WorldWideScience

Sample records for pam application rate

  1. The effect of polyacrylamide (PAM) applications on infiltration, runoff ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) application to soils is an effective soil conservation practice for reducing runoff and soil losses caused by erosion. It also increases the infiltration rate of soils. The objective of this study was conducted to ...

  2. [Effects of biochar and PAM application on saline soil hydraulic properties of coastal reclamation region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yu Tong; She, Dong Li

    2017-11-01

    Disc infiltration tests were carried out to study the soil infiltration characteristics under different rates of soil amendments application, and to investigate the effects of biochar and polyacrylamide (PAM) application on saline soil hydraulic properties, pore characteristics and contribution of each pore to soil water flow in coastal reclamation region. The results showed that soil satura-ted hydraulic conductivity increased by 46.4% when biochar was applied at 2% compared with the control, and decreased with increasing PAM application. The total effective soil porosity and r>100 μm pores were increased by 8.3% and 10.2% (PPAM application. Particularly, the total effective soil porosity decreased markedly when PAM was applied at 1‰ and the reduction was up to 88%. With the application of biochar and PAM, the contribution of r500 μm played a major role in determining water flows.

  3. Experimental Comparison of 56 Gbit/s PAM-4 and DMT for Data Center Interconnect Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiselt, Nicklas; Dochhan, Annika; Griesser, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-4) and discrete multi-tone transmission (DMT) in combination with intensity modulation and direct-detection are two promising approaches for a low-power and low-cost solution for the next generation of data center interconnect applications. We experiment......Four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-4) and discrete multi-tone transmission (DMT) in combination with intensity modulation and direct-detection are two promising approaches for a low-power and low-cost solution for the next generation of data center interconnect applications. We...... experimentally investigate and compare both modulation formats at a data rate of 56 Gb/s and a transmission wavelength of 1544 nm using the same experimental setup. We show that PAM-4 outperforms double sideband DMT and also vestigial sideband DMT for the optical back-to-back (b2b) case and also...... for a transmission distance of 80 km SSMF in terms of required OSNR at a FEC-threshold of 3.8e-3. However, it is also pointed out that both versions of DMT do not require any optical dispersion compensation to transmit over 80 km SSMF while this is essential for PAM-4. Thus, implementation effort and cost may...

  4. Investigation of PAM-4 for extending reach in data center interconnect applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Teipen, Brian; Eiselt, Nicklas

    2015-01-01

    Optical four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-4) is being widely studied for various short-reach optical interfaces, motivated by the need to keep cost structure low, and to increase link capacity despite various constraints in component bandwidth. When considering PAM-4 in applications...... with reach significantly greater than 10km, such as in extended data center interconnects which require optical amplification, impairments such as chromatic dispersion, optical filtering, and ASE must be controlled. We investigate and report on requirements of PAM-4 for extended-reach, data center...

  5. Seasonal primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) in the south: summertime is PAM time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, James

    2012-01-01

    Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), a typically fatal, free-living amebic infection of the central nervous system (CNS), is caused by the thermophilic, freshwater protozoan, Naegleria fowleri. More than 145 cases of PAM have been reported worldwide, with most reported cases in the United States (US). Since annual PAM case clusters in the US and worldwide have demonstrated recent increases over background cases, the objectives of this investigation included (1) an epidemiological and statistical analysis of a 2007 cluster of six PAM cases in the southern US, nested in a retrospective review of 121 confirmed US cases of PAM over the period, 1937 to 2007; and (2) a statistical analysis of all existing demographic, temporal, and behavioral risk factors for PAM. Significant risk factors for PAM in the United States included male sex and warm recreational freshwater exposures in seasonal patterns (July - August) in southern tier states, including Louisiana. Although there have been a few recent survivors of PAM treated with combinations of intensive critical care, antifungals, and synergistic antibiotics, case fatality rates for PAM remain very high. PAM is best prevented by combinations of public health educational and behavioral modification strategies. Further investigations will be required to determine the significance of freshwater wakeboarding as a significant risk factor for PAM and to determine any dose-response effects of global warming on rising freshwater temperatures and the growth of aquatic Naegleria fowleri.

  6. Power penalties for multi-level PAM modulation formats at arbitrary bit error rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliteevskiy, Nikolay A.; Wood, William A.; Downie, John D.; Hurley, Jason; Sterlingov, Petr

    2016-03-01

    There is considerable interest in combining multi-level pulsed amplitude modulation formats (PAM-L) and forward error correction (FEC) in next-generation, short-range optical communications links for increased capacity. In this paper we derive new formulas for the optical power penalties due to modulation format complexity relative to PAM-2 and due to inter-symbol interference (ISI). We show that these penalties depend on the required system bit-error rate (BER) and that the conventional formulas overestimate link penalties. Our corrections to the standard formulas are very small at conventional BER levels (typically 1×10-12) but become significant at the higher BER levels enabled by FEC technology, especially for signal distortions due to ISI. The standard formula for format complexity, P = 10log(L-1), is shown to overestimate the actual penalty for PAM-4 and PAM-8 by approximately 0.1 and 0.25 dB respectively at 1×10-3 BER. Then we extend the well-known PAM-2 ISI penalty estimation formula from the IEEE 802.3 standard 10G link modeling spreadsheet to the large BER case and generalize it for arbitrary PAM-L formats. To demonstrate and verify the BER dependence of the ISI penalty, a set of PAM-2 experiments and Monte-Carlo modeling simulations are reported. The experimental results and simulations confirm that the conventional formulas can significantly overestimate ISI penalties at relatively high BER levels. In the experiments, overestimates up to 2 dB are observed at 1×10-3 BER.

  7. [Research progress on wind erosion control with polyacrylamide (PAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan Yuan; Wang, Zhan Li

    2016-03-01

    Soil wind erosion is one of the main reasons for soil degradation in the northwest region of China. Polyacrylamide (PAM), as an efficient soil amendment, has gained extensive attention in recent years since it is effective in improving the structure of surface soil due to its special physical and chemical properties. This paper introduced the physical and chemical properties of PAM, reviewed the effects of PAM on soil wind erosion amount and threshold wind velocity, as well as the effect differences of PAM in soil wind erosion control under conditions of various methods and doses. Its effect was proved by comparing with other materials in detail. Furthermore, we analyzed the mecha-nism of wind erosion control with PAM according to its influence on soil physical characteristics. Comprehensive analysis showed that, although some problems existed in wind erosion control with (PAM), PAM as a sand fixation agent, can not only enhance the capacity of the soil resis-tance to wind erosion, but also improve soil physical properties to form better soil conditions. Besides, we proposed that combination of PAM and plant growth would increase the survival rate of plants greatly, control soil wind erosion in wind-erosive areas, and improve the quality of the ecological environment construction. Thus, PAM has practically important significance and wide application prospect in controlling soil wind erosion.

  8. 40 Gb/s Lane Rate NG-PON using Electrical/Optical Duobinary, PAM-4 and Low Complex Equalizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, J. L.; Grobe, Klaus; Wagner, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    We present the first numerical investigation and comparison of 40-Gb/s lane rate electrical Duobinary, optical Duobinary and PAM-4 for NG-PONs incorporating low complex linear and nonlinear post-equalizations.......We present the first numerical investigation and comparison of 40-Gb/s lane rate electrical Duobinary, optical Duobinary and PAM-4 for NG-PONs incorporating low complex linear and nonlinear post-equalizations....

  9. Series Pneumatic Artificial Muscles (sPAMs) and Application to a Soft Continuum Robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Joseph D; Morimoto, Tania K; Okamura, Allison M; Hawkes, Elliot W

    2017-01-01

    We describe a new series pneumatic artificial muscle (sPAM) and its application as an actuator for a soft continuum robot. The robot consists of three sPAMs arranged radially round a tubular pneumatic backbone. Analogous to tendons, the sPAMs exert a tension force on the robot's pneumatic backbone, causing bending that is approximately constant curvature. Unlike a traditional tendon driven continuum robot, the robot is entirely soft and contains no hard components, making it safer for human interaction. Models of both the sPAM and soft continuum robot kinematics are presented and experimentally verified. We found a mean position accuracy of 5.5 cm for predicting the end-effector position of a 42 cm long robot with the kinematic model. Finally, closed-loop control is demonstrated using an eye-in-hand visual servo control law which provides a simple interface for operation by a human. The soft continuum robot with closed-loop control was found to have a step-response rise time and settling time of less than two seconds.

  10. Comparison of PAM Systems for Acoustic Monitoring and Further Risk Mitigation Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Stefan; Kreimeyer, Roman; Knoll, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    We present results of the SIRENA 2011 research cruises conducted by the NATO Undersea Research Centre (NURC) and joined by the Research Department for Underwater Acoustics and Geophysics (FWG), Bundeswehr Technical Centre (WTD 71) and the Universities of Kiel and Pavia. The cruises were carried out in the Ligurian Sea. The main aim of the FWG was to test and evaluate the newly developed towed hydrophone array as a passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) tool for risk mitigation applications. The system was compared with the PAM equipment used by the other participating institutions. Recorded sounds were used to improve an automatic acoustic classifier for marine mammals, and validated acoustic detections by observers were compared with the results of the classifier.

  11. Identifying and Visualizing Functional PAM Diversity across CRISPR-Cas Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenay, Ryan T; Maksimchuk, Kenneth R; Slotkowski, Rebecca A; Agrawal, Roma N; Gomaa, Ahmed A; Briner, Alexandra E; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Beisel, Chase L

    2016-04-07

    CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune systems in prokaryotes boast a diversity of protein families and mechanisms of action, where most systems rely on protospacer-adjacent motifs (PAMs) for DNA target recognition. Here, we developed an in vivo, positive, and tunable screen termed PAM-SCANR (PAM screen achieved by NOT-gate repression) to elucidate functional PAMs as well as an interactive visualization scheme termed the PAM wheel to convey individual PAM sequences and their activities. PAM-SCANR and the PAM wheel identified known functional PAMs while revealing complex sequence-activity landscapes for the Bacillus halodurans I-C (Cascade), Escherichia coli I-E (Cascade), Streptococcus thermophilus II-A CRISPR1 (Cas9), and Francisella novicida V-A (Cpf1) systems. The PAM wheel was also readily applicable to existing high-throughput screens and garnered insights into SpyCas9 and SauCas9 PAM diversity. These tools offer powerful means of elucidating and visualizing functional PAMs toward accelerating our ability to understand and exploit the multitude of CRISPR-Cas systems in nature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Single-lane 180  Gbit/s PAM-4 signal transmission over 2  km SSMF for short-reach applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Stojanovic, Nebojsa; Prodaniuc, Cristian; Xie, Changsong; Koenigsmann, Michael; Laskowski, Piotr

    2016-10-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the generation and transmission of a single-lane 180  Gbit/s (90 GBaud) four-level pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM-4) signal in an intensity-modulation direct-detection system with a 7.5 GHz 3 dB bandwidth. The generated signal is transmitted over a 2 km standard single-mode fiber with, to the best of our knowledge, the highest reported net data rate in the C-band: 150  Gbit/s. A net data rate of 168  Gbit/s is also reachable with 1 km reach. The PAM-4 and duobinary (DB) PAM-4 modulation schemes are compared; the obtained results show that DB-PAM-4 significantly outperforms PAM-4 in the considered strong bandwidth-constrained system. Both a feed-forward equalizer and a maximum-likelihood sequence estimator are investigated for data recovery.

  13. Preparation and characterization of BC/PAM-AgNPs nanocomposites for antibacterial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Wang, Caixia; Hong, Feng; Yang, Xuexia; Cao, Zhangjun

    2015-01-22

    In this work, a bacterial cellulose/polyacrylamide (BC/PAM) double network composite was prepared to act as the template for in situ synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Effects of reaction conditions of the BC/PAM composite were investigated on its microstructure, mechanical properties and thermal stabilities. Both the BC/PAM composite and pure BC were utilized to prepare the corresponding silver impregnated nanocomposites, i.e., BC/PAM-AgNPs and BC-AgNPs, by an environmental friendly method, UV irradiation. The influences of the templates were investigated on the AgNPs formation and the antibacterial activities of the nanocomposites by both the zone of inhibition and dynamic shake flask methods. It was shown that the BC/PAM composite displayed a denser microstructure and higher thermal stabilities than pure BC. The BC/PAM-AgNPs nanocomposite exhibited a bigger particle size and lower mass content of AgNPs than the BC-AgNPs one. For the antibacterial test, two nanocomposites exhibited a close antibacterial effect, with a high log reduction above 3 and killing ratio above 99.9%, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evolved Cas9 variants with broad PAM compatibility and high DNA specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Johnny H; Miller, Shannon M; Geurts, Maarten H; Tang, Weixin; Chen, Liwei; Sun, Ning; Zeina, Christina M; Gao, Xue; Rees, Holly A; Lin, Zhi; Liu, David R

    2018-04-05

    A key limitation of the use of the CRISPR-Cas9 system for genome editing and other applications is the requirement that a protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) be present at the target site. For the most commonly used Cas9 from Streptococcus pyogenes (SpCas9), the required PAM sequence is NGG. No natural or engineered Cas9 variants that have been shown to function efficiently in mammalian cells offer a PAM less restrictive than NGG. Here we use phage-assisted continuous evolution to evolve an expanded PAM SpCas9 variant (xCas9) that can recognize a broad range of PAM sequences including NG, GAA and GAT. The PAM compatibility of xCas9 is the broadest reported, to our knowledge, among Cas9 proteins that are active in mammalian cells, and supports applications in human cells including targeted transcriptional activation, nuclease-mediated gene disruption, and cytidine and adenine base editing. Notably, despite its broadened PAM compatibility, xCas9 has much greater DNA specificity than SpCas9, with substantially lower genome-wide off-target activity at all NGG target sites tested, as well as minimal off-target activity when targeting genomic sites with non-NGG PAMs. These findings expand the DNA targeting scope of CRISPR systems and establish that there is no necessary trade-off between Cas9 editing efficiency, PAM compatibility and DNA specificity.

  15. Experimental study of 112 Gb/s short reach transmission employing PAM formats and SiP intensity modulator at 1.3 μm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagnon, Mathieu; Osman, Mohamed; Poulin, Michel; Latrasse, Christine; Gagné, Jean-Frédéric; Painchaud, Yves; Paquet, Carl; Lessard, Stéphane; Plant, David

    2014-08-25

    We present a Silicon Photonic (SiP) intensity modulator operating at 1.3 μm with pulse amplitude modulation formats for short reach transmission employing a digital to analog converter for the RF signal generator, enabling pulse shaping and precompensation of the transmitter's frequency response. Details of the SiP Mach-Zehnder interfometer are presented. We study the system performance at various bit rates, PAM orders and propagation distances. To the best of our knowledge, we report the first demonstration of a 112 Gb/s transmission over 10 km of SMF fiber operating below pre-FEC BER threshold of 3.8 × 10(-3) employing PAM-8 at 37.4 Gbaud using a fully packaged SiP modulator. An analytical model for the Q-factor metric applicable for multilevel PAM-N signaling is derived and accurately experimentally verified in the case of Gaussian noise limited detection. System performance is experimentally investigated and it is demonstrated that PAM order selection can be optimally chosen as a function of the desired throughput. We demonstrate the ability of the proposed transmitter to exhibit software-defined transmission for short reach applications by selecting PAM order, symbol rate and pulse shape.

  16. Comparative Analysis of Putative Orthologues of Mitochondrial Import Motor Subunit: Pam18 and Pam16 in Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xuejin; Ghazanfar, Bushra; Khan, Abdul Rehman; Hayat, Sikandar; Cheng, Zhihui

    2013-01-01

    Pam18/Tim14 and Pam16/Tim16, highly conserved proteins among eukaryotes, are two essential subunits of protein import motors localized in the inner mitochondrial membrane. The heterodimer formed by Pam18 and Pam16 via their J-type domains serves a regulatory function in protein translocation. Here, we report that thirty-one Pam18 and twenty-six Pam16 putative orthologues in twelve plant species were identified and analyzed through bioinformatics strategy. Results data revealed that Pam18 and ...

  17. Što ispitujemo testovima pamćenja? Odnos metamemorije i objektivnih mjera pamćenja

    OpenAIRE

    Vranić, Andrea; Tonković, Mirjana

    2011-01-01

    Metamemorija se odnosi na naše znanje o pamćenju općenito, poznavanje vlastitih procesa i pamćenja te zadovoljstvo svojim pamćenjem. Područje mjerenja metamemorije relativno je novo, a ovaj je rad prilog raspravi o važnosti uključivanja metamemorije u procjenu nečijeg pamćenja, te nedostacima zaključivanja o kvaliteti ili poteškoćama nečijeg pamćenja isključivo na osnovi uratka u objektivnim zadacima pamćenja. Na uzorku od 247 sudionika, raspona dobi od 13 do 78 godina, ispitivali smo odnos m...

  18. Augmenting the spectral efficiency of enhanced PAM-DMT-based optical wireless communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islim, Mohamed Sufyan; Haas, Harald

    2016-05-30

    The energy efficiency of pulse-amplitude-modulated discrete multitone modulation (PAM-DMT) decreases as the modulation order of M-PAM modulation increases. Enhanced PAM-DMT (ePAM-DMT) was proposed as a solution to the reduced energy efficiency of PAM-DMT. This was achieved by allowing multiple streams of PAM-DMT to be superimposed and successively demodulated at the receiver side. In order to maintain a distortion-free unipolar ePAM-DMT system, the multiple time-domain PAM-DMT streams are required to be aligned. However, aligning the antisymmetry in ePAM-DMT is complex and results in efficiency losses. In this paper, a novel simplified method to apply the superposition modulation on M-PAM modulated discrete multitone (DMT) is introduced. Contrary to ePAM-DMT, the signal generation of the proposed system, termed augmented spectral efficiency discrete multitone (ASE-DMT), occurs in the frequency domain. This results in an improved spectral and energy efficiency. The analytical bit error rate (BER) performance bound of the proposed system is derived and compared with Monte-Carlo simulations. The system performance is shown to offer significant electrical and optical energy savings compared with ePAM-DMT and DC-biased optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (DCO-OFDM).

  19. A study on contraction of pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM) for load-lifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najmuddin, W. S. W. A.; Mustaffa, M. T.

    2017-10-01

    Pneumatic Artificial Muscles (PAMs) have been known for its wide application in various aspects of industrial automation and robotic equipments. Many advantages in terms of high power-to-volume ratio, high power-to-weight ratio, stick-slip-free operation and high degree of safety offer by PAM compare to traditional actuators. However, behind this benefits lie a limitation of significant compatibility of PAM mechanism which have to be considered so as to fully understand how the PAM works during load-lifting. In this study, the mesh suitability experiment and the effect of force load on PAM contraction experiment have been carried out. PAM is constructed and compatibility of bladder and the braided mesh to produce uniform expansion is investigated. Moreover, the first experimental result of finding compatibility is used to verify the contraction value under various loads.

  20. A comparative study of proliferative activity and tumor stage of pregnancy-associated melanoma (PAM) and non-PAM in gestational age women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Emily A; Martini, Mary C; Amin, Sapna M; Yélamos, Oriol; Lee, Christina Y; Sholl, Lauren M; Rademaker, Alfred W; Guitart, Joan; Gerami, Pedram

    2016-01-01

    The influence of pregnancy on the development, progression, and prognosis of melanoma is controversial. We sought to compare clinical characteristics, histologic features, and proliferative activity in pregnancy-associated melanoma (PAM) and melanoma in nonpregnant women of reproductive age (non-PAM). In this retrospective cohort study, we reviewed medical records and pathology reports from women given a diagnosis of melanoma between 2006 and 2015. We also examined tumor proliferation rates using mitotic count and 2 immunohistochemical markers of proliferation, phosphohistone H3 and Ki-67. In 50 PAM and 122 non-PAM cases, a diagnosis of melanoma in situ was associated with PAM. Among invasive melanomas, there was no difference in proliferative activity between groups. Pregnancy status was also not associated with age at diagnosis, tumor site, Breslow depth, Clark level, ulceration, or overall stage. This was a retrospective study with a small sample size of mostly patients with early-stage melanoma. In our study of primarily early-stage melanoma, pregnancy did not have a significant impact on tumor proliferation. Particularly for patients given a diagnosis of stage I melanoma who are undergoing close surveillance, a history of PAM should not outweigh traditional factors, such as advanced maternal age, in planning future pregnancies. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Performance Comparison of 112-Gb/s DMT, Nyquist PAM4, and Partial-Response PAM4 for Future 5G Ethernet-Based Fronthaul Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiselt, Nicklas; Muench, Daniel; Dochhan, Annika; Griesser, Helmut; Eiselt, Michael; Olmos, Juan Jose Vegas; Monroy, Idelfonso Tafur; Elbers, Joerg-Peter

    2018-05-01

    For a future 5G Ethernet-based fronthaul architecture, 100G trunk lines of a transmission distance up to 10 km standard single mode fiber (SSMF) in combination with cheap grey optics to daisy chain cell site network interfaces are a promising cost- and power-efficient solution. For such a scenario, different intensity modulation and direct detect (IMDD) Formats at a data rate of 112 Gb/s, namely Nyquist four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM4), discrete multi-tone Transmission (DMT) and partial-response (PR) PAM4 are experimentally investigated, using a low-cost electro-absorption modulated laser (EML), a 25G driver and current state-of-the-art high Speed 84 GS/s CMOS digital-to-analog converter (DAC) and analog-to-digital converter (ADC) test chips. Each modulation Format is optimized independently for the desired scenario and their digital signal processing (DSP) requirements are investigated. The performance of Nyquist PAM4 and PR PAM4 depend very much on the efficiency of pre- and post-equalization. We show the necessity for at least 11 FFE-taps for pre-emphasis and up to 41 FFE coefficients at the receiver side. In addition, PR PAM4 requires an MLSE with four states to decode the signal back to a PAM4 signal. On the contrary, bit- and power-loading (BL, PL) is crucial for DMT and an FFT length of at least 512 is necessary. With optimized parameters, all Modulation formats result in a very similar performances, demonstrating a transmission distance of up to 10 km over SSMF with bit error rates (BERs) below a FEC threshold of 4.4E-3, allowing error free transmission.

  2. Understanding AL-PAM assisted oil sands tailings treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, L.; Maham, Y.; Masliyah, J.; Xu, Z. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Technologies currently used to treat oil sands tailings include the composite tailings (CT) process and the thickened tailings (TT) or paste technology process. This PowerPoint presentation discussed a flocculation and filtration method used to produce stackable tailings deposits. Magnafloc 1011 and AL-PAM additions were used as part of the filtration technique to produce very dry filter cakes. The effect of AL-PAM molecular weight and aluminum content on tailings treatments was investigated as well as the effect of tailings characteristics on the performance of flocculant-assisted tailings filtration processes. The AL-PAM molecular structure was studied. An experimental study was conducted to determine the effect of various polymer additions on fresh tailings from an oil sands plant. The study showed that the optimum dosage for settling and filtration was lower for higher molecular weight AL-PAM. A higher aluminum content was beneficial for settling. Increases in the aluminum content did not improve filtration rates, but reduced optimal dosages. Step-by-step details of the supernatant filtration process were provided, as well as photographs of the laboratory study. tabs., figs.

  3. Low-power DAC-less PAM-4 transmitter using a cascaded microring modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé-Demers, Raphaël; LaRochelle, Sophie; Shi, Wei

    2016-11-15

    Future super-computer interconnect systems and data centers request ultrahigh data rate links at low cost and power consumption, for which transmitters with a high level of integration and spectral efficient formats are key components. We report 60 Gb/s pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM-4) of an optical signal using a dual-microring silicon photonics circuit, making a low-power, digital-to-analog converter (DAC)-less PAM modulator. The power consumption is evaluated below 100 fJ/bit, including thermal adjustments. To the best of our knowledge, these results feature the lowest reported power consumption for PAM signaling in a DAC-less scheme for data rate beyond 40 Gb/s.

  4. Effect of trace amounts of polyacrylamide (PAM) on long-term performance of activated sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Yuan-ling; Yang, Zhao-hui; Xu, Zheng-yong; Zhou, Ling-jun; Zeng, Guang-ming; Huang, Jing; Xiao, Yong; Wang, Li-ke

    2011-01-01

    This study aims at evaluating the impacts of PAM addition on activated sludge performance. Four lab-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs), each with a working volume of 3 L, were investigated with different PAM concentrations. Experiments were conducted with varying organic loading rate and the sludge volume index (SVI), particle size, zeta potential, specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR), mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS), COD and ammonium removal efficiency were monitored over a 105-day period. The results showed that all of the PAM addition not only improved the removal efficiencies of COD and ammonium, but also exhibited some advantages on sludge performance. It was found that the sludge performance of settling property, flocculation and microbial activity increased with increasing concentration of PAM. However, high level of PAM (1 mg/L) led to the formation of large amounts of loose-structure flocs, which eliminated dissolved oxygen transfer and caused the sludge disintegration, resulting in bad settleability and lower microbial activity. In this way, when the dosage of PAM was 0.1 mg/L, the sludge had the best settling property and activity.

  5. Structural Basis for the Altered PAM Specificities of Engineered CRISPR-Cas9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Seiichi; Nishimasu, Hiroshi; Ishitani, Ryuichiro; Nureki, Osamu

    2016-03-17

    The RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9 cleaves double-stranded DNA targets bearing a PAM (protospacer adjacent motif) and complementarity to the guide RNA. A recent study showed that, whereas wild-type Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9) recognizes the 5'-NGG-3' PAM, the engineered VQR, EQR, and VRER SpCas9 variants recognize the 5'-NGA-3', 5'-NGAG-3', and 5'-NGCG-3' PAMs, respectively, thus expanding the targetable sequences in Cas9-mediated genome editing applications. Here, we present the high-resolution crystal structures of the three SpCas9 variants in complexes with a single-guide RNA and its altered PAM-containing, partially double-stranded DNA targets. A structural comparison of the three SpCas9 variants with wild-type SpCas9 revealed that the multiple mutations synergistically induce an unexpected displacement in the phosphodiester backbone of the PAM duplex, thereby allowing the SpCas9 variants to directly recognize the altered PAM nucleotides. Our findings explain the altered PAM specificities of the SpCas9 variants and establish a framework for further rational engineering of CRISPR-Cas9. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Demonstration of the First Real-Time End-to-End 40-Gb/s PAM-4 for Next-Generation Access Applications using 10-Gb/s Transmitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, J. L.; Eiselt, Nicklas; Griesser, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the first known experiment of a real-time end-to-end 40-Gb/s PAM-4 system for next-generation access applications using 10-Gb/s class transmitters only. Based on the measurement of a real-time 40-Gb/s PAM system, low-cost upstream and downstream link power budgets are estimated. Up...

  7. GE Hitachi's parts asset management solutions (PAMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varno, M.; Lancaster, K.; Detamore, B.; Dinh, H.; Danielsson, J.; Vitaback, F.

    2014-01-01

    To ensure operational excellence and improve plant reliability, GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy (GEH) has partnered with its customers to develop PARTS Asset Management Solutions (PAMS). PAMS is a comprehensive set of services that enable plants to proactively manage inventory, obtain after-market replacement parts quickly, and resolve obsolescence issues, ensuring operation of equipment is maintained. PAMS includes: - Electronics Exchange Service Program (EESP) - On-demand exchange service program for GE electronics parts that guarantees rapid shipment of parts, results in cost savings and eliminates all obsolescence risk. - Engineering Services (ES) - Service that finds replacement electronics parts for customers encountering obsolescence. - System Assessment Report (SAR) - Comprehensive, customised report for customer systems that provides all information needed to minimise part availability risk. - Inventory Management (IM) - Visual application based on OEM drawings and decades of industry operational experience that enables customers to proactively identify obsolescence and inventory management issues. - Material Solutions (MS) - Fixed price and lead time model that allows the customer to set-up blanket contracts or purchase orders for obtaining needed parts with a focus on reduced overall cycle time. This paper will provide an overview of PAMS and showcase a case study of the PAMS Digitized deployment for an existing GEH customer. (authors)

  8. First Demonstration of Real-Time End-to-End 40 Gb/s PAM-4 System using 10-G Transmitter for Next Generation Access Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Jinlong; Eiselt, Nicklas; Griesser, Helmut

    We demonstrate the first known experiment of a real-time end-to-end 40-Gb/s PAM-4 system for next generation access applications using 10G class transmitters only. Up to 25-dB upstream link budget for 20 km SMF is achieved.......We demonstrate the first known experiment of a real-time end-to-end 40-Gb/s PAM-4 system for next generation access applications using 10G class transmitters only. Up to 25-dB upstream link budget for 20 km SMF is achieved....

  9. Methods for decoding Cas9 protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) sequences: A brief overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvelis, Tautvydas; Gasiunas, Giedrius; Siksnys, Virginijus

    2017-05-15

    Recently the Cas9, an RNA guided DNA endonuclease, emerged as a powerful tool for targeted genome manipulations. Cas9 protein can be reprogrammed to cleave, bind or nick any DNA target by simply changing crRNA sequence, however a short nucleotide sequence, termed PAM, is required to initiate crRNA hybridization to the DNA target. PAM sequence is recognized by Cas9 protein and must be determined experimentally for each Cas9 variant. Exploration of Cas9 orthologs could offer a diversity of PAM sequences and novel biochemical properties that may be beneficial for genome editing applications. Here we briefly review and compare Cas9 PAM identification assays that can be adopted for other PAM-dependent CRISPR-Cas systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of trace amounts of polyacrylamide (PAM) on long-term performance of activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuan-ling; Yang, Zhao-hui; Xu, Zheng-yong; Zhou, Ling-jun; Zeng, Guang-ming; Huang, Jing; Xiao, Yong; Wang, Li-ke

    2011-05-15

    This study aims at evaluating the impacts of PAM addition on activated sludge performance. Four lab-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs), each with a working volume of 3L, were investigated with different PAM concentrations. Experiments were conducted with varying organic loading rate and the sludge volume index (SVI), particle size, zeta potential, specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR), mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS), COD and ammonium removal efficiency were monitored over a 105-day period. The results showed that all of the PAM addition not only improved the removal efficiencies of COD and ammonium, but also exhibited some advantages on sludge performance. It was found that the sludge performance of settling property, flocculation and microbial activity increased with increasing concentration of PAM. However, high level of PAM (1mg/L) led to the formation of large amounts of loose-structure flocs, which eliminated dissolved oxygen transfer and caused the sludge disintegration, resulting in bad settleability and lower microbial activity. In this way, when the dosage of PAM was 0.1mg/L, the sludge had the best settling property and activity. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Sewage sludge conditioning by bioleaching-dual PAC and PAM addition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang-Geng; Zhang, Pan-Yue; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Liu, Yong-Gang

    2010-09-01

    Bioleaching-dual polyaluminum chloride (PAC) and polyacrylamide (PAM) addition was used to condition sewage sludge. The results showed that FeSO4 x 7H2O addition improved the bioleaching rate obviously with a fixed sulfur power dosage of 3 g x L(-1); when the FeSO4 x 7H2O dosage was 8 g x L(-1), the bioleaching lasted 1.5 d to decrease the sludge pH below 2. Bioleaching improved the sludge dewaterability significantly with a specific resistance to filtration (SRF) reduction of 77.52% from 6.45 x 10(10)s2 x g(-10 to 1.45 x 10(10)s2 x g(-1), but the bioleached sludge was still difficult to be dewatered. After adjusting the bioleached sludge pH to 6, PAC and PAM were used to enhance conditioning of the bioleached sludge. The results indicated that the optimal dosage was 200 mg x L(-1) for PAC or 50 mg x L(-1) for PAM when single chemical was used. When PAC and PAM were dually used, the optimal dosages of PAC and PAM were 100 mg x L(-1) and 25 mg x L(-1), respectively; SRF and moisture of sludge cake reduced to 2.02 x 10(8) s2 x g(-1) and 74.81%, respectively, showing good dewaterability of the treated sludge. Compared with the single use of PAC and PAM, the dual use of PAC and PAM showed the advantages of lower cost and better conditioning effect.

  12. Broadening the targeting range of Staphylococcus aureus CRISPR-Cas9 by modifying PAM recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinstiver, Benjamin P; Prew, Michelle S; Tsai, Shengdar Q; Nguyen, Nhu T; Topkar, Ved V; Zheng, Zongli; Joung, J Keith

    2015-12-01

    CRISPR-Cas9 nucleases target specific DNA sequences using a guide RNA but also require recognition of a protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) by the Cas9 protein. Although longer PAMs can potentially improve the specificity of genome editing, they limit the range of sequences that Cas9 orthologs can target. One potential strategy to relieve this restriction is to relax the PAM recognition specificity of Cas9. Here we used molecular evolution to modify the NNGRRT PAM of Staphylococcus aureus Cas9 (SaCas9). One variant we identified, referred to as KKH SaCas9, showed robust genome editing activities at endogenous human target sites with NNNRRT PAMs, thereby increasing SaCas9 targeting range by two- to fourfold. Using GUIDE-seq, we show that wild-type and KKH SaCas9 induce comparable numbers of off-target effects in human cells. Our strategy for evolving PAM specificity does not require structural information and therefore should be applicable to a wide range of Cas9 orthologs.

  13. Engineered CRISPR-Cas9 nucleases with altered PAM specificities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinstiver, Benjamin P; Prew, Michelle S; Tsai, Shengdar Q; Topkar, Ved V; Nguyen, Nhu T; Zheng, Zongli; Gonzales, Andrew P W; Li, Zhuyun; Peterson, Randall T; Yeh, Jing-Ruey Joanna; Aryee, Martin J; Joung, J Keith

    2015-07-23

    Although CRISPR-Cas9 nucleases are widely used for genome editing, the range of sequences that Cas9 can recognize is constrained by the need for a specific protospacer adjacent motif (PAM). As a result, it can often be difficult to target double-stranded breaks (DSBs) with the precision that is necessary for various genome-editing applications. The ability to engineer Cas9 derivatives with purposefully altered PAM specificities would address this limitation. Here we show that the commonly used Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9) can be modified to recognize alternative PAM sequences using structural information, bacterial selection-based directed evolution, and combinatorial design. These altered PAM specificity variants enable robust editing of endogenous gene sites in zebrafish and human cells not currently targetable by wild-type SpCas9, and their genome-wide specificities are comparable to wild-type SpCas9 as judged by GUIDE-seq analysis. In addition, we identify and characterize another SpCas9 variant that exhibits improved specificity in human cells, possessing better discrimination against off-target sites with non-canonical NAG and NGA PAMs and/or mismatched spacers. We also find that two smaller-size Cas9 orthologues, Streptococcus thermophilus Cas9 (St1Cas9) and Staphylococcus aureus Cas9 (SaCas9), function efficiently in the bacterial selection systems and in human cells, suggesting that our engineering strategies could be extended to Cas9s from other species. Our findings provide broadly useful SpCas9 variants and, more importantly, establish the feasibility of engineering a wide range of Cas9s with altered and improved PAM specificities.

  14. Biological applications of an LCoS-based programmable array microscope (PAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Guy M.; Caarls, Wouter; Thomas, Martin; Hill, Andrew; Lidke, Keith A.; Rieger, Bernd; Fritsch, Cornelia; van Geest, Bert; Jovin, Thomas M.; Arndt-Jovin, Donna J.

    2007-02-01

    We report on a new generation, commercial prototype of a programmable array optical sectioning fluorescence microscope (PAM) for rapid, light efficient 3D imaging of living specimens. The stand-alone module, including light source(s) and detector(s), features an innovative optical design and a ferroelectric liquid-crystal-on-silicon (LCoS) spatial light modulator (SLM) instead of the DMD used in the original PAM design. The LCoS PAM (developed in collaboration with Cairn Research, Ltd.) can be attached to a port of a(ny) unmodified fluorescence microscope. The prototype system currently operated at the Max Planck Institute incorporates a 6-position high-intensity LED illuminator, modulated laser and lamp light sources, and an Andor iXon emCCD camera. The module is mounted on an Olympus IX71 inverted microscope with 60-150X objectives with a Prior Scientific x,y, and z high resolution scanning stages. Further enhancements recently include: (i) point- and line-wise spectral resolution and (ii) lifetime imaging (FLIM) in the frequency domain. Multiphoton operation and other nonlinear techniques should be feasible. The capabilities of the PAM are illustrated by several examples demonstrating single molecule as well as lifetime imaging in live cells, and the unique capability to perform photoconversion with arbitrary patterns and high spatial resolution. Using quantum dot coupled ligands we show real-time binding and subsequent trafficking of individual ligand-growth factor receptor complexes on and in live cells with a temporal resolution and sensitivity exceeding those of conventional CLSM systems. The combined use of a blue laser and parallel LED or visible laser sources permits photoactivation and rapid kinetic analysis of cellular processes probed by photoswitchable visible fluorescent proteins such as DRONPA.

  15. SD-PAMs: What, Where, When and How?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This paper examines what ''sustainable development policies and measures'' (SD-PAMs) could be, and how they could be implemented and could fit into a post-2012 climate regime. This paper assumes that the option to implement SD-PAMs instead of quantified GHG emission commitments post-2012 is an option that would be likely to be only open to non-Annex I countries. There are several key, but unanswered, questions related to SD-PAMs. These include policy-related issues such as which countries could take on commitments to implement SD-PAMs (rather than quantified emission commitments)? Why would particular countries decide to take on such commitments? They also include questions related to how SD-PAMs could be implemented. For many other options for possible post-2012 GHG mitigation actions, including by non-Annex I countries, have also been proposed. However, this paper focuses solely on SD-PAMs.

  16. PAM-4 signal delivery in one radio-over-fiber system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hada; Zhou, Wen; Yu, Jianjun

    2017-10-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate four-level pulse-amplitude-modulation (PAM-4) signal delivery in a radio-over-fiber system for the first time. Over 8-Gbit/s PAM-4 signals have been transmitted over 20-km single-mode fiber-28 and 1-m wireless distance. The signal after transmission is detected directly by an envelope detector at the receiver side. The maximal bit rate could be increased if the bandpass amplifier and envelope detector have more bandwidth.

  17. Deciphering, Communicating, and Engineering the CRISPR PAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenay, Ryan T; Beisel, Chase L

    2017-01-20

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) loci and their flanking CRISPR-associated (cas) genes make up RNA-guided, adaptive immune systems in prokaryotes whose effector proteins have become powerful tools for basic research and biotechnology. While the Cas effector proteins are remarkably diverse, they commonly rely on protospacer-adjacent motifs (PAMs) as the first step in target recognition. PAM sequences are known to vary considerably between systems and have proven to be difficult to predict, spurring the need for new tools to rapidly identify and communicate these sequences. Recent advances have also shown that Cas proteins can be engineered to alter PAM recognition, opening new opportunities to develop CRISPR-based tools with enhanced targeting capabilities. In this review, we discuss the properties of the CRISPR PAM and the emerging tools for determining, visualizing, and engineering PAM recognition. We also propose a standard means of orienting the PAM to simplify how its location and sequence are communicated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pro-2-PAM therapy for central and peripheral cholinesterases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demar, James C; Clarkson, Edward D; Ratcliffe, Ruthie H; Campbell, Amy J; Thangavelu, Sonia G; Herdman, Christine A; Leader, Haim; Schulz, Susan M; Marek, Elizabeth; Medynets, Marie A; Ku, Therese C; Evans, Sarah A; Khan, Farhat A; Owens, Roberta R; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P; Gordon, Richard K

    2010-09-06

    Novel therapeutics to overcome the toxic effects of organophosphorus (OP) chemical agents are needed due to the documented use of OPs in warfare (e.g. 1980-1988 Iran/Iraq war) and terrorism (e.g. 1995 Tokyo subway attacks). Standard OP exposure therapy in the United States consists of atropine sulfate (to block muscarinic receptors), the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) reactivator (oxime) pralidoxime chloride (2-PAM), and a benzodiazepine anticonvulsant to ameliorate seizures. A major disadvantage is that quaternary nitrogen charged oximes, including 2-PAM, do not cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) to treat brain AChE. Therefore, we have synthesized and evaluated pro-2-PAM (a lipid permeable 2-PAM derivative) that can enter the brain and reactivate CNS AChE, preventing seizures in guinea pigs after exposure to OPs. The protective effects of the pro-2-PAM after OP exposure were shown using (a) surgically implanted radiotelemetry probes for electroencephalogram (EEG), (b) neurohistopathology of brain, (c) cholinesterase activities in the PNS and CNS, and (d) survivability. The PNS oxime 2-PAM was ineffective at reducing seizures/status epilepticus (SE) in diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP)-exposed animals. In contrast, pro-2-PAM significantly suppressed and then eliminated seizure activity. In OP-exposed guinea pigs, there was a significant reduction in neurological damage with pro-2-PAM but not 2-PAM. Distinct regional areas of the brains showed significantly higher AChE activity 1.5h after OP exposure in pro-2-PAM treated animals compared to the 2-PAM treated ones. However, blood and diaphragm showed similar AChE activities in animals treated with either oxime, as both 2-PAM and pro-2-PAM are PNS active oximes. In conclusion, pro-2-PAM can cross the BBB, is rapidly metabolized inside the brain to 2-PAM, and protects against OP-induced SE through restoration of brain AChE activity. Pro-2-PAM represents the first non-invasive means of administering a CNS therapeutic for

  19. Interference by pralidoxime (PAM) salts in clinical laboratory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagase, Sumika; Kohguchi, Katsunori; Tohyama, Kaoru; Watanabe, Mikio; Iwatani, Yoshinori

    2013-02-01

    Drugs sometimes alter the results of clinical laboratory tests. We examined the effects of pralidoxime (PAM) salts, a medicine used to treat organophosphorus poisoning, on clinical laboratory test results for the first time. The effects of PAM salts on glucose (GLU) measurements were examined using a point-of-care testing (POCT) meter, four self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) meters, and two biochemical autoanalyzers. The effects of PAM salts on other clinical tests were also evaluated. The addition of PAM iodide or potassium iodide, but not of PAM chloride or potassium chloride, to blood samples increased the GLU values measured by one POCT meter and 4 SMBG meters using the enzyme electrode (hydrogen peroxidase or oxygen electrode) method. On the other hand, PAM iodide or PAM chloride, but not KI or KCl, affected the values measured at 340 nm by an autoanalyzer using absorption spectrophotometry in 8 of 14 clinical laboratory tests. The absorption spectrum of PAM changed from 294 to 338 nm due to the reaction between PAM and the alkaline buffer, a component of the measuring reagents. PAM iodide increases the GLU values measured by the enzyme electrode method, and PAM salts affected the values measured at 340 nm by absorption spectrophotometry in many other clinical test items. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Accelerated Biofluid Filling in Complex Microfluidic Networks by Vacuum-Pressure Accelerated Movement (V-PAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zeta Tak For; Cheung, Mei Ki; Liu, Shirley Xiaosu; Fu, Jianping

    2016-09-01

    Rapid fluid transport and exchange are critical operations involved in many microfluidic applications. However, conventional mechanisms used for driving fluid transport in microfluidics, such as micropumping and high pressure, can be inaccurate and difficult for implementation for integrated microfluidics containing control components and closed compartments. Here, a technology has been developed termed Vacuum-Pressure Accelerated Movement (V-PAM) capable of significantly enhancing biofluid transport in complex microfluidic environments containing dead-end channels and closed chambers. Operation of the V-PAM entails a pressurized fluid loading into microfluidic channels where gas confined inside can rapidly be dissipated through permeation through a thin, gas-permeable membrane sandwiched between microfluidic channels and a network of vacuum channels. Effects of different structural and operational parameters of the V-PAM for promoting fluid filling in microfluidic environments have been studied systematically. This work further demonstrates the applicability of V-PAM for rapid filling of temperature-sensitive hydrogels and unprocessed whole blood into complex irregular microfluidic networks such as microfluidic leaf venation patterns and blood circulatory systems. Together, the V-PAM technology provides a promising generic microfluidic tool for advanced fluid control and transport in integrated microfluidics for different microfluidic diagnosis, organs-on-chips, and biomimetic studies. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Psoriatic arthritis mutilans (PAM) in the Nordic countries: demographics and disease status. The Nordic PAM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudbjornsson, B; Ejstrup, L; Gran, J T; Iversen, L; Lindqvist, U; Paimela, L; Ternowitz, T; Ståhle, M

    2013-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of psoriatic arthritis mutilans (PAM) in the Nordic countries. Patients with putative PAM aged ≥ 18 years were recruited. Fifty-nine patients were included after clinical examination. The prevalence of PAM in the adult Nordic population was estimated to be 3.69 per million inhabitants [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.75-4.63]. The female to male ratio was close to 1:1. The mean age of skin disease onset was 25 years and the mean age of onset of joint disease was 30 years. The onset of skin disease was 2 years earlier among female patients. At inclusion, the mean duration of arthritis was 27 ± 11 years for male patients and 33 ± 11 years for female patients. PAM was most frequently seen in the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joints of the toes, followed by the IP joint of the thumb and the DIP joint of the little finger on the left hand. Female and male patients had similar numbers of painful and swollen joints. Enthesitis was found in 19 patients (32%), while 38 patients (64%) had a history of dactylitis. Twenty-three of these 38 patients (61%) had a history of dactylitis in the same finger/toe as they had PAM. At the time of inclusion, 45% of the patients were found to have clear or almost clear skin. PAM in the Nordic countries has a low prevalence, with only three to five cases per million inhabitants. The majority of the patients present with mild skin disease.

  2. Fully Automated Data Collection Using PAM and the Development of PAM/SPACE Reversible Cassettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraki, Masahiko; Watanabe, Shokei; Chavas, Leonard M. G.; Yamada, Yusuke; Matsugaki, Naohiro; Igarashi, Noriyuki; Wakatsuki, Soichi; Fujihashi, Masahiro; Miki, Kunio; Baba, Seiki; Ueno, Go; Yamamoto, Masaki; Suzuki, Mamoru; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Watanabe, Nobuhisa; Tanaka, Isao

    2010-06-01

    To remotely control and automatically collect data in high-throughput X-ray data collection experiments, the Structural Biology Research Center at the Photon Factory (PF) developed and installed sample exchange robots PAM (PF Automated Mounting system) at PF macromolecular crystallography beamlines; BL-5A, BL-17A, AR-NW12A and AR-NE3A. We developed and installed software that manages the flow of the automated X-ray experiments; sample exchanges, loop-centering and X-ray diffraction data collection. The fully automated data collection function has been available since February 2009. To identify sample cassettes, PAM employs a two-dimensional bar code reader. New beamlines, BL-1A at the Photon Factory and BL32XU at SPring-8, are currently under construction as part of Targeted Proteins Research Program (TPRP) by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. However, different robots, PAM and SPACE (SPring-8 Precise Automatic Cryo-sample Exchanger), will be installed at BL-1A and BL32XU, respectively. For the convenience of the users of both facilities, pins and cassettes for PAM and SPACE are developed as part of the TPRP.

  3. Achievable Strength-Based Signal Detection in Quantity-Constrained PAM OOK Concentration-Encoded Molecular Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfuz, Mohammad Upal

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the expressions of achievable strength-based detection probabilities of concentration-encoded molecular communication (CEMC) system have been derived based on finite pulsewidth (FP) pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) on-off keying (OOK) modulation scheme and strength threshold. An FP-PAM system is characterized by its duty cycle α that indicates the fraction of the entire symbol duration the transmitter remains on and transmits the signal. Results show that the detection performance of an FP-PAM OOK CEMC system significantly depends on the statistical distribution parameters of diffusion-based propagation noise and intersymbol interference (ISI). Analytical detection performance of an FP-PAM OOK CEMC system under ISI scenario has been explained and compared based on receiver operating characteristics (ROC) for impulse (i.e., spike)-modulated (IM) and FP-PAM CEMC schemes. It is shown that the effects of diffusion noise and ISI on ROC can be explained separately based on their communication range-dependent statistics. With full duty cycle, an FP-PAM scheme provides significantly worse performance than an IM scheme. The paper also analyzes the performance of the system when duty cycle, transmission data rate, and quantity of molecules vary.

  4. Kramers-Kronig PAM Transceiver and Two-Sided Polarization-Multiplexed Kramers-Kronig Transceiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, Cristian; Mecozzi, Antonio; Shtaif, Mark

    2018-01-01

    We propose two transceiver schemes based on Kramers Kronig (KK) detection. One targets low-cost high-throughput applications and uses PAM transmission in combination with direct detection and digital reconstruction of the optical phase. This scheme allows digital compensation of chromatic dispersion and provides a significant improvement in terms of spectral efficiency, compared to conventional PAM transmission. The second scheme targets high-channel-count coherent systems with the aim of simplifying the receiver complexity by reducing the optical components count.

  5. Biological applications of an LCoS-BASED PROGRAMMABLE ARRAY MICROSCOPE (PAM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen, G.M.; Caarls, W.; Thomas, M.; Hill, A.; Lidke, K.A.; Rieger, B.; Fritsch, C.; Van Geest, B.; Jovin, T.M.; Arndt-Jovin, D.J.

    2007-01-01

    We report on a new generation, commercial prototype of a programmable array optical sectioning fluorescence microscope (PAM) for rapid, light efficient 3D imaging of living specimens. The stand-alone module, including light source(s) and detector(s), features an innovative optical design and a

  6. Plasma-activated medium (PAM) kills human cancer-initiating cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Jun-Ichiro; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Ishikawa, Kenji; Sakakita, Hajime; Ikehara, Yuzuru; Hori, Masaru

    2018-01-01

    Medical non-thermal plasma (NTP) treatments for various types of cancers have been reported. Cells with tumorigenic potential (cancer-initiating cells; CICs) are few in number in many types of tumors. CICs efficiently eliminate anti-cancer chemicals and exhibit high-level aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity. We previously examined the effects of direct irradiation via NTP on cancer cells; even though we targeted CICs expressing high levels of ALDH, such treatment affected both non-CICs and CICs. Recent studies have shown that plasma-activated medium (PAM) (culture medium irradiated by NTP) selectively induces apoptotic death of cancer but not normal cells. Therefore, we explored the anti-cancer effects of PAM on CICs among endometrioid carcinoma and gastric cancer cells. PAM reduced the viability of cells expressing both low and high levels of ALDH. Combined PAM/cisplatin appeared to kill cancer cells more efficiently than did PAM or cisplatin alone. In a mouse tumor xenograft model, PAM exerted an anti-cancer effect on CICs. Thus, our results suggest that PAM effectively kills both non-CICs and CICs, as does NTP. Therefore, PAM may be a useful new anti-cancer therapy, targeting various cancer cells including CICs. © 2017 Japanese Society of Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Preferential Acquisition and Activation of Plasminogen Glycoform II by PAM Positive Group A Streptococcal Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, David M P; Law, Ruby H P; Ly, Diane; Cook, Simon M; Quek, Adam J; McArthur, Jason D; Whisstock, James C; Sanderson-Smith, Martina L

    2015-06-30

    Plasminogen (Plg) circulates in the host as two predominant glycoforms. Glycoform I Plg (GI-Plg) contains glycosylation sites at Asn289 and Thr346, whereas glycoform II Plg (GII-Plg) is exclusively glycosylated at Thr346. Surface plasmon resonance experiments demonstrated that Plg binding group A streptococcal M protein (PAM) exhibits comparative equal affinity for GI- and GII-Plg in the "closed" conformation (for GII-Plg, KD = 27.4 nM; for GI-Plg, KD = 37.0 nM). When Plg was in the "open" conformation, PAM exhibited an 11-fold increase in affinity for GII-Plg (KD = 2.8 nM) compared with that for GI-Plg (KD = 33.2 nM). The interaction of PAM with Plg is believed to be mediated by lysine binding sites within kringle (KR) 2 of Plg. PAM-GI-Plg interactions were fully inhibited with 100 mM lysine analogue ε-aminocaproic acid (εACA), whereas PAM-GII-Plg interactions were shown to be weakened but not inhibited in the presence of 400 mM εACA. In contrast, binding to the KR1-3 domains of GII-Plg (angiostatin) by PAM was completely inhibited in the presence 5 mM εACA. Along with PAM, emm pattern D GAS isolates express a phenotypically distinct SK variant (type 2b SK) that requires Plg ligands such as PAM to activate Plg. Type 2b SK was able to generate an active site and activate GII-Plg at a rate significantly higher than that of GI-Plg when bound to PAM. Taken together, these data suggest that GAS selectively recruits and activates GII-Plg. Furthermore, we propose that the interaction between PAM and Plg may be partially mediated by a secondary binding site outside of KR2, affected by glycosylation at Asn289.

  8. Applications of the TVO piping and component analysis and monitoring system (PAMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smeekes, P. (Teollisuuden Voima Oy, Olkiluoto (Finland)); Kuuluvainen, O. (Rostedt Oy, Luvia (Finland)); Torkkeli, E. (FEMdata Oy, Haukilahti (Finland))

    2010-05-15

    To make fitness, safety and lifetime related assessments for piping and components, the amount of data to be managed is getting larger and larger. At the same time it is essential that the data is reliable, up-to-date, well traceable and easy and fast to obtain. At present the main focus of PAMS is still on piping, but in the future the component related databases and applications will be more and more developed. This paper presents a piping and component database system, consisting of separate geometrical, material, loading, result and document databases as well as current and future applications of the system. By means of a user configurable interface program the user can generate indata files, run application programs and define what data to write back into the result database. The data in the result database can subsequently be used in new input files to perform postprocessing on previous results, for instance fatigue analysis. crack growth analysis or RI-ISI. The system is intended to facilitate the analyses of piping and components and generate well-documented appendices comprising significant parts of the input and output and the associated source references. (orig.)

  9. Application of Polyacrylamide (PAM) through Lay-Flat Polyethylene Tubing: Effects on Infiltration, Erosion, N and P Transport, and Corn Yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, J P; Krutz, L J; Locke, M A; Kenty, M M; Atwill, R L; Pickelmann, D M; Bryant, C J; Wood, C W; Golden, B R; Cox, M S

    2017-07-01

    Polyacrylamides (PAMs), when applied as a soil amendment, purportedly improve soil infiltration, decrease erosion, and reduce offsite agrochemical transport. The effect of PAM on infiltration, erosion, agrochemical transport, and crop yield when applied in furrow to mid-southern US production systems has not been evaluated. The objective of this study was to assess PAM effects on infiltration, erosion, corn ( L.) grain yield, and nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) transport when applied at 10 mg L through lay-flat polyethylene tubing. A 2-yr field study was conducted at the Mississippi State Delta Research and Extension Center in Stoneville, MS, on a Dundee silt loam and a Forestdale silty clay loam. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replications of each treatment: irrigated plus no PAM (control) and irrigated plus PAM at 10 mg L. Each irrigation event delivered 102 mm of water at 18.9 L m per furrow, and runoff was captured in a holding tank on the lower end of each plot. Pooled over year and soil texture, PAM increased infiltration and corn grain yield by 6% ( ≤ 0.0398). Polyacrylamide effects on the offsite transport of sediment and N and P were inconsistent, varying across year and soil texture. Results indicate that PAM improves infiltration and corn grain yield on silt loam and silty clay loam textured soils; however, further research is required before PAM can be recommended as a best management practice for mitigating erosion and offsite agrochemical transport in mid-southern production systems. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  10. Software system for reducing PAM-2 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepin, T. J.

    1982-01-01

    A software system for reducing PAM-II data was constructed. The data reduction process concatenates data tapes; determines ephemeris; and inverts full sun extinction data. Tests of this data reduction process show that PAM-II data can be compared with data from other, similar satellites.

  11. Evaluation of Real-Time 8 x 56.25 Gb/s (400G) PAM-4 for Inter-Data Center Application Over 80 km of SSMF at 1550 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiselt, Nicklas; Wei, Jinlong; Griesser, Helmut

    2017-01-01

    error rate of 1e-6 are achieved and indicate sufficient margin to transmit over even longer distances, if an forward error correction (FEC) threshold of 3.8e-3 is assumed. Moreover, single channel 28.125 GBd PAM4 is evaluated against optical effects such as optical bandwidth limitations, chromatic......Leveraging client optics based on intensity modulation and direct detection for point-to-point inter-data center interconnect applications is a cost and power efficient solution, but challenging in terms of optical signal-to-noise ratio requirements and chromatic dispersion tolerance. In this paper...

  12. Psoriatic arthritis mutilans (PAM) in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudbjornsson, B; Ejstrup, L; Gran, J T

    2013-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of psoriatic arthritis mutilans (PAM) in the Nordic countries.......To determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of psoriatic arthritis mutilans (PAM) in the Nordic countries....

  13. 40 CFR 52.1080 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Stations (PAMS) Program. 52.1080 Section 52.1080 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.1080 Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program. On March 24, 1994 Maryland's... Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program as a state implementation plan (SIP) revision, as required by...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2426 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Stations (PAMS) Program. 52.2426 Section 52.2426 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.2426 Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program. On November 23, 1994 Virginia's... Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program as a state implementation plan (SIP) revision, as...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2035 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Stations (PAMS) Program. 52.2035 Section 52.2035 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...) Pennsylvania § 52.2035 Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program. On September 23, 1994... (PAMS) Program as a state implementation plan (SIP) revision, as required by section 182(c)(1) of the...

  16. Engineered Cpf1 variants with altered PAM specificities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Linyi; Cox, David B T; Yan, Winston X; Manteiga, John C; Schneider, Martin W; Yamano, Takashi; Nishimasu, Hiroshi; Nureki, Osamu; Crosetto, Nicola; Zhang, Feng

    2017-08-01

    The RNA-guided endonuclease Cpf1 is a promising tool for genome editing in eukaryotic cells. However, the utility of the commonly used Acidaminococcus sp. BV3L6 Cpf1 (AsCpf1) and Lachnospiraceae bacterium ND2006 Cpf1 (LbCpf1) is limited by their requirement of a TTTV protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) in the DNA substrate. To address this limitation, we performed a structure-guided mutagenesis screen to increase the targeting range of Cpf1. We engineered two AsCpf1 variants carrying the mutations S542R/K607R and S542R/K548V/N552R, which recognize TYCV and TATV PAMs, respectively, with enhanced activities in vitro and in human cells. Genome-wide assessment of off-target activity using BLISS indicated that these variants retain high DNA-targeting specificity, which we further improved by introducing an additional non-PAM-interacting mutation. Introducing the identified PAM-interacting mutations at their corresponding positions in LbCpf1 similarly altered its PAM specificity. Together, these variants increase the targeting range of Cpf1 by approximately threefold in human coding sequences to one cleavage site per ∼11 bp.

  17. Conjugal plasmid transfer (pAM beta 1) in Lactobacillus plantarum.

    OpenAIRE

    Shrago, A W; Chassy, B M; Dobrogosz, W J

    1986-01-01

    The streptococcal plasmid pAM beta 1 (erythromycin resistance) was transferred via conjugation from Streptococcus faecalis to Lactobacillus plantarum and was transferred among L. plantarum strains. Streptococcus sanguis Challis was transformed with pAM beta 1 isolated from these transconjugants, and transformants harboring intact pAM beta 1 could conjugate the plasmid back to L. plantarum.

  18. Nanoparticle-Delivered 2-PAM for Rat Brain Protection against Paraoxon Central Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashirova, Tatiana N; Zueva, Irina V; Petrov, Konstantin A; Babaev, Vasily M; Lukashenko, Svetlana S; Rizvanov, Ildar Kh; Souto, Eliana B; Nikolsky, Evgeny E; Zakharova, Lucia Ya; Masson, Patrick; Sinyashin, Oleg G

    2017-05-24

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are among the most promising nanocarriers to target the blood-brain barrier (BBB) for drug delivery to the central nervous system (CNS). Encapsulation of the acetylcholinesterase reactivator, pralidoxime chloride (2-PAM), in SLNs appears to be a suitable strategy for protection against poisoning by organophosphorus agents (OPs) and postexposure treatment. 2-PAM-loaded SLNs were developed for brain targeting and delivery via intravenous (iv) administration. 2-PAM-SLNs displayed a high 2-PAM encapsulation efficiency (∼90%) and loading capacity (maximum 30.8 ± 1%). Drug-loaded particles had a mean hydrodynamic diameter close to 100 nm and high negative zeta potential (-54 to -15 mV). These properties contribute to improve long-term stability of 2-PAM-SLNs when stored both at room temperature (22 °C) and at 4 °C, as well as to longer circulation time in the bloodstream compared to free 2-PAM. Paraoxon-poisoned rats (2 × LD 50 ) were treated with 2-PAM-loaded SLNs at a dose of 2-PAM of 5 mg/kg. 2-PAM-SLNs reactivated 15% of brain AChE activity. Our results confirm the potential use of SLNs loaded with positively charged oximes as a medical countermeasure both for protection against OPs poisoning and for postexposure treatment.

  19. Probability approaching method (PAM) and its application on fuel management optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z.; Hu, Y.; Shi, G.

    2004-01-01

    For multi-cycle reloading optimization problem, a new solving scheme is presented. The multi-cycle problem is de-coupled into a number of relatively independent mono-cycle issues, then this non-linear programming problem with complex constraints is solved by an advanced new algorithm -probability approaching method (PAM), which is based on probability theory. The result on simplified core model shows well effect of this new multi-cycle optimization scheme. (authors)

  20. Surveillance for malaria outbreak on malaria-eliminating islands in Tafea Province, Vanuatu after Tropical Cyclone Pam in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, C W; Iata, H; Yaviong, J; Kalkoa, M; Yamar, S; Taleo, G; Isozumi, R; Fukui, M; Aoyama, F; Pomer, A; Dancause, K N; Kaneko, A

    2017-01-01

    The risk of malaria outbreak surfaced in Vanuatu after Tropical Cyclone (TC) Pam in March 2015. In June and July 2015 we conducted malariometric surveys on the islands of Tanna, Aneityum, and Erromango in Tafea Province, where malaria elimination had been targeted, to determine if malaria incidence had increased after TC Pam. No Plasmodium infection was detected by microscopy and PCR in 3009 survey participants. Only 6·3% (190/3007) of participants had fever. Spleen rates in children aged ⩽12 years from Aneityum and Tanna were low, at 3·6% (14/387) and 5·3% (27/510), respectively. Overall bed net use was high at 72·8% (2175/2986); however, a significantly higher (P Pam. The path towards malaria elimination in Tafea Province was not adversely affected by TC Pam.

  1. Investigation of defects on PAMS microspheres fabricated with microencapsulation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Sufen; Li Bo; Liu Yiyang; Zhang Zhanwen; Qi Xiaobo

    2012-01-01

    Poly-(α-methylstyrene) (PAMS) microspheres were fabricated with W1/O/W2 double emulsion microencapsulation method, and the effects of polyvinylalcohol (PVA) and CaCl 2 weight concentrations and the O/W2 phase ratio on the percentages of defected PAMS microspheres were studied. The weight concentrations of PVA and CaCl 2 and the O/W2 phase ratio in the fabrication process of PAMS microspheres were optimized. The results show that, for the three parameters being 1.0%, 1.5%, and 0.01, respectively, the percentage of the defect-free PAMS microspheres without vacuoles in the shell wall can be up to 60%. (authors)

  2. BicPAMS: software for biological data analysis with pattern-based biclustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Rui; Ferreira, Francisco L; Madeira, Sara C

    2017-02-02

    Biclustering has been largely applied for the unsupervised analysis of biological data, being recognised today as a key technique to discover putative modules in both expression data (subsets of genes correlated in subsets of conditions) and network data (groups of coherently interconnected biological entities). However, given its computational complexity, only recent breakthroughs on pattern-based biclustering enabled efficient searches without the restrictions that state-of-the-art biclustering algorithms place on the structure and homogeneity of biclusters. As a result, pattern-based biclustering provides the unprecedented opportunity to discover non-trivial yet meaningful biological modules with putative functions, whose coherency and tolerance to noise can be tuned and made problem-specific. To enable the effective use of pattern-based biclustering by the scientific community, we developed BicPAMS (Biclustering based on PAttern Mining Software), a software that: 1) makes available state-of-the-art pattern-based biclustering algorithms (BicPAM (Henriques and Madeira, Alg Mol Biol 9:27, 2014), BicNET (Henriques and Madeira, Alg Mol Biol 11:23, 2016), BicSPAM (Henriques and Madeira, BMC Bioinforma 15:130, 2014), BiC2PAM (Henriques and Madeira, Alg Mol Biol 11:1-30, 2016), BiP (Henriques and Madeira, IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinforma, 2015), DeBi (Serin and Vingron, AMB 6:1-12, 2011) and BiModule (Okada et al., IPSJ Trans Bioinf 48(SIG5):39-48, 2007)); 2) consistently integrates their dispersed contributions; 3) further explores additional accuracy and efficiency gains; and 4) makes available graphical and application programming interfaces. Results on both synthetic and real data confirm the relevance of BicPAMS for biological data analysis, highlighting its essential role for the discovery of putative modules with non-trivial yet biologically significant functions from expression and network data. BicPAMS is the first biclustering tool offering the

  3. PHBV/PAM scaffolds with local oriented structure through UV polymerization for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yu; Wu, Gang; Wang, Yingjun

    2014-01-01

    Locally oriented tissue engineering scaffolds can provoke cellular orientation and direct cell spread and migration, offering an exciting potential way for the regeneration of the complex tissue. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) scaffolds with locally oriented hydrophilic polyacrylamide (PAM) inside the macropores of the scaffolds were achieved through UV graft polymerization. The interpenetrating PAM chains enabled good interconnectivity of PHBV/PAM scaffolds that presented a lower porosity and minor diameter of pores than PHBV scaffolds. The pores with diameter below 100  μm increased to 82.15% of PHBV/PAM scaffolds compared with 31.5% of PHBV scaffolds. PHBV/PAM scaffold showed a much higher compressive elastic modulus than PHBV scaffold due to PAM stuffing. At 5 days of culturing, sheep chondrocytes spread along the similar direction in the macropores of PHBV/PAM scaffolds. The locally oriented PAM chains might guide the attachment and spreading of chondrocytes and direct the formation of microfilaments via contact guidance.

  4. Jonah, Pam Keziah

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jonah, Pam Keziah. Vol 9, No 2 (2012) - Articles A Pragmatic Analysis and Interpretation of Verbal Offers by Vendors of Consumer Products in Jos Metropolis Abstract. ISSN: 1813-2227. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  5. Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS). This file provides information on the numbers and distribution (latitude/longitude) of air monitoring sites...

  6. CYP51 is an essential drug target for the treatment of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Anjan; Calvet, Claudia M; Jennings, Gareth; Zhou, Wenxu; Aksenov, Alexander; Luth, Madeline R; Abagyan, Ruben; Nes, W David; McKerrow, James H; Podust, Larissa M

    2017-12-01

    Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM) is caused by Naegleria fowleri, a free-living amoeba that occasionally infects humans. While considered "rare" (but likely underreported) the high mortality rate and lack of established success in treatment makes PAM a particularly devastating infection. In the absence of economic inducements to invest in development of anti-PAM drugs by the pharmaceutical industry, anti-PAM drug discovery largely relies on drug 'repurposing'-a cost effective strategy to apply known drugs for treatment of rare or neglected diseases. Similar to fungi, N. fowleri has an essential requirement for ergosterol, a building block of plasma and cell membranes. Disruption of sterol biosynthesis by small-molecule inhibitors is a validated interventional strategy against fungal pathogens of medical and agricultural importance. The N. fowleri genome encodes the sterol 14-demethylase (CYP51) target sharing ~35% sequence identity to fungal orthologues. The similarity of targets raises the possibility of repurposing anti-mycotic drugs and optimization of their usage for the treatment of PAM. In this work, we (i) systematically assessed the impact of anti-fungal azole drugs, known as conazoles, on sterol biosynthesis and viability of cultured N. fowleri trophozotes, (ii) identified the endogenous CYP51 substrate by mass spectrometry analysis of N. fowleri lipids, and (iii) analyzed the interactions between the recombinant CYP51 target and conazoles by UV-vis spectroscopy and x-ray crystallography. Collectively, the target-based and parasite-based data obtained in these studies validated CYP51 as a potentially 'druggable' target in N. fowleri, and conazole drugs as the candidates for assessment in the animal model of PAM.

  7. A Design V and V Process of Hardwired PAMS for KJRR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Gwisook; Suh, Yongsuk; Kim, Youngki

    2013-01-01

    A hardwired PAMS (Post Accident Monitoring System) of KJRR (KIJANG Research Reactor) provides the necessary information for operators to monitor and take actions after an accident condition. The hardwired PAMS are designed according to HSI (Human System Interface) guidelines. However the HSI guidelines are too high level requirements and do not reflect the detailed characteristics of commercial products. Thus, the system designers have a difficulty in the following how the system requirements are reflected in the actual and detailed requirements for purchase. Thus, a design V and V (Verification and Validation) of the hardwired PAMS should be specially managed and can be traceable through the entire development life cycle. Thus, this paper proposes a tracking matrix method for the design V and V of hardwired PAMS for KJRR. The PAMS of KJRR consists of hardwired indicators. There are many differences between the system requirements and procurement specifications for hardwired devices. The existing design V and V method for hardwired indicators is not clear. Thus, this paper proposed a tracking matrix for the design V and V of the hardwired PAMS

  8. Psychometric properties of the hebrew translation of the patient activation measure (PAM-13).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnezi, Racheli; Glasser, Saralee

    2014-01-01

    "Patient activation" reflects involvement in managing ones health. This cross-sectional study assessed the psychometric properties of the Hebrew translation (PAM-H) of the PAM-13. A nationally representative sample of 203 Hebrew-speaking Israeli adults answered the PAM-H, PHQ-9 depression scale, SF-12, and Self-efficacy Scale via telephone. Mean PAM-H scores were 70.7±15.4. Rasch analysis indicated that the PAM-H is a good measure of activation. There were no differences in PAM-H scores based on gender, age or education. Subjects with chronic disease scored lower than those without. Scores correlated with the Self-efficacy Scale (0.47), Total SF-12 (0.39) and PHQ-9 (-0.35, PPAM-H score of those who scored below 10 (72.1±14.8) on the PHQ-9 (not depressed) compared to those scoring ≥10 (i.e. probable depression) (59.2±15.8; t 3.75; P = 0.001). The PAM-H psychometric properties indicate its usefulness with the Hebrew-speaking Israeli population. PAM-H can be useful for assessing programs aimed at effecting changes in patient compliance, health behaviors, etc. Researchers in Israel should use a single translation of the PAM-13 so that findings can be compared, increasing understanding of patient activation.

  9. Application of polyacrylamide (PAM) through lay-flat polyethylene 1 tubing: effects on infiltration, erosion, N and P transport, and corn yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyacrylamides (PAMs), when applied as a soil amendment, purportedly improve soil infiltration, decrease erosion, and reduce off-site agrochemical transport. The effect of PAM on infiltration, erosion, agrochemical transport, and crop yield when applied in-furrow to Mid-South production systems has...

  10. Bacillus subtilis generates a major specific deletion in pAM beta 1.

    OpenAIRE

    van der Lelie, D; Venema, G

    1987-01-01

    pAM beta 1, a 26.5-kilobase plasmid originally isolated from Streptococcus faecalis, was conjugally transferred from Streptococcus lactis to Bacillus subtilis. No conjugal transfer of pAM beta 1 from B. subtilis to S. lactis was observed. In addition, pAM beta 1 which had been reintroduced in S. lactis after cycling through B. subtilis had lost its conjugal transferability to Streptococcus cremoris, although under the same conditions noncycled pAM beta 1 was transferred at high efficiency. Re...

  11. Improvement of biodegradability of oil wastewater contained PAM by pretreatment with Fenton oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, M.; Wang, N.

    2008-01-01

    The use of polymer flooding in enhanced oil recovery operations has resulted in higher levels of polyacrylamide (PAM) found in oil wastewater. PAM is harmful to the environment, particularly the monomer acrylamide that is generated from PAM degradation. In this study, PAM derived from oil wastewater was pretreated by Fenton oxidation. This oxidation method is based on the use of a mixture of H 2 O 2 and iron salts which produce hydroxyl radicals in acidic conditions. The method offers a cost-effective source of hydroxyl radicals, using easy-to-handle reagents. The purpose of this study was to transform PAM to biodegradable intermediums. The optimal conditions for the Fenton reactions were also determined and described. Under optimal conditions, the removal ratios of PAM and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were 83.8 and 77 per cent respectively. It was concluded that Fenton's oxidation is an effective treatment to improved the biodegradability of PAM. 14 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  12. CYP51 is an essential drug target for the treatment of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjan Debnath

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM is caused by Naegleria fowleri, a free-living amoeba that occasionally infects humans. While considered "rare" (but likely underreported the high mortality rate and lack of established success in treatment makes PAM a particularly devastating infection. In the absence of economic inducements to invest in development of anti-PAM drugs by the pharmaceutical industry, anti-PAM drug discovery largely relies on drug 'repurposing'-a cost effective strategy to apply known drugs for treatment of rare or neglected diseases. Similar to fungi, N. fowleri has an essential requirement for ergosterol, a building block of plasma and cell membranes. Disruption of sterol biosynthesis by small-molecule inhibitors is a validated interventional strategy against fungal pathogens of medical and agricultural importance. The N. fowleri genome encodes the sterol 14-demethylase (CYP51 target sharing ~35% sequence identity to fungal orthologues. The similarity of targets raises the possibility of repurposing anti-mycotic drugs and optimization of their usage for the treatment of PAM. In this work, we (i systematically assessed the impact of anti-fungal azole drugs, known as conazoles, on sterol biosynthesis and viability of cultured N. fowleri trophozotes, (ii identified the endogenous CYP51 substrate by mass spectrometry analysis of N. fowleri lipids, and (iii analyzed the interactions between the recombinant CYP51 target and conazoles by UV-vis spectroscopy and x-ray crystallography. Collectively, the target-based and parasite-based data obtained in these studies validated CYP51 as a potentially 'druggable' target in N. fowleri, and conazole drugs as the candidates for assessment in the animal model of PAM.

  13. Signaling from the secretory granule to the nucleus: Uhmk1 and PAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francone, Victor P; Ifrim, Marius F; Rajagopal, Chitra; Leddy, Christopher J; Wang, Yanping; Carson, John H; Mains, Richard E; Eipper, Betty A

    2010-08-01

    Neurons and endocrine cells package peptides in secretory granules (large dense-core vesicles) for storage and stimulated release. Studies of peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), an essential secretory granule membrane enzyme, revealed a pathway that can relay information from secretory granules to the nucleus, resulting in alterations in gene expression. The cytosolic domain (CD) of PAM, a type 1 membrane enzyme essential for the production of amidated peptides, is basally phosphorylated by U2AF homology motif kinase 1 (Uhmk1) and other Ser/Thr kinases. Proopiomelanocortin processing in AtT-20 corticotrope tumor cells was increased when Uhmk1 expression was reduced. Uhmk1 was concentrated in the nucleus, but cycled rapidly between nucleus and cytosol. Endoproteolytic cleavage of PAM releases a soluble CD fragment that localizes to the nucleus. Localization of PAM-CD to the nucleus was decreased when PAM-CD with phosphomimetic mutations was examined and when active Uhmk1 was simultaneously overexpressed. Membrane-tethering Uhmk1 did not eliminate its ability to exclude PAM-CD from the nucleus, suggesting that cytosolic Uhmk1 could cause this response. Microarray analysis demonstrated the ability of PAM to increase expression of a small subset of genes, including aquaporin 1 (Aqp1) in AtT-20 cells. Aqp1 mRNA levels were higher in wild-type mice than in mice heterozygous for PAM, indicating that a similar relationship occurs in vivo. Expression of PAM-CD also increased Aqp1 levels whereas expression of Uhmk1 diminished Aqp1 expression. The outlines of a pathway that ties secretory granule metabolism to the transcriptome are thus apparent.

  14. Photorhabdus adhesion modification protein (Pam) binds extracellular polysaccharide and alters bacterial attachment

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jones, Robert T

    2010-05-12

    Abstract Background Photorhabdus are Gram-negative nematode-symbiotic and insect-pathogenic bacteria. The species Photorhabdus asymbiotica is able to infect humans as well as insects. We investigated the secreted proteome of a clinical isolate of P. asymbiotica at different temperatures in order to identify proteins relevant to the infection of the two different hosts. Results A comparison of the proteins secreted by a clinical isolate of P. asymbiotica at simulated insect (28°C) and human (37°C) temperatures led to the identification of a small and highly abundant protein, designated Pam, that is only secreted at the lower temperature. The pam gene is present in all Photorhabdus strains tested and shows a high level of conservation across the whole genus, suggesting it is both ancestral to the genus and probably important to the biology of the bacterium. The Pam protein shows limited sequence similarity to the 13.6 kDa component of a binary toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis. Nevertheless, injection or feeding of heterologously produced Pam showed no insecticidal activity to either Galleria mellonella or Manduca sexta larvae. In bacterial colonies, Pam is associated with an extracellular polysaccharide (EPS)-like matrix, and modifies the ability of wild-type cells to attach to an artificial surface. Interestingly, Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) binding studies revealed that the Pam protein itself has adhesive properties. Although Pam is produced throughout insect infection, genetic knockout does not affect either insect virulence or the ability of P. luminescens to form a symbiotic association with its host nematode, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. Conclusions We studied a highly abundant protein, Pam, which is secreted in a temperature-dependent manner in P. asymbiotica. Our findings indicate that Pam plays an important role in enhancing surface attachment in insect blood. Its association with exopolysaccharide suggests it may exert its effect through mediation of

  15. Photorhabdus adhesion modification protein (Pam) binds extracellular polysaccharide and alters bacterial attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robert T; Sanchez-Contreras, Maria; Vlisidou, Isabella; Amos, Matthew R; Yang, Guowei; Muñoz-Berbel, Xavier; Upadhyay, Abhishek; Potter, Ursula J; Joyce, Susan A; Ciche, Todd A; Jenkins, A Toby A; Bagby, Stefan; Ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Waterfield, Nicholas R

    2010-05-12

    Photorhabdus are Gram-negative nematode-symbiotic and insect-pathogenic bacteria. The species Photorhabdus asymbiotica is able to infect humans as well as insects. We investigated the secreted proteome of a clinical isolate of P. asymbiotica at different temperatures in order to identify proteins relevant to the infection of the two different hosts. A comparison of the proteins secreted by a clinical isolate of P. asymbiotica at simulated insect (28 degrees C) and human (37 degrees C) temperatures led to the identification of a small and highly abundant protein, designated Pam, that is only secreted at the lower temperature. The pam gene is present in all Photorhabdus strains tested and shows a high level of conservation across the whole genus, suggesting it is both ancestral to the genus and probably important to the biology of the bacterium. The Pam protein shows limited sequence similarity to the 13.6 kDa component of a binary toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis. Nevertheless, injection or feeding of heterologously produced Pam showed no insecticidal activity to either Galleria mellonella or Manduca sexta larvae. In bacterial colonies, Pam is associated with an extracellular polysaccharide (EPS)-like matrix, and modifies the ability of wild-type cells to attach to an artificial surface. Interestingly, Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) binding studies revealed that the Pam protein itself has adhesive properties. Although Pam is produced throughout insect infection, genetic knockout does not affect either insect virulence or the ability of P. luminescens to form a symbiotic association with its host nematode, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. We studied a highly abundant protein, Pam, which is secreted in a temperature-dependent manner in P. asymbiotica. Our findings indicate that Pam plays an important role in enhancing surface attachment in insect blood. Its association with exopolysaccharide suggests it may exert its effect through mediation of EPS properties. Despite

  16. Photorhabdus adhesion modification protein (Pam binds extracellular polysaccharide and alters bacterial attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Susan A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Photorhabdus are Gram-negative nematode-symbiotic and insect-pathogenic bacteria. The species Photorhabdus asymbiotica is able to infect humans as well as insects. We investigated the secreted proteome of a clinical isolate of P. asymbiotica at different temperatures in order to identify proteins relevant to the infection of the two different hosts. Results A comparison of the proteins secreted by a clinical isolate of P. asymbiotica at simulated insect (28°C and human (37°C temperatures led to the identification of a small and highly abundant protein, designated Pam, that is only secreted at the lower temperature. The pam gene is present in all Photorhabdus strains tested and shows a high level of conservation across the whole genus, suggesting it is both ancestral to the genus and probably important to the biology of the bacterium. The Pam protein shows limited sequence similarity to the 13.6 kDa component of a binary toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis. Nevertheless, injection or feeding of heterologously produced Pam showed no insecticidal activity to either Galleria mellonella or Manduca sexta larvae. In bacterial colonies, Pam is associated with an extracellular polysaccharide (EPS-like matrix, and modifies the ability of wild-type cells to attach to an artificial surface. Interestingly, Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR binding studies revealed that the Pam protein itself has adhesive properties. Although Pam is produced throughout insect infection, genetic knockout does not affect either insect virulence or the ability of P. luminescens to form a symbiotic association with its host nematode, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. Conclusions We studied a highly abundant protein, Pam, which is secreted in a temperature-dependent manner in P. asymbiotica. Our findings indicate that Pam plays an important role in enhancing surface attachment in insect blood. Its association with exopolysaccharide suggests it may exert its effect

  17. Structural Basis for the Canonical and Non-canonical PAM Recognition by CRISPR-Cpf1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamano, Takashi; Zetsche, Bernd; Ishitani, Ryuichiro; Zhang, Feng; Nishimasu, Hiroshi; Nureki, Osamu

    2017-08-17

    The RNA-guided Cpf1 (also known as Cas12a) nuclease associates with a CRISPR RNA (crRNA) and cleaves the double-stranded DNA target complementary to the crRNA guide. The two Cpf1 orthologs from Acidaminococcus sp. (AsCpf1) and Lachnospiraceae bacterium (LbCpf1) have been harnessed for eukaryotic genome editing. Cpf1 requires a specific nucleotide sequence, called a protospacer adjacent motif (PAM), for target recognition. Besides the canonical TTTV PAM, Cpf1 recognizes suboptimal C-containing PAMs. Here, we report four crystal structures of LbCpf1 in complex with the crRNA and its target DNA containing either TTTA, TCTA, TCCA, or CCCA as the PAM. These structures revealed that, depending on the PAM sequences, LbCpf1 undergoes conformational changes to form altered interactions with the PAM-containing DNA duplexes, thereby achieving the relaxed PAM recognition. Collectively, the present structures advance our mechanistic understanding of the PAM-dependent, crRNA-guided DNA cleavage by the Cpf1 family nucleases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Pam2 lipopeptides systemically increase myeloid-derived suppressor cells through TLR2 signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Akira; Shime, Hiroaki, E-mail: shime@med.hokudai.ac.jp; Takeda, Yohei; Azuma, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Misako; Seya, Tsukasa, E-mail: seya-tu@pop.med.hokudai.ac.jp

    2015-02-13

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are immature myeloid cells that exhibit potent immunosuppressive activity. They are increased in tumor-bearing hosts and contribute to tumor development. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on MDSCs may modulate the tumor-supporting properties of MDSCs through pattern-recognition. Pam2 lipopeptides represented by Pam2CSK4 serve as a TLR2 agonist to exert anti-tumor function by dendritic cell (DC)-priming that leads to NK cell activation and cytotoxic T cell proliferation. On the other hand, TLR2 enhances tumor cell progression/invasion by activating tumor-infiltrating macrophages. How MDSCs respond to TLR2 agonists has not yet been determined. In this study, we found intravenous administration of Pam2CSK4 systemically up-regulated the frequency of MDSCs in EG7 tumor-bearing mice. The frequency of tumor-infiltrating MDSCs was accordingly increased in response to Pam2CSK4. MDSCs were not increased by Pam2CSK4 stimuli in TLR2 knockout (KO) mice. Adoptive transfer experiments using CFSE-labeled MDSCs revealed that the TLR2-positive MDSCs survived long in tumor-bearing mice in response to Pam2CSK4 treatment. Since the increased MDSC population sustained immune-suppressive properties, our study suggests that Pam2CSK4-triggered TLR2 activation enhances the MDSC potential and suppress antitumor immune response in tumor microenvironment. - Highlights: • Pam2CSK4 administration induces systemic accumulation of CD11b{sup +}Gr1{sup +} MDSCs. • TLR2 is essential for Pam2CSK4-induced accumulation of CD11b{sup +}Gr1{sup +} MDSCs. • Pam2CSK4 supports survival of CD11b{sup +}Gr1{sup +} MDSCs in vivo.

  19. Structural basis of PAM-dependent target DNA recognition by the Cas9 endonuclease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Carolin; Niewoehner, Ole; Duerst, Alessia; Jinek, Martin

    2014-09-25

    The CRISPR-associated protein Cas9 is an RNA-guided endonuclease that cleaves double-stranded DNA bearing sequences complementary to a 20-nucleotide segment in the guide RNA. Cas9 has emerged as a versatile molecular tool for genome editing and gene expression control. RNA-guided DNA recognition and cleavage strictly require the presence of a protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) in the target DNA. Here we report a crystal structure of Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 in complex with a single-molecule guide RNA and a target DNA containing a canonical 5'-NGG-3' PAM. The structure reveals that the PAM motif resides in a base-paired DNA duplex. The non-complementary strand GG dinucleotide is read out via major-groove interactions with conserved arginine residues from the carboxy-terminal domain of Cas9. Interactions with the minor groove of the PAM duplex and the phosphodiester group at the +1 position in the target DNA strand contribute to local strand separation immediately upstream of the PAM. These observations suggest a mechanism for PAM-dependent target DNA melting and RNA-DNA hybrid formation. Furthermore, this study establishes a framework for the rational engineering of Cas9 enzymes with novel PAM specificities.

  20. Preparing for chemical terrorism: a study of the stability of expired pralidoxime (2-PAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Robert S; Mercurio-Zappala, Maria; Bouchard, Nicole; Ravikumar, Padinjarekuttu; Goldfrank, Lewis

    2012-03-01

    Oximes such as pralidoxime (2-PAM) are essential antidotes for life-threatening organophosphate poisoning. Unfortunately, oximes are expensive, have limited use, and have short shelf lives. As such, maintaining large stockpiles in preparation for terrorist activity is not always possible. We have demonstrated that atropine is stable well beyond its labeled shelf life and that recently expired 2-PAM was clinically efficacious in a series of poisoned patients. Because 2-PAM is often dosed empirically, clinical improvement does not guarantee pharmacological stability. We therefore chose to analyze the chemical stability of expired 2-PAM. Samples of lyophylized 2-PAM were maintained according to the manufacturer's recommendations for 20 years beyond the published shelf life. We studied 2-PAM contained in a MARK I autoinjector that was stored properly for 3 years beyond its expiration date. An Agilent LC/MSD 1100 with diode-array detector and an Agilent Sorbax SB-C-18, 4.6 × 150-mm, 5-μm column were used with the following solvent systems: water with 0.01% trifluoroacetic acid and methanol with 0.01% trifluoroacetic acid. Fresh reagent grade 2-PAM was used as a standard. Results were repeated for consistency. Lyophylized 2-PAM was a white powder that was clear and colorless in solution. Liquid chromatography was identical to the standard and resulted in 2 isolated peaks with identical mass spectra, suggesting that they are stereoisomers. The autoinjector discharged a clear, yellowish solution. In addition to the 2 peaks identified for lyophylized 2-PAM, a small third peak was identified with a mass spectra corresponding to the reported N -methyl pyridinium carboxaldehyde degradation product. When properly stored, lyophylized 2-PAM appears to be chemically stable well beyond its expiration date. Although the relative amount of degradation product found in solubilized (autoinjector) 2-PAM was small, it is unclear whether this may be toxic and therefore is of concern

  1. Electrochemical examination of ability of dsDNA/PAM composites for storing and releasing of doxorubicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabost, Ewelina; Liwinska, Wioletta; Karbarz, Marcin; Kurek, Eliza; Lyp, Marek; Donten, Mikolaj; Stojek, Zbigniew

    2016-06-01

    Composites consisting of ss- and ds-DNA strands and polyacrylamide (PAM) hydrogel have been synthesized. DNA was entrapped non-covalently. The obtained DNA biomaterial exhibited a strong increase in guanine and adenine anodic currents when temperature reached the physiological level. This increase was related to the unique oligonucleotide structural changes in the composite. The structural alterations in the PAM lattices were employed for the release of the drug accumulated in the composite. Doxorubicin (Dox) was selected as the drug; it was accumulated by intercalation to dsDNA and was slowly released from the dsDNA/PAM system by using a minor temperature increase (up to 40÷45 °C) as it is routinely done in hyperthermia. The applied release temperature was either constant or oscillating. The binding strength, the rate of Dox release and the properties of the composite were examined using voltammetry, SEM and ICP-MS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Structural Basis for the Altered PAM Recognition by Engineered CRISPR-Cpf1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimasu, Hiroshi; Yamano, Takashi; Gao, Linyi; Zhang, Feng; Ishitani, Ryuichiro; Nureki, Osamu

    2017-07-06

    The RNA-guided Cpf1 nuclease cleaves double-stranded DNA targets complementary to the CRISPR RNA (crRNA), and it has been harnessed for genome editing technologies. Recently, Acidaminococcus sp. BV3L6 (AsCpf1) was engineered to recognize altered DNA sequences as the protospacer adjacent motif (PAM), thereby expanding the target range of Cpf1-mediated genome editing. Whereas wild-type AsCpf1 recognizes the TTTV PAM, the RVR (S542R/K548V/N552R) and RR (S542R/K607R) variants can efficiently recognize the TATV and TYCV PAMs, respectively. However, their PAM recognition mechanisms remained unknown. Here we present the 2.0 Å resolution crystal structures of the RVR and RR variants bound to a crRNA and its target DNA. The structures revealed that the RVR and RR variants primarily recognize the PAM-complementary nucleotides via the substituted residues. Our high-resolution structures delineated the altered PAM recognition mechanisms of the AsCpf1 variants, providing a basis for the further engineering of CRISPR-Cpf1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Elevation of Transfection Efficiency by Conjugation of Poly(amindoamine)-diethylenetriamine (PAM-DET) with Dexamethasone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yunseong; Park, Jihye; Jin, Geunwoo; Park, Jongsang

    2012-01-01

    We successfully conjugated hydrophobic group, dexamethasone onto the surface of PAM-DET to synthesize PAM-DET-DX to form polyplexes with enhanced stability against ionic strength. We evaluated its stability by measuring the size of its polyplexes; the conjugated PAM-DET polyplex showed decreased growth compared to the PAM-DET polyplex in an environment with increased ionic strength, which implies that the conjugated PAM-DET has enhanced stability against increased ionic strength. Furthermore, conjugation of hydrophobic group caused a slight increase in the transfection efficiency without inducing toxicity. Of course, it isn't a neglectable factor that nuclear localization effect of DX can drive the advanced transfection efficiency of PAM-DET-DX polyplex. It means that the hydrophobic moieties which have some other positive properties in transfection are good candidates that can be introduced to non-viral polymeric gene delivery carrier. This strongly indicates that the introduction of hydrophobic moiety on PAM-DET is a good method to enhance polyplex stability against ionic strength without diminishing its advantageous properties, such as high transfection efficiency and low cytotoxicity

  4. Enhancement of the optical, thermal and electrical properties of PEO/PAM:Li polymer electrolyte films doped with Ag nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsi, M. A.; El-Khodary, Sherif A.; Rajeh, A.

    2018-06-01

    Both lithium bromide (LiBr) and biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) with average size 2-30 nm have been incorporated into the polymeric matrix of polyethylene oxide and polyacrylamide (PEO/PAM) blend by the casting method. FT-IR analysis indicates the formation of hydrogen bond between the blend components. Also, LiBr and Ag NPs interact with the functional groups of PEO/PAM matrix. The results of XRD analysis depict the semi-crystalline nature of these polymer samples and the degree of crystallinity is decreased due to the addition process. The values of optical energy gap from UV-Vis. data are decreased from 3.55 eV for blend to 3.26 for the nanocomposite sample in the indirect transition. LiBr/Ag NPs assist the improvement of the thermal stability of the PEO/PAM blend, as evidenced by TGA and DTA techniques. Upon the addition of LiBr and Ag NPs, an improvement for the conductivity, dielectric permittivity (έ) and dielectric loss (ἕ) of PEO/PAM solid polymer electrolytes are observed. It's clear that the improvement of the electrical conductivity and dielectric parameters for PEO/PAM: Li+/Ag NPs polymer electrolyte system makes it as a promising candidate for solid-state Li battery applications.

  5. Dimerization Is Not a Determining Factor for Functional High Affinity Human Plasminogen Binding by the Group A Streptococcal Virulence Factor PAM and Is Mediated by Specific Residues within the PAM a1a2 Domain*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sarbani; Liang, Zhong; Quek, Adam J.; Ploplis, Victoria A.; Law, Ruby; Castellino, Francis J.

    2014-01-01

    A emm53 subclass of Group A Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) interacts tightly with human plasma plasminogen (hPg) and plasmin (hPm) via the kringle 2 (K2hPg) domain of hPg/hPm and the N-terminal a1a2 regions of a GAS coiled-coil M-like protein (PAM). Previous studies have shown that a monomeric PAM fragment, VEK30 (residues 97–125 + Tyr), interacted specifically with isolated K2hPg. However, the binding strength of VEK30 (KD = 56 nm) was ∼60-fold weaker than that of full-length dimeric PAM (KD = 1 nm). To assess whether this attenuated binding was due to the inability of VEK30 to dimerize, we defined the minimal length of PAM required to dimerize using a series of peptides with additional PAM residues placed at the NH2 and COOH termini of VEK30. VEK64 (PAM residues 83–145 + Tyr) was found to be the smallest peptide that adopted an α-helical dimer, and was bound to K2hPg with nearly the same affinity as PAM (KD = 1–2 nm). However, addition of two PAM residues (Arg126-His127) to the COOH terminus of VEK30 (VEK32) maintained a monomeric peptidic structure, but exhibited similar K2hPg binding affinity as full-length dimeric PAM. We identified five residues in a1a2 (Arg113, His114, Glu116, Arg126, His127), mutation of which reduced PAM binding affinity for K2hPg by ∼1000-fold. Replacement of these critical residues by Ala in the GAS genome resulted in reduced virulence, similar to the effects of inactivating the PAM gene entirely. We conclude that rather than dimerization of PAM, the five key residues in the binding domain of PAM are essential to mediate the high affinity interaction with hPg, leading to increased GAS virulence. PMID:24962580

  6. Dimerization is not a determining factor for functional high affinity human plasminogen binding by the group A streptococcal virulence factor PAM and is mediated by specific residues within the PAM a1a2 domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sarbani; Liang, Zhong; Quek, Adam J; Ploplis, Victoria A; Law, Ruby; Castellino, Francis J

    2014-08-01

    A emm53 subclass of Group A Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) interacts tightly with human plasma plasminogen (hPg) and plasmin (hPm) via the kringle 2 (K2hPg) domain of hPg/hPm and the N-terminal a1a2 regions of a GAS coiled-coil M-like protein (PAM). Previous studies have shown that a monomeric PAM fragment, VEK30 (residues 97-125 + Tyr), interacted specifically with isolated K2hPg. However, the binding strength of VEK30 (KD = 56 nm) was ∼60-fold weaker than that of full-length dimeric PAM (KD = 1 nm). To assess whether this attenuated binding was due to the inability of VEK30 to dimerize, we defined the minimal length of PAM required to dimerize using a series of peptides with additional PAM residues placed at the NH2 and COOH termini of VEK30. VEK64 (PAM residues 83-145 + Tyr) was found to be the smallest peptide that adopted an α-helical dimer, and was bound to K2hPg with nearly the same affinity as PAM (KD = 1-2 nm). However, addition of two PAM residues (Arg(126)-His(127)) to the COOH terminus of VEK30 (VEK32) maintained a monomeric peptidic structure, but exhibited similar K2hPg binding affinity as full-length dimeric PAM. We identified five residues in a1a2 (Arg(113), His(114), Glu(116), Arg(126), His(127)), mutation of which reduced PAM binding affinity for K2hPg by ∼ 1000-fold. Replacement of these critical residues by Ala in the GAS genome resulted in reduced virulence, similar to the effects of inactivating the PAM gene entirely. We conclude that rather than dimerization of PAM, the five key residues in the binding domain of PAM are essential to mediate the high affinity interaction with hPg, leading to increased GAS virulence. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Mammalian peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM) mRNA expression can be modulated by the La autoantigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenet, Fabienne; Dussault, Nadège; Borch, Jonas

    2005-01-01

    Peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM; EC 1.14.17.3) catalyzes the COOH-terminal alpha-amidation of peptidylglycine substrates, yielding amidated products. We have previously reported a putative regulatory RNA binding protein (PAM mRNA-BP) that binds specifically to the 3' untranslated...... region (UTR) of PAM-mRNA. Here, the PAM mRNA-BP was isolated and revealed to be La protein using affinity purification onto a 3' UTR PAM RNA, followed by tandem mass spectrometry identification. We determined that the core binding sequence is approximately 15-nucleotides (nt) long and is located 471 nt...... downstream of the stop codon. Moreover, we identified the La autoantigen as a protein that specifically binds the 3' UTR of PAM mRNA in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, La protein overexpression caused a nuclear retention of PAM mRNAs and resulted in the down-regulation of endogenous PAM activity. Most...

  8. Wind tunnel experimental study on the effect of PAM on soil wind erosion control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ji-Jun; Cai, Qiang-Guo; Tang, Ze-Jun

    2008-10-01

    In recent years, high-molecular-weight anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) have been widely tested on a variety of soils, primarily in water erosion control. However, little information is available regarding the effectiveness of PAM on preventing soil loss from wind erosion. The research adopted room wind tunnel experiment, two kinds of soils were used which were from the agro-pastoral area of Inner Mongolia, the northwest of China, the clay content of soils were 22.0 and 13.7%, respectively. For these tests, all the treatments were performed under the condition of wind velocity of 14 m s(-1) and a blown angle of 8.75%, according to the actual situation of experimented area. The study results indicated that using PAM on the soil surface could enhance the capability of avoiding the wind erosion, at the same time, the effect of controlling wind soil erosion with 4 g m(-2) PAM was better than 2 g m(-2) PAM's. Economically, the 2 g m(-2) PAM used in soil surface can control wind erosion effectively in this region. The prophase PAM accumulated in soil could not improve the capability of avoiding the wind erosion, owing to the degradation of PAM in the soil and the continual tillage year after year. The texture of soil is a main factor influencing the capability of soil avoiding wind erosion. Soil with higher clay content has the higher capability of preventing soil from wind erosion than one with the opposite one under the together action of PAM and water.

  9. Pam (Peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase) heterozygosity alters brain copper handling with region specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaier, Eric D; Miller, Megan B; Ralle, Martina; Aryal, Dipendra; Wetsel, William C; Mains, Richard E; Eipper, Betty A

    2013-01-01

    Copper (Cu), an essential trace element present throughout the mammalian nervous system, is crucial for normal synaptic function. Neuronal handling of Cu is poorly understood. We studied the localization and expression of Atp7a, the major intracellular Cu transporter in the brain, and its relation to peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), an essential cuproenzyme and regulator of Cu homeostasis in neuroendocrine cells. Based on biochemical fractionation and immunostaining of dissociated neurons, Atp7a was enriched in postsynaptic vesicular fractions. Cu followed a similar pattern, with ~20% of total Cu in synaptosomes. A mouse model heterozygous for the Pam gene (PAM+/−) is selectively Cu deficient in the amygdala. As in cortex and hippocampus, Atp7a and PAM expression overlap in the amygdala, with highest expression in interneurons. Messenger RNA levels of Atox-1 and Atp7a, which deliver Cu to the secretory pathway, were reduced in the amygdala but not the hippocampus in PAM+/− mice, along with GABAB receptor mRNA levels. Consistent with Cu deficiency, dopamine β-monooxygenase function was impaired as evidenced by elevated dopamine metabolites in the amygdala, but not the hippocampus, of PAM+/− mice. These alterations in Cu delivery to the secretory pathway in the PAM+/− amygdala may contribute to the physiological and behavioral deficits observed. PMID:24032518

  10. Novel glycolipid TLR2 ligands of the type Pam2Cys-α-Gal: synthesis and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomann, Jean-Sébastien; Monneaux, Fanny; Creusat, Gaëlle; Spanedda, Maria Vittoria; Heurtault, Béatrice; Habermacher, Chloé; Schuber, Francis; Bourel-Bonnet, Line; Frisch, Benoît

    2012-05-01

    A more complete understanding of the mechanism of action of TLR agonists has fueled the investigation of new synthetic immunoadjuvants. In this context, we designed and synthesized glycolipids of the type Pam(2)Cys-α-Galactose as novel immunoadjuvants. Their synthesis required modifying a hydrophobic tBoc-[2,3-bispalmitoyloxy-(2R)-propyl]-R-cysteinyl moiety, i.e. the minimal structure required for TLR2 agonist activity, by addition of a hydrophilic head, either an α-Galactosylpyranose or an α-Galactosylfuranose to gain respectively Pam(2)CGalp and Pam(2)CGalf. While preparing a carbohydrate building block, an unexpected stereoselectivity was observed during a halide ion-catalytic process on a protected galactofuranose: the alpha anomer was obtained with surprisingly high selectivity (α/β ratio>9) and with good isolated yield (51%). The TLR2 binding properties of Pam(2)CGalp and Pam(2)CGalf were then fully evaluated. Their efficiency in triggering the proliferation of BALB/c mouse splenocytes was also compared to that of Pam(2)CAG and Pam(3)CAG, two well-established ligands of TLRs. Moreover, the maturation state of murine dendritic cells previously incubated with either Pam(2)CGalp or Pam(2)CGalf was monitored by flow cytometry and compared to that induced by lipopolysaccharide. Pam(2)CGalp and Pam(2)CGalf were found to be equivalent TLR2 agonists, and induced splenocyte proliferation and DC maturation. With very similar activity, Pam(2)CGalp and Pam(2)CGalf were also 10-fold to 100-fold better than Pam(2)CAG and Pam(3)CAG at inducing B cell proliferation. This represents the first time a glucidic head has been added to the tBoc-[2,3-bispalmitoyloxy-(2R)-propyl]-R-cysteinyl moiety whilst maintaining the immunomodulating activity. This should greatly enrich the data available on Pam(2)C structure/activity relationships. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Measuring patient activation in Italy: Translation, adaptation and validation of the Italian version of the patient activation measure 13 (PAM13-I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffigna, Guendalina; Barello, Serena; Bonanomi, Andrea; Lozza, Edoardo; Hibbard, Judith

    2015-12-23

    The Patient Activation Measure (PAM13) is an instrument that assesses patient knowledge, skills, and confidence for disease self-management. This cross-sectional study was aimed to validate a culturally-adapted Italian Patient Activation Measure (PAM13-I) for patients with chronic conditions. 519 chronic patients were involved in the Italian validation study and responded to PAM13-I. The PAM 13 was translated into Italian by a standardized forward-backward translation. Data quality was assessed by mean, median, item response, missing values, floor and ceiling effects, internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha and average inter-item correlation), item-rest correlations. Rasch Model and differential item functioning assessed scale properties. Mean PAM13-I score was 66.2. Rasch analysis showed that the PAM13-I is a good measure of patient activation. The level of internal consistency was good (α = 0.88). For all items, the distribution of answers was left-skewed, with a small floor effect (range 1.7-4.5 %) and a moderate ceiling effect (range 27.6-55.0 %). The Italian version formed a unidimensional, probabilistic Guttman-like scale explaining 41 % of the variance. The PAM13-I has been demonstrated to be a valid and reliable measure of patient activation and the present study suggests its applicability to the Italian-speaking chronic patient population. The measure has good psychometric properties and appears to be consistent with the developmental nature of the patient activation phenomenon, although it presents a different ranking order of the items comparing to the American version. PAM13-I can be a useful assessment tool to evaluate interventions aimed at improving patient engagement in healthcare and to train doctors in attuning their communication to the level of patients' activation. Future research could be conducted to further confirm the validity of the PAM13-I.

  12. Pam heterozygous mice reveal essential role for Cu in amygdalar behavioral and synaptic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaier, Eric D; Eipper, Betty A; Mains, Richard E

    2014-05-01

    Copper (Cu) is an essential element with many biological roles, but its roles in the mammalian nervous system are poorly understood. Mice deficient in the cuproenzyme peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (Pam(+/-) mice) were initially generated to study neuropeptide amidation. Pam(+/-) mice exhibit profound deficits in a few behavioral tasks, including enhancements in innate fear along with deficits in acquired fear. Interestingly, several Pam(+/-) phenotypes were recapitulated in Cu-restricted wild-type mice and rescued in Cu-supplemented Pam(+/-) mice. These behaviors correspond to enhanced excitability and deficient synaptic plasticity in the amygdala of Pam(+/-) mice, which are also rescued by Cu supplementation. Cu and ATP7A are present at synapses, in key positions to respond to and influence synaptic activity. Further study demonstrated that extracellular Cu is necessary for wild-type synaptic plasticity and sufficient to induce long-term potentiation. These experiments support roles for PAM in Cu homeostasis and for synaptic Cu in amygdalar function. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  13. Translation, adaptation and validation of the American short form Patient Activation Measure (PAM13) in a Danish version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maindal, Helle Terkildsen; Sokolowski, Ineta; Vedsted, Peter

    2009-06-29

    The Patient Activation Measure (PAM) is a measure that assesses patient knowledge, skill, and confidence for self-management. This study validates the Danish translation of the 13-item Patient Activation Measure (PAM13) in a Danish population with dysglycaemia. 358 people with screen-detected dysglycaemia participating in a primary care health education study responded to PAM13. The PAM13 was translated into Danish by a standardised forward-backward translation. Data quality was assessed by mean, median, item response, missing values, floor and ceiling effects, internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha and average inter-item correlation) and item-rest correlations. Scale properties were assessed by Rasch Rating Scale models. The item response was high with a small number of missing values (0.8-4.2%). Floor effect was small (range 0.6-3.6%), but the ceiling effect was above 15% for all items (range 18.6-62.7%). The alpha-coefficient was 0.89 and the average inter-item correlation 0.38. The Danish version formed a unidimensional, probabilistic Guttman-like scale explaining 43.2% of the variance. We did however, find a different item sequence compared to the original scale. A Danish version of PAM13 with acceptable validity and reliability is now available. Further development should focus on single items, response categories in relation to ceiling effects and further validation of reproducibility and responsiveness.

  14. Community-level microalgal toxicity assessment by multiwavelength-excitation PAM fluorometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt-Jansen, Mechthild; Altenburger, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    In ecotoxicological studies involving community-level investigations, rapid and multiparametric fluorescence-based methods may provide substantial advantages over traditional methods used for structural and functional community analysis. Therefore, multiwavelength-excitation pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry was applied in this study to assess long-term changes in periphyton community structure, short-term effects on periphyton functioning (photosynthesis) and pollution induced community tolerance (PICT). For inter-calibration, periphyton structure was evaluated by chemotaxonomic analysis of accessory pigments and a four-wavelength-excitation PAM fluorometer. Short-term effects of herbicides were evaluated by fluorescence quenching analysis and 14 C-incorporation as a proxy of primary production. Subsequently, the method was applied to assess structural and functional changes in periphyton communities after isoproturon exposure for 14 and 26 days, respectively. Results showed good correlation of the PAM fluorescence-based measurements with traditional methods for biofilms in the initial colonisation phase for structural and functional parameters. However, for biofilms older than 9 weeks PAM fluorescence may underestimate biomass. Multiwavelength-excitation PAM fluorometry showed good correlation with marker pigment concentrations indicating that this method provides a reliable estimate of the community structure. PAM fluorometry was able to quantify changes of biomass and follow relative shifts in class composition of biofilms under exposure of isoproturon. Short-term tests based on the quantification of the inhibition of the effective quantum yield revealed a concentration-dependent increase of PICT. The observation of two succession phases of the biofilms after 14 and 26 days of growth, respectively, revealed that sensitivity of biofilms decreased with increasing age and biomass, respectively, but PICT remained a characteristic parameter of exposed

  15. Community-level microalgal toxicity assessment by multiwavelength-excitation PAM fluorometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt-Jansen, Mechthild [UFZ-Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Bioanalytical Ecotoxicology, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)], E-mail: Mechthild.Schmitt@ufz.de; Altenburger, Rolf [UFZ-Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Bioanalytical Ecotoxicology, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2008-01-20

    In ecotoxicological studies involving community-level investigations, rapid and multiparametric fluorescence-based methods may provide substantial advantages over traditional methods used for structural and functional community analysis. Therefore, multiwavelength-excitation pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry was applied in this study to assess long-term changes in periphyton community structure, short-term effects on periphyton functioning (photosynthesis) and pollution induced community tolerance (PICT). For inter-calibration, periphyton structure was evaluated by chemotaxonomic analysis of accessory pigments and a four-wavelength-excitation PAM fluorometer. Short-term effects of herbicides were evaluated by fluorescence quenching analysis and {sup 14}C-incorporation as a proxy of primary production. Subsequently, the method was applied to assess structural and functional changes in periphyton communities after isoproturon exposure for 14 and 26 days, respectively. Results showed good correlation of the PAM fluorescence-based measurements with traditional methods for biofilms in the initial colonisation phase for structural and functional parameters. However, for biofilms older than 9 weeks PAM fluorescence may underestimate biomass. Multiwavelength-excitation PAM fluorometry showed good correlation with marker pigment concentrations indicating that this method provides a reliable estimate of the community structure. PAM fluorometry was able to quantify changes of biomass and follow relative shifts in class composition of biofilms under exposure of isoproturon. Short-term tests based on the quantification of the inhibition of the effective quantum yield revealed a concentration-dependent increase of PICT. The observation of two succession phases of the biofilms after 14 and 26 days of growth, respectively, revealed that sensitivity of biofilms decreased with increasing age and biomass, respectively, but PICT remained a characteristic parameter of exposed

  16. Haloarcula hispanica CRISPR authenticates PAM of a target sequence to prime discriminative adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Wang, Rui; Xiang, Hua

    2014-06-01

    The prokaryotic immune system CRISPR/Cas (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR-associated genes) adapts to foreign invaders by acquiring their short deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragments as spacers, which guide subsequent interference to foreign nucleic acids based on sequence matching. The adaptation mechanism avoiding acquiring 'self' DNA fragments is poorly understood. In Haloarcula hispanica, we previously showed that CRISPR adaptation requires being primed by a pre-existing spacer partially matching the invader DNA. Here, we further demonstrate that flanking a fully-matched target sequence, a functional PAM (protospacer adjacent motif) is still required to prime adaptation. Interestingly, interference utilizes only four PAM sequences, whereas adaptation-priming tolerates as many as 23 PAM sequences. This relaxed PAM selectivity explains how adaptation-priming maximizes its tolerance of PAM mutations (that escape interference) while avoiding mis-targeting the spacer DNA within CRISPR locus. We propose that the primed adaptation, which hitches and cooperates with the interference pathway, distinguishes target from non-target by CRISPR ribonucleic acid guidance and PAM recognition. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  17. Ground processing of the McDonnell Douglas Payload Assist Module (PAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, C. E.; Maclean, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The payload assist module (PAM) ground processing operations which have evolved since they were started in 1982 are described. The objective of the changes was to reduce the prelaunch testing of the airborne support equipment to increase the throughput of PAM systems while not compromising the reliability of the system when functioned on-orbit. The changes that resulted from the initial cargo element ground processing, the on-orbit performance of the systems, plus the postflight refurbishment and recertification of the airborne support equipment resulted in significant reductions in labor expenditures and work shifts required to prepare a PAM system for flight.

  18. Experimental Study of 1.55-μm EML-Based Optical IM/DD PAM-4/8 Short Reach Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Xiaodan; Ozolins, Oskars; Gaiarin, Simone

    2017-01-01

    We experimentally evaluate high-speed intensity modulation/direct detection (IM/DD) transmissions with a 1.55-μm broadband electro-absorption modulated laser and pulse amplitude modulations (PAM). We demonstrate 80 Gb/s/λ PAM-4 and 96 Gb/s/λ PAM-8 transmissions with low-complexity digital...... equalizers at the receiver. Performance comparison with different types of equalizers are performed, including linear symbol-spaced feed-forward equalizer (FFE), fractional (half-symbol) spaced FFE and decision feedback equalizer (DFE), with different tap number. It is found that for both cases, a 6-tap...... symbol-spaced FFE is sufficient to achieve a stable performance with bit-error-rate below the 7% overhead hard decision forward error correction (7%-OH HD-FEC) threshold over a 4 km standard single mode fiber link. Practical considerations including comparison between adaptive and static equalizer...

  19. PAM: A Program for Adolescent Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robichaux, Faye B.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Program for Adolescent Mothers (PAM) established to provide opportunities for teen mothers in Louisiana to increase their self-esteem, become productive citizens, and become aware of the physical and emotional development of children. (JOW)

  20. 10-Gbps duobinary-4-PAM for High-Performance Access Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on an experimental demonstration of a seven level duobinary-4-PAM signal operating at 10.16 Gbps, implemented analogically and featuring direct detection at the receiver side.......This paper reports on an experimental demonstration of a seven level duobinary-4-PAM signal operating at 10.16 Gbps, implemented analogically and featuring direct detection at the receiver side....

  1. Concurrent validity of the PAM accelerometer relative to the MTI Actigraph using oxygen consumption as a reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slootmaker, S M; Chin A Paw, M J M; Schuit, A J; van Mechelen, W; Koppes, L L J

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the concurrent validity of the Personal Activity Monitor (PAM) accelerometer relative to the Actigraph accelerometer using oxygen consumption as a reference, and to assess the test-retest reliability of the PAM. Thirty-two fit, normal weight adults (aged 21-54) performed two activities, treadmill walking and stair walking, while wearing the PAM, the Actigraph and the Cosmed K4b(2). Correlation coefficients and agreement in absolute energy expenditure (EE) levels between PAM, Actigraph and Cosmed were calculated. The test-retest reliability was examined among 296 PAM's using a laboratory shaker. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and coefficient of variation (CV) were determined. Correlations for treadmill walking and stair walking, respectively, were r(2)=0.95 and r(2)=0.65 for PAM with Actigraph, r(2)=0.82 and r(2)=0.93 for PAM with VO(2) and r(2)=0.64 and 0.74 for Actigraph with VO(2). Both the PAM and Actigraph underestimated EE during treadmill and stair walking by a substantial amount. The test-retest reliability of the PAM was high [ICC=0.80; 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.28;0.92) and intra-CV=1.5%]. The PAM and Actigraph accelerometer are comparable in assessing bodily movement during treadmill and stair walking. The PAM is a valid device to rank subjects in EE and can be useful in collecting objective data to monitor habitual physical activity.

  2. Translation, adaptation and validation of the American short form Patient Activation Measure (PAM13 in a Danish version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolowski Ineta

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Patient Activation Measure (PAM is a measure that assesses patient knowledge, skill, and confidence for self-management. This study validates the Danish translation of the 13-item Patient Activation Measure (PAM13 in a Danish population with dysglycaemia. Methods 358 people with screen-detected dysglycaemia participating in a primary care health education study responded to PAM13. The PAM13 was translated into Danish by a standardised forward-backward translation. Data quality was assessed by mean, median, item response, missing values, floor and ceiling effects, internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha and average inter-item correlation and item-rest correlations. Scale properties were assessed by Rasch Rating Scale models. Results The item response was high with a small number of missing values (0.8–4.2%. Floor effect was small (range 0.6–3.6%, but the ceiling effect was above 15% for all items (range 18.6–62.7%. The α-coefficient was 0.89 and the average inter-item correlation 0.38. The Danish version formed a unidimensional, probabilistic Guttman-like scale explaining 43.2% of the variance. We did however, find a different item sequence compared to the original scale. Conclusion A Danish version of PAM13 with acceptable validity and reliability is now available. Further development should focus on single items, response categories in relation to ceiling effects and further validation of reproducibility and responsiveness.

  3. Experimental demonstration of 56 Gbit/s PAM-4 over 15 km and 84 Gbit/s PAM-4 over 1 km SSMF at 1525 nm using a 25G VCSEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiselt, Nicklas; Griesser, Helmut; Wei, Jinlong

    2016-01-01

    Record 28-GBd PAM-4 transmission over 15 km SSMF and 42-GBd PAM-4 over 1 km SSMF using a low-power 25G VCSEL are demonstrated at 1525 nm without optical dispersion compensation and only simple transceiver DSPs....

  4. Psychometric assessment of the patient activation measure short form (PAM-13) in rural settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Man; Carter, Marjorie; Hayden, Candace; Dzierzon, Rhonda; Morales, Jose; Snow, Laverne; Butler, Jorie; Bateman, Kim; Samore, Matthew

    2013-04-01

    The patient activation measure short form (PAM-13) assesses patients' self-reported health management skills, knowledge, confidence, and motivation. We used item response theory to evaluate the psychometric properties of the PAM-13 utilized in rural settings. A Rasch partial credit model analysis was conducted on the PAM-13 instrument using a sample of 812 rural patients recruited by providers and our research staff. Specially, we examined dimensionality, item fit, and quality of measures, category response curves, and item differential functioning. Convergent and divergent validities were also examined. The PAM-13 instrument has excellent convergent and divergent validities. It is fairly unidimensional, and all items fit the Rasch model well. It has relatively high person and item reliability indices. Majority of the items were free of item differential functioning. There were, however, some issues with ceiling effects. Additionally, there was a lack of responses for category one across all items. Patient activation measure short form (PAM-13) performs well in some areas, but not all. In general, more items need to be added to cover the upper end of the trait. The four response categories of PAM-13 should be collapsed into three.

  5. USMA Study of the Residential Communities Initiative (RCI) Portfolio and Asset Management (PAM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Powell, Robert; Parnell, Gregory; Driscoll, Patrick J; Boylan, Gregory; Evans, Daniel; Underwood, Thaddeus; Moten, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    ...) Portfolio and Asset Management (PAM) program and provide an independent assessment of the adequacy of the Army's RCI PAM program in achieving its intended objectives across all domains and all phases of the program...

  6. Toponomics analysis of functional interactions of the ubiquitin ligase PAM (Protein Associated with Myc) during spinal nociceptive processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Sandra; Maeurer, Christian; Coste, Ovidiu; Becker, Wiebke; Schmidtko, Achim; Holland, Sabrina; Wittpoth, Claus; Geisslinger, Gerd; Scholich, Klaus

    2008-12-01

    Protein associated with Myc (PAM) is a giant E3 ubiquitin ligase of 510 kDa. Although the role of PAM during neuronal development is well established, very little is known about its function in the regulation of synaptic strength. Here we used multiepitope ligand cartography (MELC) to study protein network profiles associated with PAM during the modulation of synaptic strength. MELC is a novel imaging technology that utilizes biomathematical tools to describe protein networks after consecutive immunohistochemical visualization of up to 100 proteins on the same sample. As an in vivo model to modulate synaptic strength we used the formalin test, a common model for acute and inflammatory pain. MELC analysis was performed with 37 different antibodies or fluorescence tags on spinal cord slices and led to the identification of 1390 PAM-related motifs that distinguish untreated and formalin-treated spinal cords. The majority of these motifs related to ubiquitin-dependent processes and/or the actin cytoskeleton. We detected an intermittent colocalization of PAM and ubiquitin with TSC2, a known substrate of PAM, and the glutamate receptors mGluR5 and GLUR1. Importantly these complexes were detected exclusively in the presence of F-actin. A direct PAM/F-actin interaction was confirmed by colocalization and cosedimentation. The binding of PAM toward F-actin varied strongly between the PAM splice forms found in rat spinal cords. PAM did not ubiquitylate actin or alter actin polymerization and depolymerization. However, F-actin decreased the ubiquitin ligase activity of purified PAM. Because PAM activation is known to involve its translocation, the binding of PAM to F-actin may serve to control its subcellular localization as well as its activity. Taken together we show that defining protein network profiles by topological proteomics analysis is a useful tool to identify previously unknown protein/protein interactions that underlie synaptic processes.

  7. Structural Plasticity of PAM Recognition by Engineered Variants of the RNA-Guided Endonuclease Cas9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Carolin; Bargsten, Katja; Jinek, Martin

    2016-03-17

    The RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9 from Streptococcus pyogenes (SpCas9) forms the core of a powerful genome editing technology. DNA cleavage by SpCas9 is dependent on the presence of a 5'-NGG-3' protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) in the target DNA, restricting the choice of targetable sequences. To address this limitation, artificial SpCas9 variants with altered PAM specificities have recently been developed. Here we report crystal structures of the VQR, EQR, and VRER SpCas9 variants bound to target DNAs containing their preferred PAM sequences. The structures reveal that the non-canonical PAMs are recognized by an induced fit mechanism. Besides mediating sequence-specific base recognition, the amino acid substitutions introduced in the SpCas9 variants facilitate conformational remodeling of the PAM region of the bound DNA. Guided by the structural data, we engineered a SpCas9 variant that specifically recognizes NAAG PAMs. Taken together, these studies inform further development of Cas9-based genome editing tools. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of deoxycholate conjugation on stability of pDNA/polyamidoamine-diethylentriamine (PAM-DET) polyplex against ionic strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yunseong; Jin, Geun-Woo; Choi, Eunjung; Jung, Ji Hyuk; Park, Jong-Sang

    2011-11-28

    Polyplexes formed from cationic polymer/pDNA have been known to be vulnerable to external ionic strength. To improve polyplex stability against ionic strength, we attempted the chemical conjugation of the hydrophobic deoxycholate (DC) moiety to the polyamidoamine-diethylenetriamine (PAM-DET) dendrimer. Dynamic light scattering studies showed that the tolerance of the resulting PAM-DET-DC against ionic strength is higher than that of PAM-DET. In addition, we confirmed that the stability of polyplex has a strong relationship with the degree of conjugation of the DC moiety to the PAM-DET dendrimer and the charge ratio of PAM-DET-DC. Furthermore, the transfection efficiency of the PAM-DET-DC polyplex is higher than that of PAM-DET but its cytotoxicity remains the same. Therefore, the chemical conjugation of DC is a safe and effective method for increasing the stability of supramolecules formed from electrostatic interaction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A passive and active microwave-vector radiative transfer (PAM-VRT) model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jun; Min, Qilong

    2015-01-01

    A passive and active microwave vector radiative transfer (PAM-VRT) package has been developed. This fast and accurate forward microwave model, with flexible and versatile input and output components, self-consistently and realistically simulates measurements/radiation of passive and active microwave sensors. The core PAM-VRT, microwave radiative transfer model, consists of five modules: gas absorption (two line-by-line databases and four fast models); hydrometeor property of water droplets and ice (spherical and nonspherical) particles; surface emissivity (from Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM)); vector radiative transfer of successive order of scattering (VSOS); and passive and active microwave simulation. The PAM-VRT package has been validated against other existing models, demonstrating good accuracy. The PAM-VRT not only can be used to simulate or assimilate measurements of existing microwave sensors, but also can be used to simulate observation results at some new microwave sensors. - Highlights: • A novel microwave vector radiative transfer model is developed. • It can simulate passive and active microwave radiative transfer simultaneously. • It can be applied to simulate measurements for different types of viewing geometry. • The accuracy of this model has been validated against other existing models

  10. A20 is critical for the induction of Pam3CSK4-tolerance in monocytic THP-1 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyue Hu

    Full Text Available A20 functions to terminate Toll-like receptor (TLR-induced immune response, and play important roles in the induction of lipopolysacchride (LPS-tolerance. However, the molecular mechanism for Pam3CSK4-tolerance is uncertain. Here we report that TLR1/2 ligand Pam3CSK4 induced tolerance in monocytic THP-1 cells. The pre-treatment of THP-1 cells with Pam3CSK4 down-regulated the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by Pam3CSK4 re-stimulation. Pam3CSK4 pre-treatment also down-regulated the signaling transduction of JNK, p38 and NF-κB induced by Pam3CSK4 re-stimulation. The activation of TLR1/2 induced a rapid and robust up-regulation of A20, suggesting that A20 may contribute to the induction of Pam3CSK4-tolerance. This hypothesis was proved by the observation that the over-expression of A20 by gene transfer down-regulated Pam3CSK4-induced inflammatory responses, and the down-regulation of A20 by RNA interference inhibited the induction of tolerance. Moreover, LPS induced a significant up-regulation of A20, which contributed to the induction of cross-tolerance between LPS and Pam3CSK4. A20 was also induced by the treatment of THP-1 cells with TNF-α and IL-1β. The pre-treatment with TNF-α and IL-1β partly down-regulated Pam3CSK4-induced activation of MAPKs. Furthermore, pharmacologic inhibition of GSK3 signaling down-regulated Pam3CSK4-induced A20 expression, up-regulated Pam3CSK4-induced inflammatory responses, and partly reversed Pam3CSK4 pre-treatment-induced tolerance, suggesting that GSK3 is involved in TLR1/2-induced tolerance by up-regulation of A20 expression. Taken together, these results indicated that A20 is a critical regulator for TLR1/2-induced pro-inflammatory responses.

  11. View of the deployed INSAT/PAM-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    View of the deployed Indian National Satellite (INSAT) attached to Payload Assist Module (PAM) D drifts above the earth's surface. A faint shadow of the open payload bay can be seen in the top left of the frame.

  12. 3.375-Gb/s RGB-LED based WDM visible light communication system employing PAM-8 modulation with phase shifted Manchester coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Nan; Zhang, Mengjie; Zhou, Yingjun; Zhao, Jiaqi

    2016-09-19

    Optical background noise and second-order nonlinear distortions are two main challenges faced by indoor high-speed VLC system. In this paper, a novel phase shifted Manchester (PS-Manchester) coding based on PAM-8 is proposed and experimentally demonstrated to mitigate these noise and distortions. With the aid of PS-Manchester coding and WDM, a total data rate of 3.375-Gb/s can be successfully achieved in the RGB-LED based VLC system. The BER is under 7% HD-FEC limit of 3.8x10-3 after 1-m indoor free space transmission. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest data rate ever achieved in PAM VLC systems.

  13. Assessment of linear anionic polyacrylamide application to irrigation canals for seepage control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamil Uribe

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available South- central area of Chile area has a Mediterranean climate and high crop water requirements. Irrigation water is distributed through long channels which have low water conveyance efficiency (Ec, difficult to improve by conventional techniques. The objective of this study was to quantify Ec and to evaluate the use of Linear Anionic Polyacrylamide (LA-PAM to reduce seepage losses. The study was carried out in south-central area of Chile, (UTM Coordinate N 5745000; E 725000 m, datum is WGS-84, zone 18S in 250 km of channels whose flow varied between 0.12 and 24.6 m3 s–1. Water users indicated channel reaches with potential low Ec, which were selected for LA-PAM application. In 11 reaches between 0.51 and 3 km in length, 1 to 3 LAPAM applications were performed at rates of 10 kg ha–1, considering the wet perimeter area as basis of calculation. Thirty-one LA-PAM applications were performed over a 30.5 km length. Most of the channels were large enough to allow motorboat moving against the current to carry-out LA-PAM application. Water flow was measured (StreamPro ADCP at both ends of selected reaches before and after granular LAPAM application. Weekly measurements were made to quantify treatment effect duration. Water turbidity and temperature were measured. Channels showed variable Ec from 87% to 94%. Two reaches showed 6% water gains. In more than 80% cases LA-PAM effect was positive, achieving loss reductions of 15 to 760 L s–1. In other cases LA-PAM had a negative effect since it mainly affected water entry into the channel. It was determined that field conditions referred by users as indicators of Ec are not always correct and vary in time according to climatic conditions. Ec was estimated and it was possible to reduce seepage through LA-PAM applications. This allow increasing irrigation security in critical periods, especially under drought conditions.

  14. Laboratory algal bioassays using PAM fluorometry: effects of test conditions on the determination of herbicide and field sample toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjollema, Sascha B; van Beusekom, Sebastiaan A M; van der Geest, Harm G; Booij, Petra; de Zwart, Dick; Vethaak, A Dick; Admiraal, Wim

    2014-05-01

    Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) fluorometry, based on chlorophyll a fluorescence, is a frequently used technique in algal bioassays to assess toxicity of single compounds or complex field samples. Several test conditions can influence the test results, and because a standardized test protocol is currently lacking, linking the results of different studies is difficult. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to gain insight into the effects of test conditions of laboratory algal bioassays using PAM fluorometry on the outcome of toxicity tests. To this purpose, we described the results from several pilot studies on test development in which information is provided on the effects of the main test factors during the pretest phase, the test preparation, the exposure period, and the actual measurement. The experiments were focused on individual herbicides and complex field samples and included the effects of culturing conditions, cell density, solvent concentration, exposure time, and the presence of actinic light. Several of these test conditions were found to influence the outcome of the toxicity test, and the presented information provides important background information for the interpretation of toxicity results and describes which test conditions should be taken into account when using an algal bioassay with PAM fluorometry. Finally, the application of PAM fluorometry in algal toxicity testing is discussed. © 2014 SETAC.

  15. Development of peat-oil (POM) and peat-alcohol (PAM) slurries as alternative fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemens, D F

    1983-11-01

    The preparation and evaluation of peat/No. 2 fuel oil mixtures (POM) and peat/methanol mixtures (PAM) is described. POM and PAM prepared using North Carolina peat and having varied peat loadings, peat moisture contents and peat particle sizes have been studied by measuring slurry sedimentation ratios and drain times from sedimentation tubes. The peat moisture content was particularly crucial in forming stable slurries. The effect of a variety of additives at 0.5-1.0 wt% on sedimentation ratios, drain times and viscosities was studied. Calorimetric studies of several PAM and POM slurries as well as preliminary combustion tests of POM slurries in a salamander burner are also reported.

  16. Conjugal transfer of plasmid pAM beta 1 in Lactobacillus reuteri and between lactobacilli and Enterococcus faecalis.

    OpenAIRE

    Tannock, G W

    1987-01-01

    The broad-host-range plasmid pAM beta 1 (erythromycin resistance) was transferred conjugally from Streptococcus lactis to Lactobacillus reuteri, L. murinus, and L. fermentum. Transfer of pAM beta 1 between two L. reuteri strains occurred, and lactobacillus transconjugants could act as donors of pAM beta 1 in crosses with Enterococcus faecalis JH2-2.

  17. Ordered ZnO/AZO/PAM nanowire arrays prepared by seed-layer-assisted electrochemical deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Yu-Min; Pan, Chih-Huang; Wang, Sheng-Chang; Huang, Jow-Lay

    2011-01-01

    An Al-doped ZnO (AZO) seed layer is prepared on the back side of a porous alumina membrane (PAM) substrate by spin coating followed by annealing in a vacuum at 400 °C. Zinc oxide in ordered arrays mediated by a high aspect ratio and an ordered pore array of AZO/PAM is synthesized. The ZnO nanowire array is prepared via a 3-electrode electrochemical deposition process using ZnSO 4 and H 2 O 2 solutions at a potential of − 1 V (versus saturated calomel electrode) and temperatures of 65 and 80 °C. The microstructure and chemical composition of the AZO seed layer and ZnO/AZO/PAM nanowire arrays are characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Results indicate that the ZnO/AZO/PAM nanowire arrays were assembled in the nanochannel of the porous alumina template with diameters of 110–140 nm. The crystallinity of the ZnO nanowires depends on the AZO seed layer during the annealing process. The nucleation and growth process of ZnO/AZO/PAM nanowires are interpreted by the seed-layer-assisted growth mechanism.

  18. Development of sample exchange robot PAM-HC for beamline BL-1A at the photon factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraki, Masahiko, E-mail: masahiko.hiraki@kek.jp [Mechanical Engineering Center, Applied Research Laboratory, KEK (High Energy Accelerator Research Organization), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 Japan (Japan); Department of Accelerator Science, SOKENDAI (the Graduate University for Advanced Studies), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 Japan (Japan); Matsugaki, Naohiro; Yamada, Yusuke; Senda, Toshiya [Structural Biology research Center, Institute of Materials Structure Science, KEK (Japan); Department of Materials Structure Science, SOKENDAI (Japan)

    2016-07-27

    A macromolecular crystallography beamline, BL-1A, has been built at the Photon Factory (PF) for low energy experiments and has been operational since 2010. We have installed a sample exchange robot, PAM (PF Automated Mounting system), similar to other macromolecular crystallography beamlines. However, following the installation of a helium chamber to reduce the absorption of the diffraction signal by air, we developed a new sample exchange robot to replace PAM. The new robot, named PAM-HC (Helium Chamber), is designed with the goal of minimizing leakage of helium gas from the chamber. Here, the PAM-HC hardware and the flow of its movement are described. Furthermore, measurements of temperature changes during sample exchange are presented in this paper.

  19. Development of sample exchange robot PAM-HC for beamline BL-1A at the photon factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraki, Masahiko; Matsugaki, Naohiro; Yamada, Yusuke; Senda, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    A macromolecular crystallography beamline, BL-1A, has been built at the Photon Factory (PF) for low energy experiments and has been operational since 2010. We have installed a sample exchange robot, PAM (PF Automated Mounting system), similar to other macromolecular crystallography beamlines. However, following the installation of a helium chamber to reduce the absorption of the diffraction signal by air, we developed a new sample exchange robot to replace PAM. The new robot, named PAM-HC (Helium Chamber), is designed with the goal of minimizing leakage of helium gas from the chamber. Here, the PAM-HC hardware and the flow of its movement are described. Furthermore, measurements of temperature changes during sample exchange are presented in this paper.

  20. The PAM-1 aminopeptidase regulates centrosome positioning to ensure anterior-posterior axis specification in one-cell C. elegans embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Samantha M; Marshall, Sara L; Jaeger, Eva C; Greene, Pauline E; Brady, Lauren K; Isaac, R Elwyn; Schrandt, Jennifer C; Brooks, Darren R; Lyczak, Rebecca

    2010-08-15

    In the one-cell Caenorhabditis elegans embryo, the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis is established when the sperm donated centrosome contacts the posterior cortex. While this contact appears to be essential for axis polarization, little is known about the mechanisms governing centrosome positioning during this process. pam-1 encodes a puromycin sensitive aminopeptidase that regulates centrosome positioning in the early embryo. Previously we showed that pam-1 mutants fail to polarize the A-P axis. Here we show that PAM-1 can be found in mature sperm and in cytoplasm throughout early embryogenesis where it concentrates around mitotic centrosomes and chromosomes. We provide further evidence that PAM-1 acts early in the polarization process by showing that PAR-1 and PAR-6 do not localize appropriately in pam-1 mutants. Additionally, we tested the hypothesis that PAM-1's role in polarity establishment is to ensure centrosome contact with the posterior cortex. We inactivated the microtubule motor dynein, DHC-1, in pam-1 mutants, in an attempt to prevent centrosome movement from the cortex and restore anterior-posterior polarity. When this was done, the aberrant centrosome movements of pam-1 mutants were not observed and anterior-posterior polarity was properly established, with proper localization of cortical and cytoplasmic determinants. We conclude that PAM-1's role in axis polarization is to prevent premature movement of the centrosome from the posterior cortex, ensuring proper axis establishment in the embryo. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The transporter SynPAM71 is located in the plasma membrane and thylakoids, and mediates manganese tolerance in Synechocystis PCC6803

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandini, Chiara; Schmidt, Sidsel Birkelund; Husted, Søren

    2017-01-01

    symptoms were observed in WT cells exposed to excess Mn. Moreover, CyanoP, which is involved in the early steps of PSII assembly, is massively upregulated in ΔSynPAM71. SynPAM71 was detected in both the plasma membrane and, to a lesser extent, the thylakoid membranes. Our results suggest that SynPAM71......Manganese (Mn) is an essential constituent of photosystem II (PSII) and therefore indispensable for oxygenic photosynthesis. Very little is known about how Mn is transported, delivered and retained in photosynthetic cells. Recently, the thylakoid-localized transporter PAM71 has been linked...... to chloroplast Mn homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we characterize the function of its homolog in Synechocystis (SynPAM71). We used a loss-of-function line (ΔSynPAM71), wild-type (WT) cells exposed to Mn stress and strains expressing a tagged variant of SynPAM71 to characterize the role of SynPAM71...

  2. Engineered Cpf1 variants with altered PAM specificities increase genome targeting range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Linyi; Cox, David B.T.; Yan, Winston X.; Manteiga, John C.; Schneider, Martin W.; Yamano, Takashi; Nishimasu, Hiroshi; Nureki, Osamu; Crosetto, Nicola; Zhang, Feng

    2017-01-01

    The RNA-guided endonuclease Cpf1 is a promising tool for genome editing in eukaryotic cells1–7. However, the utility of the commonly used Acidaminococcus sp. BV3L6 Cpf1 (AsCpf1) and Lachnospiraceae bacterium ND2006 Cpf1 (LbCpf1) is limited by their requirement of a TTTV protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) in the DNA substrate. To address this limitation, we performed a structure-guided mutagenesis screen to increase the targeting range of Cpf1. We engineered two AsCpf1 variants carrying the mutations S542R/K607R and S542R/K548V/N552R, which recognize TYCV and TATV PAMs, respectively, with enhanced activities in vitro and in human cells. Genome-wide assessment of off-target activity using BLISS7 assay indicated that these variants retain high DNA targeting specificity, which we further improved by introducing an additional non-PAM-interacting mutation. Introducing the identified mutations at their corresponding positions in LbCpf1 similarly altered its PAM specificity. Together, these variants increase the targeting range of Cpf1 by approximately three-fold in human coding sequences to one cleavage site per ~11 bp. PMID:28581492

  3. Analog-based duobinary-4-PAM for electrical bandwidth limited optical fiber links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a demonstration of a seven level duobinary-4-PAM signal operating at 10.16 Gbit/s. The polybinary generation is achieved by a simple electrical Bessel filter of 5th order, with a frequency cut-off of 1.8 GHz. We assess the impact of the filter placement, either at the transmit...... at the transmitter or the receiver, and find the impact is minimal in terms of bit error rate performance in transmissions of up to 40 km of single mode fiber....

  4. Neuroprotection by biodegradable PAMAM ester (e-PAM-R)-mediated HMGB1 siRNA delivery in primary cortical cultures and in the postischemic brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il-Doo; Lim, Chae-Moon; Kim, Jung-Bin; Nam, Hye Yeong; Nam, Kihoon; Kim, Seung-Woo; Park, Jong-Sang; Lee, Ja-Kyeong

    2010-03-19

    Although RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene silencing provides a powerful strategy for modulating specific gene functions, difficulties associated with siRNA delivery have impeded the development of efficient therapeutic applications. In particular, the efficacy of siRNA delivery into neurons has been limited by extremely low transfection efficiencies. e-PAM-R is a biodegradable arginine ester of PAMAM dendrimer, which is readily degradable under physiological conditions (pH 7.4, 37 degrees C). In the present study, we investigated the efficiency of siRNA delivery by e-PAM-R in primary cortical cultures and in rat brain. e-PAM-R/siRNA complexes showed high transfection efficiencies and low cytotoxicities in primary cortical cultures. Localization of fluorescence-tagged siRNA revealed that siRNA was delivered not only into the nucleus and cytoplasm, but also along the processes of the neuron. e-PAM-R/siRNA complex-mediated target gene reduction was observed in over 40% of cells and it was persistent for over 48 h. The potential use of e-PAM-R was demonstrated by gene knockdown after transfecting High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1, a novel cytokine-like molecule) siRNA into H(2)O(2)- or NMDA-treated primary cortical cultures. In these cells, HMGB1 siRNA delivery successfully reduced both basal and H(2)O(2)- or NMDA-induced HMGB1 levels, and as a result of that, neuronal cell death was significantly suppressed in both cases. Furthermore, we showed that e-PAM-R successfully delivered HMGB1 siRNA into the rat brain, wherein HMGB1 expression was depleted in over 40% of neurons and astrocytes of the normal brain. Moreover, e-PAM-R-mediated HMGB1 siRNA delivery notably reduced infarct volume in the postischemic rat brain, which is generated by occluding the middle cerebral artery for 60 min. These results indicate that e-PAM-R, a novel biodegradable nonviral gene carrier, offers an efficient means of transfecting siRNA into primary neuronal cells and in the brain and of

  5. The development of peat-oil (POM) and peat-alcohol (PAM) slurries as alternative fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemens, D F; Evans, G O; Harrell, P A; Whitehurst, B M

    1983-11-01

    The preparation and evaluation of peat/No. 2 fuel oil mixtures (POM) and peat/methanol mixtures (PAM) is described. POM and PAM prepared using North Carolina peat and having varied peat loadings, peat moisture contents, and peat particle sizes have been studied by measuring slurry sedimentation ratios and drain times from sedimentation tubes. The peat moisture content was particularly crucial in forming stable slurries. The effect of a variety of additives at 0.5-1.0 wt.% on sedimentation ratios, drain times, and viscosities was studied. Calorimetric studies of several PAM and POM slurries as well as preliminary combustion tests of POM slurries in a salamander burner are also reported.

  6. PAM-1616, a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ modulator with preserved anti-diabetic efficacy and reduced adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Kyung; Chae, Yu Na; Choi, Song-hyen; Moon, Ho Sang; Son, Moon-Ho; Bae, Myung-Ho; Choi, Hyun-ho; Hur, Youn; Kim, Eunkyung; Park, Yoo Hoi; Park, Chan Sun; Kim, Jae Gyu; Lim, Joong In; Shin, Chang Yell

    2011-01-15

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ is known to be a key regulator of insulin resistance. PAM-1616 is a novel, non-thiazolidinedione small molecule compound synthesized in Dong-A Research Center. In this study, we characterized the pharmacological and safety profiles of PAM-1616 as a selective PPARγ modulator. PAM-1616 selectively binds to human PPARγ (IC(50), 24.1±5.6 nM) and is a partial agonist for human PPARγ with an EC(50) of 83.6±43.7 nM and a maximal response of 24.9±7.1% relative to the full agonist, rosiglitazone. PAM-1616 was selective for human PPARγ than for human PPARα (EC(50), 2658±828 nM) without activating human PPARδ, which makes it a selective modulator of PPARγ. Treatment of high fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice with PAM-1616 for 21 days improved HOMA-IR. Furthermore, PAM-1616 significantly improved hyperglycemia in db/db mice with little side effect when orally administered at a dose of 1 mg/kg/day for 28 days. Intriguingly, PAM-1616 was seen to increase the gene expression of inducible glucose transporter (GLUT4), while it partially induced that of a fatty acid carrier, aP2 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and it also showed partial recruitment of an adipogenic cofactor, TRAP220 as compared to rosiglitazone. PAM-1616 did not cause a significant increase in plasma volume of ICR mice when orally administered at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day for 9 days. PAM-1616 increased the expression of fluid retention-inducing genes such as serum/glucocorticoid-regulated kinase (SGK)-1 to a lesser extent as compared to rosiglitazone in human renal epithelial cells. These results suggest that PAM-1616 acts as a selective modulator of PPARγ with excellent antihyperglycemic property. The differential modulation of target gene by PAM-1616 might contribute to the improved side effect profiles. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 60 YEARS OF POMC: From POMC and α-MSH to PAM, molecular oxygen, copper, and vitamin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dhivya; Mains, Richard E; Eipper, Betty A

    2016-05-01

    A critical role for peptide C-terminal amidation was apparent when the first bioactive peptides were identified. The conversion of POMC into adrenocorticotropic hormone and then into α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, an amidated peptide, provided a model system for identifying the amidating enzyme. Peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), the only enzyme that catalyzes this modification, is essential; mice lacking PAM survive only until mid-gestation. Purification and cloning led to the discovery that the amidation of peptidylglycine substrates proceeds in two steps: peptidylglycine α-hydroxylating monooxygenase catalyzes the copper- and ascorbate-dependent α-hydroxylation of the peptidylglycine substrate; peptidyl-α-hydroxyglycine α-amidating lyase cleaves the N-C bond, producing amidated product and glyoxylate. Both enzymes are contained in the luminal domain of PAM, a type 1 integral membrane protein. The structures of both catalytic cores have been determined, revealing how they interact with metals, molecular oxygen, and substrate to catalyze both reactions. Although not essential for activity, the intrinsically disordered cytosolic domain is essential for PAM trafficking. A phylogenetic survey led to the identification of bifunctional membrane PAM in Chlamydomonas, a unicellular eukaryote. Accumulating evidence points to a role for PAM in copper homeostasis and in retrograde signaling from the lumen of the secretory pathway to the nucleus. The discovery of PAM in cilia, cellular antennae that sense and respond to environmental stimuli, suggests that much remains to be learned about this ancient protein. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  8. Capacity upgrade in short-reach optical fibre networks: simultaneous 4-PAM 20 Gbps data and polarization-modulated PPS clock signal using a single VCSEL carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoe, G. M.; Wassin, S.; Gamatham, R. R. G.; Leitch, A. W. R.; Gibbon, T. B.

    2017-11-01

    In this work, a four-level pulse amplitude modulation (4-PAM) format with a polarization-modulated pulse per second (PPS) clock signal using a single vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) carrier is for the first time experimentally demonstrated. We propose uncomplex alternative technique for increasing capacity and flexibility in short-reach optical communication links through multi-signal modulation onto a single VCSEL carrier. A 20 Gbps 4-PAM data signal is directly modulated onto a single mode 10 GHz bandwidth VCSEL carrier at 1310 nm, therefore, doubling the network bit rate. Carrier spectral efficiency is further maximized by exploiting the inherent orthogonal polarization switching of the VCSEL carrier with changing bias in transmission of a PPS clock signal. We, therefore, simultaneously transmit a 20 Gbps 4-PAM data signal and a polarization-based PPS clock signal using a single VCSEL carrier. It is the first time a signal VCSEL carrier is reported to simultaneously transmit a directly modulated 20 Gbps 4-PAM data signal and a polarization-based PPS clock signal. We further demonstrate on the design of a software-defined digital signal processing (DSP)-assisted receiver as an alternative to costly receiver hardware. Experimental results show that a 3.21 km fibre transmission with simultaneous 20 Gbps 4-PAM data signal and polarization-based PPS clock signal introduced a penalty of 3.76 dB. The contribution of polarization-based PPS clock signal to this penalty was found out to be 0.41 dB. Simultaneous distribution of data and timing clock signals over shared network infrastructure significantly increases the aggregated data rate at different optical network units (ONUs), without costly investment.

  9. Review of UV spectroscopic, chromatographic, and electrophoretic methods for the cholinesterase reactivating antidote pralidoxime (2-PAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Harald; Blum, Marc-Michael

    2012-01-01

    Pralidoxime (2-PAM) belongs to the class of monopyridinium oximes with reactivating potency on cholinesterases inhibited by phosphylating organophosphorus compounds (OPC), for example, pesticides and nerve agents. 2-PAM represents an established antidote for the therapy of anticholinesterase poisoning since the late 1950s. Quite high therapeutic concentrations in human plasma (about 13 µg/ml) lead to concentrations in urine being about 100 times higher allowing the use of less sensitive analytical techniques that were used especially in the early years after 2-PAM was introduced. In this time (mid-1950s until the end of the 1970s) 2-PAM was most often analyzed by either paper chromatography or simple UV spectroscopic techniques omitting any sample separation step. These methods were displaced completely after the establishment of column liquid chromatography in the early 1980s. Since then, diverse techniques including cation exchange, size-exclusion, reversed-phase, and ligand-exchange chromatography have been introduced. Today, the most popular method for 2-PAM quantification is ion pair chromatography often combined with UV detection representing more than 50% of all column chromatographic procedures published. Furthermore, electrophoretic approaches by paper and capillary zone electrophoresis have been successfully used but are seldom applied. This review provides a commentary and exhaustive summary of analytical techniques applied to detect 2-PAM in pharmaceutical formulations and biological samples to characterize stability and pharmacokinetics as well as decomposition and biotransformation products. Separation techniques as well as diverse detectors are discussed in appropriate detail allowing comparison of individual preferences and limitations. In addition, novel data on mass spectrometric fragmentation of 2-PAM are provided. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Utility of 2-Pyridine Aldoxime Methyl Chloride (2-PAM) for Acute Organophosphate Poisoning: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenberg, Adam; Benabbas, Roshanak; deSouza, Ian S; Conigliaro, Alyssa; Paladino, Lorenzo; Warman, Elliot; Sinert, Richard; Wiener, Sage W

    2018-03-01

    Organophosphates (OP) account for the majority of pesticide-related unintentional or intentional poisonings in lower- and middle-income countries. The therapeutic role of atropine is well-established for patients with acute OP poisoning. The benefit of adding 2-pyridine aldoxime methyl chloride (2-PAM), however, is controversial. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of available randomized controlled trials (RCT) to compare 2-PAM plus atropine in comparison to atropine alone for acute OP poisoning. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and SCOPUS up to March 2017. The Cochrane review handbook was used to assess the risk of bias. Data were abstracted and risk ratios (RR) were calculated for mortality, rate of intubation, duration of intubation, intermediate syndrome, and complications such as hospital-acquired infections, dysrhythmias, and pulmonary edema. We found five studies comprising 586 patients with varying risks of bias. The risk of death (RR = 1.5, 95% CI 0.9-2.5); intubation (RR = 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.6); intermediate syndrome (RR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.0-2.6); complications (RR = 1.2, 95% CI 0.8-1.8); and the duration of intubation (mean difference 0.0, 95% CI - 1.6-1.6) were not significantly different between the atropine plus 2-PAM and atropine alone. Based on our meta-analysis of the available RCTs, 2-PAM was not shown to improve outcomes in patients with acute OP poisoning.

  11. Insights into the interactions among Surfactin, betaines, and PAM: surface tension, small-angle neutron scattering, and small-angle X-ray scattering study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jingwen; Liu, Fang; Garamus, Vasil M; Almásy, László; Handge, Ulrich A; Willumeit, Regine; Mu, Bozhong; Zou, Aihua

    2014-04-01

    The interactions among neutral polymer polyacrylamide (PAM) and the biosurfactant Surfactin and four betaines, N-dodecyl-N,N-dimethyl-3-ammonio-1-propanesulfonate (SDDAB), N-tetradecyl-N,N-dimethyl-3-ammonio-1-propanesulfonate (STDAB), N-hexadecyl-N,N-dimethyl-3-ammonio-1-propanesulfonate (SHDAB), and N-dodecyl-N,N-dimethyl-2-ammonio-acetate (C12BE), in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) have been studied by surface tension measurements, small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and rheological experiments. It has been confirmed that the length of alkyl chain is a key parameter of interaction between betaines and PAM. Differences in scattering contrast between X-ray and neutrons for surfactants and PAM molecules provide the opportunity to separately follow the changes of structure of PAM and surfactant aggregates. At concentrations of betaines higher than CMC (critical micelle concentration) and C2 (CMC of surfactant with the presence of polymer), spherical micelles are formed in betaines and betaines/PAM solutions. Transition from spherical to rod-like aggregates (micelles) has been observed in solutions of Surfactin and Surfactin/SDDAB (αSurfactin = 0.67 (molar fraction)) with addition of 0.8 wt % of PAM. The conformation change of PAM molecules only can be observed for Surfactin/SDDAB/PAM system. Viscosity values follow the structural changes suggested from scattering measurements i.e., gradually increases for mixtures PAM → Surfactin/PAM → Surfactin/SDDAB/PAM in PBS.

  12. The endocytic pathways of a secretory granule membrane protein in HEK293 cells: PAM and EGF traverse a dynamic multivesicular body network together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäck, Nils; Kanerva, Kristiina; Kurutihalli, Vishwanatha; Yanik, Andrew; Ikonen, Elina; Mains, Richard E; Eipper, Betty A

    2017-08-01

    Peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM) is highly expressed in neurons and endocrine cells, where it catalyzes one of the final steps in the biosynthesis of bioactive peptides. PAM is also expressed in unicellular organisms such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which do not store peptides in secretory granules. As for other granule membrane proteins, PAM is retrieved from the cell surface and returned to the trans-Golgi network. This pathway involves regulated entry of PAM into multivesicular body intralumenal vesicles (ILVs). The aim of this study was defining the endocytic pathways utilized by PAM in cells that do not store secretory products in granules. Using stably transfected HEK293 cells, endocytic trafficking of PAM was compared to that of the mannose 6-phosphate (MPR) and EGF (EGFR) receptors, established markers for the endosome to trans-Golgi network and degradative pathways, respectively. As in neuroendocrine cells, PAM internalized by HEK293 cells accumulated in the trans-Golgi network. Based on surface biotinylation, >70% of the PAM on the cell surface was recovered intact after a 4h chase and soluble, bifunctional PAM was produced. Endosomes containing PAM generally contained both EGFR and MPR and ultrastructural analysis confirmed that all three cargos accumulated in ILVs. PAM containing multivesicular bodies made frequent dynamic tubular contacts with younger and older multivesicular bodies. Frequent dynamic contacts were observed between lysosomes and PAM containing early endosomes and multivesicular bodies. The ancient ability of PAM to localize to ciliary membranes, which release bioactive ectosomes, may be related to its ability to accumulate in ILVs and exosomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Effective PCR-based detection of Naegleria fowleri from cultured sample and PAM-developed mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Heekyoung; Seong, Gi-Sang; Sohn, Hae-Jin; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Sang-Eun; Park, Mi Yeoun; Lee, Won-Ja; Shin, Ho-Joon

    2015-10-01

    Increasing numbers of Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM) cases due to Naegleria fowleri are becoming a serious issue in subtropical and tropical countries as a Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD). To establish a rapid and effective diagnostic tool, a PCR-based detection technique was developed based on previous PCR methods. Four kinds of primer pairs, Nfa1, Nae3, Nf-ITS, and Naegl, were employed in the cultured amoebic trophozoites and a mouse with PAM experimentally developed by N. fowleri inoculation (PAM-mouse). For the extraction of genomic DNA from N. fowleri trophozoites (1×10(6)), simple boiling with 10μl of PBS (pH 7.4) at 100°C for 30min was found to be the most rapid and efficient procedure, allowing amplification of 2.5×10(2) trophozoites using the Nfa-1 primer. The primers Nfa1 and Nae3 amplified only N. fowleri DNA, whereas the ITS primer detected N. fowleri and N. gruberi DNA. Using the PAM-mouse brain tissue, the Nfa1 primer was able to amplify the N. fowleri DNA 4 days post infection with 1ng/μl of genomic DNA being detectable. Using the PAM-mouse CSF, amplification of the N. fowleri DNA with the Nae3 primer was possible 5 days post infection showing a better performance than the Nfa1 primer at day 6. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM) engulf and regain elastin particles and do not respond to some stimuli of neutrophil (PMN) elastinolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tricomi, S.M.; Hyers, T.M.; Yu, S.Y.; Liao, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    Elastin degradation by PMN and by PAM differs in the proteinases produced and in the method of cellular attack on the substrate. To further characterize the elastinolytic mechanisms of these two cells, 14 C-labelled bovine ligament elastin was dried onto 24-well culture plates and live cells were placed on the substrate in culture medium. Incubation times were 4 hours for PMN and 20 hours for PAM. Elastinolytic activity was determined by counting 14 C-elastin peptides in the supernatant. By lidocaine release of PAM from the surface, 14 C-elastin retained by the cell was measured. Studies on rabbit PAM showed that 40% of dpm remain associated with the cell at 20 hours. Transmission electron microscopy of human PAM confirmed that PAM can engulf and retain elastin particles at 4 and 24 hours of incubation when in close contact with the substrate. Of the number of dpm released by PMN in 4 hours, PAM in 20 hours released only 23% of that number into supernatant and retained 17% closely associated with the cell after lidocaine treatment. Platelet factor 4, a protein released by platelets upon aggregation which stimulates activity of PMN elastase on elastin, was shown to enhance elastinolysis by whole PMN by 57% at 10 μg/ml in this assay. Platelet factor 4 did not enhance elastinolysis by PAM at concentrations up to 100 μg/ml

  15. Detection of weed algae in open pond cultures of Cyanobacterium aponinum using PAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Winckelmann

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The potential use of non-arable land in the al-Wusta region of the Sultanate of Oman for the production of algae biomass was examined. Brackish cleaned production water from oil production supplemented with commercial fertilizer was used as growth medium. The indigenous isolate Cyanobacterium aponinum WP7(1 was grown in open ponds using batch or semi-continuous cultivation. Biomass production rates of 15–24 g/m2/day were achieved. The change of salinity due to evaporation, which was thought to be a major challenge, did not exceed 35 ppt. All cultures showed contaminations with weed algae. Contaminations with green algae or diatoms were detectable using fluorescence pattern excited by four different wavelengths using a pulse-amplitude-modulation chlorophyll fluorometer (PAM. It is possible to estimate the health level and the mayor groups of which a culture is composed using the PAM method. Therefore, the fluorescence of the photosynthetically inactive sample is compared with the fluorescence after all copies of photosystem II were closed by exposing the sample to a high-intensity light beam. A detection limit of one weed algae cell in a hundred cells was achieved.

  16. High Speed PAM -8 Optical Interconnects with Digital Equalization based on Neural Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaiarin, Simone; Pang, Xiaodan; Ozolins, Oskars

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally evaluate a high-speed optical interconnection link with neural network equalization. Enhanced equalization performances are shown comparing to standard linear FFE for an EML-based 32 GBd PAM-8 signal after 4-km SMF transmission.......We experimentally evaluate a high-speed optical interconnection link with neural network equalization. Enhanced equalization performances are shown comparing to standard linear FFE for an EML-based 32 GBd PAM-8 signal after 4-km SMF transmission....

  17. How adults with cardiac conditions in Singapore understand the Patient Activation Measure (PAM-13) items: a cognitive interviewing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngooi, Bi Xia; Packer, Tanya L; Warner, Grace; Kephart, George; Koh, Karen Wei Ling; Wong, Raymond Ching Chiew; Lim, Serene Peiying

    2018-03-01

    Validation studies of the PAM-13 have found differences in scale performance, suggesting that health beliefs embedded in different cultures and/or self-management needs of different client groups influence how people respond to the items. The purpose of this study was to examine how adults with cardiac conditions in Singapore interpreted and responded to the PAM-13, to investigate possible reasons for differences in responses and to propose solutions to overcome them. We conducted retrospective cognitive interviews with 13 participants in an out-patient heart center. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed based on the framework approach to qualitative analysis. The four stages from Tourangeau's cognitive model were used as a framework to index the data from each item. There was variation in comprehension of questions leading to variation in responses. Comprehension issues were due to terms perceived by participants to be vague and the use of English terms uncommon in Singapore. Cultural influences impacted decision processes and problems with response processes of the self-rating Likert scale surfaced. This study reinforces the need to culturally adapt the tool, even when language translation is not necessary. Providing Likert scales with a larger number of may widen the relevance of PAM-13 in Singapore. Implications for rehabilitation Need to culturally adapt assessment tool, even when language translation is not necessary. Consider using Likert scales with a larger number of categories when using in Asian countries such as Singapore. Caution must be taken when using PAM-13 levels to decide interventions for each individual.

  18. OFDM and PAM comparison using a high baudrate low resolution IM/DD interface for 400G Ethernet access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Nuno Sequeira; Louchet, Hadrien; Filsinger, Volker; Hansen, Erik; Richter, André

    2016-05-30

    We compare OFDM and PAM for 400G Ethernet based on a 3-bit high baudrate IM/DD interface at 1550nm. We demonstrate 27Gb/s and 32Gb/s transmission over 10km SSMF using OFDM and PAM respectively. We show that capacity can be improved through adaptation/equalization to achieve 42Gb/s and 64Gb/s for OFDM and PAM respectively. Experimental results are used to create realistic simulations to extrapolate the performance of both modulation formats under varied conditions. For the considered interface we found that PAM has the best performance, OFDM is impaired by quantization noise. When the resolution limitation is relaxed, OFDM shows better performance.

  19. Structural basis for promiscuous PAM recognition in type I-E Cascade from E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Robert P; Xiao, Yibei; Ding, Fran; van Erp, Paul B G; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta; Bailey, Scott; Wiedenheft, Blake; Ke, Ailong

    2016-02-25

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and the cas (CRISPR-associated) operon form an RNA-based adaptive immune system against foreign genetic elements in prokaryotes. Type I accounts for 95% of CRISPR systems, and has been used to control gene expression and cell fate. During CRISPR RNA (crRNA)-guided interference, Cascade (CRISPR-associated complex for antiviral defence) facilitates the crRNA-guided invasion of double-stranded DNA for complementary base-pairing with the target DNA strand while displacing the non-target strand, forming an R-loop. Cas3, which has nuclease and helicase activities, is subsequently recruited to degrade two DNA strands. A protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) sequence flanking target DNA is crucial for self versus foreign discrimination. Here we present the 2.45 Å crystal structure of Escherichia coli Cascade bound to a foreign double-stranded DNA target. The 5'-ATG PAM is recognized in duplex form, from the minor groove side, by three structural features in the Cascade Cse1 subunit. The promiscuity inherent to minor groove DNA recognition rationalizes the observation that a single Cascade complex can respond to several distinct PAM sequences. Optimal PAM recognition coincides with wedge insertion, initiating directional target DNA strand unwinding to allow segmented base-pairing with crRNA. The non-target strand is guided along a parallel path 25 Å apart, and the R-loop structure is further stabilized by locking this strand behind the Cse2 dimer. These observations provide the structural basis for understanding the PAM-dependent directional R-loop formation process.

  20. Resolving the contribution of the uncoupled phycobilisomes to cyanobacterial pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña, Alonso M; Snellenburg, Joris J; Gwizdala, Michal; Kirilovsky, Diana; van Grondelle, Rienk; van Stokkum, Ivo H M

    2016-01-01

    Pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry is extensively used to characterize photosynthetic organisms on the slow time-scale (1-1000 s). The saturation pulse method allows determination of the quantum yields of maximal (F(M)) and minimal fluorescence (F(0)), parameters related to the activity of the photosynthetic apparatus. Also, when the sample undergoes a certain light treatment during the measurement, the fluorescence quantum yields of the unquenched and the quenched states can be determined. In the case of cyanobacteria, however, the recorded fluorescence does not exclusively stem from the chlorophyll a in photosystem II (PSII). The phycobilins, the pigments of the cyanobacterial light-harvesting complexes, the phycobilisomes (PB), also contribute to the PAM signal, and therefore, F(0) and F(M) are no longer related to PSII only. We present a functional model that takes into account the presence of several fluorescent species whose concentrations can be resolved provided their fluorescence quantum yields are known. Data analysis of PAM measurements on in vivo cells of our model organism Synechocystis PCC6803 is discussed. Three different components are found necessary to fit the data: uncoupled PB (PB(free)), PB-PSII complexes, and free PSI. The free PSII contribution was negligible. The PB(free) contribution substantially increased in the mutants that lack the core terminal emitter subunits allophycocyanin D or allophycocyanin F. A positive correlation was found between the amount of PB(free) and the rate constants describing the binding of the activated orange carotenoid protein to PB, responsible for non-photochemical quenching.

  1. Experimental demonstration of 112-Gbit/s PAM-4 over up to 80 km SSMF at 1550 nm for Inter-DCI applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eiselt, N.; van der Heide, S.; Griesser, H.; Eiselt, M.; Okonkwo, C.; Olmos, J.J.V.; Tafur Monroy, I.

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate 112-Gbit/s PAM-4 over 80 km SSMF at 1550 nm. It is shown, that a channel shortening filter (CSF) matched to the memory of a subsequent MLSE significantly improves the performance while keeping complexity manageable.

  2. Experimental demonstration of 112-Gbit/s PAM-4 over up to 80 km SSMF at 1550 nm for inter-DCI applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiselt, Nicklas; Van Der Heide, Sjoerd; Griesser, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate 112-Gbit/s PAM-4 over 80 km SSMF at 1550 nm. It is shown that a channel shortening filter (CSF) matched to the memory of a subsequent MLSE significantly improves the performance while keeping complexity manageable....

  3. A novel M1 PAM VU0486846 exerts efficacy in cognition models without displaying agonist activity or cholinergic toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rook, Jerri M; Bertron, Jeanette L; Cho, Hyekyung P; Garcia-Barrantes, Pedro M; Moran, Sean P; Maksymetz, James T; Nance, Kellie D; Dickerson, Jonathan W; Remke, Daniel H; Chang, Sichen; Harp, Joel; Blobaum, Anna L; Niswender, Colleen M; Jones, Carrie K; Stauffer, Shaun R; Conn, P Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W

    2018-04-27

    Selective activation of the M1 subtype of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, via positive allosteric modulation (PAM), is an exciting strategy to improve cognition in schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease patients. However, highly potent M1 ago-PAMs, such as MK-7622, PF-06764427, and PF-06827443, can engender excessive activation of M1, leading to agonist actions in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) that impairs cognitive function, induces behavioral convulsions, and results in other classic cholinergic adverse events (AEs). Here, we report a fundamentally new and highly selective M1 PAM, VU0486846. VU0486846 possesses only weak agonist activity in M1-expressing cell lines with high receptor reserve and is devoid of agonist actions in the PFC, unlike previously reported ago-PAMs MK-7622, PF-06764427 and PF-06827443. Moreover, VU0486846 shows no interaction with antagonist binding at the orthosteric acetylcholine (ACh) site (e.g., neither bitopic nor displaying negative cooperativity with [3H]-NMS binding at theorthosteric site), no seizure liability at high brain exposures, and no cholinergic AEs. However, as opposed to ago-PAMs, VU0486846 produces robust efficacy in the novel object recognition model of cognitive function. Importantly, we show for the first time that an M1 PAM can reverse the cognitive deficits induced by atypical antipsychotics, such as risperidone. These findings further strengthen the argument that compounds with modest in vitro M1 PAM activity (EC50s > 100 nM) and pure-PAM activity in native tissues display robust pro-cognitive efficacy without AEs mediated by excessive activation of M1. Overall, the combination of compound assessment with recombinant in vitro assays (mindful of receptor reserve), native tissue systems (PFC), and phenotypic screens (behavioral convulsions) is essential to fully understand and evaluate lead compounds and enhance success in clinical development.

  4. Application of polyacrylamide to reduce phosphorus losses from a Chinese purple soil: a laboratory and field investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Teng, Lingling; Wei, Shiqiang; Deng, Lili; Luo, Zaibo; Chen, Yupeng; Flanagan, Dennis C

    2010-07-01

    Use of anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) to control phosphorus (P) losses from a Chinese purple soil was studied in both a laboratory soil column experiment and a field plot experiment on a steep slope (27%). Treatments in the column study were a control, and PAM mixed uniformly into the soil at rates of 0.02, 0.05, 0.08, 0.10, and 0.20%. We found that PAM had an important inhibitory effect on vertical P transport in the soil columns, with the 0.20% PAM treatment having the greatest significant reduction in leachate soluble P concentrations and losses resulting from nine leaching periods. Field experiments were conducted on 5m wide by 21m long natural rainfall plots, that allowed collection of both surface runoff and subsurface drainage water. Wheat was planted and grown on all plots with typical fertilizer applied. Treatments included a control, dry PAM at 3.9 kg ha(-1), dry PAM at 3.9 kg ha(-1) applied together with lime (CaCO(3) at 4.9 t ha(-1)), and dry PAM at 3.9 kg ha(-1) applied together with gypsum (CaSO(4).2H(2)O at 4 t ha(-1)). Results from the field plot experiment in which 5 rainfall events resulted in measurable runoff and leachate showed that all PAM treatments significantly reduced runoff volume and total P losses in surface runoff compared to the control. The PAM treatments also all significantly reduced water volume leached to the tile drain. However, total P losses in the leachate water were not significantly different due to the treatments, perhaps due to the low PAM soil surface application rate and/or high experimental variability. The PAM alone treatment resulted in the greatest wheat growth as indicated by the plant growth indexes of wheat plant height, leaf length, leaf width, grain number per head, and dried grain mass. Growth indexes of the PAM with Calcium treatments were significantly lesser. These results indicate that the selection and use of soil amendments need to be carefully determined based upon the most important management goal at a

  5. Breast imaging using the Twente photoacoustic mammoscope (PAM): new clinical measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijblom, Michelle; Piras, Daniele; Ten Tije, Ellen; Xia, Wenfeng; van Hespen, Johan; Klaase, Joost; van den Engh, Frank; van Leeuwen, Ton; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Manohar, Srirang

    2011-07-01

    Worldwide, yearly about 450,000 women die from the consequences of breast cancer. Current imaging modalities are not optimal in discriminating benign from malignant tissue. Visualizing the malignancy-associated increased hemoglobin concentration might significantly improve early diagnosis of breast cancer. Since photoacoustic imaging can visualize hemoglobin in tissue with optical contrast and ultrasound-like resolution, it is potentially an ideal method for early breast cancer imaging. The Twente Photoacoustic Mammoscope (PAM) has been developed specifically for breast imaging. Recently, a large clinical study has been started in the Medisch Spectrum Twente in Oldenzaal using PAM. In PAM, the breast is slightly compressed between a window for laser light illumination and a flat array ultrasound detector. The measurements are performed using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, pulsed at 1064 nm and a 1 MHz unfocused ultrasound detector array. Three-dimensional data are reconstructed using a delay and sum reconstruction algorithm. Those reconstructed images are compared with conventional imaging and histopathology. In the first phase of the study 12 patients with a malignant lesion and 2 patients with a benign cyst have been measured. The results are used to guide developments in photoacoustic mammography in order to pave the way towards an optimal technique for early diagnosis of breast cancer.

  6. PAM, OLA, and LNA are Differentially Taken Up and Trafficked Via Different Metabolic Pathways in Porcine Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Caihua; Xi, Lingling; Chen, Jin; Jiang, Qin; Yi, Hongbo; Wang, Yizhen; Wang, Xinxia

    2017-11-01

    Dietary fatty acids have different effects on fat deposition in pigs. To clarify the underlying mechanisms of this difference, we compared the metabolism of palmitic (PAM, saturated), oleic (OLA, monounsaturated) and linoleic acid (LNA, polyunsaturated) in porcine adipocytes treated with 100 μM PAM, OLA or LNA. We observed that the adipocytes incubated with LNA accumulated more lipids compared with those treated with PAM and OLA. We then probed the metabolism of these fatty acids in porcine adipocytes by using isotope-labelled fatty acids. The results showed that 42% of the [1- 14 C] LNA, 34% of the [1- 14 C] PAM and 28% of the [1- 14 C] OLA were recovered in the cellular lipids. The gene expression analyses showed that LNA significantly increased the expression of adipogenesis- and oxidation-related genes including PPARγ, C/EBPα, ap2 and NRF1. In addition, the cells incubated with LNA showed a decreased Ser 112 phosphorylation in PPARγ compared to those incubated with PAM and OLA. Furthermore, when PPARγ Ser 112 phosphorylation was inhibited, no significant difference in the triacylglycerol contents in the adipocytes was observed. These results showed the dietary fatty acids had different metabolism pathways in porcine adipocytes, and LNA significantly promoted lipid accumulation, probably by regulating PPARγ phosphorylation in adipocytes.

  7. Concurrent validity of the PAM accelerometer relative to the MTI Actigraph using oxygen consumption as a reference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slootmaker, S.M.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; Schuit, A.J.; Mechelen, W. van; Koppes, L.L.J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the concurrent validity of the Personal Activity Monitor (PAM) accelerometer relative to the Actigraph accelerometer using oxygen consumption as a reference, and to assess the test-retest reliability of the PAM. Thirty-two fit, normal weight adults (aged

  8. Dual-wavelength OR-PAM with compressed sensing for cell tracking in a 3D cell culture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rou-Xuan; Fu, Ying; Liu, Wang; Ma, Yu-Ting; Hsieh, Bao-Yu; Chen, Shu-Ching; Sun, Mingjian; Li, Pai-Chi

    2018-02-01

    Monitoring dynamic interactions of T cells migrating toward tumor is beneficial to understand how cancer immunotherapy works. Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscope (OR-PAM) can provide not only high spatial resolution but also deeper penetration than conventional optical microscopy. With the aid of exogenous contrast agents, the dual-wavelength OR-PAM can be applied to map the distribution of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) with gold nanospheres (AuNS) under 523nm laser irradiation and Hepta1-6 tumor spheres with indocyanine green (ICG) under 800nm irradiation. However, at 1K laser PRF, it takes approximately 20 minutes to obtain a full sample volume of 160 × 160 × 150 μm3 . To increase the imaging rate, we propose a random non-uniform sparse sampling mechanism to achieve fast sparse photoacoustic data acquisition. The image recovery process is formulated as a low-rank matrix recovery (LRMR) based on compressed sensing (CS) theory. We show that it could be stably recovered via nuclear-norm minimization optimization problem to maintain image quality from a significantly fewer measurement. In this study, we use the dual-wavelength OR-PAM with CS to visualize T cell trafficking in a 3D culture system with higher temporal resolution. Data acquisition time is reduced by 40% in such sample volume where sampling density is 0.5. The imaging system reveals the potential to understand the dynamic cellular process for preclinical screening of anti-cancer drugs.

  9. The oxime pro-2-PAM provides minimal protection against the CNS effects of the nerve agents sarin, cyclosarin, and VX in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Tsung-Ming; Guarisco, John A; Myers, Todd M; Kan, Robert K; McDonough, John H

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether pro-2-PAM, a pro-drug dihydropyridine derivative of the oxime 2-pralidoxime (2-PAM) that can penetrate the brain, could prevent or reverse the central toxic effects of three nerve agents; sarin, cyclosarin, and VX. The first experiment tested whether pro-2-PAM could reactivate guinea pig cholinesterase (ChE) in vivo in central and peripheral tissues inhibited by these nerve agents. Pro-2-PAM produced a dose-dependent reactivation of sarin- or VX-inhibited ChE in both peripheral and brain tissues, but with substantially greater reactivation in peripheral tissues compared to brain. Pro-2-PAM produced 9-25% reactivation of cyclosarin-inhibited ChE in blood, heart, and spinal cord, but no reactivation in brain or muscle tissues. In a second experiment, the ability of pro-2-PAM to block or terminate nerve agent-induced electroencephalographic seizure activity was evaluated. Pro-2-PAM was able to block sarin- or VX-induced seizures (16-33%) over a dose range of 24-32 mg/kg, but was ineffective against cyclosarin-induced seizures. Animals that were protected from seizures showed significantly less weight loss and greater behavioral function 24 h after exposure than those animals that were not protected. Additionally, brains were free from neuropathology when pro-2-PAM prevented seizures. In summary, pro-2-PAM provided modest reactivation of sarin- and VX-inhibited ChE in the brain and periphery, which was reflected by a limited ability to block or terminate seizures elicited by these agents. Pro-2-PAM was able to reactivate blood, heart, and spinal cord ChE inhibited by cyclosarin, but was not effective against cyclosarin-induced seizures.

  10. High-Throughput Characterization of Cascade type I-E CRISPR Guide Efficacy Reveals Unexpected PAM Diversity and Target Sequence Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Becky Xu Hua; Wainberg, Michael; Kundaje, Anshul; Fire, Andrew Z

    2017-08-01

    Interactions between Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR) RNAs and CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins form an RNA-guided adaptive immune system in prokaryotes. The adaptive immune system utilizes segments of the genetic material of invasive foreign elements in the CRISPR locus. The loci are transcribed and processed to produce small CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs), with degradation of invading genetic material directed by a combination of complementarity between RNA and DNA and in some cases recognition of adjacent motifs called PAMs (Protospacer Adjacent Motifs). Here we describe a general, high-throughput procedure to test the efficacy of thousands of targets, applying this to the Escherichia coli type I-E Cascade (CRISPR-associated complex for antiviral defense) system. These studies were followed with reciprocal experiments in which the consequence of CRISPR activity was survival in the presence of a lytic phage. From the combined analysis of the Cascade system, we found that (i) type I-E Cascade PAM recognition is more expansive than previously reported, with at least 22 distinct PAMs, with many of the noncanonical PAMs having CRISPR-interference abilities similar to the canonical PAMs; (ii) PAM positioning appears precise, with no evidence for tolerance to PAM slippage in interference; and (iii) while increased guanine-cytosine (GC) content in the spacer is associated with higher CRISPR-interference efficiency, high GC content (>62.5%) decreases CRISPR-interference efficiency. Our findings provide a comprehensive functional profile of Cascade type I-E interference requirements and a method to assay spacer efficacy that can be applied to other CRISPR-Cas systems. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  11. 4-PAM Dispersion-Uncompensated Transmission with Micro-Ring Resonator Enhanced 1.55-µm DML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Da Ros, Francesco; Cristofori, Valentina; Ozolins, Oskars

    2017-01-01

    Real-time transmission of 14-GBd 4-PAM signal is demonstrated by combining a commercial 1.55-µm DML with a silicon MRR. BER below the HD-FEC threshold is measured after 26-km SSMF transmission without offline digital signal processing.......Real-time transmission of 14-GBd 4-PAM signal is demonstrated by combining a commercial 1.55-µm DML with a silicon MRR. BER below the HD-FEC threshold is measured after 26-km SSMF transmission without offline digital signal processing....

  12. PAM in the Netherlands: activation level of diabetic patients and the relation with quality of health care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, M.; Rademakers, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The PAM has been proven to be a reliable and valid instrument to measure patient activation in the US and other countries and is used as a first step towards fully informed and involved patients. Given these promising results, the PAM has recently been introduced in the Netherlands. In

  13. Chirality of TLR-2 ligand Pam3CysSK4 in fully synthetic peptide conjugates critically influences the induction of specific CD8+ T-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Selina; Weterings, Jimmy J; Britten, Cedrik M; de Jong, Ana R; Graafland, Dirk; Melief, Cornelis J M; van der Burg, Sjoerd H; van der Marel, Gijs; Overkleeft, Hermen S; Filippov, Dmitri V; Ossendorp, Ferry

    2009-03-01

    Covalent conjugation of synthetic Toll-like receptor ligands (TLR-L) to synthetic antigenic peptides provides well-defined constructs that have significantly improved capacity to induce efficient priming of CD8(+) T lymphocytes in vivo. We have recently explored the cellular mechanisms underlying the efficient induction of a CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocyte response by such synthetic model vaccines [Khan, S., Bijker, M.S., Weterings, J.J., Tanke, H.J., Adema, G.J., van, H.T., Drijfhout, J.W., Melief, C.J., Overkleeft, H.S., van der Marel, G.A., Filippov, D.V., van der Burg, S.H., Ossendorp, F., 2007. Distinct uptake mechanisms but similar intracellular processing of two different toll-like receptor ligand-peptide conjugates in dendritic cells. J. Biol. Chem. 282, 21145-21159.]. In the current study we have investigated the behaviour of two diastereomers of the TLR-2 ligand Pam(3)CSK(4) (Pam) derivatives, namely the R- and S-epimers at C-2 of the glycerol moiety. Other studies have shown that the Pam(3)Cys based lipopeptides of R-configuration (Pam(R)) in the glycerol moiety enhanced macrophage and B-cell activation compared to those with S-configuration (Pam(S)). Here we report that Pam(R)-conjugates lead to better activation of dendritic cells than the Pam(S)-conjugates as judged by higher IL-12 secretion, upregulation of relevant markers for dendritic cell maturation. In contrast both epimers were internalized equally efficient in a clathrin-dependent manner indicating no qualitative difference in the uptake of the two stereoisomeric Pam-conjugates. We conclude that the enhanced DC activation is due to enhanced TLR-2 triggering by the Pam(R)-conjugate in contrast to the Pam(S)-conjugate. Importantly, induction of specific CD8(+) T-cells was significantly higher in mice injected with the Pam(R)-conjugates compared to mice injected with the Pam(S)-conjugate. In summary we show that the favourable effects of the Pam(R)-configuration of TLR-2 ligand can be attributed to

  14. Ocular Tumours in Childhood | Pam | Nigerian Journal of Surgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Surgical Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 3, No 1 (2001) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Ocular Tumours in Childhood. V. Pam. Abstract.

  15. Low-cost and miniaturized 100-Gb/s (2 × 50 Gb/s) PAM-4 TO-packaged ROSA for data center networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sae-Kyoung; Huh, Joon Young; Lee, Jie Hyun; Lee, Joon Ki

    2018-03-05

    We design and implement a cost-effective and compact 100-Gb/s (2 × 50 Gb/s) PAM-4 receiver optical sub-assembly (ROSA) by using a TO-can package instead of an expensive box-type package. It consists of an optical demultiplexer, two PIN-PDs and a 2-channel linear transimpedance amplifier. The components are passively aligned and assembled using alignment marks engraved on each part. With a real-time PAM-4 DSP chip, we measured the back-to-back receiver sensitivities of the 100-Gb/s ROSA based on TO-56 to be less than -13.2 dBm for both channels at a bit error rate of 2.4e-4. The crosstalk penalty due to the adjacent channel interference was observed around 0.1 dB.

  16. Re-exploration of the mGlu₁ PAM Ro 07-11401 scaffold: Discovery of analogs with improved CNS penetration despite steep SAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Barrantes, Pedro M; Cho, Hyekyung P; Starr, Tahj M; Blobaum, Anna L; Niswender, Colleen M; Conn, P Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W

    2016-05-01

    This letter describes the re-exploration of the mGlu1 PAM Ro 07-11401 scaffold through a multi-dimensional, iterative parallel synthesis approach. Unlike recent series of mGlu1 PAMs with robust SAR, the SAR around the Ro 07-11401 structure was incredibly steep (only ∼6 of 200 analogs displayed mGlu1 PAM activity), and reminiscent of the CPPHA mGlu5 PAM scaffold. Despite the steep SAR, two new thiazole derivatives were discovered with improved in vitro DMPK profiles and ∼3- to 4-fold improvement in CNS exposure (Kps 1.01-1.19); albeit, with a ∼3-fold diminution in mGlu1 PAM potency, yet comparable efficacy (∼5-fold leftward shift of the glutamate concentration-response curve at 10μM). Thus, this effort has provided additional CNS penetrant mGlu1 PAM tools in a different chemotype than the VU0486321 scaffold. These compounds will permit a better understanding of the pharmacology and therapeutic potential of selective mGlu1 activation, while highlighting the steep SAR challenges that can often be encountered in GPCR allosteric modulator discovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 40 CFR 52.430 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program. 52.430 Section 52.430 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Natural Resources & Environmental Control submitted a plan for the establishment and implementation of a...

  18. 40 CFR 52.480 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of Columbia's Department of Consumer and Regulatory Affairs submitted a plan for the establishment... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program. 52.480 Section 52.480 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  19. Measuring patient activation in The Netherlands: translation and validation of the American short form Patient Activation Measure (PAM13).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademakers, Jany; Nijman, Jessica; van der Hoek, Lucas; Heijmans, Monique; Rijken, Mieke

    2012-07-31

    The American short form Patient Activation Measure (PAM) is a 13-item instrument which assesses patient (or consumer) self-reported knowledge, skills and confidence for self-management of one's health or chronic condition. In this study the PAM was translated into a Dutch version; psychometric properties of the Dutch version were established and the instrument was validated in a panel of chronically ill patients. The translation was done according to WHO guidelines. The PAM 13-Dutch was sent to 4178 members of the Dutch National Panel of people with Chronic illness or Disability (NPCD) in April 2010 (study A) and again to a sub sample of this group (N = 973) in June 2010 (study B). Internal consistency, test-retest reliability and cross-validation with the SBSQ-D (a measure for Health literacy) were computed. The Dutch results were compared to similar Danish and American data. The psychometric properties of the PAM 13-Dutch were generally good. The level of internal consistency is good (α = 0.88) and item-rest correlations are moderate to strong. The Dutch mean PAM score (61.3) is comparable to the American (61.9) and lower than the Danish (64.2). The test-retest reliability was moderate. The association with Health literacy was weak to moderate. The PAM-13 Dutch is a reliable instrument to measure patient activation. More research is needed into the validity of the Patient Activation Measure, especially with respect to a more comprehensive measure of Health literacy.

  20. The Proteolytically Stable Peptidomimetic Pam-(Lys-ßNSpe)6-NH2 Selectively Inhibits Human Neutrophil Activation via Formyl Peptide Receptor 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbakke, Sarah Line; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Larsen, Camilla J.

    2015-01-01

    of proteolytically stable HDP mimics consisting of lipidated α-peptide/β-peptoid oligomers was investigated for their effect on neutrophil function. The most promising compound, Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2, was shown to inhibit formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2) agonist-induced neutrophil granule mobilization and release...... of reactive oxygen species. The potency of Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2 was comparable to that of PBP10, the most potent FPR2-selective inhibitor known. The immunomodulatory effects of structural analogues of Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2 emphasized the importance of both the lipid and peptidomimetic parts. By using imaging...... flow cytometry in primary neutrophils and FPR-transfected cell lines we found that a fluorescently labelled analogue of Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2 interacted selectively with FPR2. Furthermore the interaction between Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2 and FPR2 was found to prevent binding of the FPR2-specific activating...

  1. Analysis of the Performance of a PAM/PPM/OOK System Operating with OCDMA, under Nonlinear Optical Effects in Optical Fiber Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, D. G.; Sales, J. C.; Pinto, P. V. F.; Moura, L. P.; Ferreira, A. C.; Menezes, J. W. M.; Guimarães, G. F.; Sombra, A. S. B.

    2016-06-01

    In this article, we present a numerical simulation study of encoding, decoding and propagation performance of short optical pulses and words with modulations OOK, PAM and PPM in OCDMA systems (Optical Code Division Multiple Access). The encoding and decoding of short pulses are obtained through fiber Bragg grating(FBG - FBG optical) devices, where the codes are inserted through discrete jumps in the optical phase (±π) where Gold codes were used. A figure of merit (SNR - Signal to Noise Ratio) was obtained to quantify the interference in propagation of short optical pulses. An increase in the temporal width was observed. For decoded pulses due to the nonlinearity effect, we observed an increase of 1.3 ps considering the propagation with γ=3 W-1 km-1 and γ=24 W-1 km-1. Analysis of coding and decoding words "a" and "w" was done. Considering the propagation (with γ=9 W-1 km-1) of a word "w", an error occurred in all modulations except for simultaneous PPM/PAM modulation, which is associated to the better autocorrelation characteristics obtained with the OOK, PAM and PPM modulations alone, and could double the transmission rate. The nonlinear effects directly affect the process of the autocorrelation codes due to interference from adjacent chip components of the code.

  2. LAYER STRUCTURES FORMED BY SILICA NANOPARTICLES AND CELLULOSE NANOFIBRILS WITH CATIONIC POLYACRYLAMIDE (C-PAM ON CELLULOSE SURFACE AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON INTERACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Salmi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D was used to study the adsorption of the layer formed by silica nanoparticles (SNP and cellulose nanofibrils (NFC together with cationic polyacrylamide (C-PAM on cellulose surface, accompanied by use of atomic force microscope (AFM to study the interactions between cellulose surfaces. The purpose was to understand the multilayer build-up compared to complex structure adsorption. The layer thickness and consequently also the repulsion between surfaces increased with each addition step during layer formation in the SNP-C-PAM systems, whereas the second addition of C-PAM decreased the repulsion in the case of NFC-C-PAM multilayer formation. An exceptionally high repulsion between surfaces was observed when nanofibrillar cellulose was added. This together with the extremely high dissipation values recorded with QCM-D indicated that nanofibrillar cellulose formed a loose and thick layer containing a lot of water. The multilayer systems formed fully and uniformly covered the surfaces. Silica nanoparticles were able to penetrate inside the loose C-PAM structure due to their small size. In contrast, NFC formed individual layers between C-PAM layers. The complex of C-PAM and SNP formed only a partly covered surface, leading to long-ranged pull-off force. This might explain the good flocculation properties reported for polyelectrolyte-nanoparticle systems.

  3. Assessing the degree of plug flow in oxidation flow reactors (OFRs: a study on a potential aerosol mass (PAM reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mitroo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation flow reactors (OFRs have been developed to achieve high degrees of oxidant exposures over relatively short space times (defined as the ratio of reactor volume to the volumetric flow rate. While, due to their increased use, attention has been paid to their ability to replicate realistic tropospheric reactions by modeling the chemistry inside the reactor, there is a desire to customize flow patterns. This work demonstrates the importance of decoupling tracer signal of the reactor from that of the tubing when experimentally obtaining these flow patterns. We modeled the residence time distributions (RTDs inside the Washington University Potential Aerosol Mass (WU-PAM reactor, an OFR, for a simple set of configurations by applying the tank-in-series (TIS model, a one-parameter model, to a deconvolution algorithm. The value of the parameter, N, is close to unity for every case except one having the highest space time. Combined, the results suggest that volumetric flow rate affects mixing patterns more than use of our internals. We selected results from the simplest case, at 78 s space time with one inlet and one outlet, absent of baffles and spargers, and compared the experimental F curve to that of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulation. The F curves, which represent the cumulative time spent in the reactor by flowing material, match reasonably well. We value that the use of a small aspect ratio reactor such as the WU-PAM reduces wall interactions; however sudden apertures introduce disturbances in the flow, and suggest applying the methodology of tracer testing described in this work to investigate RTDs in OFRs to observe the effect of modified inlets, outlets and use of internals prior to application (e.g., field deployment vs. laboratory study.

  4. Assessing the degree of plug flow in oxidation flow reactors (OFRs): a study on a potential aerosol mass (PAM) reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitroo, Dhruv; Sun, Yujian; Combest, Daniel P.; Kumar, Purushottam; Williams, Brent J.

    2018-03-01

    Oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) have been developed to achieve high degrees of oxidant exposures over relatively short space times (defined as the ratio of reactor volume to the volumetric flow rate). While, due to their increased use, attention has been paid to their ability to replicate realistic tropospheric reactions by modeling the chemistry inside the reactor, there is a desire to customize flow patterns. This work demonstrates the importance of decoupling tracer signal of the reactor from that of the tubing when experimentally obtaining these flow patterns. We modeled the residence time distributions (RTDs) inside the Washington University Potential Aerosol Mass (WU-PAM) reactor, an OFR, for a simple set of configurations by applying the tank-in-series (TIS) model, a one-parameter model, to a deconvolution algorithm. The value of the parameter, N, is close to unity for every case except one having the highest space time. Combined, the results suggest that volumetric flow rate affects mixing patterns more than use of our internals. We selected results from the simplest case, at 78 s space time with one inlet and one outlet, absent of baffles and spargers, and compared the experimental F curve to that of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The F curves, which represent the cumulative time spent in the reactor by flowing material, match reasonably well. We value that the use of a small aspect ratio reactor such as the WU-PAM reduces wall interactions; however sudden apertures introduce disturbances in the flow, and suggest applying the methodology of tracer testing described in this work to investigate RTDs in OFRs to observe the effect of modified inlets, outlets and use of internals prior to application (e.g., field deployment vs. laboratory study).

  5. Effect of SLC34A2 gene mutation on extracellular phosphorus transport in PAM alveolar epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tiangang; Qu, Danhua; Yan, Bingdi; Zhang, Qinghua; Ren, Jin; Hu, Yanbing

    2018-01-01

    A mutation in the IIb sodium phosphate transporter SLC34A2 gene has recently been described in pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) patients. Experiments in this study were aimed at confirming the role of the gene product in PAM by comparing phosphorylated products in extracellular fluid of alveolar epithelial cells overexpressing the SLC34A2 gene or its mutated version. Eukaryotic expression vectors were constructed and transfected into A549 human alveolar epithelial cells. There were three groups of cells including those transfected with empty vector plasmid pcDNA3.1(+) (plasmid control group), those transfected with normal SLC34A2 gene expressed from pcDNA3.1 (normal control group), and those transfected with a version of the PAM SLC34A2 gene linked to the pcDNA3.1(+) (PAM group). Transfection efficiencies were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). At 48 h after transfection, the concentration of inorganic phosphorus in the culture medium was detected using an automatic biochemical analyzer. Our results showed the concentration of inorganic phosphorus in the supernatant of the normal control group was significantly lower than that in the plasmid control and PAM groups (PPAM group was significantly lower than that in the plasmid control group (PPAM patients, given that the function of the phosphate transporter seems to be affected and it is conceivable that it would lead to extracellular fluid alterations in vivo .

  6. Characterization of plasticized PEO-PAM blend polymer electrolyte system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Gargi; Kanchan, Dinesh

    2017-05-01

    Present study reports characterization studies of NaCF3SO3 based PEO-PAM Blend Polymer Electrolyte (BPE) system with varying amount of EC+PC as plasticizer prepared by solution cast technique. Structural analysis and surface topography have been performed using FTIR and SEM studies. To understand, thermal properties, DSC studies have been undertaken in the present paper

  7. Inter-data center 28 Gbaud 4-PAM transmission over 240 km standard single mode fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter; Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2018-01-01

    We report on achieving 28 Gbaud 4-PAM transmission with post-equalization over a 240 km SSMF link without re-engineering the transmission link design. The results demonstrate the prospect of re-using conventional links for inter data center connections.......We report on achieving 28 Gbaud 4-PAM transmission with post-equalization over a 240 km SSMF link without re-engineering the transmission link design. The results demonstrate the prospect of re-using conventional links for inter data center connections....

  8. Measuring patient activation in the Netherlands: translation and validation of the American short form Patient Activation Measure (PAM13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rademakers Jany

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The American short form Patient Activation Measure (PAM is a 13-item instrument which assesses patient (or consumer self-reported knowledge, skills and confidence for self-management of one’s health or chronic condition. In this study the PAM was translated into a Dutch version; psychometric properties of the Dutch version were established and the instrument was validated in a panel of chronically ill patients. Methods The translation was done according to WHO guidelines. The PAM 13-Dutch was sent to 4178 members of the Dutch National Panel of people with Chronic illness or Disability (NPCD in April 2010 (study A and again to a sub sample of this group (N = 973 in June 2010 (study B. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability and cross-validation with the SBSQ-D (a measure for Health literacy were computed. The Dutch results were compared to similar Danish and American data. Results The psychometric properties of the PAM 13-Dutch were generally good. The level of internal consistency is good (α = 0.88 and item-rest correlations are moderate to strong. The Dutch mean PAM score (61.3 is comparable to the American (61.9 and lower than the Danish (64.2. The test-retest reliability was moderate. The association with Health literacy was weak to moderate. Conclusions The PAM-13 Dutch is a reliable instrument to measure patient activation. More research is needed into the validity of the Patient Activation Measure, especially with respect to a more comprehensive measure of Health literacy.

  9. PAM, MJ and Conventional Grills: Operative Experience on FTU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirizzi, F.; Calabro, G.; Ridolfini, V.P.; Tuccillo, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    The Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) system for FTU (f = 8 GHz, P = 6 MW/1 s) has a modular configuration that gives it a high degree of flexibility in operations. The RF power generated by six gyrotrons is coupled to the plasma through six independent launchers, each one made by 4 superimposed arrays of 12 waveguides. In the last few years this system has had the unique opportunity to work with conventional grills, classical Multijunction (MJ) and Passive Active Multijunction (PAM) launchers on the same plasma's scenarios. The conventional grill gives the possibility to vary the spectrum of the parallel index of refraction within quite wide margins (N parallel = 1.3 - 3.5) and to launch waves with high directivity at low N parallel . In FTU the coupled power can exceed 100 MW/m 2 at the grill mouth for proper launcher-plasma matching (average power reflection coefficient 10 - 15 %). The MJ reduces the coupling problems arising from impedance mismatching at the plasma-launcher interface. In FTU it has shown good performances also with plasma densities much lower than those normally acceptable for a conventional grill; in this condition an average reflection coefficient around 4% has been measured. Conversely the MJ has a lower flexibility in N|| spectrum and a lower power directivity. In FTU a power density close to 60 MW/m 2 in steady conditions and has been obtained. Limitation came from the upstream distribution lines that were not sufficiently conditioned. The PAM is the LH launcher proposed for ITER due to the possibility of installing an active cooling circuit between the active waveguides to extract the high thermal loads arising both from the plasma and from the RF dissipation into the waveguides' walls. In FTU the power density steadily coupled has been 80 MW/m 2 , 1.4 times the target value for ITER. Very low power reflection (around 3%) also with the PAM mouth flush to the walls, thus in presence of an almost vanishing plasma, has been obtained. This

  10. Measuring patient activation in the Netherlands: translation and validation of the American short form Patient Activation Measure (PAM13).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rademakers, J.; Nijman, J.; Hoek, L. van der; Heijmans, M.; Rijken, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The American short form Patient Activation Measure (PAM) is a 13-item instrument which assesses patient (or consumer) self-reported knowledge, skills and confidence for self-management of one's health or chronic condition. In this study the PAM was translated into a Dutch version;

  11. Effect of conditioning by PAM polymers with different charges on the structural and characteristic evolutions of water treatment residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, W L; Wang, Y L; Chen, Y J

    2013-11-01

    Three types of polyacrylamide (PAM) flocculants with different charges (cationic PAM WD4960, nonionic PAM M351, and anionic PAM WDA110) were used for water treatment residuals (WTRs) conditioning, and the physicochemical, morphological and structural characteristics of raw and conditioned WTRs were investigated. Rheological methods were employed to analyze the internal structural transition between the raw and conditioned WTRs under a typical dosage of WD4960. Results showed that when the raw WTRs were conditioned with the polymers, the optimum dosage of WD4960 was 4.82 g/kg total suspended solid (TSS) while that of both M351 and WDA110 was 7.24 g/kg TSS. The residual PAM content in the supernatant of the WTR matrix conditioned at the optimum WD4960 dosage was 5.59 mg/L, which is the least among the supernatants obtained with the three types of PAM. Furthermore, the visible fulvic acid (FA) in the supernatant disappeared and the intensity of the ultraviolet FA decreased. The average diameter of irregularly shaped aggregates in the WTR suspensions increased from 35.73 μm to several hundred micrometers with increasing PAM dosage. The size of WTR aggregates conditioned at the optimum WD4960 dosage was much larger than that of aggregates obtained at the optimum M351 or WDA110 dosages. Two-dimensional fractal dimension (D2) values presented an increasing trend with increasing PAM dosage. D2 values of the conditioned WTR aggregates were 1.87, 1.76, and 1.83 at optimum WD4960, M351, and WDA110 dosages, respectively. The cationic PAM (CPAM) WD4960 thus appears to be a more ideal conditioner for WTRs. Consistent relationships were observed among the capillary suction time (CST), average particle size, and D2 values of the conditioned WTR aggregates at the optimum WD4960 dosage. Mass fractal dimensions (D(f)) indicated that both the raw and WD4960-conditioned WTRs behave like weak-link flocs/aggregates. D(f) values (log G'-log TSS) of the WTR aggregates before and after

  12. Exploring with PAM: Prospecting ANTS Missions for Solar System Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, P. E.; Rilee, M. L.; Curtis, S. A.

    2003-01-01

    ANTS (Autonomous Nano-Technology Swarm), a large (1000 member) swarm of nano to picoclass (10 to 1 kg) totally autonomous spacecraft, are being developed as a NASA advanced mission concept. ANTS, based on a hierarchical insect social order, use an evolvable, self-similar, hierarchical neural system in which individual spacecraft represent the highest level nodes. ANTS uses swarm intelligence attained through collective, cooperative interactions of the nodes at all levels of the system. At the highest levels this can take the form of cooperative, collective behavior among the individual spacecraft in a very large constellation. The ANTS neural architecture is designed for totally autonomous operation of complex systems including spacecraft constellations. The ANTS (Autonomous Nano Technology Swarm) concept has a number of possible applications. A version of ANTS designed for surveying and determining the resource potential of the asteroid belt, called PAM (Prospecting ANTS Mission), is examined here.

  13. Estimation of human absorbed dose for (166)Ho-PAM: comparison with (166)Ho-DOTMP and (166)Ho-TTHMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaez-Tehrani, Mahdokht; Zolghadri, Samaneh; Yousefnia, Hassan; Afarideh, Hossein

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the human absorbed dose of holmium-166 ((166)Ho)-pamidronate (PAM) as a potential agent for the management of multiple myeloma was estimated. (166)Ho-PAM complex was prepared at optimized conditions and injected into the rats. The equivalent and effective absorbed doses to human organs after injection of the complex were estimated by radiation-absorbed dose assessment resource and methods proposed by Sparks et al based on rat data. The red marrow to other organ absorbed dose ratios were compared with these data for (166)Ho-DOTMP, as the only clinically used (166)Ho bone marrow ablative agent, and (166)Ho-TTHMP. The highest absorbed dose amounts are observed in the bone surface and bone marrow with 1.11 and 0.903 mGy MBq(-1), respectively. Most other organs would receive approximately insignificant absorbed dose. While (166)Ho-PAM demonstrated a higher red marrow to total body absorbed dose ratio than (166)Ho-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclo dodecane-1,4,7,10 tetra ethylene phosphonic acid (DOTMP) and (166)Ho-triethylene tetramine hexa (methylene phosphonic acid) (TTHMP), the red marrow to most organ absorbed dose ratios for (166)Ho-TTHMP and (166)Ho-PAM are much higher than the ratios for (166)Ho-DOTMP. The result showed that (166)Ho-PAM has significant characteristics than (166)Ho-DOTMP and therefore, this complex can be considered as a good agent for bone marrow ablative therapy. In this work, two separate points have been investigated: (1) human absorbed dose of (166)Ho-PAM, as a potential bone marrow ablative agent, has been estimated; and (2) the complex has been compared with (166)Ho-DOTMP, as the only clinically used bone marrow ablative radiopharmaceutical, showing significant characteristics.

  14. Imaging c-PAM-induced flocculation of paper fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, William H; Banerjee, Sujit

    2008-04-01

    The flocculation of paper fibers by cationic polyacrylamides (c-PAM) was studied by imaging the fibers that remain free during flocculation. Studies with fibers of different lengths showed that the degree of flocculation increases with fiber length, with the best flocs being formed with mixtures of short and long fibers. Short fibers did not flocculate by themselves but were captured by flocs formed with longer fibers. The short fibers strengthen the floc and give it shear resistance. Shear had the expected effect of promoting flocculation at low Reynolds number but disrupting it at higher values. For a given polymer the maximum floc size for a mixture of fibers is dictated by the length distribution of the fibers. The polymer dose governs the rate of flocculation. The technique is especially useful in following the tail end of the flocculation process. At this stage a floc is almost fully grown and a small increase in its size would be very difficult to measure by conventional techniques. In contrast, the number of free fibers measured by single fiber imaging decreases rapidly at this point.

  15. Design of test kits for the RF characterization of the PAM antenna of LHCD system for Aditya-upgrade Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Yogesh M.; Sharma, P.K.; Parmar, P.R.; Ambulkar, K.K.

    2017-01-01

    The Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) system of the ADITYA-Upgrade tokamak will employ a Passive Active Multijunction (PAM) antenna to launch 250 kW of RF power at 3.7 GHz to drive plasma current non inductively in the tokamak. To evaluate the RF performance of the designed PAM antenna, it is characterized with the help of VNA measurements. The performance of the PAM antenna is mainly decided by the integrated performance of the entire antenna (with a differential phase shift of 270° and equal power distribution between each of the output waveguides) and the performance of mode converter, which transforms input TE 10 mode to TE 30 mode (with a mode purity of 98.5% at the output). This poster thus reports the design and analysis of these testing kits. Also, the test results of PAM antenna obtained by using these test kits would also be presented and discussed in this poster

  16. Selective binding and magnetic separation of His-tagged proteins using Fe3O4/PAM/NTA-Ni2+ Magnetic Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huiling; Li, Mengyun; Tu, Shu; Sun, Honghao

    2018-03-01

    Fe3O4 nanoparticles coated with polyacrylamide (PAM) were synthesized. The magnetic core, with an average hydrodynamic size of 235.5 nm, allowed the magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) rapid separation from solutions under an external magnetic field. NTA-Ni2+ was modified on the surface of Fe3O4/PAM MNPs to selectively trap his-tagged green fluorescent protein (GFP). The results showed that Fe3O4/PAM/NTA-Ni2+ MNPs exhibited remarkable capability of selective binding and separating his-tagged GFP. The adsorption efficiency was 93.37%.

  17. Disease activity in and quality of life of patients with psoriatic arthritis mutilans: the Nordic PAM Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, U; Gudbjornsson, B; Iversen, L; Laasonen, L; Ejstrup, L; Ternowitz, T; Ståhle, M

    2017-11-01

    To describe the social status and health-related quality of life of patients with psoriatic arthritis mutilans (PAM) in the Nordic countries. Patients with at least one mutilated joint confirmed by radiology were studied. Disease activity involving joints and skin, physician-assessed disease activity, and patient's education and work status were recorded. Data from the 36-item Short Form Health Survey, Health Assessment Questionnaire and Dermatology Life Quality Index questionnaire were gathered and correlated with disease duration, pain, and general well-being (visual analogue scale). The controls were 58 Swedish patients with long-standing psoriatic arthritis sine PAM. Sixty-seven patients were included. Patients with PAM had a protracted disease history (33 ± 14 years) and disease onset at a relatively early age (30 ± 12 years). Overall inflammatory activity at inclusion was mild to moderate. The mean number of mutilated joints was 8.2 and gross deformity was found in 16% of patients. Forty per cent were treated with biological and 32% with conventional synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. Forty-two per cent had retired early or were on sick leave. Impaired functional capacity with little or no ability to perform self-care or everyday tasks was reported by 21% of the patients. Patients between 45 and 60 years of age reported the most impaired quality of life in comparison to the control group. PAM seriously affects social functioning. Whether early recognition of PAM and new forms of therapy can improve disease outcome and quality of life remains to be studied.

  18. Cognitive enhancement and antipsychotic-like activity following repeated dosing with the selective M4 PAM VU0467154.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Robert W; Grannan, Michael D; Gunter, Barak W; Ball, Jacob; Bubser, Michael; Bridges, Thomas M; Wess, Jurgen; Wood, Michael W; Brandon, Nicholas J; Duggan, Mark E; Niswender, Colleen M; Lindsley, Craig W; Conn, P Jeffrey; Jones, Carrie K

    2018-01-01

    Although selective activation of the M 1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) subtype has been shown to improve cognitive function in animal models of neuropsychiatric disorders, recent evidence suggests that enhancing M 4 mAChR function can also improve memory performance. Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) targeting the M 4 mAChR subtype have shown therapeutic potential for the treatment of multiple symptoms observed in schizophrenia, including positive and cognitive symptoms when assessed in acute preclinical dosing paradigms. Since the cholinergic system has been implicated in multiple stages of learning and memory, we evaluated the effects of repeated dosing with the highly selective M 4 PAM VU0467154 on either acquisition and/or consolidation of learning and memory when dosed alone or after pharmacologic challenge with the N-methyl-d-aspartate subtype of glutamate receptors (NMDAR) antagonist MK-801. MK-801 challenge represents a well-documented preclinical model of NMDAR hypofunction that is thought to underlie some of the positive and cognitive symptoms observed in schizophrenia. In wildtype mice, 10-day, once-daily dosing of VU0467154 either prior to, or immediately after daily testing enhanced the rate of learning in a touchscreen visual pairwise discrimination task; these effects were absent in M 4 mAChR knockout mice. Following a similar 10-day, once-daily dosing regimen of VU0467154, we also observed 1) improved acquisition of memory in a cue-mediated conditioned freezing paradigm, 2) attenuation of MK-801-induced disruptions in the acquisition of memory in a context-mediated conditioned freezing paradigm and 3) reversal of MK-801-induced hyperlocomotion. Comparable efficacy and plasma and brain concentrations of VU0467154 were observed after repeated dosing as those previously reported with an acute, single dose administration of this M 4 PAM. Together, these studies are the first to demonstrate that cognitive enhancing and antipsychotic

  19. Further optimization of the M1 PAM VU0453595: Discovery of novel heterobicyclic core motifs with improved CNS penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panarese, Joseph D; Cho, Hykeyung P; Adams, Jeffrey J; Nance, Kellie D; Garcia-Barrantes, Pedro M; Chang, Sichen; Morrison, Ryan D; Blobaum, Anna L; Niswender, Colleen M; Stauffer, Shaun R; Conn, P Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W

    2016-08-01

    This Letter describes the continued chemical optimization of the VU0453595 series of M1 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs). By surveying alternative 5,6- and 6,6-heterobicylic cores for the 6,7-dihydro-5H-pyrrolo[3,4-b]pyridine-5-one core of VU453595, we found new cores that engendered not only comparable or improved M1 PAM potency, but significantly improved CNS distribution (Kps 0.3-3.1). Moreover, this campaign provided fundamentally distinct M1 PAM chemotypes, greatly expanding the available structural diversity for this valuable CNS target, devoid of hydrogen-bond donors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Discovery of a novel 2,4-dimethylquinoline-6-carboxamide M4 positive allosteric modulator (PAM) chemotype via scaffold hopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Madeline F; Engers, Julie L; Chang, Sichen; Zhan, Xiaoyan; Weiner, Rebecca L; Luscombe, Vincent B; Rodriguez, Alice L; Cho, Hyekyung P; Niswender, Colleen M; Bridges, Thomas M; Conn, P Jeffrey; Engers, Darren W; Lindsley, Craig W

    2017-11-15

    This Letter details our efforts to replace the 3-amino moiety, an essential pharmacophore for M 4 PAM activity in most M 4 PAMs to date, within the thieno[2,3-b]pyridine core, as the β-amino carboxamide motif has been shown to engender poor solubility, varying degrees of P-gp efflux and represents a structural alert. A scaffold hopping exercise identified a novel 2,4-dimethylquinoline carboxamide core that provided M 4 PAM activity and good CNS penetration without an amino moiety. In addition, MacMillan photoredox catalysis chemistry was essential for construction of the 2,4-dimethylquinoline core. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Secrecy Dimming Capacity in Multi-LED PAM-Based Visible Light Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Wook Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, mobile cloud computing (MCC has gained a lot of interest for researchers building the next-generation mobile applications. Because unauthorized access may cause serious problems, security and privacy with MCC have become significant issues. This paper addresses the secrecy dimming capacity of secure transmission in MCC over visible light communication (VLC channels. By obtaining the entropy-maximizing symbol probability of multiple light emitting diode- (LED- based pulse amplitude modulation (PAM, mathematical analysis of the secrecy dimming capacity of VLC was derived. Simulation results show that the secure transmission ability of multi-LED-based VLC is determined according to the number of activated LEDs and target dimming level. This can be a guideline for practical VLC-based mobile network designers intending to secure wireless transmission and to decide on the number of activated LEDs at target dimming level to operate.

  2. The proteolytically stable peptidomimetic Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2 selectively inhibits human neutrophil activation via formyl peptide receptor 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovbakke, Sarah Line; Heegaard, Peter M H; Larsen, Camilla J; Franzyk, Henrik; Forsman, Huamei; Dahlgren, Claes

    2015-01-15

    Immunomodulatory host defense peptides (HDPs) are considered to be lead compounds for novel anti-sepsis and anti-inflammatory agents. However, development of drugs based on HDPs has been hampered by problems with toxicity and low bioavailability due to in vivo proteolysis. Here, a subclass of proteolytically stable HDP mimics consisting of lipidated α-peptide/β-peptoid oligomers was investigated for their effect on neutrophil function. The most promising compound, Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2, was shown to inhibit formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2) agonist-induced neutrophil granule mobilization and release of reactive oxygen species. The potency of Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2 was comparable to that of PBP10, the most potent FPR2-selective inhibitor known. The immunomodulatory effects of structural analogs of Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2 emphasized the importance of both the lipid and peptidomimetic parts. By using imaging flow cytometry in primary neutrophils and FPR-transfected cell lines, we found that a fluorescently labeled analog of Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2 interacted selectively with FPR2. Furthermore, the interaction between Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2 and FPR2 was found to prevent binding of the FPR2-specific activating peptide agonist Cy5-WKYMWM, while the binding of an FPR1-selective agonist was not inhibited. To our knowledge, Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2 is the first HDP mimic found to inhibit activation of human neutrophils via direct interaction with FPR2. Hence, we consider Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2 to be a convenient tool in the further dissection of the role of FPR2 in inflammation and homeostasis as well as for investigation of the importance of neutrophil stimulation in anti-infective therapy involving HDPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Experimental Demonstration of 32 Gbaud 4-PAM for Data Center Interconnections of up to 320 km

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter; Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Clausen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results demonstrating a 64 Gbps 4-PAM transmission over a 320 km SSMF span employing standard 80 km fiber spans for metro links. The receiver consists of a LPF and a DFE utilizing the DD-LMS algorithm.......This paper presents experimental results demonstrating a 64 Gbps 4-PAM transmission over a 320 km SSMF span employing standard 80 km fiber spans for metro links. The receiver consists of a LPF and a DFE utilizing the DD-LMS algorithm....

  4. Comparing 52 Gbps Duobinary and 4-PAM Transmission Over 100m OM-3 Fiber With 25GHz Class VCSELs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Lyubomirsky, Ilya; Daghighian, Henry M.

    This paper compares VCSEL based transmission of 52 Gbps duobinary-NRZ and 4-PAM over 100m OM-3 fiber employing a linear equalizer in the receiver.......This paper compares VCSEL based transmission of 52 Gbps duobinary-NRZ and 4-PAM over 100m OM-3 fiber employing a linear equalizer in the receiver....

  5. Regeneration of Red Cell Cholinesterase Activity Following Pralidoxime (2-PAM) Infusion in First 24 h in Organophosphate Poisoned Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Parul; Gupta, Nidhi; Singh, Surjit; Bhalla, Ashish; Sharma, Navneet; Gill, K D

    2012-01-01

    Oximes such as pralidoxime chloride reactivate acetylcholinesterase. However their role in management of organophosphate poisoning is controversial. The study was carried out to find effectiveness of pralidoxime chloride (2-PAM) in regenerating red cell acetyl cholinesterase in first 24 h following administration of it in dose recommended by WHO. Eight patients with OPP [chlorpyriphos (3), phorate (3), dichlorvos (1) and monocrotophos (1) who fulfilled the criteria for inclusion were investigated. In addition to decontamination and atropine, all these patients were administered 30 mg/kg body wt of 2-PAM as bolus dose followed by 7.5 mg/kg body wt/h with maximum dose being 500 mg/h as continuous infusion till first 24 h. Red cell AChE activity was estimated every 15 min for first 4 h, one hourly for next 4 h and then 2 hourly till 24 h and subsequently without 2-PAM every 12 h till 7 days or discharge or death which ever earlier. In all the patients maximum increase in activity was observed in first 4 h following which rise was very slow despite continued 2-PAM infusion and reaching a steady state in 20 h in all the cases. The increase in red cell AChE activity observed in diethyl group at 24 h of 2-PAM infusion was 154% vs. 81% in dimethyl group. At 7 days the increase in activity was 215% vs. 118% respectively. However on multiple repeated ANOVA, no statistically significant difference was observed between diethyl and dimethyl groups at admission and discharge (P > 0.05). Similarly no significant difference was observed in three groups when patients were categorized according to WHO classification of organophosphates (P > 0.05). The maximum increase in red cell AChE activity occurs in first 4 h of 2-PAM administration followed by a slow increase despite 2-PAM infusion till 24 h.

  6. Single-mode 850-nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with Zn-diffusion and oxide-relief apertures for > 50 Gbit/sec OOK and 4-PAM transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jin-Wei; Wei, Chia-Chien; Chen, Jyehong; Ledentsov, N. N.; Yang, Ying-Jay

    2017-02-01

    Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) has become the most important light source in the booming market of short-reach (targeted at 56 Gbit/sec data rate per channel (CEI-56G) with the total data rate up to 400 Gbit/sec. However, the serious modal dispersion of multi-mode fiber (MMF), limited speed of VCSEL, and its high resistance (> 150 Ω) seriously limits the >50 Gbit/sec linking distance (50 Gbit/sec transmission due to that it can save one-half of the required bandwidth. Nevertheless, a 4.7 dB optical power penalty and the linearity of transmitter would become issues in the 4-PAM linking performance. Besides, in the modern OI system, the optics transreceiver module must be packaged as close as possible with the integrated circuits (ICs). The heat generated from ICs will become an issue in speed of VSCEL. Here, we review our recent work about 850 nm VCSEL, which has unique Zn-diffusion/oxide-relief apertures and special p- doping active layer with strong wavelength detuning to further enhance its modulation speed and high-temperature (85°C) performances. Single-mode (SM) devices with high-speed ( 26 GHz), reasonable resistance ( 70 Ω) and moderate output power ( 1.5 mW) can be achieved. Error-free 54 Gbit/sec OOK transmission through 1km MMF has been realized by using such SM device with signal processing techniques. Besides, the volterra nonlinear equalizer has been applied in our 4-PAM 64 Gbit/sec transmission through 2-km OM4 MMF, which significantly enhance the linearity of device and outperforms fed forward equalization (FFE) technique. Record high bit-rate distance product of 128.km is confirmed for optical-interconnect applications.

  7. The peptidylglycine-α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM) gene rs13175330 A>G polymorphism is associated with hypertension in a Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hye Jin; Kim, Minjoo; Kim, Minkyung; Chae, Jey Sook; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jong Ho

    2017-11-21

    Peptidylglycine-α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM) may play a role in the secretion of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), which is a hormone involved in the maintenance of blood pressure (BP). The objective of the present study was to determine whether PAM is a novel candidate gene for hypertension (HTN). A total of 2153 Korean participants with normotension and HTN were included. Genotype data were obtained using the Korean Chip. The rs13175330 polymorphism of the PAM gene was selected from the ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) most strongly associated with BP. The presence of the G allele of the PAM rs13175330 A>G SNP was associated with a higher risk of HTN after adjustments for age, sex, BMI, smoking, and drinking [OR 1.607 (95% CI 1.220-2.116), p = 0.001]. The rs13175330 G allele carriers in the HTN group treated without antihypertensive therapy (HTN w/o therapy) had significantly higher systolic and diastolic BP than the AA carriers, whereas the G allele carriers in the HTN group treated with antihypertensive therapy (HTN w/ therapy) showed significantly higher diastolic BP. Furthermore, rs13175330 G allele carriers in the HTN w/o therapy group had significantly increased levels of insulin, insulin resistance, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and significantly decreased LDL-cholesterol levels and LDL particle sizes compared to the AA carriers. These results suggest that the PAM rs13175330 A>G SNP is a novel candidate gene for HTN in the Korean population. Additionally, the PAM rs13175330 G allele might be associated with insulin resistance and LDL atherogenicity in patients with HTN.

  8. 112-Gbit/s × 4-lane duobinary-4-PAM for 400GBase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Mao, B.

    2014-01-01

    Novel duobinary-4-PAM signaling is experimentally demonstrated to support a 4-lane low-latency 400GbE client side solution. Direct detection of 112 Gbps transmission over a 5 km single wavelength and polarization fiber link is achieved....

  9. Fabrication and atomic force microscopy/friction force microscopy (AFM/FFM) studies of polyacrylamide-carbon nanotubes (PAM-CNTs) copolymer thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xuefeng; Guan Wenchao; Yan Haibiao; Huang Lan

    2004-01-01

    A novel polyacrylamide-carbon nanotubes (PAM-CNTs) copolymer has been prepared by ultraviolet radiation initiated polymerization. The PAM-CNTs copolymer was characterized by the instruments of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-vis absorbance spectra, fluorescence spectra and transmission electron microscope. The morphology and microtribological properties of PAM-CNTs thin films on mica were investigated by atomic force microscopy/friction force microscopy (AFM/FFM). The friction of the films was stable with the change of applied load and the friction coefficient decreased significantly as the CNTs addition. The results show that the rigid rod-like CNTs in polymer would enhance load-bearing and anti-wear properties of the thin films

  10. PAM50: Unbiased multimodal template of the brainstem and spinal cord aligned with the ICBM152 space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leener, Benjamin; Fonov, Vladimir S; Collins, D Louis; Callot, Virginie; Stikov, Nikola; Cohen-Adad, Julien

    2018-01-15

    Template-based analysis of multi-parametric MRI data of the spinal cord sets the foundation for standardization and reproducibility, thereby helping the discovery of new biomarkers of spinal-related diseases. While MRI templates of the spinal cord have been recently introduced, none of them cover the entire spinal cord. In this study, we introduced an unbiased multimodal MRI template of the spinal cord and the brainstem, called PAM50, which is anatomically compatible with the ICBM152 brain template and uses the same coordinate system. The PAM50 template is based on 50 healthy subjects, covers the full spinal cord (C1 to L2 vertebral levels) and the brainstem, is available for T1-, T2-and T2*-weighted MRI contrasts and includes a probabilistic atlas of the gray matter and white matter tracts. Template creation accuracy was assessed by computing the mean and maximum distance error between each individual spinal cord centerline and the PAM50 centerline, after registration to the template. Results showed high accuracy for both T1- (mean = 0.37 ± 0.06 mm; max = 1.39 ± 0.58 mm) and T2-weighted (mean = 0.11 ± 0.03 mm; max = 0.71 ± 0.27 mm) contrasts. Additionally, the preservation of the spinal cord topology during the template creation process was verified by comparing the cross-sectional area (CSA) profile, averaged over all subjects, and the CSA profile of the PAM50 template. The fusion of the PAM50 and ICBM152 templates will facilitate group and multi-center studies of combined brain and spinal cord MRI, and enable the use of existing atlases of the brainstem compatible with the ICBM space. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Patient activation in Europe: an international comparison of psychometric properties and patients' scores on the short form Patient Activation Measure (PAM-13).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademakers, Jany; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen; Steinsbekk, Aslak; Gensichen, Jochen; Brenk-Franz, Katja; Hendriks, Michelle

    2016-10-12

    To allow better assessment of patients' individual competencies for self-management, the Patient Activation Measure (PAM) has been developed in the USA. Because the American studies have shown the PAM to be a valuable tool, several European countries have translated the instrument into their native languages (Danish, Dutch, German, Norwegian). The aim was to compare the psychometric properties in studies from the different countries and establish whether the scores on the PAM vary between the studies. Data from the four separate studies were subjected to the same data cleaning procedures and statistical analyses. The psychometric properties of the instruments were established with measures of data quality and scale structure. The mean patient activation score and distribution across four predefined activation levels were described and the differences between the four studies were tested with ANOVA (unadjusted and adjusted) followed by a post-hoc Tukey HSD test and the Pearson chi-squared test respectively. The total N of the four studies was 5184. The percentage of missing values was low in all datasets, confirming the good quality of the datasets. Factor analyses revealed moderate to strong factor loadings on the first factor in all datasets. Cronbach's α was high for all version, ranging from .80 (German) to .88 (Dutch). Item-rest correlations varied between .32 and .66, indicating a moderate to strong correlation of the individual items to the sum scale. Both the mean PAM score and the distribution across activation levels differed between the four datasets. After adjustment of the PAM score, patients in Norway in particular had a higher patient activation level. The European translations of PAM-13 (into Danish, Dutch, German and Norwegian) resulted in four instruments with good psychometric capabilities for measuring patient activation. The mean PAM score and the distribution across activation levels differed between the four datasets.

  12. The toll-like receptor 2 agonist Pam3CSK4 is neuroprotective after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stivers, Nicole S; Pelisch, Nicolas; Orem, Ben C; Williams, Joshua; Nally, Jacqueline M; Stirling, David P

    2017-08-01

    Microglia/macrophage activation and recruitment following spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with both detrimental and reparative functions. Stimulation of the innate immune receptor Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2) has shown to be beneficial following SCI, and it increases axonal regeneration following optic nerve crush. However, the mechanism(s) remain unclear. As microglia express high levels of TLR2, we hypothesized that modulating the microglial response to injury using a specific TLR2 agonist, Pam3CSK4, would prevent secondary-mediated white matter degeneration following SCI. To test this hypothesis, we documented acute changes in microglia, axons, and oligodendroglia over time using two-photon excitation and an ex vivo laser-induced SCI (LiSCI) model. We utilized double transgenic mice that express GFP in either microglia or oligodendroglia, and YFP in axons, and we applied the lipophilic fluorescent dye (Nile Red) to visualize myelin. We found that treatment with Pam3CSK4 initiated one hour after injury induced a significant increase in the extent and timing of the microglial response to injury compared to vehicle controls. This enhanced response was observed 2 to 4h following SCI and was most prominent in areas closer to the ablation site. In addition, Pam3CSK4 treatment significantly reduced axonal dieback rostral and caudal to the ablation at 6h post-SCI. This protective effect of Pam3CSK4 was also mirrored when assessing secondary bystander axonal damage (i.e., axons spared by the primary injury that then succumb to secondary degeneration), and when assessing the survival of oligodendroglia. Following these imaging experiments, custom microarray analysis of the ex vivo spinal cord preparations revealed that Pam3CSK4-treatment induced an alternative (mixed M1:M2) microglial activation profile. In summary, our data suggest that by providing a second "sterile" activation signal to microglia through TLR2/TLR1 signaling, the microglial response to injury can

  13. Sensitivity evaluation of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to uranium by pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herlory, Olivier; Bonzom, Jean-Marc; Gilbin, Rodolphe

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Our study addressed the toxicity thresholds of uranium on microalgae using PAM fluorometry. •The oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of PSII was identified as the primary action site of uranium. •Uranium impaired the electron flux between the photosystems until almost complete inhibition. •Non-photochemical quenching was identified as the most sensitive fluorescence parameter. •PAM fluorometry provided a rapid and reasonably sensitive method for assessing stress response. -- Abstract: Although ecotoxicological studies tend to address the toxicity thresholds of uranium in freshwaters, there is a lack of information on the effects of the metal on physiological processes, particularly in aquatic plants. Knowing that uranium alters photosynthesis via impairment of the water photo-oxidation process, we determined whether pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry was a relevant tool for assessing the impact of uranium on the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and investigated how and to what extent uranium hampered photosynthetic performance. Photosynthetic activity and quenching were assessed from fluorescence induction curves generated by PAM fluorometry, after 1 and 5 h of uranium exposure in controlled conditions. The oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of PSII was identified as the primary action site of uranium, through alteration of the water photo-oxidation process as revealed by F 0 /F v . Limiting re-oxidation of the plastoquinone pool, uranium impaired the electron flux between the photosystems until almost complete inhibition of the PSII quantum efficiency (F ′ q /F ′ m , EC 50 = 303 ± 64 μg U L −1 after 5 h of exposure) was observed. Non-photochemical quenching (qN) was identified as the most sensitive fluorescence parameter (EC 50 = 142 ± 98 μg U L −1 after 5 h of exposure), indicating that light energy not used in photochemistry was dissipated in non-radiative processes. It was shown that parameters which stemmed from

  14. Valid measures of periodic leg movements (PLMs) during a suggested immobilization test using the PAM-RL leg activity monitors require adjusting detection parameters for noise and signal in each recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Myung Sung; Montplaisir, Jacques; Desautels, Alex; Winkelman, John W; Cramer Bornemann, Michel A; Earley, Christopher J; Allen, Richard P

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with restless legs syndrome (RLS) (Willis-Ekbom disease [WED]) usually have periodic leg movements (PLMs). The suggested immobilization test (SIT) measures sensory and motor features of WED during wakefulness. Surface electromyogram (EMG) recordings of the anterior tibialis (AT) are used as the standard for counting PLMs. However, due to several limitations, leg activity meters such as the PAM-RL were advanced as a potential substitute. In our study, we assessed the validity of the measurements of PLM during wakefulness (PLMW) in the SIT for PAM-RL using both default and custom detection threshold parameters compared to AT EMG. Data were obtained from 39 participants who were diagnosed with primary WED and who were on stable medication as part of another study using the SIT to repeatedly evaluate WED symptoms over 6-12 months. EMG recordings and PAM-RL, when available, were used to detect PLMW for each SIT. Complete PAM-RL and polysomnography (PSG) EMG data were available for 253 SITs from that study. The default PAM-RL (dPAM-RL) detected leg movements based on manufacturer's noise (resting) and signal (movement) amplitude criteria developed to accurately detect PLM during sleep (PLMS). The custom PAM-RL (cPAM-RL) similarly detected leg movements except the noise and movement detection parameters were adjusted to match the PAM-RL data for each SIT. The distributions of the differences between either dPAM-RL or cPAM-RL and EMG PLMW were strongly leptokurtic (Kurtosis >2) with many small differences and a few unusually large differences. These distributions are better described by median and quartile ranges than mean and standard deviation. Despite an adequate correlation (r=0.66) between the dPAM-RL and EMG recordings, the dPAM-RL on average significantly underscored the number of PLMW (median: quartiles=-13: -51.2, 0.0) and on Bland-Altman plots had a significant magnitude bias with greater underscoring for larger average PLMW/h. There also was an

  15. Solar Radiation Stress in Natural Acidophilic Biofilms of Euglena mutabilis Revealed by Metatranscriptomics and PAM Fluorometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente-Sánchez, Fernando; Olsson, Sanna; Gómez-Rodriguez, Manuel; Souza-Egipsy, Virginia; Altamirano-Jeschke, Maria; Amils, Ricardo; Parro, Victor; Aguilera, Angeles

    2016-02-01

    The daily photosynthetic performance of a natural biofilm of the extreme acidophilic Euglena mutabilis from Río Tinto (SW, Spain) under full solar radiation was analyzed by means of pulse amplitude-modulated (PAM) fluorescence measurements and metatrascriptomic analysis. Natural E. mutabilis biofilms undergo large-scale transcriptomic reprogramming during midday due to a dynamic photoinhibition and solar radiation stress. Photoinhibition is due to UV radiation and not to light intensity, as revealed by PAM fluorometry analysis. In order to minimize the negative effects of solar radiation, our data supports the presence of a circadian rhythm in this euglenophyte that increases their opportunity to survive. Differential gene expression throughout the day (at 12:00, 20:00 and night) was monitored by massive Illumina parallel sequencing of metatranscriptomic libraries. The transcription pattern was altered in genes involved in Photosystem II stability and repair, UV damaged DNA repair, non-photochemical quenching and oxidative stress, supporting the photoinhibition detected by PAM fluorometry at midday. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetic determinants of PAM-dependent DNA targeting and pre-crRNA processing in Sulfolobus islandicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Wenfang; Li, Huan; Hallstrøm, Søren

    2013-01-01

    -adjacent motif (PAM)-dependent DNA targeting activity and mature CRISPR RNA (crRNA) production in this organism, mutants deleting individual genes of the type IA system or removing each of other Cas modules were constructed. Characterization of these mutants revealed that Cas7, Cas5, Cas6, Cas3' and Cas3......" are essential for PAM-dependent DNA targeting activity, whereas Csa5, along with all other Cas modules, is dispensable for the targeting in the crenarchaeon. Cas6 is implicated as the only enzyme for pre-crRNA processing and the crRNA maturation is independent of the DNA targeting activity. Importantly, we show...

  17. Performance assessment methodology (PAM) for low level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selander, W.N.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is given for Performance Assessment Methodology (PAM) for Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) disposal technologies, as required for licensing and safety studies. This is a multi-disciplinary activity, emphasizing applied mathematics, mass transfer, geohydrology and radiotoxicity effects on humans. (author). 2 refs

  18. Asynchronous monitoring of the quality of multilevel optical PAM signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siuzdak, J.

    2017-08-01

    In the paper, there is analyzed the signal quality assessment method based on delay tap asynchronous sampling, both for binary and multilevel PAM signals. The obtained multilevel phase diagrams are far more complicated than binary ones. The phase diagrams are affected by the signal distortions but it is difficult to relate reliably the phase diagram form to the distortion type and its influence on the signal quality.

  19. Optimum quantum receiver for detecting weak signals in PAM communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Navneet; Rawat, Tarun Kumar; Parthasarathy, Harish; Gautam, Kumar

    2017-09-01

    This paper deals with the modeling of an optimum quantum receiver for pulse amplitude modulator (PAM) communication systems. The information bearing sequence {I_k}_{k=0}^{N-1} is estimated using the maximum likelihood (ML) method. The ML method is based on quantum mechanical measurements of an observable X in the Hilbert space of the quantum system at discrete times, when the Hamiltonian of the system is perturbed by an operator obtained by modulating a potential V with a PAM signal derived from the information bearing sequence {I_k}_{k=0}^{N-1}. The measurement process at each time instant causes collapse of the system state to an observable eigenstate. All probabilities of getting different outcomes from an observable are calculated using the perturbed evolution operator combined with the collapse postulate. For given probability densities, calculation of the mean square error evaluates the performance of the receiver. Finally, we present an example involving estimating an information bearing sequence that modulates a quantum electromagnetic field incident on a quantum harmonic oscillator.

  20. Polyacrylamide application versus forest residue mulching for reducing post-fire runoff and soil erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prats, Sergio Alegre; Martins, Martinho António Dos Santos; Malvar, Maruxa Cortizo; Ben-Hur, Meni; Keizer, Jan Jacob

    2014-01-15

    For several years now, forest fires have been known to increase overland flow and soil erosion. However, mitigation of these effects has been little studied, especially outside the USA. This study aimed to quantify the effectiveness of two so-called emergency treatments to reduce post-fire runoff and soil losses at the microplot scale in a eucalyptus plantation in north-central Portugal. The treatments involved the application of chopped eucalyptus bark mulch at a rate of 10-12 Mg ha(-1), and surface application of a dry, granular, anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) at a rate of 50 kg ha(-1). During the first year after a wildfire in 2010, 1419 mm of rainfall produced, on average, 785 mm of overland flow in the untreated plots and 8.4 Mg ha(-1) of soil losses. Mulching reduced these two figures significantly, by an average 52 and 93%, respectively. In contrast, the PAM-treated plots did not differ from the control plots, despite slightly lower runoff but higher soil erosion figures. When compared to the control plots, mean key factors for runoff and soil erosion were different in the case of the mulched but not the PAM plots. Notably, the plots on the lower half of the slope registered bigger runoff and erosion figures than those on the upper half of the slope. This could be explained by differences in fire intensity and, ultimately, in pre-fire standing biomass. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinicians' beliefs and attitudes toward patient self-management in the Netherlands; translation and testing of the American Clinician Support for Patient Activation Measure (CS-PAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademakers, Jany; Jansen, Daphne; van der Hoek, Lucas; Heijmans, Monique

    2015-04-03

    The aim of this study was to test the Dutch version of the Clinician Support for Patient Activation Measure (CS-PAM), to explore the beliefs of Dutch clinicians about patients' self-management, and to establish whether there are differences in this respect between general practitioners and other primary care providers. The CS-PAM was translated in Dutch and data were collected in a sample of 489 general practitioners and other primary care providers. Statistical analyses (RASCH, Cronbach's α) were performed to establish the psychometric properties of the instrument. The psychometric scores of the Dutch CS-PAM were acceptable to good, and the difficulty level and structure was comparable to that of the original instrument. The average score of Dutch clinicians on the CS-PAM was 65.1 (SD 10.7), somewhat lower compared to their colleagues in the US (69; SD 12.1) and the UK (69, SD 12.8). Dutch general practitioners scored significantly lower on the CS-PAM compared to other primary care providers. The Dutch CS-PAM is a reliable instrument to measure beliefs of clinicians regarding patient self-management. Further validation studies are necessary to establish the distribution of scores in specific provider populations and to assess the clinical relevance of the instrument for different outcomes.

  2. Discovery of VU6005649, a CNS Penetrant mGlu7/8 Receptor PAM Derived from a Series of Pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Masahito; Seto, Mabel; Gogliotti, Rocco G; Loch, Matthew T; Bollinger, Katrina A; Chang, Sichen; Engelberg, Eileen M; Luscombe, Vincent B; Harp, Joel M; Bubser, Michael; Engers, Darren W; Jones, Carrie K; Rodriguez, Alice L; Blobaum, Anna L; Conn, P Jeffrey; Niswender, Colleen M; Lindsley, Craig W

    2017-10-12

    Herein, we report the structure-activity relationships within a series of mGlu 7 PAMs based on a pyrazolo[1,5- a ]pyrimidine core with excellent CNS penetration ( K p s > 1 and K p,uu s > 1). Analogues in this series proved to display a range of Group III mGlu receptor selectivity, but VU6005649 emerged as the first dual mGlu 7/8 PAM, filling a void in the Group III mGlu receptor PAM toolbox and demonstrating in vivo efficacy in a mouse contextual fear conditioning model.

  3. PAMs ameliorates the imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like skin disease in mice by inhibition of translocation of NF-κB and production of inflammatory cytokines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongkun Dou

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a chronic and persistent inflammatory skin disease seriously affecting the quality of human life. In this study, we reported an ancient formula of Chinese folk medicine, the natural plant antimicrobial solution (PAMs for its anti-inflammatory effects and proposed the primary mechanisms on inhibiting the inflammatory response in TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced HaCaT cells and imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like skin disease mouse model. Two main functional components of hydroxysafflor Yellow A and allantoin in PAMs were quantified by HPLC to be 94.2±2.2 and 262.9±12.5 μg/mL respectively. PAMs could significantly reduce the gene expression and inflammatory cytokines production of Macrophage-Derived Chemokine (MDC, IL-8 and IL-6 in TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced HaCaT cells. PAMs also significantly ameliorates the psoriatic-like symptoms in a mouse model with the evaluation scores for both the single (scales, thickness, erythema and cumulative features were in the order of blank control < Dexamethasone < PAMs < 50% ethanol < model groups. The results were further confirmed by hematoxylin-eosin staining, RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry. The down-regulated gene expression of IL-8, TNF-α, ICAM-1 and IL-23 in mouse tissues was consistent with the results from those of the HaCaT cells. The inhibition of psoriasis-like skin inflammation by PAMs was correlated with the inactivation of the translocation of P65 protein into cellular nucleus, indicating the inhibition of the inflammatory NF-κB signaling pathway. Taken together, these findings suggest that PAMs may be a promising drug candidate for the treatment of inflammatory skin disorders, such as psoriasis.

  4. KUALITAS FISIK DAN KIMIA AIR PAM DI JAKARTA, BOGOR, TANGERANG, BEKASI TAHUN 1999 - 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Raini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Drinking water quality of PAM in Jakarta, Bogor, Tangerang and Bekasi between the year of 1999 - 2001 has been studied. Water quality was determined by a series of physical and chemical test at Chemical Laboratory Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Farmasi dan Obat Tradisional as stated in Permenkes no.416/Menkes/Per/IX/1990 on condition and water quality control including smell, color, turbidity, contents of manganese, iron, nitrite, sulphate, organic subtance, turbidity, hardness and pH. Total sampling was done on all drinking water samples from DKI Jakarta, Bogor, Tangerang and Bekasi delivered to be tested at Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Farmasi dan Obat Tradisional between 1999-2001 and destilled water as control. Result of the study from 431 drinking water samples shows that samples that met the requirements as drinking water is 91,65% and 8,35% sub standard, most of the the sub standard drinking water is cause by the contents of manganese (4,41%, iron (2,09%, organic subtance (1,62%, chloride (0,93% and high water hardness (0,23% as well as pH (3,15%, turbidity (1,86% and colors (1,62% Statistically, the water quality of PAM in Jakarta, Bogor, Tangerang and Bekasi at 1999, 2000 and 2001 is not different.  Key word : water quality of PAM, drinking water, physical test, chemical test.

  5. Improvement of an automated protein crystal exchange system PAM for high-throughput data collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraki, Masahiko; Yamada, Yusuke; Chavas, Leonard M. G.; Wakatsuki, Soichi; Matsugaki, Naohiro

    2013-01-01

    A special liquid-nitrogen Dewar with double capacity for the sample-exchange robot has been created at AR-NE3A at the Photon Factory, allowing continuous fully automated data collection. In this work, this new system is described and the stability of its calibration is discussed. Photon Factory Automated Mounting system (PAM) protein crystal exchange systems are available at the following Photon Factory macromolecular beamlines: BL-1A, BL-5A, BL-17A, AR-NW12A and AR-NE3A. The beamline AR-NE3A has been constructed for high-throughput macromolecular crystallography and is dedicated to structure-based drug design. The PAM liquid-nitrogen Dewar can store a maximum of three SSRL cassettes. Therefore, users have to interrupt their experiments and replace the cassettes when using four or more of them during their beam time. As a result of investigation, four or more cassettes were used in AR-NE3A alone. For continuous automated data collection, the size of the liquid-nitrogen Dewar for the AR-NE3A PAM was increased, doubling the capacity. In order to check the calibration with the new Dewar and the cassette stand, calibration experiments were repeatedly performed. Compared with the current system, the parameters of the novel system are shown to be stable

  6. Improvement of an automated protein crystal exchange system PAM for high-throughput data collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraki, Masahiko, E-mail: masahiko.hiraki@kek.jp; Yamada, Yusuke; Chavas, Leonard M. G. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Wakatsuki, Soichi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, MS 69, Menlo Park, CA 94025-7015 (United States); Stanford University, Beckman Center B105, Stanford, CA 94305-5126 (United States); Matsugaki, Naohiro [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2013-11-01

    A special liquid-nitrogen Dewar with double capacity for the sample-exchange robot has been created at AR-NE3A at the Photon Factory, allowing continuous fully automated data collection. In this work, this new system is described and the stability of its calibration is discussed. Photon Factory Automated Mounting system (PAM) protein crystal exchange systems are available at the following Photon Factory macromolecular beamlines: BL-1A, BL-5A, BL-17A, AR-NW12A and AR-NE3A. The beamline AR-NE3A has been constructed for high-throughput macromolecular crystallography and is dedicated to structure-based drug design. The PAM liquid-nitrogen Dewar can store a maximum of three SSRL cassettes. Therefore, users have to interrupt their experiments and replace the cassettes when using four or more of them during their beam time. As a result of investigation, four or more cassettes were used in AR-NE3A alone. For continuous automated data collection, the size of the liquid-nitrogen Dewar for the AR-NE3A PAM was increased, doubling the capacity. In order to check the calibration with the new Dewar and the cassette stand, calibration experiments were repeatedly performed. Compared with the current system, the parameters of the novel system are shown to be stable.

  7. From the Field: Speech Therapy Outcome Measures--Interview with Dr. Pam Enderby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Judy K.

    2015-01-01

    This article is an interview with Dr. Pam Enderby--a speech language therapist and professor at the Institute of General Practice and Primary Care at the University of Sheffield, Community Sciences Centre, Northern General Hospital, in the United Kingdom--conducted by Judy Montgomery, Editor in Chief, of "Communication Disorders…

  8. Sensitivity evaluation of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to uranium by pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herlory, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.herlory@gmail.com [IRSN-Laboratoire d’Ecotoxicologie des Radionucléides, Centre de Cadarache, BP3, 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Bonzom, Jean-Marc, E-mail: jean-marc.bonzom@irsn.fr [IRSN-Laboratoire d’Ecotoxicologie des Radionucléides, Centre de Cadarache, BP3, 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Gilbin, Rodolphe, E-mail: rodolphe.gilbin@irsn.fr [IRSN-Laboratoire de Biogéochimie, Biodisponibilité et Transferts des Radionucléides, Centre de Cadarache, BP3, 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •Our study addressed the toxicity thresholds of uranium on microalgae using PAM fluorometry. •The oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of PSII was identified as the primary action site of uranium. •Uranium impaired the electron flux between the photosystems until almost complete inhibition. •Non-photochemical quenching was identified as the most sensitive fluorescence parameter. •PAM fluorometry provided a rapid and reasonably sensitive method for assessing stress response. -- Abstract: Although ecotoxicological studies tend to address the toxicity thresholds of uranium in freshwaters, there is a lack of information on the effects of the metal on physiological processes, particularly in aquatic plants. Knowing that uranium alters photosynthesis via impairment of the water photo-oxidation process, we determined whether pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry was a relevant tool for assessing the impact of uranium on the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and investigated how and to what extent uranium hampered photosynthetic performance. Photosynthetic activity and quenching were assessed from fluorescence induction curves generated by PAM fluorometry, after 1 and 5 h of uranium exposure in controlled conditions. The oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of PSII was identified as the primary action site of uranium, through alteration of the water photo-oxidation process as revealed by F{sub 0}/F{sub v}. Limiting re-oxidation of the plastoquinone pool, uranium impaired the electron flux between the photosystems until almost complete inhibition of the PSII quantum efficiency (F{sup ′}{sub q}/F{sup ′}{sub m}, EC{sub 50} = 303 ± 64 μg U L{sup −1} after 5 h of exposure) was observed. Non-photochemical quenching (qN) was identified as the most sensitive fluorescence parameter (EC{sub 50} = 142 ± 98 μg U L{sup −1} after 5 h of exposure), indicating that light energy not used in photochemistry was dissipated in non-radiative processes. It was shown

  9. ANTS/PAM: Future Exploration of the Asteroid Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, P. E.; Curtis, S. A.; Rilee, M. L.; Cheung, C. Y.

    2004-05-01

    The Autonomous Nano-Technology Swarm (ANTS) is applied to the Prospecting Asteroid Mission (PAM) concept, as part of a NASA RASC study. The ANTS architecture is inspired by success of social insect colonies, based on the division of labor within the colonies: 1) within their specialties, individual specialists generally outperform general-ists, and 2) with sufficiently efficient social interaction and coordination, the group of specialists generally outper-forms the group of generalists. ANTS as applied to PAM involves a thousand individual specialist `sciencecraft', one subswarm per target, in an environment where detection and tracking of irregular, infrequent targets is a major chal-lenge. Workers, carry and operate eight to nine different scientific instruments, including spectrometers, ranging and radio science devices, imagers. The remaining specialists, Messenger/Rulers, provide communication and coordina-tion. The non-expendable propulsion system is based on autonomously deployable and configurable solar sails, a system suitable to a low gravity environment. The design of the neural basis function requires a minimum of 4 or 5 specialists for collective decision making. Allowing for ten instrument specialist teams and compensating for antici-pated high attrition, we calculate an initial minimum of 100 per subswarm should allow characterization of hundreds of asteroids. The difficulty in observing irregular, rapidly moving, poorly illuminated objects is largely overcome by the ANT sciencecraft capability to optimize conditions for each instrument. Components are composed of carbon nanotubules reversibly deployable from NEMS nodes, allowing 100 times decrease in packaging volume. 1000 smart 10 centimeter, 1 kg cubic boxes create a 1000 kg 1 meter cube.

  10. Comparing Longitudinal Profile Patterns of Mathematics and Reading in Early Child Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten: The Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS) Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Kang

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study is to compare longitudinal patterns from Mathematics and Reading data from the direct child assessment of Early Child Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten (ECLS-K, US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics 2006), utilizing Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS). PAMS has been used initially…

  11. Time skewing and amplitude nonlinearity mitigation by feedback equalization for 56 Gbps VCSEL-based PAM-4 links

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yue; Zhang, Wenjia; Sun, Lin; Du, Jiangbing; Liang, Chenyu; Yang, Fan; He, Zuyuan

    2018-03-01

    The vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL)-based multimode optical transceivers enabled by pulse amplitude modulation (PAM)-4 will be commercialized in near future to meet the 400-Gbps standard short reach optical interconnects. It is still challenging to achieve over 56/112-Gbps with the multilevel signaling as the multimode property of the device and link would introduce the nonlinear temporal response for the different levels. In this work, we scrutinize the distortions that relates to the multilevel feature of PAM-4 modulation, and propose an effective feedback equalization scheme for 56-Gbps VCSEL-based PAM-4 optical interconnects system to mitigate the distortions caused by eye timing-skew and nonlinear power-dependent noise. Level redistribution at Tx side is theoretically modeled and constructed to achieve equivalent symbol error ratios (SERs) of four levels and improved BER performance. The cause of the eye skewing and the mitigation approach are also simulated at 100-Gbps and experimentally investigated at 56-Gbps. The results indicate more than 2-dB power penalty improvement has been achieved by using such a distortion aware equalizer.

  12. Upper Limb Rehabilitation Robot Powered by PAMs Cooperates with FES Arrays to Realize Reach-to-Grasp Trainings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chen; Jiang, Xiaobo

    2017-01-01

    The reach-to-grasp activities play an important role in our daily lives. The developed RUPERT for stroke patients with high stiffness in arm flexor muscles is a low-cost lightweight portable exoskeleton rehabilitation robot whose joints are unidirectionally actuated by pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs). In order to expand the useful range of RUPERT especially for patients with flaccid paralysis, functional electrical stimulation (FES) is taken to activate paralyzed arm muscles. As both the exoskeleton robot driven by PAMs and the neuromuscular skeletal system under FES possess the highly nonlinear and time-varying characteristics, iterative learning control (ILC) is studied and is taken to control this newly designed hybrid rehabilitation system for reaching trainings. Hand function rehabilitation refers to grasping. Because of tiny finger muscles, grasping and releasing are realized by FES array electrodes and matrix scan method. By using the surface electromyography (EMG) technique, the subject's active intent is identified. The upper limb rehabilitation robot powered by PAMs cooperates with FES arrays to realize active reach-to-grasp trainings, which was verified through experiments. PMID:29065566

  13. Upper Limb Rehabilitation Robot Powered by PAMs Cooperates with FES Arrays to Realize Reach-to-Grasp Trainings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xikai Tu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The reach-to-grasp activities play an important role in our daily lives. The developed RUPERT for stroke patients with high stiffness in arm flexor muscles is a low-cost lightweight portable exoskeleton rehabilitation robot whose joints are unidirectionally actuated by pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs. In order to expand the useful range of RUPERT especially for patients with flaccid paralysis, functional electrical stimulation (FES is taken to activate paralyzed arm muscles. As both the exoskeleton robot driven by PAMs and the neuromuscular skeletal system under FES possess the highly nonlinear and time-varying characteristics, iterative learning control (ILC is studied and is taken to control this newly designed hybrid rehabilitation system for reaching trainings. Hand function rehabilitation refers to grasping. Because of tiny finger muscles, grasping and releasing are realized by FES array electrodes and matrix scan method. By using the surface electromyography (EMG technique, the subject’s active intent is identified. The upper limb rehabilitation robot powered by PAMs cooperates with FES arrays to realize active reach-to-grasp trainings, which was verified through experiments.

  14. Experimental Demonstration of 84 Gb/s PAM-4 Over up to 1.6 km SSMF Using a 20-GHz VCSEL at 1525 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiselt, Nicklas; Griesser, Helmut; Wei, Jinlong

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate 84-Gb/s four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-4) over up to 1.6-km standard single mode fiber using a 20-GHz single mode short cavity vertical cavity surface emitting laser diode at a transmission wavelength of 1525 nm. Different equalizer approaches including a common...... feedforward equalizer, a nonlinear Volterra equalizer (NLVE), a maximum likelihood sequence estimator (MLSE) and their combinations are evaluated working either as an equalizer for a standard PAM-4 or a partial response PAM-4 signal with seven levels. It is demonstrated that a standard FFE is not enough...... for a transmission distance of >0.6 km, while the use of an NLVE or FFE + MLSE is able to improve the transmission distance towards 1 km. The use of partial-response PAM-4 FFE in combination with a short memory MLSE is able to efficiently equalize the bandwidth limitations, showing more than 10-times BER improvement...

  15. Dynamic bending of bionic flexible body driven by pneumatic artificial muscles(PAMs) for spinning gait of quadruped robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jingtao; Yu, Huangying; Wang, Tianmiao

    2016-01-01

    The body of quadruped robot is generally developed with the rigid structure. The mobility of quadruped robot depends on the mechanical properties of the body mechanism. It is difficult for quadruped robot with rigid structure to achieve better mobility walking or running in the unstructured environment. A kind of bionic flexible body mechanism for quadruped robot is proposed, which is composed of one bionic spine and four pneumatic artificial muscles(PAMs). This kind of body imitates the four-legged creatures' kinematical structure and physical properties, which has the characteristic of changeable stiffness, lightweight, flexible and better bionics. The kinematics of body bending is derived, and the coordinated movement between the flexible body and legs is analyzed. The relationship between the body bending angle and the PAM length is obtained. The dynamics of the body bending is derived by the floating coordinate method and Lagrangian method, and the driving force of PAM is determined. The experiment of body bending is conducted, and the dynamic bending characteristic of bionic flexible body is evaluated. Experimental results show that the bending angle of the bionic flexible body can reach 18°. An innovation body mechanism for quadruped robot is proposed, which has the characteristic of flexibility and achieve bending by changing gas pressure of PAMs. The coordinated movement of the body and legs can achieve spinning gait in order to improve the mobility of quadruped robot.

  16. Real-Time Evaluation of 26-GBaud PAM-4 Intensity Modulation and Direct Detection Systems for Data-Center Interconnects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiselt, Nicklas; Griesser, Helmut; Wei, Jinlong

    2016-01-01

    Real-time transmission with 26-GBaud PAM-4 as a promising modulation format for data-center interconnects with operation in C-band is evaluated. For an OSNR penalty below 2 dB a dispersion tolerance of up to 10 km of SSMF is achieved......Real-time transmission with 26-GBaud PAM-4 as a promising modulation format for data-center interconnects with operation in C-band is evaluated. For an OSNR penalty below 2 dB a dispersion tolerance of up to 10 km of SSMF is achieved...

  17. Multiband LTE-A, WiFi ac, and 4-PAM baseband simultaneous transmission over 50 m thick-core POF for in-home network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forni, F.; Shi, Y.; Van Den Boom, H.P.A.; Tangdiongga, E.; Koonen, A.M.J.

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrated the simultaneous transmission of multiband LTE-A signals, a WiFi IEEE802.11ac and a gigabit/s baseband 4-PAM signal over 1mm core diameter PMMA GI-POF. The optical link used a red light 650 nm laser diode and a p-i-n photodiode with a transimpedance amplifier. The 4-PAM transmission

  18. Discovery of a novel, CNS penetrant M4 PAM chemotype based on a 6-fluoro-4-(piperidin-1-yl)quinoline-3-carbonitrile core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewley, Blake R; Spearing, Paul K; Weiner, Rebecca L; Luscombe, Vincent B; Zhan, Xiaoyan; Chang, Sichen; Cho, Hyekyung P; Rodriguez, Alice L; Niswender, Colleen M; Conn, P Jeffrey; Bridges, Thomas M; Engers, Darren W; Lindsley, Craig W

    2017-09-15

    This Letter details the discovery and subsequent optimization of a novel M 4 PAM scaffold based on an 6-fluoro-4-(piperidin-1-yl)quinoline-3-carbonitrile core, which represents a distinct departure from the classical M 4 PAM chemotypes. Optimized compounds in this series demonstrated improved M 4 PAM potency on both human and rat M 4 (4 to 5-fold relative to HTS hit), and displayed attractive physicochemical and DMPK profiles, including good CNS penetration (rat brain:plasma K p =5.3, K p,uu =2.4; MDCK-MDR1 (P-gp) ER=1.1). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. SaCas9 Requires 5'-NNGRRT-3' PAM for Sufficient Cleavage and Possesses Higher Cleavage Activity than SpCas9 or FnCpf1 in Human Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Haihua; Tang, Lianchao; He, Xiubin; Liu, Xiexie; Zhou, Chenchen; Liu, Junjie; Ge, Xianglian; Li, Jin; Liu, Changbao; Zhao, Junzhao; Qu, Jia; Song, Zongming; Gu, Feng

    2018-04-01

    CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene therapy holds great promise for the treatment of human diseases. The protospacer adjacent motif (PAM), the sequence adjacent to the target sequence, is an essential targeting component for the design of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing. However, currently, very few studies have attempted to directly study the PAM sequence in human cells. To address this issue, the authors develop a dual fluorescence reporter system that could be harnessed for identifying functional PAMs for genome editing endonuclease, including Cas9. With this system, the authors investigate the effects of different PAM sequences for SaCas9, which is small and has the advantage of allowing in vivo genome editing, and found only 5'-NNGRRT-3' PAM could induced sufficient target cleavage with multi-sites. The authors also found SaCas9 possesses higher activity than SpCas9 or FnCpf1 via plasmids (episomal) and chromosomes with integrated eGFP-based comparison. Taken together, the authors show that a dual fluorescence reporter system is a means to identifying a functional PAM and quantitatively comparing the efficiency of different genome editing endonucleases with the similar or identical target sequence in human cells. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Discovery of VU0467485/AZ13713945: An M4 PAM Evaluated as a Preclinical Candidate for the Treatment of Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Michael R; Noetzel, Meredith J; Melancon, Bruce J; Poslusney, Michael S; Nance, Kellie D; Hurtado, Miguel A; Luscombe, Vincent B; Weiner, Rebecca L; Rodriguez, Alice L; Lamsal, Atin; Chang, Sichen; Bubser, Michael; Blobaum, Anna L; Engers, Darren W; Niswender, Colleen M; Jones, Carrie K; Brandon, Nicholas J; Wood, Michael W; Duggan, Mark E; Conn, P Jeffrey; Bridges, Thomas M; Lindsley, Craig W

    2017-02-09

    Herein, we report the structure-activity relationships within a series of potent, selective, and orally bioavailable muscarinic acetylcholine receptor 4 (M 4 ) positive allosteric modulators (PAMs). Compound 6c (VU0467485) possesses robust in vitro M 4 PAM potency across species and in vivo efficacy in preclinical models of schizophrenia. Coupled with an attractive DMPK profile and suitable predicted human PK, 6c (VU0467485) was evaluated as a preclinical development candidate.

  1. Polyacrylamide preparations for protection of water quality threatened by agricultural runoff contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entry, J.A.; Sojka, R.E.; Watwood, Maribeth; Ross, Craig

    2002-01-01

    Polyacrylamide preparations show promise in reducing flow of sediments, nutrients and microorganisms from animal production facilities. - Waste streams associated with a variety of agricultural runoff sources are major contributors of nutrients, pesticides and enteric microorganisms to surface and ground waters. Water soluble anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) was found to be a highly effective erosion-preventing and infiltration-enhancing polymer, when applied at rates of 1-10 g m -3 in furrow irrigation water. Water flowing from PAM treated irrigation furrows show large reductions in sediment, nutrients and pesticides. Recently PAM and PAM+CaO and PAM+Al(SO 4 ) 3 mixtures have been shown to filter bacteria, fungi and nutrients from animal wastewater. Low concentrations of PAM [175-350 g PAM ha -1 as PAM or as PAM+CaO and PAM+Al(SO 4 ) mixture] applied to the soil surface, resulted in dramatic decreases (10 fold) of total, coliform and fecal streptococci bacteria in cattle, fish and swine wastewater leachate and surface runoff. PAM treatment also filtered significant amounts of NH 4 , PO 4 and total P in cattle and swine wastewater. This points to the potential of developing PAM as a water quality protection measure in combination with large-scale animal feeding operations. Potential benefits of PAM treatment of animal facility waste streams include: (1) low cost, (2) easy and quick application, (3) suitability for use with other pollution reduction techniques. Research on the efficacy of PAM for removal of protozoan parasites and viruses and more thorough assessment of PAM degradation in different soils is still needed to completely evaluate PAM treatment as an effective waste water treatment. We will present analysis and feasibility of using PAM, PAM+Al(SO 4 ) 3 , and PAM+CaO application for specific applications. Our results demonstrate their potential efficacy in reducing sediment, nutrients and microorganisms from animal production facility effluents

  2. Traffic disruption in PAM DIRAC road (Prévessin Site)

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    From 8th September to 19th September, ST Division will be doing some road works to install HDPE ducts for optical fibre cables under the PAM DIRAC road. For this reason, the road will be closed during 2 days and alternative arrangements will be put in place to reroute the traffic. We kindly ask all users to respect these temporary arrangements. Thank you for your understanding in this matter. ST-EL Group Tel. 77779 - 160484 / 75498 - 163198

  3. Of Wondrous Places and "Benevolent Neglect": An Interview with Pam Munoz Ryan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbi, Jennifer; Johnson, Amy

    2007-01-01

    With her recent book, "Paint the Wind" (2007), hitting the shelves this fall, author Pam Munoz Ryan delivers a welcome addition to the 25 plus books she has written for young people, including her award-winning novels "Esperanza Rising" (2000) and "Riding Freedom" (1998) and picture books "Amelia and Eleanor Go for a Ride" (1999) and "When Marian…

  4. PAM50 Breast Cancer Subtyping by RT-qPCR and Concordance with Standard Clinical Molecular Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastien Roy RL

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many methodologies have been used in research to identify the “intrinsic” subtypes of breast cancer commonly known as Luminal A, Luminal B, HER2-Enriched (HER2-E and Basal-like. The PAM50 gene set is often used for gene expression-based subtyping; however, surrogate subtyping using panels of immunohistochemical (IHC markers are still widely used clinically. Discrepancies between these methods may lead to different treatment decisions. Methods We used the PAM50 RT-qPCR assay to expression profile 814 tumors from the GEICAM/9906 phase III clinical trial that enrolled women with locally advanced primary invasive breast cancer. All samples were scored at a single site by IHC for estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR, and Her2/neu (HER2 protein expression. Equivocal HER2 cases were confirmed by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH. Single gene scores by IHC/CISH were compared with RT-qPCR continuous gene expression values and “intrinsic” subtype assignment by the PAM50. High, medium, and low expression for ESR1, PGR, ERBB2, and proliferation were selected using quartile cut-points from the continuous RT-qPCR data across the PAM50 subtype assignments. Results ESR1, PGR, and ERBB2 gene expression had high agreement with established binary IHC cut-points (area under the curve (AUC ≥ 0.9. Estrogen receptor positivity by IHC was strongly associated with Luminal (A and B subtypes (92%, but only 75% of ER negative tumors were classified into the HER2-E and Basal-like subtypes. Luminal A tumors more frequently expressed PR than Luminal B (94% vs 74% and Luminal A tumors were less likely to have high proliferation (11% vs 77%. Seventy-seven percent (30/39 of ER-/HER2+ tumors by IHC were classified as the HER2-E subtype. Triple negative tumors were mainly comprised of Basal-like (57% and HER2-E (30% subtypes. Single gene scoring for ESR1, PGR, and ERBB2 was more prognostic than the corresponding IHC markers as

  5. IMPLEMENTASI PENGELOLAAN AIR MINUM RUMAH TANGGA (PAM RT DI JAWA BARAT DAN (NUSA TENGGARA TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athena Anwar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to reduce waterborne diseases, the current government and its partners are developing ahousehold water treatment and safety storage (HWTS. This article is part of a study on Development ofAn Evidence-Based Guidelines for Promotion of HWTS which is conducted in three pilot sites: Bandungcity, Bandung district (West Java and Sikka district (East Nusa Tenggara in 2008. The aim of this studywas to find out how the program was implemented and how is the public opinion about the management(processing and storage of drinking water. Data collection was done by interview through a questionnaire.Data source were health officers and partners (qualitative data and the community (quantitative data.Qualitative data processing was performed by the content and the domain method, while quantitative datawas processed through SPSS software. The results show that the government develop the HWTS alongwith its partner: Aman Tirta (Bandung City, Pelita Indonesia (Bandung District, and Dian Desa (SikkaDistrict. Activity of HWTS was done through several stages, such as preparation/dissemination,implementation, monitoring and evaluation. Every partner will have its own way in carrying out the stagesof activity. Not all health officers of district/city states involved in the implementation of the HWTSprogram. It was only Sikka District Health officer that claimed to have fully engaged in the implementationof HWTS in the region. The results of processing and data analysis showed that more than 80% ofrespondents said the HWTS methods were suitable with drinking water treatment for their region. In termsof increasing the water quality, price of materials/tools, and easyness in the water treatment; respondents'opinions very widely.Keywords: HWTS, drinking water, water treatment Abstrak Dalam upaya menurunkan penyakit yang ditularkan melalui air, saat ini pemerintah dan mitrasedang mengembangkan pengelolaan air minum rumah tangga (PAM RT atau household water

  6. Maximizing the effect of an α7 nicotinic receptor PAM in a mouse model of schizophrenia-like sensory inhibition deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Karen E; Zheng, Lijun; Floyd, Kirsten L; Stitzel, Jerry A

    2015-06-22

    Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) for the α7 nicotinic receptor hold promise for the treatment of sensory inhibition deficits observed in schizophrenia patients. Studies of these compounds in the DBA/2 mouse, which models the schizophrenia-related deficit in sensory inhibition, have shown PAMs to be effective in improving the deficit. However, the first published clinical trial of a PAM for both sensory inhibition deficits and related cognitive difficulties failed, casting a shadow on this therapeutic approach. The present study used both DBA/2 mice, and C3H Chrna7 heterozygote mice to assess the ability of the α7 PAM, PNU-120596, to improve sensory inhibition. Both of these strains of mice have reduced hippocampal α7 nicotinic receptor numbers and deficient sensory inhibition similar to schizophrenia patients. Low doses of PNU-120596 (1 or 3.33mg/kg) were effective in the DBA/2 mouse but not the C3H Chrna7 heterozygote mouse. Moderate doses of the selective α7 nicotinic receptor agonist, choline chloride (10 or 33mg/kg), were also ineffective in improving sensory inhibition in the C3H Chrna7 heterozygote mouse. However, combining the lowest doses of both PNU-120596 and choline chloride in this mouse model did improve sensory inhibition. We propose here that the difference in efficacy of PNU-120596 between the 2 mouse strains is driven by differences in hippocampal α7 nicotinic receptor numbers, such that C3H Chrna7 heterozygote mice require additional direct stimulation of the α7 receptors. These data may have implications for further clinical testing of putative α7 nicotinic receptor PAMs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. LHCD and coupling experiments with an ITER-like PAM launcher on the FTU tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pericoli Ridolfini, V.; Apicella, M.L.; Barbato, E.; Buratti, P.; Calabro, G.; Cardinali, A.; Mirizzi, F.; Panaccione, L.; Podda, S.; Tuccillo, A.A.; Bibet, Ph.; Granucci, G.; Sozzi, C.

    2005-01-01

    Successful experimental tests on a PAM (passive active multijunction) prototype antenna for the Lower Hybrid (LH) waves similar to that foreseen for ITER have been carried out on FTU. The power level routinely achieved without any fault in the transmission lines for the maximum time allowed by the LH power plant, i.e. 0.9 s, is 250 kW versus a design value of 270. It corresponds to 50 MW/m 2 through the ITER antenna active area if it is scaled for the different LH frequencies (5 GHz in ITER, 8 GHz in FTU) and it is more than 1.4 times the goal of the ITER design (33 MW/m 2 ). The test results validate the main features indicated by the simulation codes, concerning the power handling, the coupling and the launched N parallel spectrum. The power reflection coefficient R c is always ≤ 2.5%, once the PAM launcher has been properly conditioned, even with the grill mouth retracted 2 mm inside the port shadow, with density in front of the launcher very close or even lower than the cut-off value. The current drive efficiency is comparable to a conventional grill in similar conditions, once the lower directivity is taken into account. The flexibility in the N parallel spectrum is confirmed by the HXR and ECE spectra. Conditioning the PAM to operate at the ITER equivalent power level has required only one day of RF operation, without a previous baking of the waveguides. (author)

  8. IM/DD vs. 4-PAM Using a 1550-nm VCSEL over Short-Range SMF/MMF Links for Optical Interconnects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karinou, Fotini; Rodes Lopez, Roberto; Prince, Kamau

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally compare the performance of 10.9-Gb/s IM/DD and 5-GBd 4-PAM modulation formats over 5-km SMF and 1-km MMF links, employing a commercially-available 1550-nm VCSEL as an enabling technology for use in optical interconnects.......We experimentally compare the performance of 10.9-Gb/s IM/DD and 5-GBd 4-PAM modulation formats over 5-km SMF and 1-km MMF links, employing a commercially-available 1550-nm VCSEL as an enabling technology for use in optical interconnects....

  9. Differential effects of the Toll-like receptor 2 agonists, PGN and Pam3CSK4 on anti-IgE induced human mast cell activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangyang Yu

    Full Text Available Mast cells are pivotal in the pathogenesis of allergy and inflammation. In addition to the classical IgE-dependent mechanism involving crosslinking of the high-affinity receptor for IgE (FcεRI, mast cells are also activated by Toll-like receptors (TLRs which are at the center of innate immunity. In this study, we demonstrated that the response of LAD2 cells (a human mast cell line to anti-IgE was altered in the presence of the TLR2 agonists peptidoglycan (PGN and tripalmitoyl-S-glycero-Cys-(Lys4 (Pam3CSK4. Pretreatment of PGN and Pam3CSK4 inhibited anti-IgE induced calcium mobilization and degranulation without down-regulation of FcεRI expression. Pam3CSK4 but not PGN acted in synergy with anti-IgE for IL-8 release when the TLR2 agonist was added simultaneously with anti-IgE. Studies with inhibitors of key enzymes implicated in mast cell signaling revealed that the synergistic release of IL-8 induced by Pam3CSK4 and anti-IgE involved ERK and calcineurin signaling cascades. The differential modulations of anti-IgE induced mast cell activation by PGN and Pam3CSK4 suggest that dimerization of TLR2 with TLR1 or TLR6 produced different modulating actions on FcεRI mediated human mast cell activation.

  10. AL-PAM assisted filtration of mature fine tailings produced from oil sands development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alamgir, A.; Masliyah, J.; Xu, Z. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2010-07-01

    The inventory of mature fine tailings (MFT) produced by the oil sands extraction process continues to grow, and is considered as a long-term environmental liability. Large amounts of water are trapped in the MFT, and the tailings ponds present a threat to local wildlife and ecosystems. This PowerPoint presentation discussed a research project that is being conducted to identify conditions for producing stackable MFT deposits. The study is investigating various types and dosages of polymers and evaluating the degrees of MFT dilution and process configurations needed to maximize re-usable water recovery. Polymeric flocculants include AL-PAM and Magnafloc 1011. Settling tests have demonstrated that 50 ppm is the optimum dosage for both polymers when MFT is diluted to 5 wt percent solids, while 75 ppm of AL-PAM and 100 ppm of MF1011 are optimum dosages for MFT diluted to 10 wt percent solids. A novel supernatant filtration method was then used to produce filtration cakes and water. The study showed that the supernatant can be used to further dilute the MFTs. tabs., figs.

  11. Nonviral gene therapy in vivo with PAM-RG4/apoptin as a potential brain tumor therapeutic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An S

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Songhie An,* Kihoon Nam,* Sunghyun Choi, Cheng Z Bai, Yan Lee, Jong-Sang ParkDepartment of Chemistry, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Glioma is still one of the most complicated forms of brain tumor to remove completely due to its location and the lack of an efficient means to specifically eliminate tumor cells. For these reasons, this study has examined the effectiveness of a nonviral gene therapy approach utilizing a tumor-selective killer gene on a brain tumor xenograft model.Methods and results: The therapeutic apoptin gene was recombined into the JDK plasmid and delivered into human brain tumor cells (U87MG by using a polyamidoamine dendrimer with an arginine surface (PAM-RG4. Studies in vitro showed that the PAM-RG4/apoptin plasmid polyplex exhibited a particularly high transfection activity of >40%. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assay, 4´,6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI TUNEL assay, DAPI staining, and caspase-3 activity assay verified that the tumor cells had undergone apoptosis induced by apoptin. For in vivo studies, the polyplex was injected into tumors, which were induced by injecting U87MG cells intradermally into nude mice. Based on hematoxylin and eosin staining, epidermal growth factor receptor immunohistochemistry results and tumor volume measurement results, tumor growth was effectively inhibited and no specific edema, irritation, or other harm to the skin was observed after polyplex injection. The in vivo expression of apoptin and the induction of apoptosis were verified by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis, TUNEL assay, and DAPI staining.Conclusion: The PAM-RG4/apoptin gene polyplex is a strong candidate for brain tumor therapeutics because of the synergistic effect of the carrier's high transfection efficiency (35%–40% in glioma cells and the selective apoptosis-inducing activity of

  12. Characterization of the peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM) from the venom ducts of neogastropods, Conus bullatus and Conus geographus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul-Hasan, Sabah; Burgess, Daniel M; Gajewiak, Joanna; Li, Qing; Hu, Hao; Yandell, Mark; Olivera, Baldomero M; Bandyopadhyay, Pradip K

    2013-11-01

    Cone snails, genus Conus, are predatory marine snails that use venom to capture their prey. This venom contains a diverse array of peptide toxins, known as conotoxins, which undergo a diverse set of posttranslational modifications. Amidating enzymes modify peptides and proteins containing a C-terminal glycine residue, resulting in loss of the glycine residue and amidation of the preceding residue. A significant fraction of peptides present in the venom of cone snails contain C-terminal amidated residues, which are important for optimizing biological activity. This study describes the characterization of the amidating enzyme, peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), present in the venom duct of cone snails, Conus bullatus and Conus geographus. PAM is known to carry out two functions, peptidyl α-hydroxylating monooxygenase (PHM) and peptidylamido-glycolate lyase (PAL). In some animals, such as Drosophila melanogaster, these two functions are present in separate polypeptides, working as individual enzymes. In other animals, such as mammals and in Aplysia californica, PAM activity resides in a single, bifunctional polypeptide. Using specific oligonucleotide primers and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction we have identified and cloned from the venom duct cDNA library, a cDNA with 49% homology to PAM from A. californica. We have determined that both the PHM and PAL activities are encoded in one mRNA polynucleotide in both C. bullatus and C. geographus. We have directly demonstrated enzymatic activity catalyzing the conversion of dansyl-YVG-COOH to dansyl-YV-NH2 in cloned cDNA expressed in Drosophila S2 cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Positive and negative metacognitions about alcohol use among university students: Psychometric properties of the PAMS and NAMS French versions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierski, Fabien; Spada, Marcantonio M; Fois, Eveline; Picard, Aurélie; Naassila, Mickaël; Van der Linden, Martial

    2015-08-01

    Metacognitions about the positive and negative effects of alcohol use have been associated with various patterns of drinking. The aim of the present study was to validate French versions of the Positive Alcohol Metacognitions Scale (PAMS) and the Negative Alcohol Metacognitions Scale (NAMS) developed by Spada and Wells (2008, Addict. Behav. 33, 515) and to investigate the relationship between metacognitions and patterns of alcohol use among university students. Responses of 1600 university students who participated in an internet survey-based study on alcohol use were submitted to confirmatory (N=800, mean age 20.40 years, 45.50% male) and exploratory (N=800, mean age 20.34 years, 45.38% male) factor analyses in two separate samples. Alcohol use, binge drinking and mood were also assessed. In line with the original versions of the scales, results provided support for a two-factor structure of the French PAMS and NAMS. Both scales revealed adequate internal reliability. Good temporal stability was found for the two factors of the NAMS, whereas one factor of the PAMS showed weakness across time. Predictive validity revealed that negative alcohol metacognitions about the uncontrollability of alcohol use were found to be consistently associated with alcohol use and binge drinking, whereas positive metacognitions about alcohol use were found to be differentially associated with alcohol use and binge drinking. The French versions of the PAMS and NAMS exhibited suitable psychometric properties. This study also emphasized the role of metacognitions about alcohol use in drinking behaviour among university students. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Validation of the German version of the patient activation measure 13 (PAM13-D in an international multicentre study of primary care patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Brenk-Franz

    Full Text Available The patients' active participation in their medical care is important for patients with chronic diseases. Measurements of patient activation are needed for studies and in clinical practice. This study aims to validate the Patient Activation Measure 13 (PAM13-D in German-speaking primary care patients. This international cross-sectional multicentre study enrolled consecutively patients from primary care practices in three German-speaking countries: Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. Patients completed the PAM13-D questionnaire. General Self-Efficacy scale (GSE was used to assess convergent validity. Furthermore Cronbach's alpha was performed to assess internal consistency. Exploratory factor analysis was used to evaluate the underlying factor structure of the items. We included 508 patients from 16 primary care practices in the final analysis. Results were internally consistent, with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.84. Factor analysis revealed one major underlying factor. The mean values of the PAM13-D correlated significantly (r = 0.43 with those of the GSE. The German PAM13 is a reliable and valid measure of patient activation. Thus, it may be useful in primary care clinical practice and research.

  15. Polyacrylamide preparations for protection of water quality threatened by agricultural runoff contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entry, J.A.; Sojka, R.E.; Watwood, Maribeth; Ross, Craig

    2002-12-01

    Polyacrylamide preparations show promise in reducing flow of sediments, nutrients and microorganisms from animal production facilities. - Waste streams associated with a variety of agricultural runoff sources are major contributors of nutrients, pesticides and enteric microorganisms to surface and ground waters. Water soluble anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) was found to be a highly effective erosion-preventing and infiltration-enhancing polymer, when applied at rates of 1-10 g m{sup -3} in furrow irrigation water. Water flowing from PAM treated irrigation furrows show large reductions in sediment, nutrients and pesticides. Recently PAM and PAM+CaO and PAM+Al(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} mixtures have been shown to filter bacteria, fungi and nutrients from animal wastewater. Low concentrations of PAM [175-350 g PAM ha{sup -1} as PAM or as PAM+CaO and PAM+Al(SO{sub 4}) mixture] applied to the soil surface, resulted in dramatic decreases (10 fold) of total, coliform and fecal streptococci bacteria in cattle, fish and swine wastewater leachate and surface runoff. PAM treatment also filtered significant amounts of NH{sub 4}, PO{sub 4} and total P in cattle and swine wastewater. This points to the potential of developing PAM as a water quality protection measure in combination with large-scale animal feeding operations. Potential benefits of PAM treatment of animal facility waste streams include: (1) low cost, (2) easy and quick application, (3) suitability for use with other pollution reduction techniques. Research on the efficacy of PAM for removal of protozoan parasites and viruses and more thorough assessment of PAM degradation in different soils is still needed to completely evaluate PAM treatment as an effective waste water treatment. We will present analysis and feasibility of using PAM, PAM+Al(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}, and PAM+CaO application for specific applications. Our results demonstrate their potential efficacy in reducing sediment, nutrients and microorganisms from animal

  16. User Instructions for the Policy Analysis Modeling System (PAMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Michael A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Letschert, Virginie E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Van Buskirk, Robert D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2018-03-13

    PAMS uses country-specific and product-specific data to calculate estimates of impacts of a Minimum Efficiency Performance Standard (MEPS) program. The analysis tool is self-contained in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet, and requires no links to external data, or special code additions to run. The analysis can be customized to a particular program without additional user input, through the use of the pull-down menus located on the Summary page. In addition, the spreadsheet contains many areas into which user-generated input data can be entered for increased accuracy of projection. The following is a step-by-step guide for using and customizing the tool.

  17. Current status and future prospects of an automated sample exchange system PAM for protein crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraki, M.; Yamada, Y.; Chavas, L. M. G.; Matsugaki, N.; Igarashi, N.; Wakatsuki, S.

    2013-03-01

    To achieve fully-automated and/or remote data collection in high-throughput X-ray experiments, the Structural Biology Research Centre at the Photon Factory (PF) has installed PF automated mounting system (PAM) for sample exchange robots at PF macromolecular crystallography beamlines BL-1A, BL-5A, BL-17A, AR-NW12A and AR-NE3A. We are upgrading the experimental systems, including the PAM for stable and efficient operation. To prevent human error in automated data collection, we installed a two-dimensional barcode reader for identification of the cassettes and sample pins. Because no liquid nitrogen pipeline in the PF experimental hutch is installed, the users commonly add liquid nitrogen using a small Dewar. To address this issue, an automated liquid nitrogen filling system that links a 100-liter tank to the robot Dewar has been installed on the PF macromolecular beamline. Here we describe this new implementation, as well as future prospects.

  18. The Toll-like receptor 1/2 agonists Pam(3) CSK(4) and human β-defensin-3 differentially induce interleukin-10 and nuclear factor-κB signalling patterns in human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funderburg, Nicholas T; Jadlowsky, Julie K; Lederman, Michael M; Feng, Zhimin; Weinberg, Aaron; Sieg, Scott F

    2011-10-01

    Human β-defensin 3 (hBD-3) activates antigen-presenting cells through Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 1/2. Several TLR1/2 agonists have been identified but little is known about how they might differentially affect cellular activation. We compared the effects of hBD-3 with those of another TLR1/2 agonist, Pam(3) CSK(4) , in human monocytes. Monocytes incubated with hBD-3 or Pam(3) CSK(4) produced interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8 and IL-1β, but only Pam(3) CSK(4) induced IL-10. The IL-10 induction by Pam(3) CSK(4) caused down-modulation of the co-stimulatory molecule, CD86, whereas CD86 expression was increased in monocytes exposed to hBD-3. Assessment of signalling pathways linked to IL-10 induction indicated that mitogen-activated protein kinases were activated similarly by hBD-3 or Pam(3) CSK(4) , whereas the non-canonical nuclear factor-κB pathway was only induced by Pam(3) CSK(4) . Our data suggest that the lack of non-canonical nuclear factor-κB signalling by hBD-3 could contribute to the failure of this TLR agonist to induce production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, in human monocytes. © 2011 The Authors. Immunology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Transmission of 2 × 56 Gb/s PAM-4 signal over 100 km SSMF using 18 GHz DMLs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shiwei; Li, Xiang; Yi, Lilin; Yang, Qi; Fu, Songnian

    2016-04-15

    We experimentally demonstrate C-band 2 × 56 Gb/s pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM)-4 signal transmission over 100 km standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) using 18 GHz direct-modulated lasers (DMLs) and direct detection, without inline optical amplifier. A delay interferometer (DI) at the transmitter side is used to extend the transmission reach from 40 to 100 km. A digital Volterra filter at the receiver side is used to mitigate the nonlinear distortions. We obtain an average bit error ratio (BER) of 1.5 × 10(-3) for 2 × 56 Gb/s PAM-4 signal after 100 km SSMF transmission at the optimal input power, which is below the 7% forward error correction (FEC) threshold (3.8 × 10(-3)).

  20. Expression of PAM50 Genes in Lung Cancer: Evidence that Interactions between Hormone Receptors and HER2/HER3 Contribute to Poor Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill M. Siegfried

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Non–small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs frequently express estrogen receptor (ER β, and estrogen signaling is active in many lung tumors. We investigated the ability of genes contained in the prediction analysis of microarray 50 (PAM50 breast cancer risk predictor gene signature to provide prognostic information in NSCLC. Supervised principal component analysis of mRNA expression data was used to evaluate the ability of the PAM50 panel to provide prognostic information in a stage I NSCLC cohort, in an all-stage NSCLC cohort, and in The Cancer Genome Atlas data. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine status of ERβ and other proteins in lung tumor tissue. Associations with prognosis were observed in the stage I cohort. Cross-validation identified seven genes that, when analyzed together, consistently showed survival associations. In pathway analysis, the seven-gene panel described one network containing the ER and progesterone receptor, as well as human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2/HER3 and neuregulin-1. NSCLC cases also showed a significant association between ERβ and HER2 protein expression. Cases positive for HER2 expression were more likely to express HER3, and ERβ-positive cases were less likely to be both HER2 and HER3 negative. Prognostic ability of genes in the PAM50 panel was verified in an ERβ-positive cohort representing all NSCLC stages. In The Cancer Genome Atlas data sets, the PAM50 gene set was prognostic in both adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, whereas the seven-gene panel was prognostic only in squamous cell carcinoma. Genes in the PAM50 panel, including those linking ER and HER2, identify lung cancer patients at risk for poor outcome, especially among ERβ-positive cases and squamous cell carcinoma.

  1. PAM-OBG: A monoamine oxidase B specific prodrug that inhibits MGMT and generates DNA interstrand crosslinks, potentiating temozolomide and chemoradiation therapy in intracranial glioblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Martyn A.; Raghavan, Sudhir; Baskin, David S.

    2018-01-01

    Via extensive analyses of genetic databases, we have characterized the DNA-repair capacity of glioblastoma with respect to patient survival. In addition to elevation of O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), down-regulation of three DNA repair pathways; canonical mismatch repair (MMR), Non-Homologous End-Joining (NHEJ), and Homologous Recombination (HR) are correlated with poor patient outcome. We have designed and tested both in vitro and in vivo, a monoamine oxidase B (MAOB) specific prodrug, PAM-OBG, that is converted by glioma MAOB into the MGMT inhibitor O6-benzylguanine (O6BG) and the DNA crosslinking agent acrolein. In cultured glioma cells, we show that PAM-OBG is converted to O6BG, inhibiting MGMT and sensitizing cells to DNA alkylating agents such as BCNU, CCNU, and Temozolomide (TMZ). In addition, we demonstrate that the acrolein generated is highly toxic in glioma treated with an inhibitor of Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER). In mouse intracranial models of primary human glioma, we show that PAM-OBG increases survival of mice treated with either BCNU or CCNU by a factor of six and that in a chemoradiation model utilizing six rounds of TMZ/2Gy radiation, pre-treatment with PAM-OBG more than doubled survival time. PMID:29844863

  2. Evaluation of High-Speed EML-based IM/DD links with PAM Modulations and Low-Complexity Equalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Xiaodan; Ozolins, Oskars; Gaiarin, Simone

    2017-01-01

    We experimentally evaluated up to 96 Gb/s/lambda PAM IM/DD transmissions with an EML and digital equalizations. Symbol-spaced FFE/DFEs with fewer than 10 taps are shown being sufficient for a high and stable performance over a 4 km SMF link....

  3. Combined Atropine and 2-PAM Cl Effects on Tracking Performance and Visual, Physiological, and Psychological Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    tracking task reveals the magnitude Akitrihm. Spare. and Environmental Medicine • December. I$ II I ANTIDOTE EFFECTS--PEN ETAR ET AL. and duration of the... marihuana on dynamic visual acu- blood pressure following the combination of 2-PAM Cl ity: I. Threshold measurements. Perception Psychophys. 1975

  4. ITER-like PAM launcher for tore supra's LHCD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belo, J.H.; Bibet, Ph.; Missirlian, M.; Achard, J.; Beaumont, B.; Bertrand, B.; Chantant, M.; Chappuis, Ph.; Doceul, L.; Durocher, A.; Gargiulo, L.; Saille, A.; Samaille, F.; Villedieu, E.

    2004-01-01

    A new launcher based upon the PAM concept (Passive-Active Multijunction) already proposed for ITER has been developed and is currently under realisation at Tore Supra. It was designed for an injection power capability of 2.7 MW CW at 3.7 GHz, a power density of 25 MW/m 2 , to radiate a power spectrum peaked at N || = 1.7 with a maximum power directivity near the electron cut-off density and with very good coupling properties on a wide range of electron densities. In this paper an overall description of the antenna as well as the foreseen manufacturing and assembling processes are given, followed by the results from studies and optimizations of its RF components, and by a stress analysis of its thermomechanical behaviour. (authors)

  5. The validity of the PAM-RL device for evaluating periodic limb movements in sleep and an investigation on night-to-night variability of periodic limb movements during sleep in patients with restless legs syndrome or periodic limb movement disorder using this system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Mina; Namba, Kazuyoshi; Ito, Eiki; Nishida, Shingo; Nakamura, Masaki; Ueki, Yoichiro; Furudate, Naomichi; Kagimura, Tatsuo; Usui, Akira; Inoue, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    The status of night-to-night variability for periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS) has not been clarified. With this in mind, we investigated the validity of PLMS measurement by actigraphy with the PAM-RL device in Japanese patients with suspected restless legs syndrome (RLS) or periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD) and the night-to-night variability of PLMS among the subjects. Forty-one subjects (mean age, 52.1±16.1 years) underwent polysomnography (PSG) and PAM-RL measurement simultaneously. Thereafter, subjects used the PAM-RL at home on four more consecutive nights. The correlation between PLMS index on PSG (PLMSI-PSG) and PLM index on PAM-RL (PLMI-PAM) was 0.781 (PPAM-RL. PAM-RL is thought to be valuable for assessing PLMS even in Japanese subjects. Recording of PAM-RL for three or more consecutive nights may be required to ensure the screening reliability of a patient with suspected pathologically frequent PLMS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Multiband LTE-A and 4-PAM signals over large-core plastic fibers for in-home networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forni, F.; Shi, Y.; van den Boom, H.P.A.; Tangdiongga, E.; Koonen, A.M.J.

    2016-01-01

    This letter presents the transmission of eight standard compliant 64-QAM long term evolution advanced (LTE-A) bands and 1.4 Gb/s 4-pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) signals over 20 m of 1 mm core diameter graded-index polymethyl methacrylate plastic optical fiber. The optical transceiver consists of

  7. Sensitivity evaluation of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to uranium by pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlory, Olivier; Bonzom, Jean-Marc; Gilbin, Rodolphe

    2013-09-15

    Although ecotoxicological studies tend to address the toxicity thresholds of uranium in freshwaters, there is a lack of information on the effects of the metal on physiological processes, particularly in aquatic plants. Knowing that uranium alters photosynthesis via impairment of the water photo-oxidation process, we determined whether pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry was a relevant tool for assessing the impact of uranium on the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and investigated how and to what extent uranium hampered photosynthetic performance. Photosynthetic activity and quenching were assessed from fluorescence induction curves generated by PAM fluorometry, after 1 and 5h of uranium exposure in controlled conditions. The oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of PSII was identified as the primary action site of uranium, through alteration of the water photo-oxidation process as revealed by F0/Fv. Limiting re-oxidation of the plastoquinone pool, uranium impaired the electron flux between the photosystems until almost complete inhibition of the PSII quantum efficiency ( [Formula: see text] , EC50=303 ± 64 μg UL(-1) after 5h of exposure) was observed. Non-photochemical quenching (qN) was identified as the most sensitive fluorescence parameter (EC50=142 ± 98 μg UL(-1) after 5h of exposure), indicating that light energy not used in photochemistry was dissipated in non-radiative processes. It was shown that parameters which stemmed from fluorescence induction kinetics are valuable indicators for evaluating the impact of uranium on PSII in green algae. PAM fluorometry provided a rapid and reasonably sensitive method for assessing stress response to uranium in microalgae. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Nonviral gene therapy in vivo with PAM-RG4/apoptin as a potential brain tumor therapeutic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Songhie; Nam, Kihoon; Choi, Sunghyun; Bai, Cheng Z; Lee, Yan; Park, Jong-Sang

    2013-01-01

    Glioma is still one of the most complicated forms of brain tumor to remove completely due to its location and the lack of an efficient means to specifically eliminate tumor cells. For these reasons, this study has examined the effectiveness of a nonviral gene therapy approach utilizing a tumor-selective killer gene on a brain tumor xenograft model. The therapeutic apoptin gene was recombined into the JDK plasmid and delivered into human brain tumor cells (U87MG) by using a polyamidoamine dendrimer with an arginine surface (PAM-RG4). Studies in vitro showed that the PAM-RG4/apoptin plasmid polyplex exhibited a particularly high transfection activity of .40%. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, 4',6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) TUNEL assay, DAPI staining, and caspase-3 activity assay verified that the tumor cells had undergone apoptosis induced by apoptin. For in vivo studies, the polyplex was injected into tumors, which were induced by injecting U87MG cells intradermally into nude mice. Based on hematoxylin and eosin staining, epidermal growth factor receptor immunohistochemistry results and tumor volume measurement results, tumor growth was effectively inhibited and no specific edema, irritation, or other harm to the skin was observed after polyplex injection. The in vivo expression of apoptin and the induction of apoptosis were verified by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis, TUNEL assay, and DAPI staining. The PAM-RG4/apoptin gene polyplex is a strong candidate for brain tumor therapeutics because of the synergistic effect of the carrier's high transfection efficiency (35%-40%) in glioma cells and the selective apoptosis-inducing activity of apoptin in tumor cells.

  9. Distribution and development of algal photosynthesis in sea ice during a spring bloom: A novel application of Imaging-PAM fluorometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawes, Ian; Lund-Hansen, Lars Chresten; Sorrell, Brian Keith

    were able to migrate with ice growth. Furthermore, increases in maximum fluorescence (Fm) and photosynthesis yield (Y) allowed us to document the progression of a spring bloom in algal biomass and activity. Maximum light intensities in the ice algal communities were ca. 40 µmol PPFD m-2 s-1 and light......Sea ice algae are important marine primary producers that may contribute as much as 15% of total global carbon fixation. The difficulties of studying photosynthesis in ice have, however, hampered accurate assessments of their productivity, and much previous research has involved liquid...... cores from the Kangerlussuaq Fjord, Greenland, over two weeks in March 2011, and used Imaging-PAM to explore the spatial distribution of algal biomass (predominantly pennate diatoms), fluorescence yield, and light response curves. Algae were largely confined to the lowest 1 cm of the ice column, where...

  10. Curriculation and Competence Based Education Training (CBET in Tanzania: A Critical Assessment of Public Administration and Management (PAM Curricula at Tanzania Public Service College (TPSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadhani Marijani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article directs the discourse in Public Administration and Management (PAM curricula at Tanzania Public Service College. The motive for this attempt is based on the fact that Public Administration (PA is itself recognized as a profession whose teaching aims at producing competent professionals and therefore needs constant review to conform to the current work complexities. Five big questions and content analysis are used as the basis for directing the discourse. The findings indicate that curriculation for PAM is complex and dynamic. Moreover, the findings indicate that the two curricula are more vocational than educational as there is little weight allocated for occupational course modules (36 out of 360 in PA and (126 out of 360 in HRM. This may pose the danger of “pourtpouri” problem in curriculum design. The article proposes rethinking interventions on curriculation for PAM at TPSC to benefit from Public Administration discipline.

  11. Experimental investigation of impulse response shortening for low-complexity MLSE of a 112-Gbit/s PAM-4 transceiver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, S.; Eiselt, N.; Griesser, H.; Olmos, J. J.V.; Tafur Monroy, I.; Okonkwo, C.

    2016-01-01

    An optimized channel shortening method for reduced complexity MLSE detection enables the compensation of severe inter-symbol interference. Experimental investigations demonstrate the benefit on the performance for a severely bandwidth limited 112-Gbit/s PAM-4 transmission system with residual

  12. Experimental investigation of impulse response shortening for low-complexity MLSE of a 112-Gbit/s PAM-4 transceiver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Der Heide, Sjoerd; Eiselt, Nicklas; Griesser, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    An optimized channel shortening method for reduced complexity MLSE detection enables the compensation of severe inter-symbol interference. Experimental investigations demonstrate the benefit on the performance for a severely bandwidth limited 112-Gbit/s PAM-4 transmission system with residual chr...

  13. PamR, a new MarR-like regulator affecting prophages and metabolic genes expression in Bacillus subtilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba De San Eustaquio-Campillo

    Full Text Available B. subtilis adapts to changing environments by reprogramming its genetic expression through a variety of transcriptional regulators from the global transition state regulators that allow a complete resetting of the cell genetic expression, to stress specific regulators controlling only a limited number of key genes required for optimal adaptation. Among them, MarR-type transcriptional regulators are known to respond to a variety of stresses including antibiotics or oxidative stress, and to control catabolic or virulence gene expression. Here we report the characterization of the ydcFGH operon of B. subtilis, containing a putative MarR-type transcriptional regulator. Using a combination of molecular genetics and high-throughput approaches, we show that this regulator, renamed PamR, controls directly its own expression and influence the expression of large sets of prophage-related and metabolic genes. The extent of the regulon impacted by PamR suggests that this regulator reprograms the metabolic landscape of B. subtilis in response to a yet unknown signal.

  14. Identification and Molecular Typing of Naegleria fowleri from a Patient of Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling-Ling; Wu, Mao; Hu, Bang-Chuan; Chen, Hua-Liang; Pan, Jin-Ren; Ruan, Wei; Yao, Li-Nong

    2018-05-08

    Naegleria fowleri (N. fowleri) is the only Naegleria spp. known to cause an acute, fulminant, and rapidly fatal central nervous system infection called primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) in human. In 2016, a suspected PAM patient was found in Zhejiang Province of China. The pathogen was identified by microscopic examination and PCR. The positive PCR products were sequenced and the sequences were aligned using NCBI BLAST programme. The homologous and phylogenetic analysis was conducted using the MEGA 6 programme. Under the microscopy, the motile cells with pseudopodia were observed in the direct smear, the motion characteristics of pseudopodia as well as the cell morphology suggested that the pathogen were amoeba trophozoites. The smears stained with Wright-Giemsa showed amoeba trophozoites with various sharps, which were measured of 10-25μm and characterized by the prominent, centrally placed nucleolus and the vacuolated cytoplasm. The PCR showed negative for E. histolytica and E. dispar, while positive for Naegleria spp.and N. fowleri. The nucleotide sequences acquired from this study were submitted to the Genbank with accession numbers of KX909928 and KX909927, respectively. The Blast analysis revealed that the sequences of KX909928 and KX909927 have 100% similarity with the sequence of N. fowleri gene (KT375442.1). Sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree reavealed that N. fowleri collected from this study was classified as genotype 2 and had a closest relative with N. lovaniensis. This study confirms N. fowleri as the agent responsible for this patient, however, PAM normally progresses fast and universally fatal within a week, so the patient still died at two weeks after the onset of symptoms. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Intrinsic subtypes from PAM50 gene expression assay in a population-based breast cancer cohort: differences by age, race, and tumor characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Carol; Bernard, Philip S; Factor, Rachel E; Kwan, Marilyn L; Habel, Laurel A; Quesenberry, Charles P; Shakespear, Kaylynn; Weltzien, Erin K; Stijleman, Inge J; Davis, Carole A; Ebbert, Mark T W; Castillo, Adrienne; Kushi, Lawrence H; Caan, Bette J

    2014-05-01

    Data are lacking to describe gene expression-based breast cancer intrinsic subtype patterns for population-based patient groups. We studied a diverse cohort of women with breast cancer from the Life After Cancer Epidemiology and Pathways studies. RNA was extracted from 1 mm punches from fixed tumor tissue. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR was conducted for the 50 genes that comprise the PAM50 intrinsic subtype classifier. In a subcohort of 1,319 women, the overall subtype distribution based on PAM50 was 53.1% luminal A, 20.5% luminal B, 13.0% HER2-enriched, 9.8% basal-like, and 3.6% normal-like. Among low-risk endocrine-positive tumors (i.e., estrogen and progesterone receptor positive by immunohistochemistry, HER2 negative, and low histologic grade), only 76.5% were categorized as luminal A by PAM50. Continuous-scale luminal A, luminal B, HER2-enriched, and normal-like scores from PAM50 were mutually positively correlated. Basal-like score was inversely correlated with other subtypes. The proportion with non-luminal A subtype decreased with older age at diagnosis, P Trend < 0.0001. Compared with non-Hispanic Whites, African American women were more likely to have basal-like tumors, age-adjusted OR = 4.4 [95% confidence intervals (CI), 2.3-8.4], whereas Asian and Pacific Islander women had reduced odds of basal-like subtype, OR = 0.5 (95% CI, 0.3-0.9). Our data indicate that over 50% of breast cancers treated in the community have luminal A subtype. Gene expression-based classification shifted some tumors categorized as low risk by surrogate clinicopathologic criteria to higher-risk subtypes. Subtyping in a population-based cohort revealed distinct profiles by age and race. ©2014 AACR.

  16. The combined SPE:ToxY-PAM phytotoxicity assay; application and appraisal of a novel biomonitoring tool for the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtson Nash, S M; Schreiber, U; Ralph, P J; Müller, J F

    2005-01-15

    Mounting concerns regarding the environmental impact of herbicides has meant a growing requirement for accurate, timely information regarding herbicide residue contamination of, in particular, aquatic systems. Conventional methods of detection remain limited in terms of practicality due to high costs of operation and the specialised information that analysis provides. A new phytotoxicity bioassay was trialled for the detection of herbicide residues in filter-purified (Milli-Q) as well as natural waters. The performance of the system, which combines solid-phase extraction (SPE) with the ToxY-PAM dual-channel yield analyser (Heinz Walz GmbH), was tested alongside the traditional method of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The assay methodology was found to be highly sensitive (LOD 0.1 ng L(-1) diuron) with good reproducibility. The study showed that the assay protocol is time effective and can be employed for the aquatic screening of herbicide residues in purified as well as natural waters.

  17. Coherency Identification of Generators Using a PAM Algorithm for Dynamic Reduction of Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Il Moon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new coherency identification method for dynamic reduction of a power system. To achieve dynamic reduction, coherency-based equivalence techniques divide generators into groups according to coherency, and then aggregate them. In order to minimize the changes in the dynamic response of the reduced equivalent system, coherency identification of the generators should be clearly defined. The objective of the proposed coherency identification method is to determine the optimal coherent groups of generators with respect to the dynamic response, using the Partitioning Around Medoids (PAM algorithm. For this purpose, the coherency between generators is first evaluated from the dynamic simulation time response, and in the proposed method this result is then used to define a dissimilarity index. Based on the PAM algorithm, the coherent generator groups are then determined so that the sum of the index in each group is minimized. This approach ensures that the dynamic characteristics of the original system are preserved, by providing the optimized coherency identification. To validate the effectiveness of the technique, simulated cases with an IEEE 39-bus test system are evaluated using PSS/E. The proposed method is compared with an existing coherency identification method, which uses the K-means algorithm, and is found to provide a better estimate of the original system. 

  18. CRISPR/Cas9 DNA cleavage at SNP-derived PAM enables both in vitro and in vivo KRT12 mutation-specific targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, D G; Moore, J E; Atkinson, S D; Maurizi, E; Allen, E H A; Pedrioli, D M L; McLean, W H I; Nesbit, M A; Moore, C B T

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas9-based therapeutics hold the possibility for permanent treatment of genetic disease. The potency and specificity of this system has been used to target dominantly inherited conditions caused by heterozygous missense mutations through inclusion of the mutated base in the short-guide RNA (sgRNA) sequence. This research evaluates a novel approach for targeting heterozygous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using CRISPR/Cas9. We determined that a mutation within KRT12, which causes Meesmann's epithelial corneal dystrophy (MECD), leads to the occurrence of a novel protospacer adjacent motif (PAM). We designed an sgRNA complementary to the sequence adjacent to this SNP-derived PAM and evaluated its potency and allele specificity both in vitro and in vivo. This sgRNA was found to be highly effective at reducing the expression of mutant KRT12 mRNA and protein in vitro. To assess its activity in vivo we injected a combined Cas9/sgRNA expression construct into the corneal stroma of a humanized MECD mouse model. Sequence analysis of corneal genomic DNA revealed non-homologous end-joining repair resulting in frame-shifting deletions within the mutant KRT12 allele. This study is the first to demonstrate in vivo gene editing of a heterozygous disease-causing SNP that results in a novel PAM, further highlighting the potential for CRISPR/Cas9-based therapeutics.

  19. The E3 ubiquitin ligase protein associated with Myc (Pam) regulates mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling in vivo through N- and C-terminal domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sangyeul; Kim, Sun; Bahl, Samira; Li, Lin; Burande, Clara F; Smith, Nicole; James, Marianne; Beauchamp, Roberta L; Bhide, Pradeep; DiAntonio, Aaron; Ramesh, Vijaya

    2012-08-31

    Pam and its homologs (the PHR protein family) are large E3 ubiquitin ligases that function to regulate synapse formation and growth in mammals, zebrafish, Drosophila, and Caenorhabditis elegans. Phr1-deficient mouse models (Phr1(Δ8,9) and Phr1(Magellan), with deletions in the N-terminal putative guanine exchange factor region and the C-terminal ubiquitin ligase region, respectively) exhibit axon guidance/outgrowth defects and striking defects of major axon tracts in the CNS. Our earlier studies identified Pam to be associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) proteins, ubiquitinating TSC2 and regulating mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. Here, we examine the potential involvement of the TSC/mTOR complex 1(mTORC1) signaling pathway in Phr1-deficient mouse models. We observed attenuation of mTORC1 signaling in the brains of both Phr1(Δ8,9) and Phr1(Magellan) mouse models. Our results establish that Pam regulates TSC/mTOR signaling in vitro and in vivo through two distinct domains. To further address whether Pam regulates mTORC1 through two functionally independent domains, we undertook heterozygous mutant crossing between Phr1(Δ8,9) and Phr1(Magellan) mice to generate a compound heterozygous model to determine whether these two domains can complement each other. mTORC1 signaling was not attenuated in the brains of double mutants (Phr1(Δ8,9/Mag)), confirming that Pam displays dual regulation of the mTORC1 pathway through two functional domains. Our results also suggest that although dysregulation of mTORC1 signaling may be responsible for the corpus callosum defects, other neurodevelopmental defects observed with Phr1 deficiency are independent of mTORC1 signaling. The ubiquitin ligase complex containing Pam-Fbxo45 likely targets additional synaptic and axonal proteins, which may explain the overlapping neurodevelopmental defects observed in Phr1 and Fbxo45 deficiency.

  20. The influence of melting processes and parameters on the structure and homogeneity of titanium-tantalum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, P.S.; Korzekwa, D.; Garcia, F.; Damkroger, B.K.; Avyle, J.A. Van Den; Tissot, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    Alloys of titanium with refractory metals are attractive materials for applications requiring high temperature strength and corrosion resistance. However, the widely different characteristics of the component elements have made it difficult to produce sound, compositionally homogeneous ingots using traditional melting techniques. This is particularly critical because the compositional ranges spanned by the micro- and macrosegregation in theses systems can easily encompass a number of microconstituents which are detrimental to mechanical properties. This paper presents the results of a study of plasma (PAM) and vacuum-arc (VAR) melting of a 60 wt% tantalum, 40 wt% titanium binary alloy. The structural and compositional homogeneity of PAM consolidated +PAM remelted, and PAM consolidated +VAR remelted ingots were characterized and compared using optical and electron microscopy and x-ray fluorescence microanalysis. Additionally, the effect of melting parameter, including melt rate and magnetic stirring, was studied. The results indicated the PAM remelting achieves more complete dissolution of the starting electrode, due to greater local superheat, than does VAR remelting. PAM remelting also produces a finer as solidified grain structure, due to the smaller molten pool and lower local solidification times. Conversely, VAR remelting produces an ingot with a more uniform macrostructure, due to the more stable movement of the solidification interface and more uniform material feed rate. Based on these results, a three-step process of PAM consolidation, followed by a PAM intermediate melt and a VAR final melt, has been selected for further development of the alloy and processing sequence

  1. Challenges in the development of an M4 PAM in vivo tool compound: The discovery of VU0467154 and unexpected DMPK profiles of close analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Michael R; Noetzel, Meredith J; Poslusney, Michael S; Melancon, Bruce J; Tarr, James C; Lamsal, Atin; Chang, Sichen; Luscombe, Vincent B; Weiner, Rebecca L; Cho, Hyekyung P; Bubser, Michael; Jones, Carrie K; Niswender, Colleen M; Wood, Michael W; Engers, Darren W; Brandon, Nicholas J; Duggan, Mark E; Conn, P Jeffrey; Bridges, Thomas M; Lindsley, Craig W

    2017-01-15

    This letter describes the chemical optimization of a novel series of M 4 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) based on a 5-amino-thieno[2,3-c]pyridazine core, developed via iterative parallel synthesis, and culminating in the highly utilized rodent in vivo tool compound, VU0467154 (5). This is the first report of the optimization campaign (SAR and DMPK profiling) that led to the discovery of VU0467154, and details all of the challenges faced in allosteric modulator programs (steep SAR, species differences in PAM pharmacology and subtle structural changes affecting CNS penetration). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Re-engineering of the PAM1 phage display monoclonal antibody to produce a soluble, versatile anti-homogalacturonan scFv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfield, I. W.; Bernal Giraldo, Adriana Jimena; Møller, I.

    2006-01-01

    Antibody phage display is an increasingly important alternative method for the production of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and involves the expression of antibody fragments (scFvs) at the surface of bacteriophage particles. We have previously used this technique to generate a phage mAb (PAM1phage...

  3. Effect of molecular weight on the quality of poly(alpha-methylstyrene mandrel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuyun Shangguan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hollow poly(alpha-methylstyrene (PAMS shows application in inertial confinement fusion experiments as the degradable mandrels of glow plasma polymer shells. However, the molecular weight of PAMS has great influence on the quality of mandrels. In this work, this influence was systematically studied using several PAMS samples with different molecular weights. For PAMS shells with 900 μm inner diameter and different wall thickness, when the molecular weight of PAMS is in the range of 300–500 kg·mol−1, perfect sphericity and good wall thickness uniformity can be obtained. In contrast, when increasing molecular weight to 800 kg·mol−1, the sphericity and the wall thickness uniformity become worse. Moreover, compared with the wall uniformity, the sphericity of PAMS shells was much less sensitive to the molecular weight. The results also showed that the stability of W1/O compound droplets of PAMS shells were less affected by the molecular weight. It was revealed that the wall uniformity and the sphericity of the PAMS shells were associated with the diffusion rates of fluorobenzene (FB.

  4. Comparison of PAM and CAP modulations robustness against mode partition noise in optical links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepniak, Grzegorz

    2017-08-01

    Mode partition noise (MPN) of the laser employed at the transmitter can significantly degrade the transmission performance. In the paper, we introduce a simulation model of MPN in vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) and simulate transmission of pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) and carrierless amplitude phase (CAP) signals in multimode fiber (MMF) link. By turning off other effects, like relative intensity noise (RIN), we focus solely on the influence of MPN on transmission performance degradation. Robustness of modulation and equalization type against MPN is studied.

  5. Type I-E CRISPR-Cas Systems Discriminate Target from Non-Target DNA through Base Pairing-Independent PAM Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datsenko, Kirill A.; Jackson, Ryan N.; Wiedenheft, Blake; Severinov, Konstantin; Brouns, Stan J. J.

    2013-01-01

    Discriminating self and non-self is a universal requirement of immune systems. Adaptive immune systems in prokaryotes are centered around repetitive loci called CRISPRs (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat), into which invader DNA fragments are incorporated. CRISPR transcripts are processed into small RNAs that guide CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins to invading nucleic acids by complementary base pairing. However, to avoid autoimmunity it is essential that these RNA-guides exclusively target invading DNA and not complementary DNA sequences (i.e., self-sequences) located in the host's own CRISPR locus. Previous work on the Type III-A CRISPR system from Staphylococcus epidermidis has demonstrated that a portion of the CRISPR RNA-guide sequence is involved in self versus non-self discrimination. This self-avoidance mechanism relies on sensing base pairing between the RNA-guide and sequences flanking the target DNA. To determine if the RNA-guide participates in self versus non-self discrimination in the Type I-E system from Escherichia coli we altered base pairing potential between the RNA-guide and the flanks of DNA targets. Here we demonstrate that Type I-E systems discriminate self from non-self through a base pairing-independent mechanism that strictly relies on the recognition of four unchangeable PAM sequences. In addition, this work reveals that the first base pair between the guide RNA and the PAM nucleotide immediately flanking the target sequence can be disrupted without affecting the interference phenotype. Remarkably, this indicates that base pairing at this position is not involved in foreign DNA recognition. Results in this paper reveal that the Type I-E mechanism of avoiding self sequences and preventing autoimmunity is fundamentally different from that employed by Type III-A systems. We propose the exclusive targeting of PAM-flanked sequences to be termed a target versus non-target discrimination mechanism. PMID:24039596

  6. A study of photochemical againg of ambient air using Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM) chamber under the different sources and types of emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T.; Son, J.; Kim, J.; Kim, S.; Sung, K.; Park, G.; Link, M.; Park, T.; Kim, K.; Kang, S.; Ban, J.; Kim, D. S.

    2016-12-01

    Recent research proposed that Secondary Aerosol (SA) is important class of predicting future climate change scenarios, health effect, and a general air quality. However, there has been lack of studies to investigate SA formation all over the world. This study tried to focus on understanding potential secondary aerosol formation and its local impact by the photochemical aging of inorganic and organic aerosols in the ambient air using the Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM) chamber under the different sources and types of emissions. PAM chamber manufactured by Aerodyne make an oxidizing environment that simulates oxidation processes on timescales of 12-15 hrs in the atmosphere. Chemical compositions of ambient aerosol and aerosol that was aged in the PAM chamber were alternately measured every 2-minutes using the High Resolution-Time of Flight-Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). HR-ToF-AMS provides non-refractory aerosol mass concentrations including nitrate, sulfate, hydrocarbon-like and oxygenated organic aerosol in real time. This study includes a residence area of mixture of sources, a forest site of dominant source of biogenic VOCs, an underground parking lot of dominant vehicle emission, and laboratory experiment of vehicle emissions under different fuels and speeds using the chassis dynamometer. As a result, it was revealed that gasoline and LPG vehicle relatively made more potential SA than diesel vehicle.

  7. Comparison of OOK- and PAM-4 modulation for 10 Gbit/s transmission over up to 300 m polymer optical fiber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breyer, F.; Lee, S.C.J.; Randel, S.; Hanik, N.

    2008-01-01

    10 Gbit/s Transmission over up to 300 m of multimode 62.5 µm core-diameter perfluorinated graded-index polymer optical fiber is compared using on-off-keying (OOK) or 4-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-4) and feed-forward or decision-feedback equalization.

  8. Seasonal and diel changes in photosynthetic activity of the snow algae Chlamydomonas nivalis (Chlorophyceae) from Svalbard determined by PAM fluorometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stibal, Marek; Elster, Josef; Šabacká, Marie; Kaštovská, Klára

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 59, - (2007), s. 265-273 ISSN 0168-6496 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB6005409 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Chlamydomonas nivalis * photosynthetic activity * PAM fluorometry Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.039, year: 2007

  9. PAM-Dependent Target DNA Recognition and Cleavage by C2c1 CRISPR-Cas Endonuclease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hui; Gao, Pu; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Patel, Dinshaw J. (MSKCC); (Cornell); (Chinese Aca. Sci.)

    2016-12-01

    C2c1 is a newly identified guide RNA-mediated type V-B CRISPR-Cas endonuclease that site-specifically targets and cleaves both strands of target DNA. We have determined crystal structures of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris C2c1 (AacC2c1) bound to sgRNA as a binary complex and to target DNAs as ternary complexes, thereby capturing catalytically competent conformations of AacC2c1 with both target and non-target DNA strands independently positioned within a single RuvC catalytic pocket. Moreover, C2c1-mediated cleavage results in a staggered seven-nucleotide break of target DNA. crRNA adopts a pre-ordered five-nucleotide A-form seed sequence in the binary complex, with release of an inserted tryptophan, facilitating zippering up of 20-bp guide RNA:target DNA heteroduplex on ternary complex formation. Notably, the PAM-interacting cleft adopts a “locked” conformation on ternary complex formation. Structural comparison of C2c1 ternary complexes with their Cas9 and Cpf1 counterparts highlights the diverse mechanisms adopted by these distinct CRISPR-Cas systems, thereby broadening and enhancing their applicability as genome editing tools.

  10. Experimental demonstration of a real-time PAM-4 Q-band RoF system based on CMMA equalization and interleaved RS code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Rui; Yu, Jianjun; He, Jing; Wei, Yiran

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we experimentally demonstrated a complete real-time 4-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-4) Q-band radio-over-fiber (RoF) system with optical heterodyning and envelope detector (ED) down-conversion. Meanwhile, a cost-efficient real-time implementation scheme of cascaded multi-modulus algorithm (CMMA) equalization is proposed in this paper. By using the proposed scheme, the CMMA equalization is applied in the system for signal recovery. In addition, to improve the transmission performance of the system, an interleaved Reed-Solomon (RS) code is applied in the real-time system. Although there is serious power impulse noise in the system, the system can still achieve a bit error rate (BER) at below 1 × 10-7 after 25 km standard single mode fiber (SSMF) transmission and 1-m wireless transmission.

  11. Using pre-distorted PAM-4 signal and parallel resistance circuit to enhance the passive solar cell based visible light communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao-Yu; Wu, Jhao-Ting; Chow, Chi-Wai; Liu, Yang; Yeh, Chien-Hung; Liao, Xin-Lan; Lin, Kun-Hsien; Wu, Wei-Liang; Chen, Yi-Yuan

    2018-01-01

    Using solar cell (or photovoltaic cell) for visible light communication (VLC) is attractive. Apart from acting as a VLC receiver (Rx), the solar cell can provide energy harvesting. This can be used in self-powered smart devices, particularly in the emerging ;Internet of Things (IoT); networks. Here, we propose and demonstrate for the first time using pre-distortion pulse-amplitude-modulation (PAM)-4 signal and parallel resistance circuit to enhance the transmission performance of solar cell Rx based VLC. Pre-distortion is a simple non-adaptive equalization technique that can significantly mitigate the slow charging and discharging of the solar cell. The equivalent circuit model of the solar cell and the operation of using parallel resistance to increase the bandwidth of the solar cell are discussed. By using the proposed schemes, the experimental results show that the data rate of the solar cell Rx based VLC can increase from 20 kbit/s to 1.25 Mbit/s (about 60 times) with the bit error-rate (BER) satisfying the 7% forward error correction (FEC) limit.

  12. Clustering box office movie with Partition Around Medoids (PAM) Algorithm based on Text Mining of Indonesian subtitle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfarizy, A. D.; Indahwati; Sartono, B.

    2017-03-01

    Indonesia is the largest Hollywood movie industry target market in Southeast Asia in 2015. Hollywood movies distributed in Indonesia targeted people in all range of ages including children. Low awareness of guiding children while watching movies make them could watch any rated films even the unsuitable ones for their ages. Even after being translated into Bahasa and passed the censorship phase, words that uncomfortable for children to watch still exist. The purpose of this research is to cluster box office Hollywood movies based on Indonesian subtitle, revenue, IMDb user rating and genres as one of the reference for adults to choose right movies for their children to watch. Text mining is used to extract words from the subtitles and count the frequency for three group of words (bad words, sexual words and terror words), while Partition Around Medoids (PAM) Algorithm with Gower similarity coefficient as proximity matrix is used as clustering method. We clustered 624 movies from 2006 until first half of 2016 from IMDb. Cluster with highest silhouette coefficient value (0.36) is the one with 5 clusters. Animation, Adventure and Comedy movies with high revenue like in cluster 5 is recommended for children to watch, while Comedy movies with high revenue like in cluster 4 should be avoided to watch.

  13. Diagnose Test-Taker's Profile in Terms of Core Profile Patterns: Principal Component (PC) vs. Profile Analysis via MDS (PAMS) Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Kang; Davison, Mark L.

    A study was conducted to examine how principal components analysis (PCA) and Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS) can be used to diagnose individuals observed score profiles in terms of core profile patterns identified by each method. The standardization sample from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Third Edition…

  14. Properties and toughening mechanisms of PVA/PAM double-network hydrogels prepared by freeze-thawing and anneal-swelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Kangkang; Dong, Xia; Qin, Chengling; Ji, Xinan; He, Jinxin

    2017-08-01

    It is well known that preparation method of hydrogels has a significant effect on their properties. In this paper, freeze-thawing and anneal-swelling were applied to prepare poly(vinyl alcohol)/polyacrylamide (PVA/PAM) double-network hydrogels with covalently and physically cross-linked networks. The properties of these hydrogels were investigated and compared to control hydrogels. Results indicated that hydrogels fabricated by freeze-thawing show larger pores size and higher swelling capacity than those made by anneal-swelling and control hydrogels. Hydrogels prepared by anneal-swelling exhibit higher mechanical strength, energy dissipation, fracture energy, gel fraction and crystallinity than those made by freeze-thawing and control hydrogels. Physical cross-linking plays a key role in formation of physical-chemical double-network. The toughening mechanism of double-network hydrogel is related to their chain-fracture behavior and elasticity. The results also indicated that appropriate methods can endow hydrogels with specific microstructures and properties which would broaden current hydrogels research and applications in biomedical fields. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Focusing on the adult attachment style in schizophrenia in community mental health centres: validation of the Psychosis Attachment Measure (PAM) in a German-speaking sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvrgic, Sara; Beck, Eva-Marina; Cavelti, Marialuisa; Kossowsky, Joe; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter; Vauth, Roland

    2012-07-01

    Assessing attachment style in people with schizophrenia may be important to identify a risk factor in building a strong therapeutic relationship and so indirectly to understand the development of mal-compliance as one of the major obstacles in the treatment of schizophrenia. The present study analysed the psychometric properties of the German version of the Psychosis Attachment Measure (PAM), which assesses avoidant and anxious attachment style. A sample of 127 patients suffering from chronic schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder participated in this study. In testing discriminant validity, we assessed psychopathology, depression, therapeutic relationship and service engagement. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability and factor structure were analysed. The German version of PAM exhibited acceptable to good internal and test-retest reliabilities and the two-factor structure of the English version could be replicated. Avoidant attachment style was related to higher levels of positive symptoms and to a poorer therapeutic relationship. In the context of external validation, a regression analysis revealed that a poor therapeutic relationship correlated with avoidant attachment style, independent of anxious attachment style and depressive symptoms. Anxious attachment was associated with higher treatment adherence. Both insecure attachment styles (avoidant and anxious) were found to be correlated with higher levels of depression, but only attachment anxiety had an independent predictive value for self-reported depression in regression analysis. The German version of PAM displayed satisfactory psychometric properties and seems to be a reliable measure for assessing attachment style in individuals with schizophrenia. Validation of PAM led to the finding that only the avoidant attachment style might be a risk factor when building a strong therapeutic relationship in schizophrenia. In future studies, other factors influencing therapeutic relationship should be

  16. Challenges in the development of an M4 PAM preclinical candidate: The discovery, SAR, and in vivo characterization of a series of 3-aminoazetidine-derived amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarr, James C; Wood, Michael R; Noetzel, Meredith J; Bertron, Jeanette L; Weiner, Rebecca L; Rodriguez, Alice L; Lamsal, Atin; Byers, Frank W; Chang, Sichen; Cho, Hyekyung P; Jones, Carrie K; Niswender, Colleen M; Wood, Michael W; Brandon, Nicholas J; Duggan, Mark E; Conn, P Jeffrey; Bridges, Thomas M; Lindsley, Craig W

    2017-07-01

    This letter details the continued chemical optimization of a novel series of M 4 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) based on a 5-amino-thieno[2,3-c]pyridazine core by incorporating a 3-amino azetidine amide moiety. The analogs described within this work represent the most potent M 4 PAMs reported for this series to date. The SAR to address potency, clearance, subtype selectivity, CNS exposure, and P-gp efflux are described. This work culminated in the discovery of VU6000918, which demonstrated robust efficacy in a rat amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion reversal model at a minimum efficacious dose of 0.3mg/kg. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Microwave assisted polymer stabilized synthesis of silver nanoparticles and its application in the degradation of environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, Pankaj Kumar; Ganesan, Vellaichamy; Krishnamoorthi, S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Graft copolymers of polyacrylamide and dextran are synthesized by grafting PAM chains onto a Dx backbone. ► Silver nanoparticles dispersed copolymer nano-composite (Ag-HDx-g-PAM) is synthesized by microwave heating. ► The environmentally benign and biodegradable copolymer, HDx-g-PAM acts as stabilizing and reducing agent. ► Ag-HDx-g-PAM nano-composite shows efficient catalytic activity for the reduction of environmental pollutants. - Abstract: Graft copolymers of polyacrylamide (PAM) and dextran (Dx) are synthesized by grafting PAM chains onto a Dx backbone (Dx-g-PAM) with ceric ion induced solution polymerization technique. Partial hydrolysis of Dx-g-PAM is carried out with sodium hydroxide solution to obtain HDx-g-PAM. To synthesize silver nanoparticles dispersed copolymer nano-composite (Ag-HDx-g-PAM), reduction of silver ions with HDx-g-PAM is carried out using microwave heating. The environmentally benign and biodegradable copolymer, HDx-g-PAM acts as both stabilizer and reducing agent. The copolymer nano-composite, Ag-HDx-g-PAM is characterized by FT-IR, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and optical spectroscopy. Further, the catalytic activity of Ag-HDx-g-PAM nano-composite towards the reduction of environmental pollutants like phenosafranine dye and aromatic nitro compounds are studied.

  18. First Real-Time 400G PAM-4 Demonstration for Inter-Data Center Transmission over 100 km of SSMF at 1550 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiselt, Nicklas; Wei, Jinlong; Griesser, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Real-time transmission of 400G (8x50G DWDM) PAM-4 signals for data center interconnects up to 100 km SSMF is successfully demonstrated. All channels stay well below the 802.3bj KR4 FEC limit, thus allowing error free transmission...

  19. Microwave assisted polymer stabilized synthesis of silver nanoparticles and its application in the degradation of environmental pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastogi, Pankaj Kumar [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, UP (India); Ganesan, Vellaichamy, E-mail: velganesh@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, UP (India); Krishnamoorthi, S., E-mail: dr.skmoorthi@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, UP (India)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Graft copolymers of polyacrylamide and dextran are synthesized by grafting PAM chains onto a Dx backbone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silver nanoparticles dispersed copolymer nano-composite (Ag-HDx-g-PAM) is synthesized by microwave heating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The environmentally benign and biodegradable copolymer, HDx-g-PAM acts as stabilizing and reducing agent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ag-HDx-g-PAM nano-composite shows efficient catalytic activity for the reduction of environmental pollutants. - Abstract: Graft copolymers of polyacrylamide (PAM) and dextran (Dx) are synthesized by grafting PAM chains onto a Dx backbone (Dx-g-PAM) with ceric ion induced solution polymerization technique. Partial hydrolysis of Dx-g-PAM is carried out with sodium hydroxide solution to obtain HDx-g-PAM. To synthesize silver nanoparticles dispersed copolymer nano-composite (Ag-HDx-g-PAM), reduction of silver ions with HDx-g-PAM is carried out using microwave heating. The environmentally benign and biodegradable copolymer, HDx-g-PAM acts as both stabilizer and reducing agent. The copolymer nano-composite, Ag-HDx-g-PAM is characterized by FT-IR, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and optical spectroscopy. Further, the catalytic activity of Ag-HDx-g-PAM nano-composite towards the reduction of environmental pollutants like phenosafranine dye and aromatic nitro compounds are studied.

  20. PAM4 based symmetrical 112-Gbps long-reach TWDM-PON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liyu; Gao, Fan; Zhang, Minming; Fu, Songnian; Deng, Lei; Choi, Michael; Chang, Donald; Lei, Gordon K. P.; Liu, Deming

    2018-02-01

    We experimentally demonstrate cost effective symmetrical 112-Gbps long-reach passive optical network (LR-PON) over 70-km standard signal mode fiber (SSMF), based on pulse amplitude modulation (PAM)-4. Four 10G-class directly modulated lasers (DMLs) at C-band are used for achieving 4 × 28-Gbps downstream transmission, while two 18G-class DMLs at O-band are used to realize 2 × 56-Gbps upstream transmission, without any optical amplification in optical distributed network (ODN). Both dispersion compensation fiber (DCF) for downstream signal and praseodymium-doped fiber amplifier (PDFA) for upstream signal are equipped at optical line terminal (OLT). Meanwhile, sparse Volterra filter (SVF) equalizer is proposed to mitigate the transmission impairments with substantial reduction of computation complexity. Finally, we can successfully provide a loss budget of 33 dB per downstream wavelength channel, indicating of 64 optical network units (ONUs) with more than 1.25 Gbps per ONU.

  1. Spectrophotometric determination of substrate-borne polyacrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianhang; Wu, Laosheng

    2002-08-28

    Polyacrylamides (PAMs) have wide application in many industries and in agriculture. Scientific research and industrial applications manifested a need for a method that can quantify substrate-borne PAM. The N-bromination method (a PAM analytical technique based on N-bromination of amide groups and spectrophotometric determination of the formed starch-triiodide complex), which was originally developed for determining PAM in aqueous solutions, was modified to quantify substrate-borne PAM. In the modified method, the quantity of substrate-borne PAM was converted to a concentration of starch-triiodide complex in aqueous solution that was then measured by spectrophotometry. The method sensitivity varied with substrates due to sorption of reagents and reaction intermediates on the substrates. Therefore, separate calibration for each substrate was required. Results from PAM samples in sand, cellulose, organic matter burnt soils, and clay minerals showed that this method had good accuracy and reproducibility. The PAM recoveries ranged from 95.8% to 103.7%, and the relative standard deviations (n = 4) were application and facilitating PAM-related research.

  2. The effect of polyacrylamide (PAM) applications on infiltration, runoff ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-11

    Apr 11, 2011 ... reduced surface runoff and soil losses, but increased infiltration rates. The effectiveness of ... Soil and water conservation is essential for sustaining food production and ...... Earth Surface Processes, 4:241-255. McIntyre DS ...

  3. Comparison of contractile and extensile pneumatic artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillsbury, Thomas E.; Wereley, Norman M.; Guan, Qinghua

    2017-09-01

    Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) are used in robotic and prosthetic applications due to their high power to weight ratio, controllable compliance, and simple design. Contractile PAMs are typically used in traditional hard robotics in place of heavy electric motors. As the field of soft robotics grows, extensile PAMs are beginning to have increased usage. This work experimentally tests, models, and compares contractile and extensile PAMs to demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of each type of PAM and applications for which they are best suited.

  4. Plasma membrane associated membranes (PAM) from Jurkat cells contain STIM1 protein is PAM involved in the capacitative calcium entry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozieł, Katarzyna; Lebiedzinska, Magdalena; Szabadkai, Gyorgy; Onopiuk, Marta; Brutkowski, Wojciech; Wierzbicka, Katarzyna; Wilczyński, Grzegorz; Pinton, Paolo; Duszyński, Jerzy; Zabłocki, Krzysztof; Wieckowski, Mariusz R

    2009-12-01

    A proper cooperation between the plasma membrane, the endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondria seems to be essential for numerous cellular processes involved in Ca(2+) signalling and maintenance of Ca(2+) homeostasis. A presence of microsomal and mitochondrial proteins together with those characteristic for the plasma membrane in the fraction of the plasma membrane associated membranes (PAM) indicates a formation of stabile interactions between these three structures. We isolated the plasma membrane associated membranes from Jurkat cells and found its significant enrichment in the plasma membrane markers including plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase, Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and CD3 as well as sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase as a marker of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes. In addition, two proteins involved in the store-operated Ca(2+) entry, Orai1 located in the plasma membrane and an endoplasmic reticulum protein STIM1 were found in this fraction. Furthermore, we observed a rearrangement of STIM1-containing protein complexes isolated from Jurkat cells undergoing stimulation by thapsigargin. We suggest that the inter-membrane compartment composed of the plasma membrane and the endoplasmic reticulum, and isolated as a stabile plasma membrane associated membranes fraction, might be involved in the store-operated Ca(2+) entry, and their formation and rebuilding have an important regulatory role in cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis.

  5. Validation of the German version of the patient activation measure 13 (PAM13-D) in an international multicentre study of primary care patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenk-Franz, K.; Hibbard, J.H.; Herrmann, W.J.; Freund, T.; Szecsenyi, J.; Djalali, S.; Steurer-Stey, C.; Sonnichsen, A.; Tiesler, F.; Storch, M.; Schneider, N.; Gensichen, J.

    2013-01-01

    The patients' active participation in their medical care is important for patients with chronic diseases. Measurements of patient activation are needed for studies and in clinical practice. This study aims to validate the Patient Activation Measure 13 (PAM13-D) in German-speaking primary care

  6. Development of anthropomorphic robotic hand driven by Pneumatic Artificial Muscles for robotic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Mohannad; Zainul Azlan, Norsinnira; Hayyan Alsibai, Mohammed

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents the design and fabrication of a three-fingered anthropomorphic robotic hand. The fingers are driven by tendons and actuated by human muscle-like actuators known as Pneumatic Artificial Muscle (PAM). The proposed design allows the actuators to be mounted outside the hand where each finger can be driven by one PAM actuator and six indirectly interlinked tendons. With this design, the three-fingered hand has a compact size and a lightweight with a mass of 150.25 grams imitating the human being hand in terms of size and weight. The hand also successfully grasped objects with different shapes and weights up to 500 g. Even though the number of PAM actuators equals the number of Degrees of Freedom (DOF), the design guarantees driving of three joints by only one actuator reducing the number of required actuators from 3 to 1. Therefore, this hand is suitable for researches of robotic applications in terms of design, cost and ability to be equipped with several types of sensors.

  7. Thermal degradation process of poly (alpha-methylstyrene) microspheres coated with glow discharge polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhanwen; Huang Yong; Tang Yongjian; Li Bo; Chen Sufen; He Zhibing

    2009-01-01

    Glow discharge polymer (GDP) shell was made by the decomposable mandrel technique using poly(alpha-methylstyrene) (PAMS) mandrel. The PAMS degradation rate and the GDP shell surface morphology at different equilibrium temperatures were investigated. Degradation rate was calculated from weight variation of PAMS before and after pyrolysis process. Experiment results indicate that the degradation rate decreases at the fixed equilibrium temperature and graded temperature can improve the rate. The degradation process has an effect on the GDP shell properties. The PAMS doesn't molten to flow liquid during degradation. But the degradation can reduce surface finish of GDP coatings. The GDP shell deffects are the result of the PAMS degradiation process. (authors)

  8. Evaluating the effects of allelochemical ferulic acid on Microcystis aeruginosa by pulse-amplitude-modulated (PAM) fluorometry and flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Hua, Ming; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Min; Xian, Qi-Ming; Yin, Da-Qiang

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the effects of allelochemical ferulic acid (FA) on a series of physiological and biochemical processes of blue-green algae Microcystis aeruginosa, in order to find sensitive diagnostic variables for allelopathic effects. Algal cell density was significantly suppressed by FA (0.31-5.17 mM) only after 48 h exposure. Inhibitions of photosynthetic parameters (F(v)/F(m) and F(v)'/F(m)') occurred more rapidly than cell growth, and the stimulation of non-photochemical quenching was observed as a feed-back mechanisms induced by photosystem II blockage, determining by PAM fluorometry. Inhibitions on esterase activity, membrane potential and integrity, as well as disturbance on cell size, were all detected by flow cytometry with specific fluorescent markers, although exhibiting varied sensitivities. Membrane potential and esterase activity were identified as the most sensitive parameters (with relatively lower EC50 values), and responded more rapidly (significantly inhibited only after 8 h exposure) than photosynthetic parameters and cell growth, thus may be the primary responses of cyanobacteria to FA exposure. The use of PAM fluorometry and flow cytometry for rapid assessment of those sensitive variables may contribute to future mechanistic studies of allolepathic effects on phytoplankton. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 24 CFR 599.303 - Rating of applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the area poverty rate, area unemployment rate, and for urban areas, the percentage of families below... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rating of applications. 599.303 Section 599.303 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  10. Toxicity estimates for diuron and atrazine for the tropical marine cnidarian Exaiptasia pallida and in-hospite Symbiodinium spp. using PAM chlorophyll-a fluorometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Pelli Louise; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda Jean; Clark, Malcolm William; Seery, Cliff Ross

    2017-06-01

    Effective ecotoxicological risk assessments for herbicides in tropical marine environments are restricted by a lack of toxicity data, sensitive test methods and endpoints for relevant species, and this requires rectification. The symbiotic sea anemone Exaiptasia pallida is a suitable test species, representing the phylum Cnidaria and allowing for assessments of toxicological responses of both the animal host and in-hospite Symbiodinium spp. Pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) chlorophyll-a fluorometry is recognised as a valuable ecotoxicological tool, and here newly-developed test methods are presented using PAM fluorometry to measure herbicide effects on photosynthetic efficiency of in-hospite Symbiodinium spp. Additionally, measurements on healthy laboratory-reared E. pallida provide baseline data demonstrating the normal effective quantum yield (EQY) and the maximum electron transport rate (ETR m ) for Symbiodinium spp. in the absence of herbicide stress. Concentration-dependant reductions in the EQY and ETR m occurred during diuron and atrazine exposures; a mean 48-h EC50 (effective concentration; 50%) of 8μg/L of diuron was estimated, however atrazine elicited a much lower toxicity. Twelve-day exposures to 10-200μg/L diuron showed that the greatest EQY effect occurred during the first 48h, with little subsequent change. However, longer exposures to the lowest diuron treatment (1μg/L) showed the lowest EQYs after 96h followed by recovery to control levels within 12d. Furthermore, asexual reproduction was inhibited during 12-d exposures to diuron, and 12-d EC50 values of 100 and 132μg/L were estimated to inhibit successful reproduction of pedal lacerates and juveniles by 50% respectively. This study provides much needed data contributions to species sensitivity curves for development of diuron and atrazine water quality guidelines in tropical marine environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Mockup experiments to investigate the leak rate correlation between mercury and helium for the mercury target system of J-PARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haga, Katsuhiro; Naoe, Takashi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Wakui, Takashi; Futakawa, Masatoshi

    2009-01-01

    Checking the seal performance of the mercury piping network is very important for the mercury target system operation of J-PARC, and the test method for leaks using the pressure change measurement is preferable for this purpose because it can be carried out easily and precisely by measuring the pressure change, and it is free from the risk of mercury contamination. The piping network is pressurized by helium gas. Thus, the correlation between the helium leak rate and mercury leak flow rate was investigated experimentally by carrying out leak tests for helium and mercury with an identical mockup flange model. The results showed that the mercury leak flow rates of the experimental data were lower than those of the estimated value by 64% on average. It was also found that the threshold of the helium leak rate at which good seal performance for mercury can be obtained exists between 2.18 x 10 -4 and 1.01 x 10 -2 Pa.m 3 /s. This fact confirmed the sufficient safety margin of the mercury target system against the mercury leak, where 1 x 10 -6 Pa.m 3 /s was adopted as the seal performance criterion. (author)

  12. Modeling organic aerosol from the oxidation of α-pinene in a Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A model has been developed to simulate the formation and evolution of secondary organic aerosol (SOA and was tested against data produced in a Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM flow reactor and a large environmental chamber. The model framework is based on the two-dimensional volatility basis set approach (2D-VBS, in which SOA oxidation products in the model are distributed on the 2-D space of effective saturation concentration (Ci* and oxygen-to-carbon ratio (O : C. The modeled organic aerosol mass concentrations (COA and O : C agree with laboratory measurements within estimated uncertainties. However, while both measured and modeled O : C increase with increasing OH exposure as expected, the increase of modeled O : C is rapid at low OH exposure and then slows as OH exposure increases while the increase of measured O : C is initially slow and then accelerates as OH exposure increases. A global sensitivity analysis indicates that modeled COA values are most sensitive to the assumed values for the number of Ci* bins, the heterogeneous OH reaction rate coefficient, and the yield of first-generation products. Modeled SOA O : C values are most sensitive to the assumed O : C of first-generation oxidation products, the number of Ci* bins, the heterogeneous OH reaction rate coefficient, and the number of O : C bins. All these sensitivities vary as a function of OH exposure. The sensitivity analysis indicates that the 2D-VBS model framework may require modifications to resolve discrepancies between modeled and measured O : C as a function of OH exposure.

  13. Effective information rates of single-carrier and multi-carrier modulation schemes for bandwidth constrained IM/DD systems

    KAUST Repository

    Mazahir, Sana

    2017-07-31

    Information-theoretic and signal processing aspects of some modulation schemes designed for intensity modulation/direct detection (IM/DD) optical wireless communication (OWC) systems are studied. Due to the constraints of IM/DD signals (non-negative real and baseband signals), the construction of these signals along with their time and frequency characteristics differ from their RF counterparts. This necessitates a careful study of such schemes under practical constraints. Three schemes are studied in this paper, namely, single carrier pulse amplitude modulation (SC-PAM), asymmetrically clipped optical OFDM (ACO-OFDM), and DC biased optical OFDM (DCO-OFDM). Our aim is to carry out a comparative study of these schemes in the presence of identical constraints on bandwidth and average optical power. The study reveals that the clipping operation required in ACO-OFDM significantly reduces its information rate, and as a result, it is outperformed by SC-PAM. Such a limitation does not apply to DCO-OFDM which has a higher information rate, even though part of the available optical power is expended in the non-information-bearing DC bias.

  14. One step synthesis of polyacrylamide functionalized graphene and its application in Pb(II) removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Zhiwei; Zhang, Yaoyao; Qian, Xiaoming; Shi, Jie; Chen, Lei; Li, Baodong; Niu, Jiarong; Liu, Liangsen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • PAM-g-graphene is synthesized by the co-irradiation between GO and AM monomers. • PAM graft on GO has led to the exfoliation of GO into individual sheets. • The γ-ray induced reduction of GO. • PAM-g-graphene exhibits high adsorption capacities toward Pb(II) ions. • PAM-g-graphene provides a new idea for heavy metal pollutants’ removal in water. - Abstract: Polyacrylamide grafted graphene (PAM-g-graphene) from graphite oxide (GO) was successfully prepared by γ-ray irradiation with acrylamide monomers in aqueous at room temperature in this paper. Our strategy involves the PAM chains graft on the surface and between the layers of GO by in situ radical polymerization which led to the exfoliation of GO into individual sheets. Results show that the degree of grafting of PAM-g-graphene samples is 24.2%, and the thickness is measured to be 2.59 nm. Moreover, the as-prepared PAM-g-graphene with some amino from PAM and little oxygen functional groups exhibit superior adsorption of Pb(II) ions. The adsorption processes reach equilibrium in just 30 min and the adsorption isotherms are described well by Langmuir and Freundlich classical isotherms models. The determined adsorption capacity of PAM-g-graphene is 819.67 mg g −1 (pH 6) for Pb(II), which is 20 times and 8 times capacities of that for graphene nanosheets and carbon nanotubes according to reports, respectively. This chemically modified graphene synthesized by this fast one-step approach, featuring a good versatility and adaptability, excellent adsorption capacity and rapid extraction, may provide a new idea for the global problem of heavy metal pollutants’ removal in water

  15. Clinicians’ beliefs and attitudes toward patient self-management in the Netherlands: translation and testing of the American Clinician Support for Patient Activation Measure (CS-PAM).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rademakers, J.; Jansen, D.; Hoek, L. van der; Heijmans, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to test the Dutch version of the Clinician Support for Patient Activation Measure (CS-PAM), to explore the beliefs of Dutch clinicians about patients’ selfmanagement, and to establish whether there are differences in this respect between general practitioners

  16. Monitoring energy efficiency and CO{sub 2} abatement policies: what can we learn from indicators UNFCC workshop best practices in PAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosseboeuf, D. [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, ADEME, 49 - Angers (France); Chaterau, B.; Lapillonne, B. [ENERDATA 38 - Gieres (France)

    2000-04-01

    Since 1992, 15 national agencies in charge of implementing energy efficiency and environmental policies have developed a monitoring tool for energy efficiency assessment called 'ODYSSEE'. To monitor trends of energy efficiency CO{sub 2}, a set of comparable energy efficiency indicators and CO{sub 2} indicators among countries has been commonly defined, calculated and interpreted by participants. Supported by the European Commission, This project will be used to provide 'official indicators' by the Commission. These indicators are calculated at different levels: by sector, end uses etc. This presentation will focus on how these indicators can be used to assess energy efficiency policy measures through examples over the different sectors. A selection of a priority set of indicators could be used to report on the impact of policies and measures. Such a framework for a set of indicators and reporting on PAM's could emerge under the condition of transparencies with respect to the methodology used. Since the first oil shock, various policies and measures (PAM's) on energy efficiency have been set up in Europe with different amplitudes and timing They have been reinforced with a new legitimacy with the raise of climate change concerns. Ministries, energy And environmental agencies or organisations in charge of the implementation of the programmes are directly concerned by the question of the evaluation of their actions. Among the different methodologies, macro-sectoral energy efficiency and CO{sub 2} indicators are helpful to monitor and evaluate energy efficiency and CO{sub 2} trends and policies. This paper presents an European initiative (the ODYSSEE project) carried out by 15 European countries since 1992. The use of indicators Certainly requires a transparent and consensual methodology which will be firstly presented. In a second part, we will illustrate how these indicators could be used to assess sectoral energy efficiency and CO{sub 2

  17. Multiclass Prediction with Partial Least Square Regression for Gene Expression Data: Applications in Breast Cancer Intrinsic Taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Cheng Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiclass prediction remains an obstacle for high-throughput data analysis such as microarray gene expression profiles. Despite recent advancements in machine learning and bioinformatics, most classification tools were limited to the applications of binary responses. Our aim was to apply partial least square (PLS regression for breast cancer intrinsic taxonomy, of which five distinct molecular subtypes were identified. The PAM50 signature genes were used as predictive variables in PLS analysis, and the latent gene component scores were used in binary logistic regression for each molecular subtype. The 139 prototypical arrays for PAM50 development were used as training dataset, and three independent microarray studies with Han Chinese origin were used for independent validation (n=535. The agreement between PAM50 centroid-based single sample prediction (SSP and PLS-regression was excellent (weighted Kappa: 0.988 within the training samples, but deteriorated substantially in independent samples, which could attribute to much more unclassified samples by PLS-regression. If these unclassified samples were removed, the agreement between PAM50 SSP and PLS-regression improved enormously (weighted Kappa: 0.829 as opposed to 0.541 when unclassified samples were analyzed. Our study ascertained the feasibility of PLS-regression in multi-class prediction, and distinct clinical presentations and prognostic discrepancies were observed across breast cancer molecular subtypes.

  18. Improved Characterization of Groundwater Flow in Heterogeneous Aquifers Using Granular Polyacrylamide (PAM) Gel as Temporary Grout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepikova, Maria V.; Roques, Clement; Loew, Simon; Selker, John

    2018-02-01

    The range of options for investigation of hydraulic behavior of aquifers from boreholes has been limited to rigid, cumbersome packers, and inflatable sleeves. Here we show how a new temporary borehole sealing technique using soft grains of polyacrylamide (PAM) gel as a sealing material can be used to investigate natural groundwater flow dynamics and discuss other possible applications of the technology. If no compressive stress is applied, the gel packing, with a permeability similar to open gravel, suppresses free convection, allowing for local temperature measurements and chemical sampling through free-flowing gel packing. Active heating laboratory and field experiments combined with temperature measurements along fiber optic cables were conducted in water-filled boreholes and boreholes filled with soft grains of polyacrylamide gel. The gel packing is shown to minimize the effect of free convection within the well column and enable detection of thin zones of relatively high or low velocity in a highly transmissive alluvial aquifer, thus providing a significant improvement compared to temperature measurements in open boreholes. Laboratory experiments demonstrate that under modest compressive stress to the gel media the permeability transitions from highly permeable to nearly impermeable grouting. Under this configuration the gel packing could potentially allow for monitoring local response pressure from the formation with all other locations in the borehole hydraulically isolated.

  19. Variable recruitment in bundles of miniature pneumatic artificial muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLaHunt, Sylvie A; Pillsbury, Thomas E; Wereley, Norman M

    2016-09-13

    The natural compliance and force generation properties of pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) allow them to operate like human muscles in anthropomorphic robotic manipulators. Traditionally, manipulators use a single PAM or multiple PAMs actuated in unison in place of a human muscle. However, these standard manipulators can experience significant efficiency losses when operated outside their target performance ranges at low actuation pressures. This study considers the application of a variable recruitment control strategy to a parallel bundle of miniature PAMs as an attempt to mimic the selective recruitment of motor units in a human muscle. Bundles of miniature PAMs are experimentally characterized, their actuation behavior is modeled, and the efficiency gains and losses associated with the application of a variable recruitment control strategy are assessed. This bio-inspired control strategy allows muscle bundles to operate the fewest miniature PAMs necessary to achieve a desired performance objective, improving the muscle bundle's operating efficiency over larger ranges of force generation and displacement. The study also highlights the need for improved PAM fabrication techniques to facilitate the production of identical miniature PAMs for inclusion in muscle bundles.

  20. Design of anisotropic pneumatic artificial muscles and their applications to soft wearable devices for text neck symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojoong Kim; Hyuntai Park; Jongwoo Kim; Kyu-Jin Cho; Yong-Lae Park

    2017-07-01

    Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) are frequently used actuators in soft robotics due to their structural flexibility. They are generally characterized by the tensile force due to the axial contraction and the radial force with volume expansion. To date, most applications of P AMs have utilized axial contractions. In contrast, we propose a novel way to control radial expansions of particular P AMs using anisotropic behaviors. P AMs generally consist of a cylindrical rubber bladder that expands with injection of air and multiple flexible but inextensible strings or mesh that surround the bladder to generate axial contraction force. We propose methods of generating radial expansion force in two ways. One is to control the spatial density of the strings that hold the bladder, and the other is to give asymmetric patterns directly to the bladder for geometrical anisotropy. To evaluate the performance of the actuators, soft sensors made of a hyperelastic material and a liquid conductor were attached to the P AMs for measuring local strains and pressures of the PAMs. We also suggest use of the proposed PAMs to a wearable therapeutic device for treating text neck symptoms as an application. The P AMs were used to exert a pressure to the back of the neck to recover the original spinal alignment from the deformed shape.

  1. The ability of PAM50 risk of recurrence score to predict 10-year distant recurrence in hormone receptor-positive postmenopausal women with special histological subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laenkholm, Anne-Vibeke; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Eriksen, Jens Ole

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Prosigna-PAM50 risk of recurrence (ROR) score has been validated in randomized clinical trials to predict 10-year distant recurrence (DR) in hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Here, we examine the ability of Prosigna for predicting DR at 10 years in a subgroup of postmenop...

  2. Assessment of variable application rates of biological amendment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of variable application rates of biological amendment substances on establishment and growth characteristics of maize plants. ... Hence, a greenhouse experiment was conducted in 2008 to assess the effects of variable rates (50, 75 and 100% of the recommended rates) of industrial manufactured biological ...

  3. Study On The Application Of Nutrient Immobilized Hydrogel As A Substrate For Hydroponics Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo Thi Thu Ha; Le Quang Luan; Nguyen Thi Nu; Nguyen Thi Vang; Phan Dinh Thai Son; Nguyen Quang Khanh

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is preparation of a nutrient hydrogel from CMC by irradiation for hydroponics culture. The hydrogel with different swelling prepared from CMC combined with PAM, nutrient and alginate by gamma-Co-60 irradiation. The hydrogel prepared by irradiation of the component with 20% CMC, 20% PAM, 1% alginate and nutrients at 15 kGy was suitable for the growth and development of plants. In particularly, the hydrogel showed a positive effect on germination ratio of seeds, the growth of 14 days seedling and the growth of lettuce and Chinese mustard in hydroponics cultivation. The hydrogel was completely collapsed after 5 weeks use in a hydroponics culture. The hydrogel showed a promising for application in hydroponics culture, a new technique for production of high yield and high quality vegetables. (NHA)

  4. Optimization of PAM-4 transmitters based on lumped silicon photonic MZMs for high-speed short-reach optical links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shiyu; Wu, Hsin-Ta; Sadeghipour, Khosrov; Scarcella, Carmelo; Eason, Cormac; Rensing, Marc; Power, Mark J; Antony, Cleitus; O'Brien, Peter; Townsend, Paul D; Ossieur, Peter

    2017-02-20

    We demonstrate how to optimize the performance of PAM-4 transmitters based on lumped Silicon Photonic Mach-Zehnder Modulators (MZMs) for short-reach optical links. Firstly, we analyze the trade-off that occurs between extinction ratio and modulation loss when driving an MZM with a voltage swing less than the MZM's Vπ. This is important when driver circuits are realized in deep submicron CMOS process nodes. Next, a driving scheme based upon a switched capacitor approach is proposed to maximize the achievable bandwidth of the combined lumped MZM and CMOS driver chip. This scheme allows the use of lumped MZM for high speed optical links with reduced RF driver power consumption compared to the conventional approach of driving MZMs (with transmission line based electrodes) with a power amplifier. This is critical for upcoming short-reach link standards such as 400Gb/s 802.3 Ethernet. The driver chip was fabricated using a 65nm CMOS technology and flip-chipped on top of the Silicon Photonic chip (fabricated using IMEC's ISIPP25G technology) that contains the MZM. Open eyes with 4dB extinction ratio for a 36Gb/s (18Gbaud) PAM-4 signal are experimentally demonstrated. The electronic driver chip has a core area of only 0.11mm2 and consumes 236mW from 1.2V and 2.4V supply voltages. This corresponds to an energy efficiency of 6.55pJ/bit including Gray encoder and retiming, or 5.37pJ/bit for the driver circuit only.

  5. PAM: Particle automata model in simulation of Fusarium graminearum pathogen expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wcisło, Rafał; Miller, S Shea; Dzwinel, Witold

    2016-01-21

    The multi-scale nature and inherent complexity of biological systems are a great challenge for computer modeling and classical modeling paradigms. We present a novel particle automata modeling metaphor in the context of developing a 3D model of Fusarium graminearum infection in wheat. The system consisting of the host plant and Fusarium pathogen cells can be represented by an ensemble of discrete particles defined by a set of attributes. The cells-particles can interact with each other mimicking mechanical resistance of the cell walls and cell coalescence. The particles can move, while some of their attributes can be changed according to prescribed rules. The rules can represent cellular scales of a complex system, while the integrated particle automata model (PAM) simulates its overall multi-scale behavior. We show that due to the ability of mimicking mechanical interactions of Fusarium tip cells with the host tissue, the model is able to simulate realistic penetration properties of the colonization process reproducing both vertical and lateral Fusarium invasion scenarios. The comparison of simulation results with micrographs from laboratory experiments shows encouraging qualitative agreement between the two. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. When activation changes, what else changes? the relationship between change in patient activation measure (PAM) and employees' health status and health behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Lisa; Fowles, Jinnet Briggs; Xi, Min; Terry, Paul

    2012-08-01

    To test whether changes in the patient activation measure (PAM) are related to changes in health status and healthy behaviors. Data for this secondary analysis were taken from a group-randomized, controlled trial comparing a traditional health promotion program for employees with an activated consumer program and a control program. The study population included 320 employees (with and without chronic disease) from two U.S. companies: a large, integrated health care system and a national airline. Survey and biometric data were collected in Spring 2005 (baseline) and Spring 2007 (follow-up). Change in PAM was associated with changes in health behaviors at every level (1-4), especially at level 4. Changes related to overall risk score and many of its components: aerobic exercise, safety, cancer risk, stress and mental health. Other changes included frequency of eating breakfast and the likelihood of knowing about health plans and how they compare. Level 4 of patient activation is not an end-point. People are capable of continuing to make significant change within this level. Interventions should be designed to encourage movement from lower to higher levels of activation. Even people at the most activated level improve health behaviors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Polyacrylamide molecular weight and phosphogypsum effects on infiltration and erosion in semi-arid soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal formation at the surface of semi-arid soils during rainstorms reduces soil infiltration rate (IR) and causes runoff and erosion. Surface application of dry anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) with high molecular weight (MW) has been found to be effective in stabilizing soil aggregates, and decreasing ...

  8. PAM50 breast cancer intrinsic subtypes and effect of gemcitabine in advanced breast cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Charlotte Levin Tykjær; Nielsen, Torsten O; Bjerre, Karsten D

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In vitro studies suggest basal breast cancers are more sensitive to gemcitabine relative to other intrinsic subtypes. The main objective of this study was to use specimens from a randomized clinical trial to evaluate whether the basal-like subtype identifies patients with advanced...... breast cancer who benefit from gemcitabine plus docetaxel (GD) compared to single agent docetaxel (D). MATERIAL AND METHODS: From patients randomly assigned to GD or D, RNA was isolated from archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded primary breast tumor tissue and used for PAM50 intrinsic subtyping...... chemotherapy were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method, and Cox proportional hazards regression models. Data analysis was performed independently by the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) statistical core and all statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: RNA from 270 patients was evaluable; 84...

  9. WiFi, multiband clipped LTE-A and Gbps 4-PAM simultaneous transmission over 50m Thick-core POF and wireless link for home area networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forni, F.; Shi, Y.; van den Boom, H.P.A.; Tangdiongga, E.; Koonen, A.M.J.

    2018-01-01

    An IEEE802.11n-compliant 40MHz WiFi, 9 bands 64-QAM LTE-A with reduced PAPR by clipping and 1.7Gb/s 4-PAM signals were successfully transmitted over 50m PMMA GI-POF and 12m wireless. This proves that POF is suitable for multi-standard wireless-wired in-home networks.

  10. Real-Time 200 Gb/s (4x56.25 Gb/s) PAM-4 Transmission over 80 km SSMF using Quantum-Dot Laser and Silicon Ring-Modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiselt, Nicklas; Griesser, Helmut; Eiselt, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We report real-time 4x56.26-Gb/s DWDM PAM-4 transmission over 80-km SSMF with novel optical transmitter sub-assembly comprising multi-wavelength quantum-dot laser and silicon ring modulators. Pre-FEC BERs below 1E-4 are achieved after 80-km, allowing error-free operation with HD-FEC...

  11. Process error rates in general research applications to the Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To examine process error rates in applications for ethics clearance of health research. Methods. Minutes of 586 general research applications made to a human health research ethics committee (HREC) from April 2008 to March 2009 were examined. Rates of approval were calculated and reasons for requiring ...

  12. 40-Gb/s PAM4 with low-complexity equalizers for next-generation PON systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xizi; Zhou, Ji; Guo, Mengqi; Qi, Jia; Hu, Fan; Qiao, Yaojun; Lu, Yueming

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate 40-Gb/s four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM4) transmission with 10 GHz devices and low-complexity equalizers for next-generation passive optical network (PON) systems. Simple feed-forward equalizer (FFE) and decision feedback equalizer (DFE) enable 20 km fiber transmission while high-complexity Volterra algorithm in combination with FFE and DFE can extend the transmission distance to 40 km. A simplified Volterra algorithm is proposed for reducing computational complexity. Simulation results show that the simplified Volterra algorithm reduces up to ∼75% computational complexity at a relatively low cost of only 0.4 dB power budget. At a forward error correction (FEC) threshold of 10-3 , we achieve 31.2 dB and 30.8 dB power budget over 40 km fiber transmission using traditional FFE-DFE-Volterra and our simplified FFE-DFE-Volterra, respectively.

  13. Interactive Shape Modeling using a Skeleton-Mesh Co-Representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jacob Andreas; Abdrashitov, Rinat; Singh, Karan

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the Polar-Annular Mesh representation (PAM). A PAM is a mesh-skeleton co-representation designed for the modeling of 3D organic, articulated shapes. A PAM represents a manifold mesh as a partition of polar (triangle fans) and annular (rings of quads) regions. The skeletal topology of...... a PAM to a quad-only mesh. We further present a PAM-based multi-touch sculpting application in order to demonstrate its utility as a shape representation for the interactive modeling of organic, articulated figures as well as for editing and posing of pre-existing models....

  14. Fast and compact optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy using a water-proofing two-axis MEMS scanner, and a step forward to clinical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Changho; Lim, Geunbae; Kim, Chulhong

    2016-03-01

    Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) is a novel microscopic tool to provide in vivo optically sensitive images in biomedical research. Conventional OR-PAM systems are typically slow and bulky because of the linear scanning stages with stepping motors. For practical purposes, however, fast imaging speed and small footprint are crucial. To address these issues, we have developed a real-time compact OR-PAM system equipped with a waterproof two-axis MEMS scanner. The OR-PAM system consists of key components such as an ultrasonic transducer with a bandwidth of 50 MHz, an opto-acoustic beam combiner (BC), and an MEMS scanner. These are all installed inside a small water tank, with dimensions of 30 mm × 90 mm × 30 mm along the x-, y-, and z-axes, respectively. A pulsed laser with a repetition rate of 50 kHz is confocally aligned with the photoacoustic (PA) waves in the BC to maximize the SNRs. The fast scanning ability of the MEMS scanner fully utilizes the A-scan speed of 50 kHz. For instance, the B- and C-scan imaging speeds are 125 Hz and 0.625 Hz, respectively, when the acquired PA maximum amplitude projection image has 200 × 200 pixels along the x- and y-axes, respectively. The measured lateral resolution of 3.6 μm and axial resolution of 27 μm are sufficient to resolve the small capillaries. Finally, we have successfully obtained in vivo PA images of iris microvasculatures in mice. This real-time and compact OR-PAM system is optimized to examine small animals in clinical studies.

  15. Experimental comparison of simultaneous transmission of LTE-A multi-band and gigabit/s 4-PAM signals up to 50 m of large-core graded-index POF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forni, F.; Shi, Y.; Van Den Boom, H.P.A.; Tangdiongga, E.; Koonen, A.M.J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the experimental results of the co-transmission of a multi-band LTE-A and gigabit/s baseband 4-PAM signals over 35 m and over 50 m of 1 mm core diameter PMMA GI-POF, using low-cost components. Both links used a red light 650nm laser diode and p-i-n photodiode with transimpedance

  16. Use of in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence to estimate photosynthetic activity and biomass productivity in microalgae grown in different culture systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix L Figueroa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In vivo chlorophyll fluorescence associated to Photosystem II is being used to evaluate photosynthetic activity of microalgae grown in different types of photobioreactors; however, controversy on methodology is usual. Several recommendations on the use of chlorophyll fluorescence to estimate electron transport rate and productivity of microalgae grown in thin-layer cascade cultivators and methacrylate cylindrical vessels are included. Different methodologies related to the measure of photosynthetic activity in microalgae are discussed: (1 measurement of light absorption, (2 determination of electron transport rates versus irradiance and (3 use of simplified devices based on pulse amplitude modulated (PAM fluorescence as Junior PAM or Pocket PAM with optical fiber and optical head as measuring units, respectively. Data comparisons of in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence by using these devices and other PAM fluorometers as Water-PAM in the microalga Chlorella sp. (Chlorophyta are presented. Estimations of carbon production and productivity by transforming electron transport rate to gross photosynthetic rate (as oxygen evolution using reported oxygen produced per photons absorbed values and carbon photosynthetic yield based on reported oxygen/carbon ratio are also shown. The limitation of ETR as estimator of photosynthetic and biomass productivity is discussed. Low cost:quality PAMs can promote monitoring of chlorophyll fluorescence in algal biotechnology to estimate the photosynthetic activity and biomass productivity.

  17. Practice change in community pharmacy: using change-management principles when implementing a pharmacy asthma management service in NSW, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feletto, Eleonora; Lui, Grace Wan Ying; Armour, Carol; Saini, Bandana

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the application of a research-based change-management tool, the Pharmacy Change Readiness Wheel (PCRW), in practice, and the impact it had on the implementation of an asthma service (Pharmacy Asthma Management Service or PAMS). All pharmacists implementing the PAMS in the state of New South Wales, Australia, were provided training using a custom-designed module explaining change readiness as it applied to the PAMS. This training and a self-administered PCRW checklist were completed before PAMS implementation. Following PAMS service delivery, semi-structured phone interviews were conducted with the pharmacists and any additional staff involved regarding their experiences of change management. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and content analysed. Thirty seven of the forty five pharmacies who delivered PAMS returned the PCRW checklist (82% response rate) and participants from 29 pharmacies were interviewed (29 pharmacists and six additional staff). Perception of readiness for change before service delivery was remarkably high. From the interviews conducted after service delivery it was evident that systematic management of the practice change using theoretical concepts had not really been undertaken and that many challenges were faced in the implementation of practice change (PAMS). The results of the content analysis from the interviews revealed that factors external or internal to the pharmacy or those related to the individual pharmacist could affect implementation of practice change. Change is not as straightforward as it may appear and is a multi-step process over time. Pharmacists were unaware of this. A change-management framework should be applied to specific services with enough flexibility so that pharmacists can individualise them for their pharmacies. © 2012 The Authors. IJPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  18. One step electrosynthesis of polyacrylamide crosslinked by reduced graphene oxide and its application in the simultaneous determination of dopamine and uric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yu Jun

    2014-01-01

    Polyacrylamide (PAM)/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposite (PAM/rGO) with rGO nanosheets as cross-linkers were synthesized via electropolymerizing acrylamide in an aqueous suspension of GO containing sodium nitrate and potassium persulfate. The PAM/rGO was characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD patterns of the PAM/rGO indicated that rGO was fully exfoliated into individual sheets in the polymer matrix. SEM study exhibits the highly uniform coverage of PAM/rGO membrane on the GCE and its fibrous nanostructure. The electrochemical characteristics of the PAM/rGO modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) were investigated with cyclic voltammetry (CV), suggesting the extraordinary electrocatalytic effect of PAM/rGO/GCE towards the electro-oxidation of UA and DA. The PAM/rGO/GCE behaved linearly to DA and UA in the concentration range of 3 × 10 −7 to 5 × 10 −5 M and 1 × 10 −6 to 5 × 10 −5 M with a detection limit of 1 × 10 −7 M and 5 × 10 −7 M, respectively. The proposed method was successfully utilized for simultaneous determination of UA and DA in real samples

  19. An economical method of maintenance for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Mengyi; Wu Liming; Zhong Zhimin

    2014-01-01

    A new method of enhancing operation economy without loss any reliability method is called Proactive Ageing Management (PAM in short). PAM can be used for generic and specific plant in almost all situations that concern reliability and economy problem. PAM 2.0 software, which is a professional software during PAM process application, plays an important role to help analysts evaluate all strategies showed above and also provides decision advises to nuclear power plant manager using Net Present Values (NPV) criteria. Additionally, one case was taken as an example to illustrate PAM process, the role of software and explain the results for use. (authors)

  20. The simulation of magnesium wheel low pressure die casting based on PAM-CASTTM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Yinghong; Wang Yingchun; Li Dayong; Zeng Xiaoqin

    2004-01-01

    Magnesium is the lightest metal commonly used in engineering, with various excellent characteristics such as high strength and electromagnetic interference shielding capability. Particularly, the usage of magnesium in automotive industry can meet better the need to reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. Nowadays, most current magnesium components in automobiles are made by die casting. In this paper, commercial software for die casting, PAM-CAST TM , was utilized to simulate the low pressure die casting process of magnesium wheel. Through calculating temperature field and velocity field during filling and solidification stages, the evolution of temperature distribution and liquid fraction was analyzed. Then, the potential defects including the gas entrapments in the middle of the spokes, shrinkages between the rim and the spokes were forecasted. The analytical results revealed that the mold geometry and die casting parameters should be improved in order to get the sound magnesium wheel. The reasons leading to these defects were also analyzed and the solutions to eliminate them were put forward. Furthermore, through reducing the pouring velocity, the air gas entrapments and partial shrinkages were eliminated effectively

  1. Developing a java android application of KMV-Merton default rate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Norliza Muhamad; Anuar, Aini Hayati; Isa, Norsyaheeda Natasha; Zulkafli, Sharifah Nursyuhada Syed; Sapini, Muhamad Luqman

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a developed java android application for KMV-Merton model in predicting the defaut rate of a firm. Predicting default rate is essential in the risk management area as default risk can be immediately transmitted from one entity to another entity. This is the reason default risk is known as a global risk. Although there are several efforts, instruments and methods used to manage the risk, it is said to be insufficient. To the best of our knowledge, there has been limited innovation in developing the default risk mathematical model into a mobile application. Therefore, through this study, default risk is predicted quantitatively using the KMV-Merton model. The KMV-Merton model has been integrated in the form of java program using the Android Studio Software. The developed java android application is tested by predicting the levels of default risk of the three different rated companies. It is found that the levels of default risk are equivalent to the ratings of the respective companies. This shows that the default rate predicted by the KMV-Merton model using the developed java android application can be a significant tool to the risk mangement field. The developed java android application grants users an alternative to predict level of default risk within less procedure.

  2. Barriers to publishing in biomedical journals perceived by a sample of French researchers: results of the DIAzePAM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duracinsky, Martin; Lalanne, Christophe; Rous, Laurence; Dara, Aichata Fofana; Baudoin, Lesya; Pellet, Claire; Descamps, Alexandre; Péretz, Fabienne; Chassany, Olivier

    2017-07-10

    As publishing is essential but competitive for researchers, difficulties in writing and submitting medical articles to biomedical journals are disabling. The DIAzePAM (Difficultés des Auteurs à la Publication d'Articles Médicaux) survey aimed to assess the difficulties experienced by researchers in the AP-HP (Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris, i.e., Paris Hospitals Board, France), the largest public health institution in Europe, when preparing articles for biomedical journals. The survey also aimed to assess researchers' satisfaction and perceived needs. A 39-item electronic questionnaire based on qualitative interviews was addressed by e-mail to all researchers registered in the AP-HP SIGAPS (Système d'Interrogation, de Gestion et d'Analyse des Publications Scientifiques) bibliometric database. Between 28 May and 15 June 2015, 7766 researchers should have received and read the e-mail, and 1191 anonymously completed the questionnaire (write (79%) or submit (27%), limited skills in English (40%) or in writing (32%), and difficulty in starting writing (35%). 87% of respondents would accept technical support, especially in English reediting (79%), critical reediting (63%), formatting (52%), and/or writing (41%), to save time (92%) and increase high-impact-factor journal submission and acceptance (75%). 79% of respondents would appreciate funding support for their future publications, for English reediting (56%), medical writing (21%), or publication (38%) fees. They considered that this funding support could be covered by AP-HP (73%) and/or by the added financial value obtained by their department from previous publications (56%). The DIAzePAM survey highlights difficulties experienced by researchers preparing articles for biomedical journals, and details room for improvement.

  3. Effect of polyacrylamide on soil physical and hydraulic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalasmeh, Ammar; Gharaibeh, Mamoun; Hamdan, Enas

    2017-04-01

    The effect of polyacrylamide (PAM), as a soil conditioner, on selected soil physical and hydraulic properties (infiltration rate (f(t)), hydraulic conductivity (HC), soil moisture content, aggregate stability (AS), and soil aggregation) was studied. Two types of anionic PAM were used: Low molecular weight (LPAM) (1×105 g/mol) with medium charge density (33-43) and high molecular weight (HPAM) (1-6×106 g/mol) with medium charge density (33-43). Sandy loam soil was packed into plastic columns; PAM solutions at different concentrations (100, 250, 500, and 1000 mg L-1) were used every two weeks in four wetting and drying cycles. The highest infiltration rate value was 0.16 mm s-1 at 1000 mg/L low molecular weight PAM while the highest value of infiltration rate in high PAM molecular weight was 0.11 mm s-1 compared to the control (0.01 mm s-1). Soil HC was about 3.00 cm h-1 for LPAM at 1000 mg L-1 PAM, while the highest value for HPAM was about 2 cm h-1 for the same concentration, compared to the control. The amount of water that can be held by soil increased with the addition of PAM compared to the control. Differences in water content were more pronounced in LPAM compared to HPAM. The addition of LPAM increased aggregate stability proportional to PAM concentration. Moreover, 1000 mg L-1 produced the highest aggregate stability (19{%}) compared to HPAM and control (7{%} and 5{%}), respectively. As PAM concentration increased, the geometric mean diameter (GMD) increased for both PAM molecular weights compared to control (0.4 mm). At 1000 mg L-1 the GMD values were 0.88 mm and 0.79 mm for LPAM and HPAM, respectively. The addition of PAM improved soil physical and hydraulic properties, with an advantage to LPAM owing that to its ability to penetrate soil aggregates and therefore stabilizing them.

  4. Failure modes of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries for electric bicycle applications in deep discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yonglang; Tang, Shengqun [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China); Meng, Gang; Yang, Shijun [Hubei Camel Storage Battery Co. Ltd., Gucheng 441705 (China)

    2009-06-01

    The 36 or 48 V valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery packs have been widely applied to the power sources of electric bicycles or light electric scooters in China. The failure modes of the 12 V/10 Ah VRLA batteries have been studied by the cycle life test at C{sub 2} discharge rate and 100% depth of discharge (DOD). It indicates that the main cause of the battery failure in this cycle duty is the softening and shedding of positive active mass (PAM) rather than individual water loss, recombination efficiency or sulfation, etc. When the electrolyte saturation falls to a certain extent, the high oxygen recombination current leads to the depolarization of the negative plate and the shift of the positive plate to a higher potential. The violent oxygen evolution accelerates the softening of PAM and the end of cycle life. (author)

  5. Circuit and interconnect design for high bit-rate applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, H.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents circuit and interconnect design techniques and design flows that address the most difficult and ill-defined aspects of the design of ICs for high bit-rate applications. Bottlenecks in interconnect design, circuit design and on-chip signal distribution for high bit-rate

  6. Cytotoxicity of cancer HeLa cells sensitivity to normal MCF10A cells in cultivations with cell culture medium treated by microwave-excited atmospheric pressure plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yohei; Taki, Yusuke; Takeda, Keigo; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Ishikawa, Kenji; Hori, Masaru

    2018-03-01

    Cytotoxic effects of human epithelial carcinoma HeLa cells sensitivity to human mammary epithelial MCF10A cells appeared in incubation with the plasma-activated medium (PAM), where the cell culture media were irradiated with the hollow-shaped contact of a continuously discharged plasma that was sustained by application of a microwave power under Ar gas flow at atmospheric pressure. The discharged plasma had an electron density of 7  ×  1014 cm-3. As the nozzle exit to the plasma source was a distance of 5 mm to the medium, concentrations of 180 µM for H2O2 and 77 µM for NO2- were generated in the PAM for 30 s irradiation, resulting in the control of irradiation periods for aqueous H2O2 with a generation rate of 6.0 µM s-1, and nitrite ion (NO2- ) with a rate of 2.2 µM s-1. Effective concentrations of H2O2 and NO2- for the antitumor effects were revealed in the microwave-excited PAM, with consideration of the complicated reactions at the plasma-liquid interfaces.

  7. Systems and rates of aerial application of fungicides in irrigated rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Bayer

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present research studied the performance of flat-fan and hollow-cone nozzles, with application rates of 20 and 30 L ha-1, and rotary disc atomizer with application rates of 10 and 15 L ha-1. The test was conducted with a fungicide spray tank composed of Azoxystrobin + Difenoconazole, in which the density and penetration of droplets into the canopy were evaluated using a water-sensitive paper and the distribution of the active ingredients in the plant was evaluated through the chromatographic analysis. Higher application rates resulted in higher droplet density in the upper stratum of plants. In all treatments, the penetration of the droplets was 26% into the middle stratum and 23% into the lower stratum, in relation to the top of the crop, resulting in an average 25% penetration of droplets into the leaf canopy. The active ingredients were distributed in greater quantity in the upper stratum of the plant. For the same weight, the upper part of the ‘Puitá Inta CL’ rice cultivar has a leaf area 6.4 times larger than the lower part. It was concluded that higher application rate leads to higher droplet density in the upper stratum of the leaf canopy and that all systems and application rates promoted similar penetration of droplets into the canopy.

  8. Decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents with a single multi-functional material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitai, Gabi; Murata, Hironobu; Andersen, Jill D; Koepsel, Richard R; Russell, Alan J

    2010-05-01

    We report the synthesis of new polymers based on a dimethylacrylamide-methacrylate (DMAA-MA) co-polymer backbone that support both chemical and biological agent decontamination. Polyurethanes containing the redox enzymes glucose oxidase and horseradish peroxidase can convert halide ions into active halogens and exert striking bactericidal activity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria. New materials combining those biopolymers with a family of N-alkyl 4-pyridinium aldoxime (4-PAM) halide-acrylate co-polymers offer both nucleophilic activity for the detoxification of organophosphorus nerve agents and internal sources of halide ions for generation of biocidal activity. Generation of free bromine and iodine was observed in the combined material resulting in bactericidal activity of the enzymatically formed free halogens that caused complete kill of E. coli (>6 log units reduction) within 1 h at 37 degrees C. Detoxification of diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) by the polyDMAA MA-4-PAM iodide component was dose-dependent reaching 85% within 30 min. A subset of 4-PAM-halide co-polymers was designed to serve as a controlled release reservoir for N-hydroxyethyl 4-PAM (HE 4-PAM) molecules that reactivate nerve agent-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Release rates for HE 4-PAM were consistent with hydrolysis of the HE 4-PAM from the polymer backbone. The HE 4-PAM that was released from the polymer reactivated DFP-inhibited AChE at a similar rate to the oxime antidote 4-PAM. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigation of selective induction of breast cancer cells to death with treatment of plasma-activated medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashizume, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Nakamura, Kae; Kano, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Kenji; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Mizuno, Masaaki; Hori, Masaru

    2015-09-01

    The applications of plasma in medicine have much attention. We previously showed that plasma-activated medium (PAM) induced glioblastoma cells to apoptosis. However, it has not been elucidated the selectivity of PAM in detail. In this study, we investigated the selective effect of PAM on the death of human breast normal and cancer cells, MCF10A and MCF7, respectively, and observed the selective death with fluorescent microscopy. For the investigation of cell viability with PAM treatment, we prepared various PAMs according to the strengths, and treated each of cells with PAMs. Week PAM treatment only decreased the viability of MCF7 cells, while strong PAM treatment significantly affected both viabilities of MCF7 and MCF10A cells. For the fluorescent observation, we prepared the mixture of MCF7 and fluorescent-probed MCF10A cells, and seeded them. After the treatment of PAMs, the images showed that only MCF7 cells damaged in the mixture with week PAM treatment. These results suggested that a specific range existed with the selective effect in the strength of PAM. This work was partly supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas ``Plasma Medical Innovation'' Grant No. 24108002 and 24108008 from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan.

  10. 38 CFR 61.13 - Rating criteria for capital grant applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the project at the time of application. (h) Cost-effectiveness. VA will award up to 100 points for cost-effectiveness. Projects will be rated based on the cost and number of new supportive housing beds... capital grant applications. (a) Applicants that meet the threshold requirements in § 61.12 of this part...

  11. Pressure-activated microsyringe (PAM) fabrication of bioactive glass-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) composite scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli-Belmonte, M; De Maria, C; Vitale-Brovarone, C; Baino, F; Dicarlo, M; Vozzi, G

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this work was the fabrication and characterization of bioactive glass-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) composite scaffolds mimicking the topological features of cancellous bone. Porous multilayer PLGA-CEL2 composite scaffolds were innovatively produced by a pressure-activated microsyringe (PAM) method, a CAD/CAM processing technique originally developed at the University of Pisa. In order to select the optimal formulations to be extruded by PAM, CEL2-PLGA composite films (CEL2 is an experimental bioactive SiO 2 -P 2 O 5 -CaO-MgO-Na 2 O-K 2 O glass developed at Politecnico di Torino) were produced and mechanically tested. The elastic modulus of the films increased from 30 to > 400 MPa, increasing the CEL2 amount (10-50 wt%) in the composite. The mixture containing 20 wt% CEL2 was used to fabricate 2D and 3D bone-like scaffolds composed by layers with different topologies (square, hexagonal and octagonal pores). It was observed that the increase of complexity of 2D topological structures led to an increment of the elastic modulus from 3 to 9 MPa in the composite porous monolayer. The elastic modulus of 3D multilayer scaffolds was intermediate (about 6.5 MPa) between the values of the monolayers with square and octagonal pores (corresponding to the lowest and highest complexity, respectively). MG63 osteoblast-like cells and periosteal-derived precursor cells (PDPCs) were used to assess the biocompatibility of the 3D bone-like scaffolds. A significant increase in cell proliferation between 48 h and 7 days of culture was observed for both cell phenotypes. Moreover, qRT-PCR analysis evidenced an induction of early genes of osteogenesis in PDPCs. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Application of quantum-dot multi-wavelength lasers and silicon photonic ring resonators to data-center optical interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, Douglas J. S.; Hickey, Ryan; Logan, Dylan F.; Knights, Andrew P.; Chen, Rong; Cao, Bin; Wheeldon, Jeffery F.

    2018-02-01

    Quantum dot comb sources integrated with silicon photonic ring-resonator filters and modulators enable the realization of optical sub-components and modules for both inter- and intra-data-center applications. Low-noise, multi-wavelength, single-chip, laser sources, PAM4 modulation and direct detection allow a practical, scalable, architecture for applications beyond 400 Gb/s. Multi-wavelength, single-chip light sources are essential for reducing power dissipation, space and cost, while silicon photonic ring resonators offer high-performance with space and power efficiency.

  13. Pick-a-mood; development and application of a pictorial mood-reporting instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desmet, P.M.A.; Vastenburg, M.H.; Van Bel, D.; Romero Herrera, N.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents ‘Pick-A-Mood’ (PAM), a cartoon-based pictorial instrument for reporting and expressing moods. The use of cartoon characters enables people to unambiguously and visually express or report their mood in a rich and easy-to-use way. PAM consists of three characters that each express

  14. Degradation of homogeneous polymer solutions in high shear turbulent pipe flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbing, B. R.; Winkel, E. S.; Solomon, M. J.; Ceccio, S. L.

    2009-12-01

    This study quantifies degradation of polyethylene oxide (PEO) and polyacrylamide (PAM) polymer solutions in large diameter (2.72 cm) turbulent pipe flow at Reynolds numbers to 3 × 105 and shear rates greater than 105 1/s. The present results support a universal scaling law for polymer chain scission reported by Vanapalli et al. (2006) that predicts the maximum chain drag force to be proportional to Re 3/2, validating this scaling law at higher Reynolds numbers than prior studies. Use of this scaling gives estimated backbone bond strengths from PEO and PAM of 3.2 and 3.8 nN, respectively. Additionally, with the use of synthetic seawater as a solvent the onset of drag reduction occurred at higher shear rates relative to the pure water solvent solutions, but had little influence on the extent of degradation at higher shear rates. These results are significant for large diameter pipe flow applications that use polymers to reduce drag.

  15. Experiences with leak rate calculations methods for LBB application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grebner, H.; Kastner, W.; Hoefler, A.; Maussner, G. [and others

    1997-04-01

    In this paper, three leak rate computer programs for the application of leak before break analysis are described and compared. The programs are compared to each other and to results of an HDR Reactor experiment and two real crack cases. The programs analyzed are PIPELEAK, FLORA, and PICEP. Generally, the different leak rate models are in agreement. To obtain reasonable agreement between measured and calculated leak rates, it was necessary to also use data from detailed crack investigations.

  16. Experiences with leak rate calculations methods for LBB application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grebner, H.; Kastner, W.; Hoefler, A.; Maussner, G.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, three leak rate computer programs for the application of leak before break analysis are described and compared. The programs are compared to each other and to results of an HDR Reactor experiment and two real crack cases. The programs analyzed are PIPELEAK, FLORA, and PICEP. Generally, the different leak rate models are in agreement. To obtain reasonable agreement between measured and calculated leak rates, it was necessary to also use data from detailed crack investigations

  17. An interspecies comparison of the phagocytosis and dissolution of 241AmO2 particles by rat, dog and monkey alveolar macrophages in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taya, A.; Carmack, D.B.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Mewhinney, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the phagocytosis and dissolution of 241 AmO 2 particles by rat, dog and monkey alveolar macrophages (PAM) in vitro. The phagocytosis and dissolution of 241 AmO 2 particles were followed up to 20 and 72 h, respectively. Dog and monkey PAM took up 241 AmO 2 particles at similar rates, whereas rat PAM phagocytosed only 60% of the amount phagocytosed by dog and monkey PAM at 20h. The PAM of the three species dissolved 241 AmO 2 particles at similar rates; 8-10% was dissolved by 72h. The results of the 241 AmO 2 uptake in vitro may reflect in vivo situations, where the differences in uptake seen in vitro would probably diminish at later times after exposure. The dissolution results imply that the dissolution of 241 AmO 2 particles by alveolar macrophages of the three species might be species-independent. (author)

  18. An integrated pavement data management and feedback system (PAMS) : evaluation of pavement condition rating procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    This report describes an evaluation of a method for use in the Highway Needs Study pavement condition rating. The methods by which the Department generates and manages pavement condition data in the overall process of providing a network of highways ...

  19. Application of Nanoparticle Technology to Reduce the Anti-Microbial Resistance through β-Lactam Antibiotic-Polymer Inclusion Nano-Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamanca, Constain H; Yarce, Cristhian J; Roman, Yony; Davalos, Andrés F; Rivera, Gustavo R

    2018-02-10

    Biocompatible polymeric materials with potential to form functional structures in association with different therapeutic molecules have a high potential for biological, medical and pharmaceutical applications. Therefore, the capability of the inclusion of nano-Complex formed between the sodium salt of poly(maleic acid- alt -octadecene) and a β-lactam drug (ampicillin trihydrate) to avoid the chemical and enzymatic degradation and enhance the biological activity were evaluated. PAM-18Na was produced and characterized, as reported previously. The formation of polymeric hydrophobic aggregates in aqueous solution was determined, using pyrene as a fluorescent probe. Furthermore, the formation of polymer-drug nano-complexes was characterized by Differential Scanning Calorimetry-DSC, viscometric, ultrafiltration/centrifugation assays, zeta potential and size measurements were determined by dynamic light scattering-DLS. The PAM-18Na capacity to avoid the chemical degradation was studied through stress stability tests. The enzymatic degradation was evaluated from a pure β-lactamase, while the biological degradation was determined by different β-lactamase producing Staphylococcus aureus strains. When ampicillin was associated with PAM-18Na, the half-life time in acidic conditions increased, whereas both the enzymatic degradation and the minimum inhibitory concentration decreased to a 90 and 75%, respectively. These results suggest a promissory capability of this polymer to protect the β-lactam drugs against chemical, enzymatic and biological degradation.

  20. Quantitative imaging of bilirubin by photoacoustic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong; Zhang, Chi; Yao, Da-Kang; Wang, Lihong V.

    2013-03-01

    Noninvasive detection of both bilirubin concentration and its distribution is important for disease diagnosis. Here we implemented photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) to detect bilirubin distribution. We first demonstrate that our PAM system can measure the absorption spectra of bilirubin and blood. We also image bilirubin distributions in tissuemimicking samples, both without and with blood mixed. Our results show that PAM has the potential to quantitatively image bilirubin in vivo for clinical applications.

  1. Grain, milling, and head rice yields as affected by nitrogen rate and bio-fertilizer application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed FIROUZI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of nitrogen rate and bio-fertilizer application on grain, milling, and head rice yields, a field experiment was conducted at Rice Research Station of Tonekabon, Iran, in 2013. The experimental design was a factorial treatment arrangement in a randomized complete block with three replicates. Factors were three N rates (0, 75, and 150 kg ha-1 and two bio-fertilizer applications (inoculation and uninoculation with Nitroxin, a liquid bio-fertilizer containing Azospirillum spp. and Azotobacter spp. bacteria. Analysis of variance showed that rice grain yield, panicle number per m2, grain number per panicle, flag leaves area, biological yield, grains N concentration and uptake, grain protein concentration, and head rice yield were significantly affected by N rate, while bio-fertilizer application had significant effect on rice grain yield, grain number per panicle, flag leaves area, biological yield, harvest index, grains N concentration and uptake, and grain protein concentration. Results showed that regardless of bio-fertilizer application, rice grain and biological yields were significantly increased as N application rate increased from 0 to 75 kg ha-1, but did not significantly increase at the higher N rate (150 kg ha-1. Grain yield was significantly increased following bio-fertilizer application when averaged across N rates. Grains N concentration and uptake were significantly increased as N rate increased up to 75 kg ha-1, but further increases in N rate had no significant effect on these traits. Bio-fertilizer application increased significantly grains N concentration and uptake, when averaged across N rates. Regardless of bio-fertilizer application, head rice yield was significantly increased from 56 % to 60 % when N rate increased from 0 to 150 kg ha-1. Therefore, this experiment illustrated that rice grain and head yields increased with increasing N rate, while bio-fertilizer application increased only rice grain

  2. Application for Determination of the Forward Exchange Rate in Access 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana MOCEAN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The exchange rate set the present rate for a foreign currency transaction with payment or delivery at some future date. Forward rates are calculated by using the current exchange rate for the currency pair and the interest rates for the two currencies and allow you to lock in rate now for a future. This paper describes the formulas which determinate the forward exchange rate and how can we implement them in a short, but efficient informatics application.

  3. Performance evaluation of a newly developed variable rate sprayer for nursery liner applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    An experimental variable-rate sprayer designed for liner applications was tested by comparing its spray deposit, coverage, and droplet density inside canopies of six nursery liner varieties with constant-rate applications. Spray samplers, including water sensitive papers (WSP) and nylon screens, wer...

  4. In-situ biochar application conserves nutrients while simultaneously mitigating runoff and erosion of an Fe-oxide-enriched tropical soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Hsing; Wang, Chung-Chi; Lin, Huan-Hsuan; Lee, Sang Soo; Tsang, Daniel C W; Jien, Shih-Hao; Ok, Yong Sik

    2018-04-01

    Climate change gives rise to rapid degradation of rural soils in sloping subtropical and tropical areas and might further threaten environmental sustainability. In this study, we conducted an integrated evaluation of the effects of wood biochar (WB) application mixed with a green waste dreg compost (GWC) on runoff quality, soil losses, and agricultural productivity for a highly weathered tropical soil. A conventional agriculture method, in which soils are treated with anionic polyacrylamide (PAM), was also conducted for comparison. The amounts of runoff and soil loss, and nutrient retention were evaluated a year after WB application. Soil fertility was also investigated through a year pot experiment with rape (Brassica campestris L.) cultivation. Our results showed that the WB application not only effectively increased soil pH, soil organic carbon (SOC) and exchangeable K + but also increased the production of rape plants. Significant reduction of runoff and the increases of inorganic nitrogen (IN) and total phosphorus (TP) were found in the WB-treated soil. Compared to the control, the co-application of WB and GWC, particularly for the WB at 4%, decreased runoff by 16.8%, soil loss by 25%, and IN loss (via runoff) by 41.8%. Meanwhile, compared to the control and PAM treatments, the co-application of WB and GWC improved soil acidity and the contents of SOC, IN, TP, and exchangeable K + . The co-application of WB and GWC could be an alternative agricultural strategy to obtain benefits to agricultural productivity and environmental sustainability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Moderate plasma activated media suppresses proliferation and migration of MDCK epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohades, Soheila; Laroussi, Mounir; Maruthamuthu, Venkat

    2017-01-01

    Low-temperature plasma has been shown to have diverse biomedical uses, including its applications in cancer and wound healing. One recent approach in treating mammalian cells with plasma is through the use of plasma activated media (PAM), which is produced by exposing cell culture media to plasma. While the adverse effects of PAM treatment on cancerous epithelial cell lines have been recently studied, much less is known about the interaction of PAM with normal epithelial cells. In this paper, non-cancerous canine kidney MDCK (Madin-Darby Canine Kidney) epithelial cells were treated by PAM and time-lapse microscopy was used to directly monitor their proliferation and random migration upon treatment. While longer durations of PAM treatment led to cell death, we found that moderate levels of PAM treatment inhibited proliferation in these epithelial cells. We also found that PAM treatment reduced random cell migration within epithelial islands. Immunofluorescence staining showed that while there were no major changes in the actin/adhesion apparatus, there was a significant change in the nuclear localization of proliferation marker Ki-67, consistent with our time-lapse results. (paper)

  6. Barriers to publishing in biomedical journals perceived by a sample of French researchers: results of the DIAzePAM study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Duracinsky

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As publishing is essential but competitive for researchers, difficulties in writing and submitting medical articles to biomedical journals are disabling. The DIAzePAM (Difficultés des Auteurs à la Publication d’Articles Médicaux survey aimed to assess the difficulties experienced by researchers in the AP-HP (Assistance Publique – Hôpitaux de Paris, i.e., Paris Hospitals Board, France, the largest public health institution in Europe, when preparing articles for biomedical journals. The survey also aimed to assess researchers’ satisfaction and perceived needs. Methods A 39-item electronic questionnaire based on qualitative interviews was addressed by e-mail to all researchers registered in the AP-HP SIGAPS (Système d’Interrogation, de Gestion et d’Analyse des Publications Scientifiques bibliometric database. Results Between 28 May and 15 June 2015, 7766 researchers should have received and read the e-mail, and 1191 anonymously completed the questionnaire (<45 years of age: 63%; women: 55%; physician: 81%; with PhD or Habilitation à Diriger des recherches––accreditation to direct research––: 45%. 94% of respondents had published at least one article in the previous 2 years. 76% of respondents felt they were not publishing enough, mainly because of lack of time to write (79% or submit (27%, limited skills in English (40% or in writing (32%, and difficulty in starting writing (35%. 87% of respondents would accept technical support, especially in English reediting (79%, critical reediting (63%, formatting (52%, and/or writing (41%, to save time (92% and increase high-impact-factor journal submission and acceptance (75%. 79% of respondents would appreciate funding support for their future publications, for English reediting (56%, medical writing (21%, or publication (38% fees. They considered that this funding support could be covered by AP-HP (73% and/or by the added financial value obtained by their

  7. 100 GHz Externally Modulated Laser for Optical Interconnects Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozolins, Oskars; Pang, Xiaodan; Iglesias Olmedo, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    We report on a 116 Gb/s on-off keying (OOK), four pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) and 105-Gb/s 8-PAM optical transmitter using an InP-based integrated and packaged externally modulated laser for high-speed optical interconnects with up to 30 dB static extinction ratio and over 100-GHz 3-d......B bandwidth with 2 dB ripple. In addition, we study the tradeoff between power penalty and equalizer length to foresee transmission distances with standard single mode fiber....

  8. Skylab IMSS checklist application study for emergency medical care. [emergency medical care operations involving the use and operation of the portable ambulance module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, J. G.; Furukawa, S.

    1975-01-01

    A manual is presented that provides basic technical documentation to support the operation and utilization of the Portable Ambulance Module (PAM) in the field. The PAM is designed to be used for emergency resuscitation and victim monitoring. The functions of all the controls, displays, and stowed equipment of the unit are defined. Supportive medical and physiological data in those areas directly related to the uses of the PAM unit are presented.

  9. Cross-linkable graphene oxide embedded nanocomposite hydrogel with enhanced mechanics and cytocompatibility for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xifeng; Miller, A Lee; Waletzki, Brian E; Lu, Lichun

    2018-05-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) is an attractive material that can be utilized to enhance the modulus and conductivities of substrates and hydrogels. To covalently cross-link graphene oxide sheets into hydrogels, abundant cross-linkable double bonds were introduced to synthesize the graphene-oxide-tris-acrylate sheet (GO-TrisA). Polyacrylamide (PAM) nanocomposite hydrogels were then fabricated with inherent covalently and permanently cross-linked GO-TrisA sheets. Results showed that the covalently cross-linked GO-TrisA/PAM nanocomposite hydrogel had enhanced mechanical strength, thermo stability compared with GO/PAM hydrogel maintained mainly by hydrogen bonding between PAM chains and GO sheets. In vitro cell study showed that the covalently cross-linked rGO-TrisA/PAM nanocomposite hydrogel had excellent cytocompatibility after in situ reduction. These results suggest that rGO-TrisA/PAM nanocomposite hydrogel holds great potential for tissue engineering applications. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 1247-1257, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Multispectral photoacoustic microscopy of lipids using a pulsed supercontinuum laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buma, Takashi; Conley, Nicole C; Choi, Sang Won

    2018-01-01

    We demonstrate optical resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) of lipid-rich tissue between 1050-1714 nm using a pulsed supercontinuum laser based on a large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber. OR-PAM experiments of lipid-rich samples show the expected optical absorption peaks near 1210 and 1720 nm. These results show that pulsed supercontinuum lasers are promising for OR-PAM applications such as label-free histology of lipid-rich tissue and imaging small animal models of disease.

  11. Primary Amoebic (Naegleria fowleri Meningoencephalitis Presenting as Status Epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sharma

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM is a rare entity. Usual presenting features are fever, headache and seizures with meningeal signs and this disease carries high mortality rate. We present a case report of PAM presenting as status epilepticus.

  12. Gamma radiation synthesis of super absorbent hydrogels for different applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzouk, H.M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Super absorbent polymers (SAP) of carboxymethyl cellulose/acrylamide (CMC/PAM), carboxymethyl cellulose/acrylamide/Silica (CMC/AM/Si) and carboxymethyl cellulose/Polyvinyl alcohol (CMC/PVA) were synthesized by radiation-induced grafting using γ-irradiation technique. The effects of various parameters, such as irradiation dose, the content of CMC, PAM, PVA, and Silica gel on the swelling percent of produced hydrogels have been evaluated. The kinetic equilibrium swelling of the prepared copolymer hydrogels was studied, it was found that the maximum swelling percent was 5000 % for the CMC/PAM hydrogel, 12000 % for the CMC/PAM/Si composite hydrogel, and 6200 % for the CMC/PVA hydrogel. The gel fraction, equilibrium swelling and effect of ph on the swelling percent were also studied. The prepared copolymers were also characterized by FTIR spectral analysis, thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. In order to evaluate its controlled release potential, different prepared hydrogels were loaded with KNO 3 as an agrochemical model and its potential for controlled release of KNO 3 was studied and evaluated with respect to different parameters such as time of release, ph of the medium, and temperatures. The results obtained from swelling, loading of KNO 3 , and release behavior studies suggested and recommended the possible use of prepared hydrogels for enhancing the plantation of Linum Usitatissimum.

  13. Fabrication of CMC-g-PAM superporous polymer monoliths via eco-friendly Pickering-MIPEs for superior adsorption of methyl violet and methylene blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Zhu, Yongfeng; Wang, Wenbo; Zong, Li; Lu, Taotao; Wang, Aiqin

    2017-06-01

    A series of superporous carboxymethylcellulose-graft-poly(acrylamide) (CMC-g-PAM) polymer monoliths presenting interconnected pore structure and excellent adsorption properties were prepared by one-step free-radical grafting polymerization reaction of CMC and acrylamide (AM) in the oil-in-water (O/W) Pickering-medium internal phase emulsions (Pickering-MIPEs) composed of non-toxic edible oil as a dispersion phase and natural Pal nanorods as stabilizers. The effects of Pal dosage, AM dosage, and co-surfactant Tween-20 (T-20) on the pore structures of the monoliths were studied. It was revealed that the well-defined pores were formed when the dosages of Pal and T-20 are 9-14% and 3%, respectively. The porous monolith can rapidly adsorb 1585 mg/g of methyl violet (MV) and 1625 mg/g of methylene blue (MB). After the monolith was regenerated by adsorption-desorption process for 5 times, the adsorption capacities still reached 92.1% (for MV) and 93.5% (for MB) of the initial maximum adsorption capacities. The adsorption process was fitted with Langmuir adsorption isotherm model and pseudo-second-order adsorption kinetic model very well, which indicate that mono-layer chemical adsorption mainly contribute to the high-capacity adsorption for dyes. The superporous polymer monolith prepared from eco-friendly Pickering-MIPEs shows good adsorption capacity and fast adsorption rate, which is potential adsorbent for the decontimination of dye-containing wastewater.

  14. Water application rate and frequency affect seedling survival and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adequate amount of water is critical to successful tree nursery operation among resource-constrained smallholder farmers in Africa. Two experiments were undertaken with the objectives of evaluating effects of water application rate and frequency on seedling growth and survival of Persea americana and Vangueria ...

  15. 100G Flexible IM-DD 850 nm VCSEL Transceiver with Fractional Bit Rate Using Eight-Dimensional PAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Xiaofeng; Lyubopytov, Vladimir; Chorchos, Łukasz

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel optical transceiver scheme with a net flexible bit rate up to 100Gbit/s with 5 Gbit/s granularity, using an eight-dimensional modulation format family, and investigate its performance on capacity, reach, and power tolerance.......We demonstrate a novel optical transceiver scheme with a net flexible bit rate up to 100Gbit/s with 5 Gbit/s granularity, using an eight-dimensional modulation format family, and investigate its performance on capacity, reach, and power tolerance....

  16. The transmission business rate order application, 1999-2000 : application to the Ontario Energy Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Ontario government is restructuring the electric power industry by introducing competition to the generation and retailing sectors, as well as to the transmission and distribution sectors within the industry. This application marks the beginning of the regulation of the Ontario Hydro Services Company Inc.'s (OHSC) transmission business by the Ontario Energy Board (OEB). The OHSC has asked the OEB to approve a revenue requirement for the transmission business and rates derived from the revenue requirement for unbundled transmission services to customers for the year 1999. For the year 2000, the OHSC asked the OEB to approve the performance-based regulation mechanism and the transmission rates derived from that mechanism. This document includes the actual text of the application and provides the justification for the $1,327 million revenue requirement for 1999 and the PBR framework forecast of $ 1,291 million for the year 2000. tabs., figs

  17. Effect of bladder wall thickness on miniature pneumatic artificial muscle performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillsbury, Thomas E; Kothera, Curt S; Wereley, Norman M

    2015-09-28

    Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) are actuators known for their high power to weight ratio, natural compliance and light weight. Due to these advantages, PAMs have been used for orthotic devices and robotic limbs. Small scale PAMs have the same advantages, as well as requiring greatly reduced volumes with potential application to prostheses and small scale robotics. The bladder of a PAM affects common actuator performance metrics, specifically: blocked force, free contraction, hysteresis, and dead-band pressure. This paper investigates the effect that bladder thickness has on static actuation performance of small scale PAMs. Miniature PAMs were fabricated with a range of bladder thicknesses to quantify the change in common actuator performance metrics specifically: blocked force, free contraction, and dead-band pressure. These PAMs were then experimentally characterized in quasi-static conditions, where results showed that increasing bladder wall thickness decreases blocked force and free contraction, while dead-band pressure increases. A nonlinear model was then applied to determine the structure of the stress-strain relationship that enables accurate modeling and the minimum number of terms. Two nonlinear models are compared and the identified parameters are analyzed to study the effect of the bladder thickness on the model.

  18. Polyacrylamide grafted cellulose as an eco-friendly flocculant: Key factors optimization of flocculation to surfactant effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hangcheng; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Xiaogang; Shao, Lan; Zhang, Xiumei; Yao, Juming

    2016-01-01

    The discharge of effluents from surfactant manufacturers is giving rise to increasingly serious environmental problems. In order to develop the eco-friendly flocculation materials to achieve effective removal of pollutants from the surfactant effluents, the bamboo pulp cellulose from Phyllostachys heterocycla is employed as the skeleton material to synthesize an eco-friendly bamboo pulp cellulose-g-polyacrylamide (BPC-g-PAM) for flocculation. The BPC-g-PAM is used with the metal ions as the coagulant to treat the effluent from a surfactant manufacturer. The response surface methodology coupled with Box-behnken design is employed to optimize the key factors of coagulation-flocculation. The results show that the combination of Fe(3+) with BPC-g-PAM achieves the best coagulation-flocculation performance like, the fast treatment time, minimum coagulant and BPC-g-PAM dosages compared with the other two combinations of Al(3+) with BPC-g-PAM and Ca(2+) with BPC-g-PAM. Therefore, the combination of Fe(3+) with BPC-g-PAM is expected to promote its application for the pollution control in the surfactant manufacturers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Polyacrylamide+Al2(SO4)3 and polyacrylamide+CaO remove coliform bacteria and nutrients from swine wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entry, J.A.; Phillips, Ian; Stratton, Helen; Sojka, R.E.

    2003-01-01

    Polyacrylamide mixture may be able to reduce run-off of enteric bacteria from animal wastes. - Animal wastes are a major contributor of nutrients and enteric microorganisms to surface water and ground water. Polyacrylamide (PAM) mixtures are an effective flocculent, and we hypothesized that they would reduce transport of microorganisms in flowing water. After waste water running at 60.0 l min -1 flowed over PAM+Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 , or PAM+CaO in furrows, total coliform bacteria (TC) and fecal coliform bacteria (FC) were reduced by 30-50% at 1 and 50 m downstream of the treatments compared to the control. In a column study, PAM+Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 , and PAM+CaO applied to sandy, sandy loam, loam, and clay soils reduced NH 4 + and ortho-P concentrations in leachate compared to the source waste water and the control. PAM+Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 and PAM+CaO applied to sandy, sandy loam and loam soils reduced both total and ortho-P, concentrations in leachate compared to the source wastewater and control treatment. In a field study, PAM+Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 , or PAM+CaO treatments did not consistently reduce NH 4 + , NO 3 - , ortho-P, and total P concentrations in wastewater flowing over any soil compared to inflow wastewater or the control treatment. With proper application PAM+ Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 and PAM+CaO may be able to reduce the numbers of enteric bacteria in slowly flowing wastewater running off animal confinement areas, reducing the amount of pollutants entering surface water and groundwater

  20. 2 × 64 Gb/s PAM-4 transmission over 70 km SSMF using O-band 18G-class directly modulated lasers (DMLs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fan; Zhou, Shiwei; Li, Xiang; Fu, Songnian; Deng, Lei; Tang, Ming; Liu, Deming; Yang, Qi

    2017-04-03

    We experimentally demonstrate 2 × 64 Gb/s PAM-4 transmission over a 70 km standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) using two O-band 18G-class directly modulated lasers (DMLs). Only one praseodymium-doped fiber amplifier (PDFA) at the receiver side is used to compensate the transmission loss. Meanwhile, transmission impairments are compensated by a sparse Volterra filter (SVF) equalizer, which can achieve similar system performance but with half the computational complexity (CC), in comparison with a traditional VF equalizer. Finally, we optimize the insignificant factor (IF) of SVF to identify the trade-off between the transmission performance and the CC. Thus, the redundancy of individual SVF kernels can be reasonably removed.

  1. Surface applicators for high dose rate brachytherapy in AIDS-related kaposi's sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Michael D.C.; Yassa, Mariam; Podgorsak, Ervin B.; Roman, Ted N.; Schreiner, L. John; Souhami, Luis

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The development of commercially available surface applicators using high dose rate remote afterloading devices has enabled radiotherapy centers to treat selected superficial lesions using a remote afterloading brachytherapy unit. The dosimetric parameters of these applicators, the clinical implementation of this technique, and a review of the initial patient treatment regimes are presented. Methods and Materials: A set of six fixed-diameter (1, 2, and 3 cm), tungsten/steel surface applicators is available for use with a single stepping-source (Ir-192, 370 GBq) high dose rate afterloader. The source can be positioned either in a parallel or perpendicular orientation to the treatment plane at the center of a conical aperture that sits at an SSD of approximately 15 mm and is used with a 1-mm thick removable plastic cap. The surface dose rates, percent depth dose, and off-axis ratios were measured. A custom-built, ceiling-mounted immobilization device secures the applicator on the surface of the patient's lesion during treatment. Results: Between November 1994, and September 1996, 16 AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma patients having a total of 120 lesions have been treated with palliative intent. Treatment sites were distributed between the head and neck, extremity, and torso. Doses ranged from 8 to 20 Gy, with a median dose of 10 Gy delivered in a single fraction. Treatments were well tolerated with minimal skin reaction, except for patients with lesions treated to 20 Gy who developed moderate/severe desquamation. Conclusion: Radiotherapy centers equipped with a high dose rate remote afterloading unit may treat small selected surface lesions with commercially available surface applicators. These surface applicators must be used with a protective cap to eliminate electron contamination. The optimal surface dose appears to be either 10 or 15 Gy depending upon the height of the lesion

  2. The Effects of a Normal Rate versus a Slow Intervalled Rate of Oral Nutrient Intake and Intravenous Low Rate Macronutrient Application on Psychophysical Function – Two Pilot Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Y. Denzer-Lippmann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Stomach distension and energy per time are factors influencing satiety. Moreover, different rates of nutrient intake induce different stomach distension. The goal of our studies was to elucidate the influence of different oral rates of nutrient intake (normal rate versus slow intervalled rate; study I and intravenous low rate macronutrient application (protein, carbohydrate, fat or placebo (study II on psychophysical function. The pilot studies investigated the effects of 1 study I: a mixed nutrient solution (1/3 protein, 1/3 fat, 1/3 carbohydrates 2 study II: intravenous macronutrient infusions (protein, carbohydrate, fat or placebo on psychophysical function (mood, hunger, food craving, alertness, smell intensity ratings and hedonic ratings in human subjects. In study I 10 male subjects (age range: 21–30 years completed the study protocol participating in both test conditions and in study II 20 male subjects (age range: 19–41 years completed the study protocol participating in all test conditions. Additionally, metabolic function was analyzed and cognitive and olfactory tests were conducted twice starting 100 min before the beginning of the intervention and 240 min after. Psychophysical (mood, hunger, fat-, protein-, carbohydrate-, sweets- and vegetable-craving, alertness and metabolic function tests were performed seven times on each examination day. Greater effects on hunger and food cravings were observed for normal rate of intake compared to slow intervalled rate of intake and intravenous low rate macronutrient application. Our findings potentially confirm that volume of the food ingested and a higher rate of energy per time contribute to satiety during normal rate of food intake, while slow intervalled rate of food intake and intravenous low rate macronutrient application showed no effects on satiation. Our results motivate the view that a certain amount of volume of the food ingested and a certain energy per time ratio are necessary

  3. 15 CFR 700.21 - Application for priority rating authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... allocations authorities. (e) Commerce will inform the Department of Energy of the results of its analysis. If... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application for priority rating authority. 700.21 Section 700.21 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign...

  4. Declining Rate of Infection with Maternal Human Immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GE Imade, AS Sagay, J Musa, AN Ocheke, DS Adeniyi, M Idighri, R Powl, A Sendeht, JP Ogwuche, M Elujoba, CO Egbodo, T Oyebode, PH Daru, O Agbaji, IC Pam, ST Meloni, P Okonkwo, PJ Kanki. Abstract. HIV testing during labour and delivery provides a critical opportunity for administering appropriate interventions to ...

  5. Commercial versus synthesized polymers for soil erosion control and growth of Chinese cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Soo; Chang, Scott X; Chang, Yoon-Young; Ok, Yong Sik

    2013-01-01

    Soil erosion leads to environmental degradation and reduces soil productivity. The use of anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) and synthesized biopolymer (BP) using lignin, corn starch, acrylamide, and acrylic acid were tested to evaluate soil erosion, water quality, and growth of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L.). Each treatment of PAM and BP was applied at 200 kg ha(-1) to loamy sand soil and subjected to a slope of 36% with a 20 mm h(-1) simulated rainfall. Application of BP decreased soil pH compared to the untreated check (CK); however, the soil pH was not altered with PAM. The decrease in pH might most likely be due to availability of anionic sites to be protonated on soils having pH >6 and soil buffering capacity. Both PAM and BP applications may not induce eutrophication with stable levels of total contents of N and P. With PAM and BP, the average values of suspended soil (SS) and turbidity were reduced by up to 96.0 and 99.9%, respectively, compared to CK. Reduction of SS can be attributed to increasing soil stability and shear strength by clay flocculation. There was no toxicity effects resulting from germination tests and the dry weight was increased by 17.7% (vs. CK) when PAM and BP were applied. These results are attributed to increases in water retention and plant-available water. The use of polymeric soil amendments is an environmentally friendly way to mitigate soil erosion and nonpoint source pollution.

  6. Neurodevelopmental Delay Diagnosis Rates Are Increased in a Region with Aerial Pesticide Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven D. Hicks

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies have implicated pesticides in childhood developmental delay (DD and autism spectrum disorder (ASD. The influence of the route of pesticide exposure on neurodevelopmental delay is not well defined. To study this factor, we examined ASD/DD diagnoses rates in an area near our regional medical center that employs yearly aerial pyrethroid pesticide applications to combat mosquito-borne encephalitis. The aim of this study was to determine if areas with aerial pesticide exposure had higher rates of ASD/DD diagnoses. This regional study identified higher rates of ASD/DD diagnoses in an area with aerial pesticides application. Zip codes with aerial pyrethroid exposure were 37% more likely to have higher rates of ASD/DD (adjusted RR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.06–1.78, p = 0.02. A Poisson regression model controlling for regional characteristics (poverty, pesticide use, population density, and distance to medical center, subject characteristics (race and sex, and local birth characteristics (prematurity, low birthweight, and birth rates identified a significant relationship between aerial pesticide use and ASD/DD rates. The relationship between pesticide application and human neurodevelopment deserves additional study to develop safe and effective methods of mosquito prevention, particularly as communities develop plans for Zika virus control.

  7. Neurodevelopmental Delay Diagnosis Rates Are Increased in a Region with Aerial Pesticide Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Steven D; Wang, Ming; Fry, Katherine; Doraiswamy, Vignesh; Wohlford, Eric M

    2017-01-01

    A number of studies have implicated pesticides in childhood developmental delay (DD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The influence of the route of pesticide exposure on neurodevelopmental delay is not well defined. To study this factor, we examined ASD/DD diagnoses rates in an area near our regional medical center that employs yearly aerial pyrethroid pesticide applications to combat mosquito-borne encephalitis. The aim of this study was to determine if areas with aerial pesticide exposure had higher rates of ASD/DD diagnoses. This regional study identified higher rates of ASD/DD diagnoses in an area with aerial pesticides application. Zip codes with aerial pyrethroid exposure were 37% more likely to have higher rates of ASD/DD (adjusted RR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.06-1.78, p  = 0.02). A Poisson regression model controlling for regional characteristics (poverty, pesticide use, population density, and distance to medical center), subject characteristics (race and sex), and local birth characteristics (prematurity, low birthweight, and birth rates) identified a significant relationship between aerial pesticide use and ASD/DD rates. The relationship between pesticide application and human neurodevelopment deserves additional study to develop safe and effective methods of mosquito prevention, particularly as communities develop plans for Zika virus control.

  8. Electroplated reticulated vitreous carbon current collectors for lead-acid batteries: opportunities and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyenge, Elod; Jung, Joey; Mahato, Basanta

    Reticulated, open-cell structures based on vitreous carbon substrates electroplated with a Pb-Sn (1 wt.%) alloy were investigated as current collectors for lead-acid batteries. Scanning and backscattered electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, anodic polarization and flooded 2 V single-cell battery testing was employed to characterize the performance of the proposed collectors. A battery equipped with pasted electroplated reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) electrodes of 137 cm 2 geometric area, at the time of manuscript submission, completed 500 cycles and over 1500 h of continuous operation. The cycling involved discharges at 63 A kg PAM-1 corresponding to a nominal 0.75 h rate and a positive active mass (PAM) utilization efficiency of 21%. The charging protocol was composed of two voltage limited (i.e. 2.6 V/cell), constant current steps of 35 and 9.5 A kg PAM-1, respectively, with a total duration of about 2 h. The charge factor was 1.05-1.15. The observed cycling behavior in conjunction with the versatility of electrodeposition to produce application-dependent optimized lead alloy coating thickness and composition shows promise for the development of lead-acid batteries using electroplated reticulated vitreous carbon collectors.

  9. Polyacrylamide+Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} and polyacrylamide+CaO remove coliform bacteria and nutrients from swine wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entry, J.A.; Phillips, Ian; Stratton, Helen; Sojka, R.E

    2003-03-01

    Polyacrylamide mixture may be able to reduce run-off of enteric bacteria from animal wastes. - Animal wastes are a major contributor of nutrients and enteric microorganisms to surface water and ground water. Polyacrylamide (PAM) mixtures are an effective flocculent, and we hypothesized that they would reduce transport of microorganisms in flowing water. After waste water running at 60.0 l min{sup -1} flowed over PAM+Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}, or PAM+CaO in furrows, total coliform bacteria (TC) and fecal coliform bacteria (FC) were reduced by 30-50% at 1 and 50 m downstream of the treatments compared to the control. In a column study, PAM+Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}, and PAM+CaO applied to sandy, sandy loam, loam, and clay soils reduced NH{sub 4}{sup +} and ortho-P concentrations in leachate compared to the source waste water and the control. PAM+Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} and PAM+CaO applied to sandy, sandy loam and loam soils reduced both total and ortho-P, concentrations in leachate compared to the source wastewater and control treatment. In a field study, PAM+Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}, or PAM+CaO treatments did not consistently reduce NH{sub 4}{sup +}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, ortho-P, and total P concentrations in wastewater flowing over any soil compared to inflow wastewater or the control treatment. With proper application PAM+ Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} and PAM+CaO may be able to reduce the numbers of enteric bacteria in slowly flowing wastewater running off animal confinement areas, reducing the amount of pollutants entering surface water and groundwater.

  10. Salinity management using an anionic polymer in a pecan field with calcareous-sodic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjegunte, Girisha K; Sheng, Zhuping; Braun, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    Soil salinity and sodicity have long been recognized as the major concerns for irrigated agriculture in the Trans-Pecos Basin, where fields are being flood irrigated with Rio Grande River water that has elevated salinity. Reclamation of these salt-affected lands is difficult due to fine-texture, high shrink-swell soils with low permeability. Conventional practice of subsoiling to improve soil permeability is expensive and has had limited success on the irrigated soils that have appreciable amounts of readily weatherable Ca minerals. If these native Ca sources can be effectively used to counter sodicity, it can improve soil permeability and reduce amelioration costs. This study evaluated the effects of 3 yr of polyacrylamide (PAM) application at 10 mg L concentration during the first irrigation of the season to evaluate soil permeability, in situ Ca mineral dissolution, and leaching of salts from the effective root zone in a pecan field of El Paso County, TX. Results indicated that PAM application improved water movement throughout the effective root zone that resulted in Na leaching. Polymer application significantly decreased CaCO (estimated based on inorganic C analysis) concentrations in the top 45 cm compared with baseline levels, indicating solubilization and redistribution of calcite. The PAM application also reduced soil electrical conductivity (EC) in the top 60 cm (4.64-2.76 dS m) and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) from 13.1 to 5.7 mmol L in the top 75-cm depths. As evidence of improved soil conditions, pecan nut yields increased by 34% in PAM-treated fields over the control. Results suggested that PAM application helped in effective use of native Ca sources present in soils of the study site and reduced Na by improving soil permeability. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  11. Fabrication of CMC-g-PAM Superporous Polymer Monoliths via Eco-Friendly Pickering-MIPEs for Superior Adsorption of Methyl Violet and Methylene Blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Zhu, Yongfeng; Wang, Wenbo; Zong, Li; Lu, Taotao; Wang, Aiqin

    2017-01-01

    A series of superporous carboxymethylcellulose- graft -poly(acrylamide)/palygorskite (CMC- g -PAM/Pal) polymer monoliths presenting interconnected pore structure and excellent adsorption properties were prepared by one-step free-radical grafting polymerization reaction of CMC and acrylamide (AM) in the oil-in-water (O/W) Pickering-medium internal phase emulsions (Pickering-MIPEs) composed of non-toxic edible oil as a dispersion phase and natural Pal nanorods as stabilizers. The effects of Pal dosage, AM dosage, and co-surfactant Tween-20 (T-20) on the pore structures of the monoliths were studied. It was revealed that the well-defined pores were formed when the dosages of Pal and T-20 are 9-14 and 3%, respectively. The porous monolith can rapidly adsorb 1,585 mg/g of methyl violet (MV) and 1,625 mg/g of methylene blue (MB). After the monolith was regenerated by adsorption-desorption process for five times, the adsorption capacities still reached 92.1% (for MV) and 93.5% (for MB) of the initial maximum adsorption capacities. The adsorption process was fitted with Langmuir adsorption isotherm model and pseudo-second-order adsorption kinetic model very well, which indicate that mono-layer chemical adsorption mainly contribute to the high-capacity adsorption for dyes. The superporous polymer monolith prepared from eco-friendly Pickering-MIPEs shows good adsorption capacity and fast adsorption rate, which is potential adsorbent for the decontamination of dye-containing wastewater.

  12. Fabrication of CMC-g-PAM Superporous Polymer Monoliths via Eco-Friendly Pickering-MIPEs for Superior Adsorption of Methyl Violet and Methylene Blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of superporous carboxymethylcellulose-graft-poly(acrylamide/palygorskite (CMC-g-PAM/Pal polymer monoliths presenting interconnected pore structure and excellent adsorption properties were prepared by one-step free-radical grafting polymerization reaction of CMC and acrylamide (AM in the oil-in-water (O/W Pickering-medium internal phase emulsions (Pickering-MIPEs composed of non-toxic edible oil as a dispersion phase and natural Pal nanorods as stabilizers. The effects of Pal dosage, AM dosage, and co-surfactant Tween-20 (T-20 on the pore structures of the monoliths were studied. It was revealed that the well-defined pores were formed when the dosages of Pal and T-20 are 9–14 and 3%, respectively. The porous monolith can rapidly adsorb 1,585 mg/g of methyl violet (MV and 1,625 mg/g of methylene blue (MB. After the monolith was regenerated by adsorption-desorption process for five times, the adsorption capacities still reached 92.1% (for MV and 93.5% (for MB of the initial maximum adsorption capacities. The adsorption process was fitted with Langmuir adsorption isotherm model and pseudo-second-order adsorption kinetic model very well, which indicate that mono-layer chemical adsorption mainly contribute to the high-capacity adsorption for dyes. The superporous polymer monolith prepared from eco-friendly Pickering-MIPEs shows good adsorption capacity and fast adsorption rate, which is potential adsorbent for the decontamination of dye-containing wastewater.

  13. Studies of ambient noise in shallow water environments off Mexico and Alaska: characteristics, metrics and time-synchronization applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Melania

    Sound in the ocean originates from multiple mechanisms, both natural and anthropogenic. Collectively, underwater ambient noise accumulates valuable information about both its sources and the oceanic environment that propagates this noise. Characterizing the features of ambient noise source mechanisms is challenging, but essential, for properly describing an acoustic environment. Disturbances to a local acoustic environment may affect many aquatic species that have adapted to be heavily dependent on this particular sense for survival functions. In the case of marine mammals, which are federally protected, demand exists for understanding such potential impacts, which drives important scientific efforts that utilize passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) tools to inform regulatory decisions. This dissertation presents two independent studies that use PAM data to investigate the characteristics of source mechanisms that dominate ambient noise in two diverse shallow water environments. The study in Chapter 2 directly addresses the concern of how anthropogenic activities can degrade the effectiveness of PAM. In the Alaskan Beaufort Sea, an environment where ambient noise is normally dominated by natural causes, seismic surveys create impulsive sounds to map the composition of the bottom. By inspecting single-sensor PAM data, the spectral characteristics of seismic survey airgun reverberation are measured, and their contribution to the overall ambient noise is quantified. This work is relevant to multiple ongoing mitigation protocols that rely on PAM to acoustically detect marine mammal presence during industrial operations. Meanwhile, Chapter 3 demonstrates that by analyzing data from multiple PAM sensors, features embedded in both directional and omnidirectional ambient noise can be used to develop new time-synchronization processing techniques for aligning autonomous elements of an acoustic array, a tool commonly used in PAM for detecting and tracking marine mammals. Using

  14. The investigation of Passive Accident Mitigation Scheme for advanced PWR NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Er-bing; Fang, Cheng-yue; Wang, Chang; Xia, Geng-lei; Zhao, Cui-na

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We put forward a new PAMS and analyze its operation characteristics under SBO. • We conduct comparative analysis between PAMS and Traditional Secondary Side PHRS. • The PAMS could cope with SBO accident and maintain the plant in safe conditions. • PAMS could decrease heat removal capacity of PHRS. • PAMS has advantage in reducing cooling rate and PCCT temperature rising amplitude. - Abstract: To enhance inherent safety features of nuclear power plant, the advanced pressurized water reactors implement a series of passive safety systems. This paper puts forward and designs a new Passive Accident Mitigation Scheme (PAMS) to remove residual heat, which consists of two parts: the first part is Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System (PAFS), and the other part is Passive Heat Removal System (PHRS). This paper takes the Westinghouse-designed Advanced Passive PWR (AP1000) as research object and analyzes the operation characteristics of PAMS to cope with the Station Blackout Accident (SBO) by using RELAP5 code. Moreover, the comparative analysis is also conducted between PAMS and Traditional Secondary Circuit PHRS to derive the advantages of PAMS. The results show that the designed scheme can remove core residual heat significantly and maintain the plant in safe conditions; the first part of PAMS would stop after 120 min and the second part has to come into use simultaneously; the low pressurizer (PZR) pressure signal would be generated 109 min later caused by coolant volume shrinkage, which would actuate the Passive Safety Injection System (PSIS) to recovery the water level of pressurizer; the flow instability phenomenon would occur and last 21 min after the PHRS start-up; according to the comparative analysis, the coolant average temperature gradient and the Passive Condensate Cooling Tank (PCCT) water temperature rising amplitude of PAMS are lower than those of Traditional Secondary Circuit PHRS

  15. Polymer aids for settling and filtration of oil sands tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering; Energy Resources Conservation Board, Calgary, AB (Canada). Oil Sands Section; Xu, Z.; Masliyah, J.H. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Oil sand tailings are segregated into coarse and fine tailings. High volumes of toxic fluids and tailings are created in the process. Tailings ponds are an environmental risk with high operating and maintenance costs. Current commercial technologies uses chemical additions to create recycled water and composite tailings (CT). Researchers are now investigating centrifuged and dry mature fine tailings (MFT). Filtration processes with flocculants are used to separate the tailings into warm recycle water and dried cakes that can be used in reclamation processes. Studies are being conducted to find a polymer than can effectively flocculate and filter whole oil sands tailings. The filtration procedure uses pressure to produce released water. Polymers include magnafloc and Al-PAM polymer concentrations are used in slurry masses. Tests have been conducted to determine the settling rates of the polymers. The tests showed that Al-PAM filtered the tailings effectively. Paraffinic froth treatment tests have also been conducted to determine settling rates. A cake produced with froth treatment tailings of Al-PAM 400 ppm had a water content 42.5 wt per cent. The tests showed that while Magnafloc 1011 is a good settling aid, but a poor filtration addition. Al-PAM aided in both the flocculation and filtration processes. Higher Al-PAM dosages are needed for froth treatment tailings processes. It was concluded that dry cakes are produced with the addition of Al-PAM. tabs., figs.

