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Sample records for palmetto berry extract

  1. Comparison of Saw Palmetto (extract and whole berry) and Cernitin on prostate growth in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpur, Nadeem; Echard, Bobby; Bagchi, Debasis; Bagchi, Manashi; Preuss, Harry G

    2003-08-01

    Pharmaceuticals such as finasteride and alpha blockers are used to treat symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and are known to cause severe adverse reactions. Accordingly, a search for safer, natural products has been undertaken. Two natural agents (nutraceuticals) have come under recent scrutiny; because natural products, in general, often have evidence of long-term safety. The present study compares the in vivo effects on androgen-induced prostatic enlargement in rats of two nutraceuticals--the widely recognized Saw Palmetto (Serenoa repens) and the less well-known Cernitin (defined pollen extract). Non-castrated rats, had a mean prostate weight of 124 mg +/- 8.8 (S.E.M.) compared to the 24.5 mg +/- 1.9 (S.E.M.) of the castrated rat followed under the same regimen (p Saw Palmetto, crushed whole berry derived from Saw Palmetto fruit, a water soluble and fat soluble extract of Cernitin or a combination of the Saw Palmetto extract and Cernitin. All treatments decreased the size of the prostate to roughly the same size as in the non-castrated rats, a size that was significantly smaller than castrated rats treated with testosterone in the same manner (p Saw Palmetto (whole berry and extract) and Cernitin to influence prostatic hyperplasia via effects on androgen metabolism.

  2. Characterizing components of the Saw Palmetto Berry Extract (SPBE) on prostate cancer cell growth and traction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholtysek, Carina; Krukiewicz, Aleksandra A.; Alonso, Jose-Luis; Sharma, Karan P.; Sharma, Pal C.; Goldmann, Wolfgang H.

    2009-01-01

    Saw Palmetto Berry Extract (SPBE) is applied for prostate health and treatment of urinary tract infections, nonbacterial prostitis and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) in man. An assumption is that SPBE affects tumor cell progression and migration in breast and prostate tissue. In this work, DU-145 cells were used to demonstrate that SPBE and its sterol components, β-sitosterol and stigmasterol, inhibit prostate cancer growth by increasing p53 protein expression and also inhibit carcinoma development by decreasing p21 and p27 protein expression. In the presence of cholesterol, these features are not only reversed but increased significantly. The results show for the first time the potential of SPBE, β-sitosterol and stigmasterol as potential anti-tumor agents. Since the protein p53 is also regarded as nuclear matrix protein facilitating actin cytoskeletal binding, 2D tractions were measured. The cell adhesion strength in the presence of SPBE, β-sitosterol and cholesterol and the observation was that the increase in p53 expression triggered an increase in the intracellular force generation. The results suggest a dual function of p53 in cells.

  3. Characterizing components of the Saw Palmetto Berry Extract (SPBE) on prostate cancer cell growth and traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtysek, Carina; Krukiewicz, Aleksandra A; Alonso, José-Luis; Sharma, Karan P; Sharma, Pal C; Goldmann, Wolfgang H

    2009-02-13

    Saw Palmetto Berry Extract (SPBE) is applied for prostate health and treatment of urinary tract infections, nonbacterial prostitis and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) in man. An assumption is that SPBE affects tumor cell progression and migration in breast and prostate tissue. In this work, DU-145 cells were used to demonstrate that SPBE and its sterol components, beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol, inhibit prostate cancer growth by increasing p53 protein expression and also inhibit carcinoma development by decreasing p21 and p27 protein expression. In the presence of cholesterol, these features are not only reversed but increased significantly. The results show for the first time the potential of SPBE, beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol as potential anti-tumor agents. Since the protein p53 is also regarded as nuclear matrix protein facilitating actin cytoskeletal binding, 2D tractions were measured. The cell adhesion strength in the presence of SPBE, beta-sitosterol and cholesterol and the observation was that the increase in p53 expression triggered an increase in the intracellular force generation. The results suggest a dual function of p53 in cells.

  4. Saw Palmetto Berry as a Treatment for BPH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagelman, Elliot; Lowe, Franklin C

    2001-01-01

    Phytotherapeutic agents are often prescribed in Europe for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia with lower urinary tract symptoms and are commonly used in the United States in over-the-counter preparations. Saw palmetto berry is the most popular of these agents, and in vitro some studies suggest that liposterolic extract of the plant has antiandrogenic effects that inhibit the type 1 and type 2 isoenzymes of 5α-reductase; however there are no clinical studies that show any decrease in serum dihydrotestosterone or prostate-specific antigen. Its efficacy in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms has not been conclusively proven. Clinical efficacy was suggested by a meta-analysis of Permixon, a formulation of saw palmetto, but the meta-analysis was done on suboptimal studies. One trial supports the equivalency of Permixon to finasteride in treating moderate to severe symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia, with less decrease in sexual function. However, without a control/placebo arm, the actual efficacy of the agents cannot be determined. Other than occasional gastrointestinal upset, no other side effects have been reported. PMID:16985705

  5. Saw palmetto ethanol extract inhibits adipocyte differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde, Nicole; Galvis, Adriana; Marcano, Adriana; Priestap, Horacio A; Bennett, Bradley C; Barbieri, M Alejandro

    2013-07-01

    The fruits of saw palmetto have been used for the treatment of a variety of urinary and reproductive system problems. In this study we investigated whether the fruit extracts affect in vitro adipogenesis. Saw palmetto ethanol extract inhibited the lipid droplet accumulation by induction media in a dose-dependent manner, and it also attenuated the protein expressions of C-EBPα and PPARγ. Phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Akt1 were also decreased by saw palmetto ethanol extract. This report suggests that saw palmetto extracts selectively affect the adipocyte differentiation through the modulation of several key factors that play a critical role during adipogenesis.

  6. A detailed safety assessment of a saw palmetto extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avins, Andrew L; Bent, Stephen; Staccone, Suzanne; Badua, Evelyn; Padula, Amy; Goldberg, Harley; Neuhaus, John; Hudes, Esther; Shinohara, Katusto; Kane, Christopher

    2008-06-01

    Saw palmetto is commonly used by men for lower-urinary tract symptoms. Despite its widespread use, very little is known about the potential toxicity of this dietary supplement. The Saw palmetto for Treatment of Enlarged Prostates (STEP) study was a randomized clinical trial performed among 225 men with moderate-to-severe symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia, comparing a standardized extract of the saw palmetto berry (160 mg twice daily) with a placebo over a 1-year period. As part of this study, detailed data were collected on serious and non-serious adverse events, sexual functioning, and laboratory tests of blood and urine. Between-group differences were assessed with mixed-effects regression models. There were no significant differences observed between the saw palmetto and placebo-allocated participants in the risk of suffering at least one serious adverse event (5.4% vs. 9.7%, respectively; p=0.31) or non-serious symptomatic adverse event (34.8% vs. 30.1%, p=0.48). There were few significant between-group differences in sexual functioning or for most laboratory analyses, with only small differences observed in changes over time in total bilirubin (p=0.001), potassium (p=0.03), and the incidence of glycosuria (0% in the saw palmetto group vs. 3.7% in the placebo group, p=0.05). Despite careful assessment, no evidence for serious toxicity of saw palmetto was observed in this clinical trial. Given the sample size and length of this study, however, these data do not rule out potential rare adverse effects associated with the use of saw palmetto.

  7. Metabolomics study of Saw palmetto extracts based on 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Combarieu, Eric; Martinelli, Ernesto Marco; Pace, Roberto; Sardone, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    Preparations containing Saw palmetto extracts are used in traditional medicine to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia. According to the European and the American Pharmacopoeias, the extract is obtained from comminuted Saw palmetto berries by a suitable extracting procedure using ethanol or supercritical carbon dioxide or a mixture of n-hexane and methylpentanes. In the present study an approach to metabolomics profiling using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been used as a finger-printing tool to assess the overall composition of the extracts. The phytochemical analysis coupled with principal component analysis (PCA) showed the same composition of the Saw palmetto extracts obtained with carbon dioxide and hexane with minor not significant differences for extracts obtained with ethanol. In fact these differences are anyhow lower than the batch-to-batch variability ascribable to the natural-occurring variability in the Saw palmetto fruits' phytochemical composition. The fingerprinting analysis combined with chemometric method, is a technique, which would provide a tool to comprehensively assess the quality control of Saw palmetto extracts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of increasing doses of saw palmetto extract on lower urinary tract symptoms: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Michael J; Meleth, Sreelatha; Lee, Jeannette Y; Kreder, Karl J; Avins, Andrew L; Nickel, J Curtis; Roehrborn, Claus G; Crawford, E David; Foster, Harris E; Kaplan, Steven A; McCullough, Andrew; Andriole, Gerald L; Naslund, Michael J; Williams, O Dale; Kusek, John W; Meyers, Catherine M; Betz, Joseph M; Cantor, Alan; McVary, Kevin T

    2011-09-28

    Saw palmetto fruit extracts are widely used for treating lower urinary tract symptoms attributed to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH); however, recent clinical trials have questioned their efficacy, at least at standard doses (320 mg/d). To determine the effect of saw palmetto extract (Serenoa repens, from saw palmetto berries) at up to 3 times the standard dose on lower urinary tract symptoms attributed to BPH. A double-blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled randomized trial at 11 North American clinical sites conducted between June 5, 2008, and October 10, 2010, of 369 men aged 45 years or older, with a peak urinary flow rate of at least 4 mL/s, an American Urological Association Symptom Index (AUASI) score of between 8 and 24 at 2 screening visits, and no exclusions. One, 2, and then 3 doses (320 mg/d) of saw palmetto extract or placebo, with dose increases at 24 and 48 weeks. Difference in AUASI score between baseline and 72 weeks. Secondary outcomes included measures of urinary bother, nocturia, peak uroflow, postvoid residual volume, prostate-specific antigen level, participants' global assessments, and indices of sexual function, continence, sleep quality, and prostatitis symptoms. Between baseline and 72 weeks, mean AUASI scores decreased from 14.42 to 12.22 points (-2.20 points; 95% CI, -3.04 to -1.36) [corrected]with saw palmetto extract and from 14.69 to 11.70 points (-2.99 points; 95% CI, -3.81 to -2.17) with placebo. The group mean difference in AUASI score change from baseline to 72 weeks between the saw palmetto extract and placebo groups was 0.79 points favoring placebo (upper bound of the 1-sided 95% CI most favorable to saw palmetto extract was 1.77 points, 1-sided P = .91). Saw palmetto extract was no more effective than placebo for any secondary outcome. No clearly attributable adverse effects were identified. Increasing doses of a saw palmetto fruit extract did not reduce lower urinary tract symptoms more than placebo. clinicaltrials

  9. Saw Palmetto Extract Inhibits Metastasis and Antiangiogenesis through STAT3 Signal Pathway in Glioma Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Ding

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 (STAT3 plays an important role in the proliferation and angiogenesis in human glioma. Previous research indicated that saw palmetto extract markedly inhibited the proliferation of human glioma cells through STAT3 signal pathway. But its effect on tumor metastasis and antiangiogenesis is not clear. This study is to further clear the impact of saw palmetto extract on glioma cell metastasis, antiangiogenesis, and its mechanism. TUNEL assay indicated that the apoptotic cells in the saw palmetto treated group are higher than that in the control group (p<0.05. The apoptosis related protein is detected and the results revealed that saw palmetto extract inhibits the proliferation of human glioma. Meanwhile pSTAT3 is lower in the experimental group and CD34 is also inhibited in the saw palmetto treated group. This means that saw palmetto extract could inhibit the angiogenesis in glioma. We found that saw palmetto extract was an important phytotherapeutic drug against the human glioma through STAT3 signal pathway. Saw palmetto extract may be useful as an adjunctive therapeutic agent for treatment of individuals with glioma and other types of cancer in which STAT3 signaling is activated.

  10. Saw Palmetto Extract Inhibits Metastasis and Antiangiogenesis through STAT3 Signal Pathway in Glioma Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hong; Shen, Jinglian; Yang, Yang; Che, Yuqin

    2015-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 (STAT3) plays an important role in the proliferation and angiogenesis in human glioma. Previous research indicated that saw palmetto extract markedly inhibited the proliferation of human glioma cells through STAT3 signal pathway. But its effect on tumor metastasis and antiangiogenesis is not clear. This study is to further clear the impact of saw palmetto extract on glioma cell metastasis, antiangiogenesis, and its mechanism. TUNEL assay indicated that the apoptotic cells in the saw palmetto treated group are higher than that in the control group (p saw palmetto extract inhibits the proliferation of human glioma. Meanwhile pSTAT3 is lower in the experimental group and CD34 is also inhibited in the saw palmetto treated group. This means that saw palmetto extract could inhibit the angiogenesis in glioma. We found that saw palmetto extract was an important phytotherapeutic drug against the human glioma through STAT3 signal pathway. Saw palmetto extract may be useful as an adjunctive therapeutic agent for treatment of individuals with glioma and other types of cancer in which STAT3 signaling is activated.

  11. Saw Palmetto Extract Inhibits Metastasis and Antiangiogenesis through STAT3 Signal Pathway in Glioma Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Hong; Shen, Jinglian; Yang, Yang; Che, Yuqin

    2015-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 (STAT3) plays an important role in the proliferation and angiogenesis in human glioma. Previous research indicated that saw palmetto extract markedly inhibited the proliferation of human glioma cells through STAT3 signal pathway. But its effect on tumor metastasis and antiangiogenesis is not clear. This study is to further clear the impact of saw palmetto extract on glioma cell metastasis, antiangiogenesis, and its mechanism. TUNEL ass...

  12. Pharmacological effects of saw palmetto extract in the lower urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Mayumi; Ito, Yoshihiko; Fujino, Tomomi; Abe, Masayuki; Umegaki, Keizo; Onoue, Satomi; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Yamada, Shizuo

    2009-03-01

    Saw palmetto extract (SPE), an extract from the ripe berries of the American dwarf palm, has been widely used as a therapeutic remedy for urinary dysfunction due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in Europe. Numerous mechanisms of action have been proposed for SPE, including the inhibition of 5alpha-reductase. Today, alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists and muscarinic cholinoceptor antagonists are commonly used in the treatment of men with voiding symptoms secondary to BPH. The improvement of voiding symptoms in patients taking SPE may arise from its binding to pharmacologically relevant receptors in the lower urinary tract, such as alpha(1)-adrenoceptors, muscarinic cholinoceptors, 1,4-dihyropyridine receptors and vanilloid receptors. Furthermore, oral administration of SPE has been shown to attenuate the up-regulation of alpha(1)-adrenoceptors in the rat prostate induced by testosterone. Thus, SPE at clinically relevant doses may exert a direct effect on the pharmacological receptors in the lower urinary tract, thereby improving urinary dysfunction in patients with BPH and an overactive bladder. SPE does not have interactions with co-administered drugs or serious adverse events in blood biochemical parameters, suggestive of its relative safety, even with long-term intake. Clinical trials (placebo-controlled and active-controlled trials) of SPE conducted in men with BPH were also reviewed. This review should contribute to the understanding of the pharmacological effects of SPE in the treatment of patients with BPH and associated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS).

  13. Saw palmetto extracts potently and noncompetitively inhibit human alpha1-adrenoceptors in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goepel, M; Hecker, U; Krege, S; Rübben, H; Michel, M C

    1999-02-15

    We wanted to test whether phytotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms have alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonistic properties in vitro. Preparations of beta-sitosterol and extracts of stinging nettle, medicinal pumpkin, and saw palmetto were obtained from several pharmaceutical companies. They were tested for their ability to inhibit [3H]tamsulosin binding to human prostatic alpha1-adrenoceptors and [3H]prazosin binding to cloned human alpha1A- and alpha1B-adrenoceptors. Inhibition of phenylephrine-stimulated [3H]inositol phosphate formation by cloned receptors was also investigated. Up to the highest concentration which could be tested, preparations of beta-sitosterol, stinging nettle, and medicinal pumpkin were without consistent inhibitory effect in all assays. In contrast, all tested saw palmetto extracts inhibited radioligand binding to human alpha1-adrenoceptors and agonist-induced [3H]inositol phosphate formation. Saturation binding experiments in the presence of a single saw palmetto extract concentration indicated a noncompetitive antagonism. The relationship between active concentrations in vitro and recommended therapeutic doses for the saw palmetto extracts was slightly lower than that for several chemically defined alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists. Saw palmetto extracts have alpha1-adrenoceptor-inhibitory properties. If bioavailability and other pharmacokinetic properties of these ingredients are similar to those of the chemically defined alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists, alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonism might be involved in the therapeutic effects of these extracts in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic obstruction.

  14. Do saw palmetto extracts block human alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes in vivo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goepel, M; Dinh, L; Mitchell, A; Schäfers, R F; Rübben, H; Michel, M C

    2001-02-15

    To test whether saw palmetto extracts, which act as alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists in vitro, also do so in vivo in man. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind, four-way cross-over study 12 healthy young men were treated with three different saw palmetto extract preparations (320 mg o.d.) for 8 days each. On the last day, before and 2, 4 and 6 hr after drug intake blood pressure and heart rate were determined and blood samples obtained, which were used in an ex vivo radioreceptor assay with cloned human alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes. Saw palmetto extract treatment did not result in alpha1-adrenoceptor subtype occupancy in the radioreceptor assay. Although the saw palmetto extracts caused minor reductions of supine blood pressure, they did not affect blood pressure during orthostatic stress testing and did not alter heart rate under either condition. Moreover, plasma catecholamines remained largely unaltered. Despite their alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist effects in vitro, therapeutically used doses of saw palmetto extracts do not cause alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonism in man in vivo. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. [Efficacy and safety of Saw Palmetto Extract Capsules in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Xiao-bing; Gu, Xiao-jian; Zhang, Zheng-yu; Wei, Zhong-qing; Xu, Zhuo-qun; Miao, Hui-dong; Zhou, Wei-min; Xu, Ren-fang; Cheng, Bin; Ma, Jian-guo; Niu, Tian-li; Qu, Ping; Xue, Bo-xin; Zhang, Wei

    2015-12-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of Saw Palmetto Extract Capsules in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We conducted a multi-centered open clinical study on 165 BPH patients treated with Saw Palmetto Extract Capsules at a dose of 160 mg qd for 12 weeks. At the baseline and after 6 and 12 weeks of medication, we compared the International Prostate Symptom Scores (IPSS), prostate volume, postvoid residual urine volume, urinary flow rate, quality of life scores (QOL), and adverse events between the two groups of patients. Compared with the baseline, both IPSS and QOL were improved after 6 weeks of medication, and at 12 weeks, significant improvement was found in IPSS, QOL, urinary flow rate, and postvoid residual urine. Mild stomachache occurred in 1 case, which necessitated no treatment. Saw Palmetto Extract Capsules were safe and effective for the treatment of BPH.

  16. Saw palmetto extract induces nuclear heterogeneity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinachartvanit, Wachareeporn; Francis, Bettina M; Rayburn, A Lane

    2009-01-01

    Saw palmetto (SW), a phytotherapeutic compound used in the treatment of prostate disease, was examined for potential nuclear effects. SW extract was incorporated into a complete casein-based semisynthetic rodent chow at 0%, 0.1% and 1% SW. SW was fed to mice for 6 weeks, after which the mice received a single i/p injection of either the known genotoxic agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) in saline or just saline. Forty-eight hours after injection, blood and bone marrow were collected for flow cytometric analysis. A significant effect of MMS was observed in both male and female mice with respect to: an increase in nuclear heterogeneity in bone marrow cells as measured by the coefficient of variation of the G1 peak in a flow histogram (6.32 versus 4.8 in male mice, 7.0 versus 4.9 in female mice) and an increase in the number of micronucleated blood cells (3.4% versus 0.56% male mice, 3.1% versus 0.6 in female mice) indicating a positive genotoxic response. SW also appears to increase the heterogeneity of bone marrow nuclei in a dose dependent manner (0-5.1%, 0.1-5.5% and 1-5.7% in male mice, 0-5.7%, 0.1-6.0% and 1-6.2% in female mice) without a concomitant increase in blood cell micronuclei. These results indicate that SW is not genotoxic with respect to physical DNA damage and that the changes observed in the bone marrow are due to chromatin conformation modifications in the nuclei of in vivo treated mouse cells. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Ethanol extracts of saw palmetto contain the indirectly acting sympathomimetic: tyramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Thiam; Simpson, Jamie S; Ventura, Sabatino

    2011-01-01

    To identify the bioactive components of saw palmetto ethanol extracts that affect contractility in the rat prostate gland. A commercially available saw palmetto ethanol extract was lyophilized then subjected to fractionation using silica gel column chromatography. Composition of fractions was assessed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS). Contractile activity of these fractions was evaluated pharmacologically using isolated preparations of rat prostate gland and compared to the activity of crude ethanol extract. Saw palmetto ethanol extract caused contractions of the rat prostate gland which were consistent with indirectly acting sympathomimetic activity. Fractions resulting from chromatography produced contractions of isolated rat prostates that were similar in magnitude to the contractions produced by the crude extracts. Analysis of NMR and mass spectra revealed that this bioactivity was due to tyramine in the active fraction. Tyramine is present in saw palmetto ethanol extracts and causes indirect α(1)-adrenoceptor mediated contractions via the release of noradrenaline from sympathetic neurons. This has clinical implications, as tyramine interacts with MAO inhibitors to cause hypertensive crisis. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Saw palmetto extracts potently and noncompetitively inhibit human alpha1-adrenoceptors in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goepel, M.; Hecker, U.; Krege, S.; Rübben, H.; Michel, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We wanted to test whether phytotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms have alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonistic properties in vitro. METHODS: Preparations of beta-sitosterol and extracts of stinging nettle, medicinal pumpkin, and saw palmetto were obtained

  19. Effect of saw palmetto extract on PI3K cell signaling transduction in human glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Hui, Lv; Yuqin, Che; Jie, Li; Shuai, Hou; Tiezhu, Zhou; Wei, Wang

    2014-08-01

    Saw palmetto extract can induce the apoptosis of prostate cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of saw palmetto extract on the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling transduction pathway in human glioma U87 and U251 cell lines. Suspensions of U87 and U251 cells in a logarithmic growth phase were seeded into six-well plates at a density of 10 4 cells/well. In the experimental group, 1 μl/ml saw palmetto extract was added, while the control group was cultured without a drug for 24 h. The expression levels of PI3K, B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL) and p53 were evaluated through western blot analysis. In the experimental group, the U87 and U251 cells exhibited a lower expression level of PI3K protein as compared with the control group (t=6.849; Psaw palmetto extract induces glioma cell growth arrest and apoptosis via decreasing PI3K/Akt signal transduction.

  20. Pharmacological characterization and chemical fractionation of a liposterolic extract of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens): effects on rat prostate contractility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Thiam; Eise, Nicole T; Simpson, Jamie S; Ventura, Sabatino

    2014-03-14

    Saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) was first used medicinally by native American Indians to treat urological disorders. Nowadays, saw palmetto extracts are widely used in Europe and North America to treat the urinary symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia even though its mechanisms of action are poorly understood. This study aimed to characterize the bioactive constituents of a lipid extract of saw palmetto that are able to affect contractility of the rat prostate gland. The mechanism of action will also be investigated. A commercially available lipid extract of saw palmetto was subjected to fractionation using normal phase column chromatography. Composition of fractions was assessed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS). Contractile activities of these fractions were evaluated pharmacologically using isolated preparations of rat prostate gland and compared to the activity of the crude extract. Saw palmetto extract inhibited contractions of the rat prostate gland which were consistent with smooth muscle relaxant activity. Only the ethyl acetate fraction resulting from chromatography inhibited contractions of isolated rat prostates similarly to the inhibition produced by the crude lipid extract. Comparison with authentic samples and analysis of NMR data revealed that this bioactivity was due to the fatty acid components present in the ethyl acetate fraction. Bioassay using various pharmacological tools identified multiple contractile mechanisms which were affected by the bioactive constituents. A fatty acid component of saw palmetto extract causes inhibition of prostatic smooth muscle contractions via a non-specific mechanism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Application of saw palmetto fruit extract in the treatment of prostate diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xu-xin; Shang, Xue-jun; Huang, Yu-feng

    2015-09-01

    Saw palmetto fruit extract (SPE), as a herbal product, is widely used for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Recent studies show that SPE also has some therapeutic effects on chronic prostatitis, prostate cancer, sexual dysfunction, and so on. This article presents an overview on the application of SPE in the treatment of BPH, prostate cancer, and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome, with a discussion on its action mechanisms.

  2. Effects of saw palmetto extracts on prostate gland function in the rat

    OpenAIRE

    Chua, Thiam

    2017-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia is associated with many urinary symptoms that can severely diminish quality of life and can lead to complications including urinary tract infections and obstructive nephropathy. The cause behind BPH is not well understood. Extracts of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) are amongst the most widely used medicinal herbal preparations, used almost exclusively to alleviate urinary symptoms related to BPH. Given that little is known about the beneficial physiological role of...

  3. The Effect of Increasing Doses of Saw Palmetto Fruit Extract on Serum PSA Levels: Analysis of the CAMUS Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriole, Gerald L.; McCullum-Hill, Christie; Sandhu, Gurdarshan S.; Crawford, E. David; Barry, Michael J.; Cantor, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Saw palmetto extracts are used for treating lower urinary tract symptoms in men despite level I evidence concluding that saw palmetto was ineffective in reducing lower urinary symptoms. We sought to determine whether higher doses of saw palmetto as studied in CAMUS affect serum PSA levels. Materials and Methods The CAMUS trial was a randomized, placebo-controlled double blind multi-centered North American trial conducted between June 5, 2008 and October 10, 2012 in which 369 men >45 years of age with AUA symptom score ≥ 8 and ≤ 24 were randomly assigned to placebo or dose escalation saw palmetto, which consisted of 320mg for first 24 weeks to 640mg for next 24 weeks to 960mg for last 24 weeks of this 72 week trial. Serum PSA levels (Beckman-Coulter) were obtained at baseline and at weeks 24, 48 and 72 and were compared between treatment groups using the pooled t and Fisher's exact tests. Results Serum PSA levels were similar at baseline for the placebo (1.93 ± 1.59 ng/ml) and saw palmetto groups (2.20 ± 1.95, p = 0.16). Changes in PSA levels over the course of the study were similar: placebo group mean change 0.16 ± 1.08 ng/ml and saw palmetto group mean change 0.23 ± 0.83 ng/ml (p value 0.50). Additionally, no differential effect on serum PSA levels was observed between treatment arms when groups were stratified by baseline PSA values. Conclusions Saw palmetto extract does not affect serum PSA levels more than placebo even at relatively high doses. PMID:23253958

  4. Safety and toxicity of saw palmetto in the CAMUS trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avins, Andrew L; Lee, Jeannette Y; Meyers, Catherine M; Barry, Michael J

    2013-04-01

    Extracts of the saw palmetto berry are used by many men in the United States as self-treatment for lower urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic hyperplasia. While the most recent data from double-blind clinical trials do not support efficacy superior to that of placebo, there are sparse data on saw palmetto toxicity. A total of 369 patients were randomized in the CAMUS (Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Urological Symptoms) trial, of whom 357 were included in this modified intent to treat analysis. Participants were randomized to 320, 640 and 960 mg daily of an ethanolic saw palmetto extract or to an identical-appearing placebo in an escalating manner at 6-month intervals for a total of 18 months of followup. Adverse event assessments, vital signs, and blood and urine laboratory tests were obtained at regular intervals. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in the rates of serious or nonserious adverse events, changes in vital signs, digital prostate examination findings or study withdrawal rates. Overall, there were no significant intergroup differences in laboratory test abnormalities, while differences in individual laboratory tests were rare and small in magnitude. No evidence of significant dose-response phenomena was identified. The saw palmetto extract used in the CAMUS trial showed no evidence of toxicity at doses up to 3 times the usual clinical dose during an 18-month period. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Muscarinic and alpha 1-adrenergic receptor binding characteristics of saw palmetto extract in rat lower urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Mayumi; Oki, Tomomi; Sugiyama, Tomomi; Umegaki, Keizo; Uchida, Shinya; Yamada, Shizuo

    2007-06-01

    To elucidate the in vitro and ex vivo effects of saw palmetto extract (SPE) on autonomic receptors in the rat lower urinary tract. The in vitro binding affinities for alpha 1-adrenergic, muscarinic, and purinergic receptors in the rat prostate and bladder were measured by radioligand binding assays. Rats received vehicle or SPE (0.6 to 60 mg/kg/day) orally for 4 weeks, and alpha 1-adrenergic and muscarinic receptor binding in tissues of these rats were measured. Saw palmetto extract inhibited specific binding of [3H]prazosin and [N-methyl-3H]scopolamine methyl chloride (NMS) but not alpha, beta-methylene adenosine triphosphate [2,8-(3)H]tetrasodium salt in the rat prostate and bladder. The binding activity of SPE for muscarinic receptors was four times greater than that for alpha 1-adrenergic receptors. Scatchard analysis revealed that SPE significantly reduced the maximal number of binding sites (Bmax) for each radioligand in the prostate and bladder under in vitro condition. Repeated oral administration of SPE to rats brought about significant alteration in Bmax for prostatic [3H]prazosin binding and for bladder [3H]NMS binding. Such alteration by SPE was selective to the receptors in the lower urinary tract. Saw palmetto extract exerts significant binding activity on autonomic receptors in the lower urinary tract under in vitro and in vivo conditions.

  6. Isolation and pharmacological characterization of fatty acids from saw palmetto extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Masayuki; Ito, Yoshihiko; Suzuki, Asahi; Onoue, Satomi; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Yamada, Shizuo

    2009-04-01

    Saw palmetto extract (SPE) has been widely used for the treatment of lower urinary-tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia. The mechanisms of pharmacological effects of SPE include the inhibition of 5alpha-reductase, anti-androgenic effects, anti-proliferative effects, and anti-inflammatory effects. Previously, we showed that SPE bound actively to alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic and 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel (1,4-DHP) receptors in the prostate and bladder of rats, whereas its active constituents have not been fully clarified. The present investigation is aimed to identify the main active components contained in hexane and diethyl ether extracts of SPE with the use of column chromatography and preparative HPLC. Based on the binding activity with alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic, and 1,4-DHP receptors, both isolated oleic and lauric acids were deduced to be active components. Authentic samples of oleic and lauric acids also exhibited similar binding activities to these receptors as the fatty acids isolated from SPE, consistent with our findings. In addition, oleic and lauric acids inhibited 5alpha-reductase, possibly leading to therapeutic effects against benign prostatic hyperplasia and related lower urinary-tract symptoms.

  7. Saw palmetto and lower urinary tract symptoms: what is the latest evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avins, Andrew L; Bent, Stephen

    2006-07-01

    The use of dietary supplements for treating a wide range of health conditions has grown rapidly in the United States. In the field of men's health, the most common dietary supplement used is an extract of the berry of the saw palmetto plant, with which men commonly self-medicate in order to treat lower urinary tract symptoms. Throughout the past two decades, substantial literature has emerged examining the biologic and clinical effects of saw palmetto extracts. Several lines of evidence suggest that saw palmetto may exert physiologic effects consistent with a beneficial clinical effect on the mechanisms of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Although most clinical studies tend to suggest a modest efficacy benefit of saw palmetto, more recent studies are less consistent and the precise clinical value of saw palmetto for treating lower urinary tract symptoms remains undefined. Overall, there appear to be few safety concerns with short-term use of this herbal medicine, although large-scale and longer-term safety studies have not been performed. Higher-quality studies are currently underway to better define the potential benefits and risks of plant-based extracts for treating symptoms related to benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  8. Development of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) fruit and extract standard reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schantz, Michele M; Bedner, Mary; Long, Stephen E; Molloy, John L; Murphy, Karen E; Porter, Barbara J; Putzbach, Karsten; Rimmer, Catherine A; Sander, Lane C; Sharpless, Katherine E; Thomas, Jeanice B; Wise, Stephen A; Wood, Laura J; Yen, James H; Yarita, Takashi; NguyenPho, Agnes; Sorenson, Wendy R; Betz, Joseph M

    2008-10-01

    As part of a collaboration with the National Institutes of Health's Office of Dietary Supplements and the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, the National Institute of Standards and Technology has developed two standard reference materials (SRMs) representing different forms of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens), SRM 3250 Serenoa repens fruit and SRM 3251 Serenoa repens extract. Both of these SRMs have been characterized for their fatty acid and phytosterol content. The fatty acid concentration values are based on results from gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis while the sterol concentration values are based on results from GC-FID and liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry analysis. In addition, SRM 3250 has been characterized for lead content, and SRM 3251 has been characterized for the content of beta-carotene and tocopherols. SRM 3250 (fruit) has certified concentration values for three phytosterols, 14 fatty acids as triglycerides, and lead along with reference concentration values for four fatty acids as triglycerides and 16 free fatty acids. SRM 3251 (extract) has certified concentration values for three phytosterols, 17 fatty acids as triglycerides, beta-carotene, and gamma-tocopherol along with reference concentration values for three fatty acids as triglycerides, 17 fatty acids as free fatty acids, beta-carotene isomers, and delta-tocopherol and information values for two phytosterols. These SRMs will complement other reference materials currently available with concentrations for similar analytes and are part of a series of SRMs being developed for dietary supplements.

  9. The effect of increasing doses of saw palmetto fruit extract on serum prostate specific antigen: analysis of the CAMUS randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriole, Gerald L; McCullum-Hill, Christie; Sandhu, Gurdarshan S; Crawford, E David; Barry, Michael J; Cantor, Alan

    2013-02-01

    Saw palmetto extracts are used to treat lower urinary tract symptoms in men despite level I evidence that saw palmetto is ineffective in reducing these lower urinary tract symptoms. We determined whether higher doses of saw palmetto as studied in the CAMUS (Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Urologic Symptoms) trial affect serum prostate specific antigen levels. The CAMUS trial was a randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind, multicenter, North American trial conducted between June 5, 2008 and October 10, 2012, in which 369 men older than 45 years with an AUA symptom score of 8 to 24 were randomly assigned to placebo or dose escalation of saw palmetto, which consisted of 320 mg for the first 24 weeks, 640 mg for the next 24 weeks and 960 mg for the last 24 weeks of this 72-week trial. Serum prostate specific antigen levels were obtained at baseline and at weeks 24, 48 and 72, and were compared between treatment groups using the pooled t test and Fisher's exact test. Serum prostate specific antigen was similar at baseline for the placebo (mean ± SD 1.93 ± 1.59 ng/ml) and saw palmetto groups (2.20 ± 1.95, p = 0.16). Changes in prostate specific antigen during the study were similar, with a mean change in the placebo group of 0.16 ± 1.08 ng/ml and 0.23 ± 0.83 ng/ml in the saw palmetto group (p = 0.50). In addition, no differential effect on serum prostate specific antigen was observed between treatment arms when the groups were stratified by baseline prostate specific antigen. Saw palmetto extract does not affect serum prostate specific antigen more than placebo, even at relatively high doses. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Fatty acid and phytosterol content of commercial saw palmetto supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L

    2013-09-13

    Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol) in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols.

  11. Saw Palmetto

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Saw Palmetto Share: On This Page Background How Much Do ... Foster This fact sheet provides basic information about saw palmetto—common names, usefulness and safety, and resources for ...

  12. Effects of saw palmetto extract on micturition reflex of rats and its autonomic receptor binding activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Tomomi; Suzuki, Mayumi; Nishioka, Yasuhiko; Yasuda, Akio; Umegaki, Keizo; Yamada, Shizuo

    2005-04-01

    We examined the effects of saw palmetto extract (SPE) on the rat micturition reflex and on autonomic receptors in the lower urinary tract. The effect of SPE was examined on cystometrograms of anesthetized rats induced by intravesical infusion of saline or 0.1% acetic acid. SHR/NDmc-cp (cp/cp) rats received repeat oral administration of SPE and nighttime urodynamic function was determined. The autonomic receptor binding activity of SPE in the rat bladder and prostate was examined by radioligand binding assay. Intraduodenal administration of SPE (60 mg/kg) in anesthetized rat cystometry caused a significant increase in the micturition interval, micturition volume and bladder capacity during intravesical saline infusion. Also, similar administration of SPE at doses of 12 and 20 mg/kg significantly reversed the shortened micturition interval as well as the decreased micturition volume and bladder capacity due to 0.1% acetic acid infusion in a dose dependent manner. In conscious SHR/NDmc-cp (cp/cp) rats repeat oral administration of SPE (6 mg/kg daily) constantly increased the micturition interval and concomitantly decreased voiding frequency. SPE inhibited specific binding of [H]NMS ([N-methyl-H]scopolamine methyl chloride) (bladder) and [H]prazosin (prostate) with IC50 values of 46.1 and 183 microg/ml, respectively. SPE significantly alleviates urodynamic symptoms in hyperactive rat bladders by increasing bladder capacity and subsequently prolonging the micturition interval. Our data may support the clinical efficacy of SPE for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms.

  13. Improving BPH symptoms and sexual dysfunctions with a saw palmetto preparation? Results from a pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Andreas; Saller, Reinhard; Riedi, Eugen; Heinrich, Michael

    2013-02-01

    In elderly men, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a major risk factor for sexual dysfunctions (SDys). Additionally, the standard treatments for BPH symptoms, alpha blockers and 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors, cause SDys themselves. Preparations from saw palmetto berries are an efficacious and well-tolerated symptomatic treatment for mild to moderate BPH and have traditionally been used to treat SDys. We conducted an open multicentric clinical pilot trial to investigate whether the saw palmetto berry preparation Prostasan® influenced BPH symptoms and SDys. Eighty-two patients participated in the 8-week trial, taking one capsule of 320 mg saw palmetto extract daily. At the end of the treatment, the International Prostate Symptom Score was reduced from 14.4 ± 4.7 to 6.9 ± 5.2 (p saw palmetto to show improvement in BPH symptoms and SDys as well. [Corrections made here after initial online publication.] Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. [Saw palmetto fruit extract improves LUTS in type ⅢA prostatitis patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yun-Peng; Xue, Hao-Liang; Shen, Bai-Xin; Ding, Liu-Cheng; Chen, Zheng-Seng; Wei, Zhong-Qing

    2017-05-01

    To assess the clinical efficacy of the saw palmetto fruit extract (SPFE) in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in patients with type ⅢA prostatitis. This retrospective study included 54 cases of type ⅢA prostatitis treated in the Outpatient Department of our hospital from January to December 2015. The patients were aged 35.06 ± 5.85 years, with a mean disease course of 3.8 ± 2.1 years, and all received oral medication of SPFE Capsules at the dose of 320 mg qd for 12 weeks. We assessed the therapeutic effects by comparing the NIH-chronic prostatitis symptom indexes (NIH-CPSI), voiding diary, International Prostate Symptom Scores (IPSS), and results of urodynamic examination before and after treatment. Compared with the baseline, both NIH-CPSI and IPSS were significantly decreased after medication (27.61 ± 3.76 vs 18.6 ± 5.34, P <0.01; 20.44 ± 4.51 vs 10.96±4.62, P <0.01), and urodynamic examination and voiding diary showed dramatic post-medication improvement in the average urinary flow rate ([8.05±1.42] vs [12.05±2.60] ml/s, P <0.01 ), maximum urinary flow rate ([14.22±1.74] vs [21.32±4.51] ml/s, P <0.01), residual urine volume ([46.15±16.57] vs [14.55±10.21] ml, P <0.01), maximum urethral closure pressure ([76.52±3.53] vs [65.32±4.75] cm H2O, P <0.01), mean urinary volume ([124.63±40.55] vs [285.93±58.68] ml, P <0.01), urination frequency (16.96±4.17 vs 8.96±2.50, P <0.01), and nocturia frequency (8.94±3.23 vs 3.15±1.90, P <0.01). No apparent adverse reactions were observed in any of the patients. SPFE Capsules can safely and effectively improve LUTS and thus the quality of life of patients with type ⅢA prostatitis.

  15. Potency of a novel saw palmetto ethanol extract, SPET-085, for inhibition of 5alpha-reductase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais, Pilar

    2010-08-01

    The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent membrane protein 5alpha-reductase irreversibly catalyses the conversion of testosterone to the most potent androgen, 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). In humans, two 5alpha-reductase isoenyzmes are expressed: type I and type II. Type II is found primarily in prostate tissue. Saw palmetto extract (SPE) has been widely used for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The mechanisms of the pharmacological effects of SPE include the inhibition of 5alpha-reductase, among other actions. Clinical studies of SPE have been equivocal, with some showing significant results and others not. These inconsistent results may be due, in part, to varying bioactivities of the SPE used in the studies. The aim of the present study was to determine the in vitro potency of a novel saw palmetto ethanol extract (SPET-085), an inhibitor of the 5alpha-reductase isoenzyme type II, in a cell-free test system. On the basis of the enzymatic conversion of the substrate androstenedione to the 5alpha-reduced product 5alpha-androstanedione, the inhibitory potency was measured and compared to those of finasteride, an approved 5alpha-reductase inhibitor. SPET-085 concentration-dependently inhibited 5alpha-reductase type II in vitro (IC(50)=2.88+/-0.45 microg/mL). The approved 5alpha-reductase inhibitor, finasteride, tested as positive control, led to 61% inhibition of 5alpha-reductase type II. SPET-085 effectively inhibits the enzyme that has been linked to BPH, and the amount of extract required for activity is very low compared to data reported for other extracts. It can be concluded from data in the literature that SPET-085 is as effective as a hexane extract of saw palmetto that exhibited the highest levels of bioactivity, and is more effective than other SPEs tested. This study confirmed that SPET-085 has prostate health-promoting bioactivity that also corresponds favorably to

  16. Ginseng Berry Extract Promotes Maturation of Mouse Dendritic Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available Ginseng extract has been shown to possess certain anti-virus, anti-tumor and immune-activating effects. However, the immunostimulatory effect of ginseng berry extract (GB has been less well characterized. In this study, we investigated the effect of GB on the activation of mouse dendritic cells (DCs in vitro and in vivo. GB treatment induced up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules in bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs. Interestingly, GB induced a higher degree of co-stimulatory molecule up-regulation than ginseng root extract (GR at the same concentrations. Moreover, in vivo administration of GB promoted up-regulation of CD86, MHC class I and MHC class II and production of IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-α in spleen DCs. GB also promoted the generation of Th1 and Tc1 cells. Furthermore, Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4 and myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88 signaling pathway were essential for DC activation induced by GB. In addition, GB strongly prompted the proliferation of ovalbumin (OVA-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells. Finally, GB induced DC activation in tumor-bearing mice and the combination of OVA and GB treatment inhibited B16-OVA tumor cell growth in C57BL/6 mice. These results demonstrate that GB is a novel tumor therapeutic vaccine adjuvant by promoting DC and T cell activation.

  17. Safety and Toxicity of Saw palmetto in the Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Urological Symptoms (CAMUS) Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avins, Andrew L.; Lee, Jeannette Y.; Meyers, Catherine M.; Barry, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Extracts of the saw palmetto berry are used by many men in the U.S. as self-treatment for lower urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic hyperplasia. While the most recent data from double-blind clinical trials do not support efficacy superior to that of placebo, there are few data on the toxicity of saw palmetto. Materials and Methods 369 patients were randomized in the Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Urological Symptoms (CAMUS) trial; 357 participants are included in this modified intention-to-treat analysis. Participants were randomized to 320mg, 640mg, and 960mg daily of an ethanolic saw palmetto extract or an identical-appearing placebo, in an escalating manner at 6-month intervals, for a total of 18 months follow-up. Adverse-event assessments, vital signs, and blood and urine laboratory tests were obtained at regular intervals. Results There were no statistically significant differences between groups in rates of serious or non-serious adverse events, changes in vital signs, digital prostate exam findings, or study withdrawal rates. Overall, there were no significant inter-group differences in the occurrence of laboratory-test abnormalities; differences in individual laboratory tests were uncommon and small in magnitude. No evidence of significant dose-response phenomena were identified. Conclusions The saw palmetto extract used in the CAMUS trial showed no evidence of toxicity at doses up to three times the usual clinical dose over a period of 18 months. PMID:23063633

  18. A preliminary investigation of the enzymatic inhibition of 5alpha-reduction and growth of prostatic carcinoma cell line LNCap-FGC by natural astaxanthin and Saw Palmetto lipid extract in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark L

    2005-01-01

    Inhibition of 5alpha-reductase has been reported to decrease the symptoms of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and possibly inhibit or help treat prostate cancer. Saw Palmetto berry lipid extract (SPLE) is reported to inhibit 5alpha-reductase and decrease the clinical symptoms of BPH. Epidemiologic studies report that carotenoids such as lycopene may inhibit prostate cancer. In this investigation the effect of the carotenoid astaxanthin, and SPLE were examined for their effect on 5alpha-reductase inhibition as well as the growth of prostatic carcinoma cells in vitro. These studies support patent #6,277,417 B1. The results show astaxanthin demonstrated 98% inhibition of 5alpha-reductase at 300 microg/mL in vitro. Alphastat, the combination of astaxanthin and SPLE, showed a 20% greater inhibition of 5alpha-reductase than SPLE alone n vitro. A nine day treatment of prostatic carcinoma cells with astaxanthin in vitro produced a 24% decrease in growth at 0.1 mcg/mL and a 38% decrease at 0.01 mcg/mL. SPLE showed a 34% decrease at 0.1 mcg/mL. Low levels of carotenoid astaxanthin inhibit 5alpha-reductase and decrease the growth of human prostatic cancer cells in vitro. Astaxanthin added to SPLE shows greater inhibition of 5alpha-reductase than SPLE alone in vitro.

  19. Technical approaches of a natural dye extracted from Phytolacca americana L.-berries with chemical mordants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Su-Youn; Jung, Suk-Yul

    2014-01-01

    Phytolacca americana L. is a large semi-succulent herbaceous plant which reaches three meters in height. It is native to eastern North America, the Midwest, and the Gulf Coast, with more scattered populations in the far West. It is imported into Korea and has been frequently used as a traditional natural drug for diseases such as systemic edema and nephritis. Its berries, that is, fruits are shiny dark purple held in racemous clusters on pink pedicels with a pink peduncle. They are round with a flat indented top and bottom. Immature berries are green, maturing into white and then blackish purple. It is not well known how the berries are used for a natural staining yet. In this study, using Phytolacca americana L.-berries, a natural staining was analyzed. Moreover, due to the broad use of chemical mordants, five different mordants including copper acetate, aluminum potassium sulfate, sodium tartrate plus citric acid, Iron II sulfate and potassium dichromate were combined. Extracted dye from the berries stained silk fabrics with ivory. The original purple color from the berries disappeared and transformed into ivory. Although the silk fabrics were differentially stained by the berries that were combined with mordants of aluminum potassium sulfate, sodium tartrate plus citric acid and potassium dichromate, only differences in lightness and darkness were observed. Interestingly, the combination of the dye from the berries with a mordant of copper acetate and Iron II sulfate induced the staining of the silk fabrics into khaki and dark khaki, respectively. This study is the first systemic report on staining silk fabrics with Phytolacca americana L.-berries and chemical mordants and suggests application of natural products to the fiber industry.

  20. Some Antifungal Properties of Sorbic Acid Extracted from Berries of Rowan (Sorbus Aucuparia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Ulrich

    1985-01-01

    The food preservative sorbic acid can be extracted from Eurasian mountain ash berries (commercially available) and used to show antifungal properties in microbiological investigations. Techniques for extraction, purification, ultraviolet analysis, and experiments displaying antifungal activity are described. A systematic search for similar…

  1. A phytochemical comparison of saw palmetto products using gas chromatography and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy metabolomic profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Anthony; Suter, Andy; Krnjic, Ana; Strassel, Brigitte; Zloh, Mire; Said, Mazlina; Heinrich, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Preparations containing saw palmetto berries are used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). There are many products on the market, and relatively little is known about their chemical variability and specifically the composition and quality of different saw palmetto products notwithstanding that in 2000, an international consultation paper from the major urological associations from the five continents on treatments for BPH demanded further research on this topic. Here, we compare two analytical approaches and characterise 57 different saw palmetto products. Methods An established method – gas chromatography – was used for the quantification of nine fatty acids, while a novel approach of metabolomic profiling using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used as a fingerprinting tool to assess the overall composition of the extracts. Key findings The phytochemical analysis determining the fatty acids showed a high level of heterogeneity of the different products in the total amount and of nine single fatty acids. A robust and reproducible 1H NMR spectroscopy method was established, and the results showed that it was possible to statistically differentiate between saw palmetto products that had been extracted under different conditions but not between products that used a similar extraction method. Principal component analysis was able to determine those products that had significantly different metabolites. Conclusions The metabolomic approach developed offers novel opportunities for quality control along the value chain of saw palmetto and needs to be followed further, as with this method, the complexity of a herbal extract can be better assessed than with the analysis of a single group of constituents. PMID:24417505

  2. A phytochemical comparison of saw palmetto products using gas chromatography and (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy metabolomic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Anthony; Suter, Andy; Krnjic, Ana; Strassel, Brigitte; Zloh, Mire; Said, Mazlina; Heinrich, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Preparations containing saw palmetto berries are used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). There are many products on the market, and relatively little is known about their chemical variability and specifically the composition and quality of different saw palmetto products notwithstanding that in 2000, an international consultation paper from the major urological associations from the five continents on treatments for BPH demanded further research on this topic. Here, we compare two analytical approaches and characterise 57 different saw palmetto products. An established method - gas chromatography - was used for the quantification of nine fatty acids, while a novel approach of metabolomic profiling using (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used as a fingerprinting tool to assess the overall composition of the extracts. The phytochemical analysis determining the fatty acids showed a high level of heterogeneity of the different products in the total amount and of nine single fatty acids. A robust and reproducible (1) H NMR spectroscopy method was established, and the results showed that it was possible to statistically differentiate between saw palmetto products that had been extracted under different conditions but not between products that used a similar extraction method. Principal component analysis was able to determine those products that had significantly different metabolites. The metabolomic approach developed offers novel opportunities for quality control along the value chain of saw palmetto and needs to be followed further, as with this method, the complexity of a herbal extract can be better assessed than with the analysis of a single group of constituents. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  3. Effects of Saw Palmetto Extract on Urodynamic Parameters, Bladder Muscarinic and Purinergic Receptors and Urinary Cytokines in Rats with Cyclophosphamide-Induced Cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrin, Sweety; Masuda, Eiji; Kugaya, Haruna; Osano, Ayaka; Ito, Yoshihiko; Yamada, Shizuo

    2014-01-01

    To clarify the effect of saw palmetto extract (SPE), a phytotherapeutic agent, on urodynamic parameters, bladder muscarinic and purinergic receptors, and urinary cytokines in rats with cystitis induced by cyclophosphamide (CYP). Saw palmetto extract (60 mg/kg per day) was administered orally twice a day for 7 days to rats. The urodynamic parameters in CYP (150 mg/kg i.p.)-treated rats were monitored by a cystometric method under anesthesia. The muscarinic and purinergic receptors in the bladder and submaxillary gland were measured by radioreceptor assays using [N-methyl-(3) H] scopolamine chloride([(3) H]NMS) and αβ-methylene-ATP [2,8-(3) H] tetrasodium salt ([(3) H]αβ-MeATP), respectively. Urinary cytokines (interleukin-1β [IL-1β], IL-6 and L-17) were measured with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kits. Micturition interval and micturition volume were significantly decreased and the frequency of micturition and basal pressure were significantly increased in the CYP-treated rats compared with sham-operated rats. Orally administered SPE significantly increased the micturition interval and micturition volume and decreased the frequency of micturition and basal pressure. The maximal number of sites (Bmax ) for the specific binding of [(3) H]NMS and [(3) H]αβ-MeATP was significantly decreased in the bladder. The decrease in receptors was attenuated by repeated treatment with SPE. An elevation in urinary cytokine (IL-1β and IL-17) levels were seen, and this increase was effectively suppressed by SPE treatment. Saw palmetto extract attenuates the alteration of urodynamic parameters, pharmacologically relevant receptors, and urinary cytokines in CYP-treated rats. Therefore, SPE may be a potential therapeutic agent for improving the clinical symptoms of cystitis. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Chemical Analysis of Extracts from Newfoundland Berries and Potential Neuroprotective Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Z. Hossain

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Various species of berries have been reported to contain several polyphenolic compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonols, which are known to possess high antioxidant activity and may be beneficial for human health. To our knowledge, a thorough chemical analysis of polyphenolics in species of these plants native to Newfoundland, Canada has not been conducted. The primary objective of this study was to determine the polyphenolic compounds present in commercial extracts from Newfoundland berries, which included blueberries (V. angustifolium, lingonberries (V. vitis-idaea and black currant (Ribes lacustre. Anthocyanin and flavonol glycosides in powdered extracts from Ribes lacustre and the Vaccinium species were identified using the high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC separation method with mass spectrometric (MS detection. The identified compounds were extracted from dried berries by various solvents via ultrasonication followed by centrifugation. A reverse-phase analytical column was employed to identify the retention time of each chemical component before submission for LC–MS analysis. A total of 21 phenolic compounds were tentatively identified in the three species. Further, we tested the effects of the lingonberry extract for its ability to protect neurons and glia from trauma utilizing an in vitro model of cell injury. Surprisingly, these extracts provided complete protection from cell death in this model. These findings indicate the presence of a wide variety of anthocyanins and flavonols in berries that grow natively in Newfoundland. These powdered extracts maintain these compounds intact despite being processed from berry fruit, indicating their potential use as dietary supplements. In addition, these recent findings and previous data from our lab demonstrate the ability of compounds in berries to protect the nervous system from traumatic insults.

  5. Fatty Acid and Phytosterol Content of Commercial Saw Palmetto Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian L. Lindshield

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05 concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g, individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g, and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05 concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g. Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols.

  6. Clinical Effects of Formulated Food of Peucedanum japonicum Extract and Saw Palmetto Extract in Male Patients with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Shinji; Beppu, Masanori; Ohnogi, Hiromu; Miyazaki, Sayaka; Haruno, Akihiro; Ito, Yoshihiko; Yamada, Shizuo

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate changes over time in subjective symptom scores and urination parameters before and after oral administration of formulated food containing a combination of Peucedanum japonicum (P. japonicum) extract and saw palmetto extract (SPE) in male patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). This study was conducted in an open label manner on male patients with untreated LUTS. The urination state of patients was evaluated before and after administration of food formulated with P. japonicum extract and SPE for 4 weeks, based on urodynamic parameters and subjective symptom scores (International Prostate Symptom Score [IPSS and IPSS-QOL], Overactive Bladder Symptom Score [OABSS], Overactive Bladder Questionnaire [OAB-q], and International Index of Erectile Function [IIEF]). After the administration of food formulated with these extracts, the following results were obtained: (i) Subjective findings: The IPSS-QOL score improved significantly; both parameters related to nocturia, i.e., frequency of nighttime urination and OABSS-2, improved significantly; other ratings for subjective symptoms slightly improved. (ii) Objective findings: Residual urine volume decreased significantly, and blood prostate specific antigen (PSA) and urinary 8-OHdG levels decreased slightly after the treatment. (iii) Other findings: Blood pressure decreased slightly. No adverse drug reactions were reported. (iv) Patient impressions: 75% of patients gave a rating of "Good" or higher, with 15 out of 20 patients wanting to continue treatment after the end of 4-week administration period. Food formulated with P. japonicum extract and SPE may be useful to decrease frequency of nighttime urination and residual urine volume in male patients with LUTS. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Combined use of isotopic fingerprint and metabolomics analysis for the authentication of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perini, Matteo; Paolini, Mauro; Camin, Federica; Appendino, Giovanni; Vitulo, Francesca; De Combarieu, Eric; Sardone, Nicola; Martinelli, Ernesto Marco; Pace, Roberto

    2018-04-22

    Saw palmetto (Serenoa repens, SP) is the most expensive oil source of the pharmaceutical and healthfood market, and its high cost and recurrent shortages have spurred the development of designer blends of fatty acids to mimic its phytochemical profile and fraudulently comply with the current authentication assays. To detect this adulteration, the combined use of isotopic fingerprint and omic analysis has been investigated, using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to handle the complex databases generated by these techniques and to identify the possible source of the adulterants. Surprisingly, the presence of fatty acids of animal origin turned out to be widespread in commercial samples of saw palmetto oil. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Ginseng Berry Extract Supplementation Improves Age-Related Decline of Insulin Signaling in Mice

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    Eunhui Seo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ginseng berry extract on insulin sensitivity and associated molecular mechanisms in aged mice. C57BL/6 mice (15 months old were maintained on a regular diet (CON or a regular diet supplemented with 0.05% ginseng berry extract (GBD for 24 or 32 weeks. GBD-fed mice showed significantly lower serum insulin levels (p = 0.016 and insulin resistance scores (HOMA-IR (p = 0.012, suggesting that GBD improved insulin sensitivity. Pancreatic islet hypertrophy was also ameliorated in GBD-fed mice (p = 0.007. Protein levels of tyrosine phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1 (p = 0.047, and protein kinase B (AKT (p = 0.037, were up-regulated in the muscle of insulin-injected GBD-fed mice compared with CON-fed mice. The expressions of forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1 (p = 0.036 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ (p = 0.032, which are known as aging- and insulin resistance-related genes, were also increased in the muscle of GBD-fed mice. We conclude that ginseng berry extract consumption might increase activation of IRS-1 and AKT, contributing to the improvement of insulin sensitivity in aged mice.

  9. Persistence of anticancer activity in berry extracts after simulated gastrointestinal digestion and colonic fermentation.

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    Emma M Brown

    Full Text Available Fruit and vegetable consumption is associated at the population level with a protective effect against colorectal cancer. Phenolic compounds, especially abundant in berries, are of interest due to their putative anticancer activity. After consumption, however, phenolic compounds are subject to digestive conditions within the gastrointestinal tract that alter their structures and potentially their function. However, the majority of phenolic compounds are not efficiently absorbed in the small intestine and a substantial portion pass into the colon. We characterized berry extracts (raspberries, strawberries, blackcurrants produced by in vitro-simulated upper intestinal tract digestion and subsequent fecal fermentation. These extracts and selected individual colonic metabolites were then evaluated for their putative anticancer activities using in vitro models of colorectal cancer, representing the key stages of initiation, promotion and invasion. Over a physiologically-relevant dose range (0-50 µg/ml gallic acid equivalents, the digested and fermented extracts demonstrated significant anti-genotoxic, anti-mutagenic and anti-invasive activity on colonocytes. This work indicates that phenolic compounds from berries undergo considerable structural modifications during their passage through the gastrointestinal tract but their breakdown products and metabolites retain biological activity and can modulate cellular processes associated with colon cancer.

  10. Anthocyanin- and proanthocyanidin-rich extracts of berries in food supplements--analysis with problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenn, L; Steitz, M; Schlicht, C; Kurth, H; Gaedcke, F

    2007-11-01

    The fundamental nutritional benefit of fruit and vegetables in the prevention of degenerative diseases--especially in the light of the current "anti-aging wave"--has directed the attention of scientists and consumers to a variety of berry fruits and their constituents. Many of these fruits, e.g. blueberries, elderberries or cranberries, have a long tradition in European and North American folk medicine. Based on these experiences and due to the growing interest the number of food supplements on the market containing fruit powders, juice concentrates or extracts of these fruits has increased considerably. Advertising for these products mainly focusses on the phenolic compounds, especially the anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins and their preventive effects. Most of the preparations are combinations, e.g. of extracts of different fruits with vitamins and trace elements, etc. which are labelled in a way which does not allow a comparison of the products. Typically, information on the extraction solvent, the drug: extract ratio and the content of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins is missing. Besides that, the analysis of these polyphenols causes additional problems. Whereas the quality control of herbal medicinal products is regulated in detail, no uniform requirements for food supplements are existing. A broad spectrum of methods is used for the assay of the constituents, leading to differing, incomparable results. In addition to that, the methods are quite interference-prone and consequently lead to over- or underestimation of the contents. This publication provides an overview of some selected berries (lingonberry, cranberry, black elderberry, black chokeberry, black currant, blueberry), their constituents and use. The analytical methods currently used for the identification and quantification of the polyphenols in these berries are described, including an evaluation of their advantages and disadvantages.

  11. Evaluation of a new eastern blotting technique for the analysis of ginsenoside Re in American ginseng berry pulp extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinaga, Osamu; Uto, Takuhiro; Yuan, Chun-Su; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2010-06-01

    A new eastern blotting technique has been established for ginsenoside Re (G-Re) contained in American ginseng berry pulp extracts. G-Re in American ginseng berry pulp was extracted using 100% methanol, 100% ethanol, 50% aqueous methanol, and 50% aqueous ethanol. The combined crude extracts were applied onto a polyethersulfone membrane and developed using the methanol-water-acetic acid solvent system (45:55:1 v/v). Separated components were immunostained using anti-G-Re monoclonal antibody. G-Re was first specifically detected and then quantitatively analyzed using NIH Imaging software. We also confirmed that the most suitable solvent was 50% aqueous methanol for extracting G-Re from American ginseng berry pulp. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Enhanced Glucose Uptake in Human Liver Cells and Inhibition of Carbohydrate Hydrolyzing Enzymes by Nordic Berry Extracts

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    Giang Thanh Thi Ho

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A Western lifestyle with low physical activity and a diet rich in sugar, fat and processed food contribute to higher incidences of diabetes and obesity. Enhanced glucose uptake in human liver cells was observed after treatment with phenolic extracts from different Nordic berries. All berry extracts showed higher inhibition against α-amylase and α-glucosidase than the anti-diabetic agent acarbose. Total phenolic content and phenolic profiles in addition to antioxidant activities, were also investigated. The berries were extracted with 80% methanol on an accelerated solvent extraction system (ASE and then purified by C-18 solid phase extraction (SPE. Among the ASE methanol extracts, black chokeberry, crowberry and elderberry extracts showed high stimulation of glucose uptake in HepG2 cells and also considerable inhibitory effect towards carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. SPE extracts with higher concentrations of phenolics, resulted in increased glucose uptake and enhanced inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase compared to the ASE extracts. Crowberry and cloudberry were the most potent 15-lipoxygenase inhibitors, while bog whortleberry and lingonberry were the most active xanthine oxidase inhibitors. These results increase the value of these berries as a component of a healthy Nordic diet and have a potential benefit against diabetes.

  13. In vitro antiviral activity of a series of wild berry fruit extracts against representatives of Picorna-, Orthomyxo- and Paramyxoviridae.

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    Nikolaeva-Glomb, Lubomira; Mukova, Luchia; Nikolova, Nadya; Badjakov, Ilian; Dincheva, Ivayla; Kondakova, Violeta; Doumanova, Lyuba; Galabov, Angel S

    2014-01-01

    Wild berry species are known to exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities. They have long been traditionally applied for their antiseptic, antimicrobial, cardioprotective and antioxidant properties. The aim of the present study is to reveal the potential for selective antiviral activity of total methanol extracts, as well as that of the anthocyanins and the non-anthocyanins from the following wild berries picked in Bulgaria: strawberry (Fragaria vesca L.) and raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) of the Rosaceae plant family, and bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillis L.) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L) of the Ericaceae. The antiviral effect has been tested against viruses that are important human pathogens and for which chemotherapy and/or chemoprophylaxis is indicated, namely poliovirus type 1 (PV-1) and coxsackievirus B1 (CV-B1) from the Picornaviridae virus family, human respiratory syncytial virus A2 (HRSV-A2) from the Paramyxoviridae and influenza virus A/H3N2 of Orthomyxoviridae. Wild berry fruits are freeze-dried and ground, then total methanol extracts are prepared. Further the extracts are fractioned by solid phase extraction and the non-anthocyanin and anthocyanin fractions are eluted. The in vitro antiviral effect is examined by the virus cytopathic effect (CPE) inhibition test. The results reveal that the total extracts of all tested berry fruits inhibit the replication of CV-B1 and influenza A virus. CV-B1 is inhibited to the highest degree by both bilberry and strawberry, as well as by lingonberry total extracts, and influenza A by bilberry and strawberry extracts. Anthocyanin fractions of all wild berries strongly inhibit the replication of influenza virus A/H3N2. Given the obtained results it is concluded that wild berry species are a valuable resource of antiviral substances and the present study should serve as a basis for further detailed research on the matter.

  14. Saw palmetto for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Stephen; Kane, Christopher; Shinohara, Katsuto; Neuhaus, John; Hudes, Esther S; Goldberg, Harley; Avins, Andrew L

    2006-02-09

    Saw palmetto is used by over 2 million men in the United States for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and is commonly recommended as an alternative to drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration. In this double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 225 men over the age of 49 years who had moderate-to-severe symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia to one year of treatment with saw palmetto extract (160 mg twice a day) or placebo. The primary outcome measures were changes in the scores on the American Urological Association Symptom Index (AUASI) and the maximal urinary flow rate. Secondary outcome measures included changes in prostate size, residual urinary volume after voiding, quality of life, laboratory values, and the rate of reported adverse effects. There was no significant difference between the saw palmetto and placebo groups in the change in AUASI scores (mean difference, 0.04 point; 95 percent confidence interval, -0.93 to 1.01), maximal urinary flow rate (mean difference, 0.43 ml per minute; 95 percent confidence interval, -0.52 to 1.38), prostate size, residual volume after voiding, quality of life, or serum prostate-specific antigen levels during the one-year study. The incidence of side effects was similar in the two groups. In this study, saw palmetto did not improve symptoms or objective measures of benign prostatic hyperplasia. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00037154.). Copyright 2006 Massachusetts Medical Society.

  15. DNA barcode authentication of saw palmetto herbal dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Damon P; Jeanson, Marc L

    2013-12-17

    Herbal dietary supplements made from saw palmetto (Serenoa repens; Arecaceae) fruit are commonly consumed to ameliorate benign prostate hyperplasia. A novel DNA mini-barcode assay to accurately identify [specificity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.74-1.00); sensitivity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.66-1.00); n = 31] saw palmetto dietary supplements was designed from a DNA barcode reference library created for this purpose. The mini-barcodes were used to estimate the frequency of mislabeled saw palmetto herbal dietary supplements on the market in the United States of America. Of the 37 supplements examined, amplifiable DNA could be extracted from 34 (92%). Mini-barcode analysis of these supplements demonstrated that 29 (85%) contain saw palmetto and that 2 (6%) supplements contain related species that cannot be legally sold as herbal dietary supplements in the United States of America. The identity of 3 (9%) supplements could not be conclusively determined.

  16. Ginseng Berry Extract Prevents Atherogenesis via Anti-Inflammatory Action by Upregulating Phase II Gene Expression

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    Chun-Ki Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng berry possesses higher ginsenoside content than its root, which has been traditionally used in herbal medicine for many human diseases, including atherosclerosis. We here examined the antiatherogenic effects of the Korean ginseng berry extract (KGBE and investigated its underlying mechanism of action in vitro and in vivo. Administration of KGBE decreased atherosclerotic lesions, which was inversely correlated with the expression levels of phase II genes to include heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 and glutamine-cysteine ligase (GCL. Furthermore, KGBE administration suppressed NF-κB-mediated expression of atherogenic inflammatory genes (TNF-α, IL-1β, iNOS, COX-2, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1, without altering serum cholesterol levels, in ApoE-/- mice fed a high fat-diet. Treatment with KGBE increased phase II gene expression and suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced reactive oxygen species production, NF-κB activation, and inflammatory gene expression in primary macrophages. Importantly, these cellular events were blocked by selective inhibitors of HO-1 and GCL. In addition, these inhibitors reversed the suppressive effect of KGBE on TNF-α-mediated induction of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, resulting in decreased interaction between endothelial cells and monocytes. These results suggest that KGBE ameliorates atherosclerosis by inhibiting NF-κB-mediated expression of atherogenic genes via upregulation of phase II enzymes and thus has therapeutic or preventive potential for atherosclerosis.

  17. Effects of a supplement combining Pycnogenol® and l-arginine aspartate on lower urinary dysfunction compared with saw palmetto extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Hiroshi; Sato, Ryo; Nishio, Kojiro; Arai, Gaku; Soh, Shigehiro; Okada, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and sexual dysfunction (SDys) are common problems that affect quality of life (QOL) in elderly men. In addition to prescribed drugs, many over-the-counter medications including supplements are used to treat QOL diseases. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors are reported to be effective for both LUTS and SDys by increasing nitric oxide levels. French maritime pine bark extract Pycnogenol ® , which is a potent nitric oxide donor, is reported to be effective for SDys. However, no reports have been published on whether it ameliorates LUTS. Open-labeled, randomized study. The effects of two supplements, Nokogiriyashi EX ® containing 160 mg saw palmetto (SP) extract per tablet and Edicare ® containing 10 mg of Pycnogenol ® , 115 mg of l-arginine and 92 mg of aspartate (PAA) per tablet on International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), IPSS-QOL, Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS), International Index of Erectile Function 5 (IIEF5), Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-SF), urinary 8-OHdG and uroflowmetry (UFM) of total 40 men with LUTS and SDys were examined. 19 subjects were instructed to take two tablets of SP, on the other 20 were on four tablets of PAA for 16 weeks. IPSS and IPSS-QOL showed statistically significant improvements in both groups. OABSS and IIEF5 were significantly improved in the PAA group. Conversely, ICIQ-SF, 8-OHdG and UFM did not change in either group. PAA might be an effective therapeutic alternative for elderly patients with LUTS and SDys.

