chinese singled out for criminal...32 “Borrando las huellas,” La Estrella (Panama City), april 26, 2011. See also “tráfico de chinos en el gobierno del cambio,” La Estrella , april 25

  10. Prism. Volume 4, Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    para miembros de la ‘mafia china,’” La Estrella (Panama City), November 9, 2008. 15 “Caso de los asiáticos asesinados es un hecho aislado, ministro...Mulino,” La Estrella (Panama City), September 19, 2011. 16 ana-Lisa Paul, “Police deny Chinese singled out for criminal attack,” The Guardian...La Estrella (Panama City), april 26, 2011. See also “tráfico de chinos en el gobierno del cambio,” La Estrella , april 25, 2011. 33 José Meléndez

  11. Consenso sobre la clasificación de la enfermedad vascular pulmonar hipertensiva en niños: reporte del task force pediátrico del Pulmonary Vascular Research Institute (PVRI Panamá 2011 A consensus approach to the classification of pediatric pulmonary hypertensive vascular disease: Report from the PVRI Pediatric Taskforce, Panama 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús del Cerro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Las clasificaciones actuales de la hipertensión pulmonar han contribuido significativamente al conocimiento de la enfermedad vascular pulmonar, han facilitado ensayos farmacológicos y han mejorado nuestro conocimiento de las cardiopatías congénitas del adulto; sin embargo estas clasificaciones no son aplicables completamente a la enfermedad en el niño. La clasificación que aquí se propone se basa principalmente en la práctica clínica. Los objetivos específicos de esta nueva clasificación son mejorar las estrategias diagnósticas, promover la investigación clínica, mejorar nuestro conocimiento de la patogénesis, de la fisiología y de la epidemiología de la enfermedad y orientar el desarrollo de modelos de la enfermedad humana en el laboratorio y estudios en animales; también puede servir como un recurso docente. Se hace énfasis en los conceptos de maladaptación perinatal, alteraciones del desarrollo e hipoplasia pulmonar como factores causantes de la hipertensión pulmonar pediátrica; así mismo, en la importancia de los múltiples síndromes malformativos congénitos, genéticos y cromosómicos en la presentación de la hipertensión pulmonar pediátrica. La enfermedad vascular pulmonar hipertensiva en niños se divide en diez grandes categorías.Current classifications of pulmonary hypertension have contributed a great deal to our understanding of pulmonary vascular disease, facilitated drug trials, and improved our understanding of congenital heart disease in adult survivors. However, these classifications are not applicable readily to pediatric disease. The classification system that we propose is based firmly in clinical practice. The specific aims of this new system are to improve diagnostic strategies, to promote appropriate clinical investigation, to improve our understanding of disease pathogenesis, physiology and epidemiology, and to guide the development of human disease models in laboratory and animal studies. It should be also an educational resource. We emphasize the concepts of perinatal maladaptation, maldevelopment and pulmonary hypoplasia as causative factors in pediatric pulmonary hypertension. We highlight the importance of genetic, chromosomal and multiple congenital malformation syndromes in the presentation of pediatric pulmonary hypertension. We divide pediatric pulmonary hypertensive vascular disease into 10 broad categories.

  12. 77 FR 39760 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To Add...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... entities: Argentina, Venezuela, Brazil, Malaysia, Colombia, Hungary, Indonesia, Panama, Peru, South Africa.... 15 U.S.C. 78q-1(b)(3)(F). Though the CDX.EM Contracts are not themselves securities, the safety and...

  13. Find an Interventional Radiologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Korea, Republic of Kuwait Malaysia Mexico Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nigeria Panama Peru ... You have a choice Ask about IR Radiation safety Is it safe? Although SIR makes reasonable efforts ...

  14. 19 CFR 101.4 - Entry and clearance of vessels at Customs stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Jacksonville. Port St. Joe Panama City. Indiana Fort Wayne Indianapolis. Maine Bucksport Belfast. Coburn Gore.... Ely Duluth, MN-Superior, WI. Lancaster Noyes. Oak Island Warroad. Mississippi Biloxi Mobile, AL...

  15. Multibeam Mapping of the South Atlantic Bight: South Carolina 2005, a Proposed MPA on the Continental Shelf

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Fisheries laboratory in Panama City, Florida coordinated an acoustic survey at the new proposed Marine Protected Areas in the South Atlantic Bight area June...

  16. Disconnected Strategies: Why Success is Elusive in Stability Operations and Post-Conflict Reconstruction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moore, John

    2004-01-01

    .... Success in these operations has been elusive. The US interventions in Panama 1989-1991 Somalia 1992- 1994 and Haiti 1994-1996 provide excellent case studies for determining the foundational causes of its poor performance...

  17. Special Forces Command and Control in Afghanistan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rhyne, Richard

    2004-01-01

    .... The author examines how Special Forces and conventional forces worked together in the past in Vietnam, Panama, Somalia, Haiti, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Operations Desert Storm and Desert Shield...

  18. Pertussis Diagnosis & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Other Countries Latin American Pertussis Project Countries Argentina Brazil Chile Colombia Mexico Panama Surveillance & Epidemiology Materials ... been exposed to pertussis and by doing a: History of typical signs and symptoms Physical examination Laboratory ...

  19. Defense Base Closure and Realignment Budget Data for the Naval Surface Warfare Center

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1993-01-01

    ... and realignment military construction projects. This report provides the results of the audit related to the realignment of Naval Surface Warfare Centers elements in White Oak, Maryland, and Panama City, Florida, to Dahlgren, Virginia...