  16. 100G Flexible IM-DD 850 nm VCSEL Transceiver with Fractional Bit Rate Using Eight-Dimensional PAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Xiaofeng; Lyubopytov, Vladimir; Chorchos, Łukasz

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel optical transceiver scheme with a net flexible bit rate up to 100Gbit/s with 5 Gbit/s granularity, using an eight-dimensional modulation format family, and investigate its performance on capacity, reach, and power tolerance....

  17. Analysis of nonlinear elastic behavior in miniature pneumatic artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Erica G.; Wereley, Norman M.

    2013-01-01

    Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) are well known for their excellent actuator characteristics, including high specific work, specific power, and power density. Recent research has focused on miniaturizing this pneumatic actuator technology in order to develop PAMs for use in small-scale mechanical systems, such as those found in robotic or aerospace applications. The first step in implementing these miniature PAMs was to design and characterize the actuator. To that end, this study presents the manufacturing process, experimental characterization, and analytical modeling of PAMs with millimeter-scale diameters. A fabrication method was developed to consistently produce low-cost, high performance, miniature PAMs using commercially available materials. The quasi-static behavior of these PAMs was determined through experimentation on a single actuator with an active length of 39.16 mm (1.54 in) and a diameter of 4.13 mm (0.1625 in). Testing revealed the PAM’s full evolution of force with displacement for operating pressures ranging from 207 to 552 kPa (30-80 psi in 10 psi increments), as well as the blocked force and free contraction at each pressure. Three key nonlinear phenomena were observed: nonlinear PAM stiffness, hysteresis of the force versus displacement response for a given pressure, and a pressure deadband. To address the analysis of the nonlinear response of these miniature PAMs, a nonlinear stress versus strain model, a hysteresis model, and a pressure bias are introduced into a previously developed force balance analysis. Parameters of these nonlinear model refinements are identified from the measured force versus displacement data. This improved nonlinear force balance model is shown to capture the full actuation behavior of the miniature PAMs at each operating pressure and reconstruct miniature PAM response with much more accuracy than previously possible.

  18. Analysis of nonlinear elastic behavior in miniature pneumatic artificial muscles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hocking, Erica G; Wereley, Norman M

    2013-01-01

    Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) are well known for their excellent actuator characteristics, including high specific work, specific power, and power density. Recent research has focused on miniaturizing this pneumatic actuator technology in order to develop PAMs for use in small-scale mechanical systems, such as those found in robotic or aerospace applications. The first step in implementing these miniature PAMs was to design and characterize the actuator. To that end, this study presents the manufacturing process, experimental characterization, and analytical modeling of PAMs with millimeter-scale diameters. A fabrication method was developed to consistently produce low-cost, high performance, miniature PAMs using commercially available materials. The quasi-static behavior of these PAMs was determined through experimentation on a single actuator with an active length of 39.16 mm (1.54 in) and a diameter of 4.13 mm (0.1625 in). Testing revealed the PAM’s full evolution of force with displacement for operating pressures ranging from 207 to 552 kPa (30–80 psi in 10 psi increments), as well as the blocked force and free contraction at each pressure. Three key nonlinear phenomena were observed: nonlinear PAM stiffness, hysteresis of the force versus displacement response for a given pressure, and a pressure deadband. To address the analysis of the nonlinear response of these miniature PAMs, a nonlinear stress versus strain model, a hysteresis model, and a pressure bias are introduced into a previously developed force balance analysis. Parameters of these nonlinear model refinements are identified from the measured force versus displacement data. This improved nonlinear force balance model is shown to capture the full actuation behavior of the miniature PAMs at each operating pressure and reconstruct miniature PAM response with much more accuracy than previously possible. (paper)

  19. Synthesis study on transverse variable asphalt application rates for seal coats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    This report documents a cooperative effort to collect, process, and make available information about successful methods of varying seal coat asphalt application rates across treated roadways to optimize aggregate retention and avoid wheel path flushi...

  20. Experimental Demonstration of an Electro-Absorption Modulated Laser for High-Speed Transmissions at 1.55-μm Window Using Digital Signal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotini Karinou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We experimentally investigate the transmission performance of 56 Gb/s four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-4 over 30-km standard single mode fiber (SMF using a C-band EML for low-cost metro and short-reach wavelength division multiplexing (WDM applications. Bit error rate (BER performance below the HD-FEC threshold is achieved for up to 30-km maximum reported distance without employing dispersion compensation fiber (DCF in the link.

  1. Does nitrogen fertilizer application rate to corn affect nitrous oxide emissions from the rotated soybean crop?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Javed; Mitchell, David C; Barker, Daniel W; Miguez, Fernando; Sawyer, John E; Pantoja, Jose; Castellano, Michael J

    2015-05-01

    Little information exists on the potential for N fertilizer application to corn ( L.) to affect NO emissions during subsequent unfertilized crops in a rotation. To determine if N fertilizer application to corn affects NO emissions during subsequent crops in rotation, we measured NO emissions for 3 yr (2011-2013) in an Iowa, corn-soybean [ (L.) Merr.] rotation with three N fertilizer rates applied to corn (0 kg N ha, the recommended rate of 135 kg N ha, and a high rate of 225 kg N ha); soybean received no N fertilizer. We further investigated the potential for a winter cereal rye ( L.) cover crop to interact with N fertilizer rate to affect NO emissions from both crops. The cover crop did not consistently affect NO emissions. Across all years and irrespective of cover crop, N fertilizer application above the recommended rate resulted in a 16% increase in mean NO flux rate during the corn phase of the rotation. In 2 of the 3 yr, N fertilizer application to corn (0-225 kg N ha) did not affect mean NO flux rates from the subsequent unfertilized soybean crop. However, in 1 yr after a drought, mean NO flux rates from the soybean crops that received 135 and 225 kg N ha N application in the corn year were 35 and 70% higher than those from the soybean crop that received no N application in the corn year. Our results are consistent with previous studies demonstrating that cover crop effects on NO emissions are not easily generalizable. When N fertilizer affects NO emissions during a subsequent unfertilized crop, it will be important to determine if total fertilizer-induced NO emissions are altered or only spread across a greater period of time. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  2. Mechanism and bias considerations for design of a bi-directional pneumatic artificial muscle actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vocke III, Robert D; Wereley, Norman M; Kothera, Curt S

    2014-01-01

    Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs), or McKibben actuators, have received considerable attention for robotic manipulators and in aerospace applications due to their similarity to natural muscles. Like natural muscles, PAMs are a purely contractile actuator, so that, in order to produce bi-directional or rotational motion, they must be arranged in an agonist/antagonist pair, which inherently limits the deflection of the system due to the high parasitic stiffness of the antagonistic PAM. This study presents two methods for increasing the performance of an antagonistic PAM system by decreasing the passive parasitic torque, rather than increasing the active torque. The first involves selection of the kinematic mechanism geometry, and the second involves the introduction of bias into the system, both in terms of PAM contraction and passive (antagonistic) PAM pressure. It was found with the proper selection of design parameters, including mechanism geometry, PAM geometry, and bias conditions, that an ideal actuator configuration can be chosen that maximizes deflection for a given arbitrary loading. When comparing a baseline design to an improved design for a simplified case, a nearly 50% increase in maximum deflection was predicted simply by optimizing mechanism geometry and bias contraction. These results were experimentally verified with quasi-static testing that showed a 300% increase in actuator deflection over the baseline design. (paper)

  3. 41 CFR 301-11.102 - What is the applicable M&IE rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 24 hours or more, and you are traveling to a new TDY site or stopover point at midnight The M&IE rate applicable to the new TDY site or stopover point. Travel is 24 hours or more, and you are returning to your...&IE rate? 301-11.102 Section 301-11.102 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel...

  4. Epidemiology of swine trichinellosis in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Z.Q.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Swine trichinellosis has been reported in 26 provinces, autonomous regions or municipalities (P/A/M of China. The prevalence rate in swine varied from 0.12 % to 34.2 % in five P/A/M, from 0.01 % to 0.0001 % in other P/A/M. The seroepidemiological survey of swine trichinellosis was carried out by ELISA in seven P/A/M, the seroprevalence varied from 0.09 % to 29.63 %. The prevalence of Thchinella infection in pork sold at the market was from 0.29 % to 5.6 % in four provinces. The transmission of trichinellosis by garbage is the main features of epidemiology of swine trichinellosis in China. Rat is an important reservoir in the domestic cycle of trichinellosis. The prevalence rates of T. spiralis infection in rats were from 1.98 % to 15.06 % in six provinces or autonomous regions. The treatment-prophylaxis with forage contained albendazole has been applied to the control of swine trichinellosis in Nanyang area of Henan province, the prevalence of swine trichinellosis had decreased from 32.2 % before prophylaxis to 0.12 % after prophylaxis.

  5. Applications of the absolute reaction rate theory to biological responses in electric and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brannen, J.P.; Wayland, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    This paper develops a theoretical foundation for the study of biological responses of electric and magnetic fields. The basis of the development is the absolute reaction rate theory and the effects of fields on reaction rates. A simple application to the response of Bacillus subtilis var niger in a microwave field is made. Potential areas of application are discussed

  6. Development of a high precision dosimetry system for the measurement of surface dose rate distribution for eye applicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichmann, Marion; Fluehs, Dirk; Spaan, Bernhard [Fakultaet Physik, Technische Universitaet Dortmund, D 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Klinische Strahlenphysik, Universitaetsklinikum Essen, D 45122 Essen (Germany); Fakultaet Physik, Technische Universitaet Dortmund, D 44221 Dortmund (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Purpose: The therapeutic outcome of the therapy with ophthalmic applicators is highly dependent on the application of a sufficient dose to the tumor, whereas the dose applied to the surrounding tissue needs to be minimized. The goal for the newly developed apparatus described in this work is the determination of the individual applicator surface dose rate distribution with a high spatial resolution and a high precision in dose rate with respect to time and budget constraints especially important for clinical procedures. Inhomogeneities of the dose rate distribution can be detected and taken into consideration for the treatment planning. Methods: In order to achieve this, a dose rate profile as well as a surface profile of the applicator are measured and correlated with each other. An instrumental setup has been developed consisting of a plastic scintillator detector system and a newly designed apparatus for guiding the detector across the applicator surface at a constant small distance. It performs an angular movement of detector and applicator with high precision. Results: The measurements of surface dose rate distributions discussed in this work demonstrate the successful operation of the measuring setup. Measuring the surface dose rate distribution with a small distance between applicator and detector and with a high density of measuring points results in a complete and gapless coverage of the applicator surface, being capable of distinguishing small sized spots with high activities. The dosimetrical accuracy of the measurements and its analysis is sufficient (uncertainty in the dose rate in terms of absorbed dose to water is <7%), especially when taking the surgical techniques in positioning of the applicator on the eyeball into account. Conclusions: The method developed so far allows a fully automated quality assurance of eye applicators even under clinical conditions. These measurements provide the basis for future calculation of a full 3D dose rate

  7. Development of a high precision dosimetry system for the measurement of surface dose rate distribution for eye applicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, Marion; Flühs, Dirk; Spaan, Bernhard

    2009-10-01

    The therapeutic outcome of the therapy with ophthalmic applicators is highly dependent on the application of a sufficient dose to the tumor, whereas the dose applied to the surrounding tissue needs to be minimized. The goal for the newly developed apparatus described in this work is the determination of the individual applicator surface dose rate distribution with a high spatial resolution and a high precision in dose rate with respect to time and budget constraints especially important for clinical procedures. Inhomogeneities of the dose rate distribution can be detected and taken into consideration for the treatment planning. In order to achieve this, a dose rate profile as well as a surface profile of the applicator are measured and correlated with each other. An instrumental setup has been developed consisting of a plastic scintillator detector system and a newly designed apparatus for guiding the detector across the applicator surface at a constant small distance. It performs an angular movement of detector and applicator with high precision. The measurements of surface dose rate distributions discussed in this work demonstrate the successful operation of the measuring setup. Measuring the surface dose rate distribution with a small distance between applicator and detector and with a high density of measuring points results in a complete and gapless coverage of the applicator surface, being capable of distinguishing small sized spots with high activities. The dosimetrical accuracy of the measurements and its analysis is sufficient (uncertainty in the dose rate in terms of absorbed dose to water is <7%), especially when taking the surgical techniques in positioning of the applicator on the eyeball into account. The method developed so far allows a fully automated quality assurance of eye applicators even under clinical conditions. These measurements provide the basis for future calculation of a full 3D dose rate distribution, which then can be used as input for

  8. Application of Cortical Processing Theory to Acoustical Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ghitza, Oded

    2007-01-01

    ... (TMC). Robustness against background noise is provided principally by the signal processing performed by the PAM, while insensitivity to time-scale variations is provided by properties of the TMC...

  9. The effectiveness of Microsoft Project in assessing extension of time under PAM 2006 standard form of contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaida, S. K.; Wong, Z. D.

    2017-11-01

    Time is equal to money; and it is applies in the construction industry where time is very important. Most of the standard form of contracts provide contractual clauses to ascertain time and money related to the scenarios while Extension of Time (EOT) is one of them. Under circumstance and delays, contractor is allow to apply EOT in order to complete the works on a later completion date without Liquidated Damages (LD) imposed to the claimant. However, both claimants and assessors encountered problems in assessing the EOT. The aim of this research is to recommend the usage of Microsoft Project as a tool in assessing EOT associated with the standard form of contract, PAM 2006. A quantitative method is applied towards the respondents that consisted of architects and quantity surveyors (QS) in order to collect data on challenges in assessing EOT claims and the effectiveness of Microsoft Project as a tool. The finding of this research highlighted that Microsoft Project can serve as a basis to perform EOT tasks as this software can be used as a data bank to store handy information which crucial for preparing and evaluating EOT.

  10. An Adaptive Sensor Mining Framework for Pervasive Computing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Parisa; Cook, Diane J.

    Analyzing sensor data in pervasive computing applications brings unique challenges to the KDD community. The challenge is heightened when the underlying data source is dynamic and the patterns change. We introduce a new adaptive mining framework that detects patterns in sensor data, and more importantly, adapts to the changes in the underlying model. In our framework, the frequent and periodic patterns of data are first discovered by the Frequent and Periodic Pattern Miner (FPPM) algorithm; and then any changes in the discovered patterns over the lifetime of the system are discovered by the Pattern Adaptation Miner (PAM) algorithm, in order to adapt to the changing environment. This framework also captures vital context information present in pervasive computing applications, such as the startup triggers and temporal information. In this paper, we present a description of our mining framework and validate the approach using data collected in the CASAS smart home testbed.

  11. Racial Differences in PAM50 Subtypes in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troester, Melissa A; Sun, Xuezheng; Allott, Emma H; Geradts, Joseph; Cohen, Stephanie M; Tse, Chiu-Kit; Kirk, Erin L; Thorne, Leigh B; Mathews, Michelle; Li, Yan; Hu, Zhiyuan; Robinson, Whitney R; Hoadley, Katherine A; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Reeder-Hayes, Katherine E; Earp, H Shelton; Olshan, Andrew F; Carey, Lisa A; Perou, Charles M

    2018-02-01

    African American breast cancer patients have lower frequency of hormone receptor-positive (HR+)/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative disease and higher subtype-specific mortality. Racial differences in molecular subtype within clinically defined subgroups are not well understood. Using data and biospecimens from the population-based Carolina Breast Cancer Study (CBCS) Phase 3 (2008-2013), we classified 980 invasive breast cancers using RNA expression-based PAM50 subtype and recurrence (ROR) score that reflects proliferation and tumor size. Molecular subtypes (Luminal A, Luminal B, HER2-enriched, and Basal-like) and ROR scores (high vs low/medium) were compared by race (blacks vs whites) and age (≤50 years vs > 50 years) using chi-square tests and analysis of variance tests. Black women of all ages had a statistically significantly lower frequency of Luminal A breast cancer (25.4% and 33.6% in blacks vs 42.8% and 52.1% in whites; younger and older, respectively). All other subtype frequencies were higher in black women (case-only odds ratio [OR] = 3.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.22 to 4.37, for Basal-like; OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.02 to 2.06, for Luminal B; OR = 2.04, 95% CI = 1.33 to 3.13, for HER2-enriched). Among clinically HR+/HER2- cases, Luminal A subtype was less common and ROR scores were statistically significantly higher among black women. Multigene assays highlight racial disparities in tumor subtype distribution that persist even in clinically defined subgroups. Differences in tumor biology (eg, HER2-enriched status) may be targetable to reduce disparities among clinically ER+/HER2- cases. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  12. Simulation of mineral dust aerosol with Piecewise Log-normal Approximation (PLA in CanAM4-PAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Peng

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A new size-resolved dust scheme based on the numerical method of piecewise log-normal approximation (PLA was developed and implemented in the fourth generation of the Canadian Atmospheric Global Climate Model with the PLA Aerosol Model (CanAM4-PAM. The total simulated annual global dust emission is 2500 Tg yr−1, and the dust mass load is 19.3 Tg for year 2000. Both are consistent with estimates from other models. Results from simulations are compared with multiple surface measurements near and away from dust source regions, validating the generation, transport and deposition of dust in the model. Most discrepancies between model results and surface measurements are due to unresolved aerosol processes. Biases in long-range transport are also contributing. Radiative properties of dust aerosol are derived from approximated parameters in two size modes using Mie theory. The simulated aerosol optical depth (AOD is compared with satellite and surface remote sensing measurements and shows general agreement in terms of the dust distribution around sources. The model yields a dust AOD of 0.042 and dust aerosol direct radiative forcing (ADRF of −1.24 W m−2 respectively, which show good consistency with model estimates from other studies.

  13. Reliability and validity of a smartphone pulse rate application for the assessment of resting and elevated pulse rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Katy; Graff, Megan; Hedt, Corbin; Simmons, James

    2016-08-01

    Purpose/hypothesis: This study was designed to investigate the test-retest reliability, concurrent validity, and the standard error of measurement (SEm) of a pulse rate assessment application (Azumio®'s Instant Heart Rate) on both Android® and iOS® (iphone operating system) smartphones as compared to a FT7 Polar® Heart Rate monitor. Number of subjects: 111. Resting (sitting) pulse rate was assessed twice and then the participants were asked to complete a 1-min standing step test and then immediately re-assessed. The smartphone assessors were blinded to their measurements. Test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC 2,1] and 95% confidence interval) for the three tools at rest (time 1/time 2): iOS® (0.76 [0.67-0.83]); Polar® (0.84 [0.78-0.89]); and Android® (0.82 [0.75-0.88]). Concurrent validity at rest time 2 (ICC 2,1) with the Polar® device: IOS® (0.92 [0.88-0.94]) and Android® (0.95 [0.92-0.96]). Concurrent validity post-exercise (time 3) (ICC) with the Polar® device: iOS® (0.90 [0.86-0.93]) and Android® (0.94 [0.91-0.96]). The SEm values for the three devices at rest: iOS® (5.77 beats per minute [BPM]), Polar® (4.56 BPM) and Android® (4.96 BPM). The Android®, iOS®, and Polar® devices showed acceptable test-retest reliability at rest and post-exercise. Both the smartphone platforms demonstrated concurrent validity with the Polar® at rest and post-exercise. The Azumio® Instant Heart Rate application when used by either platform appears to be a reliable and valid tool to assess pulse rate in healthy individuals.

  14. Acidifier application rate impacts on ammonia emissions from US roaster chicken houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sanjay B.; Grimes, Jesse L.; Oviedo-Rondón, Edgar O.; Westerman, Philip W.

    2014-08-01

    Due to its potential environmental and public health impacts, emissions of ammonia (NH3) as well as several other gases from US livestock farms may be regulated. Broiler houses are important sources of NH3 emissions. However, there are no emissions data from roaster (8-12 wk old broilers, ˜4 kg ea.) houses. Producers treat the litter in broiler houses with acidifiers, such as sodium bisulfate (SBS, NaHSO4) to reduce ammonia production and protect bird health. However, there is very little data on the effect of acidifiers, particularly at high application rates on ammonia emissions. The impact of different SBS application rates [High (0.95-1.46 kg m-2, whole house), Medium (0.73 kg m-2, whole house), Low (0.37-0.49 kg m-2, whole house), and Control (0.37-0.49 kg m-2, brood chamber)] on ammonia emissions was evaluated in commercial roaster houses over 22 months spanning eight flocks. Ammonia emission from each fan was measured with an acid scrubber that operated only when the fan operated. Emissions were calculated using >95% measured data with the rest being estimated using robust methods. Exhaust ammonia-N concentrations were inversely correlated with the SBS application rates. Emission rates on animal unit (AU, where 1 AU = 500 kg live-mass) basis (ER, g d-1 AU-1) were reduced by 27, 13, and 5%, respectively, in the High, Medium, and Low treatments vs. the Control treatment (mean: 100 g d-1 AU-1, range: 86-114 g d-1 AU-1). Emission rates for the Control treatment measured in this study on roasters were mostly higher than ERs in the literature. Differences in ERs are not only due to diet, environmental and management conditions, but also due to measurement methods.

  15. Algal biomass harvesting by graft copolymer of polyacrylamide on guar gum (GGg-PAM: a sustainable method for alternative source of energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinki Pal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Microalgal cells has been utilized as a rich source of food, feed and fuel. The process of concentrating algal cells from water suspension is called harvesting. This article deals with the algal biomass harvesting by flocculation process using acrylamide grafted guar gum. Acrylamide has been successfully grafted onto the backbone of guar gum by microwave initiated method in which microwave radiation alone (without chemical free radical initiator is used to initiate the grafting reaction. Simultaneously with the synthesis of graft copolymer, water removal capability of various grades of GGg-PAM have also been studied as a flocculant for algal biomass harvesting through standard jar test procedure for collection of algal biomass. The collected biomass can be hand carried. The collected biomass has been characterized in terms of crude fat content and elemental composition. Calorific value of this collected biomass has also been theoretically calculated.

  16. Innovative approach for the electrochemical detection of non-electroactive organophosphorus pesticides using oxime as electroactive probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Jing; Hou, Juying; Jiang, Jianxia; Ai, Shiyun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel approach for electrochemical detection of non-electroactive OPs was proposed. • PAM was used as electroactive probe for the first time. • The detection system displayed high sensitivity and promptness. • The developed sensor was used in real samples with satisfactory results. - Abstract: An innovative approach for sensitive and simple electrochemical detection of non-electroactive organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) was described in this report. The novel strategy emphasized the fabrication of an oxime-based sensor via attaching pralidoxime (PAM) on graphene quantum dots (GQDs) modified glassy carbon electrode. The introduction of GQDs significantly increased the effective electrode area, and then enlarged the immobilization quantity of PAM. Thus, the oxidation current of PAM was obviously increased. Relying on the nucleophilic substitution reaction between oxime and OPs, fenthion was detected using PAM as the electroactive probe. Under optimum conditions, the difference of oxidation current of PAM was proportional to fenthion concentration over the range from 1.0 × 10 −11 M to 5.0 × 10 −7 M with a detection limit of 6.8 × 10 −12 M (S/N = 3). Moreover, the favorable detection performance in water and soil samples heralded the promising applications in on-site OPs detection

  17. Synthesis of ordered large-scale ZnO nanopore arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, G.Q.; Shen, W.Z.; Zheng, M.J.; Fan, D.H.

    2006-01-01

    An effective approach is demonstrated for growing ordered large-scale ZnO nanopore arrays through radio-frequency magnetron sputtering deposition on porous alumina membranes (PAMs). The realization of highly ordered hexagonal ZnO nanopore arrays benefits from the unique properties of ZnO (hexagonal structure, polar surfaces, and preferable growth directions) and PAMs (controllable hexagonal nanopores and localized negative charges). Further evidence has been shown through the effects of nanorod size and thermal treatment of PAMs on the yielded morphology of ZnO nanopore arrays. This approach opens the possibility of creating regular semiconducting nanopore arrays for the application of filters, sensors, and templates

  18. Real-time observation of DNA target interrogation and product release by the RNA-guided endonuclease CRISPR Cpf1 (Cas12a).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Digvijay; Mallon, John; Poddar, Anustup; Wang, Yanbo; Tippana, Ramreddy; Yang, Olivia; Bailey, Scott; Ha, Taekjip

    2018-05-22

    CRISPR-Cas9, which imparts adaptive immunity against foreign genomic invaders in certain prokaryotes, has been repurposed for genome-engineering applications. More recently, another RNA-guided CRISPR endonuclease called Cpf1 (also known as Cas12a) was identified and is also being repurposed. Little is known about the kinetics and mechanism of Cpf1 DNA interaction and how sequence mismatches between the DNA target and guide-RNA influence this interaction. We used single-molecule fluorescence analysis and biochemical assays to characterize DNA interrogation, cleavage, and product release by three Cpf1 orthologs. Our Cpf1 data are consistent with the DNA interrogation mechanism proposed for Cas9. They both bind any DNA in search of protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM) sequences, verify the target sequence directionally from the PAM-proximal end, and rapidly reject any targets that lack a PAM or that are poorly matched with the guide-RNA. Unlike Cas9, which requires 9 bp for stable binding and ∼16 bp for cleavage, Cpf1 requires an ∼17-bp sequence match for both stable binding and cleavage. Unlike Cas9, which does not release the DNA cleavage products, Cpf1 rapidly releases the PAM-distal cleavage product, but not the PAM-proximal product. Solution pH, reducing conditions, and 5' guanine in guide-RNA differentially affected different Cpf1 orthologs. Our findings have important implications on Cpf1-based genome engineering and manipulation applications.

  19. Practical controller design for ultra-precision positioning of stages with a pneumatic artificial muscle actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, T. F.; Chong, S. H.

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a practical controller design method for ultra-precision positioning of pneumatic artificial muscle actuator stages. Pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM) actuators are safe to use and have numerous advantages which have brought these actuators to wide applications. However, PAM exhibits strong non-linear characteristics, and these limitations lead to low controllability and limit its application. In practice, the non-linear characteristics of PAM mechanism are difficult to be precisely modeled, and time consuming to model them accurately. The purpose of the present study is to clarify a practical controller design method that emphasizes a simple design procedure that does not acquire plants parameters modeling, and yet is able to demonstrate ultra-precision positioning performance for a PAM driven stage. The practical control approach adopts continuous motion nominal characteristic trajectory following (CM NCTF) control as the feedback controller. The constructed PAM driven stage is in low damping characteristic and causes severe residual vibration that deteriorates motion accuracy of the system. Therefore, the idea to increase the damping characteristic by having an acceleration feedback compensation to the plant has been proposed. The effectiveness of the proposed controller was verified experimentally and compared with a classical PI controller in point-to-point motion. The experiment results proved that the CM NCTF controller demonstrates better positioning performance in smaller motion error than the PI controller. Overall, the CM NCTF controller has successfully to reduce motion error to 3µm, which is 88.7% smaller than the PI controller.

  20. A 'new lease of life': FnCpf1 possesses DNA cleavage activity for genome editing in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Mengjun; Lin, Li; Cheng, Yilu; He, Xiubin; Sun, Huihui; Xie, Haihua; Fu, Junhao; Liu, Changbao; Li, Jin; Chen, Ding; Xi, Haitao; Xue, Dongyu; Liu, Qi; Zhao, Junzhao; Gao, Caixia; Song, Zongming; Qu, Jia; Gu, Feng

    2017-11-02

    Cpf1 nucleases were recently reported to be highly specific and programmable nucleases with efficiencies comparable to those of SpCas9. AsCpf1 and LbCpf1 require a single crRNA and recognize a 5'-TTTN-3' protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) at the 5' end of the protospacer for genome editing. For widespread application in precision site-specific human genome editing, the range of sequences that AsCpf1 and LbCpf1 can recognize is limited due to the size of this PAM. To address this limitation, we sought to identify a novel Cpf1 nuclease with simpler PAM requirements. Specifically, here we sought to test and engineer FnCpf1, one reported Cpf1 nuclease (FnCpf1) only requires 5'-TTN-3' as a PAM but does not exhibit detectable levels of nuclease-induced indels at certain locus in human cells. Surprisingly, we found that FnCpf1 possesses DNA cleavage activity in human cells at multiple loci. We also comprehensively and quantitatively examined various FnCpf1 parameters in human cells, including spacer sequence, direct repeat sequence and the PAM sequence. Our study identifies FnCpf1 as a new member of the Cpf1 family for human genome editing with distinctive characteristics, which shows promise as a genome editing tool with the potential for both research and therapeutic applications. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  1. A ‘new lease of life’: FnCpf1 possesses DNA cleavage activity for genome editing in human cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Mengjun; Lin, Li; Cheng, Yilu; He, Xiubin; Sun, Huihui; Xie, Haihua; Fu, Junhao; Liu, Changbao; Li, Jin; Chen, Ding; Xi, Haitao; Xue, Dongyu; Liu, Qi; Zhao, Junzhao; Gao, Caixia; Song, Zongming; Qu, Jia

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Cpf1 nucleases were recently reported to be highly specific and programmable nucleases with efficiencies comparable to those of SpCas9. AsCpf1 and LbCpf1 require a single crRNA and recognize a 5′-TTTN-3′ protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) at the 5′ end of the protospacer for genome editing. For widespread application in precision site-specific human genome editing, the range of sequences that AsCpf1 and LbCpf1 can recognize is limited due to the size of this PAM. To address this limitation, we sought to identify a novel Cpf1 nuclease with simpler PAM requirements. Specifically, here we sought to test and engineer FnCpf1, one reported Cpf1 nuclease (FnCpf1) only requires 5′-TTN-3′ as a PAM but does not exhibit detectable levels of nuclease-induced indels at certain locus in human cells. Surprisingly, we found that FnCpf1 possesses DNA cleavage activity in human cells at multiple loci. We also comprehensively and quantitatively examined various FnCpf1 parameters in human cells, including spacer sequence, direct repeat sequence and the PAM sequence. Our study identifies FnCpf1 as a new member of the Cpf1 family for human genome editing with distinctive characteristics, which shows promise as a genome editing tool with the potential for both research and therapeutic applications. PMID:28977650

  2. Pneumatic artificial muscle actuators for compliant robotic manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ryan Michael

    Robotic systems are increasingly being utilized in applications that require interaction with humans. In order to enable safe physical human-robot interaction, light weight and compliant manipulation are desirable. These requirements are problematic for many conventional actuation systems, which are often heavy, and typically use high stiffness to achieve high performance, leading to large impact forces upon collision. However, pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) are actuators that can satisfy these safety requirements while offering power-to-weight ratios comparable to those of conventional actuators. PAMs are extremely lightweight actuators that produce force in response to pressurization. These muscles demonstrate natural compliance, but have a nonlinear force-contraction profile that complicates modeling and control. This body of research presents solutions to the challenges associated with the implementation of PAMs as actuators in robotic manipulators, particularly with regard to modeling, design, and control. An existing PAM force balance model was modified to incorporate elliptic end geometry and a hyper-elastic constitutive relationship, dramatically improving predictions of PAM behavior at high contraction. Utilizing this improved model, two proof-of-concept PAM-driven manipulators were designed and constructed; design features included parallel placement of actuators and a tendon-link joint design. Genetic algorithm search heuristics were employed to determine an optimal joint geometry; allowing a manipulator to achieve a desired torque profile while minimizing the required PAM pressure. Performance of the manipulators was evaluated in both simulation and experiment employing various linear and nonlinear control strategies. These included output feedback techniques, such as proportional-integral-derivative (PID) and fuzzy logic, a model-based control for computed torque, and more advanced controllers, such as sliding mode, adaptive sliding mode, and

  3. Kernel-Correlated Levy Field Driven Forward Rate and Application to Derivative Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bo Lijun [Xidian University, Department of Mathematics (China); Wang Yongjin [Nankai University, School of Business (China); Yang Xuewei, E-mail: xwyangnk@yahoo.com.cn [Nanjing University, School of Management and Engineering (China)

    2013-08-01

    We propose a term structure of forward rates driven by a kernel-correlated Levy random field under the HJM framework. The kernel-correlated Levy random field is composed of a kernel-correlated Gaussian random field and a centered Poisson random measure. We shall give a criterion to preclude arbitrage under the risk-neutral pricing measure. As applications, an interest rate derivative with general payoff functional is priced under this pricing measure.

  4. Integration of aerial imaging and variable-rate technology for site-specific aerial herbicide application

    Science.gov (United States)

    As remote sensing and variable rate technology are becoming more available for aerial applicators, practical methodologies on effective integration of these technologies are needed for site-specific aerial applications of crop production and protection materials. The objectives of this study were to...

  5. Biochar application rate affects biological nitrogen fixation in red clover conditional on potassium availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mia, S.; van Groeningen, J.W.; Van de Voorde, T.F.J.; Oram, N.J.; Bezemer, T.M.; Mommer, Liesje; Jeffery, S.

    2014-01-01

    Increased biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) by legumes has been reported following biochar application to soils, but the mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain poorly elucidated. We investigated the effects of different biochar application rates on BNF in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.). Red

  6. Poika on suruissansa (2/4 F)

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Laulun sanat: Poika on suruissansa, kun on jäänyt kullastansa; kiertää piirin ympäri ja ottaa uuden taas, kiertää piirin ympäri ja ottaa uuden taas! Hih-hei, ja pili-pam-pam-pam, pili-pam-pam-pam, pili-pam-pam-pam! Hih-hei, ja pili-pam-pam-pam! Kiertää piirin ympäri ja

  7. Adsorption of Hg2+ from aqueous solution onto polyacrylamide/attapulgite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yijiang; Chen Yan; Li Meisheng; Zhou Shouyong; Xue Ailian; Xing Weihong

    2009-01-01

    Polyacrylamide/attapulgite (PAM/ATP) was prepared by the solution polymerization of acrylamide (AM) onto γ-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxy silane (KH-570)-modified attapulgite (ATP). PAM/ATP was characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The effects of contact time, adsorbent dosage, and pH of the initial solution on the adsorption capacities for Hg 2+ were investigated. The adsorption process was rapid; 88% of adsorption occurred within 5 min and equilibrium was achieved at around 40 min. The equilibrium data fitted the Langmuir sorption isotherms well, and the maximum adsorption capacity of Hg 2+ onto PAM/ATP was found to be 192.5 mg g -1 . The adsorption kinetics of PAM/ATP fitted a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Our results suggest that chemisorption processes could be the rate-limiting steps in the process of Hg 2+ adsorption. Hg 2+ adsorbed onto PAM/ATP could be effectively desorbed in hot acetic acid solution, and the adsorption capacity of the regenerated adsorbents could still be maintained at 95% by the sixth cycle.

  8. Behavior of shut-down dose rate of recirculation piping of BWR under noble metal application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuse, Motomasa; Nagase, Makoto; Aizawa, Motohiro; Wada, Yoichi; Ishida, Kazushige; Hosokawa, Hideyuki; Hettiarachchi, Samson; Weber, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    The cause of shut-down dose rate change of the recirculation piping observed in KKM (Kern Kraftwerk Mühleberg) after application of noble metal injection method is analyzed. The plant experienced the sharp decrease of piping dose rate in the cycle just after the application of noble metal(classic NobleChem TM ) and re-buildup of radioactivity in the subsequent several cycles. After the application of online noble metal injection (online NobleChem TM ), gradual decrease of dose rate has been observed. The presence of a certain amount of noble metal on the iron rich oxide film promotes the dissolution of the oxide under hydrogen addition, resulting in a decrease of deposited noble metal on the oxide film surface as well as of radioactive species in the film. Under the condition of lower amount of noble metal on the surface oxides, the oxidant species, especially hydrogen peroxide, slightly increases facilitating the re-growth of iron rich oxides along with re-buildup of radioactivity. After the application of online noble metal injection during each cycle, gradual dissolution of iron rich oxides and gradual decrease of radioactivity in the oxides proceed to decrease the piping dose rate. In the radioactivity decreasing phase, the presence of zinc is considered to assist the suppression of radioactivity buildup in the oxide film. From the analysis, treating piping surface with platinum after chemical decontamination process is expected to work well for suppression of the piping dose rate. (author)

  9. Sustainable Use of Pesticide Applications in Citrus: A Support Tool for Volume Rate Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz Garcerá

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rational application of pesticides by properly adjusting the amount of product to the actual needs and specific conditions for application is a key factor for sustainable plant protection. However, current plant protection product (PPP labels registered for citrus in EU are usually expressed as concentration (%; rate/hl and/or as the maximum dose of product per unit of ground surface, without taking into account those conditions. In this work, the fundamentals of a support tool, called CitrusVol, developed to recommend mix volume rates in PPP applications in citrus orchards using airblast sprayers, are presented. This tool takes into consideration crop characteristics (geometry, leaf area density, pests, and product and application efficiency, and it is based on scientific data obtained previously regarding the minimum deposit required to achieve maximum efficacy, efficiency of airblast sprayers in citrus orchards, and characterization of the crop. The use of this tool in several commercial orchards allowed a reduction of the volume rate and the PPPs used in comparison with the commonly used by farmers of between 11% and 74%, with an average of 31%, without affecting the efficacy. CitrusVol is freely available on a website and in an app for smartphones.

  10. 77 FR 20807 - Northwest Pipeline GP; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... diameter pipelines away from an adjacent surface coal mine west of Kemmerer, Wyoming. Northwest also... directed to Pam Barnes, Manager Certificates and Tariffs, Northwest Pipeline GP, 295 Chipeta Way, Salt Lake...

  11. Effects of nitrogen application rate on dry matter redistribution, grain yield, nitrogen use efficiency and photosynthesis in malting barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, J; Jiang, D; Wollenweber, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    The harmonious combination of malting barley yield, quality and nitrogen (N) use-efficiency under nitrogen (N) rates applications was greatly conducive to production in China. The malting barley cultivar Supi 3 was planted during the growing seasons 2005 and 2006 at two contrasting sites in China....... Five nitrogen (N) application rates (0, 75, 150, 225 and 300 kg ha−1) were applied for research of effects of N rates application on grain yield, protein content and N use-efficiency. At both sites and in both years, grain yield increased with increasing N application rates up to 225 kg N ha−1...... with a quadrant model, the optimum N application rates for high grain yield with high nitrogen use-efficiency in malting barley could be indicated. So, the higher yields could be mainly ascribed to the higher accumulation of photoassimilates between anthesis and maturity. In order to achieve high grain yield...

  12. Challenges in the development of an M4 PAM preclinical candidate: The discovery, SAR, and biological characterization of a series of azetidine-derived tertiary amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarr, James C; Wood, Michael R; Noetzel, Meredith J; Melancon, Bruce J; Lamsal, Atin; Luscombe, Vincent B; Rodriguez, Alice L; Byers, Frank W; Chang, Sichen; Cho, Hyekyung P; Engers, Darren W; Jones, Carrie K; Niswender, Colleen M; Wood, Michael W; Brandon, Nicholas J; Duggan, Mark E; Jeffrey Conn, P; Bridges, Thomas M; Lindsley, Craig W

    2017-12-01

    Herein we describe the continued optimization of M 4 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) within the 5-amino-thieno[2,3-c]pyridazine series of compounds. In this letter, we disclose our studies on tertiary amides derived from substituted azetidines. This series provided excellent CNS penetration, which had been challenging to consistently achieve in other amide series. Efforts to mitigate high clearance, aided by metabolic softspot analysis, were unsuccessful and precluded this series from further consideration as a preclinical candidate. In the course of this study, we found that potassium tetrafluoroborate salts could be engaged in a tosyl hydrazone reductive cross coupling reaction, a previously unreported transformation, which expands the synthetic utility of the methodology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Applications of energy-release-rate techniques to part-through cracks in experimental pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, B.R.; Bryan, R.H.; Bryson, J.W.; Merkle, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    In nonlinear applications of computational fracture mechanics, energy release rate techniques are used increasingly for computing stress intensity parameters of crack configurations. Recently, deLorenzi used the virtual-crack-extension method to derive an analytical expression for the energy release rate that is better suited for three-dimensional calculations than the well-known J-integral. Certain studies of fracture phenomena, such as pressurized-thermal-shock of cracked structures, require that crack tip parameters be determined for combined thermal and mechanical loads. A method is proposed here that modifies the isothermal formulation of deLorenzi to account for thermal strains in cracked bodies. This combined thermo-mechanical formulation of the energy release rate is valid for general fracture, including nonplanar fracture, and applies to thermo-elastic as well as deformation plasticity material models. Two applications of the technique are described here. In the first, semi-elliptical surface cracks in an experimental test vessel are analyzed under elastic-plastic conditions using the finite element method. The second application is a thick-walled test vessel subjected to combined pressure and thermal shock loadings

  14. Controlled clustering of carboxylated SPIONs through polyethylenimine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesztor, Dániel; Bali, Krisztina; Tóth, Ildikó Y.; Szekeres, Márta; Tombácz, Etelka, E-mail: tombacz@chem.u-szeged.hu

    2015-04-15

    Clusters of magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) were synthesized using poly(acrylic acid-co-maleic acid) coated MNPs (PAM@MNP) and branched polyethylenimine (PEI). Materials were characterized by potentiometric titration, zeta potential and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. PEI and PAM@MNP are oppositely charged as characterized by zeta potential measurements (+8, −34 mV respectively) and titration (10.30 mmol −NH{sub 3}{sup +}/g PEI; 0.175 mmol −COO{sup −}/g PAM@MNP) at pH 6.5±0.2; therefore magnetic clusters are formed by electrostatic adhesion. Two different preparation methods and the effect of PEI and electrolyte (NaCl) concentration on the cluster formation was studied. Choosing an optimal concentration of PEI (charge ratio of PEI to PAM@MNP: 0.17) and electrolyte (10 mM), a concentrated (10 g MNP/L) product containing PEI–PAM@MNP nanoclusters with size of 165±10 nm was prepared. Its specific absorption rate (SAR) measured in AC magnetic field (110 kHz, 25 mT) is 12 W/g Fe. The clustered product is expected to have enhanced contrast efficiency in MRI. - Highlights: • SPION clusters of controlled size were prepared by means of electrostatic adhesion. • Nanocluster formation optimum was at 0.17 charge ratio of PEI to PAM@MNP. • Huge aggregates form at higher PEI to PAM@MNP charge ratio. • Higher ionic strength promotes the formation of clusters at lower PEI concentrations.

  15. Heart rate monitoring mobile applications

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhry, Beenish M.

    2016-01-01

    Total number of times a heart beats in a minute is known as the heart rate. Traditionally, heart rate was measured using clunky gadgets but these days it can be measured with a smartphone?s camera. This can help you measure your heart rate anywhere and at anytime, especially during workouts so you can adjust your workout intensity to achieve maximum health benefits. With simple and easy to use mobile app, ?Unique Heart Rate Monitor?, you can also maintain your heart rate history for personal ...

  16. Applications of Reaction Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an assignment in which students are to research and report on a chemical reaction whose increased or decreased rate is of practical importance. Specifically, students are asked to represent the reaction they have chosen with an acceptable chemical equation, identify a factor that influences its rate and explain how and why it…

  17. Heart rate monitoring mobile applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Beenish M

    2016-01-01

    Total number of times a heart beats in a minute is known as the heart rate. Traditionally, heart rate was measured using clunky gadgets but these days it can be measured with a smartphone's camera. This can help you measure your heart rate anywhere and at anytime, especially during workouts so you can adjust your workout intensity to achieve maximum health benefits. With simple and easy to use mobile app, 'Unique Heart Rate Monitor', you can also maintain your heart rate history for personal reflection and sharing with a provider.

  18. Hierarchical programming language for modal multi-rate real-time stream processing applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuns, S.J.; Hausmans, J.P.H.M.; Bekooij, Marco Jan Gerrit

    2014-01-01

    Modal multi-rate stream processing applications with real-time constraints which are executed on multi-core embedded systems often cannot be conveniently specified using current programming languages. An important issue is that sequential programming languages do not allow for convenient programming

  19. 12 CFR 714.8 - Are the early payment provisions, or interest rate provisions, applicable in leasing arrangements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... provisions, or interest rate provisions, applicable in leasing arrangements? You are not subject to the early... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Are the early payment provisions, or interest rate provisions, applicable in leasing arrangements? 714.8 Section 714.8 Banks and Banking NATIONAL...

  20. Prognostic Factors of Organophosphate Poisoning Between the Death and Survival Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzeng-Jih Lin

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In this prospective case series study, we consider the different factors between death and survival groups of organophosphate poisoning. Patients in tertiary-care medical center who had been exposed to organophosphate were included in the study. Pralidoxime (PAM was discontinued after atropine had controlled the clinical situation. We recorded the demographic data, amount of organophosphate consumption, duration of coma, duration of ventilator use, duration of hospitalization, findings of chest X-ray, white blood cell count, acetylcholinesterase concentration, plasma cholinesterase concentration, total atropine amount, duration of atropine use, total PAM amount, duration of PAM use, urine organophosphate peak concentration, duration of urine organophosphate and mortality rate. Urine was collected every 8 hours and was analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with a flame photometric detector and gas chromatography with mass spectrometer detector for organophosphate determination. The urine organophosphate peak concentration was recorded. Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to compare the factors between death and survival groups. Fisher's exact test was used to compare the different findings of chest X-ray between the death and survival groups. Evidently, the death group had a higher amount of organophosphate consumption, duration of coma, and higher white blood cell count than those in the survival group. Also, the death group had lower duration of hospitalization, and decreased concentrations of acetylcholinesterase and plasma cholinesterase. Total PAM amount use and duration of PAM use were lower. However, the duration of ventilator use, findings of chest X-ray, total atropine amount, duration of atropine, urine organophosphate peak concentration and duration of urine organophosphate were similar in both groups. The mortality rate of our 50 cases was 20%. As stated earlier, the cases of the death group had insufficient PAM therapy. The maximum

  1. Vaccine Adjuvant Incorporation Strategy Dictates Peptide Amphiphile Micelle Immunostimulatory Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Kramer, Jake S; Smith, Josiah D; Allen, Brittany N; Leeper, Caitlin N; Li, Xiaolei; Morton, Logan D; Gallazzi, Fabio; Ulery, Bret D

    2018-06-01

    Current vaccine research has shifted from traditional vaccines (i.e., whole-killed or live-attenuated) to subunit vaccines (i.e., protein, peptide, or DNA) as the latter is much safer due to delivering only the bioactive components necessary to produce a desirable immune response. Unfortunately, subunit vaccines are very weak immunogens requiring delivery vehicles and the addition of immunostimulatory molecules termed adjuvants to convey protective immunity. An interesting type of delivery vehicle is peptide amphiphile micelles (PAMs), unique biomaterials where the vaccine is part of the nanomaterial itself. Due to the modularity of PAMs, they can be readily modified to deliver both vaccine antigens and adjuvants within a singular construct. Through the co-delivery of a model antigenic epitope (Ovalbumin 319-340 -OVA BT ) and a known molecular adjuvant (e.g., 2,3-dipalmitoyl-S-glyceryl cysteine-Pam 2 C), greater insight into the mechanisms by which PAMs can exert immunostimulatory effects was gained. It was found that specific combinations of antigen and adjuvant can significantly alter vaccine immunogenicity both in vitro and in vivo. These results inform fundamental design rules that can be leveraged to fabricate optimal PAM-based vaccine formulations for future disease-specific applications. Graphical Abstract.

  2. Financial Prospect to The Application of High Rate Water Treatment Plant System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohajit Mohajit

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The High Rate Water Treatment Plant (HR-WTP system, which is inexpensive, effective and efficient, has been developed to reduce the common operational problems, and also as an alternative for the development of water treatment plant systems capacity in Indonesia.Implementation of HR-WTP system in up-rating of the Dekeng-WTP system at PDAM Kota Bogor proved successful in increasing the plant capacity from its original of 500 Lps to more than 1200 Lps. The performance of the WTP system was also significantly improved from poor performance to very good performance.The investment cost for up-rating proved competitive when compared to alternatively constructing a new WTP system with an equivalent capacity and performance. Application of HR-WTP systems for the development of WTP system in Indonesia, i.e. rehabilitation, up-grading, and up-rating, as well as construction of a new WTP system, is expected to bring technical, financial, and economic benefits. This new approach might be an innovative solution to the challenge of Millennium Development Goals in Water Supply Sector in Indonesia, where an additional capacity of ca 150,000 Lps should be developed within a 15 years period with an estimated budget of US $1.5 billions. This budget might be reduced to less than 50% through the application of the HR-WTP system.

  3. Sustainability rating tools for buildings and its wider application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Renard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a commentary on the latest research in measuring the sustainability of buildings and its wider application. The emergence of sustainability rating tools (SRTs has faced critique from scholars due to their deficiencies such as the overemphasis on environmental criteria, the negligence of uncertainty in scoring and existence of non-scientific criteria benchmarks among many others. This could have attributed to the mixed evidence in the literature on the benefits of SRTs. Future research direction is proposed to advance the state-of-the art in this field.

  4. NDT method in determining the rate of corrosion applicable to risk based inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed Hairul Hasmoni; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail; Ab Razak Hamzah

    2004-01-01

    Corrosion is a major problem in oil and gas industries, refineries and chemical process plants as the equipment is often exposed to corrosive environments or elevated temperature. Important equipment need to operate safely and reliably to avoid injuries to personnel and the public, and to prevent loss time and cost incurred due to loss of production and shutdown. The paper assess the approach in evaluating the technique of non-destructive testing (NDT) using Ultrasonic Testing (UT) in determining the rate of corrosion and remaining life of equipment applicable to Risk Based Inspection (RBI). Methods in determining the corrosion rate are presented using analytical method. Examples and data from MINT chiller water pipeline are presented to illustrate the application of these methods. (Author)

  5. Action of drag reduces in mono and two--phase low in pipeline; Acao de redutores de atrito em escoamentos mono bifasicos em tubulacoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paes, Diogo M.; Franca, Fernando A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica; Bizotto, Vanessa C. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Lab. Kelsen Valente Serra (LABPETRO); Sabadini, Edvaldo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    The phenomenon of hydrodynamic drag reduction (DR) takes place when small amounts of polymer with high molecular weight are added to a turbulent flow. This phenomenon is very important in pumping process, mainly in petroleum industries. Studies on DR have been made using high-grade polyacrylamide (PAM) and a commercial polymer (FA920, basically composed by PAM) in water solution, both with a high molecular weight. At first, studies were developed in a double gap type rheometer using small amount of polymer. They provided information on the polymer concentration in which the maximum DR was reached, the amount of drag reduction and the solution mechanical stability along a turbulent shearing process. The results indicated a limiting 17%DR when a 2 ppm aqueous solution of high grade PAM was tested. These tests, besides giving preliminary estimations, are limited in terms of engineering application due to the low shearing rates applied by the viscometer. The tests performed at LabPetro-UNICAMP comprised of pressure drop measurements in actual pipe flows, single water and two-phase airwater flows, using the previous knowledge acquired with the viscometer tests. In the former case, the classical Moody diagram, (f vs Re) has been drawn to show the %DR in terms of the friction factor reduction for the Reynolds number in the 2x10{sup 4} to 10{sup 5} range. Single phase flows attained up to 37% DR with commercial PAM (FA 920), depending on the polymer concentration. Preliminary results of DR tests performed with air-water flows, in different flow patterns - stratified-wavy and slug flows, are shown. To infer the air-water flow pattern, high speed filming was used. (author)

  6. [Effects of phosphorus application rates and depths on P utilization and loss risk in a maize-soybean intercropping system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Song, Chun; Zhou, Pan; Wang, Jia Yu; Xui, Feng; Ye, Fang; Wang, Xiao Chun; Yang, Wen Yu

    2018-04-01

    In order to explore the advantage of intercropping on phosphorus (P) efficient utilization and the reduction of soil P loss, a field experiment in a maize-soybean intercropping system, which included three P application (P 2 O 5 ) rates (CP: 168 kg·hm -2 ; RP 1 : 135 kg·hm -2 ; RP 2 : 101 kg·hm -2 ) and three P application depths (D 1 : applied in 5 cm depth; D 2 : applied in 15 cm depth; D 3 : 1/2 of P fertilizer applied in 5 cm depth and another 1/2 in 15 cm depth) was carried out to analyze the effects of P application rates and depth on crop aboveground biomass, grain yield, crop P uptake, soil total and available P contents, and soil P adsorption-desorption characteristics. Compared with control treatment, the aboveground biomass, grain yield, crop P uptake, soil total P, and available P content were increased significantly by P application, regardless of P rate and application depth. Under the same application depth, RP 1 had similar grain yield but higher crop P uptake compared with CP, and thus higher P apparent utilization efficiency. Under the same P application rate, the application depth of D 2 had the highest crop aboveground biomass, grain yield, P uptake, soil total P, and available P. According to the characteristic of soil P adsorption-desorption, the treatment with the rate of RP 1 and the depth of D 2 had the strongest soil P retention capacity, which had advantage in alleviating P loss. These results suggested that reducing application rate but increasing application depth of P fertilizer could improve P use efficiency and reduce soil P loss without sacrifice in crop production in maize-soybean relay intercropping system.

  7. 26 CFR 1.613-7 - Application of percentage depletion rates provided in section 613(b) to certain taxable years...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Application of percentage depletion rates... TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.613-7 Application of percentage depletion rates provided in... depletion rate specified in section 613 in respect of any mineral property (within the meaning of the 1939...

  8. Can simple mobile phone applications provide reliable counts of respiratory rates in sick infants and children? An initial evaluation of three new applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, James; Gerdtz, Marie; Nicholson, Pat; Crellin, Dianne; Browning, Laura; Simpson, Julie; Bell, Lauren; Santamaria, Nick

    2015-05-01

    Respiratory rate is an important sign that is commonly either not recorded or recorded incorrectly. Mobile phone ownership is increasing even in resource-poor settings. Phone applications may improve the accuracy and ease of counting of respiratory rates. The study assessed the reliability and initial users' impressions of four mobile phone respiratory timer approaches, compared to a 60-second count by the same participants. Three mobile applications (applying four different counting approaches plus a standard 60-second count) were created using the Java Mobile Edition and tested on Nokia C1-01 phones. Apart from the 60-second timer application, the others included a counter based on the time for ten breaths, and three based on the time interval between breaths ('Once-per-Breath', in which the user presses for each breath and the application calculates the rate after 10 or 20 breaths, or after 60s). Nursing and physiotherapy students used the applications to count respiratory rates in a set of brief video recordings of children with different respiratory illnesses. Limits of agreement (compared to the same participant's standard 60-second count), intra-class correlation coefficients and standard errors of measurement were calculated to compare the reliability of the four approaches, and a usability questionnaire was completed by the participants. There was considerable variation in the counts, with large components of the variation related to the participants and the videos, as well as the methods. None of the methods was entirely reliable, with no limits of agreement better than -10 to +9 breaths/min. Some of the methods were superior to the others, with ICCs from 0.24 to 0.92. By ICC the Once-per-Breath 60-second count and the Once-per-Breath 20-breath count were the most consistent, better even than the 60-second count by the participants. The 10-breath approaches performed least well. Users' initial impressions were positive, with little difference between the

  9. Application of a mechanism-based rate equation to black liquor gasification rate data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overacker, N.L.; Waag, K.J.; Frederick, W.J. [Oregon State University, OR (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Whitty, K.J.

    1995-09-01

    There is growing interest worldwide to develop alternate chemical recovery processes for paper mills which are cheaper, safer, more efficient and more environmentally sound than traditional technology. Pressurized gasification of black liquor is the basis for many proposed schemes and offers the possibility to double the amount of electricity generated per unit of dry black liquor solids. Such technology also has capital, safety and environmental advantages. One of the most important considerations regarding this emerging technology is the kinetics of the gasification reaction. This has been studied empirically at Aabo Akademi University for the pressurized gasification with carbon dioxide and steam. For the purposes of reactor modeling and scale-up, however, a thorough understanding of the mechanism behind the reaction is desirable. This report discusses the applicability of a mechanism-based rate equation to gasification of black liquor. The mechanism considered was developed for alkali-catalyzed gasification of carbon and is tested using black liquor gasification data obtained during simultaneous reaction with H{sub 2}O and CO. Equilibrium considerations and the influence of the water-gas shift reaction are also discussed. The work presented here is a cooperative effort between Aabo Akademi University and Oregon State University. The experimental work and some of the data analysis was performed at Aabo Akademi University. Development of the models and consideration of their applicability was performed primarily at Oregon State University

  10. Low Temperature Plasma for the Treatment of Epithelial Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohades, Soheila

    Biomedical applications of low temperature plasmas (LTP) may lead to a paradigm shift in treating various diseases by conducting fundamental research on the effects of LTP on cells, tissues, organisms (plants, insects, and microorganisms). This is a rapidly growing interdisciplinary research field that involves engineering, physics, life sciences, and chemistry to find novel solutions for urgent medical needs. Effects of different LTP sources have shown the anti-tumor properties of plasma exposure; however, there are still many unknowns about the interaction of plasma with eukaryotic cells which must be elucidated in order to evaluate the practical potential of plasma in cancer treatment. Plasma, the fourth state of matter, is composed of electrons, ions, reactive molecules (radicals and non-radicals), excited species, radiation, and heat. A sufficient dose (time) of plasma exposure can induce death in cancer cells. The plasma pencil is employed to study the anti-tumor properties of this treatment on epithelial cells. The plasma pencil has been previously used for the inactivation of bacteria, destroying amyloid fibrils, and the killing of various cancer cells. Bladder cancer is the 9th leading cause of cancer. In this dissertation, human urinary bladder tissue with the squamous cell carcinoma disease (SCaBER cells) is treated with LTP utilizing two different approaches: direct plasma exposure and Plasma Activated Media (PAM) as an advancement to the treatment. PAM is produced by exposing a liquid cell culture medium to the plasma pencil. Direct LTP treatment of cancer cells indicates a dose-dependent killing effect at post-treatment times. Similarly, PAM treatment shows an anti-cancer effect by inducing substantial cell death. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) have an important role in the biomedical effects of LTP treatment. This study demonstrates the capability of the plasma pencil to transport ROS/RNS into cell culture media

  11. Kernel-Correlated Lévy Field Driven Forward Rate and Application to Derivative Pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bo Lijun; Wang Yongjin; Yang Xuewei

    2013-01-01

    We propose a term structure of forward rates driven by a kernel-correlated Lévy random field under the HJM framework. The kernel-correlated Lévy random field is composed of a kernel-correlated Gaussian random field and a centered Poisson random measure. We shall give a criterion to preclude arbitrage under the risk-neutral pricing measure. As applications, an interest rate derivative with general payoff functional is priced under this pricing measure

  12. A pacifier-activated music player with mother's voice improves oral feeding in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorna, Olena D; Slaughter, James C; Wang, Lulu; Stark, Ann R; Maitre, Nathalie L

    2014-03-01

    We conducted a randomized trial to test the hypothesis that mother's voice played through a pacifier-activated music player (PAM) during nonnutritive sucking would improve the development of sucking ability and promote more effective oral feeding in preterm infants. Preterm infants between 34 0/7 and 35 6/7 weeks' postmenstrual age, including those with brain injury, who were taking at least half their feedings enterally and less than half orally, were randomly assigned to receive 5 daily 15-minute sessions of either PAM with mother's recorded voice or no PAM, along with routine nonnutritive sucking and maternal care in both groups. Assignment was masked to the clinical team. Ninety-four infants (46 and 48 in the PAM intervention and control groups, respectively) completed the study. The intervention group had significantly increased oral feeding rate (2.0 vs. 0.9 mL/min, P improves oral feeding skills in preterm infants without adverse effects on hormonal stress or growth.

  13. Impact of seeding rate, seeding date, rate and method of phosphorus application in faba bean (Vicia faba L. minor in the absence of moisture stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turk M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted during the winter seasons of 1998-1999, 1999-2000 and 2000-2001 at the semi-arid region in north of Jordan, to study the effect of seeding dates (14 January, 28 January and 12 February, seeding rates (50, 75 and 100 plants per metre, phosphorus levels (0, 17.5, 35.0 and 52.5 kg P per ha and two methods of P placement (banding and broadcast. Seeding rate, seeding date, and rate of phosphorus had a significant effect on most of the measured traits and the yield determinates. Method of phosphorus application had only a significant effect on seed yield and seed weight per plant. In general high yields were obtained by early seeding (14 January, high seeding rate (100-plant per square metre, and P application (52.5 kg P per ha drilled with the seed after cultivation (banded.

  14. [Effects of nitrogen application rate on nitrate reductase activity, nitric oxide content and gas exchange in winter wheat leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Zhou-Ping

    2007-07-01

    In this paper, the effects of different nitrogen application rates on the nitrate reductase (NR) activity, nitric oxide (NO) content and gas exchange parameters in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) leaves from tillering stage to heading stage and on grain yield were studied. The results showed that the photosynthetic rate (P(n)), transpiration rate (T(r)) and instantaneous water use efficiency (IWUE) of leaves as well as the grain yield were increased with increasing nitrogen application rate first but decreased then, with the values of all these parameters reached the highest in treatment N180. The NR activity increased with increasing nitrogen application rate, and there was a significant linear correlation between NR activity and NO content at tillering and jointing stages (R2 > or = 0.68, n = 15). NO content had a quadratic positive correlation with stomatal conductance (G(s)) (R2 > or = 0.43, n = 15). The lower NO content produced by lower NR activity under lower nitrogen application rate promoted the stoma opened, while the higher NO content produced by higher NR activity under higher nitrogen application rate induced the stoma closed. Although the leaf NO content had a quadratic positive correlation with stomatal conductance (R2 > or = 0.36, n = 15), no remarkable correlation was observed between NR activity and NO content at heading stage, suggesting that nitrogen fertilization could not affect leaf NO content through promoting NR activity, and further more, regulate the stomatal action. Under appropriate nitrogen application the leaf NR activity and NO content were lower, G(s), T(r) and IWUE were higher, and thus, the crop had a better drought-resistant ability, higher P(n), and higher grain yield.

  15. Fertilizer N application rate impacts plant-soil feedback in a sanqi production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Yang, Min; Liu, Yixiang; Huang, Huichuan; Ye, Chen; Zheng, Jianfen; Guo, Cunwu; Hao, Minwen; He, Xiahong; Zhu, Shusheng

    2018-08-15

    Replant failure caused by negative plant-soil feedback (NPFS) in agricultural ecosystems is a critical factor restricting the development of sustainable agriculture. Soil nutrient availability has the capacity to affect plant-soil feedback. Here, we used sanqi (Panax notoginseng), which is severely threatened by NPSF, as a model plant to decipher the overall effects of nitrogen (N) rates on NPSF and the underlying mechanism. We found that a high rate of N at 450kgNha -1 (450N) aggravated the NPSF through the accumulation of pathogens in the soil compared with the optimal 250N. The increased N rates resulted in a significant increase in the soil electrical conductivity and available nitrogen but a decrease in the soil pH and C/N ratio. GeoChip 5.0 data demonstrated that these changed soil properties caused the soil to undergo stress (acidification, salinization and carbon starvation), as indicated by the enriched soil microbial gene abundances related to stress response and nutrition cycling (N, C and S). Accordingly, increased N rates reduced the richness and diversity of soil fungi and bacteria and eventually caused a shift in soil microbes from a bacterial-dominant community to a fungal-dominant community. In particular, the high 450N treatment significantly suppressed the abundance of copiotrophic bacteria, including beneficial genera Bacillus and Pseudomonas, thus weakening the antagonistic activity of these bacteria against fungal pathogens. Moreover, 450N application significantly enriched the abundance of pathogen pathogenicity-related genes. Once sanqi plants were grown in this N-stressed soil, their host-specific fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum significantly accumulated, which aggravated the process of NPSF. This study suggested that over-application of nitrogen is not beneficial for disease management or the reduction of fungicide application in agricultural production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Rate of Unverifiable Publications Among Ophthalmology Residency Applicants Invited to Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamez, Heather M; Tauscher, Robert; Brown, Eric N; Wayman, Laura; Mawn, Louise A

    2018-04-19

    Unverifiable publications in applications for ophthalmology residencies could be a serious concern if they represent publication dishonesty. To determine the rate of unverifiable publications among applicants offered an interview. Retrospective review of 322 ophthalmology residency applications for entering classes 2012 to 2017 at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee. Full-length publications reported in the applications were searched in PubMed, Google, Google Scholar, and directly on the journal's website. Applications were deemed unverifiable if there was no record of the publication by any of these means or if substantial discrepancies existed, such as incorrect authorship, incorrect journal, or a meaningful discrepancy in title or length (full-length article vs abstract). Inability to locate publication with search, incorrect author position, applicant not listed as an author, article being an abstract and not a published paper, substantial title discrepancy suggesting an alternative project, and incorrect journal. Of the 322 applicants offered interviews during the 6-year study period, 22 (6.8%) had 24 unverifiable publications. Two hundred thirty-nine of these applicants (74.2%) reported at least 1 qualifying publication; of this group, 22 (9.2%) had an unverifiable publication. The applications with unverifiable publications were evenly distributed across the years of the study (range, 2-6 per cycle; Pearson χ25 = 3.65; P = .60). Two applicants had 2 unverifiable publications each. Two of the 22 applicants (9.1%) with unverifiable publications were graduates of medical schools outside the United States. Among the unverifiable publications, the most common reason was inability to locate the publication (13 [54%]). Additional issues included abstract rather than full-length publication (5 [20.8%]), incorrect author position (4 [16.7%]), applicant not listed as an author on the publication (1 [4.2%]), and substantial title

  17. Enhancing transformer dynamic rating through grid application of photovoltaic arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Gasseir, M.M.; Sayer, M.A.; Alteneder, K.P.; McCulla, G.A.; Bigger, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that exact matching between the substation's peak-day load profile and the profile of coincident net output generation of the PV array is unjustifiable and will unduly lead to overlooking many investment deferment opportunities that would otherwise be major components of high value applications of PV arrays. Further, the paper shows how and to what extent the load matchability requirement could be relaxed. Because of the thermal inertia of transformers, the output of an adequately sized and located photovoltaic array can both delay and reduce transformer temperature rise even in cases where load peak occurs after sunset. The time lag due to thermal inertia and ambient temperature decline allow overloading of the transformer beyond its normal rating without significant loss of life. Simulations depicting the interplay between PV array capacity, ambient temperature, transformer size, oil and winding temperature rise, peak load magnitude, load profile and loss of life, have been conducted. Tradeoffs between PV array capacity and transformer over-rating gains have been assessed. The impacts of PV generation on the over-rating potential of an actual 22.4-MVA bank transformer of a Salt River Project (SRP) distribution substation in Phoenix, Arizona were evaluated

  18. Performances of Hybrid Amplitude Shape Modulation for UWB Communications Systems over AWGN Channel in a Single and Multi-User Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Herceg

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the performance of the hybrid Amplitude Shape Modulation (h-ASM scheme for the time-hopping ultra-wideband (TH-UWB communication systems in the single and multi-user environment. h-ASM is the combination of Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM and Pulse Shape Modulation (PSM based on modified Hermite pulses (MHP. This scheme is suitable for high rate data transmission applications because b = log2(MN bits can be mapped with one waveform. The channel capacity and error probability over AWGN channel are derived and compared with other modulation schemes.

  19. 75 FR 73861 - Change in Rates and Classes of General Applicability for Competitive Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... percent for parcels picked up at a return Network Distribution Center (RNDC) and 8.0 percent for parcels... Part III Postal Service Change in Rates and Classes of General Applicability for Competitive...; [[Page 73862

  20. Development and Validation of a Smartphone Heart Rate Acquisition Application for Health Promotion and Wellness Telehealth Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Gregoski, Mathew J.; Mueller, Martina; Vertegel, Alexey; Shaporev, Aleksey; Jackson, Brenda B.; Frenzel, Ronja M.; Sprehn, Sara M.; Treiber, Frank A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Current generation smartphones' video camera technologies enable photoplethysmographic (PPG) acquisition and heart rate (HR) measurement. The study objective was to develop an Android application and compare HRs derived from a Motorola Droid to electrocardiograph (ECG) and Nonin 9560BT pulse oximeter readings during various movement-free tasks. Materials and Methods. HRs were collected simultaneously from 14 subjects, ages 20 to 58, healthy or with clinical conditions, using the 3 ...

  1. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae-derived lipid-associated membrane proteins induce apoptosis in porcine alveolar macrophage via increasing nitric oxide production, oxidative stress, and caspase-3 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Fangfang; Ni, Bo; Liu, Maojun; Feng, Zhixin; Xiong, Qiyan; Xiao, Shaobo; Shao, Guoqing

    2013-09-15

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the primary etiological agent of enzootic pneumonia in swine. Lipid-associated membrane proteins (LAMP) of mycoplasma are the main pathogenicity factors in mycoplasma diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of M. hyopneumoniae LAMP on porcine alveolar macrophage (PAM) 3D4/21 cell line. Apoptotic features, such as chromatin condensation and apoptotic bodies, were observed in LAMP-treated PAM 3D4/21 cells. Moreover, LAMP significantly increased the number of TUNEL positive apoptotic cells in PAM 3D4/21 cells compared with the untreated control. In addition, flow cytometric analysis using dual staining with annexin-V-FITC and propidium iodide (PI) showed that LAMP of M. hyopneumoniae induced a time-dependent apoptosis in PAM 3D4/21 cells. Moreover, increased levels of superoxide anion production and activated caspase-3 in PAM 3D4/21 cells were observed after exposure to LAMP. Increased production of nitric oxide (NO) was also confirmed in the cell supernatants. Besides, apoptotic rates increase and caspase-3 activation were suppressed by NOS inhibitor or antioxidant. It is suggested that LAMP of M. hyopneumoniae induced apoptosis in porcine alveolar macrophage via NO production, superoxide anion production, and caspase-3 activation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Optimizing the nitrogen application rate for maize and wheat based on yield and environment on the Northern China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yitao; Wang, Hongyuan; Lei, Qiuliang; Luo, Jiafa; Lindsey, Stuart; Zhang, Jizong; Zhai, Limei; Wu, Shuxia; Zhang, Jingsuo; Liu, Xiaoxia; Ren, Tianzhi; Liu, Hongbin

    2018-03-15

    Optimizing the nitrogen (N) application rate can increase crop yield while reducing the environmental risks. However, the optimal N rates vary substantially when different targets such as maximum yield or maximum economic benefit are considered. Taking the wheat-maize rotation cropping system on the North China Plain as a case study, we quantified the variation of N application rates when targeting constraints on yield, economic performance, N uptake and N utilization, by conducting field experiments between 2011 and 2013. Results showed that the optimal N application rate was highest when targeting N uptake (240kgha -1 for maize, and 326kgha -1 for wheat), followed by crop yield (208kgha -1 for maize, and 277kgha -1 for wheat) and economic income (191kgha -1 for maize, and 253kgha -1 for wheat). If environmental costs were considered, the optimal N application rates were further reduced by 20-30% compared to those when targeting maximum economic income. However, the optimal N rate, with environmental cost included, may result in soil nutrient mining under maize, and an extra input of 43kgNha -1 was needed to make the soil N balanced and maintain soil fertility in the long term. To obtain a win-win situation for both yield and environment, the optimal N rate should be controlled at 179kgha -1 for maize, which could achieve above 99.5% of maximum yield and have a favorable N balance, and at 202kgha -1 for wheat to achieve 97.4% of maximum yield, which was about 20kgNha -1 higher than that when N surplus was nil. Although these optimal N rates vary on spatial and temporal scales, they are still effective for the North China Plain where 32% of China's total maize and 45% of China's total wheat are produced. More experiments are still needed to determine the optimal N application rates in other regions. Use of these different optimal N rates would contribute to improving the sustainability of agricultural development in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  3. Effects of nitrogen application rate and leaf age on the distribution pattern of leaf SPAD readings in the rice canopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Yang

    Full Text Available A Soil-Plant Analysis Development (SPAD chlorophyll meter can be used as a simple tool for evaluating N concentration of the leaf and investigating the combined effects of nitrogen rate and leaf age on N distribution. We conducted experiments in a paddy field over two consecutive years (2008-2009 using rice plants treated with six different N application levels. N distribution pattern was determined by SPAD readings based on the temporal dynamics of N concentrations in individual leaves. At 62 days after transplantation (DAT in 2008 and DAT 60 in 2009, leaf SPAD readings increased from the upper to lower in the rice canopy that received N levels of 150 to 375 kg ha(-1The differences in SPAD readings between the upper and lower leaf were larger under higher N application rates. However, as plants grew, this atypical distribution of SPAD readings in canopy leaf quickly reversed to the general order. In addition, temporal dynamics of the leaf SPAD readings (N concentrations were fitted to a piecewise function. In our model, changes in leaf SPAD readings were divided into three stages: growth, functioning, and senescence periods. The leaf growth period lasted approximately 6 days, and cumulative growing days were not affected by N application rates. The leaf functioning period was represented with a relatively stable SPAD reading related to N application rate, and cumulative growing days were extended with increasing N application rates. A quadratic equation was utilized to describe the relationship between SPAD readings and leaf age during the leaf senescence period. The rate of decrease in SPAD readings increased with the age of leaves, but the rate was slowed by N application. As leaves in the lower canopy were physiologically older than leaves in the upper canopy, the rate of decrease in SPAD readings was faster in the lower leaves.

  4. From vision to reality--managing change in the provision of library and information services to nurses, midwives, health visitors and PAMs: (professions allied to medicine) a case study of the North Thames experience with the Inner London Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbolt, S; Williamson, J; Wilson, A

    1997-06-01

    One of the North Thames' pioneering consortia, the Inner London Consortium (ILC) is a complex body which includes NHS Trusts with teaching hospital university connections, community-based Trusts and general hospital acute Trusts. Within the consortium there are 12,000 trained nurses, midwives, health visitors and other professional staff working in the professions allied to medicine (PAMs), all of whom require access to and provision of appropriate library information services. In 1994, taking into account experiences elsewhere in the Region and nationally, it became clear that library issues were complex and would become acute with the move of nursing libraries from ILC Trust sites over a very short timescale. A report on the issues commissioned by the Consortium recommended that a library project, which built on existing NHS Trust PGMDE funded library resources and moved these to a multidisciplinary base to serve the consortium membership, be implemented. The objective of providing access to library information services for nurses and PAMs was achieved. Successes that emerged from the implementation included: The registration in Trust libraries of almost 12 000 new members within the initial 6-month monitoring period. The development of service level agreements and standards for the delivery of services to these new user groups. This paper describes the processes behind these significant and complex changes.

  5. Poly(acrylamide) functionalized chitosan: An efficient adsorbent for azo dyes from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Vandana; Sharma, Ajit Kumar; Sanghi, Rashmi

    2009-01-01

    In the present communication we report on the optimization of persulfate/ascorbic acid initiated synthesis of chitosan-graft-poly(acrylamide) (Ch-g-PAM) and its application in the removal of azo dyes. The optimum yield of the copolymer was obtained using 16 x 10 -2 M acrylamide, 3.0 x 10 -2 M ascorbic acid, 2.4 x 10 -3 M K 2 S 2 O 8 and 0.1 g chitosan in 25 mL of 5% aqueous formic acid at 45 ± 0.2 o C. Ch-g-PAM remained water insoluble even under highly acidic conditions and could efficiently remove Remazol violet and Procion yellow dyes from the aqueous solutions over a pH range of 3-8 in contrast to chitosan (Ch) which showed pH dependent adsorption. The adsorption data of the Ch-g-PAM and Ch for both the dyes were modeled by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms where the data fitted better to Langmuir isotherms. To understand the adsorption behavior of Ch-g-PAM, adsorption of Remazol violet on to the copolymer was optimized and the kinetic and thermodynamic studies were carried out taking Ch as reference. Both Ch-g-PAM and Ch followed pseudo-second-order adsorption kinetics. The thermodynamic study revealed a positive heat of adsorption (ΔH o ), a positive ΔS o and a negative ΔG o , indicating spontaneous and endothermic nature of the adsorption of RV dye on to the Ch-g-PAM. The Ch-g-PAM was found to be very efficient in removing color from real industrial wastewater as well, though the interfering ions present in the wastewater slightly hindered its adsorption capacity. The data from regeneration efficiencies for ten cycles evidenced the high reusability of the copolymer in the treatment of waste water laden with even high concentrations of dye.

  6. Solution properties of hydrophobically modified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Al-Sabagh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We tested nine hydrophobically modified polyacrylamides with molecular weights situated between 1.58 and 0.89 × 106 g/mol for enhanced oil recovery applications. Their solution properties were investigated in the distilled water, brine solution, formation water and sea water. Their critical association concentrations were determined from the relationship between their concentrations and the corresponding apparent viscosities (ηapp at 30 °C at shear rate 6 s−1. They were between 0.4 and 0.5 g/dl. The brine solutions of 0.5 g/dl of HM-PAMs were investigated at different conditions regarding their apparent viscosities. Such conditions were mono and divalent cations, temperature ranging from 30 to 90 °C, the shear rate ranging from 6 to 30 s−1 and the aging time for 45 days. The surface and interfacial tensions for the HM-PAMs were measured for concentration range from 0.01 to 1 g/dl brine solutions at 30 °C and their emulsification efficiencies were investigated for 7 days. The discrepancy in the properties and efficiencies of the tested copolymers was discussed in the light of their chemical structure.

  7. Reductions in soil surface albedo as a function of biochar application rate: implications for global radiative forcing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verheijen, Frank G A; Bastos, Ana Catarina; Keizer, Jan Jacob; Jeffery, Simon; Van der Velde, Marijn; Penížek, Vít; Beland, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Biochar can be defined as pyrolysed (charred) biomass produced for application to soils with the aim of mitigating global climate change while improving soil functions. Sustainable biochar application to soils has been estimated to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions by 71–130 Pg CO 2 -C e over 100 years, indicating an important potential to mitigate climate change. However, these estimates ignored changes in soil surface reflection by the application of dark-coloured biochar. Through a laboratory experiment we show a strong tendency for soil surface albedo to decrease as a power decay function with increasing biochar application rate, depending on soil moisture content, biochar application method and land use. Surface application of biochar resulted in strong reductions in soil surface albedo even at relatively low application rates. As a first assessment of the implications for climate change mitigation of these biochar–albedo relationships, we applied a first order global energy balance model to compare negative radiative forcings (from avoided CO 2 emissions) with positive radiative forcings (from reduced soil surface albedos). For a global-scale biochar application equivalent to 120 t ha −1 , we obtained reductions in negative radiative forcings of 5 and 11% for croplands and 11 and 23% for grasslands, when incorporating biochar into the topsoil or applying it to the soil surface, respectively. For a lower global biochar application rate (equivalent to 10 t ha −1 ), these reductions amounted to 13 and 44% for croplands and 28 and 94% for grasslands. Thus, our findings revealed the importance of including changes in soil surface albedo in studies assessing the net climate change mitigation potential of biochar, and we discuss the urgent need for field studies and more detailed spatiotemporal modelling. (letter)

  8. The effect of rate and time of application of Nitrogen on maize yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of rate and time of application of Nitrogen on maize yield in Chinyika Resettlement area, Zimbabwe. M W Munguri, I K Mariga, O A Chivinge, D Musambasi. Abstract. No abstract available. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  9. Facile synthesis of silver nanoparticles mediated by polyacrylamide-reduction approach to antibacterial application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaheldin, Hosam I; Almalki, Meshal H K; Hezma, Abd Elhameed M; Osman, Gamal E H

    2017-06-01

    The current time increase in the prevalence of antibiotic resistant 'super-bugs' and the risks associated with food safety have become global issues. Therefore, further research is warranted to identify new and effective antimicrobial substances. Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) were synthesized by autoclaving technique using, different concentrations of Ag salt (AgNO 3 ) solution (1, 5, 10, and 25 mM). Their presence was confirmed by a surface plasmon resonance band at ∼435 nm using UV-Vis absorption spectra. The morphology of the synthesized Ag-NPs stabilized by polyacrylamide (PAM) was examined by TEM, SAED, and EDS. TEM images revealed that the synthesized Ag-NPs had an average diameter of 2.98±0.08 nm and SAED and EDS results confirmed the formation of Ag-NPs. In addition, FT-IR spectroscopy revealed that a PAM polymer matrix stabilized the Ag-NPs. The well diffusion method, was used to test, Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria were examined. Also the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were studied against Ag-NPs. The Ag-NPs exhibited strong inhibitory activity, MIC and MBC against the tested clinical bacterial isolates. These results suggest that Ag-NPs stabilized in PAM are highly effective against clinical bacterial isolates can be applied in medical fields.

  10. Whole-organ atlas imaged by label-free high-resolution photoacoustic microscopy assisted by a microtome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Terence T. W.; Zhang, Ruiying; Hsu, Hsun-Chia; Maslov, Konstantin I.; Shi, Junhui; Chen, Ruimin; Shung, K. Kirk; Zhou, Qifa; Wang, Lihong V.

    2018-02-01

    In biomedical imaging, all optical techniques face a fundamental trade-off between spatial resolution and tissue penetration. Therefore, obtaining an organelle-level resolution image of a whole organ has remained a challenging and yet appealing scientific pursuit. Over the past decade, optical microscopy assisted by mechanical sectioning or chemical clearing of tissue has been demonstrated as a powerful technique to overcome this dilemma, one of particular use in imaging the neural network. However, this type of techniques needs lengthy special preparation of the tissue specimen, which hinders broad application in life sciences. Here, we propose a new label-free three-dimensional imaging technique, named microtomy-assisted photoacoustic microscopy (mPAM), for potentially imaging all biomolecules with 100% endogenous natural staining in whole organs with high fidelity. We demonstrate the first label-free mPAM, using UV light for label-free histology-like imaging, in whole organs (e.g., mouse brains), most of them formalin-fixed and paraffin- or agarose-embedded for minimal morphological deformation. Furthermore, mPAM with dual wavelength illuminations is also employed to image a mouse brain slice, demonstrating the potential for imaging of multiple biomolecules without staining. With visible light illumination, mPAM also shows its deep tissue imaging capability, which enables less slicing and hence reduces sectioning artifacts. mPAM could potentially provide a new insight for understanding complex biological organs.

  11. Analysis of petrous apex meningocele associated with meningioma. Is there any relation with chronic intracranial hypertension?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Wan-Qun; Huang, Biao; Liang, Chang-Hong [Southern Medical University, The Second School of Clinical Medicine, Guangzhou (China); Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Feng, Jie-Ying [Nanhai Hospital Affiliated Southern Medical University, Department of Radiology, Foshan, Guangdong (China); Liu, Hong-Jun [Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2018-02-15

    Petrous apex meningocele (PAM) is an uncommon cystic lesion involving the petrous apex. The underlying cause of PAM may be related to chronic elevated intracranial pressure. The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between PAM and meningioma and between PAM and other intracranial hypertension findings. Two hundred seventy-eight consecutive patients with meningiomas were retrospectively studied. Fifty age- and gender-matched controls were also enrolled in this study. The incidence of PAM, empty sella, tortuosity of the optic nerve, and hydrops of optic nerve sheath was evaluated. The maximum width, area, volume of each PAM, or Meckel's cave and volume of meningioma were measured in controls and patients, separately. One hundred fifty-nine (57.19%) patients were detected with coexistent PAMs. One hundred twenty-five patients had bilateral PAMs, 34 had unilateral lesions, and the remaining 119 did not have PAM. Two subjects (4/50) had unilateral PAMs in normal controls. The maximum width, area, volume of PAM, or Meckel's cave were significantly larger in the patients with bilateral PAM group than those in the unilateral PAM group, in the group without PAM, and those in control group (p = 0.000). The volume of meningioma was positively correlated with the PAM volume (r = 0.48). There was a positive correlation for the incidence between PAM and (1) empty sella (r = 0.901) and (2) tortuosity of the optic nerves and hydrops of the optic sheath (r = 0.825). Coexistence of PAMs with meningiomas is not rare in incidence, and it suggests a potential role for chronically elevated intracranial pressure and disturbance of CSF circulation in their pathophysiology. (orig.)

  12. Analysis of petrous apex meningocele associated with meningioma. Is there any relation with chronic intracranial hypertension?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Wan-Qun; Huang, Biao; Liang, Chang-Hong; Feng, Jie-Ying; Liu, Hong-Jun

    2018-01-01

    Petrous apex meningocele (PAM) is an uncommon cystic lesion involving the petrous apex. The underlying cause of PAM may be related to chronic elevated intracranial pressure. The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between PAM and meningioma and between PAM and other intracranial hypertension findings. Two hundred seventy-eight consecutive patients with meningiomas were retrospectively studied. Fifty age- and gender-matched controls were also enrolled in this study. The incidence of PAM, empty sella, tortuosity of the optic nerve, and hydrops of optic nerve sheath was evaluated. The maximum width, area, volume of each PAM, or Meckel's cave and volume of meningioma were measured in controls and patients, separately. One hundred fifty-nine (57.19%) patients were detected with coexistent PAMs. One hundred twenty-five patients had bilateral PAMs, 34 had unilateral lesions, and the remaining 119 did not have PAM. Two subjects (4/50) had unilateral PAMs in normal controls. The maximum width, area, volume of PAM, or Meckel's cave were significantly larger in the patients with bilateral PAM group than those in the unilateral PAM group, in the group without PAM, and those in control group (p = 0.000). The volume of meningioma was positively correlated with the PAM volume (r = 0.48). There was a positive correlation for the incidence between PAM and (1) empty sella (r = 0.901) and (2) tortuosity of the optic nerves and hydrops of the optic sheath (r = 0.825). Coexistence of PAMs with meningiomas is not rare in incidence, and it suggests a potential role for chronically elevated intracranial pressure and disturbance of CSF circulation in their pathophysiology. (orig.)

  13. A biological-based model that links genomic instability, bystander effects, and adaptive response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, B.R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper links genomic instability, bystander effects, and adaptive response in mammalian cell communities via a novel biological-based, dose-response model called NEOTRANS 3 . The model is an extension of the NEOTRANS 2 model that addressed stochastic effects (genomic instability, mutations, and neoplastic transformation) associated with brief exposure to low radiation doses. With both models, ionizing radiation produces DNA damage in cells that can be associated with varying degrees of genomic instability. Cells with persistent problematic instability (PPI) are mutants that arise via misrepair of DNA damage. Progeny of PPI cells also have PPI and can undergo spontaneous neoplastic transformation. Unlike NEOTRANS 2 , with NEOTRANS 3 newly induced mutant PPI cells and their neoplastically transformed progeny can be suppressed via our previously introduced protective apoptosis-mediated (PAM) process, which can be activated by low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. However, with NEOTRANS 3 (which like NEOTRANS 2 involves cross-talk between nongenomically compromised [e.g., nontransformed, nonmutants] and genomically compromised [e.g., mutants, transformants, etc.] cells), it is assumed that PAM is only activated over a relatively narrow, dose-rate-dependent interval (D PAM ,D off ); where D PAM is a small stochastic activation threshold, and D off is the stochastic dose above which PAM does not occur. PAM cooperates with activated normal DNA repair and with activated normal apoptosis in guarding against genomic instability. Normal repair involves both error-free repair and misrepair components. Normal apoptosis and the error-free component of normal repair protect mammals by preventing the occurrence of mutant cells. PAM selectively removes mutant cells arising via the misrepair component of normal repair, selectively removes existing neoplastically transformed cells, and probably selectively removes other genomically compromised cells when it is activated

  14. Tracking Seasonal and Diurnal Photosynthesis and Plant Water Status in Maize Using SIF, Eddy Covariance Fluxes, PAM Fluorescence and Gas Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C.; Melkonian, J.; Riha, S. J.; Gu, L.; Sun, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Improving the sensitivity of methods for crop monitoring and yield forecasting is crucial as the frequency of extreme weather events increases. Conventional remote monitoring methods rely on greenness-based indices such as NDVI and EVI, which do not directly measure photosynthesis and are not sufficiently sensitive to rapid plant stress response. Solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) is a promising new technology that serves as a direct functional proxy of photosynthesis. We developed the first system utilizing dual QE Pro spectrometers to continuously measure the diurnal and seasonal cycle of SIF, and deployed the system in a corn field in upstate New York in 2017. To complement SIF, canopy-level measurements of carbon and water fluxes were also measured, along with concurrent leaf-level measurements of gas exchange and PAM fluorescence, midday water potential, leaf pigments, phenology, LAI, and soil moisture. We show that SIF is well correlated to GPP during the growing season and show that both are controlled by similar environmental conditions including PAR and water availability. We also describe diurnal changes in photosynthesis and plant water status and demonstrate the sensitivity of SIF to diurnal plant response.

  15. Identifying critical nitrogen application rate for maize yield and nitrate leaching in a Haplic Luvisol soil using the DNDC model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yitao; Wang, Hongyuan; Liu, Shen; Lei, Qiuliang; Liu, Jian; He, Jianqiang; Zhai, Limei; Ren, Tianzhi; Liu, Hongbin

    2015-05-01

    Identification of critical nitrogen (N) application rate can provide management supports for ensuring grain yield and reducing amount of nitrate leaching to ground water. A five-year (2008-2012) field lysimeter (1 m × 2 m × 1.2 m) experiment with three N treatments (0, 180 and 240 kg Nha(-1)) was conducted to quantify maize yields and amount of nitrate leaching from a Haplic Luvisol soil in the North China Plain. The experimental data were used to calibrate and validate the process-based model of Denitrification-Decomposition (DNDC). After this, the model was used to simulate maize yield production and amount of nitrate leaching under a series of N application rates and to identify critical N application rate based on acceptable yield and amount of nitrate leaching for this cropping system. The results of model calibration and validation indicated that the model could correctly simulate maize yield and amount of nitrate leaching, with satisfactory values of RMSE-observation standard deviation ratio, model efficiency and determination coefficient. The model simulations confirmed the measurements that N application increased maize yield compared with the control, but the high N rate (240 kg Nha(-1)) did not produce more yield than the low one (120 kg Nha(-1)), and that the amount of nitrate leaching increased with increasing N application rate. The simulation results suggested that the optimal N application rate was in a range between 150 and 240 kg ha(-1), which would keep the amount of nitrate leaching below 18.4 kg NO₃(-)-Nha(-1) and meanwhile maintain acceptable maize yield above 9410 kg ha(-1). Furthermore, 180 kg Nha(-1) produced the highest yields (9837 kg ha(-1)) and comparatively lower amount of nitrate leaching (10.0 kg NO₃(-)-Nha(-1)). This study will provide a valuable reference for determining optimal N application rate (or range) in other crop systems and regions in China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Continent-Wide Estimates of Antarctic Strain Rates from Landsat 8-Derived Velocity Grids and Their Application to Ice Shelf Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, K. E.; Scambos, T.; Anderson, R. S.; Rajaram, H.; Pope, A.; Haran, T.

    2017-12-01

    Strain rates are fundamental measures of ice flow used in a wide variety of glaciological applications including investigations of bed properties, calculations of basal mass balance on ice shelves, application to Glen's flow law, and many other studies. However, despite their extensive application, strain rates are calculated using widely varying methods and length scales, and the calculation details are often not specified. In this study, we compare the results of nominal and logarithmic strain-rate calculations based on a satellite-derived velocity field of the Antarctic ice sheet generated from Landsat 8 satellite data. Our comparison highlights the differences between the two commonly used approaches in the glaciological literature. We evaluate the errors introduced by each code and their impacts on the results. We also demonstrate the importance of choosing and specifying a length scale over which strain-rate calculations are made, which can have large local impacts on other derived quantities such as basal mass balance on ice shelves. We present strain-rate data products calculated using an approximate viscous length-scale with satellite observations of ice velocity for the Antarctic continent. Finally, we explore the applications of comprehensive strain-rate maps to future ice shelf studies, including investigations of ice fracture, calving patterns, and stability analyses.

  17. An evaluation of combat application tourniquets on training military personnel: changes in application times and success rates in three successive phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlu, Aytekin; Kaya, E; Guvenc, I; Kaymak, S; Cetinkaya, R A; Lapsekili, E O; Ozer, M T; Guler, A; Yildiz, R; Petrone, P; Harlak, A; Kilic, S

    2015-12-01

    Haemorrhage from the injured extremity is a significant cause of preventable death in military settings. This study evaluated the effect of training on the efficacy of the combat application tourniquet (CAT) and to define standards for military personnel. Participants from a training tank battalion were randomised. Data collected included age, body mass index, mean arterial pressure, hand dominance, femoral artery diameter and skin thickness. The study involved tourniquet application times (AT) and application success rates in basic, after-training and eyes-closed phases. Doppler ultrasound was used to identify the presence or absence of popliteal, radial and ulnar artery pulses. A total of 102 trainees participated. In the after-training phase, the left and right upper extremity ATs were 35 ± 13.1 s, and 34.8 ± 13.5 s and the right and left lower extremity ATs were 20.6 ± 6.0 s and 20.5 ± 5.5 s, respectively. The overall tourniquet success rates in three successive study phases were 69.6%, 82.4% and 91.2%, respectively. A negative significant relationship was found between extremity circumference and tourniquet success. The results show that the efficacy of CAT application increases with training. Further studies are required to investigate the reasons underlying application failures. This single group prospective randomised study involves level of evidence 4. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Photoacoustic microscopy of bilirubin in tissue phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong; Zhang, Chi; Yao, Da-Kang; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-12-01

    Determining both bilirubin's concentration and its spatial distribution are important in disease diagnosis. Here, for the first time, we applied quantitative multiwavelength photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) to detect bilirubin concentration and distribution simultaneously. By measuring tissue-mimicking phantoms with different bilirubin concentrations, we showed that the root-mean-square error of prediction has reached 0.52 and 0.83 mg/dL for pure bilirubin and for blood-mixed bilirubin detection (with 100% oxygen saturation), respectively. We further demonstrated the capability of the PAM system to image bilirubin distribution both with and without blood. Finally, by underlaying bilirubin phantoms with mouse skins, we showed that bilirubin can be imaged with consistent accuracy down to >400 μm in depth. Our results show that PAM has potential for noninvasive bilirubin monitoring in vivo, as well as for further clinical applications.

  19. Use of a single bipolar electrode in the posterior arytenoid muscles for bilateral monitoring of the recurrent laryngeal nerves in thyroid surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haerle, Stephan; Sidler, D; Linder, Th; Mueller, W

    2008-12-01

    The aims were to assess the technical feasibility of using a single electrode in the posterior arytenoid muscles (PAM) for intraoperative monitoring of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) in thyroid surgery, to validate the new method against the insertion of electrodes placed in the vocal cord muscle, and to report the results of the clinical application of the new concept. A total of 52 patients were enrolled. The handling and safety of RLN monitoring was tested by simultaneous registration of the EMG response from vocal fold electrodes and PAM electrodes. Acoustically and electromyographically we found nearly the same values for the arytenoid muscles as for the vocal folds, although the signals taken from the vocal folds were slightly stronger. PAM recording using a single bipolar electrode is technically feasible and as reliable compared to the standard vocal cord monitoring.

  20. Bifenthrin longevity at the termiticidal application rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Chris J

    2012-01-01

    The longevity, mobility and insecticidal activity of bifenthrin at the termiticidal application rate for perimeter treatment were investigated in packed-soil columns in the laboratory and greenhouse. Bifenthrin was not detected in the eluates of packed-soil cones over a period of 6 months. In larger pipe plots incorporating bifenthrin into the top 15 cm of the soil, the compound degraded in a biphasic fashion. Within the treated soil, the effect of vegetation on the amount of bifenthrin remaining in the soil depended on soil depth and time, and soil half-lives were longer in non-vegetated soil. Bifenthrin residues were higher in the top 7.5 cm of soil and declined over time. Movement of bifenthrin into the top untreated soil depth was observed, but much less was observed in lower depths. The soil remained toxic to termites in 3 day and 7 day forced exposure bioassays for the 30 month duration of the study. Concentrations of bifenthrin will remain in the soil at levels sufficient to kill termites for more than 30 months. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  1. RATING MODELS AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES APPLICATION FOR MANAGEMENT OF ADMINISTRATIVE-TERRITORIAL COMPLEXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Pshinko

    2016-12-01

    . At this the control of separate elements is realized by the way of individual mental models construction and application of functioning processes. The procedure for evaluating of the prediction reliability based on multivariate linear extrapolation method was proposed. Practical value. The proposed method of strategic planning of the complex systems’ development based on rating models and developed information technology are representing the complex of automated tools to ensure effective economical and technological control of non-uniform sets of multiparameter objects. The new solutions of typical tasks of strategic planning and development of complex objects management procedure are implemented in the information technology of rating estimation (rating definition, sensitivity analysis, clustering, diagnostics, forecasting, resource allocation, multi-criteria analysis etc.. Application of the proposed information technology can automate the task of analysis and strategic planning of the administrative-territorial complexes. The technology can be used for monitoring, analysis, strategic planning and management of several complex system types simultaneously.

  2. A liquid crystal polymer membrane MEMS sensor for flow rate and flow direction sensing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kottapalli, A G P; Tan, C W; Olfatnia, M; Miao, J M; Barbastathis, G; Triantafyllou, M

    2011-01-01

    The paper reports the design, fabrication and experimental results of a liquid crystal polymer (LCP) membrane-based pressure sensor for flow rate and flow direction sensing applications. Elaborate experimental testing results demonstrating the sensors' performance as an airflow sensor have been illustrated and validated with theory. MEMS sensors using LCP as a membrane structural material show higher sensitivity and reliability over silicon counterparts. The developed device is highly robust for harsh environment applications such as atmospheric wind flow monitoring and underwater flow sensing. A simple, low-cost and repeatable fabrication scheme has been developed employing low temperatures. The main features of the sensor developed in this work are a LCP membrane with integrated thin film gold piezoresistors deposited on it. The sensor developed demonstrates a good sensitivity of 3.695 mV (ms −1 ) −1 , large operating range (0.1 to >10 ms −1 ) and good accuracy in measuring airflow with an average error of only 3.6% full-scale in comparison with theory. Various feasible applications of the developed sensor have been demonstrated with experimental results. The sensor was tested for two other applications—in clinical diagnosis for breath rate, breath velocity monitoring, and in underwater applications for object detection by sensing near-field spatial flow pressure

  3. Functional ability and fate of pulmonary alveolar macrophages after intratracheal instillation into rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snipes, M.B.; Feddersen, D.; Mueller, H.L.; Guilmette, R.A.; Haley, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM) from donor rats were intratracheally instilled into recipient rats to determine if donor macrophages were functionally similar to the recipient's own macrophages. Recipient and donor (extrinsic) PAM were equivalent in their ability to phagocytize 1.7 μm and 3.9 μm latex microspheres in vivo and sensitized sheep red blood cells in vitro. Also, the extrinsic PAM appeared functionally equivalent to recipient PAM with respect to ability to translocate into interstitial tissue and migrate to the lung-associated lymph nodes (LALN). The recipient PAN appeared to phagocytize the extrinsic PAM, but the extrinsic PAM did not appear to phagocytize the recipient PAM. This could represent a different degree of physiological coordination of intrinsic and extrinsic PAM activities in the lung. Overall, results indicated that extrinsic PAM can live and function in the lungs of recipient rats, and perform most or all of the functions ascribed to recipient PAM. Results also support the hypothesis that PAM are able to move into the pulmonary interstitium and translocate to the LALM without the involvement of other pulmonary macrophages. (author)

  4. Co-occurrence of methanogenesis and N2 fixation in oil sands tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, C E Victoria; Foght, Julia M; Siddique, Tariq

    2016-09-15

    Oil sands tailings ponds in northern Alberta, Canada have been producing biogenic gases via microbial metabolism of hydrocarbons for decades. Persistent methanogenic activity in tailings ponds without any known replenishment of nutrients such as fixed nitrogen (N) persuaded us to investigate whether N2 fixation or polyacrylamide (PAM; used as a tailings flocculant) could serve as N sources. Cultures comprising mature fine tailings (MFT) plus methanogenic medium supplemented with or deficient in fixed N were incubated under an N2 headspace. Some cultures were further amended with citrate, which is used in oil sands processing, as a relevant carbon source, and/or with PAM. After an initial delay, N-deficient cultures with or without PAM produced methane (CH4) at the same rate as N-containing cultures, indicating a mechanism of overcoming apparent N-deficiency. Acetylene reduction and (15)N2 incorporation in all N-deficient cultures (with or without PAM) suggested active N2 fixation concurrently with methanogenesis but inability to use PAM as a N source. 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing revealed little difference between archaeal populations regardless of N content. However, bacterial sequences in N-deficient cultures showed enrichment of Hyphomicrobiaceae and Clostridium members that might contain N2-fixing species. The results are important in understanding long-term production of biogenic greenhouse gases in oil sands tailings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. From Tobacco to Obesity Prevention Policies: A Framework for Implementing Community-Driven Policy Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Lauren; Dumke, Kelly; Oliva, Ariana; Caesar, Emily; Phillips, Zoë; Lehman, Nathan; Aragon, Linda; Simon, Paul; Kuo, Tony

    2018-04-01

    Efforts to reverse the obesity epidemic require policy, systems, and environmental (PSE) change strategies. Despite the availability of evidence-based and other promising PSE interventions, limited evidence exists on the "how-to" of transitioning them into practice. For the past 13 years, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health has been building capacity among community residents and other stakeholders to create effective community coalitions and to implement well-designed policy strategy campaigns using an evidence-based approach to policy change, the policy adoption model (PAM). Implementing a phase-based approach to policy change, the PAM was initially used to support the passage of over 140 tobacco control and prevention policies in Los Angeles County. Following these successes, Los Angeles County Department of Public Health applied the PAM to obesity prevention, operationalizing the policy process by training community residents and other stakeholders on the use of the model. The PAM has shown to be helpful in promoting PSE change in tobacco control and obesity prevention, suggesting a local-level model potentially applicable to other fields of public health seeking sustainable, community-driven policy change.

  6. Anti-tumor Effects of Plasma Activated Media and Correlation with Hydrogen Peroxide Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroussi, Mounir; Mohades, Soheila; Barekzi, Nazir; Maruthamuthu, Venkat; Razavi, Hamid

    2016-09-01

    Plasma activated media (PAM) can induce death in cancer cells. In our research, PAM is produced by exposing liquid culture medium to a helium plasma pencil. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in the aqueous state are known factors in anti-tumor effects of PAM. The duration of plasma exposure determines the concentrations of reactive species produced in PAM. Stability of the plasma generated reactive species and their lifetime depend on parameters such as the chemical composition of the medium. Here, a complete cell culture medium was employed to make PAM. Later, PAM was used to treat SCaBER cancer cells either as an immediate PAM (right after exposure) or as an aged-PAM (after storage). SCaBER (ATCC®HTB-3™) is an epithelial cell line from a human bladder with the squamous carcinoma disease. A normal epithelial cell line from a kidney tissue of a dog - MDCK (ATCC®CCL-34™) - was used to analyze the selective effect of PAM. Correspondingly, we measured the concentration of hydrogen peroxide- as a stable species with biological impact on cell viability- in both immediate PAM and aged-PAM. In addition, we report on the effect of serum supplemented in PAM on the H2O2 concentration measured by Amplex red assay kit. Finally, we evaluate the effects of PAM on growth and morphological changes in MDCK cells using fluorescence microscopy.

  7. Modeling inflation rates and exchange rates in Ghana: application of multivariate GARCH models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nortey, Ezekiel Nn; Ngoh, Delali D; Doku-Amponsah, Kwabena; Ofori-Boateng, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    This paper was aimed at investigating the volatility and conditional relationship among inflation rates, exchange rates and interest rates as well as to construct a model using multivariate GARCH DCC and BEKK models using Ghana data from January 1990 to December 2013. The study revealed that the cumulative depreciation of the cedi to the US dollar from 1990 to 2013 is 7,010.2% and the yearly weighted depreciation of the cedi to the US dollar for the period is 20.4%. There was evidence that, the fact that inflation rate was stable, does not mean that exchange rates and interest rates are expected to be stable. Rather, when the cedi performs well on the forex, inflation rates and interest rates react positively and become stable in the long run. The BEKK model is robust to modelling and forecasting volatility of inflation rates, exchange rates and interest rates. The DCC model is robust to model the conditional and unconditional correlation among inflation rates, exchange rates and interest rates. The BEKK model, which forecasted high exchange rate volatility for the year 2014, is very robust for modelling the exchange rates in Ghana. The mean equation of the DCC model is also robust to forecast inflation rates in Ghana.

  8. High-rate reactive magnetron sputtering of zirconia films for laser optics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juskevicius, K.; Subacius, A.; Drazdys, R.; Juskenas, R.; Audronis, M.; Matthews, A.; Leyland, A.

    2014-01-01

    ZrO 2 exhibits low optical absorption in the near-UV range and is one of the highest laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) materials; it is, therefore, very attractive for laser optics applications. This paper reports explorations of reactive sputtering technology for deposition of ZrO 2 films with low extinction coefficient k values in the UV spectrum region at low substrate temperature. A high deposition rate (64 % of the pure metal rate) process is obtained by employing active feedback reactive gas control which creates a stable and repeatable deposition processes in the transition region. Substrate heating at 200 C was found to have no significant effect on the optical ZrO 2 film properties. The addition of nitrogen to a closed-loop controlled process was found to have mostly negative effects in terms of deposition rate and optical properties. Open-loop O 2 gas-regulated ZrO 2 film deposition is slow and requires elevated (200 C) substrate temperature or post-deposition annealing to reduce absorption losses. Refractive indices of the films were distributed in the range n = 2.05-2.20 at 1,000 nm and extinction coefficients were in the range k = 0.6 x 10 -4 and 4.8 x 10 -3 at 350 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis showed crystalline ZrO 2 films consisted of monoclinic + tetragonal phases when produced in Ar/O 2 atmosphere and monoclinic + rhombohedral or a single rhombohedral phase when produced in Ar/O 2 + N 2 . Optical and physical properties of the ZrO 2 layers produced in this study are suitable for high-power laser applications in the near-UV range. (orig.)

  9. Insurer Provide Rating Software and Competitive Advantage: An Evaluation Based on BOP Insurance Applications at Wisconsin Agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas A. Aiuppa; William E. Wehrs

    1993-01-01

    This research examines whether a competitive advantage exists for insurers which provide independent agencies with rating software to generate price quotes. Data relative to the Business Owners line of insurance were collected from several Wisconsin agencies which represent several BOP insurers, some of which provide software for rating BOP applications. The results indicate that providing rating software did not increase insurers’ business volumes, but may decrease their underwriting costs. ...

  10. Effects of pregnancy and intensity of Plasmodium falciparum transmission on immunoglobulin G subclass responses to variant surface antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Megnekou, Rosette; Staalsoe, Trine; Taylor, Diane W

    2005-01-01

    Placenta-sequestering Plasmodium falciparum involved in the pathogenesis of pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) in otherwise clinically immune women expresses particular variant surface antigens (VSA(PAM)) on the surface of infected erythrocytes that differ from VSA found in parasitized nonpregnant...... individuals (non-PAM type VSA). We studied levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgG subclasses with specificity for VSA(PAM) and for non-PAM type VSA in pregnant and nonpregnant women from two sites with different endemicities in Cameroon. We found that VSA(PAM)-specific responses depended on the pregnancy......(PAM)-specific immunity to pregnancy-associated malaria....

  11. Controlled in situ formation of polyacrylamide hydrogel on PET surface via SI-ARGET-ATRP for wound dressings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazari Pour, Sedigheh [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada R3T 2N2 (Canada); Ghugare, Shivkumar V. [Department of Textile Science, Faculty of Human Ecology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada R3T 2N2 (Canada); Wiens, Richard; Gough, Kathleen [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada R3T 2N2 (Canada); Liu, Song, E-mail: Song.Liu@umanitoba.ca [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada R3T 2N2 (Canada); Department of Textile Science, Faculty of Human Ecology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada R3T 2N2 (Canada); Department of Biosystems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada R3T 2N2 (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We grow poly(acrylamide) (PAM) hydrgol from a polymer surface in a controlled way. • Divinyl crosslinker doesn't compromise the control chain growth feature of ARGET-ATRP. • ATR-FTIR-FPA images (spatial resolution 220 nm) reveal a uniform grafting of PAM. • PAM grafted wound dressing can be dual functional: low-adherent and antibacterial. - Abstract: Well-defined polyacrylamide (PAM) hydrogel was synthesized on the surface of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film via surface-initiated activators regenerated by electron transfer atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ARGET-ATRP). Following the deposition of an ATRP initiator (2-bromoisobutyrylbromide) on PET film, PAM hydrogel was grafted from the functionalized PET surface via ARGET-ATRP. XPS and FTIR-ATR confirmed that PAM hydrogel was successfully grafted on the PET surface. Results from AFM, SEM, and FTIR-FPA microscopic investigations showed that PAM hydrogel uniformly covers the surface of PET film. The grafting yield increases linearly with increasing reaction time, indicating that the growth of PAM hydrogel on the surface of PET is well controlled. In a cell adhesion assay, PAM hydrogel grafted PET films (PAM hydrogel-g-PET) showed low adhesion to keratinocyte cells. To impart PAM hydrogel-g-PET with antibacterial function, AgNPs were self-assembled along the amide side chains of PAM hydrogel. AgNPs loaded-PAM hydrogel-g-PET shows 99% reduction in the number of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa within 3 h contact.

  12. Controlled in situ formation of polyacrylamide hydrogel on PET surface via SI-ARGET-ATRP for wound dressings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazari Pour, Sedigheh; Ghugare, Shivkumar V.; Wiens, Richard; Gough, Kathleen; Liu, Song

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We grow poly(acrylamide) (PAM) hydrgol from a polymer surface in a controlled way. • Divinyl crosslinker doesn't compromise the control chain growth feature of ARGET-ATRP. • ATR-FTIR-FPA images (spatial resolution 220 nm) reveal a uniform grafting of PAM. • PAM grafted wound dressing can be dual functional: low-adherent and antibacterial. - Abstract: Well-defined polyacrylamide (PAM) hydrogel was synthesized on the surface of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film via surface-initiated activators regenerated by electron transfer atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ARGET-ATRP). Following the deposition of an ATRP initiator (2-bromoisobutyrylbromide) on PET film, PAM hydrogel was grafted from the functionalized PET surface via ARGET-ATRP. XPS and FTIR-ATR confirmed that PAM hydrogel was successfully grafted on the PET surface. Results from AFM, SEM, and FTIR-FPA microscopic investigations showed that PAM hydrogel uniformly covers the surface of PET film. The grafting yield increases linearly with increasing reaction time, indicating that the growth of PAM hydrogel on the surface of PET is well controlled. In a cell adhesion assay, PAM hydrogel grafted PET films (PAM hydrogel-g-PET) showed low adhesion to keratinocyte cells. To impart PAM hydrogel-g-PET with antibacterial function, AgNPs were self-assembled along the amide side chains of PAM hydrogel. AgNPs loaded-PAM hydrogel-g-PET shows 99% reduction in the number of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa within 3 h contact

  13. Probabilistic pipe fracture evaluations for leak-rate-detection applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, S.; Ghadiali, N.; Paul, D.; Wilkowski, G.

    1995-04-01

    Regulatory Guide 1.45, open-quotes Reactor Coolant Pressure Boundary Leakage Detection Systems,close quotes was published by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in May 1973, and provides guidance on leak detection methods and system requirements for Light Water Reactors. Additionally, leak detection limits are specified in plant Technical Specifications and are different for Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) and Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). These leak detection limits are also used in leak-before-break evaluations performed in accordance with Draft Standard Review Plan, Section 3.6.3, open-quotes Leak Before Break Evaluation Proceduresclose quotes where a margin of 10 on the leak detection limit is used in determining the crack size considered in subsequent fracture analyses. This study was requested by the NRC to: (1) evaluate the conditional failure probability for BWR and PWR piping for pipes that were leaking at the allowable leak detection limit, and (2) evaluate the margin of 10 to determine if it was unnecessarily large. A probabilistic approach was undertaken to conduct fracture evaluations of circumferentially cracked pipes for leak-rate-detection applications. Sixteen nuclear piping systems in BWR and PWR plants were analyzed to evaluate conditional failure probability and effects of crack-morphology variability on the current margins used in leak rate detection for leak-before-break

  14. [Effects of nitrogen application rate on faba bean fusarium wilt and rhizospheric microbial metabolic functional diversity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan; Yang, Zhi-xian; Dong, Kun; Tang, Li; Zheng, Yi; Hu, Guo-bin

    2013-04-01

    A field plot experiment was conducted to study the effects of different nitrogen (N) application rates on the microbial functional diversity in faba bean rhizosphere and the relationships between the microbial functional diversity and the occurrence of faba bean fusarium wilt. Four nitrogen application rates were installed, i. e. , N0(0 kg hm-2 , N1 (56. 25 kg hm-2) , N2(112. 5 kg hm-2), and N3 (168.75 kg hm-2), and Biolog microbial analysis system was applied to study the damage of faba bean fusarium wilt and the rhizospheric microbial metabolic functional diversity. Applying N (N1 N2, and N3) decreased the disease index of faba bean fusarium wilt and the quantity of Fusarium oxysporum significantly, and increased the quantities of bacteria and actinomyces and the ratios of bacteria/fungi and actinomyces/fungi significantly, with the peak values of bacteria and actinomyces, bacteria/fungi, and actinomyces/fungi, and the lowest disease index and F. oxysporum density in N2. As compared with N0, applying N increased the AWCD value significantly, but the effects of different N application rates on the ability of rhizospheric microbes in utilizing six types of carbon sources had definite differences. Under the application of N, the utilization rates of carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, and amino acids by the rhizospheric microbes were higher. Principal component analysis demonstrated that applying N changed the rhizospheric microbial community composition obviously, and the carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, and amino acids were the sensitive carbon sources differentiating the changes of the microbial community induced by N application. Applying N inhibited the utilization of carbohydrates and carboxylic acids but improved the utilization of amino acids and phenolic acids by the rhizospheric microbes, which could be one of the main reasons of applying N being able to reduce the harm of faba bean fusarium wilt. It was suggested that rationally applying N could increase the

  15. Influence of Lime and Phosphorus Application Rates on Growth of Maize in an Acid Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Asbon Opala

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The interactive effects of lime and phosphorus on maize growth in an acid soil were investigated in a greenhouse experiment. A completely randomized design with 12 treatments consisting of four lime levels, 0, 2, 10, and 20 t ha−1, in a factorial combination with three phosphorus rates, 0, 30, and 100 kg ha−1, was used. Maize was grown in pots for six weeks and its heights and dry matter yield were determined and soils were analyzed for available P and exchangeable acidity. Liming significantly reduced the exchangeable acidity in the soils. The effect of lime on available P was not significant but available P increased with increasing P rates. There was a significant effect of lime, P, and P by lime interactions on plant heights and dry matter. Without lime application, dry matter increased with increasing P rates but, with lime, dry mattes increased from 0 to 30 kg P ha−1 but declined from 30 to 100 kg P ha−1. The highest dry matter yield (13.8 g pot−1 was obtained with a combined 2 t ha−1 of lime with 30 kg P ha−1 suggesting that lime application at low rates combined with moderate amounts of P would be appropriate in this soil.

  16. Effect of rate and time of nitrogen application on fruit yield and accumulation of nutrient elements in Momordica charantia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Heidari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbitaceae is one of the largest families in vegetable kingdom consisting of largest number of edible type species. Momordica charantia is one such important vegetable that belongs to the family of Cucurbitaceae. In order to evaluate the effect of rate and time of nitrogen application on M. charantia, a field experiment was conducted at the University of Zabol in Iran during 2011 growing season. The experiment was laid out as split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Three levels of nitrogen rates consisting of: N1 = 75, N2 = 150 and N3 = 225 kg N ha−1 as main plot and three time application including: T1 = 1/2 at 3 and 4 leaves and 1/2 before flowering, T2 = 1/2 at 3 and 4 leaves and 1/2 after fruit to start, and T3 = 1/3 at 3 and 4 leaves, 1/3 before flowering, and 1/3 after fruit to start were used as sub plot. The results revealed that both rate and time of nitrogen application had a significant effect on fruit yield. The highest fruit yield was recorded at the rate of N3 and time of nitrogen application in T3 treatment. In this study, by increasing nitrogen levels from 75 to 225 kg N ha−1, the values of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content in fruit increased. The time of nitrogen application and interaction between rate and time of nitrogen treatments had no significant effect on the amounts of these three elements. Nitrogen level had a significant effect on the amounts of calcium, manganese and zinc elements. The highest values of calcium and zinc were obtained at N2 and manganese at N3 nitrogen level. Time of nitrogen application treatment in this experiment had only significant effect on the amounts of calcium and zinc elements and had no significant effect on the other elements.

  17. Development and validation of a smartphone heart rate acquisition application for health promotion and wellness telehealth applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoski, Mathew J; Mueller, Martina; Vertegel, Alexey; Shaporev, Aleksey; Jackson, Brenda B; Frenzel, Ronja M; Sprehn, Sara M; Treiber, Frank A

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Current generation smartphones' video camera technologies enable photoplethysmographic (PPG) acquisition and heart rate (HR) measurement. The study objective was to develop an Android application and compare HRs derived from a Motorola Droid to electrocardiograph (ECG) and Nonin 9560BT pulse oximeter readings during various movement-free tasks. Materials and Methods. HRs were collected simultaneously from 14 subjects, ages 20 to 58, healthy or with clinical conditions, using the 3 devices during 5-minute periods while at rest, reading aloud under observation, and playing a video game. Correlation between the 3 devices was determined, and Bland-Altman plots for all possible pairs of devices across all conditions assessed agreement. Results. Across conditions, all device pairs showed high correlations. Bland-Altman plots further revealed the Droid as a valid measure for HR acquisition. Across all conditions, the Droid compared to ECG, 95% of the data points (differences between devices) fell within the limits of agreement. Conclusion. The Android application provides valid HRs at varying levels of movement free mental/perceptual motor exertion. Lack of electrode patches or wireless sensor telemetric straps make it advantageous for use in mobile-cell-phone-delivered health promotion and wellness programs. Further validation is needed to determine its applicability while engaging in physical movement-related activities.

  18. Development and Validation of a Smartphone Heart Rate Acquisition Application for Health Promotion and Wellness Telehealth Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew J. Gregoski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Current generation smartphones' video camera technologies enable photoplethysmographic (PPG acquisition and heart rate (HR measurement. The study objective was to develop an Android application and compare HRs derived from a Motorola Droid to electrocardiograph (ECG and Nonin 9560BT pulse oximeter readings during various movement-free tasks. Materials and Methods. HRs were collected simultaneously from 14 subjects, ages 20 to 58, healthy or with clinical conditions, using the 3 devices during 5-minute periods while at rest, reading aloud under observation, and playing a video game. Correlation between the 3 devices was determined, and Bland-Altman plots for all possible pairs of devices across all conditions assessed agreement. Results. Across conditions, all device pairs showed high correlations. Bland-Altman plots further revealed the Droid as a valid measure for HR acquisition. Across all conditions, the Droid compared to ECG, 95% of the data points (differences between devices fell within the limits of agreement. Conclusion. The Android application provides valid HRs at varying levels of movement free mental/perceptual motor exertion. Lack of electrode patches or wireless sensor telemetric straps make it advantageous for use in mobile-cell-phone-delivered health promotion and wellness programs. Further validation is needed to determine its applicability while engaging in physical movement-related activities.

  19. Design considerations for post accident monitoring system of a research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Gwi Sook; Park, Je Yun; Kim, Young Ki

    2012-01-01

    The Post Accident Monitoring System (PAMS) provides primary information for operators to assess the plant conditions and perform their role in bringing the plant to a safe condition during an accident. The PAMS of NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) in KOREA provides the continuous display of the PAM category 1 parameters specified in R.G 1.97, Rev. 03. Recently the PAMS of NPP has been designed according to R.G 1.97, Rev. 04. There is no PAMS at the HANARO in KOREA, but recently RRs (Research Reactors) around the world are going to have PAMS for various multi purposes. We should determine the design considerations for PAMS in a Korean RR based on the design state analysis. Thus, this paper proposes strategies on the design considerations for the PAMS of a Korean RR

  20. The glutathione synthesis inhibitor buthionine sulfoximine synergistically enhanced melphalan activity against preclinical models of multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagde, A; Singh, H; Kang, M H; Reynolds, C P

    2014-01-01

    Melphalan (L-PAM) has been an integral part of multiple myeloma (MM) treatment as a conditioning regimen before stem cell transplant (SCT). After initial response, most treated patients experience relapse with an aggressive phenotype. Increased glutathione (GSH) in MM may mediate resistance to L-PAM. We demonstrated that the GSH synthesis inhibitor buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) synergistically enhanced L-PAM activity (inducing 2–4 logs of cell kill) against nine MM cell lines (also in the presence of marrow stroma or cytokines) and in seven primary MM samples (combination indices <1.0). In MM cell lines, BSO significantly (P<0.05) depleted GSH, increased L-PAM-induced single-strand DNA breaks, mitochondrial depolarization, caspase cleavage and apoptosis. L-PAM depleted GSH, but GSH rapidly recovered in a L-PAM-resistant MM cell line unless also treated with BSO. Treatment with N-acetylcysteine antagonized BSO+L-PAM cytotoxicity without increasing GSH. In human MM xenografted into beige-nude-xid mice, BSO significantly depleted MM intracellular GSH and significantly increased apoptosis compared with L-PAM alone. BSO+L-PAM achieved complete responses (CRs) in three MM xenograft models including maintained CRs >100 days, and significantly increased the median event-free survival relative to L-PAM alone. Combining BSO with L-PAM warrants clinical testing in advanced MM

  1. Sprayable microencapsulated sex pheromone formulations for mating disruption of four tortricid species: effects of application height, rate, frequency, and sticker adjuvant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelinski, L L; McGhee, P; Haas, M; Il'ichev, A L; Gut, L J

    2007-08-01

    Several application parameters of microencapsulated (MEC) sex pheromone formulations were manipulated to determine their impact on efficacy of disruption for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.); oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck); obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris); and redbanded leafroller, Argyrotaenia velutinana (Walker). Depending on the experiment, the formulations evaluated were those formerly manufactured by 3M Canada (London, ON, Canada) or those that are currently available from Suterra LLC (Bend, OR). The efficacy of MEC formulations applied by air-blast sprayer evenly throughout the entire canopy of 2-3-m-tall apple (Malus spp.) trees was equivalent to treatments in which targeted applications of MECs were made to the lower or upper 1.5 m of the canopy (at equivalent overall rates) for oriental fruit moth and both leafroller species. The realized distribution of deposited microcapsules within the tree canopy corresponded well with the intended heights of application within the canopy. The additional coapplication of the pine resin sticker Nu-Film 17 increased efficacy but not longevity of MEC formulations for oriental fruit moth; this adjuvant had no added effects for codling moth or leafroller formulations. Increasing the rate of active ingredient (AI) per hectare by 20-30-fold (range 2.5-75.0 g/ha) did not improve the disruption efficacy of MECs for codling moth or either leafroller species when both low and high rates were applied at equivalent frequencies per season. A low-rate, high-frequency (nine applications per season) application protocol was compared with a standard protocol in which two to three applications were made per season, once before each moth generation for each species. The low-rate, high-frequency protocol resulted in equivalent or better disruption efficacy for each moth species, despite using two-fold less total AI per hectare per season with the former treatment. The low-rate, frequent-application

  2. Validity of the Elite HRV Smartphone Application for Examining Heart Rate Variability in a Field-Based Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrotta, Andrew S; Jeklin, Andrew T; Hives, Ben A; Meanwell, Leah E; Warburton, Darren E R

    2017-08-01

    Perrotta, AS, Jeklin, AT, Hives, BA, Meanwell, LE, and Warburton, DER. Validity of the elite HRV smartphone application for examining heart rate variability in a field-based setting. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2296-2302, 2017-The introduction of smartphone applications has allowed athletes and practitioners to record and store R-R intervals on smartphones for immediate heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. This user-friendly option should be validated in the effort to provide practitioners confidence when monitoring their athletes before implementing such equipment. The objective of this investigation was to examine the relationship and validity between a vagal-related HRV index, rMSSD, when derived from a smartphone application accessible with most operating systems against a frequently used computer software program, Kubios HRV 2.2. R-R intervals were recorded immediately upon awakening over 14 consecutive days using the Elite HRV smartphone application. R-R recordings were then exported into Kubios HRV 2.2 for analysis. The relationship and levels of agreement between rMSSDln derived from Elite HRV and Kubios HRV 2.2 was examined using a Pearson product-moment correlation and a Bland-Altman Plot. An extremely large relationship was identified (r = 0.92; p smartphone HRV application may offer a reliable platform when assessing parasympathetic modulation.

  3. Expression of variant surface antigens by Plasmodium falciparum parasites in the peripheral blood of clinically immune pregnant women indicates ongoing placental infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ofori, Michael F; Staalsoe, Trine; Bam, Victoria

    2003-01-01

    Placenta-sequestered Plasmodium falciparum parasites that cause pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) in otherwise clinically immune women express distinct variant surface antigens (VSA(PAM)) not expressed by parasites in nonpregnant individuals. We report here that parasites from the peripheral blood...... of clinically immune pregnant women also express VSA(PAM), making them a convenient source of VSA(PAM) expressors for PAM vaccine research....

  4. Remote sensing and implications for variable-rate application using agricultural aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Steven J.; Smith, Lowrey A.; Ray, Jeffrey D.; Zimba, Paul V.

    2004-01-01

    Aircraft routinely used for agricultural spray application are finding utility for remote sensing. Data obtained from remote sensing can be used for prescription application of pesticides, fertilizers, cotton growth regulators, and water (the latter with the assistance of hyperspectral indices and thermal imaging). Digital video was used to detect weeds in early cotton, and preliminary data were obtained to see if nitrogen status could be detected in early soybeans. Weeds were differentiable from early cotton at very low altitudes (65-m), with the aid of supervised classification algorithms in the ENVI image analysis software. The camera was flown at very low altitude for acceptable pixel resolution. Nitrogen status was not detectable by statistical analysis of digital numbers (DNs) obtained from images, but soybean cultivar differences were statistically discernable (F=26, p=0.01). Spectroradiometer data are being analyzed to identify narrow spectral bands that might aid in selecting camera filters for determination of plant nitrogen status. Multiple camera configurations are proposed to allow vegetative indices to be developed more readily. Both remotely sensed field images and ground data are to be used for decision-making in a proposed variable-rate application system for agricultural aircraft. For this system, prescriptions generated from digital imagery and data will be coupled with GPS-based swath guidance and programmable flow control.

  5. The effect of the rate and method of nitrogen application on nitrogen uptake and utilization by broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaarts, A.P.; Willigen, de P.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of the rate and method of nitrogen application on nitrogen uptake and utilization by broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) was studied in four field experiments. The methods of application were broadcast application vs band placement and split application. Maximum uptake of nitrogen

  6. An open-source LabVIEW application toolkit for phasic heart rate analysis in psychophysiological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duley, Aaron R; Janelle, Christopher M; Coombes, Stephen A

    2004-11-01

    The cardiovascular system has been extensively measured in a variety of research and clinical domains. Despite technological and methodological advances in cardiovascular science, the analysis and evaluation of phasic changes in heart rate persists as a way to assess numerous psychological concomitants. Some researchers, however, have pointed to constraints on data analysis when evaluating cardiac activity indexed by heart rate or heart period. Thus, an off-line application toolkit for heart rate analysis is presented. The program, written with National Instruments' LabVIEW, incorporates a variety of tools for off-line extraction and analysis of heart rate data. Current methods and issues concerning heart rate analysis are highlighted, and how the toolkit provides a flexible environment to ameliorate common problems that typically lead to trial rejection is discussed. Source code for this program may be downloaded from the Psychonomic Society Web archive at www.psychonomic.org/archive/.

  7. Explore the Application of Financial Engineering in the Management of Exchange Rate Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the background where the domestic enterprises commonly have a weak protection consciousness against the exchange rate risk, this article makes a deep analysis based on the definition of exchange rate risk and its cause. By comparison of the traditional management method of exchange rate risk with another one based on financial engineering tools, it also deeply analyzes the method to use the financial engineering technology in the management of exchange rate risk, and concludes the primary purpose of exchange rate risk management is for hedging. This article proposes an optimal analysis method in two aspects, namely the minimum risk and maximum efficiency, for the forward-based optimal hedging, and proposes an optimal analysis method of dynamic hedging for the optimal hedging of option-based tools. Based on the description of the application of financial tools in foreign exchange futures, forward contract, currency exchange and foreign exchange option, it makes an empirical analysis on the management of foreign exchange risk by taking an assumed T company as the carrier and based on the trading tools of forward foreign exchange and currency option, which describes the operation procedure of financial tools in a more direct way and proves the efficiency of the optimal analysis method of this article.

  8. Isolation and Characterization of Polyacrylamide-Degrading Bacteria from Dewatered Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Yu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Polyacrylamide (PAM is a water-soluble polymer that is widely used as a flocculant in sewage treatment. The accumulation of PAM affects the formation of dewatered sludge and potentially produces hazardous monomers. In the present study, the bacterial strain HI47 was isolated from dewatered sludge. This strain could metabolize PAM as its sole nutrient source and was subsequently identified as Pseudomonas putida. The efficiency of PAM degradation was 31.1% in 7 days and exceeded 45% under optimum culture condition (pH 7.2, 39 °C and 100 rpm. The addition of yeast extract and glucose improved the bacterial growth and PAM degradation. The degraded PAM samples were analyzed by gel-filtration chromatography, Fourier transform infrared and high-performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that high-molecular-weight PAM was partly cleaved to small molecular oligomer derivatives and part of the amide groups of PAM had been converted to carboxyl groups. The biodegradation did not accumulate acrylamide monomers. Based on the SDS-PAGE and N-terminal sequencing results, the PAM amide groups were converted into carboxyl groups by a PAM-induced extracellular enzyme from the aliphatic amidase family.

  9. Comparative morphology and morphometry of alveolar macrophages from six mammalian species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haley, P.J.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Weissman, D.N.; Bice, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM) were collected from normal, healthy mice, rats, dogs, cynomolgus monkeys, chimpanzees and humans and evaluated for morphologic and morphometric characteristics. The PAM of mice, rats, and dogs were morphologically similar to one another and had statistically similar frequency distributions for PAM size. The range of cell size for these three species was narrow. The PAM of nonhuman primates and humans were morphologically heterogenous with increased cytoplasmic vacuolation, irregular cell outlines and increased numbers of multi nucleated cells as compared to the PAM of rodents and dogs. The mean size of human PAMs was statistically greater than that for all other species evaluated, including nonhuman primates. These data indicate that significant differences in PAM morphology and size exist among species and that such differences may be important when selecting species for studies of PAM. (author)

  10. Precision for Smallholder Farmers: A Small-Scale-Tailored Variable Rate Fertilizer Application Kit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelle Van Loon

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Precision agriculture technology at the hands of smallholder farmers in the developing world is often deemed far-fetched. Low-resource farmers, however, are the most susceptible to negative changes in the environment. Providing these farmers with the right tools to mitigate adversity and to gain greater control of the production process could unlock their potential and support rural communities to meet the increasing global food demand. In this study, a real-time variable rate fertilizer application system was developed and tested as an add-on kit to conventional farm machinery. In the context of low investment costs for smallholder farmers, high user-friendliness and easy installment were the main concerns for the system to be viable. The system used nitrogen (N-sensors to assess the plant nutrient status on the spot and subsequently adjust the amount of fertilizer deposited according to the plant’s needs. Test bench trials showed that the add-on kit performed well with basic operations, but more precision is required. Variability between N-sensors and metering systems, combined with power fluctuations, created inaccuracies in the resulting application rate. Nevertheless, this work is a stepping stone towards catalyzing the elaboration of more cutting-edge precision solutions to support small-scale farmers to become successful, high producing agro-entrepreneurs.

  11. Improved predictions of nuclear reaction rates with the TALYS reaction code for astrophysical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goriely, S.; Hilaire, S.; Koning, A.J

    2008-01-01

    Context. Nuclear reaction rates of astrophysical applications are traditionally determined on the basis of Hauser-Feshbach reaction codes. These codes adopt a number of approximations that have never been tested, such as a simplified width fluctuation correction, the neglect of delayed or multiple-particle emission during the electromagnetic decay cascade, or the absence of the pre-equilibrium contribution at increasing incident energies. Aims. The reaction code TALYS has been recently updated to estimate the Maxwellian-averaged reaction rates that are of astrophysical relevance. These new developments enable the reaction rates to be calculated with increased accuracy and reliability and the approximations of previous codes to be investigated. Methods. The TALYS predictions for the thermonuclear rates of relevance to astrophysics are detailed and compared with those derived by widely-used codes for the same nuclear ingredients. Results. It is shown that TALYS predictions may differ significantly from those of previous codes, in particular for nuclei for which no or little nuclear data is available. The pre-equilibrium process is shown to influence the astrophysics rates of exotic neutron-rich nuclei significantly. For the first time, the Maxwellian- averaged (n, 2n) reaction rate is calculated for all nuclei and its competition with the radiative capture rate is discussed. Conclusions. The TALYS code provides a new tool to estimate all nuclear reaction rates of relevance to astrophysics with improved accuracy and reliability. (authors)

  12. Dissipation rate of thiacloprid and its control effect against Bemisia tabaci in greenhouse tomato after soil application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Sa; Qiao, Kang; Wang, Hongyan; Zhu, Yukun; Xia, Xiaoming; Wang, Kaiyun

    2014-08-01

    Thiacloprid is a chloronicotinyl insecticide that is quite effective against sucking insects. In this study, when thiacloprid was applied at two different rates (normal rate 15 kg ha(-1) , double rate 30 kg ha(-1) ), the systemic distribution and residue of thiacloprid as well as its control effect against whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) were investigated in greenhouse tomato after soil application. The results showed that thiacloprid was present in the tomato leaves until day 25, and then its amount was less than 0.005 mg kg(-1) and could not be detected. Thiacloprid residue in the tomato stems basically remained at a stable low level throughout the experimental period. Thiacloprid in soil had half-lives of 11.8 and 12.5 days for the normal treatment and the double treatment respectively. The control efficiency of whiteflies was about 90% from day 1 to day 10. This was followed by a slow decline, but efficiency was still higher than 50% until day 21. In addition, no significant differences were noted in the control effect of thiacloprid on whiteflies between the two different rates. Soil application of thiacloprid at the normal rate can effectively control whiteflies, with high efficiency and long persistence. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Surfactant-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of CdS nanotips: optical and magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, Biswajit; Saha, Shyamal Kumar

    2012-01-01

    CdS nanotips with size 5–8 nm are synthesized by hydrothermal process using polyacrylamide (PAM) as surfactant. The shape of nanocrystals (NCs) changes from particles to nanorods or nanotips depending upon the amount of PAM used. Optical properties of the CdS NCs vary with hydrothermal temperature (T H ) due to formation of “S” vacancies. The Rietveld refinement of XRD data shows that “S” site occupancy decreases with increase in T H and amount of PAM indicating the formation of “S” vacancies. Size-dependent magnetic properties in these NCs indicate that the micron-size rods are diamagnetic in nature while the microrods ended with sharp tips show ferromagnetism even at room temperature. The origin of this ferromagnetism in nanotips is explained by the variation in density of “S” defects at the nanotips as well as in the nanorods. These ferromagnetic nanotips grown in the rods as side growth have potential applications in magnetic force microscopes.

  14. Scintillation detectors, applications in ambient dose rate measurement of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harja, C.

    1997-01-01

    For the task of developing an ambient dose rate measuring probe, the company MAB decided for a design combining an organic plastic scintillator and a secondary electron multiplier. MAB tested a range of available plastic scintillators suitable for this task, and one proved to be particularly good for the intended purpose. This scintillator is a product of the British company NE Technology Ltd. and was specially developed for dosimetry applications, offering the following advantages: The response within the range from 33 keV to 1.3 MeV (Co-60) is much more constant than with combined-design types; there is no afterglow under conditions of excessive load. (orig./CB) [de

  15. Design of a bio-inspired pneumatic artificial muscle with self-contained sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin, Onder; Pol, Nishant; Valle, Luis; Yong-Lae Park

    2016-08-01

    Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) are one of the most famous linear actuators in bio-inspired robotics. They can generate relatively high linear force considering their form factors and weights. Furthermore, PAMs are inexpensive compared with traditional electromagnetic actuators (e.g. DC motors) and also inherently light and compliant. In robotics applications, however, they typically require external sensing mechanisms due to their nonlinear behaviors, which may make the entire mechanical system bulky and complicated, limiting their use in simple systems. This study presents the design and fabrication of a low-cost McKibben-type PAM with a self-contained displacement and force sensing capability that does not require any external sensing elements. The proposed PAM can detect axial contraction force and displacement at the same time. In this study, the design of a traditional McKibben muscle was modified to include an inductive coil surrounding the muscle fibers. Then, a thin, soft silicone layer was coated outside of the muscle to protect and hold the sensing coil on the actuator. This novel design measures coil inductance change to determine the contraction force and the displacement. The process can be applied to a variety of existing McKibben actuator designs without significantly changing the rigidity of the actuator while minimizing the device's footprint.

  16. Sex-dependent anti-stress effect of an α5 subunit containing GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean C. Piantadosi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Current first-line treatments for stress-related disorders such as Major Depressive Disorder (MDD act on monoaminergic systems and take weeks to achieve a therapeutic effect with poor response and low remission rates. Recent research has implicated the GABAergic system in the pathophysiology of depression, including deficits in interneurons targeting the dendritic compartment of cortical pyramidal cells. Objectives: The present study evaluates whether SH-053-2'F-R-CH3 (denoted α5-PAM, a positive allosteric modulator selective for α5-subunit containing GABAA receptors found predominantly on cortical pyramidal cell dendrites has anti-stress effects. Methods: Female and male C57BL6/J mice were exposed to unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS and treated with α5-PAM acutely (30 minutes prior to assessing behavior or chronically before being assessed behaviorally. Results: Acute and chronic α5-PAM treatments produce a pattern of decreased stress-induced behaviors (denoted as behavioral emotionality across various tests in female, but not in male mice. Behavioral Z-scores calculated across a panel of tests designed to best model the range and heterogeneity of human symptomatology confirmed that acute and chronic α5-PAM treatments consistently produce significant decreases in behavioral emotionality in several independent cohorts of females. The behavioral responses to α5-PAM could not be completely accounted for by differences in drug brain disposition between female and male mice. In mice exposed to UCMS, expression of the Gabra5 gene was increased in the frontal cortex after acute treatment and in hippocampus after chronic treatment with α5-PAM in females only, and these expression changes correlated with behavioral emotionality. Conclusions: We showed that acute and chronic positive modulation of α5 subunit-containing GABAA receptors elicit anti-stress effects in a sex-dependent manner, suggesting novel therapeutic modalities.

  17. Application of the 137Cs technique to quantify soil redistribution rates in paleohumults from Central-South Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuller, P.; Sepulveda, A.; Trumper, R.E.; Castillo, A.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the applicability of the 137 Cs technique in obtaining spatial distributed information on mean soil redistribution rates in Central-South Chile. For this purpose four fields of Palehumult soil and contrasting land use and management were selected in the Coastal Mountain Range of the 9th Region: Crop fields under subsistence and commercial management and non-permanent prairies under subsistence and commercial management. The spatial distribution of the soil redistribution rates obtained by the 137 Cs method was similar to the one obtained by pedological observations. Also, annual sediment fluxes measured at experimental plots were similar to the erosion rates determined by the 137 Cs method at adjacent points. The 137 Cs technique is seen as an efficient method to obtain long-term soil redistribution rates under the climatic conditions and the soil type selected in Chile. In the future, it is necessary to study the applicability of the method under other climatic conditions and soil types occurring in Chile in which erosion is not so evident, and to adjust the method to optimise costs and benefits. (author) [es

  18. Probabilistic pipe fracture evaluations for applications to leak-rate detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, S; Wilkowski, G; Ghadiali, N [Battelle Columbus Labs., OH (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Stochastic pipe fracture evaluations are conducted for applications to leak-rate detection. A state-of-the-art review was first conducted to evaluate the adequacy of current deterministic models for thermo-hydraulic and elastic-plastic fracture analyses. Then a new probabilistic model was developed with the above deterministic models for structural reliability analysis of cracked piping systems and statistical characterization of crack morphology parameters, material properties of pipe, and crack location. The proposed models are then applied for computing conditional probability of failure for various nuclear piping systems in BWR and PWR plants. The PRAISE code was not used, and the probabilistic model is based on modern methods of stochastic mechanics, computationally far superior to Monte Carlo and Stratified Sampling methods used in PRAISE. 10 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Probabilistic pipe fracture evaluations for applications to leak-rate detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, S.; Wilkowski, G.; Ghadiali, N.

    1992-01-01

    Stochastic pipe fracture evaluations are conducted for applications to leak-rate detection. A state-of-the-art review was first conducted to evaluate the adequacy of current deterministic models for thermo-hydraulic and elastic-plastic fracture analyses. Then a new probabilistic model was developed with the above deterministic models for structural reliability analysis of cracked piping systems and statistical characterization of crack morphology parameters, material properties of pipe, and crack location. The proposed models are then applied for computing conditional probability of failure for various nuclear piping systems in BWR and PWR plants. The PRAISE code was not used, and the probabilistic model is based on modern methods of stochastic mechanics, computationally far superior to Monte Carlo and Stratified Sampling methods used in PRAISE. 10 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  20. Effect of mycorrhiza on growth criteria and phosphorus nutrition of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. under different phosphorus application rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fatih Ergin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, effect of mycorrhiza on growth criteria and phosphorus nutrition of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. under different phosphorus fertilization rates were investigated. Phosphorus were added into growing media as 0, 50, 100 and 200 mg P2O5/kg with and without mycorrhiza applications. Phosphorus applications significantly increased yield criteria of lettuce according to the control treatment statistically. Mycorrhiza application also significantly increased plant diameter, plant dry weight and phosphor uptake by p