  18. Mosquito larvicidal activities of Solanum villosum berry extract against the dengue vector Stegomyia aegypti

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    Chandra Goutam

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vector control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. Although several plants have been reported for mosquitocidal activity, only a few botanicals have moved from the laboratory to field use, because they are poorly characterized, in most cases active principals are not determined and most of the works are restricted to preliminary screening. Solanum villosum is a common weed distributed in many parts of India with medicinal properties, but the larvicidal activity of this plant has not been reported so far. Methods Aqueous and polar/non-polar solvent extract of fresh, mature, green berries of S. villosum was tested against Stegomyia aegypti, a common vector of dengue fever. A phytochemical analysis of chloroform:methanol extract was performed to search for the active toxic ingredient. The lethal concentration was determined (log probit analysis and compared with Malathion. The chemical nature of the active substance was also evaluated following ultraviolet-visual (UV-Vis and infrared (IR analysis. Results In a 72 hour bioassay experiment with the aqueous extract, the highest mortality was recorded in 0.5% extract. When the mortality of different solvent extracts was compared, the maximum (p p Y was positively correlated with the period of exposure (X and the log probit analysis (95% confidence level recorded lowest value (5.97 ppm at 72 hours of exposure. Phytochemical analysis of the chlororm:methanol extract reported the presence of many bioactive phytochemicals. Two toxic compounds were detected having Rf = 0.82 (70% and 73.33% mortality in 24 and 48 hours, respectively and Rf = 0.95 (40% and 50% mortality in 24 and 48 hours, respectively. IR analysis provided preliminary information about the steroidal nature of the active ingredient. Conclusion S. villosum offers promise as

  19. Saw palmetto-induced pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jibrin, Ismaila; Erinle, Ayodele; Saidi, Abdulfattah; Aliyu, Zakari Y

    2006-06-01

    Saw palmetto is a frequently used botanical agent in benign prostatic enlargement (BPH). Although it has been reported to cause cholestatic hepatitis and many medical conditions, Saw palmetto has not been implicated in acute pancreatitis. We report a case of a probable Saw palmetto induced acute hepatitis and pancreatitis. A 55-year-old reformed alcoholic, sober for greater than 15 years, presented with severe non-radiating epigastric pain associated with nausea and vomiting. His only significant comorbidity is BPH for which he intermittently took Saw palmetto for about four years. Physical examination revealed normal vital signs, tender epigastrium without guarding or rebound tenderness. Cullen and Gray Turner signs were negative. Complete blood count and basic metabolic profile were normal. Additional laboratory values include a serum amylase: 2,152 mmol/L, lipase: 39,346 mmol/L, serum triglyceride: 38 mmol/L, AST: 1265, ALT: 1232 and alkaline phosphatase was 185. Abdominal ultrasound and magnetic resonance cholangiography revealed sludge without stones. A hepatic indole diacetic acid scan was negative. Patient responded clinically and biochemically to withdrawal of Saw palmetto. Two similar episodes of improvements followed by recurrence were noted with discontinuations and reinstitution of Saw Palmetto. Simultaneous and sustained response of hepatitis and pancreatitis to Saw palmetto abstinence with reoccurrence on reinstitution strongly favors drug effect. "Natural" medicinal preparations are therefore not necessarily safe and the importance of detailed medication history (including "supplements") cannot be over emphasized.

  20. Ginseng Berry Extract Attenuates Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Acute and Chronic Colitis

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    Wei Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the in vivo functions of ginseng berry extract (GB as a therapy for dextran sodium sulfate (DSS-induced colitis. C57BL/6 mice were given drinking water containing DSS (3% for eight days to induce acute colitis. At the same time, the mice received an oral dose of GB (50 mg/kg once daily. The GB-treated mice were less susceptible to the development of acute colitis than were control mice treated with saline, as determined by weight loss, disease activity, and colon histology. The administration of GB to DSS-treated mice also reduced the numbers and inhibited the activation of colon-infiltrating T cells, neutrophils, intestinal CD103−CD11c+ dendritic cells (cDCs, and macrophages. In addition, GB treatment promoted the migration of CD103+CD11c+ cDCs and expansion of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in the colons of DSS-treated mice. Similarly, in the DSS-induced chronic colitis model, GB treatment improved the macroscopic and histological appearance of the colon wall when compared to untreated control mice, as indicated by longer colon length and lower histological scores. This is the first report to show that oral administration of GB suppresses immune activation and protects against experimentally induced colitis.

  1. Pharmacologically relevant receptor binding characteristics and 5alpha-reductase inhibitory activity of free Fatty acids contained in saw palmetto extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Masayuki; Ito, Yoshihiko; Oyunzul, Luvsandorj; Oki-Fujino, Tomomi; Yamada, Shizuo

    2009-04-01

    Saw palmetto extract (SPE), used widely for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has been shown to bind alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic and 1,4-dihydropyridine (1,4-DHP) calcium channel antagonist receptors. Major constituents of SPE are lauric acid, oleic acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid and linoleic acid. The aim of this study was to investigate binding affinities of these fatty acids for pharmacologically relevant (alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic and 1,4-DHP) receptors. The fatty acids inhibited specific [(3)H]prazosin binding in rat brain in a concentration-dependent manner with IC(50) values of 23.8 to 136 microg/ml, and specific (+)-[(3)H]PN 200-110 binding with IC(50) values of 24.5 to 79.5 microg/ml. Also, lauric acid, oleic acid, myristic acid and linoleic acid inhibited specific [(3)H]N-methylscopolamine ([(3)H]NMS) binding in rat brain with IC(50) values of 56.4 to 169 microg/ml. Palmitic acid had no effect on specific [(3)H]NMS binding. The affinity of oleic acid, myristic acid and linoleic acid for each receptor was greater than the affinity of SPE. Scatchard analysis revealed that oleic acid and lauric acid caused a significant decrease in the maximal number of binding sites (B(max)) for [(3)H]prazosin, [(3)H]NMS and (+)-[(3)H]PN 200-110. The results suggest that lauric acid and oleic acid bind noncompetitively to alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic and 1,4-DHP calcium channel antagonist receptors. We developed a novel and convenient method of determining 5alpha-reductase activity using LC/MS. With this method, SPE was shown to inhibit 5alpha-reductase activity in rat liver with an IC(50) of 101 microg/ml. Similarly, all the fatty acids except palmitic acid inhibited 5alpha-reductase activity, with IC(50) values of 42.1 to 67.6 microg/ml. In conclusion, lauric acid, oleic acid, myristic acid, and linoleic acid, major constituents of SPE, exerted binding activities of alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic and 1,4-DHP receptors and inhibited 5

  2. Efficacy and safety of drug with plant extract of saw palmetto in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms because of benign prostatic enlargement

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    Bojan Tršinar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Benign prostatic enlargement (BPE is the most frequent cause of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS in men. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Prostasan, the plant extract of saw palmetto in men with LUTS/BPE.Methods: The study was approved by the Ethical Committee of the Republic of Slovenia. In a prospective, open clinical study, men between 45 and 80 years of age with at least moderate LUTS/BPE, normal serum PSA, in a good physical condition were included after having given their written informed consent . At the beginning of this study, the digito-rectal examination of the prostate was performed together with the evaluation of IPSS and quality of life, total PSA in serum, uroflow and transabdominal US measurement of prostate volume. They were also asked about their erectile dysfunction and libido. All patients received Prostasan 320 mg per day for 12 months. The same parameters as at the beginning of the study were assessed after 6 and 12 months. The subjective assessments of the efficacy and safety of the drug were also recorded byinvestigators and by patients. The side effects of the treatment were recorded at both follow-ups. For statistical analyses, t-test and chi-square tests were used.Results: 72 men out of 76 (94.7 % with LUTS/BPE completed the trial. They were 62.7 ± 8.54 years old. IPSS score and quality of life were reduced from 14.46 ± 5.36  to  11.08 ± 3.92 (p = 0.0000  and  from  2.72 ± 0,96  to  2.25 ± 1.05 (p = 0.0001 respectively after 12 months of treatment. The uroflow increased from 13.94 ± 5.00 to 15.34 ± 4.07 ml/s (p = 0.0005. Total PSA did not change significantly. After 12 months, prostate volume decreased by 3 % (p = 0.0392. Prostasan had no important influence on erectile function or libido. The majority of patients and doctors rated the efficacy of drug as good (69.7 % and 72.4 % and safe (86.8 % and 88.2 %, respectively. Seven patients (9.2 % reported

  3. Saw palmetto for prostate disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Andrea E; Shaughnessy, Allen F

    2003-03-15

    Saw palmetto is an herbal product used in the treatment of symptoms related to benign prostatic hyperplasia. The active component is found in the fruit of the American dwarf palm tree. Studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of saw palmetto in reducing symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Saw palmetto appears to have efficacy similar to that of medications like finasteride, but it is better tolerated and less expensive. There are no known drug interactions with saw palmetto, and reported side effects are minor and rare. No data on its long-term usage are available. The herbal product also has been used to treat chronic prostatitis, but currently there is no evidence of its efficacy.

  4. Optimization of pressurized liquid extraction by response surface methodology of Goji berry (Lycium barbarum L.) phenolic bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripodo, Giusy; Ibáñez, Elena; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; Fanali, Chiara

    2018-01-03

    Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) has been used for the first time in this work to extract phenolic compounds from Goji berries according to a multilevel factorial design using response surface methodology. The global yield (% w/dw, weight/dry-weight), total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid (TF) and antioxidant activity (determined via ABTS assay, expressed as TEAC value) were used as response variables to study the effects of temperature (50-180°C) and green solvent composition (mixtures of ethanol/water). Phenolic compounds characterization was performed by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS/MS). The optimum PLE conditions predicted by the model were as follows: 180°C and 86% ethanol in water with a good desirability value of 0.815. The predicted conditions were confirmed experimentally and once the experimental design was validated for commercial fruit samples, the PLE extraction of phenolic compounds from three different varieties of fruit samples (Selvatico mongolo, Bigol, and Polonia) was performed. Nine phenolic compounds were tentatively identified in these extracts, including phenolic acids and their derivatives, and flavonols. The optimized PLE conditions were compared to a conventional solid-liquid extraction, demonstrating that PLE is a useful alternative to extract phenolic compounds from Goji berry. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Evaluation of saw palmetto for biomass potential

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    Pitman, W.D. (Florida Univ., Ona, FL (United States). Agricultural Research Center)

    1993-01-01

    Saw palmetto is a widely distributed shrubby monocot (palm) which occurs in dense stands in the coastal region of the southern USA. Selected areas of an existing stand in peninsular Florida were subjected to harvest intervals of 6, 12, and 24 months, with season of harvest also evaluated. Annual yields were 2-3 Mg ha[sup -1] of foliage (fronds and petioles) dry matter. A quadratic response to harvest interval was obtained with annual foliage regrowth greatest at the 12-month interval. Plant vigour, as indicated by total non-structural carbohydrate (TNC) concentration, and yield per harvest increased linearly with increasing harvest interval. Chemical analyses revealed high extractive content, with 100 mg g[sup -1] ethanol-benzene extract plus 90 mg g[sup -1] ethanol extract. Lignin concentration was also high at 180 mg g[sup -1]. The relatively low biomass yields and high concentrations of extractives and lignin indicate that saw palmetto does not have the desired characteristics for biomass energy conversion. Some potential may exist for specialty uses, such as starter fuel for waste combustion, due to availability and a highly combustible nature produced by the high extractive content. (author)

  6. Inhibition of inflammatory gene expression in keratinocytes using a composition containing carnitine, thioctic Acid and saw palmetto extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittur, Sridar; Parr, Brian; Marcovici, Geno

    2011-01-01

    Chronic inflammation of the hair follicle (HF) is considered a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Previously, we clinically tested liposterolic extract of Serenoa repens (LSESr) and its glycoside, β-sitosterol, in subjects with AGA and showed a highly positive response to treatment. In this study, we sought to determine whether blockade of inflammation using a composition containing LSESr as well as two anti-inflammatory agents (carnitine and thioctic acid) could alter the expression of molecular markers of inflammation in a well-established in vitro system. Using a well-validated assay representative of HF keratinocytes, specifically, stimulation of cultured human keratinocyte cells in vitro, we measured changes in gene expression of a spectrum of well-known inflammatory markers. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) provided an inflammatory stimulus. In particular, we found that the composition effectively suppressed LPS-activated gene expression of chemokines, including CCL17, CXCL6 and LTB(4) associated with pathways involved in inflammation and apoptosis. Our data support the hypothesis that the test compound exhibits anti-inflammatory characteristics in a well-established in vitro assay representing HF keratinocyte gene expression. These findings suggest that 5-alpha reductase inhibitors combined with blockade of inflammatory processes could represent a novel two-pronged approach in the treatment of AGA with improved efficacy over current modalities.

  7. Inhibition of Inflammatory Gene Expression in Keratinocytes Using a Composition Containing Carnitine, Thioctic Acid and Saw Palmetto Extract

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    Sridar Chittur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation of the hair follicle (HF is considered a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of androgenetic alopecia (AGA. Previously, we clinically tested liposterolic extract of Serenoa repens (LSESr and its glycoside, β-sitosterol, in subjects with AGA and showed a highly positive response to treatment. In this study, we sought to determine whether blockade of inflammation using a composition containing LSESr as well as two anti-inflammatory agents (carnitine and thioctic acid could alter the expression of molecular markers of inflammation in a well-established in vitro system. Using a well-validated assay representative of HF keratinocytes, specifically, stimulation of cultured human keratinocyte cells in vitro, we measured changes in gene expression of a spectrum of well-known inflammatory markers. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS provided an inflammatory stimulus. In particular, we found that the composition effectively suppressed LPS-activated gene expression of chemokines, including CCL17, CXCL6 and LTB(4 associated with pathways involved in inflammation and apoptosis. Our data support the hypothesis that the test compound exhibits anti-inflammatory characteristics in a well-established in vitro assay representing HF keratinocyte gene expression. These findings suggest that 5-alpha reductase inhibitors combined with blockade of inflammatory processes could represent a novel two-pronged approach in the treatment of AGA with improved efficacy over current modalities.

  8. Effect of Increasing Doses of Saw Palmetto on Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Michael J.; Meleth, Sreelatha; Lee, Jeannette Y.; Kreder, Karl J.; Avins, Andrew L.; Nickel, J. Curtis; Roehrborn, Claus G.; Crawford, E. David; Foster, Harris E.; Kaplan, Steven A.; McCullough, Andrew; Andriole, Gerald L.; Naslund, Michael J.; Williams, O. Dale; Kusek, John W.; Meyers, Catherine M.; Betz, Joseph M.; Cantor, Alan; McVary, Kevin T.

    2012-01-01

    Context Saw palmetto fruit extracts are widely used for treating lower urinary tract symptoms attributed to benign prostatic hyperplasia. However, recent clinical trials have questioned their efficacy, at least at standard doses (320 mg daily). Objective To determine the effect of a saw palmetto extract at up to three times the standard dose on lower urinary tract symptoms attributed to benign prostatic hyperplasia. Design Multicenter placebo-controlled randomized trial conducted from June, 2008 through October, 2010. Setting Eleven North American clinical sites. Participants Were men at least 45 years old, with a peak urinary flow rate ≥ 4 ml/sec, an AUA Symptom Index (AUASI) score ≥ 8 and ≤ 24, and no exclusions. Interventions One, two, and then three 320 mg daily doses of saw palmetto extract or placebo, with dose increases at 24 and 48 weeks. Main Outcome Measures Primary outcome was the difference in AUASI score from baseline to 72 weeks. Secondary outcomes were measures of urinary bother; nocturia; uroflow; postvoid residual; prostate-specific antigen; participants’ global assessments; and indices of sexual function, continence, sleep quality, and prostatitis symptoms. Results From baseline to 72 weeks, mean AUASI scores decreased from 14.4 to 12.2 points with saw palmetto and from 14.7 to 11.7 points with placebo. The group mean difference in AUASI score change from baseline to 72 weeks between the saw palmetto and placebo groups was 0.79 points favoring placebo (bound of the 95% confidence interval most favorable to saw palmetto was 1.77 points, one-sided P=0.91). Saw palmetto was no more effective than placebo for any secondary outcome. No attributable side effects were identified. Conclusions Increasing doses of a saw palmetto fruit extract did not reduce lower urinary tract symptoms more than placebo. (CAMUS study number NCT00603304 http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov) PMID:21954478

  9. Determination of the potency of a novel saw palmetto supercritical CO2 extract (SPSE for 5α-reductase isoform II inhibition using a cell-free in vitro test system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pais P

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pilar Pais, Agustí Villar, Santiago Rull Euromed, Barcelona, Spain Background: The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent membrane protein 5α-reductase catalyses the conversion of testosterone to the most potent androgen – 5α-dihydrotestosterone. Two 5α-reductase isoenzymes are expressed in humans: type I and type II. The latter is found primarily in prostate tissue. Saw palmetto extract (SPE has been used extensively in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. The pharmacological effects of SPE include the inhibition of 5α-reductase, as well as anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative effects. Clinical studies of SPE have been inconclusive – some have shown significant results, and others have not – possibly the result of varying bioactivities of the SPEs used in the studies. Purpose: To determine the in vitro potency in a cell-free test system of a novel SP supercritical CO2 extract (SPSE, an inhibitor of the 5α-reductase isoenzyme type II. Materials and methods: The inhibitory potency of SPSE was compared to that of finasteride, an approved 5α-reductase inhibitor, on the basis of the enzymatic conversion of the substrate androstenedione to the 5α-reduced product 5α-androstanedione. Results: By concentration-dependent inhibition of 5α-reductase type II in vitro (half-maximal inhibitory concentration 3.58±0.05 µg/mL, SPSE demonstrated competitive binding toward the active site of the enzyme. Finasteride, the approved 5α-reductase inhibitor tested as positive control, led to 63%–75% inhibition of 5α-reductase type II. Conclusion: SPSE effectively inhibits the enzyme that has been linked to BPH, and the amount of extract required for activity is comparatively low. It can be confirmed from the results of this study that SPSE has bioactivity that promotes prostate health at a level that is superior to that of many other phytotherapeutic extracts. The

  10. Extraction and Separation of Volatile and Fixed Oils from Berries of Laurus nobilis L. by Supercritical CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Assunta Dessì

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Isolation of volatile and fixed oils from dried berries of Laurus nobilis L. from Tunisia have been obtained by supercritical fractioned extraction with carbon dioxide. Extraction experiments were carried out at a temperature of 40 °C and pressures of 90 and 250 bar. The extraction step performed at 90 bar produced a volatile fraction mainly composed of (E-β-ocimene (20.9%, 1,8-cineole (8.8%, α-pinene (8.0%, β-longipinene (7.1%, linalool acetate (4.5%, cadinene (4.7%, β-pinene (4.2%, α-terpinyl acetate (3.8% and α-bulnesene (3.5%. The oil yield in this step of the process was 0.9 % by weight charged. The last extraction step at 250 bar produced an odorless liquid fraction, in which a very small percentage of fragrance compounds was found, whereas triacylglycerols were dominant. The yield of this step was 15.0 % by weight. The most represented fatty acids of the whole berry fixed oil were 12:0 (27.6%, 18:1 n-9 (27.1%, 18:2 n-6 (21.4%, and 16:0 (17,1%, with the 18:1 n-9 and 18:2 n-6 unsaturated fatty acids in particular averaging 329 μg/mg of oil.

  11. Anthocyanin Characterization, Total Phenolic Quantification and Antioxidant Features of Some Chilean Edible Berry Extracts

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    Anghel Brito

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The anthocyanin composition and HPLC fingerprints of six small berries endemic of the VIII region of Chile were investigated using high resolution mass analysis for the first time (HR-ToF-ESI-MS. The antioxidant features of the six endemic species were compared, including a variety of blueberries which is one of the most commercially significant berry crops in Chile. The anthocyanin fingerprints obtained for the fruits were compared and correlated with the antioxidant features measured by the bleaching of the DPPH radical, the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, the superoxide anion scavenging activity assay (SA, and total content of phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanins measured by spectroscopic methods. Thirty one anthocyanins were identified, and the major ones were quantified by HPLC-DAD, mostly branched 3-O-glycosides of delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin. Three phenolic acids (feruloylquinic acid, chlorogenic acid, and neochlorogenic acid and five flavonols (hyperoside, isoquercitrin, quercetin, rutin, myricetin and isorhamnetin were also identified. Calafate fruits showed the highest antioxidant activity (2.33 ± 0.21 μg/mL in the DPPH assay, followed by blueberry (3.32 ± 0.18 μg/mL, and arrayán (5.88 ± 0.21, respectively.

  12. Effects of D-004, a lipid extract of the fruit of the Cuban royal palm (Roystonea regia) or the lipidosterolic extract of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) on the sexual activity in male rats: A controlled, experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Lilia C; Mas, Rosa; Fernández, Julio; Mendoza, Sarahí; Gámez, Rafael; Pardo, Balia

    2008-02-01

    The etiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is not completely understood, but hormonal changes in aging men seem to be pivotal. Dihydrotestosterone, a potent, active metabolite of testosterone, is formed by the enzymatic action of prostate 5α-reductase and causes cell growth and hyperplasia. Consistent with this action, male sexual dysfunction has been clinically documented to be among the drug-related adverse events associated with 5α-reductase inhibitors. The lipidosterolic extract of saw palmetto (LESP) fruit (Serenoa repens) has been used to treat BPH. D-004, a lipid extract of Roystonea regia Royal palm fruit, has been found to prevent prostatic hyperplasia induced by testoste-rone in rodents and to competitively inhibit prostate 5α-reductase activity in vitro. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of D-004 and LESP, administered as single or repeated doses, on the sexual activity in male rats. This controlled, experimental study was conducted at the Pharmacology Department, Centre of Natural Products, National Centre for Scientific Research, Havana City, Cuba. Adult male Wistar rats weighing 250 to 300 g were randomized into 5 groups: 2 groups treated orally with D-004 (400 and 800 mg/kg); 2 groups treated orally with LESP (400 and 800 mg/kg); and 1 control group orally administered a water vehicle. Sexual activity behavior (the number of mounts and intromissions, mount latency, and intromission latency) was assessed during 2 observation periods: 90 minutes after the initial dose and at the end of the 30-day treatment. Latency was defined as time elapsed between the first mount and intromission. A total of 50 rats (mean [SD] age, 10 [3] weeks; mean [SD] weight, 295 [10] g) were included in the experiment. There were no significant difterences in the mean number of mounts, intromissions, mount latency, or intromission latency in the groups treated with single or repeated doses of D-004 or LESP (400 and 800 mg/kg) compared with the

  13. Efficacy and safety of Panax ginseng berry extract on glycemic control: A 12-wk randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Seok Choi

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: The present study suggests that ginseng berry extract has the potential to improve glucose metabolism in human, especially in those with fasting glucose level of 110 mg/dL or higher. For a more meaningful benefit, further research in people with higher blood glucose levels is required.

  14. Influence of the liquid or gazeous nature of the grape berries environment on rheological properties and on colour and nitrogen extractabilities during conditions simulating the Beaujolais wine-making process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Abbal

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns the evolutions of some physicochemical characteristics of berries during conditions simulating the beaujolais wine-making process. In this process, a large number of intact berries is kept in a CO2 atmosphere which is produced by ethanolic fermentation of the must in the bottom of the tank. To simulate this, two equivalent samples of ripe Gamay or Carignane berries were placed in the same jar and subjected to carbonic anaerobiosis. One sample was maintained in the gaseous atmosphere and the other submerged in the liquid which was either an aqueous solution of 6 p. cent ethanol (v/v, the same solution with 1 M sorbitol, or grape must obtained from crushed berries. The aim of these experiments was to study, in both submerged and non-submerged samples, the effects of ethanol on rheological properties of berries and on potential extractabilities of colour and soluble nitrogen from skin and berry flesh. Whatever the model, ethanol had a deleterious effect on berries, especially on those which were immersed. For those, the development of anaerobic metabolism was drastically reduced, but nitrogeneous and colouring compounds extractabilities were significantly increased. The anthocyanins and their copigments seem to be preferentially extracted when berries were immersed. The rheological properties were related to the osmotical strength of the submerging liquid. It was assumed that hydratation or dehydratation phenomenons of cell-wall polysaccharides could explained the differences observed in the rheological behaviour of berries and in particular the modifications of their pellicular elasticity.

  15. Effect of picung (Pangium edule plant extracts as a botanical pesticide on mortality of coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    soekadar wiryadiputra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Coffee pests known as coffe berry borer (CBB, Hypothenemus hampei were main pests which decreasing the productivity of Indonesian coffee. One of pests controlling was done by insecticides. Generally, plant uses for insecticide show high security level, because the breaking molecule was easy as not dangerous compound. Pangium edule contains of flavanoide, cyanide acid and saponin had potential as an botanical insecticide. The purpose of this research was to prove the potential extract of seed and leaves of picung (Pangium edule as an botanical insecticide for CBB. This research used a complete random design. There were 8 treatments with the concentration of the extract from leaves and seed of picung, one positive control treatment (Carbaril 0,02% formulation and one negative control treatment (aquades. The treatment was repeated four times and carried out observation on every day until six days. The concentrations leaf and seed extracts were 1.0%, 2.5% and 5.0%. The result of the research show that between concentration applied the were no significant different and at observation six days after application the mortality of CBB only around 35 -40% on both extracts (ewater and methanol. The result of the research also show that there were no real differentiation between leaves and seed of picung. LT-50 values were 1.25% and 0.96%, for leaves and seed extract in water for six day observation. From this observation could be concluded that picung tree (Pangium edule is not effective in the controlling CBB in the interval concentration applied and extraction method used. Key words: Botanical pesticide, picung tree, Pangium edule, mortality, Hypothenemus hampei, water extraction, methanol extraction.

  16. In vitro study of biological activities of anthocyanin-rich berry extracts on porcine intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kšonžeková, Petra; Mariychuk, Ruslan; Eliašová, Adriana; Mudroňová, Dagmar; Csank, Tomáš; Király, Ján; Marcinčáková, Dana; Pistl, Juraj; Tkáčiková, L'udmila

    2016-03-15

    Anthocyanins, compounds that represent the major group of flavonoids in berries, are one of the most powerful natural antioxidants. The aim of this study was to evaluate biological activities and comparison of anthocyanin-rich extracts prepared from chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa), elderberry (Sambucus nigra), bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) and blueberry (V. corymbosum) on the porcine intestinal epithelial IPEC-1 cell line. The IC50 values calculated in the antioxidant cell-based dichlorofluorescein assay (DCF assay) were 1.129 mg L(-1) for chokeberry, 1.081 mg L(-1) for elderberry, 2.561 mg L(-1) for bilberry and 2.965 mg L(-1) for blueberry, respectively. We found a significant negative correlation (P < 0.001) between cyanidin glycosides content and IC50 values. Moreover, extracts rich in cyanidin glycosides stimulated proliferation of IPEC-1 cells and did not have cytotoxic effect on cells at an equivalent in vivo concentration. We found that the chokeberry and elderberry extracts rich in cyanidin glycosides possess better antioxidant and anticytotoxic activities in comparison to blueberry or bilberry extracts with complex anthocyanin profiles. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Polyphenol-enriched berry extracts naturally modulate reactive proteins in model foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lila, Mary Ann; Schneider, Maggie; Devlin, Amy; Plundrich, Nathalie; Laster, Scott; Foegeding, E Allen

    2017-12-13

    Healthy foods like polyphenol-rich berries and high quality edible proteins are in demand in today's functional food marketplace, but it can be difficult to formulate convenient food products with physiologically-relevant amounts of these ingredients and still maintain product quality. In part, this is because proteins can interact with other food ingredients and precipitate destabilizing events, which can disrupt food structure and diminish shelf life. Proteins in foods can also interact with human receptors to provoke adverse consequences such as allergies. When proteins and polyphenols were pre-aggregated into stable colloidal particles prior to use as ingredients, highly palatable food formulations (with reduced astringency of polyphenols) could be prepared, and the overall structural properties of food formulations were significantly improved. All of the nutritive and phytoactive benefits of the proteins and concentrated polyphenols remained highly bioavailable, but the protein molecules in the particle matrix did not self-aggregate into networks or react with other food ingredients. Both the drainage half-life (a marker of structural stability) and the yield stress (resistance to flow) of model foams made with the protein-polyphenol particles were increased in a dose-dependent manner. Of high significance in this complexation process, the reactive allergenic epitopes of certain proteins were effectively blunted by binding with polyphenols, attenuating the allergenicity of the food proteins. Porcine macrophages produced TNF-α proinflammatory cytokine when provoked with whey protein, but, this response was blocked completely when the cells were stimulated with particles that complexed whey protein with cinnamon-derived polyphenols. Cytokine and chemokine production characteristic of allergic reactions were blocked by the polyphenols, allowing for the potential creation of hypoallergenic protein-berry polyphenol enriched foods.

  18. Camphor-Crataegus berry extract combination dose-dependently reduces tilt induced fall in blood pressure in orthostatic hypotension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, G G; Butzer, R; Gaus, W; Loew, D

    2002-10-01

    In order to test the efficacy of a combination of natural D-camphor and an extract of fresh crataegus berries (Korodin Herz-Kreislauf-Tropfen) on orthostatic hypotension, two similar, controlled, randomized studies were carried out in a balanced crossover design in 24 patients each with orthostatic dysregulation. The camphor-crataegus berry combination (CCC) was orally administered as a single regimen in 3 different dosages of 5 drops, 20 drops and 80 drops; a placebo with 20 drops of a 60% alcoholic solution served as control. Orthostatic hypotension was assessed with the tilt table test before and after medication. Source data of both studies were pooled and meta-analytically evaluated for all 48 patients. CCC drops decreased the orthostatic fall in blood pressure versus placebo, as almost uniformly established at all times by mean arterial pressure and diastolic blood pressure. Mean arterial pressure demonstrated the very fast onset of action by a clearly dose-dependent statistically significant effect even after 1-minute orthostasis. Increase of mean arterial pressure as compared to the orthostasis test before medication was on average 4.5 mmHg. CCC affected diastolic blood pressure after 1 minute of orthostasis in all dosages as compared to placebo. A statistically significant effect of the highest dose of 80 drops on diastolic blood pressure could be demonstrated after 1-, 3-, and 5-minute orthostasis. The hemodynamic findings of a stabilizing effect on arterial pressure in orthostasis corroborate the long-term medical experience with CCC and justify the indication orthostatic hypotension.

  19. Extracts from fruits of saw palmetto (Sabal serrulata) and roots of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica): viable alternatives in the medical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and associated lower urinary tracts symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, E

    2001-08-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and associated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are very common disorders in aging men. Despite the great clinical importance, many aspects of their aetiology remain uncertain although it is generally accepted that advanced age and testicular androgens are important requirements for the development of these complaints. The currently available therapeutic options include watchful waiting, changes of life style, medical treatments and invasive therapies. In many European countries the use of phytopharmaceuticals for the management of BPH and related LUTS is common and these products represent up to 80 % of all drugs prescribed for this disorder. In particularly, extracts from the fruits of saw palmetto (Sabal serrulata, syn. Serenoa repens) and the roots of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) are popular. During the last years numerous papers have been published which elaborated on the pharmacological activities and the clinical assessment of these herbal remedies. These investigations have not only broadened the scientific basis for the rational use of phytotherapeutics but have also provided evidence for their therapeutic efficacy and favourable safety profile.

  20. Response of Saw Palmetto to Three Herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.L. Michael; D.G. Neary

    1985-01-01

    Saw palmetto [Serona repens (Bartram) Small] can be controlled with herbicides. Garion® 4E1/2 and Brush Killer® 800 were evaluated for effectiveness againest saw palmetto when they were applied at three rates in April, June, and August. Oust® was tested at three rates in April only. Herbicides were not effective with April...

  1. Determination of the potency of a novel saw palmetto supercritical CO2 extract (SPSE) for 5α-reductase isoform II inhibition using a cell-free in vitro test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais, Pilar; Villar, Agustí; Rull, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent membrane protein 5α-reductase catalyses the conversion of testosterone to the most potent androgen - 5α-dihydrotestosterone. Two 5α-reductase isoenzymes are expressed in humans: type I and type II. The latter is found primarily in prostate tissue. Saw palmetto extract (SPE) has been used extensively in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The pharmacological effects of SPE include the inhibition of 5α-reductase, as well as anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative effects. Clinical studies of SPE have been inconclusive - some have shown significant results, and others have not - possibly the result of varying bioactivities of the SPEs used in the studies. To determine the in vitro potency in a cell-free test system of a novel SP supercritical CO2 extract (SPSE), an inhibitor of the 5α-reductase isoenzyme type II. The inhibitory potency of SPSE was compared to that of finasteride, an approved 5α-reductase inhibitor, on the basis of the enzymatic conversion of the substrate androstenedione to the 5α-reduced product 5α-androstanedione. By concentration-dependent inhibition of 5α-reductase type II in vitro (half-maximal inhibitory concentration 3.58±0.05 μg/mL), SPSE demonstrated competitive binding toward the active site of the enzyme. Finasteride, the approved 5α-reductase inhibitor tested as positive control, led to 63%-75% inhibition of 5α-reductase type II. SPSE effectively inhibits the enzyme that has been linked to BPH, and the amount of extract required for activity is comparatively low. It can be confirmed from the results of this study that SPSE has bioactivity that promotes prostate health at a level that is superior to that of many other phytotherapeutic extracts. The bioactivity of SPSE corresponds favorably to that reported for the hexane extract used in a large number of positive BPH clinical trials, as well as to finasteride

  2. Saw palmetto extract enhances erectile responses by inhibition of phosphodiesterase 5 activity and increase in inducible nitric oxide synthase messenger ribonucleic acid expression in rat and rabbit corpus cavernosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Surong; Chen, Changrui; Li, Yiying; Ren, Zhenghua; Zhang, Yungang; Wu, Gantong; Wang, Hao; Hu, Zhenzhen; Yao, Minghui

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate whether saw palmetto extract (SPE) relaxes corpus cavernosum and explore the underlying mechanisms. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats and 30 New Zealand rabbits were randomly allocated into 3 SPE-treated groups (low-, middle-, and high-dose) and 1 saline-treated control group. SPE was administered intragastrically for 7 consecutive days. Another 23 rats treated with sildenafil were used to appraise the erectile response to electrical stimulation of nerves in the corpus cavernosum. The erectile functions of rats and rabbits were evaluated 24 hours after the last SPE administration or 15 minutes after intragastric sildenafil. Outcome measures included corpus cavernosum electrical activity recording, phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) activity detected by the colorimetric quantitative method, and messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression level for PDE5 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. In the SPE-treated animals, the relaxant response to electrical stimulation of nerves in the corpus cavernosum, reflected by the amplitude of the electrical activity within the cavernosum, was significantly and dose-dependently augmented. Similar effects were observed in the sildenafil-treated rats. PDE5 activity in rat and rabbit corpus cavernosum tissues was significantly and dose-dependently inhibited in SPE-treated animals, whereas the iNOS mRNA level increased compared with the saline group. PDE5 mRNA, however, was only significantly enhanced in the rats treated with the middle dose of SPE. The results suggest that SPE may have potential application value for the prevention or treatment of erectile dysfunction through an increase in iNOS mRNA expression and inhibition of PDE5 activity in corpus cavernosum smooth muscles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Saw palmetto extract suppresses insulin-like growth factor-I signaling and induces stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation in human prostate epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Teri L; Carroll, Julie M; Mallinson, Rebecca A; Roberts, Charles T; Roselli, Charles E

    2004-07-01

    A common alternative therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the extract from the fruit of saw palmetto (SPE). BPH is caused by nonmalignant growth of epithelial and stromal elements of the prostate. IGF action is important for prostate growth and development, and changes in the IGF system have been documented in BPH tissues. The main signaling pathways activated by the binding of IGF-I to the IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) are the ERK arm of the MAPK cascade and the phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) cascade. We tested the hypothesis that SPE suppresses growth and induces apoptosis in the P69 prostate epithelial cell line by inhibiting IGF-I signaling. Treatment with 150 microg/ml SPE for 24 h decreased IGF-I-induced proliferation of P69 cells and induced cleavage of the enzyme poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP), an index of apoptosis. Treatment of serum-starved P69 cells with 150 microg/ml SPE for 6 h reduced IGF-I-induced phosphorylation of Akt (assessed by Western blot) and Akt activity (assessed by an Akt kinase assay). Western blot analysis showed that SPE reduced IGF-I-induced phosphorylation of the adapter protein insulin receptor substrate-1 and decreased downstream effects of Akt activation, including increased cyclin D1 levels and phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 and p70(s6k). There was no effect on IGF-I-induced phosphorylation of MAPK, IGF-IR, or Shc. Treatment of starved cells with SPE alone induced phosphorylation the proapoptotic protein JNK. SPE treatment may relieve symptoms of BPH, in part, by inhibiting specific components of the IGF-I signaling pathway and inducing JNK activation, thus mediating antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects on prostate epithelia.

  4. Saw palmetto is an indirectly acting sympathomimetic in the rat-isolated prostate gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Nga; Haynes, John M; Ventura, Sabatino

    2006-02-01

    To investigate whether saw palmetto that inhibits alpha1-adrenoceptor binding in vitro affects contractility of the rat prostate gland. The effects of a commercially available saw palmetto extract were examined on the contractility of rat-isolated prostate glands. The extract was tested in the presence and absence of phentolamine, prazosin, yohimbine, propranolol, hexamethonium, cocaine, desipramine, nifedipine, guanethidine, atropine, and alpha,beta-methylene ATP to evaluate the mechanism of action. Isolated preparations of rat vas deferens and bladder were used for comparison. Unexpectedly, saw palmetto extract caused contractions of the rat prostate gland that could be attenuated by prazosin, phentolamine, nifedipine, guanethidine, cocaine, and desipramine but not by any of the other pharmacological tools. Similar contractile effects were observed in rat-isolated vas deferens preparations but not in rat-isolated bladder preparations. In the rat prostate gland, saw palmetto extract causes indirect alpha1-adrenoceptor-mediated contractions via the release of noradrenaline from sympathetic neurons. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Single pot synthesized gold nanoparticles using Hippophae rhamnoides leaf and berry extract showed shape-dependent differential nanobiotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bhavana; Deswal, Renu

    2018-04-04

    A facile one-pot green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with different geometries was achieved using an underutilized Himalayan bioresource Hippophae rhamnoides. Aqueous leaf (LE) and berry extracts (BE) showed rapid synthesis of monodispersed spherical LEAuNPs (27 ± 3.2 nm) and anisotropic BEAuNPs (55 ± 4.5 nm) within 2 and 15 min, respectively. The Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed involvement of polyphenolics/flavonoids in AuNPs reduction. LE AuNPs (IC 50 49 µg) exhibited higher antioxidant potential than BE AuNPs (IC 50 57 µg). Both BE nanotriangles and LE nanospheres exhibited cytotoxicity against Jurkat cell lines. These nanocatalysts also exhibited effective (80-99%) reductive degradation of structurally different carcinogenic azo dyes. Kinetic studies revealed that BE nanotriangles exhibited higher catalytic efficiency (14-67%) than LE nanospheres suggesting shape-dependent regulation of biological activities. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis confirmed conversion of toxic methyl orange dye to non-toxic intermediates. Probable degradation mechanism involving adsorption and catalytic reduction of azo bonds was proposed. The present synthesis protocol provided a facile and energy saving procedure for rapid synthesis of highly stable nanoparticles with significant antioxidant and anticancer potential. This is the first report of H. rhamnoides-mediated green synthesis of multipurpose AuNPs as antioxidant, anticancer and nanocatalytic agents for treatment of dye contaminated waste water and future therapeutic applications.

  6. Lead content of roadside fruit and berries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowles, G W.A.

    1976-01-01

    Blackberries, elderberries, hawthorn berries, holly berries and rose hips have been examined for their lead content, which has been shown to be directly related to the proximity of the growing fruit and berries to roads, the traffic density and the time of exposure. The maximum levels found (in ppm for undried fruit and berries) were blackberries 0.85, elderberries 6.77, hawthorn berries 23.8, holly berries 3.5 and rose hips 1.45. Very thorough washing with water removed 40-60% of the lead from heavily contaminated fruit and berries. When elderberries were used for winemaking over 60% of the lead was extracted and remained in solution in the wine. 25 references, 4 tables.

  7. In vitro studies on the relationship between the antioxidant activities of some berry extracts and their binding properties to serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namiesnik, Jacek; Vearasilp, Kann; Nemirovski, Alina; Leontowicz, Hanna; Leontowicz, Maria; Pasko, Pawel; Martinez-Ayala, Alma Leticia; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Suhaj, Milan; Gorinstein, Shela

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility to use the bioactive components from cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana), blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum), and cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) extracts as a novel source against oxidation in food supplementation. The quantitative analysis of bioactive compounds (polyphenols, flavonoids, flavanols, carotenoids, and chlorophyll) was based on radical scavenging spectrophometric assays and mass spectrometry. The total phenolic content was the highest (P < 0.05) in water extract of blueberries (46.6 ± 4.2 mg GAE/g DW). The highest antioxidant activities by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay and Cupric reducing antioxidant capacity were in water extracts of blueberries, showing 108.1 ± 7.2 and 131.1 ± 9.6 μMTE/g DW with correlation coefficients of 0.9918 and 0.9925, and by β-carotene linoleate assay at 80.1 ± 6.6 % with correlation coefficient of 0.9909, respectively. The water extracts of berries exhibited high binding properties with human serum albumin in comparison with quercetin. In conclusion, the bioactive compounds from a relatively new source of gooseberries in comparison with blueberries and cranberries have the potential as food supplementation for human health. The antioxidant and binding activities of berries depend on their bioactive compounds.

  8. Coagulopathy induced by saw palmetto: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Salvador; González, Jenniffer

    2009-01-01

    Saw palmetto is the most popular herbal supplement used to treat symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The safety and efficacy of saw palmetto has been established in the literature. While the majority of studies document the efficacy and safety of saw palmetto, some studies document the adverse side effects, including increased risk of bleeding. There are no reports in the literature about increased prothombin time (PT), partial thromboplastin time (PTT) or international normalized ratio (INR) while using saw palmetto. We present a case of hematuria and coagulopathy in a patient who was using saw palmetto.

  9. Multiple doses of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) did not alter cytochrome P450 2D6 and 3A4 activity in normal volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, John S; Donovan, Jennifer L; Devane, C Lindsay; Taylor, Robin M; Ruan, Ying; Wang, Jun-Sheng; Chavin, Kenneth D

    2003-12-01

    Saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) is the most commonly used herbal preparation in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. The objective of this study was to determine whether a characterized saw palmetto product affects the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 or 3A4 in healthy volunteers (6 men and 6 women). The probe substrates dextromethorphan (CYP2D6 activity) and alprazolam (CYP3A4 activity) were administered orally at baseline and again after exposure to saw palmetto (320-mg capsule once daily) for 14 days. Dextromethorphan metabolic ratios and alprazolam pharmacokinetics were determined at baseline and after saw palmetto treatment. The mean ratio of dextromethorphan to its metabolite was 0.038 +/- 0.044 at baseline and 0.048 +/- 0.080 after 14 days of saw palmetto administration (P =.704, not significant [NS]), indicating a lack of effect on CYP2D6 activity. The area under the plasma alprazolam concentration versus time curve was 476 +/- 178 h. ng. mL(-1) at baseline and 479 +/- 125 h. ng. mL(-1) after saw palmetto treatment (P =.923, NS), indicating a lack of effect on CYP3A4 activity. The elimination half-life of alprazolam was 11.4 +/- 3.1 hours at baseline and 11.6 +/- 2.7 hours after saw palmetto treatment (P =.770, NS), also indicating a lack of effect on CYP3A4 activity. Our results indicate that extracts of saw palmetto at generally recommended doses are unlikely to alter the disposition of coadministered medications primarily dependent on the CYP2D6 or CYP3A4 pathways for elimination. These conclusions must be weighed in the context of the study's limited assessments and regarded as only the initial investigation into the drug interaction potential of saw palmetto.

  10. Saw palmetto and benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Edward M; Gerber, Glenn S

    2004-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common health issue that affects 8% of all men at the age of 40, 60% of men in their 70s, and 90% of those greater than 80 years of age. One-fourth of these men will develop moderate to severe lower urinary tract symptoms that greatly affect their quality of life. Recent evidence suggests that the use of saw palmetto leads to improvements in urinary function for those suffering from BPH. The favorable comparison of saw palmetto with tamsulosin, a well-known first line agent in the treatment of urinary tract symptoms, demonstrates promise towards a beneficial effect of this herbal agent, with very few, if any, adverse effects. However, what degree of this beneficial activity is due to placebo effects is yet to be determined. In addition, the precise mechanism of action of saw palmetto in men with BPH remains unclear.

  11. Fatty Acid and Phytosterol Content of Commercial Saw Palmetto Supplements

    OpenAIRE

    Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L.

    2013-01-01

    Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end...

  12. Acute pancreatitis with saw palmetto use: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Bruminhent, Jackrapong; Carrera, Perliveh; Li, Zhongzhen; Amankona, Raymond; Roberts, Ingram M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Saw palmetto is a phytotherapeutic agent commercially marketed for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Evidence suggests that saw palmetto is a safe product, and mild gastrointestinal adverse effects have been reported with its use. We report a case of acute pancreatitis, possibly secondary to the use of saw palmetto. Case presentation A 61-year-old Caucasian man with a history of benign prostatic hyperplasia and gastroesophageal reflux disease developed epiga...

  13. Eugenia jambolana Lam. Berry Extract Inhibits Growth and Induces Apoptosis of Human Breast Cancer but not Non-Tumorigenic Breast Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liya; Adams, Lynn S.; Chen, Shiuan; Killian, Caroline; Ahmed, Aftab; Seeram, Navindra P.

    2009-01-01

    The ripe purple berries of the native Indian plant, Eugenia jambolana Lam., known as Jamun, are popularly consumed and available in the United States in Florida and Hawaii. Despite the growing body of data on the chemopreventive potential of edible berry extracts, there is paucity of such data for Jamun fruit. Therefore our laboratory initiated the current study with the following objectives:1) to prepare a standardized Jamun fruit extract (JFE) for biological studies and, 2) to investigate the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of JFE in estrogen dependent/aromatase positive (MCF-7aro), and estrogen independent (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cells, and in a normal/non-tumorigenic (MCF-10A) breast cell line. JFE was standardized to anthocyanin content using the pH differential method, and individual anthocyanins were identified by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods. JFE contained 3.5% anthocyanins (as cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents) which occur as diglucosides of five anthocyanidins/aglycons: delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin. In the proliferation assay, JFE was most effective against MCF-7aro (IC50=27 µg/mL), followed by MDA-MB-231 (IC50=40 µg/mL) breast cancer cells. Importantly, JFE exhibited only mild antiproliferative effects against the normal MCF-10A (IC50>100 µg/mL) breast cells. Similarly, JFE (at 200 µg/mL) exhibited pro-apoptotic effects against the MCF-7aro (p≤0.05) and the MDA-MB-231 (p≤0.01) breast cancer cells, but not towards the normal MCF-10A breast cells. These studies suggest that JFE may have potential beneficial effects against breast cancer. PMID:19166352

  14. The multifunctionality of berries toward blood platelets and the role of berry phenolics in cardiovascular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olas, Beata

    2017-09-01

    Diet and nutrition have an important influence on the prophylaxis and progression of cardiovascular disease; one example is the inhibition of blood platelet functions by specific components of fruits and vegetables. Garlic, onion, ginger, dark chocolate and polyunsaturated fatty acids all reduce blood platelet aggregation. A number of fruits contain a range of cardioprotective antioxidants and vitamins, together with a large number of non-nutrient phytochemicals such as phenolic compounds, which may possess both antioxidant properties and anti-platelet activity. Fresh berries and berry extracts possess high concentrations of phenolic compounds, i.e. phenolic acid, stilbenoids, flavonoids and lignans. The aim of this review article is to provide an overview of current knowledge of the anti-platelet activity of berries, which form an integral part of the human diet. It describes the effects of phenolic compounds present in a number of berries, i.e. black chokeberries - aronia berries (Aronia melanocarpa), blueberries (Vaccinium myrtillus), cranberries (Vaccinium sect. Oxycoccus), sea buckthorn berries (Hippophae rhamnoides) and grapes (Vitis), as well as various commercial products from berries (i.e. juices), on platelets and underlying mechanisms. Studies show that the effects of berries on platelet activity are dependent on not only the concentrations of the phenolic compounds in the berries or the class of phenolic compounds, but also the types of berry and the form (fresh berry, juice or medicinal product). Different results indicate that berries may play a role in the prevention of cardiovascular disorders, but the development of well-controlled clinical studies with berries is encouraged.

  15. Microorganisms of Grape Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kántor Attila

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Grape surface is an unstable habitat that changes greatly according to the stage of grape ripening. Different bacteria and yeasts can colonise the surface of grape berry and the diversity of microorganisms depends on the stage of ripening, pesticide application and health condition. The aim of this study was to study the microflora of the surface of grape berries. Altogether, 19 grape samples from Slovakia were collected. The spread plate method was applied and a 100 μL inoculum of each dilution (10−2, 10−3 was plated on TSA, MEA, and MRS agar for isolation of microorganisms from grapes. Proteins were extracted from cells by ethanol/formic acid extraction procedure. MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry was used for identification of microorganisms. In total, 11 genera of Gram-negative bacteria, 11 of Gram-positive bacteria and nine of yeasts were identified. Among 200 isolates, Gram-negative, Gram-positive bacteria and yeasts represented 11%, 27% and 62% of the total number of isolates studied. The most common genera of isolated yeasts were Hanseniaspora (37%, Metschnikowia (31%, and Rhodotorula (10%. The most frequently isolated among Gram-negative bacteria were Acinetobacter (22%, Pseudomonas (22% and Sphingomonas (13%. The most common genera of Gram-positive bacteria were Bacillus (20%, Lactobacillus (19%, Leuconostoc and Staphylococcus (11%, respectively.

  16. Saw palmetto supplement use and prostate cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnar-Pizzorno, Raven M; Littman, Alyson J; Kestin, Mark; White, Emily

    2006-01-01

    Saw palmetto is an herb used to treat the symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia. In vitro studies have found that saw palmetto inhibits growth of prostatic cancer cells and may induce apoptosis. To evaluate whether saw palmetto supplements are associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer, we conducted a prospective cohort study of 35,171 men aged 50-76 yr in western Washington state. Subjects completed questionnaires between 2000 and 2002 on frequency of use of saw palmetto supplements and saw palmetto-containing multivitamins over the previous 10 yr in addition to other information on supplement intake, medical history, and demographics. Men were followed through December 2003 (mean of 2.3 yr of follow-up) via the western Washington Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registry, during which time 580 developed prostate cancer. Ten percent of the cohort used saw palmetto at least once per week for a year in the 10 yr before baseline. No association was found between this level of use of saw palmetto and risk of prostate cancer development [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.95; 95% confidence interval = 0.74-1.23] or with increasing frequency or duration of use. In this free-living population, use of commercial saw palmetto, which varies widely in dose and constituent ratios, was not associated with prostate cancer risk.

  17. Homologous recombination induced by doxazosin mesylate and saw palmetto in the Drosophila wing-spot test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Katiane Cella; Dihl, Rafael Rodrigues; Lehmann, Mauricio; Reguly, Maria Luiza; Richter, Marc François; Andrade, Heloisa Helena Rodrigues de

    2013-03-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common tumor in men over 40 years of age. Acute urinary retention (AUR) is regarded as the most serious hazard of untreated BPH. α-Blockers, such as doxazosin mesylate, and 5-α reductase inhibitors, such as finasteride, are frequently used because they decrease both AUR and the need for BPH-related surgery. An extract of the fruit from American saw palmetto plant has also been used as an alternative treatment for BPH. The paucity of information available concerning the genotoxic action of these compounds led us to assess their activity as inducers of different types of DNA lesions using the somatic mutation and recombination test in Drosophila melanogaster. Finasteride did not induce gene mutation, chromosomal mutation or mitotic recombination, which means it was nongenotoxic in our experimental conditions. On the other hand, doxazosin mesylate and saw palmetto induced significant increases in spot frequencies in trans-heterozygous flies. In order to establish the actual role played by mitotic recombination and by mutation in the genotoxicity observed, the balancer-heterozygous flies were also analyzed, showing no increment in the total spot frequencies in relation to the negative control, for both drugs. Doxazosin mesylate and saw palmetto were classified as specific inducers of homologous recombination in Drosophila proliferative cells, an event linked to the loss of heterozygosity. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Acute pancreatitis with saw palmetto use: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amankona Raymond

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Saw palmetto is a phytotherapeutic agent commercially marketed for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Evidence suggests that saw palmetto is a safe product, and mild gastrointestinal adverse effects have been reported with its use. We report a case of acute pancreatitis, possibly secondary to the use of saw palmetto. Case presentation A 61-year-old Caucasian man with a history of benign prostatic hyperplasia and gastroesophageal reflux disease developed epigastric pain associated with nausea 36 hours prior to presentation. He denied drinking alcohol prior to the development of his symptoms. His home medications included saw palmetto, lansoprazole and multivitamins. Laboratory results revealed elevated lipase and amylase levels. An abdominal ultrasound demonstrated a nondilated common bile duct, without choledocholithiasis. Computed tomography of his abdomen showed the pancreatic tail with peripancreatic inflammatory changes, consistent with acute pancreatitis. Our patient's condition improved with intravenous fluids and pain management. On the fourth day of hospitalization his pancreatic enzymes were within normal limits: he was discharged home and advised to avoid taking saw palmetto. Conclusion It is our opinion that a relationship between saw palmetto and the onset of acute pancreatitis is plausible, and prescribers and users of saw palmetto should be alert to the possibility of such adverse reactions.

  19. Acute pancreatitis with saw palmetto use: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruminhent, Jackrapong; Carrera, Perliveh; Li, Zhongzhen; Amankona, Raymond; Roberts, Ingram M

    2011-08-25

    Saw palmetto is a phytotherapeutic agent commercially marketed for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Evidence suggests that saw palmetto is a safe product, and mild gastrointestinal adverse effects have been reported with its use. We report a case of acute pancreatitis, possibly secondary to the use of saw palmetto. A 61-year-old Caucasian man with a history of benign prostatic hyperplasia and gastroesophageal reflux disease developed epigastric pain associated with nausea 36 hours prior to presentation. He denied drinking alcohol prior to the development of his symptoms. His home medications included saw palmetto, lansoprazole and multivitamins. Laboratory results revealed elevated lipase and amylase levels. An abdominal ultrasound demonstrated a nondilated common bile duct, without choledocholithiasis. Computed tomography of his abdomen showed the pancreatic tail with peripancreatic inflammatory changes, consistent with acute pancreatitis. Our patient's condition improved with intravenous fluids and pain management. On the fourth day of hospitalization his pancreatic enzymes were within normal limits: he was discharged home and advised to avoid taking saw palmetto. It is our opinion that a relationship between saw palmetto and the onset of acute pancreatitis is plausible, and prescribers and users of saw palmetto should be alert to the possibility of such adverse reactions.

  20. Fatty acid composition and mechanisms of the protective effects of myrtle berry seed aqueous extract in alcohol-induced peptic ulcer in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabri, Mohamed-Amine; Rtibi, Kais; Tounsi, Haifa; Hosni, Karim; Marzouki, Lamjed; Sakly, Mohsen; Sebai, Hichem

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the antiulcer and antioxidant activities of myrtle berry seed aqueous extract (MBSAE) in a peptic ulcer model induced by ethanol in male Wistar rats. MBSAE is rich in total polyphenols, total flavonoids, and unsaturated fatty acids, particularly linoleic (18:2) and oleic (18:1) acids. MBSAE also exhibited in vitro antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (IC 50 = 172.1 μg/mL) and superoxide anion (IC 50 = 200.24 μg/mL) scavenging activities. In vivo, MBSAE provided dose-dependent protection against ethanol-induced gastric and duodenal macroscopic and histological alterations. Also, it inhibited secretory profile disturbances and lipid peroxidation, and preserved normal antioxidant enzyme activities and nonenzymatic antioxidant levels. More importantly, we showed that acute alcohol intoxication increased gastric and duodenal calcium, hydrogen peroxide, and free iron levels, whereas MBSAE treatment protected against intracellular mediator deregulation. In conclusion, we suggest that MBSAE has potent protective effects against alcohol-induced peptic ulcer in rat. This protection might be related in part to its antioxidant properties as well as its opposite effects on some studied intracellular mediators.

  1. Chilean berry Ugni molinae Turcz. fruit and leaves extracts with interesting antioxidant, antimicrobial and tyrosinase inhibitory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Dicastillo, Carol; Bustos, Fernanda; Valenzuela, Ximena; López-Carballo, Gracia; Vilariño, Jose M; Galotto, Maria Jose

    2017-12-01

    The knowledge of the biological properties of fruits and leaves of murta (Ugni molinae Turcz.) has been owned by native Chilean culture. The present study investigated the phenolic content, the antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-tyrosinase activities of different murta fruit and leaves extracts to approach their uses on future food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. Extractions of murta fruit and leaves were carried out under water, ethanol and ethanol 50%. Phenolic content of these extracts was measured through Folin Ciocalteu test and the antioxidant power by four different antioxidant systems (ORAC, FRAP, DPPH and TEAC assays) owing to elucidate the main mechanism of antioxidant. Some flavonoids, such as rutin, isoquercitrin and quercitrin hydrate were identified and quantified through HPLC analysis. Antimicrobial activity was determined measuring minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values against Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes, and the effect of these extracts on L. monocytogenes was confirmed by flow cytometry. Highest contents of polyphenol compounds were obtained in hydroalcoholic extracts (28±1mggallicacid/g dry fruit, and 128±6mggallicacid/g dry leaves). The same trend was found for the values of biological properties: hydroalcoholic extracts showed the strongest activities. Leaves presented higher antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-tyrosinase properties than murta fruit. Highest antioxidant activity values according to ORAC, FRAP, TEAC and DPPH were 80±8mgTrolox/g, 70±2mgTrolox/g, 87±8mgTrolox/g and 110±12mgTrolox/g, respectively, for murta fruit samples, and 280±10mgTrolox/g, 192±4mgTrolox/g, 286±13mgTrolox/g and 361±13mgTrolox/g, respectively, for murta leaves. These activities were confirmed by HPLC analysis that revealed highest presence of analyzed compounds on leaves hydroalcoholic extract. Regarding to antimicrobial analysis, hydroalcoholic leaves extract presented the

  2. Carotenoids, Tocopherols and Antioxidant Activity of Lipophilic Extracts from Sea Buckthorn Berries (Hippophae rhamnoides, Apricot Pulp and Apricot Kernel (Prunus armeniaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Andreea Pop

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A healthy human diet requires the daily consumption of fruits and vegetables rich in bioactive compounds. Sea buckthorn berries (Hippophae rhamnoides L. and apricot fruits (Prunus armeniaca L. are cultivated and appreciated in Romania both as fresh fruits and as derived products. Characterized by a complex chemical composition, sea buckthorn is rich in unsaturated lipids, carotenoids and tocopherols. Except for β-carotene content, less is known about other lipophilic compounds in apricot fruits. The aim of this paper was to separate and quantify the individual carotenoids, tocopherols and tocotrienols in sea buckthorn, apricot pulp and kernels and also to determine the antioxidant activity of the lipophilic extracts using the TEAC  method.  Chemical characterization of lipophilic extract was performed by HPLC with PDA and fluorescence detection. The total carotenoid content was 17.19±1.4 mg/100g F.W. in sea buckthorn; 3.51±0.25 mg/100g F.W. in apricot fruits and 0.58±0.04 mg/100 g F.W. in apricot kernels. The major carotenoids in sea buckthorn were β-carotene, zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin esters. Apricots fruits are rich in β-carotene and its geometric isomers while in kernels we could properly identified only lycopene. The α-tocopherol concentration was higher in sea buckthorn (46 mg/kg than in apricot fruits (1.09 mg/kg while apricot kernel contain large amounts of γ-tocopherol (111 mg/kg. Sea buckthorn fruits showed the highest antioxidant capacity, correlated with a high content of both tocopherols and carotenoids.

  3. Polyphenol-rich extract of Pimenta dioica berries (Allspice) kills breast cancer cells by autophagy and delays growth of triple negative breast cancer in athymic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Shamaladevi, Nagarajarao; Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally K.; Patil, Bhimu S.; Lokeshwar, Bal L.

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive compounds from edible plants have limited efficacy in treating advanced cancers, but they have potential to increase the efficacy of chemotherapy drugs in a combined treatment. An aqueous extract of berries of Pimenta dioica (Allspice) shows promise as one such candidate for combination therapy or chemoprevention. An aqueous extract of Allspice (AAE) was tested against human breast cancer (BrCa) cells in vitro and in vivo. AAE reduced the viability and clonogenic growth of several types of BrCa cells (IC50 ≤ 100 μg/ml) with limited toxicity in non-tumorigenic, quiescent cells (IC50 >200 μg/ml). AAE induced cytotoxicity in BrCa was inconsistent with apoptosis, but was associated with increased levels of autophagy markers LC3B and LC3B-positive puncta. Silencing the expression of autophagy related genes (ATGs) prevented AAE-induced cell death. Further, AAE caused inhibition of Akt/mTOR signaling, and showed enhanced cytotoxicity when combined with rapamycin, a chemotherapy drug and an inhibitor of mTOR signaling. Oral administration (gavage) of AAE into athymic mice implanted with MDA-MB231 tumors inhibited tumor growth slightly but not significantly (mean decrease ~ 14%, p ≥ 0.20) if mice were gavaged post-tumor implant. Tumor growth showed a significant delay (38%) in tumor palpability and growth rate (time to reach tumor volume ≥ 1,000 mm3) when mice were pre-dosed with AAE for two weeks. Analysis of tumor tissues showed increased levels of LC3B in AAE treated tumors, indicating elevated autophagic tumor cell death in vivo in treated mice. These results demonstrate antitumor and chemo-preventive activity of AAE against BrCa and potential for adjuvant to mTOR inhibition. PMID:25945840

  4. Mortality of Palmetto bass following catch-and-release angling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, M.J.; Bettoli, Phillip William

    2013-01-01

    Palmetto bass (Striped Bass Morone saxatilis x White Bass M. chrysops) have been stocked into reservoirs in the southeastern USA since the late 1960s and have gained widespread acceptance as a sport fish. These fisheries are growing in popularity and catch-and-release (CR) fishing is commonplace; however, there is a dearth of information on CR mortality of palmetto bass. We experimentally angled palmetto bass (n = 56; >373-mm TL) in a Tennessee reservoir using traditional angling gear in water temperatures ranging from 13 °C to 32 °C. Ultrasonic transmitters equipped with floats were externally attached to fish, which were released immediately and tracked multiple times within 10 d of release. Mortality was negligible (3.6%) in fall and spring at cool water temperatures but was high (39.3%) in summer when water temperatures exceeded 26 °C. The best logistic regression model based on Akaike's information criterion for small sample sizes scores relied on water temperature alone to predict CR mortality of palmetto bass; there was little support for other models that included all possible combinations of the six other predictor variables we tested. Palmetto bass in our study experienced lower CR mortality than Striped Bass in other systems, but CR mortality rates for palmetto bass that approach or exceed 40% during summer are still problematic if the goal is to maintain fishing quality.

  5. MaquiBright™ standardized maqui berry extract significantly increases tear fluid production and ameliorates dry eye-related symptoms in a clinical pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitoe, S; Tanaka, J; Shimoda, H

    2014-09-01

    Dry eye symptoms, resulting from insufficient tear fluid generation, represent a considerable burden for a largely underestimated number of people. We concluded from earlier pre-clinical investigations that the etiology of dry eyes encompasses oxidative stress burden to lachrymal glands and that antioxidant MaquiBright™ Aristotelia chilensis berry extract helps restore glandular activity. In this pilot trial we investigated 13 healthy volunteers with moderately dry eyes using Schirmer test, as well as a questionnaire which allows for estimating the impact of dry eyes on daily routines. Study participants were assigned to one of two groups, receiving MaquiBright™ at daily dosage of either 30 mg (N.=7) or 60 mg (N.=6) over a period of 60 days. Both groups presented with significantly (Peye dryness on daily routines was evaluated employing the "Dry Eye-related Quality of life Score" (DEQS), with values spanning from zero (impact) to a maximum score of 60. Participants had comparable baseline values of 41.0±7.7 (30 mg) and 40.2±6.3 (60 mg). With 30 mg treatment the score significantly decreased to 21.8±3.9 and 18.9±3.9, after 30 and 60 days, respectively. With 60 mg treatment the DEQS significantly decreased to 26.9±5.3 and 11.1±2.7, after 30 and 60 days, respectively. Blood was drawn for safety analyses (complete blood rheology and -chemistry) at all three investigative time points without negative findings. In conclusion, while daily supplementation with 30 mg MaquiBright™ is effective, the dosage of 60 significantly increased tear fluid volume at all investigative time points and decreased dry eye symptoms to almost a quarter from initial values after two months treatment.

  6. Monitoring of compositional changes during berry ripening in grape seed extracts of cv. Sangiovese (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombai, Giuseppe; Pasini, Federica; Verardo, Vito; Sevindik, Onur; Di Foggia, Michele; Tessarin, Paola; Bregoli, Anna Maria; Caboni, Maria F; Rombolà, Adamo D

    2017-07-01

    Seed oil and flours have been attracting the interest of researchers and industry, since they contain various bioactive components. We monitored the effects of ripening on lipids, monomeric flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins and tocols concentration in seed extracts from organically cultivated cv. Sangiovese vines. Linoleic acid was the most abundant fatty acid, followed by oleic, palmitic and stearic acids. The tocols detected were α-tocopherol, α-tocotrienol and γ-tocotrienol. The proanthocyanidins degree of polymerisation ranged from dimers to dodecamers; moreover, monomeric flavan-3-ols and polymeric proanthocyanidins were detected. Total flavan-3-ols (monomers, oligomers and polymers) concentration in grape seeds decreased during ripening. Fatty acids reached the highest level in post-veraison. The concentration of these compounds varied considerably during ripening. Capric acid has been found for the first time in grape seeds. α-Tocopherol and γ-tocotrienol decreased during ripening, while α-tocotrienol increased. The HPLC analysis with fluorimetric detection, conducted for the first time on cv. Sangiovese, revealed that the concentration of flavan-3-ols monomers, oligomeric proanthocyanidins and polymers greatly changed during ripening. These results suggest that the timing of bunch harvest plays a crucial role in the valorisation of grape seed flour. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. A possible case of saw palmetto-induced pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargo, Kurt A; Allman, Elena; Ibrahim, Farrah

    2010-07-01

    A 65-year-old male with a history of diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, gout, Barrett esophagitis, and chronic gastritis developed acute pancreatitis after taking one week of the herbal medicine, saw palmetto, for symptoms related to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Ultrasound and computed tomography ruled out cholelithiasis and obstruction, triglycerides were normal, and he had no recent infection or trauma. He had a history of occasional alcohol consumption, though there was no recent increased intake. The most likely cause of pancreatitis in this case was saw palmetto. Saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) is an herbal medication used primarily in the treatment of symptoms related to BPH. It has a high content of fatty acids and phytosterols which are thought to exert their effects by inhibiting the enzyme 5-alpha-reductase, thereby preventing the conversion of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone (DHT). It has been postulated that saw palmetto directly stimulates estrogenic receptors and inhibits progesterone receptors in the prostate tissue. A previous report implicated the estrogen/antiandrogen properties of saw palmetto as inducing hepatotoxicity in a patient. Additionally, it has also been postulated that stimulation of the estrogenic receptors may lead to increased triglyceride levels or induction of a hypercoagulable state that leads to pancreatic necrosis. Finally, inhibition of cyclooxygenase, a property of saw palmetto, may be linked to acute pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis, a serious and sometimes fatal disorder may occur secondary to medications. Although the mechanism is not fully known, this is the second case of acute pancreatitis that has been documented secondary to the herbal medication saw palmetto. It is important for clinicians to obtain detailed medication histories, including over-the-counter and herbal medications, in order to prevent further complications from occurring.

  8. The Berry's connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Tourneux, J.

    1989-01-01

    A course on the Berry's connection is presented. The main steps leading to the Berry's discovery are reviewed and the obtained equations are examined. Some applications of Berry's formulation are presented. They include diatomic molecules, dipole-quadrupole interaction in spherical mucleus and diabolic pair transfer. The experimental results presented are the spectrum of the Na 3 molecule, the propagation of photons in an helical optical fiber and the neutron spin rotation. Non-abelian problems and the Aharonow-Anandan phase are discussed [fr

  9. Berry Phenolic Antioxidants – Implications for Human Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olas, Beata

    2018-01-01

    Antioxidants present in the diet may have a significant effect on the prophylaxis and progression of various diseases associated with oxidative stress. Berries contain a range of chemical compounds with antioxidant properties, including phenolic compounds. The aim of this review article is to provide an overview of the current knowledge of such phenolic antioxidants, and to discuss whether these compounds may always be natural gifts for human health, based on both in vitro and in vivo studies. It describes the antioxidant properties of fresh berries (including aronia berries, grapes, blueberries, sea buckthorn berries, strawberries and other berries) and their various products, especially juices and wines. Some papers report that these phenolic compounds may sometimes behave like prooxidants, and sometimes demonstrate both antioxidant and prooxidant activity, while others note they do not behave the same way in vitro and in vivo. However, no unwanted or toxic effects (i.e., chemical, hematological or urinary effect) have been associated with the consumption of berries or berry juices or other extracts, especially aronia berries and aronia products in vivo, and in vitro, which may suggest that the phenolic antioxidants found in berries are natural gifts for human health. However, the phenolic compound content of berries and berry products is not always well described, and further studies are required to determine the therapeutic doses of different berry products for use in future clinical studies. Moreover, further experiments are needed to understand the beneficial effects reported so far from the mechanistic point of view. Therefore, greater attention should be paid to the development of well-controlled and high-quality clinical studies in this area. PMID:29662448

  10. Hepatotoxicity potential of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Y N; Devkota, A K; Sneeden, D C; Singh, K K; Halaweish, F

    2007-02-01

    Saw palmetto (Serenoa repens L.) is an herbal drug used to treat symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). There has been a report that a preparation containing this herb has caused cholestatic hepatitis in one person and some indications exist that it may have the potential to produce liver toxicity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of saw palmetto on rat liver function by measuring its effects on several enzymes and formation of malondialdehyde (MDA), a byproduct of lipid peroxidation. A significant increase in these parameters is considered an indication of liver toxicity. Thirty-six rats were divided into 6 groups of 6 animals each. They were treated for 2 or 4 weeks with a placebo or saw palmetto at doses of 9.14 or 22.86 mg/kg/body wt./day; that is, 2 x and 5 x the maximum recommended daily human dosages. After 2 or 4 weeks, the animals were sacrificed and blood was collected to prepare serum for enzyme assays, which were performed using commercially available kits. A portion of the liver was removed, and a homogenate prepared for the lipid peroxidation assay. Results showed no significant difference in animal body weight, enzyme activity, or MDA formation at either time or dosage level, as compared to controls. The data indicate that at the doses and time periods tested, saw palmetto did not produce any significant effect on the normal biological markers of liver toxicity.

  11. Chopping and webbing control saw-palmetto in south Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford E. Lewis

    1972-01-01

    Saw-palmetto is one of the more troublesome plants growing in south Florida, and its control is often desirable in programs of range and timber management. Both cross-chopping and webbing (root plowing) proved to be effective control measures, but webbing appeared to be less effective on a moist site. Many other shrubs were also effectively reduced by these treatments...

  12. BlackBerry For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Kao, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Get the most juice out of your BlackBerry handheld!. Feature-rich and complex, the BlackBerry is the number one smartphone in the corporate world is among the most popular handhelds for business users. This new and updated edition includes all the latest and greatest information on new and current BlackBerry mobile devices. Covering a range of valuable how-to topics, this helpful guide explores the BlackBerry's most useful features, techniques for getting the most out of your BlackBerry, and practical information about power usage.: Covers all aspects of the number one smartphone in the corpor

  13. Berry phase and supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonner, Julian; Tong, David

    2009-01-01

    We study the constraints of supersymmetry on the non-Abelian holonomy given by U = Pexp (i∫A), the path-ordered exponential of a connection A. For theories with four supercharges, we show that A satisfies the tt* equations if it is a function of chiral multiplets. In contrast, when A is a function of vector multiplets, it satisfies the Bogomolnyi monopole equations. We describe applications of these results to the Berry connection in supersymmetric quantum mechanics.

  14. Serenoa repens (saw palmetto): a systematic review of adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbabiaka, Taofikat B; Pittler, Max H; Wider, Barbara; Ernst, Edzard

    2009-01-01

    Serenoa repens (W. Bartram) Small, also known as saw palmetto, is one of the most widely used herbal preparations for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Although a number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews of the efficacy of S. repens for the treatment of LUTS and BPH have been published, no systematic review on its drug interactions or adverse events currently exists. This review assesses all available human safety data of S. repens monopreparations. Systematic literature searches were conducted from date of inception to February 2008 in five electronic databases; reference lists and our departmental files were checked for further relevant publications. Information was requested from spontaneous reporting schemes of the WHO and national safety bodies. Twenty-four manufacturers/distributors of S. repens preparations and four herbalist organizations were contacted for additional information. No language restrictions were imposed. Only reports of adverse events in humans from monopreparations of S. repens were included. Data from all articles, regardless of study design, reporting adverse events or interactions were independently extracted by the first author and validated by the second. Forty articles (26 randomized controlled trials, 4 non-randomized controlled trials, 6 uncontrolled trials and 4 case reports/series) were included. They suggest that adverse events associated with the use of S. repens are mild and similar to those with placebo. The most frequently reported adverse events are abdominal pain, diarrhoea, nausea, fatigue, headache, decreased libido and rhinitis. More serious adverse events such as death and cerebral haemorrhage are reported in isolated case reports and data from spontaneous reporting schemes, but causality is questionable. No drug interactions were reported. Currently available data suggest that S. repens is well tolerated by most users and is not

  15. Berry Fermi liquid theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jing-Yuan, E-mail: chjy@uchicago.edu [Kadanoff Center for Theoretical Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University, CA 94305 (United States); Son, Dam Thanh, E-mail: dtson@uchicago.edu [Kadanoff Center for Theoretical Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2017-02-15

    We develop an extension of the Landau Fermi liquid theory to systems of interacting fermions with non-trivial Berry curvature. We propose a kinetic equation and a constitutive relation for the electromagnetic current that together encode the linear response of such systems to external electromagnetic perturbations, to leading and next-to-leading orders in the expansion over the frequency and wave number of the perturbations. We analyze the Feynman diagrams in a large class of interacting quantum field theories and show that, after summing up all orders in perturbation theory, the current–current correlator exactly matches with the result obtained from the kinetic theory. - Highlights: • We extend Landau’s kinetic theory of Fermi liquid to incorporate Berry phase. • Berry phase effects in Fermi liquid take exactly the same form as in Fermi gas. • There is a new “emergent electric dipole” contribution to the anomalous Hall effect. • Our kinetic theory is matched to field theory to all orders in Feynman diagrams.

  16. In vivo assessment of botanical supplementation on human cytochrome P450 phenotypes: Citrus aurantium, Echinacea purpurea, milk thistle, and saw palmetto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurley, Bill J; Gardner, Stephanie F; Hubbard, Martha A; Williams, D Keith; Gentry, W Brooks; Carrier, Julie; Khan, Ikhlas A; Edwards, David J; Shah, Amit

    2004-11-01

    Phytochemical-mediated modulation of cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity may underlie many herb-drug interactions. Single-time point phenotypic metabolic ratios were used to determine whether long-term supplementation of Citrus aurantium , Echinacea purpurea , milk thistle (Silybum marianum), or saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) extracts affected CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, or CYP3A4 activity. Twelve healthy volunteers (6 women, 6 men) were randomly assigned to receive C aurantium , E purpurea , milk thistle, or saw palmetto for 28 days. For each subject, a 30-day washout period was interposed between each supplementation phase. Probe drug cocktails of midazolam and caffeine, followed 24 hours later by chlorzoxazone and debrisoquin (INN, debrisoquine), were administered before (baseline) and at the end of supplementation. Presupplementation and postsupplementation phenotypic trait measurements were determined for CYP3A4, CYP1A2, CYP2E1, and CYP2D6 by use of 1-hydroxymidazolam/midazolam serum ratios (1-hour sample), paraxanthine/caffeine serum ratios (6-hour sample), 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone/chlorzoxazone serum ratios (2-hour sample), and debrisoquin urinary recovery ratios (8-hour collection), respectively. The content of purported "active" phytochemicals was determined for each supplement. Comparisons of presupplementation and postsupplementation phenotypic ratios suggested that these particular supplements had no significant effect on CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, or CYP3A4 activity. Phytochemical profiles indicated that C aurantium was devoid of the CYP3A4 inhibitor 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin. Quantities of fatty acids, flavonolignans, and cichoric acid were consistent with label claims for saw palmetto, milk thistle, and E purpurea , respectively. Botanical supplements containing C aurantium , milk thistle, or saw palmetto extracts appear to pose a minimal risk for CYP-mediated herb-drug interactions in humans. Although the effects of E purpurea on CYP activity were minor, further

  17. Effects of a saw palmetto herbal blend in men with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, L S; Partin, A W; Epstein, J I; Tyler, V E; Simon, I; Macairan, M L; Chan, T L; Dorey, F J; Garris, J B; Veltri, R W; Santos, P B; Stonebrook, K A; deKernion, J B

    2000-05-01

    We tested the effects of a saw palmetto herbal blend in men with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) via a randomized, placebo controlled trial. We randomized 44 men 45 to 80 years old with symptomatic BPH into a trial of a saw palmetto herbal blend versus placebo. End points included routine clinical measures (symptom score, uroflowmetry and post-void residual urine volume), blood chemistry studies (prostate specific antigen, sex hormones and multiphasic analysis), prostate volumetrics by magnetic resonance imaging, and prostate biopsy for zonal tissue morphometry and semiquantitative histology studies. Saw palmetto herbal blend and placebo groups had improved clinical parameters with a slight advantage in the saw palmetto group (not statistically significant). Neither prostate specific antigen nor prostate volume changed from baseline. Prostate epithelial contraction was noted, especially in the transition zone, where percent epithelium decreased from 17.8% at baseline to 10.7% after 6 months of saw palmetto herbal blend (p saw palmetto herbal blend (p saw palmetto herbal blend. When the study was no longer blinded, 41 men elected to continue therapy in an open label extension. Saw palmetto herbal blend appears to be a safe, highly desirable option for men with moderately symptomatic BPH. The secondary outcome measures of clinical effect in our study were only slightly better for saw palmetto herbal blend than placebo (not statistically significant). However, saw palmetto herbal blend therapy was associated with epithelial contraction, especially in the transition zone (p <0.01), indicating a possible mechanism of action underlying the clinical significance detected in other studies.

  18. Coffee berry disease in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, H.

    1979-01-01

    Data are presented on research in Kenya in 1964 - 1969 on anatomical, mycological, epidemiological, chemical control and cultural aspects of coffee berry disease, Colletotrichum coffeanum Noack, of Coffea arabica L. The pathogen causes flower and berry

  19. Saw palmetto for the treatment of men with lower urinary tract symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, G S

    2000-05-01

    A comprehensive review of the literature on the use of saw palmetto in men with lower urinary tract symptoms is provided. A literature search of studies that have assessed the mechanism of action and clinical results of saw palmetto in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia was performed. A variety of potential mechanisms of action of saw palmetto have been demonstrated through in vitro studies, including 5-alpha reductase inhibition, adrenergic receptor antagonism and intraprostatic androgen receptor blockade. Clinical evidence of the relevance of these effects is largely unavailable. The use of saw palmetto in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia is safe with no recognized adverse effects. No effect on serum prostate specific antigen has been noted. Placebo controlled trials and meta-analyses have suggested that saw palmetto leads to subjective and objective improvement in men with lower urinary tract symptoms. However, most studies are significantly limited by methodological flaws, small patient numbers and brief treatment intervals. Evidence suggests that saw palmetto may have a significant effect on urinary flow rates and symptom scores compared to placebo in men with lower urinary tract symptoms. However, large scale, placebo controlled trials are needed to assess the efficacy of saw palmetto.

  20. Variability of Polyphenol Compounds in Myrtus Communis L. (Myrtaceae Berries from Corsica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Chiaramonti

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol compounds were extracted from Myrtus communis L. berries (Myrtaceae by maceration in 70% ethanol and analysed by HPLC-DAD and electrospray mass spectrometry. The Myrtus berries were collected at maturity from seven localities on the island of Corsica (France and the sampling was carried out during three years. The polyphenol composition of Corsican Myrtus berries was characterized by two phenolic acids, four flavanols, three flavonols and five flavonol glycosides. The major compounds were myricetin-3-O-arabinoside and myricetin-3-O-galactoside. Principal components analysis (PCA is applied to study the chemical composition and variability of myrtle berries alcoholic extracts from the seven localities. Canonical analysis and PCA data distinguishes two groups of myrtle berries characterized by different concentrations of polyphenols according to soil and years of harvest. The variations in the polyphenol concentration were due to biotic and abiotic factors.

  1. Qubit rotation and Berry phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, D.; Bandyopadhyay, P.

    2005-11-01

    A quantized fermion is represented by a scalar particle encircling a magnetic flux line. It has the spinor structure which can be constructed from quantum gates and qubits. We have studied here the role of Berry phase in removing dynamical phase during one qubit rotation of a quantized fermion. The entanglement of two qubits inserting spin-echo to one of them results the trapped Berry phase to measure entanglement. Some effort is given to study the effect of noise on the Berry phase of spinors and their entangled states. (author)

  2. Qubit rotation and Berry phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Dipti; Bandyopadhyay, Pratul

    2006-01-01

    A quantized fermion is represented by a scalar particle encircling a magnetic flux line. It has a spinor structure which can be constructed from quantum gates and qubits. We have studied here the role of Berry phase in removing dynamical phase during one qubit rotation of a quantized fermion. The entanglement of two qubits inserting spin-echo to one of them allows the trapped Berry phase to measure entanglement. Some effort is given to study the effect of noise on the Berry phase of spinors and their entangled states

  3. Knowledge and prevalence of use of saw palmetto and other herbal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S. Persaud

    2017-06-12

    Jun 12, 2017 ... side effects sometimes noted with more conventional options [4]. While we ... our patients, this may be a worthwhile objective in future research. There has ... studies of saw palmetto and other herbal derivatives have shown.

  4. Knowledge and prevalence of use of saw palmetto and other herbal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S. Persaud

    2017-06-12

    Jun 12, 2017 ... men with prostate cancer or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and who were part of our outpatient clinics. ... plasia (BPH) and prostate cancer, of which saw palmetto (serenoa repens) may be the most .... receptor signaling.

  5. Biosynthesis of Multicomponent Nanoparticles with Extract of Mortiño (Vaccinium floribundum Kunth Berry: Application on Heavy Metals Removal from Water and Immobilization in Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Abril

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Through preparation of multicomponent nanoparticles (MCNPs using ferric chloride (FeCl3, sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, and the extract of mortiño fruit (Vaccinium floribundum Kunth, we dramatically improved the removal/immobilization of heavy metals from water and in soils. As-prepared nanoparticles were spherical measuring approximately 12 nm in diameter and contained iron oxides and iron sulfides in the crystal structure. Removal of copper and zinc from water using MCNPs showed high efficiencies (>99% at pH above 6 and a ratio of 0.5 mL of the extract:10 mL 0.5 M FeCl3·6H2O : 10 mL 0.035 M Na2SO4. The physisorption process followed by chemisorption was regarded as the removal mechanism of Cu and Zn from water. While, when MCNPs were used to treat soils contaminated with heavy metals, more than 95% of immobilization was accomplished for all metals. Nevertheless, the distribution of the metallic elements changed in the soil fractions after treatment. Results indicate that immobilization of metals after the injection of nanoparticles into soils was effective. Metals did not leach out when soils were drained with rain, drinking, and deionized water but fairly leached out under acidic water drainage.

  6. DYEING OF WOOL YARNS WITH LAURUS NOBILIS L. BERRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERKAN Gökhan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays natural dyes have been attracted by many researchers and firms due to demands on sustainable and nontoxic products. In this study the mature berries of bay laurel (Laurus nobilis L. were collected from trees located Kuşadası Turkey. The berries dried at 25oC and % 20-25 relative humidity. Dried berries milled and extracted with ethanol. Extracted dye was used. Three mordanting procedure (pre, meta and post mordanting and two concentrations were applied to wool yarns. Cupric sulfate, ferric sulfate, potassium dichromate and alum was used as mordant Color strength and colorimetric values were measured by Konica-Minolta 3600D spectrophotometer. Fastness to washing, perspiration and light were applied according to ISO 105C06 (A1S, ISO 105E04 and ISO 105B02 (method 2 respectively. The highest color strength (K/S value was 16.6405 and was obtained in the case of premordanting with cupric sulfate at 2 gr/L concentration. If the a* and b* values were examined, the conditions at highest color strength, the yarns had yellow color with a reddish hue. Generally, the fastness properties were moderate and good results were obtained in the case of premordanting procedure. The results show us ethanol extract of bay laurel berries can be used for dyeing of woolen products.

  7. 7 CFR 51.904 - Shot berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... berries means very small berries resulting from insufficient pollination, usually seedless in those...

  8. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of saw palmetto in men with lower urinary tract symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, G S; Kuznetsov, D; Johnson, B C; Burstein, J D

    2001-12-01

    To assess the effects of saw palmetto on urinary symptoms, sexual function, and urinary flow rate in men with lower urinary tract symptoms using a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. The eligible patients were 45 years of age or older and had an International Prostate Symptom Score of 8 or greater. After a 1-month placebo run-in period, 85 men were randomized to receive saw palmetto or placebo for 6 months. Patients were evaluated using the International Prostate Symptom Score, a sexual function questionnaire, and by measurement of the urinary flow rate. The mean symptom score decreased from 16.7 to 12.3 in the saw palmetto group compared with 15.8 to 13.6 in the placebo group (P = 0.038). The quality-of-life score improved to a greater degree in the saw palmetto group, but this difference was not statistically significant. No change occurred in the sexual function questionnaire results in either group. The peak flow rate increased by 1.0 mL/s and 1.4 mL/s in the saw palmetto and placebo groups, respectively (P = 0.73). Saw palmetto led to a statistically significant improvement in urinary symptoms in men with lower urinary tract symptoms compared with placebo. Saw palmetto had no measurable effect on the urinary flow rates. The mechanism by which saw palmetto improves urinary symptoms remains unknown.

  9. 78 FR 56769 - South Carolina Division of Public Railways, d/b/a Palmetto Railways-Intra-Corporate Family...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... Cooper and Berkeley Railroad Company South Carolina Division of Public Railways, d/b/a Palmetto Railways... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35762] South Carolina Division of Public Railways, d/b/a Palmetto Railways--Intra-Corporate Family Transaction Exemption--The...

  10. NMR analysis of seven selections of vermentino grape berry: metabolites composition and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulas, Gilberto; Galaffu, Maria Grazia; Pretti, Luca; Nieddu, Gianni; Mercenaro, Luca; Tonelli, Roberto; Anedda, Roberto

    2011-02-09

    The goal of this work was to study via NMR the unaltered metabolic profile of Sardinian Vermentino grape berry. Seven selections of Vermentino were harvested from the same vineyard. Berries were stored and extracted following an unbiased extraction protocol. Extracts were analyzed to investigate variability in metabolites concentration as a function of the clone, the position of berries in the bunch or growing area within the vineyard. Quantitative NMR and statistical analysis (PCA, correlation analysis, Anova) of the experimental data point out that, among the investigated sources of variation, the position of the berries within the bunch mainly influences the metabolic profile of berries, while the metabolic profile does not seem to be significantly influenced by growing area and clone. Significant variability of the amino acids such as arginine, proline, and organic acids (malic and citric) characterizes the rapid rearrangements of the metabolic profile in response to environmental stimuli. Finally, an application is described on the analysis of metabolite variation throughout the physiological development of berries.

  11. What do I tell patients about saw palmetto for benign prostatic hyperplasia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Christopher J; Raheem, Omer A; Bent, Stephen; Avins, Andrew L

    2011-08-01

    Saw palmetto is widely used to treat lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Although there is passionate support for herbal and complementary therapies for LUTS, clinical evidence is mixed. Because there is a well-recognized, profound placebo effect in tests of efficacy for agents treating LUTS, it is imperative that all therapies be tested in placebo-controlled trials. This article reviews evidence of the efficacy and safety of saw palmetto for men with LUTS caused by BPH, with particular emphasis on published randomized clinical trials and the upcoming Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Urologic Symptoms (CAMUS) trial. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Extrato de casca de café, óleo essencial de tomilho e acibenzolar-S-metil no manejo da cercosporiose-do-cafeeiro Coffee berry husk extract, thyme essential oil and acibenzolar-S-methyl in the control of brown eye spot of coffee tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Borges Pereira

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de concentrações de extrato de casca de café, óleo essencial de tomilho e acibenzolar-S-metil na germinação, no crescimento micelial e no desenvolvimento in vivo de Cercospora coffeicola, além de caracterizar a eficiência deles como indutores de resistência, e determinar a atividade da enzima peroxidase e o acúmulo de lignina nos tecidos de cafeeiro. O extrato de casca de café não afetou a germinação, entretanto, inibiu o crescimento micelial proporcionalmente ao aumento das concentrações. O óleo essencial de tomilho inibiu a germinação e o crescimento micelial com o aumento das concentrações. O extrato de casca de café e o acibenzolar-S-metil não afetaram a germinação nem o desenvolvimento dos tubos germinativos, diferentemente do óleo essencial de tomilho. Mudas tratadas com acibenzolar-S-metil, extrato de casca de café e óleo essencial de tomilho, apresentaram picos de atividade da peroxidase aos 2 e 11, 7 e 11 e, 2 e 9 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos, respectivamente. Os tratamentos não diferiram quanto à concentração de lignina. Extrato de casca de café e acibenzolar-S-metil induziram resistência em mudas de cafeeiro contra C. coffeicola e o óleo essencial de tomilho apresentou efeito tóxico ao patógeno.The objective of this work was to assess the effect of the coffee berry husk extract, thyme essential oil and acibenzolar-S-methyl on the germination and micelial growth and on in vivo development of Cercospora coffeicola, and to characterize their efficiency as resistance inducers in coffee plants, and to determine the peroxidase activity and lignin accumulation in tissues of coffee tree. The coffee berry husk extract presented no toxic effect on germination; however, it inhibited the mycelial growth proportionally to the increase of the concentrations. The thyme essential oil inhibited the germination and the mycelial growth with the increase of

  13. Berry phase in Heisenberg representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, V. A.; Klimov, Andrei B.; Lerner, Peter B.

    1994-01-01

    We define the Berry phase for the Heisenberg operators. This definition is motivated by the calculation of the phase shifts by different techniques. These techniques are: the solution of the Heisenberg equations of motion, the solution of the Schrodinger equation in coherent-state representation, and the direct computation of the evolution operator. Our definition of the Berry phase in the Heisenberg representation is consistent with the underlying supersymmetry of the model in the following sense. The structural blocks of the Hamiltonians of supersymmetrical quantum mechanics ('superpairs') are connected by transformations which conserve the similarity in structure of the energy levels of superpairs. These transformations include transformation of phase of the creation-annihilation operators, which are generated by adiabatic cyclic evolution of the parameters of the system.

  14. Berry phase in entangled systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertlmann, R.A.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hiesmayr, B.C.; Durstberger, C.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The influence of the geometric phase, in particular the Berry phase, on an entangled spin-1/2 system is studied. We discuss in detail the case, where the geometric phase is generated only by one part of the Hilbert space. We are able to cancel the effects of the dynamical phase by using the 'spin-echo' method. We analyze how the Berry phase affects the Bell angles and the maximal violation of a CHSH-Bell inequality. Furthermore, we suggest an experimental realization of our setup within neutron interferometry. It is possible to create entanglement between different degrees of freedom (spin and spatial degree of freedom) for a single neutron. The influence of the geometrical phase on the entangled neutron state is tested experimentally which is work in progress. (author)

  15. LC/PDA/ESI-MS Profiling and Radical Scavenging Activity of Anthocyanins in Various Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-ichiro Nakajima

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin extracts of two blueberries, Vaccinium myrtillus (bilberry and Vaccinium ashei (rabbiteye blueberry, and of three other berries, Ribes nigrum (black currant, Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberry, and Sambucus nigra (elderberry, were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection and electrospray ionization - mass spectrometry (LC/PDA/ESI-MS. Both bilberry and rabbiteye blueberry contained 15 identical anthocyanins with different distribution patterns. Black currant, chokeberry, and elderberry contained 6, 4, and 4 kinds of anthocyanins, respectively. The radical scavenging activities of these berry extracts were analyzed by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH. All these extracts showed potent antiradical activities.

  16. Response of Saw Palmetto to Three Herbicides During the First Growing Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.L. Michael

    1980-01-01

    Trimec 881 and 823 (mixture of 2,4-D; MCPP and dicamba in 2:1:0.l and 1:1:0.25 ratio respectively) and trichlopyr ester were evaluated for effectiveness against saw palmetto, Serenoa repens (Bartram) Small, when they were applied at three rates in April, June, and August. Herbicides were most effective with April applicatiorr, least effective in...

  17. CORRELATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF DRIED BERRY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    berry fruits dietary intake are linked to their high polyphenols content. As a consequence, a .... 60% berry fruits (aronia, black currant, apple, rose hip, raspberry) .... This is probably due to the fact that fruit juices are produced from fresh fruits ..... acid, and sugar contents of citrus species and mandarin hybrids. Turk. J. Agric.

  18. Treatment Assignment Guesses by Study Participants in a Double-Blind Dose Escalation Clinical Trial of Saw Palmetto

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jeannette Y.; Moore, Page; Kusek, John; Barry, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This report assesses participant perception of treatment assignment in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of saw palmetto for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BCM).

  19. Phenolic Content and Their Antioxidant Activity in Various Berries Cultivated in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoriţa Diaconeasa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Berry fruits are a rich source of phenolic compounds with health benefits.  Phenolic compounds occur in berries mainly as a variety of conjugated forms, mostly with sugars.  The aim of this work was to evaluate and compare the phenolic content and antioxidant potential in the most common fruits consumed in Romania: blueberry, blackberries, raspberry and cranberries. Folin-Ciocalteu method has been used in order to evaluate total phenolic content of analyzed berries. Antioxidant activity was determinate using ORAC assay which measures the decrease of AAPH-radical level by the scavenging action of the antioxidant substance. In addition, the vitamin C content and total tannins of the berries extracts were determined using spetophomotmetric methods. The phenolic contents and antioxidant potential of analyzed berries did not varied considerably. The highest amounts of TPC and the strongest antioxidant activities were found in blueberry and blackberries (678 GAE mg/100 g FW, 442 mg/100g FW respectively. Vitamin C content was found in higher concentration in raspberries 21.7 mg/100 g FW while the lower concentration was found in blackberry.  All berries contain higher levels of bioactive compounds such as polyphenols or tannins which are responsible for their antioxidant potential and bring their nutritional value, being highly recommended for daily consumption.

  20. Coupling effect on the Berry phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijing Tian

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Berry phase has universal applications in various fields. Here, we explore the coupling effect on the Berry phase of a two-level system adiabatically driven by a rotating classical field and interacting with a single quantized mode. Our simulations clearly reveal that the Berry phase change is quadratic proportional to the coupling constant if it is less than the level spacing between neighboring instantaneous eigenstates. Remarkably, if the nearest neighbouring level spacing is comparable with the coupling constant, this simple quadratic dependence is lost. Around this resonance, the Berry phase can be significantly tuned by slightly adjusting the parameters, such as the coupling constant, the frequency of the quantized mode, and the transition frequency. These numerical results, agreeing well with the perturbation theory calculations, provide an alternative approach to tune the Berry phase near the resonance, which is useful in quantum information science, i.e. designing quantum logic gates.

  1. Anti-botrytis activity in epicuticular waxes of young grape berries of Vitis vinifera (Pinot noir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Comménil

    1996-03-01

    The evidence of a substance which exhibits a strong inhibition on the conidial germination of Botrytis cinerea was made after epicuticular waxes chromatographic analysis and biological tests. This compound, characterized by a Rf (0,2 closely related to the Rf of the primary alcohols, was present in the wax extracts originated from bloom and immature grape berries stages and it was absent in the extracts issued to the mature grape berries. The concentration of the conidial germination inhibitor was markedly different between the sensible (S792 and tolerant (T7613 cultivars of Pinot vineyards. Also this antifungal product would be considereted as an hypothetical resistance marked against Botrytis cinerea.

  2. Effects of Different Drying Methods on the Antioxidant Activities of Leaves and Berries of Cayratia trifolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabeta, M.S.; Lin, S.P.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effects of fresh, thermal drying method (vacuum oven drying), and nonthermal drying method (freeze drying) on the antioxidant activities of leaves and berries of Cayratia trifolia using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity (DPPH) assays. The total phenolic content (TPC) and flavonoid content (TFC) of the leaves and berries of C. trifolia were also measured. Based on the results obtained, the TPC, TFC, and antioxidant activities of the leaves and berries were arranged in the following order: freeze-dried sample with methanol extraction > vacuum-dried sample with methanol extraction > freeze-dried sample with water extraction > vacuum-dried sample with water extraction > fresh sample with methanol extraction > fresh sample with water extraction. The results showed a significant difference (p<0.05) between the fresh and dried samples. In conclusion, freeze drying was found to be a good method for maintaining TPC, TFC, and antioxidant activities by FRAP and DPPH methods in the leaves and berries of C. trifolia. (author)

  3. ENDOGENAL COLONIZATION OF GRAPES BERRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Tančinová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to detect the microscopic filamentous fungi from wine surface of sterilized grapes berries of Slovak origin. We analyzed 21 samples of grapes, harvested in the year 2012 of various wine-growing regions. For the isolation of species we used the method of direct plating surface-sterilized berries (using 0.4% freshly pre-pared chlorine on DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar. The cultivation was carried at 25±1°C, for 5 to 7 days. A total number of 2541 fungal isolates pertaining to 18 genera including Mycelia sterilia were recovered. Isolates of genus Alternaria were found in all of tested samples with the highest relative density 56.4%. The second highest isolation frequency we detected for genus Fusarium (90.48% positive samples, but with low relative density (31 isolates and 2.99% RD. Another genera with higher isolation frequency were Cladosporium (Fr 85.71%, RD 14.6%, Mycelia sterilia (Fr 85.71%, RD 4.25%, Penicillium (Fr 80.95%, RD 13.42%, Botrytis (Fr 71.43%, RD 2.95% Rhizopus (Fr 66.66%, RD 1.34%, Aspergillus (Fr 57.14%, RD 0.87%, Epicoccum (Fr 47.62%, RD 1.22%, Trichoderma (Fr 42.86%, RD 1.26%. Isolation frequency of another eight genera (Arthrinium, Dichotomophtora, Geotrichum, Harzia, Chaetomium, Mucor, Nigrospora and Phoma was less than 10% and relative density less than 0.5%. Chosen isolates of potential producers of mycotoxin (species of Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium were tested for the ability to produce relevant mycotoxins in in vitro conditions using TLC method. None isolate of Aspergillus niger aggregate (13 tested did not produce ochratoxin A – mycotoxin monitored in wine and another products from grapes berries. Isolates of potentially toxigenic species recovered from the samples were found to produce another mycotoxins: aflatoxin B1, altenuene, alternariol, alternariol monomethylether, citrinin, diacetoxyscirpenol, deoxynivalenol, HT-2 patulin, penitrem A and T-2 toxin

  4. Berry's Phase and Fine Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Binder, B

    2002-01-01

    Irrational numbers can be assigned to physical entities based on iterative processes of geometric objects. It is likely that iterative round trips of vector signals include a geometric phase component. If so, this component will couple back to the round trip frequency or path length generating an non-linear feedback loop (i.e. induced by precession). In this paper such a quantum feedback mechanism is defined including generalized fine structure constants in accordance with the fundamental gravitomagnetic relation of spin-orbit coupling. Supported by measurements, the general relativistic and topological background allows to propose, that the deviation of the fine structure constant from 1/137 could be assigned to Berry's phase. The interpretation is straightforward: spacetime curvature effects can be greatly amplified by non-linear phase-locked feedback-loops adjusted to single-valued phase relationships in the quantum regime.

  5. Effects of dietary saw palmetto on the prostate of transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate model (TRAMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Teri L; Worstell, Teresa R; Greenberg, Norman M; Roselli, Charles E

    2007-05-01

    Several of the proposed mechanisms for the actions of the liposterolic extract of saw palmetto (SPE) are exerted on known risk factors for prostate cancer (CaP). This study investigated whether SPE could prevent the progression of CaP in a transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) model. Two different doses of SPE designed to deliver 50 mg/kg/day SPE and 300 mg/kg/day SPE were administered in a custom diet to TRAMP mice for 12 or 24 weeks. Body and organ weights were used to evaluate toxicity, and radioimmunoassay was used to measure plasma and tissue androgen levels to monitor effects of SPE on 5alpha reductase activity. Prostate tissues were evaluated histologically to determine the effect of treatment on tumor grade, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Treatment with 300 mg/kg/day SPE from 4 to 24 weeks of age significantly reduced the concentration of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in the prostate and resulted in a significant increase in apoptosis and significant decrease in pathological tumor grade and frank tumor incidence. Dietary supplementation with SPE may be effective in controlling CaP tumorigenesis. SPE suppression of prostatic DHT levels lends support to the hypothesis that inhibition of the enzyme 5alpha-reductase is a mechanism of action of this substance. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. [A case of rhabdomyolysis caused by saw palmetto of healthy foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaka, Minako; Yoshii, Chiharu; Yatera, Kazuhiro; Ito, Chiyo; Chojin, Yasuo; Nagata, Shuya; Yamasaki, Kei; Nishida, Chinatsu; Kawanami, Toshinori; Kawanami, Yukiko; Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Mukae, Hiroshi

    2012-06-01

    An 82-year-old man visited our hospital when he developed a fever of over 38 degrees C after having consumed 5 types of health foods. He had previously been treated for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension and hyperuricemia. Blood examination on admission revealed renal dysfunction, marked elevation of C-reactive protein, and an elevated level of serum creatine kinase. According to the laboratory data and his clinical history, rhabdomyolysis complicated by acute renal failure was suspected, but his condition improved and his fever was reduced with fluid infusion. As a drug lymphocyte stimulation test was positive for only saw palmetto in the 5 health foods, we diagnosed the case as rhabdomyolysis induced by saw palmetto. We believe that this is the first case of a health food being the cause of rhabdomyolysis.

  7. Combined Enzymatic and High-Pressure Processing Affect Cell Wall Polysaccharides in Berries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilz, H.; Lille, M.; Poutanen, K.; Schols, H.A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of high-pressure processing (HPP) on cell wall polysaccharides in berries was investigated. HPP decreased the degree of methyl esterification (DM), probably by activation of pectin methyl esterase (PME), and improved the extractability of pectins. When commercial enzyme mixtures were

  8. Aspects of Berry phase in QFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baggio, Marco [Institute for Theoretical Physics, KU Leuven,Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Niarchos, Vasilis [Department of Mathematical Sciences and Center for Particle Theory, Durham University,South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Papadodimas, Kyriakos [Theory Group, Physics Department, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Van Swinderen Institute for Particle Physics and Gravity, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)

    2017-04-11

    When continuous parameters in a QFT are varied adiabatically, quantum states typically undergo mixing — a phenomenon characterized by the Berry phase. We initiate a systematic analysis of the Berry phase in QFT using standard quantum mechanics methods. We show that a non-trivial Berry phase appears in many familiar QFTs. We study a variety of examples including free electromagnetism with a theta angle, and certain supersymmetric QFTs in two and four spacetime dimensions. We also argue that a large class of QFTs with rich Berry properties is provided by CFTs with non-trivial conformal manifolds. Using the operator-state correspondence we demonstrate in this case that the Berry connection is equivalent to the connection on the conformal manifold derived previously in conformal perturbation theory. In the special case of chiral primary states in 2d N=(2,2) and 4d N=2 SCFTs the Berry phase is governed by the tt{sup ∗} equations. We present a technically useful rederivation of these equations using quantum mechanics methods.

  9. Knowledge and prevalence of use of saw palmetto and other herbal products among men with prostate disease in Trinidad and Tobago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Persaud

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: This study demonstrates that the use of herbal products is common among men with prostate disease in Trinidad and Tobago and that saw palmetto is the most common product used. It also highlights the prevalence of unsubstantiated beliefs as well as the uncertainty about the efficacy of saw palmetto.

  10. Saw Palmetto induces growth arrest and apoptosis of androgen-dependent prostate cancer LNCaP cells via inactivation of STAT 3 and androgen receptor signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Ikezoe, Takayuki; Zheng, Zhixing; Taguchi, Hirokuni; Koeffler, H Phillip; Zhu, Wei-Guo

    2007-09-01

    PC-SPES is an eight-herb mixture that has an activity against prostate cancer. Recently, we purified Saw Palmetto (Serenoa repens) from PC-SPES and found that Saw Palmetto induced growth arrest of prostate cancer LNCaP, DU145, and PC3 cells with ED50s of approximately 2.0, 2.6, and 3.3 microl/ml, respectively, as measured by mitochondrial-dependent conversion of the the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Saw Palmetto induced apoptosis of LNCaP cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner as measured by TUNEL assays. Also, Saw Palmetto increased the expression of p21waf1 and p53 protein in LNCaP cells. In addition, we found that Saw Palmetto down-regulated DHT- or IL-6-induced expression of prostate specific antigen in conjunction with down-regulation of the level of androgen receptor in the nucleus as measured by Western blot analysis. Moreover, Saw Palmetto down-regulated the IL-6-induced level of the phosphorylated form of STAT 3 in LNCaP cells. Furthermore, Saw Palmetto inhibited the growth of LNCaP cells present as tumor xenografts in BALB/c nude mice without adverse effect. These results indicate that Saw Palmetto might be useful for the treatment of individuals with prostate cancer.

  11. Treatment assignment guesses by study participants in a double-blind dose escalation clinical trial of saw palmetto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeannette Y; Moore, Page; Kusek, John; Barry, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This report assesses participant perception of treatment assignment in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of saw palmetto for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BCM). Participants randomized to receive saw palmetto were instructed to take one 320 mg gelcap daily for the first 24 weeks, two 320 mg gelcaps daily for the second 24 weeks, and three 320 mg gelcaps daily for the third 24 weeks. Study participants assigned to placebo were instructed to take the same number of matching placebo gelcaps in each time period. At 24, 48, and 72 weeks postrandomization, the American Urological Association Symptom Index (AUA-SI) was administered and participants were asked to guess their treatment assignment. The study was conducted at 11 clinical centers in North America. Study participants were men, 45 years and older, with moderate to low severe BPH symptoms, randomized to saw palmetto (N=151) or placebo (N=155). Treatment arms were compared with respect to the distribution of participant guesses of treatment assignment. For participants assigned to saw palmetto, 22.5%, 24.7%, and 29.8% correctly thought they were taking saw palmetto, and 37.3%, 40.0%, and 44.4% incorrectly thought they were on placebo at 24, 48, and 72 weeks, respectively. For placebo participants, 21.8%, 27.4%, and 25.2% incorrectly thought they were on saw palmetto, and 41.6%, 39.9%, and 42.6% correctly thought they were on placebo at 24, 48, and 72 weeks, respectively. The treatment arms did not vary with respect to the distributions of participants who guessed they were on saw palmetto (p=0.823) or placebo (p=0.893). Participants who experienced an improvement in AUA-SI were 2.16 times more likely to think they were on saw palmetto. Blinding of treatment assignment was successful in this study. Improvement in BPH-related symptoms was associated with the perception that participants were taking saw palmetto.

  12. Biochemical Properties and Neuroprotective Effects of Compounds in Various Species of Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Kelly

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Several species of berries, such as blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium and lingonberries (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L., have attracted much scientific attention in recent years, especially due to their reported antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Berries, as with other types of plants, have developed metabolic mechanisms to survive various environmental stresses, some of which involve reactive oxygen species. In addition, the fruits and leaves of berries have high amounts of polyphenols, such as flavonoids, which act as potent antioxidants. These compounds could potentially be beneficial for brain aging and neurodegenerative disorders. There are now several studies documenting the beneficial effects of various berries in cell models of neurotoxicity as well as in vivo models of neurodegenerative disease. In the current review, we discuss the metabolic strategies that plants and animals have developed in order to combat reactive oxygen species. We then discuss issues of bioavailability of various compounds in mammals and provide a synopsis of studies demonstrating the neuroprotective ability of berries and polyphenols. We also summarize findings from our own research group. For example, we have detected various polyphenols in samples of blueberries and lingonberries and have found that the leaves have a much higher antioxidant capacity than the fruits. Extracts from these species have also demonstrated neuroprotective effects in cellular models of toxicity and inflammation, which are being further pursued in animal models.

  13. BlackBerry for Work Productivity for Professionals

    CERN Document Server

    Mittal, K

    2010-01-01

    The BlackBerry is cool, and the BlackBerry is fun, but the BlackBerry also means serious business. For those of you who bought your BlackBerry to help get your life organized and free yourself from the ball-and-chain of desktop computing, BlackBerry at Work: Productivity for Professionals is the book to show you how. There are plenty of general-purpose BlackBerry guides, but this book shows you how to complete all the traditional smartphone tasks, like to-dos, calendars, and email, and become even more efficient and productive. You'll learn mechanisms for developing effective workflows specifi

  14. BlackBerry All-in-One for Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sarigumba, Dante; Petz, William

    2010-01-01

    Go beyond BlackBerry basics and get everything your BlackBerry can deliver. BlackBerry is the leading smartphone for business users, and its popularity continues to explode. When you discover the amazing array of BlackBerry possibilities in this fun and friendly guide, you'll be even happier with your choice of smartphones. BlackBerry All-in-One For Dummies explores every feature and application common to all BlackBerry devices. It explains the topics in depth, with tips, tricks, workarounds, and includes detailed information about cool new third-party applications, accessories, and downloads

  15. CrackBerry The Tales of BlackBerry Use and Abuse

    CERN Document Server

    Michaluk, Kevin J; Trautschold, Martin

    2011-01-01

    A delayed train, a dip in the conversation, an early morning hour with no sleep - during these moments, do you feel an overwhelming urge to grab your BlackBerry? Do you know someone else who does? If the answer is yes, then look no further than this one-of-a-kind book...CrackBerry: True Tales of Blackberry Use and Abuse covers the phenomenon of "BlackBerry Addiction," offering true-life accounts of BlackBerry dependence and mishaps. You'll find comfort and humor in the unbelievable tales of BlackBerry abuse and also learn some valuable tips along the way. * The definitive guide to respons

  16. Double maturation raisonnée: the impact of on-vine berry dehydration on the berry and wine composition of Merlot (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusjan, Denis; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja

    2017-11-01

    Double maturation raisonnée (DMR) is a potential canopy measure that affects grape and wine composition. The aim of this work was to study for the first time the DMR impact on the physical, biochemical and sensorial characteristics of the berries and wines of Merlot, one of the world's fastest-expanding grapevine varieties. DMR significantly increased the content of soluble solids (1.2-fold), free amino nitrogen (1.8-fold) and acidity in berries but decreased the weight of 100 berries on harvest (approx. 28%). Irrespective of the vintage, DMR-treated grapes had a significantly higher content of non-astringent tannins (0.73-0.78 mg L -1 ) and anthocyanin extractability (34.7-36.4%) but a lower index of astringency (31.2-33.7) when compared to the control. Consequently, the DMR wines achieved higher alcohol, total acidity and extract, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavanol and flavonol contents, whereas the content of anthocyanins was similar to that of the control. Sensorial evaluation showed that DMR wines were not rated higher and would not be appreciated more than control wines. Changes in berries during DMR altered the wine characteristics only in terms of primary metabolites. A reduced accumulation of phenolics, especially anthocyanin content, in the berry skin of DMR-treated grapes was not reflected in their presence in wines. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper that has reported an impact of DMR on the grape and wine composition of Merlot, as one of the most promising red varieties. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) in men with lower urinary tract symptoms: effects on urodynamic parameters and voiding symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, G S; Zagaja, G P; Bales, G T; Chodak, G W; Contreras, B A

    1998-06-01

    To assess the effects of saw palmetto on voiding symptoms and urodynamic parameters in men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) presumed secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Fifty men with previously untreated LUTS and a minimum International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) of 10 or greater were treated with a commercially available form of saw palmetto (160 mg twice per day) for 6 months. The initial evaluation included measurement of peak urinary flow rate, postvoid residual urine volume, pressure-flow study, and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level. Patients completed an IPSS, serum PSA was determined, and flow rate was measured every 2 months during the course of the study. A urodynamic evaluation was repeated at the completion of the 6-month trial. The mean IPSS (+/-SD) improved from 19.5+/-5.5 to 12.5+/-7.0 (P saw palmetto for 2 months. An improvement in symptom score of 50% or greater after treatment with saw palmetto for 2, 4, and 6 months was noted in 21% (10 of 48), 30% (14 of 47), and 46% (21 of 46) of patients, respectively. There was no significant change in peak urinary flow rate, postvoid residual urine volume, or detrusor pressure at peak flow among patients completing the study. No significant change in mean serum PSA level was noted. Saw palmetto is a well-tolerated agent that may significantly improve lower urinary tract symptoms in men with BPH. However, we were unable to demonstrate any significant improvement in objective measures of bladder outlet obstruction. Placebo-controlled trials of saw palmetto are needed to evaluate the true effectiveness of this compound.

  18. Microclimate influence on mineral and metabolic profiles of grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, G E; Gaudillere, J-P; Pieri, P; Hilbert, G; Maucourt, M; Deborde, C; Moing, A; Rolin, D

    2006-09-06

    The grape berry microclimate is known to influence berry quality. The effects of the light exposure of grape berry clusters on the composition of berry tissues were studied on the "Merlot" variety grown in a vineyard in Bordeaux, France. The light exposure of the fruiting zone was modified using different intensities of leaf removal, cluster position relative to azimuth, and berry position in the cluster. Light exposures were identified and classified by in situ measurements of berry temperatures. Berries were sampled at maturity (>19 Brix) for determination of skin and/or pulp chemical and metabolic profiles based on (1) chemical and physicochemical measurement of minerals (N, P, K, Ca, Mg), (2) untargeted 1H NMR metabolic fingerprints, and HPLC targeted analyses of (3) amino acids and (4) phenolics. Each profile defined by partial least-square discriminant analysis allowed us to discriminate berries from different light exposure. Discriminant compounds between shaded and light-exposed berries were quercetin-3-glucoside, kaempferol-3-glucoside, myricetin-3-glucoside, and isorhamnetin-3-glucoside for the phenolics, histidine, valine, GABA, alanine, and arginine for the amino acids, and malate for the organic acids. Capacities of the different profiling techniques to discriminate berries were compared. Although the proportion of explained variance from the 1H NMR fingerprint was lower compared to that of chemical measurements, NMR spectroscopy allowed us to identify lit and shaded berries. Light exposure of berries increased the skin and pulp flavonols, histidine and valine contents, and reduced the organic acids, GABA, and alanine contents. All the targeted and nontargeted analytical data sets used made it possible to discriminate sun-exposed and shaded berries. The skin phenolics pattern was the most discriminating and allowed us to sort sun from shade berries. These metabolite classes can be used to qualify berries collected in an undetermined environment. The

  19. Assessment of radical scavenging, whitening and moisture retention activities of Panax ginseng berry mediated gold nanoparticles as safe and efficient novel cosmetic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Zuly; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Mathiyalagan, Ramya; Seo, Kwang-Hoon; Mohanan, Padmanaban; Ahn, Jong-Chan; Kim, Yu-Jin; Yang, Deok Chun

    2018-03-01

    Panax ginseng berry extract possess remarkable pharmacological effects on skin treatment such as anti-aging, antioxidant, promotor of collagen synthesis and alleviation against atopic dermatitis. In recent years, gold nanoparticles have gained much attention due to their extensive range of applications in particular in the field of drug delivery as a result of their biological compatibility and low toxicity. In a previous study, we designed and developed biocompatible gold and silver nanoparticles based on phytochemical profile and pharmacological efficacy of P. ginseng berry extract, we were able to reduce gold ions to nanoparticles through the process of green synthesis. However, its potential as a cosmetic ingredient is still unexplored. The aim of the present study is to investigate the moisture retention, in-vitro scavenging and whitening properties of gold nanoparticles synthesized from P. ginseng berry in cosmetic applications. Our findings confirm that P. ginseng berry mediated gold nanoparticles exhibited moisture retention capacity. In addition, MTT assay results confirmed that P. ginseng berry mediated gold nanoparticles are non-toxic to human dermal fibroblast and murine melanoma skin cells, possess scavenging activity, protect and provide alleviation against injured caused by H 2 O 2 -induced damage. In addition, P. ginseng berry mediated gold nanoparticles, significantly reduced melanin content and suppress tyrosinase activity in α-MSH-stimulated B16BL6 cells. We conclude that P. ginseng berry mediated gold nanoparticles are biocompatible and environmental affable materials and can be a potential novel cosmetic ingredient.

  20. Extensive clonal spread and extreme longevity in saw palmetto, a foundation clonal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Mizuki K; Horner, Liana M; Kubota, Toshiro; Keller, Nathan A; Abrahamson, Warren G

    2011-09-01

    The lack of effective tools has hampered out ability to assess the size, growth and ages of clonal plants. With Serenoa repens (saw palmetto) as a model, we introduce a novel analytical framework that integrates DNA fingerprinting and mathematical modelling to simulate growth and estimate ages of clonal plants. We also demonstrate the application of such life-history information of clonal plants to provide insight into management plans. Serenoa is an ecologically important foundation species in many Southeastern United States ecosystems; yet, many land managers consider Serenoa a troublesome invasive plant. Accordingly, management plans have been developed to reduce or eliminate Serenoa with little understanding of its life history. Using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms, we genotyped 263 Serenoa and 134 Sabal etonia (a sympatric non-clonal palmetto) samples collected from a 20 × 20 m study plot in Florida scrub. Sabal samples were used to assign small field-unidentifiable palmettos to Serenoa or Sabal and also as a negative control for clone detection. We then mathematically modelled clonal networks to estimate genet ages. Our results suggest that Serenoa predominantly propagate via vegetative sprouts and 10,000-year-old genets may be common, while showing no evidence of clone formation by Sabal. The results of this and our previous studies suggest that: (i) Serenoa has been part of scrub associations for thousands of years, (ii) Serenoa invasion are unlikely and (ii) once Serenoa is eliminated from local communities, its restoration will be difficult. Reevaluation of the current management tools and plans is an urgent task. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Phytonutrient analysis of Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. (Litchi tomato) is grown ornamentally, and in Europe it is used as a trap crop for management of the potato cyst nematode (PCN). Its berries are edible, but little is known about their nutritional content. If more was known about their nutritional value this could provid...

  2. Berry Phenolics of Grapevine under Challenging Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernâni Gerós

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant phenolics have been for many years a theme of major scientific and applied interest. Grape berry phenolics contribute to organoleptic properties, color and protection against environmental challenges. Climate change has already caused significant warming in most grape-growing areas of the world, and the climatic conditions determine, to a large degree, the grape varieties that can be cultivated as well as wine quality. In particular, heat, drought and light/UV intensity severely affect phenolic metabolism and, thus, grape composition and development. In the variety Chardonnay, water stress increases the content of flavonols and decreases the expression of genes involved in biosynthesis of stilbene precursors. Also, polyphenolic profile is greatly dependent on genotype and environmental interactions. This review deals with the diversity and biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in the grape berry, from a general overview to a more detailed level, where the influence of environmental challenges on key phenolic metabolism pathways is approached. The full understanding of how and when specific phenolic compounds accumulate in the berry, and how the varietal grape berry metabolism responds to the environment is of utmost importance to adjust agricultural practices and thus, modify wine profile.

  3. BlackBerry's Long March Into China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAYET SELLAMI

    2006-01-01

    @@ Some time in the coming weeks, Research In Motion Ltd (RIM) will launch its wireless BlackBerry e-mail service on the Chinese mainland in a partnership with China Mobile Ltd, which has two-thirds of the Chinese market and is the world's biggest mobile carrier by number of subscribers. The exact date of the launch has yet to be set.

  4. New Natural Pigment Fraction Isolated from Saw Palmetto: Potential for Adjuvant Therapy of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hor-Yue Tan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, we discovered a small proportion of aqueous fraction from Saw Palmetto apart from the fatty acid-rich fraction exhibited pharmacological activity. Therefore, this study aims to explore the anti-tumor potential of red pigmented aqueous fraction of Saw Palmetto, NYG on human hepatocellular carcinoma and its possible targets. Subcutaneous xenograft and orthotopic implantation models of HCC were used to evaluate the tumor inhibitory effect of NYG. Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC cell lines and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC were used as in vitro model. The mRNA expression was conducted by qPCR. Protein expression was monitored by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. Cell migration and blood vessel formation were determined by chamber assay and tube formation assay, respectively. Significant tumor inhibition of NYG in dose-dependent manner was observed on subcutaneous xenograft and orthotopic HCC model. NYG has no direct action on cell viability or VEGF secretion of HCC cells. However, NYG reduced in vitro migration and vessel formation activities of HUVEC cells, as well as in vivo intratumoral neovascularization. NYG attenuated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK activation in endothelial cells, which may be associated with the suppression of migration and tube formation of HUVEC. NYG suppressed tumor expansion of HCC via inhibiting neovascularization, and may be potential adjuvant treatment for HCC.

  5. New Natural Pigment Fraction Isolated from Saw Palmetto: Potential for Adjuvant Therapy of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hor-Yue; Wang, Ning; Takahashi, Masao; Feng, Yigang; Li, Hongyun; Feng, Yibin

    2016-08-05

    For the first time, we discovered a small proportion of aqueous fraction from Saw Palmetto apart from the fatty acid-rich fraction exhibited pharmacological activity. Therefore, this study aims to explore the anti-tumor potential of red pigmented aqueous fraction of Saw Palmetto, NYG on human hepatocellular carcinoma and its possible targets. Subcutaneous xenograft and orthotopic implantation models of HCC were used to evaluate the tumor inhibitory effect of NYG. Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were used as in vitro model. The mRNA expression was conducted by qPCR. Protein expression was monitored by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. Cell migration and blood vessel formation were determined by chamber assay and tube formation assay, respectively. Significant tumor inhibition of NYG in dose-dependent manner was observed on subcutaneous xenograft and orthotopic HCC model. NYG has no direct action on cell viability or VEGF secretion of HCC cells. However, NYG reduced in vitro migration and vessel formation activities of HUVEC cells, as well as in vivo intratumoral neovascularization. NYG attenuated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) activation in endothelial cells, which may be associated with the suppression of migration and tube formation of HUVEC. NYG suppressed tumor expansion of HCC via inhibiting neovascularization, and may be potential adjuvant treatment for HCC.

  6. Analytical profiling of selected antioxidants and total antioxidant capacity of goji (Lycium spp.) berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protti, Michele; Gualandi, Isacco; Mandrioli, Roberto; Zappoli, Sergio; Tonelli, Domenica; Mercolini, Laura

    2017-09-05

    Goji berries and derived products represent a relevant source of micronutrients, most of which are natural antioxidants and contribute to the high nutritional quality of these fruits. Three brands of dried goji berries have been analysed by a multidisciplinary approach to get an insight into both their content of selected antioxidants and their antioxidant capacity (AC). The former goal has been achieved by developing a liquid chromatographic method coupled to mass spectrometry and combined to a fast solid phase extraction. Several significant representative antioxidant compounds belonging to the following classes: flavonoids, flavan-3-ols, phenolic acids, amino acids and derivatives, and carotenoids have been taken into account. Quercetin and rutin were found to be the predominant flavonoids, chlorogenic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid and zeaxanthin was the major carotenoid. The AC of the goji berries has been evaluated by four analytical methods in order to estimate the contributions of different reactions involved in radicals scavenging. In particular, AC has been determined using 3 standardised methods (DPPH, ABTS, ORAC) and a recently proposed electrochemical method, which measures the scavenging activity of antioxidants towards OH radicals generated both by hydrogen peroxide photolysis and the Fenton reaction. The results obtained from chemical composition and antioxidant capacity assays confirm the high nutritional and commercial value of goji berries and highlight that the three brands do not exhibit significant differences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Post-harvest UVC irradiation effect on anthocyanin profile of grape berries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosas, I. de; Ponce, M.; Gargantini, R.; Martinez, L.

    2010-01-01

    Anthocyanins are a class of phenolic compounds that contribute to the color of red grapes and have shown nutraceutical properties for human health. UVC light irradiation has been proved to increase phenolic compounds such as stilbenes, but its effect on anthocyanins has not been reported. The aim of this work was to identify the best treatment conditions of UVC light irradiation on post-harvest berries of Malbec (M), Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Tempranillo (T) for anthocyanin increments. Grape berries were irradiated with 240 W at 20 and 40 cm from the light source, for 30, 60 and 120 seconds. Both, irradiated and control grapes were stored on darkness at 20 C degree until anthocyanin extraction with methanol/ClH. HPLC analysis were performed and nine anthocyanins were quantified. UVC light irradiation modified the anthocyanin profile of the three cultivars. All the glucoside anthocyanins derivates and peonidin-acetyl-glucoside, as well as total anthocyanins were increased when CS berries were exposed to UVC for 120 s at 40 cm. This suggests that UVC stimulated the entire biosynthetic pathway. The anthocyanin content of the control berries was always higher than the treatments with UVC on M and T, making necessary to evaluate less rigorous conditions for these varieties. (authors)

  8. Determination of campesterol, stigmasterol, and beta-sitosterol in saw palmetto raw materials and dietary supplements by gas chromatography: single-laboratory validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Wendy R; Sullivan, Darryl

    2006-01-01

    In conjunction with an AOAC Presidential Task Force on Dietary Supplements, a method was validated for measurement of 3 plant sterols (phytosterols) in saw palmetto raw materials, extracts, and dietary supplements. AOAC Official Method 994.10, "Cholesterol in Foods," was modified for purposes of this validation. Test samples were saponified at high temperature with ethanolic potassium hydroxide solution. The unsaponifiable fraction containing phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, and beta-sitosterol) was extracted with toluene. Phytosterols were derivatized to trimethylsilyl ethers and then quantified by gas chromatography with a hydrogen flame ionization detector. The presence of the phytosterols was detected at concentrations greater than or equal to 1.00 mg/100 g based on 2-3 g of sample. The standard curve range for this assay was 0.00250 to 0.200 mg/mL. The calibration curves for all phytosterols had correlation coefficients greater than or equal to 0.995. Precision studies produced relative standard deviation values of 1.52 to 7.27% for campesterol, 1.62 to 6.48% for stigmasterol, and 1.39 to 10.5% for beta-sitosterol. Recoveries for samples fortified at 100% of the inherent values averaged 98.5 to 105% for campesterol, 95.0 to 108% for stigmasterol, and 85.0 to 103% for beta-sitosterol.

  9. The microbial ecology of wine grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, A; Malfeito-Ferreira, M; Loureiro, V

    2012-02-15

    Grapes have a complex microbial ecology including filamentous fungi, yeasts and bacteria with different physiological characteristics and effects upon wine production. Some species are only found in grapes, such as parasitic fungi and environmental bacteria, while others have the ability to survive and grow in wines, constituting the wine microbial consortium. This consortium covers yeast species, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. The proportion of these microorganisms depends on the grape ripening stage and on the availability of nutrients. Grape berries are susceptible to fungal parasites until véraison after which the microbiota of truly intact berries is similar to that of plant leaves, which is dominated by basidiomycetous yeasts (e.g. Cryptococcus spp., Rhodotorula spp. Sporobolomyces spp.) and the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans. The cuticle of visually intact berries may bear microfissures and softens with ripening, increasing nutrient availability and explaining the possible dominance by the oxidative or weakly fermentative ascomycetous populations (e.g. Candida spp., Hanseniaspora spp., Metschnikowia spp., Pichia spp.) approaching harvest time. When grape skin is clearly damaged, the availability of high sugar concentrations on the berry surface favours the increase of ascomycetes with higher fermentative activity like Pichia spp. and Zygoascus hellenicus, including dangerous wine spoilage yeasts (e.g. Zygosaccharomyces spp., Torulaspora spp.), and of acetic acid bacteria (e.g. Gluconobacter spp., Acetobacter spp.). The sugar fermenting species Saccharomyces cerevisiae is rarely found on unblemished berries, being favoured by grape damage. Lactic acid bacteria are minor partners of grape microbiota and while being the typical agent of malolactic fermentation, Oenococcus oeni has been seldom isolated from grapes in the vineyard. Environmental ubiquitous bacteria of the genus Enterobacter spp., Enterococcus spp., Bacillus spp

  10. Impact of Procyanidins from Different Berries on Caspase 8 Activation in Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole Minker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Scope. The aim of this work is to identify which proapoptotic pathway is induced in human colon cancer cell lines, in contact with proanthocyanidins extracted from various berries. Methods and Results. Proanthocyanidins (Pcys extracted from 11 berry species are monitored for proapoptotic activities on two related human colon cancer cell lines: SW480-TRAIL-sensitive and SW620-TRAIL-resistant. Apoptosis induction is monitored by cell surface phosphatidylserine (PS detection. Lowbush blueberry extract triggers the strongest activity. When tested on the human monocytic cell line THP-1, blueberry Pcys are less effective for PS externalisation and DNA fragmentation is absent, highlighting a specificity of apoptosis induction in gut cells. In Pcys-treated gut cell lines, caspase 8 (apoptosis extrinsic pathway but not caspase 9 (apoptosis intrinsic pathway is activated after 3 hours through P38 phosphorylation (90 min, emphasizing the potency of lowbush blueberry Pcys to eradicate gut TRAIL-resistant cancer cells. Conclusion. We highlight here that berries Pcys, especially lowbush blueberry Pcys, are of putative interest for nutritional chemoprevention of colorectal cancer in view of their apoptosis induction in a human colorectal cancer cell lines.

  11. Profiling and Quantification of Regioisomeric Caffeoyl Glucoses in Berry Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patras, Maria A; Jaiswal, Rakesh; McDougall, Gordon J; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2018-02-07

    On the basis of a recently developed tandem mass spectrometry-based hierarchical scheme for the identification of regioisomeric caffeoyl glucoses, selected berry fruits were profiled for their caffeoyl glucose ester content. Fresh edible berries profiled, including strawberries, raspberries, blueberries, blackberries, red currant, black currant, lingonberries, gooseberries, and juices of elderberries, goji berries, chokeberries, cranberries, açai berries, sea buckthorn berries, Montmorency sour cherries, and pomegranates, were investigated. 1-Caffeoyl glucose was found to be the predominant isomer in the majority of samples, with further profiling revealing the presence of additional hydroxycinnamoyl glucose esters and O-glycosides with p-coumaroyl, feruloyl, and sinapoyl substituents. A quantitative liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based method was developed and validated, and all caffeoyl glucose isomers were quantified for the first time in edible berries.

  12. NUTRIENTS ACCUMULATION IN FRUITS OF BERRY SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sava Parascovia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As a result of observations and biochemical analysis of the berries made during the years 2013-2014 in Republic of Moldova, it was found that bacciferous species included in the study had a wide spectrum of colors, from white, orange, red to blue and black. The possibility to extend the consumption of fresh berries is because these species ripen in series starting with honeysuckle in May, then one by one until September: strawberry, raspberry, currant, gooseberry, barberry, jostaberry, blueberry, sea buckthorn, blackberry, chokeberry, guilder rose. Chokeberries accumulated the highest average amount of soluble solids - 18.02%, jostaberries highlighted with the highest average amount of accumulated sugars - 9.56%. Red currant highlighted with the highest acidity - 5.22%, while blueberries with low acidity - 1.43%. Rosehip has accumulated the highest average amount of tannins and coloring substances - 546.65 mg%. Rosehip berries accumulated the highest amount of vitamin C average - 292.38 mg%, the black currant - 179.69 mg%, jostaberry - 112.86 mg%, and sea buckthorn - 96.7 mg%. The highest average values of the coefficient sugar / acid certifying good qualities were found in: blueberries - 4.39, guelder rose - 3.93, gooseberry - 3.55.

  13. Possible role of Berry phase in inflationary cosmological perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Barun Kumar; Pal, Supratik; Basu, B

    2012-01-01

    Here we have derived a cosmological analogue of Berry phase by obtaining the corresponding wavefunction for the system of inflationary cosmological perturbations solving the Schrodinger equation. We have further shown that cosmological Berry phase can be related inflationary observable parameters. As a result one can, atleast in principle, establish a supplementary probe of inflationary cosmology through the measurement of the associated Berry phase. But we do not make any strong comment on this.

  14. Real-space Berry phases: Skyrmion soccer (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everschor-Sitte, Karin; Sitte, Matthias

    2014-05-01

    Berry phases occur when a system adiabatically evolves along a closed curve in parameter space. This tutorial-like article focuses on Berry phases accumulated in real space. In particular, we consider the situation where an electron traverses a smooth magnetic structure, while its magnetic moment adjusts to the local magnetization direction. Mapping the adiabatic physics to an effective problem in terms of emergent fields reveals that certain magnetic textures, skyrmions, are tailormade to study these Berry phase effects.

  15. Real-space Berry phases: Skyrmion soccer (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everschor-Sitte, Karin, E-mail: karin@physics.utexas.edu; Sitte, Matthias [The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Physics, 2515 Speedway, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2014-05-07

    Berry phases occur when a system adiabatically evolves along a closed curve in parameter space. This tutorial-like article focuses on Berry phases accumulated in real space. In particular, we consider the situation where an electron traverses a smooth magnetic structure, while its magnetic moment adjusts to the local magnetization direction. Mapping the adiabatic physics to an effective problem in terms of emergent fields reveals that certain magnetic textures, skyrmions, are tailormade to study these Berry phase effects.

  16. Real-space Berry phases: Skyrmion soccer (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everschor-Sitte, Karin; Sitte, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Berry phases occur when a system adiabatically evolves along a closed curve in parameter space. This tutorial-like article focuses on Berry phases accumulated in real space. In particular, we consider the situation where an electron traverses a smooth magnetic structure, while its magnetic moment adjusts to the local magnetization direction. Mapping the adiabatic physics to an effective problem in terms of emergent fields reveals that certain magnetic textures, skyrmions, are tailormade to study these Berry phase effects

  17. New chalcanonol glycoside from the seeds of saw palmetto: antiproliferative and antioxidant effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Bar, Fatma M

    2015-01-01

    A new chalcanonol glycoside dimer, bis-O-[(I-4') → (II-6')]-α-hydroxyphloretin-2'-O-β-glucoside (1), in addition to six known compounds, namely (-)-epicatechin (2) and (-)-epiafzelechin (3), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4), protocatechuic acid (5), methylgallate (6), β-sitosterol (7) and β-sitosterol-3-O-glucoside (8), was isolated from the seeds of saw palmetto. The structures of the isolated compounds were established from the analysis of their MS and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. The antiproliferative activities of the isolated compounds towards PC3, the human prostate cancer cells were investigated. Amongst the isolated compounds, the new compound and the sterolic derivatives showed antiproliferative effects. Screening of the antioxidant effects of the isolated compounds by 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical assay revealed that the isolated phenolics were active free radical scavengers.

  18. Herb-drug interactions. Interactions between saw palmetto and prescription medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressler, Rubin

    2005-11-01

    Patients over age 50 typically present with one chronic disease per decade. Each chronic disease typically requires long-term drug therapy, meaning most older patients require several drugs to maintain health. Simultaneously, use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has increased in the United States in the last 20 years, reaching 36% in 2002; herbal medicine use accounts for approximately 22% of all CAM use. Older adults often add herbal medicines to prescription medications, yet do not always inform their physicians. The drug metabolizing enzyme systems process all compounds foreign to the body, including prescription and herbal medications. Therefore use of both medicinals simultaneously has a potential for adverse interactions. This review, which discusses saw palmetto, is the last in a series covering the documented interactions among the top 5 efficacious herbal medicines and prescription drugs.

  19. Determination of campesterol, stigmasterol, and beta-sitosterol in saw palmetto raw materials and dietary supplements by gas chromatography: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Wendy R; Sullivan, Darryl

    2007-01-01

    An interlaboratory study was conducted to evaluate a method for the determination of campesterol, stigmasterol, and beta-sitosterol in saw palmetto raw materials and dietary supplements at levels >1.00 mg/100 g based on a 2-3 g sample. Test samples were saponified at high temperature with ethanolic KOH solution. The unsaponifiable fraction containing phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, and beta-sitosterol) was extracted with toluene. Phytosterols were derivatized to trimethylsilyl ethers and then quantified by gas chromatography with hydrogen flame ionization detection. Twelve blind duplicates, one of which was fortified, were successfully analyzed by 10 collaborators. Recoveries were obtained for the sample that was fortified. The results were 99.8, 111, and 111% for campesterol, stigmasterol, and beta-sitosterol, respectively. For repeatability, the relative standard deviation (RSDr) ranged from 3.93 to 17.3% for campesterol, 3.56 to 22.7% for stigmasterol, and 3.70 to 43.9% for beta-sitosterol. For reproducibility, the RSDR ranged from 7.97 to 22.6%, 0 to 26.7%, and 5.27 to 43.9% for campesterol, stigmasterol, and beta-sitosterol, respectively. Overall, the Study Director approved 5 materials with acceptable HorRat values for campesterol, stigmasterol, and beta-sitosterol ranging from 1.02 to 2.16.

  20. Development of liquid chromatographic methods for the determination of phytosterols in Standard Reference Materials containing saw palmetto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedner, Mary; Schantz, Michele M; Sander, Lane C; Sharpless, Katherine E

    2008-05-23

    Liquid chromatographic (LC) methods using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/mass spectrometric (APCI-MS) detection were developed for the separation and analysis of the phytosterols campesterol, cycloartenol, lupenone, lupeol, beta-sitosterol, and stigmasterol. Brassicasterol and cholesterol were also included for investigation as internal standards. The methods were used to identify and quantify the phytosterols in each of two Serenoa repens (saw palmetto) Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Values obtained by LC-MS were compared to those obtained using the more traditional approach of gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. This is the first reported use of LC-MS to determine phytosterols in saw palmetto dietary supplement materials.

  1. A prospective, 1-year trial using saw palmetto versus finasteride in the treatment of category III prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Steven A; Volpe, Michael A; Te, Alexis E

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the safety and efficacy of saw palmetto or finasteride in men with category III prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). A prospective, randomized, open label, 1-year study was designed to assess the safety and efficacy of saw palmetto and finasteride in the treatment of men diagnosed with CP/CPPS. Patients were randomized to finasteride (5 mg once daily) or saw palmetto (325 mg daily) for 1 year. Patients were evaluated using the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index, individual domains (pain, urinary symptoms, quality of life and mean pain score) and the American Urological Association Symptom Score at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months. A total of 64 consecutive men 24 to 58 years old (mean age 43.2) with a diagnosis of CP/CPPS were equally randomized to the 2 treatment arms. All 64 men had previously received antibiotics (duration of 3 to 93 weeks), 52 (82%) had been on alpha-blockade. There were 61, 57 and 56 patients evaluable at 3, 6 and 12 months, respectively. At 1 year mean total National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index score decreased from 23.9 to 18.1 in the finasteride group (p saw palmetto arm (p = 0.41). In the finasteride arm the quality of life and pain domains were significantly improved at 1 year; however, urination was not. Adverse events included headache (3 cases) in the saw palmetto group and decreased libido (2 cases) in the finasteride group. At the end of the trial 13 of 32 (41%) and 21 of 32 (66%) opted to continue saw palmetto and finasteride, respectively. CP/CPPS treated with saw palmetto had no appreciable long-term improvement. In contrast, patients treated with finasteride had significant and durable improvement in all various parameters except voiding. Further studies are warranted to ascertain the mechanism and reproducibility of these effects in a placebo controlled trial.

  2. Effects of pumpkin seed oil and saw palmetto oil in Korean men with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Heeok; Kim, Chun-Soo; Maeng, Sungho

    2009-01-01

    This study was to investigate the role of complementary and alternative medicine in the prevention and treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. For this purpose, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed over 12 months on 47 benign prostatic hyperplasia patients with average age of 53.3 years and international prostate symptom score over 8. Subjects received either sweet potato starch (group A, placebo, 320 mg/day), pumpkin seed oil (group B, 320 mg/day), saw palmetto oil (group C, 320 mg/day) or pumpkin seed oil plus saw palmetto oil (group D, each 320 mg/day). International prostate symptom score, quality of life, serum prostate specific antigen, prostate volume and maximal urinary flow rate were measured. In groups B, C and D, the international prostate symptom score were reduced by 3 months. Quality of life score was improved after 6 months in group D, while those of groups B and C were improved after 3 months, compared to the baseline value. Serum prostate specific antigen was reduced only in group D after 3 months, but no difference was observed in prostate volume in all treatment groups. Maximal urinary flow rate were gradually improved in groups B and C, with statistical significance after 6 months in group B and after 12 months in group C. None of the parameters were significantly improved by combined treatment with pumpkin seed oil and saw palmetto oil. From these results, it is suggested that administrations of pumpkin seed oil and saw palmetto oil are clinically safe and may be effective as complementary and alternative medicine treatments for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  3. On the classical limit of Berry's phase integrable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asch, J.

    1990-01-01

    Berry's Phase is given by integration of a characteristic two form. We consider integrable systems defined by Weyl quantized classical Hamiltonians. It is shown that the limit of ℎ/i times this two form is the curvature of the classical connection whose holonomy are the Hannay angles. A result of this type was derived by Berry [B2]. (orig.)

  4. Population dynamics and distribution of the coffee berry borer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population dynamics and distribution of coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) were studied on Coffea arabica L. in southwestern region of Ethiopia. Thirty coffee trees were sampled at weekly intervals from 2000 to 2001. Findings of this study showed that coffee berry borer population ...

  5. Nonadiabatic Berry phase in nanocrystalline magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Skomski

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available It is investigated how a Berry phase is created in polycrystalline nanomagnets and how the phase translates into an emergent magnetic field and into a topological Hall-effect contribution. The analysis starts directly from the spin of the conduction electrons and does not involve any adiabatic Hamiltonian. Completely random spin alignment in the nanocrystallites does not lead to a nonzero emergent field, but a modulation of the local magnetization does. As an explicit example, we consider a wire with a modulated cone angle.

  6. Micro-CT unveils the secret life of the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera, Curculionidae: Scolytinae) inside coffee berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari); Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is the most important insect pest of coffee worldwide, and due to the cryptic life habit of the insect inside coffee berries, effective pest management strategies have been difficult to develop. In this pap...

  7. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/......., organism, tissue and disease terms. The evaluators in the BioCreative V Interactive Annotation Task found the system to be intuitive, useful, well documented and sufficiently accurate to be helpful in spotting relevant text passages and extracting organism and environment terms. Comparison of fully manual...

  8. SUSTAINABLE PACKAGING SOLUTIONS FOR ORGANIC FRESH BERRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeta Elena TĂNASE

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate changes and particularly global warming are topics carefully treated by specialists already since decades. The most pregnant factor that influences climate change is pollution, namely the high level carbon dioxide emissions. Besides other substances used by the most of the industries (oil, charcoal, fertilizers, etc., plastics are not to be ignored when talking about pollution. Plastic waste affects animals and humans, as well as their habitat. In this respect, food industry engages in preserving the good functioning of the environment by developing and using biodegradable and bio-based resources for food packaging. The aim of this literature review was to identify the optimal sustainable packaging solution used for berries. The results of the study pointed out that the most used environmentally friendly packaging technique is the one that involves modified atmosphere. In terms of packaging materials, the literature is limited when it comes to biodegradable/bio-based solutions. However, active packaging gains popularity among researchers, considering the endless possibilities to include sustainable compounds in a biopolymer based matrix, in order to prolong the shelf-life of berries or fruits in general.

  9. Topological photonic crystals with zero Berry curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Deng, Hai-Yao; Wakabayashi, Katsunori

    2018-02-01

    Topological photonic crystals are designed based on the concept of Zak's phase rather than the topological invariants such as the Chern number and spin Chern number, which rely on the existence of a nonvanishing Berry curvature. Our photonic crystals (PCs) are made of pure dielectrics and sit on a square lattice obeying the C4 v point-group symmetry. Two varieties of PCs are considered: one closely resembles the electronic two-dimensional Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model, and the other continues as an extension of this analogy. In both cases, the topological transitions are induced by adjusting the lattice constants. Topological edge modes (TEMs) are shown to exist within the nontrivial photonic band gaps on the termination of those PCs. The high efficiency of these TEMs transferring electromagnetic energy against several types of disorders has been demonstrated using the finite-element method.

  10. Transcriptomic and metabolite analyses of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berry development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluc, Laurent G; Grimplet, Jérôme; Wheatley, Matthew D; Tillett, Richard L; Quilici, David R; Osborne, Craig; Schooley, David A; Schlauch, Karen A; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

    2007-11-22

    Grape berry development is a dynamic process that involves a complex series of molecular genetic and biochemical changes divided into three major phases. During initial berry growth (Phase I), berry size increases along a sigmoidal growth curve due to cell division and subsequent cell expansion, and organic acids (mainly malate and tartrate), tannins, and hydroxycinnamates accumulate to peak levels. The second major phase (Phase II) is defined as a lag phase in which cell expansion ceases and sugars begin to accumulate. Véraison (the onset of ripening) marks the beginning of the third major phase (Phase III) in which berries undergo a second period of sigmoidal growth due to additional mesocarp cell expansion, accumulation of anthocyanin pigments for berry color, accumulation of volatile compounds for aroma, softening, peak accumulation of sugars (mainly glucose and fructose), and a decline in organic acid accumulation. In order to understand the transcriptional network responsible for controlling berry development, mRNA expression profiling was conducted on berries of V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon using the Affymetrix GeneChip Vitis oligonucleotide microarray ver. 1.0 spanning seven stages of berry development from small pea size berries (E-L stages 31 to 33 as defined by the modified E-L system), through véraison (E-L stages 34 and 35), to mature berries (E-L stages 36 and 38). Selected metabolites were profiled in parallel with mRNA expression profiling to understand the effect of transcriptional regulatory processes on specific metabolite production that ultimately influence the organoleptic properties of wine. Over the course of berry development whole fruit tissues were found to express an average of 74.5% of probes represented on the Vitis microarray, which has 14,470 Unigenes. Approximately 60% of the expressed transcripts were differentially expressed between at least two out of the seven stages of berry development (28% of transcripts, 4,151 Unigenes

  11. Transcriptomic and metabolite analyses of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berry development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluc, Laurent G; Grimplet, Jérôme; Wheatley, Matthew D; Tillett, Richard L; Quilici, David R; Osborne, Craig; Schooley, David A; Schlauch, Karen A; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

    2007-01-01

    Background Grape berry development is a dynamic process that involves a complex series of molecular genetic and biochemical changes divided into three major phases. During initial berry growth (Phase I), berry size increases along a sigmoidal growth curve due to cell division and subsequent cell expansion, and organic acids (mainly malate and tartrate), tannins, and hydroxycinnamates accumulate to peak levels. The second major phase (Phase II) is defined as a lag phase in which cell expansion ceases and sugars begin to accumulate. Véraison (the onset of ripening) marks the beginning of the third major phase (Phase III) in which berries undergo a second period of sigmoidal growth due to additional mesocarp cell expansion, accumulation of anthocyanin pigments for berry color, accumulation of volatile compounds for aroma, softening, peak accumulation of sugars (mainly glucose and fructose), and a decline in organic acid accumulation. In order to understand the transcriptional network responsible for controlling berry development, mRNA expression profiling was conducted on berries of V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon using the Affymetrix GeneChip® Vitis oligonucleotide microarray ver. 1.0 spanning seven stages of berry development from small pea size berries (E-L stages 31 to 33 as defined by the modified E-L system), through véraison (E-L stages 34 and 35), to mature berries (E-L stages 36 and 38). Selected metabolites were profiled in parallel with mRNA expression profiling to understand the effect of transcriptional regulatory processes on specific metabolite production that ultimately influence the organoleptic properties of wine. Results Over the course of berry development whole fruit tissues were found to express an average of 74.5% of probes represented on the Vitis microarray, which has 14,470 Unigenes. Approximately 60% of the expressed transcripts were differentially expressed between at least two out of the seven stages of berry development (28% of

  12. Transcriptomic and metabolite analyses of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berry development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlauch Karen A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grape berry development is a dynamic process that involves a complex series of molecular genetic and biochemical changes divided into three major phases. During initial berry growth (Phase I, berry size increases along a sigmoidal growth curve due to cell division and subsequent cell expansion, and organic acids (mainly malate and tartrate, tannins, and hydroxycinnamates accumulate to peak levels. The second major phase (Phase II is defined as a lag phase in which cell expansion ceases and sugars begin to accumulate. Véraison (the onset of ripening marks the beginning of the third major phase (Phase III in which berries undergo a second period of sigmoidal growth due to additional mesocarp cell expansion, accumulation of anthocyanin pigments for berry color, accumulation of volatile compounds for aroma, softening, peak accumulation of sugars (mainly glucose and fructose, and a decline in organic acid accumulation. In order to understand the transcriptional network responsible for controlling berry development, mRNA expression profiling was conducted on berries of V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon using the Affymetrix GeneChip® Vitis oligonucleotide microarray ver. 1.0 spanning seven stages of berry development from small pea size berries (E-L stages 31 to 33 as defined by the modified E-L system, through véraison (E-L stages 34 and 35, to mature berries (E-L stages 36 and 38. Selected metabolites were profiled in parallel with mRNA expression profiling to understand the effect of transcriptional regulatory processes on specific metabolite production that ultimately influence the organoleptic properties of wine. Results Over the course of berry development whole fruit tissues were found to express an average of 74.5% of probes represented on the Vitis microarray, which has 14,470 Unigenes. Approximately 60% of the expressed transcripts were differentially expressed between at least two out of the seven stages of berry

  13. Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Different Types of Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Skrovankova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Berries, especially members of several families, such as Rosaceae (strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, and Ericaceae (blueberry, cranberry, belong to the best dietary sources of bioactive compounds (BAC. They have delicious taste and flavor, have economic importance, and because of the antioxidant properties of BAC, they are of great interest also for nutritionists and food technologists due to the opportunity to use BAC as functional foods ingredients. The bioactive compounds in berries contain mainly phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, flavonoids, such as anthocyanins and flavonols, and tannins and ascorbic acid. These compounds, either individually or combined, are responsible for various health benefits of berries, such as prevention of inflammation disorders, cardiovascular diseases, or protective effects to lower the risk of various cancers. In this review bioactive compounds of commonly consumed berries are described, as well as the factors influencing their antioxidant capacity and their health benefits.

  14. Spin-orbitronics: A new moment for Berry

    KAUST Repository

    Manchon, Aurelien

    2014-01-01

    The standard description of spin-orbit torques neglects geometric phase effects. But recent experiments suggest that the Berry curvature gives rise to an anti-damping torque in systems with broken inversion symmetry.

  15. Spin-orbitronics: A new moment for Berry

    KAUST Repository

    Manchon, Aurelien

    2014-04-13

    The standard description of spin-orbit torques neglects geometric phase effects. But recent experiments suggest that the Berry curvature gives rise to an anti-damping torque in systems with broken inversion symmetry.

  16. Dynamics of vegetation and soils of oak/saw palmetto scrub after fire: Observations from permanent transects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalzer, Paul A.; Hinkle, G. Ross

    1991-01-01

    Ten permanent 15 m transects previously established in two oak/saw palmetto scrub stands burned in December 1986, while two transects remained unburned. Vegetation in the greater than 0.5 m and the less than 0.5 m layers on these transects was sampled at 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months postburn and determined structural features of the vegetation (height, percent bare ground, total cover). The vegetation data were analyzed from each sampling by height layer using detrended correspondence analysis ordination. Vegetation data for the greater than 0.5 m layer for the entire time sequence were combined and analyzed using detrended correspondence analysis ordination. Soils were sampled at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months postburn and analyzed for pH, conductivity, organic matter, exchangeable cations (Ca, Mg, K, Na), NO3-N, NH4-N, Al, available metals (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn), and PO4-P. Shrub species recovered at different rates postfire with saw palmetto reestablishing cover greater than 0.5 m within one year, but the scrub oaks had not returned to preburn cover greater than 0.5 m in 3 years after the fire. These differences in growth rates resulted in dominance shifts after the fire with saw palmetto increasing relative to the scrub oaks. Overall changes in species richness were minor, although changes occurred in species richness by height layers due to different growth rates. Soils of well drained and poorly drained sites differed markedly. Soil responses to the fire appeared minor. Soil pH increased at 6 and 12 months postfire; calcium increased at 6 months postburn. Nitrate-nitrogen increased at 12 months postburn. Low values of conductivity, PO4-P, Mg, K, Na, and Fe at 12 months postburn may be related to heavy rainfall the preceding month. Seasonal variability in some soil parameters appeared to occur.

  17. Correlation of antioxidant activity of dried berry infusions with the polyphenols and selected microelements contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Bratu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant activity was measured by ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP assay in seven types of infusions prepared from commercial dried berry fruit products: Rosa canina, Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Hiphophae rhamnoides, Hibiscus sabdariffa and three fruit mixtures. Total polyphenols (TP, total anthocyanins and the polyphenolic compounds were determined by HPLC equipped with diode array detector. To estimate the amount of elements released from fruits into the water extracts, levels of Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu in dried samples and in infusions were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The correlation between polyphenols content and the antioxidant activities and the microelements in the infusions and the antioxidant activities were estimated using the Pearson’s correlation test. The results showed a high, positive and significant correlation (r = 0.9465 between the FRAP values and TP content, meaning that the concentration of phenolic compounds may be a good indicator of the reducing capacity in the infusions. Correlations varied (positive, negative and weak between antioxidant and mineral extractability of berry infusions. Among the polyphenolic compounds, gallic acid contributed particularly to the antioxidant capacity of the studied samples (r = 0.563. The correlation of antioxidants, total polyphenols with mineral extractability showed the influence of antioxidant compound on mineral bioavailability.

  18. Computational models for the berry phase in semiconductor quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhakar, S., E-mail: rmelnik@wlu.ca; Melnik, R. V. N., E-mail: rmelnik@wlu.ca [M2NeT Lab, Wilfrid Laurier University, 75 University Ave W, Waterloo, ON N2L 3C5 (Canada); Sebetci, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mevlana University, 42003, Konya (Turkey)

    2014-10-06

    By developing a new model and its finite element implementation, we analyze the Berry phase low-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures, focusing on quantum dots (QDs). In particular, we solve the Schrödinger equation and investigate the evolution of the spin dynamics during the adiabatic transport of the QDs in the 2D plane along circular trajectory. Based on this study, we reveal that the Berry phase is highly sensitive to the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit lengths.

  19. Resveratrols in grape berry skins and leaves in vitis germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijun; Xu, Man; Liu, Chunyan; Wang, Junfang; Xi, Huifen; Wu, Benhong; Loescher, Wayne; Duan, Wei; Fan, Peige; Li, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    Resveratrol is an important stilbene that benefits human health. However, it is only distributed in a few species including grape and is very expensive. At present, grape has been an important source resveratrol. However, the details are scarce on resveratrol distribution in different Vitis species or cultivars. The composition and content of resveratrols were investigated by HPLC for assessing genotypic variation in berry skins and leaves of 75 grape cultivars, belonging to 3 species and 7 interspecific hybrids. Trans-resveratrol, cis-piceid and trans-piceid were detected in berry skins and leaves, but cis-resveratrol was not. Resveratrol content largely varied with genetic background as well as usage. In most cultivars, total resveratrol including the above three compounds was higher in berry skins than leaves. In berry skins of most cultivars and leaves of almost all cultivars, cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol; trans-resveratrol and trans-piceid were minor components. Some specific cultivars were found with extremely high levels of trans-resveratrol, cis- piceid, trans-piceid or total resveratrols in berry skins or leaves. In skins and leaves, rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols, and the cultivated European type cultivars and their hybrids with V. labrusca had relatively low totals. There were no significant correlations of the amounts of total resveratrols or any individual resveratrol between berry skins and leaves. All 75 cultivars can be divided into four groups based on the composition of resveratrols and their concentration by principal component analysis. Resveratrol content of grape berries and leaves varied largely with their genetic background and usage. Rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols than the other germplasm. Total resveratrols were lower in leaves than berry skins in most cultivars. Cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol in most cultivars, and trans-res and trans-pd were

  20. A rapid qualitative and quantitative evaluation of grape berries at various stages of development using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musingarabwi, Davirai M; Nieuwoudt, Hélène H; Young, Philip R; Eyéghè-Bickong, Hans A; Vivier, Melané A

    2016-01-01

    Fourier transform (FT) near-infrared (NIR) and attenuated total reflection (ATR) FT mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy were used to qualitatively and quantitatively analyse Vitis vinifera L. cv Sauvignon blanc grape berries. FT-NIR and ATR FT-MIR spectroscopy, coupled with spectral preprocessing and multivariate data analysis (MVDA), provided reliable methods to qualitatively assess berry samples at five distinct developmental stages: green, pre-véraison, véraison, post-véraison and ripe (harvest), without any prior metabolite extraction. Compared to NIR spectra, MIR spectra provided more reliable discrimination between the berry samples from the different developmental stages. Interestingly, ATR FT-MIR spectra from fresh homogenized berry samples proved more discriminatory than spectra from frozen homogenized berry samples. Different developmental stages were discriminated by principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). In order to generate partial least squares (PLS) models from the MIR/NIR spectral datasets; the major sugars (glucose and fructose) and organic acids (malic acid, succinic acid and tartaric acid) were separated and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the data used as a reference dataset. PLS regression was used to develop calibration models to predict the concentration of the major sugars and organic acids in the berry samples from different developmental stages. Our data show that infrared (IR) spectroscopy could provide a rapid, reproducible and cost-effective alternative to the chromatographic analysis of the sugar and organic acid composition of grape berries at various developmental stages, using small sample volumes and requiring limited sample preparation. This provides scope and support for the possible development of hand-held devices to assess quality parameters in field-settings in real-time and non-destructively using IR technologies. Copyright

  1. Bioactive Phytochemicals from Wild Arbutus unedo L. Berries from Different Locations in Portugal: Quantification of Lipophilic Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Daniela F S; Salvador, Ângelo C; Santos, Sónia A O; Vilela, Carla; Freire, Carmen S R; Silvestre, Armando J D; Rocha, Sílvia M

    2015-06-23

    The lipophilic composition of wild Arbutus unedo L. berries, collected from six locations in Penacova (center of Portugal), as well as some general chemical parameters, namely total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity was studied in detail to better understand its potential as a source of bioactive compounds. The chemical composition of the lipophilic extracts, focused on the fatty acids, triterpenoids, sterols, long chain aliphatic alcohols and tocopherols, was investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the dichloromethane extracts. The lipophilic extractives of the ripe A. unedo berries ranged from 0.72% to 1.66% (w/w of dry weight), and consisted mainly of triterpenoids, fatty acids and sterols. Minor amounts of long chain aliphatic alcohols and tocopherols were also identified. Forty-one compounds were identified and among these, ursolic acid, lupeol, α-amyrin, linoleic and α-linolenic acids, and β-sitosterol were highlighted as the major components. To the best of our knowledge the current research study provides the most detailed phytochemical repository for the lipophilic composition of A. unedo, and offers valuable information for future valuation and exploitation of these berries.

  2. Bioactive Phytochemicals from Wild Arbutus unedo L. Berries from Different Locations in Portugal: Quantification of Lipophilic Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela F. S. Fonseca

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The lipophilic composition of wild Arbutus unedo L. berries, collected from six locations in Penacova (center of Portugal, as well as some general chemical parameters, namely total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity was studied in detail to better understand its potential as a source of bioactive compounds. The chemical composition of the lipophilic extracts, focused on the fatty acids, triterpenoids, sterols, long chain aliphatic alcohols and tocopherols, was investigated by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS analysis of the dichloromethane extracts. The lipophilic extractives of the ripe A. unedo berries ranged from 0.72% to 1.66% (w/w of dry weight, and consisted mainly of triterpenoids, fatty acids and sterols. Minor amounts of long chain aliphatic alcohols and tocopherols were also identified. Forty-one compounds were identified and among these, ursolic acid, lupeol, α-amyrin, linoleic and α-linolenic acids, and β-sitosterol were highlighted as the major components. To the best of our knowledge the current research study provides the most detailed phytochemical repository for the lipophilic composition of A. unedo, and offers valuable information for future valuation and exploitation of these berries.

  3. Saw Palmetto for Symptom Management During Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Gwen K; Sikorskii, Alla; Safikhani, Abolfazl; McVary, Kevin T; Herman, James

    2016-06-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTSs) affect 75%-80% of men undergoing radiation therapy (RT) for prostate cancer. To determine the safety, maximum tolerated dose (MTD), and preliminary efficacy of Serenoa repens commonly known as saw palmetto (SP) for management of LUTS during RT for prostate cancer. The dose finding phase used the time-to-event continual reassessment method to evaluate safety of three doses (320, 640, and 960 mg) of SP. Dose-limiting toxicities were assessed for 22 weeks using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events for nausea, gastritis, and anorexia. The exploratory randomized controlled trial phase assessed preliminary efficacy of the MTD against placebo. The primary outcome of LUTS was measured over 22 weeks using the International Prostate Symptom Score. Additional longitudinal assessments included quality of life measured with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate. The dose finding phase was completed by 27 men who reported no dose-limiting toxicities and with 20 participants at the MTD of 960 mg daily. The exploratory randomized controlled trial phase included 21 men, and no statistically significant differences in the International Prostate Symptom Score were observed. The prostate-specific concerns score of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate improved in the SP group (P = 0.03). Of 11 men in the placebo group, two received physician-prescribed medications to manage LUTS compared with none of the 10 men in the SP group. SP at 960 mg may be a safe herbal supplement, but its efficacy in managing LUTS during RT needs further investigation. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Jussara berry (Euterpe edulis M.) oil-in-water emulsions are highly stable: the role of natural antioxidants in the fruit oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Aline G A; Silva, Kelly A; Silva, Laís O; Costa, André M M; Akil, Emília; Coelho, Maria A Z; Torres, Alexandre G

    2018-05-23

    Antioxidants help prevent lipid oxidation, and therefore are critical to maintain sensory quality and chemical characteristics of edible oils. Jussara berry (Euterpe edulis M.) oil is a source of minor compounds with potential antioxidant activity. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of such compounds on the effectiveness to prevent or delay oxidation of oil present in oil-in-water emulsions, and how the emulsions physical stability would be affected. Jussara berry oil extracted by ethanol extraction, its stripped variations (partially stripped, highly stripped and highly stripped with added BHT), and expeller pressed oil were used to prepare oil-in-water emulsions. Jussara berry oils were analyzed before emulsions preparation to ensure its initial quality and composition, and oil-in-water emulsions were analyzed regarding their oxidative and physical stability. Ethanol extracted oil emulsion presented higher oxidative stability when compared to highly stripped oil emulsion with added synthetic antioxidant BHT (oxidative stability index 45% lower, after 60 days, and reached undetectable levels after 90 days). All emulsions maintained physically stable for up to 120 days of storage. Our results indicate that natural antioxidants in jussara berry oil protect emulsions from oxidation while keeping physical stability unchanged. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Adding Value to Fruit Processing Waste: Innovative Ways to Incorporate Fibers from Berry Pomace in Baked and Extruded Cereal-based Foods-A SUSFOOD Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohm, Harald; Brennan, Charles; Turner, Charlotta; Günther, Edeltraud; Campbell, Grant; Hernando, Isabel; Struck, Susanne; Kontogiorgos, Vassilis

    2015-11-24

    This article communicates the set-up of BERRYPOM, a European research project established in the second call of the SUStainable FOOD Production and Consumption (SUSFOOD) network. The project deals with the by-product from berry processing, which is frequently recycled as animal feed, composted or utilized for biogas production. With BERRYPOM it is proposed to analyze the value of berry pomace, to optimize the recovery of bioactive compounds from pomace material, and to incorporate processed berry pomace in cereal-based foods to take advantage of nutritional benefits that originate from its fiber and the content of bioactive substances. Additionally, extraction methods will be evaluated to obtain products rich in phytochemicals, and the influence of processing steps on the antioxidant capacity of pomace will be analyzed. The fiber extracts will then also be utilized in different cereal-based foods and extruded products. As project outcome we expect a substantial increase of knowledge concerning fiber and phytochemicals extraction from berry pomace, its suitability for enhancing nutritional and sensory properties of cereal-based foods, and its effects on the sustainability of the food chain.

  6. Adding Value to Fruit Processing Waste: Innovative Ways to Incorporate Fibers from Berry Pomace in Baked and Extruded Cereal-based Foods—A SUSFOOD Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Rohm

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article communicates the set-up of BERRYPOM, a European research project established in the second call of the SUStainable FOOD Production and Consumption (SUSFOOD network. The project deals with the by-product from berry processing, which is frequently recycled as animal feed, composted or utilized for biogas production. With BERRYPOM it is proposed to analyze the value of berry pomace, to optimize the recovery of bioactive compounds from pomace material, and to incorporate processed berry pomace in cereal-based foods to take advantage of nutritional benefits that originate from its fiber and the content of bioactive substances. Additionally, extraction methods will be evaluated to obtain products rich in phytochemicals, and the influence of processing steps on the antioxidant capacity of pomace will be analyzed. The fiber extracts will then also be utilized in different cereal-based foods and extruded products. As project outcome we expect a substantial increase of knowledge concerning fiber and phytochemicals extraction from berry pomace, its suitability for enhancing nutritional and sensory properties of cereal-based foods, and its effects on the sustainability of the food chain.

  7. Resveratrol, pterostilbene, and piceatannol in vaccinium berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimando, Agnes M; Kalt, Wilhelmina; Magee, James B; Dewey, Jim; Ballington, James R

    2004-07-28

    A study was conducted to determine the presence of resveratrol, pterostilbene, and piceatannol in Vaccinium berries. Samples representing selections and cultivars of 10 species from Mississippi, North Carolina, Oregon, and Canada were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Resveratrol was found in Vaccinium angustifolium (lowbush blueberry), Vaccinium arboretum (sparkleberry), Vaccinium ashei (rabbiteye blueberry), Vaccinium corymbosum (highbush blueberry), Vaccinium elliottii (Elliott's blueberry), Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry), Vaccinium myrtillus (bilberry), Vaccinium stamineum (deerberry), Vaccinium vitis-ideae var. vitis-ideae (lingonberry), and Vaccinium vitis-ideae var. minor (partridgeberry) at levels between 7 and 5884 ng/g dry sample. Lingonberry was found to have the highest content, 5884 ng/g dry sample, comparable to that found in grapes, 6471 ng/g dry sample. Pterostilbene was found in two cultivars of V. ashei and in V. stamineum at levels of 99-520 ng/g dry sample. Piceatannol was found in V. corymbosum and V. stamineum at levels of 138-422 ng/g dry sample. These naturally occurring stilbenes, known to be strong antioxidants and to have cancer chemopreventive activities, will add to the purported health benefits derived from the consumption of these small fruits. Copyright 2004 American Chemical Society

  8. Berry phase via quantum Zeno effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascazio, S.; Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bari

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The 'quantum Zeno effect' is an interesting quantum phenomenon, deeply rooted in some fundamental features of the quantum mechanical laws. It consists in the hindrance of the temporal evolution of a quantum system due to a frequent series of measurements. During the last few years there has been much interest in this issue, mainly because of an idea due to Cook, who proposed using two-level systems to check this effect, and the subsequent experiment performed by Itano et al. Most of the work on this subject has dealt with what might be called the 'static' version of the quantum Zeno effect. However, the most potent action of the observer is not only to stop time evolution (e.g., by repeatedly checking if a system has decayed), but to guide it. In this talk we will be concerned with a 'dynamical' version of the phenomenon: we will show how guiding a system through a closed loop in its state space (projective Hilbert space) leads to a geometrical phase. This was predicted on general grounds by Aharonov and Anandan, but here we use a specific implementation on a neutron spin and propose a particular experimental context in which to see this effect. However, our proposal is valid for any system with the same two-level structure. It is remarkable that the Berry phase to be discussed is due to measurements only: no Hamiltonian is needed. Copyright (1999) Australian Optical Society

  9. The risk-benefit profile of commonly used herbal therapies: Ginkgo, St. John's Wort, Ginseng, Echinacea, Saw Palmetto, and Kava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Edzard

    2002-01-01

    Because use of herbal remedies is increasing, a risk-benefit profile of commonly used herbs is needed. This article provides a clinically oriented overview of the efficacy and safety of ginkgo, St. John's wort, ginseng, echinacea, saw palmetto, and kava. Wherever possible, assessments are based on systematic reviews of randomized clinical trials. Encouraging data support the efficacy of some of these popular herbal medicinal products, and the potential for doing good seems greater than that for doing harm. The published evidence suggests that ginkgo is of questionable use for memory loss and tinnitus but has some effect on dementia and intermittent claudication. St. John's wort is efficacious for mild to moderate depression, but serious concerns exist about its interactions with several conventional drugs. Well-conducted clinical trials do not support the efficacy of ginseng to treat any condition. Echinacea may be helpful in the treatment or prevention of upper respiratory tract infections, but trial data are not fully convincing. Saw palmetto has been shown in short-term trials to be efficacious in reducing the symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Kava is an efficacious short-term treatment for anxiety. None of these herbal medicines is free of adverse effects. Because the evidence is incomplete, risk-benefit assessments are not completely reliable, and much knowledge is still lacking.

  10. Berries grown in Brazil: anthocyanin profiles and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Vitor C; Boff, Laurita; Vizzotto, Márcia; Calvete, Eunice; Reginatto, Flávio H; Simões, Cláudia Mo

    2018-02-11

    Phytochemical profiles of two Brazilian native fruits - pitanga (red and purple) and araçá (yellow and red) - as well as strawberry cultivars Albion, Aromas and Camarosa, blackberry cultivar Tupy and blueberry cultivar Bluegen cultivated in Brazil were characterized for total phenolic content and total anthocyanin content by liquid chromatography coupled to a photodiode array and a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Radical scavenging, antiherpes and cytotoxic activities of these berry extracts were also evaluated. Blueberry presented the highest total anthocyanin content (1202 mg cyanidin-O-glucoside equivalents kg -1 fresh fruit), while strawberry cultivar Aromas presented the highest total phenolic content (13 550 mg gallic acid equivalents kg -1 fresh fruit). Liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis resulted in the identification of 21 anthocyanins. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of cyanidin-O-glucoside in yellow and red Araçá fruit and the first time eight anthocyanins have been reported in pitanga fruits. DPPH and ABTS assays showed that blueberry cultivar Bluegen, blackberry cultivar Tupy and pitanga (red and purple) showed the most promising antiradical activities, respectively. No relevant cytotoxicity against three cancer cell lines or antiherpes activity was detected under the experimental conditions tested. Total anthocyanin content of all fruits had a strong positive correlation with their free radical scavenging activity, suggesting anthocyanins contribute to the antioxidant potential of these fruits. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Grape berry bacterial inhibition by different copper fungicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Guilherme

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper fungicides are widely used in viticulture. Due to its large spectrum of action, copper provides an efficient control over a great number of vine pathogens. Previous studies showed that, high levels of cupric residues can impact grape-berry microbiota, in terms of the size and population structure, reducing the diversity and the abundance. Due to the importance of grape-berry bacterial in crop health, and the potential impact of copper fungicides over the microbiota, we determined Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of different copper formulations for bacterial species isolated from grape berries. We study the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of different copper formulations (copper sulphate (CuSO4 pure, Bordeaux mixture (CuSO4 + Ca(OH2, copper oxide (Cu2O, copper hydroxide (Cu(OH2 over 92 bacterial strains isolated from grape berries in different stages of the ripening process. The results of MIC measurements revealed that the different copper formulations have a variable inhibitory effect and among the different isolates, some species are the most resistant to all copper formulations than others. This study confirm that usage of cupric phytosanitary products should be reasonable independently of the farming system; they also provide evidence of the importance of the choice of which copper formulations are to be used regarding their impact on the grape berry bacterial microbiota.

  12. The Berry Amendment: Requiring Defense Procurement to Come from Domestic Sources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grasso, Valerie B

    2008-01-01

    ...; these provisions later became the Berry Amendment. The Berry Amendment requires DOD to give preference in procurement to domestically produced, manufactured, or home grown products, notably food, clothing, fabrics, and specialty metals...

  13. The Berry Amendment: Requiring Defense Procurement to Come from Domestic Sources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grasso, Valerie B

    2008-01-01

    ...; these provisions later became the Berry Amendment. The Berry Amendment requires DoD to give preference in procurement to domestically produced, manufactured, or home-grown products, notably food, clothing, fabrics, and specialty metals...

  14. Effects of salinity and flooding on seedlings of cabbage palm (Sabal palmetto).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, L; Williams, K

    1996-03-01

    Sabal palmetto (Walt.) Lodd. ex Schultes (cabbage palm) dominates the coastal limit of many forests in North Florida and Georgia, United States. Changes in saltwater flooding due to sea level rise have been credicted with pushing the coastal limit of cabbage palms inland, eliminating regeneration before causing death of mature trees. Localized freshwater discharge along the coast causes different forest stands to experience tidal flooding with waters that differ in salinity. To elucidate the effect of such variation on regeneration failure under tidal flooding, we examined relative effects of flooding and salinity on the performance of cabbage palm seedlings. We examined the relationship between seedling establishment and degree of tidal inundation in the field, compared the ability of seedlings to withstand tidal flooding at two coastal sites that differed in tidal water salinity, and investigated the physiological responses of cabbage palm seedlings to salinity and flooding in a factorial greenhouse experiment. Seedling survival was inversely correlated with depth and frequency of tidal flooding. Survival of seedlings at a coastal site flooded by waters low in salinity [c. 3 parts per thousand (ppt)] was greater than that at a site flooded by waters higher in salinity (up to 23 ppt). Greenhouse experiments revealed that leaves of seedlings in pots flushed twice daily with salt solutions of 0 ppt and 8 ppt exhibited little difference in midmorning net CO 2 assimilation rates; those flushed with solutions of 15 ppt and 22 ppt, in contrast, had such low rates that they could not be detected. Net CO 2 assimilation rates also declined with increasing salinity for seedlings in pots that were continuously inundated. Continuous root zone inundation appeared to ameliorate effects of salinity on photosynthesis, presumably due to increased salt concentrations and possibly water deficits in periodically flushed pots. Such problems associated with periodic flushing by salt

  15. Review of the health effects of berries and their phytochemicals on the digestive and immune systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Govers, Coen; Kasikci, Muzeyyen Berkel; Sluis, van der Addie A.; Mes, Jurriaan J.

    2018-01-01

    Berries are generally considered beneficial to health. This health-promoting potential has mainly been ascribed to berries' phytochemical and vitamin content, and little attention has been paid to the potential benefits of berries for the digestive tract, despite this being the first point of

  16. Berry syndrome in association with familial limb malformation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shahdadpuri, R

    2012-02-01

    We describe a newborn boy diagnosed with Berry syndrome consisting of a distal aortopulmonary septal defect, aortic origin of the right pulmonary artery, and interruption of the aorta. The child was noted to have reduplication of the right thumb. The child\\'s mother had a claw malformation of her left hand but a normal cardiovascular status. Genetic analysis for TBX5 and SALL4 mutations were negative in both the patient and his mother. This case describes the first ever report of Berry syndrome in an infant with reduplication of the right thumb and familial limb malformation.

  17. Transcriptional analysis of late ripening stages of grapevine berry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The composition of grapevine berry at harvest is a major determinant of wine quality. Optimal oenological maturity of berries is characterized by a high sugar/acidity ratio, high anthocyanin content in the skin, and low astringency. However, harvest time is still mostly determined empirically, based on crude biochemical composition and berry tasting. In this context, it is interesting to identify genes that are expressed/repressed specifically at the late stages of ripening and which may be used as indicators of maturity. Results Whole bunches and berries sorted by density were collected in vineyard on Chardonnay (white cultivar) grapevines for two consecutive years at three stages of ripening (7-days before harvest (TH-7), harvest (TH), and 10-days after harvest (TH+10)). Microvinification and sensory analysis indicate that the quality of the wines made from the whole bunches collected at TH-7, TH and TH+10 differed, TH providing the highest quality wines. In parallel, gene expression was studied with Qiagen/Operon microarrays using two types of samples, i.e. whole bunches and berries sorted by density. Only 12 genes were consistently up- or down-regulated in whole bunches and density sorted berries for the two years studied in Chardonnay. 52 genes were differentially expressed between the TH-7 and TH samples. In order to determine whether these genes followed a similar pattern of expression during the late stages of berry ripening in a red cultivar, nine genes were selected for RT-PCR analysis with Cabernet Sauvignon grown under two different temperature regimes affecting the precocity of ripening. The expression profiles and their relationship to ripening were confirmed in Cabernet Sauvignon for seven genes, encoding a carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase, a galactinol synthase, a late embryogenesis abundant protein, a dirigent-like protein, a histidine kinase receptor, a valencene synthase and a putative S-adenosyl-L-methionine:salicylic acid carboxyl

  18. Berry Curvature in Magnon-Phonon Hybrid Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ryuji; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2016-11-18

    We study theoretically the Berry curvature of the magnon induced by the hybridization with the acoustic phonons via the spin-orbit and dipolar interactions. We first discuss the magnon-phonon hybridization via the dipolar interaction, and show that the dispersions have gapless points in momentum space, some of which form a loop. Next, when both spin-orbit and dipolar interactions are considered, we show anisotropic texture of the Berry curvature and its divergence with and without gap closing. Realistic evaluation of the consequent anomalous velocity is given for yttrium iron garnet.

  19. Transcriptional analysis of late ripening stages of grapevine berry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaumie Sabine

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The composition of grapevine berry at harvest is a major determinant of wine quality. Optimal oenological maturity of berries is characterized by a high sugar/acidity ratio, high anthocyanin content in the skin, and low astringency. However, harvest time is still mostly determined empirically, based on crude biochemical composition and berry tasting. In this context, it is interesting to identify genes that are expressed/repressed specifically at the late stages of ripening and which may be used as indicators of maturity. Results Whole bunches and berries sorted by density were collected in vineyard on Chardonnay (white cultivar grapevines for two consecutive years at three stages of ripening (7-days before harvest (TH-7, harvest (TH, and 10-days after harvest (TH+10. Microvinification and sensory analysis indicate that the quality of the wines made from the whole bunches collected at TH-7, TH and TH+10 differed, TH providing the highest quality wines. In parallel, gene expression was studied with Qiagen/Operon microarrays using two types of samples, i.e. whole bunches and berries sorted by density. Only 12 genes were consistently up- or down-regulated in whole bunches and density sorted berries for the two years studied in Chardonnay. 52 genes were differentially expressed between the TH-7 and TH samples. In order to determine whether these genes followed a similar pattern of expression during the late stages of berry ripening in a red cultivar, nine genes were selected for RT-PCR analysis with Cabernet Sauvignon grown under two different temperature regimes affecting the precocity of ripening. The expression profiles and their relationship to ripening were confirmed in Cabernet Sauvignon for seven genes, encoding a carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase, a galactinol synthase, a late embryogenesis abundant protein, a dirigent-like protein, a histidine kinase receptor, a valencene synthase and a putative S

  20. Isolation of linoleic acid as an estrogenic compound from the fruits of Vitex agnus-castus L. (chaste-berry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Burdette, J E; Sun, Y; Deng, S; Schlecht, S M; Zheng, W; Nikolic, D; Mahady, G; van Breemen, R B; Fong, H H S; Pezzuto, J M; Bolton, J L; Farnsworth, N R

    2004-01-01

    A methanol extract of chaste-tree berry (Vitex agnus-castus L.) was tested for its ability to displace radiolabeled estradiol from the binding site of estrogen receptors alpha (ERalpha) and beta (ERbeta). The extract at 46 +/- 3 microg/ml displaced 50% of estradiol from ERalpha and 64 +/- 4 microg/ml from ERbeta. Treatment of the ER+ hormone-dependent T47D:A18 breast cancer cell line with the extract induced up-regulation of ERbeta mRNA. Progesterone receptor (PR) mRNA was upregulated in the Ishikawa endometrial cancer cell line. However, chaste-tree berry extract did not induce estrogen-dependent alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity in Ishikawa cells. Bioassay-guided isolation, utilizing ER binding as a monitor, resulted in the isolation of linoleic acid as one possible estrogenic component of the extract. The use of pulsed ultrafiltration liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, which is an affinity-based screening technique, also identified linoleic acid as an ER ligand based on its selective affinity, molecular weight, and retention time. Linoleic acid also stimulated mRNA ERbeta expression in T47D:A18 cells, PR expression in Ishikawa cells, but not AP activity in Ishikawa cells. These data suggest that linoleic acid from the fruits of Vitex agnus-castus can bind to estrogen receptors and induce certain estrogen inducible genes.

  1. Metabolic changes of Vitis vinifera berries and leaves exposed to Bordeaux mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Viviana; Teixeira, António; Bassil, Elias; Blumwald, Eduardo; Gerós, Hernâni

    2014-09-01

    Since the development of Bordeaux mixture in the late 1800's, copper-based fungicides have been widely used against grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) diseases, mainly in organic but also in conventional viticulture; however their intensive use has raised phytotoxicity concerns. In this study, the composition of grape berries and leaves upon Bordeaux mixture treatment was investigated during the fructification season by a metabolomic approach. Four applications of Bordeaux mixture till 3 weeks before harvest were performed following the regular management practices of organic viticulture. Results showed that the copper-based treatment affected the content in sugars, organic acids, lipids and flavan-3-ols of grapes and leaves at specific developmental stages. Nonetheless, the levels of sucrose, glucose and fructose, and of tartaric and malic acids were not significantly affected in mature grapes. In contrast, a sharp decrease in free natural amino acids was observed, together with a reduction in protein content and in mineral nitrogen forms. The treatment with Bordeaux mixture increased by 7-fold the copper levels in tissue extracts from surface-washed mature berries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification and quantification of phenolic compounds in berries of Fragaria and Rubus species (family Rosaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Määttä-Riihinen, Kaisu R; Kamal-Eldin, Afaf; Törrönen, A Riitta

    2004-10-06

    High-performance liquid chromatography combined with diode array and electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detection was used to study soluble and insoluble forms of phenolic compounds in strawberries, raspberries (red and yellow cultivated and red wild), arctic bramble, and cloudberries. Hydroxycinnamic acids were present as free forms in cloudberries and mainly as sugar esters in the other berries. Quercetin 3-glucuronide was the typical flavonol glycoside in all of the berries studied. The composition of the predominant anthocyanins can be used to distinguish the studied red Rubus species from each other since cyanidin was glycosylated typically with 3-sophorose (56%) in cultivated red raspberry, with 3-sophorose (30%) and 3-glucose (27%) in wild red raspberry, and with 3-rutinose (80%) in arctic bramble. Ellagic acid was present as free and glycosylated forms and as ellagitannins of varying degrees of polymerization. Comparable levels of ellagitannins were obtained by the analysis of soluble ellagitannins as gallic acid equivalents and by the analysis of ellagic acid equivalents released by acid hydrolysis of the extracts.

  3. Comparative Studies on the Phytochemistry of Essential Oil from Needles and Berries of Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadir, M.

    2013-01-01

    The study provides a comparison on the essential oil composition of Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb. Essential oil extracted separately from berries (yield 0.11%) and needles (yield 0.13%) were subjected to GC-MS and GC-FID techniques for the identification and quantification of the constituents. A total of 26 compounds; 21 from berries and 20 from needles were identified. Of these major constituents in berries were beta-pinene (43.4%), beta-pinene (32.3%), limonene (9.6%), and sabinene (2.7%) while in needles were beta-pinene (36.0%), beta-pinene (30.2%), limonene (12.6%), and beta-phellandrene (3.9%). 3 identified compounds (guaiol, beta-elemene and epi-bicyclosesquiphellandrene) were not reported yet from any essential oil of J. excelsa, beta-guaiene is also reported for the first time from needles. A comparative discussion on the chemical composition of the essential oil from two different parts of plants in the current study with those available in literature is also included. The findings confirmed that the Pakistan origin plant belongs to alpha-pinene chemotype, alpha-pinene rich oils are used as local antiseptic. (author)

  4. Ultraviolet-B radiation modifies the quantitative and qualitative profile of flavonoids and amino acids in grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Lüscher, J; Torres, N; Hilbert, G; Richard, T; Sánchez-Díaz, M; Delrot, S; Aguirreolea, J; Pascual, I; Gomès, E

    2014-06-01

    Grapevine cv. Tempranillo fruit-bearing cuttings were exposed to supplemental ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation under controlled conditions, in order to study its effect on grape traits, ripening, amino acids and flavonoid profile. The plants were exposed to two doses of UV-B biologically effective (5.98 and 9.66kJm(-2)d(-1)), applied either from fruit set to ripeness or from the onset of veraison to ripeness. A 0kJm(-2)d(-1) treatment was included as a control. UV-B did not significantly modify grape berry size, but increased the relative mass of berry skin. Time to reach ripeness was not affected by UV-B, which may explain the lack of changes in technological maturity. The concentration of must extractable anthocyanins, colour density and skin flavonols were enhanced by UV-B, especially in plants exposed from fruit set. The quantitative and qualitative profile of grape skin flavonols were modified by UV-B radiation. Monosubstituted flavonols relative abundance increased proportionally to the accumulated UV-B doses. Furthermore, trisubstituted forms, which where predominant in non-exposed berries, were less abundant as UV-B exposure increased. Although total free amino acid content remained unaffected by the treatments, the increased levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), as well as the decrease in threonine, isoleucine, methionine, serine and glycine, revealed a potential influence of UV-B on the GABA-mediated signalling and amino acid metabolism. UV-B had an overall positive impact on grape berry composition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of fruit development and potential health benefits of arrayan (Luma apiculata), a native berry of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Lida; Valdenegro, Mónika; Gómez, María-Graciela; Ayala-Raso, Aníbal; Quiroga, Evelyn; Martínez, Juan-Pablo; Vinet, Raúl; Caballero, Eduardo; Figueroa, Carlos R

    2016-04-01

    The arrayan berry (Luma apiculata) is a native fruit from South America that belongs to the Myrtaceae family. To elucidate and characterize the developmental process and the potential health benefits of this edible fruit, quality and physiological parameters, along with antioxidant capacity, were evaluated during four clearly defined developmental stages of the fruit in two seasons. Fruit firmness slowly decreases during fruit development, whereas the solid soluble content/titratable acidity ratio (SSC/TA) increases significantly in the final stages of development. The measurement of low respiration rates and low ethylene production during growth and ripening suggested that the arrayan berry should be classified as a non-climacteric fruit. Arrayan berries show a significant increase in their antioxidant capacity from small green to black ripe fruit. FRAP and TEAC assays showed high correlations with total polyphenolic content (TPC) during ripening and high antioxidant capacity at all fruit stages, showing greater values in ripe fruit (FRAP: 24 ± 2 and 28 ± 3 μM FeSO4/gFW; TEAC: 18 ± 2 and 20 ± 1 Eq. Trolox/gFW for each season, respectively) than those observed in the blueberry (FRAP: 10 ± 2 and 19 ± 3 μM FeSO4/gFW; TEAC: 10 ± 2 and 17 ± 3). In addition, bioactive assays using ripe fruit extracts show presence of flavonol and anthocyanins, a high ORAC value (62,500 ± 7000 μmol/gDW) and a concentration-dependent vascular protection under high glucose conditions. The results obtained show that these endemic berry fruits have a promising potential as functional food. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Title: Status of coffee berry damaging insects in the afromontane

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    populations, which is relatively low incidences in less disturbed ecosystem. ..... Insect pests associated with forest coffee berries in south western Ethiopia. .... parasitoid was introduced to Latin American countries, .... indicators of ecological diversity, so more detailed studies .... western Ethiopia: Impacts of human use and.

  7. Tracing enteric viruses in the European berry fruit supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maunula, L.; Kaupke, A.; Vasickova, P.; Soderberg, K.; Kozyra, I.; Lazic, S.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Bouwknegt, M.; Rutjes, S.; Willems, K.A.; Moloney, R.; Agostino, D' M.; Husman, A.M.D.; Bonsdorff, C.H.; Rzezutka, A.; Pavlik, I.; Petrovic, T.; Cook, N.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, numerous foodborne outbreaks due to consumption of berry fruit contaminated by human enteric viruses have been reported. This European multinational study investigated possible contamination routes by monitoring the entire food chain for a panel of human and animal enteric viruses.

  8. A coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    One hundred years ago, one of the most significant biological invasions of an agricultural insect pest in the Americas was initiated. Endemic to Africa, the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was accidentally introduced to Brazil in 1913 and years later invaded coffe...

  9. Coffee Berry Borer Joins Bark Beetles in Coffee Klatch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Torto, Baldwyn; Mwenda, Dickson; Troeger, Armin; Borgemeister, Christian; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Francke, Wittko

    2013-01-01

    Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and α-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms. PMID:24073204

  10. Antiparasitic, Nematicidal and Antifouling Constituents from Juniperus Berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bioassay-guided fractionation of Juniperus procera berries yielded antiparasitic, nematicidal and antifouling constituents, including a wide range of known abietane, pimarane and labdane diterpenes. Among these, abieta-7,13-diene (1) demonstrated in vitro antimalarial activity against Plasmodium f...

  11. Metabolic Effects of Berries with Structurally Diverse Anthocyanins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Overall

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Overconsumption of energy dense foods and sedentary lifestyle are considered as major causes of obesity-associated insulin resistance and abnormal glucose metabolism. Results from both cohort studies and randomized trials suggested that anthocyanins from berries may lower metabolic risks, however these reports are equivocal. The present study was designed to examine effects of six berries with structurally diverse anthocyanin profiles (normalized to 400 µg/g total anthocyanin content on development of metabolic risk factors in the C57BL/6 mouse model of polygenic obesity. Diets supplemented with blackberry (mono-glycosylated cyanidins, black raspberry (acylated mono-glycosylated cyanidins, blackcurrant (mono- and di-glycosylated cyanidins and delphinidins, maqui berry (di-glycosylated delphinidins, Concord grape (acylated mono-glycosylated delphinidins and petunidins, and blueberry (mono-glycosylated delphinidins, malvidins, and petunidins showed a prominent discrepancy between biological activities of delphinidin/malvidin-versus cyanidin-type anthocyanins that could be explained by differences in their structure and metabolism in the gut. Consumption of berries also resulted in a strong shift in the gastrointestinal bacterial communities towards obligate anaerobes that correlated with decrease in the gastrointestinal luminal oxygen and oxidative stress. Further work is needed to understand mechanisms that lead to nearly anoxic conditions in the gut lumens, including the relative contributions of host, diet and/or microbial oxidative activity, and their implication to human health.

  12. Q & A with economist Albert Berry | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-06

    Oct 6, 2010 ... Listen to Berry describe the pitfalls of a resource-dependent ... One thing economists wonder about is whether — when you look at the whole economy — the total benefits from microfinance are as ... New life for old computers.

  13. Pathogenicity of Phaeoacremonium aleophilum and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora on Grape Berries in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.D. Gubler

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Injured and non-injured grape berries were inoculated with spore suspension of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora or Phaeoacremonium aleophilum under field (intact berries and laboratory (detached berries conditions. In one test, berries were injured by pricking the skin with a syringe needle to a depth of approximately 1.5 mm. Brown to purple lesions appeared 5 to 7 days after inoculation in both the injured intact and detached berries. Lesions on these berries were larger when inoculated earlier in the season indicating that young, immature berries are more susceptible to infection than mature berries. In another test, berries were injured by rubbing the skin with carborundum dust using a cotton-tipped applicator. Esca-like lesions developed in 4 to 5 days after inoculation of detached but not intact berries. Occasional infection of non-injured berries occurred which appeared as small dots to pin-head size lesions around the lenticels. Scanning electron microscopy observations of these lesions showed abundant hyphal growth on the surface with apparent penetration through lenticels; however, fungal structures were not detected with certainty beneath the lenticels or intact cuticle. In both tests, the fungi were re-isolated from the advancing margin of the lesions.

  14. Berry Shriveling Significantly Alters Shiraz (Vitis vinifera L.) Grape and Wine Chemical Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šuklje, Katja; Zhang, Xinyi; Antalick, Guillaume; Clark, Andrew C; Deloire, Alain; Schmidtke, Leigh M

    2016-02-03

    Berry shriveling is an often reported occurrence in the Shiraz (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivar. This study investigated the effect of berry shriveling occurring in a high yielding (18.6 ± 1.6 kg/vine) Shiraz vineyard in relation to a temporal investigation of grape and wine composition using three harvest dates. Berry shriveling resulted in delayed total soluble solids and amino acid accumulation into the berry, however differences between treatments diminished or became smaller by the third harvest date. Similarly, ethyl esters of fatty acids and higher alcohol acetates were lower in wines from shriveled berries from the first two harvests; anthocyanins were reduced in wines from shriveled berries at all harvest dates, whereas terpenes were unaltered. Wines made from shriveled berries had higher γ-nonalactone and β-damascenone concentrations. This study provides novel information on the chemical alterations of grapes and wines made from grapes affected by shriveling.

  15. Influence of shriveling on berry composition and antioxidant activity of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes from Shanxi vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yulin; Meng, Jiangfei; Zhang, Ang; Liu, Jinchuan; Xu, Tengfei; Yu, Weilong; Chen, Shuxia; Li, Hua; Zhang, Zhenwen; Wang, Hua

    2011-03-15

    Berry shrivel (BS), a berry development disorder, appears soon after veraison. It occurs worldwide and affects the quality of grape berries and wine. However, it had not been reported in China until recently. This study aimed to investigate the changes in berry composition and antioxidant activity of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes from Xiangning Valley, Shanxi Province, China, during BS. Shrinkage contributed to an increase in the concentration of basic grape ingredients such as sugar and acid. An appropriate degree of shrinkage was apparently helpful in improving the phenolic content and increasing the antioxidant activity, but the berries that continued to shrivel showed a low antioxidant activity. Further, the results indicated distinct differences between the berries harvested from the southern side of the canopy and those harvested from the northern side, presumably due to variations in sunlight exposure. Moderate BS was beneficial since it increased berry quality and antioxidant activity of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes from Shanxi vineyards. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Red/Green Currant and Sea Buckthorn Berry Press Residues as Potential Sources of Antioxidants for Food Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puganen, Anna; Kallio, Heikki P; Schaich, Karen M; Suomela, Jukka-Pekka; Yang, Baoru

    2018-04-04

    The potential for using extracts of press residues from black, green, red, and white currants and from sea buckthorn berries as sources of antioxidants for foods use was investigated. Press residues were extracted with ethanol in four consecutive extractions, and total Folin-Ciocalteu (F-C) reactive material and authentic phenolic compounds were determined. Radical quenching capability and mechanisms were determined from total peroxyl radical-trapping antioxidant capacity (TRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays and from diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) kinetics, respectively; specific activities were normalized to F-C reactive concentrations. Levels of total F-C reactive materials in press residue extracts were higher than in many fruits and showed significant radical quenching activity. Black currant had the highest authentic phenol content and ORAC, TRAP, and DPPH reactivity. Sea buckthorn grown in northern Finland showed extremely high total specific DPPH reactivity. These results suggest that berry press residues offer attractive value-added products that can provide antioxidants for use in stabilizing and fortifying foods.

  17. α-Amylase inhibitor-1 gene from Phaseolus vulgaris expressed in Coffea arabica plants inhibits α-amylases from the coffee berry borer pest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira-Neto Osmundo B

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coffee is an important crop and is crucial to the economy of many developing countries, generating around US$70 billion per year. There are 115 species in the Coffea genus, but only two, C. arabica and C. canephora, are commercially cultivated. Coffee plants are attacked by many pathogens and insect-pests, which affect not only the production of coffee but also its grain quality, reducing the commercial value of the product. The main insect-pest, the coffee berry borer (Hypotheneumus hampei, is responsible for worldwide annual losses of around US$500 million. The coffee berry borer exclusively damages the coffee berries, and it is mainly controlled by organochlorine insecticides that are both toxic and carcinogenic. Unfortunately, natural resistance in the genus Coffea to H. hampei has not been documented. To overcome these problems, biotechnological strategies can be used to introduce an α-amylase inhibitor gene (α-AI1, which confers resistance against the coffee berry borer insect-pest, into C. arabica plants. Results We transformed C. arabica with the α-amylase inhibitor-1 gene (α-AI1 from the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, under control of the seed-specific phytohemagglutinin promoter (PHA-L. The presence of the α-AI1 gene in six regenerated transgenic T1 coffee plants was identified by PCR and Southern blotting. Immunoblotting and ELISA experiments using antibodies against α-AI1 inhibitor showed a maximum α-AI1 concentration of 0.29% in crude seed extracts. Inhibitory in vitro assays of the α-AI1 protein against H. hampei α-amylases in transgenic seed extracts showed up to 88% inhibition of enzyme activity. Conclusions This is the first report showing the production of transgenic coffee plants with the biotechnological potential to control the coffee berry borer, the most important insect-pest of crop coffee.

  18. Alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 gene from Phaseolus vulgaris expressed in Coffea arabica plants inhibits alpha-amylases from the coffee berry borer pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Aulus E A D; Albuquerque, Erika V S; Silva, Maria C M; Souza, Djair S L; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo B; Valencia, Arnubio; Rocha, Thales L; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria F

    2010-06-17

    Coffee is an important crop and is crucial to the economy of many developing countries, generating around US$70 billion per year. There are 115 species in the Coffea genus, but only two, C. arabica and C. canephora, are commercially cultivated. Coffee plants are attacked by many pathogens and insect-pests, which affect not only the production of coffee but also its grain quality, reducing the commercial value of the product. The main insect-pest, the coffee berry borer (Hypotheneumus hampei), is responsible for worldwide annual losses of around US$500 million. The coffee berry borer exclusively damages the coffee berries, and it is mainly controlled by organochlorine insecticides that are both toxic and carcinogenic. Unfortunately, natural resistance in the genus Coffea to H. hampei has not been documented. To overcome these problems, biotechnological strategies can be used to introduce an alpha-amylase inhibitor gene (alpha-AI1), which confers resistance against the coffee berry borer insect-pest, into C. arabica plants. We transformed C. arabica with the alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 gene (alpha-AI1) from the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, under control of the seed-specific phytohemagglutinin promoter (PHA-L). The presence of the alpha-AI1 gene in six regenerated transgenic T1 coffee plants was identified by PCR and Southern blotting. Immunoblotting and ELISA experiments using antibodies against alpha-AI1 inhibitor showed a maximum alpha-AI1 concentration of 0.29% in crude seed extracts. Inhibitory in vitro assays of the alpha-AI1 protein against H. hampei alpha-amylases in transgenic seed extracts showed up to 88% inhibition of enzyme activity. This is the first report showing the production of transgenic coffee plants with the biotechnological potential to control the coffee berry borer, the most important insect-pest of crop coffee.

  19. Two applications of Berry's phase in fermionic field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, W.E.

    1989-01-01

    When quantized fermions are coupled to a background field, nontrivial effects may arise due to the geometry and/or topology of the space of background field configurations. In this thesis, two examples of Berry's geometrical phase in a fermionic sea are studied: the anomalous commutator in gauge field theory and the intrinsic orbital angular momentum in superfluid 3 He-A. Chapter 1 is a brief introduction. Chapter 2 reviews Berry's Phase and several toy models. Effective actions are calculated for two models in gradient expansions and the role of a geometric term is discussed. Chapter 3 investigates the anomalous commutator in the generators of gauge symmetry in field theory. Using an idea introduced by Sonoda, the Berry phase of the vacuum state is found to be the sum of the Berry phases of the individual states in the sea plus a piece due to the infinite nature of the Dirac sea. The latter is the anomalous commutator. Also found is a relative minus sign between the commutator of the total gauge symmetry generators and the commutator of the fermionic charge generators. Examples are given. In Chapter 4, a geometric way of deriving the intrinsic orbital angular momentum term in the 3 He-A equations of motion is presented. Homogeneous, adiabatically evolving textures at zero temperature are found to pick up a nonzero groundstate Berry phase, where the ground state is taken to be a filled sea of Bogoliubov quasiparticles. Interpreting the phase as a Wess-Zumino effective action for the condensate provides a geometric origin for the intrinsic angular momentum. The idea of a ground-state phase is then extended to other gap functions and a more general result is obtained. Chapter 5 concludes with a discussion of the possibility of unifying the two problems in a more general framework and directions for further work

  20. Knowledge and prevalence of use of saw palmetto and other herbal products among men with prostate disease in Trinidad and Tobago

    OpenAIRE

    S. Persaud; J. Leach; A. Ramkissoon; L. Goetz

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the knowledge and prevalence of use of saw palmetto and other herbal products among men attending the urology outpatient clinic at San Fernando General Hospital. Subjects and methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study carried out between February and May 2015. A structured, interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data from randomly selected men with prostate cancer or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and who were part of our outpat...

  1. Palmetto Academy: Undergraduates Exploring and Communicating the Multidisciplinary Nature of STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, C.; Ali, A.; Runyon, C. J.; Colgan, M. W.

    2012-12-01

    One of the pillars of the US economy is a well-trained Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) workforce (National Academy of Sciences, 2007). The number of students choosing to study science and engineering has taken a dramatic decline. The percentage of those degrees conferred in SC was substantially lower than the national average and the percentage of those occupations within the SC workforce also falls below the national average, supporting the need for engaging and educational STEM programs. The NASA South Carolina Space Grant Consortium's Palmetto Research Academy (PRA) program is an immersive and integrated multidisciplinary exposure and training for undergraduate students with various backgrounds and career aspirations of critical importance to the Nation. This program offers exciting and inspiring hands-on research experiences that are aligned with NASA missions. The PRA advances NASA's research interest in areas such as aeronautics, biomedical science, sun-earth connections, planetary and Earth science. The PRA helps to develop the STEM workforce in STEM disciplines, a necessity in South Carolina. In addition, the PRA incorporates an education/outreach component, where the students engage secondary educators and students in NASA scientific and technical expertise. In 2012, the PRA had 10 research projects across the state in disciplines of mechanical and chemical engineering, bioengineering, chemistry, biogeooptical sciences, physics and astronomy and biomedical sciences. 18 undergraduates and 2 technical college students participated in authentic hands-on research mentored by leading scientists and engineers throughout the state. Examples projects include: A) Development of a series of astronomical telescopes to be mounted on a commercial human-tended suborbital rockets. The students built the instrument, including the power system and the mechanical interface, and performed function and fit testing on the XCOR Aerospace Lynx vehicle mock-up. B

  2. The antioxidant level of Alaska's wild berries: high, higher and highest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxie Rodgers Dinstel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . In the last few years, antioxidants have become the stars of the nutritional world. Antioxidants are important in terms of their ability to protect against oxidative cell damage that can lead to conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease, cancer and heart disease – conditions also linked with chronic inflammation. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Alaska's wild berries may have the potential to help prevent these diseases. Objective . To discover the antioxidant levels of Alaska wild berries and the ways these antioxidant levels translate when preservation methods are applied to the berry. Design . This research centred on both the raw berries and products made from the berries. In the first year, a variety of wild berries were tested to discover their oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC in the raw berries. The second level of the research project processed 4 different berries – blueberries, lingonberries, salmonberries, highbush cranberries – into 8 or 9 products made from these berries. The products were tested for both ORAC as well as specific antioxidants. Results . The Alaska wild berries collected and tested in the first experiment ranged from 3 to 5 times higher in ORAC value than cultivated berries from the lower 48 states. For instance, cultivated blueberries have an ORAC scale of 30. Alaska wild dwarf blueberries measure 85. This is also higher than lower 48 wild blueberries, which had a score of 61. All of the Alaskan berries tested have a level of antioxidant considered nutritionally valuable, ranging from 19 for watermelon berries to 206 for lingonberries on the ORAC scale. With the processed products made from 4 Alaska wild berries, one of the unexpected outcomes of the research was that the berries continued to have levels of antioxidants considered high, despite the effects of commonly used heat-processing techniques. When berries were dehydrated, per gram ORAC values increased. Conclusion

  3. Transcriptome comparison of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries from two regions with distinct climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Runze; He, Fei; Lan, Yibin; Xing, Ranran; Liu, Rui; Pan, Qiuhong; Wang, Jun; Duan, Changqing

    2015-04-15

    Primary and secondary metabolism in grape berries is under the control of complex interactions among environmental conditions, genotypes, and management practices. To obtain an interpretation from the view of transcriptome on distinct metabolite accumulation between ecologically different regions in China, next-generation sequencing technology was performed on E-L 31, 35, and 38 stages of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries from Changli (CL, eastern) and Gaotai (GT, western). The transcript abundance of epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and xanthoxin dehydrogenase required for ABA biosynthesis was significantly higher in the GT berries at E-L 35 and 38 stages compared with the CL berries, which may explain the relatively short maturation period of berries in the western region. Some genes required for carbohydrate metabolism, such as hexose transporter, L-idonate dehydrogenase, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, were significantly up-regulated in the CL berries in relation to the GT berries, which positively correlated with the sugar and organic acid accumulations. Pathway enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes revealed that the CL berries had higher levels of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis at E-L 38 stage than the GT berries, which may relate to the quick fading of the GT wines because of weak co-pigmentation. This observation lays a foundation for further study concerning the molecular basis for environmental effects on berry quality formation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Revegetation of oil sands tailings. Growth improvement of silver-berry and buffalo-berry by inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi and N/sub 2/-fixing bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, S.; Danielson, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    The ability of actinorhizal shrubs to tolerate inhospitable conditions while improving soil fertility and organic matter status has led to increased usage of these plants for land reclamation and amenity planting purposes. Silver-berry and buffalo-berry are two such shrubs being tested as potential candidates for the revegetation of the oil sands tailings in northeastern Alberta. Associated with the roots of silver-berry and buffalo-berry are two symbiants, the N/sub 2/-fixing actimomycete Frankia and the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi. Numerous studies have demonstrated that, particularly in nutrient-limited conditions, mycorrhization and nodulation can result in significantly better plant performance as a consequence of improved N and P nutrition. It was found in this study that in Alberta, silver-berry and buffalo-berry are strictly VA mycorrhizal; that they are highly dependent on their symbiants for optimum growth; and that the VAM inoculum potential of both stockpiled and undisturbed muskeg peak is negligible, due to the absence of VAM hosts. Means to increase the inoculum potential of peat have been studied. The efficacy of inoculating seedlings grown in greenhouses with VAM and Frankia has been demonstrated. Overwinter mortality was higher for inoculated shrubs, but after one growing season, shoot-weights of silver-berry were 3 to 7 times greater than for uninoculated shrubs, and shoot weights of buffalo-berry were 3 to 5 times greater. 122 refs., 12 figs., 31 tabs.

  5. Explaining and predicting individually experienced liking of berry fractions by the hTAS2R38 taste receptor genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, Oskar; Ahola, Johanna; Sandell, Mari

    2013-02-01

    The roles of taste and astringent properties, food choice motives and health concerns in liking of bilberry and crowberry samples were studied using a sensory panel prescreened for the hTAS2R38 taste receptor genotype. The subjects rated the intensity of sourness, bitterness and two astringent properties (soft, velvety and rough, puckering) of all berry samples. They also scored the liking of juice fractions and completed a food choice motive and health concern questionnaire. Regression models were used to combine different data sets and to predict liking of the extracts. Sourness contributed positively to the liking of berry fractions, and bitterness and rough astringency were negative factors. The hTAS2R38 genotype affected the liking of polyphenol-rich extracts, which were significantly bitter and astringent. Based on the genotype grouping of subjects, PAV homozygotes gave lower ratings to the attributes than AVI homozygotes. In contrast, PAV homozygotes were predicted to dislike the extracts notably more than AVI homozygotes. Health concern and food choice motives related to health and weight control had significant roles in individual liking of juice fractions. Our results indicate that mood was more important to the PAV homozygotes than to the AVI homozygotes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Water deficit increases stilbene metabolism in Cabernet Sauvignon berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluc, Laurent G; Decendit, Alain; Papastamoulis, Yorgos; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

    2011-01-12

    The impact of water deficit on stilbene biosynthesis in wine grape (Vitis vinifera) berries was investigated. Water deficit increased the accumulation of trans-piceid (the glycosylated form of resveratrol) by 5-fold in Cabernet Sauvignon berries but not in Chardonnay. Similarly, water deficit significantly increased the transcript abundance of genes involved in the biosynthesis of stilbene precursors in Cabernet Sauvignon. Increased expression of stilbene synthase, but not that of resveratrol-O-glycosyltransferase, resulted in increased trans-piceid concentrations. In contrast, the transcript abundance of the same genes declined in Chardonnay in response to water deficit. Twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in the promoters of stilbene synthase genes of Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, and Pinot Noir. These polymorphisms resulted in eight changes within the predicted cis regulatory elements in Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay. These results suggest that cultivar-specific molecular mechanisms might exist that control resveratrol biosynthesis in grapes.

  7. The Schwinger term and the Berry phase in simple models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosse, H.

    1989-01-01

    We discuss quantization of fermions interacting with external fields and observe the occurrence of equivalent as well as inequivalent representations of the canonical anticommutation relations. Implementability of gauge and axial gauge transformations leads to generators which fulfill an algebra of charges with Schwinger term. This term can be written as a cocycle and leads to the boson-fermion correspondence. During an adiabatic transport along closed loops in a parameter space we may pick up a nonintegrable phase factor, usually called the Berry phase. We study the occurrence of such a topological phase in a model and give the parallel transport for density matrices. After second quantization one may pick up both a Berry phase and a Schwinger term. 13 refs. (Author)

  8. Spin Hall effect and Berry phase of spinning particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berard, Alain; Mohrbach, Herve

    2006-01-01

    We consider the adiabatic evolution of the Dirac equation in order to compute its Berry curvature in momentum space. It is found that the position operator acquires an anomalous contribution due to the non-Abelian Berry gauge connection making the quantum mechanical algebra noncommutative. A generalization to any known spinning particles is possible by using the Bargmann-Wigner equation of motions. The noncommutativity of the coordinates is responsible for the topological spin transport of spinning particles similarly to the spin Hall effect in spintronic physics or the Magnus effect in optics. As an application we predict new dynamics for nonrelativistic particles in an electric field and for photons in a gravitational field

  9. Estonian cow berries have not been affected by radioactive pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liiva, A.; Pihlik, U.

    1994-01-01

    According to Latvia n scientists cow berry leaves contain 0.15 kBq/kg of radioactive cesium ( Cs-137 + Cs-134). To check the situation in Estonia officials of forestry enterprises were asked to gather cow berry plants from five control areas in different parts of Estonia, two samples from each (one from a glade, the other from under trees). Analysis of the material collected has shown the specific Cs-137 activity of all samples to be less than 0.18 kBq/kg of dry leaf mass. This is 100 times lower than the limit set for dried medicinal herbs in the Soviet Union after the Chernobyl disaster. (author). 6 refs

  10. Berry-phase blockade in single-molecule magnets

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Gabriel; Leuenberger, Michael N.

    2006-01-01

    We formulate the problem of electron transport through a single-molecule magnet (SMM) in the Coulomb blockade regime taking into account topological interference effects for the tunneling of the large spin of a SMM. The interference originates from spin Berry phases associated with different tunneling paths. We show that in the case of incoherent spin states it is essential to place the SMM between oppositely spin-polarized source and drain leads in order to detect the spin tunneling in the s...

  11. A new approach to calculating the Berry phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Lianao; Sun Jing; Zhong Jiyu

    1993-01-01

    It is proved that any time-dependent problem can be transformed into a time-independent one by a unitary transformation. The general equation satisfied by the transformation is given. For some time-dependent Hamiltonians the transformation can be found easily. More importantly, if the initial states are just eigenstates of the transformed Hamiltonians, the dynamical phase can be conveniently removed and the Berry phase can be found directly. (orig.)

  12. Braiding transformation, entanglement swapping, and Berry phase in entanglement space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jingling; Ge Molin; Xue Kang

    2007-01-01

    We show that braiding transformation is a natural approach to describe quantum entanglement by using the unitary braiding operators to realize entanglement swapping and generate the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states as well as the linear cluster states. A Hamiltonian is constructed from the unitary R i,i+1 (θ,φ) matrix, where φ=ωt is time-dependent while θ is time-independent. This in turn allows us to investigate the Berry phase in the entanglement space

  13. An analogue of the Berry phase for simple harmonic oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslov, S. K.

    2013-03-01

    We evaluate a variant of Berry's phase for a ‘missing’ family of the square integrable wavefunctions for the linear harmonic oscillator, which cannot be derived by the separation of variables (in a natural way). Instead, it is obtained by the action of the maximal kinematical invariance group on the standard solutions. A simple closed formula for the phase (in terms of elementary functions) is found here by integration with the help of a computer algebra system.

  14. Berry Curvature and Nonlocal Transport Characteristics of Antidot Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Pan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Antidot graphene denotes a monolayer of graphene structured by a periodic array of holes. Its energy dispersion is known to display a gap at the Dirac point. However, since the degeneracy between the A and B sites is preserved, antidot graphene cannot be described by the 2D massive Dirac equation, which is suitable for systems with an inherent A/B asymmetry. From inversion and time-reversal-symmetry considerations, antidot graphene should therefore have zero Berry curvature. In this work, we derive the effective Hamiltonian of antidot graphene from its tight-binding wave functions. The resulting Hamiltonian is a 4×4 matrix with a nonzero intervalley scattering term, which is responsible for the gap at the Dirac point. Furthermore, nonzero Berry curvature is obtained from the effective Hamiltonian, owing to the double degeneracy of the eigenfunctions. The topological manifestation is shown to be robust against randomness perturbations. Since the Berry curvature is expected to induce a transverse conductance, we have experimentally verified this feature through nonlocal transport measurements, by fabricating three antidot graphene samples with a triangular array of holes, a fixed periodicity of 150 nm, and hole diameters of 100, 80, and 60 nm. All three samples display topological nonlocal conductance, with excellent agreement with the theory predictions.

  15. Other Kinds of Violence: Wendell Berry, Industrialism, and Agrarian Pacifism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Major

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the need to understand pacifism and environmentalism as essentially consonant philosophies and practices, just as a proper theorization of ecocide must also include the violence inherent to industrialism and militarism. Few contemporary writers understand the stakes involved in this conflation as well as Wendell Berry, and few have had more occasion to enact the entwined values of pacifism and environmentalism than he has. Berry therefore marries pacifist politics to a land ethic of care, a union from which emerges an environmentalism highly critical of the violence of American corporate capitalism and militarism, the apotheosis of which can be seen in the guise of war (Vietnam, Afghanistan, Iraq, the “War on Terror”. Moreover, such violence has its domestic ecocidal analogy, best evidenced by strip mining and mountaintop removal. Berry’s union of peaceableness and agrarian environmentalism does, however, deserve critical examination, for it often rests upon the construction of a sometimes frustrating disconnection between a precious and benign domesticity and a theoretically corrupt public sphere. To be sure, in his reworking of the fluid boundaries between the private and public through which his agrarian ethics is often articulated, Berry simultaneously invokes and disavows a separation he clearly understands to be artificial. In Berry’s peaceful agrarian vision, then, the agrarian pacifist who is also by definition an environmentalist must draw upon enormous internal resources if she is to revolutionize the economies of ruin that characterize modern life.

  16. Berry phase for spin-1/2 particles moving in a space-time with torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alimohammadi, M.; Shariati, A.

    2001-01-01

    Berry phase for a spin-1/2 particle moving in a flat space-time with torsion is investigated in the context of the Einstein-Cartan-Dirac model. It is shown that if the torsion is due to a dense polarized background, then there is a Berry phase only if the fermion is massless and its momentum is perpendicular to the direction of the background polarization. The order of magnitude of this Berry phase is discussed in other theoretical frameworks. (orig.)

  17. Berry phase for spin-1/2 particles moving in a space-time with torsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alimohammadi, M. [Dept. of Physics, Tehran Univ. (Iran); Shariati, A. [Inst. for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Zanjan (Iran); Inst. for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics, Tehran (Iran)

    2001-06-01

    Berry phase for a spin-1/2 particle moving in a flat space-time with torsion is investigated in the context of the Einstein-Cartan-Dirac model. It is shown that if the torsion is due to a dense polarized background, then there is a Berry phase only if the fermion is massless and its momentum is perpendicular to the direction of the background polarization. The order of magnitude of this Berry phase is discussed in other theoretical frameworks. (orig.)

  18. Osmotic dehydration of fruit and berry raw materials in the food industry

    OpenAIRE

    N. A. Gribova; L. G. Eliseeva

    2017-01-01

    Osmotic dehydration has recently received more attention as an effective method of preserving fruits and berries. Osmosis is a simple process that facilitates the processing of fruits and berries in order to preserve the original characteristics, namely nutritional value and organoleptic properties: color, aroma and texture. Osmotic dehydration has found wide application in the preservation of food products, as the activity of water in fruits and berries decreases, in some of them up to 90% o...

  19. Antimicrobial effect of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) extracts against the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Enteritidis

    Science.gov (United States)

    We studied the antimicrobial effects of berry extracts obtained from four cultivars (Elliott, Darrow, Bluecrop and Duke) of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Enteritidis. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal conc...

  20. Evaluation of protective effect of different dietary fibers on polyphenolic profile stability of maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis (Molina) Stuntz) during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viuda-Martos, Manuel; Lucas-Gonzalez, Raquel; Ballester-Costa, Carmen; Pérez-Álvarez, José A; Muñoz, Loreto A; Fernández-López, Juana

    2018-01-24

    The aim of this work was to determine the protective effect of different dietary fibers on (i) the recovery and bioaccessibility indexes, and (ii) the stability of polyphenolic compounds (phenolic acids, flavonoids and anthocyanins) of maqui berry powder subjected to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion (GID). The extracts obtained in each phase (oral, gastric and intestinal) of GID were used to analyze the stability of polyphenolic compounds by HPLC, and the bioaccessibility of these compounds was also determined. At the end of the GID process, the mixture of maqui berry with the different fibers increased the bioaccessibility index of the phenolic and flavonoid compounds in all cases. The results obtained suggest that the anthocyanins and phenolic acids and flavonoid compounds present in maqui are stabilized through dietary fiber interactions, which might provide sufficient levels for absorption during gastrointestinal digestion. The gums sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, xanthan gum and guar gum provided the best protective effect.

  1. Geology, mineralization, and hydrothermal alteration and relationships to acidic and metal-bearing surface waters in the Palmetto Gulch area, southwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, Dana J.; Kurtz, Jeffrey P.; Wright, Winfield G.

    2002-01-01

    The Palmetto Gulch area is affected by low pH and metal-bearing drainage from abandoned mines, and perhaps, from natural weathering around vein zones. To investigate these anthropogenic and potential natural sources of acidity and metals, we mapped the geology, veins, and hydrothermally altered areas; conducted mine dump leachate studies; and collected reconnaissance water quality data. Several small abandoned mines are present in the Palmetto Gulch area that produced small amounts of relatively high-grade silver ore from fault-controlled polymetallic vein deposits. These veins are hosted in lavas, breccias, and related volcaniclastic sediments that ponded within the 28 Ma San Juan-Uncompahgre caldera complex. These rock units generally have conformable contacts and have shallow dips to the northwest. Lava flows of pyroxene andesite, which host the Roy-Pray mine, are massive near their base and typically grade upward into tightly jointed rock with 2-15 cm joint spacing. In general, most hydrothermally altered rock within the Palmetto Gulch area is restricted to envelopes surrounding the mineralized veins and faults. Composite zones of vein-related alteration vary from about 50 to 80 m wide along the high ridgelines and narrow to less than 10 to 15 m beneath an elevation of about 5,462 m. Where unaffected by surficial oxidation, these altered zones contain as much as 7 to 10 volume percent finely-disseminated pyrite. The majority of rocks in the area were affected by regional and vein-related propylitic alteration. These greenish-colored rocks have alteration products consisting of chlorite, illite, and calcite; and feldspars are typically weakly altered. Most of these rocks have detectable amounts of calcite, while as much as 11 percent by weight was detected in samples collected during this study. The Palmetto Gulch area is affected by low pH and metal-bearing drainage from abandoned mines, and perhaps, from natural weathering around vein zones. To investigate

  2. Effect of drying techniques on the retention of antioxidant activities of Saskatoon berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranabendu Mitra

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to compare the retention of antioxidant activity and total anthocyanin content of Saskatoon berries dried by freeze drying, microwave-vacuum drying, thin layer hot air drying and vacuum drying. Antioxidant activity of berry samples was determined by DPPH radical scavenging and ABTS radical scavenging, and the pH differential method was used to determine total anthocyanin content of the berry samples. The results showed that the freeze dried Saskatoon berries exhibited the highest retention of anthocyanin and antioxidant activity among the dried samples, followed by microwave-vacuum dried berries, thin layer hot air dried berries and vacuum dried berries. There were significant differences between the berry samples at P<0.05.  DPPH radical scavenging and ABTS radical scavenging were correlated linearly with an R2 value of 0.99 at P<0.05 showing their effectiveness for the determination of the antioxidant activity of the Saskatoon berries. However, the DPPH radical scavenging assay was more effective than the ABTS radical scavenging assay. The results also showed that antioxidant activity of the berries was highly correlated with the total anthocyanin content of the fruit. The reduction of anthocyanin in dried berry samples was linearly correlated with the reduction of DPPH radical scavenging with an R2 value of 0.97 at P<0.05 and, also, linearly correlated with the reduction of ABTS radical scavenging with an R2 value of 0.88 at P<0.05.

  3. Effects of Feeding Garlic and Juniper Berry Essential Oils on Milk Fatty Acid Composition of Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhu Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils (EOs from plant extracts have been reported to have an antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Several of the gram-positive bacteria are involved in ruminal biohydrogenation of fatty acids (FAs, thus suggesting that feeding EOs could lower biohydrogenation of FA because of a decrease in the number of bacteria involved in that process. As a result, milk FA profiles are expected to be modified. In addition, monensin was approved as an antibiotic to be fed in dairy cattle, and it was reported that dairy cows supplemented with monensin produced milk containing higher concentration of 18:1 t10 and 18:1 t11. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of two EOs (garlic and juniper berry oils and monensin on FA profiles of milk fat. Four ruminally fistulated Holstein dairy cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square experiment. Cows were fed for ad libitum intake a total mixed ration without supplementation (control, or supplemented with monensin (330 mg/head per day, garlic oil (5 g/head per day, or juniper berry oil (2 g/head per day. The FA composition of saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated was not affected by supplementation of EO and monensin. However, proportion of conjugated linoleic acid trans 10, cis 12 (CLA t10, c12 was higher ( P < 0.05 for cows fed EO or monensin than for control cows. Supplementation of monensin increased ( P < 0.05 the proportion of total trans FA compared with the control. These results indicate that supplementation of the dairy cow diet with garlic or juniper berry EO or monensin had the potential to increase the proportion of CLA t10, c12 in milk fat with minimal overall effects on FA of milk fat. The results also confirm the increase of 18:1 t10 in milk fat by feeding monensin to dairy cows.

  4. Consumer preferences in respect of processed fruit and berry products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gribova N. А.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays fruits, berries and processed products are an indispensable component of the human diet throughout the year. Frozen fruits and berries are widely distributed on the Russian market and are part of the food industry worldwide. Frozen products become popular among consumers for home use due to the minimal cooking time. Consumer evaluation is the most relevant and significant for identifying preferences and evaluating quality products in Russian markets. In this regard, a qualitative analysis of marketing research has been carried out and preferences have been identified according to which criteria consumers buy quick-frozen products. Some methods of sensory analysis have been used (consumer evaluation, the profile method, and pairwise comparison method. The dominant factor in choosing a brand of quick-frozen products is the combination of an acceptable price and quality, and to a lesser extent, the recommendation of acquaintances, the type of packaging and advertising of products. The research is aimed at identifying organoleptic properties that affect the consumer evaluation of the quality of frozen, thawed grapes in comparison with the reference product. Fruits and berries freeze for hours and even minutes, but are stored for a long time. The problem arises in rehydration – the return of the product to its original state, close to fresh natural raw material. The main goal of the research is aimed at identifying some rational method of defrosting, corresponding to organoleptic and consumer properties. With the help of organoleptic evaluation the best ways of defrosting have been identified – the microwave oven and the freezer. These methods allow obtaining thawed foods with the finest quality and identical to natural raw materials. The storage time after defrosting has been revealed: in the microwave oven – 60 min; at the room temperature – 80 min; in the coldstore – 100 min. The obtained information can be useful for consumers

  5. Berry phase in superconducting charge qubits interacting with a cavity field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Aty, Mahmoud

    2009-01-01

    We propose a method for analyzing Berry phase for a multi-qubit system of superconducting charge qubits interacting with a microwave field. By suitably choosing the system parameters and precisely controlling the dynamics, novel connection found between the Berry phase and entanglement creations.

  6. Army Personnel Complied with the Berry Amendment but Can Improve Compliance with the Buy American Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-07

    that supports the warfighter; promotes accountability, integrity , and efficiency; advises the Secretary of Defense and Congress; and informs the...not procuring Berry Amendment compliant athletic footwear for enlisted personnel. Athletic shoes are subject to the Berry Amendment and the Buy

  7. Geometric quantum discord and Berry phase between two charge qubits coupled by a quantum transmission line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Han-Jie; Zhang Guo-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Geometric quantum discord (GQD) and Berry phase between two charge qubits coupled by a quantum transmission line are investigated. We show how GQDs evolve and investigate their dependencies on the parameters of the system. We also calculate the energy and the Berry phase and compare them with GQD, finding that there are close connections between them. (general)

  8. iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomics of Developing and Ripening Muscadine Grape Berry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambiranda, Devaiah; Katam, Ramesh; Basha, Sheikh M.; Siebert, Shalom

    2014-01-01

    Grapes are among the widely cultivated fruit crops in the world. Grape berries like other nonclimacteric fruits undergo a complex set of dynamic, physical, physiological, and biochemical changes during ripening. Muscadine grapes are widely cultivated in the southern United States for fresh fruit and wine. To date, changes in the metabolites composition of muscadine grapes have been well documented; however, the molecular changes during berry development and ripening are not fully known. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the berry proteome during ripening in muscadine grape cv. Noble. Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) MS/MS was used to detect statistically significant changes in the berry proteome. A total of 674 proteins were detected, and 76 were differentially expressed across four time points in muscadine berry. Proteins obtained were further analyzed to provide information about its potential functions during ripening. Several proteins involved in abiotic and biotic stimuli and sucrose and hexose metabolism were upregulated during berry ripening. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis validated the protein expression results for nine proteins. Identification of vicilin-like antimicrobial peptides indicates additional disease tolerance proteins are present in muscadines for berry protection during ripening. The results provide new information for characterization and understanding muscadine berry proteome and grape ripening. PMID:24251720

  9. Time and Frequency Domain Response of Grape Berries to Nondestructive Impact during the Harvesting Period

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trnka, Jan; Pavloušek, P.; Nedomová, Š.; Buchar, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 1 (2016), s. 24-33 ISSN 0022-4901 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : berry´s response * dominant frequency * elastic modulus * grape berries Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.290, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com

  10. Berry-Phase Blockade in Single-Molecule Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Gabriel; Leuenberger, Michael N.

    2007-06-01

    We formulate the problem of electron transport through a single-molecule magnet (SMM) in the Coulomb blockade regime taking into account topological interference effects for the tunneling of the large spin of a SMM. The interference originates from spin Berry phases associated with different tunneling paths. We show that, in the case of incoherent spin states, it is essential to place the SMM between oppositely spin-polarized source and drain leads in order to detect the spin tunneling in the stationary current, which exhibits topological zeros as a function of the transverse magnetic field.

  11. Chemical Composition of Golden Berry Leaves Against Hepato-renal Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf-Allah, Abd El-Rahman M; El-Gengaihi, Souad E; Hamed, Manal A; Zahran, Hanan G; Mohammed, Mona A

    2016-01-01

    The role of Physalis peruviana (golden berry) as functional food against hepato-renal fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) was evaluated. The chemical composition of leaves referred the presence of withanolides and flavonoids. Two compounds, ursolic acid and lupeol, were isolated and their structures were elucidated by different spectral analysis techniques. The biological evaluation was conducted on different animal groups; control rats, control orally treated with plant extract (500 mg/kg body weight twice a week for six consecutive weeks), CCl4 (0.5 ml/kg body weight diluted to 1:9 (v/v) in olive oil and injected intraperitoneally) group, CCl4 treated with plant extract and CCl4 treated with silymarin as a reference herbal drug. The evaluation was done through measuring oxidative stress markers; malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and nitric oxide (NO). Liver function indices; aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST & ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), bilirubin and total hepatic protein were also estimated. Kidney disorder biomarkers; creatinine, urea and serum protein were also evaluated. The results revealed plant safety and decrease in NO, MDA, IgG, ALP, tissue protein, bilirubin, creatinine and urea levels. Increase in SOD, AST, ALT, GGT and serum protein levels were observed. Improvement in liver and kidney histopathological architectures were also seen. In conclusion, Physalis peruviana recorded a significant protective role in liver and kidney against fibrosis. Further studies are needed to evaluate its isolated compounds and its use in pharmacological applications and clinical uses.

  12. Potassium in the Grape (Vitis vinifera L. Berry: Transport and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzy Y. Rogiers

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available K+ is the most abundant cation in the grape berry. Here we focus on the most recent information in the long distance transport and partitioning of K+ within the grapevine and postulate on the potential role of K+ in berry sugar accumulation, berry water relations, cellular growth, disease resistance, abiotic stress tolerance and mitigating senescence. By integrating information from several different plant systems we have been able to generate new hypotheses on the integral functions of this predominant cation and to improve our understanding of how these functions contribute to grape berry growth and ripening. Valuable contributions to the study of K+ in membrane stabilization, turgor maintenance and phloem transport have allowed us to propose a mechanistic model for the role of this cation in grape berry development.

  13. Consumer attitudes toward new technique for preserving organic meat using herbs and berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugaard, Pernille; Hansen, Flemming; Jensen, Martin; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore consumers' attitude toward a new preservation technique using herbs and berries in organic meat production, which enables to minimize the amount of chemical additives and to reduce the salt content in meat products. Consumer acceptance of the preservation technique using herbs and berries and intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries were investigated through a qualitative approach by means of three focus groups. In general, most participants were positive toward the preservation technique using herbs and berries and there were only few concerns related to the technique. Concerns were related not as much to the technique but more to the products. Four factors seem important in this relation: shelf life, taste, appearance and texture. The intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries is generally high, but is dependent on taste and appearance of the products, the price and information level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The impact of cluster thinning on fertility and berry and wine composition of 'Blauer Portugieser' (Vitis vinifera L. grapevine variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Reščič

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Two different yield reductions based on cluster thinning (CT were performed to determine their impact on vine growth, yield, and grape and wine composition of 'Blauer Portugieser' grapevine variety. Methods and results: Two levels of cluster thinning (limited CT1 – 20-30 % and severe CT2 – 40-50 % cluster reduction were applied at the pea-size berry (BBCH 75 phenological stage in 2007, 2008 and 2011. The potential impact of CT was determined by measurements of vine growth and fertility potential, berry weight, berry colour, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, pH and total phenolics. Additionally, for the first time, individual phenolic compounds were identified and quantified in berry skin and wine by HPLC-MS. In general, CT of 'Blauer Portugieser' significantly decreased titratable acidity in grape and wine, and increased pH and chromatic parameters in grape and alcohol content and volatile acidity in wine. A significant decrease in yield per vine (of 0.92 kg of grape/vine, together with an increase in soluble solids (of 2.8 °Brix in grape and pH and total extract content in wine was only observed in severe CT (CT2. Furthermore, CT2 significantly increased the content of total anthocyanins, flavonols and hydroxycinnamic acids, but not total flavanols, in grape and wine. CT2 significantly increased the content and proportion of p-coumaroyl pentose in grape and wine, catechin in grape, epicatechin in wine, quercetin-3-glucuronide (the main flavonol in 'Blauer Portugieser' in grape and wine, the content of myricetin-3-glucoside in grape, and the content of 3-glucosides of laricitrin, myricetin and quercetin in wine. Finally, CT2 increased the content and the proportion of 3-glucosides of delphinidin, petunidin and peonidin but decreased the proportion of malvidin-3-glucoside in grape and wine. Conclusion: A significant impact on yield and grape and wine composition was observed, particularly in the CT2 treatment, in which the

  15. Saw palmetto alters nuclear measurements reflecting DNA content in men with symptomatic BPH: evidence for a possible molecular mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltri, Robert W; Marks, Leonard S; Miller, M Craig; Bales, Wes D; Fan, John; Macairan, Maria Luz; Epstein, Jonathan I; Partin, Alan W

    2002-10-01

    To examine the nuclear chromatin characteristics of epithelial cells, looking for an SPHB-mediated effect on nuclear DNA structure and organization. Saw palmetto herbal blend (SPHB) causes contraction of prostate epithelial cells and suppression of tissue dihydrotestosterone levels in men with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia, but a fundamental mechanism remains unknown. A 6-month randomized trial, comparing prostatic tissue of men treated with SPHB (n = 20) or placebo (n = 20), was performed. At baseline, the two groups were similar in age (65 versus 64 years), symptoms (International Prostate Symptom Score 18 versus 17), uroflow (maximal urinary flow rate 10 versus 11 mL/s), prostate volume (59 versus 58 cm(3)), prostate-specific antigen (4.2 versus 2.7 ng/mL), and percentage of epithelium (17% versus 16%). Prostatic tissue was obtained by sextant biopsy before and after treatment. Five-micron sections were Feulgen stained and quantitatively analyzed using the AutoCyte QUIC-DNA imaging system. Images were captured from 200 randomly selected epithelial cell nuclei, and 60 nuclear morphometric descriptors (NMDs) (eg, size, shape, DNA content, and textural features) were determined for each nucleus. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the differences in the variances of the NMDs between the treated and untreated prostate epithelial cells. At baseline, the SPHB and placebo groups had similar NMD values. After 6 months of placebo, no significant change from baseline was found in the NMDs. However, after 6 months of SPHB, 25 of the 60 NMDs were significantly different compared with baseline, and a multivariate model for predicting treatment effect using 4 of the 25 was created (P <0.001). The multivariate model had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 94% and an accuracy of 85%. Six months of SPHB treatment appears to alter the DNA chromatin structure and organization in prostate epithelial cells. Thus, a possible molecular

  16. Randomized trial of a combination of natural products (cernitin, saw palmetto, B-sitosterol, vitamin E) on symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuss, H G; Marcusen, C; Regan, J; Klimberg, I W; Welebir, T A; Jones, W A

    2001-01-01

    Because benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is relatively common, it is important to discover safe and effective means to treat this often debilitating perturbation. Accordingly, we examined the effectiveness of a combination of natural products (cernitin, saw palmetto, B-sitosterol, vitamin E) in treating symptoms of BPH. We undertook a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Patients were enrolled from 3 urological practices in the USA. 144 subjects were randomized for study. 17 subjects eventually withdrew, leaving 70 patients in the test group and 57 in the placebo group to complete the study. Inclusion criteria consisted of a diagnosis of BPH, no evidence of cancer, and a maximal urinary flow rate between 5 and 15 ml/second. Patients received either placebo or the combined natural products for 3 months. Evaluations were performed via the American Urological Association (AUA) Symptom Index score, urinary flow rate, PSA measurement, and residual bladder volume. Nocturia showed a markedly significant decrease in severity in patients receiving the combined natural products compared to those taking placebo (p saw palmetto, B-sitosterol, vitamin E) compared to placebo can significantly lessen nocturia and frequency and diminish overall symptomatology of BPH as indicated by an improvement in the total AUA Symptom Index score. The combination of natural products caused no significant adverse side effects.

  17. Berry Leaves: An Alternative Source of Bioactive Natural Products of Nutritional and Medicinal Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia-Varvara Ferlemi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Berry fruits are recognized, worldwide, as “superfoods” due to the high content of bioactive natural products and the health benefits deriving from their consumption. Berry leaves are byproducts of berry cultivation; their traditional therapeutic use against several diseases, such as the common cold, inflammation, diabetes, and ocular dysfunction, has been almost forgotten nowadays. Nevertheless, the scientific interest regarding the leaf composition and beneficial properties grows, documenting that berry leaves may be considered an alternative source of bioactives. The main bioactive compounds in berry leaves are similar as in berry fruits, i.e., phenolic acids and esters, flavonols, anthocyanins, and procyanidins. The leaves are one of the richest sources of chlorogenic acid. In various studies, these secondary metabolites have demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. This review focuses on the phytochemical composition of the leaves of the commonest berry species, i.e., blackcurrant, blackberry, raspberry, bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, and lingonberry leaves, and presents their traditional medicinal uses and their biological activities in vitro and in vivo.

  18. Favorable effects of berry consumption on platelet function, blood pressure, and HDL cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlund, Iris; Koli, Raika; Alfthan, Georg; Marniemi, Jukka; Puukka, Pauli; Mustonen, Pirjo; Mattila, Pirjo; Jula, Antti

    2008-02-01

    Berries are a particularly rich source of polyphenols. They also contain other bioactive substances, such as vitamin C. Previous studies indicated that the consumption of polyphenol-rich foods (eg, cocoa, tea, and red wine) may induce beneficial changes in pathways related to cardiovascular health. Whether the consumption of berries has similar effects is unknown. We aimed to investigate the effects of berry consumption on hemostatic function, serum lipids, and blood pressure (BP). Middle-aged unmedicated subjects (n = 72) with cardiovascular risk factors consumed moderate amounts of berry or control products for 8 wk in a single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled intervention trial. Berry consumption inhibited platelet function as measured with a platelet function analyzer (using collagen and ADP as platelet activator) [changes: 11% and -1.4% in the berry and control groups, respectively; P = 0.018, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA)]. Plasma biomarkers of platelet activation, coagulation, and fibrinolysis did not change during the intervention. Serum HDL-cholesterol concentrations increased significantly more (P = 0.006, ANCOVA) in the berry than in the control group (5.2% and 0.6%, respectively), but total cholesterol and triacylglycerol remained unchanged. Systolic BP decreased significantly (P = 0.050, ANCOVA); the decrease mostly occurred in subjects with high baseline BP (7.3 mm Hg in highest tertile; P = 0.024, ANCOVA). Polyphenol and vitamin C concentrations in plasma increased, whereas other nutritional biomarkers (ie, folate, tocopherols, sodium, and potassium) were unaffected. The consumption of moderate amounts of berries resulted in favorable changes in platelet function, HDL cholesterol, and BP. The results indicate that regular consumption of berries may play a role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

  19. Study of sugar phloem unloading in ripening grape berries under water stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenphing Wang

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugar phloem unloading in ripening grape berries (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Syrah was studied under water stress conditions using the «beny-cup» technique. After veraison, berry growth, the potential Exposed Leaf Area (pELA and photosynthetic activity are clearly reduced in water-stressed vines (- 0.5 > Ψb > - 0.6 MPa as compared to normal 1 Ψ-watcred vines (Mb = - 0.2 MPa. The ratio pELA/yield is also reduced, which is particular to this experiment. The beiries' ripening period (between veraison and maturity can be divided into three growth phases, Illa, Illb and IIlc. During phase Ma, the berries grow rapidly; at this point, water stress severely inhibits cell expan¬ sion of the berries but does not impact on daily sugar accumulation. During phase Mb, the berries grow slowly in both water-stressed and control vines. Water stress can shorten this phase and reduce sugar accumulation in the berries by decreasing daily sugar unloading. During phase II le, the Iresh weight and volume of the berries decreases as does the daily sugar unloading. During the day, sugar unloading in ripening berries occurs mainly in the morning (7 am to 10.30 am and at noon (1 to 1.30 pm; little sugar is unloaded in the afternoon (4 pm to 4.30 pin. Moderate water stress from veraison to maturity affects végétative growth (i.e. the growth of primary and secoridary shoots, and reduces the exposed leaf area, photosynthetic activity, berry growth, and the accumulation of sugar at the end of ripening (phases Mb and IIlc.

  20. THE RATIONALIZATION OF THE PARAMETERS OF MILK PROTEINS’ THERMO ACID COAGULATION BY BERRY COAGULANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena GREK

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results related to the influence of berry coagulant amount, its proactive acidity and duration of thermo acid coagulation on the process of milk proteins’ sedimentation. In the present work, the regression equations and response surface analysis were used to design and optimize an industrial bioprocess. Increase in the berry coagulant amount to 11 % and reduction of active acidity to 2.4 units were determined. pH up to 3 minutes is characterized by the highest processes of destabilization. Moreover, it improves the organoleptic properties and has the biggest impact on the yield of protein-berry clot (to 25 % and active acidity.

  1. The Berry phase in GaAs semiconductor with a quantized field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Gang; Chen Zidong; Yu Lixian

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the Berry phase in GaAs semiconductor with a quantized magnetic field in the rotating wave approximation. The eigenfunctions of the nuclear spin in the quantized external field are obtained and thus the Berry phase is evaluated explicitly in terms of the introduction of the phase shift. It is shown that the Berry phase can be easily controlled by the coupling strength, the anisotropy constant and the frequency of the electromagnetic wave, which can be important in applications in geometric quantum computing

  2. Ensuring the Quality of the New Fruit and Berry Marmalade by Adding Kelp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana Nepochatykh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the development of a new method for the production of fruit and berry marmalade, which is adding kelp to the traditional recipe of fruit and berry marmalade. The use of this additive is scientifically grounded in the amount of 5 %. This can improve the quality of fruit and berry marmalade, as well as update its assortment. Adding kelp to marmalade increases the content of iodine in it by 7.95 %, phosphorus – by 2.15 %, magnesium – by 8.5 %, potassium – by 48.5 %, iron – by 0.03 %, vitamin PP – by 0.015 %.

  3. Berry's phase, Josephson's equation, and the dynamics of weak link superconductors and their vortices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaitan, F.; Shenoy, S.R.

    1995-05-01

    We examine the dynamical consequences of Berry's phase for Josephson junctions, junction arrays, and their vortices. Josephson's equation and the related phase slip voltages are shown to be unaffected by Berry's phase. In an annular Josephson junction, Berry's phase is seen to generate a new current drive on a vortex. In the continuum limit, vortex is expected in a 2D array is shown to map onto that of a 2D film. A Hall sing anomaly is expected arrays; and the merits of arrays for studies of disorder on vortex motion is discussed. (author). 12 refs

  4. Antimicrobial Effects of Blueberry, Raspberry, and Strawberry Aqueous Extracts and their Effects on Virulence Gene Expression in Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Hazim O; Kamimoto, Maki; Shimamoto, Toshi; Shimamoto, Tadashi

    2015-11-01

    The antimicrobial effects of aqueous extracts of blueberry, raspberry, and strawberry on 13 pathogenic bacteria were evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations of the extracts were determined before and after neutralization to pH 7.03 ± 0.15. Both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria were selectively inhibited by the non-neutralized berries. Blueberry was the best inhibitor, and Vibrio and Listeria were the most sensitive bacteria. After neutralization, blueberry affected only Vibrio and Listeria, whereas the antimicrobial activities of raspberry and strawberry were abolished. The total contents of phenolics, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins in the extracts were measured with colorimetric methods and were highest in strawberry, followed by raspberry, and then blueberry. We also studied the effects of sub-bactericidal concentrations of the three berry extracts on virulence gene expression in Vibrio cholerae. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that the three berry extracts effectively repressed the transcription of the tcpA gene. Raspberry also repressed the transcription of the ctxA gene, whereas blueberry and strawberry did not. However, the three berry extracts did not affect the transcription of toxT. These results suggest that the three berry extracts exert potent antimicrobial effects and inhibit the expression of the virulence factors of V. cholerae. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Quantum gyroscope based on Berry phase of spins in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xuerui; Wang, Liujun; Diao, Wenting; Duan, Chongdi

    2018-02-01

    Gyroscope is the crucial sensor of the inertial navigation system, there is always high demand to improve the sensitivity and reduce the size of the gyroscopes. Using the NV center electronic spin and nuclear spin qubits in diamond, we introduce the research of new types of quantum gyroscopes based on the Berry phase shifts of the spin states during the rotation of the sensor systems. Compared with the performance of the traditional MEMS gyroscope, the sensitivity of the new types of quantum gyroscopes was highly improved and the spatial resolution was reduced to nano-scale. With the help of micro-manufacturing technology in the semiconductor industry, the quantum gyroscopes introduced here can be further integrated into chip-scale sensors.

  6. Berry phases for Landau Hamiltonians on deformed tori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévay, Péter

    1995-06-01

    Parametrized families of Landau Hamiltonians are introduced, where the parameter space is the Teichmüller space (topologically the complex upper half plane) corresponding to deformations of tori. The underlying SO(2,1) symmetry of the families enables an explicit calculation of the Berry phases picked up by the eigenstates when the torus is slowly deformed. It is also shown that apart from these phases that are local in origin, there are global non-Abelian ones too, related to the hidden discrete symmetry group Γϑ (the theta group, which is a subgroup of the modular group) of the families. The induced Riemannian structure on the parameter space is the usual Poincare metric on the upper half plane of constant negative curvature. Due to the discrete symmetry Γϑ the geodesic motion restricted to the fundamental domain of this group is chaotic.

  7. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Polyphenol Extracts from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of polyphenolic extracts of three wild red wild berry fruit species from Southeast Serbia, viz, European cornel (Cornus mas), blackthorn (Prunus spinosa L.) and wild blackberry (Rubus fruticosus). Methods: Polyphenol content was determined using ...

  8. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of berry fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stajčić Slađana M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main chemical composition, contents of total phenolic (TPh, total flavonoid (TF, and total monomeric anthocyianin (TMA, as well as the antioxidant activity of two raspberry cultivars (Meeker and Willamette, two blackberry cultivars (Čačanska bestrna and Thornfree and wild bilberry were studied. The raspberry cultivars had the highest total solids among fruits investigated. Bilberry fruits had the highest sugar-to-acid ratio. Blackberry fruits were richer in crude fibers (cellulose in comparison to raspberry and bilberry fruits. The content of pectic substances was highest in the bilberry. Also, bilberry had a highest content of TPh (808.12 mg GAE/100 g FW, TF (716.31 mg RE/100 g FW and TMA (447.83 mg CGE/100 g FW. The antioxidant activity was evaluated spectrophotometrically, using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity assay. The DPPH free radical scavenging activity, expressed as the EC50 value (in mg of fresh weight of berry fruit per ml of the reaction mixture, of bilberry (0.3157 ± 0.0145 mg/ml was the highest. These results also showed that the antioxidant value of 100 g FW bilberry, raspberry - Willamette, raspberry - Meeker, blackberry - Čačanska bestrna and blackberry - Thornfree is equivalent to 576.50 mg, 282.74 mg, 191.58 mg, 222.28 mg and 272.01 mg of vitamin C, respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between the antioxidant activities and content of total phenolics (RTPh 2=0.9627, flavonoids (RTF 2=0.9598 and anthocyanins (RTMA 2=0.9496 in berry fruits. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31044

  9. Inhibition of the DHT-induced PSA secretion by Verbascum xanthophoeniceum and Serenoa repens extracts in human LNCaP prostate epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcoccia, D; Georgiev, M I; Alipieva, K I; Lorenzetti, S

    2014-08-08

    Verbascum xanthophoeniceum is a mullein plant, typical of Balkan region and some parts of Turkey, traditionally used as phytotherapeutic agent due to its anti-inflammatory properties. It is rich in phenylethanoid and iridoid metabolites whose anti-inflammatory properties are under characterization. The role of Verbascum xanthophoeniceum crude methanolic extract and its isolated phenylethanoid glycoside verbascoside have been evaluated, in comparison to a saw palmetto extract, on a human in vitro model of androgen-regulated prostate epithelium, the LNCaP cell line. Cytotoxicity and DHT-induced free and total PSA secretion have been thoroughly studied. We have found that similar to saw palmetto, Verbascum xanthophoeniceum extract and its isolated phenylethanoid glycoside verbascoside have no cytotoxicity in human LNCaP prostate epithelial cells, whereas an inhibitory effect on the DHT-induced free and total PSA secretion, a recognized anti-androgen like activity, has been shown in case of both Verbascum xanthophoeniceum extract and pure verbascoside. Furthermore, in the absence of the endogenous androgen DHT, an androgen-like activity in Verbascum xanthophoeniceum is detectable as it is for saw palmetto, suggesting that a mixed androgen-antiandrogen activity is present. For the first time, Serenoa repens and Verbascum xanthophoeniceum extracts have shown an absence of cytotoxicity and an inhibitory effect on DHT-induced PSA secretion in an in vitro model of human prostate epithelium, whereas the phenylethanoid glycoside verbascoside appeared to explain only part of the Verbascum xanthophoeniceum inhibitory activity on PSA secretion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Influence of Different Air-Drying Conditions on Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos, Mariela C; Rocha-Parra, Diego; Sampedro, Ines; de Pascual-Teresa, Sonia; León, Alberto E

    2018-03-21

    The aim of the present research was to study the effect of convective drying on color, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant activity of berry fruits and to chemically characterize the polyphenolic composition of raspberry, boysenberry, redcurrants, and blackcurrants fruit. Drying berries at 65 °C provoked the best conservations of color, particularly for boysenberry and blackcurrant. Drying at 65 °C was also the condition that showed higher level of polyphenols, while drying at 50 or 130 °C showed above % degradation of them due to the long time or high temperature drying. Radical scavenging activity was the predominant antioxidant mechanism in all samples, with 65 °C dried berries being the most active ones possibly because of polyphenol depolymerization. The anthocyanin profile showed that delphinidin and cyanidin derivatives were the most abundant anthocyanidins with different predominance between berry genera. Degradation of anthocyanins was increased with drying temperature been Cy 3-glucoside and Cy 3-rutinoside the most abundant.

  11. Visualizing the mesothoracic spiracles in a bark beetle: The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a low-temperature scanning electron microscopy study aimed at determining whether the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari); Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) possesses mycangia, we fortuitously detected the mesothoracic spiracles, which are usually concealed. The mesothoracic s...

  12. The Berry Amendment: Requiring Defense Procurement to Come From Domestic Sources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grasso, Valerie B

    2005-01-01

    The Berry Amendment requires the Department of Defense (DOD) to give preference in procurement to domestically produced, manufactured, or home grown products, notably food, clothing, fabrics, and specialty metals...

  13. The Berry Amendment: Requiring Defense Procurement to Come from Domestic Sources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grasso, Valerie B

    2006-01-01

    The Berry Amendment requires the Department of Defense (DoD) to give preference in procurement to domestically produced, manufactured, or home-grown products, notably food, clothing, fabrics, and specialty metals. To protect the U.S...

  14. The Berry Amendment: Requiring Defense Procurement To Come From Domestic Sources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bailey Grasso, Valerie

    2005-01-01

    The Berry Amendment requires the Department of Defense (DOD) to give preference in procurement to domestically produced, manufactured, or home grown products, notably food, clothing, fabrics, and specialty metals...

  15. The Berry Amendment: Requiring Defense Procurement to Come from Domestic Sources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grasso, Valerie B

    2005-01-01

    The Berry Amendment requires the Department of Defense (DoD) to give preference in procurement to domestically produced, manufactured, or home-grown products, notably food, clothing, fabrics, and specialty metals. To protect the U.S...

  16. Solid-phase extraction of berries’ anthocyanins and evaluation of their antioxidative properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Denev, P.; Číž, Milan; Ambrožová, Gabriela; Lojek, Antonín; Yanakieva, I.; Kratchanova, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 123, č. 4 (2010), s. 1055-1061 ISSN 0308-8146 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC08058 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : anthocyanins * solid-phase extraction * berry extracts Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.458, year: 2010

  17. Antioxidant Capacity, Anthocyanins, and Total Phenols of Wild and Cultivated Berries in Chile Capacidad Antioxidante, Antocianinas y Fenoles Totales de Berries Silvestres y Cultivados en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Guerrero C

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is possible to incorporate a lot of natural antioxidants into the human organism by consuming berries which can prevent diseases generated by the action of free radicals. Antioxidants neutralize free radicals and thus protect the organism from the oxidative damage of lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Berries stand out as one of the richest sources of antioxidant phytonutrients among various fruits and vegetables. The objective of this research was to determine antioxidant capacity (AC, total anthocyanins (TA, and total phenols (TP of wild and cultivated berries in different localities of La Araucanía and Los Ríos Regions in Chile. These parameters were analyzed by using the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH method, pH-differential, and Folin-Ciocalteu method. Percentages of DPPH discoloration of different berries studied were between 67.8% and 95.3% for red sarsaparilla and rosehip, respectively. Maqui berries showed a significantly higher TA content (2240.2 and 1445.3 mg L-1 cyanidin 3-glucoside than other berries, and a mean for all berries of 335.5 mg L-1. Higher phenol content levels were obtained in two cultivars of saskatoon (773.9 and 1001.9 mg L-1 gallic acid and wild rosehip (1457.0 and 1140.4 mg L-1 gallic acid. We conclude that there are significant differences in antioxidant capacity of wild and cultivated Chilean berries in this study which show a strong correlation between AC and TP content.Por medio del consumo de berries es posible incorporar al organismo una gran cantidad de antioxidantes capaces de prevenir múltiples enfermedades generadas por la acción de los radicales libres. Los antioxidantes actúan neutralizando los radicales libres y de esta forma protegen al organismo del daño oxidativo de lípidos, proteínas y ácidos nucleicos. Entre variadas frutas y hortalizas, se destacan los berries como una de las fuentes más ricas en fitonutrientes antioxidantes. El objetivo de esta investigaci

  18. Roostocks/scion/ nitrogen interactions affect secondary metabolism in the grape berry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aude Habran

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT : The present work investigates the interactions between soil content, rootstock and scion by focusing on the effects of roostocks and nitrogen supply on grape berry content. Scions of Cabernet Sauvignon (CS and Pinot Noir (PN varieties were grafted either on Riparia Gloire de Montpellier (RGM or 110 Richter (110R rootstock. The 4 rooststock/scion combinations were fertilized with 3 different levels of nitrogen after fruit set. Both in 2013 and 2014, N supply increased N uptake by the plants, and N content both in vegetative and reproductory organs. Rootstock, variety and year affected berry weight at harvest, while nitrogen did not affect significantly this parameter. Grafting on RGM consistently increased berry weight compared to 110R. PN consistently produced bigger berries than CS. CS berries were heavier in 2014 than in 2013, but the year effect was less marked for PN berries. The berries were collected between veraison and maturity, separated in skin and pulp, and their content was analyzed by conventional analytical procedures and untargeted metabolomics. For anthocyanins, the relative quantitation was fairly comparable with both LC-MS determination and HPLC-DAD, which is a fully quantitative technique. The data show complex responses of the metabolite content (sugars, organic acids, amino acids, anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols/procyanidins, stilbenes, hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids. that depend on the rootstock, the scion, the vintage, the nitrogen level, the berry compartment. This opens a wide range of possibilities to adjust the content of these compounds through the choice of the roostock, variety and nitrogen fertilization.

  19. Roostocks/Scion/Nitrogen Interactions Affect Secondary Metabolism in the Grape Berry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habran, Aude; Commisso, Mauro; Helwi, Pierre; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Negri, Stefano; Ollat, Nathalie; Gomès, Eric; van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Guzzo, Flavia; Delrot, Serge

    2016-01-01

    The present work investigates the interactions between soil content, rootstock, and scion by focusing on the effects of roostocks and nitrogen supply on grape berry content. Scions of Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Pinot Noir (PN) varieties were grafted either on Riparia Gloire de Montpellier (RGM) or 110 Richter (110R) rootstock. The 4 rooststock/scion combinations were fertilized with 3 different levels of nitrogen after fruit set. Both in 2013 and 2014, N supply increased N uptake by the plants, and N content both in vegetative and reproductory organs. Rootstock, variety and year affected berry weight at harvest, while nitrogen did not affect significantly this parameter. Grafting on RGM consistently increased berry weight compared to 110R. PN consistently produced bigger berries than CS. CS berries were heavier in 2014 than in 2013, but the year effect was less marked for PN berries. The berries were collected between veraison and maturity, separated in skin and pulp, and their content was analyzed by conventional analytical procedures and untargeted metabolomics. For anthocyanins, the relative quantitation was fairly comparable with both LC-MS determination and HPLC-DAD, which is a fully quantitative technique. The data show complex responses of the metabolite content (sugars, organic acids, amino acids, anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols/procyanidins, stilbenes, hydroxycinnamic, and hydroxybenzoic acids) that depend on the rootstock, the scion, the vintage, the nitrogen level, the berry compartment. This opens a wide range of possibilities to adjust the content of these compounds through the choice of the roostock, variety and nitrogen fertilization.

  20. Phytochemical Composition and Biological Activities of Selected Wild Berries (Rubus moluccanus L., R. fraxinifolius Poir., and R. alpestris Blume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Fadzelly Abu Bakar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Berries, from the genus Rubus, are among the vital components in a healthy diet. In this study, 80% methanol extracts from the three wild Rubus species (Rubus moluccanus L., Rubus fraxinifolius Poir., and Rubus alpestris Blume were evaluated for their phytochemical contents (total phenolics, flavonoid, anthocyanin, and carotenoid content, antioxidant (DPPH, FRAP, and ABTS assays, antiacetylcholinesterase, and antibacterial activities. GC-MS was used for quantification of naturally occurring phytochemicals. The results showed that R. alpestris contained the highest total phenolic [24.25±0.1 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g] and carotenoid content [21.86±0.63 mg β-carotene equivalents (BC/g], as well as the highest DPPH scavenging and FRAP activities. The highest total flavonoid [18.17±0.20 mg catechin equivalents (CE/g] and anthocyanin content [36.96±0.39 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents (c-3-gE/g] have been shown by R. moluccanus. For antibacterial assays, R. moluccanus and R. alpestris extracts showed mild inhibition towards Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella enteritidis. Anticholinesterase activity for all extracts was in the range of 23–26%. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of at least 12, 21, and 7 different organic compounds in 80% methanol extracts of R. alpestris, R. moluccanus, and R. fraxinifolius, respectively, which might contribute to the bioactivity.

  1. Risk of contamination of wild berries from upper Orava region by cadmium

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    Stanislav Zupka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The upper Orava region is located at the North Slovakia, near of potential sources of environmental contamination due by mining of coal, zinc and lead ores. The aim of the study was to evaluate the risk of consumption of wild forest fruit from Upper Orava region from the aspect of cadmium content. Ten sampling points were found by random search. From these points samples of soil, leaves and fruits of wild berries (9 samples of blueberries Vaccinium Myrtillus and 1 sample of strawberries Fragaria Vesca were collected. In soil samples the active soil reaction (pH/H2O ranged from 3.53 (strong acidity to 4.56 (extremly strong acidity, and the determined percentage of humus ranged from 1.66 (low humic soil to 4.90 (high humic soil.  In two soil samples the total content of cadmium determinated in soil extracts by aqua regia exceeded limit 0.70 mg.kg-1 given by the legislation in tne Slovak Republic. In three soil samples the determined content of cadmium mobile forms determined in soil extracts by NH4NO3 exceeded the limit 0.10 mg.kg-1. The content of Cd determined in leaves as well as in fruits was evaluated according to Food Codex of the Slovak Republic. Only in one sample of leaf samples the limit 1.00 mg.kg-1 was exceeded. The other leaf samples are safely when used as an ingredient in tea mixtures. On the other hand even in 7 fruit samples the limit 0.05 mg.kg-1 was exceeded. This fruit can pose a risk for the human organism when is directly consumed as well as may negatively affect the human health when is used as raw materials in the food industry. 

  2. A novel fungal fruiting structure formed by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus carbonarius in grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, Cristina; Nguyen, Trang Thoaivan; Gubler, Walter Douglas

    2015-09-01

    Sour rot, is a pre-harvest disease that affects many grape varieties. Sour rot symptoms include initial berry cracking and breakdown of berry tissue. This is a disease complex with many filamentous fungi and bacteria involved, but is usually initiated by Aspergillus niger or Aspergillus carbonarius. Usually, by the time one sees the rot there are many other organisms involved and it is difficult to attribute the disease to one species. In this study two species of Aspergillus were shown to produce a previously unknown fruiting structure in infected berries. The nodulous morphology, bearing conidia, suggests them to be an 'everted polymorphic stroma'. This structure forms freely inside the berry pulp and assumes multiple shapes and sizes, sometimes sclerotium-like in form. It is composed of a mass of vegetative hyphae with or without tissue of the host containing spores or fruiting bodies bearing spores. Artificially inoculated berries placed in soil in winter showed the possible overwintering function of the fruiting body. Inoculated berry clusters on standing vines produced fruiting structures within 21 d post inoculation when wounds were made at veraison or after (July-September). Histological studies confirmed that the fruiting structure was indeed fungal tissue. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Antioxidant Activities of Selected Berries and Their Free, Esterified, and Insoluble-Bound Phenolic Acid Contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    To explore the potential of berries as natural sources of bioactive compounds, the quantities of free, esterified, and insoluble-bound phenolic acids in a number of berries were determined. In addition, the antioxidant activities of the berries were determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assays, in addition to determination of their metal ion chelating activities. Furthermore, several phenolic compounds were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography. Of the 6 tested berries, black chokeberry and blackberry exhibited the strongest antioxidant activities, and the various berry samples were found to contain catechin, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, epicatechin, vanillic acid, quercitrin, resveratrol, morin, naringenin, and apigenin. Moreover, the antioxidant activities and total phenolic contents of the fractions containing insoluble-bound phenolic acids were higher than those containing the free and esterified phenolic acids. The results imply that the insoluble-bound fractions of these berries are important natural sources of antioxidants for the preparation of functional food ingredients and preventing diseases associated with oxidative stress. PMID:29662846

  4. Retention of Polyphenolic Species in Spray-Dried Blackberry Extract Using Mannitol as a Thermoprotectant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Joshua A.; Repko, Debra

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of these studies was to determine if a Büchi Mini Spray Dryer B-290 (Büchi Corporation, New Castle, DE, USA) could be used to prepare blackberry extract powders containing mannitol as a thermoprotectant without extensively degrading anthocyanins and polyphenols in the resulting powders. Three blackberry puree extract samples were each prepared by sonication of puree in 30/70% ethanol/water containing 0.003% HCl. Blackberry puree extract sample 1 (S1) contained no mannitol, while blackberry puree extract sample 2 (S2) contained 3.0:1 (w/w) mannitol:berry extract, and blackberry puree extract sample 3 (S3) contained 6.3:1 (w/w) mannitol:berry extract. The levels of anthocyanins and polyphenols in reconstituted spray-dried powders produced from S1–S3 were compared to solutions of S1–S3 that were held at 4°C as controls. All extract samples could be spray-dried using the Büchi Mini Spray Dryer B-290. S1, with no mannitol, showed a 30.8% decrease in anthocyanins and a 24.1% decrease in polyphenols following spray-drying. However, S2 had a reduction in anthocyanins of only 13.8%, while polyphenols were reduced by only 6.1%. S3, with a ratio of mannitol to berry extract of 6.3:1, exhibited a 12.5% decrease in anthocyanins while the decrease in polyphenols after spray-drying was not statistically significant (P=.16). Collectively, these data indicate that a Büchi Mini Spray Dryer B-290 is a suitable platform for producing stable berry extract powders, and that mannitol is a suitable thermoprotectant that facilitates retention of thermosensitive polyphenolic species in berry extracts during spray-drying. PMID:24892214

  5. Antioxidant capacity, polyphenolic content and tandem HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS profiling of phenolic compounds from the South American berries Luma apiculata and L. chequén.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simirgiotis, Mario J; Bórquez, Jorge; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2013-08-15

    Native Myrtaceae fruits were gathered by South American Amerindians as a food source. At present, there is still some regional consume of the small berries from trees belonging to genus Luma that occurs in southern Chile and Argentina. The aerial parts and berries from Luma apiculata and Luma chequen were investigated for phenolic constituents and antioxidant capacity. A high performance electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry method was developed for the rapid identification of phenolics in polar extracts from both species. Thirty-one phenolic compounds were detected and 27 were identified or tentatively characterised based on photodiode array UV-vis spectra (DAD), ESI-MS-MS spectrometric data and spiking experiments with authentic standards. Twelve phenolic compounds were detected in L. apiculata fruits and 12 in the aerial parts while L. chequen yielded 10 compounds in fruits and 16 in aerial parts, respectively. From the compounds occurring in both Luma species, seven were identified as tannins or their monomers, 15 were flavonol derivatives and five were anthocyanins. The whole berry and aerial parts extracts presented high antioxidant capacity in the DPPH assay (IC50 of 10.41±0.02 and 2.44±0.03 μg/mL for L. apiculata, 12.89±0.05 and 3.22±0.05 for L. chequen, respectively), which can be related to the diverse range of phenolics detected. The antioxidant capacity together with the high polyphenolic contents and compounds identified can support at least in part, their use as botanical drugs. From the compounds identified in both species, 3-O-(6″-O-galloyl)-hexose derivatives of myricetin, quercetin, laricitrin and isorhamnetin are reported for the first time for the genus Luma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 4beta-Hydroxywithanolide E from Physalis peruviana (golden berry) inhibits growth of human lung cancer cells through DNA damage, apoptosis and G2/M arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Ching-Yu; Chiu, Chien-Chih; Chang, Fang-Rong; Chen, Jeff Yi-Fu; Hwang, Chi-Ching; Hseu, You-Cheng; Yang, Hsin-Ling; Lee, Alan Yueh-Luen; Tsai, Ming-Tz; Guo, Zong-Lun; Cheng, Yu-Shan; Liu, Yin-Chang; Lan, Yu-Hsuan; Chang, Yu-Ching; Ko, Ying-Chin; Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2010-02-18

    The crude extract of the fruit bearing plant, Physalis peruviana (golden berry), demonstrated anti-hepatoma and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the cellular mechanism involved in this process is still unknown. Herein, we isolated the main pure compound, 4beta-Hydroxywithanolide (4betaHWE) derived from golden berries, and investigated its antiproliferative effect on a human lung cancer cell line (H1299) using survival, cell cycle, and apoptosis analyses. An alkaline comet-nuclear extract (NE) assay was used to evaluate the DNA damage due to the drug. It was shown that DNA damage was significantly induced by 1, 5, and 10 microg/mL 4betaHWE for 2 h in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.005). A trypan blue exclusion assay showed that the proliferation of cells was inhibited by 4betaHWE in both dose- and time-dependent manners (p < 0.05 and 0.001 for 24 and 48 h, respectively). The half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 4betaHWE in H1299 cells for 24 and 48 h were 0.6 and 0.71 microg/mL, respectively, suggesting it could be a potential therapeutic agent against lung cancer. In a flow cytometric analysis, 4betaHWE produced cell cycle perturbation in the form of sub-G1 accumulation and slight arrest at the G2/M phase with 1 microg/mL for 12 and 24 h, respectively. Using flow cytometric and annexin V/propidium iodide immunofluorescence double-staining techniques, these phenomena were proven to be apoptosis and complete G2/M arrest for H1299 cells treated with 5 microg/mL for 24 h. In this study, we demonstrated that golden berry-derived 4betaHWE is a potential DNA-damaging and chemotherapeutic agent against lung cancer.

  7. 4β-Hydroxywithanolide E from Physalis peruviana (golden berry) inhibits growth of human lung cancer cells through DNA damage, apoptosis and G2/M arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yen, Ching-Yu; Guo, Zong-Lun; Cheng, Yu-Shan; Liu, Yin-Chang; Lan, Yu-Hsuan; Chang, Yu-Ching; Ko, Ying-Chin; Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Wu, Yang-Chang; Chiu, Chien-Chih; Chang, Fang-Rong; Chen, Jeff Yi-Fu; Hwang, Chi-Ching; Hseu, You-Cheng; Yang, Hsin-Ling; Lee, Alan Yueh-Luen; Tsai, Ming-Tz

    2010-01-01

    The crude extract of the fruit bearing plant, Physalis peruviana (golden berry), demonstrated anti-hepatoma and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the cellular mechanism involved in this process is still unknown. Herein, we isolated the main pure compound, 4β-Hydroxywithanolide (4βHWE) derived from golden berries, and investigated its antiproliferative effect on a human lung cancer cell line (H1299) using survival, cell cycle, and apoptosis analyses. An alkaline comet-nuclear extract (NE) assay was used to evaluate the DNA damage due to the drug. It was shown that DNA damage was significantly induced by 1, 5, and 10 μg/mL 4βHWE for 2 h in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.005). A trypan blue exclusion assay showed that the proliferation of cells was inhibited by 4βHWE in both dose- and time-dependent manners (p < 0.05 and 0.001 for 24 and 48 h, respectively). The half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC 50 ) of 4βHWE in H1299 cells for 24 and 48 h were 0.6 and 0.71 μg/mL, respectively, suggesting it could be a potential therapeutic agent against lung cancer. In a flow cytometric analysis, 4βHWE produced cell cycle perturbation in the form of sub-G 1 accumulation and slight arrest at the G 2 /M phase with 1 μg/mL for 12 and 24 h, respectively. Using flow cytometric and annexin V/propidium iodide immunofluorescence double-staining techniques, these phenomena were proven to be apoptosis and complete G 2 /M arrest for H1299 cells treated with 5 μg/mL for 24 h. In this study, we demonstrated that golden berry-derived 4βHWE is a potential DNA-damaging and chemotherapeutic agent against lung cancer

  8. 4β-Hydroxywithanolide E from Physalis peruviana (golden berry) inhibits growth of human lung cancer cells through DNA damage, apoptosis and G2/M arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The crude extract of the fruit bearing plant, Physalis peruviana (golden berry), demonstrated anti-hepatoma and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the cellular mechanism involved in this process is still unknown. Methods Herein, we isolated the main pure compound, 4β-Hydroxywithanolide (4βHWE) derived from golden berries, and investigated its antiproliferative effect on a human lung cancer cell line (H1299) using survival, cell cycle, and apoptosis analyses. An alkaline comet-nuclear extract (NE) assay was used to evaluate the DNA damage due to the drug. Results It was shown that DNA damage was significantly induced by 1, 5, and 10 μg/mL 4βHWE for 2 h in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.005). A trypan blue exclusion assay showed that the proliferation of cells was inhibited by 4βHWE in both dose- and time-dependent manners (p < 0.05 and 0.001 for 24 and 48 h, respectively). The half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 4βHWE in H1299 cells for 24 and 48 h were 0.6 and 0.71 μg/mL, respectively, suggesting it could be a potential therapeutic agent against lung cancer. In a flow cytometric analysis, 4βHWE produced cell cycle perturbation in the form of sub-G1 accumulation and slight arrest at the G2/M phase with 1 μg/mL for 12 and 24 h, respectively. Using flow cytometric and annexin V/propidium iodide immunofluorescence double-staining techniques, these phenomena were proven to be apoptosis and complete G2/M arrest for H1299 cells treated with 5 μg/mL for 24 h. Conclusions In this study, we demonstrated that golden berry-derived 4βHWE is a potential DNA-damaging and chemotherapeutic agent against lung cancer. PMID:20167063

  9. 4β-Hydroxywithanolide E from Physalis peruviana (golden berry inhibits growth of human lung cancer cells through DNA damage, apoptosis and G2/M arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Zong-Lun

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The crude extract of the fruit bearing plant, Physalis peruviana (golden berry, demonstrated anti-hepatoma and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the cellular mechanism involved in this process is still unknown. Methods Herein, we isolated the main pure compound, 4β-Hydroxywithanolide (4βHWE derived from golden berries, and investigated its antiproliferative effect on a human lung cancer cell line (H1299 using survival, cell cycle, and apoptosis analyses. An alkaline comet-nuclear extract (NE assay was used to evaluate the DNA damage due to the drug. Results It was shown that DNA damage was significantly induced by 1, 5, and 10 μg/mL 4βHWE for 2 h in a dose-dependent manner (p p 50 of 4βHWE in H1299 cells for 24 and 48 h were 0.6 and 0.71 μg/mL, respectively, suggesting it could be a potential therapeutic agent against lung cancer. In a flow cytometric analysis, 4βHWE produced cell cycle perturbation in the form of sub-G1 accumulation and slight arrest at the G2/M phase with 1 μg/mL for 12 and 24 h, respectively. Using flow cytometric and annexin V/propidium iodide immunofluorescence double-staining techniques, these phenomena were proven to be apoptosis and complete G2/M arrest for H1299 cells treated with 5 μg/mL for 24 h. Conclusions In this study, we demonstrated that golden berry-derived 4βHWE is a potential DNA-damaging and chemotherapeutic agent against lung cancer.

  10. Age/Radiation Parallels in the Effects of 56Fe Particle Irradiation and Protection by Berry Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, James; Bielinski, Donna; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty; Rabin, Bernard; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    Exposing young rats to particles of high-energy and charge (HZE particles) enhances indices of oxidative stress and inflammation and disrupts the functioning of the dopaminergic system and behaviors mediated by this system in a manner similar to that seen in aged animals Previous research has shown that diets supplemented with 2% blueberry or strawberry extracts have the ability to retard and even reverse age-related deficits in behavior and signal transduction in rats, perhaps due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. A subsequent study has shown that whole-body irradiation with 1.5 Gy of 1 GeV/n high-energy 56 Fe particles impaired performance in the Morris water maze and measures of dopamine release one month following radiation; these deficits were protected by the antioxidant diets. The strawberry diet offered better protection against spatial deficits in the maze because strawberry-fed animals were better able to retain place information, while the blueberry-supplemented animals showed enhanced learning that was dependent on striatal functioning. Additional experiments in cell models to examine possible mechanisms involved in these beneficial effects have shown that, in addition to the well known free radical scavenging effects of berries, it appears that berry fruit can directly reduce stress signaling and enhance protective signals, suggesting the involvement of multiple mechanisms in the beneficial effects observed. Enhancements of "protective" signals (e.g., extracellular signal regulated kinase, ERK) include those that are involved in neuronal communication, neurogenesis, and learning and memory. Reductions in stress signaling include inhibiting nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and cytokines, among others, induced by oxidative and inflammatory stressors. We have found these changes in both BV2 mouse microglial and hippocampal cells. We believe that the possible addition of colorful fruits such as berry fruits to the diet can possibly

  11. Polyphenols and antioxidant activities of Kombucha beverage enriched with Coffeeberry® extract

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    Essawet Najmi Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kombucha is a traditional beverage obtained by fermenting sweetened black tea with tea fungus, which represents a consortium of acetic acid bacteria and yeasts. Also, CoffeeBerry® products, which derived from the whole fruit of the coffee plant, are valuable ingredients with nutritional and health-enhancing potential. Samples of fermentation broths enriched with CoffeeBerry® extract and traditional Kombucha were analysed. The fermentation was performed in a bioreactor at 28±1°C for nine days. The results showed that the CoffeeBerry® extract has contributed to a faster fermentation of cultivation medium. Some individual polyphenolic compounds and catehins in fermentation broth samples were identified and quantified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Among the bioactive compounds present in investigated samples obtained during Kombucha fermentation of the sweetened black tea enriched with CoffeeBerry® extract, chlorogenic acid (188.94-458.56 μg/mL was the predominant. The antioxidant activity of investigated samples was tested by measuring their ability to scavenge DPPH and reactive hydroxyl radicals by electron spin resonance (ESR spectroscopy. The scavenging activities on DPPH and hydroxyl radicals were increased with duration of fermentation. IC50 values for Kombucha fermentation broth enriched with CoffeBerry®, based on DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, were in the range 26.33-170.13 μL/mL and 11.33-102.22 μL/mL, respectively.

  12. Estudo exploratório da utilização de saw palmetto no tratamento da hiperplasia benigna da próstata por urologistas de Porto Alegre

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    Gabriela Ferreira

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a utilização de fitoterápicos a base de saw palmetto na terapia sintomática da hiperplasia benigna da próstata (HBP por médicos urologistas da cidade de Porto Alegre. Consistiu em um estudo transversal, exploratório, por meio de entrevista semi-estruturada aplicada a urologistas de Porto Alegre. A amostra foi obtida utilizando catálogo do plano de saúde UNIMED- Porto Alegre. A randomização foi realizada através de sistemática aleatória, sendo sorteados trinta e cinco médicos, dos quais 21 foram selecionados para realização da pesquisa através de questionário. Todos os urologistas entrevistados avaliam e tratam pacientes com hiperplasia benigna da próstata. O saw palmetto não foi citado como terapia medicamentosa de 1ª ou 2ª escolhas no tratamento da HBP. O grupo farmacológico mais freqüentemente utilizado para o tratamento da HBP foi ∝-bloqueadores. Mais da metade dos médicos entrevistados relata ter conhecimento sobre a utilização do saw palmetto, principalmente através de artigos científicos. Os resultados indicam que o saw palmetto não é prescrito pelos urologistas em Porto Alegre, todavia a maior parte destes profissionais tem conhecimento sobre sua utilização.

  13. Estimation of Anthocyanin Content of Berries by NIR Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zsivanovits, G.; Ludneva, D.; Iliev, A.

    2010-01-01

    Anthocyanin contents of fruits were estimated by VIS spectrophotometer and compared with spectra measured by NIR spectrophotometer (600-1100 nm step 10 nm). The aim was to find a relationship between NIR method and traditional spectrophotometric method. The testing protocol, using NIR, is easier, faster and non-destructive. NIR spectra were prepared in pairs, reflectance and transmittance. A modular spectrocomputer, realized on the basis of a monochromator and peripherals Bentham Instruments Ltd (GB) and a photometric camera created at Canning Research Institute, were used. An important feature of this camera is the possibility offered for a simultaneous measurement of both transmittance and reflectance with geometry patterns T0/180 and R0/45. The collected spectra were analyzed by CAMO Unscrambler 9.1 software, with PCA, PLS, PCR methods. Based on the analyzed spectra quality and quantity sensitive calibrations were prepared. The results showed that the NIR method allows measuring of the total anthocyanin content in fresh berry fruits or processed products without destroying them.

  14. Antioxidant films based on cross-linked methyl cellulose and native Chilean berry for food packaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Dicastillo, Carol; Rodríguez, Francisco; Guarda, Abel; Galotto, Maria José

    2016-01-20

    Development of antioxidant and antimicrobial active food packaging materials based on biodegradable polymer and natural plant extracts has numerous advantages as reduction of synthetic additives into the food, reduction of plastic waste, and food protection against microorganisms and oxidation reactions. In this way, active films based on methylcellulose (MC) and maqui (Aristotelia chilensis) berry fruit extract, as a source of antioxidants agents, were studied. On the other hand, due to the high water affinity of MC, this polymer was firstly cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (GA) at different concentrations. The results showed that the addition of GA decreased water solubility, swelling, water vapor permeability of MC films, and the release of antioxidant substances from the active materials increased with the concentration of GA. Natural extract and active cross-linked films were characterized in order to obtain the optimal formulation with the highest antioxidant activity and the best physical properties for latter active food packaging application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. PLASTICITY OF THE BERRY RIPENING PROGRAM IN A WHITE GRAPE VARIETY

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    Silvia Dal Santo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L is considered one of the most environmentally sensitive crops and is characterized by broad phenotypic plasticity, offering important advantages such as the large range of different wines that can be produced from the same cultivar, and the adaptation of existing cultivars to diverse growing regions. The uniqueness of berry quality traits reflects complex interactions between the grapevine plant and the combination of natural factors and human cultural practices, defined as terroir, which leads to the expression of wine typicity. Despite the scientific and commercial importance of genotype interactions with growing conditions, few studies have characterized the genes and metabolites directly involved in this phenomenon. Here we used two large-scale analytical approaches to explore the metabolomic and transcriptomic basis of the broad phenotypic plasticity of Garganega, a white berry variety grown at four sites characterized by different pedoclimatic conditions (altitudes, soil texture and composition. These conditions determine berry ripening dynamics in terms of sugar accumulation and the abundance of phenolic compounds. Multivariate analysis unraveled a highly plastic metabolomic response to different environments, especially the accumulation of hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids and flavonols. Principal component analysis revealed that the four sites strongly affected the berry transcriptome allowing the identification of environmentally-modulated genes and the plasticity of commonly-modulated transcripts at different sites. Many genes that control transcription, translation, transport and carbohydrate metabolism showed different expression depending on the environmental conditions, indicating a key role in the observed transcriptomic plasticity of Garganega berries. Interestingly, genes representing the phenylpropanoid/flavonoid pathway showed plastic responses to the environment mirroring the accumulation

  16. Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis of Grape Berry in Response to Root Restriction during Developmental Stages

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    Feng Leng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Root restriction improved berry quality by being involved in diverse aspects of grapevine life. However, the molecular mechanism driving this process is not understood very well. In this study, the ‘Summer Black’ grape berry (Vitis vinifera × V. labrusca under root restriction was investigated, which showed an increase of total soluble solids (TSS, color index of red grapes (CIRG value, anthocyanins accumulation, total phenolics and total procyanidins contents during berry development compared with those in control berries. The transcriptomic changes induced by root restriction in ‘Summer Black’ grape over the course of berry development were analyzed by RNA-Seq method. A total of 29,971 genes were generated in ‘Summer Black’ grape berry during development, among which, 1606 genes were significantly responded to root restriction. Furthermore, 1264, 313, 141, 246 and 19 sequences were significantly changed at S1, S2, S3, S4 and S5 sample points, respectively. The gene (VIT_04s0023g02290 predicted as a salicylate O-methyltransferase was differentially expressed in all developmental stages. Gene Ontology (GO enrichment showed that response to organic nitrogen, response to endogenous stimulus, flavonoid metabolic process, phenylpropanoid biosynthetic process and cell wall macromolecule metabolic process were the main significant differential categories. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway enrichment revealed plant–pathogen interaction, plant hormone signal transduction, flavone and flavonol biosynthesis, flavonoid biosynthesis and glucosinolate biosynthesis were the main significant differential pathways. The results of the present study provided a genetic base for the understanding of grape berry fruit quality improvement under root restriction.

  17. Temperature-dependent development and emergence pattern of Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) from coffee berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Chabi-Olaye, Adenirin; Borgemeister, Christian

    2010-08-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is the most important constrain for coffee production throughout the world. Knowledge on the emergence pattern of H. hampei females to infest new berries is crucial to effectively plan control measures. In this laboratory study, we assessed the development of immature stages and the emergence pattern of H. hampei females from the berries by exposing them to temperatures that are typical for high-altitude plantations (> or = 1,700 m above sea level [masl] ) or when coffee is grown under shade trees (20-22 degrees C), and optimum altitude plantations (1,200-1,600 masl) or nonshaded coffee (25-30 degrees C). Fecundity and emergence pattern of H. hampei females from coffee berries varied with temperature. Temperature played a crucial role determining the rate of H. hampei development and therefore the emergence of the females to start a new infestation cycle. The emergence and colonization phases of new colonizing females in coffee plantations with mean temperatures of 20, 25, or 30 degrees C would take place at different moments in the development of the coffee berries, and in some cases more than once. The implications of our findings for an improved, site-specific timing of control interventions against H. hampei are discussed.

  18. Phenolic Composition, Antioxidant Activity, and In Vitro Availability of Four Different Berries

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    Javier Marhuenda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols from berries have proved healthy effects after “in vitro” and “in vivo” studies, such as preventing tumor growing and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. We compared four different kinds of berries—strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, and blueberry—with the aim to distinguish their phenolic composition, concerning their antioxidant capacity along with their “in vitro” availability. Folin-Ciocalteu method was used for the determination of phenolic compounds, and the antioxidant capacity was measured by ORAC method. Moreover, the determination of anthocyanins was accomplished with an HPLC-DAD. Finally, we carried out an “in vitro” digestion to simulate the gastrointestinal digestion. All berries showed good antioxidant capacity with significant differences, besides high total phenolic compounds. Content of anthocyanins measured by HPLC-DAD varied between the different berries, namely, blackberries and strawberries which showed higher anthocyanin concentration. After “in vitro” digestion, berries showed poor bioavailability of the analysis of anthocyanins (9.9%–31.7%. Availability of total phenolic compounds was higher than anthocyanins (33%–73%. Moreover, strawberries and blackberries presented the less availability grade. Decrease in antioxidant activity measured by ORAC method was about 90% in all berries studied. Therefore, bioavailability of phenolic compounds remains unclear and more correlation between “in vitro” and “in vivo” studies seems to be necessary.

  19. Classification and fingerprinting of different berries based on biochemical profiling and antioxidant capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasminka Milivojević

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the biochemical composition of six berry types belonging to Fragaria, Rubus, Vaccinium and Ribes genus. Fruit samples were collected in triplicate (50 fruit each from 18 different species or cultivars of the mentioned genera, during three years (2008 to 2010. Content of individual sugars, organic acids, flavonols, and phenolic acids were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis, while total phenolics (TPC and total antioxidant capacity (TAC, by using spectrophotometry. Principal component analysis (PCA and hierarchical cluster analysis (CA were performed to evaluate the differences in fruit biochemical profile. The highest contents of bioactive components were found in Ribes nigrum and in Fragaria vesca, Rubus plicatus, and Vaccinium myrtillus. PCA and CA were able to partially discriminate between berries on the basis of their biochemical composition. Individual and total sugars, myricetin, ellagic acid, TPC and TAC showed the highest impact on biochemical composition of the berry fruits. CA separated blackberry, raspberry, and blueberry as isolate groups, while classification of strawberry, black and red currant in a specific group has not occurred. There is a large variability both between and within the different types of berries. Metabolite fingerprinting of the evaluated berries showed unique biochemical profiles and specific combination of bioactive compound contents.

  20. Phytochemical Composition and Metabolic Performance Enhancing Activity of Dietary Berries Traditionally Used by Native North Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns Kraft, Tristan F.; Dey, Moul; Rogers, Randy B.; Ribnicky, David M.; Gipp, David M.; Cefalu, William T.; Raskin, Ilya; Lila, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    Four wild berry species, Amelanchier alnifolia, Viburnum trilobum, Prunus virginiana, and Shepherdia argentea, all integral to the traditional subsistence diet of Native American tribal communities, were evaluated to elucidate phytochemical composition and bioactive properties related to performance and human health. Biological activity was screened using a range of bioassays that assessed the potential for these little-known dietary berries to affect diabetic microvascular complications, hyperglycemia, pro-inflammatory gene expression, and metabolic syndrome symptoms. Non-polar constituents from berries, including carotenoids, were potent inhibitors of aldose reductase (an enzyme involved in the etiology of diabetic microvascular complications) whereas the polar constituents, mainly phenolic acids, anthocyanins, and proanthocyanidins, were hypoglycemic agents and strong inhibitors of IL-1β and COX-2 gene expression. Berry samples also showed the ability to modulate lipid metabolism and energy expenditure in a manner consistent with improving metabolic syndrome. The results demonstrate that these berries traditionally consumed by tribal cultures contain a rich array of phytochemicals that have the capacity to promote health and protect against chronic diseases, such as diabetes. PMID:18211018

  1. ANTHOCYANINS ALIPHATIC ALCOHOLS EXTRACTION FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Savvin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins red pigments that give color a wide range of fruits, berries and flowers. In the food industry it is widely known as a dye a food additive E163. To extract from natural vegetable raw materials traditionally used ethanol or acidified water, but in same technologies it’s unacceptable. In order to expand the use of anthocyanins as colorants and antioxidants were explored extracting pigments alcohols with different structures of the carbon skeleton, and the position and number of hydroxyl groups. For the isolation anthocyanins raw materials were extracted sequentially twice with t = 60 C for 1.5 hours. The evaluation was performed using extracts of classical spectrophotometric methods and modern express chromaticity. Color black currant extracts depends on the length of the carbon skeleton and position of the hydroxyl group, with the alcohols of normal structure have higher alcohols compared to the isomeric structure of the optical density and index of the red color component. This is due to the different ability to form hydrogen bonds when allocating anthocyanins and other intermolecular interactions. During storage blackcurrant extracts are significant structural changes recoverable pigments, which leads to a significant change in color. In this variation, the stronger the higher the length of the carbon skeleton and branched molecules extractant. Extraction polyols (ethyleneglycol, glycerol are less effective than the corresponding monohydric alcohols. However these extracts saved significantly higher because of their reducing ability at interacting with polyphenolic compounds.

  2. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils and Methanol Extracts of Different Parts from Juniperus rigida Siebold & Zucc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiaoxiao; Li, Dengwu; Wang, Wei; Wang, Dongmei; Meng, Xiaxia; Wang, Yongtao

    2016-09-01

    The chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oils and MeOH extracts of stems, needles, and berries from Juniperus rigida were studied. The results indicated that the yield of essential oil from stems (2.5%) was higher than from needles (0.8%) and berries (1.0%). The gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) analysis indicated that 21, 17, and 14 compounds were identified from stems, needles, and berries essential oils, respectively. Caryophyllene, α-caryophyllene, and caryophyllene oxide were primary compounds in both stems and needles essential oils. However, α-pinene and β-myrcene mainly existed in berries essential oils and α-ionone only in needles essential oils. The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated that the phenolic profiles of three parts exhibited significant differences. Needles extracts had the highest content of chlorogenic acid, catechin, podophyllotoxin, and amentoflavone, and for berries extracts, the content of those compounds was the lowest. Meanwhile, three in vitro methods (DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP) were used to evaluate antioxidant activity. Stems essential oil and needles extracts exhibited the powerful antioxidant activity than other parts. This is the first comprehensive study on the different parts of J. rigida. The results suggested that stems and needles of J. rigida are useful supplements for healthy products as new resources. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zürich.

  3. Physicochemical and phytochemical standardization of berries of Myrtus communis Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabiha Sumbul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Herbal medicines are gaining more and more attention all over the world due to their long historical clinical practice and less side effects. The major limitation with herbal medicines is that the lack of standardization technique. Initially, the crude drugs were identified by comparison only with the standard description available. Materials and Methods: Standardization of drugs means confirmation of its identity and determination of its quality and purity. The quality control standards of various medicinal plants, used in indigenous system of medicine, are significant nowadays in view of commercialization of formulations based on medicinal plants. The quality of herbal drugs is the sum of all factors, which contribute directly or indirectly to the safety, effectiveness, and acceptability of the product. Lack of quality control can affect the efficacy and safety of drugs that may lead to health problems in the consumers. Standardization of drugs is needed to overcome the problems of adulteration and is most developing field of research now. Therefore, there is an urgent need of standardized drugs having consistent quality. Results: The drug showed the presence of phyto-chemical constituents. Powdered drug was treated with different reagents and examined under UV light. Different reagents showed different colors of the drug at 2 wavelengths. The percentage of physiological active compounds viz. total phenolics, tannins, volatile oil, fixed oil, and alkaloids were also observed. Conclusion: Myrtus communis L. (Family: Myrtaceae is one of the important drug being used in Unani system of medicine for various therapeutic purposes. In this study, an attempt has been made to study berries of M. communis from physico-chemical and phytochemical standardization point of view.

  4. Biosynthesis of sesquiterpenes in grape berry exocarp of Vitis vinifera L.: evidence for a transport of farnesyl diphosphate precursors from plastids to the cytosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Bianca; Lange, B Markus; Wüst, Matthias

    2013-11-01

    The participation of the mevalonic acid (MVA) and 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate/2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate (DOXP/MEP) pathways in sesquiterpene biosynthesis of grape berries was investigated. There is an increasing interest in this class of terpenoids, since the oxygenated sesquiterpene rotundone was identified as the peppery aroma impact compound in Australian Shiraz wines. To investigate precursor supply pathway utilization, in vivo feeding experiments were performed with the deuterium labeled, pathway specific, precursors [5,5-(2)H2]-1-deoxy-d-xylulose and [5,5-(2)H2]-mevalonic acid lactone. Head Space-Solid Phase Micro Extraction-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) analysis of the generated volatile metabolites demonstrated that de novo sesquiterpene biosynthesis is mainly located in the grape berry exocarp (skin), with no detectable activity in the mesocarp (flesh) of the Lemberger variety. Interestingly, precursors from both the (primarily) cytosolic MVA and plastidial DOXP/MEP pathways were incorporated into grape sesquiterpenes in the varieties Lemberger, Gewürztraminer and Syrah. Our labeling data provide evidence for a homogenous, cytosolic pool of precursors for sesquiterpene biosynthesis, indicating that a transport of precursors occurs mostly from plastids to the cytosol. The labeling patterns of the sesquiterpene germacrene D were in agreement with a cyclization mechanism analogous to that of a previously cloned enantioselective (R)-germacrene D synthase from Solidago canadensis. This observation was subsequently confirmed by enantioselective GC-MS analysis demonstrating the exclusive presence of (R)-germacrene D, and not the (S)-enantiomer, in grape berries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Milk-clotting activity of berries extracts from nine Solanum plants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... milk than reconstituted skim milk powder (Martin et al., 2008). Preparation of coagulation ... This raw skim milk was stored at 4°C with sodium azide. (0.2 g/l) added as ..... Lait, Produit laitier et Nutrition humaine. Rome. p. 176.

  6. Immunomodulatory Effect of Red Onion (Allium cepa Linn) Scale Extract on Experimentally Induced Atypical Prostatic Hyperplasia in Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elberry, Ahmed A.; Al-Maghrabi, Jaudah; Abdel Sattar, Essam; Ghareib, Salah A.; Mosli, Hisham A.; Gabr, Salah A.

    2014-01-01

    Red onion scales (ROS) contain large amounts of flavonoids that are responsible for the reported antioxidant activity, immune enhancement, and anticancer property. Atypical prostatic hyperplasia (APH) was induced in adult castrated Wistar rats by both s.c. injection of testosterone (0.5 mg/rat/day) and by smearing citral on shaved skin once every 3 days for 30 days. Saw palmetto (100 mg/kg) as a positive control and ROS suspension at doses of 75, 150, and 300 mg/kg/day were given orally every day for 30 days. All medications were started 7 days after castration and along with testosterone and citral. The HPLC profile of ROS methanolic extract displayed two major peaks identified as quercetin and quercetin-4′-β-O-D-glucoside. Histopathological examination of APH-induced prostatic rats revealed evidence of hyperplasia and inflammation with cellular proliferation and reduced apoptosis Immunohistochemistry showed increased tissue expressions of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IGF-1, and clusterin, while TGF-β1 was decreased, which correlates with the presence of inflammation. Both saw palmetto and RO scale treatment have ameliorated these changes. These ameliorative effects were more evident in RO scale groups and were dose dependent. In conclusion, methanolic extract of ROS showed a protective effect against APH induced rats that may be attributed to potential anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. PMID:24829522

  7. Immunomodulatory Effect of Red Onion (Allium cepa Linn Scale Extract on Experimentally Induced Atypical Prostatic Hyperplasia in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Elberry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Red onion scales (ROS contain large amounts of flavonoids that are responsible for the reported antioxidant activity, immune enhancement, and anticancer property. Atypical prostatic hyperplasia (APH was induced in adult castrated Wistar rats by both s.c. injection of testosterone (0.5 mg/rat/day and by smearing citral on shaved skin once every 3 days for 30 days. Saw palmetto (100 mg/kg as a positive control and ROS suspension at doses of 75, 150, and 300 mg/kg/day were given orally every day for 30 days. All medications were started 7 days after castration and along with testosterone and citral. The HPLC profile of ROS methanolic extract displayed two major peaks identified as quercetin and quercetin-4′-β-O-D-glucoside. Histopathological examination of APH-induced prostatic rats revealed evidence of hyperplasia and inflammation with cellular proliferation and reduced apoptosis Immunohistochemistry showed increased tissue expressions of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IGF-1, and clusterin, while TGF-β1 was decreased, which correlates with the presence of inflammation. Both saw palmetto and RO scale treatment have ameliorated these changes. These ameliorative effects were more evident in RO scale groups and were dose dependent. In conclusion, methanolic extract of ROS showed a protective effect against APH induced rats that may be attributed to potential anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects.

  8. Berry phase in a two-atom Jaynes-Cummings model with Kerr medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bu Shenping; Zhang Guofeng; Liu Jia; Chen Ziyu

    2008-01-01

    The Jaynes-Cummings model (JCM) is an very important model for describing interaction between quantized electromagnetic fields and atoms in cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). This model is generalized in many different directions since it predicts many novel quantum effects that can be verified by modern physics experimental technologies. In this paper, the Berry phase and entropy of the ground state for arbitrary photon number n of a two-atom Jaynes-Cummings model with Kerr-like medium are investigated. It is found that there is some correspondence between their images, especially the existence of a curve in the Δ-ε plane along which the energy, Berry phase and entropy all reach their special values. So it is available for detecting entanglement by applying Berry phase.

  9. Berry phase in a two-atom Jaynes-Cummings model with Kerr medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bu Shenping; Zhang Guofeng; Liu Jia; Chen Ziyu [Department of Physics, School of Science, BeiHang University, Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083 (China)], E-mail: chenzy@buaa.edu.cn

    2008-12-15

    The Jaynes-Cummings model (JCM) is an very important model for describing interaction between quantized electromagnetic fields and atoms in cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). This model is generalized in many different directions since it predicts many novel quantum effects that can be verified by modern physics experimental technologies. In this paper, the Berry phase and entropy of the ground state for arbitrary photon number n of a two-atom Jaynes-Cummings model with Kerr-like medium are investigated. It is found that there is some correspondence between their images, especially the existence of a curve in the {delta}-{epsilon} plane along which the energy, Berry phase and entropy all reach their special values. So it is available for detecting entanglement by applying Berry phase.

  10. Analysis of the blackening of green pepper (Piper nigrum Linnaeus) berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Fenglin; Tan, Lehe; Wu, Huasong; Fang, Yiming; Wang, Qinghuang

    2013-06-01

    This paper investigates polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, reduced weight percentage after sun drying, and the changes in colour and appearance of green pepper (Piper nigrum Linnaeus) berries after blanching and sun drying. The results show that the degree of reduced weight percentage and browning in green pepper berries after blanching for 10 min is greater at 100°C than at 90 and 80°C. Moreover, the samples blanched at 100°C for 10 min had the fastest water loss, but the lowest PPO activity. Thus, the PPO enzymatic oxidation of polyphenols might not be the only reason for the browning of green pepper berries. This result is significantly different from that of Variyar, Pendharkar, Banerjeea, and Bandyopadhyay (1988) and therefore deserves further study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Magnus force, Aharonov-Bohm effect, and berry phase in superfluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonin, E.

    2001-01-01

    The present paper is an attempt to bring together two points of view in order to find a source of disagreement. I restrict myself with the problem of the Galilean invariant quantum Bose-liquid described by the Gross-Pitaevskii theory. At large scales the theory yields equations of the hydrodynamics of an ideal inviscous liquid. In presence of an ensemble of sound waves (phonons) with the Planck distribution, which is characterized by a locally defined normal velocity, one obtains the two-fluid hydrodynamics. The momentum balance in the area around a moving vortex demonstrates the existence of the Iordanskii force. I also discuss the Berry phase. The Berry phase and the Magnus forces are proportional to the total current circulation at large distances. But the total current circulation contains a normal-fluid contribution, which is proportional to the Iordanski force. Taking this contribution into account, the Berry-phase analysis agrees with the momentum-balance approach. (orig.)

  12. Next Generation Sequencing of Elite Berry Germplasm and Data Analysis Using a Bioinformatics Pipeline for Virus Detection and Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry crops (members of the genera Fragaria, Ribes, Rubus, Sambucus and Vaccinium) are known hosts for more than 70 viruses and new ones are identified continually. In modern berry cultivars, viruses tend to be be asymptomatic in single infections and symptoms only develop after plants accumulate m...

  13. Next-Generation Sequencing of Elite Berry Germplasm and Data Analysis Using a Bioinformatics Pipeline for Virus Detection and Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry crops (members of the genera Fragaria, Ribes, Rubus, Sambucus and Vaccinium) are known hosts for more than 70 viruses and new ones are identified frequently. In modern berry cultivars, viruses tend to be asymptomatic in single infections and symptoms only develop after plants accumulate multip...

  14. Biological control of coffee berry borer: the role of DNA-based gut-content analysis in assessment of predation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most important pest of coffee worldwide, causing an estimated $500 million in damage annually. Infestation rates from 50-90% have been reported, significantly impacting coffee yields. Adult female H. hampei bore into the berry and lay eggs whose la...

  15. Transcriptome and metabolome reprogramming in Vitis vinifera cv. Trincadeira berries upon infection with Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo-Romero, Patricia; Erban, Alexander; Rego, Cecília; Carbonell-Bejerano, Pablo; Nascimento, Teresa; Sousa, Lisete; Martínez-Zapater, José M; Kopka, Joachim; Fortes, Ana Margarida

    2015-04-01

    Vitis vinifera berries are sensitive towards infection by the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea, leading to important economic losses worldwide. The combined analysis of the transcriptome and metabolome associated with fungal infection has not been performed previously in grapes or in another fleshy fruit. In an attempt to identify the molecular and metabolic mechanisms associated with the infection, peppercorn-sized fruits were infected in the field. Green and veraison berries were collected following infection for microarray analysis complemented with metabolic profiling of primary and other soluble metabolites and of volatile emissions. The results provided evidence of a reprogramming of carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms towards increased synthesis of secondary metabolites involved in plant defence, such as trans-resveratrol and gallic acid. This response was already activated in infected green berries with the putative involvement of jasmonic acid, ethylene, polyamines, and auxins, whereas salicylic acid did not seem to be involved. Genes encoding WRKY transcription factors, pathogenesis-related proteins, glutathione S-transferase, stilbene synthase, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase were upregulated in infected berries. However, salicylic acid signalling was activated in healthy ripening berries along with the expression of proteins of the NBS-LRR superfamily and protein kinases, suggesting that the pathogen is able to shut down defences existing in healthy ripening berries. Furthermore, this study provided metabolic biomarkers of infection such as azelaic acid, a substance known to prime plant defence responses, arabitol, ribitol, 4-amino butanoic acid, 1-O-methyl- glucopyranoside, and several fatty acids that alone or in combination can be used to monitor Botrytis infection early in the vineyard. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email

  16. Effects of climatic conditions and soil properties on Cabernet Sauvignon berry growth and anthocyanin profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guo; He, Yan-Nan; Yue, Tai-Xin; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2014-09-02

    Climatic conditions and soil type have significant influence on grape ripening and wine quality. The reported study was conducted in two "Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.V)" vineyards located in Xinjiang, a semiarid wine-producing region of China during two vintages (2011 and 2012). The results indicate that soil and climate affected berry growth and anthocyanin profiles. These two localities were within a distance of 5 km from each other and had soils of different physical and chemical composition. For each vineyard, the differences of anthocyanin concentrations, and parameters concerning berry growth and composition between the two years could be explained by different climatic conditions. Soil effect was studied by investigation of differences in berry composition and anthocyanin profiles between the two vineyards in the same year, which could be explained mainly by the different soil properties, vine water and nitrogen status. Specifically, the soils with less water and organic matter produced looser clusters, heavier berry skins and higher TSS, which contributed to the excellent performance of grapes. Compared with 2011, the increases in anthocyanin concentrations for each vineyard in 2012 could be attributed to smaller number of extreme temperature (>35 °C) days and rainfall, lower vine water status and N level. The explanation for higher anthocyanin concentrations in grape skins from the soils with less water and organic matter could be the vine status differences, lighter berry weight and heavier skin weight at harvest. In particular, grapes from the soils with less water and organic matter had higher levels of 3'5'-substituded, O-methylated and acylated anthocyanins, which represented a positive characteristic conferring more stable pigmentation to the corresponding wine in the future. The present work clarifies the effects of climate and soil on berry growth and anthocyanin profiles, thus providing guidance for production of high-quality wine grapes

  17. Effects of Climatic Conditions and Soil Properties on Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Growth and Anthocyanin Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Cheng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Climatic conditions and soil type have significant influence on grape ripening and wine quality. The reported study was conducted in two “Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.V” vineyards located in Xinjiang, a semiarid wine-producing region of China during two vintages (2011 and 2012. The results indicate that soil and climate affected berry growth and anthocyanin profiles. These two localities were within a distance of 5 km from each other and had soils of different physical and chemical composition. For each vineyard, the differences of anthocyanin concentrations, and parameters concerning berry growth and composition between the two years could be explained by different climatic conditions. Soil effect was studied by investigation of differences in berry composition and anthocyanin profiles between the two vineyards in the same year, which could be explained mainly by the different soil properties, vine water and nitrogen status. Specifically, the soils with less water and organic matter produced looser clusters, heavier berry skins and higher TSS, which contributed to the excellent performance of grapes. Compared with 2011, the increases in anthocyanin concentrations for each vineyard in 2012 could be attributed to smaller number of extreme temperature (>35 °C days and rainfall, lower vine water status and N level. The explanation for higher anthocyanin concentrations in grape skins from the soils with less water and organic matter could be the vine status differences, lighter berry weight and heavier skin weight at harvest. In particular, grapes from the soils with less water and organic matter had higher levels of 3′5′-substituded, O-methylated and acylated anthocyanins, which represented a positive characteristic conferring more stable pigmentation to the corresponding wine in the future. The present work clarifies the effects of climate and soil on berry growth and anthocyanin profiles, thus providing guidance for production of

  18. Omics Approaches for Understanding Grapevine Berry Development: Regulatory Networks Associated with Endogenous Processes and Environmental Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Serrano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine fruit development is a dynamic process that can be divided into three stages: formation (I, lag (II, and ripening (III, in which physiological and biochemical changes occur, leading to cell differentiation and accumulation of different solutes. These stages can be positively or negatively affected by multiple environmental factors. During the last decade, efforts have been made to understand berry development from a global perspective. Special attention has been paid to transcriptional and metabolic networks associated with the control of grape berry development, and how external factors affect the ripening process. In this review, we focus on the integration of global approaches, including proteomics, metabolomics, and especially transcriptomics, to understand grape berry development. Several aspects will be considered, including seed development and the production of seedless fruits; veraison, at which anthocyanin accumulation begins in the berry skin of colored varieties; and hormonal regulation of berry development and signaling throughout ripening, focusing on the transcriptional regulation of hormone receptors, protein kinases, and genes related to secondary messenger sensing. Finally, berry responses to different environmental factors, including abiotic (temperature, water-related stress and UV-B radiation and biotic (fungi and viruses stresses, and how they can significantly modify both, development and composition of vine fruit, will be discussed. Until now, advances have been made due to the application of Omics tools at different molecular levels. However, the potential of these technologies should not be limited to the study of single-level questions; instead, data obtained by these platforms should be integrated to unravel the molecular aspects of grapevine development. Therefore, the current challenge is the generation of new tools that integrate large-scale data to assess new questions in this field, and to support

  19. Sea buckthorn decreases and delays insulin response and improves glycaemic profile following a sucrose-containing berry meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Maria Wichmann; Spagner, Camilla; Cuparencu, Cătălina

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: Berries and mixed berry products exert acute effects on postprandial glycaemia and insulinemia, but very few berries have been studied, and primarily in normal weight subjects. Sea buckthorn and strawberry are compositionally widely different berries and may likely produce different...... responses. The effects of strawberry and sea buckthorn on postprandial glycaemia and insulinemia were examined in overweight or obese male subjects. Subjective appetite sensations and ad libitum intake were also examined. METHODS: The study was conducted as a randomised, controlled, single-blinded, three......-way crossover study. Eighteen subjects were studied in three 2-h meal tests followed by a subsequent ad libitum meal. Test meals contained added sucrose and either sea buckthorn, strawberry or no berries with added fructose (control). Blood samples were collected at t = 0, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min. Subjective...

  20. Wolves trigger a trophic cascade to berries as alternative food for grizzly bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripple, William J; Beschta, Robert L; Fortin, Jennifer K; Robbins, Charles T

    2015-05-01

    This is a Forum article in response to: Barber-Meyer, S. (2015) Trophic cascades from wolves to grizzly bears or changing abundance of bears and alternate foods? Journal of Animal Ecology, 83, doi: 10.1111/1365-2656.12338. We used multiple data sets and study areas as well as several lines of evidence to investigate potential trophic linkages in Yellowstone National Park. Our results suggest that a trophic cascade from wolves to elk to berry production to berry consumption by grizzly bears may now be underway in the Park. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2015 British Ecological Society.

  1. 210Po and 210Pb in Forest Soil and in Wild Berries in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaaramaa, Kaisa; Lehto, Jukka; Solatie, Dina; Aro, Lasse

    2008-01-01

    The behaviour of 210 Po and 210 Pb was investigated in forests in the Southern Finland site and in the Northern Finland site. Sampling sites were in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forests. Maximum activities of 210 Po and 210 Pb in soil columns were found in organic layers. According to preliminary results of wild berry samples, the lowest 210 Po concentrations were found in berries. The highest concentration of 210 Po was found in stems of the blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) and the lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) samples

  2. The evolving fresh market berry industry in Santa Cruz and Monterey counties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Tourte

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The fresh market berry industry in Santa Cruz and Monterey counties has contributed significantly to the agricultural vibrancy of the two counties and the state of California. Dramatic growth in strawberry, raspberry and blackberry production has been documented over the last 50 years, and most notably since the 1980s. Factors influencing this growth include innovations in agricultural practices and heightened consumer demand. Here, we review the historical context for the berry industry in Santa Cruz and Monterey counties. Organic production, production economics and challenges for the future are also discussed.

  3. Berry phase of primordial scalar and tensor perturbations in single-field inflationary models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balajany, Hamideh; Mehrafarin, Mohammad

    2018-06-01

    In the framework of the single-field slow-roll inflation, we derive the Hamiltonian of the linear primordial scalar and tensor perturbations in the form of time-dependent harmonic oscillator Hamiltonians. We find the invariant operators of the resulting Hamiltonians and use their eigenstates to calculate the adiabatic Berry phase for sub-horizon modes in terms of the Lewis-Riesenfeld phase. We conclude by discussing the discrepancy in the results of Pal et al. (2013) [21] for these Berry phases, which is resolved to yield agreement with our results.

  4. Funkcionalne karakteristike fermentisanog čajnog napitka obogaćenog CoffeBerry®-jem

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Essawet Najmi

    2016-01-01

    Cilj ispitivanja čiji su rezultati prikazani u ovoj doktorskoj disertaciji bioje da se ispita mogućnost dobijanja kombuha napitka od/sa CoffeeBerry®ekstraktom i da se ispitaju njegove funkcionalne karakteristike.CoffeeBerry® ekstrakt kao bogat izvor biološki aktivnih jedinjenja biobezbedio dodatne funkcionalne karakteristike kombuha napitku upoređenju sa onim pripremljenim na tradicionalan način od zaslađenogcrnog čaja. U disertaciji je nakon optimizacije sastava podloge zakult...

  5. Berry's phase factors in moving frames of reference and their observable effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Changpu; Zhang Linzhi

    1990-01-01

    Under non-relativistic conditions, the properties of adiabatic solutions of the Schroedinger equation in moving frame of reference and the behaviours of the corresponding Berry's Phase are analysed. Two cases of translation and rotation are discussed in detail, which show that the existence of Berry's phase depends on the choice of frame of reference. While Bitter and Dubbers's experiment is explained by the first-order approximation in the discussion. The non-adiabatic effects in this experiment are predicted by the second-order approximation when the adiabatic condition is broken

  6. Quality assessment of US-extracts from cranberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Rodionova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents experimental results of determining physical and chemical parameters, antioxidant activity and macronutrient content in the obtained extracts prepared from fresh and previously frozen cranberries, using the method of ultrasonic extraction. As the experimental setup used the extractor with a submersible ultrasonic emitter. The essence of his work is as follows: the mixture of extractant, and a vegetable substrate in different proportions loaded in a container with emitter, and then include ultrasonic generator. Vibrations of ultrasonic frequency (22 kHz, high frequency excited mechanical vibrations under the effect of which in the treated mixture formed in the zone of intensive cavitation and diffuse to the dissolution of the cellular substrates in the extractant. The extraction process was carried out at a temperature of 20–22 °C for 15 min. Freezing was performed according to the technology shock freezing at a temperature from -35 to -40 °C and to achieve the internal product temperature of -18 °C. As a control examined the extract obtained according to the traditional technology by steeping at a temperature of 85–90 for 5 minutes and further cooling for 2–3 hours. The aim of this work is to evaluate the influence of pre-freezing on the physical-chemical characteristics of the ex-tracts from cranberries, obtained using the method of ultrasonic extraction. The results of the research showed the feasibility of pre-freezing the berries before extraction, the possibility of obtaining extracts with improved functionality(antioxidant activity, content of macroelements, organic acids and quality (mass fraction of dry substances of frozen berries that is necessary to substantiate the technological regimes in the practical implementation of the production of extracts using the sequential freezing and ultrasound seasonally adjusted production of berry raw materials.

  7. Berry fruits: compositional elements, biochemical activities, and the impact of their intake on human health, performance, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeram, Navindra P

    2008-02-13

    An overwhelming body of research has now firmly established that the dietary intake of berry fruits has a positive and profound impact on human health, performance, and disease. Berry fruits, which are commercially cultivated and commonly consumed in fresh and processed forms in North America, include blackberry ( Rubus spp.), black raspberry ( Rubus occidentalis), blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum), cranberry (i.e., the American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, distinct from the European cranberry, V. oxycoccus), red raspberry ( Rubus idaeus) and strawberry ( Fragaria x ananassa). Other berry fruits, which are lesser known but consumed in the traditional diets of North American tribal communities, include chokecherry ( Prunus virginiana), highbush cranberry ( Viburnum trilobum), serviceberry ( Amelanchier alnifolia), and silver buffaloberry ( Shepherdia argentea). In addition, berry fruits such as arctic bramble ( Rubus articus), bilberries ( Vaccinuim myrtillus; also known as bog whortleberries), black currant ( Ribes nigrum), boysenberries ( Rubus spp.), cloudberries ( Rubus chamaemorus), crowberries ( Empetrum nigrum, E. hermaphroditum), elderberries ( Sambucus spp.), gooseberry ( Ribes uva-crispa), lingonberries ( Vaccinium vitis-idaea), loganberry ( Rubus loganobaccus), marionberries ( Rubus spp.), Rowan berries ( Sorbus spp.), and sea buckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides), are also popularly consumed in other parts of the world. Recently, there has also been a surge in the consumption of exotic "berry-type" fruits such as the pomegranate ( Punica granatum), goji berries ( Lycium barbarum; also known as wolfberry), mangosteen ( Garcinia mangostana), the Brazilian açaí berry ( Euterpe oleraceae), and the Chilean maqui berry ( Aristotelia chilensis). Given the wide consumption of berry fruits and their potential impact on human health and disease, conferences and symposia that target the latest scientific research (and, of equal importance, the dissemination of

  8. The chilean superfruit black-berry Aristotelia chilensis (Elaeocarpaceae), Maqui as mediator in inflammation-associated disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cespedes, Carlos L; Pavon, Natalia; Dominguez, Mariana; Alarcon, Julio; Balbontin, Cristian; Kubo, Isao; El-Hafidi, Mohammed; Avila, Jose G

    2017-10-01

    The effects of phytochemicals occurred in fractions and extracts of fruits of "Maqui-berry" (Aristotelia chilensis), on the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible-nitric oxide synthases (iNOS) and the production of proinflammatory mediators were investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine macrophage RAW-264 cells, as well as their antioxidant activities. The MeOH extract (A), acetone/methanol extract (B), fractions F3, F4, subfractions (SF4-SF6, SF7, SF8-SF10, SF11-SF15, SF16-SF20), quercetin, gallic acid, luteolin, myricetin, mixtures M1, M2 and M3 exhibited potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The results indicated that anthocyanins, flavonoids and its mixtures suppressed the LPS induced production of nitric oxide (NO), through the down-regulation of iNOS and COX-2 protein expressions and showed a potent antioxidant activity against SOD, ABTS, TBARS, ORAC, FRAP and DCFH. The inhibition of enzymes and NO production by selected fractions and compounds was dose-dependent with significant effects seen at concentration as low as 1.0-50.0 (ppm) and 5.0-10.0 μM, for samples (extracts, fractions, subfractions and mixtures) and pure compounds, respectively. Thus, the phenolics (anthocyanins, flavonoids, and organic acids) as the fractions and mixtures may provide a potential therapeutic approach for inflammation associated disorders and therefore might be used as antagonizing agents to ameliorate the effects of oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comprehensive Profiling and Quantification of Ginsenosides in the Root, Stem, Leaf, and Berry of Panax ginseng by UPLC-QTOF/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Won Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The effective production and usage of ginsenosides, given their distinct pharmacological effects, are receiving increasing amounts of attention. As the ginsenosides content differs in different parts of Panax ginseng, we wanted to assess and compare the ginsenosides content in the ginseng roots, leave, stems, and berries. To extract the ginsenosides, 70% (v/v methanol was used. The optimal ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS method was used to profile various ginsenosides from the different parts of P. ginseng. The datasets were then subjected to multivariate analysis including principal component analysis (PCA and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA. A UPLC-QTOF/MS method with an in-house library was constructed to profile 58 ginsenosides. With this method, a total of 39 ginsenosides were successfully identified and quantified in the ginseng roots, leave, stem, and berries. PCA and HCA characterized the different ginsenosides compositions from the different parts. The quantitative ginsenoside contents were also characterized from each plant part. The results of this study indicate that the UPLC-QTOF/MS method can be an effective tool to characterize various ginsenosides from the different parts of P. ginseng.

  10. An overview of herbs, spices and plant extracts used as seasonings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonings include Spices such as pepper, herbs such as the leaves of cloves and bay, vegetable bulbs such as garlic and onions, sweeteners such as sugar and monosodium glutamate, and plant extracts such as that of Ocimum grattisimum or 'scent leaf'. Spices are the bark, roots, seeds, buds or berries of plants, most ...

  11. The Hawaii protocol for scientific monitoring of coffee berry borer: a model for coffee agroecosystems worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee Berry Borer (CBB) is the most devastating insect pest for coffee crops worldwide. We developed a scientific monitoring protocol aimed at capturing and quantifying the dynamics and impact of this invasive insect pest as well as the development of its host plant across a heterogeneous landscape...

  12. Berry composition and yield of Cabernet Sauvignon and Malbec in response to water deficit severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water supply is a production tool used in arid climates to elicit desirable, water-deficit related changes in berry composition and yield; however, response to water deficit is known to vary by cultivar. The objectives of this research were to determine whether cultivars differed in their relations...

  13. On the developmental and environmental regulation of secondary metabolism in Vaccinium spp. berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja eKarppinen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Secondary metabolites have important defense and signaling roles, and they contribute to the overall quality of developing and ripening fruits. Blueberries, bilberries, cranberries and other Vaccinium berries are fleshy berry fruits recognized for the high levels of bioactive compounds, especially anthocyanin pigments. Besides anthocyanins and other products of the phenylpropanoid and flavonoid pathways, these berries also contain other metabolites of interest, such as carotenoid derivatives, vitamins and flavor compounds. Recently, new information has been achieved on the mechanisms related with developmental, environmental and genetic factors involved in the regulation of secondary metabolism in Vaccinium fruits. Especially light conditions and temperature are demonstrated to have a prominent role on the composition of phenolic compounds. The present review focuses on the studies on mechanisms associated with the regulation of key secondary metabolites, mainly phenolic compounds, in Vaccinium berries. The advances in the research concerning biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in Vaccinium species, including specific studies with mutant genotypes in addition to controlled and field experiments on the genotype x environment (GxE interaction, are discussed. The recently published Vaccinium transcriptome and genome databases provide new tools for the studies on the metabolic routes.

  14. Partially filled Landau level at even denominators: A vortex metal with a Berry phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yizhi

    2018-04-01

    We develop a vortex metal theory for a partially filled Landau level at ν =1/2 n whose ground state contains a composite Fermi surface formed by the vortex of electrons. In the projected Landau-level limit, the composite Fermi surface contains a -π/n Berry phase. Such a fractional Berry phase is a consequence of Landau-level projection which produces the Girvin-MacDonald-Platzman [S. M. Girvin, A. H. MacDonald, and P. M. Platzman, Phys. Rev. B 33, 2481 (1986), 10.1103/PhysRevB.33.2481] guiding center algebra and embellishes an anomalous velocity to the equation of motion for the vortex metal. Further, we investigate a particle-hole symmetric bilayer system with ν1=1/2 n and ν2=1 -1/2 n at each layer, and demonstrate that the -π/n Berry phase on the composite Fermi surface leads to the suppression of 2 kf backscattering between the particle-hole partner bilayer, which could be a smoking gun to detect the fractional Berry phase. We also mention various instabilities and competing orders in such bilayer systems, including a Z4 n topological order phase driven by quantum criticality.

  15. Impact of sensory-based food education in kindergarten on willingness to eat vegetables and berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Hoppu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children use all of their senses when exploring new foods, and sensory-based food education provides new possibilities for promoting healthy dietary habits. Objective: To evaluate the effect of sensory-based food education activities on children's willingness to eat test samples of selected vegetables and berries. Design: Two kindergartens in Hanko, Finland, participated in the study and the subjects were children aged 3–6 years, divided in the intervention (n=44 and control (n=24 kindergarten. In the intervention kindergarten, five sensory-based food education sessions focusing on vegetables and berries were implemented, once per week for 5 weeks. A tasting protocol was performed with the children at baseline and after the intervention. The willingness to eat (5 different vegetables and 3 Finnish berries was categorised. Parents also filled in a questionnaire on the children's food preferences at home. Results: In the intervention kindergarten, the willingness to eat the samples increased significantly (p≤0.001, Wilcoxon and Friedman, while in the control kindergarten, no significant change was observed when all of the test samples were taken into account. The parental report of their children's preferences and children's actual eating of the test samples corresponded relatively weakly. Conclusions: Sensory-based food education activities may promote a willingness to eat vegetables and berries. Child-centred test methods are important for evaluating the effects of dietary interventions among children.

  16. The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei: how many instars are there?

    Science.gov (United States)

    After more than a century since the description of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), and dozens of scientific articles on the basic biology of the insect, there is still debate on the number of female larval instars. This paper analyzes the metamorphosis of H. hampei females thr...

  17. Improvement berry color skin profile by exogenous cyanocobalamin treatment of ‘Crimson seedless’ grapevines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Lo'ay

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to study the effect of cyanocobalamin (B12 treatments (0, 3, 6, and 9 mM B12 on Vitis vinifera L. ‘Crimson seedless’ which conducted during two seasons 2014 and 2015. The study aims to regenerate berry color during growth and preserve it during shelf-life at room temperature for four days. The results showed that B12 treatments were significantly effective in reducing weight loss. Berry shatter, rachis browning index, while it preserved another quality parameter high such as berry firmness, separation force, total phenol content (TPC, total sugar content (TSC, total anthocyanin content (TAC, B-Carotene, ascorbic acid (AA and color hue angle during shelf-life for four days. The previous results were significantly observed with B12 at 9 mM compared to control and other B12 concentrations. However, total solid content (SSC%, titratable acidity (TA%, and SSC/TA ratio were significantly affected by B12 at 9 mM up to end the shelf-life period. In contrast, the lowest values of total chlorophyll (Chlab content during shelf-life compared with other B12 concentrations. Therefore, cyanocobalamin (B12 is an effective vitamin for improving or generating berry color at harvest time and maintaining cluster quality of ‘Crimson seedless’ grapes during shelf-life (marketing.

  18. Does the Berry phase in a quantum optical system originate from the rotating wave approximation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Minghao; Wei, L.F.; Liang, J.Q.

    2015-01-01

    The Berry phase (BP) in a quantized light field demonstrated more than a decade ago (Fuentes-Guridi et al., 2002 [9]) has attracted considerable attention, since it plays an important role in the cavity quantum electrodynamics. However, it is argued in Larson (2012) [15] that such a BP is just due to the rotating wave approximation (RWA) and the relevant BP should vanish beyond this approximation. Based on a consistent analysis we conclude in this letter that the BP in a generic Rabi model actually exists, no matter whether the RWA is applied. The existence of BP is also generalized to a three-level atom in the quantized cavity field. - Highlights: • Non-zero Berry phases for the Rabi model (without rotating wave approximation) are verified. • A general formulation of Berry phases for both the JC model and the Rabi model is presented. • The claim of vanishing Berry phase in the Rabi model is a result of improper semiclassical approximation. • Analytic solutions for the Rabi model is presented in the semiclassical approximation

  19. The impact of high temperatures on Vitis vinifera cv. Semillon grapevine performance and berry ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis H Greer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The heat event that occurred in many parts of Australia in 2009 was the worst on record for the past decade, with air temperatures exceeding 40oC for 14 days. Our aim was to assess the impacts of this heat event on vine performance, including ripening, yield and gas exchange of Vitis vinifera cv. Semillon grown in a Riverina vineyard. To assess the affect of high temperatures on Semillon grapevines, the vines were covered with a protective layer to reduce radiant heating and were compared with vines exposed to ambient conditions. The heat event had major effects on ripening; reducing the rate by 50% and delaying harvest ripeness and causing a high incidence of berry shrivel and sunburn. Yield was not affected. Photosynthesis was reduced 35% by the heat event while transpiration increased nearly 3-fold and was accounted for by increased stomatal conductance. The conclusion of this study was that heat events delayed ripening in Semillon berries and caused a significant reduction in berry quality. Strategies to minimise the radiant load during heat events are required and this study has confirmed a protective layer can reduce canopy temperatures and enhance berry quality.

  20. Consumer attitudes toward new technique for preserving organic meat using herbs and berries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Pernille; Hansen, Flemming; Jensen, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore consumers´ attitude toward a new preservation technique using herbs and berries in organic meat production, which enables to minimize the amount of chemical additives and to reduce the salt content in meat products. Consumer acceptance of the preservation technique using...... and appearance of the products, the price and information level....

  1. Visualising Berry phase and diabolical points in a quantum exciton-polariton billiard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrecho, E; Gao, T; Brodbeck, S; Kamp, M; Schneider, C; Höfling, S; Truscott, A G; Ostrovskaya, E A

    2016-11-25

    Diabolical points (spectral degeneracies) can naturally occur in spectra of two-dimensional quantum systems and classical wave resonators due to simple symmetries. Geometric Berry phase is associated with these spectral degeneracies. Here, we demonstrate a diabolical point and the corresponding Berry phase in the spectrum of hybrid light-matter quasiparticles-exciton-polaritons in semiconductor microcavities. It is well known that sufficiently strong optical pumping can drive exciton-polaritons to quantum degeneracy, whereby they form a macroscopically populated quantum coherent state similar to a Bose-Einstein condensate. By pumping a microcavity with a spatially structured light beam, we create a two-dimensional quantum billiard for the exciton-polariton condensate and demonstrate a diabolical point in the spectrum of the billiard eigenstates. The fully reconfigurable geometry of the potential walls controlled by the optical pump enables a striking experimental visualization of the Berry phase associated with the diabolical point. The Berry phase is observed and measured by direct imaging of the macroscopic exciton-polariton probability densities.

  2. 137Cs in Finnish wild berries, mushrooms and game meat in 2000-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostiainen, E.

    2007-01-01

    Activity concentrations of 137 Cs in wild berries, mushrooms and game meat were measured in samples collected during 2000-2005 in areas with varying 137 Cs deposition levels in Finland. Depending on the 137 Cs deposition levels in the sampling areas, the areal-mean activity concentrations of 137 Cs were 10-230 Bq kg -1 in wild berries, 20-240 Bq kg -1 in moose meat and 10-3000 Bq kg -1 in all mushroom species. Compared with the 137 Cs level of samples collected in 1986 in the corresponding areas, the reduction in the 137 Cs level was about one third for wild berries, equal to the rate of radioactive decay of 137 Cs. More reduction was observed in the activity concentrations of 137 Cs in moose meat, on average up to 50% since 1986. The aggregated transfer coefficients from soil to wild berries showed no change since 1986-1988, while there was about one third reduction in those from soil to game meat. (orig.)

  3. Ranking cultivated blueberry for Mummy Berry Blight and Fruit Infection Incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mummy berry is an important disease of cultivated blueberry. The disease has two distinct phases; a blighting phase initiated by ascospores and a fruit infection stage initiated by conidia. In this study we investigated the resistance of more than 100 blueberry cultivar to both phases of the disease...

  4. Acculturation and mental health--empirical verification of J.W. Berry's model of acculturative stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, M W; Bjerregaard, P; Curtis, C

    2004-01-01

    identity as Greenlander and how well the respondents speak Greenlandic and Danish. The statistical methods included binary logistic regression. RESULTS: We found no connection between Berry's definition of acculturation and mental health among Greenlanders in Denmark. On the other hand, our findings showed...

  5. BacHBerry:: BACterial Hosts for production of Bioactive phenolics from bERRY fruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dudnik, Alexey; Almeida, A. Filipa; Andrade, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    BACterial Hosts for production of Bioactive phenolics from bERRY fruits (BacHBerry) was a 3-year project funded by the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) of the European Union that ran between November 2013 and October 2016. The overall aim of the project was to establish a sustainable and economi...

  6. Simple Rain-Shelter Cultivation Prolongs Accumulation Period of Anthocyanins in Wine Grape Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xi Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Simple rain-shelter cultivation is normally applied during the grape growth season in continental monsoon climates aiming to reduce the occurrence of diseases caused by excessive rainfall. However, whether or not this cultivation practice affects the composition and concentration of phenolic compounds in wine grapes remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on the accumulation of anthocyanins in wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon grown in eastern China. The results showed that rain-shelter cultivation, compared with the open-field, extended the period of rapid accumulation of sugar, increased the soluble solid content in the grape berries, and delayed the senescence of the green leaves at harvest. The concentrations of most anthocyanins were significantly enhanced in the rain-shelter cultivated grapes, and their content increases were closely correlated with the accumulation of sugar. However, the compositions of anthocyanins in the berries were not altered. Correspondingly, the expressions of VvF3'H, VvF3'5'H, and VvUFGT were greatly up-regulated and this rising trend appeared to continue until berry maturation. These results suggested that rain-shelter cultivation might help to improve the quality of wine grape berries by prolonging the life of functional leaves and hence increasing the assimilation products.

  7. The BlackBerry Project: Capturing the Content of Adolescents' Text Messaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Marion K.; Rosen, Lisa H.; More, David; Ehrenreich, Samuel E.; Gentsch, Joanna K.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an innovative method for capturing the content of adolescents' electronic communication on handheld devices: text messaging, e-mail, and instant messaging. In an ongoing longitudinal study, adolescents were provided with BlackBerry devices with service plans paid for by the investigators, and use of text messaging was…

  8. On the Berry-Esséen bound of frequency polygons for ϕ-mixing samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gan-Ji; Xing, Guodong

    2017-01-01

    Under some mild assumptions, the Berry-Esséen bound of frequency polygons for ϕ -mixing samples is presented. By the bound derived, we obtain the corresponding convergence rate of uniformly asymptotic normality, which is nearly [Formula: see text] under the given conditions.

  9. Amounts of NPK removed from soil in harvested coffee berries as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monthly samples of ripened improved robusta coffee berries from compact and large growth forms from three locations, which are representative of the main ecological zones where coffee is grown in Ghana, were taken for 3 years. The pulp and parchment and beans were analysed for N, P and K contents. The amounts of ...

  10. 77 FR 42722 - Berry Petroleum Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2233-000] Berry Petroleum Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Petroleum Company's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule, noting...

  11. Coffee berry borer in conilon coffee in the Brazilian Cerrado: an ancient pest in a new environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C M; Santos, M J; Amabile, R F; Frizzas, M R; Bartholo, G F

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), and to evaluate the population fluctuation of the pest in the Brazilian Cerrado (Federal District). The study was conducted, between November 2014 and October 2015, at Embrapa Cerrados (Planaltina/DF, Brazil) in an irrigated conilon coffee production area. In November 2014, 120 samples (ten berries/sample) were collected from berries that had fallen on the ground from the previous harvest. Between November 2014 and October 2015, insects were collected weekly, using traps (polyethylene terephthalate bottles) baited with ethyl alcohol (98 GL), ethyl alcohol (98 GL) with coffee powder, or molasses. Between January and July 2015, samples were collected fortnightly from 92 plants (12 berries per plant). All samples were evaluated for the presence of adult coffee berry borers. Samples from the previous harvest had an attack incidence of 72.4%. The baited traps captured 4062 H. hampei adults, and showed no statistical difference in capture efficiency among the baits. Pest population peaked in the dry season, with the largest percentage of captured adults occurring in July (31.0%). An average of 18.6% of the collected berries was attacked by the borer and the highest percentage incidence was recorded in July (33.2%). Our results suggest that the coffee berry borer, if not properly managed, could constitute a limiting factor for conilon coffee production in the Brazilian Cerrado.

  12. Chronic bacterial prostatitis: efficacy of short-lasting antibiotic therapy with prulifloxacin (Unidrox®) in association with saw palmetto extract, lactobacillus sporogens and arbutin (Lactorepens®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busetto, Gian Maria; Giovannone, Riccardo; Ferro, Matteo; Tricarico, Stefano; Del Giudice, Francesco; Matei, Deliu Victor; De Cobelli, Ottavio; Gentile, Vincenzo; De Berardinis, Ettore

    2014-07-19

    Bacterial prostatitis (BP) is a common condition accounting responsible for about 5-10% of all prostatitis cases; chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) classified as type II, are less common but is a condition that significantly hampers the quality of life, (QoL) because not only is it a physical condition but also a psychological distress. Commonly patients are treated with antibiotics alone, and in particular fluoroquinolones are suggested by the European Urology guidelines. This approach, although recommended, may not be enough. Thus, a multimodal approach to the prolonged antibiotic therapy may be helpful. 210 patients affected by chronic bacterial prostatitis were enrolled in the study. All patients were positive to Meares-Stamey test and symptoms duration was > 3 months. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of a long lasting therapy with a fluoroquinolone in association with a nutraceutical supplement (prulifloxacin 600 mg for 21 days and an association of Serenoa repens 320 mg, Lactobacillus Sporogens 200 mg, Arbutin 100 mg for 30 days). Patients were randomized in two groups (A and B) receiving respectively antibiotic alone and an association of antibiotic plus supplement. Biological recurrence at 2 months in Group A was observed in 21 patients (27.6%) and in Group B in 6 patients (7.8%). Uropathogens found at the first follow-up were for the majority Gram - (E. coli and Enterobacter spp.). A statistically significant difference was found at the time of the follow-up between Group A and B in the NIH-CPSI questionnaire score, symptoms evidence and serum PSA. Broad band, short-lasting antibiotic therapy in association with a nutritional supplement (serenoa repens, lactobacillus sporogens and arbutin) show better control and recurrence rate on patients affected by chronic bacterial prostatitits in comparison with antibiotic treatment alone. NCT02130713. Date of trial Registration: 30/04/2014.

  13. Differences in Flower Transcriptome between Grapevine Clones Are Related to Their Cluster Compactness, Fruitfulness, and Berry Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Grimplet

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine cluster compactness has a clear impact on fruit quality and health status, as clusters with greater compactness are more susceptible to pests and diseases and ripen more asynchronously. Different parameters related to inflorescence and cluster architecture (length, width, branching, etc., fruitfulness (number of berries, number of seeds and berry size (length, width contribute to the final level of compactness. From a collection of 501 clones of cultivar Garnacha Tinta, two compact and two loose clones with stable differences for cluster compactness-related traits were selected and phenotyped. Key organs and developmental stages were selected for sampling and transcriptomic analyses. Comparison of global gene expression patterns in flowers at the end of bloom allowed identification of potential gene networks with a role in determining the final berry number, berry size and ultimately cluster compactness. A large portion of the differentially expressed genes were found in networks related to cell division (carbohydrates uptake, cell wall metabolism, cell cycle, nucleic acids metabolism, cell division, DNA repair. Their greater expression level in flowers of compact clones indicated that the number of berries and the berry size at ripening appear related to the rate of cell replication in flowers during the early growth stages after pollination. In addition, fluctuations in auxin and gibberellin signaling and transport related gene expression support that they play a central role in fruit set and impact berry number and size. Other hormones, such as ethylene and jasmonate may differentially regulate indirect effects, such as defense mechanisms activation or polyphenols production. This is the first transcriptomic based analysis focused on the discovery of the underlying gene networks involved in grapevine traits of grapevine cluster compactness, berry number and berry size.

  14. Developmental and Metabolic Plasticity of White-Skinned Grape Berries in Response to Botrytis cinerea during Noble Rot1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Thomas S.; Vicente, Ariel R.; Doyle, Carolyn L.; Ye, Zirou; Allen, Greg; Heymann, Hildegarde

    2015-01-01

    Noble rot results from exceptional infections of ripe grape (Vitis vinifera) berries by Botrytis cinerea. Unlike bunch rot, noble rot promotes favorable changes in grape berries and the accumulation of secondary metabolites that enhance wine grape composition. Noble rot-infected berries of cv Sémillon, a white-skinned variety, were collected over 3 years from a commercial vineyard at the same time that fruit were harvested for botrytized wine production. Using an integrated transcriptomics and metabolomics approach, we demonstrate that noble rot alters the metabolism of cv Sémillon berries by inducing biotic and abiotic stress responses as well as ripening processes. During noble rot, B. cinerea induced the expression of key regulators of ripening-associated pathways, some of which are distinctive to the normal ripening of red-skinned cultivars. Enhancement of phenylpropanoid metabolism, characterized by a restricted flux in white-skinned berries, was a common outcome of noble rot and red-skinned berry ripening. Transcript and metabolite analyses together with enzymatic assays determined that the biosynthesis of anthocyanins is a consistent hallmark of noble rot in cv Sémillon berries. The biosynthesis of terpenes and fatty acid aroma precursors also increased during noble rot. We finally characterized the impact of noble rot in botrytized wines. Altogether, the results of this work demonstrated that noble rot causes a major reprogramming of berry development and metabolism. This desirable interaction between a fruit and a fungus stimulates pathways otherwise inactive in white-skinned berries, leading to a greater accumulation of compounds involved in the unique flavor and aroma of botrytized wines. PMID:26450706

  15. Differences in Flower Transcriptome between Grapevine Clones Are Related to Their Cluster Compactness, Fruitfulness, and Berry Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimplet, Jérôme; Tello, Javier; Laguna, Natalia; Ibáñez, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Grapevine cluster compactness has a clear impact on fruit quality and health status, as clusters with greater compactness are more susceptible to pests and diseases and ripen more asynchronously. Different parameters related to inflorescence and cluster architecture (length, width, branching, etc.), fruitfulness (number of berries, number of seeds) and berry size (length, width) contribute to the final level of compactness. From a collection of 501 clones of cultivar Garnacha Tinta, two compact and two loose clones with stable differences for cluster compactness-related traits were selected and phenotyped. Key organs and developmental stages were selected for sampling and transcriptomic analyses. Comparison of global gene expression patterns in flowers at the end of bloom allowed identification of potential gene networks with a role in determining the final berry number, berry size and ultimately cluster compactness. A large portion of the differentially expressed genes were found in networks related to cell division (carbohydrates uptake, cell wall metabolism, cell cycle, nucleic acids metabolism, cell division, DNA repair). Their greater expression level in flowers of compact clones indicated that the number of berries and the berry size at ripening appear related to the rate of cell replication in flowers during the early growth stages after pollination. In addition, fluctuations in auxin and gibberellin signaling and transport related gene expression support that they play a central role in fruit set and impact berry number and size. Other hormones, such as ethylene and jasmonate may differentially regulate indirect effects, such as defense mechanisms activation or polyphenols production. This is the first transcriptomic based analysis focused on the discovery of the underlying gene networks involved in grapevine traits of grapevine cluster compactness, berry number and berry size.

  16. Application of Computer Vision for quality control in frozen mixed berries production: colour calibration issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ricauda Aimonino

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Computer vision is becoming increasingly important in quality control of many food processes. The appearance properties of food products (colour, texture, shape and size are, in fact, correlated with organoleptic characteristics and/or the presence of defects. Quality control based on image processing eliminates the subjectivity of human visual inspection, allowing rapid and non-destructive analysis. However, most food matrices show a wide variability in appearance features, therefore robust and customized image elaboration algorithms have to be implemented for each specific product. For this reason, quality control by visual inspection is still rather diffused in several food processes. The case study inspiring this paper concerns the production of frozen mixed berries. Once frozen, different kinds of berries are mixed together, in different amounts, according to a recipe. The correct quantity of each kind of fruit, within a certain tolerance, has to be ensured by producers. Quality control relies on bringing few samples for each production lot (samples of the same weight and, manually, counting the amount of each species. This operation is tedious, subject to errors, and time consuming, while a computer vision system (CVS could determine the amount of each kind of berries in a few seconds. This paper discusses the problem of colour calibration of the CVS used for frozen berries mixture evaluation. Images are acquired by a digital camera coupled with a dome lighting system, which gives a homogeneous illumination on the entire visible surface of the berries, and a flat bed scanner. RBG device dependent data are then mapped onto CIELab colorimetric colour space using different transformation operators. The obtained results show that the proposed calibration procedure leads to colour discrepancies comparable or even below the human eyes sensibility.

  17. Pest Management Strategies Against the Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante, Francisco

    2018-03-22

    Coffee ( Coffea arabica and C. canephora) is one of the most widely traded agricultural commodities and the main cash crop in ∼80 tropical countries. Among the factors that limit coffee production, the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) has been considered the main insect pest, causing losses of over U.S. $500 million dollars annually. Control of this pest has been hindered by two main factors: the cryptic nature of the insect (i.e., protected inside the coffee berry) and the availability of coffee berries in the field allowing the survival of the pest from one generation to the next. Coffee berry borer control has primarily been based on the use of synthetic insecticides. Management strategies have focused on the use of African parasitoids ( Cephalonomia stephanoderis, Prorops nasuta, and Phymastichus coffea), fungal entomopathogens ( Beauveria bassiana), and insect traps. These approaches have had mixed results. Recent work on the basic biology of the insect has provided novel insights that might be useful in developing novel pest management strategies. For example, the discovery of symbiotic bacteria responsible for caffeine breakdown as part of the coffee berry borer microbiome opens new possibilities for pest management via the disruption of these bacteria. Some chemicals with repellent propieties have been identified, and these have a high potential for field implementation. Finally, the publication of the CBB genome has provided insights on the biology of the insect that will help us to understand why it has been so successful at exploiting the coffee plant. Here I discuss the tools we now have against the CBB and likely control strategies that may be useful in the near future.

  18. Effect of Esca on the Quality of Berries, Musts and Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Calzarano

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Variations in the composition of berries, musts and wines in three groups of vines: 1. vines with foliar esca symptoms; 2. asymptomatic esca diseased vines; and 3. healthy vines, were studied in 2001 and 2002 in two “Trebbiano d’Abruzzo” vineyards in the Abruzzi region, Italy, to determine the effect of esca. Vines were grouped by foliar symptoms that had been recorded in annual inspections for 10 years: symptomatic vines by definition showed foliar symptoms in the sampling years (2001 and 2002; asymptomatic esca diseased vines showed no symptoms during the sampling years though they were known to be diseased because they had had foliar symptoms in at least one previous annual inspections; healthy vines were those with no symptoms at any time during the 10-year survey. The quality of berries, musts and wines obtained from vines with trunk renewal that had been restored, and of healthy unrenewed vines was compared in another vineyard of the same cultivar. Fairly similar results were obtained over the two sampling years, with a strong reduction in sugar levels of the must from symptomatic vines, leading to a lower ethanol content in the wine made from that must. These findings confirmed those of the preliminary investigation carried out in 2000. The yield pressed from symptomatic vines also had significantly higher levels of malic acid (causing higher total acidity, and of total nitrogen, potassium and total polyphenols. Berries from symptomatic vines had much higher levels of trans-resveratrol, possibly because of the spots on the leaves and berries. Small and non-significant differences between the yields of healthy vines and asymptomatic diseased vines were found, suggesting a slight loss in the quality of musts and wines from asymptomatic diseased vines. The yield of trunk-renewed vines was similar to that of healthy unrenewed vines, despite an increase of trans-resveratrol in the berries and of total nitrogen in the must of the trunk

  19. Influence of harvest day on changes in mechanical properties of grape berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Nedomová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the composition, physical and mechanical properties occur in grape berries during the ripening process, but the heterogeneity of the grapes harvested at different ripening stages affects the reliability of the results obtained. The characterization of the mechanical properties of grape berries seems to be an important parameter for understanding grape ripening. In this work, these changes were studied in seven grapevine varieties (Riesling, Blaufränkisch, Pinot Noir, Cerason, Malverina, Laurot, and Hibernal harvested during six consecutive weeks. Mechanical behaviour was measured using compression and puncture tests using of TIRATEST 27025 testing machine. Skin mechanical properties were evaluated using a puncture test carried out on the equatorial side. The dependence of these properties on the chemical composition has been evaluated. These parameters of force/time curves were studied by puncture test: the berry skin break force, the needle displacement at the skin break and the berry skin break energy. The crushing force, the plate displacement at the crushing strength and the berry crushing energy were studied from force/time curves by compression test. Results of the puncture test shows that there the skin break strength and the acidity content are monotonic functions of the time. A comparison of different varieties from the point of the value of the crushing force was obtained by vertical and transversal loading. The crushing force is monotonically decreasing function of the harvesting time like the break force evaluated at the puncture test. The correlation between the skin break strength and the sugar content is significant namely for the varieties: Hibernal, Riesling, Malverina, and Cerason. 

  20. An afternoon snack of berries reduces subsequent energy intake compared to an isoenergetic confectionary snack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lewis J; Funnell, Mark P; Milner, Samantha

    2015-12-01

    Observational studies suggest that increased fruit and vegetable consumption can contribute to weight maintenance and facilitate weight loss when substituted for other energy dense foods. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of berries on acute appetite and energy intake. Twelve unrestrained pre-menopausal women (age 21 ± 2 y; BMI 26.6 ± 2.6 kg m(-2); body fat 23 ± 3%) completed a familiarisation trial and two randomised experimental trials. Subjects arrived in the evening (~5pm) and consumed an isoenergetic snack (65 kcal) of mixed berries (BERRY) or confectionary sweets (CONF). Sixty min later, subjects consumed a homogenous pasta test meal until voluntary satiation, and energy intake was quantified. Subjective appetite (hunger, fullness, desire to eat and prospective food consumption) was assessed throughout trials, and for 120 min after the test meal. Energy intake was less (Psnack (691 ± 146 kcal) than after the CONF snack (824 ± 172 kcal); whilst water consumption was similar (P=0.925). There were no trial (P>0.095) or interaction (P>0.351) effects for any subjective appetite ratings. Time taken to eat the BERRY snack (4.05 ± 1.12 min) was greater (Psnack (0.93 ± 0.33 min). This study demonstrates that substituting an afternoon confectionary snack with mixed berries decreased subsequent energy intake at dinner, but did not affect subjective appetite. This dietary strategy could represent a simple method for reducing daily energy intake and aiding weight management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of physical properties of color and texture in goji-berry processed by ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Pâmela Galo da; Koike, Amanda Cristina Ramos; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia Casañas Haasis, E-mail: pamela.gallo@outlook.com, E-mail: amandaramosk@gmail.com, E-mail: villavic@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rodrigues, Flavio Thihara, E-mail: flaviot@ymail.com [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de Goiás (IFG), Inhumas, GO (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Goji-berry is fruit native from China, found on a red berry form and keeps an excellent source of antioxidants, such as carotenoids. The consumption of goji-berry is growing on the Brazilian commerce. To allow the commercialization of this foods its necessary of these foods are free of contaminants agents which may cause damages to the consumers health. For this warranty it's required of this method does not harm the food properties and quality. For this check was made the study using goji-berry. Irradiation is one of the methods that improves the safety and extends the shelf life of some foods. Food irradiation is a technology process of exposing a particular food to a controlled dose of ionizing radiation. This study aimed compares the effects of ionizing radiation processing on physical properties of color and texture in goji-berries at different irradiation doses. Samples were bought on the retail market in the city of São Paulo and processed by ionizing radiation on Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP) at doses of 2.5; 5.0; 7.5; 10.0 kGy and the control group. Then the samples were followed by color and texture analyses. The color assay's results showed that the irradiation process decreased red and yellow pigments. On the other hand, the sample's luminosity increased after being processed by ionizing radiation. On the texture assay was verified a decrease of the fruit compressive force, turning the fruit more softened. (author)

  2. Analysis of physical properties of color and texture in goji-berry processed by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Pâmela Galo da; Koike, Amanda Cristina Ramos; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia Casañas Haasis; Rodrigues, Flavio Thihara

    2017-01-01

    Goji-berry is fruit native from China, found on a red berry form and keeps an excellent source of antioxidants, such as carotenoids. The consumption of goji-berry is growing on the Brazilian commerce. To allow the commercialization of this foods its necessary of these foods are free of contaminants agents which may cause damages to the consumers health. For this warranty it's required of this method does not harm the food properties and quality. For this check was made the study using goji-berry. Irradiation is one of the methods that improves the safety and extends the shelf life of some foods. Food irradiation is a technology process of exposing a particular food to a controlled dose of ionizing radiation. This study aimed compares the effects of ionizing radiation processing on physical properties of color and texture in goji-berries at different irradiation doses. Samples were bought on the retail market in the city of São Paulo and processed by ionizing radiation on Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP) at doses of 2.5; 5.0; 7.5; 10.0 kGy and the control group. Then the samples were followed by color and texture analyses. The color assay's results showed that the irradiation process decreased red and yellow pigments. On the other hand, the sample's luminosity increased after being processed by ionizing radiation. On the texture assay was verified a decrease of the fruit compressive force, turning the fruit more softened. (author)

  3. Formation of merchandizing characteristics and extension of the commercial range of products from wild-growing berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Дмитро Миколайович Одарченко

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The methods and main parameters for the receipt of reversible phases of wild-growing berries are substantiated and its merchandizing characteristics are studied. Cryoscopic and optical properties of solid phase are studied. Based on the determination of the consumer properties of liquid and solid phases from berries the possible ways for their application in food technologies are suggested. It is also determined that electrophysical method can work as the method of express-analysis during the expertise of fresh wild-growing berries and products after their processing

  4. Cytoprotective Mechanisms Mediated by Polyphenols from Chilean Native Berries against Free Radical-Induced Damage on AGS Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Ávila

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of cytoprotective mechanisms induced by polyphenols such as activation of intracellular antioxidant responses (ICM and direct free radical scavenging was investigated in native Chilean species of strawberries, raspberries, and currants. Human gastric epithelial cells were co- and preincubated with polyphenolic-enriched extracts (PEEs from Chilean raspberries (Rubus geoides, strawberries (Fragaria chiloensis ssp. chiloensis f. chiloensis, and currants (Ribes magellanicum and challenged with peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals. Cellular protection was determined in terms of cell viability, glyoxalase I and glutathione s-transferases activities, and carboxymethyl lysine (CML and malondialdehyde levels. Our results indicate that cytoprotection induced by ICM was the prevalent mechanism for Rubus geoides and F. chiloensis. This agreed with increased levels of glyoxalase I and glutathione S-transferase activities in cells preincubated with PEEs. ORAC index indicated that F. chiloensis was the most efficient peroxyl radical scavenger. Moreover, ICM mediated by F. chiloensis was effective in protecting cells from CML accumulation in contrast to the protective effects induced by free radical scavenging. Our results indicate that although both polyphenol-mediated mechanisms can exert protective effects, ICM was the most prevalent in AGS cells. These results suggest a potential use of these native berries as functional food.

  5. Cytoprotective Mechanisms Mediated by Polyphenols from Chilean Native Berries against Free Radical-Induced Damage on AGS Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, Felipe; Theoduloz, Cristina; López-Alarcón, Camilo; Dorta, Eva; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of cytoprotective mechanisms induced by polyphenols such as activation of intracellular antioxidant responses (ICM) and direct free radical scavenging was investigated in native Chilean species of strawberries, raspberries, and currants. Human gastric epithelial cells were co- and preincubated with polyphenolic-enriched extracts (PEEs) from Chilean raspberries ( Rubus geoides ), strawberries ( Fragaria chiloensis ssp. chiloensis f . chiloensis ), and currants ( Ribes magellanicum ) and challenged with peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals. Cellular protection was determined in terms of cell viability, glyoxalase I and glutathione s-transferases activities, and carboxymethyl lysine (CML) and malondialdehyde levels. Our results indicate that cytoprotection induced by ICM was the prevalent mechanism for Rubus geoides and F. chiloensis . This agreed with increased levels of glyoxalase I and glutathione S-transferase activities in cells preincubated with PEEs. ORAC index indicated that F. chiloensis was the most efficient peroxyl radical scavenger. Moreover, ICM mediated by F. chiloensis was effective in protecting cells from CML accumulation in contrast to the protective effects induced by free radical scavenging. Our results indicate that although both polyphenol-mediated mechanisms can exert protective effects, ICM was the most prevalent in AGS cells. These results suggest a potential use of these native berries as functional food.

  6. A Standard Addition Method to Assay the Concentration of Biologically Interesting Polyphenols in Grape Berries by Reversed-Phase HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkos A. Haroutounian

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A reversed-phase HPLC method which allows the simultaneous assay of (+- catechin, (–-epicatechin, trans-resveratrol, quercetin and quercetin glycosides in grape berries is described. Kromasil 100 served as stationary phase and a gradient of acetic acid, water and methanol was used. The analytical run requires 42 min for complete sample elution. Satisfactory peak resolution was achieved following a novel extraction process and direct injection of a 20 μL sample. The method was used for the analyses of eighteen samples. Linearities were in the range of 0.98 to 0.999 regression coefficient, for all phenolics, while detection limits ranged from 30 μg mL–1 for trans-resveratrol to 1.5 mg mL–1 for (+-catechin. Recoveries ranged from 95.1 to 98.7% while the method provided good precision, with standard deviations between 3.5 and 6.1%, n=5.

  7. Korean Ginseng Berry Fermented by Mycotoxin Non-producing Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae: Ginsenoside Analyses and Anti-proliferative Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhipeng; Ahn, Hyung Jin; Kim, Nam Yeon; Lee, Yu Na; Ji, Geun Eog

    2016-01-01

    To transform ginsenosides, Korean ginseng berry (KGB) was fermented by mycotoxin non-producing Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae. Changes of ginsenoside profile and anti-proliferative activities were observed. Results showed that A. niger tended to efficiently transform protopanaxadiol (PPD) type ginsenosides such as Rb1, Rb2, Rd to compound K while A. oryzae tended to efficiently transform protopanaxatriol (PPT) type ginsenoside Re to Rh1 via Rg1. Butanol extracts of fermented KGB showed high cytotoxicity on human adenocarcinoma HT-29 cell line and hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line while that of unfermented KGB showed little. The minimum effective concentration of niger-fermented KGB was less than 2.5 µg/mL while that of oryzae-fermented KGB was about 5 µg/mL. As A. niger is more inclined to transform PPD type ginsenosides, niger-fermented KGB showed stronger anti-proliferative activity than oryzae-fermented KGB.

  8. Use of image analysis for the study of phenolic compounds of the grape berry skin (Vitis vinifera L., cv Cabernet franc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Chevalier

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The localization and quantitative determination of phenolics in grape berry skins, from the onset of veraison, constitute the first step to understand the évolution of these compounds throughout the maturation process. Histological techniques are appropriate to study the evolution of phenolics but manual countings are long and drudgery and do not allow for reliable quantitative results. The image analysis software "Scion Image" proved to be a good tool to improve the quantitative results. This method permitted also to measure the cells area and the area occupied by phenolic compounds inside the vacuoles. Image analysis could be helpful to the understanding of the évolution of phenolics during maturation and possibly contribute to explain their extraction during macération.

  9. Invariance of the Berry phase under unitary transformations: application to the time-dependent generalized harmonic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobe, D.H.

    1989-01-01

    The Berry phase is derived in a manifestly gauge-invariant way, without adiabatic or cyclic requirements. It is invariant under unitary transformations, contrary to recent assertions. A time-dependent generalized harmonic oscillator is taken as an example. The energy of the system is not in general the Hamiltonian. An energy, the time derivative of which is the power, is obtained from the equation of motion. When the system is quantized, the Berry phase is zero, and is invariant under unitary transformations. If the energy is chosen incorrectly to be the Hamiltonian, a nonzero Berry phase is obtained. In this case the total phase, the sun of the dynamical and Berry phases, is equal to the correct total phase through first order in perturbation theory. (author)

  10. The Induction of Noble Rot (Botrytis cinerea Infection during Postharvest Withering Changes the Metabolome of Grapevine Berries (Vitis vinifera L., cv. Garganega

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Negri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The natural or induced development of noble rot caused by the fungus Botrytis cinerea during the late stages of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. berry ripening is used in some traditional viticulture areas to produce high-quality wines such as Sauternes and Tokaji. In this research, we wanted to verify if by changing the environmental conditions during post-harvest withering we could induce the noble rot development on harvested berries in order to positively change the wine produced from withered Garganega berries. Therefore, we exposed the berries to postharvest withering under normal or artificially humid conditions, the latter to induce noble rot. The presence of noble rot symptoms was associated with the development of B. cinerea in the berries maintained under humid conditions. The composition of infected and non-infected berries was investigated by untargeted metabolomics using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. We also explored the effects of the two withering methods on the abundance of volatile organic compounds in wine by yeast-inoculated micro-fermentation followed by targeted gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. These experiments revealed significant metabolic differences between berries withered under normal and humid conditions, indicating that noble rot affects berry metabolism and composition. As well as well-known botrytization markers, we detected two novel lipids that have not been observed before in berries infected with noble rot. Unraveling the specific metabolic profile of berries infected with noble rot may help to determine the compounds responsible for the organoleptic quality traits of botrytized Garganega wines.

  11. Dissecting the Biochemical and Transcriptomic Effects of a Locally Applied Heat Treatment on Developing Cabernet Sauvignon Grape Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecourieux, Fatma; Kappel, Christian; Pieri, Philippe; Charon, Justine; Pillet, Jérémy; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Renaud, Christel; Gomès, Eric; Delrot, Serge; Lecourieux, David

    2017-01-01

    Reproductive development of grapevine and berry composition are both strongly influenced by temperature. To date, the molecular mechanisms involved in grapevine berries response to high temperatures are poorly understood. Unlike recent data that addressed the effects on berry development of elevated temperatures applied at the whole plant level, the present work particularly focuses on the fruit responses triggered by direct exposure to heat treatment (HT). In the context of climate change, this work focusing on temperature effect at the microclimate level is of particular interest as it can help to better understand the consequences of leaf removal (a common viticultural practice) on berry development. HT (+ 8°C) was locally applied to clusters from Cabernet Sauvignon fruiting cuttings at three different developmental stages (middle green, veraison and middle ripening). Samples were collected 1, 7, and 14 days after treatment and used for metabolic and transcriptomic analyses. The results showed dramatic and specific biochemical and transcriptomic changes in heat exposed berries, depending on the developmental stage and the stress duration. When applied at the herbaceous stage, HT delayed the onset of veraison. Heating also strongly altered the berry concentration of amino acids and organic acids (e.g., phenylalanine, γ-aminobutyric acid and malate) and decreased the anthocyanin content at maturity. These physiological alterations could be partly explained by the deep remodeling of transcriptome in heated berries. More than 7000 genes were deregulated in at least one of the nine experimental conditions. The most affected processes belong to the categories "stress responses," "protein metabolism" and "secondary metabolism," highlighting the intrinsic capacity of grape berries to perceive HT and to build adaptive responses. Additionally, important changes in processes related to "transport," "hormone" and "cell wall" might contribute to the postponing of veraison

  12. Effect of commercial enzymes on berry cell wall deconstruction in the context of intravineyard ripeness variation under winemaking conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Yu; Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik; Willats, William George Tycho

    2016-01-01

    Significant intravineyard variation in grape berry ripening occurs within vines and between vines. However, no cell wall data are available on such variation. Here we used a checkerboard panel design to investigate ripening variation in pooled grape bunches for enzyme-assisted winemaking...... positively influence the consistency of winemaking and provides a foundation for further research into the relationship between grape berry cell wall architecture and enzyme formulations....

  13. Differences in Flower Transcriptome between Grapevine Clones Are Related to Their Cluster Compactness, Fruitfulness, and Berry Size

    OpenAIRE

    Grimplet, Jérôme; Tello, Javier; Laguna Ullán, Natalia; Ibáñez Marcos, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Grapevine cluster compactness has a clear impact on fruit quality and health status, as clusters with greater compactness are more susceptible to pests and diseases and ripen more asynchronously. Different parameters related to inflorescence and cluster architecture (length, width, branching, etc.), fruitfulness (number of berries, number of seeds) and berry size (length, width) contribute to the final level of compactness. From a collection of 501 clones of cultivar Garnacha Tinta, two compa...

  14. Cocktails of ramsons and acidic berries kill E. coli in a piglet gastrointestinal model: an alternative to antibiotics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højberg, Ole; Canibe, Nuria; Grevsen, Kai

    2017-01-01

    Mixing ramsons and acidic berries enhances, in a synergistic manner, the antimicrobial activity observed for the plants separately, and make the plant cocktails of interest as a feed additives as an alternative to antibiotics in both organic and conventional pig production.......Mixing ramsons and acidic berries enhances, in a synergistic manner, the antimicrobial activity observed for the plants separately, and make the plant cocktails of interest as a feed additives as an alternative to antibiotics in both organic and conventional pig production....

  15. Berry phases for 3D Hartree-type equations with a quadratic potential and a uniform magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvinets, F N; Shapovalov, A V; Trifonov, A Yu

    2007-01-01

    A countable set of asymptotic space-localized solutions is constructed for a 3D Hartree-type equation with a quadratic potential by the complex germ method in the adiabatic approximation. The asymptotic parameter is 1/T, where T >> 1 is the adiabatic evolution time. A generalization of the Berry phase of the linear Schroedinger equation is formulated for the Hartree-type equation. For the solutions constructed, the Berry phases are found in an explicit form

  16. Effect of Saw Palmetto Supplements on Androgen-Sensitive LNCaP Human Prostate Cancer Cell Number and Syrian Hamster Flank Organ Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander B. Opoku-Acheampong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Saw palmetto supplements (SPS are commonly consumed by men with prostate cancer. We investigated whether SPS fatty acids and phytosterols concentrations determine their growth-inhibitory action in androgen-sensitive LNCaP cells and hamster flank organs. High long-chain fatty acids-low phytosterols (HLLP SPS ≥ 750 nM with testosterone significantly increased and ≥500 nM with dihydrotestosterone significantly decreased LNCaP cell number. High long-chain fatty acids-high phytosterols (HLHP SPS ≥ 500 nM with dihydrotestosterone and high medium-chain fatty acids-low phytosterols (HMLP SPS ≥ 750 nM or with androgens significantly decreased LNCaP cell number (n=3; p<0.05. Five- to six-week-old, castrated male Syrian hamsters were randomized to control (n=4, HLLP, HLHP, and HMLP SPS (n=6 groups. Testosterone or dihydrotestosterone was applied topically daily for 21 days to the right flank organ; the left flank organ was treated with ethanol and served as the control. Thirty minutes later, SPS or ethanol was applied to each flank organ in treatment and control groups, respectively. SPS treatments caused a notable but nonsignificant reduction in the difference between left and right flank organ growth in testosterone-treated SPS groups compared to the control. The same level of inhibition was not seen in dihydrotestosterone-treated SPS groups (p<0.05. Results may suggest that SPS inhibit 5α-reductase thereby preventing hamster flank organ growth.

  17. Effect of Saw Palmetto Supplements on Androgen-Sensitive LNCaP Human Prostate Cancer Cell Number and Syrian Hamster Flank Organ Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opoku-Acheampong, Alexander B; Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L

    2016-01-01

    Saw palmetto supplements (SPS) are commonly consumed by men with prostate cancer. We investigated whether SPS fatty acids and phytosterols concentrations determine their growth-inhibitory action in androgen-sensitive LNCaP cells and hamster flank organs. High long-chain fatty acids-low phytosterols (HLLP) SPS ≥ 750 nM with testosterone significantly increased and ≥500 nM with dihydrotestosterone significantly decreased LNCaP cell number. High long-chain fatty acids-high phytosterols (HLHP) SPS ≥ 500 nM with dihydrotestosterone and high medium-chain fatty acids-low phytosterols (HMLP) SPS ≥ 750 nM or with androgens significantly decreased LNCaP cell number (n = 3; p < 0.05). Five- to six-week-old, castrated male Syrian hamsters were randomized to control (n = 4), HLLP, HLHP, and HMLP SPS (n = 6) groups. Testosterone or dihydrotestosterone was applied topically daily for 21 days to the right flank organ; the left flank organ was treated with ethanol and served as the control. Thirty minutes later, SPS or ethanol was applied to each flank organ in treatment and control groups, respectively. SPS treatments caused a notable but nonsignificant reduction in the difference between left and right flank organ growth in testosterone-treated SPS groups compared to the control. The same level of inhibition was not seen in dihydrotestosterone-treated SPS groups (p < 0.05). Results may suggest that SPS inhibit 5α-reductase thereby preventing hamster flank organ growth.

  18. A new machairodont from the Palmetto Fauna (early Pliocene) of Florida, with comments on the origin of the Smilodontini (Mammalia, Carnivora, Felidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Steven C; Hulbert, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    South-central Florida's latest Hemphillian Palmetto Fauna includes two machairodontine felids, the lion-sized Machairodus coloradensis and a smaller, jaguar-sized species, initially referred to Megantereon hesperus based on a single, relatively incomplete mandible. This made the latter the oldest record of Megantereon, suggesting a New World origin of the genus. Subsequent workers variously accepted or rejected this identification and biogeographic scenario. Fortunately, new material, which preserves previously unknown characters, is now known for the smaller taxon. The most parsimonious results of a phylogenetic analysis using 37 cranio-mandibular characters from 13 taxa place it in the Smilodontini, like the original study; however, as the sister-taxon to Megantereon and Smilodon. Accordingly, we formally describe Rhizosmilodon fiteae gen. et sp. nov. Rhizosmilodon, Megantereon, and Smilodon ( = Smilodontini) share synapomorphies relative to their sister-taxon Machairodontini: serrations smaller and restricted to canines; offset of P3 with P4 and p4 with m1; complete verticalization of mandibular symphysis; m1 shortened and robust with widest point anterior to notch; and extreme posterior "lean" to p3/p4. Rhizosmilodon has small anterior and posterior accessory cusps on p4, a relatively large lower canine, and small, non-procumbent lower incisors; all more primitive states than in Megantereon and Smilodon. The former also differs from Megantereon and Smilodon gracilis by having a very small mandibular flange. Rhizosmilodon is the oldest known member of the Smilodontini, suggesting that the tribe originated in North America. Two more derived, similar-sized species evolved in parallel during the Blancan, Megantereon hesperus and Smilodon gracilis. The former is rarer, known only from the north-central and northwestern US, and presumably dispersed into the Old World. The latter is known from the eastern and southern US, and dispersed into South America.

  19. A new machairodont from the Palmetto Fauna (early Pliocene of Florida, with comments on the origin of the Smilodontini (Mammalia, Carnivora, Felidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven C Wallace

    Full Text Available South-central Florida's latest Hemphillian Palmetto Fauna includes two machairodontine felids, the lion-sized Machairodus coloradensis and a smaller, jaguar-sized species, initially referred to Megantereon hesperus based on a single, relatively incomplete mandible. This made the latter the oldest record of Megantereon, suggesting a New World origin of the genus. Subsequent workers variously accepted or rejected this identification and biogeographic scenario. Fortunately, new material, which preserves previously unknown characters, is now known for the smaller taxon. The most parsimonious results of a phylogenetic analysis using 37 cranio-mandibular characters from 13 taxa place it in the Smilodontini, like the original study; however, as the sister-taxon to Megantereon and Smilodon. Accordingly, we formally describe Rhizosmilodon fiteae gen. et sp. nov. Rhizosmilodon, Megantereon, and Smilodon ( = Smilodontini share synapomorphies relative to their sister-taxon Machairodontini: serrations smaller and restricted to canines; offset of P3 with P4 and p4 with m1; complete verticalization of mandibular symphysis; m1 shortened and robust with widest point anterior to notch; and extreme posterior "lean" to p3/p4. Rhizosmilodon has small anterior and posterior accessory cusps on p4, a relatively large lower canine, and small, non-procumbent lower incisors; all more primitive states than in Megantereon and Smilodon. The former also differs from Megantereon and Smilodon gracilis by having a very small mandibular flange. Rhizosmilodon is the oldest known member of the Smilodontini, suggesting that the tribe originated in North America. Two more derived, similar-sized species evolved in parallel during the Blancan, Megantereon hesperus and Smilodon gracilis. The former is rarer, known only from the north-central and northwestern US, and presumably dispersed into the Old World. The latter is known from the eastern and southern US, and dispersed into South

  20. Current evidence on the health-beneficial effects of berry fruits in the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Katarzyna; Olejnik, Anna

    2016-11-01

    Berries belong to the best dietary sources of bioactive compounds, which exert a synergistic and cumulative effect on promotion of human health and prevention of diseases. The present review presents the most recent findings of animal and human studies regarding the health benefits of berries in terms of prevention and treatment of obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. In the last years, there was a growing number of evidence from human epidemiological and interventional studies, which emphasized the role of berries in the management of metabolic diseases. Based on the results from recent clinical trials, it can be established that a berry diet rich in antioxidants and bioactive phytochemicals has beneficial effects on hepatic function, increase of insulin sensitivity and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, decrease of serum glucose and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and finally is inversely associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Numerous recent studies have shown that berries provide great benefits in preventing or mitigating metabolic disorders. The results of this review indicate that regular long-term consumption of different berries could potentially delay the progression of metabolic syndrome and comorbidities.

  1. Grapevine rootstocks differentially affect the rate of ripening and modulate auxin-related genes in Cabernet Sauvignon berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano eCorso

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In modern viticulture, grafting commercial grapevine varieties on interspecific rootstocks is a common practice required for conferring resistance to many biotic and abiotic stresses. Nevertheless, the use of rootstocks to gain these essential traits is also known to impact grape berry development and quality, although the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. In grape berries, the onset of ripening (véraison is regulated by a complex network of mobile signals including hormones such as auxins, ethylene, abscisic acid and brassinosteroids. Recently, a new rootstock, designated M4, was selected based on its enhanced tolerance to water stress and medium vigour. This study investigates the effect of M4 on Cabernet Sauvignon (CS berry development in comparison to the commercial 1103P rootstock. Physical and biochemical parameters showed that the ripening rate of CS berries is faster when grafted onto M4. A multifactorial analysis performed on mRNA-Seq data obtained from skin and pulp of berries grown in both graft combinations revealed that genes controlling auxin action (ARF and Aux/IAA represent one of main categories affected by the rootstock genotype. Considering that the level of auxin tightly regulates the transcription of these genes, we investigated the behaviour of the main gene families involved in auxin biosynthesis and conjugation. Molecular and biochemical analyses confirmed a link between the rate of berry development and the modulation of auxin metabolism. Moreover the data indicate that this phenomenon appears to be particularly pronounced in skin tissue in comparison to the flesh.

  2. Grapevine Rootstocks Differentially Affect the Rate of Ripening and Modulate Auxin-Related Genes in Cabernet Sauvignon Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, Massimiliano; Vannozzi, Alessandro; Ziliotto, Fiorenza; Zouine, Mohamed; Maza, Elie; Nicolato, Tommaso; Vitulo, Nicola; Meggio, Franco; Valle, Giorgio; Bouzayen, Mondher; Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Lucchin, Margherita; Bonghi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    In modern viticulture, grafting commercial grapevine varieties on interspecific rootstocks is a common practice required for conferring resistance to many biotic and abiotic stresses. Nevertheless, the use of rootstocks to gain these essential traits is also known to impact grape berry development and quality, although the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. In grape berries, the onset of ripening (véraison) is regulated by a complex network of mobile signals including hormones such as auxins, ethylene, abscisic acid, and brassinosteroids. Recently, a new rootstock, designated M4, was selected based on its enhanced tolerance to water stress and medium vigor. This study investigates the effect of M4 on Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) berry development in comparison to the commercial 1103P rootstock. Physical and biochemical parameters showed that the ripening rate of CS berries is faster when grafted onto M4. A multifactorial analysis performed on mRNA-Seq data obtained from skin and pulp of berries grown in both graft combinations revealed that genes controlling auxin action (ARF and Aux/IAA) represent one of main categories affected by the rootstock genotype. Considering that the level of auxin tightly regulates the transcription of these genes, we investigated the behavior of the main gene families involved in auxin biosynthesis and conjugation. Molecular and biochemical analyses confirmed a link between the rate of berry development and the modulation of auxin metabolism. Moreover, the data indicate that this phenomenon appears to be particularly pronounced in skin tissue in comparison to the flesh.

  3. Effect of Raw Material, Pressing and Glycosidase on the Volatile Compound Composition of Wine Made From Goji Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanshen Yuan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of raw material, pressing, and glycosidase on the aromatic profile of goji berry wine. The free-run and the pressed juice of dried and fresh goji berries were used for wine production, whereas glycosidase was applied to wine after fermentation. Dried goji berry fermented wine exhibited much stronger fruity, floral, caramel, and herbaceous odors due to higher levels of esters, β-ionone and methionol. However, fresh berry fermented wine possessed stronger chemical notes due to higher levels of 4-ethylphenol. Pressing treatment reduced the fruity and caramel odors in these fermented wines, and fresh berry free-run juice fermented wine exhibited the least floral aroma. Glycosidase addition did not alter the aromatic composition of wines. The principal component analysis indicated that goji raw material played a primary role in differentiating the aromatic profiles of the wines due to the difference on the content of 20 esters, nine benzenes, eight aldehydes/ketones, three acids, two alcohols and six other volatiles. The content differences on isopentyl alcohol, styrene, benzyl alcohol, 1-octanol, (E-5-decen-1-ol, 1-hexanol, and β-cyclocitral resulted in the segregation of the wines with and without the pressing treatment, especially for fresh berry fermented wine.

  4. Carrier density control of magnetism and Berry phases in doped EuTiO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahadi, Kaveh; Gui, Zhigang; Porter, Zach; Lynn, Jeffrey W.; Xu, Zhijun; Wilson, Stephen D.; Janotti, Anderson; Stemmer, Susanne

    2018-05-01

    In materials with broken time-reversal symmetry, the Berry curvature acts as a reciprocal space magnetic field on the conduction electrons and is a significant contribution to the magnetotransport properties, including the intrinsic anomalous Hall effect. Here, we report neutron diffraction, transport, and magnetization measurements of thin films of doped EuTiO3, an itinerant magnetic material, as a function of carrier density and magnetic field. These films are itinerant antiferromagnets at all doping concentrations. At low carrier densities, the magnetoresistance indicates a metamagnetic transition, which is absent at high carrier densities (>6 × 1020 cm-3). Strikingly, the crossover coincides with a sign change in the spontaneous Hall effects, indicating a sign change in the Berry curvature. We discuss the results in the context of the band structure topology and its coupling to the magnetic texture.

  5. Effects of cluster thinning on vine photosynthesis, berry ripeness and flavonoid composition of Cabernet Sauvignon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; He, Yan-Nan; Chen, Wei-Kai; He, Fei; Chen, Wu; Cai, Xiao-Dong; Duan, Chang-Qing; Wang, Jun

    2018-05-15

    Cluster thinning is a common practice for regulating vine yield and grape quality. The effects of cluster thinning on vine photosynthesis, berry ripeness and flavonoid composition of V. vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon were evaluated during two seasons. Half of the clusters were removed at pea-size and veraison relative to two controls, respectively. Both cluster thinning treatments significantly increased pruning weight and decreased yield. No effects of cluster thinning on berry growth, ripeness and flavonol composition were observed. Early cluster thinning decreased the photosynthetic rate at pea-size, but the effect diminished at post-veraison. Early cluster thinning significantly promoted the biosynthesis of anthocyanins but decreased the proportion of 3'5'-hydroxylated and acylated anthocyanins at veraison. Late cluster thinning decreased the proportions of 3'5'-hydroxylated and acylated anthocyanins. Additionally, Cluster thinning showed inconsistent effects on flavan-3-ol composition over the two seasons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Anderson Localization from the Berry-Curvature Interchange in Quantum Anomalous Hall Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yulei; Qiao, Zhenhua

    In this talk, we theoretically investigate the localization mechanism of the quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) in the presence of spin-flip disorders. We show that the QAHE stays quantized at weak disorders, then enters a Berry-curvature mediated metallic phase at moderate disorders, and finally goes into the Anderson insulating phase at strong disorders. From the phase diagram, we find that at the charge neutrality point although the QAHE is most robust against disorders, the corresponding metallic phase is much easier to be localized into the Anderson insulating phase due to the interchange of Berry curvatures carried, respectively, by the conduction and valence bands. In the end, we provide a phenomenological picture related to the topological charges to better understand the underlying physical origin of the QAHE Anderson localization.

  7. Tissue-specific mRNA expression profiling in grape berry tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimplet, Jerome; Deluc, Laurent G; Tillett, Richard L; Wheatley, Matthew D; Schlauch, Karen A; Cramer, Grant R; Cushman, John C

    2007-01-01

    Background Berries of grape (Vitis vinifera) contain three major tissue types (skin, pulp and seed) all of which contribute to the aroma, color, and flavor characters of wine. The pericarp, which is composed of the exocarp (skin) and mesocarp (pulp), not only functions to protect and feed the developing seed, but also to assist in the dispersal of the mature seed by avian and mammalian vectors. The skin provides volatile and nonvolatile aroma and color compounds, the pulp contributes organic acids and sugars, and the seeds provide condensed tannins, all of which are important to the formation of organoleptic characteristics of wine. In order to understand the transcriptional network responsible for controlling tissue-specific mRNA expression patterns, mRNA expression profiling was conducted on each tissue of mature berries of V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon using the Affymetrix GeneChip® Vitis oligonucleotide microarray ver. 1.0. In order to monitor the influence of water-deficit stress on tissue-specific expression patterns, mRNA expression profiles were also compared from mature berries harvested from vines subjected to well-watered or water-deficit conditions. Results Overall, berry tissues were found to express approximately 76% of genes represented on the Vitis microarray. Approximately 60% of these genes exhibited significant differential expression in one or more of the three major tissue types with more than 28% of genes showing pronounced (2-fold or greater) differences in mRNA expression. The largest difference in tissue-specific expression was observed between the seed and pulp/skin. Exocarp tissue, which is involved in pathogen defense and pigment production, showed higher mRNA abundance relative to other berry tissues for genes involved with flavonoid biosynthesis, pathogen resistance, and cell wall modification. Mesocarp tissue, which is considered a nutritive tissue, exhibited a higher mRNA abundance of genes involved in cell wall function and

  8. Topological spin transport of photons: the optical Magnus effect and Berry phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliokh, K.Yu.; Bliokh, Yu.P.

    2004-01-01

    The Letter develops a modified geometrical optics (GO) of smoothly inhomogeneous isotropic medium, which takes into account two topological phenomena: Berry phase and the optical Magnus effect. Taking into account the correspondence between a quasi-classical motion of a quantum particle with a spin and GO of an electromagnetic wave in smoothly inhomogeneous media, we have introduced the standard gauge potential associated with the degeneracy in the wave momentum space. This potential corresponds to the magnetic-monopole-like field (Berry curvature), which causes the topological spin (polarization) transport of photons. The deviations of waves of right-hand and left-hand polarization occur in the opposite directions and orthogonally to the principal direction of motion. This produces a spin current directed across the principal motion. The situation is similar to the anomalous Hall effect for electrons. In addition, a simple scheme of the experiment allowing one to observe the topological spin splitting of photons has been suggested

  9. Tissue-specific mRNA expression profiling in grape berry tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cramer Grant R

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Berries of grape (Vitis vinifera contain three major tissue types (skin, pulp and seed all of which contribute to the aroma, color, and flavor characters of wine. The pericarp, which is composed of the exocarp (skin and mesocarp (pulp, not only functions to protect and feed the developing seed, but also to assist in the dispersal of the mature seed by avian and mammalian vectors. The skin provides volatile and nonvolatile aroma and color compounds, the pulp contributes organic acids and sugars, and the seeds provide condensed tannins, all of which are important to the formation of organoleptic characteristics of wine. In order to understand the transcriptional network responsible for controlling tissue-specific mRNA expression patterns, mRNA expression profiling was conducted on each tissue of mature berries of V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon using the Affymetrix GeneChip® Vitis oligonucleotide microarray ver. 1.0. In order to monitor the influence of water-deficit stress on tissue-specific expression patterns, mRNA expression profiles were also compared from mature berries harvested from vines subjected to well-watered or water-deficit conditions. Results Overall, berry tissues were found to express approximately 76% of genes represented on the Vitis microarray. Approximately 60% of these genes exhibited significant differential expression in one or more of the three major tissue types with more than 28% of genes showing pronounced (2-fold or greater differences in mRNA expression. The largest difference in tissue-specific expression was observed between the seed and pulp/skin. Exocarp tissue, which is involved in pathogen defense and pigment production, showed higher mRNA abundance relative to other berry tissues for genes involved with flavonoid biosynthesis, pathogen resistance, and cell wall modification. Mesocarp tissue, which is considered a nutritive tissue, exhibited a higher mRNA abundance of genes involved in cell

  10. Classical surgical approach and treatment with clips of extracranial internal carotid artery berry aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haris Vukas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We can define extracranial carotid artery aneurysm (ECAA as bulb dilatation greater than 200% of the diameter of the internal carotid artery (ICA or in a case of common carotid artery (CCA greater than 150% of the diameter. Surgical intervention is required for the treatment of this disease.Case report: This study presents an open vascular surgical procedure to resolve ECAA. We report a case of 61 years old woman with an extracranial internal carotid artery berry aneurysm, presented with a headache and dizziness when turning the head aside. Classic open surgery was performed and the lumen of berry aneurysm was separated with three clips from the lumen of ICA.Conclusions: The open surgical approach is the method of choice for the treatment of extracranial internal carotid artery pathological conditions.

  11. The BlackBerry Project: Capturing the Content of Adolescents’ Text Messaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Marion K.; Rosen, Lisa H.; More, David; Ehrenreich, Sam; Gentsch, Joanna K.

    2011-01-01

    This brief report presents an innovative method for capturing the content of adolescents’ electronic communication on handheld devices: text messaging, email, and Instant Messaging. In an ongoing longitudinal study, adolescents were provided with BlackBerry devices with service plans paid by the investigators, and use of text messaging was examined when participants were 15 years old and in the 10th grade (N=175, 81 girls). BlackBerries are configured so that the content of all text messages, email messages, and Instant Messages is saved to a secure server and organized in a highly secure, searchable, online archive. This paper describes the technology used to devise this method and ethical considerations. Evidence for validity is presented, including information on use of text messaging to show that participants used these devices heavily and frequencies of profane and sexual language in a two-day sample of text messaging to demonstrate that they were communicating openly. PMID:22004337

  12. Optical integration of Pancharatnam-Berry phase lens and dynamical phase lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke, Yougang; Liu, Yachao; Zhou, Junxiao; Liu, Yuanyuan; Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun

    2016-01-01

    In the optical system, most elements such as lens, prism, and optical fiber are made of silica glass. Therefore, integrating Pancharatnam-Berry phase elements into silica glass has potential applications in the optical system. In this paper, we take a lens, for example, which integrates a Pancharatnam-Berry phase lens into a conventional plano-convex lens. The spin states and positions of focal points can be modulated by controlling the polarization states of the incident beam. The proposed lens has a high transmission efficiency, and thereby acts as a simple and powerful tool to manipulate spin photons. Furthermore, the method can be conveniently extended to the optical fiber and laser cavity, and may provide a route to the design of the spin-photonic devices.

  13. Refractance Window™ drying of haskap berry--preliminary results on anthocyanin retention and physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celli, Giovana Bonat; Khattab, Rabie; Ghanem, Amyl; Brooks, Marianne Su-Ling

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this work was to determine the anthocyanin retention and physicochemical properties of haskap powder prepared by Refractance Window™ (RW) drying. In general, the RW-dried powder particles had a smooth surface with similar thickness, consistent with the preparation method, and had a solubility of 75.63% in water. The RW-dried powder (consisting of 98% haskap berries) retained approximately 93.8% of anthocyanins from the original frozen fruits, as assessed by the pH-differential method. This result is in good agreement with HPLC analysis that indicated 92.9% retention. Three anthocyanins were identified in frozen berries and RW-dried powder: cyanidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside, and peonidin 3-glucoside. Surprisingly, cyanidin 3-rutinoside exhibited the lowest retention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Flavonoid Profile of Saskatoon Berries (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt. and Their Health Promoting Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Mlcek

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are a significant group of secondary metabolites in plants. Many of these compounds are potent antioxidants, being an important part in food products derived from the plants. The current status of research on flavonoid compounds in the fruit of Saskatoon berries (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt. and their health promoting effects, including recommended utilization, are reviewed. The major classes of flavonoids in the fruit are flavonols (quercetin and rutin, flavanes (proanthocyanidin compounds ranging from dimers through to heptamers and even higher polymers and finally anthocyanins. The flavonoids represented the group of polyphenols that mostly contributed to the antioxidant activity of Saskatoon berries. High content of the flavoinoids antioxidants in the fruit is responsible for the observed anti-inflammatory, antidiadiabetic and chemo-protective effects.

  15. Naval Personnel Can Improve Compliance With the Berry Amendment and the Buy American Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-12

    Amendment. Introduction 2 │ DODIG-2015-161 • FSG 83—textiles, leather and furs,6 apparel , and shoes; • FSG 84— clothing , individual equipment and insignia...personnel amended standard operating procedures and internal processes to improve compliance with the Berry Amendment. NAWCAD-Lakehurst personnel...corrective action and amended standard operating procedures and internal processes to improve compliance with the Buy American Act. Additionally, NAWCAD

  16. Berry phase and shot noise for spin-polarized and entangled electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Pei; Tang Weihua; Lu Dinghui; Jiang Lixia; Zhao Xuean

    2007-01-01

    Shot noise for entangled and spin-polarized states in a four-probe geometric setup has been studied by adding two rotating magnetic fields in an incoming channel. Our results show that the noise power oscillates as the magnetic fields vary. The singlet, entangled triplet and polarized states can be distinguished by adjusting the magnetic fields. The Berry phase can be derived by measuring the shot noise power

  17. The Berry Amendment: Requiring Defense Procurement to Come from Domestic Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-24

    they could produce U.S.-made athletic footwear for military personnel. H.R. 1960, the House- proposed National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for...Federal Prison Industries’ Proposed Military Clothing Production Expansion - Assessing Existing Protections for Workers, Business , and FPI’s Federal...and purpose of the Berry Amendment and legislative proposals to amend the application of domestic source restrictions, as well as potential options

  18. Osmotic dehydration of fruit and berry raw materials in the food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Gribova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Osmotic dehydration has recently received more attention as an effective method of preserving fruits and berries. Osmosis is a simple process that facilitates the processing of fruits and berries in order to preserve the original characteristics, namely nutritional value and organoleptic properties: color, aroma and texture. Osmotic dehydration has found wide application in the preservation of food products, as the activity of water in fruits and berries decreases, in some of them up to 90% of water is contained. The process of osmotic dehydration with the help of various agents is less energy-intensive than the process of drying or freezing, since it can be processed at ambient temperature. Osmotic dehydration has potential advantages in preserving the quality of food and in maintaining healthy food for the food industry. Treatment includes dehydration of fruits and berries by an osmotic agent followed by dehydration in dry or frozen apparatus where the moisture content decreases and the product becomes more stable. This process is a partial dewatering process to provide improved product quality compared to conventional drying processes or freezing. The purpose of studying osmotic dehydration is to identify the advantages and disadvantages in the treatment of osmotic agents. Various aspects of osmotic dehydration technology are considered, namely the solutions used, the characteristics of solutions, the effect of variable processes and the qualitative characteristics of osmo-dehydrated products. Factors of osmotic dehydration that depend on the osmotic agent, concentration of solute, temperature, time, size, shape and compactness of the material, mixing and the ratio of the solution to the samples.

  19. Roostocks/Scion/Nitrogen Interactions Affect Secondary Metabolism in the Grape Berry

    OpenAIRE

    Habran, Aude; Commisso, Mauro; Helwi, Pierre; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Negri, Stefano; Ollat, Nathalie; Gom?s, Eric; van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Guzzo, Flavia; Delrot, Serge

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT : The present work investigates the interactions between soil content, rootstock and scion by focusing on the effects of roostocks and nitrogen supply on grape berry content. Scions of Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Pinot Noir (PN) varieties were grafted either on Riparia Gloire de Montpellier (RGM) or 110 Richter (110R) rootstock. The 4 rooststock/scion combinations were fertilized with 3 different levels of nitrogen after fruit set. Both in 2013 and 2014, N supply increased N uptake ...

  20. Classification theorem for principal fibre bundles, Berry's phase, and exact cycle evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohm, A.; Boya, L.J.; Mostafazadeh, A.; Rudolph, G.

    1993-03-01

    The relation between the two mathematical interpretations of the geometric (Berry) phase is discussed, using either the fibre bundle over parameter space or over projective Hilbert space. It turns out that these two geometric constructions are linked by the classification theorem for vector bundles. The classification theorem provides the means to classify the parameter space bundles for adiabatic evolution and for non-adiabatic cyclic evolution of the statevectors

  1. Entretien avec l'économiste Albert Berry | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    13 oct. 2010 ... Selon ce qu'a révélé en 2002 une enquête très médiatisée de la maison ... par le CRDI en Amérique latine ont achevé il y a peu une étude de deux ans ... Écoutez Albert Berry parler des dangers qui guettent une économie ...

  2. Red Fruits: Extraction of Antioxidants, Phenolic Content, and Radical Scavenging Determination: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Gádor-Indra; Almajano, María Pilar

    2017-01-01

    Red fruits, as rich antioxidant foods, have gained over recent years capital importance for consumers and manufacturers. The industrial extraction of the phenolic molecules from this source has been taking place with the conventional solvent extraction method. New non-conventional extraction methods have been devised as environmentally friendly alternatives to the former method, such as ultrasound, microwave, and pressure assisted extractions. The aim of this review is to compile the results of recent studies using different extraction methodologies, identify the red fruits with higher antioxidant activity, and give a global overview of the research trends regarding this topic. As the amount of data available is overwhelming, only results referring to berries are included, leaving aside other plant parts such as roots, stems, or even buds and flowers. Several researchers have drawn attention to the efficacy of non-conventional extraction methods, accomplishing similar or even better results using these new techniques. Some pilot-scale trials have been performed, corroborating the applicability of green alternative methods to the industrial scale. Blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) and bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) emerge as the berries with the highest antioxidant content and capacity. However, several new up and coming berries are gaining attention due to global availability and elevated anthocyanin content. PMID:28106822

  3. Red Fruits: Extraction of Antioxidants, Phenolic Content, and Radical Scavenging Determination: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gádor-Indra Hidalgo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Red fruits, as rich antioxidant foods, have gained over recent years capital importance for consumers and manufacturers. The industrial extraction of the phenolic molecules from this source has been taking place with the conventional solvent extraction method. New non-conventional extraction methods have been devised as environmentally friendly alternatives to the former method, such as ultrasound, microwave, and pressure assisted extractions. The aim of this review is to compile the results of recent studies using different extraction methodologies, identify the red fruits with higher antioxidant activity, and give a global overview of the research trends regarding this topic. As the amount of data available is overwhelming, only results referring to berries are included, leaving aside other plant parts such as roots, stems, or even buds and flowers. Several researchers have drawn attention to the efficacy of non-conventional extraction methods, accomplishing similar or even better results using these new techniques. Some pilot-scale trials have been performed, corroborating the applicability of green alternative methods to the industrial scale. Blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. and bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus L. emerge as the berries with the highest antioxidant content and capacity. However, several new up and coming berries are gaining attention due to global availability and elevated anthocyanin content.

  4. Modifications of 'Gold Finger' Grape Berry Quality as Affected by the Different Rootstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhongxin; Sun, Hong; Sun, Tianyu; Wang, Qingjie; Yao, Yuxin

    2016-06-01

    Berry qualities of the grafted 'Gold Finger' grapevines were determined to evaluate the impacts of the resistant rootstocks on fruit quality. Compared to the own-rooted vines, berry and cluster weights and skin color were altered by the rootstocks to varying extents. The rootstock of 101-14M maintained TSS/TA and the contents of fructose, glucose, and sucrose, and SO4 decreased these parameters. 101-14M and 3309C increased and reduced the resveratrol content, respectively. SO4, 5BB, and 3309C decreased the total free amino acid content, along with the changes in amino acid composition. The amounts of aroma components were widely altered by the rootstocks. Additionally, a digital gene expression tag profiling revealed that the biological processes were largely altered by 3309C and 101-14M, including sugar, amino acid, and aroma metabolisms. In summary, the rootstock of 101-14M generally maintained berry quality, and SO4, 5BB, and 3309C imparted varying influences on different quality parameters.

  5. Molecular cloning and expression of gene encoding aromatic amino acid decarboxylase in 'Vidal blanc' grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qiu-Hong; Chen, Fang; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Ma, Li-Yan; Li, Li; Li, Jing-Ming

    2012-04-01

    The pleasantly fruity and floral 2-phenylethanol are a dominant aroma compound in post-ripening 'Vidal blanc' grapes. However, to date little has been reported about its synthetic pathway in grapevine. In the present study, a full-length cDNA of VvAADC (encoding aromatic amino acid decarboxylase) was firstly cloned from the berries of 'Vidal blanc', an interspecific hybrid variety of Vitis vinifera × Vitis riparia. This sequence encodes a complete open reading frame of 482 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 54 kDa and isoelectric point value (pI) of 5.73. The amino acid sequence deduced shared about 79% identity with that of aromatic L: -amino acid decarboxylases (AADCs) from tomato. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that VvAADC transcript abundance presented a small peak at 110 days after full bloom and then a continuous increase at the berry post-ripening stage, which was consistent with the accumulation of 2-phenylethanol, but did not correspond to the trends of two potential intermediates, phenethylamine and 2-phenylacetaldehyde. Furthermore, phenylalanine still exhibited a continuous increase even in post-ripening period. It is thus suggested that 2-phenylethanol biosynthetic pathway mediated by AADC exists in grape berries, but it has possibly little contribution to a considerable accumulation of 2-phenylethanol in post-ripening 'Vidal blanc' grapes.

  6. Berry phase dependent quantum trajectories of electron-hole pairs in semiconductors under intense terahertz fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Liu, Ren-Bao

    2013-03-01

    Quantum evolution of particles under strong fields can be approximated by the quantum trajectories that satisfy the stationary phase condition in the Dirac-Feynmann path integrals. The quantum trajectories are the key concept to understand strong-field optics phenomena, such as high-order harmonic generation (HHG), above-threshold ionization (ATI), and high-order terahertz siedeband generation (HSG). The HSG in semiconductors may have a wealth of physics due to the possible nontrivial ``vacuum'' states of band materials. We find that in a spin-orbit-coupled semiconductor, the cyclic quantum trajectories of an electron-hole pair under a strong terahertz field accumulates nontrivial Berry phases. We study the monolayer MoS2 as a model system and find that the Berry phases are given by the Faraday rotation angles of the pulse emission from the material under short-pulse excitation. This result demonstrates an interesting Berry phase dependent effect in the extremely nonlinear optics of semiconductors. This work is supported by Hong Kong RGC/GRF 401512 and the CUHK Focused Investments Scheme.

  7. Is transcriptomic regulation of berry development more important at night than during the day?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienth, Markus; Torregrosa, Laurent; Kelly, Mary T; Luchaire, Nathalie; Pellegrino, Anne; Grimplet, Jérôme; Romieu, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Diurnal changes in gene expression occur in all living organisms and have been studied on model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana. To our knowledge the impact of the nycthemeral cycle on the genetic program of fleshly fruit development has been hitherto overlooked. In order to circumvent environmental changes throughout fruit development, young and ripening berries were sampled simultaneously on continuously flowering microvines acclimated to controlled circadian light and temperature changes. Gene expression profiles along fruit development were monitored during both day and night with whole genome microarrays (Nimblegen® vitis 12x), yielding a total number of 9273 developmentally modulated probesets. All day-detected transcripts were modulated at night, whereas 1843 genes were night-specific. Very similar developmental patterns of gene expression were observed using independent hierarchical clustering of day and night data, whereas functional categories of allocated transcripts varied according to time of day. Many transcripts within pathways, known to be up-regulated during ripening, in particular those linked to secondary metabolism exhibited a clearer developmental regulation at night than during the day. Functional enrichment analysis also indicated that diurnally modulated genes considerably varied during fruit development, with a shift from cellular organization and photosynthesis in green berries to secondary metabolism and stress-related genes in ripening berries. These results reveal critical changes in gene expression during night development that differ from daytime development, which have not been observed in other transcriptomic studies on fruit development thus far.

  8. Light quality affects flavonoid biosynthesis in young berries of Cabernet Sauvignon grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Kazuya; Ikeda, Hiroko; Poudel, Puspa Raj; Goto-Yamamoto, Nami

    2012-06-01

    Biosynthesis of phenolic compounds is known to be sensitive to light environments, which reflects the possible role of these compounds for photoprotection in plants. Herein, the effects of UV and visible light on biosynthesis of flavonoids was investigated, i.e., proanthocyanidins (PAs) and flavonols, in young berry skins of a red-wine grape, Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon. Shading with light-proof boxes from the flowering stage until 49 days after treatment (DAT) partially decreased PA concentrations, and completely decreased flavonol concentrations in the berry skins. Shading decreased the transcript abundance of a flavonol-related gene more remarkably than those of PA-related genes. In addition, light exclusion influenced the composition of PAs, such as the decrease in the proportion of trihydroxylated subunits and the mean degree of polymerization (mDP) within PAs. However, solar UV exclusion did not affect the concentration and composition of PAs, whereas this exclusion remarkably decreased the flavonol concentration. Consistently, UV exclusion did not influence the transcript levels of PA-related genes, whereas it dramatically decreased that of flavonol-related genes. These findings indicated a different light regulation of the biosynthesis of these flavonoids in young berry skins of wine grape. Visible light primarily induces biosynthesis of PAs and affects their composition, whereas UV light specifically induces biosynthesis of flavonols. Distinct roles of members of a MYB transcription factor family for light regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis were proposed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Chiral anomaly, Berry phase, and chiral kinetic theory from worldlines in quantum field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Niklas; Venugopalan, Raju

    2018-03-01

    In previous work, we outlined a worldline framework that can be used for systematic computations of the chiral magnetic effect (CME) in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. Towards this end, we first expressed the real part of the fermion determinant in the QCD effective action as a supersymmetric worldline action of spinning, colored, Grassmanian point particles in background gauge fields, with equations of motion that are covariant generalizations of the Bargmann-Michel-Telegdi and Wong equations. The chiral anomaly, in contrast, arises from the phase of the fermion determinant. Remarkably, the latter too can be expressed as a point particle worldline path integral, which can be employed to derive the anomalous axial vector current. We will show here how Berry's phase can be obtained in a consistent nonrelativistic adiabatic limit of the real part of the fermion determinant. Our work provides a general first principles demonstration that the topology of Berry's phase is distinct from that of the chiral anomaly confirming prior arguments by Fujikawa in specific contexts. This suggests that chiral kinetic treatments of the CME in heavy-ion collisions that include Berry's phase alone are incomplete. We outline the elements of a worldline covariant relativistic chiral kinetic theory that captures the physics of how the chiral current is modified by many-body scattering and topological fluctuations.

  10. Diffusive real-time dynamics of a particle with Berry curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misaki, Kou; Miyashita, Seiji; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2018-02-01

    We study theoretically the influence of Berry phase on the real-time dynamics of the single particle focusing on the diffusive dynamics, i.e., the time dependence of the distribution function. Our model can be applied to the real-time dynamics of intraband relaxation and diffusion of optically excited excitons, trions, or particle-hole pair. We found that the dynamics at the early stage is deeply influenced by the Berry curvature in real space (B ), momentum space (Ω ), and also the crossed space between these two (C ). For example, it is found that Ω induces the rotation of the wave packet and causes the time dependence of the mean square displacement of the particle to be linear in time t at the initial stage; it is qualitatively different from the t3 dependence in the absence of the Berry curvature. It is also found that Ω and C modify the characteristic time scale of the thermal equilibration of momentum distribution. Moreover, the dynamics under various combinations of B ,Ω , and C shows singular behaviors such as the critical slowing down or speeding up of the momentum equilibration and the reversals of the direction of rotations. The relevance of our model for time-resolved experiments in transition metal dichalcogenides is also discussed.

  11. Dietary Berries and Ellagic Acid Prevent Oxidative DNA Damage and Modulate Expression of DNA Repair Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh C. Gupta

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available DNA damage is a pre-requisite for the initiation of cancer and agents that reduce this damage are useful in cancer prevention. In this study, we evaluated the ability of whole berries and berry phytochemical, ellagic acid to reduce endogenous oxidative DNA damage. Ellagic acid was selected based on > 95% inhibition of 8-oxodeoxyguosine (8-oxodG and other unidentified oxidative DNA adducts induced by 4-hydroxy-17B;-estradiol and CuCl2 in vitro. Inhibition of the latter occurred at lower concentrations (10 u(microM than that for 8-oxodG (100 u(microM. In the in vivo study, female CD-1 mice (n=6 were fed either a control diet or diet supplemented with ellagic acid (400 ppm and dehydrated berries (5% w/w with varying ellagic acid contents -- blueberry (low, strawberry (medium and red raspberry (high, for 3 weeks. Blueberry and strawberry diets showed moderate reductions in endogenous DNA adducts (25%. However, both red raspberry and ellagic acid diets showed a significant reduction of 59% (p < 0.001 and 48% (p < 0.01, respectively. Both diets also resulted in a 3-8 fold over-expression of genes involved in DNA repair such as xeroderma pigmentosum group A complementing protein (XPA, DNA excision repair protein (ERCC5 and DNA ligase III (DNL3. These results suggest that red raspberry and ellagic acid reduce endogenous oxidative DNA damage by mechanisms which may involve increase in DNA repair.

  12. Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluc, Laurent G; Quilici, David R; Decendit, Alain; Grimplet, Jérôme; Wheatley, Matthew D; Schlauch, Karen A; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

    2009-01-01

    Background Water deficit has significant effects on grape berry composition resulting in improved wine quality by the enhancement of color, flavors, or aromas. While some pathways or enzymes affected by water deficit have been identified, little is known about the global effects of water deficit on grape berry metabolism. Results The effects of long-term, seasonal water deficit on berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, a red-wine grape, and Chardonnay, a white-wine grape were analyzed by integrated transcript and metabolite profiling. Over the course of berry development, the steady-state transcript abundance of approximately 6,000 Unigenes differed significantly between the cultivars and the irrigation treatments. Water deficit most affected the phenylpropanoid, ABA, isoprenoid, carotenoid, amino acid and fatty acid metabolic pathways. Targeted metabolites were profiled to confirm putative changes in specific metabolic pathways. Water deficit activated the expression of numerous transcripts associated with glutamate and proline biosynthesis and some committed steps of the phenylpropanoid pathway that increased anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon. In Chardonnay, water deficit activated parts of the phenylpropanoid, energy, carotenoid and isoprenoid metabolic pathways that contribute to increased concentrations of antheraxanthin, flavonols and aroma volatiles. Water deficit affected the ABA metabolic pathway in both cultivars. Berry ABA concentrations were highly correlated with 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1) transcript abundance, whereas the mRNA expression of other NCED genes and ABA catabolic and glycosylation processes were largely unaffected. Water deficit nearly doubled ABA concentrations within berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, whereas it decreased ABA in Chardonnay at véraison and shortly thereafter. Conclusion The metabolic responses of grapes to water deficit varied with the cultivar and fruit pigmentation. Chardonnay berries, which lack any

  13. Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deluc Laurent G

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Water deficit has significant effects on grape berry composition resulting in improved wine quality by the enhancement of color, flavors, or aromas. While some pathways or enzymes affected by water deficit have been identified, little is known about the global effects of water deficit on grape berry metabolism. Results The effects of long-term, seasonal water deficit on berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, a red-wine grape, and Chardonnay, a white-wine grape were analyzed by integrated transcript and metabolite profiling. Over the course of berry development, the steady-state transcript abundance of approximately 6,000 Unigenes differed significantly between the cultivars and the irrigation treatments. Water deficit most affected the phenylpropanoid, ABA, isoprenoid, carotenoid, amino acid and fatty acid metabolic pathways. Targeted metabolites were profiled to confirm putative changes in specific metabolic pathways. Water deficit activated the expression of numerous transcripts associated with glutamate and proline biosynthesis and some committed steps of the phenylpropanoid pathway that increased anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon. In Chardonnay, water deficit activated parts of the phenylpropanoid, energy, carotenoid and isoprenoid metabolic pathways that contribute to increased concentrations of antheraxanthin, flavonols and aroma volatiles. Water deficit affected the ABA metabolic pathway in both cultivars. Berry ABA concentrations were highly correlated with 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1 transcript abundance, whereas the mRNA expression of other NCED genes and ABA catabolic and glycosylation processes were largely unaffected. Water deficit nearly doubled ABA concentrations within berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, whereas it decreased ABA in Chardonnay at véraison and shortly thereafter. Conclusion The metabolic responses of grapes to water deficit varied with the cultivar and fruit pigmentation

  14. System-Level and Granger Network Analysis of Integrated Proteomic and Metabolomic Dynamics Identifies Key Points of Grape Berry Development at the Interface of Primary and Secondary Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lei; Sun, Xiaoliang; Weiszmann, Jakob; Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2017-01-01

    Grapevine is a fruit crop with worldwide economic importance. The grape berry undergoes complex biochemical changes from fruit set until ripening. This ripening process and production processes define the wine quality. Thus, a thorough understanding of berry ripening is crucial for the prediction of wine quality. For a systemic analysis of grape berry development we applied mass spectrometry based platforms to analyse the metabolome and proteome of Early Campbell at 12 stages covering major d...

  15. COLOR CHARACTERISTICS OF DRIED THREE-COMPONENT FRUIT AND BERRY PASTES

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    O. Cherevko

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Color characteristics of compositions of three-component fruit and berry pastes before and after infrared drying are determined. The compositions were prepared on the basis of apples, cranberries, and hawthorn with increased nutrition value and therapeutic and prophylactic properties, according to the suggested recipe. The ratio of the components in the first composition is 60 : 30 : 10, in the second, 65 : 25 : 10, and in the third, 55 : 40 : 5. The resulting compositions were controlled by the control (apple paste. To dry the compositions obtained, it is proposed to use a roller IR dryer based on a flexible resistive film electric heater of emitting type. The prepared paste compositions are reddish-orange according to the color characteristics determined. Color characteristics of dried three-component fruit and berry pastes are also determined. The wavelength of composition 1 is 498 nm, and those of compositions 2 and 3 are 620.5 and 589.4 nm, respectively. The first composition is bluish-purple, with tone purity 34.7 %. Composition 2 is red (34.8 %, composition 3 is bluish-red (34.6 %. The comparison of the color characteristics of compositions of three-component fruit and berry pastes before and after infrared drying as for the brightness and tone purity of the samples indicates a slight change in brightness within 2—6 %. Reduction of the color purity to almost a half is due to the drying shrinkage of the mass of raw materials and obtaining a visual color of the compositions that is attractive for a consumer. According to the results of expert evaluation of the quality indices of dried three-component fruit and berry paste compositions, a certain advantage is determined of the dried composition with the following ratio of components in the recipe: apple, cranberry, hawthorn — 60 : 30 : 10 (composition 1. The suggested compositions of dried three-component fruit and berry paste are recommended for use in food rations

  16. VvVHP1; 2 Is Transcriptionally Activated by VvMYBA1 and Promotes Anthocyanin Accumulation of Grape Berry Skins via Glucose Signal

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Tianyu; Xu, Lili; Sun, Hong; Yue, Qianyu; Zhai, Heng; Yao, Yuxin

    2017-01-01

    In this work, four vacuolar H+-PPase (VHP) genes were identified in the grape genome. Among them, VvVHP1; 2 was strongly expressed in berry skin and its expression exhibited high correlations to anthocyanin content of berry skin during berry ripening and under ABA and UVB treatments. VvVHP1; 2 was transcriptionally activated directly by VvMYBA1, and VvVHP1; 2 overexpression promoted anthocyanin accumulation in berry skins and Arabidopsis leaves; therefore, VvVHP1; 2 mediated VvMYBA1-regulated...

  17. Total phenolic contents, antioxidant activities, and lipid fractions from berry pomaces obtained by solid-state fermentation of two Sambucus species with Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulf, Francisc Vasile; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Dulf, Eva-Henrietta; Toşa, Monica Ioana

    2015-04-08

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of solid-state fermentation (SSF) by Aspergillus niger on phenolic contents and antioxidant activity in Sambucus nigra L. and Sambucus ebulus L. berry pomaces. The effect of fermentation time on the total fats and major lipid classes (neutral and polar) was also investigated. During the SSF, the extractable phenolics increased with 18.82% for S. ebulus L. and 11.11% for S. nigra L. The levels of antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts were also significantly enhanced. The HPLC-MS analysis indicated that the cyanidin 3-sambubioside-5-glucoside is the major phenolic compound in both fermented Sambucus fruit residues. In the early stages of fungal growth, the extracted oils (with TAGs as major lipid fraction) increased with 12% for S. nigra L. and 10.50% for S. ebulus L. The GC-MS analysis showed that the SSF resulted in a slight increase of the linoleic and oleic acids level.

  18. On-line hyphenation of centrifugal partition chromatography and high pressure liquid chromatography for the fractionation of flavonoids from Hippophaë rhamnoides L. berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Thomas; Destandau, Emilie; Elfakir, Claire

    2011-09-09

    Centrifugal Partition Chromatography (CPC), a liquid-liquid preparative chromatography using two immiscible solvent systems, benefits from numerous advantages for the separation or purification of synthetic or natural products. This study presents the on-line hyphenation of CPC-Evaporative Light Scattering Detector (CPC-ELSD) with High Performance Liquid Chromatography-UV (HPLC-UV) for the fractionation of flavonols from a solvent-free microwave extract of sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L., Elaeagnaceae) berries. An Arizona G system was used for the fractionation of flavonoids by CPC and a fused core Halo C18 column allowed the on-line analyses of collected fractions by HPLC. The on-line CPC/HPLC procedure allowed the simultaneous fractionation step at preparative scale combined with the HPLC analyses which provide direct fingerprint of collected fractions. Thus the crude extract was simplified and immediate information on the composition of fractions could be obtained. Furthermore, this methodology reduced the time of post-fractionation steps and facilitated identification of main molecules by Mass Spectrometry (MS). Rutin, isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, isorhamnetin-rhamnoside, quercetin and isorhamnetin were identified. CPC-ELSD/HPLC-UV could be considered as a high-throughput technique for the guided fractionation of bioactive natural products from complex crude extracts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF PROCESS OF BLACK CURRANT BERRIES DRYING IN VACUUMDEVICE WITH THE MICROWAVE POWER SUPPLY

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    S. T. Antipov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The mathematical model allowed to reproduce and study at qualitative level the change of berries form and the structure of the berries layer in the course of drying. The separate berry in the course of drying loses gradually its elasticity, decreases in volume, the peel gathers in folds, there appear internal emptiness. In the course of drying the berries layer decreases in thickness, contacting berries stick strongly with each other due to the coordinated folds of peel appearing, the layer is condensed due to penetration of the berries which have lost elasticity into emptiness between them. The model with high specification describes black currant drying process and therefore has a large number of the parameters available to change. Among them three most important technological parameters, influencing productivity and the drying quality are chosen: the power of microwave radiation P, thickness of the berries layer h, environmental pressure p. From output indicators of the model the most important are three functions from time: dependence of average humidity of the layer on time Wcp (t, dependence of the speed of change of average humidity on time dWcp (t/dt, dependence of the layer average temperature on time Tср (t. On the standard models classification the offered model is algorithmic, but not analytical. It means that output characteristics of model are calculated with the entrance ones, not by analytical transformations (it is impossible principally for the modeled process, but by means of spatial and temporary sampling and the corresponding calculation algorithm. Detailed research of the microwave drying process by means of the model allows to allocate the following stages: fast heating, the fast dehydration, the slowed-down dehydration, consolidation of a layer of a product, final drying, heating after dehydration.

  20. The vacuolar channel VvALMT9 mediates malate and tartrate accumulation in berries of Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angeli, Alexis; Baetz, Ulrike; Francisco, Rita; Zhang, Jingbo; Chaves, Maria Manuela; Regalado, Ana

    2013-08-01

    Vitis vinifera L. represents an economically important fruit species. Grape and wine flavour is made from a complex set of compounds. The acidity of berries is a major parameter in determining grape berry quality for wine making and fruit consumption. Despite the importance of malic and tartaric acid (TA) storage and transport for grape berry acidity, no vacuolar transporter for malate or tartrate has been identified so far. Some members of the aluminium-activated malate transporter (ALMT) anion channel family from Arabidopsis thaliana have been shown to be involved in mediating malate fluxes across the tonoplast. Therefore, we hypothesised that a homologue of these channels could have a similar role in V. vinifera grape berries. We identified homologues of the Arabidopsis vacuolar anion channel AtALMT9 through a TBLASTX search on the V. vinifera genome database. We cloned the closest homologue of AtALMT9 from grape berry cDNA and designated it VvALMT9. The expression profile revealed that VvALMT9 is constitutively expressed in berry mesocarp tissue and that its transcription level increases during fruit maturation. Moreover, we found that VvALMT9 is targeted to the vacuolar membrane. Using patch-clamp analysis, we could show that, besides malate, VvALMT9 mediates tartrate currents which are higher than in its Arabidopsis homologue. In summary, in the present study we provide evidence that VvALMT9 is a vacuolar malate channel expressed in grape berries. Interestingly, in V. vinifera, a tartrate-producing plant, the permeability of the channel is apparently adjusted to TA.

  1. Statistical optimization of an RP-HPLC method for the determination of selected flavonoids in berry juices and evaluation of their antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciric, Andrija; Jelikic-Stankov, Milena; Cvijovic, Milica; Djurdjevic, Predrag

    2018-04-01

    An isocratic RP-HPLC method for the separation and identification of selected flavonoids (quercetin, rutin, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, kaempferol and kaempferol-3-O-glucoside) in commercial berry juices (blackcurrant, blueberry, red raspberry and cherry) was developed with the aid of central composite design and response surface methodology. The optimal separation conditions were a mobile phase of 85:15 (% v/v) water-acetonitrile, pH 2.8 (adjusted with formic acid), flow rate 0.5 mL min -1 and column temperature 35°C. The obtained levels of bioflavonoids (mg per 100 mL of juice) were as follows: for quercetin, ca. 0.21-5.12; for kaempferol, ca. 0.05-1.2; for rutin, ca. 0.4-6.5; for luteolin-7-O-glucoside, ca. 5.6-10.2; and for kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, ca. 0.02-0.12. These are considerably lower than the values in fresh fruits. Total phenolic, flavonoid and anthocyanin contents were determined spectrophotometrically. Total flavonoid content varied as follows: blackcurrant > blueberry > red raspberry > cherry. The antioxidant activity of juice extracts (DPPH and ABTS methods) expressed as IC 50 values varied from 8.56 to 14.05 mg L -1 . These values are ~2.5-3 times lower than quercetin, ascorbic acid and Trolox®, but compared with rutin and butylhydroxytoluene, berries show similar or better antioxidant activity by both the DPPH and ABTS methods. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Golden berry juice attenuates the severity of hepatorenal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gengaihi, Souad E; Hamed, Manal A; Khalaf-Allah, Abd El-Rahman M; Mohammed, Mona A

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the present work is to investigate the potential of Physalis peruviana fruits as a hepatorenal protective agent against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic and renal fibrosis. The phytochemical screening test revealed the presence of alkaloids, free withanolides, glycowithanolides, and flavonoids. Acute toxicity study (500, 1000, and 1500 mg/kg body weight) revealed extract safety. The biological evaluation was conducted on different animal groups: control, control treated with fruit, CCl4 group, CCl4 treated with fruit, and CCl4 treated with silymarin drug. The evaluation was done through measuring oxidative stress markers: malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and nitric oxide (NO). Liver function indices such as aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST & ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), bilirubin, and total protein were estimated. Kidney disorder biomarkers such as creatinine, urea, and serum protein were also evaluated. Treatment improved all the investigated parameters, and the histopathological analysis confirmed our results. In conclusion, Physalis peruviana fruit succeeded to protect liver and kidney against fibrosis. Further studies are needed to identify the molecules responsible for its pharmacological application.

  3. Economic injury level for the coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) using attractive traps in Brazilian coffee fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, F L; Picanço, M C; Campos, S O; Bastos, C S; Chediak, M; Guedes, R N C; Silva, R S

    2011-12-01

    The currently existing sample procedures available for decision-making regarding the control of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are time-consuming, expensive, and difficult to perform, compromising their adoption. In addition, the damage functions incorporated in such decision levels only consider the quantitative losses, while dismissing the qualitative losses. Traps containing ethanol, methanol, and benzaldehyde may allow cheap and easy decision-making. Our objective was to determine the economic injury level (EIL) for the adults of the coffee berry borer by using attractant-baited traps. We considered both qualitative and quantitative losses caused by the coffee borer in estimating the EILs. These EILs were determined for conventional and organic coffee under high and average plant yield. When the quantitative losses caused by H. hampei were considered alone, the EILs ranged from 7.9 to 23.7% of bored berries for high and average-yield conventional crops, respectively. For high and average-yield organic coffee the ELs varied from 24.4 to 47.6% of bored berries, respectively. When qualitative and quantitative losses caused by the pest were considered together, the EIL was 4.3% of bored berries for both conventional and organic coffee. The EILs for H. hampei associated to the coffee plants in the flowering, pinhead fruit, and ripening fruit stages were 426, 85, and 28 adults per attractive trap, respectively.

  4. Phytochemical composition and metabolic performance-enhancing activity of dietary berries traditionally used by Native North Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns Kraft, Tristan F; Dey, Moul; Rogers, Randy B; Ribnicky, David M; Gipp, David M; Cefalu, William T; Raskin, Ilya; Lila, Mary Ann

    2008-02-13

    Four wild berry species, Amelanchier alnifolia, Viburnum trilobum, Prunus virginiana, and Shepherdia argentea, all integral to the traditional subsistence diet of Native American tribal communities, were evaluated to elucidate phytochemical composition and bioactive properties related to performance and human health. Biological activity was screened using a range of bioassays that assessed the potential for these little-known dietary berries to affect diabetic microvascular complications, hyperglycemia, pro-inflammatory gene expression, and metabolic syndrome symptoms. Nonpolar constituents from berries, including carotenoids, were potent inhibitors of aldose reductase (an enzyme involved in the etiology of diabetic microvascular complications), whereas the polar constituents, mainly phenolic acids, anthocyanins, and proanthocyanidins, were hypoglycemic agents and strong inhibitors of IL-1beta and COX-2 gene expression. Berry samples also showed the ability to modulate lipid metabolism and energy expenditure in a manner consistent with improving metabolic syndrome. The results demonstrate that these berries traditionally consumed by tribal cultures contain a rich array of phytochemicals that have the capacity to promote health and protect against chronic diseases, such as diabetes.

  5. Pesticide residues in berries harvested from South-Eastern Poland (2009-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyaszek, Aneta; Szpyrka, Ewa; Podbielska, Magdalena; Słowik-Borowiec, Magdalena; Kurdziel, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Poland is a leading grower/producer of berries in Europe that are either eaten raw or processed. As well as berries this includes fruit such as grapes, strawberries and other small fruits. Testing for the presence of active substances in Plant Protection Products, (PPP), in such fruit is however important, as part of measures taken to minimise human intake. To determine the incidence of pesticide residues in berries harvested from South-Eastern Poland in 2009-2011. . Chromatographic separation followed by analytical detection was performed on 250 samples of various test fruits using an accredited methodology: GC/ECD/NPD, together with spectrophotometric detection wherever necessary, according to PN-EN ISO/IEC 17025. As part of previous monitoring, 126 active substances were identified in 2009, 132 in 2010 and 153 in 2011; levels were compared to Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs). RESULTS;. Analyses showed that 46.4% of samples contained PPPs of which 4% exceeded the MRL. The most were found in raspberries, (58.8% of all tested), followed by 58.3% redcurrants, and gooseberries as well as 50% grapes. The most frequently found active substances of PPPs were pyrimethanil (15.6%), dithiocarbamates (12.4%), procymidone (8%), cyprodinil (5.6%) and difenoconazole (5.2%). The highest MRL exceedances were found in blackcurrants. Testing also revealed many examples of pesticides not recommended for the protection of specific crops: propiconazole in gooseberries, cyprodinil, flusilazole, iprodione, pyrimethanil in blackcurrants and folpet and captan in raspberries. Furthermore, active substances whose use in PPPs have been forbidden since 2008 were also detected, ie. endosulfan in blackcurrants and strawberries, fenitrothion in black and red currants as well as procymidone in raspberries, blackcurrants and strawberries. These data are consistent to those obtained from the whole of Poland and the European Union (EU). Most pesticides were present in raspberries, redcurrants

  6. Characterizing and improving the sensory and hedonic responses to polyphenol-rich aronia berry juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Valerie B; Rawal, Shristi; Park, Jeeha; Brand, Mark H; Sharafi, Mastaneh; Bolling, Bradley W

    2016-12-01

    Interest in nutrient-rich berry juices is growing, but their high polyphenol levels render them sensorily unappealing. Fifty adults, who were assessed for sensory phenotype and dietary behaviors, provided sensory and palatability ratings of juices from 'Viking' aronia berries for each of seven harvest weeks. By peak harvest, juice preference increased two-fold, averaging neither like/dislike. This hedonic shift was associated with: increases in juice sugars paralleling increases in perceived sweetness (maximum = weak); reductions in percent acidity paralleling reductions in sourness (minimum = moderate), astringency (minimum = to just above weak) and bitterness (minimum = just below weak). About 25% of adults liked the aronia juice, including adults who also liked an aqueous citric acid solution (average rating = moderately sour) or those who reported adventurous eating behaviors. Bitter taste phenotype, measured by propylthiouracil or quinine bitterness, failed to explain significant variation in juice sensation or preference. We also collected sensory and preference ratings from juice collected at peak harvest blended with sugar and/or sweet olfactory flavoring (10 ppm ethyl butyrate). Increasing juice sweetness by adding 5% sucrose decreased sourness and improved preference from weak dislike to weak like. Adding sweet olfactory flavoring decreased juice sourness without changing preference. Adding sweet flavoring and 3% sucrose resulted in reduction of sourness and improvements in preference ratings comparable to 5% added sucrose. Neither added sugar nor flavoring blocked juice astringency. In summary, these findings suggest that aronia juice, even from berries picked at peak harvest, appealed to only a few adults (sour likers or adventurous eaters). Although enhanced sweetness, with added sugar and sweet olfactory flavoring, improved aronia juice preference, broader sensory approaches are required to blunt astringency for greater consumer appeal

  7. Tracking juniper berry content in oils and distillates by spectral deconvolution of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbat, Albert; Kowalsick, Amanda; Howell, Jessalin

    2011-08-12

    The complex nature of botanicals and essential oils makes it difficult to identify all of the constituents by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) alone. In this paper, automated sequential, multidimensional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-GC/MS) was used to obtain a matrix-specific, retention time/mass spectrometry library of 190 juniper berry oil compounds. GC/MS analysis on stationary phases with different polarities confirmed the identities of each compound when spectral deconvolution software was used to analyze the oil. Also analyzed were distillates of juniper berry and its oil as well as gin from four different manufacturers. Findings showed the chemical content of juniper berry can be traced from starting material to final product and can be used to authenticate and differentiate brands. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Promoting Effect of Foliage Sprayed Zinc Sulfate on Accumulation of Sugar and Phenolics in Berries of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot Growing on Zinc Deficient Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Zheng Song

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of foliage sprayed zinc sulfate on berry development of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot growing on arid zone Zn-deficient soils was investigated over two consecutive seasons, 2013 and 2014. Initial zinc concentration in soil and vines, photosynthesis at three berry developmental stages, berry weight, content of total soluble solids, titratable acidity, phenolics and expression of phenolics biosynthetic pathway genes throughout the stages were measured. Foliage sprayed zinc sulfate showed promoting effects on photosynthesis and berry development of vines and the promotion mainly occurred from veraison to maturation. Zn treatments enhanced the accumulation of total soluble solids, total phenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins and anthocyanins in berry skin, decreasing the concentration of titratable acidity. Furthermore, foliage sprayed zinc sulfate could significantly influence the expression of phenolics biosynthetic pathway genes throughout berry development, and the results of expression analysis supported the promotion of Zn treatments on phenolics accumulation. This research is the first comprehensive and detailed study about the effect of foliage sprayed Zn fertilizer on grape berry development, phenolics accumulation and gene expression in berry skin, providing a basis for improving the quality of grape and wine in Zn-deficient areas.

  9. Anthocyanin Profile in Berries of Wild and Cultivated Vaccinium spp. along Altitudinal Gradients in the Alps

    OpenAIRE

    Zoratti, Laura; Jaakola, Laura; Häggman, Hely; Giongo, Lara

    2015-01-01

    This document is the Accepted Manuscript version of a Published Work that appeared in final form in Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, copyright © American Chemical Society after peer review and technical editing by the publisher. To access the final edited and published work see http://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.5b02833. Vaccinium spp. berries provide some of the best natural sources of anthocyanins. In the wild bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), a clear increasing trend in anth...

  10. Air Force Personnel Can Improve Compliance With the Berry Amendment and Buy American Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-24

    leather, furs,6 apparel , and shoes • FSG 84 – clothing , individual equipment and insignia • FSG 89 – subsistence (food) If these items are purchased...during the audit by completing Buy American Act training and amending standard operating procedures and internal processes to improve compliance with the...Force Personnel Can Improve Compliance With the Berry Amendment and the Buy American Act F E B R U A R Y 2 4 , 2 0 1 6 Report No. DODIG-2016-051

  11. EFTIHIYA – THE NEWEST WINE AROMATIC VARIETY WITH PINK COLORED BERRY

    OpenAIRE

    Zamanidi P. C.; Troshin L. P.; Radchevskiy P. P.

    2014-01-01

    The newest wine grape variety Eftihiya with aromatic pink colored skin (in Greek the name means “happi-ness”) was breed with hybridization at the Athens In-stitute of Viticulture by P. Zamanidi, L. Troshin and P. Radchevskiy in 2005 by crossing the Greek varieties and Malaguzya with Eurasian Traminer pink. Dura-tion of production period from bud burst to harvest 146-155 days. Yields are very high: 25-30 t / ha. Modal mass of clusters is 250 g. Bunch is conical, me-dium density. Berry is mediu...

  12. Interactions between ethylene and auxin are crucial to the control of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berry ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Christine; Burbidge, Crista A; Boss, Paul K; Davies, Christopher

    2013-12-23

    Fruit development is controlled by plant hormones, but the role of hormone interactions during fruit ripening is poorly understood. Interactions between ethylene and the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) are likely to be crucial during the ripening process, since both hormones have been shown to be implicated in the control of ripening in a range of different fruit species. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) homologues of the TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE RELATED (TAR) and YUCCA families, functioning in the only characterized pathway of auxin biosynthesis, were identified and the expression of several TAR genes was shown to be induced by the pre-ripening application of the ethylene-releasing compound Ethrel. The induction of TAR expression was accompanied by increased IAA and IAA-Asp concentrations, indicative of an upregulation of auxin biosynthesis and conjugation. Exposure of ex planta, pre-ripening berries to the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine resulted in decreased IAA and IAA-Asp concentrations. The delayed initiation of ripening observed in Ethrel-treated berries might therefore represent an indirect ethylene effect mediated by increased auxin concentrations. During berry development, the expression of three TAR genes and one YUCCA gene was upregulated at the time of ripening initiation and/or during ripening. This increase in auxin biosynthesis gene expression was preceded by high expression levels of the ethylene biosynthesis genes 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase. In grape berries, members of both gene families involved in the two-step pathway of auxin biosynthesis are expressed, suggesting that IAA is produced through the combined action of TAR and YUCCA proteins in developing berries. The induction of TAR expression by Ethrel applications and the developmental expression patterns of auxin and ethylene biosynthesis genes indicate that elevated concentrations of ethylene prior to the

  13. Structural and biochemical changes induced by pulsed electric field treatments on Cabernet Sauvignon grape berry skins: impact on cell wall total tannins and polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholet, Céline; Delsart, Cristèle; Petrel, Mélina; Gontier, Etienne; Grimi, Nabil; L'hyvernay, Annie; Ghidossi, Remy; Vorobiev, Eugène; Mietton-Peuchot, Martine; Gény, Laurence

    2014-04-02

    Pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment is an emerging technology that is arousing increasing interest in vinification processes for its ability to enhance polyphenol extraction performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of PEF treatment on grape skin histocytological structures and on the organization of skin cell wall polysaccharides and tannins, which, until now, have been little investigated. This study relates to the effects of two PEF treatments on harvested Cabernet Sauvignon berries: PEF1 (medium strength (4 kV/cm); short duration (1 ms)) and PEF2 (low intensity (0.7 kV/cm); longer duration (200 ms)). Histocytological observations and the study of levels of polysaccharidic fractions and total amounts of tannins allowed differentiation between the two treatments. Whereas PEF1 had little effect on the polyphenol structure and pectic fraction, PEF2 profoundly modified the organization of skin cell walls. Depending on the PEF parameters, cell wall structure was differently affected, providing variable performance in terms of polyphenol extraction and wine quality.

  14. Abscisic Acid Is a Major Regulator of Grape Berry Ripening Onset: New Insights into ABA Signaling Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilati, Stefania; Bagagli, Giorgia; Sonego, Paolo; Moretto, Marco; Brazzale, Daniele; Castorina, Giulia; Simoni, Laura; Tonelli, Chiara; Guella, Graziano; Engelen, Kristof; Galbiati, Massimo; Moser, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Grapevine is a world-wide cultivated economically relevant crop. The process of berry ripening is non-climacteric and does not rely on the sole ethylene signal. Abscisic acid (ABA) is recognized as an important hormone of ripening inception and color development in ripening berries. In order to elucidate the effect of this signal at the molecular level, pre-véraison berries were treated ex vivo for 20 h with 0.2 mM ABA and berry skin transcriptional modulation was studied by RNA-seq after the treatment and 24 h later, in the absence of exogenous ABA. This study highlighted that a small amount of ABA triggered its own biosynthesis and had a transcriptome-wide effect (1893 modulated genes) characterized by the amplification of the transcriptional response over time. By comparing this dataset with the many studies on ripening collected within the grapevine transcriptomic compendium Vespucci, an extended overlap between ABA- and ripening modulated gene sets was observed (71% of the genes), underpinning the role of this hormone in the regulation of berry ripening. The signaling network of ABA, encompassing ABA metabolism, transport and signaling cascade, has been analyzed in detail and expanded based on knowledge from other species in order to provide an integrated molecular description of this pathway at berry ripening onset. Expression data analysis was combined with in silico promoter analysis to identify candidate target genes of ABA responsive element binding protein 2 (VvABF2), a key upstream transcription factor of the ABA signaling cascade which is up-regulated at véraison and also by ABA treatments. Two transcription factors, VvMYB143 and VvNAC17, and two genes involved in protein degradation, Armadillo-like and Xerico-like genes, were selected for in vivo validation by VvABF2-mediated promoter trans-activation in tobacco. VvNAC17 and Armadillo-like promoters were induced by ABA via VvABF2, while VvMYB143 responded to ABA in a VvABF2-independent manner. This

  15. DESARROLLO DE UN PROCESO BIOTECNOLOGICO PARA LA REVALORIZACION DE DESCARTES DE LA INDUSTRIA DE PROCESAMIENTO DE BERRIES

    OpenAIRE

    ZUÑIGA HANSEN, MARIA ELVIRA

    2013-01-01

    El proyecto Desarrollo de un Proceso Biotecnológico para la revalorización de descartes de la industria procesadora de Berries (Proyecto FONDEF D07i105) tuvo como objetivo establecer una estrategia para la recuperación y obtención de un extracto con capacidad antioxidante elevada y que pueda competir en el mercado nacional e internacional, a partir de aquellos residuos sólidos generados en el procesamiento de berries, como frambuesa, arándano, maqui, mora entre otros, y que de est...

  16. Towards a scientific interpretation of the terroir concept: plasticity of the grape berry metabolome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anesi, Andrea; Stocchero, Matteo; Dal Santo, Silvia; Commisso, Mauro; Zenoni, Sara; Ceoldo, Stefania; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Siebert, Tracey E; Herderich, Markus; Pezzotti, Mario; Guzzo, Flavia

    2015-08-07

    The definition of the terroir concept is one of the most debated issues in oenology and viticulture. The dynamic interaction among diverse factors including the environment, the grapevine plant and the imposed viticultural techniques means that the wine produced in a given terroir is unique. However, there is an increasing interest to define and quantify the contribution of individual factors to a specific terroir objectively. Here, we characterized the metabolome and transcriptome of berries from a single clone of the Corvina variety cultivated in seven different vineyards, located in three macrozones, over a 3-year trial period. To overcome the anticipated strong vintage effect, we developed statistical tools that allowed us to identify distinct terroir signatures in the metabolic composition of berries from each macrozone, and from different vineyards within each macrozone. We also identified non-volatile and volatile components of the metabolome which are more plastic and therefore respond differently to terroir diversity. We observed some relationships between the plasticity of the metabolome and transcriptome, allowing a multifaceted scientific interpretation of the terroir concept. Our experiments with a single Corvina clone in different vineyards have revealed the existence of a clear terroir-specific effect on the transcriptome and metabolome which persists over several vintages and allows each vineyard to be characterized by the unique profile of specific metabolites.

  17. The WRKY transcription factor genes in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and Turkey Berry (Solanum torvum Sw.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xu; Deng, Cao; Zhang, Yu; Cheng, Yufu; Huo, Qiuyue; Xue, Linbao

    2015-04-07

    WRKY transcription factors, which play critical roles in stress responses, have not been characterized in eggplant or its wild relative, turkey berry. The recent availability of RNA-sequencing data provides the opportunity to examine WRKY genes from a global perspective. We identified 50 and 62 WRKY genes in eggplant (SmelWRKYs) and turkey berry (StorWRKYs), respectively, all of which could be classified into three groups (I-III) based on the WRKY protein structure. The SmelWRKYs and StorWRKYs contain ~76% and ~95% of the number of WRKYs found in other sequenced asterid species, respectively. Positive selection analysis revealed that different selection constraints could have affected the evolution of these groups. Positively-selected sites were found in Groups IIc and III. Branch-specific selection pressure analysis indicated that most WRKY domains from SmelWRKYs and StorWRKYs are conserved and have evolved at low rates since their divergence. Comparison to homologous WRKY genes in Arabidopsis revealed several potential pathogen resistance-related SmelWRKYs and StorWRKYs, providing possible candidate genetic resources for improving stress tolerance in eggplant and probably other Solanaceae plants. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a genome-wide analyses of the SmelWRKYs and StorWRKYs.

  18. Antiaggregation potential of berry fractions against pairs of Streptococcus mutans with Fusobacterium nucleatum or Actinomyces naeslundii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riihinen, Kaisu; Ryynänen, Anu; Toivanen, Marko; Könönen, Eija; Törrönen, Riitta; Tikkanen-Kaukanen, Carina

    2011-01-01

    Coaggregation is an interspecies adhesion process, which is essential to the development of dental plaque. This is an in vitro study of the composition of the soluble solids in the berry juice molecular size fractions (100 kDa, FIII) derived from apple, bilberry, blackcurrant, cloudberry, crowberry and lingonberry and their ability to inhibit and reverse coaggregation of the pairs of common species in dental plaque: Streptococcus mutans with Fusobacterium nucleatum or Actinomyces naeslundii. Inhibitory and reversal activity was found in the molecular size fractions FII and FIII of bilberry, blackcurrant, crowberry and lingonberry. The active fractions contained higher amounts of polyphenols (5-12% of soluble solids) than those without activity (juice fractions FII and FIII and also small amounts of anthocyanins were detected. Anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins and flavonol glycosides were prevalent in FII and FIII fractions of bilberry, blackcurrant and crowberry juices. Comparable amounts of sugars and titratable acids were present in the latter three berry juice fractions of different size. The results indicate that the high molecular size fractions of lingonberry, bilberry, blackcurrant and crowberry juices have antiaggregation potential on common oral bacteria, the potential being associated with their polyphenolic content. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Short-term postharvest carbon dioxide treatments induce selective molecular and metabolic changes in grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becatti, Elisa; Chkaiban, Lamia; Tonutti, Pietro; Forcato, Claudio; Bonghi, Claudio; Ranieri, Anna Maria

    2010-07-14

    Detached wine grapes ( Vitis vinifera cv. 'Trebbiano', white skinned) were treated for 3 days with 30 kPa of CO(2) and then transferred to air for an additional 9 days to partially dehydrate (about 20% weight loss). At the end of the CO(2) treatment on withering berries, total polyphenols and flavonoids were maintained in the skin, but to a more limited extent in the pulp. An induction of the proanthocyanidin synthesis appeared to be one of the responses to the treatment because both (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin concentrations increased in the skin. The skin and pulp of the grape berries showed different molecular responses to a high CO(2) treatment. As revealed by microarray hybridizations, 217 and 75 genes appeared differentially expressed in the skin and pulp of treated samples, respectively. Functional categorization and gene enrichment analyses pointed out that epicarp cells undergo more pronounced changes in transcript profiling at the end of the incubation period. Highly represented categories in both tissues were related to protein, stress, transcript, RNA, and hormone (ethylene, ABA) metabolism. Fermentation, CHO metabolism, and redox regulation functional categories were represented only in the skin.

  20. Transcriptome analysis during ripening of table grape berry cv. Thompson Seedless.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Balic

    Full Text Available Ripening is one of the key processes associated with the development of major organoleptic characteristics of the fruit. This process has been extensively characterized in climacteric fruit, in contrast with non-climacteric fruit such as grape, where the process is less understood. With the aim of studying changes in gene expression during ripening of non-climacteric fruit, an Illumina based RNA-Seq transcriptome analysis was performed on four developmental stages, between veraison and harvest, on table grapes berries cv Thompson Seedless. Functional analysis showed a transcriptional increase in genes related with degradation processes of chlorophyll, lipids, macromolecules recycling and nucleosomes organization; accompanied by a decrease in genes related with chloroplasts integrity and amino acid synthesis pathways. It was possible to identify several processes described during leaf senescence, particularly close to harvest. Before this point, the results suggest a high transcriptional activity associated with the regulation of gene expression, cytoskeletal organization and cell wall metabolism, which can be related to growth of berries and firmness loss characteristic to this stage of development. This high metabolic activity could be associated with an increase in the transcription of genes related with glycolysis and respiration, unexpected for a non-climacteric fruit ripening.

  1. Preferences for berries among consumers in southern Chile: blueberries are produced but are they consumed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, Berta; Miranda, Horacio; Sepúlveda, José; Denegri, Marianela; Mora, Marcos; Lobos, Germán

    2011-09-01

    Blueberry plantations in Chile are oriented exclusively towards exports to northern hemisphere countries; however, this fruit has recently been introduced into the domestic market due to the increased supply and a fall in export market prices. Based on the previously mentioned, the objectives of the present study were to evaluate consumer preferences for 3 species of berries (blueberries, strawberries, and raspberries), sold loose (unpackaged) as opposed to packaged and branded, at different prices, in one of the principal blueberry producing areas of Chile; and to distinguish consumer segments by their preferences. To do this a survey was applied to 400 people in the Araucanía Region of southern Chile, who were responsible for purchasing fruit for their households. Conjoint analysis showed a preference for raspberries and strawberries over blueberries, packaged and branded, at the lowest price. Total of 2 principal segments were distinguished by cluster analysis: "price sensitive" (42.7%), who preferred strawberries, and "sensitive to species of berry" (47.5%), who preferred raspberries and strawberries. The segments presented different profiles in their demographic make-up and fruit consumption behavior. Strategies are discussed that might reverse the low acceptance of blueberries in the Chilean domestic market. This study presents information on the introduction of new fresh foods into the market. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Pink berry grape (Vitis vinifera L.) characterization: Reflectance spectroscopy, HPLC and molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustioni, Laura; De Lorenzis, Gabriella; Hârţa, Monica; Failla, Osvaldo

    2016-01-01

    Color has a fundamental role for the qualitative evaluation and cultivar characterization of fruits. In grape, a normally functional pigment biosynthesis leads to the accumulation of a high quantity of anthocyanins. In this work, 28 Vitis vinifera L. cultivars accumulating low anthocyanins in berries were studied to characterize the biosynthetic dysfunctions in both a phenotypic and genotypic point of view. Reflectance spectroscopy, HPLC profiles and molecular markers related to VvMybA1 and VvMybA2 genes allowed a detailed description of the pigment-related characteristics of these cultivars. Data were consistent concerning the heterozygosity of the non-functional allele in both investigated genes, resulting in a low colored phenotype as described by reflectance. However, the variability in berry colour among our samples was not fully explained by MybA locus, probably due to specific interferences among the biosynthetic pathways, as suggested by the anthocyanin profile variations detected among our samples. The results presented in this work confirmed the importance of the genetic background: grapes accumulating high levels of cyanidin-3-O-glucosides (di-substituted anthocyanin) are generally originated by white cultivar retro-mutations and they seem to preserve the anomalies in the flavonoid hydroxylases enzymes which negatively affect the synthesis of tri-substituted anthocyanins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification of Vitis vinifera L. grape berry skin color mutants and polyphenolic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Vanessa; Fernandes, Fátima; Pinto-Carnide, Olinda; Valentão, Patrícia; Falco, Virgílio; Martín, Juan Pedro; Ortiz, Jesús María; Arroyo-García, Rosa; Andrade, Paula B; Castro, Isaura

    2016-03-01

    A germplasm set of twenty-five grapevine accessions, forming eleven groups of possible berry skin color mutants, were genotyped with twelve microsatellite loci, being eleven of them identified as true color mutants. The polyphenolic profiling of the confirmed mutant cultivars revealed a total of twenty-four polyphenols, comprising non-colored compounds (phenolic acids, flavan-3-ols, flavonols and a stilbene) and anthocyanins. Results showed differences in the contribution of malvidin-3-O-glucoside to the characteristic Pinot Noir anthocyanins profile. Regarding the two Pique-Poul colored variants, the lighter variant was richer than the darker one in all classes of compounds, excepting anthocyanins. In Moscatel Galego Roxo the F3'H pathway seems to be more active than F3'5'H, resulting in higher amounts of cyanidin, precursor of the cyanidin derivatives. As far as we are aware, this is the first time that a relationship between the content of polyphenolic compounds is established in groups of grape berry skin color mutant cultivars. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Integrated Pest Management of Coffee Berry Borer in Hawaii and Puerto Rico: Current Status and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F. Aristizábal

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The coffee berry borer (CBB, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most significant insect pest of coffee worldwide. Since CBB was detected in Puerto Rico in 2007 and Hawaii in 2010, coffee growers from these islands are facing increased costs, reduced coffee quality, and increased pest management challenges. Here, we outline the CBB situation, and summarize the findings of growers, researchers, and extension professionals working with CBB in Hawaii. Recommendations for the Integrated Pest Management (IPM program for CBB in Hawaiian Islands and Puerto Rico include: (1 establish a CBB monitoring program, (2 synchronize applications of insecticides with peak flight activity of CBB especially during the early coffee season, (3 conduct efficient strip-picking as soon as possible after harvest and perform pre-harvest sanitation picks in CBB hotspots if needed, (4 establish protocols to prevent the escape of CBB from processing areas and when transporting berries during harvest, and (5 stump prune by blocks. Progress achieved includes the introduction of the mycoinsecticide Beauveria bassiana to coffee plantations, the coordination of area-wide CBB surveys, the establishment and augmentation of native beetle predators, and an observed reduction of CBB populations and increased coffee quality where IPM programs were established. However, CBB remains a challenge for coffee growers due to regional variability in CBB pressures, high costs, and labor issues, including a lack of training and awareness of CBB management practices among growers.

  5. Integrated Pest Management of Coffee Berry Borer in Hawaii and Puerto Rico: Current Status and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristizábal, Luis F.; Johnson, Melissa; Shriner, Suzanne; Hollingsworth, Robert; Manoukis, Nicholas C.; Myers, Roxana; Bayman, Paul; Arthurs, Steven P.

    2017-01-01

    The coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, is the most significant insect pest of coffee worldwide. Since CBB was detected in Puerto Rico in 2007 and Hawaii in 2010, coffee growers from these islands are facing increased costs, reduced coffee quality, and increased pest management challenges. Here, we outline the CBB situation, and summarize the findings of growers, researchers, and extension professionals working with CBB in Hawaii. Recommendations for the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program for CBB in Hawaiian Islands and Puerto Rico include: (1) establish a CBB monitoring program, (2) synchronize applications of insecticides with peak flight activity of CBB especially during the early coffee season, (3) conduct efficient strip-picking as soon as possible after harvest and perform pre-harvest sanitation picks in CBB hotspots if needed, (4) establish protocols to prevent the escape of CBB from processing areas and when transporting berries during harvest, and (5) stump prune by blocks. Progress achieved includes the introduction of the mycoinsecticide Beauveria bassiana to coffee plantations, the coordination of area-wide CBB surveys, the establishment and augmentation of native beetle predators, and an observed reduction of CBB populations and increased coffee quality where IPM programs were established. However, CBB remains a challenge for coffee growers due to regional variability in CBB pressures, high costs, and labor issues, including a lack of training and awareness of CBB management practices among growers. PMID:29135952

  6. Nontrivial Berry phase in magnetic BaMnSb2 semimetal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Silu; Kim, Jisun; Shelton, W. A.; Plummer, E. W.; Jin, Rongying

    2017-06-01

    The subject of topological materials has attracted immense attention in condensed-matter physics because they host new quantum states of matter containing Dirac, Majorana, or Weyl fermions. Although Majorana fermions can only exist on the surface of topological superconductors, Dirac and Weyl fermions can be realized in both 2D and 3D materials. The latter are semimetals with Dirac/Weyl cones either not tilted (type I) or tilted (type II). Although both Dirac and Weyl fermions have massless nature with the nontrivial Berry phase, the formation of Weyl fermions in 3D semimetals require either time-reversal or inversion symmetry breaking to lift degeneracy at Dirac points. Here we demonstrate experimentally that canted antiferromagnetic BaMnSb2 is a 3D Weyl semimetal with a 2D electronic structure. The Shubnikov-de Hass oscillations of the magnetoresistance give nearly zero effective mass with high mobility and the nontrivial Berry phase. The ordered magnetic arrangement (ferromagnetic ordering in the ab plane and antiferromagnetic ordering along the c axis below 286 K) breaks the time-reversal symmetry, thus offering us an ideal platform to study magnetic Weyl fermions in a centrosymmetric material.

  7. Quasiparticle Excitations with Berry Curvature in Insulating Magnets and Weyl Semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschberger, Maximilian Anton

    The concept of the geometric Berry phase of the quantum mechanical wave function has led to a better theoretical understanding of natural phenomena in all fields of fundamental physics research. In condensed matter physics, the impact of this theoretical discovery has been particularly profound: The quantum Hall effect, the anomalous Hall effect, the quantum spin Hall effect, magnetic skyrmions, topological insulators, and topological semimetals are but a few subfields that have witnessed rapid developments over the three decades since Michael Berry's landmark paper. In this thesis, I will present and discuss the results of three experiments where Berry's phase leads to qualitatively new transport behavior of electrons or magnetic spin excitations in solids. We introduce the theoretical framework that leads to the prediction of a thermal Hall effect of magnons in Cu(1,3-bdc), a simple two-dimensional layered ferromagnet on a Kagome net of spin S = 1/2 copper atoms. Combining our experimental results measured down to very low temperatures T = 0.3 K with published data from inelastic neutron scattering, we report a quantitative comparison with the theory. This confirms the expected net Berry curvature of the magnon band dispersion in this material. Secondly, we have studied the thermal Hall effect in the frustrated pyrochlore magnet Tb2Ti2O7, where the thermal Hall effect is large in the absence of long-range magnetic order. We establish the magnetic nature of the thermal Hall effect in Tb2Ti2O7, introducing this material as the first example of a paramagnet with non-trivial low-lying spin excitations. Comparing our results to other materials with zero thermal Hall effect such as the classical spin ice Dy2Ti 2O7 and the non-magnetic analogue Y2Ti2O 7, we carefully discuss the experimental limitations of our setup and rule out spurious background signals. The third and final chapter of this thesis is dedicated to electrical transport and thermopower experiments on the

  8. Comparison of extraction protocols to determine differences in wine-extractable tannin and anthocyanin in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindon, Keren A; Kassara, Stella; Cynkar, Wieslawa U; Robinson, Ella M C; Scrimgeour, Neil; Smith, Paul A

    2014-05-21

    Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz grapes were sourced from different regions within Australia, and microvinified with a skin contact period of 6 days. Grape samples were extracted using two protocols: a 15% v/v ethanol, 10 g/L tartaric acid extract of gently crushed berries (wine-like, WL) and a 50% v/v ethanol, pH 2 extract of grape berry homogenate. It was found that in WL extracts, grape tannin and anthocyanin concentrations were strongly related to wine tannin, anthocyanin and color density achieved during the skin contact period. No relationship was observed for grape tannin concentration analyzed in homogenate extracts and wine tannin, but a strong, positive relationship was found for anthocyanin concentration. When the data obtained from homogenate extraction was treated separately by grape variety, a stronger relationship between grape and wine tannin concentration was observed. Tannin compositional analysis in wines indicated that higher tannin concentrations were due to the extraction of tannin of higher molecular mass during fermentation, most likely from grape skins.

  9. Evaluation of Polyphenol Anthocyanin-Enriched Extracts of Blackberry, Black Raspberry, Blueberry, Cranberry, Red Raspberry, and Strawberry for Free Radical Scavenging, Reactive Carbonyl Species Trapping, Anti-Glycation, Anti-β-Amyloid Aggregation, and Microglial Neuroprotective Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Ma

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Glycation is associated with several neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD, where it potentiates the aggregation and toxicity of proteins such as β-amyloid (Aβ. Published studies support the anti-glycation and neuroprotective effects of several polyphenol-rich fruits, including berries, which are rich in anthocyanins. Herein, blackberry, black raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, red raspberry, and strawberry extracts were evaluated for: (1 total phenolic and anthocyanins contents, (2 free radical (DPPH scavenging and reactive carbonyl species (methylglyoxal; MGO trapping, (3 anti-glycation (using BSA-fructose and BSA-MGO models, (4 anti-Aβ aggregation (using thermal- and MGO-induced fibrillation models, and, (5 murine microglia (BV-2 neuroprotective properties. Berry crude extracts (CE were fractionated to yield anthocyanins-free (ACF and anthocyanins-enriched (ACE extracts. The berry ACEs (at 100 μg/mL showed superior free radical scavenging, reactive carbonyl species trapping, and anti-glycation effects compared to their respective ACFs. The berry ACEs (at 100 μg/mL inhibited both thermal- and MGO-induced Aβ fibrillation. In addition, the berry ACEs (at 20 μg/mL reduced H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species production, and lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide species in BV-2 microglia as well as decreased H2O2-induced cytotoxicity and caspase-3/7 activity in BV-2 microglia. The free radical scavenging, reactive carbonyl trapping, anti-glycation, anti-Aβ fibrillation, and microglial neuroprotective effects of these berry extracts warrant further in vivo studies to evaluate their potential neuroprotective effects against AD.

  10. Isohydrodynamic behavior in deficit-irrigated Cabernet Sauvignon and Malbec and its relationship between yield and berry composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabernet Sauvignon and Malbec grapevines were irrigated at 70 or 23% of estimated crop evapotranspiration (ETc) throughout berry development over four growing seasons. Stomatal behavior was characterized by relating predawn leaf water potential and mid-morning stomatal conductance to mid-morning lea...

  11. Freezing as a treatment to prevent the spread of coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) is the most serious insect pest of coffee around the world. While it is already present in most of the world’s major coffee growing regions, it is important to delay further spread and to prevent re-introductions which might include hyperparasites or...

  12. Iron Supply Affects Anthocyanin Content and Related Gene Expression in Berries of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Pengbao; Li, Bing; Chen, Haiju; Song, Changzheng; Meng, Jiangfei; Xi, Zhumei; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2017-02-14

    Anthocyanins are important compounds for red grape and red wine quality, and can be influenced by supply of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, and iron. The present work aims to gain a better understanding of the effect of iron supply on anthocyanins concentration in grape berries. To this end, own-rooted four-year-old Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines ( Vitis vinifera ) were fertigated every three days with 0, 23, 46, 92, and 184 μM iron (Fe) from ferric ethylenediamine di ( o -hydroxyphenylacetic) acid (Fe-EDDHA) in a complete nutrient solution. Fe deficiency or excess generally led to higher concentrations of titratable acidity and skin/berry ratio, and to lower reducing sugar content, sugar/acid ratio, pH, berry weight, and concentration of anthocyanins. Most of the individual anthocyanins detected in this study, except cyanidin-3- O -glucoside, delphinidin-3- O -glucoside, and cyanidin-3- O -(6- O -coumaryl)-glucoside, in moderate Fe treatment (46 μM) grapes were significantly higher than those of other treatments. Genes encoding chalcone isomerase (CHI), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase (LDOX), and anthocyanin O -methyltransferase (AOMT) exhibited higher transcript levels in berries from plants cultivated with 46 μM Fe compared to the ones cultivated with other Fe concentrations. We suggest that grape sugar content, anthocyanins content, and transcriptions of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis were correlated with Fe supply concentrations.

  13. Predation by Flat Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae and Laemophloeidae) on Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Hawaii coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee berry borer(CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and a new invasive pest in Hawaii. Adult flat bark beetles, mainly Leptophloeus sp.(75%) and Cathartus quadricollis(21%) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae and Silvanidae, respectively), were found feeding in CBB-infested c...

  14. Karnyothrips flavipes, a previously unreported predatory thrips of the coffee berry borer: DNA-based gut content analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new predator of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, was found in the coffee growing area of Kisii in Western Kenya. Field observations, laboratory trials and gut content analysis using molecular tools have confirmed the role of the predatory thrips Karnyothrips flavipes Jones (Phlaeothrip...

  15. Deciphering the growth pattern and phytohormonal content in Saskatoon berry (Amelanchier alnifolia) in response to in vitro cytokinin application

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moyo, M.; Aremu, A.O.; Plačková, Lenka; Plíhalová, Lucie; Pěnčík, Aleš; Novák, Ondřej; Holub, J.; Doležal, Karel; Van Staden, J.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 42, MAY 25 (2018), s. 85-94 ISSN 1871-6784 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Auxins * Endogenous cytokinins * Micropropagation * Organogenesis * Saskatoon berry * Topolins Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 3.813, year: 2016

  16. Mummy Berry Fruit Rot and Shoot Blight Incidence in Blueberry: Prediction, Ranking, and Stability in a Long-term Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mummy berry is an important disease of cultivated blueberry. The disease has two distinct phases; a blighting phase initiated by ascospores and a fruit infection stage initiated by conidia. In this study we investigated blueberry cultivar resistance to both phases of the disease and, utilizing ‘stan...

  17. Environmental Factors Correlated with the Metabolite Profile of Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir Berry Skins along a European Latitudinal Gradient

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Del-Castillo-Alonso, M. Á.; Castagna, A.; Csepregi, K.; Hideg, É.; Jakab, G.; Jansen, M. A. K.; Jug, T.; Llorens, L.; Mátai, A.; Martínez-Lüscher, J.; Monforte, L.; Neugart, S.; Olejníčková, Julie; Ranieri, A.; Schödl-Hummel, K.; Schreiner, M.; Soriano, G.; Teszlák, P.; Tittmann, S.; Urban, Otmar; Verdaguer, D.; Zipoli, G.; Martínez-Abaigar, J.; Núñez-Olivera, E.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 46 (2016), s. 8722-8734 ISSN 0021-8561 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : berry skins * Europe * hydroxylation ratios * latitudinal gradient * phenolic composition * solar radiation * ultraviolet radiation * Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.154, year: 2016

  18. Pollination: a key event controlling the expression of genes related to phytohormone biosynthesis during grapevine berry formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Nathalie; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2012-01-01

    Berry formation is the process of ovary conversion into a functional fruit, and is characterized by abrupt changes in the content of several phytohormones, associated with pollination and fertilization. Much effort has been made in order to improve our understanding of berry development, particularly from veraison to post-harvest time. However, the period of berry formation has been poorly investigated, despite its importance. Phytohormones are involved in the control of fruit formation; hence it is important to understand the regulation of their content at this stage. Grapevine is an excellent fleshy-fruit plant model since its fruits have particularities that differentiate them from those of commonly studied organisms. For instance, berries are prepared to cope with stress by producing several antioxidants and they are non-climacteric fruits. Also its genome is fully sequenced, which allows to identify genes involved in developmental processes. In grapevine, no link has been established between pollination and phytohormone biosynthesis, until recently. Here we highlight relevant findings regarding pollination effect on gene expression related to phytohormone biosynthesis, and present unpublished results showing how quickly this effect is achieved.

  19. EUBerry: Competitiveness and marketing strategies of sustainable berries validated for improved health benefits - Introduction to the project and preliminary results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.J.; Roelofs, P.F.M.M.; Kaim, E.; Sijtsema, S.J.; Zimmermann, K.L.; Zmarlicki, K.

    2014-01-01

    The EUBerry project is not only building on technical research but also studies berry production and consumption from a social sciences perspective. This paper aims to describe the approach used in the EUBerry project about business economics as well as marketing. In addition some preliminary

  20. Impact of soil texture and water availability on the hydraulic control of plant and grape-berry development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sara Tramontini; Cornelis van Leeuwen; Jean-Christophe Domec; Agnès Destrac-Irvine; Cyril Basteau; Marco Vitali; Olaf Mosbach-Schulz; Claudio Lovisolo

    2013-01-01

    All components of the soil-plant-atmosphere (s-p-a) continuum are known to control berry quality in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) via ecophysiological interactions between water uptake by roots and water loss by leaves. The scope of the present work was to explore how the main hydraulic components of grapevine influence fruit quality through changes...

  1. Iron Supply Affects Anthocyanin Content and Related Gene Expression in Berries of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengbao Shi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are important compounds for red grape and red wine quality, and can be influenced by supply of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, and iron. The present work aims to gain a better understanding of the effect of iron supply on anthocyanins concentration in grape berries. To this end, own-rooted four-year-old Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines (Vitis vinifera were fertigated every three days with 0, 23, 46, 92, and 184 μM iron (Fe from ferric ethylenediamine di (o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (Fe-EDDHA in a complete nutrient solution. Fe deficiency or excess generally led to higher concentrations of titratable acidity and skin/berry ratio, and to lower reducing sugar content, sugar/acid ratio, pH, berry weight, and concentration of anthocyanins. Most of the individual anthocyanins detected in this study, except cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside, and cyanidin-3-O-(6-O-coumaryl-glucoside, in moderate Fe treatment (46 μM grapes were significantly higher than those of other treatments. Genes encoding chalcone isomerase (CHI, flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H, leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase (LDOX, and anthocyanin O-methyltransferase (AOMT exhibited higher transcript levels in berries from plants cultivated with 46 μM Fe compared to the ones cultivated with other Fe concentrations. We suggest that grape sugar content, anthocyanins content, and transcriptions of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis were correlated with Fe supply concentrations.

  2. The New Phases due to Symmetry Protected Piecewise Berry Phases; Enhanced Pumping and Non-reciprocity in Trimer Lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuele; Agarwal, G S

    2017-03-24

    Finding new phase of matter is a fundamental task in physics. Generally, various phases or states of matter (for instance solid/liquid/gas phases) have different symmetries, the phase transitions among them can be explained by Landau's symmetry breaking theory. The topological phases discovered in recent years show that different phases may have the same symmetry. The different topological phases are characterized by different integer values of the Berry phases. By studying one dimensional (1D) trimer lattices we report new phases beyond topological phases. The new phases that we find are characterized by piecewise continuous Berry phases with the discontinuity occurring at the transition point. With time-dependent changes in trimer lattices, we can generate two dimensional (2D) phases, which are characterized by the Berry phase of half period. This half-period Berry phase changes smoothly within one state of the system while changes discontinuously at the transition point. We further demonstrate the existence of adiabatic pumping for each phase and gain assisted enhanced pumping. The non reciprocity of the pumping process makes the system a good optical diode.

  3. Vineyard floor management and cluster thinning inconsistently affect ‘Pinot noir’ crop load, berry composition, and wine quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 3-year field study was developed to determine relationships between crop load metrics and berry composition for ‘Pinot noir’ in a cool-climate through the manipulation of vegetative growth and fruit yield using competitive cover cropping and cluster thinning, respectively. To alter vine vigor, per...

  4. Theory of longitudinal atomic beam spin echo and parity violating Berry-phases in atoms; Theorie des longitudinalen Atomstrahl-Spinechos und paritaetsverletzende Berry-Phasen in Atomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, T.F.

    2006-07-19

    We present a nonrelativistic theory for the quantum mechanical description of longitudinal atomic beam spin echo experiments, where a beam of neutral atoms is subjected to static electric and magnetic fields. The atomic wave function is the solution of a matrix-valued Schroedinger equation and can be written as superposition of local (atomic) eigenstates of the potential matrix. The position- and time-dependent amplitude function of each eigenstate represents an atomic wave packet and can be calculated in a series expansion with a master formula that we derive. The zeroth order of this series expansion describes the adiabatic limit, whereas the higher order contributions contain the mixing of the eigenstates and the corresponding amplitude functions. We give a tutorial for the theoretical description of longitudinal atomic beam spin echo experiments and for the so-called Fahrplan model, which is a visualisation tool for the propagation of wave packets of different atomic eigenstates. As an example for the application of our theory, we study parity violating geometric (Berry-)phases. In this context, we define geometric flux densities, which for certain field configurations can be used to illustrate geometric phases in a vector diagram. Considering an example with a specific field configuration, we prove the existence of a parity violating geometric phase. (orig.)

  5. VvVHP1; 2 Is Transcriptionally Activated by VvMYBA1 and Promotes Anthocyanin Accumulation of Grape Berry Skins via Glucose Signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tianyu; Xu, Lili; Sun, Hong; Yue, Qianyu; Zhai, Heng; Yao, Yuxin

    2017-01-01

    In this work, four vacuolar H + -PPase ( VHP ) genes were identified in the grape genome. Among them, VvVHP1; 2 was strongly expressed in berry skin and its expression exhibited high correlations to anthocyanin content of berry skin during berry ripening and under ABA and UVB treatments. VvVHP1; 2 was transcriptionally activated directly by VvMYBA1, and VvVHP1; 2 overexpression promoted anthocyanin accumulation in berry skins and Arabidopsis leaves; therefore, VvVHP1; 2 mediated VvMYBA1-regulated berry pigmentation. On the other hand, RNA-Seq analysis of WT and transgenic berry skins revealed that carbohydrate metabolism, flavonoid metabolism and regulation and solute carrier family expression were the most clearly altered biological processes. Further experiments elucidated that VvVHP1; 2 overexpression up-regulated the expression of the genes related to anthocyanin biosynthesis and transport via hexokinase-mediated glucose signal and thereby promoted anthocyanin accumulation in berry skins and Arabidopsis leaves. Additionally, modifications of sugar status caused by enhanced hexokinase activities likely play a key role in VvVHP1; 2- induced sugar signaling.

  6. VvVHP1; 2 Is Transcriptionally Activated by VvMYBA1 and Promotes Anthocyanin Accumulation of Grape Berry Skins via Glucose Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyu Sun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, four vacuolar H+-PPase (VHP genes were identified in the grape genome. Among them, VvVHP1; 2 was strongly expressed in berry skin and its expression exhibited high correlations to anthocyanin content of berry skin during berry ripening and under ABA and UVB treatments. VvVHP1; 2 was transcriptionally activated directly by VvMYBA1, and VvVHP1; 2 overexpression promoted anthocyanin accumulation in berry skins and Arabidopsis leaves; therefore, VvVHP1; 2 mediated VvMYBA1-regulated berry pigmentation. On the other hand, RNA-Seq analysis of WT and transgenic berry skins revealed that carbohydrate metabolism, flavonoid metabolism and regulation and solute carrier family expression were the most clearly altered biological processes. Further experiments elucidated that VvVHP1; 2 overexpression up-regulated the expression of the genes related to anthocyanin biosynthesis and transport via hexokinase-mediated glucose signal and thereby promoted anthocyanin accumulation in berry skins and Arabidopsis leaves. Additionally, modifications of sugar status caused by enhanced hexokinase activities likely play a key role in VvVHP1; 2-induced sugar signaling.

  7. Diffusion Profiles of Health Beneficial Components from Goji Berry (Lyceum barbarum Marinated in Alcohol and Their Antioxidant Capacities as Affected by Alcohol Concentration and Steeping Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The fruit (goji berry of Lycium barbarum, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used in health diets due to its potential role in the prevention of chronic diseases. One of the most popular applications of goji berry is to make goji wine in China by steeping goji berry in grain liquor. However, how the steeping process affects antioxidant capacities and phytochemicals of goji berry is not yet fully understood. Therefore, to provide scientific data for the utilization of goji berry in the nutraceutical industry, the diffusion rate of betaine, β-carotene, phenolic compounds in goji berry and their antioxidant capacities affected by alcohol concentration and steeping time were determined by UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The results showed that low alcohol concentration (15% or 25% would promote the diffusion of betaine and increase antioxidant activity, while high concentration (55% or 65% would generally increase the diffusion of flavonoids and reduce antioxidant activity. The steeping time had no significant effect on the diffusion of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities. However, all goji berry wine steeped for 14 days with different alcohol concentrations exhibited the highest betaine concentration. Current findings provide useful information for the nutraceutical industries to choose proper steeping time and alcohol concentration to yield desired health promotion components from goji.

  8. Diffusion Profiles of Health Beneficial Components from Goji Berry (Lyceum barbarum) Marinated in Alcohol and Their Antioxidant Capacities as Affected by Alcohol Concentration and Steeping Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Xu, Baojun

    2013-01-01

    The fruit (goji berry) of Lycium barbarum, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used in health diets due to its potential role in the prevention of chronic diseases. One of the most popular applications of goji berry is to make goji wine in China by steeping goji berry in grain liquor. However, how the steeping process affects antioxidant capacities and phytochemicals of goji berry is not yet fully understood. Therefore, to provide scientific data for the utilization of goji berry in the nutraceutical industry, the diffusion rate of betaine, β-carotene, phenolic compounds in goji berry and their antioxidant capacities affected by alcohol concentration and steeping time were determined by UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The results showed that low alcohol concentration (15% or 25%) would promote the diffusion of betaine and increase antioxidant activity, while high concentration (55% or 65%) would generally increase the diffusion of flavonoids and reduce antioxidant activity. The steeping time had no significant effect on the diffusion of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities. However, all goji berry wine steeped for 14 days with different alcohol concentrations exhibited the highest betaine concentration. Current findings provide useful information for the nutraceutical industries to choose proper steeping time and alcohol concentration to yield desired health promotion components from goji. PMID:28239094

  9. Phytochemical Composition and Antioxidant Capacity of Seven Saskatoon Berry (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt. Genotypes Grown in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Lachowicz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The basic chemical composition, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant capacity of fruits of three new Polish breeding clones (No. 5/6, type S, and type N and four Canadian cultivars (cvs. (“Martin”, “Smoky”, “Pembina”, and “Honeywood” grown in Poland in 2016 were investigated. Fruits were analyzed for their contents of triterpenoids, carotenoids, chlorophylls, and polyphenolics with the ultra-performance liquid chromatography photodiode detector-quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-PDA-Q/TOF-MS method, sugar with the high-performance liquid chromatography–evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD method, and antioxidant capacity with the ability to reduce free radical (ABTS and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP method. Thirty-eight bioactive compounds, including twenty-eight polyphenolic compounds (four anthocyanins, nine phenolic acids, nine flavonols, and seven flavan-3-ols, four carotenoids, two chlorophylls, and three triterpenoids were identified in the fruits. The fruits of the tested Saskatoon berry genotypes were found to be rich in phenolic compounds (3773.94–6390.36 mg/100 g·dm, triterpenoids (66.55–91.31 mg/kg·dm, and carotenoids (478.62–561.57 mg/kg·dm, with high ABTS and FRAP capacity (10.38–34.49 and 9.66–25.34 mmol·Trolox/100 g·dm, respectively. Additionally, the berries of these genotypes seemed to be a good source of sugar (9.02–19.69 g/100 g, pectins (0.67%–1.33%, and ash (0.59%–0.67%. Some genotypes of Saskatoon berry, especially the clones type S, type N, and cvs. “Honeywood” and “Smoky”, may be selected for their potential applications in commercial cultivation to produce fruits with valuable health-promoting nutritional effects on human health. Additionally, three new genotypes that may offer new functional materials can be recommended for fruit growers.

  10. Consumption of berries, fruits and vegetables and mortality among 10,000 Norwegian men followed for four decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjartåker, Anette; Knudsen, Markus Dines; Tretli, Steinar; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2015-06-01

    The association between vegetable and fruit consumption and risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been investigated by several studies, whereas fewer studies have examined consumption of vegetables and fruits in relation to all-cause mortality. Studies on berries, a rich source of antioxidants, are rare. The purpose of the current study was to examine the association between intake of vegetables, fruits and berries (together and separately) and the risk of all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality due to cancer and CVD and subtypes of these, in a cohort with very long follow-up. We used data from a population-based prospective Norwegian cohort study of 10,000 men followed from 1968 through 2008. Information on vegetable, fruit and berry consumption was available from a food frequency questionnaire. Association between these and all-cause mortality, cause-specific mortality due to cancers and CVDs were investigated using Cox proportional hazard regression models. Men who in total consumed vegetables, fruit and berries more than 27 times per month had an 8-10% reduced risk of all-cause mortality compared with men with a lower consumption. They also had a 20% reduced risk of stroke mortality. Consumption of fruit was inversely related to overall cancer mortality, with hazard rate ratios of 0.94, 0.84 and 0.79 in the second, third and firth quartile, respectively, compared with the first quartile. Increased consumption of vegetables, fruits and berries was associated with a delayed risk of all-cause mortality and of mortality due to cancer and stroke.

  11. Flight Activity and Field Infestation Relationships for Coffee Berry Borer in Commercial Coffee Plantations in Kona and Kau Districts, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristizábal, Luis F; Shriner, Suzanne; Hollingsworth, Robert; Arthurs, Steven

    2017-12-05

    The coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is a recent invader to Hawaii. To date, limited information regarding the seasonal phenology of this pest on the islands limits the implementation of integrated control strategies. As part of a coffee farmer training program, we monitored CBB flight activity in 15 coffee plantations (Kona and Kau Districts) over 10 mo with methanol-ethanol (3:1 ratio) baited traps. Concurrently, we quantified CBB infestation and penetration rates inside developing coffee berries through the end of harvest. Approximately 1 million CBB were captured, with the highest activity (e.g., >500 CBB/trap/wk) in December through February, coinciding with end of main regional harvesting periods. Relatively high activity (>250 CBB/trap/wk) was also observed during berry development, in May and June (Kona) and June and July (Kau). Field infestation rates were higher overall in Kau (9.6 ± 1.1%) compared with coffee plantations in Kona (4.7 ± 0.4%). Linear regression investigated relationships between CBB trap data and berry infestation rates. Trap catch data generally correlated better with the proportion of shallow entries (AB position) compared with deeper penetrations (CD position) or total infestation. Pearson correlation coefficients based on different parameters (i.e., region, altitude, and berry phenology) revealed positive and mostly significant correlations between these variables (R values 0.410 to 0.837). Timing peak flight activity of CBB with insecticide applications will help coffee growers improve pest control. The ability of trap data to calculate reliable economic (action) thresholds for the CBB is discussed. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Distribution of 210Pb and 210Po concentrations in wild berries and mushrooms in boreal forest ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaaramaa, Kaisa; Solatie, Dina; Aro, Lasse

    2009-01-01

    The activity concentrations and distribution of 210 Pb and 210 Po in wild berries and edible mushrooms were investigated in Finnish forests. The main study areas were located in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests in southern and northern Finland. The activity concentrations of 210 Pb and 210 Po in blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) samples decreased in the order: stems > leaves > berries (i.e. fruits). The activity ratios of 210 Po/ 210 Pb in the wild berry samples were mainly higher than one, indicating elevated activity concentrations of polonium in the samples. In mushrooms the activity concentrations of 210 Pb and especially 210 Po were higher than in fruits of the wild berries. The highest activity concentration of 210 Pb was detected in Cortinarius armillatus L. (16.2 Bq kg -1 d.w.) and the lowest in Leccinum vulpinum L. (1.38 Bq kg -1 d.w.). The 210 Po activity concentrations of the whole fruiting bodies ranged from 7.14 Bq kg -1 d.w. (Russula paludosa L.) to 1174 Bq kg -1 d.w. (L. vulpinum L.). In general, the highest activity concentrations of 210 Po were recorded in boletes. The caps of mushrooms of the Boletaceae family showed higher activity concentrations of 210 Po compared to the stipes. In most of the mushrooms analyzed, the activity concentrations of 210 Po were higher than those of 210 Pb. 210 Po and 210 Pb dominate the radiation doses received via ingestion of wild berries and mushrooms in northern Finland, while in southern Finland the ingested dose is dominated by 137 Cs from the Chernobyl fallout.

  13. Distribution of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po concentrations in wild berries and mushrooms in boreal forest ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaaramaa, Kaisa, E-mail: Kaisa.Vaaramaa@Helsinki.fi [Laboratory of Radiochemistry, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Solatie, Dina [STUK-Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Regional Laboratory in Northern Finland, FI-96500 Rovaniemi (Finland); Aro, Lasse [Finnish Forest Research Institute (METLA), Parkano Research Unit, FI-39700 Parkano (Finland)

    2009-12-15

    The activity concentrations and distribution of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po in wild berries and edible mushrooms were investigated in Finnish forests. The main study areas were located in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests in southern and northern Finland. The activity concentrations of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po in blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) samples decreased in the order: stems > leaves > berries (i.e. fruits). The activity ratios of {sup 210}Po/{sup 210}Pb in the wild berry samples were mainly higher than one, indicating elevated activity concentrations of polonium in the samples. In mushrooms the activity concentrations of {sup 210}Pb and especially {sup 210}Po were higher than in fruits of the wild berries. The highest activity concentration of {sup 210}Pb was detected in Cortinarius armillatus L. (16.2 Bq kg{sup -1} d.w.) and the lowest in Leccinum vulpinum L. (1.38 Bq kg{sup -1} d.w.). The {sup 210}Po activity concentrations of the whole fruiting bodies ranged from 7.14 Bq kg{sup -1} d.w. (Russula paludosa L.) to 1174 Bq kg{sup -1} d.w. (L. vulpinum L.). In general, the highest activity concentrations of {sup 210}Po were recorded in boletes. The caps of mushrooms of the Boletaceae family showed higher activity concentrations of {sup 210}Po compared to the stipes. In most of the mushrooms analyzed, the activity concentrations of {sup 210}Po were higher than those of {sup 210}Pb. {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb dominate the radiation doses received via ingestion of wild berries and mushrooms in northern Finland, while in southern Finland the ingested dose is dominated by {sup 137}Cs from the Chernobyl fallout.

  14. The Green Berry Consortia of the Sippewissett Salt Marsh: Millimeter-Sized Aggregates of Diazotrophic Unicellular Cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbanks, Elizabeth G; Salman-Carvalho, Verena; Jaekel, Ulrike; Humphrey, Parris T; Eisen, Jonathan A; Buckley, Daniel H; Zinder, Stephen H

    2017-01-01

    Microbial interactions driving key biogeochemical fluxes often occur within multispecies consortia that form spatially heterogeneous microenvironments. Here, we describe the "green berry" consortia of the Sippewissett salt marsh (Falmouth, MA, United States): millimeter-sized aggregates dominated by an uncultured, diazotrophic unicellular cyanobacterium of the order Chroococcales (termed GB-CYN1). We show that GB-CYN1 is closely related to Crocosphaera watsonii (UCYN-B) and " Candidatus Atelocyanobacterium thalassa" (UCYN-A), two groups of unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria that play an important role in marine primary production. Other green berry consortium members include pennate diatoms and putative heterotrophic bacteria from the Alphaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes . Tight coupling was observed between photosynthetic oxygen production and heterotrophic respiration. When illuminated, the green berries became supersaturated with oxygen. From the metagenome, we observed that GB-CYN1 encodes photosystem II genes and thus has the metabolic potential for oxygen production unlike UCYN-A. In darkness, respiratory activity rapidly depleted oxygen creating anoxia within the aggregates. Metagenomic data revealed a suite of nitrogen fixation genes encoded by GB-CYN1, and nitrogenase activity was confirmed at the whole-aggregate level by acetylene reduction assays. Metagenome reads homologous to marker genes for denitrification were observed and suggest that heterotrophic denitrifiers might co-occur in the green berries, although the physiology and activity of facultative anaerobes in these aggregates remains uncharacterized. Nitrogen fixation in the surface ocean was long thought to be driven by filamentous cyanobacterial aggregates, though recent work has demonstrated the importance of unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria (UCYN) from the order Chroococcales. The green berries serve as a useful contrast to studies of open ocean UCYN and may provide a tractable

  15. Observations on the influence of vine covering by means of a transparent plastic sheet on berry ripening and wine quality (Saint-Emilion, 1995 and 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelis van Leeuwen

    1998-09-01

    On the covered plots, yields were higher. In 1996, on BT, the vines carried more bunches, the bunches carried more berries and berry weight was higher. The control vines were significantly more affected by Botrytis compared to BS ; BT showed almost no rot. Berries on the covered plots showed a tendancy of having more sugar and total phenolics, and less malic acid. Separate microvinifications were done with 50 kg of grapes from each plot. Wine from BT was preferred over BS. Wine from the control plot was the least appreciated.

  16. Anthocyanin Profile in Berries of Wild and Cultivated Vaccinium spp. along Altitudinal Gradients in the Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoratti, Laura; Jaakola, Laura; Häggman, Hely; Giongo, Lara

    2015-10-07

    Vaccinium spp. berries provide some of the best natural sources of anthocyanins. In the wild bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), a clear increasing trend in anthocyanin biosynthesis has been reported toward northern latitudes of Europe, but studies related to altitude have given contradictory results. The present study focused on the anthocyanin composition in wild bilberries and highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. cv. Brigitta Blue) growing along altitudinal gradients in the Alps of northern Italy. Our results indicate an increasing accumulation of anthocyanins in bilberries along an altitudinal gradient of about 650 m. The accumulation was due to a significant increase in delphinidin and malvidin glycosides, whereas the accumulation of cyanidin and peonidin glycosides was not affected by altitude. Seasonal differences, especially temperature, had a major influence on the accumulation of anthocyanins in blueberries.

  17. Validation and application of an improved method for the rapid determination of proline in grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienth, Markus; Romieu, Charles; Gregan, Rebecca; Walsh, Caroline; Torregrosa, Laurent; Kelly, Mary T

    2014-04-16

    A rapid and sensitive method is presented for the determination of proline in grape berries. Following acidification with formic acid, proline is derivatized by heating at 100 °C for 15 min with 3% ninhydrin in dimethyl sulfoxide, and the absorbance, which is stable for at least 60 min, is read at 520 nm. The method was statistically validated in the concentration range from 2.5 to 15 mg/L, giving a repeatability and intermediate precision of generally amino acid analyzer. In terms of sample preparation, a simple dilution (5-20-fold) is required, and sugars, primary amino acids, and anthocyanins were demonstrated not to interfere, as the latter are bleached by ninhydrin under the experimental conditions. The method was applied to the study of proline accumulation in the fruits of microvines grown in phytotrons, and it was established that proline accumulation and concentrations closely resemble those of field-grown macrovines.

  18. Evaluation of composition of acai berry oil (Euterpe oleracea) submitted to sterilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Ana Carolina H.R.; Lugao, Ademar B.; Rogero, Sizue O.; Bustillos, Jose Oscar V.; Pires, Maria Aparecida F. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: acmachado@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Acai berry (Euterpe oleracea) is a native palm of Brazil, distributed for the entire Amazonian basin. Rich in essentials fatty acids (mainly oleic acid and linoleic acid), the Acai oil prevents abnormal conditions of the skin, as dermatitis and drying, and assists in the regeneration of the epidermis. Therefore, it is proposed a more effective topical administration of the Acai oil by its immobilization in BandGel type hydrogels, which is crosslinked and sterilized by ionizing radiation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the composition of the oil when submitted to a sterilizing dose of ionizing radiation. The oil composition was determined by gas chromatography connected with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed a small decrease in the concentration of ester acids and increase of some main products, i.e., ethyl oleic and palmitic acids. (author)

  19. Oxidation of organic compounds in wastewater from the humid processing of coffee berries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, Maraisa; Guerreiro, Mario Cesar; Oliveira, Luiz Carlos Alves; Rocha, Cristian Luciana da

    2008-01-01

    Materials based on pure iron oxide and impregnated with niobia (Nb 2 O 5 ) were prepared. Their catalytic activities were tested on the oxidation of compounds present in the wastewater from the processing of coffee berries. Particularly caffeine and catechol were tested. The oxidation reactions were carried out with the following systems: UV/H 2 O 2 ; photo-Fenton and heterogeneous Fenton. All materials were characterized with X-ray diffraction, Moessbauer and infrared spectroscopy. Iron was mainly in the forms of goethite and maghemite. The oxidation kinetics were monitored by UV-vis and the oxidation products were monitored by mass spectrometry. The photo-Fenton reaction presented highest oxidation efficiency, removing 98% of all caffeine and catechol contents. (author)

  20. Fast optimization method of designing a wideband metasurface without using the Pancharatnam-Berry phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Sai; Ma, Hua; Lv, Yueguang; Wang, Jiafu; Li, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Jieqiu; Xu, Zhuo; Qu, Shaobo

    2018-01-22

    Arbitrary control of electromagnetic waves remains a significant challenge although it promises many important applications. Here, we proposed a fast optimization method of designing a wideband metasurface without using the Pancharatnam-Berry (PB) phase, of which the elements are non-absorptive and capable of predicting the wideband and smooth phase-shift. In our design method, the metasurface is composed of low-Q-factor resonant elements without using the PB phase, and is optimized by the genetic algorithm and nonlinear fitting method, having the advantages that the far field scattering patterns can be quickly synthesized by the hybrid array patterns. To validate the design method, a wideband low radar cross section metasurface is demonstrated, showing good feasibility and performance of wideband RCS reduction. This work reveals an opportunity arising from a metasurface in effective manipulation of microwave and flexible fast optimal design method.