  20. What we do | Page 171 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... Health, Livelihoods and Sustainable Production Systems (Sub-Saharan Africa) ... North And Central America, Panama, Peru, South America, North Of Sahara, ... IDRC supported the development and testing of a reliable and cost-efficient ...

  1. What we do | Page 171 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Equity Gauge Zambia : Enhancing Governance, Equity and Health ... of community organizations, health workers and other actors in the health system. ... China, Far East Asia, India, Kenya, North And Central America, Panama, Peru, South ...

  2. 77 FR 25749 - Certain Drill Bits and Products Containing Same; Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ...., Peru; Christensen Chile S.A., Chile; Diamantina Christensen Trading Inc., Panama; and Intermountain... document electronically on or before the deadlines stated above and submit 8 true paper copies to the...

  3. 46 CFR 310.66 - Foreign students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Panama to receive instruction at the Academy on a reimbursable basis. (d) Appointments from nations other..., country clearances, travel papers, transportation to the Academy, obtaining the necessary designation by...

  4. 75 FR 76653 - Export Control Modernization: Strategic Trade Authorization License Exception

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... paper to Regulatory Policy Division, Bureau of Industry and Security, Room 2705, U.S. Department of..., Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Qatar, Rwanda, Saint Kitts & Nevis, Saint Lucia...

  5. 19 CFR 4.60 - Vessels required to clear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... contiguous country otherwise than by sea. (c) Vessels which will merely transit the Panama Canal without... of clearance and related papers shall be surrendered. (e) No vessel shall be cleared for the high...

  6. 76 FR 20011 - Mark De La Lama, P.A.; Denial of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ..., based on his involvement in a conspiracy to illegally import cocaine from Panama to the United States... 33. Respondent left the room and returned with a box containing an assortment of papers and several...

  7. 78 FR 59743 - Bureau of Consular Affairs; Registration for the Diversity Immigrant (DV-2015) Visa Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... result in Web site delays. No late entries or paper entries will be accepted. The law allows only one... Dominica Grenada Guatemala Guyana Honduras Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia...

  8. The Military and The Media in Combat: Winning the Hearts and Minds of the American Public

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stinnette, Murrell

    2000-01-01

    .... This paper seeks to frame the current relationship between the military and media by examining past operations in Grenada, Panama, and Iraq in terms of evolving media access and military control since Vietnam...

  9. 76 FR 70695 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: U.S. Navy Training in 12 Range Complexes and U.S. Air Force...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-15

    ... of paper, disk, or CD-ROM comments should be addressed to Michael Payne, Chief, Permits, Conservation...) Range Complex, the Cherry Point (CHPT) Range Complex, the Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City...

  10. 77 FR 71111 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Florida; Regional Haze...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    ... Phosphates Company-- South Pierce; International Paper Company--Pensacola Mill; Mosaic-- Bartow; Mosaic... Terminal; Georgia Pacific-Palatka; Smurfit-Stone- Fernandina Beach; Smurfit-Stone-Panama City; Mosaic-New...

  11. 75 FR 5967 - Procurement List; Additions and Deletions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... 651-F WEST 14TH STREET, PANAMA CITY, FL NPA (Subcontractor): Wiregrass Rehabilitation Center, Inc... Contracting Activity: GSA/FSS OFC SUP CTR--PAPER PRODUCTS, NEW YORK, NY Services Service Type/Location: Food...

  12. 76 FR 12109 - Federal Home Loan Bank Members Selected for Community Support Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... Bank and Trust Panama City Florida. First Federal Savings and Loan of Valdosta Georgia. Valdosta... Wisconsin. Paper City Savings Association Wisconsin Rapids Wisconsin. Rural American Bank--Luck Luck...

  13. 78 FR 21364 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... the trade between Vietnam, China (including Hong Kong), Singapore, Spain, and Sri Lanka, on the one... Line Space Charter, Sailing and Cooperative Working Agreement Asia to USEC and PNW-Suez/PNW & Panama...

  14. 15 CFR 2013.1 - Designations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... LAW § 2013.1 Designations. In accordance with section 771(36) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended... Salvador Fiji Gabon Grenada Guatemala Honduras Jamaica Malaysia Malta Mauritius Morocco Namibia Panama...

  15. Chagas Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... countries such as: Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay or Venezuela ■ Have seen the bug, ...

  16. Find an ENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Republic Congo, The Dem Rep Of ... Palau Palestinian Territory Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Puerto Rico Qatar Reunion ...

  17. Photos of Pertussis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prophylaxis Pertussis in Other Countries Latin American Pertussis Project Countries Argentina Brazil Chile Colombia Mexico Panama Surveillance & ... PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file ...

  18. Pertussis Signs & Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prophylaxis Pertussis in Other Countries Latin American Pertussis Project Countries Argentina Brazil Chile Colombia Mexico Panama Surveillance & ... PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file ...

  19. 75 FR 50010 - Sunshine Act; Board of Directors Meeting, September 23, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    .... Finance Project--Hungary. 4. Finance Project--Russia. 5. Finance Project--Costa Rica, Honduras and Panama...) 336-8438. Dated: August 12, 2010. Connie M. Downs, Corporate Secretary, Overseas Private Investment...

  20. 76 FR 13971 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Fruits...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... 4:30 p.m., Monday through Friday, except holidays. To be sure someone is there to help you, please..., and Panama into the continental United States, Alaska, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands...