WorldWideScience

Sample records for pan-spectral energy distribution

  1. The broadband spectral energy distributions of SDSS blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huai-Zhen; Chen, Luo-En; Jiang, Yun-Guo; Yi, Ting-Feng

    2015-07-01

    We compiled the radio, optical and X-ray data of blazars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey database, and presented the distribution of luminosities and broadband spectral indices. The distribution of luminosities shows that the averaged luminosity of flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) is larger than that of BL Lacertae (BL Lac) objects. On the other hand, the broadband spectral energy distribution reveals that FSRQs and low energy peaked BL Lac objects have similar spectral properties, but high energy peaked BL Lac objects have a distinct spectral property. This may be due to the fact that different subclasses of blazars have different intrinsic environments and are at different cooling levels. Even so, a unified scheme is also revealed from the color-color diagram, which hints that there are similar physical processes operating in all objects under a range of intrinsic physical conditions or beaming parameters. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China.

  2. Metallicity and the spectral energy distribution and spectral types of dwarf O-stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mokiem, MR; Martin-Hernandez, NL; Lenorzer, A; de Koter, A; Tielens, AGGA

    We present a systematic study of the effect of metallicity on the stellar spectral energy distribution (SED) of 0 main sequence (dwarf) stars, focussing on the hydrogen and helium ionizing continua, and on the optical and near-IR lines used for spectral classification. The spectra are based on

  3. Metallicity and the spectral energy distribution and spectral types of dwarf O-stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mokiem, M.R.; Martín-Hernández, N.L.; Lenorzer, A.; de Koter, A.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.

    2004-01-01

    We present a systematic study of the effect of metallicity on the stellar spectral energy distribution (SED) of O main sequence (dwarf) stars, focussing on the hydrogen and helium ionizing continua, and on the optical and near-IR lines used for spectral classification. The spectra are based on

  4. Visual Method for Spectral Energy Distribution Calculation of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this work, we propose to use 'The Geometer's Sketchpad' to the fitting of a spectral energy distribution of blazar based on three effective spectral indices, αRO, αOX, and αRX and the flux density in the radio band. It can make us to see the fitting in detail with both the peak frequency and peak luminosity given ...

  5. SNSEDextend: SuperNova Spectral Energy Distributions extrapolation toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierel, Justin D. R.; Rodney, Steven A.; Avelino, Arturo; Bianco, Federica; Foley, Ryan J.; Friedman, Andrew; Hicken, Malcolm; Hounsell, Rebekah; Jha, Saurabh W.; Kessler, Richard; Kirshner, Robert; Mandel, Kaisey; Narayan, Gautham; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Scolnic, Daniel; Strolger, Louis-Gregory

    2018-05-01

    SNSEDextend extrapolates core-collapse and Type Ia Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) into the UV and IR for use in simulations and photometric classifications. The user provides a library of existing SED templates (such as those in the authors' SN SED Repository) along with new photometric constraints in the UV and/or NIR wavelength ranges. The software then extends the existing template SEDs so their colors match the input data at all phases. SNSEDextend can also extend the SALT2 spectral time-series model for Type Ia SN for a "first-order" extrapolation of the SALT2 model components, suitable for use in survey simulations and photometric classification tools; as the code does not do a rigorous re-training of the SALT2 model, the results should not be relied on for precision applications such as light curve fitting for cosmology.

  6. The Future of PanDA in ATLAS Distributed Computing

    CERN Document Server

    De, Kaushik; The ATLAS collaboration; Maeno, Tadashi; Nilsson, Paul; Oleynik, Danila; Panitkin, Sergey; Petrosyan, Artem; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Wenaus, Torre

    2015-01-01

    Experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) face unprecedented computing challenges. Heterogeneous resources are distributed worldwide at hundreds of sites, thousands of physicists analyze the data remotely, the volume of processed data is beyond the exabyte scale, while data processing requires more than a few billion hours of computing usage per year. The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) system was developed to meet the scale and complexity of LHC distributed computing for the ATLAS experiment. In the process, the old batch job paradigm of locally managed computing in HEP was discarded in favor of a far more automated, flexible and scalable model. The success of PanDA in ATLAS is leading to widespread adoption and testing by other experiments. PanDA is the first exascale workload management system in HEP, already operating at more than a million computing jobs per day, and processing over an exabyte of data in 2013. There are many new challenges that PanDA will face in the near future, in addi...

  7. The future of PanDA in ATLAS distributed computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, K.; Klimentov, A.; Maeno, T.; Nilsson, P.; Oleynik, D.; Panitkin, S.; Petrosyan, A.; Schovancova, J.; Vaniachine, A.; Wenaus, T.

    2015-12-01

    Experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) face unprecedented computing challenges. Heterogeneous resources are distributed worldwide at hundreds of sites, thousands of physicists analyse the data remotely, the volume of processed data is beyond the exabyte scale, while data processing requires more than a few billion hours of computing usage per year. The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) system was developed to meet the scale and complexity of LHC distributed computing for the ATLAS experiment. In the process, the old batch job paradigm of locally managed computing in HEP was discarded in favour of a far more automated, flexible and scalable model. The success of PanDA in ATLAS is leading to widespread adoption and testing by other experiments. PanDA is the first exascale workload management system in HEP, already operating at more than a million computing jobs per day, and processing over an exabyte of data in 2013. There are many new challenges that PanDA will face in the near future, in addition to new challenges of scale, heterogeneity and increasing user base. PanDA will need to handle rapidly changing computing infrastructure, will require factorization of code for easier deployment, will need to incorporate additional information sources including network metrics in decision making, be able to control network circuits, handle dynamically sized workload processing, provide improved visualization, and face many other challenges. In this talk we will focus on the new features, planned or recently implemented, that are relevant to the next decade of distributed computing workload management using PanDA.

  8. iSEDfit: Bayesian spectral energy distribution modeling of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustakas, John

    2017-08-01

    iSEDfit uses Bayesian inference to extract the physical properties of galaxies from their observed broadband photometric spectral energy distribution (SED). In its default mode, the inputs to iSEDfit are the measured photometry (fluxes and corresponding inverse variances) and a measurement of the galaxy redshift. Alternatively, iSEDfit can be used to estimate photometric redshifts from the input photometry alone. After the priors have been specified, iSEDfit calculates the marginalized posterior probability distributions for the physical parameters of interest, including the stellar mass, star-formation rate, dust content, star formation history, and stellar metallicity. iSEDfit also optionally computes K-corrections and produces multiple "quality assurance" (QA) plots at each stage of the modeling procedure to aid in the interpretation of the prior parameter choices and subsequent fitting results. The software is distributed as part of the impro IDL suite.

  9. Total spectral distributions from Hawking radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broda, Boguslaw [University of Lodz, Department of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, Lodz (Poland)

    2017-11-15

    Taking into account the time dependence of the Hawking temperature and finite evaporation time of the black hole, the total spectral distributions of the radiant energy and of the number of particles have been explicitly calculated and compared to their temporary (initial) blackbody counterparts (spectral exitances). (orig.)

  10. Planck intermediate results: XLIII. Spectral energy distribution of dust in clusters of galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, R.; Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.

    2016-01-01

    Although infrared (IR) overall dust emission from clusters of galaxies has been statistically detected using data from the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS), it has not been possible to sample the spectral energy distribution (SED) of this emission over its peak, and thus to break the degene...

  11. A rediscussion of the atmospheric extinction and the absolute spectral-energy distribution of Vega

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.S.; Latham, D.W.

    1975-01-01

    For both the Lick and the Palomar calibrations of the spectral-energy distribution of Vega, the atmospheric extinction was treated incorrectly. We present a model for extinction in the Earth's atmosphere and use this model to calculate corrections to the Lick and Palomar calibrations. We also describe a method that can be used to fabricate mean extinction coefficients for any mountain observatory. We combine selected portions of the corrected Lick and corrected Palomar calibrations with the new Mount Hopkins calibration to generate an absolute spectral-energy distibution of Vega over the wavelength range 3300--10,800 A. Until better measurements become available, we recommend the use of this calibration for all practical applications

  12. Spectral Energy Distribution of Markarian 501: Quiescent State Versus Extreme Outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acciari, V. A.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Böttcher, M.; Boltuch, D.; Bradbury, S. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; Dickherber, R.; Duke, C.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Finley, J. P.; Finnegan, G.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Gall, D.; Godambe, S.; Grube, J.; Guenette, R.; Gyuk, G.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Huang, D.; Hui, C. M.; Humensky, T. B.; Imran, A.; Kaaret, P.; Karlsson, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Konopelko, A.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Madhavan, A. S.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; Moriarty, P.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Pandel, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pichel, A.; Pohl, M.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Roache, E.; Rose, H. J.; Schroedter, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Steele, D.; Swordy, S. P.; Theiling, M.; Thibadeau, S.; Varlotta, A.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Vincent, S.; Wakely, S. P.; Ward, J. E.; Weekes, T. C.; Weinstein, A.; Weisgarber, T.; Williams, D. A.; Wood, M.; Zitzer, B.; VERITAS Collaboration; Aleksić, J.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Backes, M.; Barrio, J. A.; Bastieri, D.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Berdyugin, A.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnoli, G.; Bordas, P.; Borla Tridon, D.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Bose, D.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Camara, M.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Cea del Pozo, E.; De Lotto, B.; De Maria, M.; De Sabata, F.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Diago Ortega, A.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Elsaesser, D.; Errando, M.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Gaug, M.; Giavitto, G.; Godinović, N.; Hadasch, D.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Höhne-Mönch, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Jogler, T.; Klepser, S.; Krähenbühl, T.; Kranich, D.; Krause, J.; La Barbera, A.; Leonardo, E.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; Lorenz, E.; Majumdar, P.; Makariev, M.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Miyamoto, H.; Moldón, J.; Moralejo, A.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Orito, R.; Oya, I.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Pasanen, M.; Pauss, F.; Pegna, R. G.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Pochon, J.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puchades, N.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rissi, M.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Sánchez-Conde, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shayduk, M.; Shore, S. N.; Sierpowska-Bartosik, A.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamerra, A.; Steinke, B.; Storz, J.; Strah, N.; Struebig, J. C.; Suric, T.; Takalo, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Torres, D. F.; Vankov, H.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; MAGIC Collaboration; Paneque, D.; Hayashida, M.

    2011-03-01

    The very high energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) blazar Markarian 501 (Mrk 501) has a well-studied history of extreme spectral variability and is an excellent laboratory for studying the physical processes within the jets of active galactic nuclei. However, there are few detailed multiwavelength studies of Mrk 501 during its quiescent state, due to its low luminosity. A short-term multiwavelength study of Mrk 501 was coordinated in 2009 March, focusing around a multi-day observation with the Suzaku X-ray satellite and including γ-ray data from VERITAS, MAGIC, and the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope with the goal of providing a well-sampled multiwavelength baseline measurement of Mrk 501 in the quiescent state. The results of these quiescent-state observations are compared to the historically extreme outburst of 1997 April 16, with the goal of examining variability of the spectral energy distribution (SED) between the two states. The derived broadband SED shows the characteristic double-peaked profile. We find that the X-ray peak shifts by over two orders of magnitude in photon energy between the two flux states while the VHE peak varies little. The limited shift in the VHE peak can be explained by the transition to the Klein-Nishina (KN) regime. Synchrotron self-Compton models are matched to the data and the implied KN effects are explored.

  13. SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF MARKARIAN 501: QUIESCENT STATE VERSUS EXTREME OUTBURST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acciari, V. A.; Benbow, W.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R.; Boettcher, M.; Boltuch, D.; Bradbury, S. M.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; Finley, J. P.; Duke, C.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Finnegan, G.

    2011-01-01

    The very high energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) blazar Markarian 501 (Mrk 501) has a well-studied history of extreme spectral variability and is an excellent laboratory for studying the physical processes within the jets of active galactic nuclei. However, there are few detailed multiwavelength studies of Mrk 501 during its quiescent state, due to its low luminosity. A short-term multiwavelength study of Mrk 501 was coordinated in 2009 March, focusing around a multi-day observation with the Suzaku X-ray satellite and including γ-ray data from VERITAS, MAGIC, and the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope with the goal of providing a well-sampled multiwavelength baseline measurement of Mrk 501 in the quiescent state. The results of these quiescent-state observations are compared to the historically extreme outburst of 1997 April 16, with the goal of examining variability of the spectral energy distribution (SED) between the two states. The derived broadband SED shows the characteristic double-peaked profile. We find that the X-ray peak shifts by over two orders of magnitude in photon energy between the two flux states while the VHE peak varies little. The limited shift in the VHE peak can be explained by the transition to the Klein-Nishina (KN) regime. Synchrotron self-Compton models are matched to the data and the implied KN effects are explored.

  14. Integrated Spectral Energy Distributions and Absorption Feature Indices of Single Stellar Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Fenghui; Han, Zhanwen; Li, Lifang; Hurley, Jarrod R.

    2004-01-01

    Using evolutionary population synthesis, we present integrated spectral energy distributions and absorption-line indices defined by the Lick Observatory image dissector scanner (referred to as Lick/IDS) system, for an extensive set of instantaneous burst single stellar populations (SSPs). The ages of the SSPs are in the range 1-19 Gyr and the metallicities [Fe/H] are in the range -2.3 - 0.2. Our models use the rapid single stellar evolution algorithm of Hurley, Pols and Tout for the stellar e...

  15. Fuel and energy saving in open pan furnace used in jaggery making through modified juice boiling/concentrating pans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, S.I.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the concept of fins has been used for heating purpose for improving efficiency of open pan jaggery making furnace. Pan is the integral part of these furnaces where boiling/concentration of sugarcane juice take place. Parallel fins were provided to the bottom of main pan and gutter pan of IISR Lucknow 2-pan furnace. Choice for type of fins was based on movement of flames and hot flue gases generated due to combustion of bagasse. Fins helped in more heat transfer to the sugarcane juice being concentrated. Considerable improvement in heat utilization efficiency (9.44%) was observed which resulted in saving of fuel and energy (31.34%).

  16. PanDA for ATLAS Distributed Computing in the Next Decade

    CERN Document Server

    Barreiro Megino, Fernando Harald; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis (PanDA) system has been developed to meet ATLAS production and analysis requirements for a data-driven workload management system capable of operating at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) data processing scale. Heterogeneous resources used by the ATLAS experiment are distributed worldwide at hundreds of sites, thousands of physicists analyse the data remotely, the volume of processed data is beyond the exabyte scale, dozens of scientific applications are supported, while data processing requires more than a few billion hours of computing usage per year. PanDA performed very well over the last decade including the LHC Run 1 data taking period. However, it was decided to upgrade the whole system concurrently with the LHC’s first long shutdown in order to cope with rapidly changing computing infrastructure. After two years of reengineering efforts, PanDA has embedded capabilities for fully dynamic and flexible workload management. The static batch job paradigm was discarde...

  17. PanDA for ATLAS distributed computing in the next decade

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)643806; The ATLAS collaboration; De, Kaushik; Klimentov, Alexei; Maeno, Tadashi; Nilsson, Paul; Oleynik, Danila; Padolski, Siarhei; Panitkin, Sergey; Wenaus, Torre

    2017-01-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis (PanDA) system has been developed to meet ATLAS production and analysis requirements for a data-driven workload management system capable of operating at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) data processing scale. Heterogeneous resources used by the ATLAS experiment are distributed worldwide at hundreds of sites, thousands of physicists analyse the data remotely, the volume of processed data is beyond the exabyte scale, dozens of scientific applications are supported, while data processing requires more than a few billion hours of computing usage per year. PanDA performed very well over the last decade including the LHC Run 1 data taking period. However, it was decided to upgrade the whole system concurrently with the LHC’s first long shutdown in order to cope with rapidly changing computing infrastructure. After two years of reengineering efforts, PanDA has embedded capabilities for fully dynamic and flexible workload management. The static batch job paradigm was discarde...

  18. Spectral intensity distribution of trapped fermions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Trapped fermions; local density approximation; spectral intensity distribution function. ... Thus, cold atomic systems allow us to study interesting ... In fermions, synthetic non-Abelian gauge ... energy eigenstates of the isotropic harmonic oscillator [26–28]. ... d i=1. (ni + 1. 2. )ω0. In calculating the SIDF exactly these eigenfunc-.

  19. BRDF of Salt Pan Regolith Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Georgi T.; Gatebe, Charles K.; Butler, James J.; King, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) measurements of salt pan regolith samples are presented in this study in an effort to understand the role of spatial and spectral variability of the natural biome. The samples were obtained from Etosha Pan, Namibia (19.20 deg S, 15.93 deg E, alt. 1100 m). It is shown how the BRDF depends on the measurement geometry - incident and scatter angles and on the sample particle sizes. As a demonstration of the application of the results, airborne BRDF measurements acquires with NASA's Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) over the same general site where the regolith samples were collected are compared with the laboratory results. Good agreement between laboratory measured and field measured BRDF is reported.

  20. Spectral Analysis, Synthesis, & Energy Distributions of Nearby E+A Galaxies Using SDSS-IV MaNGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Olivia A.; Anderson, Miguel Ricardo; Wally, Muhammad; James, Olivia; Falcone, Julia; Liu, Allen; Wallack, Nicole; Liu, Charles; SDSS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Utilizing data from the Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO (MaNGA) Survey (MaNGA Product Launch-4, or MPL-4), of the latest generation of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV), we identified nine post-starburst (E+A) systems that lie within the Green Valley transition zone. We identify the E+A galaxies by their SDSS single fiber spectrum and u-r color, then confirmed their classification as post-starburst by coding/plotting methods and spectral synthesis codes (FIREFLY and PIPE3D), as well as with their Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) from 0.15 µm to 22 µm, using GALEX, SDSS, 2MASS, and WISE data. We produced maps of gaussian-fitted fluxes, equivalent widths, stellar velocities, metallicities and age. We also produced spectral line ratio diagrams to classify regions of stellar populations of the galaxies. We found that our sample of E+As retain their post-starburst properties across the entire galaxy, not just at their center. We detected matching a trend line in the ultraviolet and optical bands, consistent with the expected SEDs for an E+A galaxy, and also through the J, H and Ks bands, except for one object. We classified one of the nine galaxies as a luminous infrared galaxy, unusual for a post-starburst object. Our group seeks to further study stellar population properties, spectral energy distributions and quenching properties in E+A galaxies, and investigate their role in galaxy evolution as a whole. This work was supported by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation via the SDSS-IV Faculty and Student Team (FAST) initiative, ARC Agreement #SSP483 to the CUNY College of Staten Island. This work was also supported by grants to The American Museum of Natural History, and the CUNY College of Staten Island through from National Science Foundation.

  1. Spectral energy distributions of T Tauri stars - disk flaring and limits on accretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, S.J.; Hartmann, L.

    1987-01-01

    The Adams et al. (1987) conclusion that much of the IR excess emission in the spectral energy distribution of T Tauri stars arises from reprocessing of stellar radiation by a dusty circumstellar disk is presently supported by analyses conducted in light of various models of these stars' spectra. A low mass reprocessing disk can, however, produce these spectra as well as a massive accretion disk. The detection of possible boundary layer radiation in the optical and near-UV regions poses the strongest limits on accretion rates. Disk accretion in the T Tauri phase does not significantly modify stellar evolution. 85 references

  2. COMBINED ANALYSIS OF IMAGES AND SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF TAURUS PROTOSTARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gramajo, Luciana V.; Gomez, Mercedes; Whitney, Barbara A.; Robitaille, Thomas P.

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of spectral energy distributions (SEDs), near- and mid-infrared images, and Spitzer spectra of eight embedded Class I/II objects in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud. The initial model for each source was chosen using the grid of young stellar objects (YSOs) and SED fitting tool of Robitaille et al. Then the models were refined using the radiative transfer code of Whitney et al. to fit both the spectra and the infrared images of these objects. In general, our models agree with previous published analyses. However, our combined models should provide more reliable determinations of the physical and geometrical parameters since they are derived from SEDs, including the Spitzer spectra, covering the complete spectral range; and high-resolution near-infrared and Spitzer IRAC images. The combination of SED and image modeling better constrains the different components (central source, disk, envelope) of the YSOs. Our derived luminosities are higher, on average, than previous estimates because we account for the viewing angles (usually nearly edge-on) of most of the sources. Our analysis suggests that the standard rotating collapsing protostar model with disks and bipolar cavities works well for the analyzed sample of objects in the Taurus molecular cloud.

  3. PanDA for ATLAS distributed computing in the next decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreiro Megino, F. H.; De, K.; Klimentov, A.; Maeno, T.; Nilsson, P.; Oleynik, D.; Padolski, S.; Panitkin, S.; Wenaus, T.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis (PanDA) system has been developed to meet ATLAS production and analysis requirements for a data-driven workload management system capable of operating at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) data processing scale. Heterogeneous resources used by the ATLAS experiment are distributed worldwide at hundreds of sites, thousands of physicists analyse the data remotely, the volume of processed data is beyond the exabyte scale, dozens of scientific applications are supported, while data processing requires more than a few billion hours of computing usage per year. PanDA performed very well over the last decade including the LHC Run 1 data taking period. However, it was decided to upgrade the whole system concurrently with the LHC’s first long shutdown in order to cope with rapidly changing computing infrastructure. After two years of reengineering efforts, PanDA has embedded capabilities for fully dynamic and flexible workload management. The static batch job paradigm was discarded in favor of a more automated and scalable model. Workloads are dynamically tailored for optimal usage of resources, with the brokerage taking network traffic and forecasts into account. Computing resources are partitioned based on dynamic knowledge of their status and characteristics. The pilot has been re-factored around a plugin structure for easier development and deployment. Bookkeeping is handled with both coarse and fine granularities for efficient utilization of pledged or opportunistic resources. An in-house security mechanism authenticates the pilot and data management services in off-grid environments such as volunteer computing and private local clusters. The PanDA monitor has been extensively optimized for performance and extended with analytics to provide aggregated summaries of the system as well as drill-down to operational details. There are as well many other challenges planned or recently implemented, and adoption by non-LHC experiments such

  4. Light distribution system comprising spectral conversion means

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    , longer wavelength,a spectral conversion characteristics of the spectral conversion fibre being essentially determined by the spectral absorption and emission properties of the photoluminescent agent, the amount of photo- luminescent agent,and the distribution of the photoluminescent agent in the spectral......System (200, 300) for the distribution of white light, having a supply side (201, 301, 401) and a delivery side (202, 302, 402), the system being configured for guiding light with a multitude of visible wavelengths in a propagation direction P from the supply side to the distribution side...... of providing a light distribution system and a method of correcting the spectral transmission characteristics of a light distribution system are disclosed....

  5. THE ULTRAVIOLET-TO-MID-INFRARED SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF WEAK EMISSION LINE QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, Ryan A.; Shemmer, Ohad; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Fan Xiaohui; Anderson, Scott F.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, Donald P.; Plotkin, Richard M.; Richards, Gordon T.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope photometry of 18 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars at 2.7 ≤ z ≤ 5.9 which have weak or undetectable high-ionization emission lines in their rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) spectra (hereafter weak-lined quasars, or WLQs). The Spitzer data are combined with SDSS spectra and ground-based, near-infrared (IR) photometry of these sources to produce a large inventory of spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of WLQs across the rest-frame ∼0.1-5 μm spectral band. The SEDs of our sources are inconsistent with those of BL Lacertae objects which are dominated by synchrotron emission due to a jet aligned close to our line of sight, but are consistent with the SED of ordinary quasars with similar luminosities and redshifts that exhibit a near-to-mid-IR 'bump', characteristic of hot dust emission. This indicates that broad emission lines in WLQs are intrinsically weak, rather than suffering continuum dilution from a jet, and that such sources cannot be selected efficiently from traditional photometric surveys.

  6. THE ULTRAVIOLET-TO-MID-INFRARED SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF WEAK EMISSION LINE QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Ryan A.; Shemmer, Ohad [Department of Physics, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 (United States); Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Fan Xiaohui [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Anderson, Scott F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Plotkin, Richard M. [Astronomical Institute ' Anton Pannekoek' , University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Richards, Gordon T. [Department of Physics, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Strauss, Michael A., E-mail: RyanLane@my.unt.edu, E-mail: ohad@unt.edu [Princeton University Observatory, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2011-12-20

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope photometry of 18 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars at 2.7 {<=} z {<=} 5.9 which have weak or undetectable high-ionization emission lines in their rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) spectra (hereafter weak-lined quasars, or WLQs). The Spitzer data are combined with SDSS spectra and ground-based, near-infrared (IR) photometry of these sources to produce a large inventory of spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of WLQs across the rest-frame {approx}0.1-5 {mu}m spectral band. The SEDs of our sources are inconsistent with those of BL Lacertae objects which are dominated by synchrotron emission due to a jet aligned close to our line of sight, but are consistent with the SED of ordinary quasars with similar luminosities and redshifts that exhibit a near-to-mid-IR 'bump', characteristic of hot dust emission. This indicates that broad emission lines in WLQs are intrinsically weak, rather than suffering continuum dilution from a jet, and that such sources cannot be selected efficiently from traditional photometric surveys.

  7. Evolution of the ATLAS PanDA Production and Distributed Analysis System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeno, T; Wenaus, T; Fine, V; Potekhin, M; Panitkin, S; De, K; Nilsson, P; Stradling, A; Walker, R; Compostella, G

    2012-01-01

    The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) system has been developed to meet ATLAS production and analysis requirements for a data-driven workload management system capable of operating at LHC data processing scale. PanDA has performed well with high reliability and robustness during the two years of LHC data-taking, while being actively evolved to meet the rapidly changing requirements for analysis use cases. We will present an overview of system evolution including automatic rebrokerage and reattempt for analysis jobs, adaptation for the CernVM File System, support for the multi-cloud model through which Tier-2 sites act as members of multiple clouds, pledged resource management and preferential brokerage, and monitoring improvements. We will also describe results from the analysis of two years of PanDA usage statistics, current issues, and plans for the future.

  8. PanDA: A New Paradigm for Distributed Computing in HEP Through the Lens of ATLAS and other Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    De, K; The ATLAS collaboration; Maeno, T; Nilsson, P; Wenaus, T

    2014-01-01

    Experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) face unprecedented computing challenges. Heterogeneous resources are distributed worldwide, thousands of physicists analyzing the data need remote access to hundreds of computing sites, the volume of processed data is beyond the exabyte scale, and data processing requires more than a billion hours of computing usage per year. The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) system was developed to meet the scale and complexity of LHC distributed computing for the ATLAS experiment. In the process, the old batch job paradigm of computing in HEP was discarded in favor of a far more flexible and scalable model. The success of PanDA in ATLAS is leading to widespread adoption and testing by other experiments. PanDA is the first exascale workload management system in HEP, already operating at a million computing jobs per day, and processing over an exabyte of data in 2013. We will describe the design and implementation of PanDA, present data on the performance of PanDA a...

  9. The source of multi spectral energy of solar energetic electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herdiwijaya, Dhani [Astronomy Division and Bosscha Observatory, Faculty Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Intitute Technology of Bandung, Ganesha 10, Bandung, Indonesia 40132 dhani@as.itb.ac.id (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    We study the solar energetic electron distribution obtained from ACE and GOES satellites which have different altitudes and electron spectral energy during the year 1997 to 2011. The electron spectral energies were 0.038–0.315 MeV from EPAM instrument onboard ACE satellite and >2 MeV from GOES satellite. We found that the low electron energy has no correlation with high energy. In spite of we have corrected to the altitude differences. It implied that they originated from time dependent events with different sources and physical processes at the solar atmosphere. The sources of multi spectral energetic electron were related to flare and CME phenomena. However, we also found that high energetic electron comes from coronal hole.

  10. The spectral energy distributions of isolated neutron stars in the resonant cyclotron scattering model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Hao; Xu, Renxin

    2013-03-01

    The X-ray dim isolated neutron stars (XDINSs) are peculiar pulsar-like objects, characterized by their very well Planck-like spectrum. In studying their spectral energy distributions, the optical/UV excess is a long standing problem. Recently, Kaplan et al. (2011) have measured the optical/UV excess for all seven sources, which is understandable in the resonant cyclotron scattering (RCS) model previously addressed. The RCS model calculations show that the RCS process can account for the observed optical/UV excess for most sources. The flat spectrum of RX J2143.0+0654 may due to contribution from bremsstrahlung emission of the electron system in addition to the RCS process.

  11. Scaling function, spectral function and nucleon momentum distribution in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonov, A.N.; Ivanov, M.V.; Caballero, J.A.; Barbaro, M.B.; Udias, J.M.; Moya de Guerra, E.; Donnelly, T.W.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study is to find a good simultaneous description of the spectral function and the momentum distribution in relation to the realistic scaling function obtained from inclusive electron-nuclei scattering experiments. We start with a modified Hartree-Fock spectral function in which the energy dependent part (δ-function) is replaced by the Gaussian distributions with hole state widths as free parameters. We calculate the scaling function and the nucleon momentum distribution on the basis of the spectral function constructed in this way, trying to find a good description of the experimental data. The obtained scaling function has a weak asymmetry and the momentum distribution has not got a high-momentum tail in the case when harmonic-oscillator single-particle wave functions are used. So, to improve the behavior of the momentum distribution we used the basis of natural orbitals (NO) in which short-range correlations are partly incorporated. The results for the scaling function show again a weak asymmetry, but in this case the momentum distribution has a high-momentum tail. As a next step we include final-state interactions (FSI) in the calculations to reproduce the experimentally observed asymmetry of the scaling function. (author)

  12. A dust spectral energy distribution model with hierarchical Bayesian inference - I. Formalism and benchmarking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galliano, Frédéric

    2018-05-01

    This article presents a new dust spectral energy distribution (SED) model, named HerBIE, aimed at eliminating the noise-induced correlations and large scatter obtained when performing least-squares fits. The originality of this code is to apply the hierarchical Bayesian approach to full dust models, including realistic optical properties, stochastic heating, and the mixing of physical conditions in the observed regions. We test the performances of our model by applying it to synthetic observations. We explore the impact on the recovered parameters of several effects: signal-to-noise ratio, SED shape, sample size, the presence of intrinsic correlations, the wavelength coverage, and the use of different SED model components. We show that this method is very efficient: the recovered parameters are consistently distributed around their true values. We do not find any clear bias, even for the most degenerate parameters, or with extreme signal-to-noise ratios.

  13. Planck early results. XV. Spectral energy distributions and radio continuum spectra of northern extragalactic radio sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aatrokoski, J.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lavonen, N.

    2011-01-01

    Spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and radio continuum spectra are presented for a northern sample of 104 extragalactic radio sources, based on the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) and simultaneous multifrequency data. The nine Planck frequencies, from 30 to 857 GHz......, are complemented by a set of simultaneous observations ranging from radio to gamma-rays. This is the first extensive frequency coverage in the radio and millimetre domains for an essentially complete sample of extragalactic radio sources, and it shows how the individual shocks, each in their own phase...... of development, shape the radio spectra as they move in the relativistic jet. The SEDs presented in this paper were fitted with second and third degree polynomials to estimate the frequencies of the synchrotron and inverse Compton (IC) peaks, and the spectral indices of low and high frequency radio data...

  14. Electro-optic measurement of terahertz pulse energy distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, J.H.; Gallacher, J.G.; Brussaard, G.J.H.; Lemos, N.; Issac, R.; Huang, Z.X.; Dias, J.M.; Jaroszynski, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    An accurate and direct measurement of the energy distribution of a low repetition rate terahertz electromagnetic pulse is challenging because of the lack of sensitive detectors in this spectral range. In this paper, we show how the total energy and energy density distribution of a terahertz

  15. 40 CFR Table E-2 to Subpart E of... - Spectral Energy Distribution and Permitted Tolerance for Conducting Radiative Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Permitted Tolerance for Conducting Radiative Tests E Table E-2 to Subpart E of Part 53 Protection of... Reference Methods and Class I and Class II Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 or PM10â2.5 Pt. 53, Subpt. E, Table E-2 Table E-2 to Subpart E of Part 53—Spectral Energy Distribution and Permitted Tolerance for...

  16. Spectral Energy Distribution and Radio Halo of NGC 253 at Low Radio Frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapińska, A. D.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Meurer, G. R.; For, B.-Q. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, WA 6009 (Australia); Crocker, R. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Bhandari, S.; Callingham, J. R.; Gaensler, B. M.; Hancock, P. J.; Lenc, E. [ARC Centre of Excellence for All-Sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO), Sydney NSW (Australia); Hurley-Walker, N.; Seymour, N. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), Curtin University, Bentley, WA 6102 (Australia); Offringa, A. R. [Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), P.O. Box 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Hanish, D. J. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MC 220-6, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ekers, R. D.; Bell, M. E. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science (CASS), P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Dwarakanath, K. S. [Raman Research Institute, Bangalore 560080 (India); Hindson, L. [Centre of Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Johnston-Hollitt, M. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); McKinley, B., E-mail: anna.kapinska@uwa.edu.au [School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010 (Australia); and others

    2017-03-20

    We present new radio continuum observations of NGC 253 from the Murchison Widefield Array at frequencies between 76 and 227 MHz. We model the broadband radio spectral energy distribution for the total flux density of NGC 253 between 76 MHz and 11 GHz. The spectrum is best described as a sum of a central starburst and extended emission. The central component, corresponding to the inner 500 pc of the starburst region of the galaxy, is best modeled as an internally free–free absorbed synchrotron plasma, with a turnover frequency around 230 MHz. The extended emission component of the spectrum of NGC 253 is best described as a synchrotron emission flattening at low radio frequencies. We find that 34% of the extended emission (outside the central starburst region) at 1 GHz becomes partially absorbed at low radio frequencies. Most of this flattening occurs in the western region of the southeast halo, and may be indicative of synchrotron self-absorption of shock-reaccelerated electrons or an intrinsic low-energy cutoff of the electron distribution. Furthermore, we detect the large-scale synchrotron radio halo of NGC 253 in our radio images. At 154–231 MHz the halo displays the well known X-shaped/horn-like structure, and extends out to ∼8 kpc in the z -direction (from the major axis).

  17. Panchromatic spectral energy distributions of Herschel sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berta, S.; Lutz, D.; Santini, P.; Wuyts, S.; Rosario, D.; Brisbin, D.; Cooray, A.; Franceschini, A.; Gruppioni, C.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Hwang, H. S.; Le Floc'h, E.; Magnelli, B.; Nordon, R.; Oliver, S.; Page, M. J.; Popesso, P.; Pozzetti, L.; Pozzi, F.; Riguccini, L.; Rodighiero, G.; Roseboom, I.; Scott, D.; Symeonidis, M.; Valtchanov, I.; Viero, M.; Wang, L.

    2013-03-01

    Combining far-infrared Herschel photometry from the PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP) and Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) guaranteed time programs with ancillary datasets in the GOODS-N, GOODS-S, and COSMOS fields, it is possible to sample the 8-500 μm spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of galaxies with at least 7-10 bands. Extending to the UV, optical, and near-infrared, the number of bands increases up to 43. We reproduce the distribution of galaxies in a carefully selected restframe ten colors space, based on this rich data-set, using a superposition of multivariate Gaussian modes. We use this model to classify galaxies and build median SEDs of each class, which are then fitted with a modified version of the magphys code that combines stellar light, emission from dust heated by stars and a possible warm dust contribution heated by an active galactic nucleus (AGN). The color distribution of galaxies in each of the considered fields can be well described with the combination of 6-9 classes, spanning a large range of far- to near-infrared luminosity ratios, as well as different strength of the AGN contribution to bolometric luminosities. The defined Gaussian grouping is used to identify rare or odd sources. The zoology of outliers includes Herschel-detected ellipticals, very blue z ~ 1 Ly-break galaxies, quiescent spirals, and torus-dominated AGN with star formation. Out of these groups and outliers, a new template library is assembled, consisting of 32 SEDs describing the intrinsic scatter in the restframe UV-to-submm colors of infrared galaxies. This library is tested against L(IR) estimates with and without Herschel data included, and compared to eightother popular methods often adopted in the literature. When implementing Herschel photometry, these approaches produce L(IR) values consistent with each other within a median absolute deviation of 10-20%, the scatter being dominated more by fine tuning of the codes, rather than by the choice of

  18. Elementary principles of spectral distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    It is a common observation that as we add particles, one by one, to a simple system, things get steadily more and more complicated. For example if the system is describable in shell-model terms, i.e., with a model space in which m particles are distributed over N single-particle states, then as long as m << N, the dimensionality increases rapidly with particle number. On the other hand, for the usual (1 + 2)-body Hamiltonian, the (m greater than or equal to 2)-particle spectrum and wave functions are determined by operators defined in the one-particle space (for the single-particle energies) and the two-particle space (for the interactions). We may say then that the input information becomes more and more fragmented as the particle number increases, the fixed amount of information being distributed over more and more matrix elements. On the other hand there arise also new simplicities whose origin is connected with the operation of statistical laws. There is a macroscopic simplicity corresponding to the fact that the smoothed spectrum takes on a characteristic shape defined by a few parameters (low-order moments) of the spectrum. There is a microscopic simplicity corresponding to a remarkable spectral rigidity which extends over the entire spectrum and guarantees us that the fluctuations from uniformity in the spectrum are small and in many cases carry little information. The purpose of spectral-distribution theory, as applied to these problems, is to deal with the complexities by taking advantage of the simplicities

  19. Image enhancement by spectral-error correction for dual-energy computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung-Kook; Oh, Chang-Hyun; Akay, Metin

    2011-01-01

    Dual-energy CT (DECT) was reintroduced recently to use the additional spectral information of X-ray attenuation and aims for accurate density measurement and material differentiation. However, the spectral information lies in the difference between low and high energy images or measurements, so that it is difficult to acquire accurate spectral information due to amplification of high pixel noise in the resulting difference image. In this work, an image enhancement technique for DECT is proposed, based on the fact that the attenuation of a higher density material decreases more rapidly as X-ray energy increases. We define as spectral error the case when a pixel pair of low and high energy images deviates far from the expected attenuation trend. After analyzing the spectral-error sources of DECT images, we propose a DECT image enhancement method, which consists of three steps: water-reference offset correction, spectral-error correction, and anti-correlated noise reduction. It is the main idea of this work that makes spectral errors distributed like random noise over the true attenuation and suppressed by the well-known anti-correlated noise reduction. The proposed method suppressed noise of liver lesions and improved contrast between liver lesions and liver parenchyma in DECT contrast-enhanced abdominal images and their two-material decomposition.

  20. Nuclear properties with realistic Hamiltonians through spectral distribution theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vary, J.P.; Belehrad, R.; Dalton, B.J.

    1979-01-01

    Motivated by the need of non-perturbative methods for utilizing realistic nuclear Hamiltonians H, the authors use spectral distribution theory, based on calculated moments of H, to obtain specific bulk and valence properties of finite nuclei. The primary emphasis here is to present results for the binding energies of nuclei obtained with and without an assumed core. (Auth.)

  1. SURVEY DESIGN FOR SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION FITTING: A FISHER MATRIX APPROACH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acquaviva, Viviana; Gawiser, Eric; Bickerton, Steven J.; Grogin, Norman A.; Guo Yicheng; Lee, Seong-Kook

    2012-01-01

    The spectral energy distribution (SED) of a galaxy contains information on the galaxy's physical properties, and multi-wavelength observations are needed in order to measure these properties via SED fitting. In planning these surveys, optimization of the resources is essential. The Fisher Matrix (FM) formalism can be used to quickly determine the best possible experimental setup to achieve the desired constraints on the SED-fitting parameters. However, because it relies on the assumption of a Gaussian likelihood function, it is in general less accurate than other slower techniques that reconstruct the probability distribution function (PDF) from the direct comparison between models and data. We compare the uncertainties on SED-fitting parameters predicted by the FM to the ones obtained using the more thorough PDF-fitting techniques. We use both simulated spectra and real data, and consider a large variety of target galaxies differing in redshift, mass, age, star formation history, dust content, and wavelength coverage. We find that the uncertainties reported by the two methods agree within a factor of two in the vast majority (∼90%) of cases. If the age determination is uncertain, the top-hat prior in age used in PDF fitting to prevent each galaxy from being older than the universe needs to be incorporated in the FM, at least approximately, before the two methods can be properly compared. We conclude that the FM is a useful tool for astronomical survey design.

  2. HOW TO PAN-SHARPEN IMAGES USING THE GRAM-SCHMIDT PAN-SHARPEN METHOD – A RECIPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Maurer

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Since its publication in 1998 (Laben and Brower, 2000, the Gram-Schmidt pan-sharpen method has become one of the most popular algorithms to pan-sharpen multispectral (MS imagery. It outperforms most other pan-sharpen methods in both maximizing image sharpness and minimizing color distortion. It is, on the other hand, also more complex and computationally expensive than most other methods, as it requires forward and backward transforming the entire image. Another complication is the lack of a clear recipe of how to compute the sensor dependent MS to Pan weights that are needed to compute the simulated low resolution pan band. Estimating them from the sensor’s spectral sensitivity curves (in different ways, or using linear regression or least square methods are typical candidates which can include other degrees of freedom such as adding a constant offset or not. As a result, most companies and data providers do it somewhat differently. Here we present a solution to both problems. The transform coefficients can be computed directly and in advance from the MS covariance matrix and the MS to Pan weights. Once the MS covariance matrix is computed and stored with the image statistics, any small section of the image can be pan-sharpened on the fly, without having to compute anything else over the entire image. Similarly, optimal MS to Pan weights can be computed directly from the full MS-Pan covariance matrix, guaranteeing optimal image quality and consistency.

  3. Learning theory of distributed spectral algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Zheng-Chu; Lin, Shao-Bo; Zhou, Ding-Xuan

    2017-01-01

    Spectral algorithms have been widely used and studied in learning theory and inverse problems. This paper is concerned with distributed spectral algorithms, for handling big data, based on a divide-and-conquer approach. We present a learning theory for these distributed kernel-based learning algorithms in a regression framework including nice error bounds and optimal minimax learning rates achieved by means of a novel integral operator approach and a second order decomposition of inverse operators. Our quantitative estimates are given in terms of regularity of the regression function, effective dimension of the reproducing kernel Hilbert space, and qualification of the filter function of the spectral algorithm. They do not need any eigenfunction or noise conditions and are better than the existing results even for the classical family of spectral algorithms. (paper)

  4. A novel approach for characterizing broad-band radio spectral energy distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, V. M.; Franzen, T.; Morgan, J.; Seymour, N.

    2018-05-01

    We present a new broad-band radio frequency catalogue across 0.12 GHz ≤ ν ≤ 20 GHz created by combining data from the Murchison Widefield Array Commissioning Survey, the Australia Telescope 20 GHz survey, and the literature. Our catalogue consists of 1285 sources limited by S20 GHz > 40 mJy at 5σ, and contains flux density measurements (or estimates) and uncertainties at 0.074, 0.080, 0.119, 0.150, 0.180, 0.408, 0.843, 1.4, 4.8, 8.6, and 20 GHz. We fit a second-order polynomial in log-log space to the spectral energy distributions of all these sources in order to characterize their broad-band emission. For the 994 sources that are well described by a linear or quadratic model we present a new diagnostic plot arranging sources by the linear and curvature terms. We demonstrate the advantages of such a plot over the traditional radio colour-colour diagram. We also present astrophysical descriptions of the sources found in each segment of this new parameter space and discuss the utility of these plots in the upcoming era of large area, deep, broad-band radio surveys.

  5. THE INFLUENCE OF THE EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION ON THE STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION OF THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE OF EXOPLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, J. H. [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 110, Kunming 650011 (China); Ben-Jaffel, Lotfi, E-mail: guojh@ynao.ac.cn, E-mail: bjaffel@iap.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 6 et CNRS, UMR 7095, Institut Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2016-02-20

    By varying the profiles of stellar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral energy distributions (SEDs), we tested the influences of stellar EUV SEDs on the physical and chemical properties of an escaping atmosphere. We apply our model to study four exoplanets: HD 189733b, HD 209458b, GJ 436b, and Kepler-11b. We find that the total mass loss rates of an exoplanet, which are determined mainly by the integrated fluxes, are moderately affected by the profiles of the EUV SED, but the composition and species distributions in the atmosphere can be dramatically modified by the different profiles of the EUV SED. For exoplanets with a high hydrodynamic escape parameter (λ), the amount of atomic hydrogen produced by photoionization at different altitudes can vary by one to two orders of magnitude with the variation of stellar EUV SEDs. The effect of photoionization of H is prominent when the EUV SED is dominated by the low-energy spectral region (400–900 Å), which pushes the transition of H/H{sup +} to low altitudes. In contrast, the transition of H/H{sup +} moves to higher altitudes when most photons are concentrated in the high-energy spectral region (50–400 Å). For exoplanets with a low λ, the lower temperatures of the atmosphere make many chemical reactions so important that photoionization alone can no longer determine the composition of the escaping atmosphere. For HD 189733b, it is possible to explain the time variability of Lyα between 2010 and 2011 by a change in the EUV SED of the host K-type star, yet invoking only thermal H i in the atmosphere.

  6. PanDA for COMPASS at JINR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosyan, A. Sh.

    2016-09-01

    PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis System) is a workload management system, widely used for data processing at experiments on Large Hadron Collider and others. COMPASS is a high-energy physics experiment at the Super Proton Synchrotron. Data processing for COMPASS runs locally at CERN, on lxbatch, the data itself stored in CASTOR. In 2014 an idea to start running COMPASS production through PanDA arose. Such transformation in experiment's data processing will allow COMPASS community to use not only CERN resources, but also Grid resources worldwide. During the spring and summer of 2015 installation, validation and migration work is being performed at JINR. Details and results of this process are presented in this paper.

  7. Simulated galaxy interactions as probes of merger spectral energy distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanz, Lauranne; Zezas, Andreas; Smith, Howard A.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Hernquist, Lars [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hayward, Christopher C. [Heidelberger Institut für Theoretische Studien, Schloss-Wolfsbrunnenweg 35, D-69118 Heidelberg (Germany); Brassington, Nicola, E-mail: llanz@ipac.caltech.edu [School of Physics, Astronomy and Mathematics, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield, AL10 9AB (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-10

    We present the first systematic comparison of ultraviolet-millimeter spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of observed and simulated interacting galaxies. Our sample is drawn from the Spitzer Interacting Galaxy Survey and probes a range of galaxy interaction parameters. We use 31 galaxies in 14 systems which have been observed with Herschel, Spitzer, GALEX, and 2MASS. We create a suite of GADGET-3 hydrodynamic simulations of isolated and interacting galaxies with stellar masses comparable to those in our sample of interacting galaxies. Photometry for the simulated systems is then calculated with the SUNRISE radiative transfer code for comparison with the observed systems. For most of the observed systems, one or more of the simulated SEDs match reasonably well. The best matches recover the infrared luminosity and the star formation rate of the observed systems, and the more massive systems preferentially match SEDs from simulations of more massive galaxies. The most morphologically distorted systems in our sample are best matched to the simulated SEDs that are close to coalescence, while less evolved systems match well with the SEDs over a wide range of interaction stages, suggesting that an SED alone is insufficient for identifying the interaction stage except during the most active phases in strongly interacting systems. This result is supported by our finding that the SEDs calculated for simulated systems vary little over the interaction sequence.

  8. ATLAS BigPanDA Monitoring and Its Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Wenaus, Torre; The ATLAS collaboration; Korchuganova, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    BigPanDA is the latest generation of the monitoring system for the Production and Distributed Analysis (PanDA) system. The BigPanDA monitor is a core component of PanDA and also serves the monitoring needs of the new ATLAS Production System Prodsys-2. BigPanDA has been developed to serve the growing computation needs of the ATLAS Experiment and the wider applications of PanDA beyond ATLAS. Through a system-wide job database, the BigPanDA monitor provides a comprehensive and coherent view of the tasks and jobs executed by the system, from high level summaries to detailed drill-down job diagnostics. The system has been in production and has remained in continuous development since mid 2014, today effectively managing more than 2 million jobs per day distributed over 150 computing centers worldwide. BigPanDA also delivers web-based analytics and system state views to groups of users including distributed computing systems operators, shifters, physicist end-users, computing managers and accounting services. Provi...

  9. ATLAS BigPanDA Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Padolski, Siarhei; The ATLAS collaboration; Klimentov, Alexei; Korchuganova, Tatiana

    2017-01-01

    BigPanDA monitoring is a web based application which provides various processing and representation of the Production and Distributed Analysis (PanDA) system objects states. Analyzing hundreds of millions of computation entities such as an event or a job BigPanDA monitoring builds different scale and levels of abstraction reports in real time mode. Provided information allows users to drill down into the reason of a concrete event failure or observe system bigger picture such as tracking the computation nucleus and satellites performance or the progress of whole production campaign. PanDA system was originally developed for the Atlas experiment and today effectively managing more than 2 million jobs per day distributed over 170 computing centers worldwide. BigPanDA is its core component commissioned in the middle of 2014 and now is the primary source of information for ATLAS users about state of their computations and the source of decision support information for shifters, operators and managers. In this wor...

  10. ATLAS BigPanDA Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Padolski, Siarhei; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    BigPanDA monitoring is a web-based application that provides various processing and representation of the Production and Distributed Analysis (PanDA) system objects states. Analysing hundreds of millions of computation entities such as an event or a job BigPanDA monitoring builds different scale and levels of abstraction reports in real time mode. Provided information allows users to drill down into the reason of a concrete event failure or observe system bigger picture such as tracking the computation nucleus and satellites performance or the progress of whole production campaign. PanDA system was originally developed for the Atlas experiment and today effectively managing more than 2 million jobs per day distributed over 170 computing centers worldwide. BigPanDA is its core component commissioned in the middle of 2014 and now is the primary source of information for ATLAS users about state of their computations and the source of decision support information for shifters, operators and managers. In this work...

  11. On spectral distribution of high dimensional covariation matrices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinrich, Claudio; Podolskij, Mark

    In this paper we present the asymptotic theory for spectral distributions of high dimensional covariation matrices of Brownian diffusions. More specifically, we consider N-dimensional Itô integrals with time varying matrix-valued integrands. We observe n equidistant high frequency data points...... of the underlying Brownian diffusion and we assume that N/n -> c in (0,oo). We show that under a certain mixed spectral moment condition the spectral distribution of the empirical covariation matrix converges in distribution almost surely. Our proof relies on method of moments and applications of graph theory....

  12. Nuclear security in major public events: the XV Pan American Games and the III Para-Pan American Games in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, Luiz A. de; Monteiro Filho, Joselio S.; Belem, Lilia M.J.; Torres, Luiz F.B.

    2009-01-01

    The organization of a major public event involving large numbers of spectators and participants, presents important security challenges. Taking this into consideration, the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) has been requested, by the National Secretary of Public Security/ Ministry of Justice (SENASP/MJ), by the end of 2006, to participate on the security actions to be implemented in both the XV Pan American Games and III Para Pan American Games. The XV Pan American Games 2007 and the III Para Pan American Games were held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil from 13 to 29 July 2007 and from 12 to 19 August 2007, respectively. Those events had 8700 participants between athletes, coaches and referees from 42 countries. More than 300 competition events were held at 17 different venues and were covered by 4910 professionals from TV, radio and written press. Around 2 million tickets have been sold or distributed and 18,000 volunteers participated on the organization. The participation of CNEN was concentrated on the implementation of specific nuclear and radiological security measures to be applied at those events. This was part of a multi-institutional plan for the security of the Games, coordinated by the National Secretary of Public Security of the Ministry of Justice (SENASP/MJ). The support provided by IAEA under a Cooperation Arrangement with the Brazilian authorities was a key factor for the success of the whole operation. The actions taken and the lessons identified by the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission related to nuclear and radiological security for the Pan American Games and for the Para Pan American Games are presented. (author)

  13. A Real-Time Semiautonomous Audio Panning System for Music Mixing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez_Gonzalez Enrique

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A real-time semiautonomous stereo panning system for music mixing has been implemented. The system uses spectral decomposition, constraint rules, and cross-adaptive algorithms to perform real-time placement of sources in a stereo mix. A subjective evaluation test was devised to evaluate its quality against human panning. It was shown that the automatic panning technique performed better than a nonexpert and showed no significant statistical difference to the performance of a professional mixing engineer.

  14. UV TO FAR-IR CATALOG OF A GALAXY SAMPLE IN NEARBY CLUSTERS: SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS AND ENVIRONMENTAL TRENDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Fernandez, Jonathan D.; Iglesias-Paramo, J.; Vilchez, J. M., E-mail: jonatan@iaa.es [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, Glorieta de la Astronomia s/n, 18008 Granada (Spain)

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we present a sample of cluster galaxies devoted to study the environmental influence on the star formation activity. This sample of galaxies inhabits in clusters showing a rich variety in their characteristics and have been observed by the SDSS-DR6 down to M{sub B} {approx} -18, and by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer AIS throughout sky regions corresponding to several megaparsecs. We assign the broadband and emission-line fluxes from ultraviolet to far-infrared to each galaxy performing an accurate spectral energy distribution for spectral fitting analysis. The clusters follow the general X-ray luminosity versus velocity dispersion trend of L{sub X} {proportional_to} {sigma}{sup 4.4}{sub c}. The analysis of the distributions of galaxy density counting up to the 5th nearest neighbor {Sigma}{sub 5} shows: (1) the virial regions and the cluster outskirts share a common range in the high density part of the distribution. This can be attributed to the presence of massive galaxy structures in the surroundings of virial regions. (2) The virial regions of massive clusters ({sigma}{sub c} > 550 km s{sup -1}) present a {Sigma}{sub 5} distribution statistically distinguishable ({approx}96%) from the corresponding distribution of low-mass clusters ({sigma}{sub c} < 550 km s{sup -1}). Both massive and low-mass clusters follow a similar density-radius trend, but the low-mass clusters avoid the high density extreme. We illustrate, with ABELL 1185, the environmental trends of galaxy populations. Maps of sky projected galaxy density show how low-luminosity star-forming galaxies appear distributed along more spread structures than their giant counterparts, whereas low-luminosity passive galaxies avoid the low-density environment. Giant passive and star-forming galaxies share rather similar sky regions with passive galaxies exhibiting more concentrated distributions.

  15. Modelling the spectral irradiance distribution in sunny inland locations using an ANN-based methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres-Ramírez, M.; Elizondo, D.; García-Domingo, B.; Nofuentes, G.; Talavera, D.L.

    2015-01-01

    This work is aimed at verifying that in sunny inland locations artificial intelligence techniques may provide an estimation of the spectral irradiance with adequate accuracy for photovoltaic applications. An ANN (artificial neural network) based method was developed, trained and tested to model the spectral distributions between wavelengths ranging from 350 to 1050 nm. Only commonly available input data such as geographical information regarding location, specific date and time together with horizontal global irradiance and ambient temperature are required. Historical information from a 24-month experimental campaign carried out in Jaén (Spain) provided the necessary data to train and test the ANN tool. A Kohonen self-organized map was used as innovative technique to classify the whole input dataset and build a small and representative training dataset. The shape of the spectral irradiance distribution, the in-plane global irradiance (G T ) and irradiation (H T ) and the APE (average photon energy) values obtained through the ANN method were statistically compared to the experimental ones. In terms of shape distribution fitting, the mean relative deformation error stays below 4.81%. The root mean square percentage error is around 6.89% and 0.45% when estimating G T and APE, respectively. Regarding H T , errors lie below 3.18% in all cases. - Highlights: • ANN-based model to estimate the spectral irradiance distribution in sunny inland locations. • MRDE value stay below 4.81% in spectral irradiance distribution shape fitting. • RMSPE is about 6.89% for the in-plane global irradiance and 0.45% for the average photon energy. • Errors stay below 3.18% for all the months of the year in incident irradiation terms. • Improvement of assessment of the impact of the solar spectrum in the performance of a PV module

  16. The embedded young stars in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud. I - Models for spectral energy distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Scott J.; Calvet, Nuria; Hartmann, Lee

    1993-01-01

    We describe radiative transfer calculations of infalling, dusty envelopes surrounding pre-main-sequence stars and use these models to derive physical properties for a sample of 21 heavily reddened young stars in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud. The density distributions needed to match the FIR peaks in the spectral energy distributions of these embedded sources suggest mass infall rates similar to those predicted for simple thermally supported clouds with temperatures about 10 K. Unless the dust opacities are badly in error, our models require substantial departures from spherical symmetry in the envelopes of all sources. These flattened envelopes may be produced by a combination of rotation and cavities excavated by bipolar flows. The rotating infall models of Terebey et al. (1984) models indicate a centrifugal radius of about 70 AU for many objects if rotation is the only important physical effect, and this radius is reasonably consistent with typical estimates for the sizes of circumstellar disks around T Tauri stars.

  17. Overview of ATLAS PanDA Workload Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeno, T.; De, K.; Wenaus, T.; Nilsson, P.; Stewart, G. A.; Walker, R.; Stradling, A.; Caballero, J.; Potekhin, M.; Smith, D.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis System (PanDA) plays a key role in the ATLAS distributed computing infrastructure. All ATLAS Monte-Carlo simulation and data reprocessing jobs pass through the PanDA system. We will describe how PanDA manages job execution on the grid using dynamic resource estimation and data replication together with intelligent brokerage in order to meet the scaling and automation requirements of ATLAS distributed computing. PanDA is also the primary ATLAS system for processing user and group analysis jobs, bringing further requirements for quick, flexible adaptation to the rapidly evolving analysis use cases of the early datataking phase, in addition to the high reliability, robustness and usability needed to provide efficient and transparent utilization of the grid for analysis users. We will describe how PanDA meets ATLAS requirements, the evolution of the system in light of operational experience, how the system has performed during the first LHC data-taking phase and plans for the future.

  18. Overview of ATLAS PanDA Workload Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeno, T.; De, K.; Wenaus, T.; Nilsson, P.; Stewart, G.A.; Walker, R.; Stradling, A.; Caballero, J.; Potekhin, M.; Smith, D.

    2011-01-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis System (PanDA) plays a key role in the ATLAS distributed computing infrastructure. All ATLAS Monte-Carlo simulation and data reprocessing jobs pass through the PanDA system. We will describe how PanDA manages job execution on the grid using dynamic resource estimation and data replication together with intelligent brokerage in order to meet the scaling and automation requirements of ATLAS distributed computing. PanDA is also the primary ATLAS system for processing user and group analysis jobs, bringing further requirements for quick, flexible adaptation to the rapidly evolving analysis use cases of the early datataking phase, in addition to the high reliability, robustness and usability needed to provide efficient and transparent utilization of the grid for analysis users. We will describe how PanDA meets ATLAS requirements, the evolution of the system in light of operational experience, how the system has performed during the first LHC data-taking phase and plans for the future.

  19. Planck Early Results. XV. Spectral Energy Distributions and Radio Continuum Spectra of Northern Extragalactic Radio Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aatrokoski, J.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Angelakis, E.; Amaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and radio continuum spectra are presented for a northern sample of 104 extragalactic radio sources. based on the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) and simultaneous multi frequency data. The nine Planck frequencies, from 30 to 857 GHz, are complemented by a set of simultaneous observations ranging from radio to gamma-rays. This is the first extensive frequency coverage in the radio and millimetre domains for an essentially complete sample of extragalactic radio sources, and it shows how the individual shocks, each in their own phase of development, shape the radio spectra as they move in the relativistic jet. The SEDs presented in this paper were fitted with second and third degree polynomials to estimate the frequencies of the synchrotron and inverse Compton (IC) peaks, and the spectral indices of low and high frequency radio data, including the Planck ERCSC data, were calculated. SED modelling methods are discussed, with an emphasis on proper. physical modelling of the synchrotron bump using multiple components. Planck ERCSC data also suggest that the original accelerated electron energy spectrum could be much harder than commonly thought, with power-law index around 1.5 instead of the canonical 2.5. The implications of this are discussed for the acceleration mechanisms effective in blazar shock. Furthermore in many cases the Planck data indicate that gamma-ray emission must originate in the same shocks that produce the radio emission.

  20. Improvements for PanDA and intermediate layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Gen; Magradze, Erekle; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Nadal, Jordi; Quadt, Arnulf; Rzehorz, Gerhard [II. Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The PanDA Production and Distributed Analysis system is handling the ATLAS workload management for production and distributed analysis processing. It was designed for analysis as well as production for High Energy Physics. One of the advantages of this pilot based system is, that it has its own integrated monitoring solution. Monitoring is a method used in computing, it means that a certain process is observed and overseen and is usually also protocolled. In the case of a process or system failure, a responsible person should be notified and countermeasures taken. Since PanDA is very versatile, it can also be used to process jobs on a computing Cloud, instead of just using the Grid(WLCG). Cloud computing resources can be provided by private companies, that bill the resources that are actually being used, for example CPU power over time. The advantage of this is obvious if one looks at the cost. They are basically the same, whether a huge task is done on little CPU power over a long time or on plenty of CPU power in a short time. For these reasons, a close monitoring, for example by the PanDA system for the usage of Cloud resources is important.

  1. Star formation relations and CO spectral line energy distributions across the J-ladder and redshift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greve, T. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Leonidaki, I.; Xilouris, E. M. [Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing, National Observatory of Athens, GR-15236 Penteli (Greece); Weiß, A.; Henkel, C. [Max-Planck-Institut fur Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Zhang, Z.-Y. [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Van der Werf, P.; Meijerink, R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Aalto, S. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Observatory, 43994 Onsala (Sweden); Armus, L.; Díaz-Santos, T. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Evans, A. S. [Astronomy Department, University of Virginia Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Fischer, J. [Naval Research Laboratory, Remote Sensing Division, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Gao, Y. [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2 West Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); González-Alfonso, E. [Universidad de Alcala de Henares, Departamento de Fśica, Campus Universitario, E-28871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Harris, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Naylor, D. A. [Institute for Space Imaging Science, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB T1K 3M4 (Canada); Smith, H. A. [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Spaans, M., E-mail: t.greve@ucl.ac.uk [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); and others

    2014-10-20

    We present FIR [50-300 μm]–CO luminosity relations (i.e., log L{sub FIR}=αlog L{sub CO}{sup ′}+β) for the full CO rotational ladder from J = 1-0 up to J = 13-12 for a sample of 62 local (z ≤ 0.1) (Ultra) Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs; L {sub IR[8-1000} {sub μm]} > 10{sup 11} L {sub ☉}) using data from Herschel SPIRE-FTS and ground-based telescopes. We extend our sample to high redshifts (z > 1) by including 35 submillimeter selected dusty star forming galaxies from the literature with robust CO observations, and sufficiently well-sampled FIR/submillimeter spectral energy distributions (SEDs), so that accurate FIR luminosities can be determined. The addition of luminous starbursts at high redshifts enlarge the range of the FIR–CO luminosity relations toward the high-IR-luminosity end, while also significantly increasing the small amount of mid-J/high-J CO line data (J = 5-4 and higher) that was available prior to Herschel. This new data set (both in terms of IR luminosity and J-ladder) reveals linear FIR–CO luminosity relations (i.e., α ≅ 1) for J = 1-0 up to J = 5-4, with a nearly constant normalization (β ∼ 2). In the simplest physical scenario, this is expected from the (also) linear FIR–(molecular line) relations recently found for the dense gas tracer lines (HCN and CS), as long as the dense gas mass fraction does not vary strongly within our (merger/starburst)-dominated sample. However, from J = 6-5 and up to the J = 13-12 transition, we find an increasingly sublinear slope and higher normalization constant with increasing J. We argue that these are caused by a warm (∼100 K) and dense (>10{sup 4} cm{sup –3}) gas component whose thermal state is unlikely to be maintained by star-formation-powered far-UV radiation fields (and thus is no longer directly tied to the star formation rate). We suggest that mechanical heating (e.g., supernova-driven turbulence and shocks), and not cosmic rays, is the more likely source of energy for

  2. Activated carbon fiber obtained from textile PAN fiber to electrodes for supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Elen Leal da; Marcuzzo, Jossano Saldanha; Baldan, Mauricio Ribeiro; Cuna, Andres; Rodrigues, Aline Castilho; Goncalves, Emerson Sarmento

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Supercapacitors are devices for electrical energy storage with application in distribution power generation, electric vehicles, electronic equipment, among others. Current challenges in the development of supercapacitors focuses on making an increasing on system density of energy. An increase of energy accumulated in the supercapacitor electrode can be achieved by developing materials with high specific electrical capacitance and low electrical resistance. Furthermore, it is expected that the electrode material present a simple procedure for obtaining, low cost and environmentally friendly. Carbon fibers are interesting materials for use as a supercapacitor electrode. Among them are carbon fibers from polyacrylonitrile (PAN). In this work were studied activated carbon fibers obtained from textile polyacrylonitrile (ACF-PAN) with deposition of Fe particles aiming to use as active material of supercapacitor electrodes. ACFPAN and ACF-PAN-Fe were characterized by textural analysis, x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive x-ray (SEM-EDX), Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The behavior of the activated carbon fibers as a supercapacitor electrode was evaluated by galvanostatic charge and discharge curves, cyclic voltammetry and a electrochemical impedance using a symmetrical two-electrode Swagelok®-type cell and sulfuric acid as electrolyte. ACF-PAN had a high specific surface area, which makes it an interesting material for electrodes of supercapacitors. The electrical capacitance for the ACF-PAN is 96 F/g and ACF-PAN-Fe is 106 F/g both at a current density of 0.30 A/g. This increase in electrical capacitance can be related to the presence of iron oxides which are deposited on the activated carbon fiber. (author)

  3. CO Spectral Line Energy Distributions of Infrared-Luminous Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Padeli P.; van der Werf, Paul; Isaak, Kate; Xilouris, Emmanuel M.

    2010-06-01

    We report on new sensitive CO J = 6-5 line observations of several luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs; L IR(8-1000 μm) >~ 1011 L sun), 36% (8/22) of them ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) (L IR>1012 L sun), and two powerful local active galactic nuclei (AGNs)—the optically luminous QSO PG 1119+120 and the powerful radio galaxy 3C 293—using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. We combine these observations with existing low-J CO data and dust emission spectral energy distributions in the far-infrared-submillimeter from the literature to constrain the properties of the star-forming interstellar medium (ISM) in these systems. We then build the first local CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) for the global molecular gas reservoirs that reach up to high J-levels. These CO SLEDs are neither biased by strong lensing (which affects many of those constructed for high-redshift galaxies), nor suffer from undersampling of CO-bright regions (as most current high-J CO observations of nearby extended systems do). We find: (1) a significant influence of dust optical depths on the high-J CO lines, suppressing the J = 6-5 line emission in some of the most IR-luminous LIRGs, (2) low global CO line excitation possible even in vigorously star-forming systems, (3) the first case of a shock-powered high-excitation CO SLED in the radio galaxy 3C 293 where a powerful jet-ISM interaction occurs, and (4) unusually highly excitated gas in the optically powerful QSO PG 1119+120. In Arp 220 and possibly other (U)LIRGs very faint CO J = 6-5 lines can be attributed to significant dust optical depths at short submillimeter wavelengths immersing those lines in a strong dust continuum, and also causing the C+ line luminosity deficit often observed in such extreme starbursts. Re-analysis of the CO line ratios available for submillimeter galaxies suggests that similar dust opacities also may be present in these high-redshift starbursts, with genuinely low

  4. CO SPECTRAL LINE ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF INFRARED-LUMINOUS GALAXIES AND ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadopoulos, Padeli P.; Van der Werf, Paul; Isaak, Kate; Xilouris, Emmanuel M.

    2010-01-01

    We report on new sensitive CO J = 6-5 line observations of several luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs; L IR (8-1000 μm) ∼> 10 11 L sun ), 36% (8/22) of them ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) (L IR >10 12 L sun ), and two powerful local active galactic nuclei (AGNs)-the optically luminous QSO PG 1119+120 and the powerful radio galaxy 3C 293-using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. We combine these observations with existing low-J CO data and dust emission spectral energy distributions in the far-infrared-submillimeter from the literature to constrain the properties of the star-forming interstellar medium (ISM) in these systems. We then build the first local CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) for the global molecular gas reservoirs that reach up to high J-levels. These CO SLEDs are neither biased by strong lensing (which affects many of those constructed for high-redshift galaxies), nor suffer from undersampling of CO-bright regions (as most current high-J CO observations of nearby extended systems do). We find: (1) a significant influence of dust optical depths on the high-J CO lines, suppressing the J = 6-5 line emission in some of the most IR-luminous LIRGs, (2) low global CO line excitation possible even in vigorously star-forming systems, (3) the first case of a shock-powered high-excitation CO SLED in the radio galaxy 3C 293 where a powerful jet-ISM interaction occurs, and (4) unusually highly excitated gas in the optically powerful QSO PG 1119+120. In Arp 220 and possibly other (U)LIRGs very faint CO J = 6-5 lines can be attributed to significant dust optical depths at short submillimeter wavelengths immersing those lines in a strong dust continuum, and also causing the C + line luminosity deficit often observed in such extreme starbursts. Re-analysis of the CO line ratios available for submillimeter galaxies suggests that similar dust opacities also may be present in these high-redshift starbursts, with genuinely low

  5. Spectral Characterization of the Wave Energy Resource for Puerto Rico (PR) and the United States Virgin Islands (USVI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, C. G.; Canals, M.; Irizarry, A. A.

    2016-02-01

    Nowadays a significant amount of wave energy assessments have taken place due to the development of the ocean energy markets worldwide. Energy contained in surface gravity waves is scattered along frequency components that can be described using wave spectra. Correspondingly, characterization and quantification of harvestable wave energy is inherently dictated by the nature of the two-dimensional wave spectrum. The present study uses spectral wave data from the operational SWAN-based CariCOOS Nearshore Wave Model to evaluate the capture efficiency of multiple wave energy converters (WEC). This study revolves around accurately estimating available wave energy as a function of varying spectral distributions, effectively providing a detailed insight concerning local wave conditions for PR and USVI and the resulting available-energy to generated-power ratio. Results in particular, provide a comprehensive characterization of three years' worth of SWAN-based datasets by outlining where higher concentrations of wave energy are localized in the spectrum. Subsequently, the aforementioned datasets were processed to quantify the amount of energy incident on two proposed sites located in PR and USVI. Results were largely influenced by local trade wind activity, which drive predominant sea states, and the amount of North-Atlantic swells that propagate towards the region. Each wave event was numerically analyzed in the frequency domain to evaluate the capacity of a WEC to perform under different spectral distribution scenarios, allowing for a correlation between electrical power output and spectral energy distribution to be established.

  6. The radio spectral energy distribution of infrared-faint radio sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, A.; Norris, R. P.; Middelberg, E.; Seymour, N.; Spitler, L. R.; Emonts, B. H. C.; Franzen, T. M. O.; Hunstead, R.; Intema, H. T.; Marvil, J.; Parker, Q. A.; Sirothia, S. K.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Bell, M.; Bernardi, G.; Bowman, J. D.; Briggs, F.; Cappallo, R. J.; Callingham, J. R.; Deshpande, A. A.; Dwarakanath, K. S.; For, B.-Q.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hancock, P.; Hazelton, B. J.; Hindson, L.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kapińska, A. D.; Kaplan, D. L.; Lenc, E.; Lonsdale, C. J.; McKinley, B.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morales, M. F.; Morgan, E.; Morgan, J.; Oberoi, D.; Offringa, A.; Ord, S. M.; Prabu, T.; Procopio, P.; Udaya Shankar, N.; Srivani, K. S.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Tingay, S. J.; Wayth, R. B.; Webster, R. L.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.; Wu, C.; Zheng, Q.; Bannister, K. W.; Chippendale, A. P.; Harvey-Smith, L.; Heywood, I.; Indermuehle, B.; Popping, A.; Sault, R. J.; Whiting, M. T.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) are a class of radio-loud (RL) active galactic nuclei (AGN) at high redshifts (z ≥ 1.7) that are characterised by their relative infrared faintness, resulting in enormous radio-to-infrared flux density ratios of up to several thousand. Aims: Because of their optical and infrared faintness, it is very challenging to study IFRS at these wavelengths. However, IFRS are relatively bright in the radio regime with 1.4 GHz flux densities of a few to a few tens of mJy. Therefore, the radio regime is the most promising wavelength regime in which to constrain their nature. We aim to test the hypothesis that IFRS are young AGN, particularly GHz peaked-spectrum (GPS) and compact steep-spectrum (CSS) sources that have a low frequency turnover. Methods: We use the rich radio data set available for the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey fields, covering the frequency range between 150 MHz and 34 GHz with up to 19 wavebands from different telescopes, and build radio spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for 34 IFRS. We then study the radio properties of this class of object with respect to turnover, spectral index, and behaviour towards higher frequencies. We also present the highest-frequency radio observations of an IFRS, observed with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer at 105 GHz, and model the multi-wavelength and radio-far-infrared SED of this source. Results: We find IFRS usually follow single power laws down to observed frequencies of around 150 MHz. Mostly, the radio SEDs are steep (α IFRS show statistically significantly steeper radio SEDs than the broader RL AGN population. Our analysis reveals that the fractions of GPS and CSS sources in the population of IFRS are consistent with the fractions in the broader RL AGN population. We find that at least % of IFRS contain young AGN, although the fraction might be significantly higher as suggested by the steep SEDs and the compact morphology of IFRS. The detailed multi

  7. Ecology and Distribution of Copepods from the Salt Pan Ecosystems of Mumbai, West Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Stephen, R.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; NaveenKumar, K.R.; Nair, V.R.

    Ecology, distribution and diversity of Copepod collected from two salt pans of Mumbai, India, are presented. Copepods, the mai zooplankton components, consisted mainly of Bestiolina similis, Acartia southwelli, Oithona sp., O. similis, O. hebes...

  8. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF MARKARIAN 421: THE MISSING PIECE OF ITS SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Buehler, R.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bonamente, E.; Bouvier, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the γ-ray activity of the high-synchrotron-peaked BL Lacertae object Markarian 421 (Mrk 421) during the first 1.5 years of Fermi operation, from 2008 August 5 to 2010 March 12. We find that the Large Area Telescope (LAT) γ-ray spectrum above 0.3 GeV can be well described by a power-law function with photon index Γ = 1.78 ± 0.02 and average photon flux F(> 0.3 GeV) = (7.23 ± 0.16) x 10 -8 ph cm -2 s -1 . Over this time period, the Fermi-LAT spectrum above 0.3 GeV was evaluated on seven-day-long time intervals, showing significant variations in the photon flux (up to a factor ∼3 from the minimum to the maximum flux) but mild spectral variations. The variability amplitude at X-ray frequencies measured by RXTE/ASM and Swift/BAT is substantially larger than that in γ-rays measured by Fermi-LAT, and these two energy ranges are not significantly correlated. We also present the first results from the 4.5 month long multifrequency campaign on Mrk 421, which included the VLBA, Swift, RXTE, MAGIC, the F-GAMMA, GASP-WEBT, and other collaborations and instruments that provided excellent temporal and energy coverage of the source throughout the entire campaign (2009 January 19 to 2009 June 1). During this campaign, Mrk 421 showed a low activity at all wavebands. The extensive multi-instrument (radio to TeV) data set provides an unprecedented, complete look at the quiescent spectral energy distribution (SED) for this source. The broadband SED was reproduced with a leptonic (one-zone synchrotron self-Compton) and a hadronic model (synchrotron proton blazar). Both frameworks are able to describe the average SED reasonably well, implying comparable jet powers but very different characteristics for the blazar emission site.

  9. Seat pan and backrest pressure distribution while sitting in office chairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemp, Roland; Taylor, William R; Lorenzetti, Silvio

    2016-03-01

    Nowadays, an increasing amount of time is spent seated, especially in office environments, where sitting comfort and support are increasingly important due to the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders. The aim of this study was to develop a methodology for chair-specific sensor mat calibration, to evaluate the interconnections between specific pressure parameters and to establish those that are most meaningful and significant in order to differentiate pressure distribution measures between office chairs. The shape of the exponential calibration function was highly influenced by the material properties and geometry of the office chairs, and therefore a chair-specific calibration proved to be essential. High correlations were observed between the eight analysed pressure parameters, whereby the pressure parameters could be reduced to a set of four and three parameters for the seat pan and the backrest respectively. In order to find significant differences between office chairs, gradient parameters should be analysed for the seat pan, whereas for the backrest almost all parameters are suitable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Distribution of shape elongations of main belt asteroids derived from Pan-STARRS1 photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulková, H.; Nortunen, H.; Ďurech, J.; Kaasalainen, M.; Vereš, P.; Jedicke, R.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Mommert, M.; Trilling, D. E.; Schunová-Lilly, E.; Magnier, E. A.; Waters, C.; Flewelling, H.

    2018-04-01

    Context. A considerable amount of photometric data is produced by surveys such as Pan-STARRS, LONEOS, WISE, or Catalina. These data are a rich source of information about the physical properties of asteroids. There are several possible approaches for using these data. Light curve inversion is a typical method that works with individual asteroids. Our approach in focusing on large groups of asteroids, such as dynamical families and taxonomic classes, is statistical; the data are not sufficient for individual models. Aim. Our aim is to study the distributions of shape elongation b/a and the spin axis latitude β for various subpopulations of asteroids and to compare our results, based on Pan-STARRS1 survey, with statistics previously carried out using various photometric databases, such as Lowell and WISE. Methods: We used the LEADER algorithm to compare the b/a and β distributions for various subpopulations of asteroids. The algorithm creates a cumulative distributive function (CDF) of observed brightness variations, and computes the b/a and β distributions with analytical basis functions that yield the observed CDF. A variant of LEADER is used to solve the joint distributions for synthetic populations to test the validity of the method. Results: When comparing distributions of shape elongation for groups of asteroids with different diameters D, we found that there are no differences for D < 25 km. We also constructed distributions for asteroids with different rotation periods and revealed that the fastest rotators with P = 0 - 4 h are more spheroidal than the population with P = 4-8 h.

  11. Spectral distribution study of nuclei in 2p-1f shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, R.; Parikh, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    Systematics of nuclei in the beginning of fp-shell are investigated using the spectral distribution method of French. The centroid energies and widths for various distributions are evaluated using the interaction of Kuo with the modification suggested by McGrory et al. The two moment distributions are used to determine ground state energies, fractional occupancy of the single particle orbits for ground states and low lying spectra of various nuclei in this shell. The results are compared with the deformed configuration mixing calculations of Dhar et al. The goodness of Wigner SU(4) symmetry in these nuclei has been investigated. The mixing of various SU(4) representations near the ground state provides a measure of symmetry mixing and the substantial admixture in most of the cases shows that it is badly broken, largely due to the single particle spin orbit coupling. (author)

  12. CO Spectral Line Energy Distributions in Galactic Sources: Empirical Interpretation of Extragalactic Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indriolo, Nick; Bergin, E. A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 S. University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Goicoechea, J. R.; Cernicharo, J. [Grupo de Astrofísica Molecular, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC) E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Gerin, M.; Gusdorf, A. [LERMA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, École normale supérieure, F-75005, Paris (France); Lis, D. C. [LERMA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, F-75014, Paris (France); Schilke, P., E-mail: nindriolo@stsci.edu [I. Physikalisches Institut der Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Str. 77, D-50937 Köln (Germany)

    2017-02-10

    The relative populations in rotational transitions of CO can be useful for inferring gas conditions and excitation mechanisms at work in the interstellar medium. We present CO emission lines from rotational transitions observed with Herschel /HIFI in the star-forming cores Orion S, Orion KL, Sgr B2(M), and W49N. Integrated line fluxes from these observations are combined with those from Herschel /PACS observations of the same sources to construct CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) from 5≤ J{sub u} ≤ 48. These CO SLEDs are compared to those reported in other galaxies, with the intention of empirically determining which mechanisms dominate excitation in such systems. We find that CO SLEDs in Galactic star-forming cores cannot be used to reproduce those observed in other galaxies, although the discrepancies arise primarily as a result of beam filling factors. The much larger regions sampled by the Herschel beams at distances of several megaparsecs contain significant amounts of cooler gas, which dominate the extragalactic CO SLEDs, in contrast to observations of Galactic star-forming regions, which are focused specifically on cores containing primarily hot molecular gas.

  13. Universality of many-body two-nucleon momentum distributions: Correlated nucleon spectral function of complex nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciofi degli Atti, Claudio; Morita, Hiko

    2017-12-01

    Background: The nuclear spectral function is a fundamental quantity that describes the mean-field and short-range correlation dynamics of nucleons embedded in the nuclear medium; its knowledge is a prerequisite for the interpretation of various electroweak scattering processes off nuclear targets aimed at providing fundamental information on strong and weak interactions. Whereas in the case of the three-nucleon and, partly, the four-nucleon systems, the spectral function can be calculated ab initio within a nonrelativistic many-body Schroedinger approach, in the case of complex nuclei only models of the correlated, high-momentum part of the spectral function are available so far. Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a new approach such that the spectral function for a specific nucleus can be obtained from a reliable many-body calculation based upon realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions, thus avoiding approximations leading to adjustable parameters. Methods: The expectation value of the nuclear many-body Hamiltonian, containing realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction of the Argonne family, is evaluated variationally by a normalization-conserving linked-cluster expansion and the resulting many-body correlated wave functions are used to calculate the one-nucleon and the two-nucleon momentum distributions; by analyzing the high-momentum behavior of the latter, the spectral function can be expressed in terms of a transparent convolution formula involving the relative and center-of-mass (c.m.) momentum distributions in specific regions of removal energy E and momentum k . Results: It is found that as a consequence of the factorization of the many-body wave functions at short internucleon separations, the high-momentum behavior of the two-nucleon momentum distributions in A =3 ,4 ,12 ,16 ,40 nuclei factorizes, at proper values of the relative and c.m. momenta, into the c.m. and relative momentum distributions, with the latter exhibiting a universal A

  14. Spectral energy distribution analysis of class I and class II FU Orionis stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gramajo, Luciana V.; Gómez, Mercedes [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Argentina, Laprida 854, 5000 Córdoba (Argentina); Rodón, Javier A., E-mail: luciana@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: mercedes@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: jrodon@eso.org [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile)

    2014-06-01

    FU Orionis stars (FUors) are eruptive pre-main sequence objects thought to represent quasi-periodic or recurring stages of enhanced accretion during the low-mass star-forming process. We characterize the sample of known and candidate FUors in a homogeneous and consistent way, deriving stellar and circumstellar parameters for each object. We emphasize the analysis in those parameters that are supposed to vary during the FUor stage. We modeled the spectral energy distributions of 24 of the 26 currently known FUors, using the radiative transfer code of Whitney et al. We compare our models with those obtained by Robitaille et al. for Taurus class II and I sources in quiescence periods by calculating the cumulative distribution of the different parameters. FUors have more massive disks: we find that ∼80% of the disks in FUors are more massive than any Taurus class II and I sources in the sample. Median values for the disk mass accretion rates are ∼10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} versus ∼10{sup –5} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} for standard young stellar objects (YSOs) and FUors, respectively. While the distributions of envelope mass accretion rates for class I FUors and standard class I objects are similar, FUors, on average, have higher envelope mass accretion rates than standard class II and class I sources. Most FUors (∼70%) have envelope mass accretion rates above 10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. In contrast, 60% of the classical YSO sample has an accretion rate below this value. Our results support the current scenario in which changes experimented by the circumstellar disk explain the observed properties of these stars. However, the increase in the disk mass accretion rate is smaller than theoretically predicted, although in good agreement with previous determinations.

  15. Configuration-seniority spectral distributions in Ni62

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitz, S.; Quesne, C.

    1976-01-01

    Configuration-seniority spectral distributions are used to analyse some properties of Ni 62 , and the results compared with those of shell model. The goodness of the symplectic symmetry is discussed by investigating the distributions with fixed seniority in every orbit

  16. Radiographic information theory: correction for x-ray spectral distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodie, I.; Gutcheck, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    A more complete computational method is developed to account for the effect of the spectral distribution of the incident x-ray fluence on the minimum exposure required to record a specified information set in a diagnostic radiograph. It is shown that an earlier, less rigorous, but simpler computational technique does not introduce serious errors provided that both a good estimate of the mean energy per photon can be made and the detector does not contain an absorption edge in the spectral range. Also shown is that to a first approximation, it is immaterial whether the detecting surface counts the number of photons incident from each pixel or measures the energy incident on each pixel. A previous result is confirmed that, for mammography, the present methods of processing data from the detector utilize only a few percent of the incident information, suggesting that techniques can be developed for obtaining mammograms at substantially lower doses than those presently used. When used with film-screen combinations, x-ray tubes with tungsten anodes should require substantially lower exposures than devices using molybdenum anodes, when both are operated at their optimal voltage

  17. Integration of PanDA workload management system with Titan supercomputer at OLCF

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, K.; Klimentov, A.; Oleynik, D.; Panitkin, S.; Petrosyan, A.; Schovancova, J.; Vaniachine, A.; Wenaus, T.

    2015-12-01

    The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) workload management system (WMS) was developed to meet the scale and complexity of LHC distributed computing for the ATLAS experiment. While PanDA currently distributes jobs to more than 100,000 cores at well over 100 Grid sites, the future LHC data taking runs will require more resources than Grid computing can possibly provide. To alleviate these challenges, ATLAS is engaged in an ambitious program to expand the current computing model to include additional resources such as the opportunistic use of supercomputers. We will describe a project aimed at integration of PanDA WMS with Titan supercomputer at Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). The current approach utilizes a modified PanDA pilot framework for job submission to Titan's batch queues and local data management, with light-weight MPI wrappers to run single threaded workloads in parallel on Titan's multicore worker nodes. It also gives PanDA new capability to collect, in real time, information about unused worker nodes on Titan, which allows precise definition of the size and duration of jobs submitted to Titan according to available free resources. This capability significantly reduces PanDA job wait time while improving Titan's utilization efficiency. This implementation was tested with a variety of Monte-Carlo workloads on Titan and is being tested on several other supercomputing platforms. Notice: This manuscript has been authored, by employees of Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The publisher by accepting the manuscript for publication acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

  18. Migration of ATLAS PanDA to CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, Graeme Andrew; Klimentov, Alexei; Maeno, Tadashi; Nevski, Pavel; Nowak, Marcin; De Castro Faria Salgado, Pedro Emanuel; Wenaus, Torre; Koblitz, Birger; Lamanna, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS Production and Distributed Analysis System (PanDA) is a key component of the ATLAS distributed computing infrastructure. All ATLAS production jobs, and a substantial amount of user and group analysis jobs, pass through the PanDA system, which manages their execution on the grid. PanDA also plays a key role in production task definition and the data set replication request system. PanDA has recently been migrated from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), a process we describe here. We discuss how the new infrastructure for PanDA, which relies heavily on services provided by CERN IT, was introduced in order to make the service as reliable as possible and to allow it to be scaled to ATLAS's increasing need for distributed computing. The migration involved changing the backend database for PanDA from MySQL to Oracle, which impacted upon the database schemas. The process by which the client code was optimised for the new database backend is discussed. We describe the procedure by which the new database infrastructure was tested and commissioned for production use. Operations during the migration had to be planned carefully to minimise disruption to ongoing ATLAS offline computing. All parts of the migration were fully tested before commissioning the new infrastructure and the gradual migration of computing resources to the new system allowed any problems of scaling to be addressed.

  19. Evaluation of the spectral distribution of X-ray beams from measurements on the scattered radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casnati, E.; Baraldi, C.

    1980-01-01

    Most of the phenomena activated by photons with energies below 100 keV show an apparent or real dependence on the quantum energy. Therefore, knowledge of the beam energy characteristics is of primary importance for interpretation of the irradiation results. The greatest difficulty arises from the high flux density of the beams usually employed which does not allow direct measurements of the beam. A method was developed which permits evaluation of the spectral distribution of the X-ray beam from a spectrometric measurement of the radiation scattered by a thin foil of a suitable metal. This makes possible a new and more rational approach to the measurement of X-rays in the energy range where the interaction parameters show a large photon energy dependence. The corrections required by the presence of some collateral effects, among which the most important is the coexistence of the coherent and incoherent scattering, must be evaluated. The knowledge of the spectral distribution is of immediate usefulness for studies of radiation damage in biological and other materials, for the calibration of radiation measuring instruments and for the improvement of the radiological instrumentation response which contributes to reducing the patient's dose. (H.K.)

  20. Modelling the cosmic spectral energy distribution and extragalactic background light over all time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, S. K.; Driver, S. P.; Davies, L. J. M.; Lagos, C. d. P.; Robotham, A. S. G.

    2018-02-01

    We present a phenomological model of the cosmic spectral energy distribution (CSED) and the integrated galactic light (IGL) over all cosmic time. This model, based on an earlier model by Driver et al., attributes the cosmic star formation history (CSFH) to two processes - first, chaotic clump accretion and major mergers, resulting in the early-time formation of bulges and secondly, cold gas accretion, resulting in late-time disc formation. Under the assumption of a Universal Chabrier initial mass function, we combine the Bruzual & Charlot stellar libraries, the Charlot & Fall dust attenuation prescription and template spectra for emission by dust and active galactic nuclei to predict the CSED - pre- and post-dust attenuation - and the IGL throughout cosmic time. The phenomological model, as constructed, adopts a number of basic axioms and empirical results and has minimal free parameters. We compare the model output, as well as predictions from the semi-analytic model GALFORM to recent estimates of the CSED out to z = 1. By construction, our empirical model reproduces the full energy output of the Universe from the ultraviolet to the far-infrared extremely well. We use the model to derive predictions of the stellar and dust mass densities, again finding good agreement. We find that GALFORM predicts the CSED for z < 0.3 in good agreement with the observations. This agreement becomes increasingly poor towards z = 1, when the model CSED is ˜50 per cent fainter. The latter is consistent with the model underpredicting the CSFH. As a consequence, GALFORM predicts a ˜30 per cent fainter IGL.

  1. Spectral re-distribution and surface loss effects in Swift XRT (XMM-Newton EPIC) MOS CCDs

    CERN Document Server

    Short, A D; Turner, M J L

    2002-01-01

    In the course of testing and selecting the EPIC MOS CCDs for the XMM-Newton observatory, the developed a Monte-Carlo model of the CCD response. Among other things, this model was used to investigate surface loss effects evident at low energies. By fitting laboratory data, these losses were characterised as a simple function of X-ray interaction depth and this result enabled the spectral re-distribution itself to be modelled as a simple analytical function. Subsequently, this analytical function has been used to generate the response matrix for the EPIC MOS instruments and will now be employed to model the spectral re-distribution for the Swift XRT CCD.

  2. PAN SHARPENING QUALITY INVESTIGATION OF TURKISH IN-OPERATION REMOTE SENSING SATELLITES: APPLICATIONS WITH RASAT AND GÖKTÜRK-2 IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ozendi

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate pan-sharpening performance of RASAT and GÖKTÜRK-2 images. For this purpose, pan-sharpened images are generated using most popular pan-sharpening methods IHS, Brovey and PCA at first. This procedure is followed by quantitative evaluation of pan-sharpened images using Correlation Coefficient (CC, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE, Relative Average Spectral Error (RASE, Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM and Erreur Relative Globale Adimensionnelle de Synthése (ERGAS metrics. For generation of pan-sharpened images and computation of metrics SharpQ tool is used which is developed with MATLAB computing language. According to metrics, PCA derived pan-sharpened image is the most similar one to multispectral image for RASAT, and Brovey derived pan-sharpened image is the most similar one to multispectral image for GÖKTÜRK-2. Finally, pan-sharpened images are evaluated qualitatively in terms of object availability and completeness for various land covers (such as urban, forest and flat areas by a group of operators who are experienced in remote sensing imagery.

  3. Seasonality of Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere using the MIPAS-E instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Moore

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding onboard ENVISAT (MIPAS–E offers the opportunity to detect and spectrally resolve many atmospheric minor constituents affecting atmospheric chemistry. In this paper, we retrieve global, seasonal PAN volume mixing ratio (vmr data from MIPAS-E measurements made in January, March, August and October 2003 and present results from this scheme between approximately 300 and 150 hPa. The total error on a single PAN retrieval is better than 20% outside the tropics and better than 50% in the tropics where uncertainties in water vapor dominate the total error budget. We observe clear differences in the seasonal cycle of PAN in our data, linked closely to biomass burning regions and growing seasons. Highest Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude PAN vmrs were observed in August (300–600 pptv on average compared with the January and October data (less than 250 pptv on average. In the March 2003 data we observe highest PAN vmrs in the tropics with evidence of vmrs between 600 and 1000 pptv over Eastern Asia and over the Central Pacific at 333 hPa. The vertical distribution of PAN as a function of latitude (i.e. the zonal mean highlights the strong inter-annual variability of PAN in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS, most pronounced poleward of 40° N (up to 400 pptv over the year. The variability of PAN in the tropical UTLS is also significant and we derive a variability of up to 250 pptv in the averages between January and October 2003. These results represent the first seasonal observations of PAN in the UTLS.

  4. Estimation of spectral distribution of sky radiance using a commercial digital camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Masanori; Iwabuchi, Hironobu; Murata, Isao

    2016-01-10

    Methods for estimating spectral distribution of sky radiance from images captured by a digital camera and for accurately estimating spectral responses of the camera are proposed. Spectral distribution of sky radiance is represented as a polynomial of the wavelength, with coefficients obtained from digital RGB counts by linear transformation. The spectral distribution of radiance as measured is consistent with that obtained by spectrometer and radiative transfer simulation for wavelengths of 430-680 nm, with standard deviation below 1%. Preliminary applications suggest this method is useful for detecting clouds and studying the relation between irradiance at the ground and cloud distribution.

  5. Deuterium depleted water effect on seawater spectral energy and marine phytoplankton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, Maria; Zaharia, Mihaela; Cristescu, T.M.; Titescu, Gh.

    2002-01-01

    Solar radiation is the primary source of new energy in most aquatic ecosystems and it is the sun variability in amount and spectral distribution that drives many of the changes in material flux on different time and space scales. The dependency of ecosystem dynamics on sunlight is largely attributable to the simple fact that plants require solar radiation to carry out photosynthesis. The resulting primary production (the rate of the plant growth and reproduction) is an index of aquatic processes, including food web dynamics and biogeochemical cycling of compounds that affect everything from aquatic chemistry to regional and global weather patterns. Light dependent processes in plants (photo-synthesis, photoinhibition, phototaxis and photoprotection) and in aquatic environment, animal vision and microbial mediation of the photo-dissociation of chemical have evolved over millennia and most of them are regulated or at least influenced by the spectral composition of the light field The paper deals with the investigation of relations between water spectral energy modified by deuterium depleted water (DDW) and the microphyte alga Tetraselmis suecica or the total marine micro-phytoplankton growth. (authors)

  6. Spectral and energy efficiency analysis of uplink heterogeneous networks with small-cells on edge

    KAUST Repository

    Shakir, Muhammad Zeeshan

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a tractable mathematical framework to analyze the spectral and energy efficiency of an operator initiated deployment of the small-cells (e.g., femtocells) where the small-cell base stations are deliberately positioned around the edge of the macrocell. The considered deployment facilitates the cell-edge mobile users in terms of their coverage, spectral, and energy efficiency and is referred to as cell-on-edge (COE) configuration. The reduction in energy consumption is achieved by considering fast power control where the mobile users transmit with adaptive power to compensate the path loss, shadowing and fading. In particular, we develop a moment generating function (MGF) based approach to derive analytical bounds on the area spectral efficiency and exact expressions for the energy efficiency of the mobile users in the considered COE configuration over generalized-K fading channels. Besides the COE configuration, the derived bounds are also shown to be useful in evaluating the performance of random small-cell deployments, e.g., uniformly distributed small-cells. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the improvements in spectral and energy efficiency of the COE configuration with respect to macro-only networks and other unplanned deployment strategies. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. THE HOST GALAXY PROPERTIES OF VARIABILITY SELECTED AGN IN THE PAN-STARRS1 MEDIUM DEEP SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinis, S.; Gezari, S.; Kumar, S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Burgett, W. S.; Flewelling, H.; Huber, M. E.; Kaiser, N.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2016-07-20

    We study the properties of 975 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) selected by variability in the Pan-STARRS1 Medium deep Survey. Using complementary multi-wavelength data from the ultraviolet to the far-infrared, we use spectral energy distribution fitting to determine the AGN and host properties at z < 1 and compare to a well-matched control sample. We confirm the trend previously observed: that the variability amplitude decreases with AGN luminosity, but we also observe that the slope of this relation steepens with wavelength, resulting in a “redder when brighter” trend at low luminosities. Our results show that AGNs are hosted by more massive hosts than control sample galaxies, while the rest frame dust-corrected NUV r color distribution of AGN hosts is similar to control galaxies. We find a positive correlation between the AGN luminosity and star formation rate (SFR), independent of redshift. AGN hosts populate the entire range of SFRs within and outside of the Main Sequence of star-forming galaxies. Comparing the distribution of AGN hosts and control galaxies, we show that AGN hosts are less likely to be hosted by quiescent galaxies and more likely to be hosted by Main Sequence or starburst galaxies.

  8. A study on the applicability of Recommender Systems for the Production and Distributed Analysis system PanDA of the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Titov, Mikhail; The ATLAS collaboration; De, Kaushik; Klimentov, Alexei

    2017-01-01

    Scientific computing has advanced in a way of how to deal with massive amounts of data, since the production capacities have increased significantly for the last decades. Most large science experiments require vast computing and data storage resources in order to provide results or predictions based on the data obtained. For scientific distributed computing systems with hundreds of petabytes of data and thousands of users it is important to keep track not just of how data is distributed in the system, but also of individual user's interests in the distributed data (reveal implicit interconnection between user and data objects). This however requires the collection and use of specific statistics such as correlations between data distribution, the mechanics of data distribution, and mainly user preferences. This work focuses on user activities (specifically, data usages) and interests in such a distributed computing system, namely PanDA (Production ANd Distributed Analysis system). PanDA is a high-performance w...

  9. A study of the applicability of recommender systems for the Production and Distributed Analysis system PanDA of the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Titov, Mikhail; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Scientific computing has advanced in a way of how to deal with massive amounts of data, since the production capacities have increased significantly for the last decades. Most large science experiments require vast computing and data storage resources in order to provide results or predictions based on the data obtained. For scientific distributed computing systems with hundreds of petabytes of data and thousands of users it is important to keep track not just of how data is distributed in the system, but also of individual user's interests in the distributed data (reveal implicit interconnection between user and data objects). This however requires the collection and use of specific statistics such as correlations between data distribution, the mechanics of data distribution, and mainly user preferences. This work focuses on user activities (specifically, data usages) and interests in such a distributed computing system, namely PanDA (Production ANd Distributed Analysis system). PanDA is a high-performance w...

  10. Measuring Dark Energy Properties with Photometrically Classified Pan-STARRS Supernovae. II. Cosmological Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D. O.; Scolnic, D. M.; Riess, A. G.; Rest, A.; Kirshner, R. P.; Berger, E.; Kessler, R.; Pan, Y.-C.; Foley, R. J.; Chornock, R.; Ortega, C. A.; Challis, P. J.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Draper, P. W.; Flewelling, H.; Huber, M. E.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Metcalfe, N.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C.; Gall, E. E. E.; Kotak, R.; McCrum, M.; Smartt, S. J.; Smith, K. W.

    2018-04-01

    We use 1169 Pan-STARRS supernovae (SNe) and 195 low-z (z used to infer unbiased cosmological parameters by using a Bayesian methodology that marginalizes over core-collapse (CC) SN contamination. Our sample contains nearly twice as many SNe as the largest previous SN Ia compilation. Combining SNe with cosmic microwave background (CMB) constraints from Planck, we measure the dark energy equation-of-state parameter w to be ‑0.989 ± 0.057 (stat+sys). If w evolves with redshift as w(a) = w 0 + w a (1 ‑ a), we find w 0 = ‑0.912 ± 0.149 and w a = ‑0.513 ± 0.826. These results are consistent with cosmological parameters from the Joint Light-curve Analysis and the Pantheon sample. We try four different photometric classification priors for Pan-STARRS SNe and two alternate ways of modeling CC SN contamination, finding that no variant gives a w differing by more than 2% from the baseline measurement. The systematic uncertainty on w due to marginalizing over CC SN contamination, {σ }wCC}=0.012, is the third-smallest source of systematic uncertainty in this work. We find limited (1.6σ) evidence for evolution of the SN color-luminosity relation with redshift, a possible systematic that could constitute a significant uncertainty in future high-z analyses. Our data provide one of the best current constraints on w, demonstrating that samples with ∼5% CC SN contamination can give competitive cosmological constraints when the contaminating distribution is marginalized over in a Bayesian framework.

  11. HerMES: Spectral energy distributions of submillimeter galaxies at z > 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.-S.; Rigopoulou, D.; Magdis, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Clements, D. L.; Dai, Y.; Fazio, G. G.; Bock, J. J.; Burgarella, D.; Chapman, S.; Cooray, A.; Farrah, D.; Glenn, J.; Oliver, S.; Smith, A. J.; Wang, L.; Page, M.; Symeonidis, M.; Riechers, D.; Roseboom, I.

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of the infrared properties for a sample of seven spectroscopically confirmed submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) at z > 4.0. By combining ground-based near-infrared, Spitzer IRAC and MIPS, Herschel SPIRE, and ground-based submillimeter/millimeter photometry, we construct their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and a composite model to fit the SEDs. The model includes a stellar emission component at λ rest < 3.5 μm, a hot dust component peaking at λ rest ∼ 5 μm, and cold dust component which becomes significant for λ rest > 50 μm. Six objects in the sample are detected at 250 and 350 μm. The dust temperatures for the sources in this sample are in the range of 40-80 K, and their L FIR ∼ 10 13 L ☉ qualifies them as hyper-luminous infrared galaxies. The mean FIR-radio index for this sample is around (q) = 2.2 indicating no radio excess in their radio emission. Most sources in the sample have 24 μm detections corresponding to a rest-frame 4.5 μm luminosity of Log 10 (L 4.5 /L ☉ ) = 11 ∼ 11.5. Their L 4.5 /L FIR ratios are very similar to those of starburst-dominated SMGs at z ∼ 2. The L CO – L FIR relation for this sample is consistent with that determined for local ULIRGs and SMGs at z ∼ 2. We conclude that SMGs at z > 4 are hotter and more luminous in the FIR but otherwise very similar to those at z ∼ 2. None of these sources show any sign of the strong QSO phase being triggered.

  12. NEW OPTICAL/ULTRAVIOLET COUNTERPARTS AND THE SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF NEARBY, THERMALLY EMITTING, ISOLATED NEUTRON STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, D. L.; Kamble, A.; Van Kerkwijk, M. H.; Ho, W. C. G.

    2011-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope optical and ultraviolet photometry for five nearby, thermally emitting neutron stars. With these measurements, all seven such objects have confirmed optical and ultraviolet counterparts. Combining our data with archival space-based photometry, we present spectral energy distributions for all sources and measure the 'optical excess': the factor by which the measured photometry exceeds that extrapolated from X-ray spectra. We find that the majority have optical and ultraviolet fluxes that are inconsistent with that expected from thermal (Rayleigh-Jeans) emission, exhibiting more flux at longer wavelengths. We also find that most objects have optical excesses between 5 and 12, but that one object (RX J2143.0+0654) exceeds the X-ray extrapolation by a factor of more than 50 at 5000 A, and that this is robust to uncertainties in the X-ray spectra and absorption. We consider explanations for this ranging from atmospheric effects, magnetospheric emission, and resonant scattering, but find that none is satisfactory.

  13. Effects of the Distributions of Energy or Charge Transfer Rates on Spectral Hole Burning in Pigment-Protein Complexes at Low Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herascu, N.; Ahmouda, S.; Picorel, R.; Seibert, M.; Jankowiak, R.; Zazubovich, V.

    2011-12-22

    Effects of the distributions of excitation energy transfer (EET) rates (homogeneous line widths) on the nonphotochemical (resonant) spectral hole burning (SHB) processes in photosynthetic chlorophyll-protein complexes (reaction center [RC] and CP43 antenna of Photosystem II from spinach) are considered. It is demonstrated that inclusion of such a distribution results in somewhat more dispersive hole burning kinetics. More importantly, however, inclusion of the EET rate distributions strongly affects the dependence of the hole width on the fractional hole depth. Different types of line width distributions have been explored, including those resulting from Foerster type EET between weakly interacting pigments as well as Gaussian ones, which may be a reasonable approximation for those resulting, for instance, from so-called extended Foerster models. For Gaussian line width distributions, it is possible to determine the parameters of both line width and tunneling parameter distributions from SHB data without a priori knowledge of any of them. Concerning more realistic asymmetric distributions, we demonstrate, using the simple example of CP43 antenna, that one can use SHB modeling to estimate electrostatic couplings between pigments and support or exclude assignment of certain pigment(s) to a particular state.

  14. Spectral and dual-energy X-ray imaging for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredenberg, Erik

    2018-01-01

    Spectral imaging is an umbrella term for energy-resolved X-ray imaging in medicine. The technique makes use of the energy dependence of X-ray attenuation to either increase the contrast-to-noise ratio, or to provide quantitative image data and reduce image artefacts by so-called material decomposition. Spectral imaging is not new, but has gained interest in recent years because of rapidly increasing availability of spectral and dual-energy CT and the dawn of energy-resolved photon-counting detectors. This review examines the current technological status of spectral and dual-energy imaging and a number of practical applications of the technology in medicine.

  15. FUNDAMENTAL PARAMETERS AND SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF YOUNG AND FIELD AGE OBJECTS WITH MASSES SPANNING THE STELLAR TO PLANETARY REGIME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippazzo, Joseph C.; Rice, Emily L. [Department of Engineering Science and Physics, College of Staten Island, City University of New York, 2800 Victory Blvd, Staten Island, NY 10314 (United States); Faherty, Jacqueline; Cruz, Kelle L. [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Van Gordon, Mollie M. [Department of Geography, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Looper, Dagny L. [Tisch School of the Arts, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2015-09-10

    We combine optical, near-infrared, and mid-infrared spectra and photometry to construct expanded spectral energy distributions for 145 field age (>500 Myr) and 53 young (lower age estimate <500 Myr) ultracool dwarfs (M6-T9). This range of spectral types includes very low mass stars, brown dwarfs, and planetary mass objects, providing fundamental parameters across both the hydrogen and deuterium burning minimum masses for the largest sample assembled to date. A subsample of 29 objects have well constrained ages as probable members of a nearby young moving group. We use 182 parallaxes and 16 kinematic distances to determine precise bolometric luminosities (L{sub bol}) and radius estimates from evolutionary models give semi-empirical effective temperatures (T{sub eff}) for the full range of young and field age late-M, L, and T dwarfs. We construct age-sensitive relationships of luminosity, temperature, and absolute magnitude as functions of spectral type and absolute magnitude to disentangle the effects of degenerate physical parameters such as T{sub eff}, surface gravity, and clouds on spectral morphology. We report bolometric corrections in J for both field age and young objects and find differences of up to a magnitude for late-L dwarfs. Our correction in Ks shows a larger dispersion but not necessarily a different relationship for young and field age sequences. We also characterize the NIR–MIR reddening of low gravity L dwarfs and identify a systematically cooler T{sub eff} of up to 300 K from field age objects of the same spectral type and 400 K cooler from field age objects of the same M{sub H} magnitude.

  16. DUST SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS IN THE ERA OF HERSCHEL AND PLANCK: A HIERARCHICAL BAYESIAN-FITTING TECHNIQUE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Brandon C.; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Shetty, Rahul; Stutz, Amelia M.; Launhardt, Ralf; Kauffmann, Jens

    2012-01-01

    We present a hierarchical Bayesian method for fitting infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of dust emission to observed fluxes. Under the standard assumption of optically thin single temperature (T) sources, the dust SED as represented by a power-law-modified blackbody is subject to a strong degeneracy between T and the spectral index β. The traditional non-hierarchical approaches, typically based on χ 2 minimization, are severely limited by this degeneracy, as it produces an artificial anti-correlation between T and β even with modest levels of observational noise. The hierarchical Bayesian method rigorously and self-consistently treats measurement uncertainties, including calibration and noise, resulting in more precise SED fits. As a result, the Bayesian fits do not produce any spurious anti-correlations between the SED parameters due to measurement uncertainty. We demonstrate that the Bayesian method is substantially more accurate than the χ 2 fit in recovering the SED parameters, as well as the correlations between them. As an illustration, we apply our method to Herschel and submillimeter ground-based observations of the star-forming Bok globule CB244. This source is a small, nearby molecular cloud containing a single low-mass protostar and a starless core. We find that T and β are weakly positively correlated—in contradiction with the χ 2 fits, which indicate a T-β anti-correlation from the same data set. Additionally, in comparison to the χ 2 fits the Bayesian SED parameter estimates exhibit a reduced range in values.

  17. MOJAVE: Monitoring of jets in active galactic nuclei with VLBA experiments. XI. Spectral distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovatta, Talvikki [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Aller, Margo F.; Aller, Hugh D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 830 Dennison Building, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); Clausen-Brown, Eric; Kovalev, Yuri Y.; Pushkarev, Alexander B.; Savolainen, Tuomas [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Homan, Daniel C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Denison University, Granville, OH 43023 (United States); Lister, Matthew L., E-mail: thovatta@caltech.edu [Department of Physics, Purdue University, 525 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    We have obtained milliarcsecond-scale spectral index distributions for a sample of 190 extragalactic radio jets through the Monitoring of Jets in Active Galactic Nuclei with the VLBA Experiments (MOJAVE) project. The sources were observed in 2006 at 8.1, 8.4, 12.1, and 15.4 GHz, and we have determined spectral index maps between 8.1 and 15.4 GHz to study the four-frequency spectrum in individual jet features. We have performed detailed simulations to study the effects of image alignment and (u, v)-plane coverage on the spectral index maps to verify our results. We use the spectral index maps to study the spectral index evolution along the jet and determine the spectral distributions in different locations of the jets. The core spectral indices are on average flat with a mean value of +0.22 ± 0.03 for the sample, while the jet spectrum is in general steep with a mean index of –1.04 ± 0.03. A simple power-law fit is often inadequate for the core regions, as expected if the cores are partially self-absorbed. The overall jet spectrum steepens at a rate of about –0.001 to –0.004 per deprojected parsec when moving further out from the core with flat spectrum radio quasars having significantly steeper spectra (mean –1.09 ± 0.04) than the BL Lac objects (mean –0.80 ± 0.05). However, the spectrum in both types of objects flattens on average by ∼0.2 at the locations of the jet components indicating particle acceleration or density enhancements along the jet. The mean spectral index at the component locations of –0.81 ± 0.02 corresponds to a power-law index of ∼2.6 for the electron energy distribution. We find a significant trend that jet components with linear polarization parallel to the jet (magnetic field perpendicular to the jet) have flatter spectra, as expected for transverse shocks. Compared to quasars, BL Lacs have more jet components with perpendicular magnetic field alignment, which may explain their generally flatter spectra. The overall

  18. HERUS: the far-IR/submm spectral energy distributions of local ULIRGs and photometric atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, D. L.; Pearson, C.; Farrah, D.; Greenslade, J.; Bernard-Salas, Jeronimo; González-Alfonso, E.; Afonso, J.; Efstathiou, A.; Rigopoulou, D.; Lebouteiller, V.; Hurley, P. D.; Spoon, H.

    2018-04-01

    We present the Herschel-SPIRE photometric atlas for a complete flux limited sample of 43 local ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), selected at 60 μm by IRAS, as part of the HERschel ULIRG Survey (HERUS). Photometry observations were obtained using the SPIRE instrument at 250, 350, and 500 μm. We describe these observations, present the results, and combine the new observations with data from IRAS to examine the far-infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of these sources. We fit the observed SEDs of HERUS objects with a simple parametrized modified blackbody model, where temperature and emissivity β are free parameters. We compare the fitted values to those of non-ULIRG local galaxies, and find, in agreement with earlier results, that HERUS ULIRGs have warmer dust (median temperature T = 37.9 ± 4.7 K compared to 21.3 ± 3.4 K) but a similar β distribution (median β = 1.7 compared to 1.8) to the Herschel reference sample (HRS, Cortese et al. 2014) galaxies. Dust masses are found to be in the range of 107.5-109 M⊙, significantly higher than that of HRS sources. We compare our results for local ULIRGs with higher redshift samples selected at 250 and 850 μm. These latter sources generally have cooler dust and/or redder 100-to-250 μm colours than our 60 μm-selected ULIRGs. We show that this difference may in part be the result of the sources being selected at different wavelengths rather than being a simple indication of rapid evolution in the properties of the population.

  19. Pan-sharpening via compressed superresolution reconstruction and multidictionary learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Cheng; Liu, Fang; Li, Lingling; Jiao, Licheng; Hao, Hongxia; Shang, Ronghua; Li, Yangyang

    2018-01-01

    In recent compressed sensing (CS)-based pan-sharpening algorithms, pan-sharpening performance is affected by two key problems. One is that there are always errors between the high-resolution panchromatic (HRP) image and the linear weighted high-resolution multispectral (HRM) image, resulting in spatial and spectral information lost. The other is that the dictionary construction process depends on the nontruth training samples. These problems have limited applications to CS-based pan-sharpening algorithm. To solve these two problems, we propose a pan-sharpening algorithm via compressed superresolution reconstruction and multidictionary learning. Through a two-stage implementation, compressed superresolution reconstruction model reduces the error effectively between the HRP and the linear weighted HRM images. Meanwhile, the multidictionary with ridgelet and curvelet is learned for both the two stages in the superresolution reconstruction process. Since ridgelet and curvelet can better capture the structure and directional characteristics, a better reconstruction result can be obtained. Experiments are done on the QuickBird and IKONOS satellites images. The results indicate that the proposed algorithm is competitive compared with the recent CS-based pan-sharpening methods and other well-known methods.

  20. PanCanadian Energy Corporation 2001 progress report : Voluntary challenge and registry Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-10-01

    With extensive exploration and production activities stretching across Canada and reaching into the Gulf of Mexico, PanCanadian Energy Corporation is one of Canada's largest producers and marketers of crude oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids. PanCanadian is a committed supporter of the Climate Change Voluntary Challenge and Registry (VCR) program, whose aim is the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Through geological sequestration, improved operational efficiencies, research, public policy input, employee education, and regular reporting to external stakeholders, PanCanadian remains committed to greenhouse gas management. To date, the reductions amount to 2.5 million tonnes per year plus 103,000 net tonnes injected into the Weyburn project during 2000. The start-up of the Weyburn carbon dioxide injection project was the major focus of the efforts in 2000, along with improvements in the measurement processes used to prepare the reports. Assistance in the formulation of provincial and national strategies was provided. In section 1 of the document, a statement concerning senior management support was provided, and section 2 detailed the base year quantification. In section 3, the projection was discussed, followed by the targets in section 4. The measures to achieve targets were reviewed in section 5, and the results achieved were examined in section 6. Education, training and awareness were dealt with in section 7. 8 tabs., 3 figs

  1. PanDA: Exascale Federation of Resources for the ATLAS Experiment at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreiro Megino, Fernando; Caballero Bejar, Jose; De, Kaushik; Hover, John; Klimentov, Alexei; Maeno, Tadashi; Nilsson, Paul; Oleynik, Danila; Padolski, Siarhei; Panitkin, Sergey; Petrosyan, Artem; Wenaus, Torre

    2016-02-01

    After a scheduled maintenance and upgrade period, the world's largest and most powerful machine - the Large Hadron Collider(LHC) - is about to enter its second run at unprecedented energies. In order to exploit the scientific potential of the machine, the experiments at the LHC face computational challenges with enormous data volumes that need to be analysed by thousand of physics users and compared to simulated data. Given diverse funding constraints, the computational resources for the LHC have been deployed in a worldwide mesh of data centres, connected to each other through Grid technologies. The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) system was developed in 2005 for the ATLAS experiment on top of this heterogeneous infrastructure to seamlessly integrate the computational resources and give the users the feeling of a unique system. Since its origins, PanDA has evolved together with upcoming computing paradigms in and outside HEP, such as changes in the networking model, Cloud Computing and HPC. It is currently running steadily up to 200 thousand simultaneous cores (limited by the available resources for ATLAS), up to two million aggregated jobs per day and processes over an exabyte of data per year. The success of PanDA in ATLAS is triggering the widespread adoption and testing by other experiments. In this contribution we will give an overview of the PanDA components and focus on the new features and upcoming challenges that are relevant to the next decade of distributed computing workload management using PanDA.

  2. The ATLAS PanDA Pilot in Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, P; De, K; Stradling, A; Caballero, J; Maeno, T; Wenaus, T

    2011-01-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis system (PanDA) was designed to meet ATLAS requirements for a data-driven workload management system capable of operating at LHC data processing scale. Submitted jobs are executed on worker nodes by pilot jobs sent to the grid sites by pilot factories. This paper provides an overview of the PanDA pilot system and presents major features added in light of recent operational experience, including multi-job processing, advanced job recovery for jobs with output storage failures, gLExec based identity switching from the generic pilot to the actual user, and other security measures. The PanDA system serves all ATLAS distributed processing and is the primary system for distributed analysis; it is currently used at over 100 sites worldwide. We analyze the performance of the pilot system in processing real LHC data on the OSG, EGI and Nordugrid infrastructures used by ATLAS, and describe plans for its evolution.

  3. Global Infrared–Radio Spectral Energy Distributions of Galactic Massive Star-Forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povich, Matthew Samuel; Binder, Breanna Arlene

    2018-01-01

    We present a multiwavelength study of 30 Galactic massive star-forming regions. We fit multicomponent dust, blackbody, and power-law continuum models to 3.6 µm through 10 mm spectral energy distributions obtained from Spitzer, MSX, IRAS, Herschel, and Planck archival survey data. Averaged across our sample, ~20% of Lyman continuum photons emitted by massive stars are absorbed by dust before contributing to the ionization of H II regions, while ~50% of the stellar bolometric luminosity is absorbed and reprocessed by dust in the H II regions and surrounding photodissociation regions. The most luminous, infrared-bright regions that fully sample the upper stellar initial mass function (ionizing photon rates NC ≥ 1050 s–1 and total infrared luminosity LTIR ≥ 106.8 L⊙) have higher percentages of absorbed Lyman continuum photons (~40%) and dust-reprocessed starlight (~80%). The monochromatic 70-µm luminosity L70 is linearly correlated with LTIR, and on average L70/LTIR = 50%, in good agreement with extragalactic studies. Calibrated against the known massive stellar content in our sampled H II regions, we find that star formation rates based on L70 are in reasonably good agreement with extragalactic calibrations, when corrected for the smaller physical sizes of the Galactic regions. We caution that absorption of Lyman continuum photons prior to contributing to the observed ionizing photon rate may reduce the attenuation-corrected Hα emission, systematically biasing extragalactic calibrations toward lower star formation rates when applied to spatially-resolved studies of obscured star formation.This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under award CAREER-1454333.

  4. The Effects of Spectral Nudging on Arctic Temperature and Precipitation Extremes as Produced by the Pan-Arctic WRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glisan, J. M.; Gutowski, W. J.; Higgins, M.; Cassano, J. J.

    2011-12-01

    Pan-Arctic WRF (PAW) simulations produced using the 50-km wr50a domain developed for the fully-coupled Regional Arctic Climate Model (RACM) were found to produce deep atmospheric circulation biases over the northern Pacific Ocean, manifested in pressure, geopotential height, and temperature fields. Various remedies were unsuccessfully tested to correct these large biases, such as modifying the physical domain or using different initial/boundary conditions. Spectral (interior) nudging was introduced as a way of constraining the model to be more consistent with observed behavior. However, such control over numerical model behavior raises concerns over how much nudging may affect unforced variability and extremes. Strong nudging may reduce or filter out extreme events, since the nudging pushes the model toward a relatively smooth, large-scale state. The question then becomes - what is the minimum spectral nudging needed to correct the biases occurring on the RACM domain while not limiting PAW simulation of extreme events? To determine this, case studies were devised, using a six-member PAW ensemble on the RACM grid with varying spectral nudging strength. Two simulations were run, one in the cold season (January 2007) and one in a warm season (July 2007). Precipitation and 2-m temperature fields were extracted from the output and analyzed to determine how changing spectral nudging strength impacts both temporal and spatial temperature and precipitation extremes. The maximum and minimum temperatures at each point from among the ensemble members were examined, on the 95th confidence interval. The maximum and minimums over the simulation period will also be considered. Results suggest that there is a marked lack of sensitivity to the degrees of nudging. Moreover, it appears nudging strength can be considerably smaller than the standard strength and still produce reliably good simulations.

  5. PD2P : PanDA Dynamic Data Placement for ATLAS

    OpenAIRE

    Maeno, T; De, K; Panitkin, S

    2012-01-01

    The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) system plays a key role in the ATLAS distributed computing infrastructure. PanDA is the ATLAS workload management system for processing all Monte-Carlo (MC) simulation and data reprocessing jobs in addition to user and group analysis jobs. The PanDA Dynamic Data Placement (PD2P) system has been developed to cope with difficulties of data placement for ATLAS. We will describe the design of the new system, its performance during the past year of d...

  6. Evolution of the ATLAS PanDA workload management system for exascale computational science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeno, T; Klimentov, A; Panitkin, S; Schovancova, J; Wenaus, T; Yu, D; De, K; Nilsson, P; Oleynik, D; Petrosyan, A; Vaniachine, A

    2014-01-01

    An important foundation underlying the impressive success of data processing and analysis in the ATLAS experiment [1] at the LHC [2] is the Production and Distributed Analysis (PanDA) workload management system [3]. PanDA was designed specifically for ATLAS and proved to be highly successful in meeting all the distributed computing needs of the experiment. However, the core design of PanDA is not experiment specific. The PanDA workload management system is capable of meeting the needs of other data intensive scientific applications. Alpha-Magnetic Spectrometer [4], an astro-particle experiment on the International Space Station, and the Compact Muon Solenoid [5], an LHC experiment, have successfully evaluated PanDA and are pursuing its adoption. In this paper, a description of the new program of work to develop a generic version of PanDA will be given, as well as the progress in extending PanDA's capabilities to support supercomputers and clouds and to leverage intelligent networking. PanDA has demonstrated at a very large scale the value of automated dynamic brokering of diverse workloads across distributed computing resources. The next generation of PanDA will allow other data-intensive sciences and a wider exascale community employing a variety of computing platforms to benefit from ATLAS' experience and proven tools.

  7. Evolution of the ATLAS PanDA Workload Management System for Exascale Computational Science

    OpenAIRE

    Maeno, T; De, K; Klimentov, A; Nilsson, P; Oleynik, D; Panitkin, S; Petrosyan, A; Schovancova, J; Vaniachine, A; Wenaus, T; Yu, D

    2013-01-01

    An important foundation underlying the impressive success of data processing and analysis in the ATLAS experiment [1] at the LHC [2] is the Production and Distributed Analysis (PanDA) workload management system [3]. PanDA was designed specifically for ATLAS and proved to be highly successful in meeting all the distributed computing needs of the experiment. However, the core design of PanDA is not experiment specific. The PanDA workload management system is capable of meeting the needs of othe...

  8. Recent Improvements in the ATLAS PanDA Pilot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, P; De, K; Bejar, J Caballero; Maeno, T; Potekhin, M; Wenaus, T; Compostella, G; Contreras, C; Dos Santos, T

    2012-01-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis system (PanDA) in the ATLAS experiment uses pilots to execute submitted jobs on the worker nodes. The pilots are designed to deal with different runtime conditions and failure scenarios, and support many storage systems. This talk will give a brief overview of the PanDA pilot system and will present major features and recent improvements including CernVM File System integration, the job retry mechanism, advanced job monitoring including JEM technology, and validation of new pilot code using the HammerCloud stress-testing system. PanDA is used for all ATLAS distributed production and is the primary system for distributed analysis. It is currently used at over 130 sites worldwide. We analyze the performance of the pilot system in processing LHC data on the OSG, EGI and Nordugrid infrastructures used by ATLAS, and describe plans for its further evolution.

  9. Analyses of the soil surface dynamic of South African Kalahari salt pans based on hyperspectral and multitemporal data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewski, Robert; Chabrillat, Sabine; Behling, Robert; Mielke, Christian; Schleicher, Anja Maria; Guanter, Luis

    2016-04-01

    -reweighted Multivariate Alteration Detection (iMAD) method to identify and investigate surface changes based on Landsat archive imagery covering the period 1984-2015. For the complete Landsat time series, a total of 130 bi-temporal change maps have been derived and are compiled to produce a change magnitude map, which indicates different regions of activity and stability of the pan surface. Then radiometric geometric and atmospheric correction of Hyperion data were performed using the pre-processing chain of Rogass et al. (2014). Based on field spectroscopy and XRD analysis of soil samples, one of the main evaporite minerals of the pan soil could be identified as gypsum. Different approaches based on spectral features were tested and validated against reference samples to find the most suitable approach for estimating the gypsum content from the Hyperion data. Major challenges were the influence of water vapour absorption bands close to major gypsum absorption feature as well as low signal-to-noise ratio of Hyperion in the SWIR wavelength. A best method was determined that allow to determine Gypsum content with R² of 0.7 and relative RMSE of 0.14. Results reveal a variable spatial distribution of different mineralogy and in particular gypsum content within the pan, which seems to be associated with varying dynamic of the pan surface.

  10. Modeling Well Sampled Composite Spectral Energy Distributions of Distant Galaxies via an MCMC-driven Inference Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, Imad; Kriek, Mariska; Johnson, Benjamin; Conroy, Charlie

    2018-01-01

    Using a novel, MCMC-driven inference framework, we have modeled the stellar and dust emission of 32 composite spectral energy distributions (SEDs), which span from the near-ultraviolet (NUV) to far infrared (FIR). The composite SEDs were originally constructed in a previous work from the photometric catalogs of the NEWFIRM Medium-Band Survey, in which SEDs of individual galaxies at 0.5 MIPS 24 μm was added for each SED type, and in this work, PACS 100 μm, PACS160 μm, SPIRE 25 μm, and SPIRE 350 μm photometry have been added to extend the range of the composite SEDs into the FIR. We fit the composite SEDs with the Prospector code, which utilizes an MCMC sampling to explore the parameter space for models created by the Flexible Stellar Population Synthesis (FSPS) code, in order to investigate how specific star formation rate (sSFR), dust temperature, and other galaxy properties vary with SED type.This work is also being used to better constrain the SPS models within FSPS.

  11. PD2P : PanDA Dynamic Data Placement for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The PanDA Dynamic Data Placement (PD2P) system has been developed to cope with difficulties of data placement for ATLAS. PD2P is an intelligent subsystem of PanDA to distribute data by taking the following factors into account: popularity, locality, the usage pattern of the data, the distribution of CPU and storage resources, ...

  12. Pan-pan Girls: Humiliating Liberation in Postwar Japanese Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumi Sakamoto

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at some literary representations of the ‘pan-pan girls’ in postwar Japan. ‘Pan-pan’ is a derogatory term for street prostitutes who (mostly served the soldiers of the occupying forces. Immediately after World War II, the Japanese government established the RAA (Recreation Amusement Association and employed several thousand women to provide sexual services for foreign soldiers, ostensibly to protect Japanese women of middle and upper classes from rape and other violence. When the RAA was closed down in 1946 due to the US concern over widespread VD, many of the women who lost their jobs went out on the street and became private and illegal prostitutes – the pan-pan girls. With their red lipstick, cigarettes, nylon stockings and high-heel shoes, often holding onto the arms of tall, uniformed American GIs, the ‘pan-pan girls’ became a symbol of the occupation, and have been textually reproduced throughout the postwar period. This paper analyses the images and representations of the ‘pan-pan girls’ in postwar Japanese literature, to consider how the ‘pan-pan girls’ have functioned as a metaphor for the occupation and contributed to the public memory construction of the occupation. I identify some major codes of representations (victimisation, humiliation, and national trauma; eroticism and decadence; sexual freedom and materialism and argue that the highly gendered and sexualised bodies of the ‘pan-pan girls’ have continued to allow simplistic and selective remembering of the occupation at the expense of recalling the pivotal role of Japanese patriarchy in the postwar period.

  13. The Spectral Index and Beaming Effect for Radio Sources J. Pan ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. Pan & J. H. Fan. ∗. Center for Astrophysics, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China. ∗ e-mail: jhfan_cn@yahoo.com.cn. Abstract. In this paper, we revisited the relationship between the spec- tral index and the core-dominance parameter using a larger sample of blazars. Conclusively, we explain that the ...

  14. An Improved Variational Method for Hyperspectral Image Pansharpening with the Constraint of Spectral Difference Minimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Z.; Chen, Q.; Shen, Y.; Chen, Q.; Liu, X.

    2017-09-01

    Variational pansharpening can enhance the spatial resolution of a hyperspectral (HS) image using a high-resolution panchromatic (PAN) image. However, this technology may lead to spectral distortion that obviously affect the accuracy of data analysis. In this article, we propose an improved variational method for HS image pansharpening with the constraint of spectral difference minimization. We extend the energy function of the classic variational pansharpening method by adding a new spectral fidelity term. This fidelity term is designed following the definition of spectral angle mapper, which means that for every pixel, the spectral difference value of any two bands in the HS image is in equal proportion to that of the two corresponding bands in the pansharpened image. Gradient descent method is adopted to find the optimal solution of the modified energy function, and the pansharpened image can be reconstructed. Experimental results demonstrate that the constraint of spectral difference minimization is able to preserve the original spectral information well in HS images, and reduce the spectral distortion effectively. Compared to original variational method, our method performs better in both visual and quantitative evaluation, and achieves a good trade-off between spatial and spectral information.

  15. Evolution of the ATLAS PanDA Workload Management System for Exascale Computational Science

    CERN Document Server

    Maeno, T; The ATLAS collaboration; Klimentov, A; Nilsson, P; Oleynik, D; Panitkin, S; Petrosyan, A; Schovancova, J; Vaniachine, A; Wenaus, T; Yu, D

    2013-01-01

    An important foundation underlying the impressive success of data processing and analysis in the ATLAS experiment [1] at the LHC [2] is the Production and Distributed Analysis (PanDA) workload management system [3]. PanDA was designed specifically for ATLAS and proved to be highly successful in meeting all the distributed computing needs of the experiment. However, the core design of PanDA is not experiment specific. The PanDA workload management system is capable of meeting the needs of other data intensive scientific applications. Alpha-Magnetic Spectrometer [4], an astro-particle experiment on the International Space Station, and the Compact Muon Solenoid [5], an LHC experiment, have successfully evaluated PanDA and are pursuing its adoption. In this paper, a description of the new program of work to develop a generic version of PanDA will be given, as well as the progress in extending PanDA's capabilities to support supercomputers and clouds and to leverage intelligent networking. PanDA has demonstrated a...

  16. Evolution of the ATLAS PanDA Workload Management System for Exascale Computational Science

    CERN Document Server

    Maeno, T; The ATLAS collaboration; Klimentov, A; Nilsson, P; Oleynik, D; Panitkin, S; Petrosyan, A; Schovancova, J; Vaniachine, A; Wenaus, T; Yu, D

    2014-01-01

    An important foundation underlying the impressive success of data processing and analysis in the ATLAS experiment [1] at the LHC [2] is the Production and Distributed Analysis (PanDA) workload management system [3]. PanDA was designed specifically for ATLAS and proved to be highly successful in meeting all the distributed computing needs of the experiment. However, the core design of PanDA is not experiment specific. The PanDA workload management system is capable of meeting the needs of other data intensive scientific applications. Alpha-Magnetic Spectrometer [4], an astro-particle experiment on the International Space Station, and the Compact Muon Solenoid [5], an LHC experiment, have successfully evaluated PanDA and are pursuing its adoption. In this paper, a description of the new program of work to develop a generic version of PanDA will be given, as well as the progress in extending PanDA's capabilities to support supercomputers and clouds and to leverage intelligent networking. PanDA has demonstrated a...

  17. A PanDA backend for the ganga analysis interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderster, D C; Elmsheuser, J; Walker, R; Liko, D; Maeno, T; Wenaus, T; Nilsson, P

    2010-01-01

    Ganga provides a uniform interface for running ATLAS user analyses on a number of local, batch, and grid backends. PanDA is a pilot-based production and distributed analysis system developed and used extensively by ATLAS. This work presents the implementation and usage experiences of a PanDA backend for Ganga. Built upon reusable application libraries from GangaAtlas and PanDA, the Ganga PanDA backend allows users to run their analyses on the worldwide PanDA resources, while providing the ability for users to develop simple or complex analysis workflows in Ganga. Further, the backend allows users to submit and manage 'personal' PanDA pilots: these pilots run under the user's grid certificate and provide a secure alternative to shared pilot certificates while enabling the usage of local resource allocations.

  18. PanDA Beyond ATLAS: Workload Management for Data Intensive Science

    CERN Document Server

    Schovancova, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Klimentov, A; Maeno, T; Nilsson, P; Oleynik, D; Panitkin, S; Petrosyan, A; Vaniachine, A; Wenaus, T; Yu, D

    2013-01-01

    The PanDA Production ANd Distributed Analysis system has been developed by ATLAS to meet the experiment's requirements for a data-driven workload management system for production and distributed analysis processing capable of operating at LHC data processing scale. After 7 years of impressively successful PanDA operation in ATLAS there are also other experiments which can benefit from PanDA in the Big Data challenge, with several at various stages of evaluation and adoption. The new project "Next Generation Workload Management and Analysis System for Big Data" is extending PanDA to meet the needs of other data intensive scientific applications in HEP, astro-particle and astrophysics communities, bio-informatics and other fields as a general solution to large scale workload management. PanDA can utilize dedicated or opportunistic computing resources such as grids, clouds, and High Performance Computing facilities, and is being extended to leverage next generation intelligent networks in automated workflow mana...

  19. Grading and quantification of hip osteoarthritis severity by analyzing the spectral energy distribution of radiographic hip joint space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boniatis, I; Costaridou, L; Panayiotakis, G; Panagiotopoulos, E

    2009-01-01

    An image analysis system is proposed for the assessment of hip osteoarthritis (OA) severity. Sixty four hips (18 normal, 46 osteoarthritic), corresponding to 32 patients of unilateral or bilateral hip OA were studied. Employing custom developed software, 64 Region Of Interest (ROI) images of Hip Joint Spaces (HJSs) were delineated on patients' digitized radiographs. The Fourier spectrum of each HJS-ROI was computed and expressed in polar coordinates. Spectral signatures, quantifying the radial and angular distribution of HJS spectral energy were formed. Signature descriptors were generated and utilized in the design of a two-level hierarchical decision tree, used for the grading of the severity of the disease. Accordingly, at Level 1, implemented by a multiple classifier system, the discrimination between normal and osteoarthritic hips was performed. At Level 2, the hips that had been successfully characterized as osteoarthritic at Level 1, were further characterized as of 'Mild / Moderate' or 'Severe' OA, by the Bayes classifier. A signature descriptors based regression model was designed, so as to quantify OA-severity. The system graded OA reliably, given that the accomplished classification accuracies for Level 1 and Level 2 were 98.4% and 100%, respectively. OA-severity values, expressed by HJS-narrowing, correlated highly (r = 0.9, p < 0.001) with values predicted by the model. The system may contribute to OA-patient management.

  20. An approach to estimate spatial distribution of analyte within cells using spectrally-resolved fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Dharmendar Kumar; Irfanullah, Mir; Basu, Santanu Kumar; Madhu, Sheri; De, Suman; Jadhav, Sameer; Ravikanth, Mangalampalli; Chowdhury, Arindam

    2017-03-01

    While fluorescence microscopy has become an essential tool amongst chemists and biologists for the detection of various analyte within cellular environments, non-uniform spatial distribution of sensors within cells often restricts extraction of reliable information on relative abundance of analytes in different subcellular regions. As an alternative to existing sensing methodologies such as ratiometric or FRET imaging, where relative proportion of analyte with respect to the sensor can be obtained within cells, we propose a methodology using spectrally-resolved fluorescence microscopy, via which both the relative abundance of sensor as well as their relative proportion with respect to the analyte can be simultaneously extracted for local subcellular regions. This method is exemplified using a BODIPY sensor, capable of detecting mercury ions within cellular environments, characterized by spectral blue-shift and concurrent enhancement of emission intensity. Spectral emission envelopes collected from sub-microscopic regions allowed us to compare the shift in transition energies as well as integrated emission intensities within various intracellular regions. Construction of a 2D scatter plot using spectral shifts and emission intensities, which depend on the relative amount of analyte with respect to sensor and the approximate local amounts of the probe, respectively, enabled qualitative extraction of relative abundance of analyte in various local regions within a single cell as well as amongst different cells. Although the comparisons remain semi-quantitative, this approach involving analysis of multiple spectral parameters opens up an alternative way to extract spatial distribution of analyte in heterogeneous systems. The proposed method would be especially relevant for fluorescent probes that undergo relatively nominal shift in transition energies compared to their emission bandwidths, which often restricts their usage for quantitative ratiometric imaging in

  1. Integration of PanDA workload management system with Titan supercomputer at OLCF

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00300320; Klimentov, Alexei; Oleynik, Danila; Panitkin, Sergey; Petrosyan, Artem; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Wenaus, Torre; Schovancova, Jaroslava

    2015-01-01

    The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) workload management system (WMS) was developed to meet the scale and complexity of LHC distributed computing for the ATLAS experiment. While PanDA currently distributes jobs to more than 100,000 cores at well over 100 Grid sites, next LHC data taking run will require more resources than Grid computing can possibly provide. To alleviate these challenges, ATLAS is engaged in an ambitious program to expand the current computing model to include additional resources such as the opportunistic use of supercomputers. We will describe a project aimed at integration of PanDA WMS with Titan supercomputer at Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). Current approach utilizes modi ed PanDA pilot framework for job submission to Titan's batch queues and local data management, with light-weight MPI wrappers to run single threaded workloads in parallel on Titan's multi-core worker nodes. It also gives PanDA new capability to collect, in real time, information about unused...

  2. An integrated scheme to improve pan-sharpening visual quality of satellite images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Helmy

    2015-03-01

    In experiments with IKONOS, Quick Bird and GeoEye satellite data, we demonstrated that our scheme has good spectral quality and efficiency. Spectral and spatial quality metrics in terms of SAM, RASE, RMSE, CC, ERGAS and QNR are used in our experiments. We compared our scheme with the state-of-the-art pan-sharpening techniques and found that our new scheme improved quantitative and qualitative results.

  3. Is spectral reflectance of the face a reliable biometric?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzair, Muhammad; Mahmood, Arif; Shafait, Faisal; Nansen, Christian; Mian, Ajmal

    2015-06-15

    Over a decade ago, Pan et al. [IEEE TPAMI 25, 1552 (2003)] performed face recognition using only the spectral reflectance of the face at six points and reported around 95% recognition rate. Since their database is private, no one has been able to replicate these results. Moreover, due to the unavailability of public datasets, there has been no detailed study in the literature on the viability of facial spectral reflectance for person identification. In this study, we introduce a new public database of facial spectral reflectance profiles measured with a high precision spectrometer. For each of the 40 subjects, spectral reflectance was measured at the same six points as Pan et al. [IEEE TPAMI 25, 1552 (2003)] in multiple sessions and with time lapse. Furthermore, we sample the facial spectral reflectance from two public hyperspectral face image datasets and analyzed the data using state of the art face classification techniques. The best performing classifier achieved the maximum rank-1 identification rate of 53.8%. We conclude that facial spectral reflectance alone is not a reliable biometric for unconstrained face recognition.

  4. Binding energy and momentum distribution of nuclear matter using Green's function methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, A.; Dickhoff, W.H.; Polls, A.

    1991-01-01

    The influence of hole-hole (h-h) propagation in addition to the conventional particle-particle (p-p) propagation, on the energy per particle and the momentum distribution is investigated for the v 2 central interaction which is derived from Reid's soft-core potential. The results are compared to Brueckner-Hartree-Fock calculations with a continuous choice for the single-particle (SP) spectrum. Calculation of the energy from a self-consistently determined SP spectrum leads to a lower saturation density. This result is not corroborated by calculating the energy from the hole spectral function, which is, however, not self-consistent. A generalization of previous calculations of the momentum distribution, based on a Goldstone diagram expansion, is introduced that allows the inclusion of h-h contributions to all orders. From this result an alternative calculation of the kinetic energy is obtained. In addition, a direct calculation of the potential energy is presented which is obtained from a solution of the ladder equation containing p-p and h-h propagation to all orders. These results can be considered as the contributions of selected Goldstone diagrams (including p-p and h-h terms on the same footing) to the kinetic and potential energy in which the SP energy is given by the quasiparticle energy. The results for the summation of Goldstone diagrams leads to a different momentum distribution than the one obtained from integrating the hole spectral function which in general gives less depletion of the Fermi sea. Various arguments, based partly on the results that are obtained, are put forward that a self-consistent determination of the spectral functions including the p-p and h-h ladder contributions (using a realistic interaction) will shed light on the question of nuclear saturation at a nonrelativistic level that is consistent with the observed depletion of SP orbitals in finite nuclei

  5. Binding energy and momentum distribution of nuclear matter using Green's function methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, A.; Dickhoff, W.H.; Polls, A.

    1990-07-01

    The influence of hole-hole (hh) propagation in addition to the conventional particle-particle (pp) propagation on the energy per particle and the momentum distribution is investigated for two central interactions (v 2 and v 2 l=0 ) which are derived from Reid's soft core potential. The results are compared to Brueckner-Hartree-Fock calculations with a continuous choice for the single-particle (sp) spectrum. Calculation of the energy from a self-consistently determined sp spectrum leads to a lower saturation density. This result is not corroborated by calculating the energy from the hole spectral function which is, however, not self-consistent. A generalization of previous calculations of the momentum distribution based on a Goldstone diagram expansion is introduced which allows the inclusion of hh contributions to all orders. From this result an alternative calculation of the kinetic energy is obtained. In addition, a direct calculation of the potential energy is presented which is obtained from a solution of the ladder equation containing pp and hh propagation to all orders. These results can be considered as the contributions of selected Goldstone diagrams (including pp and hh terms on the same footing) to the kinetic and potential energy in which the sp energy is given by the quasi-article energy. The results for the summation of Goldstone diagrams leads to a different momentum distribution than the one obtained from integrating the hole spectral function which in general gives less depletion of the Fermi sea. Various arguments, based partly on the results that are obtained, are put forward that a self-consistent determination of the spectral functions including the pp and hh ladder contributions (using a realistic interaction) will shed light on the question of nuclear saturation at a non-relativistic level which is consistent with the observed depletion of sp orbitals in finite nuclei. (Author) (51 refs., 3 tabs., 15 figs)

  6. THE HERSCHEL ORION PROTOSTAR SURVEY: SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS AND FITS USING A GRID OF PROTOSTELLAR MODELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furlan, E. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, 770 S. Wilson Ave., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Fischer, W. J. [Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Ali, B. [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut Street, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Stutz, A. M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Stanke, T. [ESO, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Tobin, J. J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Megeath, S. T.; Booker, J. [Ritter Astrophysical Research Center, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Osorio, M. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, CSIC, Camino Bajo de Huétor 50, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Hartmann, L.; Calvet, N. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Poteet, C. A. [New York Center for Astrobiology, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 Eighth Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Manoj, P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005 (India); Watson, D. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Allen, L., E-mail: furlan@ipac.caltech.edu [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2016-05-01

    We present key results from the Herschel Orion Protostar Survey: spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and model fits of 330 young stellar objects, predominantly protostars, in the Orion molecular clouds. This is the largest sample of protostars studied in a single, nearby star formation complex. With near-infrared photometry from 2MASS, mid- and far-infrared data from Spitzer and Herschel , and submillimeter photometry from APEX, our SEDs cover 1.2–870 μ m and sample the peak of the protostellar envelope emission at ∼100 μ m. Using mid-IR spectral indices and bolometric temperatures, we classify our sample into 92 Class 0 protostars, 125 Class I protostars, 102 flat-spectrum sources, and 11 Class II pre-main-sequence stars. We implement a simple protostellar model (including a disk in an infalling envelope with outflow cavities) to generate a grid of 30,400 model SEDs and use it to determine the best-fit model parameters for each protostar. We argue that far-IR data are essential for accurate constraints on protostellar envelope properties. We find that most protostars, and in particular the flat-spectrum sources, are well fit. The median envelope density and median inclination angle decrease from Class 0 to Class I to flat-spectrum protostars, despite the broad range in best-fit parameters in each of the three categories. We also discuss degeneracies in our model parameters. Our results confirm that the different protostellar classes generally correspond to an evolutionary sequence with a decreasing envelope infall rate, but the inclination angle also plays a role in the appearance, and thus interpretation, of the SEDs.

  7. Status and Evolution of ATLAS Workload Management System PanDA

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067365; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the LHC uses a sophisticated workload management system, PanDA, to provide access for thousands of physicists to distributed computing resources of unprecedented scale. This system has proved to be robust and scalable during three years of LHC operations. We describe the design and performance of PanDA in ATLAS. The features which make PanDA successful in ATLAS could be applicable to other exabyte scale scientific projects. We describe plans to evolve PanDA towards a general workload management system for the new BigData initiative announced by the US government. Other planned future improvements to PanDA will also be described

  8. The ATLAS PanDA Monitoring System and its Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Klimentov, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Potekhin, M; Wenaus, T

    2011-01-01

    The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) Workload Management System is used for ATLAS distributed production and analysis worldwide. The needs of ATLAS global computing imposed challenging requirements on PanDA design in areas such as scalability, robustness, automation, diagnostics, and usability for both production shifters and analysis users. Important to meeting these and other requirements is a comprehensive monitoring system. Through a system-wide job database, the PanDA monitor provides a comprehensive and coherent view of the system and job execution, from high level summaries to detailed drill-down job diagnostics. It is (like the rest of PanDA) an Apache-based Python application backed by Oracle. The presentation layer is HTML code generated on the fly in the Python application which is also responsible for managing database queries. However, this approach is lacking in user interface flexibility, simplicity of communication with external systems, and ease of maintenance. We decided to migrat...

  9. The ATLAS PanDA Monitoring System and its Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Klimentov, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Potekhin, M; Wenaus, T

    2010-01-01

    The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) Workload Management System is used for ATLAS distributed production and analysis worldwide. The needs of ATLAS global computing imposed challenging requirements on PanDA design in areas such as scalability, robustness, automation, diagnostics, and usability for both production shifters and analysis users. Important to meeting these and other requirements is a comprehensive monitoring system. Through a system-wide job database, the PanDA monitor provides a comprehensive and coherent view of the system and job execution, from high level summaries to detailed drill-down job diagnostics. It is (like the rest of PanDA) an Apache-based Python application backed by Oracle. The presentation layer is HTML code generated on the fly in the Python application which is also responsible for managing database queries. However, this approach is lacking in user interface flexibility, simplicity of communication with external systems, and ease of maintenance. We decided to migrat...

  10. On the signatures of companion formation in the spectral energy distributions of Sz54 and Sz59—the young stars with protoplanetary disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakhozhay, O. V.

    2017-07-01

    We study spectral energy distributions of two young systems Sz54 and Sz59, that belong to Chameleon II star forming region. The results of the modeling indicate that protoplanetary disks of these systems contain gaps in the dust component. These gaps could be a result of a planetary or brown dwarf companion formation, because the companion would accumulate a disk material, moving along its orbit. In a present work we have determined physical characteristics of the disks. We also discuss possible companion characteristics, based on the geometrical parameters of the gaps.

  11. High-Speed Target Identification System Based on the Plume’s Spectral Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie Lang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to recognize the target of high speed quickly and accurately, an identification system was designed based on analysis of the distribution characteristics of the plume spectrum. In the system, the target was aligned with visible light tracking module, and the spectral analysis of the target’s plume radiation was achieved by interference module. The distinguishing factor recognition algorithm was designed on basis of ratio of multifeature band peaks and valley mean values. Effective recognition of the high speed moving target could be achieved after partition of the active region and the influence of target motion on spectral acquisition was analyzed. In the experiment the small rocket combustion was used as the target. The spectral detection experiment was conducted at different speeds 2.0 km away from the detection system. Experimental results showed that spectral distribution had significant spectral offset in the same sampling period for the target with different speeds, but the spectral distribution was basically consistent. Through calculation of the inclusion relationship between distinguishing factor and distinction interval of the peak value and the valley value at the corresponding wave-bands, effective identification of target could be achieved.

  12. PD2P: PanDA Dynamic Data Placement for ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeno, T; Panitkin, S; De, K

    2012-01-01

    The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) system plays a key role in the ATLAS distributed computing infrastructure. PanDA is the ATLAS workload management system for processing all Monte-Carlo (MC) simulation and data reprocessing jobs in addition to user and group analysis jobs. The PanDA Dynamic Data Placement (PD2P) system has been developed to cope with difficulties of data placement for ATLAS. We will describe the design of the new system, its performance during the past year of data taking, dramatic improvements it has brought about in the efficient use of storage and processing resources, and plans for the future.

  13. The role of surface energy fluxes in pan-Arctic snow cover changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Xiaogang; Lettenmaier, Dennis P; Groisman, Pavel Ya; Dery, Stephen J

    2011-01-01

    We analyze snow cover extent (SCE) trends in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) northern hemisphere weekly satellite SCE data using the Mann-Kendall trend test and find that North American and Eurasian snow cover in the pan-Arctic have declined significantly in spring and summer over the period of satellite record beginning in the early 1970s. These trends are reproduced, both in trend direction and statistical significance, in reconstructions using the variable infiltration capacity (VIC) hydrological model. We find that spring and summer surface radiative and turbulent fluxes generated in VIC have strong correlations with satellite observations of SCE. We identify the role of surface energy fluxes and determine which is most responsible for the observed spring and summer SCE recession. We find that positive trends in surface net radiation (SNR) accompany most of the SCE trends, whereas modeled latent heat (LH) and sensible heat (SH) trends associated with warming on SCE mostly cancel each other, except for North America in spring, and to a lesser extent for Eurasia in summer. In spring over North America and summer in Eurasia, the SH contribution to the observed snow cover trends is substantial. The results indicate that ΔSNR is the primary energy source and ΔSH plays a secondary role in changes of SCE. Compared with ΔSNR and ΔSH, ΔLH has a minor influence on pan-Arctic snow cover changes.

  14. Extending the ATLAS PanDA Workload Management System for New Big Data Applications

    CERN Document Server

    De, K; The ATLAS collaboration; Maeno, T; Nilsson, P; Panitkin, S; Vaniachine, A; Wenaus, T; Yu, D

    2013-01-01

    The LHC experiments are today at the leading edge of large scale distributed data-intensive computational science. The LHC's ATLAS experiment processes data volumes which are particularly extreme, over 130 PB to date, distributed worldwide at over of 120 sites. An important element in the success of the exciting physics results from ATLAS is the highly scalable integrated workflow and dataflow management afforded by the PanDA workload management system, used for all the distributed computing needs of the experiment. The PanDA design is not experiment specific and PanDA is now being extended to support other data intensive scientific applications. Alpha-Magnetic Spectrometer, an astro-particle experiment on the International Space Station, and the Compact Muon Solenoid, an LHC experiment, have successfully evaluated PanDA and are pursuing its adoption. PanDA was cited as an example of "a high performance, fault tolerant software for fast, scalable access to data repositories of many kinds" during the "Big Data...

  15. Thermal and radiochemical degradation of some PAN copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jipa, S. [INCDIE, ICPE CA, 313 Splaiul Unirii, P.O. Box 149, Bucharest 030138 (Romania); ' Valachia' University of Targoviste, 18-22 Unirii Av., Targoviste 130082 (Romania); Zaharescu, T. [' Valachia' University of Targoviste, 18-22 Unirii Av., Targoviste 130082 (Romania)], E-mail: traian_zaharescu@yahoo.com; Setnescu, R. [INCDIE, ICPE CA, 313 Splaiul Unirii, P.O. Box 149, Bucharest 030138 (Romania); ' Valachia' University of Targoviste, 18-22 Unirii Av., Targoviste 130082 (Romania); Dragan, E.S.; Dinu, M.V. [' Petru Poni' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Iasi 700487 (Romania)

    2008-12-01

    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and some copolymers of acrylonitrile with divinylbenzene (AN-DVB) were investigated by the characterization of their thermal and radiation stabilities. The contribution of DVB to the thermal stability of PAN by the modification in the amount of unsaturated hydrocarbon between 6 and 20% was revealed by the evaluation of oxidation induction periods and required activation energies. The exposure of these materials to the action of {gamma}-radiation points out the higher stability of copolymers (AN-DVB) in comparison to the relative stability of PAN.

  16. Pan-Arctic distributions of continental runoff in the Arctic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichot, Cédric G; Kaiser, Karl; Hooker, Stanford B; Amon, Rainer M W; Babin, Marcel; Bélanger, Simon; Walker, Sally A; Benner, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Continental runoff is a major source of freshwater, nutrients and terrigenous material to the Arctic Ocean. As such, it influences water column stratification, light attenuation, surface heating, gas exchange, biological productivity and carbon sequestration. Increasing river discharge and thawing permafrost suggest that the impacts of continental runoff on these processes are changing. Here, a new optical proxy was developed and implemented with remote sensing to determine the first pan-Arctic distribution of terrigenous dissolved organic matter (tDOM) and continental runoff in the surface Arctic Ocean. Retrospective analyses revealed connections between the routing of North American runoff and the recent freshening of the Canada Basin, and indicated a correspondence between climate-driven changes in river discharge and tDOM inventories in the Kara Sea. By facilitating the real-time, synoptic monitoring of tDOM and freshwater runoff in surface polar waters, this novel approach will help understand the manifestations of climate change in this remote region.

  17. Spectral Gap Energy Transfer in Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, S.; Walters, K.; Barros, A. P.; Nogueira, M.

    2012-12-01

    Experimental measurements of atmospheric turbulence energy spectra show E(k) ~ k-3 slopes at synoptic scales (~ 600 km - 2000 km) and k-5/3 slopes at the mesoscales (theory, it is expected that a strong backward energy cascade would develop at the synoptic scale, and that circulation would grow infinitely. To limit this backward transfer, energy arrest at macroscales must be introduced. The most commonly used turbulence models developed to mimic the above energy transfer include the energy backscatter model for 2D turbulence in the horizontal plane via Large Eddy Simulation (LES) models, dissipative URANS models in the vertical plane, and Ekman friction for the energy arrest. One of the controversial issues surrounding the atmospheric turbulence spectra is the explanation of the generation of the 2D and 3D spectra and transition between them, for energy injection at the synoptic scales. Lilly (1989) proposed that the existence of 2D and 3D spectra can only be explained by the presence of an additional energy injection in the meso-scale region. A second issue is related to the observations of dual peak spectra with small variance in meso-scale, suggesting that the energy transfer occurs across a spectral gap (Van Der Hoven, 1957). Several studies have confirmed the spectral gap for the meso-scale circulations, and have suggested that they are enhanced by smaller scale vertical convection rather than by the synoptic scales. Further, the widely accepted energy arrest mechanism by boundary layer friction is closely related to the spectral gap transfer. This study proposes an energy transfer mechanism for atmospheric turbulence with synoptic scale injection, wherein the generation of 2D and 3D spectra is explained using spectral gap energy transfer. The existence of the spectral gap energy transfer is validated by performing LES for the interaction of large scale circulation with a wall, and studying the evolution of the energy spectra both near to and far from the wall

  18. The ATLAS PanDA Monitoring System and its Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimentov, A.; Nevski, P.; Potekhin, M.; Wenaus, T.

    2011-12-01

    The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) Workload Management System is used for ATLAS distributed production and analysis worldwide. The needs of ATLAS global computing imposed challenging requirements on the design of PanDA in areas such as scalability, robustness, automation, diagnostics, and usability for both production shifters and analysis users. Through a system-wide job database, the PanDA monitor provides a comprehensive and coherent view of the system and job execution, from high level summaries to detailed drill-down job diagnostics. It is (like the rest of PanDA) an Apache-based Python application backed by Oracle. The presentation layer is HTML code generated on the fly in the Python application which is also responsible for managing database queries. However, this approach is lacking in user interface flexibility, simplicity of communication with external systems, and ease of maintenance. A decision was therefore made to migrate the PanDA monitor server to Django Web Application Framework and apply JSON/AJAX technology in the browser front end. This allows us to greatly reduce the amount of application code, separate data preparation from presentation, leverage open source for tools such as authentication and authorization mechanisms, and provide a richer and more dynamic user experience. We describe our approach, design and initial experience with the migration process.

  19. The ATLAS PanDA Monitoring System and its Evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimentov, A; Nevski, P; Wenaus, T; Potekhin, M

    2011-01-01

    The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) Workload Management System is used for ATLAS distributed production and analysis worldwide. The needs of ATLAS global computing imposed challenging requirements on the design of PanDA in areas such as scalability, robustness, automation, diagnostics, and usability for both production shifters and analysis users. Through a system-wide job database, the PanDA monitor provides a comprehensive and coherent view of the system and job execution, from high level summaries to detailed drill-down job diagnostics. It is (like the rest of PanDA) an Apache-based Python application backed by Oracle. The presentation layer is HTML code generated on the fly in the Python application which is also responsible for managing database queries. However, this approach is lacking in user interface flexibility, simplicity of communication with external systems, and ease of maintenance. A decision was therefore made to migrate the PanDA monitor server to Django Web Application Framework and apply JSON/AJAX technology in the browser front end. This allows us to greatly reduce the amount of application code, separate data preparation from presentation, leverage open source for tools such as authentication and authorization mechanisms, and provide a richer and more dynamic user experience. We describe our approach, design and initial experience with the migration process.

  20. Spectral energy distribution variations of nearby Seyfert galaxies during AGN watch monitoring programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilerci Eser, Ece; Vestergaard, M.

    2018-02-01

    We present and analyse quasi-simultaneous multi-epoch spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of seven reverberation-mapped active galactic nuclei (AGNs) for which accurate black hole mass measurements and suitable archival data are available from the `AGN Watch' monitoring programs. We explore the potential of optical-UV and X-ray data, obtained within 2 d, to provide more accurate SED-based measurements of individual AGN and quantify the impact of source variability on key measurements typically used to characterize the black hole accretion process plus on bolometric correction factors at 5100 Å, 1350 Å and for the 2-10 keV X-ray band, respectively. The largest SED changes occur on long time-scales (≳1 year). For our small sample, the 1μm to 10 keV integrated accretion luminosity typically changes by 10 per cent on short time-scales (over 20 d), by ˜30 per cent over a year, but can change by 100 per cent or more for individual AGN. The extreme ultraviolet (EUV) gap is the most uncertain part of the intrinsic SED, introducing a ˜25 per cent uncertainty in the accretion-induced luminosity, relative to the model independent interpolation method that we adopt. That aside, our analysis shows that the uncertainty in the accretion-induced luminosity, the Eddington luminosity ratio and the bolometric correction factors can be reduced (by a factor of two or more) by use of the SEDs built from data obtained within 20 d. However, \\dot{M} and η are mostly limited by the unknown EUV emission and the unknown details of the central engine and our aspect angle.

  1. Measurements and Monte Carlo calculations of photon energy distributions in MAYAK PA workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smetanin, M.; Vasilenko, E.; Semenov, M.; Xanthos, S.; Takoudis, G.; Clouvas, A.; Silva, J.; Potiriadis, C.

    2008-01-01

    Photon energy distributions were measured in different workplaces of the Mayak Production Association (MPA), which was the first plutonium production plant in the former Soviet Union. In situ gamma spectrometry measurements were performed with a portable germanium detector. The spectral stripping method is used for the conversion of the in situ gamma-ray spectra to photon fluence rate energy distribution. This method requires the simulation of the portable germanium detector, which has been performed based on the MCNP code of Los Alamos. Measured photon fluence rate energy distributions were compared with calculated photon energy distributions (with the MCNP code) in two different workplaces: in the first workplace the geometry exposure was known. On the contrary, in the second workplace, as in most workplaces of MPA, the exposure geometry was unknown. The results obtained from the comparison between the experimental and calculated photon fluence rate energy distributions are presented and discussed. (authors)

  2. Integration of PanDA workload management system with Titan supercomputer at OLCF

    CERN Document Server

    Panitkin, Sergey; The ATLAS collaboration; Klimentov, Alexei; Oleynik, Danila; Petrosyan, Artem; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Wenaus, Torre

    2015-01-01

    The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) workload management system (WMS) was developed to meet the scale and complexity of LHC distributed computing for the ATLAS experiment. While PanDA currently uses more than 100,000 cores at well over 100 Grid sites with a peak performance of 0.3 petaFLOPS, next LHC data taking run will require more resources than Grid computing can possibly provide. To alleviate these challenges, ATLAS is engaged in an ambitious program to expand the current computing model to include additional resources such as the opportunistic use of supercomputers. We will describe a project aimed at integration of PanDA WMS with Titan supercomputer at Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). Current approach utilizes modified PanDA pilot framework for job submission to Titan's batch queues and local data management, with light-weight MPI wrappers to run single threaded workloads in parallel on Titan's multi-core worker nodes. It also gives PanDA new capability to collect, in real tim...

  3. PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP CIRCUM-PAN-PACIFIC RIKEN SYMPOSIUM ON HIGH ENERGY SPIN PHYSICS, VOLUME 25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KUMANO,S.; SHIBATA,T.A.; YAZAKI,K.

    2000-06-28

    The Circum-Pan-Pacific Riken Symposium on High Energy Spin Physics was held at Oukouchi Memorial Hall in Riken from November 3 through 6, 1999. It was held as a joint meeting of the 2nd Circum-Pan-Pacific Symposium on High Energy Spin Physics and the 3rd of the series of Riken Symposia related to the RHIC-SPIN. The 1st Circum-Pan-Pacific Symposium on High Energy Spin Physics was held at Kobe in 1996 and the RHIC-SPIN Riken Symposia had been held every two years since 1995. As Prof. Ozaki mentioned in his talk at the beginning of this meeting, the RHIC was ready for the first beam, physics experiments scheduled in 2000, and the RHIC-SPIN would start in 2001. It was therefore considered to be very timely for the researchers in the field of high energy spin physics to get together, clarifying the present status of the field and discussing interesting and important topics as well as experimental subjects to be pursued. It is especially important for the success of the RHIC-SPIN project that the researchers in the neighboring countries surrounding the Pacific are actively involved in it. This is why the above two series were joined in this. symposium. The subjects discussed in the symposium include: Hard processes probing spin-structure functions, polarization mechanisms in high energy reactions, lattice studies of polarized structure functions, theoretical models for the nucleon and its spin structure, RHIC and RHIC-SPIN projects, results and future projects of existing experimental facilities. Totally 73 scientists participated in the symposium, 27 from abroad and 46 from Japan. it consisted of 13 main sessions, with 33 invited and contributed talks, and 4 discussion sessions covering recent experimental and theoretical developments and important topics in high energy spin physics and closely related fields.

  4. LIQHYSMES – spectral power distributions of imbalances and implications for the SMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sander, M; Gehring, R; Neumann, H

    2014-01-01

    LIQHYSMES, the recently proposed hybrid energy storage concept for variable renewable energies, combines the storage of LIQuid HYdrogen (LH2) with Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES). LH2 as the bulk energy carrier is used for the large scale stationary longer-term energy storage, and the SMES cooled by the LH2 bath, provides highest power over shorter periods and at superior efficiencies. Both together contribute to the balancing of electric load or supply fluctuations from seconds to several hours, days or even weeks. Here different spectral power distributions of such imbalances between electricity supply and load reflecting different sources of fluctuations in the range between 1 sec and 15 minutes are considered. Some related implications for MgB2-based 100 MW-SMES operated at maximum fields of 2 T and 4 T, are considered for these buffering scenarios. Requirements as regards the storage capacity and correspondingly the minimum size of the LH2 storage tank are derived. The related loss contributions with a particular focus on the ramping losses are analysed.

  5. Localness of energy cascade in hydrodynamic turbulence, II. Sharp spectral filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aluie, Hussein [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eyink, Gregory L [JOHNS HOPKINS UNIV.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the scale-locality of subgrid-scale (SGS) energy flux and interband energy transfers defined by the sharp spectral filter. We show by rigorous bounds, physical arguments, and numerical simulations that the spectral SGS flux is dominated by local triadic interactions in an extended turbulent inertial range. Interband energy transfers are also shown to be dominated by local triads if the spectral bands have constant width on a logarithmic scale. We disprove in particular an alternative picture of 'local transfer by nonlocal triads,' with the advecting wavenumber mode at the energy peak. Although such triads have the largest transfer rates of all individual wavenumber triads, we show rigorously that, due to their restricted number, they make an asymptotically negligible contribution to energy flux and log-banded energy transfers at high wavenumbers in the inertial range. We show that it is only the aggregate effect of a geometrically increasing number of local wavenumber triads which can sustain an energy cascade to small scales. Furthermore, nonlocal triads are argued to contribute even less to the space-average energy flux than is implied by our rigorous bounds, because of additional cancellations from scale-decorrelation effects. We can thus recover the -4/3 scaling of nonlocal contributions to spectral energy flux predicted by Kraichnan's abridged Lagrangian-history direct-interaction approximation and test-field model closures. We support our results with numerical data from a 512{sup 3} pseudospectral simulation of isotropic turbulence with phase-shift dealiasing. We also discuss a rigorous counterexample of Eyink [Physica D 78, 222 (1994)], which showed that nonlocal wavenumber triads may dominate in the sharp spectral flux (but not in the SGS energy flux for graded filters). We show that this mathematical counter example fails to satisfy reasonable physical requirements for a turbulent velocity field, which are employed in our

  6. PanDA: Exascale Federation of Resources for the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Barreiro Megino, Fernando Harald; The ATLAS collaboration; Maeno, Tadashi; Wenaus, Torre; Nilsson, Paul; Klimentov, Alexei; Oleynik, Danila; Panitkin, Sergey; Petrosyan, Artem; Vukotic, Ilija

    2015-01-01

    After a scheduled maintenance and upgrade period, the world’s largest and most powerful machine - the Large Hadron Collider(LHC) - is about to enter its second run at unprecedented energies. In order to exploit the scientific potential of the ma- chine, the experiments at the LHC face computational challenges with enormous data volumes that need to be analysed by thousand of physics users and compared to simulated data. Given diverse funding constraints, the computational resources for the LHC have been deployed in a worldwide mesh of data centres, connected to each other through Grid technologies. The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) system was developed in 2005 for the ATLAS experiment on top of this heterogeneous infrastructure to seamlessly integrate the computational resources and give the users the feeling of a unique system. Since its origins, PanDA has evolved together with upcoming computing paradigms in and outside HEP, such as changes in the networking model, cloud computing and HPC. I...

  7. PanDA Beyond ATLAS : A Scalable Workload Management System For Data Intensive Science

    CERN Document Server

    Borodin, M; The ATLAS collaboration; Jha, S; Golubkov, D; Klimentov, A; Maeno, T; Nilsson, P; Oleynik, D; Panitkin, S; Petrosyan, A; Schovancova, J; Vaniachine, A; Wenaus, T

    2014-01-01

    The LHC experiments are today at the leading edge of large scale distributed data-intensive computational science. The LHC's ATLAS experiment processes data volumes which are particularly extreme, over 140 PB to date, distributed worldwide at over of 120 sites. An important element in the success of the exciting physics results from ATLAS is the highly scalable integrated workflow and dataflow management afforded by the PanDA workload management system, used for all the distributed computing needs of the experiment. The PanDA design is not experiment specific and PanDA is now being extended to support other data intensive scientific applications. PanDA was cited as an example of "a high performance, fault tolerant software for fast, scalable access to data repositories of many kinds" during the "Big Data Research and Development Initiative" announcement, a 200 million USD U.S. government investment in tools to handle huge volumes of digital data needed to spur science and engineering discoveries. In this talk...

  8. Low-energy ion distribution functions on a magnetically quiet day at geostationary altitude /L = 7/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N.; Raitt, W. J.; Yasuhara, F.

    1982-01-01

    Ion energy and pitch angle distribution functions are examined for a magnetically quiet day using averaged data from ATS 6. For both field-aligned and perpendicular fluxes, the populations have a mixture of characteristic energies, and the distribution functions can be fairly well approximated by Maxwellian distributions over three different energy bands in the range 3-600 eV. Pitch angle distributions varying with local time, and energy distributions are used to compute total ion density. Pitch angle scattering mechanisms responsible for the observed transformation of pitch angle distribution are examined, and it is found that a magnetic noise of a certain power spectral density belonging to the electromagnetic ion cyclotron mode near the ion cyclotron frequency can be effective in trapping the field aligned fluxes by pitch angle scattering.

  9. Spectral features in the cosmic ray fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipari, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    The cosmic ray energy distributions contain spectral features, that is narrow energy regions where the slope of the spectrum changes rapidly. The identification and study of these features is of great importance to understand the astrophysical mechanisms of acceleration and propagation that form the spectra. In first approximation a spectral feature is often described as a discontinuous change in slope, however very valuable information is also contained in its width, that is the length of the energy interval where the change in spectral index develops. In this work we discuss the best way to define and parameterize the width a spectral feature, and for illustration discuss some of the most prominent known structures.

  10. PanDA: Exascale Federation of Resources for the ATLAS Experiment at the LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megino Fernando Barreiro

    2016-01-01

    The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis system was developed in 2005 for the ATLAS experiment on top of this heterogeneous infrastructure to seamlessly integrate the computational resources and give the users the feeling of a unique system. Since its origins, PanDA has evolved together with upcoming computing paradigms in and outside HEP, such as changes in the networking model, Cloud Computing and HPC. It is currently running steadily up to 200 thousand simultaneous cores (limited by the available resources for ATLAS, up to two million aggregated jobs per day and processes over an exabyte of data per year. The success of PanDA in ATLAS is triggering the widespread adoption and testing by other experiments. In this contribution we will give an overview of the PanDA components and focus on the new features and upcoming challenges that are relevant to the next decade of distributed computing workload management using PanDA.

  11. The effect of host star spectral energy distribution and ice-albedo feedback on the climate of extrasolar planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Aomawa L; Meadows, Victoria S; Bitz, Cecilia M; Pierrehumbert, Raymond T; Joshi, Manoj M; Robinson, Tyler D

    2013-08-01

    Planetary climate can be affected by the interaction of the host star spectral energy distribution with the wavelength-dependent reflectivity of ice and snow. In this study, we explored this effect with a one-dimensional (1-D), line-by-line, radiative transfer model to calculate broadband planetary albedos as input to a seasonally varying, 1-D energy balance climate model. A three-dimensional (3-D) general circulation model was also used to explore the atmosphere's response to changes in incoming stellar radiation, or instellation, and surface albedo. Using this hierarchy of models, we simulated planets covered by ocean, land, and water-ice of varying grain size, with incident radiation from stars of different spectral types. Terrestrial planets orbiting stars with higher near-UV radiation exhibited a stronger ice-albedo feedback. We found that ice extent was much greater on a planet orbiting an F-dwarf star than on a planet orbiting a G-dwarf star at an equivalent flux distance, and that ice-covered conditions occurred on an F-dwarf planet with only a 2% reduction in instellation relative to the present instellation on Earth, assuming fixed CO(2) (present atmospheric level on Earth). A similar planet orbiting the Sun at an equivalent flux distance required an 8% reduction in instellation, while a planet orbiting an M-dwarf star required an additional 19% reduction in instellation to become ice-covered, equivalent to 73% of the modern solar constant. The reduction in instellation must be larger for planets orbiting cooler stars due in large part to the stronger absorption of longer-wavelength radiation by icy surfaces on these planets in addition to stronger absorption by water vapor and CO(2) in their atmospheres, which provides increased downwelling longwave radiation. Lowering the IR and visible-band surface ice and snow albedos for an M-dwarf planet increased the planet's climate stability against changes in instellation and slowed the descent into global ice

  12. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory .5. Spectral energy distributions, starburst models and star formation history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rowan Robinson, M.; Mann, R.G.; Oliver, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    We have modelled the spectral energy distributions of the 13 Hubble Deep Field (HDF) galaxies reliably detected by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). For two galaxies the emission detected by ISO is consistent with being starlight or the infrared 'cirrus' in the galaxies. For the remaining II...... galaxies there is a clear midinfrared excess, which we interpret as emission from dust associated with a strong starburst. 10 of these galaxies are spirals or interacting pairs, while the remaining one is an elliptical with a prominent nucleus and broad emission lines. We give a new discussion of how...... compared with nearby normal galaxies, We discuss the implications of our detections for the history of star and heavy element formation in the Universe, Although uncertainties in the calibration, reliability of source detection, associations and starburst models remain, it is clear that dust plays...

  13. Vertical profile of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN from MIPAS-STR measurements over Brazil in February 2005 and its contribution to tropical UT NOy partitioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Roiger

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available We report on the retrieval of PAN (CH3C(OOONO2 in the upper tropical troposphere from limb measurements by the remote-sensor MIPAS-STR on board the Russian high altitude research aircraft M55-Geophysica. The measurements were performed close to Araçatuba, Brazil, on 17 February 2005. The retrieval was made in the spectral range 775–820 cm−1 where PAN exhibits its strongest feature but also more than 10 species interfere. Especially trace gases such as CH3CCl3, CFC-113, CFC-11, and CFC-22, emitting also in spectrally broad not-resolved branches, make the processing of PAN prone to errors. Therefore, the selection of appropriate spectral windows, the separate retrieval of several interfering species and the careful handling of the water vapour profile are part of the study presented. The retrieved profile of PAN has a maximum of about 0.14 ppbv at 10 km altitude, slightly larger than the lowest reported values (<0.1 ppbv and much lower than the highest reported in the literature (0.65 ppbv. Besides the NOy constituents measured by MIPAS-STR (HNO3, ClONO2, HO2NO2, PAN, the in situ instruments aboard the Geophysica provide simultaneous measurements of NO, NO2, and the sum NOy. Comparing the sum of in-situ and remotely derived NO+NO2+HNO3+ClONO2+HO2NO2+PAN with total NOy a deficit of 30–40% (0.2–0.3 ppbv in the troposphere remains unexplained whereas the values fit well in the stratosphere.

  14. Interference effects in angular and spectral distributions of X-ray Transition Radiation from Relativistic Heavy Ions crossing a radiator: Influence of absorption and slowing-down

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiks, E.I.; Pivovarov, Yu.L.

    2015-07-15

    Theoretical analysis and representative calculations of angular and spectral distributions of X-ray Transition Radiation (XTR) by Relativistic Heavy Ions (RHI) crossing a radiator are presented taking into account both XTR absorption and RHI slowing-down. The calculations are performed for RHI energies of GSI, FAIR, CERN SPS and LHC and demonstrate the influence of XTR photon absorption as well as RHI slowing-down in a radiator on the appearance/disappearance of interference effects in both angular and spectral distributions of XTR.

  15. Energy distribution of 0. 279 MeV gamma rays Compton scattered from bound electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, B; Singh, P; Singh, G; Ghumman, B S

    1984-11-01

    Energy and intensity distribution of 0.279 MeV gamma rays Compton scattered from K-shell electrons of tantalum is measured at scattering angle of 70deg. The experimental results are compared with the available theoretical data. Spectral distribution is also obtained as a function of scatterer thickness to account for the contribution of false events. 13 refs.

  16. Uniform convergence of the empirical spectral distribution function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikosch, T; Norvaisa, R

    1997-01-01

    Let X be a linear process having a finite fourth moment. Assume F is a class of square-integrable functions. We consider the empirical spectral distribution function J(n,X) based on X and indexed by F. If F is totally bounded then J(n,X) satisfies a uniform strong law of large numbers. If, in

  17. Toward Improved Modeling of Spectral Solar Irradiance for Solar Energy Applications: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yu [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sengupta, Manajit [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-19

    This study introduces the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) recent efforts to extend the capability of the Fast All-sky Radiation Model for Solar applications (FARMS) by computing spectral solar irradiances over both horizontal and inclined surfaces. A new model is developed by computing the optical thickness of the atmosphere using a spectral irradiance model for clear-sky conditions, SMARTS2. A comprehensive lookup table (LUT) of cloud bidirectional transmittance distribution functions (BTDFs) is precomputed for 2002 wavelength bands using an atmospheric radiative transfer model, libRadtran. The solar radiation transmitted through the atmosphere is given by considering all possible paths of photon transmission and the relevent scattering and absorption attenuation. Our results indicate that this new model has an accuracy that is similar to that of state-of-the-art radiative transfer models, but it is significantly more efficient.

  18. Traction Inverter Open Switch Fault Diagnosis Based on Choi–Williams Distribution Spectral Kurtosis and Wavelet-Packet Energy Shannon Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangshuang Lin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new approach for fault detection and location of open switch faults in the closed-loop inverter fed vector controlled drives of Electric Multiple Units is proposed. Spectral kurtosis (SK based on Choi–Williams distribution (CWD as a statistical tool can effectively indicate the presence of transients and locations in the frequency domain. Wavelet-packet energy Shannon entropy (WPESE is appropriate for the transient changes detection of complex non-linear and non-stationary signals. Based on the analyses of currents in normal and fault conditions, SK based on CWD and WPESE are combined with the DC component method. SK based on CWD and WPESE are used for the fault detection, and the DC component method is used for the fault localization. This approach can diagnose the specific locations of faulty Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs with high accuracy, and it requires no additional devices. Experiments on the RT-LAB platform are carried out and the experimental results verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the diagnosis method.

  19. Simulations of a spectral gamma-ray logging tool response to a surface source distribution on the borehole wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.D.; Conaway, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    We have developed Monte Carlo and discrete ordinates simulation models for the large-detector spectral gamma-ray (SGR) logging tool in use at the Nevada Test Site. Application of the simulation models produced spectra for source layers on the borehole wall, either from potassium-bearing mudcakes or from plate-out of radon daughter products. Simulations show that the shape and magnitude of gamma-ray spectra from sources distributed on the borehole wall depend on radial position with in the air-filled borehole as well as on hole diameter. No such dependence is observed for sources uniformly distributed in the formation. In addition, sources on the borehole wall produce anisotropic angular fluxes at the higher scattered energies and at the source energy. These differences in borehole effects and in angular flux are important to the process of correcting SGR logs for the presence of potassium mudcakes; they also suggest a technique for distinguishing between spectral contributions from formation sources and sources on the borehole wall. These results imply the existence of a standoff effect not present for spectra measured in air-filled boreholes from formation sources. 5 refs., 11 figs

  20. Spectrophotometry of Wolf-Rayet stars. I - Continuum energy distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Patrick W.; Brownsberger, Kenneth R.; Conti, Peter S.; Massey, Philip; Vacca, William D.

    1993-01-01

    All available low-resolution IUE spectra are assembled for Galactic, LMC, and SMC W-R stars and are merged with ground-based optical and NIR spectra in order to collate in a systematic fashion the shapes of these energy distributions over the wavelength range 0.1-1 micron. They can be consistently fitted by a power law of the form F(lambda) is approximately equal to lambda exp -alpha over the range 1500-9000 A to derive color excesses E(B-V) and spectral indices by removing the 2175-A interstellar absorption feature. The WN star color excesses derived are found to be in good agreement with those of Schmutz and Vacca (1991) and Koesterke et al. (1991). Significant heterogeneity in spectral index values was generally seen with any given subtype, but the groups consisting of the combined set of Galactic and LMC W-R stars, the separate WN and WC sequences, and the Galactic and LMC W-R stars all showed a striking and consistent Gaussian-like frequency distribution of values.

  1. Analysis of spectral effects on the energy yield of different PV (photovoltaic) technologies: The case of four specific sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso-Abella, M.; Chenlo, F.; Nofuentes, G.; Torres-Ramírez, M.

    2014-01-01

    This work is aimed at looking into the impact of the solar spectrum distribution on the energy yield of some PV (photovoltaic) materials on both monthly and annual time scales. The relative spectral responses of eight different PV solar cells – representative of each considered technology – have been selected. Modeling solar spectra in four sites located in the north hemisphere together with a 12-month experimental campaign in which spectral irradiances were periodically recorded in two of these sites located in Spain have provided highly interesting results. Regardless of the site, the considered amorphous silicon and cadmium telluride PV cells experience the most noticeable modeled and experimental variations of their monthly spectral gains, whilst flatter seasonal ones are identified in the remaining considered PV technologies. Thus, the maximum monthly variations of these spectral gains take place in the a-Si PV cell, ranging from −16% (winter) to 4% (summer) in Stuttgart. Anyway, the monthly spread of the spectral effects decreases as the latitude of the site does. Last, the impact of the solar spectrum distribution is remarkably reduced when the period of integration is enlarged up to a year. In fact, annual spectral gains keep below 2.2% for all the studied technologies and sites. - Highlights: • Monthly and annual spectral effects on eight different PV (photovoltaic) technologies studied. • Modeled spectra in four sites combined with relative spectral responses. • Measured spectra (12 months) in two sites combined with relative spectral responses. • Higher bandgap technologies: noticeable monthly variations in their spectral gains. • Annual spectral gains keep below 2.2% for all the studied technologies and sites

  2. Guided Image Filtering-Based Pan-Sharpening Method: A Case Study of GaoFen-2 Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalan Zheng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available GaoFen-2 (GF-2 is a civilian optical satellite self-developed by China equipped with both multispectral and panchromatic sensors, and is the first satellite in China with a resolution below 1 m. Because the pan-sharpening methods on GF-2 imagery have not been a focus of previous works, we propose a novel pan-sharpening method based on guided image filtering and compare the performance to state-of-the-art methods on GF-2 images. Guided image filtering was introduced to decompose and transfer the details and structures from the original panchromatic and multispectral bands. Thereafter, an adaptive model that considers the local spectral relationship was designed to properly inject spatial information back into the original spectral bands. Four pairs of GF-2 images acquired from urban, water body, cropland, and forest areas were selected for the experiments. Both quantitative and visual inspections were used for the assessment. The experimental results demonstrated that for GF-2 imagery acquired over different scenes, the proposed approach consistently achieves high spectral fidelity and enhances spatial details, thereby benefitting the potential classification procedures.

  3. Energy Calibration of the Pixels of Spectral X-ray Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Panta, Raj Kumar; Bell, Stephen T; Anderson, Nigel G; Butler, Anthony P; Butler, Philip H

    2015-01-01

    The energy information acquired using spectral X-ray detectors allows noninvasive identification and characterization of chemical components of a material. To achieve this, it is important that the energy response of the detector is calibrated. The established techniques for energy calibration are not practical for routine use in pre-clinical or clinical research environment. This is due to the requirements of using monochromatic radiation sources such as synchrotron, radio-isotopes, and prohibitively long time needed to set up the equipment and make measurements. To address these limitations, we have developed an automated technique for calibrating the energy response of the pixels in a spectral X-ray detector that runs with minimal user intervention. This technique uses the X-ray tube voltage (kVp) as a reference energy, which is stepped through an energy range of interest. This technique locates the energy threshold where a pixel transitions from not-counting (off) to counting (on). Similarly, we have deve...

  4. HIGH-REDSHIFT DUST OBSCURED GALAXIES: A MORPHOLOGY-SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION CONNECTION REVEALED BY KECK ADAPTIVE OPTICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melbourne, J.; Matthews, K.; Soifer, B. T.

    2009-01-01

    A simple optical to mid-IR color selection, R - [24]>14, i.e., f ν (24 μm)/f ν (R) ∼> 1000, identifies highly dust obscured galaxies (DOGs) with typical redshifts of z ∼ 2 ± 0.5. Extreme mid-IR luminosities (L IR > 10 12-14 ) suggest that DOGs are powered by a combination of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and star formation, possibly driven by mergers. In an effort to compare their photometric properties with their rest-frame optical morphologies, we obtained high-spatial resolution (0.''05-0.''1) Keck Adaptive Optics K'-band images of 15 DOGs. The images reveal a wide range of morphologies, including small exponential disks (eight of 15), small ellipticals (four of 15), and unresolved sources (two of 15). One particularly diffuse source could not be classified because of low signal-to-noise ratio. We find a statistically significant correlation between galaxy concentration and mid-IR luminosity, with the most luminous DOGs exhibiting higher concentration and smaller physical size. DOGs with high concentration also tend to have spectral energy distributions (SEDs) suggestive of AGN activity. Thus, central AGN light may be biasing the morphologies of the more luminous DOGs to higher concentration. Conversely, more diffuse DOGs tend to show an SED shape suggestive of star formation. Two of 15 in the sample show multiple resolved components with separations of ∼1 kpc, circumstantial evidence for ongoing mergers.

  5. Experience with ATLAS MySQL PanDA database service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, Y; Wlodek, T; Hover, J; Smith, J; Wenaus, T; Yu, D; De, K; Ozturk, N

    2010-01-01

    The PanDA distributed production and analysis system has been in production use for ATLAS data processing and analysis since late 2005 in the US, and globally throughout ATLAS since early 2008. Its core architecture is based on a set of stateless web services served by Apache and backed by a suite of MySQL databases that are the repository for all PanDA information: active and archival job queues, dataset and file catalogs, site configuration information, monitoring information, system control parameters, and so on. This database system is one of the most critical components of PanDA, and has successfully delivered the functional and scaling performance required by PanDA, currently operating at a scale of half a million jobs per week, with much growth still to come. In this paper we describe the design and implementation of the PanDA database system, its architecture of MySQL servers deployed at BNL and CERN, backup strategy and monitoring tools. The system has been developed, thoroughly tested, and brought to production to provide highly reliable, scalable, flexible and available database services for ATLAS Monte Carlo production, reconstruction and physics analysis.

  6. Experience with ATLAS MySQL PanDA database service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, Y; Wlodek, T; Hover, J; Smith, J; Wenaus, T; Yu, D [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); De, K; Ozturk, N [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX, 76019 (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The PanDA distributed production and analysis system has been in production use for ATLAS data processing and analysis since late 2005 in the US, and globally throughout ATLAS since early 2008. Its core architecture is based on a set of stateless web services served by Apache and backed by a suite of MySQL databases that are the repository for all PanDA information: active and archival job queues, dataset and file catalogs, site configuration information, monitoring information, system control parameters, and so on. This database system is one of the most critical components of PanDA, and has successfully delivered the functional and scaling performance required by PanDA, currently operating at a scale of half a million jobs per week, with much growth still to come. In this paper we describe the design and implementation of the PanDA database system, its architecture of MySQL servers deployed at BNL and CERN, backup strategy and monitoring tools. The system has been developed, thoroughly tested, and brought to production to provide highly reliable, scalable, flexible and available database services for ATLAS Monte Carlo production, reconstruction and physics analysis.

  7. Evaluating visibility of age spot and freckle based on simulated spectral reflectance distribution and facial color image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Misa; Toyota, Saori; Tsumura, Norimichi

    2018-02-01

    In this research, we evaluate the visibility of age spot and freckle with changing the blood volume based on simulated spectral reflectance distribution and the actual facial color images, and compare these results. First, we generate three types of spatial distribution of age spot and freckle in patch-like images based on the simulated spectral reflectance. The spectral reflectance is simulated using Monte Carlo simulation of light transport in multi-layered tissue. Next, we reconstruct the facial color image with changing the blood volume. We acquire the concentration distribution of melanin, hemoglobin and shading components by applying the independent component analysis on a facial color image. We reproduce images using the obtained melanin and shading concentration and the changed hemoglobin concentration. Finally, we evaluate the visibility of pigmentations using simulated spectral reflectance distribution and facial color images. In the result of simulated spectral reflectance distribution, we found that the visibility became lower as the blood volume increases. However, we can see that a specific blood volume reduces the visibility of the actual pigmentations from the result of the facial color images.

  8. The spectral energy distribution of the scattered light from dark clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Kalevi; Schnur, G. F. O.

    1989-01-01

    A dark cloud is exposed to the ambient radiation field of integrated starlight in the Galaxy. Scattering of starlight by the dust particles gives rise to a diffuse surface brightness of the dark nebula. The intensity and the spectrum of this diffuse radiation can be used to investigate, e.g., the scattering parameters of the dust, the optical thickness of the cloud, and as a probe of the ambient radiation field at the location of the cloud. An understanding of the scattering process is also a prerequisite for the isolation of broad spectral features due to fluorescence or to any other non-scattering origin of the diffuse light. Model calculations are presented for multiple scattering in a spherical cloud. These calculations show that the different spectral shapes of the observed diffuse light can be reproduced with standard dust parameters. The possibility to use the observed spectrum as a diagnostic tool for analyzing the thickness of the cloud and the dust particle is discussed.

  9. SPATIAL AND SPECTRAL MODELING OF THE GAMMA-RAY DISTRIBUTION IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foreman, Gary; Chu, You-Hua; Gruendl, Robert; Fields, Brian; Ricker, Paul [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, 1002 W. Green St., Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Hughes, Annie, E-mail: gforema2@illinois.edu [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-07-20

    We perform spatial and spectral analyses of the LMC gamma-ray emission collected over 66 months by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. In our spatial analysis, we model the LMC cosmic-ray distribution and gamma-ray production using observed maps of the LMC interstellar medium, star formation history, interstellar radiation field, and synchrotron emission. We use bootstrapping of the data to quantify the robustness of spatial model performance. We model the LMC gamma-ray spectrum using fitting functions derived from the physics of π{sup 0} decay, Bremsstrahlung, and inverse Compton scattering. We find the integrated gamma-ray flux of the LMC from 200 MeV to 20 GeV to be 1.37 ± 0.02 × 10{sup −7} ph cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}, of which we attribute about 6% to inverse Compton scattering and 44% to Bremsstrahlung. From our work, we conclude that the spectral index of the LMC cosmic-ray proton population is 2.4 ± 0.2, and we find that cosmic-ray energy loss through gamma-ray production is concentrated within a few 100 pc of acceleration sites. Assuming cosmic-ray energy equipartition with magnetic fields, we estimate LMC cosmic rays encounter an average magnetic field strength ∼3 μG.

  10. Spectral and geometrical variation of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function of diffuse reflectance standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Alejandro; Rabal, Ana María; Campos, Joaquín; Pons, Alicia; Hernanz, María Luisa

    2012-12-20

    A study on the variation of the spectral bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of four diffuse reflectance standards (matte ceramic, BaSO(4), Spectralon, and white Russian opal glass) is accomplished through this work. Spectral BRDF measurements were carried out and, using principal components analysis, its spectral and geometrical variation respect to a reference geometry was assessed from the experimental data. Several descriptors were defined in order to compare the spectral BRDF variation of the four materials.

  11. Pan genome of the phytoplankton Emiliania underpins its global distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Betsy A; Kegel, Jessica; Klute, Mary J; Kuo, Alan; Lefebvre, Stephane C; Maumus, Florian; Mayer, Christoph; Miller, John; Monier, Adam; Salamov, Asaf; Young, Jeremy; Aguilar, Maria; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Frickenhaus, Stephan; Gonzalez, Karina; Herman, Emily K; Lin, Yao-Cheng; Napier, Johnathan; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Sarno, Analissa F; Shmutz, Jeremy; Schroeder, Declan; de Vargas, Colomban; Verret, Frederic; von Dassow, Peter; Valentin, Klaus; Van de Peer, Yves; Wheeler, Glen; Dacks, Joel B; Delwiche, Charles F; Dyhrman, Sonya T; Glöckner, Gernot; John, Uwe; Richards, Thomas; Worden, Alexandra Z; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Grigoriev, Igor V

    2013-07-11

    Coccolithophores have influenced the global climate for over 200 million years. These marine phytoplankton can account for 20 per cent of total carbon fixation in some systems. They form blooms that can occupy hundreds of thousands of square kilometres and are distinguished by their elegantly sculpted calcium carbonate exoskeletons (coccoliths), rendering them visible from space. Although coccolithophores export carbon in the form of organic matter and calcite to the sea floor, they also release CO2 in the calcification process. Hence, they have a complex influence on the carbon cycle, driving either CO2 production or uptake, sequestration and export to the deep ocean. Here we report the first haptophyte reference genome, from the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi strain CCMP1516, and sequences from 13 additional isolates. Our analyses reveal a pan genome (core genes plus genes distributed variably between strains) probably supported by an atypical complement of repetitive sequence in the genome. Comparisons across strains demonstrate that E. huxleyi, which has long been considered a single species, harbours extensive genome variability reflected in different metabolic repertoires. Genome variability within this species complex seems to underpin its capacity both to thrive in habitats ranging from the equator to the subarctic and to form large-scale episodic blooms under a wide variety of environmental conditions.

  12. Application of spectral distributions in effective interaction theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, B.D.

    1980-01-01

    The calculation of observable quantities in a large many-particle space is very complicated and often impractical. In effective interaction theory, to simplify the calculation, the full many-particle space is truncated to a small, manageable model space and the operators associated with the observables are renormalized to accommodate the truncation effects. The operator that has been most extensively studied for renormalization is the Hamiltonian. The renormalized Hamiltonian, often called the effective Hamiltonian, can be defined such that it not only gives the eigenvalues, but also the projections of the full-space (true) eigen-functions onto the model space. These projected wave functions then provide a convenient basis for renormalization of other operators. The usual framework for renormalization is perturbation theory. Unfortunately, the conventional perturbation series for effective Hamiltonians have problems with convergence and their high order terms (especially 4th or higher) are also difficult to calculate. The characteristics of spectral distributions can be helptul in determining the model space and calculating the effective Hamiltonian. In this talk applications of spectral distributions are discussed in the following areas: (1) truncation of many particle spaces by selection of configurations; (2) orthogonal polynomial expansions for the effective Hamiltonian; and (3) establishing new criteria for the effective Hamiltonian

  13. DirtyGrid I: 3D Dust Radiative Transfer Modeling of Spectral Energy Distributions of Dusty Stellar Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Ka-Hei; Gordon, Karl D.; Misselt, Karl A.

    2018-06-01

    Understanding the properties of stellar populations and interstellar dust has important implications for galaxy evolution. In normal star-forming galaxies, stars and the interstellar medium dominate the radiation from ultraviolet (UV) to infrared (IR). In particular, interstellar dust absorbs and scatters UV and optical light, re-emitting the absorbed energy in the IR. This is a strongly nonlinear process that makes independent studies of the UV-optical and IR susceptible to large uncertainties and degeneracies. Over the years, UV to IR spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting utilizing varying approximations has revealed important results on the stellar and dust properties of galaxies. Yet the approximations limit the fidelity of the derived properties. There is sufficient computer power now available that it is now possible to remove these approximations and map out of landscape of galaxy SEDs using full dust radiative transfer. This improves upon previous work by directly connecting the UV, optical, and IR through dust grain physics. We present the DIRTYGrid, a grid of radiative transfer models of SEDs of dusty stellar populations in galactic environments designed to span the full range of physical parameters of galaxies. Using the stellar and gas radiation input from the stellar population synthesis model PEGASE, our radiative transfer model DIRTY self-consistently computes the UV to far-IR/sub-mm SEDs for each set of parameters in our grid. DIRTY computes the dust absorption, scattering, and emission from the local radiation field and a dust grain model, thereby physically connecting the UV-optical to the IR. We describe the computational method and explain the choices of parameters in DIRTYGrid. The computation took millions of CPU hours on supercomputers, and the SEDs produced are an invaluable tool for fitting multi-wavelength data sets. We provide the complete set of SEDs in an online table.

  14. Electron-energy-loss spectral library and its application to materials science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaluzec, N.J.

    1983-09-01

    An electron energy loss spectral library can be an invaluable tool in materials research from a fundamental as well as a practical standpoint. Although it will not alleviate all the complications associated with quantification, this type of library can help to elucidate details of spectral profiles previously found intractable. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy. The author also wishes to express his gratitude to the organizing committee for partial financial support provided to attend this meeting.

  15. Wave propagation of spectral energy content in a granular chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shrivastava, Rohit Kumar; Luding, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    A mechanical wave is propagation of vibration with transfer of energy and momentum. Understanding the spectral energy characteristics of a propagating wave through disordered granular media can assist in understanding the overall properties of wave propagation through inhomogeneous materials like

  16. In silico panning for a non-competitive peptide inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikebukuro Kazunori

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peptide ligands have tremendous therapeutic potential as efficacious drugs. Currently, more than 40 peptides are available in the market for a drug. However, since costly and time-consuming synthesis procedures represent a problem for high-throughput screening, novel procedures to reduce the time and labor involved in screening peptide ligands are required. We propose the novel approach of 'in silico panning' which consists of a two-stage screening, involving affinity selection by docking simulation and evolution of the peptide ligand using genetic algorithms (GAs. In silico panning was successfully applied to the selection of peptide inhibitor for water-soluble quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase (PQQGDH. Results The evolution of peptide ligands for a target enzyme was achieved by combining a docking simulation with evolution of the peptide ligand using genetic algorithms (GAs, which mimic Darwinian evolution. Designation of the target area as next to the substrate-binding site of the enzyme in the docking simulation enabled the selection of a non-competitive inhibitor. In all, four rounds of selection were carried out on the computer; the distribution of the docking energy decreased gradually for each generation and improvements in the docking energy were observed over the four rounds of selection. One of the top three selected peptides with the lowest docking energy, 'SERG' showed an inhibitory effect with Ki value of 20 μM. PQQGDH activity, in terms of the Vmax value, was 3-fold lower than that of the wild-type enzyme in the presence of this peptide. The mechanism of the SERG blockage of the enzyme was identified as non-competitive inhibition. We confirmed the specific binding of the peptide, and its equilibrium dissociation constant (KD value was calculated as 60 μM by surface plasmon resonance (SPR analysis. Conclusion We demonstrate an effective methodology of in silico panning for the selection of a non

  17. PanDA: Exascale Federation of Resources for the ATLAS Experiment at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)643806; The ATLAS collaboration; Caballero-Bejar, Jose; De, Kaushik; Hover, John; Klimentov, Alexei; Maeno, Tadashi; Nilsson, Paul; Oleynik, Danila; Padolski, Siarhei; Panitkin, Sergey; Petrosyan, Artem; Wenaus, Torre

    2016-01-01

    After a scheduled maintenance and upgrade period, the world’s largest and most powerful machine - the Large Hadron Collider(LHC) - is about to enter its second run at unprecedented energies. In order to exploit the scientific potential of the machine, the experiments at the LHC face computational challenges with enormous data volumes that need to be analysed by thousand of physics users and compared to simulated data. Given diverse funding constraints, the computational resources for the LHC have been deployed in a worldwide mesh of data centres, connected to each other through Grid technologies. The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) system was developed in 2005 for the ATLAS experiment on top of this heterogeneous infrastructure to seamlessly integrate the computational resources and give the users the feeling of a unique system. Since its origins, PanDA has evolved together with upcoming computing paradigms in and outside HEP, such as changes in the networking model, Cloud Computing and HPC. It ...

  18. Optimizing new components of PanDA for ATLAS production on HPC resources

    CERN Document Server

    Maeno, Tadashi; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis system (PanDA) has been used for workload management in the ATLAS Experiment for over a decade. It uses pilots to retrieve jobs from the PanDA server and execute them on worker nodes. While PanDA has been mostly used on Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG) resources for production operations, R&D work has been ongoing on cloud and HPC resources for many years. These efforts have led to the significant usage of large scale HPC resources in the past couple of years. In this talk we will describe the changes to the pilot which enabled the use of HPC sites by PanDA, specifically the Titan supercomputer at Oakridge National Laboratory. Furthermore, it was decided in 2016 to start a fresh redesign of the Pilot with a more modern approach to better serve present and future needs from ATLAS and other collaborations that are interested in using the PanDA System. Another new project for development of a resource oriented service, PanDA Harvester, was also launched in 2016. The...

  19. A spatial neural fuzzy network for estimating pan evaporation at ungauged sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-H. Chung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaporation is an essential reference to the management of water resources. In this study, a hybrid model that integrates a spatial neural fuzzy network with the kringing method is developed to estimate pan evaporation at ungauged sites. The adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS can extract the nonlinear relationship of observations, while kriging is an excellent geostatistical interpolator. Three-year daily data collected from nineteen meteorological stations covering the whole of Taiwan are used to train and test the constructed model. The pan evaporation (Epan at ungauged sites can be obtained through summing up the outputs of the spatially weighted ANFIS and the residuals adjusted by kriging. Results indicate that the proposed AK model (hybriding ANFIS and kriging can effectively improve the accuracy of Epan estimation as compared with that of empirical formula. This hybrid model demonstrates its reliability in estimating the spatial distribution of Epan and consequently provides precise Epan estimation by taking geographical features into consideration.

  20. Integration Of PanDA Workload Management System With Supercomputers for ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Oleynik, Danila; The ATLAS collaboration; De, Kaushik; Wenaus, Torre; Maeno, Tadashi; Barreiro Megino, Fernando Harald; Nilsson, Paul; Guan, Wen; Panitkin, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), operating at the international CERN Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland, is leading Big Data driven scientific explorations. Experiments at the LHC explore the fundamental nature of matter and the basic forces that shape our universe, and were recently credited for the discovery of a Higgs boson. ATLAS, one of the largest collaborations ever assembled in the sciences, is at the forefront of research at the LHC. To address an unprecedented multi-petabyte data processing challenge, the ATLAS experiment is relying on a heterogeneous distributed computational infrastructure. The ATLAS experiment uses PanDA (Production ANd Distributed Analysis system) Workload Management System for managing the workflow for all data processing on over 150 data centers. Through PanDA, ATLAS physicists see a single computing facility that enables rapid scientific breakthroughs for the experiment, even though the data centers are physically scattered all over the world. While PanDA currently uses more t...

  1. C IV EMISSION AND THE ULTRAVIOLET THROUGH X-RAY SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF RADIO-QUIET QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruczek, Nicholas E.; Richards, Gordon T.; Deo, Rajesh P.; Krawczyk, Coleman M.; Gallagher, S. C.; Hall, Patrick B.; Hewett, Paul C.; Leighly, Karen M.; Proga, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    In the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV), two of the parameters that best characterize the range of emission-line properties in quasar broad emission-line regions are the equivalent width and the blueshift of the C IV λ1549 line relative to the quasar rest frame. We explore the connection between these emission-line properties and the UV through X-ray spectral energy distribution (SED) for radio-quiet (RQ) quasars. Our sample consists of a heterogeneous compilation of 406 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (at z > 1.54) and Palomar-Green survey (at z < 0.4) that have well-measured C IV emission-line and X-ray properties (including 164 objects with measured Γ). We find that RQ quasars with both strong C IV emission and small C IV blueshifts can be classified as 'hard-spectrum' sources that are (relatively) strong in the X-ray as compared to the UV. On the other hand, RQ quasars with both weak C IV emission and large C IV blueshifts are instead 'soft-spectrum' sources that are (relatively) weak in the X-ray as compared to the UV. This work helps to further bridge optical/soft X-ray 'eigenvector 1' relationships to the UV and hard X-ray. Based on these findings, we argue that future work should consider systematic errors in bolometric corrections (and thus accretion rates) that are derived from a single mean SED. Detailed analysis of the C IV emission line may allow for SED-dependent corrections to these quantities.

  2. Superficial Velocity Effects on HZ-PAN and AgZ-PAN for Kr/Xe Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welty, Amy Keil [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Garn, Troy Gerry [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Greenhalgh, Mitchell Randy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Nearly all previous testing of HZ-PAN and AgZ-PAN was conducted at the same flow rate in order to maintain consistency among tests. This testing was sufficient for sorbent capacity determinations, but did not ensure that sorbents were capable of functioning under a range of flow regimes. Tests were conducted on both HZ-PAN and AgZ-PAN at superficial velocities between 20 and 700 cm/min. For HZ-PAN, Kr capacity increased from 60 mmol/kg to 110 mmol/kg as superficial velocity increased from 21 to 679 cm/min. Results for AgZ-PAN were similar, with capacity ranging from 72 to 124 mmol/kg over the same range of superficial. These results are promising for scaling up to process flows, demonstrating flexibility to operate in a broad range of superficial velocities while maintaining sorbent capacity. While preparing for superficial velocity testing it was also discovered that AgZ-PAN Xe capacity, previously observed to diminish over time, could be recovered with increased desorption temperature. Further, a substantial Xe capacity increase was observed. Previous room temperature capacities in the range of 22-25 mmol Xe/kg AgZ-PAN were increased to over 60 mmol Xe/kg AgZ-PAN. While this finding has not yet been fully explored to optimize activation and desorption temperatures, it is encouraging.

  3. Effects of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) on vegetation. I. Herbaceous plants PAN injury symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouchi, I.; Iijima, T.; Oodaira, T.

    1975-01-01

    A series of exposure experiments were conducted in a controlled-atmosphere exposure chamber equipped with artificial light apparatus, using PAN synthesized from ultraviolet irradiation of ethyl nitrite vapor in oxygen. Exposures of 6 approx. 16 hours and 10 pphm PAN caused serious damage like caving with glazing or bronzing in caved lesions to the lower surface of younger leaves. Leaves of white-flowered petunia were found to be most sensitive to PAN and were damaged even by a 3 pphm exposure. Microscopic examinations showed that the PAN characteristically caused injuries of spongy cells and that these cells collapsed and turned brown. Leaf injury symptoms on herbaceous plants caused by synthesized PAN in the exposure experiments were found to be quite similar to those seen in the field under high oxidant emergence. Therefore, it seems that the said type of injuries to leaf beet, kidney bean, and head lettuce observed in the field were caused by PAN. 21 references. 4 figures, 3 tables.

  4. Revisiting the Correlations of Peak Luminosity with Spectral Lag and Peak Energy of the Observed Gamma-ray Bursts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-A Jo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of light curves and spectra of observed gamma-ray bursts in gamma-ray ranges is frequently demanded because the prompt emission contains immediate details regarding the central engine of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs. We have revisited the relationship between the collimation-corrected peak luminosity and the spectral lag, investigating the lag-luminosity relationships in great detail by focusing on spectral lags resulting from all possible combinations of channels. Firstly, we compiled the opening angle data and demonstrated that the distribution of opening angles of 205 long GRBs is represented by a double Gaussian function having maxima at ~ 0.1 and ~ 0.3 radians. We confirmed that the peak luminosity and the spectral lag are anti-correlated, both in the observer frame and in the source frame. We found that, in agreement with our previous conclusion, the correlation coefficient improves significantly in the source frame. It should be noted that spectral lags involving channel 2 (25-50 keV yield high correlation coefficients, where Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT has four energy channels (channel 1: 15-25 keV, channel 2: 25-50 keV, channel 3: 50-100 keV, channel 4: 100-200 keV. We also found that peak luminosity is positively correlated with peak energy.

  5. Retrieval of spheroid particle size distribution from spectral extinction data in the independent mode using PCA approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Hong; Lin, Jian-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    An improved anomalous diffraction approximation (ADA) method is presented for calculating the extinction efficiency of spheroids firstly. In this approach, the extinction efficiency of spheroid particles can be calculated with good accuracy and high efficiency in a wider size range by combining the Latimer method and the ADA theory, and this method can present a more general expression for calculating the extinction efficiency of spheroid particles with various complex refractive indices and aspect ratios. Meanwhile, the visible spectral extinction with varied spheroid particle size distributions and complex refractive indices is surveyed. Furthermore, a selection principle about the spectral extinction data is developed based on PCA (principle component analysis) of first derivative spectral extinction. By calculating the contribution rate of first derivative spectral extinction, the spectral extinction with more significant features can be selected as the input data, and those with less features is removed from the inversion data. In addition, we propose an improved Tikhonov iteration method to retrieve the spheroid particle size distributions in the independent mode. Simulation experiments indicate that the spheroid particle size distributions obtained with the proposed method coincide fairly well with the given distributions, and this inversion method provides a simple, reliable and efficient method to retrieve the spheroid particle size distributions from the spectral extinction data. -- Highlights: ► Improved ADA is presented for calculating the extinction efficiency of spheroids. ► Selection principle about spectral extinction data is developed based on PCA. ► Improved Tikhonov iteration method is proposed to retrieve the spheroid PSD.

  6. Global heterogeneous resource harvesting: the next-generation PanDA Pilot for ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Paul; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis system (PanDA), used for workload management in the ATLAS Experiment for over a decade, has in recent years expanded its reach to diverse new resource types such as HPCs, and innovative new workflows such as the Event Service. PanDA meets the heterogeneous resources it harvests in the PanDA pilot, which has embarked on a next-generation reengineering to efficiently integrate and exploit the new platforms and workflows. The new modular architecture is the product of a year of design and prototyping in conjunction with the design of a completely new component, Harvester, that will mediate a richer flow of control and information between pilot and PanDA. Harvester will enable more intelligent and dynamic matching between processing tasks and resources, with an initial focus on HPCs, simplifying the operator and user view of a PanDA site but internally leveraging deep information gathering on the resource to accrue detailed knowledge of a site's capabilities and dynamic sta...

  7. Global heterogeneous resource harvesting: the next-generation PanDA pilot for ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Paul; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis system (PanDA), used for workload management in the ATLAS Experiment for over a decade, has in recent years expanded its reach to diverse new resource types such as HPCs, and innovative new workflows such as the event service. PanDA meets the heterogeneous resources it harvests in the PanDA pilot, which has embarked on a next-generation reengineering to efficiently integrate and exploit the new platforms and workflows. The new modular architecture is the product of a year of design and prototyping in conjunction with the design of a completely new component, Harvester, that will mediate a richer flow of control and information between pilot and PanDA. Harvester will enable more intelligent and dynamic matching between processing tasks and resources, with an initial focus on HPCs, simplifying the operator and user view of a PanDA site but internally leveraging deep information gathering on the resource to accrue detailed knowledge of a site's capabilities and dynamic sta...

  8. Spectral mapping of thermal conductivity through nanoscale ballistic transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yongjie; Zeng, Lingping; Minnich, Austin J.; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.; Chen, Gang

    2015-08-01

    Controlling thermal properties is central to many applications, such as thermoelectric energy conversion and the thermal management of integrated circuits. Progress has been made over the past decade by structuring materials at different length scales, but a clear relationship between structure size and thermal properties remains to be established. The main challenge comes from the unknown intrinsic spectral distribution of energy among heat carriers. Here, we experimentally measure this spectral distribution by probing quasi-ballistic transport near nanostructured heaters down to 30 nm using ultrafast optical spectroscopy. Our approach allows us to quantify up to 95% of the total spectral contribution to thermal conductivity from all phonon modes. The measurement agrees well with multiscale and first-principles-based simulations. We further demonstrate the direct construction of mean free path distributions. Our results provide a new fundamental understanding of thermal transport and will enable materials design in a rational way to achieve high performance.

  9. Analysis list: pan [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pan Embryo,Larvae,Pupae + dm3 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target.../pan.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/pan.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp.../kyushu-u/dm3/target/pan.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/pan.Embryo.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/pan.Larvae.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/pan.Pupae.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Embryo.gml,http://dbarchive.bioscience

  10. Measuring Cosmological Parameters with Photometrically Classified Pan-STARRS Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David; Scolnic, Daniel; Riess, Adam; Rest, Armin; Kirshner, Robert; Berger, Edo; Kessler, Rick; Pan, Yen-Chen; Foley, Ryan; Chornock, Ryan; Ortega, Carolyn; Challis, Peter; Burgett, William; Chambers, Kenneth; Draper, Peter; Flewelling, Heather; Huber, Mark; Kaiser, Nick; Kudritzki, Rolf; Metcalfe, Nigel; Tonry, John; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Waters, Chris; Gall, E. E. E.; Kotak, Rubina; McCrum, Matt; Smartt, Stephen; Smith, Ken

    2018-01-01

    We use nearly 1,200 supernovae (SNe) from Pan-STARRS and ~200 low-z (z energy equation of state parameter w to be -0.986±0.058 (stat+sys). If we allow w to evolve with redshift as w(a) = w0 + wa(1-a), we find w0 = -0.923±0.148 and wa = -0.404±0.797. These results are consistent with measurements of cosmological parameters from the JLA and from a new analysis of 1049 spectroscopically confirmed SNe Ia (Scolnic et al. 2017). We try four different photometric classification priors for Pan-STARRS SNe and two alternate ways of modeling the CC SN contamination, finding that none of these variants gives a w that differs by more than 1% from the baseline measurement. The systematic uncertainty on w due to marginalizing over the CC SN contamination, σwCC = 0.019, is approximately equal to the photometric calibration uncertainty and is lower than the systematic uncertainty in the SN\\,Ia dispersion model (σwdisp = 0.024). Our data provide one of the best current constraints on w, demonstrating that samples with ~5% CC SN contamination can give competitive cosmological constraints when the contaminating distribution is marginalized over in a Bayesian framework.

  11. Integration Of PanDA Workload Management System With Supercomputers for ATLAS and Data Intensive Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimentov, A.; De, K.; Jha, S.; Maeno, T.; Nilsson, P.; Oleynik, D.; Panitkin, S.; Wells, J.; Wenaus, T.

    2016-10-01

    The.LHC, operating at CERN, is leading Big Data driven scientific explorations. Experiments at the LHC explore the fundamental nature of matter and the basic forces that shape our universe. ATLAS, one of the largest collaborations ever assembled in the sciences, is at the forefront of research at the LHC. To address an unprecedented multi-petabyte data processing challenge, the ATLAS experiment is relying on a heterogeneous distributed computational infrastructure. The ATLAS experiment uses PanDA (Production and Data Analysis) Workload Management System for managing the workflow for all data processing on over 150 data centers. Through PanDA, ATLAS physicists see a single computing facility that enables rapid scientific breakthroughs for the experiment, even though the data centers are physically scattered all over the world. While PanDA currently uses more than 250,000 cores with a peak performance of 0.3 petaFLOPS, LHC data taking runs require more resources than grid can possibly provide. To alleviate these challenges, LHC experiments are engaged in an ambitious program to expand the current computing model to include additional resources such as the opportunistic use of supercomputers. We will describe a project aimed at integration of PanDA WMS with supercomputers in United States, in particular with Titan supercomputer at Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility. Current approach utilizes modified PanDA pilot framework for job submission to the supercomputers batch queues and local data management, with light-weight MPI wrappers to run single threaded workloads in parallel on LCFs multi-core worker nodes. This implementation was tested with a variety of Monte-Carlo workloads on several supercomputing platforms for ALICE and ATLAS experiments and it is in full pro duction for the ATLAS since September 2015. We will present our current accomplishments with running PanDA at supercomputers and demonstrate our ability to use PanDA as a portal independent of the

  12. Integration Of PanDA Workload Management System With Supercomputers for ATLAS and Data Intensive Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimentov, A; Maeno, T; Nilsson, P; Panitkin, S; Wenaus, T; De, K; Oleynik, D; Jha, S; Wells, J

    2016-01-01

    The.LHC, operating at CERN, is leading Big Data driven scientific explorations. Experiments at the LHC explore the fundamental nature of matter and the basic forces that shape our universe. ATLAS, one of the largest collaborations ever assembled in the sciences, is at the forefront of research at the LHC. To address an unprecedented multi-petabyte data processing challenge, the ATLAS experiment is relying on a heterogeneous distributed computational infrastructure. The ATLAS experiment uses PanDA (Production and Data Analysis) Workload Management System for managing the workflow for all data processing on over 150 data centers. Through PanDA, ATLAS physicists see a single computing facility that enables rapid scientific breakthroughs for the experiment, even though the data centers are physically scattered all over the world. While PanDA currently uses more than 250,000 cores with a peak performance of 0.3 petaFLOPS, LHC data taking runs require more resources than grid can possibly provide. To alleviate these challenges, LHC experiments are engaged in an ambitious program to expand the current computing model to include additional resources such as the opportunistic use of supercomputers. We will describe a project aimed at integration of PanDA WMS with supercomputers in United States, in particular with Titan supercomputer at Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility. Current approach utilizes modified PanDA pilot framework for job submission to the supercomputers batch queues and local data management, with light-weight MPI wrappers to run single threaded workloads in parallel on LCFs multi-core worker nodes. This implementation was tested with a variety of Monte-Carlo workloads on several supercomputing platforms for ALICE and ATLAS experiments and it is in full pro duction for the ATLAS since September 2015. We will present our current accomplishments with running PanDA at supercomputers and demonstrate our ability to use PanDA as a portal independent of the

  13. Preparation of Ag/HBP/PAN Nanofiber Web and Its Antimicrobial and Filtration Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Rong Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To widen the application of nanofibers web in the field of medical health materials, a new Ag/amino-terminated hyperbranched polymer (HBP/polyacrylonitrile (PAN nanofiber web with excellent antimicrobial activity and filtration property was produced with Ag/HBP dispersion solution and PAN nanofiber. Ag/HBP dispersion solution was prepared with HBP as reducer and stabilizer, and Ag/HBP/PAN nanofiber was prepared by modifying electrospun PAN nanofiber with Ag/HBP aqueous solution. The characterization results showed that spherical Ag nanoparticles were prepared and they had a narrow distribution in HBP aqueous solution. The results of Ag/HBP/PAN nanofiber characterized with SEM and EDS showed that the content of silver nanoparticles on the surface of PAN nanofiber was on the increase when the treating temperature rose. The bacterial reduction rates of HBP-treated PAN nanofiber against S. aureus and E. coli were about 89%, while those of the Ag/HBP/PAN nanofiber against S. aureus and E. coli were 99.9% and 99.96%, respectively, due to the cooperative effects from the amino groups in HBP and Ag nanoparticles. Moreover, the small pores and high porosity in Ag/HBP/PAN nanofiber web resulted in high filtration efficiency (99.9% for removing smaller particles (0.1 μm~0.7 μm, which was much higher than that of the gauze mask.

  14. The energy distribution of electrons in radio jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsouros, Alexandros; Kylafis, Nikolaos D.

    2017-07-01

    Context. Black-hole and neutron-star X-ray binaries exhibit compact radio jets, when they are in the so called quiescent, hard, or hard intermediate states. The radio spectrum in these states is flat to slightly inverted, I.e., the spectral index of the observed flux density is in the range 0 ≲ α ≲ 0.5. It is widely accepted that the energy distribution of the electrons, in the rest frame of the jet, is a power law with index in the range 3 ≲ p ≲ 5. Aims: Contrary to what our thinking was decades ago, now we know that the jets originate in the hot, inner flow around black holes and neutron stars. So it is worth investigating the radio spectrum that is emitted by a thermal jet as a function of direction. Methods: As an example, we consider a parabolic jet and, with the assumption of flux freezing, we compute the emitted spectrum in all directions, from radio to near infrared, using either a thermal distribution of electrons or a power-law one. Results: We have found that parabolic jets with a thermal distribution of electrons give also flat to slightly inverted spectra. In particular, for directions along the jet (θ = 0), both distributions of electron energies give α = 0 ± 0.01. The index α increases as the viewing angle θ increases and for directions perpendicular to the jet (θ = π/ 2), the thermal distribution gives α = 0.40 ± 0.05, while the power-law distribution gives α = 0.20 ± 0.05. The break frequency νb, which marks the transition from partially optically thick to optically thin synchrotron emission, is comparable for the power-law and the thermal distributions. Conclusions: Contrary to common belief, it is not necessary to invoke a power-law energy distribution of the electrons in a jet to explain its flat to slightly inverted radio spectrum. A relativistic Maxwellian produces similar radio spectra. Thus, the jet may be the widely invoked "corona" around black holes in X-ray binaries.

  15. Pan Genome of the Phytoplankton Emiliania Underpins its Global Distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Read, Betsy A. [California State Univ. (CalState), San Marcos, CA (United States); Kegel, Jessica [Alfred Wegener Inst. for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven (Germany); Klute, Mary J. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Kuo, Alan [USDOE Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Lefebvre, Stephane C. [J. Craig Venter Inst., San Diego, CA (United States); Maumus, Florian [National Institute of Agricultural Research, Versailles (France); Mayer, Christoph [Alexander Koenig Research Museum, Bonn (Germany); Ruhr Univ., Bochum (Germany); Miller, John [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Monier, Adam [Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Inst., Moss Landing, CA (United States); Salamov, Asaf [USDOE Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Young, Jeremy [Univ. College London (United Kingdom); Aguilar, Maria [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Claverie, Jean-Michel [Aix-Marseille Univ. (France); Frickenhaus, Stephan [Alfred Wegener Inst. for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven (Germany); Univ. of Bremerhaven (Germany); Gonzalez, Karina [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Herman, Emily K. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Lin, Yao-Cheng [Ghent Univ. (Belgium); Napier, Johnathan [Rothamstead Research, Harpenden (United Kingdom); Ogata, Hiroyuki [Aix-Marseille Univ. (France); Sarno, Analissa F. [California State Univ. (CalState), San Marcos, CA (United States); Schmutz, Jeremy [USDOE Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); HudsonAlpha Genome Sequencing Center, Huntsville, AL (United States); Schroeder, Declan [Marine Biological Association of the UK, Plymouth (United Kingdom); de Vargas, Columban [CNRS. Univ. Pierre and Marie Curie (France).; Verret, Frederic [Univ. of Essex, Colchester (United Kingdom); von Dassow, Peter [Pontifical Catholic University of Chile, Santiago (Chile); Valentin, Klaus [Alfred Wegener Inst. for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven (Germany); Van de Peer, Yves [Ghent Univ. (Belgium); Wheeler, Glen [Marine Biological Association of the UK, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Plymouth Marine Lab. (United Kingdom); Annotation Consortium, Emiliania huxleyi; Dacks, Joel B. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Delwiche, Charles F. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Dyhrman, Sonya T. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Inst., MA (United States); Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States); Glockner, Gernot [Univ. of Cologne (Germany); John, Uwe [Alfred Wegener Inst. for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven (Germany); Richards, Thomas [National History Museum, London (United Kingdom); Worden, Alexandra Z. [Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Inst., Moss Landing, CA (United States); Zhang, Xiaoyu [California State Univ. (CalState), San Marcos, CA (United States); Grigoriev, Igor V. [USDOE Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States)

    2012-06-18

    Coccolithophores have influenced the global climate for over 200 million years1. These marine phytoplankton can account for 20 per cent of total carbon fixation in some systems2. They form blooms that can occupy hundreds of thousands of square kilometres and are distinguished by their elegantly sculpted calcium carbonate exoskeletons (coccoliths), rendering themvisible fromspace3.Although coccolithophores export carbon in the form of organic matter and calcite to the sea floor, they also release CO2 in the calcification process. Hence, they have a complex influence on the carbon cycle, driving either CO2 production or uptake, sequestration and export to the deep ocean4. Here we report the first haptophyte reference genome, from the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi strain CCMP1516, and sequences from 13 additional isolates. Our analyses reveal a pan genome (core genes plus genes distributed variably between strains) probably supported by an atypical complement of repetitive sequence in the genome. Comparisons across strains demonstrate thatE. huxleyi, which has long been considered a single species, harbours extensive genome variability reflected in different metabolic repertoires. Genome variability within this species complex seems to underpin its capacity both to thrive in habitats ranging from the equator to the subarctic and to form large-scale episodic blooms under a wide variety of environmental conditions.

  16. Pan-Domain Analysis of ZIP Zinc Transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E. Lehtovirta-Morley

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The ZIP (Zrt/Irt-like protein family of zinc transporters is found in all three domains of life. However, little is known about the phylogenetic relationship amongst ZIP transporters, their distribution, or their origin. Here we employed phylogenetic analysis to explore the evolution of ZIP transporters, with a focus on the major human fungal pathogen, Candida albicans. Pan-domain analysis of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and human proteins revealed a complex relationship amongst the ZIP family members. Here we report (i a eukaryote-wide group of cellular zinc importers, (ii a fungal-specific group of zinc importers having genetic association with the fungal zincophore, and, (iii a pan-kingdom supercluster made up of two distinct subgroups with orthologues in bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic phyla.

  17. Surface properties of poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN) precipitation polymerized in supercritical CO2 and the influence of the molecular weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qing; Gu, Qing-Feng; Hu, Jian-Feng; Teng, Xin-Rong; Zhu, Yun-Feng

    2003-11-15

    In this paper, the surface properties, e.g., the total surface free energy and the related Lifshitz-van der Waals and Lewis acid-base components, of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) precipitation polymerized in supercritical CO(2) have been characterized. Moreover, the influence of molecular weight varying has been also investigated. Results show that the surface properties of PAN resulting from supercritical CO(2) are different from those obtained by the conventional method. Of these data, one important finding is that the supercritical CO(2) PAN seems to decrease the surface free energy with the increased molecular weight. Based on previous recorded NMR spectra of this PAN and especially compared to commercial PAN, such phenomena are discussed and ascribed to an increase of the H-bonds and a reduction of the isotacticity in the supercritical CO(2) condition for PAN.

  18. Investigation of JI and DI CMOS FXR response at different spectral energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honnold, V.R.; Goldberg, M.; Schreiner, W.A.; Witteles, A.A.

    1975-01-01

    The transient response of both junction isolated (JI) and dielectrically isolated (DI) CMOS circuits has been investigated in three FXR environments of differing energy spectrums. The offset recovery times have been measured and analyzed for both structures. It is shown that while the DI circuit (HD4007) did not exhibit a four layer type latchup action, its transient response persisted for a time longer than is expected for this type of device. A possible mechanism for this observed response is developed and discussed. JI circuits (CD4007) exposed under the same conditions exhibited four layer device action and one sample at low spectral energies latched-up. The conditions for the latchup to occur including the four layer device paths are discussed. Finally, the dependence of the x-ray transient response on the spectral energy is considered. For the lower energy FXR source, latchup was observed in a CD4007 sample. This latchup was not observed at more than double the dose rate when a high energy FXR was used. This result is attributed to dose enhancement, and a device enhancement factor may also be involved. The dose enhancement factor is estimated from the work of Long, and points up the importance of accounting for the spectral energy content in simulating a given nuclear threat spectrum

  19. Next Generation PanDA Pilot for ATLAS and Other Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, P; The ATLAS collaboration; Caballero Bejar, J; De, K; Hover, J; Love, P; Maeno, T; Medrano Llamas, R; Walker, R; Wenaus, T

    2013-01-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis system (PanDA) has been in use in the ATLAS Experiment since 2005. It uses a sophisticated pilot system to execute submitted jobs on the worker nodes. While originally designed for ATLAS, the PanDA Pilot has recently been refactored to facilitate use outside of ATLAS. Experiments are now handled as plug-ins such that a new PanDA Pilot user only has to implement a set of prototyped methods in the plug-in classes, and provide a script that configures and runs the experiment specific payload. We will give an overview of the Next Generation PanDA Pilot system and will present major features and recent improvements including live user payload debugging, data access via the Federated XRootD system, stage-out to alternative storage elements, support for the new ATLAS DDM system (Rucio), and an improved integration with glExec, as well as a description of the experiment specific plug-in classes. The performance of the pilot system in processing LHC data on the OSG, LCG and Nord...

  20. Next Generation PanDA Pilot for ATLAS and Other Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, P; The ATLAS collaboration; Caballero Bejar, J; De, K; Hover, J; Love, P; Maeno, T; Medrano Llamas, R; Walker, R; Wenaus, T

    2014-01-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis system (PanDA) has been in use in the ATLAS Experiment since 2005. It uses a sophisticated pilot system to execute submitted jobs on the worker nodes. While originally designed for ATLAS, the PanDA Pilot has recently been refactored to facilitate use outside of ATLAS. Experiments are now handled as plug-ins such that a new PanDA Pilot user only has to implement a set of prototyped methods in the plug-in classes, and provide a script that configures and runs the experiment specific payload. We will give an overview of the Next Generation PanDA Pilot system and will present major features and recent improvements including live user payload debugging, data access via the Federated XRootD system, stage-out to alternative storage elements, support for the new ATLAS DDM system (Rucio), and an improved integration with glExec, as well as a description of the experiment specific plug-in classes. The performance of the pilot system in processing LHC data on the OSG, LCG and Nord...

  1. The next generation of the ATLAS PanDA Monitoring System

    CERN Document Server

    Schovancova, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Klimentov, A; Love, P; Potekhin, M; Wenaus, T

    2014-01-01

    For many years the PanDA Workload Management System has been the basis for distributed production and analysis for the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Since the start of data taking PanDA usage has ramped up steadily, with up to 1M completed jobs/day in 2013. The associated monitoring data volume has been rising as well, to levels that present a new set of challenges in the areas of database scalability and monitoring system performance and efficiency. Outside of ATLAS, the PanDA system is also being used in projects like AMS, LSST and a few others. It currently undergoes a significant redesign, both of the core server components responsible for workload management, brokerage and data access, and of the monitoring part, which is critically important for efficient execution of the workflow in a way that’s transparent to the user and also provides an effective set of tools for operational support. The new generation of the PanDA Monitoring Service is designed based on a proven, scalable, industry-standard Web Fr...

  2. PanDA Pilot Submission using Condor-G: Experience and Improvements

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, X; The ATLAS collaboration; Wlodek, T; Wenaus, T; Frey, J; Tannenbaum, T; Livny, M

    2011-01-01

    PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) is the workload management system of the ATLAS experiment, used to run managed production and user analysis jobs on the grid. As a late-binding, pilot-based system, the maintenance of a smooth and steady stream of pilot jobs to all grid sites is critical for PanDA operation. The ATLAS Computing Facility (ACF) at BNL, as the ATLAS Tier1 center in the US, operates the pilot submission systems for the US. This is done using the PanDA “AutoPilot” scheduler component which submits pilot jobs via Condor-G, a grid job scheduling system developed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. In this paper, we discuss the operation and performance of the Condor-G pilot submission at BNL, with emphasis on the challenges and issues encountered in the real grid production environment. With the close collaboration of Condor and PanDA teams, the scalability and stability of the overall system has been greatly improved over the last year. We review improvements made to Condor-G resu...

  3. Characterization of clays used in the fabrication of traditional brazilian ceramic pans: culture and technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borlini, Monica Castoldi; Aguiar, Mariane Costalonga de; Vieira, Carlos Mauricio Fontes; Monteiro, Sergio Neves

    2009-01-01

    The fabrication process of clay pans in the state of Espirito Santo, southeast of Brazil, is a recognized part of the country's popular culture. In Goiabeiras, a district of the state capital Vitoria, the traditional production of these pans is the source of income for many families. The technique used in these ceramic pans is of indigenous origin, characterized by manual molding, outdoor burning and application of tannin dye. The clay pans are distributed to several Brazilian states and are nowadays conquering the external market. In producing these pans, two types of, yellow and gray, clays are used. The actual source of raw material comes from the deposit of the Mulemba valley, where a concern on the possibility of exhaustion exists. The objective of this study was then to characterize these two types of clays and so contribute to the continuity of traditional clay pan production by knowing the characteristics of the local clays in case of an eventual need for their replacement. Chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution, plasticity and thermal analysis of the clays were performed. The results showed that the clays are high plasticity kaolinite with considerable amounts of SiO 2 and Al 2 O 3 as well as of alkaline oxides, earth alkaline oxides and Fe 2 O 3 . (author)

  4. Nitrogen Atom Energy Distributions in a Hollow-cathode Planar Sputtering Magnetron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzic, D.N.; Goeckner, M.J.; Cohen, S.A.; Wang, Zhehui

    1999-01-01

    Energy distributions of N atoms in a hollow-cathode planar sputtering magnetron were obtained by use of optical emission spectroscopy. A characteristic line, N I 8216.3 , well-separated from molecular nitrogen emission bands, was identified. Jansson's nonlinear spectral deconvolution method, refined by minimization of χ w ampersand sup2; , was used to obtain the optimal deconvolved spectra. These showed nitrogen atom energies from 1 eV to beyond 500 eV. Based on comparisons with VFTRIM results, we propose that the energetic N atoms are generated from N 2 + ions after these ions are accelerated through the sheath and dissociatively reflect from the cathode

  5. O pan das ánimas

    OpenAIRE

    Antón, Fina; Mandianes Castro, Manuel

    1996-01-01

    O pan, ademais de cumprir una función alimenticia de primeira orde, está revestido dunha significación simbólica importante. O pan durante a vida axuda a pasa-los límites, a da-lo paso, a integrarse entre os cristiáns por cousa do bautismo e a integrarse no grupo dos homes e mulleres co adaxo da boda, pero o pan axuda, sobre todo, a pasa-lo río Xordán, que é, sen dúbida o límite que separa este mundo do outro; a serpe e as ánimas constitúen un límite e o pan facilita o seu paso. O pan está in...

  6. Pan-STARRS1 DISCOVERY OF TWO ULTRALUMINOUS SUPERNOVAE AT z Almost-Equal-To 0.9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chomiuk, L. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Chornock, R.; Soderberg, A. M.; Berger, E.; Foley, R. J.; Kirshner, R. P.; Czekala, I. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Chevalier, R. A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Huber, M. E.; Gezari, S.; Riess, A.; Rodney, S. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Narayan, G.; Stubbs, C. W. [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Rest, A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Smartt, S. J. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Tonry, J. L.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Wood-Vasey, W. M., E-mail: lchomiuk@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O' Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); and others

    2011-12-20

    We present the discovery of two ultraluminous supernovae (SNe) at z Almost-Equal-To 0.9 with the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey. These SNe, PS1-10ky and PS1-10awh, are among the most luminous SNe ever discovered, comparable to the unusual transients SN 2005ap and SCP 06F6. Like SN 2005ap and SCP 06F6, they show characteristic high luminosities (M{sub bol} Almost-Equal-To -22.5 mag), blue spectra with a few broad absorption lines, and no evidence for H or He. We have constructed a full multi-color light curve sensitive to the peak of the spectral energy distribution in the rest-frame ultraviolet, and we have obtained time series spectroscopy for these SNe. Given the similarities between the SNe, we combine their light curves to estimate a total radiated energy over the course of explosion of (0.9-1.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 51} erg. We find photospheric velocities of 12,000-19,000 km s{sup -1} with no evidence for deceleration measured across {approx}3 rest-frame weeks around light curve peak, consistent with the expansion of an optically thick massive shell of material. We show that, consistent with findings for other ultraluminous SNe in this class, radioactive decay is not sufficient to power PS1-10ky, and we discuss two plausible origins for these events: the initial spin-down of a newborn magnetar in a core-collapse SN, or SN shock breakout from the dense circumstellar wind surrounding a Wolf-Rayet star.

  7. Area Spectral Efficiency and Energy Efficiency Tradeoff in Ultradense Heterogeneous Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanhua Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet the demand of explosive data traffic, ultradense base station (BS deployment in heterogeneous networks (HetNets as a key technique in 5G has been proposed. However, with the increment of BSs, the total energy consumption will also increase. So, the energy efficiency (EE has become a focal point in ultradense HetNets. In this paper, we take the area spectral efficiency (ASE into consideration and focus on the tradeoff between the ASE and EE in an ultradense HetNet. The distributions of BSs in the two-tier ultradense HetNet are modeled by two independent Poisson point processes (PPPs and the expressions of ASE and EE are derived by using the stochastic geometry tool. The tradeoff between the ASE and EE is formulated as a constrained optimization problem in which the EE is maximized under the ASE constraint, through optimizing the BS densities. It is difficult to solve the optimization problem analytically, because the closed-form expressions of ASE and EE are not easily obtained. Therefore, simulations are conducted to find optimal BS densities.

  8. Distributed Energy Implementation Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Chandralata N [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-13

    This presentation covers the options for implementing distributed energy projects. It distinguishes between options available for distributed energy that is government owned versus privately owned, with a focus on the privately owned options including Energy Savings Performance Contract Energy Sales Agreements (ESPC ESAs). The presentation covers the new ESPC ESA Toolkit and other Federal Energy Management Program resources.

  9. GOODS-HERSCHEL: IMPACT OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AND STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY ON INFRARED SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS AT HIGH REDSHIFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, Allison; Pope, Alexandra [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01002 (United States); Alexander, David M. [Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Charmandaris, Vassilis [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Crete, GR-71003, Heraklion (Greece); Daddi, Emmanuele; Elbaz, David; Gabor, Jared; Mullaney, James; Pannella, Maurilio; Aussel, Herve; Bournaud, Frederic; Dasyra, Kalliopi [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, Irfu/SAp, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dickinson, Mark [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Hwang, Ho Seong [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ivison, Rob [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Scott, Douglas [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Altieri, Bruno; Coia, Daniela [Herschel Science Centre, European Space Astronomy Centre, Villanueva de la Canada, E-28691 Madrid (Spain); Buat, Veronique [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille (LAM), Universite d' Aix-Marseille, CNRS, UMR7326, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Dannerbauer, Helmut, E-mail: kirkpatr@astro.umass.edu [Institut fuer Astrophysik, Universitaet Wien, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Wien (Austria); and others

    2012-11-10

    We explore the effects of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and star formation activity on the infrared (0.3-1000 {mu}m) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of luminous infrared galaxies from z = 0.5 to 4.0. We have compiled a large sample of 151 galaxies selected at 24 {mu}m (S {sub 24} {approx}> 100 {mu}Jy) in the GOODS-N and ECDFS fields for which we have deep Spitzer IRS spectroscopy, allowing us to decompose the mid-IR spectrum into contributions from star formation and AGN activity. A significant portion ({approx}25%) of our sample is dominated by an AGN (>50% of the mid-IR luminosity) in the mid-IR. Based on the mid-IR classification, we divide our full sample into four sub-samples: z {approx} 1 star-forming (SF) sources, z {approx} 2 SF sources, AGNs with clear 9.7 {mu}m silicate absorption, and AGNs with featureless mid-IR spectra. From our large spectroscopic sample and wealth of multi-wavelength data, including deep Herschel imaging at 100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m, we use 95 galaxies with complete spectral coverage to create a composite SED for each sub-sample. We then fit a two-temperature component modified blackbody to the SEDs. We find that the IR SEDs have similar cold dust temperatures, regardless of the mid-IR power source, but display a marked difference in the warmer dust temperatures. We calculate the average effective temperature of the dust in each sub-sample and find a significant ({approx}20 K) difference between the SF and AGN systems. We compare our composite SEDs to local templates and find that local templates do not accurately reproduce the mid-IR features and dust temperatures of our high-redshift systems. High-redshift IR luminous galaxies contain significantly more cool dust than their local counterparts. We find that a full suite of photometry spanning the IR peak is necessary to accurately account for the dominant dust temperature components in high-redshift IR luminous galaxies.

  10. Integration Of PanDA Workload Management System With Supercomputers

    CERN Document Server

    Klimentov, Alexei; The ATLAS collaboration; Maeno, Tadashi; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Nilsson, Paul; Oleynik, Danila; Panitkin, Sergey; Read, Kenneth; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Wenaus, Torre

    2015-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), operating at the international CERN Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland, is leading Big Data driven scientific explorations. Experiments at the LHC explore the fundamental nature of matter and the basic forces that shape our universe, and were recently credited for the discovery of a Higgs boson. ATLAS, one of the largest collaborations ever assembled in the sciences, is at the forefront of research at the LHC. To address an unprecedented multi-petabyte data processing challenge, the ATLAS experiment is relying on a heterogeneous distributed computational infrastructure. The ATLAS experiment uses PanDA (Production and Data Analysis) Workload Management System for managing the workflow for all data processing on over 140 data centers. Through PanDA, ATLAS physicists see a single computing facility that enables rapid scientific breakthroughs for the experiment, even though the data centers are physically scattered all over the world. While PanDA currently uses more than 100,000 co...

  11. Spectral distributions of mixed configurations of identical nucleons in the seniority scheme II. Configuration-seniority scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quesne, C.; Spitz, S.

    1978-01-01

    Configuration-seniority spectral distributions as well as fixed seniority and fixed total seniority and parity distributions are studied in detail for mixed configurations of identitical nucleons. The decomposition of any (1+2) -body Hamiltonian into irreducible tensors with respect to the unitary and symplectic groups in each subshell is obtained. Group theoretical methods based on the Wigner-Eckart theorem for the higher unitary groups are used to get analytical expressions for the partial widths of configuration-seniority distributions. During this derivation, various isoscalar factors for the chain SU (2Ω) is contained inSp (2Ω) are determined. Numerical calculations of centroid energies, partial widths, and mixing parameters are performed in the Sn and Pb nuclei with a surface delta and a gaussian interactions. Average ordinary and total seniority breaking is studied. Total seniority space truncations in the ground state region are discussed in the Pb nuclei in connections with various approximation schemes

  12. Wave propagation of spectral energy content in a granular chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrivastava Rohit Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A mechanical wave is propagation of vibration with transfer of energy and momentum. Understanding the spectral energy characteristics of a propagating wave through disordered granular media can assist in understanding the overall properties of wave propagation through inhomogeneous materials like soil. The study of these properties is aimed at modeling wave propagation for oil, mineral or gas exploration (seismic prospecting or non-destructive testing of the internal structure of solids. The focus is on the total energy content of a pulse propagating through an idealized one-dimensional discrete particle system like a mass disordered granular chain, which allows understanding the energy attenuation due to disorder since it isolates the longitudinal P-wave from shear or rotational modes. It is observed from the signal that stronger disorder leads to faster attenuation of the signal. An ordered granular chain exhibits ballistic propagation of energy whereas, a disordered granular chain exhibits more diffusive like propagation, which eventually becomes localized at long time periods. For obtaining mean-field macroscopic/continuum properties, ensemble averaging has been used, however, such an ensemble averaged spectral energy response does not resolve multiple scattering, leading to loss of information, indicating the need for a different framework for micro-macro averaging.

  13. Distant Determination of Bilirubin Distribution in Skin by Multi-Spectral Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saknite, I.; Jakovels, D.; Spigulis, J.

    2011-01-01

    For mapping the bilirubin distribution in bruised skin the multi-spectral imaging technique was employed, which made it possible to observe temporal changes of the bilirubin content in skin photo-types II and III. The obtained results confirm the clinical potential of this technique for skin bilirubin diagnostics.

  14. Spectrally and Energy Efficient OFDM (SEE-OFDM) for Intensity Modulated Optical Wireless Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Emily; Wilson, Sarah Kate; Elgala, Hany; Little, Thomas D. C.

    2015-01-01

    Spectrally and energy efficient orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (SEE-OFDM) is an optical OFDM technique based on combining multiple asymmetrically clipped optical OFDM (ACO-OFDM) signals into one OFDM signal. By summing different components together, SEE-OFDM can achieve the same spectral efficiency as DC-biased optical OFDM (DCO-OFDM) without an energy-inefficient DC-bias. This paper introduces multiple methods for decoding a SEE-OFDM symbol and shows that an iterative decoder wit...

  15. Dual-energy contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniaux, Martin; De Zordo, Tobias; Santner, Wolfram; Amort, Birgit; Koppelstätter, Florian; Jaschke, Werner; Dromain, Clarisse; Oberaigner, Willi; Hubalek, Michael; Marth, Christian

    2015-10-01

    Dual-energy contrast-enhanced mammography is one of the latest developments in breast care. Imaging with contrast agents in breast cancer was already known from previous magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography studies. However, high costs, limited availability-or high radiation dose-led to the development of contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM). We reviewed the current literature, present our experience, discuss the advantages and drawbacks of CESM and look at the future of this innovative technique.

  16. Improving the spectral measurement accuracy based on temperature distribution and spectra-temperature relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhe; Feng, Jinchao; Liu, Pengyu; Sun, Zhonghua; Li, Gang; Jia, Kebin

    2018-05-01

    Temperature is usually considered as a fluctuation in near-infrared spectral measurement. Chemometric methods were extensively studied to correct the effect of temperature variations. However, temperature can be considered as a constructive parameter that provides detailed chemical information when systematically changed during the measurement. Our group has researched the relationship between temperature-induced spectral variation (TSVC) and normalized squared temperature. In this study, we focused on the influence of temperature distribution in calibration set. Multi-temperature calibration set selection (MTCS) method was proposed to improve the prediction accuracy by considering the temperature distribution of calibration samples. Furthermore, double-temperature calibration set selection (DTCS) method was proposed based on MTCS method and the relationship between TSVC and normalized squared temperature. We compare the prediction performance of PLS models based on random sampling method and proposed methods. The results from experimental studies showed that the prediction performance was improved by using proposed methods. Therefore, MTCS method and DTCS method will be the alternative methods to improve prediction accuracy in near-infrared spectral measurement.

  17. Next generation PanDA pilot for ATLAS and other experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, P; De, K; Megino, F Barreiro; Llamas, R Medrano; Bejar, J Caballero; Hover, J; Maeno, T; Wenaus, T; Love, P; Walker, R

    2014-01-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis system (PanDA) has been in use in the ATLAS Experiment since 2005. It uses a sophisticated pilot system to execute submitted jobs on the worker nodes. While originally designed for ATLAS, the PanDA Pilot has recently been refactored to facilitate use outside of ATLAS. Experiments are now handled as plug-ins such that a new PanDA Pilot user only has to implement a set of prototyped methods in the plug-in classes, and provide a script that configures and runs the experiment-specific payload. We will give an overview of the Next Generation PanDA Pilot system and will present major features and recent improvements including live user payload debugging, data access via the Federated XRootD system, stage-out to alternative storage elements, support for the new ATLAS DDM system (Rucio), and an improved integration with glExec, as well as a description of the experiment-specific plug-in classes. The performance of the pilot system in processing LHC data on the OSG, LCG and Nordugrid infrastructures used by ATLAS will also be presented. We will describe plans for future development on the time scale of the next few years.

  18. Distributed coordination of energy storage with distributed generators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Tao; Wu, Di; Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    With a growing emphasis on energy efficiency and system flexibility, a great effort has been made recently in developing distributed energy resources (DER), including distributed generators and energy storage systems. This paper first formulates an optimal DER coordination problem considering

  19. Spectral Variation of NLS1 Galaxy PMN J0948+0022

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Four well-sampled Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) of PMN J0948+0022 are fitted with the syn+SSC+EC model to derive the physical parameters of its jets and to investigate the spectral variations of its SEDs. A tentative correlation between the peak luminosity (c) and peak frequency (c) of its ...

  20. Coherent Structures and Spectral Energy Transfer in Turbulent Plasma: A Space-Filter Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporeale, E.; Sorriso-Valvo, L.; Califano, F.; Retinò, A.

    2018-03-01

    Plasma turbulence at scales of the order of the ion inertial length is mediated by several mechanisms, including linear wave damping, magnetic reconnection, the formation and dissipation of thin current sheets, and stochastic heating. It is now understood that the presence of localized coherent structures enhances the dissipation channels and the kinetic features of the plasma. However, no formal way of quantifying the relationship between scale-to-scale energy transfer and the presence of spatial structures has been presented so far. In the Letter we quantify such a relationship analyzing the results of a two-dimensional high-resolution Hall magnetohydrodynamic simulation. In particular, we employ the technique of space filtering to derive a spectral energy flux term which defines, in any point of the computational domain, the signed flux of spectral energy across a given wave number. The characterization of coherent structures is performed by means of a traditional two-dimensional wavelet transformation. By studying the correlation between the spectral energy flux and the wavelet amplitude, we demonstrate the strong relationship between scale-to-scale transfer and coherent structures. Furthermore, by conditioning one quantity with respect to the other, we are able for the first time to quantify the inhomogeneity of the turbulence cascade induced by topological structures in the magnetic field. Taking into account the low space-filling factor of coherent structures (i.e., they cover a small portion of space), it emerges that 80% of the spectral energy transfer (both in the direct and inverse cascade directions) is localized in about 50% of space, and 50% of the energy transfer is localized in only 25% of space.

  1. Algorithms for spectral calibration of energy-resolving small-pixel detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scuffham, J; Veale, M C; Wilson, M D; Seller, P

    2013-01-01

    Small pixel Cd(Zn)Te detectors often suffer from inter-pixel variations in gain, resulting in shifts in the individual energy spectra. These gain variations are mainly caused by inclusions and defects within the crystal structure, which affect the charge transport within the material causing a decrease in the signal pulse height. In imaging applications, spectra are commonly integrated over a particular peak of interest. This means that the individual pixels must be accurately calibrated to ensure that the same portion of the spectrum is integrated in every pixel. The development of large-area detectors with fine pixel pitch necessitates automated algorithms for this spectral calibration, due to the very large number of pixels. Algorithms for automatic spectral calibration require accurate determination of characteristic x-ray or photopeak positions on a pixelwise basis. In this study, we compare two peak searching spectral calibration algorithms for a small-pixel CdTe detector in gamma spectroscopic imaging. The first algorithm uses rigid search ranges to identify peaks in each pixel spectrum, based on the average peak positions across all pixels. The second algorithm scales the search ranges on the basis of the position of the highest-energy peak relative to the average across all pixels. In test spectra acquired with Tc-99m, we found that the rigid search algorithm failed to correctly identify the target calibraton peaks in up to 4% of pixels. In contrast, the scaled search algorithm failed in only 0.16% of pixels. Failures in the scaled search algorithm were attributed to the presence of noise events above the main photopeak, and possible non-linearities in the spectral response in a small number of pixels. We conclude that a peak searching algorithm based on scaling known peak spacings is simple to implement and performs well for the spectral calibration of pixellated radiation detectors

  2. Simplified pilot module development and testing within the ATLAS PanDA Pilot 2.0 Project

    CERN Document Server

    Drizhuk, Daniil; The ATLAS collaboration; Nilsson, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis (PanDA) system has been developed to meet ATLAS production and analysis requirements for a data-driven workload management system capable of operating at the LHC data processing scale. The PanDA pilot is one of the major components in the PanDA system. It runs on a worker node and takes care of setting up the environment, fetching and pushing data to storage, getting jobs from the PanDA server and executing them. The original PanDA Pilot was designed over 10 years ago and has since then grown organically. Large parts of the original pilot code base are now getting old and are difficult to maintain. Incremental changes and refactoring have been pushed to the limit, and the time is now right for a fresh start, informed by a decade of experience, with the PanDA Pilot 2.0 Project. To create a testing environment for module development and automated unit and functional testing for next generation pilot tasks, a simple pilot version was developed. It resembles the basic workf...

  3. Inter- and Intraspecific Variations in the Pectoral Muscles of Common Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), Bonobos (Pan paniscus), and Humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potau, J M; Arias-Martorell, J; Bello-Hellegouarch, G; Casado, A; Pastor, J F; de Paz, F; Diogo, R

    2018-01-01

    We have analyzed anatomic variations in the pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles of common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus) and compared them to anatomic variations in these muscles in humans (Homo sapiens) . We have macroscopically dissected these muscles in six adult Pan troglodytes , five Pan paniscus of ages ranging from fetus to adult, and five adult Homo sapiens . Although Pan troglodytes are thought to lack a separate pectoralis abdominis muscle, we have identified this muscle in three of the Pan troglodytes ; none of the Pan paniscus , however, had this muscle. We have also found deep supernumerary fascicles in the pectoralis major of two Pan troglodytes and all five Pan paniscus . In all six Pan troglodytes , the pectoralis minor was inserted at the supraspinatus tendon, while, in Pan paniscus and Homo sapiens , it was inserted at the coracoid process of the scapula. Some of the anatomic features and variations of these muscles in common chimpanzees and bonobos are similar to those found in humans, therefore enhancing our knowledge of primate comparative anatomy and evolution and also shedding light on several clinical issues.

  4. Inter- and Intraspecific Variations in the Pectoral Muscles of Common Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, Bonobos (Pan paniscus, and Humans (Homo sapiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Potau

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We have analyzed anatomic variations in the pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles of common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes and bonobos (Pan paniscus and compared them to anatomic variations in these muscles in humans (Homo sapiens. We have macroscopically dissected these muscles in six adult Pan troglodytes, five Pan paniscus of ages ranging from fetus to adult, and five adult Homo sapiens. Although Pan troglodytes are thought to lack a separate pectoralis abdominis muscle, we have identified this muscle in three of the Pan troglodytes; none of the Pan paniscus, however, had this muscle. We have also found deep supernumerary fascicles in the pectoralis major of two Pan troglodytes and all five Pan paniscus. In all six Pan troglodytes, the pectoralis minor was inserted at the supraspinatus tendon, while, in Pan paniscus and Homo sapiens, it was inserted at the coracoid process of the scapula. Some of the anatomic features and variations of these muscles in common chimpanzees and bonobos are similar to those found in humans, therefore enhancing our knowledge of primate comparative anatomy and evolution and also shedding light on several clinical issues.

  5. PanDA Pilot Submission using Condor-G: Experience and Improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xin; Hover, John; Wlodek, Tomasz; Wenaus, Torre; Frey, Jaime; Tannenbaum, Todd; Livny, Miron

    2011-01-01

    PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) is the workload management system of the ATLAS experiment, used to run managed production and user analysis jobs on the grid. As a late-binding, pilot-based system, the maintenance of a smooth and steady stream of pilot jobs to all grid sites is critical for PanDA operation. The ATLAS Computing Facility (ACF) at BNL, as the ATLAS Tier1 center in the US, operates the pilot submission systems for the US. This is done using the PanDA 'AutoPilot' scheduler component which submits pilot jobs via Condor-G, a grid job scheduling system developed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. In this paper, we discuss the operation and performance of the Condor-G pilot submission at BNL, with emphasis on the challenges and issues encountered in the real grid production environment. With the close collaboration of Condor and PanDA teams, the scalability and stability of the overall system has been greatly improved over the last year. We review improvements made to Condor-G resulting from this collaboration, including isolation of site-based issues by running a separate Gridmanager for each remote site, introduction of the 'Nonessential' job attribute to allow Condor to optimize its behavior for the specific character of pilot jobs, better understanding and handling of the Gridmonitor process, as well as better scheduling in the PanDA pilot scheduler component. We will also cover the monitoring of the health of the system.

  6. The transition radiation. I: numerical study of the angular and spectral distributions; Le rayonnement de transition optique. I: etude numerique des distributions angulaires et spectrales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couillaud, Ch.; Haouat, G

    1999-07-01

    The optical transition radiation (OTR) is extensively used since many years as a beam visualisation tool on electron accelerators and serves to monitor the beam during its transport adjustment. Its spatial and temporal characteristics make it very attractive as a diagnostic tool and allow measurements of the beam energy and transverse and longitudinal emittances. We present a numerical study of the transition radiation process in the optical region of the radiated spectrum (OTR) and in the higher part (XTR). Spatial and spectral properties are described. They are used to describe experimental observations performed on the ELSA electron-beam facility. An analytical description of the angular distributions of visible radiation emitted by birefringent targets, used as OTR sources, is also proposed. We also analyze interference phenomena between two OTR sources and show the advantage of using this interferometer as a diagnostic tool for tenth MeV electron accelerators. At last, we present an analytical model allowing to design a soft X-ray source to be installed on the ELSA facility and using either a multi-foil stack or a multilayer of two materials of different permittivities. (authors)

  7. Spectral multipliers on spaces of distributions associated with non-negative self-adjoint operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgiadis, Athanasios; Nielsen, Morten

    2018-01-01

    and Triebel–Lizorkin spaces with full range of indices is established too. As an application, we obtain equivalent norm characterizations for the spaces mentioned above. Non-classical spaces as well as Lebesgue, Hardy, (generalized) Sobolev and Lipschitz spaces are also covered by our approach.......We consider spaces of homogeneous type associated with a non-negative self-adjoint operator whose heat kernel satisfies certain upper Gaussian bounds. Spectral multipliers are introduced and studied on distributions associated with this operator. The boundedness of spectral multipliers on Besov...

  8. Positron energy distributions from a hybrid positron source based on channeling radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azadegan, B.; Mahdipour, A.; Dabagov, S.B.; Wagner, W.

    2013-01-01

    A hybrid positron source which is based on the generation of channeling radiation by relativistic electrons channeled along different crystallographic planes and axes of a tungsten single crystal and subsequent conversion of radiation into e + e − -pairs in an amorphous tungsten target is described. The photon spectra of channeling radiation are calculated using the Doyle–Turner approximation for the continuum potentials and classical equations of motion for channeled particles to obtain their trajectories, velocities and accelerations. The spectral-angular distributions of channeling radiation are found applying classical electrodynamics. Finally, the conversion of radiation into e + e − -pairs and the energy distributions of positrons are simulated using the GEANT4 package

  9. Low-energy ion distribution functions on a magnetically quiet day at geostationary altitude (L = 7)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, N.; Raitt, W.J.; Yasuhara, F.

    1982-01-01

    By using averaged data from ATS 6, ion energy and pitch angle distribution functions were examined for a magnetically quiet day (July 18, 1974). The data showed that for both field-aligned and perpendicular fluxes, the population had a mixture of characteristic energies. It was found that over three different energy bands in the range 3-600 eV the distribution functions could be fairly well approximated by Maxwellian distributions with temperatures in the ranges 3-10 eV, 30-50 eV, and approximately 70 eV in energy bands of 3-30 eV, 30-140 eV, and 140-600 eV, respectively. Pitch angle distributions were found to vary the local time; strong field-aligned particle fluxes were measured in the midnight and afternoon sectors, minor field-aligned components persisted to some extent at all times, especially at low energies (E 0 was seen. By using the assumption that the plasma was corotating with the satellite, we have examined pitch angle scattering mechanisms responsible for the observed transformation of pitch angle distribution. It was found that a magnetic noise of power spectral density b 2 -3 γ 2 /Hz belonging to electromagnetic ion cyclotron mode (L mode) near the ion cyclotron frequency could be very effective in trapping the field-aligned fluxes by pitch angle scattering

  10. The next generation PanDA Pilot for and beyond the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Paul; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis system (PanDA) is a pilot-based workload management system that was originally designed for the ATLAS Experiment at the LHC to operate on grid sites. Since the coming LHC data taking runs will require more resources than grid computing alone can provide, the various LHC experiments are engaged in an ambitious program to extend the computing model to include opportunistically used resources such as High Performance Computers (HPCs), clouds and volunteer computers. To this end, PanDA is being extended beyond grids and ATLAS to be used on the new types of resources as well as by other experiments. A new key component is being developed, the next generation PanDA Pilot (Pilot 2). Pilot 2 is a complete rewrite of the original PanDA Pilot which has been used in the ATLAS Experiment for over a decade. The new Pilot architecture follows a component-based approach which improves system flexibility, enables a clear workflow control, evolves the system according to modern function...

  11. Correlation-induced spectral changes and energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, G.S.; Wolf, E.

    1996-01-01

    An energy conservation law is derived for fields generated by random, statistically stationary, scalar sources of any state of coherence. It is shown that correlation-induced spectral changes are in strict agreement with this law and that, basic to the understanding of such changes, is a distinction that must be made between the spectrum of a source and the spectrum of the field that the source generates. This distinction, which is obviously relevant for spectroscopy, does not appear to have been previously recognized. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  12. Localized Spectral Analysis of Fluctuating Power Generation from Solar Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Nijs

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuations in solar irradiance are a serious obstacle for the future large-scale application of photovoltaics. Occurring regularly with the passage of clouds, they can cause unexpected power variations and introduce voltage dips to the power distribution system. This paper proposes the treatment of such fluctuating time series as realizations of a stochastic, locally stationary, wavelet process. Its local spectral density can be estimated from empirical data by means of wavelet periodograms. The wavelet approach allows the analysis of the amplitude of fluctuations per characteristic scale, hence, persistence of the fluctuation. Furthermore, conclusions can be drawn on the frequency of occurrence of fluctuations of different scale. This localized spectral analysis was applied to empirical data of two successive years. The approach is especially useful for network planning and load management of power distribution systems containing a high density of photovoltaic generation units.

  13. Lyα-EMITTING GALAXIES AT z = 2.1: STELLAR MASSES, DUST, AND STAR FORMATION HISTORIES FROM SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION FITTING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guaita, Lucia; Padilla, Nelson; Acquaviva, Viviana; Gawiser, Eric; Bond, Nicholas A.; Kurczynski, Peter; Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl; Treister, Ezequiel; Lira, Paulina; Schawinski, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    We study the physical properties of 216 z ≅ 2.1 Lyα-emitting galaxies (LAEs) discovered in an ultra-deep narrow- MUSYC image of the ECDF-S. We fit their stacked spectral energy distribution (SED) using Charlot and Bruzual templates. We consider star formation histories (SFHs) parameterized by the e-folding time parameter τ, allowing for exponentially decreasing (τ > 0), exponentially increasing (τ * /M sun ) = 8.6[8.4-9.1], E(B - V) = 0.22[0.00-0.31], τ = -0.02[(- 4)-18] Gyr, and age SF = 0.018[0.009-3] Gyr. Thus, we obtain robust measurements of low stellar mass and dust content, but we cannot place meaningful constraints on the age or SFH of the LAEs. We also calculate the instantaneous SFR to be 35[0.003-170] M sun yr -1 , with its average over the last 100 Myr before observation giving (SFR) 100 = 4[2-30] M sun yr -1 . When we compare the results for the same SFH, typical LAEs at z ≅ 2.1 appear dustier and show higher instantaneous SFRs than z ≅ 3.1 LAEs, while the observed stellar masses of the two samples seem consistent. Because the majority are low-mass galaxies, our typical LAEs appear to occupy the low-mass end of the distribution of star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 2. We perform SED fitting on several sub-samples selected based on photometric properties and find that LAE sub-samples at z ≅ 2.1 exhibit heterogeneous properties. The typical IRAC-bright, UV-bright, and red LAEs have the largest stellar mass and dust reddening. The typical UV-faint, IRAC-faint, and high EW LAE sub-samples appear less massive ( 9 M sun ) and less dusty, with E(B - V) consistent with zero.

  14. A TALE OF TWO NARROW-LINE REGIONS: IONIZATION, KINEMATICS, AND SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS FOR A LOCAL PAIR OF MERGING OBSCURED ACTIVE GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hainline, Kevin N.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Chen, Chien-Ting; Carroll, Christopher M.; Jones, Mackenzie L.; Zervos, Alexandros S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Goulding, Andrew D. [Department Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2016-05-20

    We explore the gas ionization and kinematics, as well as the optical-IR spectral energy distributions for UGC 11185, a nearby pair of merging galaxies hosting obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs), also known as SDSS J181611.72+423941.6 and J181609.37+423923.0 (J1816NE and J1816SW, z ≈ 0.04). Due to the wide separation between these interacting galaxies (∼23 kpc), observations of these objects provide a rare glimpse of the concurrent growth of supermassive black holes at an early merger stage. We use BPT line diagnostics to show that the full extent of the narrow-line emission in both galaxies is photoionized by an AGN, and confirm the existence of a 10 kpc-scale ionization cone in J1816NE, while in J1816SW the AGN narrow-line region is much more compact (1–2 kpc) and relatively undisturbed. Our observations also reveal the presence of ionized gas that nearly spans the entire distance between the galaxies, which is likely in a merger-induced tidal stream. In addition, we carry out a spectral analysis of the X-ray emission using data from XMM-Newton . These galaxies represent a useful pair to explore how the [O iii] luminosity of an AGN is dependent on the size of the region used to explore the extended emission. Given the growing evidence for AGN “flickering” over short timescales, we speculate that the appearances and impacts of these AGNs may change multiple times over the course of the galaxy merger, which is especially important given that these objects are likely the progenitors of the types of systems commonly classified as “dual AGNs.”.

  15. Estimation of spectral solar radiation based on global insolation and characteristics of spectral solar radiation on a tilt surface; Zenten nissharyo ni motozuku zenten nissha supekutoru no suitei to keishamen bunko tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, H; Kanayama, K; Endo, N; Koromohara, K; Takayama, H [Kitami Institute of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Use of global insolation for estimating the corresponding spectral distribution is proposed. Measurements of global insolation spectrum throughout a year were compiled for clear days and cloudy days, ranked by 100W/m{sup 2}, for the clarification of spectral distribution. Global insolation quantity for a clear day was subject mainly to sun elevation. The global insolation spectral distribution with the sun elevation not lower than 15{degree} was similar to Bird`s model. Under the cloudy sky, energy density was lower in the region of wavelengths longer than the peak wavelength of 0.46{mu}m, and the distribution curve was sharper than that under the clear sky. Values given by Bird`s model were larger than measured values in the wavelength range of 0.6-1.8{mu}m, which was attributed to absorption by vapor. From the standard spectral distribution charts for the clear sky and cloudy sky, and from the dimensionless spectral distributions obtained by dividing them by the peak values, spectral distributions could be estimated of insolation quantities for the clear sky, cloudy sky, etc. As for the characteristics of spectral solar radiation on a tilt surface obtained from Bird`s model, they agreed with actually measured values at an angle of inclination of 60{degree} or smaller. 6 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Precision Photometry and Astrometry from Pan-STARRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnier, Eugene A.; Pan-STARRS Team

    2018-01-01

    The Pan-STARRS 3pi Survey has been calibrated with excellent precision for both astrometry and photometry. The Pan-STARRS Data Release 1, opened to the public on 2016 Dec 16, provides photometry in 5 well-calibrated, well-defined bandpasses (grizy) astrometrically registered to the Gaia frame. Comparisons with other surveys illustrate the high quality of the calibration and provide tests of remaining systematic errors in both Pan-STARRS and those external surveys. With photometry and astrometry of roughly 3 billion astronomical objects, the Pan-STARRS DR1 has substantial overlap with Gaia, SDSS, 2MASS and other surveys. I will discuss the astrometric tie between Pan-STARRS DR1 and Gaia and show comparisons between Pan-STARRS and other large-scale surveys.

  17. Hydrous manganese oxide-polyacrylonitrile (HMO-PAN) composite for the treatment of radioactive laundry wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanghwa Oh; Won Sik Shin; Sang-June Choi

    2015-01-01

    Hydrous manganese oxide-polyacrylonitrile (HMO-PAN) composite was applied for the removal of Co 2+ , Sr 2+ and Cs + from radioactive laundry wastewater. Single- and multi-solute competitive sorptions onto HMO-PAN were investigated. The maximum sorption capacity was in the order of Co 2+ (0.573) > Cs + (0.551) > Sr 2+ (0.310 mmol g -1 ). Sorption of the metals occurred via physical adsorption due to weak van der Waals force and ion exchange with Mn 2+ in HMO-PAN. Sorption behaviors were not related to the types of the surfactants. Among the tested surfactants, SDBS and SOBS remarkably increased the distribution coefficient of Co 2+ and Sr 2+ , respectively. (author)

  18. Improving Security in the ATLAS PanDA System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero, J; Maeno, T; Potekhin, M; Wenaus, T; Nilsson, P; Stewart, G

    2011-01-01

    The security challenges faced by users of the grid are considerably different to those faced in previous environments. The adoption of pilot jobs systems by LHC experiments has mitigated many of the problems associated with the inhomogeneities found on the grid and has greatly improved job reliability; however, pilot jobs systems themselves must then address many security issues, including the execution of multiple users' code under a common 'grid' identity. In this paper we describe the improvements and evolution of the security model in the ATLAS PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) system. We describe the security in the PanDA server which is in place to ensure that only authorized members of the VO are allowed to submit work into the system and that jobs are properly audited and monitored. We discuss the security in place between the pilot code itself and the PanDA server, ensuring that only properly authenticated workload is delivered to the pilot for execution. When the code to be executed is from a 'normal' ATLAS user, as opposed to the production system or other privileged actor, then the pilot may use an EGEE developed identity switching tool called gLExec. This changes the grid proxy available to the job and also switches the UNIX user identity to protect the privileges of the pilot code proxy. We describe the problems in using this system and how they are overcome. Finally, we discuss security drills which have been run using PanDA and show how these improved our operational security procedures.

  19. EVOLUTION OF HIGH-ENERGY PARTICLE DISTRIBUTION IN MATURE SHELL-TYPE SUPERNOVA REMNANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Houdun; Xin, Yuliang; Liu, Siming; Zhang, Shuinai [Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Jokipii, J. R. [University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, 85721 (United States); Zhang, Li, E-mail: zhd@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: liusm@pmo.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Astroparticle Physics of Yunnan Province, Kunming, 650091 (China)

    2017-01-10

    Multi-wavelength observations of mature supernova remnants (SNRs), especially with recent advances in γ -ray astronomy, make it possible to constrain energy distribution of energetic particles within these remnants. In consideration of the SNR origin of Galactic cosmic rays and physics related to particle acceleration and radiative processes, we use a simple one-zone model to fit the nonthermal emission spectra of three shell-type SNRs located within 2° on the sky: RX J1713.7−3946, CTB 37B, and CTB 37A. Although radio images of these three sources all show a shell (or half-shell) structure, their radio, X-ray, and γ -ray spectra are quite different, offering an ideal case to explore evolution of energetic particle distribution in SNRs. Our spectral fitting shows that (1) the particle distribution becomes harder with aging of these SNRs, implying a continuous acceleration process, and the particle distributions of CTB 37A and CTB 37B in the GeV range are harder than the hardest distribution that can be produced at a shock via the linear diffusive shock particle acceleration process, so spatial transport may play a role; (2) the energy loss timescale of electrons at the high-energy cutoff due to synchrotron radiation appears to be always a bit (within a factor of a few) shorter than the age of the corresponding remnant, which also requires continuous particle acceleration; (3) double power-law distributions are needed to fit the spectra of CTB 37B and CTB 37A, which may be attributed to shock interaction with molecular clouds.

  20. Pan-tropical monitoring of deforestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achard, F; DeFries, R; Eva, H; Hansen, M; Mayaux, P; Stibig, H-J

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the technical capabilities for monitoring deforestation from a pan-tropical perspective in response to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) process, which is studying the technical issues surrounding the ability to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation in developing countries. The successful implementation of such policies requires effective forest monitoring systems that are reproducible, provide consistent results, meet standards for mapping accuracy, and can be implemented from national to pan-tropical levels. Remotely sensed data, supported by ground observations, are crucial to such efforts. Recent developments in global to regional monitoring of forests can contribute to reducing the uncertainties in estimates of emissions from deforestation. Monitoring systems at national levels in developing countries can also benefit from pan-tropical and regional observations, mainly by identifying hot spots of change and prioritizing areas for monitoring at finer spatial scales. A pan-tropical perspective is also required to ensure consistency between different national monitoring systems. Data sources already exist to determine baseline periods in the 1990s as historical reference points. Key requirements for implementing such monitoring programs, both at pan-tropical and at national scales, are international commitment of resources to increase capacity, coordination of observations to ensure pan-tropical coverage, access to free or low-cost data, and standardized, consensus protocols for data interpretation and analysis

  1. PAN-SHARPENING APPROACHES BASED ON UNMIXING OF MULTISPECTRAL REMOTE SENSING IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Palubinskas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Model based analysis or explicit definition/listing of all models/assumptions used in the derivation of a pan-sharpening method allows us to understand the rationale or properties of existing methods and shows a way for a proper usage or proposal/selection of new methods ‘better’ satisfying the needs of a particular application. Most existing pan-sharpening methods are based mainly on the two models/assumptions: spectral consistency for high resolution multispectral data (physical relationship between multispectral and panchromatic data in a high resolution scale and spatial consistency for multispectral data (so-called Wald’s protocol first property or relationship between multispectral data in different resolution scales. Two methods, one based on a linear unmixing model and another one based on spatial unmixing, are described/proposed/modified which respect models assumed and thus can produce correct or physically justified fusion results. Earlier mentioned property ‘better’ should be measurable quantitatively, e.g. by means of so-called quality measures. The difficulty of a quality assessment task in multi-resolution image fusion or pan-sharpening is that a reference image is missing. Existing measures or so-called protocols are still not satisfactory because quite often the rationale or assumptions used are not valid or not fulfilled. From a model based view it follows naturally that a quality assessment measure can be defined as a combination of error model residuals using common or general models assumed in all fusion methods. Thus in this paper a comparison of the two earlier proposed/modified pan-sharpening methods is performed. Preliminary experiments based on visual analysis are carried out in the urban area of Munich city for optical remote sensing multispectral data and panchromatic imagery of the WorldView-2 satellite sensor.

  2. Integration Of PanDA Workload Management System With Supercomputers for ATLAS and Data Intensive Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, K [University of Texas at Arlington; Jha, S [Rutgers University; Klimentov, A [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Maeno, T [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Nilsson, P [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Oleynik, D [University of Texas at Arlington; Panitkin, S [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Wells, Jack C [ORNL; Wenaus, T [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL)

    2016-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), operating at the international CERN Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland, is leading Big Data driven scientific explorations. Experiments at the LHC explore the fundamental nature of matter and the basic forces that shape our universe, and were recently credited for the discovery of a Higgs boson. ATLAS, one of the largest collaborations ever assembled in the sciences, is at the forefront of research at the LHC. To address an unprecedented multi-petabyte data processing challenge, the ATLAS experiment is relying on a heterogeneous distributed computational infrastructure. The ATLAS experiment uses PanDA (Production and Data Analysis) Workload Management System for managing the workflow for all data processing on over 150 data centers. Through PanDA, ATLAS physicists see a single computing facility that enables rapid scientific breakthroughs for the experiment, even though the data centers are physically scattered all over the world. While PanDA currently uses more than 250,000 cores with a peak performance of 0.3 petaFLOPS, LHC data taking runs require more resources than Grid computing can possibly provide. To alleviate these challenges, LHC experiments are engaged in an ambitious program to expand the current computing model to include additional resources such as the opportunistic use of supercomputers. We will describe a project aimed at integration of PanDA WMS with supercomputers in United States, Europe and Russia (in particular with Titan supercomputer at Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF), MIRA supercomputer at Argonne Leadership Computing Facilities (ALCF), Supercomputer at the National Research Center Kurchatov Institute , IT4 in Ostrava and others). Current approach utilizes modified PanDA pilot framework for job submission to the supercomputers batch queues and local data management, with light-weight MPI wrappers to run single threaded workloads in parallel on LCFs multi-core worker nodes. This implementation

  3. CO-ANALYSIS OF SOLAR MICROWAVE AND HARD X-RAY SPECTRAL EVOLUTIONS. I. IN TWO FREQUENCY OR ENERGY RANGES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Qiwu; Huang Guangli; Nakajima, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Solar microwave and hard X-ray spectral evolutions are co-analyzed in the 2000 June 10 and 2002 April 10 flares, and are simultaneously observed by the Owens-Valley Solar Array in the microwave band and by Yohkoh/Hard X-ray Telescope or RHESSI in the hard X-ray band, with multiple subpeaks in their light curves. The microwave and hard X-ray spectra are fitted by a power law in two frequency ranges of the optical thin part and two photon energy ranges, respectively. Similar to an earlier event in Shao and Huang, the well-known soft-hard-soft pattern of the lower energy range changed to the hard-soft-hard (HSH) pattern of the higher energy range during the spectral evolution of each subpeak in both hard X-ray flares. This energy dependence is actually supported by a positive correlation between the overall light curves and spectral evolution in the lower energy range, while it becomes an anti-correlation in the higher energy range. Regarding microwave data, the HSH pattern appears in the spectral evolution of each subpeak in the lower frequency range, which is somewhat similar to Huang and Nakajima. However, it returns back to the well-known pattern of soft-hard-harder for the overall spectral evolution in the higher frequency range of both events. This frequency dependence is confirmed by an anti-correlation between the overall light curves and spectral evolution in the lower frequency range, but it becomes a positive correlation in the higher frequency range. The possible mechanisms are discussed, respectively, for reasons why hard X-ray and microwave spectral evolutions have different patterns in different energy and frequency intervals.

  4. Inter- and Intraspecific Variations in the Pectoral Muscles of Common Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), Bonobos (Pan paniscus), and Humans (Homo sapiens)

    OpenAIRE

    Potau, J. M.; Arias-Martorell, J.; Bello-Hellegouarch, G.; Casado, A.; Pastor, J. F.; de Paz, F.; Diogo, R.

    2018-01-01

    We have analyzed anatomic variations in the pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles of common chimpanzees (Pan\\ud troglodytes) and bonobos(Pan paniscus) and compared them to anatomic variations in these muscles in humans(Homo sapiens). We\\ud have macroscopically dissected these muscles in six adult Pan troglodytes, five Pan paniscus of ages ranging from fetus to adult, and\\ud five adult Homo sapiens. Although Pan troglodytes are thought to lack a separate pectoralis abdominis muscle, we...

  5. Spectrally selective glazings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    Spectrally selective glazing is window glass that permits some portions of the solar spectrum to enter a building while blocking others. This high-performance glazing admits as much daylight as possible while preventing transmission of as much solar heat as possible. By controlling solar heat gains in summer, preventing loss of interior heat in winter, and allowing occupants to reduce electric lighting use by making maximum use of daylight, spectrally selective glazing significantly reduces building energy consumption and peak demand. Because new spectrally selective glazings can have a virtually clear appearance, they admit more daylight and permit much brighter, more open views to the outside while still providing the solar control of the dark, reflective energy-efficient glass of the past. This Federal Technology Alert provides detailed information and procedures for Federal energy managers to consider spectrally selective glazings. The principle of spectrally selective glazings is explained. Benefits related to energy efficiency and other architectural criteria are delineated. Guidelines are provided for appropriate application of spectrally selective glazing, and step-by-step instructions are given for estimating energy savings. Case studies are also presented to illustrate actual costs and energy savings. Current manufacturers, technology users, and references for further reading are included for users who have questions not fully addressed here.

  6. Selection effects on GRB spectral-energy correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nava, Lara; Ghirlanda, Giancarlo; Ghisellini, Gabriele

    2009-01-01

    Instrumental selection effects can act upon the estimates of the peak energy E peak obs , the fluence F and the peak flux P of GRBs. If this were the case, then the correlations involving the corresponding rest frame quantities (i.e. E peak , E obs and the peak luminosity L iso ) would be questioned. We estimated, as a function of E peak obs , the minimum peak flux necessary to trigger a GRB and the minimum fluence a burst must have to determine the value of E peak obs by considering different instruments (BATSE, Swift, BeppoSAX). We find that the latter dominates over the former. We then study the E peak obs -fluence (and flux) correlation in the observer plane. GRBs with redshift show well defined E peak obs -F and E peak obs -P correlations: in this planes the selection effects are present, but do not determine the found correlations. This is not true for Swift GRBs with redshift, for which the spectral analysis threshold does affect their distribution in the observer planes. Extending the sample to GRBs without z, we still find a significant E peak obs -F correlation, although with a larger scatter than that defined by GRBs with redshift. We find that 6% are outliers of the Amati correlation. The E peak obs -P correlation of GRBs with or without redshift is the same and no outlier is found among bursts without redshift.

  7. ATLAS Global Shares Implementation in the PanDA Workload Management System

    CERN Document Server

    Barreiro Megino, Fernando Harald; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) is the workload management system for ATLAS across the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid. While analysis tasks are submitted to PanDA by over a thousand users following personal schedules (e.g. PhD or conference deadlines), production campaigns are scheduled by a central Physics Coordination group based on the organization’s calendar. The Physics Coordination group needs to allocate the amount of Grid resources dedicated to each activity, in order to manage sharing of CPU resources among various parallel campaigns and to make sure that results can be achieved in time for important deadlines. While dynamic and static shares on batch systems have been around for a long time, we are trying to move away from local resource partitioning and manage shares at a global level in the PanDA system. The global solution is not straightforward, given different requirements of the activities (number of cores, memory, I/O and CPU intensity), the heterogeneity of Grid resources (site/H...

  8. A new two-Dimensional Physical Basis for the Complementary Relation Between Terrestrial and pan Evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettijohn, J. C.; Salvucci, G. D.

    2008-12-01

    Archived global measurements of water loss from evaporation pans constitute an important indirect measure of evaporative flux. Historical data from evaporation pans shows a decreasing trend over the last half century, but the relationship between pan evaporation and moisture-limited terrestrial evaporation is complex, leading to ambiguities in the interpretation of this data. Under energy-limited conditions, pan evaporation (Epan) and moisture-limited terrestrial evaporation (E) increase or decrease together, while in moisture- limited conditions these fluxes form a complementary relation in which increases in one rate accompany decreases in the other. This has lead to debate about the meaning of the observed trends in the context of changing climate. Here a two-dimensional numerical model of a wet pan in a drying landscape is used to demonstrate that, over a wide range of realistic atmospheric and surface conditions, the influence that changes in E have on Epan (1) are complementary and linear, (2) do not depend upon surface wind speed, and (3) are strikingly asymmetrical, in that a unit decrease in E causes approximately a five-fold increase in Epan, as found in a recent analysis of daily evaporation from US grasslands (Kahler and Brutsaert, 2006). Previous attempts to explain the CR have been based on one dimensional diffusion and energy balance arguments, leading to analytic solutions based on Penman-type bulk difference equations. But without acknowledging the spatially complex multidimensional humidity and temperature field around the pan, and specifically how these fields change as the contrast between the wet pan and the drying land surface increases, such integrated bulk difference equations are a priori incomplete (they ignore important divergence terms), and thus these explanations must be considered physically incomplete. Results of the present study improve the theoretical foundation of the CR, thus increasing the reliability with which it can be

  9. Energy Management of Smart Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Bananeh

    Electric power distribution systems interface the end-users of electricity with the power grid. Traditional distribution systems are operated in a centralized fashion with the distribution system owner or operator being the only decision maker. The management and control architecture of distribution systems needs to gradually transform to accommodate the emerging smart grid technologies, distributed energy resources, and active electricity end-users or prosumers. The content of this document concerns with developing multi-task multi-objective energy management schemes for: 1) commercial/large residential prosumers, and 2) distribution system operator of a smart distribution system. The first part of this document describes a method of distributed energy management of multiple commercial/ large residential prosumers. These prosumers not only consume electricity, but also generate electricity using their roof-top solar photovoltaics systems. When photovoltaics generation is larger than local consumption, excess electricity will be fed into the distribution system, creating a voltage rise along the feeder. Distribution system operator cannot tolerate a significant voltage rise. ES can help the prosumers manage their electricity exchanges with the distribution system such that minimal voltage fluctuation occurs. The proposed distributed energy management scheme sizes and schedules each prosumer's ES to reduce the electricity bill and mitigate voltage rise along the feeder. The second part of this document focuses on emergency energy management and resilience assessment of a distribution system. The developed emergency energy management system uses available resources and redundancy to restore the distribution system's functionality fully or partially. The success of the restoration maneuver depends on how resilient the distribution system is. Engineering resilience terminology is used to evaluate the resilience of distribution system. The proposed emergency energy

  10. Investigation of needleless electrospun PAN nanofiber mats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabantina, Lilia; Mirasol, José Rodríguez; Cordero, Tomás; Finsterbusch, Karin; Ehrmann, Andrea

    2018-04-01

    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) can be spun from a nontoxic solvent (DMSO, dimethyl sulfoxide) and is nevertheless waterproof, opposite to the biopolymers which are spinnable from aqueous solutions. This makes PAN an interesting material for electrospinning nanofiber mats which can be used for diverse biotechnological or medical applications, such as filters, cell growth, wound healing or tissue engineering. On the other hand, PAN is a typical base material for producing carbon nanofibers. Nevertheless, electrospinning PAN necessitates convenient spinning parameters to create nanofibers without too many membranes or agglomerations. Thus we have studied the influence of spinning parameters on the needleless electrospinning process of PAN dissolved in DMSO and the resulting nanofiber mats.

  11. Narrow spectral linewidth in InAs/InP quantum dot distributed feedback lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, J.; Huang, H.; Lu, Z. G.; Poole, P. J.; Wang, C.; Grillot, F.

    2018-03-01

    This paper reports on the spectral linewidth of InAs/InP quantum dot distributed feedback lasers. Owing to a low inversion factor and a low linewidth enhancement factor, a narrow spectral linewidth of 160 kHz (80 kHz intrinsic linewidth) with a low sensitivity to temperature is demonstrated. When using anti-reflection coatings on both facets, narrow linewidth operation is extended to high powers, believed to be due to a reduction in the longitudinal spatial hole burning. These results confirm the high potential of quantum dot lasers for increasing transmission capacity in future coherent communication systems.

  12. Tundra vegetation effects on pan-Arctic albedo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loranty, Michael M; Goetz, Scott J; Beck, Pieter S A

    2011-01-01

    Recent field experiments in tundra ecosystems describe how increased shrub cover reduces winter albedo, and how subsequent changes in surface net radiation lead to altered rates of snowmelt. These findings imply that tundra vegetation change will alter regional energy budgets, but to date the effects have not been documented at regional or greater scales. Using satellite observations and a pan-Arctic vegetation map, we examined the effects of shrub vegetation on albedo across the terrestrial Arctic. We included vegetation classes dominated by low shrubs, dwarf shrubs, tussock-dominated graminoid tundra, and non-tussock graminoid tundra. Each class was further stratified by bioclimate subzones. Low-shrub tundra had higher normalized difference vegetation index values and earlier albedo decline in spring than dwarf-shrub tundra, but for tussock tundra, spring albedo declined earlier than for low-shrub tundra. Our results illustrate how relatively small changes in vegetation properties result in differences in albedo dynamics, regardless of shrub growth, that may lead to differences in net radiation upwards of 50 W m -2 at weekly time scales. Further, our findings imply that changes to the terrestrial Arctic energy budget during this important seasonal transition are under way regardless of whether recent satellite observed productivity trends are the result of shrub expansion. We conclude that a better understanding of changes in vegetation productivity and distribution in Arctic tundra is essential for accurately quantifying and predicting carbon and energy fluxes and associated climate feedbacks.

  13. Limnological studies on the Pretoria Salt Pan, a hypersaline maar lake

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ashton, PJ

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pretoria Salt pan is shallow and alkaline with pronounced mesothermy at a depth of between 0.55 and 0.7 metres. Secchi disc transparencies ranged from 7 to 19 cm. Endorheic or closed drainage basins are widely distributed in many climate...

  14. Peter Pan-demien

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus

    2009-01-01

    Ungdommelig opførsel er moderne. I gamle dage skulle vi blive voksne. I dag skal selv gamle mænd og kvinder holde sig unge. Peter Pan-panikken er i os, og en af vores væsentligste sociale lidelser er umodenhed.......Ungdommelig opførsel er moderne. I gamle dage skulle vi blive voksne. I dag skal selv gamle mænd og kvinder holde sig unge. Peter Pan-panikken er i os, og en af vores væsentligste sociale lidelser er umodenhed....

  15. Damage of plants due to peroxyacyl nitrates (PAN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, H.; Terakado, K.

    1974-02-01

    In Japan plant damages began to resemble those due to PAN about 1972. Exposure experiments with artifically synthesized PAN in an environment simulation room determined the concentration of PAN and its duration to examine the relationship between these data in the field and crop damage. Synthesized PAN created by irradiating a mixture of ethyl nitrate and oxygen with ultraviolet light gave results similar to those seen in fields. From the end of April to the end of November, damages to petunias seemingly due to PAN appeared 15 times. The symptoms differed with the variety of petunia. After 14 experiments in fields from September 20 to November 30 with a continuous determination of the environmental concentration of PAN, damages to petunia were confirmed on 6 days when the maximum PAN concentration range was 3.0-6.7 ppb. The duration of concentrations higher than 3 ppb was 2-13 hr. The most serious damage appeared on September 20 when a concentration of more than 5 ppb continued for 7 hours. No damage appeared with a long continuation (6-12 hr) of a lower concentration of PAN of 2 ppb. Inter-varietal grafting showed that the symptoms and the degree of damage due to PAN were influenced only by the physiological specificity of the aerial portion of the plant. Leaves which are most affected by PAN differed with the variety of petunia.

  16. DEM - distribution energy management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A; Kekkonen, V; Koreneff, G [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); and others

    1998-08-01

    The electricity market was de-regulated in Finland at the end of 1995 and the customers can now freely choose their power suppliers. The national grid and local distribution network operators are now separated from the energy business. The network operators transmit the electric power to the customers on equal terms regardless from whom the power is purchased. The Finnish national grid is owned by one company Finnish Power Grid PLC (Fingrid). The major shareholders of Fingrid are the state of Finland, two major power companies and institutional investors. In addition there are about 100 local distribution utilities operating the local 110 kV, 20 kV and 0.4 kV networks. The distribution utilities are mostly owned by the municipalities and towns. In each network one energy supplier is always responsible for the hourly energy balance in the network (a `host`) and it also has the obligation to provide public energy prices accessible to any customer in the network`s area. The Finnish regulating authorities nominate such a supplier who has a dominant market share in the network`s area as the supplier responsible for the network`s energy balance. A regulating authority, called the Electricity Market Centre, ensures that the market is operating properly. The transmission prices and public energy prices are under the Electricity Market Centre`s control. For domestic and other small customers the cost of hourly metering (ca. 1000 US$) would be prohibitive and therefore the use of conventional energy metering and load models is under consideration by the authorities. Small customer trade with the load models (instead of the hourly energy recording) is scheduled to start in the first half of 1998. In this presentation, the problems of energy management from the standpoint of the energy trading and distributing companies in the new situation are first discussed. The topics covered are: the hourly load data management, the forecasting and estimation of hourly energy demands

  17. Methods for Distributed Optimal Energy Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brehm, Robert

    The presented research deals with the fundamental underlying methods and concepts of how the growing number of distributed generation units based on renewable energy resources and distributed storage devices can be most efficiently integrated into the existing utility grid. In contrast to convent......The presented research deals with the fundamental underlying methods and concepts of how the growing number of distributed generation units based on renewable energy resources and distributed storage devices can be most efficiently integrated into the existing utility grid. In contrast...... to conventional centralised optimal energy flow management systems, here-in, focus is set on how optimal energy management can be achieved in a decentralised distributed architecture such as a multi-agent system. Distributed optimisation methods are introduced, targeting optimisation of energy flow in virtual......-consumption of renewable energy resources in low voltage grids. It can be shown that this method prevents mutual discharging of batteries and prevents peak loads, a supervisory control instance can dictate the level of autarchy from the utility grid. Further it is shown that the problem of optimal energy flow management...

  18. Hybrid Image Fusion for Sharpness Enhancement of Multi-Spectral Lunar Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awumah, Anna; Mahanti, Prasun; Robinson, Mark

    2016-10-01

    Image fusion enhances the sharpness of a multi-spectral (MS) image by incorporating spatial details from a higher-resolution panchromatic (Pan) image [1,2]. Known applications of image fusion for planetary images are rare, although image fusion is well-known for its applications to Earth-based remote sensing. In a recent work [3], six different image fusion algorithms were implemented and their performances were verified with images from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Camera. The image fusion procedure obtained a high-resolution multi-spectral (HRMS) product from the LRO Narrow Angle Camera (used as Pan) and LRO Wide Angle Camera (used as MS) images. The results showed that the Intensity-Hue-Saturation (IHS) algorithm results in a high-spatial quality product while the Wavelet-based image fusion algorithm best preserves spectral quality among all the algorithms. In this work we show the results of a hybrid IHS-Wavelet image fusion algorithm when applied to LROC MS images. The hybrid method provides the best HRMS product - both in terms of spatial resolution and preservation of spectral details. Results from hybrid image fusion can enable new science and increase the science return from existing LROC images.[1] Pohl, Cle, and John L. Van Genderen. "Review article multisensor image fusion in remote sensing: concepts, methods and applications." International journal of remote sensing 19.5 (1998): 823-854.[2] Zhang, Yun. "Understanding image fusion." Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens 70.6 (2004): 657-661.[3] Mahanti, Prasun et al. "Enhancement of spatial resolution of the LROC Wide Angle Camera images." Archives, XXIII ISPRS Congress Archives (2016).

  19. A SEARCH FOR SPECTRAL HYSTERESIS AND ENERGY-DEPENDENT TIME LAGS FROM X-RAY AND TeV GAMMA-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF Mrk 421

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeysekara, A. U.; Flinders, A.; Archambault, S.; Feng, Q.; Archer, A.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M.; Bird, R.; Buchovecky, M.; Cardenzana, J. V; Eisch, J. D.; Chen, X.; Ciupik, L.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Finley, J. P.; Falcone, A.; Fleischhack, H.

    2017-01-01

    Blazars are variable emitters across all wavelengths over a wide range of timescales, from months down to minutes. It is therefore essential to observe blazars simultaneously at different wavelengths, especially in the X-ray and gamma-ray bands, where the broadband spectral energy distributions usually peak. In this work, we report on three “target-of-opportunity” observations of Mrk 421, one of the brightest TeV blazars, triggered by a strong flaring event at TeV energies in 2014. These observations feature long, continuous, and simultaneous exposures with XMM-Newton (covering the X-ray and optical/ultraviolet bands) and VERITAS (covering the TeV gamma-ray band), along with contemporaneous observations from other gamma-ray facilities (MAGIC and Fermi -Large Area Telescope) and a number of radio and optical facilities. Although neither rapid flares nor significant X-ray/TeV correlation are detected, these observations reveal subtle changes in the X-ray spectrum of the source over the course of a few days. We search the simultaneous X-ray and TeV data for spectral hysteresis patterns and time delays, which could provide insight into the emission mechanisms and the source properties (e.g., the radius of the emitting region, the strength of the magnetic field, and related timescales). The observed broadband spectra are consistent with a one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model. We find that the power spectral density distribution at ≳4 × 10 −4 Hz from the X-ray data can be described by a power-law model with an index value between 1.2 and 1.8, and do not find evidence for a steepening of the power spectral index (often associated with a characteristic length scale) compared to the previously reported values at lower frequencies.

  20. A SEARCH FOR SPECTRAL HYSTERESIS AND ENERGY-DEPENDENT TIME LAGS FROM X-RAY AND TeV GAMMA-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF Mrk 421

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abeysekara, A. U.; Flinders, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Archambault, S.; Feng, Q. [Physics Department, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Archer, A.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M. [Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Bird, R.; Buchovecky, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Cardenzana, J. V; Eisch, J. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Chen, X. [Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, D-14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Ciupik, L. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Connolly, M. P. [School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Cui, W.; Finley, J. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Falcone, A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Fleischhack, H. [DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Collaboration: VERITAS Collaboration; MAGIC Collaboration; and others

    2017-01-01

    Blazars are variable emitters across all wavelengths over a wide range of timescales, from months down to minutes. It is therefore essential to observe blazars simultaneously at different wavelengths, especially in the X-ray and gamma-ray bands, where the broadband spectral energy distributions usually peak. In this work, we report on three “target-of-opportunity” observations of Mrk 421, one of the brightest TeV blazars, triggered by a strong flaring event at TeV energies in 2014. These observations feature long, continuous, and simultaneous exposures with XMM-Newton (covering the X-ray and optical/ultraviolet bands) and VERITAS (covering the TeV gamma-ray band), along with contemporaneous observations from other gamma-ray facilities (MAGIC and Fermi -Large Area Telescope) and a number of radio and optical facilities. Although neither rapid flares nor significant X-ray/TeV correlation are detected, these observations reveal subtle changes in the X-ray spectrum of the source over the course of a few days. We search the simultaneous X-ray and TeV data for spectral hysteresis patterns and time delays, which could provide insight into the emission mechanisms and the source properties (e.g., the radius of the emitting region, the strength of the magnetic field, and related timescales). The observed broadband spectra are consistent with a one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model. We find that the power spectral density distribution at ≳4 × 10{sup −4} Hz from the X-ray data can be described by a power-law model with an index value between 1.2 and 1.8, and do not find evidence for a steepening of the power spectral index (often associated with a characteristic length scale) compared to the previously reported values at lower frequencies.

  1. Concentration of uranium on TiO-PAN and NaTiO-PAN composite absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motl, Alois; Sebesta, Ferdinand; John, Jan; Spendlikova, Irena; Nemec, Mojmir

    2013-01-01

    Inorganic ion exchangers have been extensively tested for use in separation and concentration of uranium from Surface water. Except for separation of uranium from uranium -Contaminated waste water (e.g. waste water from mining and milling of uranium, Waste from nuclear fuel reprocessing) their main area of application has been foreseen to be their use for extraction of uranium from sea water which could partially cover future needs of uranium. Another perspective area of application is pre-concentration of uranium from natural waters followed by uranium determination via various specialized techniques such as TRLFS or AMS. Possibilities of uranium extraction from sea water have been subject of several international conferences (e.g. Topical meetings on the Recovery of Uranium from Seawater in 1980's, ACS National Meetings 2012 etc.) and are critically evaluated in a review by Bitte or recently by Kim. In the Czech Republic uranium-selective inorganic ion exchangers might be applied for treatment of various wastes from uranium industry, namely underground Water, uranium milling over-balance water, or acid waste water from underground uranium leaching and also like in other countries for determination of uranium isotopic composition focusing on anthropogenic and natural 236 U content. Among the best performing inorganic ion exchangers for the above listed purposes hydrated titanium dioxide (abbreviated as TiO) and sodium titanate (abbreviated as NaTiO) can be listed. Properties of TiO and NaTiO were reviewed by Lehto. From the point of view of ion-exchange, properties of hydrated titanium oxide and sodium titanate are very similar. The main disadvantage of these ion exchangers for industrial-scale application is their insufficient mechanical stability. To improve this property, the sorption materials can be embedded into a binding matrix. Modified polyacrylonitrile (PAN) has been proposed at the Czech Technical University in Prague as a universal binding matrix for

  2. Autonomy-oriented mechanisms for efficient energy distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jiming; Shi, Benyun

    2010-09-15

    Due to the uneven geographical availability of energy resources, it is essential for the energy suppliers and consumers in different countries/regions to most efficiently, economically, as well as reliably distribute energy resources. In this paper, starting from a specific energy distribution problem, we present a decentralized behavior-based paradigm that draws on the methodology of autonomy-oriented computing. The goal is twofold: (i) to characterize the underlying mechanism of the energy distribution systems, (ii) to provide scalable solutions for efficient energy distribution. We conjecture that efficient energy trading markets can emerge from appropriate behavior-based mechanisms, which can autonomously improve energy distribution efficiency.

  3. Structural, vibrational, elastic and topological properties of PaN under pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modak, P.; K. Verma, Ashok; Svane, A.

    2013-01-01

    Electronic, structural, vibrational and elastic properties of PaN have been studied both at ambient and high pressures, using first principles methods with several commonly used parameterizations of the exchange-correlation energy. The generalized gradient approximation (GGA) reproduces the groun...

  4. On some spectral properties of billiards and nuclei. Similarities and differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, A.

    2005-01-01

    Generic and non-generic features of billiards and nuclei which show up in certain spectral properties are discussed by way of selected examples. First, the short and long range correlations of levels belonging to the magnetic dipole Scissors Mode in heavy deformed nuclei at an excitation energy of about 3 MeV prove that this mode is indeed caused by an ordered or regular collective motion. Second, the fine structure distribution of the so called electric Pygmy Dipole Resonance around 6 to 7 MeV excitation energy seems to indicate a situation where the spectral properties are governed by mixed dynamics, i.e. by regular and chaotic features. However, in nuclei quantitative conclusions are always severely hampered by missing levels due to limited experimental resolution and detector efficiency. Third, it is shown that this situation can be largely overcome by studying spectral properties in superconducting microwave billards considered as nuclear analogs. As an example resonance strength distributions in billards of mixed and fully chaotic dynamics are considered. Finally it is demonstrated how symmetry breaking effects in nuclei - e.g. isospin symmetry breaking - can be studied through those resonance strength distributions by modelling the nuclear problem with coupled billards. (orig.)

  5. On some spectral properties of billiards and nuclei. Similarities and differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, A.

    2005-07-01

    Generic and non-generic features of billiards and nuclei which show up in certain spectral properties are discussed by way of selected examples. First, the short and long range correlations of levels belonging to the magnetic dipole Scissors Mode in heavy deformed nuclei at an excitation energy of about 3 MeV prove that this mode is indeed caused by an ordered or regular collective motion. Second, the fine structure distribution of the so called electric Pygmy Dipole Resonance around 6 to 7 MeV excitation energy seems to indicate a situation where the spectral properties are governed by mixed dynamics, i.e. by regular and chaotic features. However, in nuclei quantitative conclusions are always severely hampered by missing levels due to limited experimental resolution and detector efficiency. Third, it is shown that this situation can be largely overcome by studying spectral properties in superconducting microwave billards considered as nuclear analogs. As an example resonance strength distributions in billards of mixed and fully chaotic dynamics are considered. Finally it is demonstrated how symmetry breaking effects in nuclei - e.g. isospin symmetry breaking - can be studied through those resonance strength distributions by modelling the nuclear problem with coupled billards. (orig.)

  6. Spectral distribution of the efficiency of terahertz difference frequency generation upon collinear propagation of interacting waves in semiconductor crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlov, Sergei N; Polivanov, Yurii N

    2007-01-01

    Dispersion phase matching curves and spectral distributions of the efficiency of difference frequency generation in the terahertz range are calculated for collinear propagation of interacting waves in zinc blende semiconductor crystals (ZnTe, CdTe, GaP, GaAs). The effect of the pump wavelength, the nonlinear crystal length and absorption in the terahertz range on the spectral distribution of the efficiency of difference frequency generation is analysed. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  7. Next Generation Workload Management System For Big Data on Heterogeneous Distributed Computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimentov, A; Maeno, T; Nilsson, P; Panitkin, S; Wenaus, T; Buncic, P; De, K; Oleynik, D; Petrosyan, A; Jha, S; Mount, R; Porter, R J; Read, K F; Wells, J C; Vaniachine, A

    2015-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), operating at the international CERN Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland, is leading Big Data driven scientific explorations. Experiments at the LHC explore the fundamental nature of matter and the basic forces that shape our universe, and were recently credited for the discovery of a Higgs boson. ATLAS and ALICE are the largest collaborations ever assembled in the sciences and are at the forefront of research at the LHC. To address an unprecedented multi-petabyte data processing challenge, both experiments rely on a heterogeneous distributed computational infrastructure. The ATLAS experiment uses PanDA (Production and Data Analysis) Workload Management System (WMS) for managing the workflow for all data processing on hundreds of data centers. Through PanDA, ATLAS physicists see a single computing facility that enables rapid scientific breakthroughs for the experiment, even though the data centers are physically scattered all over the world. The scale is demonstrated by the following numbers: PanDA manages O(10 2 ) sites, O(10 5 ) cores, O(10 8 ) jobs per year, O(10 3 ) users, and ATLAS data volume is O(10 17 ) bytes. In 2013 we started an ambitious program to expand PanDA to all available computing resources, including opportunistic use of commercial and academic clouds and Leadership Computing Facilities (LCF). The project titled ‘Next Generation Workload Management and Analysis System for Big Data’ (BigPanDA) is funded by DOE ASCR and HEP. Extending PanDA to clouds and LCF presents new challenges in managing heterogeneity and supporting workflow. The BigPanDA project is underway to setup and tailor PanDA at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF) and at the National Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute' together with ALICE distributed computing and ORNL computing professionals. Our approach to integration of HPC platforms at the OLCF and elsewhere is to reuse, as much as possible, existing components of the

  8. Panning artifacts in digital pathology images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanaki, Ali R. N.; Lanciault, Christian; Espig, Kathryn S.; Xthona, Albert; Kimpe, Tom R. L.

    2017-03-01

    In making a pathologic diagnosis, a pathologist uses cognitive processes: perception, attention, memory, and search (Pena and Andrade-Filho, 2009). Typically, this involves focus while panning from one region of a slide to another, using either a microscope in a traditional workflow or software program and display in a digital pathology workflow (DICOM Standard Committee, 2010). We theorize that during panning operation, the pathologist receives information important to diagnosis efficiency and/or correctness. As compared to an optical microscope, panning in a digital pathology image involves some visual artifacts due to the following: (i) the frame rate is finite; (ii) time varying visual signals are reconstructed using imperfect zero-order hold. Specifically, after pixel's digital drive is changed, it takes time for a pixel to emit the expected amount of light. Previous work suggests that 49% of navigation is conducted in low-power/overview with digital pathology (Molin et al., 2015), but the influence of display factors has not been measured. We conducted a reader study to establish a relationship between display frame rate, panel response time, and threshold panning speed (above which the artifacts become noticeable). Our results suggest visual tasks that involve tissue structure are more impacted by the simulated panning artifacts than those that only involve color (e.g., staining intensity estimation), and that the panning artifacts versus normalized panning speed has a peak behavior which is surprising and may change for a diagnostic task. This is work in progress and our final findings should be considered in designing future digital pathology systems.

  9. The influence of compressibility on nonlinear spectral energy transfer - Part 2: Effect on hypersonic boundary layer transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Ankita; Girimaji, Sharath

    2017-11-01

    We examine the effect of compressible spectral energy transfer in the nonlinear regime of transition to turbulence of hypersonic boundary layers. The nature of spectral energy transfer between perturbation modes is profoundly influenced by two compressibility mechanisms. First and foremost, the emergence of nonlinear pressure-dilatation mechanism leads to kinetic-internal energy exchange within the perturbation field. Such interchange is absent in incompressible flow as pressure merely reorients the perturbation amplitude vector while conserving kinetic energy. Secondly, the nature of triadic interactions also changes due to variability in density. In this work, we demonstrate that the efficiency of nonlinear spectral energy transfer is diminished in compressible boundary layers. Emergence of new perturbation modes or `broad-banding' of the perturbation field is significantly delayed in comparison to incompressible boundary layer undergoing transition. A significant amount of perturbation energy is transformed to internal energy and thus unavailable for `tripping' the flow into turbulent state. These factors profoundly change the nature of the nonlinear stage of transition in compressible boundary layer leading to delayed onset of full-fledged turbulence.

  10. Detailed spectral and morphological analysis of the shell type supernova remnant RCW 86

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E. O.; Backes, M.; Balzer, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Berge, D.; Bernhard, S.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Blackwell, R.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Bregeon, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bryan, M.; Bulik, T.; Carr, J.; Casanova, S.; Chakraborty, N.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chen, A.; Chevalier, J.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Condon, B.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Cui, Y.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Donath, A.; Drury, L. O.'C.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gottschall, D.; Goyal, A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Hadasch, D.; Häffner, S.; Hahn, J.; Hawkes, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Hoischen, C.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Ivascenko, A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung-Richardt, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kerszberg, D.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lau, J.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lefranc, V.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lorentz, M.; Lu, C.-C.; Lui, R.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Mariaud, C.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; Meintjes, P. J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Mitchell, A. M. W.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Morå, K.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; de Naurois, M.; Niemiec, J.; Oakes, L.; Odaka, H.; Öttl, S.; Ohm, S.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Prokhorov, D.; Prokoph, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Reichardt, I.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Salek, D.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Sasaki, M.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwemmer, S.; Seyffert, A. S.; Simoni, R.; Sol, H.; Spanier, F.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Tuffs, R.; Valerius, K.; van der Walt, J.; van Eldik, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Veh, J.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Voisin, F.; Völk, H. J.; Vuillaume, T.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Weidinger, M.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Yang, R.; Zabalza, V.; Zaborov, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zefi, F.; Żywucka, N.

    2018-04-01

    Aim. We aim for an understanding of the morphological and spectral properties of the supernova remnant RCW 86 and for insights into the production mechanism leading to the RCW 86 very high-energy γ-ray emission. Methods: We analyzed High Energy Spectroscopic System (H.E.S.S.) data that had increased sensitivity compared to the observations presented in the RCW 86 H.E.S.S. discovery publication. Studies of the morphological correlation between the 0.5-1 keV X-ray band, the 2-5 keV X-ray band, radio, and γ-ray emissions have been performed as well as broadband modeling of the spectral energy distribution with two different emission models. Results: We present the first conclusive evidence that the TeV γ-ray emission region is shell-like based on our morphological studies. The comparison with 2-5 keV X-ray data reveals a correlation with the 0.4-50 TeV γ-ray emission. The spectrum of RCW 86 is best described by a power law with an exponential cutoff at Ecut = (3.5 ± 1.2stat) TeV and a spectral index of Γ ≈ 1.6 ± 0.2. A static leptonic one-zone model adequately describes the measured spectral energy distribution of RCW 86, with the resultant total kinetic energy of the electrons above 1 GeV being equivalent to 0.1% of the initial kinetic energy of a Type Ia supernova explosion (1051 erg). When using a hadronic model, a magnetic field of B ≈ 100 μG is needed to represent the measured data. Although this is comparable to formerly published estimates, a standard E-2 spectrum for the proton distribution cannot describe the γ-ray data. Instead, a spectral index of Γp ≈ 1.7 would be required, which implies that ˜7 × 1049/ncm-3 has been transferred into high-energy protons with the effective density ncm-3 = n/1 cm-3. This is about 10% of the kinetic energy of a typical Type Ia supernova under the assumption of a density of 1 cm-3.

  11. THE IMPACT OF EVOLVING INFRARED SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF GALAXIES ON STAR FORMATION RATE ESTIMATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordon, R.; Lutz, D.; Genzel, R.; Berta, S.; Wuyts, S.; Magnelli, B.; Foerster Schreiber, N. M.; Poglitsch, A.; Popesso, P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Postfach 1312, 85741 Garching (Germany); Altieri, B. [Herschel Science Centre, European Space Astronomy Centre, ESA, Villanueva de al Canada, 28691 Madrid (Spain); Andreani, P. [ESO, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Aussel, H.; Daddi, E. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, IRFU/Service d' Astrophysique, Bat.709, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Bongiovanni, A.; Cepa, J.; Perez Garcia, A. M. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Cimatti, A. [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universita di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Fadda, D. [IPAC, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Lagache, G. [Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale (IAS), Bat 121, Universite de Paris XI, 91450 Orsay Cedex (France); Maiolino, R., E-mail: nordon@mpe.mpg.de [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via di Frascati 33, 00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); and others

    2012-02-01

    We combine Herschel-Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) data from the PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP) program with Spitzer 24 {mu}m and 16 {mu}m photometry and ultra deep Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) mid-infrared spectra to measure the mid- to far-infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) of 0.7 < z < 2.5 normal star-forming galaxies (SFGs) around the main sequence (the redshift-dependent relation of star formation rate (SFR) and stellar mass). Our very deep data confirm from individual far-infrared detections that z {approx} 2 SFRs are overestimated if based on 24 {mu}m fluxes and SED templates that are calibrated via local trends with luminosity. Galaxies with similar ratios of rest-frame {nu}L{sub {nu}}(8) to 8-1000 {mu}m infrared luminosity (LIR) tend to lie along lines of constant offset from the main sequence. We explore the relation between SED shape and offset in specific star formation rate (SSFR) from the redshift-dependent main sequence. Main-sequence galaxies tend to have a similar {nu}L{sub {nu}}(8)/LIR regardless of LIR and redshift, up to z {approx} 2.5, and {nu}L{sub {nu}}(8)/LIR decreases with increasing offset above the main sequence in a consistent way at the studied redshifts. We provide a redshift-independent calibration of SED templates in the range of 8-60 {mu}m as a function of {Delta}log(SSFR) offset from the main sequence. Redshift dependency enters only through the evolution of the main sequence with time. Ultra deep IRS spectra match these SED trends well and verify that they are mostly due to a change in ratio of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) to LIR rather than continua of hidden active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Alternatively, we discuss the dependence of {nu}L{sub {nu}}(8)/LIR on LIR. The same {nu}L{sub {nu}}(8)/LIR is reached at increasingly higher LIR at higher redshift, with shifts relative to local by 0.5 and 0.8 dex in log(LIR) at redshifts z {approx} 1 and z {approx} 2. Corresponding SED template calibrations

  12. Prevalence of oral lesions in pan vendor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Gadodia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Being a portal of entry to various smoking and smokeless tobacco products, oral cavity is prone to deleterious effects. Present study consist of epidemiological survey to elucidate oral lesions in pan vendors. Aims and objectives: To detect oral lesions in pan vendors and compare it with controls. To detect habit pattern and prevalence of OSMF and other lesions in pan vendors as compared to controls- To identify, recognize and evaluate the possible etiology for OSMF, encompassing various chewing and smoking habits. Materials and methods: Study population consist of 170 pan vendors with age ranging from 15 to 55 years and equal number of sex matched controls selected randomly. Results: Prevalence of oral lesions in pan vendors is statistically significantly higher as compared to controls. The habit of arecanut chewing in various forms was present in all cases. The habit of smoking and smokeless tobacco products was present in all cases. Conclusion: Pan vendors are at higher risk for oral lesions than controls. There is increase in relative risk with increase in duration and frequency of habit.

  13. Energy Storage and Distributed Energy Generation Project, Final Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwank, Johannes; Mader, Jerry; Chen, Xiaoyin; Mi, Chris; Linic, Suljo; Sastry, Ann Marie; Stefanopoulou, Anna; Thompson, Levi; Varde, Keshav

    2008-03-31

    This report serves as a Final Report under the “Energy Storage and Distribution Energy Generation Project” carried out by the Transportation Energy Center (TEC) at the University of Michigan (UM). An interdisciplinary research team has been working on fundamental and applied research on: -distributed power generation and microgrids, -power electronics, and -advanced energy storage. The long-term objective of the project was to provide a framework for identifying fundamental research solutions to technology challenges of transmission and distribution, with special emphasis on distributed power generation, energy storage, control methodologies, and power electronics for microgrids, and to develop enabling technologies for novel energy storage and harvesting concepts that can be simulated, tested, and scaled up to provide relief for both underserved and overstressed portions of the Nation’s grid. TEC’s research is closely associated with Sections 5.0 and 6.0 of the DOE "Five-year Program Plan for FY2008 to FY2012 for Electric Transmission and Distribution Programs, August 2006.”

  14. Institutional distributed energy interconnection barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelaz, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation provided an introduction to Encorp Inc., a leading provider of network technology and infrastructure management solutions for the distributed energy market. Encorp develops and markets software and hardware technology solutions for communications, control and networking of distributed energy. It is developing and implementing real-time, distributed energy-focused solutions for a wide variety of applications through new products and services which are technology neutral, and easily networked. Encorp controls more than 500 MW of distributed power with a total of 127 customers. This paper reviewed 3 barriers (regulatory, contractual/tariffs, and business practices) based on US experience. The challenge remaining is to determine if microgrids can be used effectively, and to determine the limitations of bi-directional power flows. The key issues regarding how end-users can share the costs and maximize on the benefits of distributed energy resources include: standby service charges, departing load charges, regulatory uncertainty, rate class degradation, lack of incentives for utility cost reduction, and lack of ability to create experimental tariffs. tabs., figs

  15. Quantitative material decomposition using spectral computed tomography with an energy-resolved photon-counting detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seungwan; Choi, Yu-Na; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2014-01-01

    Dual-energy computed tomography (CT) techniques have been used to decompose materials and characterize tissues according to their physical and chemical compositions. However, these techniques are hampered by the limitations of conventional x-ray detectors operated in charge integrating mode. Energy-resolved photon-counting detectors provide spectral information from polychromatic x-rays using multiple energy thresholds. These detectors allow simultaneous acquisition of data in different energy ranges without spectral overlap, resulting in more efficient material decomposition and quantification for dual-energy CT. In this study, a pre-reconstruction dual-energy CT technique based on volume conservation was proposed for three-material decomposition. The technique was combined with iterative reconstruction algorithms by using a ray-driven projector in order to improve the quality of decomposition images and reduce radiation dose. A spectral CT system equipped with a CZT-based photon-counting detector was used to implement the proposed dual-energy CT technique. We obtained dual-energy images of calibration and three-material phantoms consisting of low atomic number materials from the optimal energy bins determined by Monte Carlo simulations. The material decomposition process was accomplished by both the proposed and post-reconstruction dual-energy CT techniques. Linear regression and normalized root-mean-square error (NRMSE) analyses were performed to evaluate the quantitative accuracy of decomposition images. The calibration accuracy of the proposed dual-energy CT technique was higher than that of the post-reconstruction dual-energy CT technique, with fitted slopes of 0.97–1.01 and NRMSEs of 0.20–4.50% for all basis materials. In the three-material phantom study, the proposed dual-energy CT technique decreased the NRMSEs of measured volume fractions by factors of 0.17–0.28 compared to the post-reconstruction dual-energy CT technique. It was concluded that the

  16. Quantitative imaging of excised osteoarthritic cartilage using spectral CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajendran, Kishore; Bateman, Christopher J.; Younis, Raja Aamir; De Ruiter, Niels J.A.; Ramyar, Mohsen; Anderson, Nigel G. [University of Otago - Christchurch, Department of Radiology, Christchurch (New Zealand); Loebker, Caroline [University of Otago, Christchurch Regenerative Medicine and Tissue Engineering Group, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Musculoskeletal Medicine, Christchurch (New Zealand); University of Twente, Department of Developmental BioEngineering, Enschede (Netherlands); Schon, Benjamin S.; Hooper, Gary J.; Woodfield, Tim B.F. [University of Otago, Christchurch Regenerative Medicine and Tissue Engineering Group, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Musculoskeletal Medicine, Christchurch (New Zealand); Chernoglazov, Alex I. [University of Canterbury, Human Interface Technology Laboratory New Zealand, Christchurch (New Zealand); Butler, Anthony P.H. [University of Otago - Christchurch, Department of Radiology, Christchurch (New Zealand); European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); MARS Bioimaging, Christchurch (New Zealand)

    2017-01-15

    To quantify iodine uptake in articular cartilage as a marker of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content using multi-energy spectral CT. We incubated a 25-mm strip of excised osteoarthritic human tibial plateau in 50 % ionic iodine contrast and imaged it using a small-animal spectral scanner with a cadmium telluride photon-processing detector to quantify the iodine through the thickness of the articular cartilage. We imaged both spectroscopic phantoms and osteoarthritic tibial plateau samples. The iodine distribution as an inverse marker of GAG content was presented in the form of 2D and 3D images after applying a basis material decomposition technique to separate iodine in cartilage from bone. We compared this result with a histological section stained for GAG. The iodine in cartilage could be distinguished from subchondral bone and quantified using multi-energy CT. The articular cartilage showed variation in iodine concentration throughout its thickness which appeared to be inversely related to GAG distribution observed in histological sections. Multi-energy CT can quantify ionic iodine contrast (as a marker of GAG content) within articular cartilage and distinguish it from bone by exploiting the energy-specific attenuation profiles of the associated materials. (orig.)

  17. Evaluation of two typical distributed energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Miaomiao; Tan, Xiu

    2018-03-01

    According to the two-natural gas distributed energy system driven by gas engine driven and gas turbine, in this paper, the first and second laws of thermodynamics are used to measure the distributed energy system from the two parties of “quantity” and “quality”. The calculation results show that the internal combustion engine driven distributed energy station has a higher energy efficiency, but the energy efficiency is low; the gas turbine driven distributed energy station energy efficiency is high, but the primary energy utilization rate is relatively low. When configuring the system, we should determine the applicable natural gas distributed energy system technology plan and unit configuration plan according to the actual load factors of the project and the actual factors such as the location, background and environmental requirements of the project. “quality” measure, the utilization of waste heat energy efficiency index is proposed.

  18. Energy Conservation in Optical Fibers With Distributed Brick-Walls Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Javier; Ghozlan, Hassan; Kramer, Gerhard

    2018-05-01

    A band-pass filtering scheme is proposed to mitigate spectral broadening and channel coupling in the Nonlinear Schr\\"odinger (NLS) fiber optic channel. The scheme is modeled by modifying the NLS Equation to include an attenuation profile with multiple brick-wall filters centered at different frequencies. It is shown that this brick-walls profile conserves the total in-band energy of the launch signal. Furthermore, energy fluctuations between the filtered channels are characterized, and conditions on the channel spacings are derived that ensure energy conservation in each channel. The maximum spectral efficiency of such a system is derived, and a constructive rule for achieving it using Sidon sequences is provided.

  19. Archives: Pan African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 28 of 28 ... Archives: Pan African Medical Journal. Journal Home > Archives: Pan African Medical Journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 28 of 28 Items ...

  20. Spectral narrowing and spin echo for localized carriers with heavy-tailed L evy distribution of hopping times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Z. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Mkhitaryan, Vagharsh [Ames Lab. and Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Raikh, M. E. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2016-02-02

    We study analytically the free induction decay and the spin echo decay originating from the localized carriers moving between the sites which host random magnetic fields. Due to disorder in the site positions and energies, the on-site residence times, , are widely spread according to the L evy distribution. The power-law tail ∝ τ-1-∝ in the distribution of does not affect the conventional spectral narrowing for α > 2, but leads to a dramatic acceleration of the free induction decay in the domain 2 > α > 1. The next abrupt acceleration of the decay takes place as becomes smaller than 1. In the latter domain the decay does not follow a simple-exponent law. To capture the behavior of the average spin in this domain, we solve the evolution equation for the average spin using the approach different from the conventional approach based on the Laplace transform. Unlike the free induction decay, the tail in the distribution of the residence times leads to the slow decay of the spin echo. The echo is dominated by realizations of the carrier motion for which the number of sites, visited by the carrier, is minimal.

  1. The Effects of Lamp Spectral Distribution on Sky Glow over Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    overhead sky glow as a function of distance up to 300 km, from a variety of lamp types, including common gas discharge lamps and several types of LED...distance up to 300 km, from a variety of lamp types, in- cluding common gas discharge lamps and several types of LED lamps . We conclude for both...MAR 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Effects of Lamp Spectral Distribution on Sky Glow

  2. Probing the very-high-energy gamma-ray spectral curvature in the blazar PG 1553+113 with the MAGIC telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksić, J.; Antonelli, L A; Antoranz, P; Babic, A; Bangale, P; Barrio, J A; González, J Becerra; Bednarek, W; Bernardini, E; Biasuzzi, B; Biland, A; Blanch, O; Bonnefoy, S; Bonnoli, G; Borracci, F; Bretz, T; Carmona, E; Carosi, A; Colin, P; Colombo, E; Contreras, J.L; Cortina, J; Covino, S; Da Vela, P; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Caneva, G; De Lotto, B; Wilhelmi, E de Oña; Mendez, C Delgado; Prester, D Dominis; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Einecke, S; Eisenacher, D; Elsaesser, D; Fidalgo, D; Fonseca, M.V; Font, L; Frantzen, K; Fruck, C; Galindo, D; López, R J García; Garczarczyk, M; Terrats, D Garrido; Gaug, M; Godinović, N; Muñoz, A González; Gozzini, S R; Hadasch, D; Hanabata, Y; Hayashida, M; Herrera, J; Hose, J; Hrupec, D; Idec, W; Kadenius, V; Kellermann, H; Knoetig, M L; Kodani, K; Konno, Y; Krause, J; Kubo, H; Kushida, J; La Barbera, A; Lelas, D; Lewandowska, N; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; Longo, F; López, M; López-Coto, R; López-Oramas, A; Lorenz, E; Lozano, I; Makariev, M; Mallot, K; Maneva, G; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Marcote, B; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Menzel, U; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Moralejo, A; Munar-Adrover, P; Nakajima, D; Neustroev, V; Niedzwiecki, A; Nilsson, K; Nishijima, K; Noda, K; Orito, R; Overkemping, A; Paiano, S; Palatiello, M; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Paredes-Fortuny, X; Persic, M; Poutanen, J; Moroni, P G Prada; Prandini, E; Puljak, I; Reinthal, R; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Garcia, J Rodriguez; Rügamer, S; Saito, T; Saito, K; Satalecka, K; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schultz, C; Schweizer, T; Sillanpää, A; Sitarek, J; Snidaric, I; Sobczynska, D; Spanier, F; Stamerra, A; Steinbring, T; Storz, J; Strzys, M; Takalo, L; Takami, H; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Terzić, T; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Thaele, J; Tibolla, O; Torres, D F; Toyama, T; Treves, A; Vogler, P; Will, M; Zanin, R; D'Ammando, F; Lähteenmäki, A; Tornikoski, M; Hovatta, T; Readhead, A C S; Max-Moerbeck, W; Richards, J.L

    2015-01-01

    PG 1553+113 is a very-high-energy (VHE, E>100 GeV) gamma-ray emitter classified as a BL Lac object. Its redshift is constrained by intergalactic absorption lines in the range 0.40.2). The observed curvature is compatible with the extragalactic background light (EBL) imprint predicted by the current generation of EBL models assuming a redshift z~0.4. New constraints on the redshift were derived from the VHE spectrum. These constraints are compatible with previous limits and suggest that the source is most likely located around the optical lower limit, z=0.4. Finally, we find that the synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model gives a satisfactory description of the observed multi-wavelength spectral energy distribution during the flare.

  3. The transition radiation. I: numerical study of the angular and spectral distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couillaud, Ch.; Haouat, G.

    1999-01-01

    The optical transition radiation (OTR) is extensively used since many years as a beam visualisation tool on electron accelerators and serves to monitor the beam during its transport adjustment. Its spatial and temporal characteristics make it very attractive as a diagnostic tool and allow measurements of the beam energy and transverse and longitudinal emittances. We present a numerical study of the transition radiation process in the optical region of the radiated spectrum (OTR) and in the higher part (XTR). Spatial and spectral properties are described. They are used to describe experimental observations performed on the ELSA electron-beam facility. An analytical description of the angular distributions of visible radiation emitted by birefringent targets, used as OTR sources, is also proposed. We also analyze interference phenomena between two OTR sources and show the advantage of using this interferometer as a diagnostic tool for tenth MeV electron accelerators. At last, we present an analytical model allowing to design a soft X-ray source to be installed on the ELSA facility and using either a multi-foil stack or a multilayer of two materials of different permittivities. (authors)

  4. Impact of spectral irradiance distribution and temperature on the outdoor performance of concentrator photovoltaic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husna, Husyira Al; Shibata, Naoki; Sawano, Naoki; Ueno, Seiya; Ota, Yasuyuki; Minemoto, Takashi; Araki, Kenji; Nishioka, Kensuke

    2013-09-01

    Multi-junction solar cell is designed to have considerable effect towards the solar spectrum distribution so that the maximum solar radiation could be absorbed hence, enhancing the energy conversion efficiency of the cell. Due to its application in CPV system, the system's characteristics are more sensitive to environmental factor in comparison to flat-plate PV system which commonly equipped with Si-based solar cell. In this paper, the impact of environmental factors i.e. average photon energy (APE) and temperature of solar cell (Tcell) towards the performance of the tracking type CPV system were discussed. A year data period of direct spectral irradiance, cell temperature, and power output which recorded from November 2010 to October 2011 at a CPV system power generator plant located at Miyazaki, Japan was used in this study. The result showed that most frequent condition during operation was at APE = 1.87±0.005eV, Tcell = 65±2.5°C with performance ratio of 83.9%. Furthermore, an equivalent circuit simulation of a CPV subsystem in module unit was conducted in order to investigate the influence of environmental factors towards the performance of the module.

  5. Dust spectral energy distributions of nearby galaxies: an insight from the Herschel Reference Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesla, L.; Boquien, M.; Boselli, A.; Buat, V.; Cortese, L.; Bendo, G. J.; Heinis, S.; Galametz, M.; Eales, S.; Smith, M. W. L.; Baes, M.; Bianchi, S.; De Looze, I.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Galliano, F.; Hughes, T. M.; Madden, S. C.; Pierini, D.; Rémy-Ruyer, A.; Spinoglio, L.; Vaccari, M.; Viaene, S.; Vlahakis, C.

    2014-05-01

    Although it accounts only for a small fraction of the baryonic mass, dust has a profound impact on the physical processes at play in galaxies. Thus, to understand the evolution of galaxies, it is essential not only to characterize dust properties per se, but also in relation to global galaxy properties. To do so, we derive the dust properties of galaxies in a volume limited, K-band selected sample, the Herschel Reference Survey (HRS). We gather infrared photometric data from 8 μm to 500 μm from Spitzer, WISE, IRAS, and Herschel for all of the HRS galaxies. Draine & Li (2007, ApJ, 663, 866) models are fit to the data from which the stellar contribution has been carefully removed. We find that our photometric coverage is sufficient to constrain all of the parameters of the Draine & Li models and that a strong constraint on the 20-60 μm range is mandatory to estimate the relative contribution of the photo-dissociation regions to the infrared spectral energy distribution (SED). The SED models tend to systematically underestimate the observed 500 μm flux densities, especially for low-mass systems. We provide the output parameters for all of the galaxies, i.e., the minimum intensity of the interstellar radiation field, the fraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), the relative contribution of PDR and evolved stellar population to the dust heating, the dust mass, and the infrared luminosity. For a subsample of gas-rich galaxies, we analyze the relations between these parameters and the main integrated properties of galaxies, such as stellar mass, star formation rate, infraredluminosity, metallicity, Hα and H-band surface brightness, and the far-ultraviolet attenuation. A good correlation between the fraction of PAH and the metallicity is found, implying a weakening of the PAH emission in galaxies with low metallicities and, thus, low stellar masses. The intensity of the diffuse interstellar radiation field and the H-band and Hα surface brightnesses are

  6. Spectrally selective paint coatings. Preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crnjak Orel, Z.C.; Klanjsek Gunde, M. [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2001-06-01

    Preparation and characterization of spectrally selective paint coating for photothermal solar energy conversion are discussed. The applied methods for preparation of paints with described measurements and calculations of black-pigmented coatings were reviewed. The article represents not only possible future applications but also past and current applications of spectrally selective paint coating which are used all over the world since the 1980s. Spectrally selective paint coatings based on combinations of two types of resins, various types of pigments and three types of silica, were prepared. The influence of pigment type and pigment volume concentration (PVC) was studied by applying the Kubelka-Munk (K-M) theory. The relation between the degrees of dispersion and distribution of pigment particles across the paint layer is discussed in terms of K-M coefficients.

  7. Spectral effects on some physical coefficients of x-Ray interaction with materials of low atomic number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Kazzaz, S.A.; Youssef, M.; EL-Hadad, S.; and EL-Nadi, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    X-ray spectra were measured before and after passing through some materials of medical importance applying X-ray diffraction. The mass absorption coefficients of these materials were determined at X-ray peak voltages 27, 30 and 42 kV-p making use the measured spectrum and also by using the direct beam absorption. It has been found that the mass absorption coefficients calculated from the X-ray spectral distribution analysis are in general lower than those obtained considering the direct beam method. From the study of the atomic number and energy dependence of the mass absorption coefficients it has been found that the dependence of the coefficients calculated from the spectral distribution is good agreement with the previously studied data for monoenergetic x-ray beam. Also the roentgen - to - Rad conversion factors were determined at the different used energies and materials. The value of the mass absorption coefficients calculated from the spectral distribution is recommended for use in dose calculation

  8. The pan-americanist imaginary and O Cruzeiro Internacional (1957-1965

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlise Regina Meyrer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The article aims to identify the main ideas that supported the launch of the magazine O Cruzeiro Internacional (1957-1965, Brazilian journal published in Spanish and distributed throughout Latin America, Spain and areas of the United States. It tries to understand how these ideas have permeated the diffusion of a specific pan-American imaginary on certain groups and/or governments that guided through texts and photographic images a set of social representations on Latin America. These, in general, were selected for the defense of a Latin American unity under the economic, political and cultural hegemony of Brazil, at the regional level and the of USA worldwide.   Keywords: Photojournalism – Latin America; O Cruzeiro Internacional; Journals - Brazil.   Original title: O imaginário pan-americanista e O Cruzeiro Internacional (1957-1965.

  9. Pan-European management of electricity portfolios: Risks and opportunities of contract bundling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gampert, Markus; Madlener, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    Due to the liberalization of energy markets in the European Union, today's European utilities not only focus on electricity supply, but also offer exchange-traded 'structured products' or portfolio management for unbundling financial and physical risk positions. Many utilities are only able to provide these services in their domestic markets. In a globalized economy, the need for a centrally organized pan-European portfolio management has arisen, as it allows a simplified commodity sourcing in combination with an optimized risk management. In this paper, we examine the challenges to be overcome for establishing a European-wide bundling of electricity contracts. For this purpose, a case study based on the business perspective of RWE Supply and Trading in Central and Eastern Europe is carried out. In a first step, we analyze general requirements for a pan-European bundling of electricity contracts. Then, RWE's situation in Europe is examined, based on which we finally propose a concept to meet customer demands in Central and Eastern Europe. - Research highlights: → Analysis of electricity market liberalization in Central and Eastern Europe. → Identification of requirements and problems for pan-European bundling of contracts. → Case study based on RWE Supply and Trading perspective in Central and Eastern Europe. → Model development for pan-European unbundling of financial/physical risk positions.

  10. Thermal performance evaluation of a four pan jaggery processing furnace for improvement in energy utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardeshpande, Vishal R.; Shendage, D.J.; Pillai, Indu R. [Department of Energy Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay (India)

    2010-12-15

    The jaggery making from sugarcane is one of the traditional process industries contributing to the local employment and entrepreneurship opportunities to the rural population. Jaggery is a condensed form of sugarcane juice produced by evaporation of moisture. Bagasse which is internally generated during juice extraction from sugarcane is used as the fuel for evaporation in a jaggery furnace. Any efficiency improvement in the thermal performance of a jaggery furnace leads to bagasse saving which provides additional revenue for the jaggery manufacturer. A procedure for thermal evaluation using mass and energy balance for a jaggery furnace is proposed to establish furnace performance and loss stream analysis. The proposed method is used to investigate a four pan traditional jaggery furnace in India. The loss stream analysis indicates that the theoretical energy required for jaggery processing is only 29% of total energy supplied by bagasse combustion. The major loss is associated with heat carried in flue gas and wall losses. The air available for combustion depends upon the draft created by chimney in natural draft furnaces. The oxygen content in the flue gas is a measure of degree of combustion. A controlled fuel feeding based on the oxygen percentage in the flue gases is proposed and demonstrated. The traditional practice of fuel feeding rate is changed to control feeding rate leading to reduction in specific fuel consumption from 2.39 kg bagasse/kg jaggery to 1.73 kg bagasse/kg jaggery. This procedure can be used for evaluation of jaggery furnaces for identification and quantification of losses, which will help in improving thermal energy utilization. (author)

  11. Formulation of the energetic spectral distribution of in pile neutron flux (energies greater than a few hundred electron volts) (1963); Formulation des repartitions spectrales energetiques de flux neutroniques en pile (energies superieures a quelques centaines d'electrons-volts) (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genthon, J P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    In the present report an expression is deduced for the spectral distribution of flux of over a few hundred electron volts; it is valid for most cases of thermal neutron reactors. This expression is: {psi}(E) = K [{psi}{sub o}(E) + h {psi}{sub e}(E)] {psi}{sub o}(E) is the so-called 'homogeneous' constituent of the flux; it corresponds approximately to the case of an infinite homogeneous medium; it is of the type: Y(V - E) e{sup (b{radical}}{sup E)}/E + Y(E-V) F E{sup {upsilon}} e{sup -{beta}}{sup E} The parameters V and F are such that {psi}{sub o}(E) and its derivative are continuous at the junction energy V. {psi}{sub e}(E) is the 'heterogeneous' constituent of the flux; it is of the type: E{sup {upsilon}} e{sup -{beta}}{sup E}. The various parameters of {psi}(E) are on the one hand characteristic of the nature of the reactor moderator, and on the other hand determined by a resonant flux measurement and one, or possibly two, measurements using a fast neutron threshold detector. We have been led furthermore to define an expression for the threshold reaction section which is more exact than the conventional transition function. (author) [French] Il est etabli, dans le present rapport, une formulation {psi}(E) des repartitions spectrales de flux au-dessus de quelques centaines d'electron-s volts, valable dans la majeure partie des cas de piles dites a neutrons thermiques. Cette formulation s'exprime: {psi}(E) = K [{psi}{sub o}(E) + h {psi}{sub e}(E)] {psi}{sub o}(E) est la composante dite 'homogene' du flux; elle correspond a peu pres au cas d'un milieu infini homogene; elle est du type: Y(V - E) e{sup (b{radical}}{sup E)}/E + Y(E-V) F E{sup {upsilon}} e{sup -{beta}}{sup E} les parametres V et F sont tels que {psi}{sub o}(E) et sa derivee soient continues a l'energie de jonction V. {psi}{sub e} est la composante dite 'heterogene' du flux ; elle est du type: E{sup {upsilon}} e{sup -{beta}}{sup E}. Les differents parametres de {psi}(E) sont, d'une part

  12. Student-Centered Designs of Pan-African Literature Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'Baye, Babacar

    2010-01-01

    A student-centered teaching methodology is an essential ingredient of a successful Pan-African literary course. In this article, the author defines Pan-Africanism and how to go about designing a Pan-African literature course. The author combines reading assignments with journals, film presentations, and lectures in a productive learning…

  13. The Pale Orange Dot: Spectral Effects of a Hazy Early Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arney, G. N.; Meadows, V. S.; Domagal-Goldman, S. D.; Claire, M.; Schwieterman, E.

    2014-12-01

    Increasing evidence suggests Archean Earth had a photochemical hydrocarbon haze similar to Titan's (Zerkle et al. 2012), with important climate implications (Pavlov et al. 2001, Trainer et al. 2006, Haqq-Misra et al. 2008, Domagal-Goldman et al. 2008, Wolf and Toon 2012). Observations also suggest hazy exoplanets are common (Sing et al. 2011, Kreidberg et al 2014), so hazy planet spectra will be relevant to future exoplanet spectral characterization missions. Here, we consider the implications of hydrocarbon aerosols on the spectrum of Archean Earth, examining the effect of a haze layer on the detectability of spectral features from putative biosignatures and the Rayleigh scattering slope. We also examine haze's impact on the spectral energy distribution at the planetary surface, which may be important to the co-evolution of life with its environment. Because the atmospheric pressure and haze particle composition of the Archean Earth are poorly constrained, we test the impact of atmospheric pressure and particle density on haze formation. Our study uses a modified version of the 1-D photochemical code developed originally by Kasting et al. (1979) to generate a fractal haze in the model Archean atmosphere. The 1-D line-by-line fully multiple scattering Spectral Mapping Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Model (SMART) (Meadows and Crisp 1996) is then used to generate synthetic spectra of early Earth with haze. We find (Fig 1) that haze scattering significantly depletes the radiation at short wavelengths, strongly affecting the spectral region of the Rayleigh slope, a broadband change in spectral shape detectable at low spectral resolution. At the surface, the spectral energy distribution is shifted towards longer wavelengths, which may be important to photosynthetic life. Thus, the haze may have significant effects on biology, which in turn produces the methane that leads to haze formation, creating feedback loops between biology and the planet.

  14. Simulation of temporal and spatial distribution of required irrigation water by crop models and the pan evaporation coefficient method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan-min; Yang, Yonghui; Han, Shu-min; Hu, Yu-kun

    2009-07-01

    Hebei Plain is the most important agricultural belt in North China. Intensive irrigation, low and uneven precipitation have led to severe water shortage on the plain. This study is an attempt to resolve this crucial issue of water shortage for sustainable agricultural production and water resources management. The paper models distributed regional irrigation requirement for a range of cultivated crops on the plain. Classic crop models like DSSAT- wheat/maize and COTTON2K are used in combination with pan-evaporation coefficient method to estimate water requirements for wheat, corn, cotton, fruit-trees and vegetables. The approach is more accurate than the static approach adopted in previous studies. This is because the combination use of crop models and pan-evaporation coefficient method dynamically accounts for irrigation requirement at different growth stages of crops, agronomic practices, and field and climatic conditions. The simulation results show increasing Required Irrigation Amount (RIA) with time. RIA ranges from 5.08×109 m3 to 14.42×109 m3 for the period 1986~2006, with an annual average of 10.6×109 m3. Percent average water use by wheat, fruit trees, vegetable, corn and cotton is 41%, 12%, 12%, 11%, 7% and 17% respectively. RIA for April and May (the period with the highest irrigation water use) is 1.78×109 m3 and 2.41×109 m3 respectively. The counties in the piedmont regions of Mount Taihang have high RIA while the central and eastern regions/counties have low irrigation requirement.

  15. The Composition of Comet C/2012 K1 (PanSTARRS) and the Distribution of Primary Volatile Abundances Among Comets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Nathan X.; Gibb, Erika L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri-St. Louis, 503 Benton Hall, One University Blvd., St. Louis, MO 63121 (United States); Bonev, Boncho P.; DiSanti, Michael A.; Mumma, Michael J.; Villanueva, Geronimo L.; Paganini, Lucas, E-mail: nxrq67@mail.umsl.edu [Goddard Center for Astrobiology, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Stop 690, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    On 2014 May 22 and 24 we characterized the volatile composition of the dynamically new Oort cloud comet C/2012 K1 (PanSTARRS) using the long-slit, high resolution ( λ /Δ λ  ≈ 25,000) near-infrared echelle spectrograph (NIRSPEC) at the 10 m Keck II telescope on Maunakea, Hawaii. We detected fluorescent emission from six primary volatiles (H{sub 2}O, HCN, CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, CH{sub 3}OH, and CO). Upper limits were derived for C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, and H{sub 2}CO. We report rotational temperatures, production rates, and mixing ratios (relative to water). Compared with median abundance ratios for primary volatiles in other sampled Oort cloud comets, trace gas abundance ratios in C/2012 K1 (PanSTARRS) for CO and HCN are consistent, but CH{sub 3}OH and C{sub 2}H{sub 6} are enriched while H{sub 2}CO, CH{sub 4}, and possibly C{sub 2}H{sub 2} are depleted. When placed in context with comets observed in the near-infrared to date, the data suggest a continuous distribution of abundances of some organic volatiles (HCN, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, CH{sub 3}OH, CH{sub 4}) among the comet population. The level of “enrichment” or “depletion” in a given comet does not necessarily correlate across all molecules sampled, suggesting that chemical diversity among comets may be more complex than the simple organics-enriched, organics-normal, and organics-depleted framework.

  16. CANDELS: CORRELATIONS OF SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS AND MORPHOLOGIES WITH STAR FORMATION STATUS FOR MASSIVE GALAXIES AT z ∼ 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Tao; Gu Qiusheng; Huang Jiasheng; Fang Guanwen; Fazio, G. G.; Faber, S. M.; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Kocevski, Dale; Wuyts, Stijn; Yan Haojing; Dekel, Avishai; Guo Yicheng; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Lucas, Ray A.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Weiner, Benjamin; Hathi, Nimish P.; Kong Xu

    2012-01-01

    We present a study on spectral energy distributions, morphologies, and star formation for an IRAC-selected extremely red object sample in the GOODS Chandra Deep Field-South. This work was enabled by new HST/WFC3 near-IR imaging from the CANDELS survey as well as the deepest available X-ray data from Chandra 4 Ms observations. This sample consists of 133 objects with the 3.6 μm limiting magnitude of [3.6] = 21.5 and is approximately complete for galaxies with M * > 10 11 M ☉ at 1.5 ≤ z ≤ 2.5. We classify this sample into two types, quiescent and star-forming galaxies (SFGs), in the observed infrared color-color ([3.6]–[24] versus K – [3.6]) diagram. The further morphological study of this sample shows a consistent result with the observed color classification. The classified quiescent galaxies are bulge dominated and SFGs in the sample have disk or irregular morphologies. Our observed infrared color classification is also consistent with the rest-frame color (U – V versus V – J) classification. We also found that quiescent and SFGs are well separated in the nonparametric morphology parameter (Gini versus M 20 ) diagram measuring their concentration and clumpiness: quiescent galaxies have a Gini coefficient higher than 0.58 and SFGs have a Gini coefficient lower than 0.58. We argue that the star formation quenching process must lead to or be accompanied by the increasing galaxy concentration. One prominent morphological feature of this sample is that disks are commonly seen in this massive galaxy sample at 1.5 ≤ z ≤ 2.5: 30% of quiescent galaxies and 70% of SFGs with M * > 10 11 M ☉ have disks in their rest-frame optical morphologies. The prevalence of these extended, relatively undisturbed disks challenges the merging scenario as the main mode of massive galaxy formation.

  17. CANDELS: CORRELATIONS OF SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS AND MORPHOLOGIES WITH STAR FORMATION STATUS FOR MASSIVE GALAXIES AT z {approx} 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Tao; Gu Qiusheng [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Huang Jiasheng; Fang Guanwen; Fazio, G. G. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Faber, S. M.; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Kocevski, Dale [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Wuyts, Stijn [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Yan Haojing [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Dekel, Avishai [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Guo Yicheng [Astronomy Department, University of Massachusetts, 710 N. Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Lucas, Ray A.; Koekemoer, A. M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Weiner, Benjamin [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Hathi, Nimish P. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Kong Xu, E-mail: taowang@nju.edu.cn [Center for Astrophysics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2012-06-20

    We present a study on spectral energy distributions, morphologies, and star formation for an IRAC-selected extremely red object sample in the GOODS Chandra Deep Field-South. This work was enabled by new HST/WFC3 near-IR imaging from the CANDELS survey as well as the deepest available X-ray data from Chandra 4 Ms observations. This sample consists of 133 objects with the 3.6 {mu}m limiting magnitude of [3.6] = 21.5 and is approximately complete for galaxies with M{sub *} > 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun} at 1.5 {<=} z {<=} 2.5. We classify this sample into two types, quiescent and star-forming galaxies (SFGs), in the observed infrared color-color ([3.6]-[24] versus K - [3.6]) diagram. The further morphological study of this sample shows a consistent result with the observed color classification. The classified quiescent galaxies are bulge dominated and SFGs in the sample have disk or irregular morphologies. Our observed infrared color classification is also consistent with the rest-frame color (U - V versus V - J) classification. We also found that quiescent and SFGs are well separated in the nonparametric morphology parameter (Gini versus M{sub 20}) diagram measuring their concentration and clumpiness: quiescent galaxies have a Gini coefficient higher than 0.58 and SFGs have a Gini coefficient lower than 0.58. We argue that the star formation quenching process must lead to or be accompanied by the increasing galaxy concentration. One prominent morphological feature of this sample is that disks are commonly seen in this massive galaxy sample at 1.5 {<=} z {<=} 2.5: 30% of quiescent galaxies and 70% of SFGs with M{sub *} > 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun} have disks in their rest-frame optical morphologies. The prevalence of these extended, relatively undisturbed disks challenges the merging scenario as the main mode of massive galaxy formation.

  18. Research on the Orientation and Application of Distributed Energy Storage in Energy Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ming; Zhou, Pengcheng; Li, Ran; Zhou, Jingjing; Chen, Tao; Li, Zhe

    2018-01-01

    Energy storage is indispensable resources to achieve a high proportion of new energy power consumption in electric power system. As an important support to energy Internet, energy storage system can achieve a variety of energy integration operation to ensure maximum energy efficiency. In this paper, firstly, the SWOT analysis method is used to express the internal and external advantages and disadvantages of distributed energy storage participating in the energy Internet. Secondly, the function orientation of distributed energy storage in energy Internet is studied, based on which the application modes of distributed energy storage in virtual power plant, community energy storage and auxiliary services are deeply studied. Finally, this paper puts forward the development strategy of distributed energy storage which is suitable for the development of China’s energy Internet, and summarizes and prospects the application of distributed energy storage system.

  19. Is Pan-Asian Economic Integration Moving Forward?: Evidence from Pan-Asian Trade Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Sapkota, Jeet Bahadur; Shuto, Motoko

    2016-01-01

    Asia is growing economically faster than any other region in the world; this led to the shift of the center of gravity of the global economy from the West to the East. However, it is not clear whether the Asian economy is integrating regionally or globally. In the context of the growing efforts of regional or sub-regional pan-Asian integration, it is worthwhile to explore the pan-Asian trade flows regionally as well as globally. Thus, this paper examines the trend and determinants of economic...

  20. Electrically controllable artificial PAN muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehpoor, Karim; Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Mojarrad, Mehran

    1996-02-01

    Artificial muscles made with polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers are traditionally activated in electrolytic solution by changing the pH of the solution by the addition of acids and/or bases. This usually consumes a considerable amount of weak acids or bases. Furthermore, the synthetic muscle (PAN) itself has to be impregnated with an acid or a base and must have an appropriate enclosure or provision for waste collection after actuation. This work introduces a method by which the PAN muscle may be elongated or contracted in an electric field. We believe this is the first time that this has been achieved with PAN fibers as artificial muscles. In this new development the PAN muscle is first put in close contact with one of the two platinum wires (electrodes) immersed in an aqueous solution of sodium chloride. Applying an electric voltage between the two wires changes the local acidity of the solution in the regions close to the platinum wires. This is because of the ionization of sodium chloride molecules and the accumulation of Na+ and Cl- ions at the negative and positive electrode sites, respectively. This ion accumulation, in turn, is accompanied by a sharp increase and decrease of the local acidity in regions close to either of the platinum wires, respectively. An artificial muscle, in close contact with the platinum wire, because of the change in the local acidity will contract or expand depending on the polarity of the electric field. This scheme allows the experimenter to use a fixed flexible container of an electrolytic solution whose local pH can be modulated by an imposed electric field while the produced ions are basically trapped to stay in the neighborhood of a given electrode. This method of artificial muscle activation has several advantages. First, the need to use a large quantity of acidic or alkaline solutions is eliminated. Second, the use of a compact PAN muscular system is facilitated for applications in active musculoskeletal structures. Third, the

  1. Detectability of Chelyabinsk-like impactors with Pan-STARRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheli, Marco; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Denneau, Larry

    2018-03-01

    In this work we present the results of our analysis of the detectability of an object in the size range of the recent Chelyabinsk impactor under the current discovery and follow-up capabilities, using the specific observational strategy of the Pan-STARRS survey as a reference point. We first discuss the observability of real-life cases inspired by the impact trajectories of 2008 TC3, 2014 AA, the past Earth encounters with 2014 RC and 2015 TB145, the upcoming fly-by of 2012 TC4 and the Chelyabinsk event. We then expand our analysis with the investigation of synthetic impactors with realistic orbital distributions. Among the various conclusions of our analysis, we discuss how the time of first detectability of an object does not necessarily correspond to the moment when that same object can be recognized as an impactor. We also point out how objects discovered only a few days before impact can be immediately identified as impactors, partly thanks to the good astrometric quality that telescopes like Pan-STARRS currently achieve.

  2. Time evolution of the spectral break in the high-energy extra component of GRB 090926A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassine, M.; Piron, F.; Mochkovitch, R.; Daigne, F.

    2017-10-01

    Aims: The prompt light curve of the long GRB 090926A reveals a short pulse 10 s after the beginning of the burst emission, which has been observed by the Fermi observatory from the keV to the GeV energy domain. During this bright spike, the high-energy emission from GRB 090926A underwent a sudden hardening above 10 MeV in the form of an additional power-law component exhibiting a spectral attenuation at a few hundreds of MeV. This high-energy break has been previously interpreted in terms of gamma-ray opacity to pair creation and has been used to estimate the bulk Lorentz factor of the outflow. In this article, we report on a new time-resolved analysis of the GRB 090926A broadband spectrum during its prompt phase and on its interpretation in the framework of prompt emission models. Methods: We characterized the emission from GRB 090926A at the highest energies with Pass 8 data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT), which offer a greater sensitivity than any data set used in previous studies of this burst, particularly in the 30-100 MeV energy band. Then, we combined the LAT data with the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) in joint spectral fits to characterize the time evolution of the broadband spectrum from keV to GeV energies. We paid careful attention to the systematic effects that arise from the uncertainties on the LAT response. Finally, we performed a temporal analysis of the light curves and we computed the variability timescales from keV to GeV energies during and after the bright spike. Results: Our analysis confirms and better constrains the spectral break, which has been previously reported during the bright spike. Furthermore, it reveals that the spectral attenuation persists at later times with an increase of the break characteristic energy up to the GeV domain until the end of the prompt phase. We discuss these results in terms of keV-MeV synchroton radiation of electrons accelerated during the dissipation of the jet energy and inverse Compton

  3. Comparisons of calculated and measured spectral distributions of neutrons from a 14-MeV neutron source inside the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoro, R.T.; Barnes, J.M.; Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.; Emmett, M.B.; Drischler, J.D.

    1985-12-01

    A recent paper presented neutron spectral distributions (energy greater than or equal to0.91 MeV) measured at various locations around the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The neutron source for the series of measurements was a small D-T generator placed at various positions in the TFTR vacuum chamber. In the present paper the results of neutron transport calculations are presented and compared with these experimental data. The calculations were carried out using Monte Carlo methods and a very detailed model of the TFTR and the TFTR test cell. The calculated and experimental fluences per unit energy are compared in absolute units and are found to be in substantial agreement for five different combinations of source and detector positions

  4. X-Ray Spectral Characteristics of Ginga Gamma-Ray Bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohmayer, T.E.; Fenimore, E.E.; Murakami, T.; Yoshida, A.

    1998-01-01

    We have investigated the spectral characteristics of a sample of bright gamma-ray bursts detected with the gamma-ray burst sensors aboard the satellite Ginga. This instrument employed a proportional and scintillation counter to provide sensitivity to photons in the 2 endash 400 keV region and as such provided a unique opportunity to characterize the largely unexplored X-ray properties of gamma-ray bursts. The photon spectra of the Ginga bursts are well described by a low-energy slope, a bend energy, and a high-energy slope. In the energy range where they can be compared, this result is consistent with burst spectral analyses obtained from the BATSE experiment aboard the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory. However, below 20 keV we find evidence for a positive spectral number index in approximately 40% of our burst sample, with some evidence for a strong rolloff at lower energies in a few events. There is a correlation (Pearson's r = -0.62) between the low-energy slope and the bend energy. We find that the distribution of spectral bend energies extends below 10 keV. There has been some concern in cosmological models of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) that the bend energy covers only a small dynamic range. Our result extends the observed dynamic range, and, since we observe bend energies down to the limit of our instrument, perhaps observations have not yet limited the range. The Ginga trigger range was virtually the same as that of BATSE, yet we find a different range of fit parameters. One possible explanation might be that GRBs have two break energies, one often in the 50 endash 500 keV range and the other near 5 keV. Both BATSE and Ginga fit with only a single break energy, so BATSE tends to find breaks near the center of its energy range, and we tend to find breaks in our energy range. The observed ratio of energy emitted in the X-rays relative to the gamma rays can be much larger than a few percent and, in fact, is sometimes larger than unity. The average for our 22 bursts

  5. Spectral distribution of the radiochemiluminescence from gamma-irradiated humic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goraczko, W.; Slawinski, J.; Staninski, K.

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate radiochemiluminescence (RCL) spectra (340-650 nm), kinetics and absorption spectra of humic acids (HA) after their exposure of gamma-radiation (absorbed doses of 1-10 kGy, 60 Co) in model systems. The kinetics and spectral distribution of RCL were measured using the single photon counting method (SPC) and cut-off filters. Absorption spectra (range 240-800 nm) of irradiated solutions indicated that post-radiative degradation/polymerization processes take place in the HA changing their macromolecule or properties. The intensity of the delayed RCL was nonlinearly and suggested that complex radical formation mechanisms were still involved in the post-radiative reactions. (author)

  6. Spectral distribution of the radiochemiluminescence from gamma-irradiated humic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goraczko, W [Poznan University of Technology, Poznan (Poland). Faculty of Chemical Technology, Radio- and Photochemistry Department; Slawinski, J [Institute of Ecotechnology, Gniezno (Poland). State High Vocational School; Staninski, K [Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan (Poland). Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Rare Earths

    2008-09-15

    This study was conducted to investigate radiochemiluminescence (RCL) spectra (340-650 nm), kinetics and absorption spectra of humic acids (HA) after their exposure of gamma-radiation (absorbed doses of 1-10 kGy, {sup 60}Co) in model systems. The kinetics and spectral distribution of RCL were measured using the single photon counting method (SPC) and cut-off filters. Absorption spectra (range 240-800 nm) of irradiated solutions indicated that post-radiative degradation/polymerization processes take place in the HA changing their macromolecule or properties. The intensity of the delayed RCL was nonlinearly and suggested that complex radical formation mechanisms were still involved in the post-radiative reactions. (author)

  7. Techniques for obtaining velocity distributions of atoms or ions from Doppler-broadened spectral line profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, T.G.

    1986-12-01

    Analysis of the doppler-broadened profiles of spectral lines radiated by atoms or ions in plasmas yields information about their velocity distributions. Researchers have analysed profiles of lines radiated by atoms in isotropic velocity distributions in several ways, one being the inversion of the integral equation which relates the velocity distribution to the line profile. This inversion formula was derived for a separate application and was given to within an arbitrary multiplicative constant. This paper presents a new derivation which obtains the inversion exactly, using a method which is easily generalized for determination of anisotropic velocity distribution functions. The technique to obtain an anisotropic velocity distribution function from line profiles measured at different angles is outlined

  8. Pan-ebolavirus and Pan-filovirus Mouse Monoclonal Antibodies: Protection against Ebola and Sudan Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtsberg, Frederick W; Shulenin, Sergey; Vu, Hong; Howell, Katie A; Patel, Sonal J; Gunn, Bronwyn; Karim, Marcus; Lai, Jonathan R; Frei, Julia C; Nyakatura, Elisabeth K; Zeitlin, Larry; Douglas, Robin; Fusco, Marnie L; Froude, Jeffrey W; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Herbert, Andrew S; Wirchnianski, Ariel S; Lear-Rooney, Calli M; Alter, Galit; Dye, John M; Glass, Pamela J; Warfield, Kelly L; Aman, M Javad

    2016-01-01

    The unprecedented 2014-2015 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa has highlighted the need for effective therapeutics against filoviruses. Monoclonal antibody (MAb) cocktails have shown great potential as EVD therapeutics; however, the existing protective MAbs are virus species specific. Here we report the development of pan-ebolavirus and pan-filovirus antibodies generated by repeated immunization of mice with filovirus glycoproteins engineered to drive the B cell responses toward conserved epitopes. Multiple pan-ebolavirus antibodies were identified that react to the Ebola, Sudan, Bundibugyo, and Reston viruses. A pan-filovirus antibody that was reactive to the receptor binding regions of all filovirus glycoproteins was also identified. Significant postexposure efficacy of several MAbs, including a novel antibody cocktail, was demonstrated. For the first time, we report cross-neutralization and in vivo protection against two highly divergent filovirus species, i.e., Ebola virus and Sudan virus, with a single antibody. Competition studies indicate that this antibody targets a previously unrecognized conserved neutralizing epitope that involves the glycan cap. Mechanistic studies indicated that, besides neutralization, innate immune cell effector functions may play a role in the antiviral activity of the antibodies. Our findings further suggest critical novel epitopes that can be utilized to design effective cocktails for broad protection against multiple filovirus species. Filoviruses represent a major public health threat in Africa and an emerging global concern. Largely driven by the U.S. biodefense funding programs and reinforced by the 2014 outbreaks, current immunotherapeutics are primarily focused on a single filovirus species called Ebola virus (EBOV) (formerly Zaire Ebola virus). However, other filoviruses including Sudan, Bundibugyo, and Marburg viruses have caused human outbreaks with mortality rates as high as 90%. Thus, cross

  9. Temperature dependence of spectral linewidth of InAs/InP quantum dot distributed feedback lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, J.; Huang, H.; Schires, K.; Poole, P. J.; Wang, C.; Grillot, F.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the temperature dependence of spectral linewidth of InAs/InP quantum dot distributed feedback lasers. In comparison with their quantum well counterparts, results show that quantum dot lasers have spectral linewidths rather insensitive to the temperature with minimum values below 200 kHz in the range of 283K to 303K. The experimental results are also well confirmed by numerical simulations. Overall, this work shows that quantum dot lasers are excellent candidates for various applications such as coherent communication systems, high-resolution spectroscopy, high purity photonic microwave generation and on-chip atomic clocks.

  10. Spectral heterogeneity and carotenoid-to-bacteriochlorophyll energy transfer in LH2 light-harvesting complexes from Allochromatium vinosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdaong, Nikki M; LaFountain, Amy M; Hacking, Kirsty; Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M; Gibson, George N; Cogdell, Richard J; Frank, Harry A

    2016-02-01

    Photosynthetic organisms produce a vast array of spectral forms of antenna pigment-protein complexes to harvest solar energy and also to adapt to growth under the variable environmental conditions of light intensity, temperature, and nutrient availability. This behavior is exemplified by Allochromatium (Alc.) vinosum, a photosynthetic purple sulfur bacterium that produces different types of LH2 light-harvesting complexes in response to variations in growth conditions. In the present work, three different spectral forms of LH2 from Alc. vinosum, B800-820, B800-840, and B800-850, were isolated, purified, and examined using steady-state absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, and ultrafast time-resolved absorption spectroscopy. The pigment composition of the LH2 complexes was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and all were found to contain five carotenoids: lycopene, anhydrorhodovibrin, spirilloxanthin, rhodopin, and rhodovibrin. Spectral reconstructions of the absorption and fluorescence excitation spectra based on the pigment composition revealed significantly more spectral heterogeneity in these systems compared to LH2 complexes isolated from other species of purple bacteria. The data also revealed the individual carotenoid-to-bacteriochlorophyll energy transfer efficiencies which were correlated with the kinetic data from the ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopic experiments. This series of LH2 complexes allows a systematic exploration of the factors that determine the spectral properties of the bound pigments and control the rate and efficiency of carotenoid-to-bacteriochlorophyll energy transfer.

  11. Protection of Distribution Systems with Distributed Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Browne, Matthew; Calone, Roberto

    of 17 months of work of the Joint Working Group B5/C6.26/CIRED “Protection of Distribution Systems with Distributed Energy Resources”. The working group used the CIGRE report TB421 “The impact of Renewable Energy Sources and Distributed Generation on Substation Protection and Automation”, published...... by WG B5.34 as the entry document for the work on this report. In doing so, the group aligned the content and the scope of this report, the network structures considered, possible islanding, standardized communication and adaptive protection, interface protection, connection schemes and protection...... are listed (chapter 3). The first main part of the report starts with a summary of the backgrounds on DER and current practices in protection at the distribution level (chapter 4). This chapter contains an analysis of CIGRE TB421, protection relevant characteristics of DER, a review of current practices...

  12. Development and characterization of highly oriented PAN nanofiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sadrjahani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple and non-conventional electrospinning technique was employed for producing highly oriented Polyacrylonitrile (PAN nanofibers. The PAN nanofibers were electrospun from 14 wt% solution of PAN in dimethylformamid (DMF at 11 kv on a rotating drum with various linear speeds from 22.5 m/min to 67.7 m/min. The influence of take up velocity was investigated on the degree of alignment, internal structure and mechanical properties of collected PAN nanofibers. Using an image processing technique, the best degree of alignment was obtained for those nanofibers collected at a take up velocity of 59.5 m/min. Moreover, Raman spectroscopy was used for measuring molecular orientation of PAN nanofibers. Similarly, a maximum chain orientation parameter of 0.25 was determined for nanofibers collected at a take up velocity of 59.5 m/min.

  13. Electricity End Uses, Energy Efficiency, and Distributed Energy Resources Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Lisa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wei, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Morrow, William [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Deason, Jeff [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schiller, Steven R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Leventis, Greg [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Smith, Sarah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Leow, Woei Ling [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Levin, Todd [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Plotkin, Steven [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Zhou, Yan [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This report was developed by a team of analysts at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, with Argonne National Laboratory contributing the transportation section, and is a DOE EPSA product and part of a series of “baseline” reports intended to inform the second installment of the Quadrennial Energy Review (QER 1.2). QER 1.2 provides a comprehensive review of the nation’s electricity system and cover the current state and key trends related to the electricity system, including generation, transmission, distribution, grid operations and planning, and end use. The baseline reports provide an overview of elements of the electricity system. This report focuses on end uses, electricity consumption, electric energy efficiency, distributed energy resources (DERs) (such as demand response, distributed generation, and distributed storage), and evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) methods for energy efficiency and DERs.

  14. Applications of Graph Spectral Techniques to Water Distribution Network Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando di Nardo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cities depend on multiple heterogeneous, interconnected infrastructures to provide safe water to consumers. Given this complexity, efficient numerical techniques are needed to support optimal control and management of a water distribution network (WDN. This paper introduces a holistic analysis framework to support water utilities on the decision making process for an efficient supply management. The proposal is based on graph spectral techniques that take advantage of eigenvalues and eigenvectors properties of matrices that are associated with graphs. Instances of these matrices are the adjacency matrix and the Laplacian, among others. The interest for this application is to work on a graph that specifically represents a WDN. This is a complex network that is made by nodes corresponding to water sources and consumption points and links corresponding to pipes and valves. The aim is to face new challenges on urban water supply, ranging from computing approximations for network performance assessment to setting device positioning for efficient and automatic WDN division into district metered areas. It is consequently created a novel tool-set of graph spectral techniques adapted to improve main water management tasks and to simplify the identification of water losses through the definition of an optimal network partitioning. Two WDNs are used to analyze the proposed methodology. Firstly, the well-known network of C-Town is investigated for benchmarking of the proposed graph spectral framework. This allows for comparing the obtained results with others coming from previously proposed approaches in literature. The second case-study corresponds to an operational network. It shows the usefulness and optimality of the proposal to effectively manage a WDN.

  15. Energy efficiency optimization in distribution transformers considering Spanish distribution regulation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pezzini, Paola; Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol; Frau-Valenti, Joan; Sudria-Andreu, Antoni

    2010-01-01

    In transmission and distribution systems, the high number of installed transformers, a loss source in networks, suggests a good potential for energy savings. This paper presents how the Spanish Distribution regulation policy, Royal Decree 222/2008, affects the overall energy efficiency in distribution transformers. The objective of a utility is the maximization of the benefit, and in case of failures, to install a chosen transformer in order to maximize the profit. Here, a novel method to optimize energy efficiency, considering the constraints set by the Spanish Distribution regulation policy, is presented; its aim is to achieve the objectives of the utility when installing new transformers. The overall energy efficiency increase is a clear result that can help in meeting the requirements of European environmental plans, such as the '20-20-20' action plan.

  16. Identification of Ethnically Specific Genetic Variations in Pan-Asian Ethnos

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jin Ok; Hwang, Sohyun; Kim, Woo-Yeon; Park, Seong-Jin; Kim, Sang Cheol; Park, Kiejung; Lee, Byungwook

    2014-01-01

    Asian populations contain a variety of ethnic groups that have ethnically specific genetic differences. Ethnic variants may be highly relevant in disease and human differentiation studies. Here, we identified ethnically specific variants and then investigated their distribution across Asian ethnic groups. We obtained 58,960 Pan-Asian single nucleotide polymorphisms of 1,953 individuals from 72 ethnic groups of 11 Asian countries. We selected 9,306 ethnic variant single nucleotide polymorphism...

  17. gLExec and MyProxy integration in the ATLAS/OSG PanDA workload management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero, J; Hover, J; Maeno, T; Potekhin, M; Wenaus, T; Zhao, X; Litmaath, M; Nilsson, P

    2010-01-01

    Worker nodes on the grid exhibit great diversity, making it difficult to offer uniform processing resources. A pilot job architecture, which probes the environment on the remote worker node before pulling down a payload job, can help. Pilot jobs become smart wrappers, preparing an appropriate environment for job execution and providing logging and monitoring capabilities. PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis), an ATLAS and OSG workload management system, follows this design. However, in the simplest (and most efficient) pilot submission approach of identical pilots carrying the same identifying grid proxy, end-user accounting by the site can only be done with application-level information (PanDA maintains its own end-user accounting), and end-user jobs run with the identity and privileges of the proxy carried by the pilots, which may be seen as a security risk. To address these issues, we have enabled PanDA to use gLExec, a tool provided by EGEE which runs payload jobs under an end-user's identity. End-user proxies are pre-staged in a credential caching service, MyProxy, and the information needed by the pilots to access them is stored in the PanDA DB. gLExec then extracts from the user's proxy the proper identity under which to run. We describe the deployment, installation, and configuration of gLExec, and how PanDA components have been augmented to use it. We describe how difficulties were overcome, and how security risks have been mitigated. Results are presented from OSG and EGEE Grid environments performing ATLAS analysis using PanDA and gLExec.

  18. Energy Efficiency in Grocery Distribution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Evaluation of the development of the energy efficiency of grocery distribution from 1960 to the present in Denmark, covering both the distribution to the shops and the shopping transport (distribution from shops to individual homes)......Evaluation of the development of the energy efficiency of grocery distribution from 1960 to the present in Denmark, covering both the distribution to the shops and the shopping transport (distribution from shops to individual homes)...

  19. Titan's fluvial valleys: Morphology, distribution, and spectral properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhans, M.H.; Jaumann, R.; Stephan, K.; Brown, R.H.; Buratti, B.J.; Clark, R.N.; Baines, K.H.; Nicholson, P.D.; Lorenz, R.D.; Soderblom, L.A.; Soderblom, J.M.; Sotin, Christophe; Barnes, J.W.; Nelson, R.

    2012-01-01

    Titan's fluvial channels have been investigated based on data obtained by the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) instrument and the Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) onboard the Cassini spacecraft. In this paper, a database of fluvial features is created based on radar-SAR data aiming to unveil the distribution and the morphologic and spectral characteristics of valleys on Titan on a global scale. It will also study the spatial relations between fluvial valleys and Titan's geologic units and spectral surface units which have become accessible thanks to Cassini-VIMS data. Several distinct morphologic types of fluvial valleys can be discerned by SAR-images. Dendritic valley networks appear to have much in common with terrestrial dendritic systems owing to a hierarchical and tree-shaped arrangement of the tributaries which is indicative of an origin from precipitation. Dry valleys constitute another class of valleys resembling terrestrial wadis, an indication of episodic and strong flow events. Other valley types, such as putative canyons, cannot be correlated with rainfall based on their morphology alone, since it cannot be ruled out that they may have originated from volcanic/tectonic action or groundwater sapping. Highly developed and complex fluvial networks with channel lengths of up to 1200 km and widths of up to 10 km are concentrated only at a few locations whereas single valleys are scattered over all latitudes. Fluvial valleys are frequently found in mountainous areas. Some terrains, such as equatorial dune fields and undifferentiated plains at mid-latitudes, are almost entirely free of valleys. Spectrally, fluvial terrains are often characterized by a high reflectance in each of Titan's atmospheric windows, as most of them are located on Titan's bright 'continents'. Nevertheless, valleys are spatially associated with a surface unit appearing blue due to its higher reflection at 1.3??m in a VIMS false color RGB composite with R: 1.59/1.27??m, G: 2

  20. Study of the spectral and energy characteristics of lasing in the green spectral region by lithium fluoride with radiation color centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voitovich, A.P.; Kalinov, V.S.; Mikhnov, S.A.; Ovseichuk, S.I.

    1987-06-01

    The spectral and energy characteristics of lasers utilizing lithium fluoride with F2 and F3(+) color centers in transverse and longitudinal pumping schemes are studied. The feasibility of obtaining stable narrow-band radiation in the 510-570 nm range using a selective resonator is demonstrated. Consideration is given to the effect of lithium-fluoride crystal processing by excimer laser radiation at a wavelength of 308 nm on the spectroscopic and lasing characteristics of the F3(+) color center. After this processing, the laser efficiency in the green spectral region increases by more than a factor of two (reaching an efficiency of 14 percent). 7 references.

  1. Determination of the electron energy distribution function of a low temperature plasma from optical emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodt, Dirk Hilar

    2009-01-05

    The experimental determination of the electron energy distribution of a low pressure glow discharge in neon from emission spectroscopic data has been demonstrated. The spectral data were obtained with a simple overview spectrometer and analyzed using a strict probabilistic, Bayesian data analysis. It is this Integrated Data Analysis (IDA) approach, which allows the significant extraction of non-thermal properties of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF). The results bear potential as a non-invasive alternative to probe measurements. This allows the investigation of spatially inhomogeneous plasmas (gradient length smaller than typical probe sheath dimensions) and plasmas with reactive constituents. The diagnostic of reactive plasmas is an important practical application, needed e.g. for the monitoring and control of process plasmas. Moreover, the experimental validation of probe theories for magnetized plasmas as a long-standing topic in plasma diagnostics could be addressed by the spectroscopic method. (orig.)

  2. Determination of the electron energy distribution function of a low temperature plasma from optical emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodt, Dirk Hilar

    2009-01-01

    The experimental determination of the electron energy distribution of a low pressure glow discharge in neon from emission spectroscopic data has been demonstrated. The spectral data were obtained with a simple overview spectrometer and analyzed using a strict probabilistic, Bayesian data analysis. It is this Integrated Data Analysis (IDA) approach, which allows the significant extraction of non-thermal properties of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF). The results bear potential as a non-invasive alternative to probe measurements. This allows the investigation of spatially inhomogeneous plasmas (gradient length smaller than typical probe sheath dimensions) and plasmas with reactive constituents. The diagnostic of reactive plasmas is an important practical application, needed e.g. for the monitoring and control of process plasmas. Moreover, the experimental validation of probe theories for magnetized plasmas as a long-standing topic in plasma diagnostics could be addressed by the spectroscopic method. (orig.)

  3. Maximizing the spectral and energy efficiency of ARQ with a fixed outage probability

    KAUST Repository

    Hadjtaieb, Amir; Chelli, Ali; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the spectral and energy efficiency of automatic repeat request (ARQ) in Nakagami-m block-fading channels. The source encodes each packet into L similar sequences and transmits them to the destination in the L subsequent time slots

  4. TORUS AND ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS PROPERTIES OF NEARBY SEYFERT GALAXIES: RESULTS FROM FITTING INFRARED SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS AND SPECTROSCOPY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Ramos Almeida, Cristina; Mason, Rachel; Asensio Ramos, Andres; Rodriguez Espinosa, Jose Miguel; Perez-Garcia, Ana M.; Roche, Patrick F.; Levenson, Nancy A.; Elitzur, Moshe; Packham, Christopher; Young, Stuart; Diaz-Santos, Tanio

    2011-01-01

    We used the CLUMPY torus models and a Bayesian approach to fit the infrared spectral energy distributions and ground-based high angular resolution mid-infrared spectroscopy of 13 nearby Seyfert galaxies. This allowed us to put tight constraints on torus model parameters such as the viewing angle i, the radial thickness of the torus Y, the angular size of the cloud distribution σ torus , and the average number of clouds along radial equatorial rays N 0 . We found that the viewing angle i is not the only parameter controlling the classification of a galaxy into type 1 or type 2. In principle, type 2s could be viewed at any viewing angle i as long as there is one cloud along the line of sight. A more relevant quantity for clumpy media is the probability for an active galactic nucleus (AGN) photon to escape unabsorbed. In our sample, type 1s have relatively high escape probabilities, P esc ∼ 12%-44%, while type 2s, as expected, tend to have very low escape probabilities. Our fits also confirmed that the tori of Seyfert galaxies are compact with torus model radii in the range 1-6 pc. The scaling of the models to the data also provided the AGN bolometric luminosities L bol (AGN), which were found to be in good agreement with estimates from the literature. When we combined our sample of Seyfert galaxies with a sample of PG quasars from the literature to span a range of L bol (AGN) ∼ 10 43 -10 47 erg s -1 , we found plausible evidence of the receding torus. That is, there is a tendency for the torus geometrical covering factor to be lower (f 2 ∼ 0.1-0.3) at high AGN luminosities than at low AGN luminosities (f 2 ∼ 0.9-1 at ∼10 43 -10 44 erg s -1 ). This is because at low AGN luminosities the tori appear to have wider angular sizes (larger σ torus ) and more clouds along radial equatorial rays. We cannot, however, rule out the possibility that this is due to contamination by extended dust structures not associated with the dusty torus at low AGN luminosities

  5. Distributed Wind Energy in Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, John [Boise State Univ., ID (United States); Johnson, Kathryn [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Haynes, Todd [Boise State Univ., ID (United States); Seifert, Gary [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2009-01-31

    This project is a research and development program aimed at furthering distributed wind technology. In particular, this project addresses some of the barriers to distributed wind energy utilization in Idaho.

  6. Spectral Modeling of Residual Stress and Stored Elastic Strain Energy in Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donegan, Sean; Rolett, Anthony

    2013-12-31

    Solutions to the thermoelastic problem are important for characterizing the response under temperature change of refractory systems. This work extends a spectral fast Fourier transform (FFT) technique to analyze the thermoelastic behavior of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), with the intent of probing the local origins of failure in TBCs. The thermoelastic FFT (teFFT) approach allows for the characterization of local thermal residual stress and strain fields, which constitute the origins of failure in TBC systems. A technique based on statistical extreme value theory known as peaks-over-threshold (POT) is developed to quantify the extreme values ("hot spots") of stored elastic strain energy (i.e., elastic energy density, or EED). The resolution dependence of the teFFT method is assessed through a sensitivity study of the extreme values in EED. The sensitivity study is performed both for the local (point-by-point) eld distributions as well as the grain scale eld distributions. A convergence behavior to a particular distribution shape is demonstrated for the local elds. The grain scale fields are shown to exhibit a possible convergence to a maximum level of EED. To apply the teFFT method to TBC systems, 3D synthetic microstructures are created to approximate actual TBC microstructures. The morphology of the grains in each constituent layer as well as the texture is controlled. A variety of TBC materials, including industry standard materials and potential future materials, are analyzed using the teFFT. The resulting hot spots are quantified using the POT approach. A correlation between hot spots in EED and interface rumpling between constituent layers is demonstrated, particularly for the interface between the bond coat (BC) and the thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer.

  7. Energy efficiency optimization in distribution transformers considering Spanish distribution regulation policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pezzini, Paola [Centre d' Innovacio en Convertidors Estatics i Accionaments (CITCEA-UPC), E.T.S. Enginyeria Industrial Barcelona, Universitat Politecnica Catalunya, Diagonal, 647, Pl. 2, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol; Sudria-Andreu, Antoni [Centre d' Innovacio en Convertidors Estatics i Accionaments (CITCEA-UPC), E.T.S. Enginyeria Industrial Barcelona, Universitat Politecnica Catalunya, Diagonal, 647, Pl. 2, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); IREC Catalonia Institute for Energy Research, Josep Pla, B2, Pl. Baixa, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Frau-Valenti, Joan [ENDESA, Carrer Joan Maragall, 16 07006 Palma (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    In transmission and distribution systems, the high number of installed transformers, a loss source in networks, suggests a good potential for energy savings. This paper presents how the Spanish Distribution regulation policy, Royal Decree 222/2008, affects the overall energy efficiency in distribution transformers. The objective of a utility is the maximization of the benefit, and in case of failures, to install a chosen transformer in order to maximize the profit. Here, a novel method to optimize energy efficiency, considering the constraints set by the Spanish Distribution regulation policy, is presented; its aim is to achieve the objectives of the utility when installing new transformers. The overall energy efficiency increase is a clear result that can help in meeting the requirements of European environmental plans, such as the '20-20-20' action plan. (author)

  8. Temperature distributions of a conductively heated filament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Koji; Ohba, Hironori; Shibata, Takemasa

    1999-07-01

    Temperature distributions of a heated filament were measured. A W-Re(5%) filament (0.25 mm in diameter, 24.7 mm in length) was conductively heated by currents between 5A and 7A with a DC power supply, and the surface of the filament was imaged with a charge coupled device (CCD) camera through a monochromatic filter. The spectral radiation intensity at the filament center region was almost uniform. Since the temperature distribution was also uniform and the energy loss by thermal conduction was negligible, temperature in this region was determined from the energy balance between applied power and radiation loss. Temperature distribution of the filament was determined based on the Planck's law of radiation from the spectral radiation intensity ratio of the filament surface using obtained temperature as a reference. It was found that temperature distribution of a filament was easily measured by this method. (author)

  9. Spectral Analysis within the Virtual Observatory: The GAVO Service TheoSSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringat, E.

    2012-03-01

    In the last decade, numerous Virtual Observatory organizations were established. One of these is the German Astrophysical Virtual Observatory (GAVO) that e.g. provides access to spectral energy distributions via the service TheoSSA. In a pilot phase, these are based on the Tübingen NLTE Model-Atmosphere Package (TMAP) and suitable for hot, compact stars. We demonstrate the power of TheoSSA in an application to the sdOB primary of AA Doradus by comparison with a “classical” spectral analysis.

  10. Virtual Non-Contrast CT Using Dual-Energy Spectral CT: Feasibility of Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Inyoung; Yi, Jeong Geun; Park, Jeong Hee; Kim, Sung Mok; Lee, Kyung Soo; Chung, Myung Jin

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility of coronary artery calcium scoring based on three virtual noncontrast-enhanced (VNC) images derived from single-source spectral dual-energy CT (DECT) as compared with true noncontrast-enhanced (TNC) images. Materials and Methods This prospective study was conducted with the approval of our Institutional Review Board. Ninety-seven patients underwent noncontrast CT followed by contrast-enhanced chest CT using single-source spectral DECT. Iodine eliminated V...

  11. Making the most of distributed energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkamaeki, M.

    2004-01-01

    Distributed energy production is on the threshold of a new area, and offers a growing number of options for meeting energy needs that cannot be met effectively by larger, base load-type infrastructure. Distributed energy generation can offer a more cost- effective approach, depending on things such as location, load requirements, and fuel availability. It can also make it possible to generate energy at times when grid power is not available or is likely to be overloaded, and in locations not covered by an existing grid net-work. Perhaps most interesting from a technological point of view is the fact that distributed power opens up the opportunity to use fuels that have not been utilised up until now, for a variety of reasons

  12. Gas-Fired Distributed Energy Resource Technology Characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, L.; Hedman, B.; Knowles, D.; Freedman, S. I.; Woods, R.; Schweizer, T.

    2003-11-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is directing substantial programs in the development and encouragement of new energy technologies. Among them are renewable energy and distributed energy resource technologies. As part of its ongoing effort to document the status and potential of these technologies, DOE EERE directed the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to lead an effort to develop and publish Distributed Energy Technology Characterizations (TCs) that would provide both the department and energy community with a consistent and objective set of cost and performance data in prospective electric-power generation applications in the United States. Toward that goal, DOE/EERE - joined by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) - published the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations in December 1997.As a follow-up, DOE EERE - joined by the Gas Research Institute - is now publishing this document, Gas-Fired Distributed Energy Resource Technology Characterizations.

  13. Scaffold-based pan-agonist design for the PPARα, PPARβ and PPARγ receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Song Zhang

    Full Text Available As important members of nuclear receptor superfamily, Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR play essential roles in regulating cellular differentiation, development, metabolism, and tumorigenesis of higher organisms. The PPAR receptors have 3 identified subtypes: PPARα, PPARβ and PPARγ, all of which have been treated as attractive targets for developing drugs to treat type 2 diabetes. Due to the undesirable side-effects, many PPAR agonists including PPARα/γ and PPARβ/γ dual agonists are stopped by US FDA in the clinical trials. An alternative strategy is to design novel pan-agonist that can simultaneously activate PPARα, PPARβ and PPARγ. Under such an idea, in the current study we adopted the core hopping algorithm and glide docking procedure to generate 7 novel compounds based on a typical PPAR pan-agonist LY465608. It was observed by the docking procedures and molecular dynamics simulations that the compounds generated by the core hopping and glide docking not only possessed the similar functions as the original LY465608 compound to activate PPARα, PPARβ and PPARγ receptors, but also had more favorable conformation for binding to the PPAR receptors. The additional absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME predictions showed that the 7 compounds (especially Cpd#1 hold high potential to be novel lead compounds for the PPAR pan-agonist. Our findings can provide a new strategy or useful insights for designing the effective pan-agonists against the type 2 diabetes.

  14. ENERGY-DEPENDENT POWER SPECTRAL STATES AND ORIGIN OF APERIODIC VARIABILITY IN BLACK HOLE BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Wenfei; Zhang Wenda

    2013-01-01

    We found that the black hole candidate MAXI J1659–152 showed distinct power spectra, i.e., power-law noise (PLN) versus band-limited noise (BLN) plus quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) below and above about 2 keV, respectively, in observations with Swift and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer during the 2010 outburst, indicating a high energy cutoff of the PLN and a low energy cutoff of the BLN and QPOs around 2 keV. The emergence of the PLN and the fading of the BLN and QPOs initially took place below 2 keV when the source entered the hard intermediate state and settled in the soft state three weeks later. The evolution was accompanied by the emergence of the disk spectral component and decreases in the amplitudes of variability in the soft and hard X-ray bands. Our results indicate that the PLN is associated with an optically thick disk in both hard and intermediate states, and the power spectral state is independent of the X-ray energy spectral state in a broadband view. We suggest that in the hard or intermediate state, the BLN and QPOs emerge from the innermost hot flow subjected to Comptonization, while the PLN originates from the optically thick disk farther out. The energy cutoffs of the PLN and the BLN or QPOs then follow the temperature of the seed photons from the inner edge of the optically thick disk, while the high frequency cutoff of the PLN follows the orbital frequency of the inner edge of the optically thick disk as well.

  15. Multi-Column Xe/Kr Separation with AgZ-PAN and HZ-PAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, Mitchell Randy; Garn, Troy Gerry; Welty, Amy Keil; Watson, Tony Leroy

    2016-01-01

    Previous multi-column xenon/krypton separation tests have demonstrated the capability of separating xenon from krypton in a mixed gas feed stream. The results of this initial testing with AgZ-PAN and HZ-PAN indicated that an excellent separation of xenon from krypton could be achieved. Building upon these initial results, a series of additional multi-column testing were performed in FY-16. The purpose of this testing was to scale up the sorbent beds, test a different composition of feed gas and attempt to improve the accuracy of the analysis of the individual capture columns' compositions. Two Stirling coolers were installed in series to perform this testing. The use of the coolers instead of the cryostat provided two desired improvements, 1) removal of the large dilution due to the internal volume of the cryostat adsorption chamber, and 2) ability to increase the sorbent bed size for scale-up. The AgZ-PAN sorbent, due to its xenon selectivity, was loaded in the first column to capture the xenon while allowing the krypton to flow through and be routed to a second column containing the HZ-PAN for capture and analysis. The gases captured on both columns were sampled with evacuated sample bombs and subsequently analyzed via GC-MS for both krypton and xenon. The results of these tests can be used to develop the scope of future testing and analysis using this test bed for demonstrating the capture and separation of xenon and krypton using sorbents, for demonstrating desorption and regeneration of the sorbents, and for determining compositions of the desorbed gases. They indicate a need for future desorption studies in order to better quantify co-adsorbed species and final krypton purity.

  16. Multi-Column Xe/Kr Separation with AgZ-PAN and HZ-PAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenhalgh, Mitchell Randy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Garn, Troy Gerry [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Welty, Amy Keil [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Watson, Tony Leroy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Previous multi-column xenon/krypton separation tests have demonstrated the capability of separating xenon from krypton in a mixed gas feed stream. The results of this initial testing with AgZ-PAN and HZ-PAN indicated that an excellent separation of xenon from krypton could be achieved. Building upon these initial results, a series of additional multi-column testing were performed in FY-16. The purpose of this testing was to scale up the sorbent beds, test a different composition of feed gas and attempt to improve the accuracy of the analysis of the individual capture columns’ compositions. Two Stirling coolers were installed in series to perform this testing. The use of the coolers instead of the cryostat provided two desired improvements, 1) removal of the large dilution due to the internal volume of the cryostat adsorption chamber, and 2) ability to increase the sorbent bed size for scale-up. The AgZ-PAN sorbent, due to its xenon selectivity, was loaded in the first column to capture the xenon while allowing the krypton to flow through and be routed to a second column containing the HZ-PAN for capture and analysis. The gases captured on both columns were sampled with evacuated sample bombs and subsequently analyzed via GC-MS for both krypton and xenon. The results of these tests can be used to develop the scope of future testing and analysis using this test bed for demonstrating the capture and separation of xenon and krypton using sorbents, for demonstrating desorption and regeneration of the sorbents, and for determining compositions of the desorbed gases. They indicate a need for future desorption studies in order to better quantify co-adsorbed species and final krypton purity.

  17. Modelling distributed energy resources in energy service networks

    CERN Document Server

    Acha, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    Focuses on modelling two key infrastructures (natural gas and electrical) in urban energy systems with embedded technologies (cogeneration and electric vehicles) to optimise the operation of natural gas and electrical infrastructures under the presence of distributed energy resources

  18. Maximizing the spectral and energy efficiency of ARQ with a fixed outage probability

    KAUST Repository

    Hadjtaieb, Amir

    2015-10-05

    This paper studies the spectral and energy efficiency of automatic repeat request (ARQ) in Nakagami-m block-fading channels. The source encodes each packet into L similar sequences and transmits them to the destination in the L subsequent time slots. The destination combines the L sequences using maximal ratio combining and tries to decode the information. In case of decoding failure, the destination feeds back a negative acknowledgment and then the source sends the same L sequences to the destination. This process continues until successful decoding occurs at the destination with no limit on the number of retransmissions. We consider two optimization problems. In the first problem, we maximize the spectral efficiency of the system with respect to the rate for a fixed power. In the second problem, we maximize the energy efficiency with respect to the transmitted power for a fixed rate. © 2015 IEEE.

  19. Enhancing inhibition-induced plasticity in tinnitus--spectral energy contrasts in tailor-made notched music matter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alwina Stein

    Full Text Available Chronic tinnitus seems to be caused by reduced inhibition among frequency selective neurons in the auditory cortex. One possibility to reduce tinnitus perception is to induce inhibition onto over-activated neurons representing the tinnitus frequency via tailor-made notched music (TMNM. Since lateral inhibition is modifiable by spectral energy contrasts, the question arises if the effects of inhibition-induced plasticity can be enhanced by introducing increased spectral energy contrasts (ISEC in TMNM. Eighteen participants suffering from chronic tonal tinnitus, pseudo randomly assigned to either a classical TMNM or an ISEC-TMNM group, listened to notched music for three hours on three consecutive days. The music was filtered for both groups by introducing a notch filter centered at the individual tinnitus frequency. For the ISEC-TMNM group a frequency bandwidth of 3/8 octaves on each side of the notch was amplified, additionally, by about 20 dB. Before and after each music exposure, participants rated their subjectively perceived tinnitus loudness on a visual analog scale. During the magnetoencephalographic recordings, participants were stimulated with either a reference tone of 500 Hz or a test tone with a carrier frequency representing the individual tinnitus pitch. Perceived tinnitus loudness was significantly reduced after TMNM exposure, though TMNM type did not influence the loudness ratings. Tinnitus related neural activity in the N1m time window and in the so called tinnitus network comprising temporal, parietal and frontal regions was reduced after TMNM exposure. The ISEC-TMNM group revealed even enhanced inhibition-induced plasticity in a temporal and a frontal cortical area. Overall, inhibition of tinnitus related neural activity could be strengthened in people affected with tinnitus by increasing spectral energy contrast in TMNM, confirming the concepts of inhibition-induced plasticity via TMNM and spectral energy contrasts.

  20. The occurrence of large branchiopod crustaceans in perennial pans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pans are isolated, shallow depressions that are endorheic in nature. Because of the natural hydrological functioning of pans, these systems are usually restricted to arid regions and complete desiccation occurs seasonally. In the eastern provinces of South Africa many pans are perennial in nature often remaining inundated ...

  1. Hawai‘i Distributed Energy Resource Technologies for Energy Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2012-09-30

    HNEI has conducted research to address a number of issues important to move Hawai‘i to greater use of intermittent renewable and distributed energy resource (DER) technologies in order to facilitate greater use of Hawai‘i's indigenous renewable energy resources. Efforts have been concentrated on the Islands of Hawai‘i, Maui, and O‘ahu, focusing in three areas of endeavor: 1) Energy Modeling and Scenario Analysis (previously called Energy Road mapping); 2) Research, Development, and Validation of Renewable DER and Microgrid Technologies; and 3) Analysis and Policy. These efforts focused on analysis of the island energy systems and development of specific candidate technologies for future insertion into an integrated energy system, which would lead to a more robust transmission and distribution system in the state of Hawai‘i and eventually elsewhere in the nation.

  2. Process Optimization and Emperical Modelling for Electrospun Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) Nanofiber Precursor of Carbon nanofibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, S.Y.; Gu, S.; Ren, J.; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2005-01-01

    Ultrafine fibers were spun from polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF) solution as a precursor of carbon nanofibers using a homemade electrospinning set-up. Fibers with diameter ranging from 200 nm to 1200 nm were obtained. Morphology of fibers and distribution of fiber diameter were

  3. Beyond Slurry-Cast Supercapacitor Electrodes: PAN/MWNT Heteromat-Mediated Ultrahigh Capacitance Electrode Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Han; Kim, Jeong A.; Kim, Ju-Myung; Lee, Sun-Young; Yeon, Sun-Hwa; Lee, Sang-Young

    2017-01-01

    Supercapacitors (SCs) have garnered considerable attention as an appealing power source for forthcoming smart energy era. An ultimate challenge facing the SCs is the acquisition of higher energy density without impairing their other electrochemical properties. Herein, we demonstrate a new class of polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/multi-walled carbon tube (MWNT) heteromat-mediated ultrahigh capacitance electrode sheets as an unusual electrode architecture strategy to address the aforementioned issue. Vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) is chosen as a model electrode material to explore the feasibility of the suggested concept. The heteromat V2O5 electrode sheets are produced through one-pot fabrication based on concurrent electrospraying (for V2O5 precursor/MWNT) and electrospinning (for PAN nanofiber) followed by calcination, leading to compact packing of V2O5 materials in intimate contact with MWNTs and PAN nanofibers. As a consequence, the heteromat V2O5 electrode sheets offer three-dimensionally bicontinuous electron (arising from MWNT networks)/ion (from spatially reticulated interstitial voids to be filled with liquid electrolytes) conduction pathways, thereby facilitating redox reaction kinetics of V2O5 materials. In addition, elimination of heavy metallic foil current collectors, in combination with the dense packing of V2O5 materials, significantly increases (electrode sheet-based) specific capacitances far beyond those accessible with conventional slurry-cast electrodes.

  4. Quantitative analysis of the dual-energy CT virtual spectral curve for focal liver lesions characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qi, E-mail: wq20@hotmail.com; Shi, Gaofeng, E-mail: gaofengs62@sina.com; Qi, Xiaohui, E-mail: qixiaohui1984@163.com; Fan, Xueli, E-mail: 407849960@qq.com; Wang, Lijia, E-mail: 893197597@qq.com

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We establish a feasible method using the virtual spectral curves (VSC) to differentiate focal liver lesions using DECT. • Our study shows the slope of the VSC can be used to differentiate between hemangioma, HCC, metastasis and cyst. • Importantly, the diagnostic specificities associated with using the slope to diagnose both hemangioma and cysts were 100%. - Abstract: Objective: To assess the usefulness of the spectral curve slope of dual-energy CT (DECT) for differentiating between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), hepatic metastasis, hemangioma (HH) and cysts. Methods: In total, 121 patients were imaged in the portal venous phase using dual-energy mode. Of these patients, 23 patients had HH, 28 patients had HCC, 40 patients had metastases and 30 patients had simple cysts. The spectral curves of the hepatic lesions were derived from the 40–190 keV levels of virtual monochromatic spectral imaging. The spectral curve slopes were calculated from 40 to 110 keV. The slopes were compared using the Kruskal–Wallis test. Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) were used to determine the optimal cut-off value of the slope of the spectral curve to differentiate between the lesions. Results: The spectral curves of the four lesion types had different baseline levels. The HH baseline level was the highest followed by HCC, metastases and cysts. The slopes of the spectral curves of HH, HCC, metastases and cysts were 3.81 ± 1.19, 1.49 ± 0.57, 1.06 ± 0.76 and 0.13 ± 0.17, respectively. These values were significantly different (P < 0.008). Based on ROC analysis, the respective diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 87% and 100% for hemangioma (cut-off value ≥ 2.988), 82.1% and 65.9% for HCC (cut-off value 1.167–2.998), 65.9% and 59% for metastasis (cut-off value 0.133–1.167) and 44.4% and 100% for cysts (cut-off value ≤ 0.133). Conclusion: Quantitative analysis of the DECT spectral curve in the portal venous phase can be used to

  5. A mass and energy conserving spectral element atmospheric dynamical core on the cubed-sphere grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, M A; Edwards, J; Thomas, S; Nair, R

    2007-01-01

    We present results from a conservative formulation of the spectral element method applied to global atmospheric circulation modeling. Exact local conservation of both mass and energy is obtained via a new compatible formulation of the spectral element method. Compatibility insures that the key integral property of the divergence and gradient operators required to show conservation also hold in discrete form. The spectral element method is used on a cubed-sphere grid to discretize the horizontal directions on the sphere. It can be coupled to any conservative vertical/radial discretization. The accuracy and conservation properties of the method are illustrated using a baroclinic instability test case

  6. La dionisización del dios Pan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Porres Caballero

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pan is a god peculiar in many respects. In contrast to the other gods of the Greek pantheon, he is not anthropomorphic, but he has the legs, tail and horns of a goat. These features show his age. A god like Pan can only survive in Arcadia, a region that preserves many religious archaisms. However, from 490 BC, when his cult is established in Athens, this god begins to change. In his evolution, Pan becomes increasingly assimilated the god Dionysus. The rapprochement between the two gods left his mark on the mythology, but especially in the cult of Pan. Thus, a god who was worshiped in Arcadia in sanctuaries built by men, in the rest of Greece is worshiped in wild shrines, mainly caves. Out of Arcadia, the grotto also is the place reserved for the mystery cults, including the Dionysian ones. Does not seem a coincidence

  7. Spectral energy distributions for galaxies in high-redshift clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, R.S.; Couch, W.J.; MacLaren, Iain

    1985-01-01

    The distant cluster 0016+16 (z=0.54) has been imaged through six intermediate-bandwidth filters ranging in wavelength from 418 to 862 nm, maintaining a photometric precision of 10 per cent to a limiting magnitude of F=22. It is found that the field-subtracted colour distributions are not compatible with a single uniformly red population of early-type members at z=0.54. A significant intermediate colour component identified with a spectroscopic object at z=0.30 is also present, thus reducing the possibility that the z=0.54 cluster exhibits an excess of blue galaxies. It is demonstrated how the six-colour data can be used to individually classify the galaxies by type and approximate redshift so that it is possible to identify which objects are members of the z=0.54 cluster. (author)

  8. Historical satellite data used to map Pan-Amazon forest cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalluri, Satya; Desch, Arthur; Curry, Troy; Altstatt, Alice; Devers, Didier; Townshend, John; Tucker, Compton

    Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon is well documented and the contributions of Brazilian deforestation to global change have been extensively discussed in both scientific and popular literature [e.g., Skole and Tucker, 1993]. However, deforestation within the non-Brazilian tropics of South America has received much less attention. The Pan-Amazon region covering Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia comprises ˜2 million km2 of tropical forest that is under increasing pressure from logging and development. Wall-to-wall high-resolution forest cover maps are needed to properly document the complex distribution patterns of deforestation in the Pan-Amazon [Tucker and Townshend, 2000]. The Deforestation Mapping Group at the University of Marylands Global Land Cover Facility is using Landsat data to generate tropical forest cover maps in this region (Figure l). The study shows that while rates of forest loss are generally lower than those in Brazil, there are hot spots where deforestation rates run as high as 2,200 km2 yr1.

  9. Distributed Energy Planning for Climate Resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, Sherry R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hotchkiss, Elizabeth L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Day, Megan H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lee, Nathan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Holm, Alison [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-05-01

    At various levels of government across the United States and globally climate resilient solutions are being adopted and implemented. Solutions vary based on predicted hazards, community context, priorities, complexity, and available resources. Lessons are being learned through the implementation process, which can be replicated regardless of level or type of government entity carrying out the resiliency planning. Through a number of analyses and technical support across the world, NREL has learned key lessons related to resilience planning associated with power generation and water distribution. Distributed energy generation is a large factor in building resilience with clean energy technologies and solutions. The technical and policy solutions associated with distributed energy implementation for resilience fall into a few major categories, including spatial diversification, microgrids, water-energy nexus, policy, and redundancy.

  10. A singular-value decomposition approach to X-ray spectral estimation from attenuation data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tominaga, Shoji

    1986-01-01

    A singular-value decomposition (SVD) approach is described for estimating the exposure-rate spectral distributions of X-rays from attenuation data measured withvarious filtrations. This estimation problem with noisy measurements is formulated as the problem of solving a system of linear equations with an ill-conditioned nature. The principle of the SVD approach is that a response matrix, representing the X-ray attenuation effect by filtrations at various energies, can be expanded into summation of inherent component matrices, and thereby the spectral distributions can be represented as a linear combination of some component curves. A criterion function is presented for choosing the components needed to form a reliable estimate. The feasibility of the proposed approach is studied in detail in a computer simulation using a hypothetical X-ray spectrum. The application results of the spectral distributions emitted from a therapeutic X-ray generator are shown. Finally some advantages of this approach are pointed out. (orig.)

  11. PanJen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Cathrine Ulla; Panduro, Toke Emil

    functional transformations, driven by an a priori and theory-based hypothesis. The plots and model fit metrics enable users to make an informed choice of how to specify the functional form the regression. We show that the PanJen ranking outperforms the Box-Tidwell transformation, especially in the presence...... of inefficiency, heteroscedasticity or endogeneity....

  12. Distributed Energy Technology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Distributed Energy Technologies Laboratory (DETL) is an extension of the power electronics testing capabilities of the Photovoltaic System Evaluation Laboratory...

  13. Microscopic nucleon spectral function for finite nuclei featuring two- and three-nucleon short-range correlations: The model versus ab initio calculations for three-nucleon systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciofi degli Atti, Claudio; Mezzetti, Chiara Benedetta; Morita, Hiko

    2017-04-01

    Background: Two-nucleon (2 N ) short-range correlations (SRC) in nuclei have been recently thoroughly investigated, both theoretically and experimentally and the study of three-nucleon (3 N ) SRC, which could provide important information on short-range hadronic structure, is underway. Novel theoretical ideas concerning 2 N and 3 N SRC are put forward in the present paper. Purpose: The general features of a microscopic one-nucleon spectral function which includes the effects of both 2 N and 3 N SRC and its comparison with ab initio spectral functions of the three-nucleon systems are illustrated. Methods: A microscopic and parameter-free one-nucleon spectral function expressed in terms of a convolution integral involving ab initio relative and center-of-mass (c.m.) momentum distributions of a 2 N pair and aimed at describing two- and three-nucleon short-range correlations, is obtained by using: (i) the two-nucleon momentum distributions obtained within ab initio approaches based upon nucleon-nucleon interactions of the Argonne family; (ii) the exact relation between one- and two-nucleon momentum distributions; (iii) the fundamental property of factorization of the nuclear wave function at short internucleon ranges. Results: The comparison between the ab initio spectral function of 3He and the one based upon the convolution integral shows that when the latter contains only two-nucleon short-range correlations the removal energy location of the peaks and the region around them exhibited by the ab initio spectral function are correctly predicted, unlike the case of the high and low removal energy tails; the inclusion of the effects of three-nucleon correlations brings the convolution model spectral function in much better agreement with the ab initio one; it is also found that whereas the three-nucleon short-range correlations dominate the high energy removal energy tail of the spectral function, their effects on the one-nucleon momentum distribution are almost one

  14. 75 FR 47262 - Federal Consistency Appeal by Pan American Grain Co.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... by Pan American Grain Co. AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department..., closure of the decision record in an administrative appeal filed by Pan American Grain Co. (Pan American..., 2010, Pan American Grain Co. filed notice of an appeal with the Secretary of Commerce (Secretary...

  15. THE STRUCTURE AND STELLAR CONTENT OF THE OUTER DISKS OF GALAXIES: A NEW VIEW FROM THE Pan-STARRS1 MEDIUM DEEP SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Zheng; Thilker, David A.; Heckman, Timothy M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3701 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Meurer, Gerhardt R. [International Center for Radio Astronomy Research, The University of Western Australia, M468, 35 StirlingHighway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Burgett, W. S.; Huber, M. E.; Kaiser, N.; Magnier, E. A.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Chambers, K. C.; Metcalfe, N. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Price, P. A. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2015-02-20

    We present the results of an analysis of Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey multi-band (grizy) images of a sample of 698 low-redshift disk galaxies that span broad ranges in stellar mass, star-formation rate, and bulge/disk ratio. We use population synthesis spectral energy distribution fitting techniques to explore the radial distribution of the light, color, surface mass density, mass/light ratio, and age of the stellar populations. We characterize the structure and stellar content of the galaxy disks out to radii of about twice Petrosian r {sub 90}, beyond which the halo light becomes significant. We measure normalized radial profiles for sub-samples of galaxies in three bins each of stellar mass and concentration. We also fit radial profiles to each galaxy. The majority of galaxies have down-bending radial surface brightness profiles in the bluer bands with a break radius at roughly r {sub 90}. However, they typically show single unbroken exponentials in the reddest bands and in the stellar surface mass density. We find that the mass/light ratio and stellar age radial profiles have a characteristic 'U' shape. There is a good correlation between the amplitude of the down-bend in the surface brightness profile and the rate of the increase in the M/L ratio in the outer disk. As we move from late- to early-type galaxies, the amplitude of the down-bend and the radial gradient in M/L both decrease. Our results imply a combination of stellar radial migration and suppression of recent star formation can account for the stellar populations of the outer disk.

  16. Seismic spectral decomposition and analysis based on Wigner–Ville distribution for sandstone reservoir characterization in West Sichuan depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xiaoyang; Liu, Tianyou

    2010-01-01

    Reflections from a hydrocarbon-saturated zone are generally expected to have a tendency to be low frequency. Previous work has shown the application of seismic spectral decomposition for low-frequency shadow detection. In this paper, we further analyse the characteristics of spectral amplitude in fractured sandstone reservoirs with different fluid saturations using the Wigner–Ville distribution (WVD)-based method. We give a description of the geometric structure of cross-terms due to the bilinear nature of WVD and eliminate cross-terms using smoothed pseudo-WVD (SPWVD) with time- and frequency-independent Gaussian kernels as smoothing windows. SPWVD is finally applied to seismic data from West Sichuan depression. We focus our study on the comparison of SPWVD spectral amplitudes resulting from different fluid contents. It shows that prolific gas reservoirs feature higher peak spectral amplitude at higher peak frequency, which attenuate faster than low-quality gas reservoirs and dry or wet reservoirs. This can be regarded as a spectral attenuation signature for future exploration in the study area

  17. First measurement of antikaon phase-space distributions in nucleus-nucleus collisions at subthreshold beam energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzel, M.; Boettcher, I.; Debowski, M.

    2000-10-01

    Differential production cross sections of K - and K + mesons have been measured as function of the polar emission angle in Ni+Ni collisions at a beam energy of 1.93 AGeV. In near-central collisions, the spectral shapes and the widths of the rapidity distributions of K - and K + mesons are in agreement with the assumption of isotropic emission. In non-central collisions, the K - and K + rapidity distributions are broader than expected for a single thermal source. In this case, the polar angle distributions are strongly forward-backward peaked and the non-isotropic contribution to the total yield is about one third both for K + and K - mesons. The K - /K + ratio is found to be about 0.03 independent of the centrality of the reaction. This value is significantly larger than predicted by microscopic transport calculations if in-medium modifications of K mesons are neglected. (orig.)

  18. Distributed energy store railguns experiment and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, L.D.

    1984-01-01

    Electromagnetic acceleration of projectiles holds the potential for achieving higher velocities than yet achieved by any other means. A railgun is the simplest form of electromagnetic macroparticle accelerator and can generate the highest sustained accelerating force. The practical length of conventional railguns is limited by the impedance of the rails because current must be carried along the entire length of the rails. A railgun and power supply system called the distributed energy store railgun was proposed as a solution to this limitation. The distributed energy store railgun used multiple current sources connected to the rails of a railgun at points distributed along the bore. These current sources (energy stores) are turned on in sequence as the projectile moves down the bore so that current is fed to the railgun from behind the armature. In this system the length of the rails that carry the full armature current is less than the total length of the railgun. If a sufficient number of energy stores is used, this removes the limitation on the length of a railgun. An additional feature of distributed energy store type railguns is that they can be designed to maintain a constant pressure on the projectile being accelerated. A distributed energy store railgun was constructed and successfully operated. In addition to this first demonstration of the distributed energy store railgun principle, a theoretical model of the system was also constructed

  19. Trends in Dengue Cases Imported into the United States from Pan America 2001–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin A.M. Van Dodewaard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to improve risk assessments of travel on dengue (DEN virus (DENV distribution. We investigated the exposure risk of US citizens traveling to DEN-endemic Pan American countries. The number of DEN cases reported in 51 Pan American countries from 2001 to 2012 was compared to the population of the same countries. The number of US travelers visiting the Pan American countries was categorized by region, and travel-related DEN infections were analyzed. US residents visiting the Dominican Republic exhibited the highest traveler-related DEN incidence. Brazil showed the most DEN cases in its residents (≫1 million reported cases in 2010. The number of DEN cases continues to rise as does international travel and the geographic range of potential DENV vectors. DENV risk assessments may be improved by analyzing the possible routes of entry. Underreporting remains an issue for calculating DENV transmission risk by country and region.

  20. A jet-dominated model for a broad-band spectral energy distribution of the nearby low-luminosity active galactic nucleus in M94

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oers, Pieter; Markoff, Sera; Uttley, Phil; McHardy, Ian; van der Laan, Tessel; Donovan Meyer, Jennifer; Connors, Riley

    2017-06-01

    We have compiled a new multiwavelength spectral energy distribution (SED) for the closest obscured low-ionization emission-line region active galactic nucleus (AGN), NGC 4736, also known as M94. The SED comprises mainly high-resolution (mostly sub-arcsecond, or, at the distance to M94, ≲23 pc from the nucleus) observations from the literature, archival data, as well as previously unpublished sub-millimetre data from the Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI) and the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy, in conjunction with new electronic MultiElement Radio Interferometric Network (e-MERLIN) L-band (1.5 GHz) observations. Thanks to the e-MERLIN resolution and sensitivity, we resolve for the first time a double structure composed of two radio sources separated by ˜1 arcsec, previously observed only at higher frequency. We explore this data set, which further includes non-simultaneous data from the Very Large Array, the Gemini telescope, the Hubble Space Telescope and the Chandra X-ray observatory, in terms of an outflow-dominated model. We compare our results with previous trends found for other AGN using the same model (NGC 4051, M81*, M87 and Sgr A*), as well as hard- and quiescent-state X-ray binaries. We find that the nuclear broad-band spectrum of M94 is consistent with a relativistic outflow of low inclination. The findings in this work add to the growing body of evidence that the physics of weakly accreting black holes scales with mass in a rather straightforward fashion.

  1. Optimization of Pan Bread Prepared with Ramie Powder and Preservation of Optimized Pan Bread Treated by Gamma Irradiation during Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.J.; Joo, N.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop an optimal composite recipe for pan bread with ramie powder that has high sensory approval with all age groups and to estimate the DPPH radical scavenging activity and the pan bread shelf life after gamma irradiation. The sensory evaluation results showed significant differences in flavor (p less than 0.05), appearance (p less than 0.01), color (p less than 0.01), moistness (p less than 0.01), and overall quality (p less than 0.05) based on the amount of ramie powder added. As a result, the optimum formulations by numerical and graphical methods were calculated to be as follows: ramie powder 2.76 g (0.92%) and water 184.7 mL. Optimized pan bread with ramie powder and white pan bread were irradiated with gamma-rays at doses of 0, 10, 15, and 20 kGy. The total bacterial growth increased with the longer storage time and the least amount of ramie powder added. Consequently, these results suggest that the addition of ramie powder to pan bread provides added value to the bread in terms of increased shelf life

  2. Radioimmunodetection of human pancreatic tumor xenografts using DU-PAN II monoclonal antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Kayoko; Kubo, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Shozo; Furuuchi, Takayuki; Abe, Osahiko; Takami, Hiroshi.

    1988-01-01

    The potential of DU-PAN II, monoclonal antibody (IgM), which was raised against the human tumor cell line, was evaluated for radioimmunodetection of human pancreatic tumors (PAN-5-JCK and EXP-58) grown in nude mice. 125 I-labeled DU-PAN II was accumulated into PAN-5-JCK producing DU-PAN II antigen with a tumor-to-blood ratio of 2.72 ± 3.00, but it did not localize in EXP-58 because of insufficient DU-PAN II. There was no significant uptake of 125 I-nonimmunized IgM in PAN-5-JCK. These facts indicated the specific tumor uptake of DU-PAN II. Excellent images of the tumor PAN-5-JCK were obtained 3 days after the injection of 125 I-DU-PAN II. Gel chromatography was also investigated with respect to the plasma taken from mice injected with antibody, or incubated with antibody in vitro. The results indicate that circulating antigen affected the tumor uptake of DU-PAN II: The more the tumor grew, the higher the amount of antigen excreted into the blood, leading to the degradation of DU-PAN II before it reached the tumor sites. Consequently, the immunoscintigram of the small tumor was remarkably clear. The catabolism and the radiolysis of the labeled IgM injected are critical points in applying immunoscintigraphy. (author)

  3. A distributed microcomputer-controlled system for data acquisition and power spectral analysis of EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, T D; Dwyer, G; Szeto, H H

    1986-04-01

    A relatively powerful and inexpensive microcomputer-based system for the spectral analysis of the EEG is presented. High resolution and speed is achieved with the use of recently available large-scale integrated circuit technology with enhanced functionality (INTEL Math co-processors 8087) which can perform transcendental functions rapidly. The versatility of the system is achieved with a hardware organization that has distributed data acquisition capability performed by the use of a microprocessor-based analog to digital converter with large resident memory (Cyborg ISAAC-2000). Compiled BASIC programs and assembly language subroutines perform on-line or off-line the fast Fourier transform and spectral analysis of the EEG which is stored as soft as well as hard copy. Some results obtained from test application of the entire system in animal studies are presented.

  4. PanViz: interactive visualization of the structure of functionally annotated pangenomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Lin; Nookaew, Intawat; Wayne Ussery, David

    2017-01-01

    with gene ontology based navigation of gene groups. Furthermore it allows for rich and complex visual querying of gene groups in the pangenome. PanViz visualizations require no external programs and are easily sharable, allowing for rapid pangenome analyses. PanViz is written entirely in Java......PanViz is a novel, interactive, visualization tool for pangenome analysis. PanViz allows visualization of changes in gene group (groups of similar genes across genomes) classification as different subsets of pangenomes are selected, as well as comparisons of individual genomes to pangenomes......Script and is available on https://github.com/thomasp85/PanViz A companion R package that facilitates the creation of PanViz visualizations from a range of data formats is released through Bioconductor and is available at https://bioconductor.org/packages/PanVizGenerator CONTACT: thomasp85@gmail...

  5. EURATOM achievements and challenges in facilitating Pan-European infrastructure collaborative efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbil, Roger

    2017-01-01

    The European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) Research and Training framework programmes are benefiting from a consistent success in pursuing excellence in research and facilitating Pan European collaborative efforts across a broad range of nuclear science and technologies, nuclear fission and radiation protection. To fulfil Euratom R and D programmes keys objectives of maintaining high levels of nuclear knowledge and building a more dynamic and competitive European industry, promotion of Pan-European mobility of researchers are implemented by co-financing transnational access to research infrastructures (RIs) and joint research activities. 'Euratom Achievements and Challenges' show the benefits of research efforts in key fields, of building an effective 'critical mass', of promoting the creation of 'centres of excellence' with an increased support for 'open access to key research infrastructures', exploitation of research results, management of knowledge, dissemination and sharing of learning outcomes.

  6. High-energy gamma-ray emission from solar flares: Constraining the accelerated proton spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, David; Dunphy, Philip P.; Mackinnon, Alexander L.

    1994-01-01

    Using a multi-component model to describe the gamma-ray emission, we investigate the flares of December 16, 1988 and March 6, 1989 which exhibited unambiguous evidence of neutral pion decay. The observations are then combined with theoretical calculations of pion production to constrain the accelerated proton spectra. The detection of pi(sup 0) emission alone can indicate much about the energy distribution and spectral variation of the protons accelerated to pion producing energies. Here both the intensity and detailed spectral shape of the Doppler-broadened pi(sup 0) decay feature are used to determine the spectral form of the accelerated proton energy distribution. The Doppler width of this gamma-ray emission provides a unique diagnostic of the spectral shape at high energies, independent of any normalisation. To our knowledge, this is the first time that this diagnostic has been used to constrain the proton spectra. The form of the energetic proton distribution is found to be severely limited by the observed intensity and Doppler width of the pi(sup 0) decay emission, demonstrating effectively the diagnostic capabilities of the pi(sup 0) decay gamma-rays. The spectral index derived from the gamma-ray intensity is found to be much harder than that derived from the Doppler width. To reconcile this apparent discrepancy we investigate the effects of introducing a high-energy cut-off in the accelerated proton distribution. With cut-off energies of around 0.5-0.8 GeV and relatively hard spectra, the observed intensities and broadening can be reproduced with a single energetic proton distribution above the pion production threshold.

  7. Determination of spatial and energy distributions of neutrons in experiments on transmutation of radioactive waste using relativistic protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuk, I.V.; Lomonosova, E.M.; Boulyga, S.F.; Kievitskaia, A.I.; Rakhno, I.L.; Chigrinov, S.E.; Bradnova, V.; Krivopustov, M.I.; Kulakov, B.A.; Brandt, R.; Ochs, M.; Wan, J.-S.

    1999-01-01

    The experiments on transmutation of 129 I and 237 Np using uranium-lead targets surrounded by a paraffin moderator were performed at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR, Russia). The targets were irradiated by 1.5 GeV and 7.4 GeV protons at the Synchrophasotron of JINR. In the frame of present work spatial and energy distributions of neutrons on the surface of the paraffin moderator were measured using SSNTD technique. It is shown that measured values of spectral indices do not depend on the energy of incident protons but depend on the target composition. The presence of the uranium insertion softens neutron spectra

  8. Determination of spatial and energy distributions of neutrons in experiments on transmutation of radioactive waste using relativistic protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuk, I.V.; Lomonosova, E.M.; Boulyga, S.F.; Kievitskaia, A.I.; Rakhno, I.L.; Chigrinov, S.E.; Bradnova, V.; Krivopustov, M.I.; Kulakov, B.A.; Brandt, R.; Ochs, M.; Wan, J.-S

    1999-06-01

    The experiments on transmutation of {sup 129}I and {sup 237}Np using uranium-lead targets surrounded by a paraffin moderator were performed at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR, Russia). The targets were irradiated by 1.5 GeV and 7.4 GeV protons at the Synchrophasotron of JINR. In the frame of present work spatial and energy distributions of neutrons on the surface of the paraffin moderator were measured using SSNTD technique. It is shown that measured values of spectral indices do not depend on the energy of incident protons but depend on the target composition. The presence of the uranium insertion softens neutron spectra.

  9. Rayleigh imaging in spectral mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Karl; Danielsson, Mats; Fredenberg, Erik

    2016-03-01

    Spectral imaging is the acquisition of multiple images of an object at different energy spectra. In mammography, dual-energy imaging (spectral imaging with two energy levels) has been investigated for several applications, in particular material decomposition, which allows for quantitative analysis of breast composition and quantitative contrast-enhanced imaging. Material decomposition with dual-energy imaging is based on the assumption that there are two dominant photon interaction effects that determine linear attenuation: the photoelectric effect and Compton scattering. This assumption limits the number of basis materials, i.e. the number of materials that are possible to differentiate between, to two. However, Rayleigh scattering may account for more than 10% of the linear attenuation in the mammography energy range. In this work, we show that a modified version of a scanning multi-slit spectral photon-counting mammography system is able to acquire three images at different spectra and can be used for triple-energy imaging. We further show that triple-energy imaging in combination with the efficient scatter rejection of the system enables measurement of Rayleigh scattering, which adds an additional energy dependency to the linear attenuation and enables material decomposition with three basis materials. Three available basis materials have the potential to improve virtually all applications of spectral imaging.

  10. Efficient oligonucleotide probe selection for pan-genomic tiling arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wei

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Array comparative genomic hybridization is a fast and cost-effective method for detecting, genotyping, and comparing the genomic sequence of unknown bacterial isolates. This method, as with all microarray applications, requires adequate coverage of probes targeting the regions of interest. An unbiased tiling of probes across the entire length of the genome is the most flexible design approach. However, such a whole-genome tiling requires that the genome sequence is known in advance. For the accurate analysis of uncharacterized bacteria, an array must query a fully representative set of sequences from the species' pan-genome. Prior microarrays have included only a single strain per array or the conserved sequences of gene families. These arrays omit potentially important genes and sequence variants from the pan-genome. Results This paper presents a new probe selection algorithm (PanArray that can tile multiple whole genomes using a minimal number of probes. Unlike arrays built on clustered gene families, PanArray uses an unbiased, probe-centric approach that does not rely on annotations, gene clustering, or multi-alignments. Instead, probes are evenly tiled across all sequences of the pan-genome at a consistent level of coverage. To minimize the required number of probes, probes conserved across multiple strains in the pan-genome are selected first, and additional probes are used only where necessary to span polymorphic regions of the genome. The viability of the algorithm is demonstrated by array designs for seven different bacterial pan-genomes and, in particular, the design of a 385,000 probe array that fully tiles the genomes of 20 different Listeria monocytogenes strains with overlapping probes at greater than twofold coverage. Conclusion PanArray is an oligonucleotide probe selection algorithm for tiling multiple genome sequences using a minimal number of probes. It is capable of fully tiling all genomes of a species on

  11. On linearity of pan-integral and pan-integrable functions space

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ouyang, Y.; Li, J.; Mesiar, Radko

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 1 (2017), s. 307-318 ISSN 0888-613X Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : linearity * monotone measure * Pan-integrable space Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 2.845, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/E/mesiar-0477549.pdf

  12. Determination of the electron-hole pair creation energy for semiconductors from the spectral responsivity of photodiodes

    CERN Document Server

    Scholze, F; Kuschnerus, P; Rabus, H; Richter, M; Ulm, G

    2000-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can be detected by the measurement of the charge carriers produced in a detector. The improved semiconductor technology now allows detectors operating near the physical limits of the detector materials to be designed. The mean energy required for producing an electron-hole pair, W, is a material property of the semiconductor. Here, the determination of W from the spectral responsivity of photodiodes is demonstrated. Using spectrally dispersed synchrotron radiation, different types of semiconductor photodiodes have been examined in the UV-, VUV-, and soft X-ray spectral range. Their spectral responsivity was determined with relative uncertainties between 0.4% and 1% using a cryogenic electrical-substitution radiometer as primary detector standard. Results are presented for silicon n-on-p junction photodiodes and for GaAsP/Au Schottky diodes at room temperature. The investigations for silicon covered the complete spectral range from 3 to 1500 eV, yielding a constant value W=(3.66+-0.03) eV fo...

  13. IDEN2-A program for visual identification of spectral lines and energy levels in optical spectra of atoms and simple molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarov, V. I.; Kramida, A.; Vokhmentsev, M. Ya.

    2018-04-01

    The article describes a Java program that can be used in a user-friendly way to visually identify spectral lines observed in complex spectra with theoretically predicted transitions between atomic or molecular energy levels. The program arranges various information about spectral lines and energy levels in such a way that line identification and determination of positions of experimentally observed energy levels become much easier tasks that can be solved fast and efficiently.

  14. Preparation and performance of biofouling resistant PAN/chitosan hollow fiber membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanthana Lakshmi, D; Jaiswar, Santlal; Saxena, Mayank; Tasselli, Franco; Raval, Hiren D

    2017-07-01

    The preparation of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) hollow fiber (HF) membranes has been carried out by dry-jet wet spinning. PAN HF membranes were coated with chitosan biopolymers 2 wt% by dip coating and further crosslinked by chemical reagents (Tri sodium polyphosphate). PAN HF (Virgin) and PAN/chitosan coated membrane were characterized by SEM and tested for water flux. Proteins Pepsin, Albumin, and Clay of 1000 ppm concentration were tested for separation efficiency. In addition, bacterial species Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis were tested for fouling control efficiency and found out that PAN/chitosan membranes were quite superior to virgin PAN fibers. The adhesion of bacterial cells on the surface of the hollow fiber membranes assessed through alcian blue staining and SEM analysis. It was observed that PAN/chitosan membranes (310A and 310C) possessed best antibacterial activities (based on SEM results), qualifying them as a very promising candidates for anti-biofouling coatings.

  15. Observations of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) in the upper troposphere by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereszchuk, K. A.; Moore, D. P.; Harrison, J. J.; Boone, C. D.; Park, M.; Remedios, J. J.; Randel, W. J.; Bernath, P. F.

    2013-06-01

    measurements differ no more than 70 pptv. The ACE-FTS PAN data set is used to obtain zonal mean distributions of seasonal averages from ~ 5-20 km. A strong seasonality is clearly observed for PAN concentrations in the global UTLS. Since the principal source of PAN in the UTLS is due to lofted biomass burning emissions from the pyroconvective updrafts created by large fires, the observed seasonality in enhanced PAN coincides with fire activity in different geographical regions throughout the year.

  16. Towards a Pan-European energy balancing market : exercise on coupling the United Kingdom and continental Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escudero Concha, C.; Haan, de J.E.S.; Virag, A.; Gibescu, M.; Kling, W.L.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing levels of wind power generation in the coming years will displace conventional generation, impacting the need for balancing reserves. The upcoming integration of pan-European balancing markets seeks to increase collaboration between areas for optimal provision of services. The challenge

  17. Optimal Monochromatic Energy Levels in Spectral CT Pulmonary Angiography for the Evaluation of Pulmonary Embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huawei; Zhang, Qing; Hua, Jia; Hua, Xiaolan; Xu, Jianrong

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine the optimal monochromatic spectral CT pulmonary angiography (sCTPA) levels to obtain the highest image quality and diagnostic confidence for pulmonary embolism detection. Methods The Institutional Review Board of the Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine approved this study, and written informed consent was obtained from all participating patients. Seventy-two patients with pulmonary embolism were scanned with spectral CT mode in the arterial phase. One hundred and one sets of virtual monochromatic spectral (VMS) images were generated ranging from 40 keV to 140 keV. Image noise, clot diameter and clot to artery contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) from seven sets of VMS images at selected monochromatic levels in sCTPA were measured and compared. Subjective image quality and diagnostic confidence for these images were also assessed and compared. Data were analyzed by paired t test and Wilcoxon rank sum test. Results The lowest noise and the highest image quality score for the VMS images were obtained at 65 keV. The VMS images at 65 keV also had the second highest CNR value behind that of 50 keV VMS images. There was no difference in the mean noise and CNR between the 65 keV and 70 keV VMS images. The apparent clot diameter correlated with the keV levels. Conclusions The optimal energy level for detecting pulmonary embolism using dual-energy spectral CT pulmonary angiography was 65–70 keV. Virtual monochromatic spectral images at approximately 65–70 keV yielded the lowest image noise, high CNR and highest diagnostic confidence for the detection of pulmonary embolism. PMID:23667583

  18. Energy Efficient Cooking - The EffiCooker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjær-Jacobsen, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    Substantial energy savings in moist heat cooking may be achieved by employing a pan with integrated electric heating element rather than an ordinary pan on a conventional electric range. The electric pan should be thermally insulated and equipped with an "intelligent" controller and timer....... A working prototype of a saucepan, dubbed the EffiCooker, has been constructed according to these guidelines. The EffiCooker has demonstrated energy savings in the range from 28% to 81% compared to conventional equipment when performing ordinary cooking tasks. The user need not be particularly aware...... of energy conservation to realize such savings; even those who are more concerned with their culinary achievements than with energy efficiency are likely to benefit. Besides being energy efficient the EffiCooker is user friendly. Many cooking tasks, once initiated, are performed automatically without any...

  19. Community Arctio-Artemisetum vulgaris (Tx. 1942 Oberd. et al. 1967.: the Most Widespread Ruderal Community at Pančevački rit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmila Stanković-Kalezić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A several-year investigation of distribution, phytocoenological differentiation, floristic composition and structure of the ruderal flora and vegetation, and relative anthropogenic influences was conducted in the area of Pančevački rit.The study focused on the ruderal community Arctio-Artemisetum vulgaris, the most widespread of 10 ruderal communities identified in a detailed phytocoenological analysis of the location of Pančevački rit.

  20. Energy Spectra of Vortex Distributions in Two-Dimensional Quantum Turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashton S. Bradley

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We theoretically explore key concepts of two-dimensional turbulence in a homogeneous compressible superfluid described by a dissipative two-dimensional Gross-Pitaeveskii equation. Such a fluid supports quantized vortices that have a size characterized by the healing length ξ. We show that, for the divergence-free portion of the superfluid velocity field, the kinetic-energy spectrum over wave number k may be decomposed into an ultraviolet regime (k≫ξ^{-1} having a universal k^{-3} scaling arising from the vortex core structure, and an infrared regime (k≪ξ^{-1} with a spectrum that arises purely from the configuration of the vortices. The Novikov power-law distribution of intervortex distances with exponent -1/3 for vortices of the same sign of circulation leads to an infrared kinetic-energy spectrum with a Kolmogorov k^{-5/3} power law, which is consistent with the existence of an inertial range. The presence of these k^{-3} and k^{-5/3} power laws, together with the constraint of continuity at the smallest configurational scale k≈ξ^{-1}, allows us to derive a new analytical expression for the Kolmogorov constant that we test against a numerical simulation of a forced homogeneous, compressible, two-dimensional superfluid. The numerical simulation corroborates our analysis of the spectral features of the kinetic-energy distribution, once we introduce the concept of a clustered fraction consisting of the fraction of vortices that have the same sign of circulation as their nearest neighboring vortices. Our analysis presents a new approach to understanding two-dimensional quantum turbulence and interpreting similarities and differences with classical two-dimensional turbulence, and suggests new methods to characterize vortex turbulence in two-dimensional quantum fluids via vortex position and circulation measurements.

  1. Enhancement of wave growth for warm plasmas with a high-energy tail distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Richard M.; Summers, Danny

    1991-01-01

    The classical linear theory of electromagnetic wave growth in a warm plasma is considered for waves propagating parallel to a uniform ambient magnetic field. Wave-growth rates are calculated for ion-driven right-hand mode waves for Kappa and Maxwellian particle distribution functions and for various values of the spectral index, the temperature anisotropy, and the ratio of plasma pressure to magnetic pressure appropriate to the solar wind. When the anisotropy is low the wave growth is limited to frequencies below the proton gyrofrequency and the growth rate increases dramatically as the spectral index is reduced. The growth rate for any Kappa distribution greatly exceeds that for a Maxwellian with the same bulk properties. For large thermal anisotropy the growth rate from either distribution is greatly enhanced. The growth rates from a Kappa distribution are generally larger than for a Maxwellian distribution, and significant wave growth occurs over a broader range of frequencies.

  2. EURATOM achievements and challenges in facilitating Pan-European infrastructure collaborative efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbil, Roger [European Commission, Brussels (Belgium). DG Research and Innovation, Euratom Fission

    2017-10-15

    The European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) Research and Training framework programmes are benefiting from a consistent success in pursuing excellence in research and facilitating Pan European collaborative efforts across a broad range of nuclear science and technologies, nuclear fission and radiation protection. To fulfil Euratom R and D programmes keys objectives of maintaining high levels of nuclear knowledge and building a more dynamic and competitive European industry, promotion of Pan-European mobility of researchers are implemented by co-financing transnational access to research infrastructures (RIs) and joint research activities. 'Euratom Achievements and Challenges' show the benefits of research efforts in key fields, of building an effective 'critical mass', of promoting the creation of 'centres of excellence' with an increased support for 'open access to key research infrastructures', exploitation of research results, management of knowledge, dissemination and sharing of learning outcomes.

  3. Immobilization of CoCl2 (cobalt chloride) on PAN (polyacrylonitrile) composite nanofiber mesh filled with carbon nanotubes for hydrogen production from hydrolysis of NaBH4 (sodium borohydride)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Fang; Arthur, Ernest Evans; La, Dahye; Li, Qiming; Kim, Hern

    2014-01-01

    Composite nanofiber sheets containing multiwalled carbon nanotubes and cobalt chloride dispersed in PAN (polyacrylonitrile) were produced by an electrospinning technique. The synthesized PAN/CoCl 2 /CNTs composite nanofiber was used as the catalyst for hydrogen production from the hydrolysis of sodium borohydride. FT-IR characterization showed that the pretreated CNTs possess different organic functional groups which help improve the compatibility between CNTs and PAN organic polymer. SEM (scanning electron microscopy), TEM (transmission electron microscopy) and EDX (energy-dispersive X-ray technique) were used to characterize the composite nanofiber and it was found that CNTs can be coaxially dispersed into the PAN nanofiber. During the hydrolysis of NaBH 4 , this PAN/CoCl 2 /CNTs composite nanofiber exhibited higher catalytic activity compared to the composite without CNTs doping. Kinetic analysis of NaBH 4 hydrolysis shows that the reaction of NaBH 4 hydrolysis based on this catalyst can be ascribed to the first-order reaction and the activation energy of the catalyst was approximately 52.857 kJ/mol. Meanwhile, the composite nanofiber catalyst shows excellent stability and reusability in the recycling experiment. - Highlights: • Composite nanofiber sheets were prepared via electrospinning. • PAN (polyacrylonitrile)/CoCl 2 (cobalt chloride)/CNTs (carbon nanotubes) nanofiber was used as the catalyst for hydrogen production. • CNTs can be coaxially dispersed into the PAN nanofiber. • PAN/CoCl 2 /CNTs composite nanofiber exhibited higher catalytic activity. • The composite nanofiber catalyst shows excellent stability and reusability

  4. PROBING THE TRANSITION BETWEEN THE SYNCHROTRON AND INVERSE-COMPTON SPECTRAL COMPONENTS OF 1ES 1959+650

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottacini, E.; Schady, P.; Rau, A.; Zhang, X.-L.; Greiner, J.; Boettcher, M.; Ajello, M.; Fendt, C.

    2010-01-01

    1ES 1959+650 is one of the most remarkable high-peaked BL Lacertae objects (HBL). In 2002, it exhibited a TeV γ-ray flare without a similar brightening of the synchrotron component at lower energies. This orphan TeV flare remained a mystery. We present the results of a multifrequency campaign, triggered by the INTEGRAL IBIS detection of 1ES 1959+650. Our data range from the optical to hard X-ray energies, thus covering the synchrotron and inverse-Compton components simultaneously. We observed the source with INTEGRAL, the Swift X-Ray Telescope, and the UV-Optical Telescope, and nearly simultaneously with a ground-based optical telescope. The steep spectral component at X-ray energies is most likely due to synchrotron emission, while at soft γ-ray energies the hard spectral index may be interpreted as the onset of the high-energy component of the blazar spectral energy distribution (SED). This is the first clear measurement of a concave X-ray-soft γ-ray spectrum for an HBL. The SED can be well modeled with a leptonic synchrotron self-Compton model. When the SED is fitted this model requires a very hard electron spectral index of q ∼ 1.85, possibly indicating the relevance of second-order Fermi acceleration.

  5. Determination analysis of energy conservation standards for distribution transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, P.R.; Van Dyke, J.W.; McConnell, B.W.; Das, S.

    1996-07-01

    This report contains information for US DOE to use in making a determination on proposing energy conservation standards for distribution transformers as required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Potential for saving energy with more efficient liquid-immersed and dry-type distribution transformers could be significant because these transformers account for an estimated 140 billion kWh of the annual energy lost in the delivery of electricity. Objective was to determine whether energy conservation standards for distribution transformers would have the potential for significant energy savings, be technically feasible, and be economically justified from a national perspective. It was found that energy conservation for distribution transformers would be technically and economically feasible. Based on the energy conservation options analyzed, 3.6-13.7 quads of energy could be saved from 2000 to 2030.

  6. Thermal Distribution System | Energy Systems Integration Facility | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermal Distribution System Thermal Distribution System The Energy Systems Integration Facility's . Photo of the roof of the Energy Systems Integration Facility. The thermal distribution bus allows low as 10% of its full load level). The 60-ton chiller cools water with continuous thermal control

  7. Microstructural characterization of PAN based carbon fiber reinforced nylon 6 polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munirathnamma, L. M.; Ningaraju, S.; Kumar, K. V. Aneesh; Ravikumar, H. B.

    2018-04-01

    Microstructural characterization of nylon 6/polyacrolonitrile based carbon fibers (PAN-CFs) of 10 to 40 wt% has been performed by positron lifetime technique (PLT). The positron lifetime parameters viz., o-Ps lifetime (τ3), o-Ps intensity (I3) and fractional free volume (Fv) of nylon 6/PAN-CF composites are correlated with the mechanical properties viz., Tensile strength and Young's modulus. The Fv show negative deviation with the reinforcement of 10 to 40 wt% of PAN-CF from the linear additivity relation. The negative deviation in nylon 6/PAN-CF composite suggests the induced molecular packing due to the chemical interaction between the polymeric chains of nylon 6 and PAN-CF. This is evident from Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR) studies. The FTIR results suggests that observed negative deviation in PALS results of nylon 6/PAN-CF reinforced polymer composites is due to the induced chemical interaction at N-H-O sites. The improved tensile strength (TS) and Young's modulus (YM) in nylon 6/PAN-CF reinforced polymer composites is due to AS4C (surface treated and epoxy coated) PAN-CF has shown highest adhesion level due to better stress transfer between nylon 6 and PAN-CF.

  8. The Average Temporal and Spectral Evolution of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenimore, E.E.

    1999-01-01

    We have averaged bright BATSE bursts to uncover the average overall temporal and spectral evolution of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We align the temporal structure of each burst by setting its duration to a standard duration, which we call T left-angleDurright-angle . The observed average open-quotes aligned T left-angleDurright-angle close quotes profile for 32 bright bursts with intermediate durations (16 - 40 s) has a sharp rise (within the first 20% of T left-angleDurright-angle ) and then a linear decay. Exponentials and power laws do not fit this decay. In particular, the power law seen in the X-ray afterglow (∝T -1.4 ) is not observed during the bursts, implying that the X-ray afterglow is not just an extension of the average temporal evolution seen during the gamma-ray phase. The average burst spectrum has a low-energy slope of -1.03, a high-energy slope of -3.31, and a peak in the νF ν distribution at 390 keV. We determine the average spectral evolution. Remarkably, it is also a linear function, with the peak of the νF ν distribution given by ∼680-600(T/T left-angleDurright-angle ) keV. Since both the temporal profile and the peak energy are linear functions, on average, the peak energy is linearly proportional to the intensity. This behavior is inconsistent with the external shock model. The observed temporal and spectral evolution is also inconsistent with that expected from variations in just a Lorentz factor. Previously, trends have been reported for GRB evolution, but our results are quantitative relationships that models should attempt to explain. copyright copyright 1999. The American Astronomical Society

  9. Method for estimation of the spectral distribution that influence electric power of PV module; Taiyo denchi shutsuryoku ni eikyo wo ataeru bunko nissha bunpu no suiteiho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagami, Y.; Tani, T. [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    A method was proposed for estimating the spectral distribution using air mass, precipitable water, and clear indexes which are generally obtainable, and a comparative study was made between the spectral distribution obtained by this method and the measured data using output power of PV modules, etc. as indexes. When solar light comes into the atmosphere, it dissipates receiving scattering/absorption by various gases and aerosols. Direct light component and scattered light component which arrive at the earth surface become functions of air mass and precipitable water. The wavelength distribution of scattered light in cloudy sky is not dependent upon air mass, but affected strongly by absorption band by steam of clouds. By relational equations considered of these, output power and short-circuit current of PV modules are obtained to make a comparison with the measured data. As a result, it was found that this method estimated the spectral distribution with accuracy. Further, seasonal changes in the spectral distribution were well reproduced. The simulation of the module output in Sapporo and Okinawa brought a result that the output in Okinawa is 1.93% larger than in Okinawa. 5 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. 77 FR 10997 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Distribution Transformers; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Distribution Transformers; Correction AGENCY: Office of... standards for distribution transformers. It was recently discovered that values in certain tables of the...,'' including distribution transformers. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT 1992), Public Law 102-486, amended...

  11. Spectral characteristics of light sources for S-cone stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegelmilch, F; Nolte, R; Schellhorn, K; Husar, P; Henning, G; Tornow, R P

    2002-11-01

    Electrophysiological investigations of the short-wavelength sensitive pathway of the human eye require the use of a suitable light source as a S-cone stimulator. Different light sources with their spectral distribution properties were investigated and compared with the ideal S-cone stimulator. First, the theoretical background of the calculation of relative cone energy absorption from the spectral distribution function of the light source is summarized. From the results of the calculation, the photometric properties of the ideal S-cone stimulator will be derived. The calculation procedure was applied to virtual light sources (computer generated spectral distribution functions with different medium wavelengths and spectrum widths) and to real light sources (blue and green light emitting diodes, blue phosphor of CRT-monitor, multimedia projector, LCD monitor and notebook display). The calculated relative cone absorbencies are compared to the conditions of an ideal S-cone stimulator. Monochromatic light sources with wavelengths of less than 456 nm are close to the conditions of an ideal S-cone stimulator. Spectrum widths up to 21 nm do not affect the S-cone activation significantly (S-cone activation change < 0.2%). Blue light emitting diodes with peak wavelength at 448 nm and spectrum bandwidth of 25 nm are very useful for S-cone stimulation (S-cone activation approximately 95%). A suitable display for S-cone stimulation is the Trinitron computer monitor (S-cone activation approximately 87%). The multimedia projector has a S-cone activation up to 91%, but their spectral distribution properties depends on the selected intensity. LCD monitor and notebook displays have a lower S-cone activation (< or = 74%). Carefully selecting the blue light source for S-cone stimulation can reduce the unwanted L-and M-cone activation down to 4% for M-cones and 1.5% for L-cones.

  12. 75 FR 61698 - Federal Consistency Appeal by Pan American Grain Co.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Federal Consistency Appeal by Pan American Grain Co. AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department... Commerce (Secretary) by Pan American Grain Co. (Pan American) has closed. No additional information, briefs...

  13. Electroadsorption desalination with carbon nanotube/PAN-based carbon fiber felt composites as electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhou, Junbo

    2014-01-01

    The chemical vapor deposition method is used to prepare CNT (carbon nanotube)/PCF (PAN-based carbon fiber felt) composite electrodes in this paper, with the surface morphology of CNT/PCF composites and electroadsorption desalination performance being studied. Results show such electrode materials with three-dimensional network nanostructures having a larger specific surface area and narrower micropore distribution, with a huge number of reactive groups covering the surface. Compared with PCF electrodes, CNT/PCF can allow for a higher adsorption and desorption rate but lower energy consumption; meanwhile, under the condition of the same voltage change, the CNT/PCF electrodes are provided with a better desalination effect. The study also found that the higher the original concentration of the solution, the greater the adsorption capacity and the lower the adsorption rate. At the same time, the higher the solution's pH, the better the desalting; the smaller the ions' radius, the greater the amount of adsorption.

  14. Evaluation of water balance parameters from isotopic measurements in evaporation pans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, G.B.

    1979-01-01

    The evaluation of the parameters governing the isotopic composition of evaporating water bodies was attempted by means of evaporation pans. The instability of the meteorological conditions, however, makes it virtually impossible to evaluate the atmospheric relative humidity and its isotopic composition with pans. Pans are only suitable to obtain seasonal trends of the isotopic composition of the net evaporated water. For this, a technique based on two pans is also proposed. (author)

  15. Cost allocation model for distribution networks considering high penetration of distributed energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Tiago; Pereira, Fábio; Morais, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    The high penetration of distributed energy resources (DER) in distribution networks and the competitive environment of electricity markets impose the use of new approaches in several domains. The network cost allocation, traditionally used in transmission networks, should be adapted and used...... in the distribution networks considering the specifications of the connected resources. The main goal is to develop a fairer methodology trying to distribute the distribution network use costs to all players which are using the network in each period. In this paper, a model considering different type of costs (fixed......, losses, and congestion costs) is proposed comprising the use of a large set of DER, namely distributed generation (DG), demand response (DR) of direct load control type, energy storage systems (ESS), and electric vehicles with capability of discharging energy to the network, which is known as vehicle...

  16. Wide cool and ultracool companions to nearby stars from Pan-STARRS 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deacon, Niall R.; Liu, Michael C.; Magnier, Eugene A.; Aller, Kimberly M.; Best, William M. J.; Bowler, Brendan P.; Burgett, William S.; Chambers, Kenneth C.; Flewelling, H.; Kaiser, Nick; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Morgan, Jeff S.; Tonry, John L.; Dupuy, Trent; Mann, Andrew W.; Redstone, Joshua A.; Draper, Peter W.; Metcalfe, Nigel; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Price, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    We present the discovery of 57 wide (>5'') separation, low-mass (stellar and substellar) companions to stars in the solar neighborhood identified from Pan-STARRS 1 (PS1) data and the spectral classification of 31 previously known companions. Our companions represent a selective subsample of promising candidates and span a range in spectral type of K7-L9 with the addition of one DA white dwarf. These were identified primarily from a dedicated common proper motion search around nearby stars, along with a few as serendipitous discoveries from our Pan-STARRS 1 brown dwarf search. Our discoveries include 23 new L dwarf companions and one known L dwarf not previously identified as a companion. The primary stars around which we searched for companions come from a list of bright stars with well-measured parallaxes and large proper motions from the Hipparcos catalog (8583 stars, mostly A-K dwarfs) and fainter stars from other proper motion catalogs (79170 stars, mostly M dwarfs). We examine the likelihood that our companions are chance alignments between unrelated stars and conclude that this is unlikely for the majority of the objects that we have followed-up spectroscopically. We also examine the entire population of ultracool (>M7) dwarf companions and conclude that while some are loosely bound, most are unlikely to be disrupted over the course of ∼10 Gyr. Our search increases the number of ultracool M dwarf companions wider than 300 AU by 88% and increases the number of L dwarf companions in the same separation range by 82%. Finally, we resolve our new L dwarf companion to HIP 6407 into a tight (0.''13, 7.4 AU) L1+T3 binary, making the system a hierarchical triple. Our search for these key benchmarks against which brown dwarf and exoplanet atmosphere models are tested has yielded the largest number of discoveries to date.

  17. Using TES retrievals to investigate PAN in North American biomass burning plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Emily V.; Zhu, Liye; Payne, Vivienne H.; Worden, John R.; Jiang, Zhe; Kulawik, Susan S.; Brey, Steven; Hecobian, Arsineh; Gombos, Daniel; Cady-Pereira, Karen; Flocke, Frank

    2018-04-01

    Peroxyacyl nitrate (PAN) is a critical atmospheric reservoir for nitrogen oxide radicals, and plays a lead role in their redistribution in the troposphere. We analyze new Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) PAN observations over North America from July 2006 to July 2009. Using aircraft observations from the Colorado Front Range, we demonstrate that TES can be sensitive to elevated PAN in the boundary layer (˜ 750 hPa) even in the presence of clouds. In situ observations have shown that wildfire emissions can rapidly produce PAN, and PAN decomposition is an important component of ozone production in smoke plumes. We identify smoke-impacted TES PAN retrievals by co-location with NOAA Hazard Mapping System (HMS) smoke plumes. Depending on the year, 15-32 % of cases where elevated PAN is identified in TES observations (retrievals with degrees of freedom (DOF) > 0.6) overlap smoke plumes during July. Of all the retrievals attempted in the July 2006 to July 2009 study period, 18 % is associated with smoke . A case study of smoke transport in July 2007 illustrates that PAN enhancements associated with HMS smoke plumes can be connected to fire complexes, providing evidence that TES is sufficiently sensitive to measure elevated PAN several days downwind of major fires. Using a subset of retrievals with TES 510 hPa carbon monoxide (CO) > 150 ppbv, and multiple estimates of background PAN, we calculate enhancement ratios for tropospheric average PAN relative to CO in smoke-impacted retrievals. Most of the TES-based enhancement ratios fall within the range calculated from in situ measurements.

  18. The spectral link in mean-velocity profile of turbulent plane-Couette flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongrong; Gioia, Gustavo; Chakraborty, Pinaki

    2015-03-01

    In turbulent pipe and plane-Couette flows, the mean-velocity profile (MVP) represents the distribution of local mean (i.e., time-averaged) velocity on the cross section of a flow. The spectral theory of MVP in pipe flows (Gioia et al., PRL, 2010) furnishes a long-surmised link between the MVP and turbulent energy spectrum. This missing spectral link enables new physical insights into an imperfectly understood phenomenon (the MVP) by building on the well-known structure of the energy spectrum. Here we extend this theory to plane-Couette flows. Similar to pipe flows, our analysis allows us to express the MVP as a functional of the spectrum, and to relate each feature of the MVP relates to a specific spectral range: the buffer layer to the dissipative range, the log layer to the inertial range, and the wake (or the lack thereof) to the energetic range. We contrast pipe and plane-Couette flows in light of the theory.

  19. Single-source dual-energy spectral multidetector CT of pancreatic adenocarcinoma: Optimization of energy level viewing significantly increases lesion contrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, B.N.; Thomas, J.V.; Lockhart, M.E.; Berland, L.L.; Morgan, D.E.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate lesion contrast in pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients using spectral multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) analysis. Materials and methods: The present institutional review board-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA)-compliant retrospective study evaluated 64 consecutive adults with pancreatic adenocarcinoma examined using a standardized, multiphasic protocol on a single-source, dual-energy MDCT system. Pancreatic phase images (35 s) were acquired in dual-energy mode; unenhanced and portal venous phases used standard MDCT. Lesion contrast was evaluated on an independent workstation using dual-energy analysis software, comparing tumour to non-tumoural pancreas attenuation (HU) differences and tumour diameter at three energy levels: 70 keV; individual subject-optimized viewing energy level (based on the maximum contrast-to-noise ratio, CNR); and 45 keV. The image noise was measured for the same three energies. Differences in lesion contrast, diameter, and noise between the different energy levels were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Quantitative differences in contrast gain between 70 keV and CNR-optimized viewing energies, and between CNR-optimized and 45 keV were compared using the paired t-test. Results: Thirty-four women and 30 men (mean age 68 years) had a mean tumour diameter of 3.6 cm. The median optimized energy level was 50 keV (range 40–77). The mean ± SD lesion contrast values (non-tumoural pancreas – tumour attenuation) were: 57 ± 29, 115 ± 70, and 146 ± 74 HU (p = 0.0005); the lengths of the tumours were: 3.6, 3.3, and 3.1 cm, respectively (p = 0.026); and the contrast to noise ratios were: 24 ± 7, 39 ± 12, and 59 ± 17 (p = 0.0005) for 70 keV, the optimized energy level, and 45 keV, respectively. For individuals, the mean ± SD contrast gain from 70 keV to the optimized energy level was 59 ± 45 HU; and the mean ± SD contrast gain from the optimized energy level to 45 ke

  20. Vib--rotational energy distributions and relaxation processes in pulsed HF chemical lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Shaul, A.; Kompa, K.L.; Schmailzl, U.

    1976-01-01

    The rate equations governing the temporal evolution of photon densities and level populations in pulsed F+H 2 →HF+H chemical lasers are solved for different initial conditions. The rate equations are solved simultaneously for all relevant vibrational--rotational levels and vibrational--rotational P-branch transitions. Rotational equilibrium is not assumed. Approximate expressions for the detailed state-to-state rate constants corresponding to the various energy transfer processes (V--V, V--R,T, R--R,T) coupling the vib--rotational levels are formulated on the basis of experimental data, approximate theories, and qualitative considerations. The main findings are as follows: At low pressures, R--T transfer cannot compete with the stimulated emission, and the laser output largely reflects the nonequilibrium energy distribution in the pumping reaction. The various transitions reach threshold and decay almost independently and simultaneous lasing on several lines takes place. When a buffer gas is added in excess to the reacting mixture, the enhanced rotational relaxation leads to nearly single-line operation and to the J shift in lasing. Laser efficiency is higher at high inert gas pressures owing to a better extraction of the internal energy from partially inverted populations. V--V exchange enhances lasing from upper vibrational levels but reduces the total pulse intensity. V--R,T processes reduce the efficiency but do not substantially modify the spectral output distribution. The photon yield ranges between 0.4 and 1.4 photons/HF molecule depending on the initial conditions. Comparison with experimental data, when available, is fair

  1. The Pan-STARRS1 Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Kenneth; Pan-STARRS Team

    2018-01-01

    The Pan-STARRS1 Surveys are complete and the first data release, DR1, is available from the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST) at the Space Telescope Science Institute. The data include a database of measured attributes of 3 billion objects, stacked images, and metadata of the 3pi Steradian Survey. The DR1 contains all stationary objects with mean and stack photometry registered on the GAIA astrometric frame. DR2 is in preparation and will be released this winter with all the individual epoch images and time domain photometry and forced photometry on the individual epoch images. The characteristics of the Pan-STARRS1 Surveys will be presented, including image quality, depth, cadence, and coverage. Measured attributes include PSF model magnitudes, aperture magnitudes, Kron Magnitudes, radial moments, Petrosian magnitudes, DeVaucoulers, Exponential, and Sersic magnitudes for extended objects. Images include total intensity, variance, and masks.An overview of the Pan-STARRS1 Surveys and data releases will be presented together with a brief description of the data collected since the end of the PS1 Science Consortium surveys, and the plans for the upcoming survey with PS1 and PS2 begining in February 2018.

  2. Small Distributed Renewable Energy Generation for Low Voltage Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chindris M.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Driven by the existing energy policies, the use of renewable energy has increased considerably all over the world in order to respond to the increasing energy consumption and to reduce the environmental impact of the electricity generation. Although most policy makers and companies are focusing on large applications, the use of cheap small generation units, based on local renewable resources, has become increasingly attractive for the general public, small farms and remote communities. The paper presents several results of a research project aiming to identify the power quality issues and the impact of RES based distributed generation (DG or other non-linear loads on low voltage (LV distribution networks in Romania; the final goal is to develop a Universal Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC able to diminish the existing disturbances. Basically, the work analyses the existing DG technologies and identifies possible solutions for their integration in Romania; taking into account the existent state of the art, the attention was paid on small systems, using wind and solar energy, and on possibility to integrate them into suburban and rural LV distribution networks. The presence of DG units at distribution voltage level means the transition from traditional passive to active distribution networks. In general, the relatively low penetration levels of DG does not produce problems; however, the nowadays massive increase of local power generation have led to new integration challenges in order to ensure the reliability and quality of the power supply. Power quality issues are identified and their assessment is the key element in the design of measures aiming to diminish all existing disturbances.

  3. PanCoreGen - Profiling, detecting, annotating protein-coding genes in microbial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Sandip; Bhardwaj, Archana; Bag, Sumit K; Sokurenko, Evgeni V; Chattopadhyay, Sujay

    2015-12-01

    A large amount of genomic data, especially from multiple isolates of a single species, has opened new vistas for microbial genomics analysis. Analyzing the pan-genome (i.e. the sum of genetic repertoire) of microbial species is crucial in understanding the dynamics of molecular evolution, where virulence evolution is of major interest. Here we present PanCoreGen - a standalone application for pan- and core-genomic profiling of microbial protein-coding genes. PanCoreGen overcomes key limitations of the existing pan-genomic analysis tools, and develops an integrated annotation-structure for a species-specific pan-genomic profile. It provides important new features for annotating draft genomes/contigs and detecting unidentified genes in annotated genomes. It also generates user-defined group-specific datasets within the pan-genome. Interestingly, analyzing an example-set of Salmonella genomes, we detect potential footprints of adaptive convergence of horizontally transferred genes in two human-restricted pathogenic serovars - Typhi and Paratyphi A. Overall, PanCoreGen represents a state-of-the-art tool for microbial phylogenomics and pathogenomics study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Towards a holistic review of Pan-Africanism: linking the idea and the movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kurt B

    2010-01-01

    This article explores two general approaches to defining Pan-Africanism. Traditional Pan-Africanism reflects definitions of Pan-Africanism that begin with the assumption that distinctions must be made between early "ideas" of group identification with Africa versus modern organizational activities. However, holistic approaches emphasize the interconnectivity of Pan-African ideas and concrete activities. This discussion explores these approaches and their implications for contemporary analyses of Pan-Africanism. The essay concludes that the holistic line is best suited for developing a new model in Pan-Africanism.

  5. Damage symptoms of plants due to PAN exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouchi, I; Sawada, T; Ohashi, T; Odaira, T

    1974-11-01

    In order to identify the cause of plant damage which differed from that by ozone, a series of exposure experiments was carried out on Beta vulgaris, Japanese radish, French bean, luthern, tomato, and spinach in a controlled weather room by artificially synthesized PAN (peroxyacetyl nitrate). The damage appeared generally on younger leaves as a lustering and bronzing on the lower surface; there was a specific symptom in which the interveinary part of the lower surface depressed, leaving the veins in relief. At higher concentrations of PAN, damages appeared on the upper surface of leaves, however, bronzing and lustering were clearer during exposure to lower concentrations of PAN. The position of the leaves and the part of a leaf which was damaged were constant in the petunia, morning glory, and tobacco. There was a hyperbolic relationship between the concentration of PAN and the time period of appearance of the damage as was seen during sulfur dioxide and ozone exposures.

  6. SPECTRAL EVOLUTION OF THE 2010 SEPTEMBER GAMMA-RAY FLARE FROM THE CRAB NEBULA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vittorini, V.; Tavani, M.; Donnarumma, I.; Trois, A.; Del Monte, E.; Evangelista, Y.; Lazzarotto, F.; Pacciani, L.; Pucella, G.; Striani, E.; Caraveo, P.; Giuliani, A.; Mereghetti, S.; Pellizzoni, A.; Ferrari, A.; Barbiellini, G.; Bulgarelli, A.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Colafrancesco, S.; Pilia, M.

    2011-01-01

    Strong gamma-ray flares from the Crab Nebula have been recently discovered by AGILE and confirmed by Fermi-LAT. We study here the spectral evolution in the gamma-ray energy range above 50 MeV of the 2010 September flare that was simultaneously detected by AGILE and Fermi-LAT. We revisit the AGILE spectral data and present an emission model based on rapid (within 1 day) acceleration followed by synchrotron cooling. We show that this model successfully explains both the published AGILE and Fermi-LAT spectral data showing a rapid rise and a decay within 2 and 3 days. Our analysis constrains the acceleration timescale and mechanism, the properties of the particle distribution function, and the local magnetic field. The combination of very rapid acceleration, emission well above 100 MeV, and the spectral evolution consistent with synchrotron cooling contradicts the idealized scenario predicting an exponential cutoff at photon energies above 100 MeV. We also consider a variation of our model based on even shorter acceleration and decay timescales, which can be consistent with the published averaged properties.

  7. Determination of spatial and energy distributions of neutrons in experiments on transmutation of radioactive waste using relativistic protons

    CERN Document Server

    Zhuk, I V; Boulyga, S F; Kievitskaia, A I; Rakhno, I L; Chigrinov, S E; Bradnova, V; Krivopustov, M I; Kulakov, B A; Brandt, R; Ochs, M; Wan, J S

    1999-01-01

    The experiments on transmutation of sup 1 sup 2 sup 9 I and sup 2 sup 3 sup 7 Np using uranium-lead targets surrounded by a paraffin moderator were performed at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR, Russia). The targets were irradiated by 1.5 GeV and 7.4 GeV protons at the Synchrophasotron of JINR. In the frame of present work spatial and energy distributions of neutrons on the surface of the paraffin moderator were measured using SSNTD technique. It is shown that measured values of spectral indices do not depend on the energy of incident protons but depend on the target composition. The presence of the uranium insertion softens neutron spectra.

  8. EURATOM Success Stories in Facilitating Pan-European E&T Collaborative Efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbil, R.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) Research and Training framework programmes are benefiting from a consistent success in pursuing excellence in research and facilitating Pan-European collaborative efforts across a broad range of nuclear science and technologies, nuclear fission and radiation protection. To fulfil Euratom R&D programmes keys objectives of maintaining high levels of nuclear knowledge and building a more dynamic and competitive European industry, promotion of Pan-European mobility of researchers are implemented by co-financing transnational access to research infrastructures and joint research activities through to research and innovation and coordination and support actions funding schemes. Establishment by the research community of European technology platforms are being capitalized. Mapping of research infrastructures and E&T capabilities is allowing a closer cooperation within the European Union and beyond, benefiting from multilateral international agreements and from closer cooperation between Euratom, OECD/NEA and IAEA and international fora. “Euratom success stories” in facilitating Pan-European E&T collaborative efforts through research and training framework programmes show the benefits of research efforts in key fields, of building an effective “critical mass”, of promoting the creation of “centres of excellence” with an increased support for “open access to key research infrastructures”, exploitation of research results, management of knowledge, dissemination and sharing of learning outcomes. (author

  9. Enhancing solar cell efficiency: the search for luminescent materials as spectral converters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoyong; Han, Sanyang; Huang, Wei; Liu, Xiaogang

    2013-01-07

    Photovoltaic (PV) technologies for solar energy conversion represent promising routes to green and renewable energy generation. Despite relevant PV technologies being available for more than half a century, the production of solar energy remains costly, largely owing to low power conversion efficiencies of solar cells. The main difficulty in improving the efficiency of PV energy conversion lies in the spectral mismatch between the energy distribution of photons in the incident solar spectrum and the bandgap of a semiconductor material. In recent years, luminescent materials, which are capable of converting a broad spectrum of light into photons of a particular wavelength, have been synthesized and used to minimize the losses in the solar-cell-based energy conversion process. In this review, we will survey recent progress in the development of spectral converters, with a particular emphasis on lanthanide-based upconversion, quantum-cutting and down-shifting materials, for PV applications. In addition, we will also present technical challenges that arise in developing cost-effective high-performance solar cells based on these luminescent materials.

  10. In-air PIXE for analyzing heavy metals in water boiled in pans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, M.; Haruyama, Y.; Saito, M.

    1993-01-01

    The release rates of heavy metals from pans were measured for boiling water as well as for an acidic solution prior to an investigation on the release or sorption of trace elements due to cooking of food by boiling. The boiled samples were condensed and analyzed by means of in-air PIXE. The release of heavy metals was measured for five kinds of pans. For all pans the release rates were considerably more increased by boiling of a 5% solution of acetic acid. Furthermore it was found that by using the alumina coated aluminum pan (alumina pan) the respective release rates of Fe, Cu and Zn were all less than 50 μg per 100 cm 2 of the pan surface dipped in the solution, and that monitoring of the contents of aluminum in the boiled solution enabled the estimation of the contribution of metal elements from the pan wall. (orig.)

  11. The Pan-STARRS1 Survey Data Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Kenneth C.; Pan-STARRS Team

    2017-01-01

    The first Pan-STARRS1 Science Mission is complete and an initial Data Release 1, or DR1, including a database of measured attributes, stacked images, and metadata of the 3PI Survey, will be available from the STScI MAST archive. This release will contain all stationary objects with mean and stack photometry registered on the GAIA astrometric frame.The characteristics of the Pan-STARRS1 Surveys will be presented, including image quality, depth, cadence, and coverage. Measured attributes include PSF model magnitudes, aperture magnitudes, Kron Magnitudes, radial moments, Petrosian magnitudes, DeVaucoulers, Exponential, and Sersic magnitudes for extended objects. Images include total intensity, variance, and masks.An overview of both DR1 and the second data release DR2, to follow in the spring of 2017, will be presented. DR2 will add all time domain data and individual warped images. We will also report on the status of the Pan-STARRS2 Observatory and ongoing science with Pan-STARRS. The science from the PS1 surveys has included results in many t fields of astronomy from Near Earth Objects to cosmology.The Pan-STARRS1 Surveys have been made possible through contributions of the Institute for Astronomy of the University of Hawaii; the Pan-STARRS Project Office; the Max-Planck Society and its participating institutes: the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching; The Johns Hopkins University; Durham University; the University of Edinburgh; Queen's University Belfast; the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network Incorporated; the National Central University of Taiwan; the Space Telescope Science Institute; the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grants No. NNX08AR22G, NNX12AR65G, NNX14AM74G issued through the Planetary Science Division of the NASA Science Mission Directorate; the National Science Foundation under Grant No. AST

  12. Statistical evaluation of tablet coating processes: influence of pan design and solvent type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdomero Pereira de Melo Junior

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Partially and fully perforated pan coaters are among the most relevant types of equipment currently used in the process of coating tablets. The goal of this study was to assess the performance differences among these types of equipment employing a factorial design. This statistical approach allowed the simultaneous study of the process variables and verification of interactions among them. The study included partially-perforated and fully-perforated pan coaters, aqueous and organic solvents, as well as hypromellose-based immediate-release coating. The dependent variables were process time, energy consumption, mean weight of tablets and process yield. For the tests, placebo tablets with a mean weight of 250 mg were produced, divided into eight lots of two kilograms each and coated in duplicate, using both partially perforated pan and fully perforated pan coaters. The results showed a significant difference between the type of equipment used (partially and fully perforated pan coaters with regard to process time and energy consumption, whereas no significant difference was identified for mean weight of the coated tablets and process yield.Entre os tipos de equipamentos de maior relevância utilizados atualmente no processo de revestimento de comprimidos estão os de tambor parcial e totalmente perfurados. A proposta desse trabalho foi avaliar as diferenças de desempenho entre esses equipamentos empregando projeto fatorial. Essa abordagem estatística possibilitou o estudo simultâneo das variáveis do processo, permitindo verificar interações entre elas. O trabalho incluiu equipamento com tambor parcialmente perfurado e totalmente perfurado, solventes aquoso e orgânico, assim como revestimento de liberação imediata à base de hipromelose. As variáveis dependentes ou respostas foram tempo de processo, consumo de energia, peso médio e rendimento do processo. Para os ensaios, foram produzidos comprimidos de placebo de 250 mg de peso m

  13. Using TES retrievals to investigate PAN in North American biomass burning plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Fischer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Peroxyacyl nitrate (PAN is a critical atmospheric reservoir for nitrogen oxide radicals, and plays a lead role in their redistribution in the troposphere. We analyze new Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES PAN observations over North America from July 2006 to July 2009. Using aircraft observations from the Colorado Front Range, we demonstrate that TES can be sensitive to elevated PAN in the boundary layer (∼ 750 hPa even in the presence of clouds. In situ observations have shown that wildfire emissions can rapidly produce PAN, and PAN decomposition is an important component of ozone production in smoke plumes. We identify smoke-impacted TES PAN retrievals by co-location with NOAA Hazard Mapping System (HMS smoke plumes. Depending on the year, 15–32 % of cases where elevated PAN is identified in TES observations (retrievals with degrees of freedom (DOF > 0.6 overlap smoke plumes during July. Of all the retrievals attempted in the July 2006 to July 2009 study period, 18 % is associated with smoke . A case study of smoke transport in July 2007 illustrates that PAN enhancements associated with HMS smoke plumes can be connected to fire complexes, providing evidence that TES is sufficiently sensitive to measure elevated PAN several days downwind of major fires. Using a subset of retrievals with TES 510 hPa carbon monoxide (CO > 150 ppbv, and multiple estimates of background PAN, we calculate enhancement ratios for tropospheric average PAN relative to CO in smoke-impacted retrievals. Most of the TES-based enhancement ratios fall within the range calculated from in situ measurements.

  14. Distributed Wireless Power Transfer With Energy Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghyun; Zhang, Rui

    2017-04-01

    Energy beamforming (EB) is a key technique for achieving efficient radio-frequency (RF) transmission enabled wireless energy transfer (WET). By optimally designing the waveforms from multiple energy transmitters (ETs) over the wireless channels, they can be constructively combined at the energy receiver (ER) to achieve an EB gain that scales with the number of ETs. However, the optimal design of EB waveforms requires accurate channel state information (CSI) at the ETs, which is challenging to obtain practically, especially in a distributed system with ETs at separate locations. In this paper, we study practical and efficient channel training methods to achieve optimal EB in a distributed WET system. We propose two protocols with and without centralized coordination, respectively, where distributed ETs either sequentially or in parallel adapt their transmit phases based on a low-complexity energy feedback from the ER. The energy feedback only depends on the received power level at the ER, where each feedback indicates one particular transmit phase that results in the maximum harvested power over a set of previously used phases. Simulation results show that the two proposed training protocols converge very fast in practical WET systems even with a large number of distributed ETs, while the protocol with sequential ET phase adaptation is also analytically shown to converge to the optimal EB design with perfect CSI by increasing the training time. Numerical results are also provided to evaluate the performance of the proposed distributed EB and training designs as compared to other benchmark schemes.

  15. Tailored ion energy distributions on plasma electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economou, Demetre J.

    2013-01-01

    As microelectronic device features continue to shrink approaching atomic dimensions, control of the ion energy distribution on the substrate during plasma etching and deposition becomes increasingly critical. The ion energy should be high enough to drive ion-assisted etching, but not too high to cause substrate damage or loss of selectivity. In many cases, a nearly monoenergetic ion energy distribution (IED) is desired to achieve highly selective etching. In this work, the author briefly reviews: (1) the fundamentals of development of the ion energy distribution in the sheath and (2) methods to control the IED on plasma electrodes. Such methods include the application of “tailored” voltage waveforms on an electrode in continuous wave plasmas, or the application of synchronous bias on a “boundary electrode” during a specified time window in the afterglow of pulsed plasmas

  16. Critically Evaluated Energy Levels, Spectral Lines, Transition Probabilities, and Intensities of Neutral Vanadium (V i)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saloman, Edward B. [Dakota Consulting, Inc., 1110 Bonifant Street, Suite 310, Silver Spring, MD 20910 (United States); Kramida, Alexander [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The energy levels, observed spectral lines, and transition probabilities of the neutral vanadium atom, V i, have been compiled. Also included are values for some forbidden lines that may be of interest to the astrophysical community. Experimental Landé g -factors and leading percentage compositions for the levels are included where available, as well as wavelengths calculated from the energy levels (Ritz wavelengths). Wavelengths are reported for 3985 transitions, and 549 energy levels are determined. The observed relative intensities normalized to a common scale are provided.

  17. A New Measurement of the Spectral Lag of Gamma-Ray Bursts and its Implications for Spectral Evolution Behaviors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Lang; Wang, Fu-Ri; Cheng, Ye-Hao; Zhang, Xi; Yu, Bang-Yao; Xi, Bao-Jia; Wang, Xue; Feng, Huan-Xue; Zhang, Meng, E-mail: lshao@hebtu.edu.cn [Department of Space Sciences and Astronomy, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Zhang, Bin-Bin [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucá (IAA-CSIC), P.O. Box 03004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Wu, Xue-Feng [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Xu, Dong [Key Laboratory of Space Astronomy and Technology, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2017-08-01

    We carry out a systematical study of the spectral lag properties of 50 single-pulsed gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor. By dividing the light curves into multiple consecutive energy channels, we provide a new measurement of the spectral lag that is independent of energy channel selections. We perform a detailed statistical study of our new measurements. We find two similar power-law energy dependencies of both the pulse arrival time and pulse width. Our new results on the power-law indices would favor the relativistic geometric effects for the origin of spectral lag. However, a complete theoretical framework that can fully account for the diverse energy dependencies of both arrival time and pulse width revealed in this work is still lacking. We also study the spectral evolution behaviors of the GRB pulses. We find that a GRB pulse with negligible spectral lag would usually have a shorter pulse duration and would appear to have a “hardness-intensity tracking” behavior, and a GRB pulse with a significant spectral lag would usually have a longer pulse duration and would appear to have a “hard-to-soft” behavior.

  18. Distributed optimal coordination for distributed energy resources in power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Di; Yang, Tao; Stoorvogel, A.

    2017-01-01

    Driven by smart grid technologies, distributed energy resources (DERs) have been rapidly developing in recent years for improving reliability and efficiency of distribution systems. Emerging DERs require effective and efficient coordination in order to reap their potential benefits. In this paper......, we consider an optimal DER coordination problem over multiple time periods subject to constraints at both system and device levels. Fully distributed algorithms are proposed to dynamically and automatically coordinate distributed generators with multiple/single storages. With the proposed algorithms...

  19. SOSPEX, an interactive tool to explore SOFIA spectral cubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadda, Dario; Chambers, Edward T.

    2018-01-01

    We present SOSPEX (SOFIA SPectral EXplorer), an interactive tool to visualize and analyze spectral cubes obtained with the FIFI-LS and GREAT instruments onboard the SOFIA Infrared Observatory. This software package is written in Python 3 and it is available either through Github or Anaconda.Through this GUI it is possible to explore directly the spectral cubes produced by the SOFIA pipeline and archived in the SOFIA Science Archive. Spectral cubes are visualized showing their spatial and spectral dimensions in two different windows. By selecting a part of the spectrum, the flux from the corresponding slice of the cube is visualized in the spatial window. On the other hand, it is possible to define apertures on the spatial window to show the corresponding spectral energy distribution in the spectral window.Flux isocontours can be overlapped to external images in the spatial window while line names, atmospheric transmission, or external spectra can be overplotted on the spectral window. Atmospheric models with specific parameters can be retrieved, compared to the spectra and applied to the uncorrected FIFI-LS cubes in the cases where the standard values give unsatisfactory results. Subcubes can be selected and saved as FITS files by cropping or cutting the original cubes. Lines and continuum can be fitted in the spectral window saving the results in Jyson files which can be reloaded later. Finally, in the case of spatially extended observations, it is possible to compute spectral momenta as a function of the position to obtain velocity dispersion maps or velocity diagrams.

  20. Charge-Transfer Processes in Warm Dense Matter: Selective Spectral Filtering for Laser-Accelerated Ion Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braenzel, J.; Barriga-Carrasco, M. D.; Morales, R.; Schnürer, M.

    2018-05-01

    We investigate, both experimentally and theoretically, how the spectral distribution of laser accelerated carbon ions can be filtered by charge exchange processes in a double foil target setup. Carbon ions at multiple charge states with an initially wide kinetic energy spectrum, from 0.1 to 18 MeV, were detected with a remarkably narrow spectral bandwidth after they had passed through an ultrathin and partially ionized foil. With our theoretical calculations, we demonstrate that this process is a consequence of the evolution of the carbon ion charge states in the second foil. We calculated the resulting spectral distribution separately for each ion species by solving the rate equations for electron loss and capture processes within a collisional radiative model. We determine how the efficiency of charge transfer processes can be manipulated by controlling the ionization degree of the transfer matter.

  1. A SEARCH FOR L/T TRANSITION DWARFS WITH PAN-STARRS1 AND WISE. II. L/T TRANSITION ATMOSPHERES AND YOUNG DISCOVERIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Best, William M. J.; Liu, Michael C.; Magnier, Eugene A.; Aller, Kimberly M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Hodapp, K. W.; Kaiser, N.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C.; Deacon, Niall R.; Redstone, Joshua; Burgett, W. S.; Draper, P.; Metcalfe, N.

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of brown dwarfs from L to T spectral types is one of the least understood aspects of the ultracool population, partly for lack of a large, well-defined, and well-characterized sample in the L/T transition. To improve the existing census, we have searched ≈28,000 deg 2 using the Pan-STARRS1 and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer surveys for L/T transition dwarfs within 25 pc. We present 130 ultracool dwarf discoveries with estimated distances ≈9–130 pc, including 21 that were independently discovered by other authors and 3 that were previously identified as photometric candidates. Seventy-nine of our objects have near-IR spectral types of L6–T4.5, the most L/T transition dwarfs from any search to date, and we have increased the census of L9–T1.5 objects within 25 pc by over 50%. The color distribution of our discoveries provides further evidence for the “L/T gap,” a deficit of objects with (J − K) MKO  ≈ 0.0–0.5 mag in the L/T transition, and thus reinforces the idea that the transition from cloudy to clear photospheres occurs rapidly. Among our discoveries are 31 candidate binaries based on their low-resolution spectral features. Two of these candidates are common proper motion companions to nearby main sequence stars; if confirmed as binaries, these would be rare benchmark systems with the potential to stringently test ultracool evolutionary models. Our search also serendipitously identified 23 late-M and L dwarfs with spectroscopic signs of low gravity implying youth, including 10 with vl-g or int-g gravity classifications and another 13 with indications of low gravity whose spectral types or modest spectral signal-to-noise ratio do not allow us to assign formal classifications. Finally, we identify 10 candidate members of nearby young moving groups (YMG) with spectral types L7–T4.5, including three showing spectroscopic signs of low gravity. If confirmed, any of these would be among the coolest known YMG members and would

  2. Sampling bee communities using pan traps: alternative methods increase sample size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monitoring of the status of bee populations and inventories of bee faunas require systematic sampling. Efficiency and ease of implementation has encouraged the use of pan traps to sample bees. Efforts to find an optimal standardized sampling method for pan traps have focused on pan trap color. Th...

  3. Distributed Energy Resource (DER) Cybersecurity Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, Danish [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Johnson, Jay [Sandia National Laboratories

    2017-11-08

    This presentation covers the work that Sandia National Laboratories and National Renewable Energy Laboratory are doing for distributed energy resource cybersecurity standards, prepared for NREL's Annual Cybersecurity & Resilience Workshop on October 9-10, 2017.

  4. First simultaneous measurements of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and ozone at Nam Co in the central Tibetan Plateau: impacts from the PBL evolution and transport processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaobin; Zhang, Hualong; Lin, Weili; Wang, Ying; Xu, Wanyun; Jia, Shihui

    2018-04-01

    Both peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and ozone (O3) are key photochemical products in the atmosphere. Most of the previous in situ observations of both gases have been made in polluted regions and at low-altitude sites. Here we present the first simultaneous measurements of PAN and O3 at Nam Co (NMC; 30°46' N, 90°57' E, 4745 m a.s.l.), a remote site in the central Tibetan Plateau (TP). The observations were made during summer periods in 2011 and 2012. The PAN levels averaged 0.36 ppb (range: 0.11-0.76 ppb) and 0.44 ppb (range: 0.21-0.99 ppb) during 17-24 August 2011 and 15 May to 13 July 2012, respectively. The O3 level varied from 27.9 to 96.4 ppb, with an average of 60.0 ppb. Profound diurnal cycles of PAN and O3 were observed with minimum values around 05:00 LT, steep rises in the early morning, and broader platforms of high values during 09:00-20:00 LT. The evolution of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) played a key role in shaping the diurnal patterns of both gases, particularly the rapid increases of PAN and O3 in the early morning. Air entrainment from the free troposphere into the PBL seemed to cause the early-morning increase and be a key factor for sustaining the daytime high concentrations of both gases. The days with higher daytime PBL (about 3 km) showed stronger diurnal variations in both gases and were mainly distributed in the drier pre-monsoon period, while those with shallower daytime PBL (about 2 km) showed minor diurnal variations and were mainly distributed in the humid monsoon period. Episodes of higher PAN levels were occasionally observed at NMC. These PAN episodes were caused either by rapid downward transport of air masses from the middle/upper troposphere or by long-range transport of PAN plumes from north India, north Pakistan, and Nepal. The maximum PAN level in the downward transport cases ranged from 0.5 to 0.7 ppb. In the long-range transport case, the PAN level varied in the range of 0.3-1.0 ppb, with an average of 0.6 ppb. This long

  5. Integration of Globus Online with the ATLAS PanDA Workload Management System

    CERN Document Server

    Contreras, C; The ATLAS collaboration; Maeno, T; Nilsson, P; Potekhin, M

    2012-01-01

    The PanDA Workload Management System is the basis for distributed production and analysis for the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. In this role, it relies on sophisticated dynamic data movement facilities developed in ATLAS. In certain scenarios, such as small research teams in ATLAS Tier-3 sites and non-ATLAS Virtual Organizations, the overhead of installation and operation of these components makes their use not very cost effective. Globus Online is an emerging new tool from the Globus Alliance, which already proved popular within the research community. It provides the users with fast and robust file transfer capabilities that can also be managed from a Web interface, and in addition to grid sites, can have individual workstations and laptops serving as data transmission endpoints. We will describe the integration of the Globus Online functionality into the PanDA suite of software, in order to give more flexibility in choosing the method of data transfer to ATLAS Tier-3 and OSG users.

  6. Integration of Globus Online with the ATLAS PanDA Workload Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras, C; Deng, W; Maeno, T; Potekhin, M; Nilsson, P

    2012-01-01

    The PanDA Workload Management System is the basis for distributed production and analysis for the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. In this role, it relies on sophisticated dynamic data movement facilities developed in ATLAS. In certain scenarios, such as small research teams in ATLAS Tier-3 sites and non-ATLAS Virtual Organizations, the overhead of installation and operation of these components makes their use not very cost effective. Globus Online is an emerging new tool from the Globus Alliance, which already proved popular within the research community. It provides the users with fast and robust file transfer capabilities that can also be managed from a Web interface, and in addition to grid sites, can have individual workstations and laptops serving as data transmission endpoints. We will describe the integration of the Globus Online functionality into the PanDA suite of software, in order to give more flexibility in choosing the method of data transfer to ATLAS Tier-3 and Open Science Grid (OSG) users.

  7. Spectral and spectral-frequency methods of investigating atmosphereless bodies of the Solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busarev, Vladimir V; Prokof'eva-Mikhailovskaya, Valentina V; Bochkov, Valerii V

    2007-01-01

    A method of reflectance spectrophotometry of atmosphereless bodies of the Solar system, its specificity, and the means of eliminating basic spectral noise are considered. As a development, joining the method of reflectance spectrophotometry with the frequency analysis of observational data series is proposed. The combined spectral-frequency method allows identification of formations with distinctive spectral features, and estimations of their sizes and distribution on the surface of atmospherelss celestial bodies. As applied to investigations of asteroids 21 Lutetia and 4 Vesta, the spectral frequency method has given us the possibility of obtaining fundamentally new information about minor planets. (instruments and methods of investigation)

  8. Retention and distribution of polyphenols after pan-frying of French fries in oils enriched with olive leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, A; Salta, F N; Kalogeropoulos, N; Mylona, A; Ntalla, I; Andrikopoulos, N K

    2007-10-01

    Palm oil, olive oil, and sunflower oil were supplemented with an extract rich in polyphenols obtained from olive tree (Olea europaea) leaves at levels of 120 and 240 mg total polyphenols per kilogram of oil. Pan-frying of potatoes was performed in both the enriched and the nonsupplemented oils under domestic frying conditions. Total polyphenol content was estimated by the Folin-Ciocalteau assay, oleuropein was determined by HPLC analysis, while other individual polyphenols by GC/MS analysis. Fourteen polyphenol species were identified in the olive leaf extract, among which oleuropein predominated (1.25 g/kg olive leaves). All the enriched oils contained oleuropein before and after frying. Oleuropein as well as other polyphenol species were detected in all French fries cooked in enriched oils. Polyphenol intake by consuming French fries pan-fried in the enriched oils was calculated to be 6 to 31 times higher than that in the case of French fries fried in commercial oils, being dependent on the frying oil type.

  9. Compilation of PRF Canyon Floor Pan Sample Analysis Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pool, Karl N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Minette, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wahl, Jon H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Greenwood, Lawrence R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Coffey, Deborah S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McNamara, Bruce K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bryan, Samuel A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Scheele, Randall D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Delegard, Calvin H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sinkov, Sergey I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Soderquist, Chuck Z. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fiskum, Sandra K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Brown, Garrett N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Clark, Richard A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-06-30

    On September 28, 2015, debris collected from the PRF (236-Z) canyon floor, Pan J, was observed to exhibit chemical reaction. The material had been transferred from the floor pan to a collection tray inside the canyon the previous Friday. Work in the canyon was stopped to allow Industrial Hygiene to perform monitoring of the material reaction. Canyon floor debris that had been sealed out was sequestered at the facility, a recovery plan was developed, and drum inspections were initiated to verify no additional reactions had occurred. On October 13, in-process drums containing other Pan J material were inspected and showed some indication of chemical reaction, limited to discoloration and degradation of inner plastic bags. All Pan J material was sealed back into the canyon and returned to collection trays. Based on the high airborne levels in the canyon during physical debris removal, ETGS (Encapsulation Technology Glycerin Solution) was used as a fogging/lock-down agent. On October 15, subject matter experts confirmed a reaction had occurred between nitrates (both Plutonium Nitrate and Aluminum Nitrate Nonahydrate (ANN) are present) in the Pan J material and the ETGS fixative used to lower airborne radioactivity levels during debris removal. Management stopped the use of fogging/lock-down agents containing glycerin on bulk materials, declared a Management Concern, and initiated the Potential Inadequacy in the Safety Analysis determination process. Additional drum inspections and laboratory analysis of both reacted and unreacted material are planned. This report compiles the results of many different sample analyses conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on samples collected from the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) floor pans by the CH2MHill’s Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC). Revision 1 added Appendix G that reports the results of the Gas Generation Rate and methodology. The scope of analyses requested by CHPRC includes the determination of

  10. Ion spectral structures observed by the Van Allen Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferradas, C.; Zhang, J.; Spence, H. E.; Kistler, L. M.; Larsen, B.; Reeves, G. D.; Skoug, R. M.; Funsten, H. O.

    2015-12-01

    During the last decades several missions have recorded the presence of dynamic spectral features of energetic ions in the inner magnetosphere. Previous studies have reported single "nose-like" structures occurring alone and simultaneous nose-like structures (up to three). These ion structures are named after the characteristic shapes of energy bands or gaps in the energy-time spectrograms of in situ measured ion fluxes. They constitute the observational signatures of ion acceleration, transport, and loss in the global magnetosphere. The HOPE mass spectrometer onboard the Van Allen Probes measures energetic hydrogen, helium, and oxygen ions near the inner edge of the plasma sheet, where these ion structures are observed. We present a statistical study of nose-like structures, using 2-years measurements from the HOPE instrument. The results provide important details about the spatial distribution (dependence on geocentric distance), spectral features of the structures (differences among species), and geomagnetic conditions under which these structures occur.

  11. The spectral energy distribution and nature of the symbiotic system AS 296 in outburst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munari, U.; Whitelock, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    Photometry covering the spectral range 0.36 to 5 μm is reported for the symbiotic star As 296 about two months after the onset of the first recorded nova-like outburst. Analysis of published pre-outburst photometry provides evidence for the presence of an accreting white dwarf of high luminosity. This information together with the new observations is used to eliminate, for the 1988 event, various mechanisms which have been suggested for the outbursts in symbiotic objects. It is shown that hydrogen burning of accreted material can produce the white dwarf luminosity during quiescence. The outburst is then the result of a thermonuclear runaway in the unburnt material. The evidence is somewhat conflicting on the question of degeneracy conditions prior to the thermonuclear runaway. (author)

  12. Distributed Energy Resources Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NREL's Distributed Energy Resources Test Facility (DERTF) is a working laboratory for interconnection and systems integration testing. This state-of-the-art facility...

  13. Energy conservation in electric distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chong-Jin.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the potential for energy and power savings that exist in electric power delivery systems. These savings translate into significant financial and environmental benefits for electricity producers and consumers as well as for society in general. AlliedSignal's knowledge and perspectives on this topic are the result of discussions with hundreds of utility executives, government officials and other industry experts over the past decade in conjunction with marketing our Amorphous Metal technology for electric distribution transformers. Amorphous metal is a technology developed by AlliedSignal that significantly reduces the energy lost in electric distribution transformers at an incremental cost of just a few cents per kilo-Watt-hour. The purpose of this paper is to discuss: Amorphous Metal Alloy Technology; Energy Savings Opportunity; The Industrial Barriers and Remedies; Worldwide Demand; and A Low Risk Strategy. I wish this presentation will help KEPCO achieve their stated aims of ensuring sound development of the national economy and enhancement of public life through the economic and stable supply of electric power. AlliedSignal Korea Ltd. in conjunction with AlliedSignal Amorphous Metals in the U.S. are here to work with KEPCO, transformer manufacturers, industry, and government agencies to achieve greater efficiency in power distribution

  14. Distributed energy store railgun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that when the limiting case of a distributed energy store railgun is analyzed, i.e., the case where the space between adjacent energy stores become indefinitely small, three important results are obtained. First, the shape of the current pulse delivered by each store is sinusoidal and an exponential tail. Second, the rail-to-rail voltage behind the rear-most active store approaches zero. Third, it is not possible to choose parameters in such a way that capacitor crowbars can be eliminated

  15. Capacity of Distribution Feeders for Hosting Distributed Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papathanassiou, S.; Hatziargyriou, N.; Anagnostopoulos, P.

    The last two decades have seen an unprecedented development of distributed energy resources (DER) all over the world. Several countries have adopted a variety of support schemes (feed-in tariffs, green certificates, direct subsidies, tax exemptions etc.) so as to promote distributed generation (DG...... standards of the networks. To address this need in a timely and effective manner, simplified methodologies and practical rules of thumbs are often applied to assess the DER hosting capacity of existing distribution networks, avoiding thus detailed and time consuming analytical studies. The scope...

  16. Asymmetric Electrodes Constructed with PAN-Based Activated Carbon Fiber in Capacitive Deionization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhe Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Capacitive deionization (CDI method has drawn much attention for its low energy consumption, low pollution, and convenient manipulation. Activated carbon fibers (ACFs possess high adsorption ability and can be used as CDI electrode material. Herein, two kinds of PAN-based ACFs with different specific surface area (SSA were used for the CDI electrodes. The CDI performance was investigated; especially asymmetric electrodes’ effect was evaluated. The results demonstrated that PAN-based ACFs showed a high electrosorption rate (complete electrosorption in less than half an hour and moderate electrosorption capacity (up to 0.2 mmol/g. CDI experiments with asymmetric electrodes displayed a variation in electrosorption capacity between forward voltage and reverse voltage. It can be attributed to the electrical double layer (EDL overlap effect and inner pore potential; thus the ions with smaller hydrated ionic radius can be adsorbed more easily.

  17. Microbial comparative pan-genomics using binomial mixture models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ussery David W

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The size of the core- and pan-genome of bacterial species is a topic of increasing interest due to the growing number of sequenced prokaryote genomes, many from the same species. Attempts to estimate these quantities have been made, using regression methods or mixture models. We extend the latter approach by using statistical ideas developed for capture-recapture problems in ecology and epidemiology. Results We estimate core- and pan-genome sizes for 16 different bacterial species. The results reveal a complex dependency structure for most species, manifested as heterogeneous detection probabilities. Estimated pan-genome sizes range from small (around 2600 gene families in Buchnera aphidicola to large (around 43000 gene families in Escherichia coli. Results for Echerichia coli show that as more data become available, a larger diversity is estimated, indicating an extensive pool of rarely occurring genes in the population. Conclusion Analyzing pan-genomics data with binomial mixture models is a way to handle dependencies between genomes, which we find is always present. A bottleneck in the estimation procedure is the annotation of rarely occurring genes.

  18. If you like low P/sub T/ multiparticle physics, you'll love nucleus-nucleus interactions or Do E/sub T/ distributions obey KNO scaling in high energy pp and nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannenbaum, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of neutral transverse energy spectra in p-p, d-d and α-α interactions at the CERN ISR are presented. The source of transverse energy is the emission of relatively low P/sub T/ particles distributed uniformly. Analysis of the αα data in terms of multiple nucleon-nucleon collisions is most convenient when Gamma distributions are used to represent the spectral shapes. This distribution bears a strong relationship to the Negative Binomial Distribution which describes multiplicity distributions in pp and p anti p interactions over the full available energy range. Extensive analysis of the data is presented in terms of Nuclear Models. However, the best fit to the pp and αα data is a single Gamma distribution scaled by the mean value. This property is also known as KNO scaling. 15 refs., 2 figs

  19. Radiological Protection Measurements Implemented during the 16. Pan American and 4. ParaPan American Games: Guadalajara, Mexico, 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-02-01

    Terrorism remains a threat to international stability and security. Often national and international high level public events are the subject of much public interest and receive extensive coverage in the media. In this sense, it is well known that there is a real threat of a terrorist attack in important public events, such as major economic summits, high level political meetings or sporting events. In 1955 and 1975, the 2nd and 7th Pan American Games were organized by the City of Mexico. In 2011, the Pan American Games was the third event of its kind held in Guadalajara, Jalisco. At the national level, the implementation of nuclear security measures in the Pan American Games laid the foundations for a sustainable national nuclear security framework that will continue long after the event. The political decision, the existing legal basis and structure, agency coordination facilitated the incorporation of nuclear security measures. It was also a challenge to integrate all the relevant organizations, provide focus to the threat of terrorism linked to weapons of mass destruction for security games, plan resources and execute the project on time, among other details. For this reason, information and lessons learned that are reported in this document, received in Mexico during the 16th edition of the Pan American Games will be useful for the implementation of nuclear security measures in States with similar situations

  20. Present and past microbial life in continental salt pan sediments in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genderjahn, Steffi; Mangelsdorf, Kai; Alawi, Mashal; Kallmeyer, Jens; Wagner, Dirk

    2015-04-01

    and past microbial biomass in relation to climate change. The distribution of bacteria and archaea in salt pan sediments is strongly correlated to the abundance of total organic carbon (TOC), which varied between 0.2 and 1.5%. Gene copy numbers of bacteria and archaea decrease with depth. In the upper 10 cm of the different salt pan sediments 104 to 106copies g-1 soil are quantified, while gene copy numbers decrease with depth down to 103 copies g-1 soil. In general, gene copy numbers of bacteria are higher than those of archaea and they show a similar pattern in different salt pan sediments. TOC values increase due to higher terrestrial input and the increase coincides with a shift within the microbial community.

  1. Development of noSQL data storage for the ATLAS PanDA Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potekhin, M

    2012-01-01

    For several years the PanDA Workload Management System has been the basis for distributed production and analysis for the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Since the start of data taking PanDA usage has ramped up steadily, typically exceeding 500k completed jobs/day by June 2011. The associated monitoring data volume has been rising as well, to levels that present a new set of challenges in the areas of database scalability and monitoring system performance and efficiency. These challenges are being met with a R and D effort aimed at implementing a scalable and efficient monitoring data storage based on a noSQL solution (Cassandra). We present our motivations for using this technology, as well as data design and the techniques used for efficient indexing of the data. We also discuss the hardware requirements as they were determined by testing with actual data and realistic loads.

  2. Design principles and field performance of a solar spectral irradiance meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsiankou, V.; Hinzer, K.; Haysom, J.; Schriemer, H.; Emery, K.; Beal, R.

    2016-08-01

    A solar spectral irradiance meter (SSIM), designed for measuring the direct normal irradiance (DNI) in six wavelength bands, has been combined with models to determine key atmospheric transmittances and the resulting spectral irradiance distribution of DNI under all sky conditions. The design principles of the SSIM, implementation of a parameterized transmittance model, and field performance comparisons of modeled solar spectra with reference radiometer measurements are presented. Two SSIMs were tested and calibrated at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) against four spectroradiometers and an absolute cavity radiometer. The SSIMs' DNI was on average within 1% of the DNI values reported by one of NREL's primary absolute cavity radiometers. An additional SSIM was installed at the SUNLAB Outdoor Test Facility in September 2014, with ongoing collection of environmental and spectral data. The SSIM's performance in Ottawa was compared against a commercial pyrheliometer and a spectroradiometer over an eight month study. The difference in integrated daily spectral irradiance between the SSIM and the ASD spectroradiometer was found to be less than 1%. The cumulative energy density collected by the SSIM over this duration agreed with that measured by an Eppley model NIP pyrheliometer to within 0.5%. No degradation was observed.

  3. Single-source dual-energy spectral multidetector CT of pancreatic adenocarcinoma: optimization of energy level viewing significantly increases lesion contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, B N; Thomas, J V; Lockhart, M E; Berland, L L; Morgan, D E

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate lesion contrast in pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients using spectral multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) analysis. The present institutional review board-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA)-compliant retrospective study evaluated 64 consecutive adults with pancreatic adenocarcinoma examined using a standardized, multiphasic protocol on a single-source, dual-energy MDCT system. Pancreatic phase images (35 s) were acquired in dual-energy mode; unenhanced and portal venous phases used standard MDCT. Lesion contrast was evaluated on an independent workstation using dual-energy analysis software, comparing tumour to non-tumoural pancreas attenuation (HU) differences and tumour diameter at three energy levels: 70 keV; individual subject-optimized viewing energy level (based on the maximum contrast-to-noise ratio, CNR); and 45 keV. The image noise was measured for the same three energies. Differences in lesion contrast, diameter, and noise between the different energy levels were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Quantitative differences in contrast gain between 70 keV and CNR-optimized viewing energies, and between CNR-optimized and 45 keV were compared using the paired t-test. Thirty-four women and 30 men (mean age 68 years) had a mean tumour diameter of 3.6 cm. The median optimized energy level was 50 keV (range 40-77). The mean ± SD lesion contrast values (non-tumoural pancreas - tumour attenuation) were: 57 ± 29, 115 ± 70, and 146 ± 74 HU (p = 0.0005); the lengths of the tumours were: 3.6, 3.3, and 3.1 cm, respectively (p = 0.026); and the contrast to noise ratios were: 24 ± 7, 39 ± 12, and 59 ± 17 (p = 0.0005) for 70 keV, the optimized energy level, and 45 keV, respectively. For individuals, the mean ± SD contrast gain from 70 keV to the optimized energy level was 59 ± 45 HU; and the mean ± SD contrast gain from the optimized energy level to 45 keV was 31 ± 25 HU (p = 0

  4. Spectrally-engineered solar thermal photovoltaic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenert, Andrej; Bierman, David; Chan, Walker; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin; Wang, Evelyn N.; Nam, Young Suk; McEnaney, Kenneth; Kraemer, Daniel; Chen, Gang

    2018-03-27

    A solar thermal photovoltaic device, and method of forming same, includes a solar absorber and a spectrally selective emitter formed on either side of a thermally conductive substrate. The solar absorber is configured to absorb incident solar radiation. The solar absorber and the spectrally selective emitter are configured with an optimized emitter-to-absorber area ratio. The solar thermal photovoltaic device also includes a photovoltaic cell in thermal communication with the spectrally selective emitter. The spectrally selective emitter is configured to permit high emittance for energies above a bandgap of the photovoltaic cell and configured to permit low emittance for energies below the bandgap.

  5. Clash of pans: pan-Africanism and pan-Anglo-Saxonism and the global colour line, 1919–1945

    OpenAIRE

    Ledwidge, M.; Parmar, I.

    2017-01-01

    The article demonstrates both conceptually and empirically that pan-Anglo-Saxonist knowledge networks reconstructed and reimagined an apparently de-racialised, scientific, sober and liberal world order that outwardly abandoned, but did not eradicate the twin phenomena of racism and imperialism. Rather the new liberal (imperial) internationalists, organised in newly formed “think tanks” such as Chatham House and the Council on Foreign Relations, and through their increasingly global elite netw...

  6. Fast Reliability Assessing Method for Distribution Network with Distributed Renewable Energy Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fan; Huang, Shaoxiong; Ding, Jinjin; Ding, Jinjin; Gao, Bo; Xie, Yuguang; Wang, Xiaoming

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes a fast reliability assessing method for distribution grid with distributed renewable energy generation. First, the Weibull distribution and the Beta distribution are used to describe the probability distribution characteristics of wind speed and solar irradiance respectively, and the models of wind farm, solar park and local load are built for reliability assessment. Then based on power system production cost simulation probability discretization and linearization power flow, a optimal power flow objected with minimum cost of conventional power generation is to be resolved. Thus a reliability assessment for distribution grid is implemented fast and accurately. The Loss Of Load Probability (LOLP) and Expected Energy Not Supplied (EENS) are selected as the reliability index, a simulation for IEEE RBTS BUS6 system in MATLAB indicates that the fast reliability assessing method calculates the reliability index much faster with the accuracy ensured when compared with Monte Carlo method.

  7. PanCoreGen – profiling, detecting, annotating protein-coding genes in microbial genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Archana; Bag, Sumit K; Sokurenko, Evgeni V.

    2015-01-01

    A large amount of genomic data, especially from multiple isolates of a single species, has opened new vistas for microbial genomics analysis. Analyzing pan-genome (i.e. the sum of genetic repertoire) of microbial species is crucial in understanding the dynamics of molecular evolution, where virulence evolution is of major interest. Here we present PanCoreGen – a standalone application for pan- and core-genomic profiling of microbial protein-coding genes. PanCoreGen overcomes key limitations of the existing pan-genomic analysis tools, and develops an integrated annotation-structure for species-specific pan-genomic profile. It provides important new features for annotating draft genomes/contigs and detecting unidentified genes in annotated genomes. It also generates user-defined group-specific datasets within the pan-genome. Interestingly, analyzing an example-set of Salmonella genomes, we detect potential footprints of adaptive convergence of horizontally transferred genes in two human-restricted pathogenic serovars – Typhi and Paratyphi A. Overall, PanCoreGen represents a state-of-the-art tool for microbial phylogenomics and pathogenomics study. PMID:26456591

  8. Enhanced distributed energy resource system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atcitty, Stanley [Albuquerque, NM; Clark, Nancy H [Corrales, NM; Boyes, John D [Albuquerque, NM; Ranade, Satishkumar J [Las Cruces, NM

    2007-07-03

    A power transmission system including a direct current power source electrically connected to a conversion device for converting direct current into alternating current, a conversion device connected to a power distribution system through a junction, an energy storage device capable of producing direct current connected to a converter, where the converter, such as an insulated gate bipolar transistor, converts direct current from an energy storage device into alternating current and supplies the current to the junction and subsequently to the power distribution system. A microprocessor controller, connected to a sampling and feedback module and the converter, determines when the current load is higher than a set threshold value, requiring triggering of the converter to supply supplemental current to the power transmission system.

  9. Energy Policy Case Study - California: Renewables and Distributed Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homer, Juliet S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bender, Sadie R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weimar, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-19

    The purpose of this document is to present a case study of energy policies in California related to power system transformation and renewable and distributed energy resources (DERs). Distributed energy resources represent a broad range of technologies that can significantly impact how much, and when, electricity is demanded from the grid. Key policies and proceedings related to power system transformation and DERs are grouped into the following categories: 1.Policies that support achieving environmental and climate goals 2.Policies that promote deployment of DERs 3.Policies that support reliability and integration of DERs 4.Policies that promote market animation and support customer choice. Major challenges going forward are forecasting and modeling DERs, regulatory and utility business model issues, reliability, valuation and pricing, and data management and sharing.

  10. From evaporating pans to transpiring plants (John Dalton Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderick, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The name of the original inventor of irrigated agriculture is lost to antiquity. Nevertheless, one can perhaps imagine an inquisitive desert inhabitant noting the greener vegetation along a watercourse and putting two and two together. Once water was being supplied and food was being produced it would be natural to ask a further question: how much water can we put on? No doubt much experience was gained down through the ages, but again, one can readily imagine someone inverting a rain gauge, filling it with water and measuring how fast the water evaporated. The inverted rain gauge measures the demand for water by the atmosphere. We call it the evaporative demand. I do not know if this is what actually happened but it sure makes an interesting start to a talk. Evaporation pans are basically inverted rain gauges. The rain gauge and evaporation pan measure the supply and demand respectively and these instruments are the workhorses of agricultural meteorology. Rain gauges are well known. Evaporation pans are lesser known but are in widespread use and are a key part of several national standardized meteorological networks. Many more pans are used for things like scheduling irrigation on farms or estimating evaporation from lakes. Analysis of the long records now available from standardized networks has revealed an interesting phenomenon, i.e., pan evaporation has increased in some places and decreased in other but when averaged over large numbers of pans there has been a steady decline. These independent reports from, for example, the US, Russia, China, India, Thailand, are replicated in the southern hemisphere in, for example, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. One often hears the statement that because the earth is expected to warm with increasing greenhouse gas emissions then it follows that water will evaporate faster. The pan evaporation observations show that this widely held expectation is wrong. When expectations disagree with observations, it is the

  11. Development and characterization of polyacrylonitrile (PAN based carbon hollow fiber membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Mohd Saufi

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the development and characterization of polyacrylonitrile (PAN based carbon hollow fiber membrane. Nitrogen was used as an inert gas during pyrolysis of the PAN hollow fiber membrane into carbon membrane. PAN membranes were pyrolyzed at temperature ranging from 500oC to 800oC for 30 minutes of thermal soak time. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and gas sorption analysis were applied to characterize the PAN based carbon membrane. Pyrolysis temperature was found to significantly change the structure and properties of carbon membrane. FTIR results concluded that the carbon yield still could be increased by pyrolyzing PAN membranes at temperature higher than 800oC since the existence of other functional group instead of CH group. Gas adsorption analysis showed that the average pore diameter increased up to 800oC.

  12. Reactive Power from Distributed Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Rizy, Tom; Li, Fangxing; Fall, Ndeye

    2006-12-15

    Distributed energy is an attractive option for solving reactive power and distribution system voltage problems because of its proximity to load. But the cost of retrofitting DE devices to absorb or produce reactive power needs to be reduced. There also needs to be a market mechanism in place for ISOs, RTOs, and transmission operators to procure reactive power from the customer side of the meter where DE usually resides. (author)

  13. Reactive Power from Distributed Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Rizy, Tom; Li, Fangxing; Fall, Ndeye

    2006-01-01

    Distributed energy is an attractive option for solving reactive power and distribution system voltage problems because of its proximity to load. But the cost of retrofitting DE devices to absorb or produce reactive power needs to be reduced. There also needs to be a market mechanism in place for ISOs, RTOs, and transmission operators to procure reactive power from the customer side of the meter where DE usually resides. (author)

  14. Limiting energy loss distributions for multiphoton channeling radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarenco, M.V.

    2015-01-01

    Recent results in the theory of multiphoton spectra for coherent radiation sources are overviewed, with the emphasis on channeling radiation. For the latter case, the importance of the order of resummation and averaging is emphasized. Limiting shapes of multiphoton spectra at high intensity are discussed for different channeling regimes. In some spectral regions, there emerges a correspondence between the radiative energy loss and the electron integrals of motion

  15. Principal Components Analysis on the spectral Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function of ceramic colour standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, A; Campos, J; Rabal, A M; Pons, A; Hernanz, M L; Corróns, A

    2011-09-26

    The Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) is essential to characterize an object's reflectance properties. This function depends both on the various illumination-observation geometries as well as on the wavelength. As a result, the comprehensive interpretation of the data becomes rather complex. In this work we assess the use of the multivariable analysis technique of Principal Components Analysis (PCA) applied to the experimental BRDF data of a ceramic colour standard. It will be shown that the result may be linked to the various reflection processes occurring on the surface, assuming that the incoming spectral distribution is affected by each one of these processes in a specific manner. Moreover, this procedure facilitates the task of interpolating a series of BRDF measurements obtained for a particular sample. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  16. Taxonomy for Evaluation of Distributed Control Strategies for Distributed Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Xue; Heussen, Kai; Gehrke, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Distributed control strategies applied to power distribution control problems are meant to offer robust and scalable integration of distributed energy resources (DER). However, the term “distributed control” is often loosely applied to a variety of very different control strategies. In particular....... For such comparison, a classification is required that is consistent across the different aspects mentioned above. This paper develops systematic categories of control strategies that accounts for communication, control and physical distribution aspects of the problem, and provides a set of criteria that can...

  17. Estimation of photon energy distribution in gamma calibration field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Fumiaki; Shimizu, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro

    1997-03-01

    Photon survey instruments used for radiation protection are usually calibrated at gamma radiation fields, which are traceable to the national standard with regard to exposure. Whereas scattered radiations as well as primary gamma-rays exit in the calibration field, no consideration for the effect of the scattered radiations on energy distribution is given in routine calibration works. The scattered radiations can change photon energy spectra in the field, and this can result in misinterpretations of energy-dependent instrument responses. Construction materials in the field affect the energy distribution and magnitude of the scattered radiations. The geometric relationship between a gamma source and an instrument can determine the energy distribution at the calibration point. Therefore, it is essential for the assurance of quality calibration to estimate the energy spectra at the gamma calibration fields. Then, photon energy distributions at some fields in the Facility of Radiation Standard of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) were estimated by measurements using a NaI(Tl) detector and Monte Carlo calculations. It was found that the use of collimator gives a different feature in photon energy distribution. The origin of scattered radiations and the ratio of the scattered radiations to the primary gamma-rays were obtained. The results can help to improve the calibration of photon survey instruments in the JAERI. (author)

  18. The value of energy spectral CT in the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant soft tissue masses of the musculoskeletal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xin [Department of Radiology, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong (China); Shao, Xiaodong [Department of Radiology, Qingdao Municipal Hospital, Qingdao, Shandong (China); Chen, Haisong, E-mail: chsEJR@163.com [Department of Radiology, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong (China)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Different types of tissues have different types of spectral curves. • We find that spectral curve is useful in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant tumor of the musculoskeletal system. • Arc shaped curve is a specific sign for tumors containing abundant fat. - Abstract: Objective: To explore the value of energy spectral CT in the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant tumor of the musculoskeletal system. Methods: Energy spectral CT scan was performed on 100 patients with soft tissue mass caused by musculoskeletal tumors found by MRI. Solid areas with homogenous density were chosen as region of interests (ROI), avoiding necrosis, hemorrhage and calcification region. Select the optimal keV on single energy images, and then the keV–CT curve was automatically generated. All 100 cases of tumors proved by histological examination were divided into four groups, 38 cases were in benign group, 10 cases in borderline group, 49 cases in malignant group, and 3 cases of lipoma (that were analyzed separately since its curve was arc shaped, significantly different from other curves). The formula used to calculate the slope of spectral curve was as follows: slope = (Hu40 keV − Hu80 keV)/40. As the slope was steep within the range of 40–80 keV based on preliminary observations, 40 keV and 80 keV were used as the reference points to calculate the slope value of the energy spectral curve. Kruskal–Wallis rank sum test was applied for statistical analysis, and P < 0.05 was considered to indicate a statistically significant difference. Results: The spectral curve of benign group was gradually falling type with a mean slope of 0.75 ± 0.30, that of malignant group was sharply falling type with a mean slope of 1.64 ± 1.00, and that of borderline group was a falling type between the above two groups with a mean slope of 1.34 ± 0.45. The differences of slopes between benign and malignant group, benign and borderline group were of

  19. PanDA: distributed production and distributed analysis system for ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeno, T

    2008-01-01

    A new distributed software system was developed in the fall of 2005 for the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. This system, called PANDA, provides an integrated service architecture with late binding of jobs, maximal automation through layered services, tight binding with ATLAS Distributed Data Management system [1], advanced error discovery and recovery procedures, and other features. In this talk, we will describe the PANDA software system. Special emphasis will be placed on the evolution of PANDA based on one and half year of real experience in carrying out Computer System Commissioning data production [2] for ATLAS. The architecture of PANDA is well suited for the computing needs of the ATLAS experiment, which is expected to be one of the first HEP experiments to operate at the petabyte scale

  20. Recent Advances in Cardiac Computed Tomography: Dual Energy, Spectral and Molecular CT Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danad, Ibrahim; Fayad, Zahi A.; Willemink, Martin J.; Min, James K.

    2015-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) evolved into a powerful diagnostic tool and it is impossible to imagine current clinical practice without CT imaging. Due to its widespread availability, ease of clinical application, superb sensitivity for detection of CAD, and non-invasive nature, CT has become a valuable tool within the armamentarium of the cardiologist. In the last few years, numerous technological advances in CT have occurred—including dual energy CT (DECT), spectral CT and CT-based molecular imaging. By harnessing the advances in technology, cardiac CT has advanced beyond the mere evaluation of coronary stenosis to an imaging modality tool that permits accurate plaque characterization, assessment of myocardial perfusion and even probing of molecular processes that are involved in coronary atherosclerosis. Novel innovations in CT contrast agents and pre-clinical spectral CT devices have paved the way for CT-based molecular imaging. PMID:26068288

  1. Broad band energy distribution of UV-bright BL Lac objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraschi, L.; Tanzi, E.G.; Treves, A.

    1984-01-01

    IUE satellite data in the 1200-2000 and 1900-3200 A intervals of BL Lac objects are analyzed in terms of two discernible groups. A total of 25 BL Lac objects were observed, with differences between groups displayed in terms of the power slope of the energy of the UV emissions, i.e., slopes of 1 and 2. Comparisons of the spectra with those of quasars showed that quasars have a small spectral index in the 1000-6000 A band and no correlation exists between the spectral index and UV flux of the BL Lac objects. The comparisons underscore the lack of a thermal component for BL Lac objects. Steep spectral components in both BL Lac objects and highly polarized quasars emissions could both be due to synchrotron emission. Compton scattering of relativistic electrons off synchrotron photons could produce the X ray emissions. 44 references

  2. Broad band energy distribution of UV-bright BL Lac objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maraschi, L.; Tanzi, E.G.; Treves, A.

    1984-01-01

    IUE satellite data in the 1200-2000 and 1900-3200 A intervals of BL Lac objects are analyzed in terms of two discernible groups. A total of 25 BL Lac objects were observed, with differences between groups displayed in terms of the power slope of the energy of the UV emissions, i.e., slopes of 1 and 2. Comparisons of the spectra with those of quasars showed that quasars have a small spectral index in the 1000-6000 A band and no correlation exists between the spectral index and UV flux of the BL Lac objects. The comparisons underscore the lack of a thermal component for BL Lac objects. Steep spectral components in both BL Lac objects and highly polarized quasars emissions could both be due to synchrotron emission. Compton scattering of relativistic electrons off synchrotron photons could produce the X ray emissions. 44 references.

  3. FOUR NEW T DWARFS IDENTIFIED IN Pan-STARRS 1 COMMISSIONING DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deacon, Niall R.; Liu, Michael C.; Magnier, Eugene A.; Bowler, Brendan P.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Kaiser, N.; Morgan, J. S.; Sweeney, W. E.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C.; Goldman, Bertrand; Redstone, Joshua A.; Lupton, R. H.; Price, P. A.

    2011-01-01

    A complete well-defined sample of ultracool dwarfs is one of the key science programs of the Pan-STARRS 1 optical survey telescope (PS1). Here we combine PS1 commissioning data with the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) to conduct a proper motion search (0.''1-2.''0 yr -1 ) for nearby T dwarfs, using optical+near-IR colors to select objects for spectroscopic follow-up. The addition of sensitive far-red optical imaging from PS1 enables discovery of nearby ultracool dwarfs that cannot be identified from 2MASS data alone. We have searched 3700 deg 2 of PS1 y-band (0.95-1.03 μm) data to y ∼ 19.5 mag (AB) and J ∼ 16.5 mag (Vega) and discovered four previously unknown bright T dwarfs. Three of the objects (with spectral types T1.5, T2, and T3.5) have photometric distances within 25 pc and were missed by previous 2MASS searches due to more restrictive color selection criteria. The fourth object (spectral type T4.5) is more distant than 25 pc and is only a single-band detection in 2MASS. We also examine the potential for completing the census of nearby ultracool objects with the PS1 3π survey.

  4. Determination of the Spectral Index in the Fission Spectrum Energy Regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Amy Sarah [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-16

    Neutron reaction cross sections play a vital role in tracking the production and destruction of isotopes exposed to neutron fluence. They are central to the process of reconciling the initial and final atom inventories. Measurements of irradiated samples by radiochemical methods in tangent with an algorithm are used to evaluate the fluence a sample is exposed to over the course of the irradiation. This algorithm is the Isotope Production Code (IPC) created and used by the radiochemistry data assessment team at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). An integral result is calculated by varying the total neutron fluence seen by a sample. A sample, irradiated in a critical assembly, will be exposed to a unique neutron flux defined by the neutron source and distance of the sample from the source. Neutron cross sections utilized are a function of the hardness of the neutron spectrum at the location of irradiation. A spectral index is used an indicator of the hardness of the neutron spectrum. Cross sections fit forms applied in IPC are collapsed from a LANL 30-group energy structure. Several decades of research and development have been performed to formalize the current IPC cross section library. Basis of the current fission spectrum neutron reaction cross section library is rooted in critical assembly experiments performed from the 1950’s through the early 1970’s at LANL. The focus of this report is development of the spectral index used an indicator of the hardness of the neutron spectrum in the fission spectrum energy regime.

  5. First simultaneous measurements of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN and ozone at Nam Co in the central Tibetan Plateau: impacts from the PBL evolution and transport processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Xu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Both peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN and ozone (O3 are key photochemical products in the atmosphere. Most of the previous in situ observations of both gases have been made in polluted regions and at low-altitude sites. Here we present the first simultaneous measurements of PAN and O3 at Nam Co (NMC; 30°46′ N, 90°57′ E, 4745 m a.s.l., a remote site in the central Tibetan Plateau (TP. The observations were made during summer periods in 2011 and 2012. The PAN levels averaged 0.36 ppb (range: 0.11–0.76 ppb and 0.44 ppb (range: 0.21–0.99 ppb during 17–24 August 2011 and 15 May to 13 July 2012, respectively. The O3 level varied from 27.9 to 96.4 ppb, with an average of 60.0 ppb. Profound diurnal cycles of PAN and O3 were observed with minimum values around 05:00 LT, steep rises in the early morning, and broader platforms of high values during 09:00–20:00 LT. The evolution of the planetary boundary layer (PBL played a key role in shaping the diurnal patterns of both gases, particularly the rapid increases of PAN and O3 in the early morning. Air entrainment from the free troposphere into the PBL seemed to cause the early-morning increase and be a key factor for sustaining the daytime high concentrations of both gases. The days with higher daytime PBL (about 3 km showed stronger diurnal variations in both gases and were mainly distributed in the drier pre-monsoon period, while those with shallower daytime PBL (about 2 km showed minor diurnal variations and were mainly distributed in the humid monsoon period. Episodes of higher PAN levels were occasionally observed at NMC. These PAN episodes were caused either by rapid downward transport of air masses from the middle/upper troposphere or by long-range transport of PAN plumes from north India, north Pakistan, and Nepal. The maximum PAN level in the downward transport cases ranged from 0.5 to 0.7 ppb. In the long-range transport case, the PAN level varied in the

  6. Smart Distribution Boxes, Complete Energy Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platise, Uros

    2010-09-15

    Present households demand side management implementations are turning conventional appliances into smart ones to support auto demand (AutoDR) response function. Present concept features a direct link between the power meters and appliances. In this paper new concept and example of implementation of a so-called Smart Distribution Box (SmartDB) is represented for complete energy and power management. SmartDBs, as an intermediate layer, are extending smart grid power meter functionality to support AutoDR with fast and guaranteed response times, distributed power sources, and besides provide full control over energy management and extra safety functions to the consumers.

  7. Effectiveness of KNIFC-PAN Resin in Absorbing Radiocesium in Seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurrul Assyikeen Mohd Jaffary; Abdul Kadir Ishak; Zal Uyun Wan Mahmood; Wo, Y.M.; Norfaizal Mohamed; Mohd Tarmizi Ishak

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of KNiFC-PAN absorber, potassium-nickel hexacyanoferrate (II) (KNiFC) bound into modified polyacrylonitrile (PAN) have been tested for capability in absorbing radiocesium in seawater samples. The efficiency of the KNiFC-PAN were measured by the different activity of the radiocesium measured using Hyper Pure Germanium Detector (HPGe) in initial spiked seawater and eluent seawater after passed through 5 ml of KNiFC absorber. Study showed 87 % effectiveness of the KNiFC-PAN in absorbing radiocesium. Further study conducted to illustrate relation between spiked seawater and activity measured for 5 ml of KniFC passed through spiked seawater in packed column. This study suggested this relative 15L cubitainer method can be used to monitor the radiocesium in emergency situation for the fast and reliable result. (author)

  8. El Abasto de Pan en el Madrid del Siglo XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ignacio ANDRÉS UCENDO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El mercado del pan era el más importante de los mercados de abastos, pero también el que contaba con el más complejo sistema de intervención. Los objetivos de la política de abastos eran asegurar un suministro continuo a precios estables y moderados.Los instrumentos incluían la regulación de los precios del grano y el pan, la provisión directa a través del pósito municipal y, en el caso de la corte, el pan de registro. En este trabajo examinamos la política de tasas, las disposiciones del gobierno y el comportamiento de los precios del pan en Madrid y del trigo en los mercados de origen.

  9. Source analysis of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) in Guangzhou, China: a yearlong observation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B. G.; Zhu, D.; Zou, Y.; Wang, H.; Zhou, L.; Ouyang, X.; Shao, H. F.; Deng, X. J.

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, photochemical smog has been a major cause of air pollution in the metropolitan area of Guangzhou, China, with a continuing increase in the concentrations of photochemical pollutants. The concentration of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) has often been found to reach very high levels, posing a potential threat to the public health. To better understand the changes in PAN concentration and its sources, a study was carried from January to December of 2012 at the Guangzhou Panyu Atmospheric Composition Station (GPACS) to measure the atmospheric concentrations of PAN as well as those of ozone (O3), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC). These data were analyzed to investigate the quantitative relationships between PAN and its precursors. In the study period, the hourly concentrations of PAN varied from below instrument detection limit to 12.0 ppbv. The yearly mean concentration of PAN was 0.84 ppbv, with the daily mean concentration exceeding 5 ppbv in 32 of the total observation days. Calculations indicate that among the measured NMHC species, alkenes accounted for 53 % of the total NMHC contribution to the PAN production, with aromatics and alkanes accounting for about 11 and 7 % of the total, respectively. During the period of our observation only a modest correlation was found between the concentrations of PAN and O3 for daytime hours, and observed PAN concentrations were relatively high even though the observed NMHCs/NOx ratio was low. This suggests regional air mass transport of pollutants had a major impact on the PAN concentrations in Guangzhou area.

  10. Probability distributions in conservative energy exchange models of multiple interacting agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scafetta, Nicola; West, Bruce J

    2007-01-01

    Herein we study energy exchange models of multiple interacting agents that conserve energy in each interaction. The models differ regarding the rules that regulate the energy exchange and boundary effects. We find a variety of stochastic behaviours that manifest energy equilibrium probability distributions of different types and interaction rules that yield not only the exponential distributions such as the familiar Maxwell-Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution of an elastically colliding ideal particle gas, but also uniform distributions, truncated exponential distributions, Gaussian distributions, Gamma distributions, inverse power law distributions, mixed exponential and inverse power law distributions, and evolving distributions. This wide variety of distributions should be of value in determining the underlying mechanisms generating the statistical properties of complex phenomena including those to be found in complex chemical reactions

  11. Evaluating Maximum Wind Energy Exploitation in Active Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siano, Pierluigi; Chen, Peiyuan; Chen, Zhe

    2010-01-01

    The increased spreading of distributed and renewable generation requires moving towards active management of distribution networks. In this paper, in order to evaluate maximum wind energy exploitation in active distribution networks, a method based on a multi-period optimal power flow (OPF......) analysis is proposed. Active network management schemes such as coordinated voltage control, energy curtailment and power factor control are integrated in the method in order to investigate their impacts on the maximization of wind energy exploitation. Some case studies, using real data from a Danish...... distribution system, confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed method in evaluating the optimal applications of active management schemes to increase wind energy harvesting without costly network reinforcement for the connection of wind generation....

  12. El pan nuestro de cada mes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Cecilia Ramírez

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Comenzar escribiendo que Pan fue una revista singular sería caer en un lugar común. Lo más fácil sería decir que Pan fue o es una caja de sorpresas. Corre 1935. Colombia es un país rural; cobija una sociedad que se resiste, a pesar de los discursos progresistas, a ese proceso de transformación que ya anuncia el comercio cafetero y las primeras huelgas. Es la época de auge de los ferrocarriles nacionales, cuando se toma Cafiaspirina y Griperol, se viaja a Nueva York vía La Habana en lujosos trasatlánticos y, por supuesto, no existe la televisión. La mujer está en la casa en "lo suyo" el hombre por fuera también en "lo suyo", "las ventanas de acero se imponen en las construcciones modernas" y la soledad del ser es la misma de hoy. Se respira una gran mediocridad nacional y los escritores adoran la retórica. Entonces aparece Pan, con su formato de 15 por 23 centímetros y sus ochenta y cuatro páginas.

  13. Processing and Performance of MOF (Metal Organic Framework)-Loaded PAN Nanofibrous Membrane for CO2 Adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahiduzzaman; Khan, Mujibur R.; Harp, Spencer; Neumann, Jeffrey; Sultana, Quazi Nahida

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this experimental study is to produce a nanofibrous membrane functionalized with adsorbent particles called metal organic framework (MOF) in order to adsorb CO2 from a gas source. Therefore, Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) was chosen as the precursor for nanofibers and HKUST-1, a Cu-based MOF, was chosen as adsorbent. The experimental process consists of electrospinning PAN solution blended with HKUST-1 to produce a nanofibrous mat as working substrates. The fibers were collected in a cylindrical canister model. SEM image of this mat showed nanofibers with the presence of small adsorbent particles, impregnated into the as-spun fibers discretely. To increase the amount of MOF particles for effectual gas adsorption, a secondary solvothermal process of producing MOF particles on the fibers was required. This process consists of multiple growth cycles of HKUST-1 particles by using a sol-gel precursor. SEM images showed uniform distribution of porous MOF particles of 2-4 µm in size on the fiber surface. Energy dispersive spectroscopy report of the fiber confirmed the presence of MOF particles through the identification of characteristic Copper elemental peaks of HKUST-1. To determine the thermal stability of the fibrous membrane, Thermogravimetric analysis of HKUST-1 consisting of PAN fiber was performed where a total weight loss of 40% between 210 and 360 °C was observed, hence proving the high-temperature durability of the synthesized membrane. BET surface area of the fiber membrane was measured as 540.73 m2/g. The fiber membrane was then placed into an experimental test bench containing a mixed gas inflow of CO2 and N2. Using non-dispersive infrared CO2 sensors connected to the inlet and outlet port of the bench, significant reduction of CO2 in concentration was measured. Comparative IR spectroscopic analysis between the gas-treated and gas untreated fiber samples showed the presence of characteristic peak in the vicinity of 2300 and 2400 cm-1 which

  14. Time Variations of the Spectral Indices of the Suprathermal Distribution as observed by WIND/STICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruesbeck, J. R.; Christian, E. R.; Lepri, S. T.; Thomas, J.; Zurbuchen, T.; Gloeckler, G.

    2011-12-01

    Suprathermal particle spectra, measured in various regions of the heliosphere and heliosheath by Ulysses, ACE and Voyager, have recently been reported. In many cases long accumulation times had to be used to obtain sufficient statistical accuracy, and corrections were necessary, since only a fraction of phase space was measured. The SupraThermal Ion Composition Spectrometer (STICS), onboard Wind, enables observations of the suprathermal plasma in the solar wind at much higher time resolution. In addition, the STICS samples nearly full three-dimensional phase space, enabling measurements of anisotropies. We present a multi-year investigation of the spectral index of the suprathermal distribution, accumulated over 1 day and less, where we see significant time variation. An average lower bound value of the spectral index is at ~ -5, however, there are time periods during which the observed distributions steepen. We will also present an analysis of time and spatial variations of the suprathermal particle fluxes, observed by STICS and other instruments. In particular, we will compare the observed variability with predictions from a model by Bochsler and Moebius, based on data of the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX), who postulated that energetic neutral atoms, from outside of the heliosheath, which then penetrate the inner heliosphere and are finally ionized, could be a source of the very suprathermal populations we observe.

  15. Kinematic measurement from panned cinematography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, P; Bedingfield, E W; Wronko, C; Kollias, I; Marchiori, G; Kuntz, J; Way, N; Kuiper, D

    1989-06-01

    Traditional 2-D cinematography has used a stationary camera with its optical axis perpendicular to the plane of motion. This method has constrained the size of the object plane or has introduced potential errors from a small subject image size with large object field widths. The purpose of this study was to assess a panning technique that could overcome the inherent limitations of small object field widths, small object image sizes and limited movement samples. The proposed technique used a series of reference targets in the object field that provided the necessary scales and origin translations. A 102 m object field was panned. Comparisons between criterion distances and film measured distances for field widths of 46 m and 22 m resulted in absolute mean differences that were comparable to that of the traditional method.

  16. Guided-wave ap