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Sample records for palm-kernel oil processing

  1. Penetuan Bilangan Iodin pada Hydrogenated Palm Kernel Oil (HPKO) dan Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Kernel Oil (RBDPKO)

    OpenAIRE

    Sitompul, Monica Angelina

    2015-01-01

    Have been conducted Determination of Iodin Value by method titration to some Hydrogenated Palm Kernel Oil (HPKO) and Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Kernel Oil (RBDPKO). The result of analysis obtained the Iodin Value in Hydrogenated Palm Kernel Oil (A) = 0,16 gr I2/100gr, Hydrogenated Palm Kernel Oil (B) = 0,20 gr I2/100gr, Hydrogenated Palm Kernel Oil (C) = 0,24 gr I2/100gr. And in Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Kernel Oil (A) = 17,51 gr I2/100gr, Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Kernel ...

  2. Review of Palm Kernel Oil Processing And Storage Techniques In South East Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okeke CG

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of palm kernel processing and storage in South-Eastern Nigeria was carried out by investigative survey approach. The survey basically ascertained the extent of mechanization applicable in the area to enable the palm kernel processors and agricultural policy makers, device the modalities for improving palm kernel processing in the area. According to the results obtained from the study, in Abia state, 85% of the respondents use mechanical method while 15% use manual method in cracking their kernels. In Imo state, 83% of the processors use mechanical method while 17% use manual method. In Enugu and Ebonyi state, 70% and 50% of the processors respectively use mechanical method. It is only in Anambra state that greater number of the processors (50% use manual method while 45% use mechanical means. It is observable from the results that palm kernel oil extraction has not received much attention in mechanization. The ANOVA of the palm kernel oil extraction technique in South- East Nigeria showed significant difference in both the study area and oil extraction techniques at 5% level of probability. Results further revealed that in Abia State, 70% of the processors use complete fractional process in refining the palm kernel oil; 25% and 5% respectively use incomplete fractional process and zero refining process. In Anambra, 60% of the processors use complete fractional process and 40% use incomplete fractional process. Zero refining method is not applicable in Anambra state. In Enugu sate, 53% use complete fractional process while 25% and 22% respectively use zero refining and incomplete fractional process in refining the palm kernel oil. Imo state, mostly use complete fractional process (85% in refining palm kernel oil. About 10% use zero refining method while 5% of the processors use incomplete fractional process. Plastic containers and metal drums are dominantly used in most areas in south-east Nigeria for the storage of palm kernel oil.

  3. Study on Energy Productivity Ratio (EPR) at palm kernel oil processing factory: case study on PT-X at Sumatera Utara Plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryanto, B.; Bukit, R. Br; Situmeang, E. M.; Christina, E. P.; Pandiangan, F.

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the performance, productivity and feasibility of the operation of palm kernel processing plant based on Energy Productivity Ratio (EPR). EPR is expressed as the ratio of output to input energy and by-product. Palm Kernel plan is process in palm kernel to become palm kernel oil. The procedure started from collecting data needed as energy input such as: palm kernel prices, energy demand and depreciation of the factory. The energy output and its by-product comprise the whole production price such as: palm kernel oil price and the remaining products such as shells and pulp price. Calculation the equality of energy of palm kernel oil is to analyze the value of Energy Productivity Ratio (EPR) bases on processing capacity per year. The investigation has been done in Kernel Oil Processing Plant PT-X at Sumatera Utara plantation. The value of EPR was 1.54 (EPR > 1), which indicated that the processing of palm kernel into palm kernel oil is feasible to be operated based on the energy productivity.

  4. Modelling microwave heating of discrete samples of oil palm kernels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, M.C.; Liew, E.L.; Chang, S.L.; Chan, Y.S.; Leo, C.P.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Microwave (MW) drying of oil palm kernels is experimentally determined and modelled. • MW heating of discrete samples of oil palm kernels (OPKs) is simulated. • OPK heating is due to contact effect, MW interference and heat transfer mechanisms. • Electric field vectors circulate within OPKs sample. • Loosely-packed arrangement improves temperature uniformity of OPKs. - Abstract: Recently, microwave (MW) pre-treatment of fresh palm fruits has showed to be environmentally friendly compared to the existing oil palm milling process as it eliminates the condensate production of palm oil mill effluent (POME) in the sterilization process. Moreover, MW-treated oil palm fruits (OPF) also possess better oil quality. In this work, the MW drying kinetic of the oil palm kernels (OPK) was determined experimentally. Microwave heating/drying of oil palm kernels was modelled and validated. The simulation results show that temperature of an OPK is not the same over the entire surface due to constructive and destructive interferences of MW irradiance. The volume-averaged temperature of an OPK is higher than its surface temperature by 3–7 °C, depending on the MW input power. This implies that point measurement of temperature reading is inadequate to determine the temperature history of the OPK during the microwave heating process. The simulation results also show that arrangement of OPKs in a MW cavity affects the kernel temperature profile. The heating of OPKs were identified to be affected by factors such as local electric field intensity due to MW absorption, refraction, interference, the contact effect between kernels and also heat transfer mechanisms. The thermal gradient patterns of OPKs change as the heating continues. The cracking of OPKs is expected to occur first in the core of the kernel and then it propagates to the kernel surface. The model indicates that drying of OPKs is a much slower process compared to its MW heating. The model is useful

  5. KARAKTERISTIK MINYAK CAMPURAN RED PALM OIL DENGAN PALM KERNEL OLEIN (Characteristics of Oil Blends from Red Palm Oil and Palm Kernel Olein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ulfah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of oil blends has been produced from red palm oil (RPO and palm kernel olein (PKOo with seven ratios with a total of 100, namely A (0:100, B (25:75, C (40:60, D (50:50, E (60:40, F (75:25 and G (100:0 v/v investigated with randomized complete block design. The result showed that different of ratio levels RPO and PKOo have some effects on peroxide value, saponification value, melting point, cloud point and β-carotene content from RPO-PKOo oil blends, but has not effect on free fatty acid content. Higher level of PKOo content on formulas oil blends were decreased of saponification value and melting point, but was increased of cloud point. The best of RPOPKOo oil blends has been obtained at ratio 50:50 (v/v, with 459.52 ppm β-carotene, 1.35 meq/kg peroxide value, 0.09 % free fatty acid, 202.60 saponification value, 24.15 oC melting point and 7.15 oC cloud point. Fatty acids composition were 1.24 % capric acid, 29.00 % lauric acid, 10.09 % miristic acid, 23.10 % palmitic acid, 5.84 linoleic acid, 27.30 % oleic acid and 3.43 % stearic acid. Keywords: Red palm oil, palm kernel olein, oil blends, chemical and physical properties ABSTRAK Sifat-sifat minyak campuran yang dihasilkan dari red palm oil (RPO dan palm kernel olein (PKOo dengan tujuh tingkat rasio yang totalnya 100, yaitu A (0:100, B (25:75, C (40:60, D (50:50, E (60:40, F (75:25 dan G (100:0 (v/v dikaji menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap kelompok. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa rasio RPO:PKOo mempengaruhi angka peroksida, angka penyabunan, melting point, cloud point dan kadar β-karoten dari minyak campuran RPO-PKOo yang dihasilkan, namun tidak mempengaruhi kadar asam lemak bebas. Peningkatan jumlah PKOo yang ditambahkan dalam minyak campuran RPO-PKOo, akan menurunkan angka penyabunan dan melting point, namun akan menaikkan cloud point. Produk minyak campuran RPO-PKOo terbaik diperoleh pada rasio 50:50 (v/v, dengan kadar β-karoten 459,52 ppm, angka peroksida 1,35 meq

  6. Blending of palm oil, palm stearin and palm kernel oil in the preparation of table and pastry margarine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlida, H M; Md Ali, A R; Muhadhir, I

    1996-01-01

    Palm oil (PO ; iodin value = 52), palm stearin (POs1; i.v. = 32 and POs2; i.v. = 40) and palm kernel oil (PKO; i.v. = 17) were blended in ternary systems. The blends were then studied for their physical properties such as melting point (m.p.), solid fat content (SFC), and cooling curve. Results showed that palm stearin increased the blends melting point while palm kernel oil reduced it. To produce table margarine with melting point (m.p.) below 40 degrees C, the POs1 should be added at level of pastry margarine.

  7. Analysis of total hydrogen content in palm oil and palm kernel oil using thermal neutron moderation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akaho, E.H.K.; Dagadu, C.P.K.; Maaku, B.T.; Anim-Sampong, S.; Kyere, A.W.K.; Jonah, S.A.

    2001-01-01

    A fast and non-destructive technique based on thermal neutron moderation has been used for determining the total hydrogen content in two types of red palm oil (dzomi and amidze) and palm kernel oil produced by traditional methods in Ghana. An equipment consisting of an 241 Am-Be neutron source and 3 He neutron detector was used in the investigation. The equipment was originally designed for detection of liquid levels in petrochemical and other process industries. Standards in the form of liquid hydrocarbons were used to obtain calibration lines for thermal neutron reflection parameter as a function of hydrogen content. Measured reflection parameters with respective hydrogen content with or without heat treatment of the three edible palm oils available on the market were compared with a brand cooking oil (frytol). The average total hydrogen content in the local oil samples prior to heating was measured to be 11.62 w% which compared well with acceptable value of 12 w% for palm oils in the sub-region. After heat treatment, the frytol oil (produced through bleaching process) had the least loss of hydrogen content of 0.26% in comparison with palm kernel oil of 0.44% followed by dzomi of 1.96% and by amidze of 3.22%. (author)

  8. 21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... kernel oil, or both oils. 172.861 Section 172.861 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. The food additive, cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils, may be safely used in food in accordance with the following...

  9. Analysis of total hydrogen content in palm oil and palm kernel oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A fast and non-destructive technique based on thermal neutron moderation has been used for determining the total hydrogen content in two types of red palm oil (dzomi and amidze) and palm kernel oil produced by traditio-nal methods in Ghana. An equipment consisting of an 241Am-Be neutron source and 3He neutron ...

  10. Effects of de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizers on sole maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizer formulations on the yield of sole maize and cassava crops. Two de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizer formulations A and B were compounded from different proportions of de-oiled palm kernel cake, urea, muriate of potash and ...

  11. Effects of Chemical Inter esterification on the Physicochemical Properties of Palm Stearin, Palm Kernel Oil and Soybean Oil Blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti, M. F.H.; Norizzah, A. R.; Zaliha, O.

    2012-01-01

    Palm stearin (PS), palm kernel oil (PKO) and soybean oil (SBO) blends were formulated according to Design Expert 8.0.4 (2010). All the sixteen oil blends were subjected to chemical inter esterification (CIE) using sodium methoxide as the catalyst. The effects of chemical inter esterification on the slip melting point (SMP), solid fat content (SFC), triacylglycerol (TAG) composition and polymorphism were investigated. Palm based trans-free table margarine containing PS/PKO/SBO [49/20/31, (w/w)], was optimally formulated through analysis of multiple ternary phase diagrams and was found to have quite similar SMP and SFC profiles as compared with commercial table margarine. This study has shown that blending and chemical inter esterification are effective in modifying the physicochemical properties of palm stearin, palm kernel oil, soybean oil and their blends. (author)

  12. Enzymatic Synthesis of Fatty Hydroxamic Acid Derivatives Based on Palm Kernel Oil

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    Sidik Silong

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Fatty hydroxamic acid derivatives were synthesized using Lipozyme TL IM catalyst at biphasic medium as the palm kernel oil was dissolved in hexane and hydroxylamine derivatives were dissolved in water: (1 N-methyl fatty hydroxamic acids (MFHAs; (2 N-isopropyl fatty hydroxamic acids (IPFHAs and (3 N-benzyl fatty hydroxamic acids (BFHAs were synthesized by reaction of palm kernel oil and N-methyl hydroxylamine (N-MHA, N-isopropyl hydroxylamine (N-IPHA and N-benzyl hydroxylamine (N-BHA, respectively. Finally, after separation the products were characterized by color testing, elemental analysis, FT-IR and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. For achieving the highest conversion percentage of product the optimum molar ratio of reactants was obtained by changing the ratio of reactants while other reaction parameters were kept constant. For synthesis of MFHAs the optimum mol ratio of N-MHA/palm kernel oil = 6/1 and the highest conversion was 77.8%, for synthesis of IPFHAs the optimum mol ratio of N-IPHA/palm kernel oil = 7/1 and the highest conversion was 65.4% and for synthesis of BFHAs the optimum mol ratio of N-BHA/palm kernel oil = 7/1 and the highest conversion was 61.7%.

  13. Predictive Model Equations for Palm Kernel (Elaeis guneensis J ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimated error of ± 0.18 and ± 0.2 are envisaged while applying the models for predicting palm kernel and sesame oil colours respectively. Keywords: Palm kernel, Sesame, Palm kernel, Oil Colour, Process Parameters, Model. Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology Vol. 6 (1) 2006 pp. 34-38 ...

  14. Viscozyme L pretreatment on palm kernels improved the aroma of palm kernel oil after kernel roasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wencan; Leong, Siew Mun; Zhao, Feifei; Zhao, Fangju; Yang, Tiankui; Liu, Shaoquan

    2018-05-01

    With an interest to enhance the aroma of palm kernel oil (PKO), Viscozyme L, an enzyme complex containing a wide range of carbohydrases, was applied to alter the carbohydrates in palm kernels (PK) to modulate the formation of volatiles upon kernel roasting. After Viscozyme treatment, the content of simple sugars and free amino acids in PK increased by 4.4-fold and 4.5-fold, respectively. After kernel roasting and oil extraction, significantly more 2,5-dimethylfuran, 2-[(methylthio)methyl]-furan, 1-(2-furanyl)-ethanone, 1-(2-furyl)-2-propanone, 5-methyl-2-furancarboxaldehyde and 2-acetyl-5-methylfuran but less 2-furanmethanol and 2-furanmethanol acetate were found in treated PKO; the correlation between their formation and simple sugar profile was estimated by using partial least square regression (PLS1). Obvious differences in pyrroles and Strecker aldehydes were also found between the control and treated PKOs. Principal component analysis (PCA) clearly discriminated the treated PKOs from that of control PKOs on the basis of all volatile compounds. Such changes in volatiles translated into distinct sensory attributes, whereby treated PKO was more caramelic and burnt after aqueous extraction and more nutty, roasty, caramelic and smoky after solvent extraction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Quantification of Greenhouse Gas Emissions for the Production of Crude Palm Kernel Oil - A Cradle to Gate Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramaniam, V.

    2016-01-01

    The Malaysian oil palm industry is one of the major economic backbones of the country. The industry as a whole brought in an export revenue of RM 63 billion just in the year 2015. In the past, the competitiveness of palm products along the supply chain was based on direct economic comparison with other vegetable oil products. However, with increasing attention on sustainable development, the environmental performance of products are now defining issues in trade. This articles presents the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for the production of crude palm kernel oil (CPKO). Crude palm oil (CPO) and CPKO both come from the oil palm fresh fruit bunch (FFB). CPO is obtained from the mesocarp of the fruit and the lauric CPKO comes from the kernel at the fruit's core. CPO is produced in the palm oil mill while palm kernels which are the by-product of the production of CPO are transported to kernel crushing plants to be processed into CPKO. The objectives of this study are to quantify the GHG emissions for the production of CPKO and suggest the best solution to reduce the emissions if any. The system boundary starts from the production of oil palm seedlings at the nursery stage right till the production of CPKO at the kernel crushing plant which makes it a cradle to gate study. Inventory data for the production of CPKO was collected from 24 crushing plants which were located near the ports and two kernel crushing plants which were integrated with a palm oil mill. Weight allocation was performed at the kernel crushing plant. The largest GHG contribution came from upstream nursery and plantation with continued land use which amounts to 394.19 kg CO 2 eq/ t CPKO followed by emissions from biogas at the palm oil mill which amounts to 87.48 kg CO 2 eq/ t CPKO even though the scenario chosen is the biogas capture scenario. The third largest GHG emissions comes from the kernel crushing plant due to the processing of CPKO using the electricity from the grid which emits 74.33 kg

  16. Production and detailed characterization of bio-oil from fast pyrolysis of palm kernel shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asadullah, Mohammad; Ab Rasid, Nurul Suhada; Kadir, Sharifah Aishah Syed A.; Azdarpour, Amin

    2013-01-01

    Bio-oil has been produced from palm kernel shell in a fluidized bed reactor. The process conditions were optimized and the detailed characteristics of bio-oil were carried out. The higher feeding rate and higher gas flow rate attributed to higher bio-oil yield. The maximum mass fraction of biomass (57%) converted to bio-oil at 550 °C when 2 L min −1 of gas and 10 g min −1 of biomass were fed. The bio-oil produced up to 500 °C existed in two distinct phases, while it formed one homogeneous phase when it was produced above 500 °C. The higher heating value of bio-oil produced at 550 °C was found to be 23.48 MJ kg −1 . As GC–MS data shows, the area ratio of phenol is the maximum among the area ratio of identified compounds in 550 °C bio-oil. The UV–Fluorescence absorption, which is the indication of aromatic content, is also the highest in 550 °C bio-oil. -- Highlights: • Maximum 56 wt% yield of bio-oil was obtained at 550 °C from palm kernel shell. • Two layer of bio-oil was observed up to 500 °C, while it was one layer above 500 °C. • Bio-oil from palm kernel shell provides more than 40% area ratio of phenol in GC–MS analysis. • The calorific value of palm kernel shell bio-oil is higher than other bio-oil

  17. Kinetics of palm kernel oil and ethanol transesterification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahiekpor, Julius C. [Centre for Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development (CEESD), P.O. Box FN 793, Kumasi (Ghana); Kuwornoo, David K. [Faculty of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Private Mail Bag, Kumasi (Ghana)

    2010-07-01

    Biodiesel, an alternative diesel fuel made from renewable sources such as vegetable oils and animal fats, has been identified by government to play a key role in the socio-economic development of Ghana. The utilization of biodiesel is expected to be about 10% of the total liquid fuel mix of the country by the year 2020. Despite this great potential and the numerous sources from which biodiesel could be developed in Ghana, there are no available data on the kinetics and mechanisms of transesterification of local vegetable oils. The need for local production of biodiesel necessitates that the mechanism and kinetics of the process is well understood, since the properties of the biodiesel depends on the type of oil use for the transesterification process. The objective of this work is to evaluate the appropriate kinetics mechanism and to find out the reaction rate constants for palm kernel oil transesterification with ethanol when KOH was used as a catalyst. In this present work, 16 biodiesel samples were prepared at specified times based on reported optimal conditions and the samples analysed by gas chromatography. The experimental mass fractions were calibrated and fitted to mathematical models of different proposed mechanisms in previous works.The rate data fitted well to second-order kinetics without shunt mechanism. It was also observed that, although transesterification reaction of crude palm kernel oil is a reversible reaction, the reaction rate constants indicated that the forward reactions were the most prominent.

  18. Eucalyptus-Palm Kernel Oil Blends: A Complete Elimination of Diesel in a 4-Stroke VCR Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Kommana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuels derived from biomass are mostly preferred as alternative fuels for IC engines as they are abundantly available and renewable in nature. The objective of the study is to identify the parameters that influence gross indicated fuel conversion efficiency and how they are affected by the use of biodiesel relative to petroleum diesel. Important physicochemical properties of palm kernel oil and eucalyptus blend were experimentally evaluated and found within acceptable limits of relevant standards. As most of vegetable oils are edible, growing concern for trying nonedible and waste fats as alternative to petrodiesel has emerged. In present study diesel fuel is completely replaced by biofuels, namely, methyl ester of palm kernel oil and eucalyptus oil in various blends. Different blends of palm kernel oil and eucalyptus oil are prepared on volume basis and used as operating fuel in single cylinder 4-stroke variable compression ratio diesel engine. Performance and emission characteristics of these blends are studied by varying the compression ratio. In the present experiment methyl ester extracted from palm kernel oil is considered as ignition improver and eucalyptus oil is considered as the fuel. The blends taken are PKE05 (palm kernel oil 95 + eucalyptus 05, PKE10 (palm kernel oil 90 + eucalyptus 10, and PKE15 (palm kernel 85 + eucalyptus 15. The results obtained by operating with these fuels are compared with results of pure diesel; finally the most preferable combination and the preferred compression ratio are identified.

  19. efficacy of olive oil, groundnut oil, soybean oil and palm kernel oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGROSEARCH UIL

    and palm kernel oil exhibiting similar results in the control of the pest. ... the use of chemical pesticide in the protection of both field and stored crops is .... obtained by different methods and neem powder for the management of Callosobruchus.

  20. Effect of process parameters on hydrothermal liquefaction of oil palm biomass for bio-oil production and its life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Yi Herng; Yusup, Suzana; Quitain, Armando T.; Tan, Raymond R.; Sasaki, Mitsuru; Lam, Hon Loong; Uemura, Yoshimitsu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Water is used as a clean solvent to liquefy palm biomass to bio-oil. • The optimum liquefaction condition of oil palm biomass is 390 °C and 25 MPa. • Optimum reaction time for liquefaction of empty fruit bunch and palm mesocarp fiber is 120 min. • Optimum reaction time for liquefaction of palm kernel shell is 240 min. • From the life cycle assessment, a net 2.29 kg CO 2 equivalent is generated per kg of bio-oil produced. - Abstract: This paper presents the studies on the effect of three process parameters; temperature, pressure and reaction time on the subcritical and supercritical hydrothermal liquefaction of oil palm empty fruit bunch, palm mesocarp fiber and palm kernel shell. The effect of temperature (330–390 °C), pressure (25–35 MPa) and reaction time (30–240 min) on bio-oil yields were investigated using a Inconel batch reactor. The optimum liquefaction condition for empty fruit bunch, palm mesocarp fiber and palm kernel shell was at supercritical condition of water; 390 °C and 25 MPa. For the effect of reaction time, bio-oil from empty fruit bunch and palm mesocarp fiber attained maximum yields at 120 min, whereas bio-oil yield from palm kernel shell continued to increase at reaction time of 240 min. Lastly, a life cycle assessment based on a conceptual biomass hydrothermal liquefaction process for bio-oil production was constructed and presented

  1. Use of oil palm kernel meal as a supplement material for abalone mushroom (Pleurotus cystidiosus O.K. Miller cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petcharat, V. and

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the optimum rate of oil palm kernel meal, for an abalone mushroom (Pleurotus cystidiosus cultivation. Different concentrations of oil palm kernel meal (5- 20% were added to pararubber sawdust and used to grow the abalone mushroom in plastic bags. Growth rate of the mycelia, number of days from watering to harvesting and yield were compared to those on 94% sawdust + 5% rice bran + 1% Ca(OH2. The results showed that 10% oil palm kernel meal was the optimum concentration for abalone mushroom cultivation. Yield on 950 g/bag of 89% sawdust + 10% oil palm kernel meal + 1% Ca(OH2 was 202.12 g/bag (B.E. = 60.79% during 120 days of havesting time. Addition of higher concentration of oil palm kernel meal (15-20% did not increase yield of the basidiocarps.

  2. Effect of surfactant and surfactant blends on pseudoternary phase diagram behavior of newly synthesized palm kernel oil esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi ES

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Elrashid Saleh Mahdi1, Mohamed HF Sakeena1, Muthanna F Abdulkarim1, Ghassan Z Abdullah1,3, Munavvar Abdul Sattar2, Azmin Mohd Noor11Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, 2Department of Physiology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden, Penang, Malaysia; 3Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, International Medical University, Bukit Jalil, Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaBackground: The purpose of this study was to select appropriate surfactants or blends of surfactants to study the ternary phase diagram behavior of newly introduced palm kernel oil esters.Methods: Nonionic surfactant blends of Tween® and Tween®/Span® series were screened based on their solubilization capacity with water for palm kernel oil esters. Tween® 80 and five blends of Tween® 80/Span® 80 and Tween® 80/Span® 85 in the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB value range of 10.7–14.0 were selected to study the phase diagram behavior of palm kernel oil esters using the water titration method at room temperature.Results: High solubilization capacity was obtained by Tween® 80 compared with other surfactants of Tween® series. High HLB blends of Tween® 80/Span® 85 and Tween® 80/Span® 80 at HLB 13.7 and 13.9, respectively, have better solubilization capacity compared with the lower HLB values of Tween® 80/Span® 80. All the selected blends of surfactants were formed as water-in-oil microemulsions, and other dispersion systems varied in size and geometrical layout in the triangles. The high solubilization capacity and larger areas of the water-in-oil microemulsion systems were due to the structural similarity between the lipophilic tail of Tween® 80 and the oleyl group of the palm kernel oil esters.Conclusion: This study suggests that the phase diagram behavior of palm kernel oil esters, water, and nonionic surfactants is not only affected by the HLB value, but also by the structural similarity between palm kernel oil esters and the surfactant

  3. Dry Separation of Palm Kernel and Palm Shell Using a Novel Five-Stage Winnowing Column System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohaya Mohamed Halim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The conventional separation system for the recovery of palm kernel from its palm shell–kernel mixture using water as process media generates a considerable amount of waste effluent that harms the environment. The aim of this study is to develop a dry separation process for the recovery of palm kernel by using winnowing columns. A commercial system consisting of a series of five winnowing columns was developed and installed at a local palm oil mill. The system parameters, including column height, blower capacity, airflow rate and mesh screen size for shell removal, were studied and optimized to ensure good separation of kernel and shell in the column to enable collection of different sizes of kernel and shell at each column outlet. The performance of the separation process was evaluated in terms of its kernel losses, dirt content and kernel recovery rate. The average kernel losses based on oil palm fresh fruit bunches processed were found to vary from 0.11 to 0.30 wt %, with most of the values obtained being below the targeted limit of 0.30 wt %. The dirt content was in the range 4.56–6.03 wt %, which was mostly below the targeted limit of 5.5 wt %. The kernel recovery rate was in the range 5.69–6.89 wt %, with most of the values achieving the minimum targeted limit of 6.00 wt %. The system operates under completely dry conditions and, therefore, produces zero waste effluent.

  4. Mycological deterioration of stored palm kernels recovered from oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Palm kernels obtained from Pioneer Oil Mill Ltd. were stored for eight (8) weeks and examined for their microbiological quality and proximate composition. Seven (7) different fungal species were isolated by serial dilution plate technique. The fungal species included Aspergillus flavus Link; A nidulans Eidem; A niger ...

  5. Processing of palm oil mill wastes based on zero waste technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvan

    2018-02-01

    Indonesia is currently the main producer of palm oil in the world with a total production reached 33.5 million tons per year. In the processing of fresh fruit bunches (FFB) besides producing palm oil and kernel oil, palm oil mills also produce liquid and solid wastes. The increase of palm oil production will be followed by an increase in the production of waste generated. It will give rise to major environmental issues especially the discharge of liquid waste to the rivers, the emission of methane from digestion pond and the incineration of empty fruit bunches (EFB). This paper describes a zero waste technology in processing palm oil mill waste after the milling process. The technology involves fermentation of palm oil mill effluent (POME) to biogas by using continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) in the presence of thermophilic microbes, producing activated liquid organic fertilizer (ALOF) from discharge of treated waste effluent from biogas digester, composting EFB by spraying ALOF on the EFB in the composter, and producing pellet or biochar from EFB by pyrolysis process. This concept can be considered as a promising technology for palm oil mills with the main objective of eliminating the effluent from their mills.

  6. Chemical Characteristics of Mango (Mangifera Indica L.) Kernel Oil and Palm Oil Blends for Probable use as Vanaspati

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atta Muhammad Arif; Irman Javed; Muhammad Abdullah; Muhammad Irman; Athar Mahmud; Muhammad Nadeem; Muhammad Ayaz

    2016-01-01

    Chemical characteristics of blends of palm oil and mango kernel oil for their probable use as vanaspati was studied. Crude mango kernel oil was blended with refined, bleached and deodorised palm oil from 10 %, 20 %, 30 %, 40 % and 50 % (T 1 , T 2 , T 3 , T 4 and T 5 ) market vanaspati was used as control. Concentration of trans fatty acids in control was 22.7 %, whereas, all the vanaspati samples were virtually trans-free. Slip melting points (degree Celsius) of control, T 1 , T 2 , T 3 , T 4 and T 5 were 37.5, 37.3, 36.4, 35.6, 34.8 and 34. Free fatty acids of control and T5 were respectively 0.11, 0.12 %. Polymer contents of control, T 1 , T 2 , T 3 , T 4 and T 5 , after three heating cycles (18 degree Celsius, for 8 hr) were 21.55 %, 20.97 %, 18.66 %, 17.61 % and 10.22 %, respectively with lower solid fat index (p<0.05). Blends of mango kernel oil and palm oil can be used for the formulation of trans-free vanaspati. (author)

  7. Dense Medium Machine Processing Method for Palm Kernel/ Shell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Cracked palm kernel is a mixture of kernels, broken shells, dusts and other impurities. In ... machine processing method using dense medium, a separator, a shell collector and a kernel .... efficiency, ease of maintenance and uniformity of.

  8. Evaluating oil palm fresh fruit bunch processing in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyaoha, Kelechi E; Sakrabani, Ruben; Patchigolla, Kumar; Mouazen, Abdul M

    2018-03-01

    Three routes of oil palm fresh fruit bunch (FFB) processing in Nigeria namely, industrial, small-scale and traditional were compared by means of determining fruit losses associated with each route. The fruits that are not recovered after each process were hand-picked and quantified in terms of crude palm oil (CPO), palm kernel (PK), mesocarp fibre (MF) and palm kernel shell (PKS). The energy value of empty fruit bunch (EFB), MF and PKS were used to determine the value of energy lost for each route. Additionally, the environmental implications of disposal of EFB were estimated, and socio-economics of the industrial and small-scale routes were related. The analysis showed that 29, 18, 75 and 27 kg of CPO, PK, MF and PKS were lost for every 1000 kg of FFB processed with the industrial route, whereas 5.6, 3.2, 1.4 and 5.1 g were lost with the small-scale route, respectively. Approximately 89 kWh and 31 kWh more energy were lost from MF and PKS with the industrial route than the other two routes, respectively. An equivalent of 6670 tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent of methane and nitrogen oxide was released due to the disposal of 29,000 tonnes of EFB from one palm oil mill. The monetary value of lost CPO per 1000 kg of FFB processed in the industrial route is more than the labour cost of processing 1000 kg of FFB in the small-scale route. The advantages of the industrial route are high throughput in terms of FFB processed per hour and high quality of CPO; however, high fruit loss is associated with it and therefore, the poorly threshed EFB is recommended to be fed into the small-scale route.

  9. Adsorption studies on bleaching of palm-kernel oil with activated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adsorption studies were performed on bleaching of palm-kernel oil (PKO) with different weight ratios of activated bentonite clay/PKO, ranging from 0.25% to 3% and at different temperatures of 70ºC, 80ºC, 90ºC and 100ºC. The equilibrium data generated were subsequently fitted with Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption ...

  10. Comparative microstructure study of oil palm fruit bunch fibre, mesocarp and kernels after microwave pre-treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jessie S. L.; Chan, Y. S.; Law, M. C.; Leo, C. P.

    2017-07-01

    The implementation of microwave technology in palm oil processing offers numerous advantages; besides elimination of polluted palm oil mill effluent, it also reduces energy consumption, processing time and space. However, microwave exposure could damage a material’s microstructure which affected the quality of fruit that can be related to its physical structure including the texture and appearance. In this work, empty fruit bunches, mesocarp and kernel was microwave dried and their respective microstructures were examined. The microwave pretreatments were conducted at 100W and 200W and the microstructure investigation of both treated and untreated samples were evaluated using scanning electron microscope. The micrographs demonstrated that microwave does not significantly influence kernel and mesocarp but noticeable change was found on the empty fruit bunches where the sizes of the granular starch were reduced and a small portion of the silica bodies were disrupted. From the experimental data, the microwave irradiation was shown to be efficiently applied on empty fruit bunches followed by mesocarp and kernel as significant weight loss and size reduction was observed after the microwave treatments. The current work showed that microwave treatment did not change the physical surfaces of samples but sample shrinkage is observed.

  11. Compressive strength, flexural strength and water absorption of concrete containing palm oil kernel shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Nurazuwa Md; Xiang-ONG, Jun; Noh, Hamidun Mohd; Hamid, Noor Azlina Abdul; Kuzaiman, Salsabila; Ali, Adiwijaya

    2017-11-01

    Effect of inclusion of palm oil kernel shell (PKS) and palm oil fibre (POF) in concrete was investigated on the compressive strength and flexural strength. In addition, investigation of palm oil kernel shell on concrete water absorption was also conducted. Total of 48 concrete cubes and 24 concrete prisms with the size of 100mm × 100mm × 100mm and 100mm × 100mm × 500mm were prepared, respectively. Four (4) series of concrete mix consists of coarse aggregate was replaced by 0%, 25%, 50% and 75% palm kernel shell and each series were divided into two (2) main group. The first group is without POF, while the second group was mixed with the 5cm length of 0.25% of the POF volume fraction. All specimen were tested after 7 and 28 days of water curing for a compression test, and flexural test at 28 days of curing period. Water absorption test was conducted on concrete cube age 28 days. The results showed that the replacement of PKS achieves lower compressive and flexural strength in comparison with conventional concrete. However, the 25% replacement of PKS concrete showed acceptable compressive strength which within the range of requirement for structural concrete. Meanwhile, the POF which should act as matrix reinforcement showed no enhancement in flexural strength due to the balling effect in concrete. As expected, water absorption was increasing with the increasing of PKS in the concrete cause by the porous characteristics of PKS

  12. Decision Support Model for Selection Technologies in Processing of Palm Oil Industrial Liquid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Aulia; Ali, Amir Yazid bin

    2017-12-01

    The palm oil industry continues to grow from year to year. Processing of the palm oil industry into crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel oil (PKO). The ratio of the amount of oil produced by both products is 30% of the raw material. This means that 70% is palm oil waste. The amount of palm oil waste will increase in line with the development of the palm oil industry. The amount of waste generated by the palm oil industry if it is not handled properly and effectively will contribute significantly to environmental damage. Industrial activities ranging from raw materials to produce products will disrupt the lives of people around the factory. There are many alternative technologies available to process other industries, but problems that often occur are difficult to implement the most appropriate technology. The purpose of this research is to develop a database of waste processing technology, looking for qualitative and quantitative criteria to select technology and develop Decision Support System (DSS) that can help make decisions. The method used to achieve the objective of this research is to develop a questionnaire to identify waste processing technology and develop the questionnaire to find appropriate database technology. Methods of data analysis performed on the system by using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and to build the model by using the MySQL Software that can be used as a tool in the evaluation and selection of palm oil mill processing technology.

  13. Preliminary use of cashew kernel oil in Clarias gariepinus fingerlings diet: comparison with fish oil and palm oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgane Paul Magouana Anvo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study was performed to investigate the effect of fish oil (FO, palm oil (PO, and cashew kernel oil (CKO as the dietary lipid sources on the growth performance, tissues fatty acids composition and economical profitability in Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. Three isonitrogenous (49.32%, isolipidic (15.18%, and isoenergetic (21 kJ/g diets were formulated, differed only to the added lipid source and coded accordingly as D1 (fish oil, D2 (palm oil, and D3 (cashew kernel oil. Catfish fingerlings (initial body weight = 2.43 ± 0.04 g were stocked at 1 fish/L and fed to trial diets at 5.6%. At the end of 8 weeks, C. gariepinus fingerlings fed with D1 and D3 had significantly identical growth and feed utilization efficiency. Those fed with D2 exhibited significantly and numerically low growth performance compared, respectively, to D1 and D3. Contrary to whole-body composition of fish, the muscle lipids fatty acids composition was influenced by the fatty acids profile of the dietary lipid sources. High net profit value (NPV of 24.59$, high investment cost analysis (ICA of 10.14$ and low benefit: cost ratio (BCR of 2.42 were observed in fish fed with D1 while those fed with D3 allowed to have high NPV (23.15$, low ICA (7.86$ and high BCR (2.95. Like others vegetable oils, cashew kernel oil can replace expensive fish oil in C. gariepinus fingerlings diet without negatively affecting its growth performances.

  14. Optimization of factors affecting the production of biodiesel from crude palm kernel oil and ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwornoo, David. K. [Faculty of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Private Mail Bag, Kumasi (Ghana); Ahiekpor, Julius C. [Chemical Engineering Department, Kumasi Polytechnic, P.O. Box 854, Kumasi (Ghana)

    2010-07-01

    Biodiesel, an alternative diesel fuel made from renewable sources such as vegetable oils and animal fats, has been identified by government to play a key role in the socio-economic development of Ghana. The utilization of biodiesel is expected to be about 10% of the total liquid fuel mix of the country by the year 2020. Despite this great potential and the numerous sources from which biodiesel could be developed in Ghana, studies on the sources of biodiesel and their properties as a substitute for fossil diesel have tended to be limited to Jatropha oil. This paper, however, reports the parameters that influences the production of biodiesel from palm kernel oil, one of the vegetable oils obtained from oil palm which is the highest vegetable oil source in Ghana. The parameters studied are; mass ratio of ethanol to oil, reaction temperature, catalyst concentration, and reaction time using completely randomized 24 factorial design. Results indicated that ethanol to oil mass ratio, catalyst concentration and reaction time were the most important factors affecting the ethyl ester yield. There was also an interaction effect between catalyst and time and ethanol- oil ratio and time on the yield. Accordingly, the optimal conditions for the production of ethyl esters from crude palm kernel oil were determined as; 1:5 mass ratio of ethanol to oil, 1% catalyst concentration by weight of oil, 90 minutes reaction time at a temperature of 30 deg C.

  15. Isolation of a kernel oleoyl-ACP thioesterase gene from the oil palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We have isolated a cDNA clone from the developing kernel of the oil palm Elaeis guineensis which encodes a thioesterase enzyme. Its highest homology was to the Brassica napus oleoyl-ACP thioesterase with which it had 72% homology at the nucleotide level, over the coding region examined, and 83% identity (90% ...

  16. Analysis Monthly Import of Palm Oil Products Using Box-Jenkins Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nurul F. Y.; Khalid, Kamil; Saifullah Rusiman, Mohd; Ghazali Kamardan, M.; Roslan, Rozaini; Che-Him, Norziha

    2018-04-01

    The palm oil industry has been an important component of the national economy especially the agriculture sector. The aim of this study is to identify the pattern of import of palm oil products, to model the time series using Box-Jenkins model and to forecast the monthly import of palm oil products. The method approach is included in the statistical test for verifying the equivalence model and statistical measurement of three models, namely Autoregressive (AR) model, Moving Average (MA) model and Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA) model. The model identification of all product import palm oil is different in which the AR(1) was found to be the best model for product import palm oil while MA(3) was found to be the best model for products import palm kernel oil. For the palm kernel, MA(4) was found to be the best model. The results forecast for the next four months for products import palm oil, palm kernel oil and palm kernel showed the most significant decrease compared to the actual data.

  17. Advances in biofuel production from oil palm and palm oil processing wastes: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jundika C. Kurnia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the palm oil industry has been growing rapidly due to increasing demands for food, cosmetic, and hygienic products. Aside from producing palm oil, the industry generates a huge quantity of residues (dry and wet which can be processed to produce biofuel. Driven by the necessity to find an alternative and renewable energy/fuel resources, numerous technologies have been developed and more are being developed to process oil-palm and palm-oil wastes into biofuel. To further develop these technologies, it is essential to understand the current stage of the industry and technology developments. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the palm oil industry, review technologies available to process oil palm and palm oil residues into biofuel, and to summarise the challenges that should be overcome for further development. The paper also discusses the research and development needs, technoeconomics, and life cycle analysis of biofuel production from oil-palm and palm-oil wastes.

  18. Fine tuning of process parameters for improving briquette production from palm kernel shell gasification waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazargan, Alireza; Rough, Sarah L; McKay, Gordon

    2018-04-01

    Palm kernel shell biochars (PKSB) ejected as residues from a gasifier have been used for solid fuel briquette production. With this approach, palm kernel shells can be used for energy production twice: first, by producing rich syngas during gasification; second, by compacting the leftover residues from gasification into high calorific value briquettes. Herein, the process parameters for the manufacture of PKSB biomass briquettes via compaction are optimized. Two possible optimum process scenarios are considered. In the first, the compaction speed is increased from 0.5 to 10 mm/s, the compaction pressure is decreased from 80 Pa to 40 MPa, the retention time is reduced from 10 s to zero, and the starch binder content of the briquette is halved from 0.1 to 0.05 kg/kg. With these adjustments, the briquette production rate increases by more than 20-fold; hence capital and operational costs can be reduced and the service life of compaction equipment can be increased. The resulting product satisfactorily passes tensile (compressive) crushing strength and impact resistance tests. The second scenario involves reducing the starch weight content to 0.03 kg/kg, while reducing the compaction pressure to a value no lower than 60 MPa. Overall, in both cases, the PKSB biomass briquettes show excellent potential as a solid fuel with calorific values on par with good-quality coal. CHNS: carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur; FFB: fresh fruit bunch(es); HHV: higher heating value [J/kg]; LHV: lower heating value [J/kg]; PKS: palm kernel shell(s); PKSB: palm kernel shell biochar(s); POME: palm oil mill effluent; RDF: refuse-derived fuel; TGA: thermogravimetric analysis.

  19. Physical and chemical characteristics of toilet soap made from apricot kernel oil and palm stearin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girgis, Adel Y.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to use apricot kernel oil with palm stearin in toilet soap-making. Apricot kernel oil was obtained from apricot kernel seed (Prunus armeniaca through hydraulic pressing (12000lb/in2. Kernel contained 43.3% oil. The fatty acids of apricot kernel oil had high oleic acid (81.73% while, the major of the fatty acid in palm stearin was palmitic acid (55.17%. Eight of the toilet soap samples were prepared from apricot kernel oil, palm kernel oil and palm stearin at different ratios. The structure of soap samples nº1 and 8 were sticky and with bad physical properties. On the other hand, the physical characteristics of blends nos 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 had firm consistency and creamy lather while, in soap nº 7, its were moderatement; i. e. medium hard makeup with fairly lather. After storage (6 months on a shelf at room temperature, all soaps (nº1-8 were declined in their moisture content. On contrary, the total fatty acids of the same samples were augmented at different ratios during storage. Physical characteristics of soap samples nos 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 were increased after the storage time (6 months, their consistencies were very firm with creamy lather and reducement in their erosion from handwashing ratios was observed. It can be recommended that apricot kernel oil can be used in the manufacturing of toilet soap until ratio 50% of the fatty blend (the blend was bear palm stearin.

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue el uso del aceite de semilla de albaricoque con estearina de palma en la fabricación de jabón de tocador. El aceite de semilla de albaricoque (Prunus armeniaca se obtuvo por presión hidráulica (12000lb/in2, y la semilla contenía el 43.3% de aceite. Los ácidos grasos del aceite de semilla de albaricoque tenían altos contenidos de ácido oleico (81.73% mientras, el ácido graso mayoritario en la estearina de palma fue el ácido palm

  20. Deoxygenation of palm kernel oil to jet fuel-like hydrocarbons using Ni-MoS_2/γ-Al_2O_3 catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itthibenchapong, Vorranutch; Srifa, Atthapon; Kaewmeesri, Rungnapa; Kidkhunthod, Pinit; Faungnawakij, Kajornsak

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The Ni-MoS_2/γ-Al_2O_3 catalysts synthesized using thiourea solution processing. • The Ni-MoS_2 showed semi-amorphous crystallinity with crystallite size of 5–10 nm. • The Ni K-edge XANES and EXAFS indicated the Ni substitution in MoS_2 structure. • A high yield of jet fuel-like hydrocarbon (>90%) from the palm kernel oil feedstock. • The HDO pathway was highly selective, while the DCO_2 and DCO pathways were minor. - Abstract: In the current study, palm kernel oil was used as a renewable feedstock for production of jet fuel-like hydrocarbons via the deoxygenation over the Ni-MoS_2/γ-Al_2O_3 catalyst. The dominant C12 fatty acid content in palm kernel oil makes it promising for jet fuel application. Synthesized by a liquid processing method with thiourea organosulfur agent, the catalyst revealed MoS_2 structure with low stacking, while Ni substitution in the MoS_2 structure and interaction with the Al_2O_3 support were determined based on the Ni K-edge XANES and EXAFS results. A high hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) activity, which as the major pathway in the deoxygenation, was observed upon application of a H_2 pressure of 30–50 bar over Ni-MoS_2/γ-Al_2O_3. The optimum product yield of approximately 92% was obtained mainly from the HDO pathway (∼60%) with 58% selectivity to C10–C12 jet fuel hydrocarbons. The flow property of the jet fuel-like hydrocarbons was more desirable than those obtained from palm olein oil-derived fuel.

  1. for palm kernel oil extraction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Palm nut shell is an aggregate replacement material in concrete production [1]. It is also an economically and ... requirements amongst the machine parameters of vegetable oil expellers. A manually-operated screw ... using such indices as feed rate, capacity, percentage oil recovery, machine efficiency, and oil yield.

  2. Evaluation of the Lubricating Properties of Palm Kernel Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J MUSA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The search for renewable energy resources continues to attract attention in recent times as fossil fuels such as petroleum, coal and natural gas, which are been used to meet the energy needs of man are associated with negative environmental impacts such as global warming. Biodiesel offered reduced exhaust emissions, improved biodegradability, reduced toxicity and higher carotene rating which can improve performance and clean up emissions. Standard methods were used to determine the physical and chemical properties of the oil, which includes the Density, Viscosity, flash/fire point, carbon residue, volatility and Specific Gravity were determined by chemical experimental analysis. The flash/fire points of the Heavy duty oil (SAE 40 and Light duty oil (SAE 30 is 260/300(°C and 243/290(°C respectively while the pour points of the samples are 22°C for palm kernel oil while 9°C and 21°C for SAE 40and SAE 30 respectively.

  3. Life Cycle Assessment for the Production of Oil Palm Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Halimah; Ai, Tan Yew; Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; May, Choo Yuen

    2014-12-01

    The oil palm seed production unit that generates germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain, followed by the nursery to produce seedling, the plantation to produce fresh fruit bunches (FFB), the mill to produce crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel, the kernel crushers to produce crude palm kernel oil (CPKO), the refinery to produce refined palm oil (RPO) and finally the palm biodiesel plant to produce palm biodiesel. This assessment aims to investigate the life cycle assessment (LCA) of germinated oil palm seeds and the use of LCA to identify the stage/s in the production of germinated oil palm seeds that could contribute to the environmental load. The method for the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is modelled using SimaPro version 7, (System for Integrated environMental Assessment of PROducts), an internationally established tool used by LCA practitioners. This software contains European and US databases on a number of materials in addition to a variety of European- and US-developed impact assessment methodologies. LCA was successfully conducted for five seed production units and it was found that the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm was not significant. The characterised results of the LCIA for the production of 1000 germinated oil palm seeds showed that fossil fuel was the major impact category followed by respiratory inorganics and climate change.

  4. Applications of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of palm oil and oil from natural sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanda, Mohammed Jahurul Haque; Sarker, Mohammed Zaidul Islam; Ferdosh, Sahena; Manap, Mohd Yazid Abdul; Ab Rahman, Nik Norulaini Nik; Ab Kadir, Mohd Omar

    2012-02-10

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), which has received much interest in its use and further development for industrial applications, is a method that offers some advantages over conventional methods, especially for the palm oil industry. SC-CO₂ refers to supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) that uses carbon dioxide (CO₂) as a solvent which is a nontoxic, inexpensive, nonflammable, and nonpolluting supercritical fluid solvent for the extraction of natural products. Almost 100% oil can be extracted and it is regarded as safe, with organic solvent-free extracts having superior organoleptic profiles. The palm oil industry is one of the major industries in Malaysia that provides a major contribution to the national income. Malaysia is the second largest palm oil and palm kernel oil producer in the World. This paper reviews advances in applications of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO₂) extraction of oils from natural sources, in particular palm oil, minor constituents in palm oil, producing fractionated, refined, bleached, and deodorized palm oil, palm kernel oil and purified fatty acid fractions commendable for downstream uses as in toiletries and confectionaries.

  5. Applications of Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE of Palm Oil and Oil from Natural Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Omar Ab Kadir

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE, which has received much interest in its use and further development for industrial applications, is a method that offers some advantages over conventional methods, especially for the palm oil industry. SC-CO2 refers to supercritical fluid extraction (SFE that uses carbon dioxide (CO2 as a solvent which is a nontoxic, inexpensive, nonflammable, and nonpolluting supercritical fluid solvent for the extraction of natural products. Almost 100% oil can be extracted and it is regarded as safe, with organic solvent-free extracts having superior organoleptic profiles. The palm oil industry is one of the major industries in Malaysia that provides a major contribution to the national income. Malaysia is the second largest palm oil and palm kernel oil producer in the World. This paper reviews advances in applications of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 extraction of oils from natural sources, in particular palm oil, minor constituents in palm oil, producing fractionated, refined, bleached, and deodorized palm oil, palm kernel oil and purified fatty acid fractions commendable for downstream uses as in toiletries and confectionaries.

  6. Production and characterization of biodiesel using palm kernel oil; fresh and recovered from spent bleaching earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun Aladetuyi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm kernel oil (PKO was recovered from spent bleaching earth with a yield of 16 %, using n-hexane while the fresh oil was extracted from palm kernel with n-hexane and a yield of 40.23% was obtained. These oils were trans-esterified with methanol under the same reaction conditions: 100 oC, 2 h reaction time, and oil-methanol ratio of 5:1 (w/v. The cocoa pod ash (CPA was compared with potassium hydroxide (KOH as catalyst. The percentage yields of biodiesel obtained from PKO catalysed by CPA and KOH were 94 and 90%, respectively. While the yields achieved using the recovered oil catalysed by CPA and KOH were measured at 86 and 81.20 %. The physico-chemical properties of the biodiesel produced showed that the flash point, viscosity, density, ash content, percentage carbon content, specific gravity and the acid value fell within American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM specifications for biodiesel. The findings of this study suggest that agricultural residues such as CPA used in this study could be explored as alternatives for KOH catalyst for biodiesel production.

  7. Evaluation of Palm Oil-Based Paracetamol Suppositories by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The suppository base was prepared by mixing hydrogenated palm oil and palm kernel ... DSC can be used to predict drug release in paracetamol suppository formulations. Keywords: Palm oil, Liquefaction time, Paracetamol, Suppositories, Thermal analysis. ..... Drug Evaluation & Research (CDER), Food and.

  8. Dynamics of Polymorphic Transformations in Palm Oil, Palm Stearin and Palm Kernel Oil Characterized by Coupled Powder XRD-DSC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaliha, Omar; Elina, Hishamuddin; Sivaruby, Kanagaratnam; Norizzah, Abd Rashid; Marangoni, Alejandro G

    2018-06-01

    The in situ polymorphic forms and thermal transitions of refined, bleached and deodorized palm oil (RBDPO), palm stearin (RBDPS) and palm kernel oil (RBDPKO) were investigated using coupled X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results indicated that the DSC onset crystallisation temperature of RBDPO was at 22.6°C, with a single reflection at 4.2Å started to appear from 23.4 to 17.1°C, and were followed by two prominent exothermic peaks at 20.1°C and 8.5°C respectively. Further cooling to -40°C leads to the further formation of a β'polymorph. Upon heating, a of β'→βtransformation was observed between 32.1 to 40.8°C, before the sample was completely melted at 43.0°C. The crystallization onset temperature of RBDPS was 44.1°C, with the appearance of the α polymorph at the same temperature as the appearance of the first sharp DSC exothermic peak. This quickly changed from α→β´ in the range 25 to 21.7°C, along with the formation of a small β peak at -40°C. Upon heating, a small XRD peak for the β polymorph was observed between 32.2 to 36.0°C, becoming a mixture of (β´+ β) between 44.0 to 52.5°C. Only the β polymorph survived further heating to 59.8°C. For RBDPKO, the crystallization onset temperature was 11.6°C, with the formation of a single sharp exothermic peak at 6.5°C corresponding to the β' polymorphic form until the temperature reached -40°C. No transformation of the polymorphic form was observed during the melting process of RBDPKO, before being completely melted at 33.2°C. This work has demonstrated the detailed dynamics of polymorphic transformations of PKO and PS, two commercially important hardstocks used widely by industry and will contribute to a greater understanding of their crystallization and melting dynamics.

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF BIO-OIL FROM PALM KERNEL SHELL PYROLYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ahmad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis of palm kernel shell in a fixed-bed reactor was studied in this paper. The objectives were to investigate the effect of pyrolysis temperature and particle size on the products yield and to characterize the bio-oil product. In order to get the optimum pyrolysis parameters on bio-oil yield, temperatures of 350, 400, 450, 500 and 550 °C and particle sizes of 212–300 µm, 300–600 µm, 600µm–1.18 mm and 1.18–2.36 mm under a heating rate of 50 °C min-1 were investigated. The maximum bio-oil yield was 38.40% at 450 °C with a heating rate of 50 °C min-1 and a nitrogen sweep gas flow rate of 50 ml min-1. The bio-oil products were analysed by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR and gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GCMS. The FTIR analysis showed that the bio-oil was dominated by oxygenated species. The phenol, phenol, 2-methoxy- and furfural that were identified by GCMS analysis are highly suitable for extraction from the bio-oil as value-added chemicals. The highly oxygenated oils need to be upgraded in order to be used in other applications such as transportation fuels.

  10. ANALISIS KEHILANGAN MINYAK PADA CRUDE PALM OIL (CPO DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN METODE STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Devani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available PKS “XYZ” merupakan perusahaan yang bergerak di bidang pengolahan kelapa sawit. Produk yang dihasilkan adalah Crude Palm Oil (CPO dan Palm Kernel Oil (PKO. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menganalisa kehilangan minyak (oil losses dan faktor-faktor penyebab dengan menggunakan metoda Statistical Process Control. Statistical Process Control adalah sekumpulan strategi, teknik, dan tindakan yang diambil oleh sebuah organisasi untuk memastikan bahwa strategi tersebut menghasilkan produk yang berkualitas atau menyediakan pelayanan yang berkualitas. Sampel terjadinya oil losses pada CPO yang diteliti adalah tandan kosong (tankos, biji (nut, ampas (fibre, dan sludge akhir. Berdasarkan Peta Kendali I-MR dapat disimpulkan bahwa kondisi keempat jenis oil losses CPO berada dalam batas kendali dan konsisten. Sedangkan nilai Cpk dari total oil losses berada di luar batas kendali rata-rata proses, hal ini berarti CPO yang diproduksi telah memenuhi kebutuhan pelanggan, dengan total oil losses kurang dari batas maksimum yang ditetapkan oleh perusahaan yaitu 1,65%.

  11. Palm oil and derivatives: fuels or potential fuels?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pioch Daniel

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Scientific and technical information including field trials about uses of palm oil as fuel has been available for more than half a century now. Several ways were investigated, from the simple mixture with petroleum Diesel fuel, to more sophisticated solutions. The quality of vegetable oils in natura as fuel is difficult to assess because of interferences between properties of the triacylglycerols – the main components – and those of the many minor components, their content varying significantly from sample to sample. A methodology set up at Cirad allowed to investigate separately natural triacylglycerols alone and the effect of minor components. In addition to these laboratory experiments, engine test at bench and field trials performed in palm oil producing countries, show that this oil is among the best oils as fuel; palm kernel oil whose chemical and physical properties are very close to those of the best of the series investigated, namely copra oil, should display also very interesting properties as Diesel biofuel. Both oils do require external adaptation of the engine when using an indirect injection type engine but even heavier adaptations for a direct injection model. Thus for use as Diesel fuel palm and palm kernel oils are suitable for captive fleets or for engine gensets, to balance the adaptation cost by a scale-up effect either on the number of identical engines or on the nominal vegetable oil consumption per set. Direct use of palm et palm kernel oils fits very well with technical and economical conditions encountered in remote areas. It is also possible to mix palm oil to Diesel fuel either as simple blend or as micro-emulsion. Out of the direct use, palm oil methyl or ethyl ester, often referred to as biodiesel, displays properties similar to those of petroleum Diesel fuel. This technical solution which is suitable to feed all kinds of standard compression ignited engines requires a chemical plant for carrying out the

  12. Penentuan Bilangan Asam Dan Bilangan Penyabunan Pada Asam Laurat Hasil Hidrolisis Palm Kernel Oil (PKO) Di PT Socimas Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Tobing, Windy.T.

    2012-01-01

    Has been performed analysis in which the specified number of acid value and saponification value in lauric acid from hydrolysis process of palm kernel oil in PT.Socimas. Analysis of the results obtained acid value 269,9 and saponification value 270,8. Thus the acid value and saponification value correspond to the standart value 269-275 for acid value, and 270-276 for saponification value in PT. Socimas. 092401017

  13. Separation of oil palm shell and kernel by using kaolinite media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukpong Sirinupong

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to investigate the possibility of using kaolinite from Ranong province as media in the oil palm shell and kernel separation process by means of heavy media separation. The effect of specific gravity of the slurry, type and amount of dispersant and type of clays on suspension of media and efficiency of separation were studied. It was found that the specific gravity of oil palm shell and kernel are 1.40 and 1.20 respectively. While the average specific gravity of kaolinite grade MRD-B85, RANONG-325 and commercial clay from Univanich Group. PCL., are 2.54, 2.65 and 2.46 respectively. It was apparent that the viscosity of clay slurry increased with the specific gravity of the slurry. For MRD-B85 and RANONG- 325 clays which have the average particle sizes of 10 and 12 microns, the pH of their slurries of about 5.84 and 6.33 respectively were obtained and at these conditions stability of the slurry rarely occurred and they could not be used for separation. However, these clays can also be utilized as media when dispersant such asCalgon or sodium silicate is applied to their slurries. It was found that the efficiency of separation depends on specific gravity and viscosity of the slurry, type and particle size of kaolinite and dosage of dispersant. The optimum separating conditions for MRD-B85 clay were the dosage of Calgon of 0.15% (or 1.5 kg/t of clay at the specific gravity of the slurry of 1.20-1.24 (27-32% Solids in which a pH of 6.14 and viscosity of 104 cP to very low value (could not be measured were obtained. Thus, kernel yielded 97.57-100% and shell contamination of 1.48-6.32% was achieved. While sodium silicate was applied to the slurry about 0.15% at the specific gravity of 1.22, pH of 6.74 and viscosity of 238 cP were obtained and kernel could be recovered 100% with shell contamination of 8.36%. When 0.15% Calgon or 0.25% sodium silicate was introduced to the RANONG-325 clay slurry at the specific gravity

  14. Power and Torque Characteristics of Diesel Engine Fuelled by Palm-Kernel Oil Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguntola J. ALAMU

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Short-term engine performance tests were carried out on test diesel engine fuelled with Palm kernel oil (PKO biodiesel. The biodiesel fuel was produced through transesterification process using 100g PKO, 20.0% ethanol (wt%, 1.0% potassium hydroxide catalyst at 60°C reaction temperature and 90min. reaction time. The diesel engine was attached to a general electric dynamometer. Torque and power delivered by the engine were monitored throughout the 24-hour test duration at 1300, 1500, 1700, 2000, 2250 and 2500rpm. At all engine speeds tested, results showed that torque and power outputs for PKO biodiesel were generally lower than those for petroleum diesel. Also, Peak torque for PKO biodiesel occurred at a lower engine speed compared to diesel.

  15. Application of Neuro-Fuzzy to palm oil production process | Odior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Palm oil is an important nutritional food requirement and in order to facilitate the production of palm oil for consumption, the production process of palm oil has been investigated. The basic operations involved in the production of edible palm oil include; purchase, transportation and reception of oil palm bunches; bunch ...

  16. New cost-effective bioconversion process of palm kernel cake into bioinsecticides based on Beauveria bassiana and Isaria javanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento Silva, Jaqueline; Mascarin, Gabriel Moura; Dos Santos Gomes, Isabel Cristina; Tinôco, Ricardo Salles; Quintela, Eliane Dias; Dos Reis Castilho, Leda; Freire, Denise Maria Guimarães

    2018-03-01

    The present study aimed to add value to palm oil by-products as substrates to efficiently produce conidia of Beauveria bassiana and Isaria javanica (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) for biological control of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), through a solid-state fermentation process using palm kernel cake and palm fiber as nutrient source and solid matrix, respectively. The optimum culture conditions yielded high concentrations of viable conidia after air-drying, when the fungi were grown on palm kernel cake (B. bassiana 7.65 × 10 9 and I. javanica 2.91 × 10 9  conidia g -1 dry substrate) after 6 days under optimal growth conditions set to 60% substrate moisture and 32 °C. Both fungal strains exhibited high efficacy against third-instar whitefly nymphs, inducing mortality up to 62.9 and 56.6% by B. bassiana and I. javanica, respectively, assessed after 9 days post-application in a screenhouse. Furthermore, we noted that insect mortality was strongly correlated with high atmospheric moisture, while B. bassiana appeared to require shorter accumulative hours under high moisture to kill whitefly nymphs compared to I. javanica. Our results underpin a feasible and cost-effective mass production method for aerial conidia, using palm kernel as the main substrate in order to produce efficacious fungal bioinsecticides against an invasive whitefly species in Brazil. Finally, our fermentation process may offer a sustainable and cost-effective means to produce eco-friendly mycoinsecticides, using an abundant agro-industrial by-product from Brazil that will ultimately assist in the integrated management of agricultural insect pests.

  17. Functional palm oil-based margarine by enzymatic interesterification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Nuzul Amri Bin; Xu, Xuebing

    Palm stearin, palm kernel and fish oils were blended to a various composition ratios and enzymatically interesterified by Lipozyme TL IM lipase (Thermomyces lanuginosa) using a continuous packed bed reactor. The ratio of the oils ranged from 60-90%, 10-40% and 0-10% respectively. The enzyme was a...

  18. Economic Assessment of Palm Oil Processing in Owerri Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was on economic analysis of palm oil processing in Owerri Agricultural zone of Imo State, it was designed to determine the costs and returns of palm oil processing in the area of study. Seventy five (75) palm oil processors were randomly sampled from the study location and a structured interview schedule was ...

  19. Devolatilization studies of oil palm biomass for torrefaction process optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daud, D; Rahman, A Abd; Shamsuddin, A H

    2013-01-01

    Torrefaction of palm biomass, namely Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) and Palm Kernel Shell (PKS), was conducted using thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). The experiment was conducted in variation of temperatures of 200 °C, 260 °C and 300 °C at a constant residence time of 30 minutes. During the torrefaction process, the sample went through identifiable drying and devolatilization stages from the TGA mass loss. The percentage of volatile gases released was then derived for each condition referring to proximate analysis results for both biomass. It was observed an average of 96.64% and 87.53 % of the total moisture is released for EFB and PKS respectively. In all cases the volatiles released was observed to increase as the torrefaction temperature was increased with significant variation between EFB and PKS. At 300°C EFB lost almost half of its volatiles matter while PKS lost slightly over one third. Results obtained can be used to optimise condition of torrefaction according to different types of oil palm biomass.

  20. Waste to Wealth: Hidden Treasures in the Oil Palm Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loh Soh Kheang; Astimar Abdul Aziz; Ravigadevi Sambathamurthi; Mohd Basri Wahid

    2010-01-01

    The palm oil industry plays an important role in the creation of waste to wealth using the abundant oil palm biomass resources generated from palm oil supply chain i.e. upstream to downstream activities. The oil palm biomass and other palm-derived waste streams available are oil palm trunks (felled), fronds (felled and pruned), shell, mesocarp fibers, empty fruit bunches (EFB), palm oil mill effluent (POME), palm kernel expelled (PKE), palm fatty acid distillates (PFAD), used frying oil (UFO), residual oil from spent bleaching earth (SBE) and glycerol. For 88.5 million tonnes of fresh fruit bunches (FFB) processed in 2008, the amount of oil palm biomass generated was more than 25 million tones (dry weight basis) with the generation of 59 million tonnes of POME from 410 palm oil mills. Oil palm biomass consists of mainly lignocellulose materials that can be potentially and fully utilized for renewable energy, wood-based products and high value-added products such as pytonutrients, phenolics, carotenes and vitamin E. Oil palm biomass can be converted to bio energy with high combustible characteristics such as briquettes, bio-oils, bio-producer gas, boiler fuel, biogas and bio ethanol. Oil palm biomass can also be made into wood-based products such as composite and furniture, pulp and paper and planting medium. The recovery of phenolics from POME as valuable antioxidants has potential drug application. Other possible applications for oil palm biomass include fine chemicals, dietary fibers, animal feed and polymers. There must be a strategic and sustainable resource management to distribute palm oil and palm biomass to maximize the use of the resources so that it can generate revenues, bring benefits to the palm oil industry and meet stringent sustainability requirements in the future. (author)

  1. An Experimental Study of Briquetting Process of Torrefied Rubber Seed Kernel and Palm Oil Shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fadzli Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Torrefaction process of biomass material is essential in converting them into biofuel with improved calorific value and physical strength. However, the production of torrefied biomass is loose, powdery, and nonuniform. One method of upgrading this material to improve their handling and combustion properties is by densification into briquettes of higher density than the original bulk density of the material. The effects of critical parameters of briquetting process that includes the type of biomass material used for torrefaction and briquetting, densification temperature, and composition of binder for torrefied biomass are studied and characterized. Starch is used as a binder in the study. The results showed that the briquette of torrefied rubber seed kernel (RSK is better than torrefied palm oil shell (POS in both calorific value and compressive strength. The best quality of briquettes is yielded from torrefied RSK at the ambient temperature of briquetting process with the composition of 60% water and 5% binder. The maximum compressive load for the briquettes of torrefied RSK is 141 N and the calorific value is 16 MJ/kg. Based on the economic evaluation analysis, the return of investment (ROI for the mass production of both RSK and POS briquettes is estimated in 2-year period and the annual profit after payback was approximately 107,428.6 USD.

  2. Performance and Emission of VCR-CI Engine with palm kernel and eucalyptus blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas kommana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at complete replacement of conventional diesel fuel by biodiesel. In order to achieve that, palm kernel oil and eucalyptus oil blend has been chosen. Eucalyptus oil was blended with methyl ester of palm kernel oil in 5%, 10% and 15% by volume. Tests were conducted with diesel fuel and blends on a 4 stroke VCR diesel engine for comparative analysis with 220 bar injection pressure and 19:1 compression ratio. All the test fuels were used in computerized 4 stroke single cylinder variable compression ratio engine at five different loads (0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 N m. Present investigation depicts the improved combustion and reduced emissions for the PKO85% + EuO15% blend when compared to diesel at full load conditions.

  3. Pollutant in palm oil production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Ehsan; Abdul Wahid, Mazlan

    2015-07-01

    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is a by-product of the palm industry and it releases large amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Water systems are also contaminated by POME if it is released into nonstandard ponds or rivers where it endangers the lives of fish and water fowl. In this paper, the environmental bottlenecks faced by palm oil production were investigated by analyzing the data collected from wet extraction palm oil mills (POMs) located in Malaysia. Strategies for reducing pollution and technologies for GHG reduction from the wet extraction POMs were also proposed. Average GHG emissions produced from processing 1 ton of crude palm oil (CPO) was 1100 kg CO2eq. This amount can be reduced to 200 kg CO2eq by capturing biogases. The amount of GHG emissions from open ponds could be decreased from 225 to 25 kg CO2eq/MT CPO by covering the ponds. Installation of biogas capturing system can decrease the average of chemical oxygen demand (COD) to about 17,100 mg/L and stabilizing ponds in the final step could decrease COD to 5220 mg/L. Using a biogas capturing system allows for the reduction of COD by 80% and simultaneously using a biogas capturing system and by stabilizing ponds can mitigate COD by 96%. Other ways to reduce the pollution caused by POME, including the installation of wet scrubber vessels and increasing the performance of biogas recovery and biogas upgrading systems, are studied in this paper. Around 0.87 m3 POME is produced per 1 ton palm fruit milled. POME consists of around 2% oil, 2-4% suspended solid, 94-96% water. In palm oil mills, more than 90% of GHGs were emitted from POME. From 1 ton crude palm oil, 1100 kg CO2eq GHGs are generated, which can be reduced to 200 kg CO2eq by installation of biogas capturing equipment.

  4. Effect of Coconut ( cocus Nucifera ) and Palm Kernel ( eleasis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Coconut ( cocus Nucifera ) and Palm Kernel ( eleasis Guinensis ) Oil Supplmented Diets on Serum Lipid Profile of Albino Wistar Rats. ... were fed normal rat pellet. At the end of the feeding period, animals were anaesthetized under chloroform vapor, dissected and blood obtained via cardiac puncture into tubes.

  5. Repeatedly heated palm kernel oil induces hyperlipidemia, atherogenic indices and hepatorenal toxicity in rats: Beneficial role of virgin coconut oil supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famurewa, Ademola C; Nwankwo, Onyebuchi E; Folawiyo, Abiola M; Igwe, Emeka C; Epete, Michael A; Ufebe, Odomero G

    2017-01-01

    The literature reports that the health benefits of vegetable oil can be deteriorated by repeated heating, which leads to lipid oxidation and the formation of free radicals. Virgin coconut oil (VCO) is emerging as a functional food oil and its health benefits are attributed to its potent polyphenolic compounds. We investigated the beneficial effect of VCO supplementation on lipid profile, liver and kidney markers in rats fed repeatedly heated palm kernel oil (HPO). Rats were divided into four groups (n = 5). The control group rats were fed with   a normal diet; group 2 rats were fed a 10% VCO supplemented diet; group 3 administered 10 ml HPO/kg b.w. orally; group 4 were fed 10% VCO + 10 ml HPO/kg for 28 days. Subsequently, serum markers of liver damage (ALT, AST, ALP and albumin), kidney damage (urea, creatinine and uric acid), lipid profile and lipid ratios as cardiovascular risk indices were evaluated. HPO induced a significant increase in serum markers of liver and kidney damage as well as con- comitant lipid abnormalities and a marked reduction in serum HDL-C. The lipid ratios evaluated for atherogenic and coronary risk indices in rats administered HPO only were remarkably higher than control. It was observed that VCO supplementation attenuated the biochemical alterations, including the indices of cardiovascular risks. VCO supplementation demonstrates beneficial health effects against HPO-induced biochemical alterations in rats. VCO may serve to modulate the adverse effects associated with consumption of repeatedly heated palm kernel oil.

  6. PREPARATION OF VARIOUS TYPES OF PULP FROM OIL PALM LIGNOCELLULOSIC RESIDUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ryohei Tanaka; Leh Cheu Peng; Wan Rosli Wan Daud

    2004-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION Oil palm, Elaeis Guineensis, (Figure 1) is one of the most important plants in Malaysia. It produces palm oil and palm kernel oil, which is widely being used in food and other industries such as detergents and cosmetics. Malaysia is the world′s largest producer and exporter of the oil, so that the country′s economy is very much dependent on these oil products. Although oil from the palm tree is an excellent product for the country, residues from oil palm have not been used sufficiently. In this 10~15 years, development in new technologies for utilizing this lignocellulosic waste is categorized as one of the most important issues in science policy of Malaysia.

  7. Bio ethanol production from oil palm empty fruit bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loh Soh Kheang; Muhammad Asyraf Kasim; Nasrin Abu Bakar

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The oil palm industry has an abundance of oil palm biomass. The type of biomass generated includes empty fruit bunches (EFB), oil palm trunk (OPT), kernel, shell and fronds. Generally, ligno celluloses biomass derived from oil palm has great potential to be converted into various forms of renewable energy. In this study, EFB in pulverized form was used as a feedstock for bio ethanol production. EFB contains lignin, hemicelluloses and cellulose which can be converted into fermentable sugar and bio ethanol. The EFB was initially pre-treated with 1% NaOH followed by acid hydrolysis with 0.7% sulfuric acid and enzyme prior to fermentation process with Saccharomyces cerevisea. The various process parameters for bio ethanol production was optimized i.e. pH, temperature, rate of agitation and initial feedstock concentration. The fermentation of EFB hydrolysate was at pH 4, 30 degree Celsius and 100 rpm within 72 hours of incubation yielded 10.48 g/L of bio ethanol from 50 g/L of EFB. The bio ethanol production in a 6-L bioreactor showed 36% conversion of fermentable sugar from EFB into bio ethanol. (author)

  8. Devolatilization Studies of Oil Palm Biomass for Torrefaction Process through Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, D.; Abd. Rahman, A.; Shamsuddin, A. H.

    2016-03-01

    In this work, palm oil biomass consisting of empty fruit bunch (EFB), mesocarp fibre and palm kernel shell (PKS) were chosen as raw material for torrefaction process. Torrefaction process was conducted at various temperatures of 240 °C, 270 °C and 300 °C with a residence time of 60 minutes. The morphology of the raw and torrefied biomass was then observed through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images. Also, through this experiment the correlation between the torrefaction temperatures with the volatile gases released were studied. From the observation, the morphology structure of the biomass exhibited inter-particle gaps due to the release of volatile gases and it is obviously seen more at higher temperatures. Moreover, the change of the biomass structure is influenced by the alteration of the lignocellulose biomass.

  9. Material flow analysis for resource management towards resilient palm oil production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamahara, H.; Faisal, M.; Hasanudin, U.; Fujie, K.; Daimon, H.

    2018-03-01

    Biomass waste generated from palm oil mill can be considered not only as the feedstock of renewable energy but also as the nutrient-rich resources to produce organic fertilizer. This study explored the appropriate resource management towards resilient palm oil production by applying material flow analysis. This study was conducted based on two palm oil mills in Lampung, Indonesia. The results showed that the empty fruit bunch (EFB) has the largest potential in terms of amount and energy among the biomass waste. The results also showed that the palm oil mills themselves had already self-managed their energy consumption thatwas obtained from palm kernel shell and palm press fiber. Finally, this study recommended the several utilization options of EFB for improvement of soil sustainability to contribute towards resilient palm oil production.

  10. Adoption of improved oil palm processing technology in Umuahia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was found that a large percentage of the respondents were aware of the 5 improved oil palm processing technologies with friends and relatives as major source of information. Adoption was significant for 3 out of 5 technologies under study. The major constraints to improved oil palm processing technologies were high ...

  11. Thermal, crystallinity and morphological studies of the filled RBD palm kernel oil polyurethane foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairiah Badri; Sahrim Ahmad; Sarani Zakaria

    2000-01-01

    The synthesis of RBD palm kernel oil (PKO) polyurethane polyol and the polyurethane foam has well been documented. However, less study has been put in discovering the thermal properties and crystallinity of the foam. It is also an initiative to investigate the effect of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) and sorbitol as fillers in the polyurethane (PU) foam to these properties. Thermogravimetric (TGA) investigation of the PKO PU foam was performed to study their decompositions. The semi-crystalline nature of EFB-filled PU was confirmed by x-ray diffratogram and DSC thermogram of glass transition temperature, T g . The x-ray diffraction (XRD) study of the unfilled PU showed a broad amorphous halo, indicative of absence of crystallinity in the polymer, which has been explained as due to strong hydrogen bonding in the hard phase. Overall crystallinity decreases with an increase in the polyester content in agreement with the XRD results. The crystallinity however, increases with the inclusion of EFB in the polyurethane system. This study was followed by the observation of the surface morphologies of the PKO PU foam with and without fillers. The scanning electron micrographs verified the finding on the improved k-factor values. (Author)

  12. PREPARATION OF VARIOUS TYPES OF PULP FROM OIL PALM LIGNOCELLULOSIC RESIDUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RyoheiTanaka; LehCheuPeng; WanRosliWanDaud

    2004-01-01

    Oil palm, Elaeis Guineensis, (Figure 1) is one of the most important plants in Malaysia. It produces palm oil and palm kernel oil, which is widely being used in food and other industries such as detergents and cosmetics. Malaysia is the world's largest producer and exporter of the oil, so that the country's economy is very much dependent on these oil products. Although oil from the palm tree is an excellent product for the country, residues from oil palm have not been used sufficiently. In this 10-15 years, development in new technologies for utilizing this lignocellulosic waste is categorized as one of the most important issues in science policy of Malaysia. Here we would like to introduce recent situation of palm oil and oil palm lignocellulosic residues at the first part of this paper. In the second part, our recent studies on the preparation of pulps for different purposes will be summarized.

  13. Comparing the effects of oil palm kernel shell and cockle shell on properties of pervious concrete pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnaz Khankhaje

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, pervious concrete pavement is one of the best materials used in construction industry as a top layer of permeable pavement system to control the storm water at source. In addition, increasing production of waste materials, increased the interest in utilising the waste materials for environmental and technical benefits. Therefore, this paper compared the effect of using two different sizes of oil palm kernel shell (OPKS and cockleshell (CS as partial replacement of natural coarse aggregate on properties of pervious concrete pavement. Thirteen mixtures were made, in which 6.30-mm natural gravel was replaced with 0, 25, 50 and 75% of 6.30-mm and 4.75-mm of both shells. The relationships between the properties of pervious concrete mixtures was also determined. The replacement of OPKS and CS as the natural aggregate decreased the compressive strength, while the angular shape of both shells caused higher void content and permeability as compared to those of control pervious concrete. On the other hand, pervious concrete containing CS showed better properties than those of incorporating OPKS. Apart from that, strong relationships between density, void content, permeability, compressive strength values indicated that they can be used as a pervious concrete quality control tests for prediction of properties of pervious concrete pavement before placement in the field. Keywords: Pervious concrete pavement, Void content, Permeability, Cockleshell, Palm oil kernel shell

  14. Relationship between fatty acid composition and biodiesel quality for nine commercial palm oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanida Lamaisri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is an alternative fuel consisting of alkyl esters of fatty acids from vegetable oils or animal fats. The fatty acid compositions in the oils used as feedstock can influence quality of the biodiesel. In the present study, oil content and fatty acid composition of mesocarp and kernel oil were examined from nine commercial oil palm Elaeis guineensis cultivars. Saponification number, iodine value and cetane number were calculated from palm oil fatty acid methyl ester compositions. Fruits of tenera oil palm were collected from a farmer’s plantation in Dan Makham Tia District, Kanchanaburi Province in 2009. Variation between cultivars was observed in oil content and fatty acid profile of mesocarp oil rather than kernel oil. The percentage of oil in dry mesocarp ranged from 63.8% to 74.9%. The mesocarp oil composed of 41.5 - 51.6% palmitic acid, 3.58-7.10% stearic acid, 32.8-42.5% oleic acid and 9.3-13.0% linoleic acid. Likewise saponification number, iodine value and cetane number of mesocarp oil fatty acid methyl ester showed more variation among cultivars, ranging from 196.5-198.9, 45.7-54.6 and 61.8-63.6, respectively. While those of kernel oil fatty acid methyl ester showed no different among cultivars, ranging from 229-242, 13.6-16.4 and 65.3-66.5, respectively. The cetane number of fatty acid methyl ester positively correlated with contents of myristic, palmitic and stearic acids in palm oil and saponification number of biodiesel, but negatively correlated with iodine value

  15. Productivity improvement with green approach to palm oil factory productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matondang, N.

    2018-02-01

    The palm oil factory (POF) processes fresh fruit bunches into crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel oil (PKO) by products in the form of liquid and solid waste. One of the solid wastes produced in POF Tanjung Kasau is empty fruit bunches of palm oil (FBPO) which have been burned completely on incinerator tubes so that potentially produces pollutants that pollute the environment. If FBPO waste is managed properly, it will improve the productivity of the company. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct a study to find out how far the increased productivity of the company can reduce their impact on the environment, if FBPO is used as raw material of liquid smoke. The productivity improvement approach is done by Green Productivity concept, by looking at three aspects: environmental, social and economical. Green Productivity aims to protect the environment simultaneously by increasing the productivity of the company. One way is to turn FBPO waste into liquid smoke product is by pyrolysis process. The results showed that turning FBPO solid waste into liquid smoke will increase productivity by 18.18%. Implementation of Green Productivity can improve productivity through the improvement of FBPO waste treatment process which has been done by perfect combustion by pyrolysis process so that waste can be minimized to create environment industry POF clean and friendly environment.

  16. Influence of enzymatic and chemical interesterification on crystallisation properties of refined, bleached and deodourised (RBD) palm oil and RBD palm kernel oil blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norizzah, Abd Rashid; Nur Azimah, Kamarulzaman; Zaliha, Omar

    2018-04-01

    Interesterification reaction involves rearrangement of the fatty acid radicals on the glycerol backbone, either randomly (chemical interesterification) or regioselectivity (enzymatic interesterification). Refined, bleached and deodourised palm oil (RBDPO) and palm kernel oil (RBDPKO) were blended in ratios from 25:75 to 75:25 (wt/wt). All blends were subjected to enzymatic (EI) and chemical interesterification (CI) using Lipozyme TL IM (4% w/w) and sodium methoxide (0.2% m/m) as the catalysts, respectively. The effect of EI and CI on the triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, thermal behaviour, polymorphism, crystal morphology and crystallisation kinetics were studied. The aim of this research is to characterise the nature of crystals in food product for certain desired structure. The crystallisation behaviour discussed in this study involves microstructure (PLM), polymorphism (XRD), thermal properties and crystallisation kinetics by DSC. The alteration in TAG composition was greater after CI as compared to EI with the reduction of LaLaLa (from 11.00% to 5.15%) and POO (from 14.28% to 4.87%). The DSC complete melting and crystallisation temperature of blend with 75% PO increased after CI, from 39.58 °C to 41.67 °C and from -30.84 °C to -28.33 °C, respectively. EI contributed to finer crystals than CI. However, the β' and β polymorph mixture and crystallisation kinetics (n = 2) of PO-PKO blends did not change after CI and EI. The knowledge on controlling crystallisation of RBDPO and RBDPKO blends is vital for proper processing condition like margarine production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of palm kernel fibers (PKFs for production of asbestos-free automotive brake pads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.K. Ikpambese

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, asbestos-free automotive brake pads produced from palm kernel fibers with epoxy-resin binder was evaluated. Resins varied in formulations and properties such as friction coefficient, wear rate, hardness test, porosity, noise level, temperature, specific gravity, stopping time, moisture effects, surface roughness, oil and water absorptions rates, and microstructure examination were investigated. Other basic engineering properties of mechanical overload, thermal deformation fading behaviour shear strength, cracking resistance, over-heat recovery, and effect on rotor disc, caliper pressure, pad grip effect and pad dusting effect were also investigated. The results obtained indicated that the wear rate, coefficient of friction, noise level, temperature, and stopping time of the produced brake pads increased as the speed increases. The results also show that porosity, hardness, moisture content, specific gravity, surface roughness, and oil and water absorption rates remained constant with increase in speed. The result of microstructure examination revealed that worm surfaces were characterized by abrasion wear where the asperities were ploughed thereby exposing the white region of palm kernel fibers, thus increasing the smoothness of the friction materials. Sample S6 with composition of 40% epoxy-resin, 10% palm wastes, 6% Al2O3, 29% graphite, and 15% calcium carbonate gave better properties. The result indicated that palm kernel fibers can be effectively used as a replacement for asbestos in brake pad production.

  18. Optimum drying time for palm nuts for efficient nut cracking in small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Palm kernel, one of the end products of oil palm fruit processing is recovered by the cracking of the palm nuts which is first dried to aid efficient kernel recovery. In small-scale mills palm nuts are air-dried. This paper investigates the optimum drying time necessary for efficient nut cracking. Such factors as wholeness of kernel, ...

  19. Effect of Palm Kernel Cake Replacement and Enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding trial which lasted for twelve weeks was conducted to study the performance of finisher pigs fed five different levels of palm kernel cake replacement for maize (0%, 40%, 40%, 60%, 60%) in a maize-palm kernel cake based ration with or without enzyme supplementation. It was a completely randomized design ...

  20. Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  1. Design and construction of palm kernel cracking and separation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design and construction of palm kernel cracking and separation machines. ... Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Design and construction of palm kernel cracking and separation machines. JO Nordiana, K ...

  2. An experimental investigation to evaluate the heating value of palm oil waste by calorimetry. Paper no. IGEC-1-040

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supeni, E.E.; Megat Mohd, M.H.; Mohd Sapuan, S.; Nor Maria, A.; Ismail, M.Y.; Thoguluva, R.V.; Chuah, T.G.

    2005-01-01

    A palm oil mill produces palm oil and kernel palm oil as main products and biomass residue (fiber and shell). This excess biomass residue can be used as fuel in boilers to meet energy and process heat demand in the industries. Quality of the palm oil waste (POW) is characterized by low fixed carbon and relatively high moisture content which may affect the heating value (HV). By applying the principle of calorimetry, a bomb calorimeter is utilized to evaluate the heating value of POW. From the experimental results, it is found that higher heating value (HHV) varies with the moisture content (MC) and it is observed as a function of MC. (author)

  3. Effect Of Palm Oil Supplementation On The Performance Of Broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 21-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of palm oil supplementation on the performance of broiler starter birds fed palm kernel meal based diets. One hundred and twenty (120) one-week-old Anak broilers were randomly assigned to five (5) treatment diets, each treatment diet was replicated four times at ...

  4. Physico-chemical properties of Moringa oleifera seed oil enzymatically interesterified with palm stearin and palm kernel oil and its potential application in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollah, Sarafhana; Abdulkarim, Sabo Mohammed; Ahmad, Siti Hajar; Khoramnia, Anahita; Mohd Ghazali, Hasanah

    2016-08-01

    High oleic acid Moringa oleifera seed oil (MoO) has been rarely applied in food products due to the low melting point and lack of plasticity. Enzymatic interesterification (EIE) of MoO with palm stearin (PS) and palm kernel oil (PKO) could yield harder fat stocks that may impart desirable nutritional and physical properties. Blends of MoO and PS or PKO were examined for triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, thermal properties and solid fat content (SFC). EIE caused rearrangement of TAGs, reduction of U3 and increase of U2 S in MoO/PS blends while reduction of U3 and S3 following increase of S2 U and U2 S in MoO/PKO blends (U, unsaturated and S, saturated fatty acids). SFC measurements revealed a wide range of plasticity, enhancements of spreadability, mouthfeel and cooling effect for interesterified MoO/PS, indicating the possible application of these blends in margarines. However, interesterified MoO/PKO was not suitable in margarine application, while ice-cream may be formulated from these blends. A soft margarine formulated from MoO/PS 70:30 revealed high oxidative stability during 8 weeks storage with no significant changes in peroxide and p-anisidine values. EIE of fats with MoO allowed nutritional and oxidative stable plastic fats to be obtained, suitable for possible use in industrial food applications. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. proximate and ultimate analysis of fuel pellets from oil palm residues

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    Keywords: Oil Palm Residues, Fuel Pellets, Proximate Analysis, Ultimate Analysis. 1. INTRODUCTION ... Pelletizing of this biomass resources into pellets is a way of ensuring a ... demand for pellets [3], and alternative feed-stocks such as palm kernel ... agro-residues, selection of the best pellets has to be made based on ...

  6. Nutrition quality of extraction mannan residue from palm kernel cake on brolier chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafsin, M.; Hanafi, N. D.; Kejora, E.; Yusraini, E.

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to find out the nutrient residue of palm kernel cake from mannan extraction on broiler chicken by evaluating physical quality (specific gravity, bulk density and compacted bulk density), chemical quality (proximate analysis and Van Soest Test) and biological test (metabolizable energy). Treatment composed of T0 : palm kernel cake extracted aquadest (control), T1 : palm kernel cake extracted acetic acid (CH3COOH) 1%, T2 : palm kernel cake extracted aquadest + mannanase enzyme 100 u/l and T3 : palm kernel cake extracted acetic acid (CH3COOH) 1% + enzyme mannanase 100 u/l. The results showed that mannan extraction had significant effect (P<0.05) in improving the quality of physical and numerically increase the value of crude protein and decrease the value of NDF (Neutral Detergent Fiber). Treatments had highly significant influence (P<0.01) on the metabolizable energy value of palm kernel cake residue in broiler chickens. It can be concluded that extraction with aquadest + enzyme mannanase 100 u/l yields the best nutrient quality of palm kernel cake residue for broiler chicken.

  7. Study on Handing Process and Quality Degradation of Oil Palm Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Sharif, Zainon Binti; Taib, Norhasnina Binti Mohd; Yusof, Mohd Sallehuddin Bin; Rahim, Mohammad Zulafif Bin; Tobi, Abdul Latif Bin Mohd; Othman, Mohd Syafiq Bin

    2017-05-01

    The main objective of this study is to determine the relationship between quality of oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFB) and handling processes. The study employs exploratory and descriptive design, with quantitative approach and purposive sampling using self-administrated questionnaires, were obtained from 30 smallholder respondents from the Southern Region, Peninsular Malaysia. The study reveals that there was a convincing relationship between quality of oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFB) and handling processes. The main handling process factors influencing quality of oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFB) were harvesting activity and handling at the plantation area. As a result, it can be deduced that the handling process factors variable explains 82.80% of the variance that reflects the quality of oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFB). The overall findings reveal that the handling process factors do play a significant role in the quality of oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFB).

  8. Life cycle energy efficiency and potentials of biodiesel production from palm oil in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papong, Seksan; Chom-In, Tassaneewan; Noksa-nga, Soottiwan

    2010-01-01

    Biodiesel production from palm oil has been considered one of the most promising renewable resources for transportation fuel in Thailand. The objective of this study was to analyze the energy performance and potential of the palm oil methyl ester (PME) production in Thailand. The PME system was divided into four stages: the oil palm plantation, transportation, crude palm oil (CPO) production, and transesterification into biodiesel. The results showed that the highest fossil-based energy consumption was in the transesterification process, followed by the plantation, transportation, and CPO production. A net energy value and net energy ratio (NER) of 24.0 MJ/FU and 2.5, respectively, revealed that the PME system was quite energy efficient. In addition, if all the by-products from the CPO production (such as empty fruit branches, palm kernel shells, and biogas) were considered in terms of energy sources, the NER would be more than 3.0. The PME can be a viable substitute for diesel and can decrease the need for oil imports. Based on B100 demand in 2008, PME can be substituted for 478 million liters of diesel. Moreover, with palm oil output potential and B5 implementation, it can be substituted for 1134 million liters of diesel. (author)

  9. Water scarcity and oil palm expansion: social views and environmental processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Merten

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Conversions of natural ecosystems, e.g., from rain forests to managed plantations, result in significant changes in the hydrological cycle including periodic water scarcity. In Indonesia, large areas of forest were lost and extensive oil palm plantations were established over the last decades. We conducted a combined social and environmental study in a region of recent land-use change, the Jambi Province on Sumatra. The objective was to derive complementary lines of arguments to provide balanced insights into environmental perceptions and eco-hydrological processes accompanying land-use change. Interviews with villagers highlighted concerns regarding decreasing water levels in wells during dry periods and increasing fluctuations in stream flow between rainy and dry periods. Periodic water scarcity was found to severely impact livelihoods, which increased social polarization. Sap flux measurements on forest trees and oil palms indicate that oil palm plantations use as much water as forests for transpiration. Eddy covariance analyses of evapotranspiration over oil palm point to substantial additional sources of evaporation in oil palm plantations such as the soil and epiphytes. Stream base flow from a catchment dominated by oil palms was lower than from a catchment dominated by rubber plantations; both showed high peaks after rainfall. An estimate of erosion indicated approximately 30 cm of topsoil loss after forest conversion to both oil palm and rubber plantations. Analyses of climatic variables over the last 20 years and of a standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index for the last century suggested that droughts are recurrent in the area, but have not increased in frequency or intensity. Consequently, we assume that conversions of rain forest ecosystems to oil palm plantations lead to a redistribution of precipitated water by runoff, which leads to the reported periodic water scarcity. Our combined social and environmental approach

  10. Use of palm kernel cake for animal feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuprasert, S.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Palm kernel cake (PKC, a by-product from the palm-oil industry, has the potential for use as a feed ingredient. Crude protein, fiber and metabolizable energy contents of PKC are 12-18%, 18-13% and 1,940- 2,490 kcal/kg, respectively. Availability of amino acid in PKC are approximately 60-70% for chickens and 65-70% for pigs. With fat supplementation, PKC can be used up to 20% in broiler diet and can be increased to 30-40% with further addition of methionine and lysine. For the diets of pullets and laying hen, PKC can be used 30% and 20% respectively if supplemented with fat, methionine and lysine. PKC can be used 30% in diet for grower (30-60 kg and 50% in diet for finisher pigs (60-90 kg., respectively, if supplemented with lysine and cane molasses.

  11. Drying Shrinkage of Mortar Incorporating High Volume Oil Palm Biomass Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukor Lim, Nor Hasanah Abdul; Samadi, Mostafa; Rahman Mohd. Sam, Abdul; Khalid, Nur Hafizah Abd; Nabilah Sarbini, Noor; Farhayu Ariffin, Nur; Warid Hussin, Mohd; Ismail, Mohammed A.

    2018-03-01

    This paper studies the drying shrinkage of mortar incorporating oil palm biomass waste including Palm Oil Fuel Ash, Oil Palm Kernel Shell and Oil Palm Fibre. Nano size of palm oil fuel ash was used up to 80 % as cement replacement by weight. The ash has been treated to improve the physical and chemical properties of mortar. The mass ratio of sand to blended ashes was 3:1. The test was carried out using 25 × 25 × 160 mm prism for drying shrinkage tests and 70 × 70 ×70 mm for compressive strength test. The results show that the shrinkage value of biomass mortar is reduced by 31% compared with OPC mortar thus, showing better performance in restraining deformation of the mortar while the compressive strength increased by 24% compared with OPC mortar at later age. The study gives a better understanding of how the biomass waste affect on mortar compressive strength and drying shrinkage behaviour. Overall, the oil palm biomass waste can be used to produce a better performance mortar at later age in terms of compressive strength and drying shrinkage.

  12. Oil palm natural diversity and the potential for yield improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Edson; Rios, Sara de Almeida; Cunha, Raimundo N V; Lopes, Ricardo; Motoike, Sérgio Y; Babiychuk, Elena; Skirycz, Aleksandra; Kushnir, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    African oil palm has the highest productivity amongst cultivated oleaginous crops. Species can constitute a single crop capable to fulfill the growing global demand for vegetable oils, which is estimated to reach 240 million tons by 2050. Two types of vegetable oil are extracted from the palm fruit on commercial scale. The crude palm oil and kernel palm oil have different fatty acid profiles, which increases versatility of the crop in industrial applications. Plantations of the current varieties have economic life-span around 25-30 years and produce fruits around the year. Thus, predictable annual palm oil supply enables marketing plans and adjustments in line with the economic forecasts. Oil palm cultivation is one of the most profitable land uses in the humid tropics. Oil palm fruits are the richest plant source of pro-vitamin A and vitamin E. Hence, crop both alleviates poverty, and could provide a simple practical solution to eliminate global pro-vitamin A deficiency. Oil palm is a perennial, evergreen tree adapted to cultivation in biodiversity rich equatorial land areas. The growing demand for the palm oil threatens the future of the rain forests and has a large negative impact on biodiversity. Plant science faces three major challenges to make oil palm the key element of building the future sustainable world. The global average yield of 3.5 tons of oil per hectare (t) should be raised to the full yield potential estimated at 11-18t. The tree architecture must be changed to lower labor intensity and improve mechanization of the harvest. Oil composition should be tailored to the evolving needs of the food, oleochemical and fuel industries. The release of the oil palm reference genome sequence in 2013 was the key step toward this goal. The molecular bases of agronomically important traits can be and are beginning to be understood at the single base pair resolution, enabling gene-centered breeding and engineering of this remarkable crop.

  13. Oil palm natural diversity and the potential for yield improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson eBarcelos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available African oil palm has the highest productivity amongst cultivated oleaginous crops. Species can constitute a single crop capable to fulfil the growing global demand for vegetable oils, which is estimated to reach 240 million tons by 2050. Two types of vegetable oil are extracted from the palm fruit on commercial scale. The crude palm oil and kernel palm oil have different fatty acid profiles, which increases versatility of the crop in industrial applications. Plantations of the current varieties have economic life-span around 25-30 years and produce fruits around the year. Thus, predictable annual palm oil supply enables marketing plans and adjustments in line with the economic forecasts. Oil palm cultivation is one of the most profitable land uses in the humid tropics. Oil palm fruits are the richest plant source of pro-vitamin A and vitamin E. Hence, crop both alleviates poverty, and could provide a simple practical solution to eliminate global pro-vitamin A deficiency. Oil palm is a perennial, evergreen tree adapted to cultivation in biodiversity rich equatorial land areas. The growing demand for the palm oil threatens the future of the rain forests and has a large negative impact on biodiversity. Plant science faces three major challenges to make oil palm the key element of building the future sustainable world. The global average yield of 3.5 tons of oil per hectare (t should be raised to the full yield potential estimated at 11-18t. The tree architecture must be changed to lower labor intensity and improve mechanization of the harvest. Oil composition should be tailored to the evolving needs of the food, oleochemical and fuel industries. The release of the oil palm reference genome sequence in 2013 was the key step towards this goal. The molecular bases of agronomically important traits can be and are beginning to be understood at the single base pair resolution, enabling gene-centered breeding and engineering of this remarkable crop.

  14. Oil palm natural diversity and the potential for yield improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Edson; Rios, Sara de Almeida; Cunha, Raimundo N. V.; Lopes, Ricardo; Motoike, Sérgio Y.; Babiychuk, Elena; Skirycz, Aleksandra; Kushnir, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    African oil palm has the highest productivity amongst cultivated oleaginous crops. Species can constitute a single crop capable to fulfill the growing global demand for vegetable oils, which is estimated to reach 240 million tons by 2050. Two types of vegetable oil are extracted from the palm fruit on commercial scale. The crude palm oil and kernel palm oil have different fatty acid profiles, which increases versatility of the crop in industrial applications. Plantations of the current varieties have economic life-span around 25–30 years and produce fruits around the year. Thus, predictable annual palm oil supply enables marketing plans and adjustments in line with the economic forecasts. Oil palm cultivation is one of the most profitable land uses in the humid tropics. Oil palm fruits are the richest plant source of pro-vitamin A and vitamin E. Hence, crop both alleviates poverty, and could provide a simple practical solution to eliminate global pro-vitamin A deficiency. Oil palm is a perennial, evergreen tree adapted to cultivation in biodiversity rich equatorial land areas. The growing demand for the palm oil threatens the future of the rain forests and has a large negative impact on biodiversity. Plant science faces three major challenges to make oil palm the key element of building the future sustainable world. The global average yield of 3.5 tons of oil per hectare (t) should be raised to the full yield potential estimated at 11–18t. The tree architecture must be changed to lower labor intensity and improve mechanization of the harvest. Oil composition should be tailored to the evolving needs of the food, oleochemical and fuel industries. The release of the oil palm reference genome sequence in 2013 was the key step toward this goal. The molecular bases of agronomically important traits can be and are beginning to be understood at the single base pair resolution, enabling gene-centered breeding and engineering of this remarkable crop. PMID:25870604

  15. Trends and Effective Use of Energy Input in the Palm Kernel Oil Mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamgboye, AI.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at studying the importance and the efficiency of energy use in a few palm kernel oil mills selected for their representativity. Pattern of energy use, the cost of energy per unit product, energy intensity and normalized performance indicator (NPI were determined. Results show that the medium and the large mills depend largely on fossil fuel; while the small mill depends on electricity. It was found out that the large mill has the most effective use of energy with high energy intensity. The annual cost of energy per unit product of N8,360,000 ($64,307.69; N12,262,250 ($94,325 and N13,353,870 ($102, 722.08 were obtained for small, medium and large mills respectively. The NPI results show that there was no wastage of energy through space heating in energy supplied for production within the factory site.

  16. The oil palm Shell gene controls oil yield and encodes a homologue of SEEDSTICK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajinder; Leslie Low, Eng-Ti; Ooi, Leslie Cheng-Li; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina; Chin, Ting Ngoot; Nagappan, Jayanthi; Nookiah, Rajanaidu; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; Rosli, Rozana; Abdul Manaf, Mohamad Arif; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Halim, Mohd Amin; Azizi, Norazah; Lakey, Nathan; Smith, Steven W; Budiman, Muhammad A; Hogan, Michael; Bacher, Blaire; Van Brunt, Andrew; Wang, Chunyan; Ordway, Jared M; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Martienssen, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    A key event in the domestication and breeding of the oil palm, Elaeis guineensis, was loss of the thick coconut-like shell surrounding the kernel. Modern E. guineensis has three fruit forms, dura (thick-shelled), pisifera (shell-less) and tenera (thin-shelled), a hybrid between dura and pisifera1–4. The pisifera palm is usually female-sterile but the tenera yields far more oil than dura, and is the basis for commercial palm oil production in all of Southeast Asia5. Here, we describe the mapping and identification of the Shell gene responsible for the different fruit forms. Using homozygosity mapping by sequencing we found two independent mutations in the DNA binding domain of a homologue of the MADS-box gene SEEDSTICK (STK) which controls ovule identity and seed development in Arabidopsis. The Shell gene is responsible for the tenera phenotype in both cultivated and wild palms from sub-Saharan Africa, and our findings provide a genetic explanation for the single gene heterosis attributed to Shell, via heterodimerization. This gene mutation explains the single most important economic trait in oil palm, and has implications for the competing interests of global edible oil production, biofuels and rainforest conservation6. PMID:23883930

  17. Replacement Value of Palm Kernel Meal for Maize on Carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing maize with palm kernel meal on nutrient composition, fatty acid profile and sensory qualities of the meat of turkeys fed the dietary treatments. Six dietary treatments were formulated using palm kernel meal to replace maize at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 percent.

  18. Feeding behavior of lactating cows fed palm kernel cake in the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidiane Reis Pimentel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of including of palm kernel cake on feeding behavior of lactating crossbred cows. Twelve crossbred Holstein x Zebu cows were distributed in three 4 x 4 latin squares, with the following treatments: control; inclusion of 5%; inclusion of 10%; inclusion of 15% palm kernel cake in the diet dry matter. The animals were observed during four periods as to feeding behavior, 24 hours in each period. There was no effect of inclusion of palm kernel cake (p > 0.05 on time spent on eating, ruminating and idling. The feeding efficiencies of dry matter and corrected neutral detergent fiber, total digestible nutrients, and the rumination efficiency of corrected neutral detergent fiber were not influenced (p > 0.05. There was a linear increase with the inclusion of palm kernel cake (p 0.05. The inclusion of palm kernel cake in diets for dairy cows causes no change in behavior activities and efficiencies of feeding and rumination, until the 15% level of inclusion.

  19. Microwave heat treatment as a substitute for conventional treatment of palm oil fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mujahid H Al-Fayadh; Nor Azura Masabbir Ali

    1996-01-01

    Microwave energy has become a sound method of heat treatment because of its high penetration power, cleanliness and possible economic significance. In this research, microwave heat was used as a substitute for conventional blanching method of palm oil fruits. Microwave treatment at 2450 MHz and 800 watts gave very close color and frn,frying characteristics to oil of blanched fruits after one minute exposure time. However, five minutes of microwave heat gave severe husk oil discoloration after 49 hours of deep frying, compared to all oils extracted from fruits treated by either low, microwave exposure time or conventional steam treatment. Kernel oil, after five minutes of microwave treatment, was less discolored than both steam or microwave-treated fruits for one minute. More carotenes and discoloration compounds may be contributed to discoloration during microwave treatments. Oil chemical constants of both husk and kernel oils treated by microwave heat were close to those treated by conventional heat. Further research is needed to investigate detailed oil characteristics and evaluate the feasibility study for using microwave energy, as a substitute for conventional heat in palm oil industry

  20. Nutritional value of high fiber co-products from the copra, palm kernel, and rice industries in diets fed to pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Hans Henrik; Casas, Gloria Amparo; Abelilla, Jerubella Jerusalem; Liu, Yanhong; Sulabo, Rommel Casilda

    2015-01-01

    High fiber co-products from the copra and palm kernel industries are by-products of the production of coconut oil and palm kernel oil. The co-products include copra meal, copra expellers, palm kernel meal, and palm kernel expellers. All 4 ingredients are very high in fiber and the energy value is relatively low when fed to pigs. The protein concentration is between 14 and 22 % and the protein has a low biological value and a very high Arg:Lys ratio. Digestibility of most amino acids is less than in soybean meal but close to that in corn. However, the digestibility of Lys is sometimes low due to Maillard reactions that are initiated due to overheating during drying. Copra and palm kernel ingredients contain 0.5 to 0.6 % P. Most of the P in palm kernel meal and palm kernel expellers is bound to phytate, but in copra products less than one third of the P is bound to phytate. The digestibility of P is, therefore, greater in copra meal and copra expellers than in palm kernel ingredients. Inclusion of copra meal should be less than 15 % in diets fed to weanling pigs and less than 25 % in diets for growing-finishing pigs. Palm kernel meal may be included by 15 % in diets for weanling pigs and 25 % in diets for growing and finishing pigs. Rice bran contains the pericarp and aleurone layers of brown rice that is removed before polished rice is produced. Rice bran contains approximately 25 % neutral detergent fiber and 25 to 30 % starch. Rice bran has a greater concentration of P than most other plant ingredients, but 75 to 90 % of the P is bound in phytate. Inclusion of microbial phytase in the diets is, therefore, necessary if rice bran is used. Rice bran may contain 15 to 24 % fat, but it may also have been defatted in which case the fat concentration is less than 5 %. Concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) are slightly less in full fat rice bran than in corn, but defatted rice bran contains less than 75 % of the DE and ME in

  1. Kinetic study of Chromium VI adsorption onto palm kernel shell activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Masita; Sadeghi Louyeh, Shiva; Yaakob, Zahira

    2018-04-01

    Heavy metal contamination of industrial effluent is one of the significant environmental problems due to their toxicity and its accumulation throughout the food chain. Adsorption is one of the promising methods for removal of heavy metals from aqua solution because of its simple technique, efficient, reliable and low-cost due to the utilization of residue from the agricultural industry. In this study, activated carbon from palm kernel shells has been produced through chemical activation process using zinc chloride as an activating agent and carbonized at 800 °C. Palm kernel shell activated carbon, PAC was assessed for its efficiency to remove Chromium (VI) ions from aqueous solutions through a batch adsorption process. The kinetic mechanisms have been analysed using Lagergren first-order kinetics model, second-order kinetics model and intra-particle diffusion model. The characterizations such as BET surface area, surface morphology, SEM-EDX have been done. The result shows that the activation process by ZnCl2 was successfully improved the porosity and modified the functional group of palm kernel shell. The result shows that the maximum adsorption capacity of Cr is 11.40mg/g at 30ppm initial metal ion concentration and 0.1g/50mL of adsorbent concentration. The adsorption process followed the pseudo second orders kinetic model.

  2. Study of activity based costing implementation for palm oil production using value-added and non-value-added activity consideration in PT XYZ palm oil mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembiring, M. T.; Wahyuni, D.; Sinaga, T. S.; Silaban, A.

    2018-02-01

    Cost allocation at manufacturing industry particularly in Palm Oil Mill still widely practiced based on estimation. It leads to cost distortion. Besides, processing time determined by company is not in accordance with actual processing time in work station. Hence, the purpose of this study is to eliminates non-value-added activities therefore processing time could be shortened and production cost could be reduced. Activity Based Costing Method is used in this research to calculate production cost with Value Added and Non-Value-Added Activities consideration. The result of this study is processing time decreasing for 35.75% at Weighting Bridge Station, 29.77% at Sorting Station, 5.05% at Loading Ramp Station, and 0.79% at Sterilizer Station. Cost of Manufactured for Crude Palm Oil are IDR 5.236,81/kg calculated by Traditional Method, IDR 4.583,37/kg calculated by Activity Based Costing Method before implementation of Activity Improvement and IDR 4.581,71/kg after implementation of Activity Improvement Meanwhile Cost of Manufactured for Palm Kernel are IDR 2.159,50/kg calculated by Traditional Method, IDR 4.584,63/kg calculated by Activity Based Costing Method before implementation of Activity Improvement and IDR 4.582,97/kg after implementation of Activity Improvement.

  3. Interactions in interesterified palm and palm kernel oils mixtures. II – Microscopy and Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimaldi, Renato

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil (PO and palm kernel oil (PKO compositions (100/0, 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60, 20/80 and 0/100 were interesterified in laboratory scale under predetermined conditions (0.4% sodium metoxide, 20 minutes, 100ºC. The fourteen samples, before and after interesterification, were characterized by Polarized Light Microscopy and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC. Results showed the effect of various factors on the form and width of crystals. The mean area of crystals revealed the increase of crystals when PKO was added, with values varying from 2.7 x 10E3 µm2 to PO and 1.8 x 10E6 µm2 to PKO. After interesterification, the crystal widths were lower at PO/PKO 100/0, 80/20, 60/40, 20/80 fractions and were higher to anothers. The beta-prime polimorphic form was observed in the pure palm oil sample. The results showed in melting curves, onset values from –19.6ºC to more unsaturated peaks until 20.7ºC to more saturated ones. The higher values to more saturated peak in a melting curve to palm oil, 38.7 J.g-1 before and 48.4 J.g-1 after interesterification, showed a mores table saturated group. I n a genera l way, t h e interesterification promoted an increase of crystallization rate and a better compatibility between PO/PKO fractions.Fueron interesterificados en el laboratorio mezclas de aceite de palma (PO y aceite de palmiste (PKO en diferentes proporciones (100/0, 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60, 20/80 y 0/100 bajo condiciones predeterminadas (0.4% metoxido de sodio, 20 minutos, 100ºC. Las catorce muestras fueron caracterizadas antes y después de la interesterificación por Microscopía de Luz Polarizada y por Calorimetría Diferencial de Barrido (DSC. Los resultados mostraron el efecto de varios factores sobre la forma y anchura de los cristales. El área media de los cristales revela el aumento de tamaño de los mismos cuando aumenta la proporción de PKO, con valores que varían entre 2.7 x 10E3 µm2 para PO y 1.8 x 10E

  4. Chemical composition of Chinese palm fruit and chemical properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... chemical properties and could be used as edible oils and for industrial applications. ... on it, which can provide useful information for Chinese oil palm industry. Key words: Chemical composition, palm fruit, palm oil, palm kernel oil, chemical ...

  5. A Survey on the Usage of Biomass Wastes from Palm Oil Mills on Sustainable Development of Oil Palm Plantations in Sarawak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phang, K. Y.; Lau, S. W.

    2017-06-01

    As one of the world’s largest palm oil producers and exporters, Malaysia is committed to sustainable management of this industry to address the emerging environmental challenges. This descriptive study aims to evaluate the oil palm planters’ opinions regarding the usage of biomass wastes from palm oil mills and its impact on sustainable development of oil palm plantations in Sarawak. 253 planters across Sarawak were approached for their opinions about the usage of empty fruit bunch (EFB), palm oil mill effluent (POME), mesocarp fibre (MF), and palm kernel shell (PKS). This study revealed that the planters had generally higher agreement on the beneficial application of EFB and POME in oil palm plantations. This could be seen from the higher means of agreement rating of 3.64 - 4.22 for EFB and POME, compared with the rating of 3.19 - 3.41 for MF and PKS in the 5-point Likert scale (with 5 being the strongest agreement). Besides, 94.7 percent of the planters’ companies were found to comply with the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) requirements where nearly 38 percent carried out the EIA practice twice a year. Therefore high means of agreement were correlated to the compliance of environmental regulations, recording a Likert rating of 3.89 to 4.31. Lastly, the usage of EFB and POME also gained higher Likert scale point of 3.76 to 4.17 against MF and PKS of 3.34 to 3.49 in the evaluation of the impact of sustainability in oil palm plantations. The planters agreed that the usage of EFB and POME has reduced the environmental impact and improved the sustainable development, and its application has been improved and increased by research and development. However the planters were uncertain of the impact of usage of biomass wastes with respect to the contribution to social responsibility and company image in terms of transparency in waste management.

  6. Extraction process of palm kernel cake as a source of mannan for feed additive on poultry diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafsin, M.; Hanafi, N. D.; Yusraini, E.

    2017-05-01

    Palm Kernel Cake (PKC) is a by-product of palm kernel oil extraction and found in large quantity in Indonesia. The inclusion of PKC on poultry diet are limited due to some nutritional problems such as anti-nutritional properties (mannan). On the other hand, mannan containing polysaccharides play in various biological functions particularly in enhancing the immune response and to control pathogen in poultry. The research objective to find out the extraction process of PKC and conducted at animal nutrition and Feed Science Laboratory, Agricultural Faculty, University of Sumatera Utara. Various extraction methode were used in this experiment, including fraction analysis used 7 number sieves, and followed by water and acetic acid extraction. The result indicated that PKC had different particle size according to sieve size and dominated by particle size 850 um. The analysis of sugar content indicated that each particle size had different characteristic on treatment by hot water extraction. The particle size 180—850 um had higher sugar content than coarse PKC (2000—3000 um). The total sugar content were recovered vary between 0.9—3,2% from PKC were extracted. Treatment grinding method followed by hot water extraction (100—120 °C, 1 h) increased total sugar content than previous treatments and reach 8% from PKC were extracted. Utilisation acetic acid decreased the total amount of total sugar from PKC were extracted. It is concluded that treatment by hot temperature (110—120 °C) for 1 h show highest yield to extract sugar from PKC.

  7. The Feasibility of Palm Kernel Shell as a Replacement for Coarse Aggregate in Lightweight Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itam, Zarina; Beddu, Salmia; Liyana Mohd Kamal, Nur; Ashraful Alam, Md; Issa Ayash, Usama

    2016-03-01

    Implementing sustainable materials into the construction industry is fast becoming a trend nowadays. Palm Kernel Shell is a by-product of Malaysia’s palm oil industry, generating waste as much as 4 million tons per annum. As a means of producing a sustainable, environmental-friendly, and affordable alternative in the lightweight concrete industry, the exploration of the potential of Palm Kernel Shell to be used as an aggregate replacement was conducted which may give a positive impact to the Malaysian construction industry as well as worldwide concrete usage. This research investigates the feasibility of PKS as an aggregate replacement in lightweight concrete in terms of compressive strength, slump test, water absorption, and density. Results indicate that by using PKS for aggregate replacement, it increases the water absorption but decreases the concrete workability and strength. Results however, fall into the range acceptable for lightweight aggregates, hence it can be concluded that there is potential to use PKS as aggregate replacement for lightweight concrete.

  8. Oil palm genome sequence reveals divergence of interfertile species in old and new worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajinder; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina; Low, Eng-Ti Leslie; Manaf, Mohamad Arif Abdul; Rosli, Rozana; Nookiah, Rajanaidu; Ooi, Leslie Cheng-Li; Ooi, Siew–Eng; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Halim, Mohd Amin; Azizi, Norazah; Nagappan, Jayanthi; Bacher, Blaire; Lakey, Nathan; Smith, Steven W; He, Dong; Hogan, Michael; Budiman, Muhammad A; Lee, Ernest K; DeSalle, Rob; Kudrna, David; Goicoechea, Jose Louis; Wing, Rod; Wilson, Richard K; Fulton, Robert S; Ordway, Jared M; Martienssen, Robert A; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi

    2013-01-01

    Oil palm is the most productive oil-bearing crop. Planted on only 5% of the total vegetable oil acreage, palm oil accounts for 33% of vegetable oil, and 45% of edible oil worldwide, but increased cultivation competes with dwindling rainforest reserves. We report the 1.8 gigabase (Gb) genome sequence of the African oil palm Elaeis guineensis, the predominant source of worldwide oil production. 1.535 Gb of assembled sequence and transcriptome data from 30 tissue types were used to predict at least 34,802 genes, including oil biosynthesis genes and homologues of WRINKLED1 (WRI1), and other transcriptional regulators1, which are highly expressed in the kernel. We also report the draft sequence of the S. American oil palm Elaeis oleifera, which has the same number of chromosomes (2n=32) and produces fertile interspecific hybrids with E. guineensis2, but appears to have diverged in the new world. Segmental duplications of chromosome arms define the palaeotetraploid origin of palm trees. The oil palm sequence enables the discovery of genes for important traits as well as somaclonal epigenetic alterations which restrict the use of clones in commercial plantings3, and thus helps achieve sustainability for biofuels and edible oils, reducing the rainforest footprint of this tropical plantation crop. PMID:23883927

  9. PALM KERNEL OIL SOLUBITY EXAMINATION AND ITS MODELING IN EXTRACTION PROCESS USING SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Bahari Setianto

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Application of  supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 to vegetable oil extraction became an attractive technique due to its high solubility, short extraction time and simple purification. The method is considered as earth friendly technology due to the absence of chemical usage. Solubility of solute-SC-CO2 is an important data for application of the SC-CO2 extraction. In this work, the equilibrium solubility of the palm kernel oil (PKO in SC-CO2 has been examined using extraction curve analysis. The examinations were performed at temperature and pressure ranges of  323.15 K to 353.15 K and 20.7 to 34.5 MPa respectively. It was obtained that the experimental solubility were from 0.0160 to 0.0503 g oil/g CO2 depend on the extraction condition. The experimental solubility data was well correlated with a solvent density based model with absolute percent deviation of 0.96. PENENTUAN KELARUTAN MINYAK INTI KELAPA SAWIT DAN PEMODELAN EKSTRAKSI DENGAN KARBON DIOKSIDA SUPERKRITIK. Sehubungan dengan kelarutan yang tinggi, waktu ekstraksi yang pendek dan pemurnian hasil yang mudah, aplikasi karbon dioksida superkritis (SC-CO2 pada ekstraksi minyak nabati menjadi sebuah teknik ekstraksi yang menarik. Karena tanpa penggunaan bahan kimia, metode ekstraksi ini dianggap sebagai teknologi yang ramah lingkungan. Kelarutan zat terlarut pada SC-CO2 merupakan data yang penting dalam aplikasi SC-CO2 pada proses ekstraksi.  Pada penelitian ini,  kelarutan kesetimbangan dari minyak biji sawit (PKO dalam SC-CO2 telah diuji dengan mengunakan analisa kurva proses ekstraksi. Pengujian kelarutan tersebut dilakukan pada rentang suhu 323,15 K sampai 353,15 K dan rentang tekanan 20,7 MPa sampai 34,5 MPa. Hasil analisa menunjukkan bahwa kelarutan kesetimbangan hasil percobaan  PKO pada SC-CO2 adalah 0.0160 g minyak/g CO2 sampai 0,0503 g minyak/g CO2 tergantung pada kondisi ekstraksi. Data kelarutan kesetimbangan hasil percobaan  telah dikorelasaikan dengan baik menggunakan

  10. Simple Arm Muscle Model for Oil Palm Harvesting Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Aliff

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Arm are essential in order to perform manual material handling work that normally involves lifting, handling, placing, push and pull, carrying and moving heavy loads. When these work elements are performed over prolonged periods repeatedly, it will expose workers arm to awkward posture and possible ergonomic risk factor. For example, work element that requires repetitions frequently may lead the arm to face physical stress and mental fatigue. The situation can be extremely risky if the worker task requires higher focus or time consumable. These issues are unavoidable in palm oil harvesting process since the workers are still using manual handling when harvesting the fresh fruit bunch (FFB. The worker using a chisel to harvest the young palms and a sickle mounted on a bamboo or aluminum pole to harvest taller palms. When perform this work element combining with heavy physical workload, it may lead to work-related muscle disorders (WSMDs. This study was conducted to identify the force reaction and inverse dynamic analysis during oil palm harvesting process using ergonomics software called Anybody Technology. Inverse dynamic analysis is a technique for figuring strengths and/or moments of power (torques taking into account the kinematics (movement of a body and the body’s inertial properties.

  11. Economic potential of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Sierra Márquez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to highlight the economic importance of the optimal use of products and byproducts of oil palm. In Colombia, productive crops per hectare can generate, over one year, an average of 3.14 tons of oil, and up to 21.68 t of solid and liquid waste when the plant is on a productive stage. These data allowed the researcher to estimate that more than nine million of t of solid and liquid waste was produced from the 450 131 ha present in 2014, in Colombia; the produced biomass was used to generate energy and steam, releasing carbon dioxide back again into the environment. These residues have great potential in many industries, some to be developed, therefore, it is of special importance to try to maximize the use of waste produced by oil palm production, to generate economic and environmental benefits. An example of this is the palm kernel cake, with a nutritional potential in animal feed, fiber in the biocompound industry, biomass and stipe in the timber industry, glycerol, biodiesel, and liquid effluents in the chemical and biotechnological industry. The use of these raw materials may help to establish a positive balance in the cultivation of this species of oil palm in the country.

  12. THE STUDY ON IN VITRO DIGESTIBILITY OF SOAKED PALM OIL FIBER BY FILTRATED PALM OIL FRUIT BUNCH ASH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari L. Darmawan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil fiber has its potency as feed fiber source for ruminant, but contains high lignin and causes limited digestibility. This research was carried out to find the effect of soaking palm oil fiber in filtrated palm oil fruit bunch ash (FPOFBA on in vitro digestibility. This experiment used a completely randomized design that repeated for 4times. Palm oil fruit bunch ash was mixed in water and entered into container for 24 hours within concentrations, consists of: 50, 100, 150 and 200 g/L. Moreover, this filtrate used to soak palm oil fiber for 3 hours. The processed products were analyzed for their level of lignin and crude fiber. Meanwhile, in vitro test was used to measure digestibility. It showed that soaking in filtrated palm oil fruit bunch ash gave significant effect to decrease level of lignin and crude fiber (P0.05, such as 23.48 and 24.12% as well as 16.70 and 17.06 % in each. It can be concluded that soaked palm oil fiber with 150 g/L concentration of filtrated palm oil fruit bunch ash was more effective in improving digestibility.

  13. Preparation and characterization of active carbon using palm kernel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Activated carbons were prepared from Palm kernel shells. Carbonization temperature was 6000C, at a residence time of 5 min for each process. Chemical activation was done by heating a mixture of carbonized material and the activating agents at a temperature of 700C to form a paste, followed by subsequent cooling and ...

  14. Characteristics of bio-oil from the pyrolysis of palm kernel shell in a newly developed two-stage pyrolyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Seung-Jin; Choi, Gyung-Goo; Kim, Joo-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Pyrolysis of palm kernel shell was performed using a two-stage pyrolyzer consisting of an auger reactor and a fluidized bed reactor within the auger reactor temperature range of ∼290–380 °C at the fluidized bed reactor temperature of ∼520 °C, and with a variable residence time of the feed material in the auger reactor. The highest bio-oil yield of the two-stage pyrolysis was ∼56 wt%. The bio-oil derived from the auger reactor contained degradation products of the hemicelluloses of PKS, such as acetic acid, and furfural, whereas the fluidized bed reactor produced a bio-oil with high concentrations of acetic acid and phenol. The auger reactor temperature and the residence time of PKS in the auger reactor had an influence on the acetic acid concentration in the bio-oil, while their changes did not induce an observable trend on the phenol concentration in the bio-oil derived from the fluidized bed reactor. The maximum concentrations of acetic acid and phenol in bio-oil were ∼78 and 12 wt% dry basis, respectively. As a result, it was possible for the two-stage pyrolyzer to separately produce two different bio-oils in one operation without any costly fractionation process of bio-oils. - Highlights: • The two-stage pyrolyzer is composed of an auger and a fluidized bed reactor. • The two-stage pyrolyzer produced two different bio-oils in a single operation. • The maximum bio-oil yield of the two-stage pyrolysis was ∼56 wt%. • The maximum concentration of acetic acid in bio-oil was ∼78 wt% dry basis. • The maximum concentration of phenol in bio-oil was ∼12 wt% dry basis.

  15. Characterizing haploinsufficiency of SHELL gene to improve fruit form prediction in introgressive hybrids of oil palm

    OpenAIRE

    Teh, Chee Keng; Muaz, Siti Dalila; Tangaya, Praveena; Fong, Po-Yee; Ong, Ai Ling; Mayes, Sean; Chew, Fook Tim; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna; Appleton, David Ross

    2017-01-01

    The fundamental trait in selective breeding of oil palm (Eleais guineensis Jacq.) is the shell thickness surrounding the kernel. The monogenic shell thickness is inversely correlated to mesocarp thickness, where the crude palm oil accumulates. Commercial thin-shelled tenera derived from thick-shelled dura???shell-less pisifera generally contain 30% higher oil per bunch. Two mutations, sh MPOB (M1) and sh AVROS (M2) in the SHELL gene ? a type II MADS-box transcription factor mainly present in ...

  16. Declining Yield of Oil Palm: A case study of Four Oil Palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates the achievable yield and extent of oil palm yield decline over time in four large oil palm plantations in Nigeria and Cameroon. In Nigeria the highest achieved palm oil yield was 2.64 tonnes per hectare for 9-year-old palms in one of the plantations studied. By the eighteenth year, the yield had ...

  17. Effect of Acrocomia aculeata Kernel Oil on Adiposity in Type 2 Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Ângela A; Buccini, Danieli F; Jaques, Jeandre A S; Portugal, Luciane C; Guimarães, Rita C A; Favaro, Simone P; Caldas, Ruy A; Carvalho, Cristiano M E

    2018-03-01

    The macauba palm (Acrocomia aculeata) is native of tropical America and is found mostly in the Cerrados and Pantanal biomes. The fruits provide an oily pulp, rich in long chain fatty acids, and a kernel that encompass more than 50% of lipids rich in medium chain fatty acids (MCFA). Based on biochemical and nutritional evidences MCFA is readily catabolized and can reduce body fat accumulation. In this study, an animal model was employed to evaluate the effect of Acrocomia aculeata kernel oil (AKO) on the blood glucose level and the fatty acid deposit in the epididymal adipose tissue. The A. aculeata kernel oil obtained by cold pressing presented suitable quality as edible oil. Its fatty acid profile indicates high concentration of MCFA, mainly lauric, capric and caprilic. Type 2 diabetic rats fed with that kernel oil showed reduction of blood glucose level in comparison with the diabetic control group. Acrocomia aculeata kernel oil showed hypoglycemic effect. A small fraction of total dietary medium chain fatty acid was accumulated in the epididymal adipose tissue of rats fed with AKO at both low and high doses and caprilic acid did not deposit at all.

  18. Thermal properties of biopolyol from oil palm fruit fibre (OPFF) using solvolysis liquefaction technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormin, Shaharuddin; Rus, Anika Zafiah M.; Azahari, M. Shafiq M.

    2017-09-01

    Liquefaction is known to be an effective method for converting biomass into a biopolyol. The biomass liquefaction of oil palm fruit waste (PFW) in the presence of liquefaction solvent/polyhydric alcohol (PA): polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400) using sulfuric acid as catalyst was studied. For all experiments, the liquefaction was conducted at 150°C and atmospheric pressure. The mass ratio of OPFW to liquefaction solvents used in all the experiments was, 1/3. Thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were used to analyze their biopolyol and residue behaviors. It was found that thermal stability of oil palm mesocarp fibre (PM), oil palm shell (PS) and oil palm kernel (PK) fibre exhibited the first degradation of hard segment at (232, 104, 230°C) and the second degradation of soft segment at (314, 226, 412°C) as compared to PM, PS and PK residue which (229, 102, 227°C) of hard segment and (310, 219, 299°C) of segment, respectively. This behavior of thermal degradation of the hard segment and soft segment of biopolyol was changes after undergo solvolysis liquefaction process. The result analysis showed that the resulting biopolyol and its residue was suitable monomer for polyurethane (PU) synthesis for the production of PU foams.

  19. Formulation development and optimization of palm kernel oil esters-based nanoemulsions containing sodium diclofenac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee, Malahat; Basri, Mahiran; Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abdul; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Chaibakhsh, Naz; Karjiban, Roghayeh Abedi

    2014-01-01

    Response surface methodology was employed to study the effect of formulation composition variables, water content (60%-80%, w/w) and oil and surfactant (O/S) ratio (0.17-1.33), as well as high-shear emulsification conditions, mixing rate (300-3,000 rpm) and mixing time (5-30 minutes) on the properties of sodium diclofenac-loaded palm kernel oil esters-nanoemulsions. The two response variables were droplet size and viscosity. Optimization of the conditions according to the four variables was performed for preparation of the nanoemulsions with the minimum values of particle size and viscosity. The results showed that the experimental data could be sufficiently fitted into a third-order polynomial model with multiple regression coefficients (R(2) ) of 0.938 and 0.994 for the particle size and viscosity, respectively. Water content, O/S ratio and mixing time, quadrics of all independent variables, interaction between O/S ratio and mixing rate and between mixing time and rate, as well as cubic term of water content had a significant effect (Pdiclofenac nanoemulsions were predicted to be: 71.36% water content; 0.69 O/S ratio; 950 rpm mixing rate, and 5 minute mixing time. The optimized formulation showed good storage stability in different temperatures.

  20. Processes of inclusion and adverse incorporation: oil palm and agrarian change in Sumatra, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, John

    2010-01-01

    Changes in globalised agriculture raise critical questions as rapid agricultural development leads to widespread social and environmental transformation. With increased global demand for vegetable oils and biofuel, in Indonesia the area under oil palm has doubled over the last decade. This paper presents a case study of how micro-processes that are linked to wider dynamics shape oil palm related agrarian change in villages in Sumatra, Indonesia. It pursues related questions regarding the impact of agribusiness-driven agriculture, the fate of smallholders experiencing contemporary agrarian transition, and the impact of increased demand for vegetable oils and biofuels on agrarian structures in Sumatra. It argues that the paths of agrarian change are highly uneven and depend on how changing livelihood strategies are enabled or constrained by economic, social and political relations that vary over time and space. In contrast to simplifying narratives of inclusion/exclusion, it argues that outcomes depend on the terms under which smallholders engage with oil palm. Distinguishing between exogenous processes of agribusiness expansion and endogenous commodity market expansion, it finds each is associated with characteristic processes of change. It concludes that the way successive policy interventions have worked with the specific characteristics of oil palm have cumulatively shaped the space where agrarian change occurs in Sumatra.

  1. Sorption Kinetics for the Removal of Cadmium and Zinc onto Palm Kernel Shell Based Activated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Muhammad

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics and mechanism of cadmium and zinc adsorption on palm kernel shell based activated carbons (PKSAC have been studied. A series of batch laboratory studies were conducted in order to investigate the suitability of palm kernel shell based activated carbon (PKSAC for the removal of cadmium (cadmium ions and zinc (zinc ions from their aqueous solutions. All batch experiments were carried out at pH 7.0 and a constant temperature of 30+-1°C using an incubator shaker that operated at 150 rpm. The kinetics investigated includes the pseudo first order, the pseudo-second order and the intraparticle diffusion models. The pseudo-second order model correlate excellently the experimental data, suggesting that chemisorption processes could be the rate-limiting step. Keywords: adsorption, cadmium, kinetics, palm kernel shell, zinc

  2. Future prospects for palm oil refining and modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibon Véronique

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil is rich in minor components that impart unique nutritional properties and need to be preserved. In this context, refining technologies have been improved, with the dual temperature deodorizer, the double condensing unit and the ice condensing system. The DOBI is a good tool to assess quality of the crude palm oil and its ability to be properly refined. Specially refined oils open a market for new high quality products (golden palm oil, red palm oil, white soaps, etc.. Palm oil is a good candidate for the multi-step dry fractionation process, aiming to the production of commodity oils and specialty fats (cocoa butter replacers. New technological developments allow quality and yield improvements. Palm oil and fractions are also valuable feedstock for enzymatic interesterification in which applications are for commodity oil (low-trans margarines and shortenings and for special products (cocoa butter equivalents, infant formulation, ….

  3. Determination of Optimum Moisture Content of Palm Nut Cracking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    ABSTRACT: After processing the palm fruit for oil, the nut is usually dried in order to loosen the kernel from the shell. The drying is necessary to enhance the release of whole kernel when the nut is cracked. A study was carried out to determine the optimum moisture content of nuts for high yield of whole kernels during ...

  4. Bioactive compounds from palm fatty acid distillate and crude palm oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estiasih, T.; Ahmadi, K.

    2018-03-01

    Crude palm oil (CPO) and palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) are rich sources of bioactive compounds. PFAD is a by-product of palm oil refinery that produce palm frying oil. Physical refining of palm oil by deodorization produces palm fatty acid distillate. CPO and PFAD contain some bioactive compounds such as vitamin E (tocopherol and tocotrienols), phytosterol, and squalene. Bioactive compounds of CPO and PFAD are vitamin E, phytosterols, and squalene. Vitamin E of CPO and PFAD mainly comprised of tocotrienols and the remaining is tocopherol. Phytosterols of CPO and PFAD contained beta sitosterol, stigmasterol, and campesterol. Tocotrienols and phytosterols of CPO and PFAD, each can be separated to produce tocotrienol rich fraction and phytosterol rich fraction. Tocotrienol rich fraction from PFAD has both antioxidant and cholesterol lowering properties. Bioactive compounds of PFAD silmultaneously have been proven to improve lipid profile, and have hepatoprotector effect, imunomodulator, antioxidant properties, and lactogenic effect in animal test experiment. It is possible to develop separation of bioactive compounds of CPO and PFAD integratively with the other process that utilizes fatty acid.

  5. Oil palm: domestication achieved?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsma, W.; Wessel, M.

    1997-01-01

    The natural habitat of the oil palm comprises very wet and relatively dry niches in the lowland rain forest in West and Central Africa. The domestication of the oil palm started with the extraction of fruits from wild forest resources. When forests were cleared for shifting cultivation, oil palms

  6. Research advancements in palm oil nutrition*

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Choo Yuen; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi

    2014-01-01

    Palm oil is the major oil produced, with annual world production in excess of 50 million tonnes. About 85% of global palm oil produced is used in food applications. Over the past three decades, research on nutritional benefits of palm oil have demonstrated the nutritional adequacy of palm oil and its products, and have resulted in transitions in the understanding these attributes. Numerous studies have demonstrated that palm oil was similar to unsaturated oils with regards to effects on blood lipids. Palm oil provides a healthy alternative to trans-fatty acid containing hydrogenated fats that have been demonstrated to have serious deleterious effects on health. The similar effects of palm oil on blood lipids, comparable to other vegetable oils could very well be due to the structure of the major triglycerides in palm oil, which has an unsaturated fatty acid in the stereospecific numbers (sn)-2 position of the glycerol backbone. In addition, palm oil is well endowed with a bouquet of phytonutrients beneficial to health, such as tocotrienols, carotenoids, and phytosterols. This review will provide an overview of studies that have established palm oil as a balanced and nutritious oil. PMID:25821404

  7. Research advancements in palm oil nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Choo Yuen; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi

    2014-10-01

    Palm oil is the major oil produced, with annual world production in excess of 50 million tonnes. About 85% of global palm oil produced is used in food applications. Over the past three decades, research on nutritional benefits of palm oil have demonstrated the nutritional adequacy of palm oil and its products, and have resulted in transitions in the understanding these attributes. Numerous studies have demonstrated that palm oil was similar to unsaturated oils with regards to effects on blood lipids. Palm oil provides a healthy alternative to trans-fatty acid containing hydrogenated fats that have been demonstrated to have serious deleterious effects on health. The similar effects of palm oil on blood lipids, comparable to other vegetable oils could very well be due to the structure of the major triglycerides in palm oil, which has an unsaturated fatty acid in the stereospecific numbers ( sn) -2 position of the glycerol backbone. In addition, palm oil is well endowed with a bouquet of phytonutrients beneficial to health, such as tocotrienols, carotenoids, and phytosterols. This review will provide an overview of studies that have established palm oil as a balanced and nutritious oil.

  8. PENGARUH WAKTU REAKSI ETANOLISIS PADA SUHU RUANG TERHADAP RENDEMEN DAN STABILITAS EMULSI PRODUK ETANOLISIS Palm Kernel Oil (PKO [The Effect of Ethanolisis Reaction Time at Room Temperature on Yield and Emulsion Stability Ofproduct of Ethanolisis Palm Kernel Oil (PKO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Yunggo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available PKO (palm kernel oil is made from palm kernel of Elaesis gueneensis Jacq, which is a mixture of triglycerides. Triglycerides can be converted into a number of derivative products such as mono-diglycerides (MG-DG. MG-DG can be formed by ethanolisis reaction. In this study ethanolisis reaction of PKO was done by adding 96% of technical ethanol containing NaOH 1% (w/w PKO on PKO solution at a room temperature and a shorter time than the another PKO ethanolisis before. This study was aimed to find the best PKO ethanolisis reaction time in providing products of ethanolisis PKO with yield and high emulsion stability. The experiment was a nonfactorial  and arranged in a complete randomized block design (CRBD with four replications.  The single factor studied was 7 levels of  the reaction time in which  were 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 and 13 minutes.  The data  were analysed using ANOVA and  further by Orthogonal polynomial on the significant level of 1% and 5%. The results showed that the reaction time ethanolisis had no effect on the yield and stability of the emulsion of fresh coconut milk. The yield of the resulting range between 17.32% - 18.07% and the stability of emulsion ranged between 88.88% - 92.50% during one day and 85.23% - 89.50% during two days. The sensory observation indicated that PKO ethanolisis product can preserve coconut milk for 3 days of storage time with color and scent of fresh coconut milk, and  more stable compared to control. Keywords: emulsion stability, ethanolisis, PKO, time, yield

  9. Understanding the oil palm change in Nong Khai Province: the farmers perspectives and the policy processes of the oil palm plantations

    OpenAIRE

    Sethaputra, Kampree

    2014-01-01

    Since 2005, the Thai government has, as a matter of policy, been seeking to increase production of biodiesel from oil palms. As a result, the number of oil palm plantations in the Northeast region has been growing, particularly in Nong Khai province. Nong Khai is a relatively remote, predominantly agricultural area and is the field site for this research. However, oil palm production is a complex and hotly contested issue both globally and in Thailand and it has ardent critics and supporters....

  10. Effects of de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizers on sole maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-03-08

    Mar 8, 2012 ... formulations on the yield of sole maize and cassava crops. Two de-oiled palm ..... establishment of nitrogen fixing bacteria in the rhizosphere. Microb ... Biological, and Social Sciences Research, 2nd Edition. Optimal Publ.

  11. Bioconversion of palm kernel meal for aquaculture: Experiences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-17

    Apr 17, 2008 ... es as well as food supplies have existed traditionally with coastal regions of Liberia and ..... Contamination of palm kernel meal with Aspergillus ... Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800, Malaysia. Aquacult. Res.

  12. Utilization of Liquid Smoke from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches on Raw Rubber Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayati Hidayati

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Research utilization of liquid smoke from oil palm empty fruit bunches of raw rubber has been made to utilize solid waste from industrial processing of oil palm empty fruit bunches of oil palm so that it becomes economically valuable products. This research has been done by pyrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunches at a temperature of 400oC for 5, 6, 7 and 8 hours. The results show that the pyrolysis liquid smoke oil palm empty fruit bunches for 8 hours give a high concentration of phenol and acetic acid, respectively 5% and 0.454%. Liquid smoke that has been obtained is used as a coagulant in raw rubber plantation crops of the people residing in the village of Ambawang, Kubu Raya District, West Kalimantan. Results of treatment of liquid smoke on raw rubber  show that the rubber products that have been frozen and dried are superior in terms of color, smell and drying time compared with the treatment of formic acid and water battery which has been added so far on raw rubber by the local rubber farmers.

  13. Potential Development of Bioindustry in Cattle and Oil Palm Integration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An integrated system between cattle and oil palm plantation has a great potency for development of bioindustry, either in the form of animal feed or organic fertilizer bioindustry. Bioindustry of cattle feed is developed from biomass of plantations, such as stem and leaves of palm, palm kernel and solid. Bioindustry of organic fertilizer is developed from cattle manure. The targets of development of bioindustry are palm plantations in Sumatera and Kalimantan regions, covering 9.25 million hectares. It is estimated to be able to produce biomass quantity as much as 54.60 million tons per year which can be used as fodder for 12.13 million animal unit (AU of beef cattle, whereas currently there are only 3.06 million AU cattle in Sumatera and Kalimantan, so the opportunities for the addition of cattle in both islands are 9.07 million AU. The existing beef cattle population of 3.06 million AU has the potency to produce 6.1 million tons of organic fertilizer can be used to fertilize 3.0 million hectares, therefore the rest of 6.25 million hectares remain unfertilised. The prospect of bioindustries on integration system of cattle with oil palm plantations in Sumatera and Kalimantan is very potential to meet the needs of organic fertilizer for plants and to utilize oil palm biomass for cattle feed.

  14. Trace elements and radionuclides in palm oil, soil, water, and leaves from oil palm plantations: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafisoye, O B; Oguntibeju, O O; Osibote, O A

    2017-05-03

    Oil palm (Elaeisguineensis) is one of the most productive oil producing plant in the world. Crude palm oil is composed of triglycerides supplying the world's need of edible oils and fats. Palm oil also provides essential elements and antioxidants that are potential mediators of cellular functions. Experimental studies have demonstrated the toxicity of the accumulation of significant amounts of nonessential trace elements and radionuclides in palm oil that affects the health of consumers. It has been reported that uptake of trace elements and radionuclides from the oil palm tree may be from water and soil on the palm plantations. In the present review, an attempt was made to revise and access knowledge on the presence of some selected trace elements and radionuclides in palm oil, soil, water, and leaves from oil palm plantations based on the available facts and data. Existing reports show that the presence of nonessential trace elements and radionuclides in palm oil may be from natural or anthropogenic sources in the environment. However, the available literature is limited and further research need to be channeled to the investigation of trace elements and radionuclides in soil, water, leaves, and palm oil from oil palm plantations around the globe.

  15. Oil Palm Expansion in the Brazilian Amazon (2006-2014): Effects of the 2010 Sustainable Oil Palm Production Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benami, E.; Curran, L. M.

    2017-12-01

    Brazil has the world's largest suitable land area for oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) establishment, with estimates as high as 238 million ha. To promote oil palm development, Brazil launched the Sustainable Palm Oil Production Program (SPOPP) in 2010 and delineated 30 million ha for its growth that excluded forested areas and indigenous reserves. Here we examine oil palm expansion (2006-2014) as well as the SPOPP's effectiveness in Pará, the major oil palm producing state in Brazil. By combining analyses of satellite imagery, land registration data, and site based interviews, we found that oil palm area expanded 205%. Although >50% of oil palm parcels were located within 0.5 km of intact forests, lands. Direct intact forest conversion pre- and post-SPOPP declined from 4% to <1%; however, <1% of the 30 million ha promoted for oil palm was developed by 2014. To explore the major factors that may have constrained oil palm expansion under the SPOPP, we conducted microeconomic simulations of oil palm production, combined with interviews with actors/individuals from oil palm companies, civil society, researchers at universities and NGOs, and governmental agencies. Brazil's oil palm-deforestation dynamics, policies, and economic conditions will be discussed.

  16. Combustion characteristics of Malaysian oil palm biomass, sub-bituminous coal and their respective blends via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Siti Shawalliah; Rahman, Norazah Abd; Ismail, Khudzir

    2012-11-01

    The combustion characteristics of Malaysia oil palm biomass (palm kernel shell (PKS), palm mesocarp fibre (PMF) and empty fruit bunches (EFB)), sub-bituminous coal (Mukah Balingian) and coal/biomass blends via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were investigated. Six weight ratios of coal/biomass blends were prepared and oxidised under dynamic conditions from temperature 25 to 1100°C at four heating rates. The thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated that the EFB and PKS evolved additional peak besides drying, devolatilisation and char oxidation steps during combustion. Ignition and burn out temperatures of blends were improved in comparison to coal. No interactions were observed between the coal and biomass during combustion. The apparent activation energy during this process was evaluated using iso-conversional model free kinetics which resulted in highest activation energy during combustion of PKS followed by PMF, EFB and MB coal. Blending oil palm biomass with coal reduces the apparent activation energy value. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Transgenic oil palm: production and projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveez, G K; Masri, M M; Zainal, A; Majid, N A; Yunus, A M; Fadilah, H H; Rasid, O; Cheah, S C

    2000-12-01

    Oil palm is an important economic crop for Malaysia. Genetic engineering could be applied to produce transgenic oil palms with high value-added fatty acids and novel products to ensure the sustainability of the palm oil industry. Establishment of a reliable transformation and regeneration system is essential for genetic engineering. Biolistic was initially chosen as the method for oil palm transformation as it has been the most successful method for monocotyledons to date. Optimization of physical and biological parameters, including testing of promoters and selective agents, was carried out as a prerequisite for stable transformation. This has resulted in the successful transfer of reporter genes into oil palm and the regeneration of transgenic oil palm, thus making it possible to improve the oil palm through genetic engineering. Besides application of the Biolistics method, studies on transformation mediated by Agrobacterium and utilization of the green fluorescent protein gene as a selectable marker gene have been initiated. Upon the development of a reliable transformation system, a number of useful targets are being projected for oil palm improvement. Among these targets are high-oleate and high-stearate oils, and the production of industrial feedstock such as biodegradable plastics. The efforts in oil palm genetic engineering are thus not targeted as commodity palm oil. Due to the long life cycle of the palm and the time taken to regenerate plants in tissue culture, it is envisaged that commercial planting of transgenic palms will not occur any earlier than the year 2020.

  18. Characteristic of oil palm residue for energy conversion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muharnif; Zainal, Z.A.

    2006-01-01

    Malaysia is the major producer of palm oil in the world. It produces 8.5 tones per year (8.5 x 10 6 ty -1 ) of palm oil from 38.6 x 10 6 ty - 1 of fresh fruit bunches. Palm oil production generates large amounts of process residue such as fiber (5.4 x 10 6 ty - 1 ), shell (2.3 x 10 6 ty - 1 ), and empty fruit bunches (8.8 x 10 6 ty - 1 ). A large fraction of the fiber and much of the shell are used as fuel to generate process steam and electricity. The appropriate energy conversion system depends on the characteristic of the oil palm residue. In this paper, a description of characteristic of the oil palm residue is presented. The types of the energy conversion system presented are stoker type combustor and gasified. The paper focuses on the pulverized biomass material and the use of fluidized bed gasified. In the fluidized bed gasified, the palm shell and fiber has to be pulverized before feeding into gasified. For downdraft gasified and furnace, the palm shell and fiber can be used directly into the reactor for energy conversion. The heating value, burning characteristic, ash and moisture content of the oil palm residue are other parameters of the study

  19. Oil palm mapping for Malaysia using PALSAR-2 dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, P.; Qi, C. Y.; Yu, L.; Cracknell, A.

    2016-12-01

    Oil palm is one of the most productive vegetable oil crops in the world. The main oil palm producing areas are distributed in humid tropical areas such as Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, western and central Africa, northern South America, and central America. Increasing market demands, high yields and low production costs of palm oil are the primary factors driving large-scale commercial cultivation of oil palm, especially in Malaysia and Indonesia. Global demand for palm oil has grown exponentially during the last 50 years, and the expansion of oil palm plantations is linked directly to the deforestation of natural forests. Satellite remote sensing plays an important role in monitoring expansion of oil palm. However, optical remote sensing images are difficult to acquire in the Tropics because of the frequent occurrence of thick cloud cover. This problem has led to the use of data obtained by synthetic aperture radar (SAR), which is a sensor capable of all-day/all-weather observation for studies in the Tropics. In this study, the ALOS-2 (Advanced Land Observing Satellite) PALSAR-2 (Phased Array type L-band SAR) datasets for year 2015 were used as an input to a support vector machine (SVM) based machine learning algorithm. Oil palm/non-oil palm samples were collected using a hexagonal equal-area sampling design. High-resolution images in Google Earth and PALSAR-2 imagery were used in human photo-interpretation to separate oil palm from others (i.e. cropland, forest, grassland, shrubland, water, hard surface and bareland). The characteristics of oil palms from various aspects, including PALSAR-2 backscattering coefficients (HH, HV), terrain and climate by using this sample set were further explored to post-process the SVM output. The average accuracy of oil palm type is better than 80% in the final oil palm map for Malaysia.

  20. Economics Of Small-Scale Palm Oil Processing In Ikwerre And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Palm oil is one of the most common products used by almost everybody in Nigeria. Small holders constitute the major producers of palm oil in Ikwerre and Etche Local Government Areas. This study was conducted in Ikwerre and Etche Local Government Areas of Rivers State to determine the economic analysis of ...

  1. Urea adsorption by activated carbon prepared from palm kernel shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Chee-Heong; Sim, Yoke-Leng; Yeoh, Fei-Yee

    2017-07-01

    Dialysis treatment is crucial for patients suffer from renal failure. The dialysis system removes the uremic toxin to a safe level in a patient's body. One of the major limitations of the current hemodialysis system is the capability to efficiently remove uremic toxins from patient's body. Nanoporous materials can be applied to improve the treatment. Palm kernel shell (PKS) biomass generated from palm oil mills can be utilized to prepare high quality nanoporous activated carbon (AC) and applied for urea adsorption in the dialysis system. In this study, AC was prepared from PKS via different carbonization temperatures and followed by carbon dioxide gas activation processes. The physical and chemical properties of the samples were studied. The results show that the porous AC with BET surface areas ranging from 541 to 622 m2g-1 and with total pore volumes varying from 0.254 to 0.297 cm3g-1, are formed with different carbonization temperatures. The equilibrium constant for urea adsorption by AC samples carbonized at 400, 500 and 600 °C are 0.091, 0.287 and 0.334, respectively. The increase of carbonization temperatures from 400 to 600 °C resulted in the increase in urea adsorption by AC predominantly due to increase in surface area. The present study reveals the feasibility of preparing AC with good porosity from PKS and potentially applied in urea adsorption application.

  2. Use of Straight –Run Gasoline (Srg) as A Leaching Solvent for Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted on the use of straight-run gasoline (SRG) as an extraction solvent for the leaching of palm kernel to produce palm kernel oil (PKO). SRG is an intermediate product fraction in the second fraction of crude petroleum oil fractionation that has not undergone any purification process. It is intended as a ...

  3. Palm oil use in Mortadella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dany Pérez Dubé

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Palm (Elaeis guineensis oil and its fractions can be combined to obtain designed fats with desired composition and physical properties. Incorporation of this type of ingredient in meat products can influence meat products process and sensory quality. In this study, a mixture of palm refined oil and stearin were employed to replace pork fat in a mortadella type product. A two-component mixture design was employed by the D-optimum design. Moisture, fat, protein, cocking losses and instrumental texture profiles were determined, besides a sensory evaluation. Results indicate that 8.8 % of pork fat can be replaced to obtain a good quality mortadella. Maximum palm fat in formulation was 44% of total fat content.

  4. Extraction and Assessment of Physicochemical Properties of Rosigold Mango (Mangifera indica Seed Kernel Oil for Bioresin Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Sadiq

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents research report on extraction and assessment of physicochemical properties of Rosigold mango kernel oil. This is with a view to using the oil for bioresin production so as to mitigate some of the problems associated with petrochemical resins currently used for bulk of composite production activities. The seeds of the mango were identified and collected from the wastes discarded by marketers and consumers in Bauchi town. The Oil was obtained using soxhlet extraction with n-Hexane as solvent. The oil was characterized for yield, relative density, free fatty acid value, acid value, iodine value, and saponification value. Mean values of the characteristic parameters were: oil yield 19.6%, relative density 0.874 g/cm3, free fatty acid value 3.09 mg NaOH/g oil, acid value 6.18 mg KOH/g oil, iodine value 60.7 mg iodine/100 g oil and saponification value 143.6 mg KOH/ g oil. Analysis and comparison of these results with the physicochemical properties of palm oil, Soya bean oil and Hemp seed oil respectively, revealed that the iodine value of Rosigold mango seed kernel oil is higher than palm oil, but lower than Soya bean and Hemp seed oils respectively. Bioresin production is heavily dependent on the degree of unsaturation of the oil which is reflected by the iodine value. However, the overall results suggested that Rosigold mango seed kernel oil is suitable for bioresin production since the minimum iodine bench mark for renewable oil suitable for bioresin production is 50 mg iodine/100 g oil. The extracted oil has an added advantage in that the source (mango seed is a waste material that is readily available, affordable and sustainable in Nigeria and many other countries.

  5. IMPACT OF CPO EXPORT DUTIES ON MALAYSIAN PALM OIL INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Ibragimov Abdulla; Fatimah Mohamed Arshad; B. K. Bala; Kusairi Mohd Noh; Muhammad Tasrif

    2014-01-01

    In January 2013, Malaysia reduced the export duty structure to be in line with the Indonesia’s duty structure. Both countries export crude and processed palm oil. Since Malaysia and Indonesia are close competitors and they compete in the same market, a change in export duty rate in one country will affect the other. Indonesia, as the world’s biggest palm oil producer, has drastically widened the values between the crude palm oil and refined palm oil export taxes since October 2011...

  6. A case study of pyrolysis of oil palm wastes in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Nurhayati; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Aliasak, Zalila

    2013-05-01

    Biomass seems to have a great potential as a source of renewable energy compared with other sources. The use of biomass as a source of energy could help to reduce the wastes and also to minimize the dependency on non-renewable energy, hence minimize environmental degradation. Among other types of biomass, oil palm wastes are the major contribution for energy production in Malaysia since Malaysia is one of the primary palm oil producers in the world. Currently, Malaysia's plantation area covers around 5 million hectares. In the oil palm mill, only 10% palm oil is produced and the other 90% is in the form of wastes such as empty fruit bunches (EFB), oil palm shells (OPS), oil palm fibre (OPFb) and palm oil mill effluent (POME). If these wastes are being used as a source of renewable energy, it is believed that it will help to increase the country's economy. Recently, the most potential and efficient thermal energy conversion technology is pyrolysis process. The objective of this paper is to review the current research on pyrolysis of oil palm wastes in Malaysia. The scope of this paper is to discuss on the types of pyrolysis process and its production. At present, most of the research conducted in this country is on EFB and OPS by fast, slow and microwave-assisted pyrolysis processes for fuel applications.

  7. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT AND OIL PALM FROND WASTE MIXTURE AS AN ALTERNATIVE BIOMASS FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. HASSAN, L. S. KEE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil mill effluent (POME sludge generated from palm oil mill industry and oil palm frond (OPF from oil palm plantation are considered biomass wastes that can be fully utilized as a renewable energy sources. In this study, an attempt has been made to convert these residues into solid biomass fuel. The study was conducted by developing experimental testing on the POME and OPF mixture. The performance of each sample with different weight percentage was investigated using standard tests. The biomass mixture was converted into compressed form of briquette through a simple process. The properties of the briquettes were observed and compared at different weight percentage following standard testing methods included ultimate and proximate analyses, burning characteristics, dimensional stability and crack analysis. Experimental results showed that POME sludge and OPF mixture is feasible as an alternative biomass fuel, with briquette of 90:10 POME sludge to OPF ratio has a good combination of properties as an overall.

  8. Genetic determinism of oil acidity among some DELI oil palm (Elaeis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2016-08-24

    Aug 24, 2016 ... Key words: Elaeis guineensis Jacq., free fatty acid content, crude palm oil, inheritance. INTRODUCTION. The oil palm (Elaeis ... of world's production of vegetable oils. The highest palm oil producing countries ... Without prior refining, acidic palm oil is improper for human consumption (Anonymous, 2005).

  9. BIODIESEL FUELS FROM PALM OIL, PALM OIL METHYLESTER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    determined by methods outlined by A.O.C.S. (American Oil Chemist Society) [12], Usoro et al. [15], Clark [2], and ... diesel have shown that novel vegetable diesels could be obtained from palm oil. .... C-H stretch for alkenes and aromatics.

  10. English-Igbo glossary creation of palm oil production and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Igbo speaking people are well known for palm oil production and processing in Nigeria. This occupation is one of the lucrative ventures among other trades or occupations for which the Igbo are known. With recent technological advancement in the method of production and processing palm oil, more English terms that ...

  11. Palm kernel cake obtained from biodiesel production in diets for goats: feeding behavior and physiological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, R L; de Carvalho, G G P; Oliveira, R L; Tosto, M S L; Santos, E M; Ribeiro, R D X; Silva, T M; Correia, B R; de Rufino, L M A

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the inclusion of palm kernel (Elaeis guineensis) cake in diets for goats on feeding behaviors, rectal temperature, and cardiac and respiratory frequencies. Forty crossbred Boer male, non-castrated goats (ten animals per treatment), with an average age of 90 days and an initial body weight of 15.01 ± 1.76 kg, were used. The goats were fed Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp.) hay and palm kernel supplemented at the rates of 0, 7, 14, and 21% of dry matter (DM). The feeding behaviors (rumination, feeding, and idling times) were observed for three 24-h periods. DM and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intake values were estimated as the difference between the total DM and NDF contents of the feed offered and the total DM and NDF contents of the orts. There was no effect of palm kernel cake inclusion in goat diets on DM intake (P > 0.05). However, palm kernel cake promoted a linear increase (P kernel cakes had no effects (P > 0.05) on the chewing, feeding, and rumination efficiency (DM and NDF) or on physiological variables. The use up to 21% palm kernel cake in the diet of crossbred Boer goats maintained the feeding behaviors and did not change the physiological parameters of goats; therefore, its use is recommended in the diet of these animals.

  12. Effect of temperature on energy potential of pyrolysis products from oil palm shells

    OpenAIRE

    Lina María Romero Millán; María Alejandra Cruz Domínguez; Fabio Emiro Sierra Vargas

    2016-01-01

    Context: Taking into account that near 220 000 tons of oil palm shells are produced every year in Colombia, as a waste of the Elaeis Guineensis palm oil transformation process, the aim of this work is to determine the energy potential of oil palm shells, when transformed through slow pyrolysis process. Methods: Using a fixed bed lab scale reactor, different oil palm shells pyrolysis tests were performed between 300°C and 500°C. The effect of the temperature in the process product yield an...

  13. Analysis of profitability and cost determinants of smallholder oil palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oil palm processing is a source of livelihood to many people. The study analyzed cost determinants and profitability of smallholders' oil palm processors using traditional and improved processing technologies. A multistage sampling technique was used to select respondents. Data were collected through questionnaire; ...

  14. Palm oil and the heart:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osaretin; J; Odia; Sandra; Ofori; Omosivie; Maduka

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil consumption and its effects on serum lipid levels and cardiovascular disease in humans is still a subject of debate. Advocacy groups with varying agenda fuel the controversy. This update intends to identify evidence-based evaluations of the influence of palm oil on serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, it suggests a direction for future research. The sources of information were based on a Pub Med, Google Scholar, African Journal online and Medline search using key words including: palm oil, palmitic acid, saturated fatty acids and heart disease. Published animal and human experiments on the association of palm oil and its constituents on the serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease were also explored for relevant information. These papers are reviewed and the available evidence is discussed. Most of the information in mainstream literature is targeted at consumers and food companies with a view to discourage the consumption of palm oil. The main argument against the use of palm oil as an edible oil is the fact that it contains palmitic acid, which is a saturated fatty acid and by extrapolation should give rise to elevated total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. However, there are many scientific studies, both in animals and humans that clearly show that palm oil consumption does not give rise to elevated serum cholesterol levels and that palm oil is not atherogenic. Apart from palmitic acid, palm oil consists of oleic and linoleic acids which are monounsaturated and polyunsaturated respectively. Palm oil also consists of vitamins A and E, which are powerful antioxidants. Palm oil has been scientifically shown to protect the heart and blood vessels from plaques and ischemic injuries. Palm oil consumed as a dietary fat as a part of a healthy balanced diet does not have incremental risk for cardiovascular disease. Little or no additional benefit will be obtained by replacing it with other oils rich in

  15. Palm oil and the heart: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odia, Osaretin J; Ofori, Sandra; Maduka, Omosivie

    2015-03-26

    Palm oil consumption and its effects on serum lipid levels and cardiovascular disease in humans is still a subject of debate. Advocacy groups with varying agenda fuel the controversy. This update intends to identify evidence-based evaluations of the influence of palm oil on serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, it suggests a direction for future research. The sources of information were based on a PubMed, Google Scholar, African Journal online and Medline search using key words including: palm oil, palmitic acid, saturated fatty acids and heart disease. Published animal and human experiments on the association of palm oil and its constituents on the serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease were also explored for relevant information. These papers are reviewed and the available evidence is discussed. Most of the information in mainstream literature is targeted at consumers and food companies with a view to discourage the consumption of palm oil. The main argument against the use of palm oil as an edible oil is the fact that it contains palmitic acid, which is a saturated fatty acid and by extrapolation should give rise to elevated total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. However, there are many scientific studies, both in animals and humans that clearly show that palm oil consumption does not give rise to elevated serum cholesterol levels and that palm oil is not atherogenic. Apart from palmitic acid, palm oil consists of oleic and linoleic acids which are monounsaturated and polyunsaturated respectively. Palm oil also consists of vitamins A and E, which are powerful antioxidants. Palm oil has been scientifically shown to protect the heart and blood vessels from plaques and ischemic injuries. Palm oil consumed as a dietary fat as a part of a healthy balanced diet does not have incremental risk for cardiovascular disease. Little or no additional benefit will be obtained by replacing it with other oils rich in mono

  16. Pediatric Age Palm Oil Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Genova, Lorenza; Cerquiglini, Laura; Penta, Laura; Biscarini, Anna; Esposito, Susanna

    2018-04-01

    Palm oil is widely used in the food industry for its chemical/physical properties, low cost and wide availability. Its widespread use has provoked an intense debate about whether it is a potential danger to human health. In a careful review of the scientific literature, we focused on nutritional characteristics and health effects of the use of palm oil with regards to children, seeking to determine whether there is evidence that justifies fears about the health effects of palm oil. Our review showed that palm oil represents a significant source of saturated fatty acids, to which scientific evidence attributes negative health effects when used in excess, especially with regards to cardiovascular diseases. However, to date, there is no evidence about the harmful effects of palm oil on the health of children. Nevertheless, palm oil has possible ill health effects linked to its composition of fatty acids: its consumption is not correlated to risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in young people with a normal weight and cholesterol level; the elderly and patients with dyslipidaemia or previous cardiovascular events or hypertension are at a greater risk. Therefore, the matter is not palm oil itself but the fatty-acid-rich food group to which it belongs. The most important thing is to consume no more than 10% of saturated fatty acids, regardless of their origin and regardless of one's age. Correct information based on a careful analysis of the scientific evidence, rather than a focus on a singular presumed culprit substance, should encourage better lifestyles.

  17. Effect of pH on ionic liquid mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticle using elaiseguineensis (palm oil) kernel extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, Muhammad; Ahmad, Tausif; Moniruzzaman, Muhammad; Abdullah, Bawadi

    2017-05-01

    This study was conducted for microwave assisted synthesis of stable gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) by reduction of chloroauric acid with Elaeis Guineensis (palm oil) kernel (POK) extract which was prepared in aqueous solution of ionic liquid, [EMIM][OAc], 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate. Effect of initial pH of reaction mixture (3.5 - 8.5) was observed on SPR absorbance, maximum wavelength (λmax ) and size distribution of AuNPs. Change of pH of reaction mixture from acidic to basic region resulted in appearance of strong SPR absorption peaks and blue shifting of λmax from 533 nm to 522 nm. TEM analysis revealed the formation of predominantly spherical AuNPs with mean diameter of 8.51 nm. Presence of reducing moieties such as flavonoids, phenolic and carboxylic groups in POK extract was confirmed by FTIR analysis. Colloidal solution of AuNPs was remained stable at room temperature and insignificant difference in zeta value was recorded within experimental tenure of 4 months.

  18. Mixed Integer Linear Programming model for Crude Palm Oil Supply Chain Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembiring, Pasukat; Mawengkang, Herman; Sadyadharma, Hendaru; Bu'ulolo, F.; Fajriana

    2018-01-01

    The production process of crude palm oil (CPO) can be defined as the milling process of raw materials, called fresh fruit bunch (FFB) into end products palm oil. The process usually through a series of steps producing and consuming intermediate products. The CPO milling industry considered in this paper does not have oil palm plantation, therefore the FFB are supplied by several public oil palm plantations. Due to the limited availability of FFB, then it is necessary to choose from which plantations would be appropriate. This paper proposes a mixed integer linear programming model the supply chain integrated problem, which include waste processing. The mathematical programming model is solved using neighborhood search approach.

  19. Life cycle assessment of two palm oil production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stichnothe, Heinz; Schuchardt, Frank

    2011-01-01

    In 2009 approx. 40 Mt of palm oil were produced globally. Growing demand for palm oil is driven by an increasing human population as well as subsidies for biodiesel and is likely to increase further in coming years. The production of 1 t crude palm oil requires 5 t of fresh fruit bunches (FFB). On average processing of 1 t FFB in palm oil mills generates 0.23 t empty fruit bunches (EFB) and 0.65 t palm oil mill effluents (POME) as residues. In this study it is assumed that land use change does not occur. In order to estimate the environmental impacts of palm oil production a worst and a best case scenario are assessed and compared in the present study using 1000 kg of FFB as functional unit. The production and treatment of one t FFB causes more than 460 kg CO 2eq in the worst case scenario and 110 kg CO 2eq in the best case scenario. The significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction is achieved by co-composting residues of the palm oil mill. Thus treating those residues appropriately is paramount for reducing environmental impacts particularly global warming potential (GWP) and eutrophication potential (EP). Another important contributor to the EP but also to the human toxicity potential (HTP) is the biomass powered combined heat and power (CHP) plant of palm oil mills. Frequently CHP plants of palm oil mills operate without flue gas cleaning. The CHP plant emits heavy metals and nitrogen oxides and these account for 93% of the HTP of the advanced palm oil production system, of which heavy metal emissions to air are responsible for 79%. The exact emission reduction potential from CHP plants could not be quantified due to existing data gaps, but it is apparent that cleaning the exhaust gas would reduce eutrophication, acidification and toxicity considerably. -- Highlights: → We have estimated the environmental impacts of two palm oil production systems. → Residues from palm oil mills are a wasted resource rather than waste. → Co-composting of EFB and

  20. Neutron Backscattered Technique for Quantification of Oil Palm Fruit Oil Content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail Mustapha; Samihah Mustaffha; Md Fakarudin Ab Rahman; Roslan Yahya; Lahasen Norman Shah Dahing; Nor Paiza Mohd Hasan; Jaafar Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Non-destructive and real time method becomes a well-liked method to researchers in the oil palm industry since 2000. This method has the ability to detect oil content in order to increase the production of oil palm for better profit. Hence, this research investigates the potential of neutron source to estimate oil content in palm oil fruit since oil palm contains hydrogen with chemical formula C 55 H 96 O 6 . For this paper, oil palm loose fruit was being used and divided into three groups. These three groups are ripe, under-ripe and bruised fruit. A total of 21 loose fruit for each group were collected from a private plantation in Malaysia. Each sample was scanned using neutron backscattered technique. The higher neutron count, the more hydrogen content, and the more oil content in palm oil fruit. The best correlation result came from the ripe fruits with r 2 =0.98. This research proves that neutron backscattered technique can be used as a non-destructive and real time grading system for palm oil. (author)

  1. Adsorption of mercury from aqueous solutions using palm oil fuel ash as an adsorbent - batch studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imla Syafiqah, M. S.; Yussof, H. W.

    2018-03-01

    Palm oil fuel ash (POFA) is one of the most abundantly produced waste materials. POFA is widely used by the oil palm industry which was collected as ash from the burning of empty fruit bunches fiber (EFB) and palm oil kernel shells (POKS) in the boiler as fuel to generate electricity. Mercury adsorption was conducted in a batch process to study the effects of contact time, initial Hg(II) ion concentration, and temperature. In this study, POFA was prepared and used for the removal of mercury(II) ion from the aqueous phase. The effects of various parameters such as contact time (0- 360 min), temperature (15 – 45 °C) and initial Hg(II) ion concentration (1 – 5 mg/L) for the removal of Hg(II) ion were studied in a batch process. The surface characterization was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and particle size distribution analysis. From this study, it was found that the highest Hg(II) ion removal was 99.60 % at pH 7, contact time of 4 h, initial Hg(II) ion concentration of 1 mg/L, adsorbent dosage 0.25 g and agitation speed of 100 rpm. The results implied that POFA has the potential as a low-cost and environmental friendly adsorbent for the removal of mercury from aqueous solution.

  2. Fabrication of hydrophobic compressed oil palm trunk surface by sol-gel process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzakir, Syafiqah; Salim, Nurjannah; Huda Abu Bakar, Nurul; Roslan, Rasidi; Sin, Lim Wan; Hashim, Rokiah

    2018-04-01

    Improvement of the robustness of hydrophobic surfaces is crucial to achieving commercial applications of these surfaces in such various areas as self-cleaning, water repellency and corrosion resistance. Compressed oil palm trunk (OPT) panel is one of potential product which can be used as panelling and indoor furniture application. By adding hydrophobic properties to compressed oil palm trunk panel might increase the application of compressed oil palm trunk especially for outdoor application. In this study, fabrication is using the sol-gel technique. Sol-gel was prepared by adding ethanol with Hexadecyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB) solution with Tetraethyl Orthosilicate (TEOS) with surface modification of chlorotrimethylsilane (CTMS). The surface with hydrophobic coating was undergone surface analysis with contact angle machine with the aid of software SCA 20 and the determined of the morphology of surface with scanning electron microscope (SEM). The produced compressed oil palm trunk surfaces exhibited promising hydrophobic properties with a contact angle of 104° and the relatively better mechanical robustness.

  3. Oil palm land conversion in Pará, Brazil, from 2006-2014: evaluating the 2010 Brazilian Sustainable Palm Oil Production Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benami, E.; Curran, L. M.; Cochrane, M.; Venturieri, A.; Franco, R.; Kneipp, J.; Swartos, A.

    2018-03-01

    Global models of biophysical suitability for oil palm consistently rank Brazil as having the greatest potential for expansion, with estimates as high as 238 Mha of suitable lands. In 2010, Brazil launched the Sustainable Palm Oil Production Program (SPOPP) to incentivize oil palm development without deforestation on as much as 30 Mha. Here we examine oil palm expansion before and after the SPOPP’s launch. In Pará, the major oil palm producing state in Brazil, we analyze the extent and change in oil palm cultivation from 2006-2014 using satellite imagery, ground-truthed verification, site-based interviews, and rural environmental (land) registration data. Between 2006-2014, oil palm area (≥9 ha) expanded >200% to ~219 000 ha. Of the ~148 000 ha of oil palm developed, ~91% converted pasturelands while ~8% replaced natural vegetation, including intact and secondary forests. Although >80% of all oil palm parcels rest role of agro-ecological suitability mapping among them. Interviews indicated that: (1) individual effects of suitability mapping efforts to encourage oil palm expansion on cleared areas, i.e. without deforestation, cannot be disentangled from pre-existing public and private deforestation reduction initiatives; and, (2) socio-economic constraints, e.g. high relative production costs and limited familiarity with this crop, appear to partially explain the major discrepancy between estimated potential suitable areas with realized oil palm development.

  4. Recycled palm oil spoilage: Correlation between physicochemical properties and oleophilicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Ili Afiqa Ab; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan; Jurid, Lailatul Syema

    2016-11-01

    Palm oil is widely used for domestic and commercial frying due to its techno-economic advantages as compared to other vegetable oils. However, if the oil is used beyond its recommended usage cycle, it might lead to oil spoilage. Therefore this study focuses on the comprehensive analysis of chemical and physical properties of recycled palm oil. Recycled palm oil was prepared by frying potato strips up to 4 batches; 5 cycles for each batch) was carried out with potato (g)-to-oil (ml) ratio of 3/20 prior to physico-chemical analysis (moisture content, color measurement, viscosity, density and iodine value. From 5 tests used to indicate physico-chemical properties of recycled palm oil, only color measurement, viscosity and IV shows results accordingly to theories. Whereas moisture content and density were not comply to theories. With increasing frying times, recycled palm oil color has been darker due to chemical reaction that occurs during frying. The trend line illustrates that with increasing frying times, recycled palm oil lightness decreases. It also means that its color has been darker. Meanwhile, b* rate increase indicating that recycled palm oil show tendency towards green color. Whereas, a* rate decreased, showing low tendency towards red color. Viscosity and moisture content increase with frying cycle. This situation occurred might be due to formation of hydrolysis products which are volatile while frying process. But the remaining non-volatile compounds among the hydrolysis products might also accumulate in palm oil and thus affect the total oil/fat chemical changes. Meanwhile the density of palm oil was quite constant at 0.15 g/cm3 except for cycle 2 with 0.17 g/cm3. The result obtained from this experiment were comply with previous study that stated frying batch number is a significant variable (a = 0.05) affecting the density of oil only after 20 frying batch. The contact angle of recycled palm oil on PHBV thin film was more than 90 °. Hence it shows

  5. Oil Palm Counting and Age Estimation from WorldView-3 Imagery and LiDAR Data Using an Integrated OBIA Height Model and Regression Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Mojaddadi Rizeei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study proposes a new method for oil palm age estimation and counting. A support vector machine algorithm (SVM of object-based image analysis (OBIA was implemented for oil palm counting. It was integrated with height model and multiregression methods to accurately estimate the age of trees based on their heights in five different plantation blocks. Multiregression and multi-kernel size models were examined over five different oil palm plantation blocks to achieve the most optimized model for age estimation. The sensitivity analysis was conducted on four SVM kernel types (sigmoid (SIG, linear (LN, radial basis function (RBF, and polynomial (PL with associated parameters (threshold values, gamma γ, and penalty factor (c to obtain the optimal OBIA classification approaches for each plantation block. Very high-resolution imageries of WorldView-3 (WV-3 and light detection and range (LiDAR were used for oil palm detection and age assessment. The results of oil palm detection had an overall accuracy of 98.27%, 99.48%, 99.28%, 99.49%, and 97.49% for blocks A, B, C, D, and E, respectively. Moreover, the accuracy of age estimation analysis showed 90.1% for 3-year-old, 87.9% for 4-year-old, 88.0% for 6-year-old, 87.6% for 8-year-old, 79.1% for 9-year-old, and 76.8% for 22-year-old trees. Overall, the study revealed that remote sensing techniques can be useful to monitor and detect oil palm plantation for sustainable agricultural management.

  6. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of lambs that are fed diets with palm kernel cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Conceição Dos Santos, Rozilda; Gomes, Daiany Iris; Alves, Kaliandra Souza; Mezzomo, Rafael; Oliveira, Luis Rennan Sampaio; Cutrim, Darley Oliveira; Sacramento, Samara Bianca Moraes; de Moura Lima, Elizanne; de Carvalho, Francisco Fernando Ramos

    2017-06-01

    The aim was to evaluate carcass characteristics, cut yield, and meat quality in lambs that were fed different inclusion levels of palm kernel cake. Forty-five woolless castrated male Santa Inês crossbred sheep with an initial average body weight of 23.16±0.35 kg were used. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with five treatments, with palm kernel cake in the proportions of 0.0%, 7.5%, 15.0%, 22.5%, and 30.0% with nine replications per treatment. After slaughter, the gastrointestinal tract was weighed when it was full, after which it was then emptied. The heart, liver, kidney, pancreas perirenal fat were also collected and weighed. The carcass was split into two identical longitudinal halves and weighed to determine the quantitative and qualitative characteristics. The empty body weight, carcass weight and yield, and fat thickness decreased linearly (pkernel inclusion in the diet. There was no difference (p>0.05) for the rib eye area of animals that were fed palm kernel cake. There was a reduction in the commercial cut weight (p0.05). The sarcomere length decreased linearly (pkernel cake was not observed in other meat quality variables. It is worth noting that the red staining intensity, indicated as A, had a tendency to decrease (p = 0.050). The inclusion of palm kernel cake up to 30% in the diet does not lead to changes in meat quality characteristics, except for sarcomere length. Nevertheless, carcass quantitative characteristics decrease with the use of palm kernel cake.

  7. Palm oil based polyols for acrylated polyurethane production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rida Tajau; Mohd Hilmi Mahmood; Mek Zah Salleh; Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan; Rosley Che Ismail

    2006-01-01

    Palm oil becomes important renewable resources for the production of polyols for the polyurethane manufacturing industry. The main raw materials used for the production of acrylated polyurethane are polyols, isocyanates and hydroxyl terminated acrylate compounds. In these studies, polyurethane based natural polymer (palm oil), i.e., POBUA (Palm Oil Based Urethane Acrylate) were prepared from three different types of palm oil based polyols i.e., epoxidised palm oil (EPOP), palm oil oleic acid and refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm olein based polyols. The performances of these three acrylated polyurethanes when used for coatings and adhesives were determined and compared with each other. (Author)

  8. An experiment of used palm oil refinery using the value engineering method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiati; Waluyo, M.

    2018-01-01

    Palm Oil is one of prime materials which very necessary for Indonesia. In the development of palm oil industry the constraint which faced is raw material availability and the economic crisis that attack Indonesia which cause increasing of cost industry so that the salaes price become very expensive . With using alternative raw material namely used palm oil them be made palm oil design to solve this problems. In the designing which comply the consideration of good pal oil planning aspect be use value engineer study. While the criteria parameter of hygienic palm oil which obtained from the questioner area free fatty acid, water content, Iodine number, peroxide number, odor, taste and the color. The research which use value engineer study is throught any phase that is information phase, analyzes phase, creative phase, development phase and presentation phase. This research began with doing the identification of palm oil demand, continued by methodology development in order to measure oil design. By using creative process could be obtained flow rate position, the amount of adsorbent and the best settling time for palm oil alternative that is in the flow rate 70 ml/sec, 4% of adsorbent and the 70 minute for the settling time with free fatty acid value: 0.299. While the best palm oil alternative are palm oil with free fatty acid value = 0.299, water content = 0.31, Iodine number = 40.08, Peroxide number = 3.72, odor and taste = Normal, the color = Normal. The Evalution which done by value engineer study generate the value from alternative palm oil is 1.330 and market palm oil 1.392. Thus, can be conclude thet the value engineer study can be good implemented in the alternative palm oil planning so that alternative palm oil can be produced largely because they have better value that market palm oil and appropriate for little industries.

  9. Alkaline Treatment of Oil Palm Frond Fibers by Using Extract of Oil Palm EFB Ash for Better Adhesion toward Polymeric Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warman Fatra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia, 187 million tons of biomass were produced from 8.11 million ha of oil palm plantation in 2009. This massive amount of biomass mainly consists of oil palm fronds (OPF and oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB, which are normally categorized as waste. The properties of OPF fibers compared to those of synthetic fibers, such as low density, low cost, less abrasion of equipment, and safer production, makes them an attractive reinforcement for composite materials. In this work, the utilization of oil palm empty fruit bunch ash for OPF fiber-polyester resin composite and the effect of process conditions were studied. Water absorption, tensile and flexural strength were used to characterize the effects of alkaline treatment on modified OPF fibers in polyester resin. The investigation focused on the effect of alkaline treatment time. Treatment temperature and liquid to solid ratio were analyzed using Response Surface Method-Central Composite Design (RSM-CCD. The highest tensile strength (44.87 MPa was achieved at 12 hours soaking time, at 40°C treatment temperature and 5:1 water to ash ratio. The highest flexural strength (120.50 MPa was obtained at 1.3 hours soaking time, 4 dissolving ratio and 35°C treatment temperature. The lowest water absorption of composite (3.00% was achieved at the longest soaking time (14.7 hours, 4 dissolving ratio and 35°C treatment temperature. Variance of soaking time, dissolving ratio and temperature in the alkaline treatment process using extract of oil palm empty fruit bunch ash significantly affected the mechanical and physical properties of the oil palm frond fibers reinforced composite.

  10. Positive and Negative Impacts of Oil Palm Expansion in Indonesia and the Prospect to Achieve Sustainable Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahputra, M. A.; Zen, Z.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the study is to deepen understanding the role of palm oil on Indonesian economy, poverty elevation and to investigate the positive and negative impacts of oil palm expansion, due to the burden of GHG emissions; and prospect to be more sustainable palm oil industry. The statistics show that average rural poverty tends to be lower and Gross Regional Product tends to be higher in provinces which have greater levels of oil palm cultivation. Indonesian oil palm will grow from 10.6 in 2013 to 13.7 million ha by 2020. This will release 135.59 million tons of CO2 if nothing is done to mitigate BAU emissions. Unless there are sustained efforts to redirect development and expansion of oil palm, plantation growth will continue to encroach on intact forest and peat land.. In fact Indonesia has large areas of degraded land, an estimated total 19,144,000 ha is available for planting oil palm and other crops. A large-scale expansion program driven by estate companies needs to be accompanied by effective smallholder development program in order to achieve the best outcome for local farmers and avoid the conflicts.

  11. Rheological, fat bloom, and sensory acceptability effects of mango kernel fat and palm olein blends on chocolate-flavored coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Nieves María Flores March; Gabriela Cristina Chire Fajardo; Carlos Eduardo Lescano Anadón

    2017-01-01

    The effects of replacing cocoa butter with different percentages and proportions of a mango kernel fat/palm olein (MKF/POL) blend, are reported. Samples were prepared by melting together mango kernel fat, palm olein, cocoa butter and cocoa mass and powdered sugar combinated. The samples were milled, conched, tempered, and molded to obtain three sets of seven samples as follows: one control omitting mango kernel fat and palm olein, and six samples with cocoa butter replacement of 15 and 22.5% ...

  12. Briquetting of Palm Kernel Shell | Ugwu | Journal of Applied ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In several developing countries, briquettes from agricultural residues contribute significantly to the energy mix especially for small scale and household requirements. In this work, briquettes were produced from Palm kernel shell. This was achieved by carbonising the shell to get the charcoal followed by the pulverization of ...

  13. The characteristics of palm oil plantation solid biomass wastes as raw material for bio oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanti, RN; Hambali, E.; Pari, G.; Suryani, A.

    2018-03-01

    Indonesia is the largest palm oil plantations estate in the world. It reached 11,30 million hectares in 2015 and increased up to 11,67 million hectares in 2016. The advancement of technology recent, the solid waste of palm oil plantation can be re-produced become bio oil through pyrolysis hydrothermal process and utilized for biofuel. The purpose of this research was to analyze the characteristics of feedstock of bio oil of solid waste of palm oil plantations estate. The feedstock used was derived from solid waste of palm oil plantations in Riau Province. Characteristic analysis of waste oil included chemical compound content (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin), ultimate analysis (C, H, N, O, S) to know height heating value (HHV). The result of analysis of chemical content showed that solid waste of palm cellulose 31,33 – 66,36 %, hemicellulose 7,54 – 17,94 %, lignin 21,43 - 43,1. The HHV of hydrothermal pyrolysis feedstock was 15,18 kJ/gram - 19,57 kJ/gram. Generally, the solid waste of palm oil plantations estate containing lignocellulose can be utilized as bio oil through hydrothermal pyrolysis. The CG-MS analysis of bio oil indicated hydrocarbon contents such as pentadecane, octadecane, hexadecane and benzene.

  14. Utilization of Palm Oil Clinker as Cement Replacement Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jegathish Kanadasan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of waste materials from the palm oil industry provides immense benefit to various sectors of the construction industry. Palm oil clinker is a by-product from the processing stages of palm oil goods. Channelling this waste material into the building industry helps to promote sustainability besides overcoming waste disposal problems. Environmental pollution due to inappropriate waste management system can also be drastically reduced. In this study, cement was substituted with palm oil clinker powder as a binder material in self-compacting mortar. The fresh, hardened and microstructure properties were evaluated throughout this study. In addition, sustainability component analysis was also carried out to assess the environmental impact of introducing palm oil clinker powder as a replacement material for cement. It can be inferred that approximately 3.3% of cement production can be saved by substituting palm oil clinker powder with cement. Reducing the utilization of cement through a high substitution level of this waste material will also help to reduce carbon emissions by 52%. A cleaner environment free from pollutants can be created to ensure healthier living. Certain industries may benefit through the inclusion of this waste material as the cost and energy consumption of the product can be minimized.

  15. Utilization of Palm Oil Clinker as Cement Replacement Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanadasan, Jegathish; Abdul Razak, Hashim

    2015-12-16

    The utilization of waste materials from the palm oil industry provides immense benefit to various sectors of the construction industry. Palm oil clinker is a by-product from the processing stages of palm oil goods. Channelling this waste material into the building industry helps to promote sustainability besides overcoming waste disposal problems. Environmental pollution due to inappropriate waste management system can also be drastically reduced. In this study, cement was substituted with palm oil clinker powder as a binder material in self-compacting mortar. The fresh, hardened and microstructure properties were evaluated throughout this study. In addition, sustainability component analysis was also carried out to assess the environmental impact of introducing palm oil clinker powder as a replacement material for cement. It can be inferred that approximately 3.3% of cement production can be saved by substituting palm oil clinker powder with cement. Reducing the utilization of cement through a high substitution level of this waste material will also help to reduce carbon emissions by 52%. A cleaner environment free from pollutants can be created to ensure healthier living. Certain industries may benefit through the inclusion of this waste material as the cost and energy consumption of the product can be minimized.

  16. Use of palm oil decanter cake as a new substrate for the production of bio-oil by vacuum pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewayanto, Nugroho; Isha, Ruzinah; Nordin, Mohd Ridzuan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Vacuum pyrolysis has been employed to produce bio-oil from palm oil waste. • Effect of the pyrolysis temperature was investigated in this study. • Bio-oil properties of cellulosic and oily based material were determined. • Bio-oil from decanter cake has potential to be used as fuel. - Abstract: The present study was carried out to investigate the potential of palm oil decanter cake (PDC) for bio-oil production at various temperatures by vacuum pyrolysis. PDC was first dried in oven at 105 °C for 24 h to remove moisture and ground to particle size of 0.85–2 mm. Pyrolysis experiments were carried out at 400, 450, 500, 550 and 600 °C, with heating rate of 15 °C/min. The highest yield of bio-oil (22.12 wt%) was obtained at pyrolysis temperature of 500 °C. The chemical characterization of bio-oil was studied using 1 H NMR, FTIR, CHNS analyzer and GC–MS. The other properties like pH, calorific value and thermal volatilization were also determined. The pH value recorded to be 6.38, which is found to be higher as compared to other bio-oils. The calorific value of PDC bio-oil found to be 36.79 MJ/kg, which is slightly lower than that of conventional liquid fuel such as gasoline and diesel fuel. However, the bio-oil obtained from PDC has better fuel characteristics than that of bio-oil derived from palm kernel shell (PKS)

  17. Bioconversions of Palm Kernel Cake and Rice Bran Mixtures by Trichoderma viride Toward Nutritional Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Sukaryana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research is to examine the mixtures of palm kernel cake and rice bran of fermented by Trichoderma viride. Completely randomized design in factorial pattern 4 x 4 was used in this experiment. factor I is the doses of inoculums; D1 = 0%, D2 =  0,1% , D3 =  0,2%, D4 =  0,3%, and  complement factor II is mixtures of palm kernel cake and rice bran : T1=20:80% ; T2=40:60% ; T3=60:40% ; T4=80:20%. The treatment each of three replicate. Fermentation was conducted at temperature 28 oC as long as 9 days. Determining the best of the mixtures be based on the crude protein increased and the crude fibre decreased. The results showed that the combination of product mix is the best fermentation inoculums doses 0.3% in mixture of palm kernel cake and rice bran ; 80%: 20%, which produces dry matter of 88,12%, crude protein 17.34%, ether extract 5,35%, crude fibre 23.67%, and ash 6.43%. When compared with a mixture of palm kernel cake and rice bran; 80%: 20% without of fermentation is crude protein increase 29.58% and crude fibre decreased 22.53%.

  18. Palm oil mill effluent treatment and utilization to ensure the sustainability of palm oil industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanudin, U; Sugiharto, R; Haryanto, A; Setiadi, T; Fujie, K

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current condition of palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment and utilization and to propose alternative scenarios to improve the sustainability of palm oil industries. The research was conducted through field survey at some palm oil mills in Indonesia, in which different waste management systems were used. Laboratory experiment was also carried out using a 5 m(3) pilot-scale wet anaerobic digester. Currently, POME is treated through anaerobic digestion without or with methane capture followed by utilization of treated POME as liquid fertilizer or further treatment (aerobic process) to fulfill the wastewater quality standard. A methane capturing system was estimated to successfully produce renewable energy of about 25.4-40.7 kWh/ton of fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by about 109.41-175.35 kgCO2e/tonFFB (CO2e: carbon dioxide equivalent). Utilization of treated POME as liquid fertilizer increased FFB production by about 13%. A palm oil mill with 45 ton FFB/hour capacity has potential to generate about 0.95-1.52 MW of electricity. Coupling the POME-based biogas digester and anaerobic co-composting of empty fruit bunches (EFBs) is capable of adding another 0.93 MW. The utilization of POME and EFB not only increases the added value of POME and EFB by producing renewable energy, compost, and liquid fertilizer, but also lowers environmental burden.

  19. Assessment of an oil palm population from Nigerian Institute for Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.), a monocotyledonous plant belonging to the Arecaceae family, is one of the most important oil crops in the world. In Nigeria, oil palm has benefited immensely from conventional breeding efforts resulting in high yields that have been achieved with this breeding material. However, oil palm ...

  20. Health promoting effects of phytonutrients found in palm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganathan, R; Selvaduray, K R; Nesaretnam, K; Radhakrishnan, A K

    2010-08-01

    The oil palm tree, Elaeis guineesis, is the source of palm oil, otherwise known as the "tropical golden oil". To date, Malaysia and Indonesia are the leading producers of palm oil. Palm oil is widely used for domestic cooking in Malaysia. Palm oil is a rich source of phytonutrients such as tocotrienols, tocopherol, carotene, phytosterols, squalene, coenzyme Q10, polyphenols, and phospholipids. Although the phytonutrients constitute only about 1% of its weight in crude palm oil, these are the main constituents through which palm oil exhibits its nutritional properties. Among the major health promoting properties shown to be associated with the various types of phytonutrients present in palm oil are anti-cancer, cardio-protection and anti-angiogenesis, cholesterol inhibition, brain development and neuro protective properties, antioxidative defence mechanisms, provitamin A activity and anti-diabetes.

  1. Microbial Succession in Co-Composting of Chipped-Ground Oil Palm Frond and Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Najib Ahmad; Siti Ramlah Ahmad Ali; Mohd Ali Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Succession and phylogenetic profile of microbial communities during co-composting of chipped-ground oil palm frond (CG-OPF) and palm oil mill effluent (POME) were studied by apply-ing polymerase chain reaction-denaturant gel gradient electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis. The results indicated that the dominant microbial community detected was γ-Pro bacteria such as Pseudomonas sp. at almost throughout the composting process. Whilst Bacillales such as Bacillus psychrodurans were found toward the end of the composting process. Bacteroidetes such as Pedobacter solani were detected at the final stage of composting. This study contributed to a better understanding of microbial shifting and functioning throughout CG-OPF composting. Therefore, PCR-DGGE is recommended to be used as a tool to identify potential microbes that can contribute to a better performance of composting process. (author)

  2. Strategies to Reduce Water Footprint in Palm Oil Production: A Case of PTP Mitra Ogan, Baturaja, South Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara Kospa Herda Sabriyah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The massive expansion of palm oil industry in Indonesia has triggered environmental issues including water-related problems which have become an important concern. Regarding the issues, sustainable practice standard has been set up as a requirement for palm oil to enter global market. Inevitably, water consumption in this sector is very crucial to be analyzed. One of the methods that can be used as a tool for sustainable appropriation of fresh water resources is water footprint analysis. The primary aim of this study was to formulate the strategies to reduce the water footprint in the palm oil production based on the best practice criteria. Both quantitative and qualitative research was conducted to get the value blue water (volume of surface or groundwater evaporated and grey water (dilution volume to dilute pollutants according to agreed water quality standards. The values of water footprint in palm oil production obtained were used to represent the existing water use and were utilized as the basis for formulating strategies in reducing water use in the palm oil milling processes which was compared with the best practice criteria. The result showed that the blue water of CPO was 109.6 m3/ton and the grey water was 537.7 m3/ton, while the blue water of palm kernel was 62,4 m3/ton and grey water was 306,2 m3/ton. The value indicated that there was an inefficient use of water in the production of palm oil. The use of steam accumulator has been proposed to reduce the use of blue water by optimizing the steam supply. Besides, the reuse of water from fat-pit pond for pressing purposes, or recovery of condensate water as dilution water in the press unit which will affect the amount of wastewater discharged can be done as the strategies in reducing both blue and grey water, as well as reuse of cooling water turbines.

  3. Performance of fly ash based geopolymer incorporating palm kernel shell for lightweight concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Rafiza Abd; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Yahya, Zarina; Jian, Ang Zhi; Nasri, Armia

    2017-09-01

    A concrete which cement is totally replaced by source material such as fly ash and activated by highly alkaline solutions is known as geopolymer concrete. Fly ash is the most common source material for geopolymer because it is a by-product material, so it can get easily from all around the world. An investigation has been carried out to select the most suitable ingredients of geopolymer concrete so that the geopolymer concrete can achieve the desire compressive strength. The samples were prepared to determine the suitable percentage of palm kernel shell used in geopolymer concrete and cured for 7 days in oven. After that, other samples were prepared by using the suitable percentage of palm kernel shell and cured for 3, 14, 21 and 28 days in oven. The control sample consisting of ordinary Portland cement and palm kernel shell and cured for 28 days were prepared too. The NaOH concentration of 12M, ratio Na2SiO3 to NaOH of 2.5, ratio fly ash to alkaline activator solution of 2.0 and ratio water to geopolymer of 0.35 were fixed throughout the research. The density obtained for the samples were 1.78 kg/m3, water absorption of 20.41% and the compressive strength of 14.20 MPa. The compressive strength of geopolymer concrete is still acceptable as lightweight concrete although the compressive strength is lower than OPC concrete. Therefore, the proposed method by using fly ash mixed with 10% of palm kernel shell can be used to design geopolymer concrete.

  4. Reclamation from palm oil mill effluent using an integrated zero discharge membrane-based process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad A.L.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research emphasizes eloquently on membrane technology for treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME as it is the Malaysia’s largest and most important agro based industry. Findings established significant quality improvement with an efficient recovery of water from palm oil mill via innovative membrane application. Conventional bio-methods, whilst adhering to the Department of Environment’s (DOE discharge regulations, produces brownish liquid which pales in comparison to the crystal clear water obtained through membrane treatment. The pre-treatment process consists of coagulation-flocculation using green environmental coagulant bases such as Moringa oleifera (MO seeds. The ultrafiltration polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF and thin film composite (TFC reverse osmosis were vital for the membrane processes. The system gave 99% suspended solids reduction in suspended solid and 78% of water present was successfully recovered. This technology guarantees water recovery with drinking water quality; meeting the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA standard or could be recycled into the plant with sludge utilization for palm oil estates, thus enabling the concept of zero discharge to be executed in the industries. In addition, green and healthy antioxidants such as oil and beta-carotene can be recovered from POME further demonstrate. Silica gel showed better performance in separation of carotenes from oil at temperature 40°C using adsorption chromatography with 1154.55 ppm. The attractiveness of this technology, enabling the utilization of reuse of agricultural waste into potentially value added products.

  5. Water footprints of products of oil palm plantations and palm oil mills in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttayakul, Phetrada; H-Kittikun, Aran; Suksaroj, Chaisri; Mungkalasiri, Jitti; Wisansuwannakorn, Ruthairat; Musikavong, Charongpun

    2016-01-15

    The water footprint (WF) of fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) from oil palm plantations and crude palm oil (CPO) from palm oil mills in southern and eastern Thailand were determined over 25 years. Climatic conditions, soil characteristics, and the characteristics of oil palm growth were considered. The WF of FFBs was 1063 m(3)/ton (t) on average. Green, blue, and grey waters comprised of 68, 18, and 14% of total WF, respectively. The oil palm plantations in Thailand required smaller amounts of indirect blue water. The average WF for producing a ton of CPO of seven mills was 5083 m(3). Most of the waters used in the mills originated from indirect green, blue and grey waters from the plantations. The direct blue water used in the mills had less impact on the total WF, lower than 1% of the total WF. Average percentages of green, blue, and grey waters of 69, 16, and 15% of total WF were determined for the mills, respectively. The water deprivation of the FFBs and CPO ranged from 0.73-12.9 and 3.44-58.3 m(3)H2Oeq/t, respectively. In 2013, the CPO production in Thailand including green, blue, and grey waters from plantation and blue water from mills required 11,343 million m(3) water. If the oil palm variety Suratthani 7 is used in the plantation, it would increase the yield from 15.2 to 22.8 t FFBs/ha-year and decrease the WF to 888 m(3)/t FFBs. The average value of the oil extraction rate (OER) of mills was 18.1%. With an increase in the OER of 1%, a reduction of the WF of 250 m(3)/t CPO or 5.1% of total WF could be obtained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The development of epoxidised palm oil acrylate (EPOLA) and its applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi [Nuclear Energy Unit, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    1994-12-31

    The topics are discussed briefly. Acrylated palm oil is prepared through acrylation process, whereby, acrylic acid is introduced into oxirane group of the EPOP (epoxidised palm oil products), EPOLA (epoxidised palm oil products acrylate) was found curable when subjected to UV (ultrviolet) light giving soft coatings. EPOLA is used as radiation curable filler/sealer, radiation curable pressure sensitive adhesives and satisfactorily be coated on wood substrates (rubberwood parquets).

  7. The development of epoxidised palm oil acrylate (EPOLA) and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Hilmi Mahmood

    1993-01-01

    The topics are discussed briefly. Acrylated palm oil is prepared through acrylation process, whereby, acrylic acid is introduced into oxirane group of the EPOP (epoxidised palm oil products), EPOLA (epoxidised palm oil products acrylate) was found curable when subjected to UV (ultrviolet) light giving soft coatings. EPOLA is used as radiation curable filler/sealer, radiation curable pressure sensitive adhesives and satisfactorily be coated on wood substrates (rubberwood parquets)

  8. Modification of Oil Palm Plantation Wastes as Oil Adsorbent for Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noraisah Jahi; Ling, E.S.; Rizafizah Othaman; Suria Ramli

    2015-01-01

    This research was conducted to modify oil palm solid wastes chemically to become oil adsorbent for palm oil mill effluent (POME). The purpose of modification on oil palm leaves (OPL) and oil palm frond (OPF) was to change the hydrophilic nature to a more hydrophobic character. This study also exploited the production of sorbent materials with high efficiency in the oil uptake for POME from OPL and OPF. Chemical modification was carried out using 200 mL of 1.0 M lauric acid solution for 6 hrs at room temperature. The modified OPL and OPF were preceded to adsorption test for POME and the capacity of oil adsorbed was compared between them. FTIR analysis supported the modification to occur with the increase in a peak of C-H group and the presence of C=O originated from lauric acid structure chain. The hydrophobicity of modified OPL and OPF samples was supported by XRD and contact angle analysis with modified OPL became more hydrophobic than the modified OPF, which had been 38.15 % and 24.67 % respectively. Both the analyses proved that the result from the oil adsorption test on POME showed the presence of a new peak attribute at C=C stretching of aromatics for the oil in POME proved that it was attached on the sorbent materials. Based on SEM analysis, the perforated and rough surface had been observed on modified OPL and OPF samples because oil layers on OPL and OPF surfaces were observed on the modified samples after the adsorption test. All the analyses in the study agreed that the results from oil adsorption test showed that the modified OPL had higher adsorption capacity than the modified OPF with the percentage of oil uptake at 83.74 % and 39.84 % respectively. The prepared adsorbent showed the potential to be used as a low-cost adsorbent in oil for POME. (author)

  9. Population density of oil palm pollinator weevil Elaeidobius kamerunicus based on seasonal effect and age of oil palm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Syarifah Nadiah Syed Mat; Ghani, Idris Abd.

    2016-11-01

    The pollinating weevil, Elaedobius kamerunicus (EK) has been known to be the most efficient insect pollinator of oil palm, and has successfully improved the oil palm pollination and increased the yield. Its introduction has greatly reduced the need for assisted pollination. The purpose of this study was to identify the population density of oil palm pollinator weevil EK using the concept of pollinator force and to relate the population density with the seasonal effect and the age of oil palm at Lekir Oil Palm Plantation Batu 14, Perak, Peninsular Malaysia. The pollinator force of the weevil was sustained at a range between 3095.2 to 19126.1 weevils per ha. The overall mean of weevil per spikelet shows that the range of weevil was between 13.51 and 54.06 per spikelet. There was no correlation between rainfall and population density of EK. However, positive correlation was obtained between weevil density and the number of anthesising female inflorescence of oil palm (r= 0.938, poil palm stands had significantly different population density than that of a 8-year old oil palm stand. The information of this study should be useful as a baseline data to investigate why there is such a wide range of weevils per ha or spikelet. Further study should also be done to relate the number pollinator force per spikelete and the Fresh fruit Bunch (FFB), fruit set or fruit to bunch ratio.

  10. Pollution control technologies for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) through end-of-pipe processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ta Yeong; Mohammad, Abdul Wahab; Jahim, Jamaliah Md; Anuar, Nurina

    2010-07-01

    Palm oil production is one of the major industries in Malaysia and this country ranks one of the largest productions in the world. In Malaysia, the total production of crude palm oil in 2008 was 17,734,441 tonnes. However, the production of this amount of crude palm oil results in even larger amounts of palm oil mill effluent (POME). In the year 2008 alone, at least 44 million tonnes of POME was generated in Malaysia. Currently, the ponding system is the most common treatment method for POME but other processes such as aerobic and anaerobic digestion, physicochemical treatment and membrane filtration may also provide the palm oil industries with possible insights into the improvement of POME treatment processes. Generally, open ponding offers low capital and operating costs but this conventional method is becoming less attractive because the methane produced is wasted to the atmosphere and the system can not be certified for Carbon Emission Reduction trading. On the other hand, anaerobic digestion of POME provides the fastest payback of investment because the treatment enables biogas recovery for heat generation and treated effluent for land application. Lastly, it is proposed herewith that wastewater management based on the promotion of cleaner production and environmentally sound biotechnologies should be prioritized and included as a part of the POME management in Malaysia for attaining sustainable development. This paper thus discusses and compares state-of-the-art POME treatment methods as well as their individual performances. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of thermal processing on physicochemical properties and oxidative stability of Balanities aegyptiaca kernels and extracted oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbadawi, S.M.A.; Ahmad, E.E.M.; Mariod, A.A.; Mathäus, B.

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of roasting and boiling on the proximate composition of the kernels as well as the physicochemical properties and oxidative stabilities of the extracted oils of Balanites aegyptiaca were investigated. Roasting was performed at 180 °C for 15 minutes, whereas boiling of the kernels was carried out in tap water for one hour. The oils from raw and thermally processed samples were extracted using n-hexane in a Soxhlet extraction apparatus and characterized. The roasting significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the peroxide value and the oxidative stability of the extracted oil in a positive way; whereas boiling had the opposite effect. The oils were composed of linoleic, oleic, stearic, and palmitic acids as the major fatty acids (96%) and contained predominantly α- and γ-tocopherols (ca. 400mg/kg). The study suggests that the oil from roasted kernels could be used as a natural antioxidant for enhancing the characteristics of other edible oils via blending. [es

  12. The Kalimantan Border Oil Palm Mega-project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakker, E. [AIDEnvironment, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-04-15

    A few years ago, the Indonesian government and sections of the palm oil industry united in the Indonesian Palm Oil Commission (IPOC) to undertake efforts to restore the atrocious public image that the palm oil industry had earned abroad for its role in the demise of Indonesia's tropical rainforests, the massive forest fires and haze in 1997-1998, and for the widespread conflicts between plantation companies and local communities. If IPOC succeeded in restoring the palm oil industry's image abroad, it was shattered again after June 2005 when the Indonesian Minister of Agriculture revealed details of a government plan to develop the world's largest oil palm plantation in a 5-10 kilometer band along the border of Kalimantan and Malaysia. To finance the USD 567 million plantation project, the Indonesian President and Chamber of Commerce and Industry (KADIN) had already met up with the Chinese government and private sector several times, resulting in Memoranda of Understanding between (among other) the Artha Graha and Sinar Mas groups from Indonesia and the Chinese CITIC group and Chinese Development Bank (CDB). The oil palm mega-project, launched in Indonesia under the banner of 'bringing prosperity, security and environmental protection to the Kalimantan border area', turned sour when a business plan developed by the Indonesian State Plantation Corporation (PTPN) began to circulate. This document contained a map that showed beyond doubt how the 1.8 million hectare oil palm project would trash the primary forests of three National Parks, cut through rugged slopes and mountains utterly unsuitable for oil palm cultivation and annihilate the customary rights land of the indigenous Dayak communities in the border area. This report describes what has come of the Kalimantan border oil palm mega-plan since it was announced, who is involved and what research, lobby and campaigning has led to so far. In particular, this study aims to inform civil

  13. The Kalimantan Border Oil Palm Mega-project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakker, E.

    2006-04-01

    A few years ago, the Indonesian government and sections of the palm oil industry united in the Indonesian Palm Oil Commission (IPOC) to undertake efforts to restore the atrocious public image that the palm oil industry had earned abroad for its role in the demise of Indonesia's tropical rainforests, the massive forest fires and haze in 1997-1998, and for the widespread conflicts between plantation companies and local communities. If IPOC succeeded in restoring the palm oil industry's image abroad, it was shattered again after June 2005 when the Indonesian Minister of Agriculture revealed details of a government plan to develop the world's largest oil palm plantation in a 5-10 kilometer band along the border of Kalimantan and Malaysia. To finance the USD 567 million plantation project, the Indonesian President and Chamber of Commerce and Industry (KADIN) had already met up with the Chinese government and private sector several times, resulting in Memoranda of Understanding between (among other) the Artha Graha and Sinar Mas groups from Indonesia and the Chinese CITIC group and Chinese Development Bank (CDB). The oil palm mega-project, launched in Indonesia under the banner of 'bringing prosperity, security and environmental protection to the Kalimantan border area', turned sour when a business plan developed by the Indonesian State Plantation Corporation (PTPN) began to circulate. This document contained a map that showed beyond doubt how the 1.8 million hectare oil palm project would trash the primary forests of three National Parks, cut through rugged slopes and mountains utterly unsuitable for oil palm cultivation and annihilate the customary rights land of the indigenous Dayak communities in the border area. This report describes what has come of the Kalimantan border oil palm mega-plan since it was announced, who is involved and what research, lobby and campaigning has led to so far. In particular, this study aims to inform civil society organizations, palm oil

  14. Comparative alteration in atherogenic indices and hypocholesteremic effect of palm oil and palm oil mill effluent in normal albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiboye, John A; Erukainure, Ochuko L; Lawal, Babatunde A; Nwachukwu, Viola A; Tugbobo-Amisu, Adesewa O; Okafor, Ebelechukwu N

    2015-09-01

    The comparative hypocholesteremic effect of feeding palm oil and palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated in male albino rats. Diets were prepared and designed to contain 50% of energy as carbohydrate, 35% as fat, and 15% as protein. Groups of six rats were each fed one of these diets, while a group was fed pelletized mouse chow which served as the control. Feeding on palm oil and POME led to a significant increase (p palm oil fed rats compared to POME. These results indicate the protective potentials of palm oil against cardiovascular disease, as well as hyperlipidemia that characterize obesity and hypertension; as compared to its effluent.

  15. Synthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoate from palm oil and some new applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudesh, Kumar; Bhubalan, Kesaven; Chuah, Jo-Ann; Kek, Yik-Kang; Kamilah, Hanisah; Sridewi, Nanthini; Lee, Yan-Fen

    2011-03-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a potential substitute for some petrochemical-based plastics. This biodegradable plastic is derived from microbial fermentation using various carbon substrates. Since carbon source has been identified as one of the major cost-absorbing factors in PHA production, cheap and renewable substrates are currently being investigated as substitutes for existing sugar-based feedstock. Plant oils have been found to result in high-yield PHA production. Malaysia, being the world's second largest producer of palm oil, is able to ensure continuous supply of palm oil products for sustainable PHA production. The biosynthesis and characterization of various types of PHA using palm oil products have been described in detail in this review. Besides, by-products and waste stream from palm oil industry have also demonstrated promising results as carbon sources for PHA biosynthesis. Some new applications in cosmetic and wastewater treatment show the diversity of PHA usage. With proper management practices and efficient milling processes, it may be possible to supply enough palm oil-based raw materials for human consumption and other biotechnological applications such as production of PHA in a sustainable manner.

  16. Effect of palm oil fuel ash on compressive strength of palm oil boiler stone lightweight aggregate concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthusamy, K.; Zamri, N. A.; Kusbiantoro, A.; Lim, N. H. A. S.; Ariffin, M. A. Mohd

    2018-04-01

    Both palm oil fuel ash (POFA) and palm oil boiler stone (POBS) are by-products which has been continuously generated by local palm oil mill in large amount. Both by products is usually disposed as profitless waste and considered as nuisance to environment. The present research investigates the workability and compressive strength performance of lightweight aggregate concrete (LWAC) made of palm oil boiler stone (POBS) known as palm oil boiler stone lightweight aggregate concrete (POBS LWAC) containing various content of palm oil fuel ash. The control specimen that is POBS LWAC of grade 60 were produced using 100% OPC. Then, another 4 mixes were prepared by varying the POFA percentage from 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% by weight of cement. Fresh mixes were subjected to slump test to determine its workability before casted in form of cubes. Then, all specimens were subjected to water curing up to 28 days and then tested for its compressive strength. It was found out that utilizing of optimum amount of POFA in POBS LWAC would improve the workability and compressive strength of the concrete. However, inclusion of POFA more than optimum amount is not recommended as it will increase the water demand leading to lower workability and strength reduction.

  17. Production of ethanol and feed by high dry matter hydrolysis and fermentation of palm kernel press cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Henning; Sanadi, Anand R; Felby, Claus; Lange, Niels Erik Krebs; Fischer, Morten; Ernst, Steffen

    2010-05-01

    Palm kernel press cake (PKC) is a residue from palm oil extraction presently only used as a low protein feed supplement. PKC contains 50% fermentable hexose sugars present in the form of glucan and mainly galactomannan. This makes PKC an interesting feedstock for processing into bioethanol or in other biorefinery processes. Using a combination of mannanase, beta-mannosidase, and cellulases, it was possible without any pretreatment to hydrolyze PKC at solid concentrations of 35% dry matter with mannose yields up to 88% of theoretical. Fermentation was tested using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in both a separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) setup. The hydrolysates could readily be fermented without addition of nutrients and with average fermentation yields of 0.43 +/- 0.02 g/g based on consumed mannose and glucose. Employing SSF, final ethanol concentrations of 70 g/kg was achieved in 216 h, corresponding to an ethanol yield of 70% of theoretical or 200 g ethanol/kg PKC. Testing various enzyme mixtures revealed that including cellulases in combination with mannanases significantly improved ethanol yields. Processing PKC to ethanol resulted in a solid residue enriched in protein from 17% to 28%, a 70% increase, thereby potentially making a high-protein containing feed supplement.

  18. Infrared optical constants of liquid palm oil and palm oil biodiesel determined by the combined ellipsometry-transmission method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C C; Tan, J Y; Ma, Y Q; Liu, L H

    2017-06-20

    The optical constants of vegetable oils and biodiesels are the basic input parameters in the study of the thermal radiation transfer and monitoring the productivity of vegetable oils converting to biodiesels. In this work, a combined ellipsometry-transmission method is presented to obtain the optical constants of palm oil and palm oil biodiesel between 20°C and 150°C in the spectral range 600-4100  cm -1 and to study the temperature effect on the optical constants. In the combined method, a modified ellipsometry method is used to measure the optical constants of palm oil and palm oil biodiesel for the whole researched wave bands. For the weak absorption regions in which the ellipsometry method cannot give precise absorption indices, the transmission method is conducted to get the absorption indices using the refractive indices obtained by the proposed ellipsometry method. Deionized water and methanol are taken as examples to verify the combined ellipsometry-transmission method. It is shown that the combined method can overcome the deficiencies of the traditional ellipsometry and transmission method, which can be used for the measurements of both strong and weak absorption wave bands. The experimental analyses indicate that temperature exerts a noticeable influence on the infrared optical constants of palm oil and palm oil biodiesel. With the increase of temperature, the refractive indices at certain wavenumbers decrease nearly linearly, and the amplitudes of dominant absorption peaks show a decreasing trend. The absorption peaks located around 3550  cm -1 show blueshift trends as temperature increases. Comparing these two kinds of oils, palm oil presents larger values in refractive indices and dominant absorption peaks.

  19. Optimization of palm oil physical refining process for reduction of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) ester formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkurnain, Musfirah; Lai, Oi Ming; Tan, Soo Choon; Abdul Latip, Razam; Tan, Chin Ping

    2013-04-03

    The reduction of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) ester formation in refined palm oil was achieved by incorporation of additional processing steps in the physical refining process to remove chloroester precursors prior to the deodorization step. The modified refining process was optimized for the least 3-MCPD ester formation and acceptable refined palm oil quality using response surface methodology (RSM) with five processing parameters: water dosage, phosphoric acid dosage, degumming temperature, activated clay dosage, and deodorization temperature. The removal of chloroester precursors was largely accomplished by increasing the water dosage, while the reduction of 3-MCPD esters was a compromise in oxidative stability and color of the refined palm oil because some factors such as acid dosage, degumming temperature, and deodorization temperature showed contradictory effects. The optimization resulted in 87.2% reduction of 3-MCPD esters from 2.9 mg/kg in the conventional refining process to 0.4 mg/kg, with color and oil stability index values of 2.4 R and 14.3 h, respectively.

  20. The economy of palm oil production and marketing in Igala land ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The economy of palm oil production and marketing in Igala land. ... Palm oil processing and marketing constituted one of the major occupations of the people as men, women and even the young ones ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  1. An overview of the Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB potential as reinforcing fibre in polymer composite for energy absorption applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faizi M.K.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB natural fibres were comprehensively reviewed to assess their potential as reinforcing materials in polymer composites for energy absorption during low-velocity impact. The typical oil palm wastes include trunks, fronds, kernel shells, and empty fruit bunches. This has a tendency to burden the industry players with disposal difficulties and escalates the operating cost. Thus, there are several initiatives have been employed to convert these wastes into value added products. The objective of this study is to review the potential of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB as natural fibre polymer composite reinforcement to absorb the energy during low-velocity impact as another option for value added products. Initially, this paper reviewed the local oil palm waste issues. Previous research works on OPEFB polymer composite, and their mechanical characterization is appraised. Their potential for energy absorption in low-velocity impact application was also elaborated. The review suggests high potential applications of OPEFB as reinforcing materials in composite structures. Furthermore, it is wisely to utilize the oil palm biomass waste into a beneficial composite, hence, promotes the green environment.

  2. Detection using visible laser of palm oil quality affected by heating process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Rahman, A.A.; Badawy, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    Palm oil was heated at 180 degree C for six times (3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 hours) to measure some physical, chemical and optical properties. Palm oil was exposure to laser beam to determine optical properties of oils using (He-Ne) lasers with wavelengths 632.8 and 543.5 nm. The obtained results are as follows: (1) Chemical properties such as oxidized fatty acid, acid value and peroxide value were increased by increasing heating time, but the iodine value was decreased. Meanwhile, physical properties such as viscosity and reflective index were increased at the same of heating times., (2) By increasing heating time of palm oil from 3 to 18 hrs, the absorbed of wavelengths of laser beam with wavelength 543.5 nm was more absorbed than 632.8 nm. Meanwhile, the transmission of laser beam with wavelength 543.5 nm was more high transmission than 632.8 nm., (3) The deterioration of palm oil was started after 16 hours of heating at the light intensity 228 and 368 lux of transmission for wavelengths of 543.5 and 632.8 nm., (4) There are high relation between heating time and chemical, physical, optical properties. The R square was ranged from 0.83 to 0.97, from 0.89 to 0.96 and from 0.95 to 0.98 for chemical, physical, and optical properties with heating, and (5) From optical properties we can determine the quality of oil using the laser transmission or absorbed as a detector of oil quality.

  3. The Factors Influencing on Consumption of Palm Cooking Oil in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermy Teti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cooking oil is one of the most sensitive basic needs in Indonesia. The aims of the researchare to analyze factors influencing consumption of cooking oil, the cooking oil price, and theCrude Palm Oil price in Indonesia. Using simultaneous equation model, the study show thatpalm cooking oil consumption is significantly affected by domestic palm cooking oil priceand number of population. Whilst palm cooking oil price is significantly influenced by thecooking palm oil production and the domestic Crude Palm Oil price. Finally, the domesticCrude Palm Oil is significantly affected by international Crude Palm Oil price.Keywords: consumption, cooking oil price, crude palm oil price and cooking oil

  4. Characterizing haploinsufficiency of SHELL gene to improve fruit form prediction in introgressive hybrids of oil palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Chee-Keng; Muaz, Siti Dalila; Tangaya, Praveena; Fong, Po-Yee; Ong, Ai-Ling; Mayes, Sean; Chew, Fook-Tim; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna; Appleton, David

    2017-06-08

    The fundamental trait in selective breeding of oil palm (Eleais guineensis Jacq.) is the shell thickness surrounding the kernel. The monogenic shell thickness is inversely correlated to mesocarp thickness, where the crude palm oil accumulates. Commercial thin-shelled tenera derived from thick-shelled dura × shell-less pisifera generally contain 30% higher oil per bunch. Two mutations, sh MPOB (M1) and sh AVROS (M2) in the SHELL gene - a type II MADS-box transcription factor mainly present in AVROS and Nigerian origins, were reported to be responsible for different fruit forms. In this study, we have tested 1,339 samples maintained in Sime Darby Plantation using both mutations. Five genotype-phenotype discrepancies and eight controls were then re-tested with all five reported mutations (sh AVROS , sh MPOB , sh MPOB2 , sh MPOB3 and sh MPOB4 ) within the same gene. The integration of genotypic data, pedigree records and shell formation model further explained the haploinsufficiency effect on the SHELL gene with different number of functional copies. Some rare mutations were also identified, suggesting a need to further confirm the existence of cis-compound mutations in the gene. With this, the prediction accuracy of fruit forms can be further improved, especially in introgressive hybrids of oil palm. Understanding causative variant segregation is extremely important, even for monogenic traits such as shell thickness in oil palm.

  5. Recovery and subsequent characterization of polyhydroxybutyrate from Rhodococcus equi cells grown on crude palm kernel oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Altaee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The gram-positive bacterium Rhodococcus equi was isolated from fertile soil, and mineral salt media (MM and trace elements were used to provide the necessary elements for its growth and PHB production in addition to using crude palm kernel oil (CPKO 1% as the carbon source. Gas chromatography (GC demonstrated that the composition of the recovered biopolymer was homopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB. The strain of the present study has a dry biomass of 1.43 (g/l with 38% PHB, as determined by GC. The recovered PHB was characterized by NMR to study the chemical structure. In addition, DSC and TGA were used to study the thermal properties of the recovered polymer, where the melting temperature (Tm was 173 °C, the glass transition temperature (Tg was 2.79 °C, and the decomposition temperature (Td was 276 °C. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC was used to study the molecular mass of the recovered PHB in addition to comparing the results with other studies using different bacteria and substrates, where the molecular weight was 642 kDa, to enable its usage in many applications. The present study demonstrated the use of an inexpensive substrate for PHB production, i.e., using gram-positive bacteria to produce PHB polymer with characterization.

  6. Production of adsorbent from palm shell for radioactive iodine scrubbing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Azman Che Mat Isa; Ku Halim Ku Hamid; Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus; Mohamad Puad Abu; Abdul Halim Badaruddin; Mohammad Nizammudin Abd Aziz; Muhd Ridwan Abdul Rahim

    2010-01-01

    The biggest biomass source in Malaysia comes from oil palm industry. According to the statistic of year 2004, Malaysia produced 40 million tones per year of biomass which 30 million tones of biomass originated from the oil palm industries. Therefore, the biomass waste such as palm kernel shell can be used to produce granular adsorbent for radioactive materials. For that reason, a newly system, called Rocking Kiln - Fluidized Bed (RK - FB) was developed to utilize large amount of the biomass to produce high value added product. Charcoal or chemically produced activated carbon could be produced by using the kiln. Washing process was introduced to remove particles, minerals and volatile matters from charcoal produced and then would create more surface area in the adsorbent by creating more active sites. In this research, the adsorbent produced was used to scrub iodine 131. In nuclear power reactor, iodine isotope 131 is produced during nuclear fission, and this elementary radioactive iodine may pollute exhaust air streams that could cause thyroid cancer. For removal of radioactive iodine, normally a potassium iodide - impregnated activated carbon (KI - AC) is used. Thus, a process will be developed to produce KI - AC and this product will be used to calculate the efficiency to remove the radioactive iodine 131.The results obtain show that adsorbent produced has a high potential to be used in radioactive adsorbing and likely more economics. This paper will elaborate further the experimental set-up of in Kiln - Fluidized Bed (RK - FB), adsorbent quality and radioactive scrubbing process. (author)

  7. palm kernel husk ash (pkha) as an admixture (accelerator) in concrete

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A.W. Otunyo. Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B. ... The main contribution of this technical paper is that PKHA can reduce the set- ting time of .... The palm kernel husks were washed to clean.

  8. The hidden carbon liability of Indonesian palm oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-05-15

    This report highlights the urgent need for global palm oil consumers and investors to support Unilever's call for an immediate moratorium on deforestation and peatland clearance in Indonesia. This report focuses on Unilever, which shares major institutional investors with other leading corporations including Nestle, Procter and Gamble and Kraft. Not only do these corporations share investors, they also share growing carbon liability within their raw material supply chains through the expansion in the palm oil sector in Indonesia. Unilever has recognised the global problems associated with palm oil expansion and the need for drastic reform to this sector. Unilever has taken a bold move in calling for an immediate moratorium on deforestation and peatland clearance. While Unilever's position is strengthened by its status as the largest palm oil consumer in the world, this report shows how, unless companies like Nestle, Procter and Gamble and Kraft support its call for a halt to deforestation, the palm oil industry will continue to present a massive carbon liability over the coming years. This report uses Unilever's palm oil supply chains as a case study to help quantify the carbon liability and collateral risks associated with the Indonesian palm oil sector. It shows how, by buying palm oil from suppliers who account for more than one-third of Indonesia's palm oil production, Unilever and its competitors are increasing their potential carbon liability and thus leaving investors exposed to potentially significant levels of hidden risk, compromising long-term financial and brand stability.

  9. Electron beam pasteurised oil palm waste: a potential feed resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat Rasol Awang; Hassan Hamdani Mutaat; Tamikazu Kume; Tachibana, H.

    2002-01-01

    Pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was performed using electron beam single sided irradiation. The dose profiles of oil palm EFB samples for different thickness in both directions X and Y were established. The results showed the usual characteristics dose uniformity as sample thickness decreased. The mean average absorbed dose on both sides at the surface and bottom of the samples for different thickness samples lead to establishing depth dose curve. Based on depth dose curve and operation conditions of electron beam machine, the process throughput for pasteurized oil palm EFB were estimated. (Author)

  10. Systematic approach for synthesis of palm oil-based biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NG, Rex T. L.; NG, Denny K. S.; LAM, Hon Loong [Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Centre of Excellence for Green Technologies, Univ. of Nottingham, Selangor, (Malaysia); TAY, Douglas H. S.; LIM, Joseph H. E. [2GGS Eco Solutions Sdn Bhd, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2012-11-01

    Various types of palm oil biomasses are generated from palm oil mill when crude palm oil (CPO) is produced from fresh fruit bunch (FFB). In the current practice, palm oil biomasses are used as the main source of energy input in the palm oil mill to produce steam and electricity. Moreover, those biomasses are regarded as by-products and can be reclaimed easily. Therefore, there is a continuous increasing interest concerning biomasses generated from the palm oil mill as a source of renewable energy. Although various technologies have been exploited to produce bio-fuel (i.e., briquette, pellet, etc.) as well as heat and power generation, however, no systematic approach which can analyse and optimise the synthesise biorefinery is presented. In this work, a systematic approach for synthesis and optimisation of palm oil-based biorefinery which including palm oil mill and refinery with maximum economic performance is developed. The optimised network configuration with achieves the maximum economic performance can also be determined. To illustrate the proposed approach, a case study is solved in this work.

  11. Performance Comparison Between Support Vector Regression and Artificial Neural Network for Prediction of Oil Palm Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustakim Mustakim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The largest region that produces oil palm in Indonesia has an important role in improving the welfare of society and economy. Oil palm has increased significantly in Riau Province in every period, to determine the production development for the next few years with the functions and benefits of oil palm carried prediction production results that were seen from time series data last 8 years (2005-2013. In its prediction implementation, it was done by comparing the performance of Support Vector Regression (SVR method and Artificial Neural Network (ANN. From the experiment, SVR produced the best model compared with ANN. It is indicated by the correlation coefficient of 95% and 6% for MSE in the kernel Radial Basis Function (RBF, whereas ANN produced only 74% for R2 and 9% for MSE on the 8th experiment with hiden neuron 20 and learning rate 0,1. SVR model generates predictions for next 3 years which increased between 3% - 6% from actual data and RBF model predictions.

  12. Effect of temperature on energy potential of pyrolysis products from oil palm shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina María Romero Millán

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Context: Taking into account that near 220 000 tons of oil palm shells are produced every year in Colombia, as a waste of the Elaeis Guineensis palm oil transformation process, the aim of this work is to determine the energy potential of oil palm shells, when transformed through slow pyrolysis process. Methods: Using a fixed bed lab scale reactor, different oil palm shells pyrolysis tests were performed between 300°C and 500°C. The effect of the temperature in the process product yield and in the energy content of produced solids and gases were analyzed. Results: With a maximum mass yield of 50%, the char is considered the main product of oil palm shells pyrolysis, containing up to 73% of the raw biomass energy. The heating value of char raised with the temperature, from 29,6 MJ/kg at 300°C to 31,34 MJ/kg at 500°C. Moreover, the gas produced in the established temperature range had up to 13% of the energy content of the raw biomass, with a heating value near 12,5 MJ/m3. Conclusions: According to the results, slow pyrolysis can be considered an interesting process for the valorization of residual biomass as oil palm shells, through the production of solids and gases that can be used as fuels, or as precursor of other value-added products.

  13. Image processing analysis of geospatial uav orthophotos for palm oil plantation monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmi, F.; Trianda, D.; Andayani, U.; Siregar, B.

    2018-03-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is one of the tools that can be used to monitor palm oil plantation remotely. With the geospatial orthophotos, it is possible to identify which part of the plantation land is fertile for planted crops, means to grow perfectly. It is also possible furthermore to identify less fertile in terms of growth but not perfect, and also part of plantation field that is not growing at all. This information can be easily known quickly with the use of UAV photos. In this study, we utilized image processing algorithm to process the orthophotos for more accurate and faster analysis. The resulting orthophotos image were processed using Matlab including classification of fertile, infertile, and dead palm oil plants by using Gray Level Co-Occurrence Matrix (GLCM) method. The GLCM method was developed based on four direction parameters with specific degrees 0°, 45°, 90°, and 135°. From the results of research conducted with 30 image samples, it was found that the accuracy of the system can be reached by using the features extracted from the matrix as parameters Contras, Correlation, Energy, and Homogeneity.

  14. Processing of oil palm empty fruit bunch as filler material of polymer recycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saepulloh, D. R.; Nikmatin, S.; Hardhienata, H.

    2017-05-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB) is waste from crude palm oil (CPO) processing plants. This research aims to process OPEFB to be a reinforcement polymer recycle with the mechanical milling method and identify each establishment molecular with the orbital hybridization theory. OPEFB fibers were synthesized using a mechanical milling until the size shortfiber and microfiber. Then do the biocomposite granular synthesis with single screw extruder. TAPPI chemical test shows levels of α-cellulose fibers amounted 41.68%. Based on density, the most optimum composition contained in the filler amounted 15% with the size is the microfiber. The test results of morphology with SEM showed deployment of filler OPEFB fiber is fairly equitable distributed. Regarding the molecular interaction between matrix with OPEFB fiber, described by the theory of orbital hybridization. But the explanation establishment of the bond for more complex molecules likes this from the side of the molecular orbital theory is necessary complete information of the hybrid levels.

  15. A choice of renewable or upgraded material from oil palm solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farid Nasir Ani; Wong Chuan Chin; Hussin Mohd Nor

    2006-01-01

    Malaysian palm oil industries are producing a large amount of solid wastes from the palm oil mills. Malaysia generates around 1.10 million tons of oil palm shells in year 1980 but this amount increased up to 4.11 million tons in year 2002 as wastes. Disposal of these wastes created environmental problems. Thus, a process was designed to reuse and recycle these wastes into value added products. This research used oil palm shells as a renewable material resource by thermo-chemical process to produce pyrolysis oil. The oil could be utilized as fuel or converted to valued added products. Since it contain a significant amount of phenols, it was extracted using solvent extraction technique to gain the useful phenol and phenolic compounds. The extracted oil-palm-shell-based phenol was used in the manufacturing of phenol formaldehyde wood adhesives. Then the capability of wood bonding was tested comparing with the petroleum-based phenol formaldehyde wood adhesives. For the commercial values of this research, the total global consumption of phenol in 2000 was 11.3 million metric ton that worth USD 10.0 billions. Thus, the commercial potentiality of this research is very high as the oil-palm-shell-based phenol could replace the petroleum-based phenol. The methods and products utilize low manufacturing cost from relatively simple technology and locally abundant raw material, comparable performances in wood bonding and competitive in price. It is estimated that around USD 900 / ton for petroleum-based, but just USD 250 / ton for palm-shell-based phenol

  16. Dual Resonant Frequencies Effects on an Induction-Based Oil Palm Fruit Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Hasmiza Harun

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As the main exporter in the oil palm industry, the need to improve the quality of palm oil has become the main interest among all the palm oil millers in Malaysia. To produce good quality palm oil, it is important for the miller to harvest a good oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB. Conventionally, the main reference used by Malaysian harvesters is the manual grading standard published by the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB. A good oil palm FFB consists of all matured fruitlets, aged between 18 to 21 weeks of antheses (WAA. To expedite the harvesting process, it is crucial to implement an automated detection system for determining the maturity of the oil palm FFB. Various automated detection methods have been proposed by researchers in the field to replace the conventional method. In our preliminary study, a novel oil palm fruit sensor to detect the maturity of oil palm fruit bunch was proposed. The design of the proposed air coil sensor based on the inductive sensor was further investigated mainly in the context of the effect of coil diameter to improve its sensitivity. In this paper, the sensitivity of the inductive sensor was further examined with a dual flat-type shape of air coil. The dual air coils were tested on fifteen samples of fruitlet from two categories, namely ripe and unripe. Samples were tested within 20 Hz to 10 MHz while evaluations on both peaks were done separately before the gap between peaks was analyzed. A comparative analysis was conducted to investigate the improvement in sensitivity of the induction-based oil palm fruit sensor as compared to previous works. Results from the comparative study proved that the inductive sensor using a dual flat-type shape air coil has improved by up to 167%. This provides an indication in the improvement in the coil sensitivity of the palm oil fruit sensor based on the induction concept.

  17. Dual resonant frequencies effects on an induction-based oil palm fruit sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harun, Noor Hasmiza; Misron, Norhisam; Mohd Sidek, Roslina; Aris, Ishak; Wakiwaka, Hiroyuki; Tashiro, Kunihisa

    2014-11-19

    As the main exporter in the oil palm industry, the need to improve the quality of palm oil has become the main interest among all the palm oil millers in Malaysia. To produce good quality palm oil, it is important for the miller to harvest a good oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB). Conventionally, the main reference used by Malaysian harvesters is the manual grading standard published by the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB). A good oil palm FFB consists of all matured fruitlets, aged between 18 to 21 weeks of antheses (WAA). To expedite the harvesting process, it is crucial to implement an automated detection system for determining the maturity of the oil palm FFB. Various automated detection methods have been proposed by researchers in the field to replace the conventional method. In our preliminary study, a novel oil palm fruit sensor to detect the maturity of oil palm fruit bunch was proposed. The design of the proposed air coil sensor based on the inductive sensor was further investigated mainly in the context of the effect of coil diameter to improve its sensitivity. In this paper, the sensitivity of the inductive sensor was further examined with a dual flat-type shape of air coil. The dual air coils were tested on fifteen samples of fruitlet from two categories, namely ripe and unripe. Samples were tested within 20 Hz to 10 MHz while evaluations on both peaks were done separately before the gap between peaks was analyzed. A comparative analysis was conducted to investigate the improvement in sensitivity of the induction-based oil palm fruit sensor as compared to previous works. Results from the comparative study proved that the inductive sensor using a dual flat-type shape air coil has improved by up to 167%. This provides an indication in the improvement in the coil sensitivity of the palm oil fruit sensor based on the induction concept.

  18. Analyses of Hypomethylated Oil Palm Gene Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanthi, Nagappan; Mohd-Amin, Ab Halim; Azizi, Norazah; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Maqbool, Nauman J.; Maclean, Paul; Brauning, Rudi; McCulloch, Alan; Moraga, Roger; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina; Singh, Rajinder

    2014-01-01

    Demand for palm oil has been increasing by an average of ∼8% the past decade and currently accounts for about 59% of the world's vegetable oil market. This drives the need to increase palm oil production. Nevertheless, due to the increasing need for sustainable production, it is imperative to increase productivity rather than the area cultivated. Studies on the oil palm genome are essential to help identify genes or markers that are associated with important processes or traits, such as flowering, yield and disease resistance. To achieve this, 294,115 and 150,744 sequences from the hypomethylated or gene-rich regions of Elaeis guineensis and E. oleifera genome were sequenced and assembled into contigs. An additional 16,427 shot-gun sequences and 176 bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) were also generated to check the quality of libraries constructed. Comparison of these sequences revealed that although the methylation-filtered libraries were sequenced at low coverage, they still tagged at least 66% of the RefSeq supported genes in the BAC and had a filtration power of at least 2.0. A total 33,752 microsatellites and 40,820 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were identified. These represent the most comprehensive collection of microsatellites and SNPs to date and would be an important resource for genetic mapping and association studies. The gene models predicted from the assembled contigs were mined for genes of interest, and 242, 65 and 14 oil palm transcription factors, resistance genes and miRNAs were identified respectively. Examples of the transcriptional factors tagged include those associated with floral development and tissue culture, such as homeodomain proteins, MADS, Squamosa and Apetala2. The E. guineensis and E. oleifera hypomethylated sequences provide an important resource to understand the molecular mechanisms associated with important agronomic traits in oil palm. PMID:24497974

  19. Characterization of Diclofenac Liposomes Formulated with Palm Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To characterize diclofenac sodium (DS) liposomes prepared using palm oil fractions. Methods: Reverse-phase evaporation method was used to prepare liposomes containing 10, 20, 30 , 40 or 50% palm oil fractions. The effect of palm oil content on liposome formation, surface morphology, shape, size and zeta ...

  20. The effect of power intensity properties of microwave modified oil palm trunk lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzati Ibrahim, Anis; Salim, Nurjannah; Roslan, Rasidi; Ashry Jusoh, Mohammad; Hashim, Rokiah

    2018-04-01

    In the decade, oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) in Malaysia is one of the conventional sources that will be rising, and the rate of biomass will considerably increase in yet to come. Presently, oil palm biomass is going through research and development and appears to be the most sustainable alternative. Investigations on oil palm biomass have been conducted to support in draw out waste of oil palm and in the meantime can help economic yield to the country. This study was expected to estimate the effect of power intensity properties of microwave modified oil palm trunk lumber. Microwave treatment of oil palm trunk samples was set of connections by using a microwave operating at 2.45 GHz with the liberated process input power intensity (600-1000W) were studied under the given condition. Impact and compression of the samples were tested. The analysis of properties of the fresh material and dry samples was employed by scanning electron microscopy. Oven drying technique also was involved as a comparison of the conventional drying process in this research. Based on the outcomes of this study, both drying methods improved the characteristics of the specimens.

  1. Indonesia palm oil production without deforestation and peat conversion by 2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afriyanti, Dian; Kroeze, Carolien; Saad, Asmadi

    2016-07-01

    Palm oil is a promising source of cooking oil and biodiesel. The demand for palm oil has been increasing worldwide. However, concerns exist surrounding the environmental and socio-economic sustainability of palm oil production. Indonesia is a major palm oil producing country. We explored scenarios for palm oil production in Indonesia until 2050, focusing on Sumatra, Kalimantan and Papua. Our scenarios describe possible trends in crude palm oil production in Indonesia, while considering the demand for cooking oil and biodiesel, the available land for plantations, production capacity (for crude palm oil and fresh fruit bunches) and environmentally restricting conditions. We first assessed past developments in palm oil production. Next, we analysed scenarios for the future. In the past 20years, 95% of the Indonesian oil palm production area was in Sumatra and Kalimantan and was increasingly cultivated in peatlands. Our scenarios for the future indicate that Indonesia can meet a considerable part of the global and Asian demand for palm oil, while avoiding further cultivation of peatlands and forest. By 2050, 264-447Mt crude palm oil may be needed for cooking oil and biodiesel worldwide. In Indonesia, the area that is potentially suitable for oil palm is 17 to 26Mha with a potential production rate of 27-38t fresh fruit bunches/ha, yielding 130-176Mt crude palm oil. Thus Indonesia can meet 39-60% of the international demand. In our scenarios this would be produced in Sumatra (21-26%), Kalimantan (12-16%), and Papua (2%). The potential areas include the current oil palm plantation in mineral lands, but exclude the current oil palm plantations in peatlands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Study on effective utilization of palm oil (Part 2). Extraction of carotenes from palm oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamuro, Hideo; Kubota, Yasuhiko; Shiina, Hisako; Nakasato, Satoshi

    1987-01-08

    This report is a part of the result of an international cooperation project with Malaysia Palm Oil Research Institute. Extraction of carotenes from palm oil was carried out by means of molecular distillation or adsorption method. High recovery and enrichment of carotene was obtained from the sample treated with phosphoric acid or polyphosphoric acid. However, even the maximum enrichment was only 3.8 times of carotene concentration of the sample, which was far remote from the target value of 10. The yield of recovery was also as low as 40%. Adsorption of carotenes was found to be chemisorptive in nature. The highest enrichment and recovery were obtained in the caseof oil pretreated with the phosphorous pentoxide, the recovery was 34.3% and enrichment was 11.3 which exceeded the target of 10. This adsorption process may be commercialized if the demand for carotene will grow to justify it. (2 figs, 7 tabs, 18 refs)

  3. The Sustainability Status of Partnership of Palm Oil Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Daud

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of existence determining factor of PBS palm oil is a harmonious relation with communities surroundings, thus the partnership between the palm oil plantation with the farmers surroundings is one of effort which has created the harmonization in palm oil plantation. The objective of the article is to express the sustainability of each pattern of palm oil PBS partnership, and this partnership form gives the sustainability advantages for the farmer and palm oil PBS in Central Kalimantan. The article used quantitative method through the survey approach, primary data and secondary data. The article result there are three main patterns of palm oil plantation partnership in Central Kalimantan, they are MSA, KKPA, and IGA. IGA has value as a form which has degree of continuing that higher than MSA and KKPA, thus make IGA can be the reference in frame of PBS palm oil partnership in Central Kalimantan with keeping the superiority and improving the weaknesses.

  4. Effect Of Weed On Oil Palm Inflorenscence Production: Implication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Weed consistently depressed the performance of oil palm and this depressive effect was attributed to aggressive growth resources, smothering of the oil palm and preventing the palm from proper ventilation and solar radiation. Weed interference on inflorescence production of oil palm was assessed with the view of ...

  5. Inhibition of palm oil oxidation by zeolite nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kok-Hou; Awala, Hussein; Mukti, Rino R; Wong, Ka-Lun; Rigaud, Baptiste; Ling, Tau Chuan; Aleksandrov, Hristiyan A; Koleva, Iskra Z; Vayssilov, Georgi N; Mintova, Svetlana; Ng, Eng-Poh

    2015-05-13

    The efficiency of zeolite X nanocrystals (FAU-type framework structure) containing different extra-framework cations (Li(+), Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+)) in slowing the thermal oxidation of palm oil is reported. The oxidation study of palm oil is conducted in the presence of zeolite nanocrystals (0.5 wt %) at 150 °C. Several characterization techniques such as visual analysis, colorimetry, rheometry, total acid number (TAN), FT-IR spectroscopy, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and Karl Fischer analyses are applied to follow the oxidative evolution of the oil. It was found that zeolite nanocrystals decelerate the oxidation of palm oil through stabilization of hydroperoxides, which are the primary oxidation product, and concurrently via adsorption of the secondary oxidation products (alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, and esters). In addition to the experimental results, periodic density functional theory (DFT) calculations are performed to elucidate further the oxidation process of the palm oil in the presence of zeolite nanocrystals. The DFT calculations show that the metal complexes formed with peroxides are more stable than the complexes with alkenes with the same ions. The peroxides captured in the zeolite X nanocrystals consequently decelerate further oxidation toward formation of acids. Unlike the monovalent alkali metal cations in the zeolite X nanocrystals (K(+), Na(+), and Li(+)), Ca(2+) reduced the acidity of the oil by neutralizing the acidic carboxylate compounds to COO(-)(Ca(2+))1/2 species.

  6. Utilization of oil palm tree residues to produce bio-oil and bio-char via pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abnisa, Faisal; Arami-Niya, Arash; Wan Daud, W.M.A.; Sahu, J.N.; Noor, I.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • About 14.72% of the total landmass in Malaysia was used for oil palm plantations. • Oil palm tree residues were pyrolyzed to produce bio-oil and bio-char. • The process was performed at a temperature of 500 °C and reaction time of 60 min. • Characterization of the products was performed. - Abstract: Oil palm tree residues are a rich biomass resource in Malaysia, and it is therefore very important that they be utilized for more beneficial purposes, particularly in the context of the development of biofuels. This paper described the possibility of utilizing oil palm tree residues as biofuels by producing bio-oil and bio-char via pyrolysis. The process was performed in a fixed-bed reactor at a temperature of 500 °C, a nitrogen flow rate of 2 L/min and a reaction time of 60 min. The physical and chemical properties of the products, which are important for biofuel testing, were then characterized. The results showed that the yields of the bio-oil and bio-char obtained from different residues varied within the ranges of 16.58–43.50 wt% and 28.63–36.75 wt%, respectively. The variations in the yields resulted from differences in the relative amounts of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, volatiles, fixed carbon, and ash in the samples. The energy density of the bio-char was found to be higher than that of the bio-oil. The highest energy density of the bio-char was obtained from a palm leaf sample (23.32 MJ/kg), while that of the bio-oil was obtained from a frond sample (15.41 MJ/kg)

  7. Nutritional evaluation of fermented palm kernel cake using red tilapia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of palm kernel cake (PKC) and other plant residues in fish feeding especially under extensive aquaculture have been in practice for a long time. On the other hand, the use of microbial-based feedstuff is increasing. In this study, the performance of red tilapia raised on Trichoderma longibrachiatum fermented PKC ...

  8. Optimization process condition for deacidification of palm oil by liquid-liquid extraction using NADES (Natural Deep Eutectic Solvent)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israyandi, Zahrina, Ida; Mulia, Kamarza

    2017-03-01

    One of many steps in palm oil refining process is deacidification which aims to separate free fatty acids and other compounds from the oil. The deacidification process was using a green solvent, known as NADES, that consisted of betaine monohydrate and propionic acid at molar ratio of 1:8. In this study, the process conditions were optimized using the response surface method (RSM) through central composite design in order to predict the maximum distribution coefficient of palmitic acid. The obtained regression equation of the basic model for optimization was: y = 0.717 + 0.003x1 + 0.043 x2 + 0.148x3 - 0.005 x1x1 - 0.030 x2x2 + 0.047 x3x3 - 0.008 x1x2 + 0.008 x1x3 + 0.033 x2x3. The independent variables are x1 ≡ temperature (40, 60, 80 °C), x2≡ amount of palmitic acid in the palm oil (2, 5, 8 %) and x3 ≡ mass ratios of oil to NADES (1:2, 1:1, 2:1). The optimum process condition found was temperature of 62.3°C, palmitic acid content of 8%, and NADES to palm oil mass ratio of 1:2, resulting in the maximum distribution coefficient of 0.96.

  9. Palm kernel cake extract exerts hepatoprotective activity in heat-induced oxidative stress in chicken hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskoueian, Ehsan; Abdullah, Norhani; Idrus, Zulkifli; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Goh, Yong Meng; Shakeri, Majid; Oskoueian, Armin

    2014-10-02

    Palm kernel cake (PKC), the most abundant by-product of oil palm industry is believed to contain bioactive compounds with hepatoprotective potential. These compounds may serve as hepatoprotective agents which could help the poultry industry to alleviate adverse effects of heat stress on liver function in chickens. This study was performed to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of PKC extract in heat-induced oxidative stress in chicken hepatocytes. The nature of the active metabolites and elucidation of the possible mechanism involved were also investigated. The PKC extract possessed free radical scavenging activity with values significantly (p < 0.05) lower than silymarin as the reference antioxidant. Heat-induced oxidative stress in chicken hepatocyte impaired the total protein, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activity significantly (p < 0.05). Treatment of heat-induced hepatocytes with PKC extract (125 μg/ml) and silymarin as positive control increased these values significantly (p < 0.05). The real time PCR and western blot analyses revealed the significant (p < 0.05) up-regulation of oxidative stress biomarkers including TNF-like, IFN-γ and IL-1β genes; NF-κB, COX-2, iNOS and Hsp70 proteins expression upon heat stress in chicken hepatocytes. The PKC extract and silymarin were able to alleviate the expression of all of these biomarkers in heat-induced chicken hepatocytes. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of PKC extract showed the presence of fatty acids, phenolic compounds, sugar derivatives and other organic compounds such as furfural which could be responsible for the observed hepatoprotective activity. Palm kernel cake extract could be a potential agent to protect hepatocytes function under heat induced oxidative stress.

  10. Intelligent Color Vision System for Ripeness Classification of Oil Palm Fresh Fruit Bunch

    OpenAIRE

    Fadilah, Norasyikin; Mohamad-Saleh, Junita; Halim, Zaini Abdul; Ibrahim, Haidi; Ali, Syed Salim Syed

    2012-01-01

    Ripeness classification of oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) during harvesting is important to ensure that they are harvested during optimum stage for maximum oil production. This paper presents the application of color vision for automated ripeness classification of oil palm FFB. Images of oil palm FFBs of type DxP Yangambi were collected and analyzed using digital image processing techniques. Then the color features were extracted from those images and used as the inputs for Artificial Ne...

  11. Utilization possibilities of palm shell as a source of biomass energy in Malaysia by producing bio-oil in pyrolysis process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abnisa, Faisal; Daud, W.M.A. Wan; Husin, W.N.W.; Sahu, J.N.

    2011-01-01

    Agriculture residues such as palm shell are one of the biomass categories that can be utilized for conversion to bio-oil by using pyrolysis process. Palm shells were pyrolyzed in a fluidized-bed reactor at 400, 500, 600, 700 and 800 o C with N 2 as carrier gas at flow rate 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 L/min. The objective of the present work is to determine the effects of temperature, flow rate of N 2 , particle size and reaction time on the optimization of production of renewable bio-oil from palm shell. According to this study the maximum yield of bio-oil (47.3 wt%) can be obtained, working at the medium level for the operation temperature (500 o C) and 2 L/min of N 2 flow rate at 60 min reaction time. Temperature is the most important factor, having a significant positive effect on yield product of bio-oil. The oil was characterized by Fourier Transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. -- Highlights: → This study reports the results of experimental investing of conversion palm shell into bio-oil by using pyrolysis and to find the optimum condition to produce the highest yield of bio-oil. → Several parameters which have effect to the process such as temperature, N 2 flow rate, reaction time and particle size is will be investigated in this study. → The outcome of this result will be important for abatement and control of increasingly waste palm shell storage problems any energy source to the world.

  12. The evolution of palm oil acrylates within 20 years in Nuclear Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mek Zah Salleh; Rida Tajau; Nurul Huda Mudri

    2016-01-01

    Acrylated palm oil was synthesized from epoxidized palm oil (EPOP), in early 1989, through acrylation/methacrylation process at Radiation Technology Division laboratory. The acrylated products namely Epoxidized Palm Oil Acrylate/Methacrylate (EPOLA/ EPOMA), with the molecular weight around 2000-3000 g/mol, was found curable when subjected to UV or EB irradiations. Isocyanation of EPOLAs resulted in a resin called Palm Oil Based Urethane Acrylate (POBUA). POBUA possess certain advantages over EPOLA such as much higher molecular weight between 5000 to 20000 g/ mol, better curing speed, crosslinking density, higher abrasion resistance and also higher pendulum hardness. Hyper branched polyurethane acrylate (HBPUA) from palm oil oleic was synthesized by a three-step reaction in 2012. The reaction was confirmed by several analytical data; hydroxyl value (OHV), FTIR, GPC and NMR spectroscopy analyses. The thermal decomposition of HBPUA formulations shows good thermal stability up to 450 degree Celsius. (author)

  13. Adoption of improved oil palm production and processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This suggests the need for the provision of subsidies and financial support to farmers to enable them pay for the necessary farm inputs. Keywords: Oil palm, Improved technologies, Information sources, Nigeria Agro-Science Vol. 5 (1) 2006: pp. 26-35. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/as.v5i1.1541 · AJOL African Journals Online.

  14. The utilization of endopower β in commercial feed which contains palm kernel cake on performance of broiler chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purba, S. S. A.; Tafsin, M.; Ginting, S. P.; Khairani, Y.

    2018-02-01

    Palm kernel cake is an agricultural waste that can be used as raw material in the preparation of poultry rations. The design used was Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 5 treatments and 4 replications. Level endopower β used 0 % (R0), 0.02% (R1), 0.04% (R2) and 0.06% (R3). The results showed that R0a and R0b were significantly different from R3 in terms of diet consumption, body weight gain and the conversion ratio The utilization of endopower β in commercial diets containing palm kernel cake in broilers can increase body weight gain, feed consumption, improve feed use efficiency and even energy. It is concluded that utilization endpower β improve performances of broiler chicken fed by diet containing palm kernel cake.

  15. Enhancement and prediction of modulus of elasticity of palm kernel shell concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alengaram, U. Johnson; Mahmud, Hilmi; Jumaat, Mohd Zamin

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Micro-pores of size 16-24 μm were found on the outer surface of palm kernel shell. → Infilling of pores by mineral admixtures was evident. → Sand content influenced both modulus of elasticity and compressive strength. → Proposed equation predicts modulus of elasticity within ±1.5 kN/mm 2 of test results. -- Abstract: This paper presents results of an investigation conducted to enhance and predict the modulus of elasticity (MOE) of palm kernel shell concrete (PKSC). Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis on palm kernel shell (PKS) was conducted. Further, the effect of varying sand and PKS contents and mineral admixtures (silica fume and fly ash) on compressive strength and MOE was investigated. The variables include water-to-binder (w/b) and sand-to-cement (s/c) ratios. Nine concrete mixes were prepared, and tests on static and dynamic moduli of elasticity and compressive strength were conducted. The SEM result showed presence of large number of micro-pores on PKS. The mineral admixtures uniformly filled the micro-pores on the outer surface of PKS. Further, the increase in sand content coupled with reduction in PKS content enhanced the compressive strength and static MOE: The highest MOE recorded in this investigation, 11 kN/mm 2 , was twice that previously published. Moreover, the proposed equation based on CEB/FIP code formula appears to predict the MOE close to the experimental values.

  16. Process Debottlenecking and Retrofit of Palm Oil Milling Process via Inoperability Input-Output Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Tan May

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increase in crude palm oil (CPO demand, resulting in palm oil mills (POMs seizing the opportunity to increase CPO production to make more profits. A series of equipment are designed to operate in their optimum capacities in the current existing POMs. Some equipment may be limited by their maximum design capacities when there is a need to increase CPO production, resulting in process bottlenecks. In this research, a framework is developed to provide stepwise procedures on identifying bottlenecks and retrofitting a POM process to cater for the increase in production capacity. This framework adapts an algebraic approach known as Inoperability Input-Output Modelling (IIM. To illustrate the application of the framework, an industrial POM case study was solved using LINGO software in this work, by maximising its production capacity. Benefit-to-Cost Ratio (BCR analysis was also performed to assess the economic feasibility. As results, the Screw Press was identified as the bottleneck. The retrofitting recommendation was to purchase an additional Screw Press to cater for the new throughput with BCR of 54.57. It was found the POM to be able to achieve the maximum targeted production capacity of 8,139.65 kg/hr of CPO without any bottlenecks.

  17. Intelligent color vision system for ripeness classification of oil palm fresh fruit bunch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadilah, Norasyikin; Mohamad-Saleh, Junita; Abdul Halim, Zaini; Ibrahim, Haidi; Syed Ali, Syed Salim

    2012-10-22

    Ripeness classification of oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) during harvesting is important to ensure that they are harvested during optimum stage for maximum oil production. This paper presents the application of color vision for automated ripeness classification of oil palm FFB. Images of oil palm FFBs of type DxP Yangambi were collected and analyzed using digital image processing techniques. Then the color features were extracted from those images and used as the inputs for Artificial Neural Network (ANN) learning. The performance of the ANN for ripeness classification of oil palm FFB was investigated using two methods: training ANN with full features and training ANN with reduced features based on the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) data reduction technique. Results showed that compared with using full features in ANN, using the ANN trained with reduced features can improve the classification accuracy by 1.66% and is more effective in developing an automated ripeness classifier for oil palm FFB. The developed ripeness classifier can act as a sensor in determining the correct oil palm FFB ripeness category.

  18. Intelligent Color Vision System for Ripeness Classification of Oil Palm Fresh Fruit Bunch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidi Ibrahim

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Ripeness classification of oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFBs during harvesting is important to ensure that they are harvested during optimum stage for maximum oil production. This paper presents the application of color vision for automated ripeness classification of oil palm FFB. Images of oil palm FFBs of type DxP Yangambi were collected and analyzed using digital image processing techniques. Then the color features were extracted from those images and used as the inputs for Artificial Neural Network (ANN learning. The performance of the ANN for ripeness classification of oil palm FFB was investigated using two methods: training ANN with full features and training ANN with reduced features based on the Principal Component Analysis (PCA data reduction technique. Results showed that compared with using full features in ANN, using the ANN trained with reduced features can improve the classification accuracy by 1.66% and is more effective in developing an automated ripeness classifier for oil palm FFB. The developed ripeness classifier can act as a sensor in determining the correct oil palm FFB ripeness category.

  19. Bioconversions of Palm Kernel Cake and Rice Bran Mixtures by Trichoderma viride Toward Nutritional Contents

    OpenAIRE

    Yana Sukaryana; Umi Atmomarsono; Vitus D. Yunianto; Ejeng Supriyatna

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the research is to examine the mixtures of palm kernel cake and rice bran of fermented by Trichoderma viride. Completely randomized design in factorial pattern 4 x 4 was used in this experiment. factor I is the doses of inoculums; D1 = 0%, D2 =  0,1% , D3 =  0,2%, D4 =  0,3%, and  complement factor II is mixtures of palm kernel cake and rice bran : T1=20:80% ; T2=40:60% ; T3=60:40% ; T4=80:20%. The treatment each of three replicate. Fermentation was conduc...

  20. Palm-Kernel Shell Concrete For Structural Use – A Preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper reports on the results of an investigation into the physical and strength characteristics of concrete (norminal mixes), which contains crushed palm-kernel shell as fine aggregates instead of normal river sand. 66 No beams of 100mm x 100mm x 500mm sizes and 396 No 100mm cubes as well were tested with ...

  1. Molecular defense response of oil palm to Ganoderma infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C-L; Tan, Y-C

    2015-06-01

    Basal stem rot (BSR) of oil palm roots is due to the invasion of fungal mycelia of Ganoderma species which spreads to the bole of the stem. In addition to root contact, BSR can also spread by airborne basidiospores. These fungi are able to break down cell wall components including lignin. BSR not only decreases oil yield, it also causes the stands to collapse thus causing severe economic loss to the oil palm industry. The transmission and mode of action of Ganoderma, its interactions with oil palm as a hemibiotroph, and the molecular defence responses of oil palm to the infection of Ganoderma boninense in BSR are reviewed, based on the transcript profiles of infected oil palms. The knowledge gaps that need to be filled in oil palm-Ganoderma molecular interactions i.e. the associations of hypersensitive reaction (HR)-induced cell death and reactive oxygen species (ROS) kinetics to the susceptibility of oil palm to Ganoderma spp., the interactions of phytohormones (salicylate, jasmonate and ethylene) at early and late stages of BSR, and cell wall strengthening through increased production of guaiacyl (G)-type lignin, are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Factors Affecting Oil Palm Production in Ondo State of Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The discovery of crude oil and the civil war adversely affected oil palm production in Nigeria. This has resulted in scarcity and high cost of palm products and palm oil. The study therefore investigated the factors influencing oil palm production in Ondo State, Nigeria. One hundred and fifty respondents were selected from ...

  3. Adsorption Removal of Glycidyl Esters from Palm Oil and Oil Model Solution by Using Acid-Washed Oil Palm Wood-Based Activated Carbon: Kinetic and Mechanism Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Weiwei; Liu, Guoqin; Wang, Xuede; Han, Lipeng

    2017-11-08

    Acid-washed oil palm wood-based activated carbon (OPAC) has been investigated for its potential application as a promising adsorbent in the removal of glycidyl esters (GEs) from both palm oil and oil model (hexadecane) solution. It was observed that the removal rate of GEs in palm oil was up to >95%, which was significantly higher than other adsorbents used in this study. In batch adsorption system, the adsorption efficiency and performance of acid-washed OPAC were evaluated as a function of several experimental parameters such as contact time, initial glycidyl palmitate (PGE) concentration, adsorbent dose, and temperature. The Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich models were used to describe the adsorption equilibrium isotherm, and the equilibrium data were fitted best by the Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacity of acid-washed OPAC was found to be 36.23 mg/g by using the Langmuir model. The thermodynamic analysis indicated that the adsorption of PGE on acid-washed OPAC was an endothermic and physical process in nature. The experimental data were fitted by using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intraparticle diffusion models. It was found that the kinetic of PGE adsorption onto acid-washed OPAC followed well the pseudo-second-order model for various initial PGE concentrations and the adsorption process was controlled by both film diffusion and intraparticle diffusion. The desorption test indicated the removal of GEs from palm oil was attributed to not only the adsorption of GEs on acid-washed OPAC, but also the degradation of GEs adsorbed at activated sites with acidic character. Furthermore, no significant difference between before and after PGE adsorption in oil quality was observed.

  4. Design And Development Of Chopper Machine For Palm Oil Midrib

    OpenAIRE

    Arif, Muhammad; Azmi, Azmi; Purba, Immanuel

    2016-01-01

    The midrib of palm oil has good potency to be processed become animal feed (silage) and compost where the midribs are chopped into small pieces. The opportunity of this development process that can more be benefit and valuable encourages researcher to design and create a machine that capable to chop the midribs of palm oil. In this research, researcher designs and creates a chopper machine which can be operated safely and more efficient based on ergonomics approach. Researcher also uses anthr...

  5. Comparative transcriptome and metabolite analysis of oil palm and date palm mesocarp that differ dramatically in carbon partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgis, Fabienne; Kilaru, Aruna; Cao, Xia; Ngando-Ebongue, Georges-Frank; Drira, Noureddine; Ohlrogge, John B.; Arondel, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Oil palm can accumulate up to 90% oil in its mesocarp, the highest level observed in the plant kingdom. In contrast, the closely related date palm accumulates almost exclusively sugars. To gain insight into the mechanisms that lead to such an extreme difference in carbon partitioning, the transcriptome and metabolite content of oil palm and date palm were compared during mesocarp development. Compared with date palm, the high oil content in oil palm was associated with much higher transcript levels for all fatty acid synthesis enzymes, specific plastid transporters, and key enzymes of plastidial carbon metabolism, including phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and pyruvate dehydrogenase. Transcripts representing an ortholog of the WRI1 transcription factor were 57-fold higher in oil palm relative to date palm and displayed a temporal pattern similar to its target genes. Unexpectedly, despite more than a 100-fold difference in flux to lipids, most enzymes of triacylglycerol assembly were expressed at similar levels in oil palm and date palm. Similarly, transcript levels for all but one cytosolic enzyme of glycolysis were comparable in both species. Together, these data point to synthesis of fatty acids and supply of pyruvate in the plastid, rather than acyl assembly into triacylglycerol, as a major control over the storage of oil in the mesocarp of oil palm. In addition to greatly increasing molecular resources devoted to oil palm and date palm, the combination of temporal and comparative studies illustrates how deep sequencing can provide insights into gene expression patterns of two species that lack genome sequence information. PMID:21709233

  6. Mating Compatibility and Restriction Analysis of Ganoderma Isolates from Oil Palm and Other Palm Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Chan Jer; Seman, Idris Abu; Zakaria, Latiffah

    2015-12-01

    Mating compatibility and restriction analyses of Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions were performed to determine the relations between Ganoderma boninense, the most common species associated with basal stem rot in oil palm and Ganoderma isolates from infected oil palm, two ornamental palms, sealing wax palm (Cyrtostachys renda) and MacArthur palm (Ptychosperma macarthurii), an isolate from coconut stump (Cocos nucifera), Ganoderma miniatocinctum, Ganoderma zonatum and Ganoderma tornatum. The results showed that G. boninense was compatible with Ganoderma isolates from oil palm, G. miniatocinctum and G. zonatum, Ganoderma isolates from sealing wax palm, MacArthur palm and coconut stump. G. boninense was not compatible with G. tornatum. Therefore, the results suggested that the G. boninense, G. miniatocinctum, G. zonatum, and Ganoderma isolates from oil palm, ornamental palms and coconut stump could represent the same biological species. In performing a restriction analysis of the ITS regions, variations were observed in which five haplotypes were generated from the restriction patterns. An unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) cluster analysis showed that all the Ganoderma isolates were grouped into five primary groups, and the similarity values of the isolates ranged from 97% to 100%. Thus, a restriction analysis of the ITS regions showed that G. boninense and the Ganoderma isolates from other palm hosts were closely related. On the basis of the mating compatibility test and the restriction analysis of the ITS regions performed in this study, a diverse group of Ganoderma species from oil palm and other palm hosts are closely related, except for G. tornatum and Ganoderma isolates from tea and rubber.

  7. Indonesia palm oil production without deforestation and peat conversion by 2050

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afriyanti, Dian; Kroeze, Carolien; Saad, Asmadi

    2016-01-01

    Palm oil is a promising source of cooking oil and biodiesel. The demand for palm oil has been increasing worldwide. However, concerns exist surrounding the environmental and socio-economic sustainability of palm oil production. Indonesia is a major palm oil producing country. We explored

  8. Coconut, date and oil palm genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    A review of genomics research is presented for the three most economically important palm crops, coconut (Cocos nucifera), date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), encompassing molecular markers studies of genetic diversity, genetic mapping, quantitative trait loci discovery...

  9. Draft genome sequence of an elite Dura palm and whole-genome patterns of DNA variation in oil palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jingjing; Lee, May; Bai, Bin; Sun, Yanwei; Qu, Jing; Rahmadsyah; Alfiko, Yuzer; Lim, Chin Huat; Suwanto, Antonius; Sugiharti, Maria; Wong, Limsoon; Ye, Jian; Chua, Nam-Hai; Yue, Gen Hua

    2016-12-01

    Oil palm is the world's leading source of vegetable oil and fat. Dura, Pisifera and Tenera are three forms of oil palm. The genome sequence of Pisifera is available whereas the Dura form has not been sequenced yet. We sequenced the genome of one elite Dura palm, and re-sequenced 17 palm genomes. The assemble genome sequence of the elite Dura tree contained 10,971 scaffolds and was 1.701 Gb in length, covering 94.49% of the oil palm genome. 36,105 genes were predicted. Re-sequencing of 17 additional palm trees identified 18.1 million SNPs. We found high genetic variation among palms from different geographical regions, but lower variation among Southeast Asian Dura and Pisifera palms. We mapped 10,000 SNPs on the linkage map of oil palm. In addition, high linkage disequilibrium (LD) was detected in the oil palms used in breeding populations of Southeast Asia, suggesting that LD mapping is likely to be practical in this important oil crop. Our data provide a valuable resource for accelerating genetic improvement and studying the mechanism underlying phenotypic variations of important oil palm traits. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  10. Will oil palm's homecoming spell doom for Africa's great apes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wich, Serge A; Garcia-Ulloa, John; Kühl, Hjalmar S; Humle, Tatanya; Lee, Janice S H; Koh, Lian Pin

    2014-07-21

    Expansion of oil palm plantations has led to extensive wildlife habitat conversion in Southeast Asia [1]. This expansion is driven by a global demand for palm oil for products ranging from foods to detergents [2], and more recently for biofuels [3]. The negative impacts of oil palm development on biodiversity [1, 4, 5], and on orangutans (Pongo spp.) in particular, have been well documented [6, 7] and publicized [8, 9]. Although the oil palm is of African origin, Africa's production historically lags behind that of Southeast Asia. Recently, significant investments have been made that will likely drive the expansion of Africa's oil palm industry [10]. There is concern that this will lead to biodiversity losses similar to those in Southeast Asia. Here, we analyze the potential impact of oil palm development on Africa's great apes. Current great ape distribution in Africa substantially overlaps with current oil palm concessions (by 58.7%) and areas suitable for oil palm production (by 42.3%). More importantly, 39.9% of the distribution of great ape species on unprotected lands overlaps with suitable oil palm areas. There is an urgent need to develop guidelines for the expansion of oil palm in Africa to minimize the negative effects on apes and other wildlife. There is also a need for research to support land use decisions to reconcile economic development, great ape conservation, and avoiding carbon emissions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Improvement in Sensitivity of an Inductive Oil Palm Fruit Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhisam Misron

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Among palm oil millers, the ripeness of oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB is determined through visual inspection. To increase the productivity of the millers, many researchers have proposed with a new detection method to replace the conventional one. The sensitivity of such a sensor plays a crucial role in determining the effectiveness of the method. In our preliminary study a novel oil palm fruit sensor to detect the maturity of oil palm fruit bunches is proposed. The design of the proposed air coil sensor based on an inductive sensor is further investigated to improve its sensitivity. This paper investigates the results pertaining to the effects of the air coil structure of an oil palm fruit sensor, taking consideration of the used copper wire diameter ranging from 0.10 mm to 0.18 mm with 60 turns. The flat-type shape of air coil was used on twenty samples of fruitlets from two categories, namely ripe and unripe. Samples are tested with frequencies ranging from 20 Hz to 120 MHz. The sensitivity of the sensor between air to fruitlet samples increases as the coil diameter increases. As for the sensitivity differences between ripe and unripe samples, the 5 mm air coil length with the 0.12 mm coil diameter provides the highest percentage difference between samples and it is amongst the highest deviation value between samples. The result from this study is important to improve the sensitivity of the inductive oil palm fruit sensor mainly with regards to the design of the air coil structure. The efficiency of the sensor to determine the maturity of the oil palm FFB and the ripening process of the fruitlet could further be enhanced.

  12. Challenges and Prospects of Smallholder Oil Palm Production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the challenges and prospects of smallholder oil palm production in Awka Agricultural Zone of Anambra State. Seventy two smallholder oil palm farmers were interviewed for the purpose of eliciting information. Smallholder oil palm farmers in Awka Agricultural Zone were educated (79.2% - Senior ...

  13. Contemporary land-use transitions: The global oil palm expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsager, Rico; Reenberg, Anette

    The present report aims at providing an overview of the magnitude and geographical distribution of oil palm cultivation. It also considers recent trends in the palm oil market and the future prospects for palm oil. By way of background, we briefly summarize the agroecological characteristics of o...

  14. Heat and power demands in babassu palm oil extraction industry in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, Marcos A.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the energy use profile of the babassu (Orbignya ssp-Palmae) oil extraction industry in Brazil in order to establish the basis for a cogeneration study of this important part of the Brazilian Northeast region economy, which is still ignored by energetic biomass studies. The work used information from new equipment suppliers that was analyzed against field information from operating units. The data was used to establish a basis for the thermal and mechanical energy consumption for the two main basic unit profiles for the sector: a simple one with just oil extraction and the other, more vertically integrated with other secondary by-products. For the energetic demand taken from the only oil extraction unit profile study, the minimum pressure for the steam process was estimated at 1.4MPa, electric demand at 5.79kW/ton of processed kernel and heat consumption at 2071MJ/ton of processed kernel (829kg steam/ton of processed kernel). For the vertically integrated unit profile, the following values were found: minimum pressure for the steam process 1.4MPa, electric demand 6.22kW/ton of processed kernel and heat consumption 21,503MJ/ton of processed kernel (7600kg steam/ton of processed kernel)

  15. An Evaluation of Holistic Sustainability Assessment Framework for Palm Oil Production in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Chye; Biswas, Wahidul

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil based biodiesel offers an alternative energy source that can reduce current dependence on conventional fossil fuels and may reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions depending on the type of feedstock and processes used. In the Malaysian context, the palm oil industry not only provides high-yield, renewable feedstock to the world, it brings socio-economic development to the Malaysian rural community and contributes to the national income. However, the sustainability of palm oil remains c...

  16. Oil palm fresh fruit bunch ripeness classification based on rule- based expert system of ROI image processing technique results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfatni, M S M; Shariff, A R M; Marhaban, M H; Shafie, S B; Saaed, O M B; Abdullah, M Z; BAmiruddin, M D

    2014-01-01

    There is a processing need for a fast, easy and accurate classification system for oil palm fruit ripeness. Such a system will be invaluable to farmers and plantation managers who need to sell their oil palm fresh fruit bunch (FFB) for the mill as this will avoid disputes. In this paper,a new approach was developed under the name of expert rules-based systembased on the image processing techniques results of thethree different oil palm FFB region of interests (ROIs), namely; ROI1 (300x300 pixels), ROI2 (50x50 pixels) and ROI3 (100x100 pixels). The results show that the best rule-based ROIs for statistical colour feature extraction with k-nearest neighbors (KNN) classifier at 94% were chosen as well as the ROIs that indicated results higher than the rule-based outcome, such as the ROIs of statistical colour feature extraction with artificial neural network (ANN) classifier at 94%, were selected for further FFB ripeness inspection system

  17. Mating Compatibility and Restriction Analysis of Ganoderma Isolates from Oil Palm and Other Palm Hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Chan Jer; Seman, Idris Abu; Zakaria, Latiffah

    2015-01-01

    Mating compatibility and restriction analyses of Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions were performed to determine the relations between Ganoderma boninense, the most common species associated with basal stem rot in oil palm and Ganoderma isolates from infected oil palm, two ornamental palms, sealing wax palm (Cyrtostachys renda) and MacArthur palm (Ptychosperma macarthurii), an isolate from coconut stump (Cocos nucifera), Ganoderma miniatocinctum, Ganoderma zonatum and Ganoderma tornatum. The results showed that G. boninense was compatible with Ganoderma isolates from oil palm, G. miniatocinctum and G. zonatum, Ganoderma isolates from sealing wax palm, MacArthur palm and coconut stump. G. boninense was not compatible with G. tornatum. Therefore, the results suggested that the G. boninense, G. miniatocinctum, G. zonatum, and Ganoderma isolates from oil palm, ornamental palms and coconut stump could represent the same biological species. In performing a restriction analysis of the ITS regions, variations were observed in which five haplotypes were generated from the restriction patterns. An unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) cluster analysis showed that all the Ganoderma isolates were grouped into five primary groups, and the similarity values of the isolates ranged from 97% to 100%. Thus, a restriction analysis of the ITS regions showed that G. boninense and the Ganoderma isolates from other palm hosts were closely related. On the basis of the mating compatibility test and the restriction analysis of the ITS regions performed in this study, a diverse group of Ganoderma species from oil palm and other palm hosts are closely related, except for G. tornatum and Ganoderma isolates from tea and rubber. PMID:26868709

  18. The Effect Of Additional Detergent In Crude Palm Oil In The Process Of Separation Stearin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezekyah Hasibuan, Vina; aini, Nur; Febriyanti; Ayubi Pane, Salahudin Al

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to find out how much stearin is formed from the addition of detergent and to understand the process of separation of crude olein with crude stearin from raw material of crude palm oil (CPO). Using a detergent fractionation system, detergent fractionation is a continuous crystallization of oil with controlled cooling and the separation of fractions by weight or centrifuge after supplementing surfactant.

  19. A review of remote sensing applications for oil palm studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khai Loong Chong; Kasturi Devi Kanniah; Christine Pohl; Kian Pang Tan

    2017-01-01

    Oil palm becomes an increasingly important source of vegetable oil for its production exceeds soybean,sunflower,and rapeseed.The growth of the oil palm industry causes degradation to the environment,especially when the expansion of plantations goes uncontrolled.Remote sensing is a useful tool to monitor the development of oil palm plantations.In order to promote the use of remote sensing in the oil palm industry to support their drive for sustainability,this paper provides an understanding toward the use of remote sensing and its applications to oil palm plantation monitoring.In addition,the existing knowledge gaps are identified and recommendations for further research are given.

  20. Biotechnological applications for the utilisation of wastes from palm oil mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheah, S C; Ma, A N; Ooi, L C.L.; Ong, A S.H.

    1988-05-01

    The milling of oil palm fruits produces about two-and-a-half to three times as much effluent as oil does. It also generates a large amount of lignocellulosic wastes, mainly in the form of empty fruit bunches, press cake fibres and nut shell. Research efforts at PORIM have been directed towards the utilisation of these wastes as a means to solve the problem of environmental pollution as well as for the generation of economic returns for the mills. We have studied a thermophilic contact process for the anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent and its potential for generating biogas for energy uses. Our work has also shown that the condensate derived from the fruit sterilisation process during milling is amenable to fermentation for the production of single cell protein (SCP) and exo-enzymes. The enzymes produced have been applied for oil clarification, oil recovery from press cake fibers and saccharification of the fibers for the production of sugar feedstocks. This paper will also introduce the concept of integrated waste management for the palm oil mill through the implementation of these technologies.

  1. The Performance Of Oil Palm And Different Food Crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was carried out between 1996 and 2004 to determine the productivity and economic returns to the resource base of farmers practicing different oil palm/food crop intercropping in an intensive four-year sequential cropping using the standard oil palm density. Oil palm was intercropped for four years, ...

  2. AGRO-INDUSTRIAL WASTE SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT – A POTENTIAL SOURCE OF ECONOMIC BENEFITS TO PALM OIL MILLS IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Loan Liew

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the decades the palm oil industry has managed some challen ging environmental concerns regarding land transformation and degradation, increas e in eutrophication, changing habitats of wildlife, pesticides runoff into inland wa tercourses, and probable climate change. Countries producing palm oil desire to do so in a more sustainable way that will leave the environment evergreen. Therefore this paper aims to encourage sustainable management of agro-industrial waste and its potenti al in making financial returns from the same waste. Hence, the study was conducted with the participation of seven local palm oil mills having different capacities and oper ation age. Attention was given to milling waste as they could cause serious environmenta l menace if unattended to properly. Milling waste includ es lignocellulosic palm biomas s namely the empty fruit bunches (EFB, oil palm shell (OPS, mesocarp fibres, pal m oil mill effluent (POME, and palm oil mill sludge (POMS, as well as solid waste generated from the further processing of these biomass into the palm oil fuel ashe s (POFA and palm oil clinkers (POC. The opportunities available to the Malaysian pa lm oil industry and the financial benefits which may accr ue from waste generated during palm oil production process cannot be over emphasized.

  3. Production of methyl ester from oil in the wastewater pond of a palm oil factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongurai, C.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This research studied the suitable technique for the production of methyl ester from waste palm oil in the water pond of a palm oil mill. The composition of the waste palm oil was 73.82% fatty acid, 5.07% triglyceride, 3.39% diglyceride and 17.76% unknown compounds. The unknown compounds were separated via simple distillation carried out at a temperature range of 300-350oC.First, the experiments were carried out in screw capped bottles using filtrated as-received waste oil as the reactant. The esterification and transesterification process were conducted using sulfuric acid catalyst in a methanol solution. The key parameters studied were mole ratio of waste oil to methanol (1:1 to 1:72, amount of catalyst from 0.1-20 v/w% of the reactant, temperature range of 60-98oC and reaction time range of 15-180 minutes. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC analysis showed 85-90% purity of methyl ester with 4-5% of mono-, di-, and triglycerides and fatty acids and about 5-10% of the unknown compounds for the best condition. The resulting yield of biodiesel was 84-88%. Eradication of contaminants by distillation gave about a 75% distillate yield. Distilled waste palm oil was esterified and transesterified using the previous optimum condition of as-received waste oil, but the reaction time and temperature were varied. The optimal result was obtained by using distilled waste palm oil to methanol molar ratio of 1:8, sulfuric acid of 1 v/w% of reactant, reaction temperature of 70oC and reaction time of 1 hour. TLC analysis indicated a biodiesel composition of methyl ester, free fatty acid, diglyceride and monoglyceride of 96.39%, 3.20%, 0.24% and 0.17%, respectively. The yield of biodiesel was 96-98% having physical fuel properties according to Thailand standard for methyl esterFinally, the distilled waste palm oil was esterified using a 3 liters continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR. Using the suitable condition for the batch process and an hour retention time, the

  4. Physical, chemical and microbiological properties of mixed hydrogenated palm kernel oil and cold-pressed rice bran oil as ingredients in non-dairy creamer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunakorn Katsri

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The physical, chemical and microbiological properties of hydrogenated palm kernel oil (PKO and cold-pressed rice bran oil (RBOas ingredients in the production of liquid and powdered non-dairy creamer (coffee whitener were studied. The mixing ratios between hydrogenated PKO and cold-pressed RBO were statistically designed as of 100:0, 90:10,80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60, 30:70, 20:80, 10:90 and 0:100.The color, absorbanceand viscosity of the mixtures were investigated. As the ratio of cold-pressed RBO increased, the color became darker (L*of 93.06 to 86.25 and the absorbance significantly increased, while the viscosity of the mixtures of 20:80, 10:90 and 0:100 (54 cp. were the highest amongst the ratios tested.The hydrogenated PKO and cold-pressed RBO mixtures were further chemically tested for fatty acids, -oryzanol, -tocopherol, trans-fat contents andantioxidant activity. There were 10 fatty acids present in hydrogenated PKO with saturated fatty acid being the most predominant. Comparatively, there were only 5 fatty acids found in cold-pressed RBO with monounsaturated fatty acid being the major fatty acid. -Oryzanol and -tocopherol contents were higher with increasingcold-pressed RBO from 0-100% (0 to 1,155.00 mg/100g oil and 0.09 to 30.82 mg/100g oil, respectively. Antioxidant activity was increased with increasing cold-pressed RBO from 0-100% (9.26 to 94.24%.The pure hydrogenated PKO contained higher trans-fat content than that of the 90:10 and 80:20 mixtures (2.73, 1.93 and 1.85mg/100g oil,respectively while other samples had no trans-fat. No microorganisms were present in any of the samples.Therefore, substitution of hydrogenated PKO by cold-pressed RBO from 30-100% would offer more nutritional values and better chemical and physical properties of non-dairy creamer.

  5. The Factors Influencing on Consumption of Palm Cooking Oil in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Teti, Ermy; Hutabarat, Sakti; Nofionna, Asriati

    2009-01-01

    Cooking oil is one of the most sensitive basic needs in Indonesia. The aims of the researchare to analyze factors influencing consumption of cooking oil, the cooking oil price, and theCrude Palm Oil price in Indonesia. Using simultaneous equation model, the study show thatpalm cooking oil consumption is significantly affected by domestic palm cooking oil priceand number of population. Whilst palm cooking oil price is significantly influenced by thecooking palm oil production and the domestic ...

  6. The Factors Influencing on Consumption of Palm Cooking Oil in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Teti, Ermy; Hutabarat, Sakti; Nofionna, Asriati

    2011-01-01

    Cooking oil is one of the most sensitive basic needs in Indonesia. The aims of the researchare to analyze factors influencing consumption of cooking oil, the cooking oil price, and theCrude Palm Oil price in Indonesia. Using simultaneous equation model, the study show thatpalm cooking oil consumption is significantly affected by domestic palm cooking oil priceand number of population. Whilst palm cooking oil price is significantly influenced by thecooking palm oil production and the domestic ...

  7. Trend and current practices of palm oil mill effluent polishing: Application of advanced oxidation processes and their future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Mustapha Mohammed; Abdul Raman, Abdul Aziz

    2017-08-01

    Palm oil processing is a multi-stage operation which generates large amount of effluent. On average, palm oil mill effluent (POME) may contain up to 51, 000 mg/L COD, 25,000 mg/L BOD, 40,000 TS and 6000 mg/L oil and grease. Due to its potential to cause environmental pollution, palm oil mills are required to treat the effluent prior to discharge. Biological treatments using open ponding system are widely used for POME treatment. Although these processes are capable of reducing the pollutant concentrations, they require long hydraulic retention time and large space, with the effluent frequently failing to satisfy the discharge regulation. Due to more stringent environmental regulations, research interest has recently shifted to the development of polishing technologies for the biologically-treated POME. Various technologies such as advanced oxidation processes, membrane technology, adsorption and coagulation have been investigated. Among these, advanced oxidation processes have shown potentials as polishing technologies for POME. This paper offers an overview on the POME polishing technologies, with particularly emphasis on advanced oxidation processes and their prospects for large scale applications. Although there are some challenges in large scale applications of these technologies, this review offers some perspectives that could help in overcoming these challenges. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Palm oil transesterified by metanolysis as diesel engine biofuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agudelo Santamaria, John R; Pena, Diego Leon; Mejia, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews a general background of biodiesel and its potentialities and possibilities as automotive fuel. The paper also compares the colombian production capacity in the world context, and shows its advantages and disadvantages as diesel engine biofuel. The paper discusses some relevant processing techniques of crude palm oil, the methanol transesterification technique being found to be the most suitable one. Finally it shows the results of some important physicochemical characterization of a crude palm oil transesterificated with methanol at the Universidad de Antioquia

  9. Auto Guided Oil Palm Planter by using multi-GNSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aini, I Nur; Aimrun W; Amin, M S M; Ezrin, M H; Shafri, H Z

    2014-01-01

    Planting is one of the most important operations in plantation because it could affect the total area of productivity since it is the starting point in cultivation. In oil palm plantation, lining and spacing of oil palm shall be laid out and coincided with the topographic area and a system of drains. Conventionally, planting of oil palm will require the polarization process in order to prevent and overcome the lack of influence of the sun rise and get a regular crop row. Polarization is done after the completion of the opening area by using the spike wood with 1 m length painted at the top and 100 m length of wire. This process will generally require at least five persons at a time to pull the wire and carry the spikes while the other two persons will act as observer and spikes craftsmen respectively with the ability of the team is 3ha/day. Therefore, the aim of this project is to develop the oil palm planting technique by using multi- GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System). Generally, this project will involve five main steps mainly; design of planting pattern by using SOLIDWORKS software, determine the boundary coordinate of planting area, georeference process with ArcGIS, stakeout process with Tracy software and finally marking up the location with the wooden spikes. The results proved that the multi- GNSS is capable to provide the high accuracy with less than 1 m in precise positioning system without augmentation data. With the ability of one person, time taken to complete 70 m × 50 m planting area is 290 min, which is 25 min faster than using GPS (Global Positioning System) only

  10. Biodiesel's Characteristics Preparation from Palm Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilani Hamid

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Using vegetable oils directly as an alternative diesel fuel has presented engine problems. The problems have been attributed to high viscosity of vegetable oil that causes the poor atomization of fuel in the injector system and pruduces uncomplete combustion. Therefore, it is necessary to convert the vegetable oil into ester (metil ester by tranesterification process to decrease its viscosity. In this research has made biodiesel by reaction of palm oil and methanol using lye (NaOH as catalyst with operation conditions: constant temperature at 60 oC in atmosferic pressure, palm oil : methanol volume ratio = 5 : 1, amount of NaOH used as catalyst = 3.5 gr, 4.5 gr, 5 gr and 5.5 gr and it takes about one hour time reaction. The ester (metil ester produced are separated from glycerin and washed until it takes normal pH (6-7 where more amount of catalyst used will decrease the ester (biodiesel produced. The results show that biodiesels' properties made by using 3.5 (M3.5 gr, 4.5 gr (M4.5 and 5 (M5.0 gr catalyst close to industrial diesel oil and the other (M5.5 closes to automotive diesel oil, while blending diesel oil with 20 % biodiesel (B20 is able to improve the diesel engine performances.

  11. Optimization of the process of methylic transesterification of palm oil an experimental plant in batches in RECOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado Quesada, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    The production process of biodiesel is optimized in the Laboratorio de Investigacion of RECOPE. A subprocess of raw material purification and finished product is implemented. Parameters of optimization for the experimental plant are established by a bibliographic search. Palm oil acquired by RECOPE is characterized. The optimization of the alkaline transesterification of palm oil with methanol is realized in the experimental plant of RECOPE, through a full factorial design of five variables on two levels: the effect of temperature, the relationship of catalyst-oil, the speed of agitation, the molar relationship alcohol-oil and the reaction time in the production of biodiesel. The operation optimal values of the experimental plant are obtained by ANOVA. The maximum quantity of soaps required is determined to saturate exchange resin used in the purification of the biodiesel. The parameters of optimum operating are proposed for the production process of methyl biodiesel of palm according to the conditions of the oil and in the test plant of RECOPE. The result of the analysis of control variables of the biodiesel as the density have been according to reported by the Reglamento Tecnico Centroamericano (RTCA). However, the measured variables to biodiesel as total glycerin, inflammability point, content of fatty acid methyl esters and acid number have indicated the necessity to implement pretreatment steps from the oil by acid esterification. Besides, the study has determined that biodiesel remains without comply with the standards established by the RTCA for its commercialization at national or international level [es

  12. The Impacts of Oil Palm on Recent Deforestation and Biodiversity Loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Vijay

    Full Text Available Palm oil is the most widely traded vegetable oil globally, with demand projected to increase substantially in the future. Almost all oil palm grows in areas that were once tropical moist forests, some of them quite recently. The conversion to date, and future expansion, threatens biodiversity and increases greenhouse gas emissions. Today, consumer pressure is pushing companies toward deforestation-free sources of palm oil. To guide interventions aimed at reducing tropical deforestation due to oil palm, we analysed recent expansions and modelled likely future ones. We assessed sample areas to find where oil palm plantations have recently replaced forests in 20 countries, using a combination of high-resolution imagery from Google Earth and Landsat. We then compared these trends to countrywide trends in FAO data for oil palm planted area. Finally, we assessed which forests have high agricultural suitability for future oil palm development, which we refer to as vulnerable forests, and identified critical areas for biodiversity that oil palm expansion threatens. Our analysis reveals regional trends in deforestation associated with oil palm agriculture. In Southeast Asia, 45% of sampled oil palm plantations came from areas that were forests in 1989. For South America, the percentage was 31%. By contrast, in Mesoamerica and Africa, we observed only 2% and 7% of oil palm plantations coming from areas that were forest in 1989. The largest areas of vulnerable forest are in Africa and South America. Vulnerable forests in all four regions of production contain globally high concentrations of mammal and bird species at risk of extinction. However, priority areas for biodiversity conservation differ based on taxa and criteria used. Government regulation and voluntary market interventions can help incentivize the expansion of oil palm plantations in ways that protect biodiversity-rich ecosystems.

  13. The Impacts of Oil Palm on Recent Deforestation and Biodiversity Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimm, Stuart L.; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Smith, Sharon J.

    2016-01-01

    Palm oil is the most widely traded vegetable oil globally, with demand projected to increase substantially in the future. Almost all oil palm grows in areas that were once tropical moist forests, some of them quite recently. The conversion to date, and future expansion, threatens biodiversity and increases greenhouse gas emissions. Today, consumer pressure is pushing companies toward deforestation-free sources of palm oil. To guide interventions aimed at reducing tropical deforestation due to oil palm, we analysed recent expansions and modelled likely future ones. We assessed sample areas to find where oil palm plantations have recently replaced forests in 20 countries, using a combination of high-resolution imagery from Google Earth and Landsat. We then compared these trends to countrywide trends in FAO data for oil palm planted area. Finally, we assessed which forests have high agricultural suitability for future oil palm development, which we refer to as vulnerable forests, and identified critical areas for biodiversity that oil palm expansion threatens. Our analysis reveals regional trends in deforestation associated with oil palm agriculture. In Southeast Asia, 45% of sampled oil palm plantations came from areas that were forests in 1989. For South America, the percentage was 31%. By contrast, in Mesoamerica and Africa, we observed only 2% and 7% of oil palm plantations coming from areas that were forest in 1989. The largest areas of vulnerable forest are in Africa and South America. Vulnerable forests in all four regions of production contain globally high concentrations of mammal and bird species at risk of extinction. However, priority areas for biodiversity conservation differ based on taxa and criteria used. Government regulation and voluntary market interventions can help incentivize the expansion of oil palm plantations in ways that protect biodiversity-rich ecosystems. PMID:27462984

  14. The Impacts of Oil Palm on Recent Deforestation and Biodiversity Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Varsha; Pimm, Stuart L; Jenkins, Clinton N; Smith, Sharon J

    2016-01-01

    Palm oil is the most widely traded vegetable oil globally, with demand projected to increase substantially in the future. Almost all oil palm grows in areas that were once tropical moist forests, some of them quite recently. The conversion to date, and future expansion, threatens biodiversity and increases greenhouse gas emissions. Today, consumer pressure is pushing companies toward deforestation-free sources of palm oil. To guide interventions aimed at reducing tropical deforestation due to oil palm, we analysed recent expansions and modelled likely future ones. We assessed sample areas to find where oil palm plantations have recently replaced forests in 20 countries, using a combination of high-resolution imagery from Google Earth and Landsat. We then compared these trends to countrywide trends in FAO data for oil palm planted area. Finally, we assessed which forests have high agricultural suitability for future oil palm development, which we refer to as vulnerable forests, and identified critical areas for biodiversity that oil palm expansion threatens. Our analysis reveals regional trends in deforestation associated with oil palm agriculture. In Southeast Asia, 45% of sampled oil palm plantations came from areas that were forests in 1989. For South America, the percentage was 31%. By contrast, in Mesoamerica and Africa, we observed only 2% and 7% of oil palm plantations coming from areas that were forest in 1989. The largest areas of vulnerable forest are in Africa and South America. Vulnerable forests in all four regions of production contain globally high concentrations of mammal and bird species at risk of extinction. However, priority areas for biodiversity conservation differ based on taxa and criteria used. Government regulation and voluntary market interventions can help incentivize the expansion of oil palm plantations in ways that protect biodiversity-rich ecosystems.

  15. EFFECT OF PALM EMPTY BUNCH ASH ON TRANSESTERIFICATION OF PALM OIL INTO BIODIESEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Sibarani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel conversion from transesterification reaction palm oil with methanol was studied by using an ash of palm empty bunch as a base catalyst. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS and indicator titration analysis were used as tools for characterization of ash sample. Chemical structure of biodiesel was analyzed by GC-MS. The effects of ash sample weight (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 g immersed in 75 mL methanol and the methanol-palm oil mol ratio (3:1; 6:1; 9:1 and 12:1 toward the conversion of biodiesel were investigated. Biodiesel was prepared by refluxing palm oil and methanol containing ash sample. The reflux was done at room temperature for 2 h. Ester layer was distillated at 74 oC, extracted with aquadest and then dried using Na2SO4 anhydrous. The product was characterized by GC-MS, ASTM D 1298 (specific gravity 60/60 °F, ASTM D 97 (pour point, ASTM D 2500 (cloud point, ASTM D 93 (flash point, ASTM D 445 (kinematics viscosity 40 °C and ASTM D 482 (ash content. The result of GC-MS analysis showed that methyl palmitate is primary content of biodiesel product. A 15 g weight of ash sample gave the maximum biodiesel conversion. By increasing methanol mole quantity, biodiesel conversion increased progressively and maximum at 9:1 methanol-palm oil ratio (84.12 % and decreased on 12:1 ratio (75.58 %. Most of the biodiesel products were similar to those of the diesel physical characters.   Keywords: Biodiesel conversion, transesterification, palm oil, palm empty bunch

  16. Modeling and optimization by particle swarm embedded neural network for adsorption of zinc (II) by palm kernel shell based activated carbon from aqueous environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karri, Rama Rao; Sahu, J N

    2018-01-15

    Zn (II) is one the common pollutant among heavy metals found in industrial effluents. Removal of pollutant from industrial effluents can be accomplished by various techniques, out of which adsorption was found to be an efficient method. Applications of adsorption limits itself due to high cost of adsorbent. In this regard, a low cost adsorbent produced from palm oil kernel shell based agricultural waste is examined for its efficiency to remove Zn (II) from waste water and aqueous solution. The influence of independent process variables like initial concentration, pH, residence time, activated carbon (AC) dosage and process temperature on the removal of Zn (II) by palm kernel shell based AC from batch adsorption process are studied systematically. Based on the design of experimental matrix, 50 experimental runs are performed with each process variable in the experimental range. The optimal values of process variables to achieve maximum removal efficiency is studied using response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN) approaches. A quadratic model, which consists of first order and second order degree regressive model is developed using the analysis of variance and RSM - CCD framework. The particle swarm optimization which is a meta-heuristic optimization is embedded on the ANN architecture to optimize the search space of neural network. The optimized trained neural network well depicts the testing data and validation data with R 2 equal to 0.9106 and 0.9279 respectively. The outcomes indicates that the superiority of ANN-PSO based model predictions over the quadratic model predictions provided by RSM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Enhancement of Palm Oil Extraction Using Cell Wall Degrading Enzyme Formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvamany, H.; Jamaliah Md Jahim

    2015-01-01

    In this recent work, application of aqueous enzymatic process to enhance recovery of palm oil was studied. Experiments were carried out to investigate the structural carbohydrate composition of oil palm mesocarp (Elaeis guineensis) and to analyze the effect of different combination of enzymes on the palm oil recovery and degree of digestibility and the respective correlation. The optimum combination of enzymes comprising of Cellic CTec2 (X 1 ), Cellic HTec2 (X 2 ) and Pectinex Ultra SP-L (X 3 ) for Aqueous Enzymatic Oil Extraction Process (AEOEP), were determined using Simplex Lattice mixture design under fixed parameters. Maximum oil recovery of 88 % was achieved with ratio of enzymes at 0.46: 0.34: 0.2 (X 1 :X 2 :X 3 ), at enzyme loading of 30 mg protein/ 10 g substrate, substrate loading of 50 % w/v, pH 4.8, and 2 hours of incubation at 50 degree Celsius. The conversion of reducing sugar at corresponding condition was measured to evaluate the effectiveness of enzymes in degrading fruit cell wall releasing trapped oil. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was utilized to indicate the increase in cell wall disintegration leading to higher release of oil with enzymatic treatment. (author)

  18. Trace metals content (contaminants) as initial indicator in the quality of heat treated palm oil whole extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohd Fauzi, Noor Akhmazillah bt [Chemical and Bioprocess Department, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia); Sarmidi, Mohd Roji [Chemical Engineering Pilot Plant, Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia)

    2011-07-01

    An investigation was carried out on the effect of different sterilization time on the trace metals concentration of palm oil whole extract. Palm fruits were collected, cleaned and sterilized for 0, 20, 40 and 60 minutes. The kernels were then stripped from the sterilized fruits to get the pulp and later the pulp was pressed using small scale expeller. The resulting puree was centrifuge at 4000 rpm for 20 minutes. The palm oil whole extract were then collected and trace metals analysis was conducted using Inductively Couple Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The result showed that the highest yield was obtained at 40 minutes of sterilization with 19.9 {+-} 0.21 % (w/w). There was no significant different (p < 0.5) in total trace metals content between the degrees of the heat treatment. Na+ was found as the highest trace metals content in the extract with mean concentration ranging from 1.05 {+-} 0.03 ppm to 2.36 {+-} 0.01 ppm. 40 minutes of heating time was predicted to have good oil quality due to higher content in trace metals that inhibit the lipase enzyme activity.

  19. New Insights on Degumming and Bleaching Process Parameters on The Formation of 3-Monochloropropane-1,2-Diol Esters and Glycidyl Esters in Refined, Bleached, Deodorized Palm Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Biow Ing; Muhamad, Halimah; Lai, Oi Ming; Abas, Faridah; Yeoh, Chee Beng; Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Khor, Yih Phing; Tan, Chin Ping

    2018-04-01

    This paper examines the interactions of degumming and bleaching processes as well as their influences on the formation of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol esters (3-MCPDE) and glycidyl esters in refined, bleached and deodorized palm oil by using D-optimal design. Water degumming effectively reduced the 3-MCPDE content up to 50%. Acid activated bleaching earth had a greater effect on 3-MCPDE reduction compared to natural bleaching earth and acid activated bleaching earth with neutral pH, indicating that performance and adsorption capacities of bleaching earth are the predominant factors in the removal of esters, rather than its acidity profile. The combination of high dosage phosphoric acid during degumming with the use of acid activated bleaching earth eliminated almost all glycidyl esters during refining. Besides, the effects of crude palm oil quality was assessed and it was found that the quality of crude palm oil determines the level of formation of 3-MCPDE and glycidyl esters in palm oil during the high temperature deodorization step of physical refining process. Poor quality crude palm oil has strong impact towards 3-MCPDE and glycidyl esters formation due to the intrinsic components present within. The findings are useful to palm oil refining industry in choosing raw materials as an input during the refining process.

  20. Determinants of profitability of smallholder palm oil processing units ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 70 questionnaires were administered to the palm oil farmers randomly selected from five purposively sampled towns in Ogun state. Selection was based on the predominance of producers in the towns as well as their geographical spread covering the entire land space of the state. The response rate was 95.71 ...

  1. Impact of Nigerian Institute For Oil Palm Research (N.I.F.O.R.) on oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIFOR) on oil palm industry in Nigeria. It interfaces of achievements and developmental strides of the Institute on oil palm industry in Nigeria from its was establishment during colonial period as Oil Palm Research Station (OPRS.) in 1939 ...

  2. An Evaluation of Holistic Sustainability Assessment Framework for Palm Oil Production in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chye Ing Lim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil based biodiesel offers an alternative energy source that can reduce current dependence on conventional fossil fuels and may reduce greenhouse gas (GHG emissions depending on the type of feedstock and processes used. In the Malaysian context, the palm oil industry not only provides high-yield, renewable feedstock to the world, it brings socio-economic development to the Malaysian rural community and contributes to the national income. However, the sustainability of palm oil remains controversial, due to deforestation, pollution and social conflicts associated with its production. Sustainability assessment is vital for the palm oil industry to identify weaknesses, improve its sustainability performance and improve consumer confidence. This paper proposes a holistic sustainability assessment framework for palm oil production with the aim to address the weaknesses of existing palm oil sustainability assessment methods. It identifies environmental, social and economic Headline Performance Indicators, Key Performance Indicators and their Performance Measures in crude palm oil production in a structured framework. Each quantitative/semi-quantitative performance measure is translated into Likert Scale of 1–5, where 3 is the threshold value, 5 is the ideal condition, and 1 is the worst case scenario. Calculation methods were established for the framework to provide quantitative assessment results. The framework was tested using a hypothetical example with data from existing studies. The results suggest that crude palm oil production in Malaysia is below the sustainability threshold. Evaluations of this sustainability assessment framework also demonstrate that it is a comprehensive assessment method for assessing sustainability of feedstock for biofuel production.

  3. Response of broiler turkeys to graded dietary levels of Palm Kernel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance of local broiler turkeys fed dietary treatments in which palm kernel meal (PKM) replaced maize at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 percent was evaluated. The replacement levels of 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 percent represented diets 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 respectively. One hundred and eighty dayold unsexed turkey ...

  4. Effect of different combination levels of palm kernel cake, yam peel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ninety six unsexed day old Marshall broiler chickens were divided into 4 groups of 3 replicates each on weight equalization basis (42.87 – 43.24g). The chicks were used to determine the effect of partial replacement of maize with combinations of palm kernel cake (PKC), yam peel meal (YPM) and plantain peel meal (PPM) ...

  5. Replacement value of palm kernel meal for maize on growth, egg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A research was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing maize with palm kernel meal (PKM) in the diet on the performance of duck hens. Five treatment diets were formulated in which PKM replaced maize at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% using a completely randomized design in three replications. The study lasted 8 weeks ...

  6. Assessing the environmental impact of palm oil produced in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saswattecha, K.; Kroeze, C.; Jawjit, W.; Hein, L.G.

    2015-01-01

    There are several concerns related to the increasing production of palm oil in Southeast Asia, including pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and land conversion. The RSPO (Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil) certification standard provides an incentive for reducing environmental impacts of palm oil

  7. Feasibility study of gasification of oil palm fronds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Sulaiman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the large and consistent supply, oil palm fronds could be a promising source of biomass energy through gasification. There is very scarce information on the characteristics of oil palm fronds, which is vital in deciding if such biomass is technically suitable for gasification. In the present work, the feasibility of oil palm fronds for biomass gasification is studied. The study is conducted experimentally via standard tests to determine their thermochemical characteristics. Ultimate analysis is conducted to determine the contents of carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen and sulphide in oil palm fronds. Proximate analysis is performed to identify the burning characteristics of the biomass. The energy content in the fronds is determined by using a bomb calorie meter and is around 18 MJ/kg. The ignitability of the fronds is also studied experimentally to assess the ease to start-up combustion of the fronds. The characteristics of the flame of the resulting syngas from gasification of oil palm fronds are qualitatively studied. Simulated syngas composition study reveals potentials of 22% CO, 1.3% H2, 18.5% CO2 and traces of CH4. The study is extended to computer simulation to predict composition of the syngas. It is found from this work that oil palm fronds are feasible for gasification and has a good potential as a renewable energy source.

  8. Prospective study for the production of oleochemicals derivates from palm and palm kernel oil in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ibeth Jaimes Moreno

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many ways get close to the future, being the prospective the one that concives the future, not like an unique reality but like a multiple one, obtained as a result of the identification of the human being future actions. For all this, the human being takes the knowledge, the yearnings and the fears that he sees for the actions he will undertake. Keeping in mind the characteristic of the palm cultivation (pereninal, of late growth, with a 25 years productive horizon, and the future of the sector captured in "Visión y estrategias de la palmicultura colombiana 2000 - 2020" together with the economic tendencies of the world, the methodology of planning denominated prospective, becomes an appropriate tool to establish the future of the oleochemical sector derived from the palm and palmist oils, which is right now very incipient in our country. Using the prospective, this article outlines the dynamics that will have the sector, starting from the definition of the keys that define the current and future behavior of the system, the position and the power that each one of the involved actors will have, and the determination of the scenarios (future representations will more probability to occur, as well as the definition of the scenario wanted and the strategies that will allow to reach it.

  9. Life cycle inventory for the production of germinated oil palm seeds at a selected seed production unit in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Ismail, B. S.; Muhamad, Halimah; May, Choo Yuen

    2013-11-01

    The increasing global demand for edible oil has encouraged Malaysia to increase the areas under oil palm cultivation. The total demand for germinated oil palm seeds in the years 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 were 86.4, 76.5, 72.6 and 75.2 million, respectively. Production of germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain. Therefore, good management practices at seed production stage is required to ensure only high quality germinated oil palm seeds are produced before sale to customers. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used as a tool to assess environmental impact of the processes throughout a product's lifespan and this approach is an important tool for assessing green house gas (GHG) emission. For this study, a gate-to-gate life cycle inventory (LCI) of a single germinated oil palm seed production unit was carried out. The functional unit used for this LCI was one germinated oil palm seed. To determine the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm seeds, information on the inputs were obtained. The inputs for the production of germinated oil palm seeds involved materials such as polyethylene bags, electricity, water, chemicals and fungicides. For this study, the system boundary involved seed germination process and management of germinated oil palm seeds. It was found that the amount of input such as materials and energy used in the production of germinated oil palm seeds was very minimal.

  10. IMPACT OF PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT ON THE ACTIVITIES OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of palm oil mill effluent (POME) on some anti ... In Nigeria, palm oil production ... crude palm oil produced, 5-7.5 tonnes of water ... inter group comparison using least significant .... York, U.S.A. pp.

  11. Characterization and Performance Test of Palm Oil Based Bio-Fuel Produced Via Ni/Zeolite-Catalyzed Cracking Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Kadarwati

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic cracking process of palm oil into bio-fuel using Ni/zeolite catalysts (2-10% wt. Ni at various reaction temperatures (400-500oC in a flow-fixed bed reactor system has been carried out. Palm oil was pre-treated to produce methyl ester of palm oil as feedstock in the catalytic cracking reactions. The Ni/zeolite catalysts were prepared by wetness impregnation method using Ni(NO32.6H2O as the precursor. The products were collected and analysed using GC, GC-MS, and calorimeter. The effects of process temperatures and Ni content in Ni/zeolite have been studied. The results showed that Ni-2/zeolite could give a yield of 99.0% at 500oC but only produced gasoline fraction of 18.35%. The physical properties of bio-fuel produced in this condition in terms of density, viscosity, flash point, and specific gravity were less than but similar to commercial fuel. The results of performance test in a 4-strike engine showed that the mixture of commercial gasoline (petrol and bio-fuel with a ratio of 9:1 gave similar performance to fossil-based gasoline with much lower CO and O2 emissions and more efficient combustion

  12. Some physical and mechanical properties of palm kernel shell (PKS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, some of the mechanical and physical properties of palm kernel shells (PKS) were evaluated. These are moisture content, 7.8325 ± 0.6672%; true density, 1.254 ± 5.292 x 10-3 g/cm3; bulk density, 1.1248g/cm3; mean rupture force along width, and thickness were 3174.52 ± 270.70N and 2806.94 ± 498.45N for ...

  13. Methane gas generation from waste water extraction process of crude palm oil in experimental digesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, A.; Penafiel, R.; Garzón, P. V.; Ochoa, V.

    2015-12-01

    Industrial processes to extract crude palm oil, generates large amounts of waste water. High concentrations of COD, ST, SV, NH4 + and low solubility of O2, make the treatment of these effluents starts with anaerobic processes. The anaerobic digestion process has several advantages over aerobic degradation: lower operating costs (not aeration), low sludge production, methane gas generation. The 4 stages of anaerobic digestion are: hydrolysis, acidogenic, acetogenesis and methanogenesis. Through the action of enzymes synthesized by microbial consortia are met. The products of each step to serve as reagents is conducted as follows. The organic load times and cell hydraulic retention, solids content, nutrient availability, pH and temperature are factors that influence directly in biodigesters. The objectives of this presentation is to; characterize the microbial inoculum and water (from palm oil wasted water) to be used in biodigestores, make specific methanogenic activity in bioassays, acclimatize the microorganisms to produce methane gas using basal mineral medium with acetate for the input power, and to determine the production of methane gas digesters high organic load.

  14. Exploration of Shorea robusta (Sal seeds, kernels and its oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Kumar C.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical, mechanical, and chemical properties of Shorea robusta seed with wing, seed without wing, and kernel were investigated in the present work. The physico-chemical composition of sal oil was also analyzed. The physico-mechanical properties and proximate composition of seed with wing, seed without wing, and kernel at three moisture contents of 9.50% (w.b, 9.54% (w.b, and 12.14% (w.b, respectively, were studied. The results show that the moisture content of the kernel was highest as compared to seed with wing and seed without wing. The sphericity of the kernel was closer to that of a sphere as compared to seed with wing and seed without wing. The hardness of the seed with wing (32.32, N/mm and seed without wing (42.49, N/mm was lower than the kernels (72.14, N/mm. The proximate composition such as moisture, protein, carbohydrates, oil, crude fiber, and ash content were also determined. The kernel (30.20%, w/w contains higher oil percentage as compared to seed with wing and seed without wing. The scientific data from this work are important for designing of equipment and processes for post-harvest value addition of sal seeds.

  15. Biodiesel synthesis by TiO2-ZnO mixed oxide nanocatalyst catalyzed palm oil transesterification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhuvilakku, Rajesh; Piraman, Shakkthivel

    2013-12-01

    Biodiesel is a promising alternating environmentally benign fuel to mineral diesel. For the development of easier transesterification process, stable and active heterogeneous mixed metal oxide of TiO2-ZnO and ZnO nanocatalysts were synthesized and exploited for the palm oil transesterification process. The synthesized catalysts were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, and FE-SEM studies for their structural and morphological characteristics. It was found that TiO2-ZnO nanocatalyst exhibits good catalytic activity and the catalytic performance was greatly depends on (i) catalyst concentration (ii) methanol to oil molar ratio (iii) reaction temperature and (iv) reaction time. A highest 98% of conversion was obtained at the optimum reaction parameters with 200 mg of catalyst loading and the biodiesel was analyzed by TLC and (1)H NMR techniques. The TiO2-ZnO nanocatalyst shows good catalytic performance over the ZnO catalyst, which could be a potential candidate for the large-scale biodiesel production from palm oil at the reduced temperature and time. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. SSR mining in oil palm EST database: application in oil palm ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Advanced Biotechnology and Breeding Centre, Malaysian Palm Oil Board, P.O. Box 10620,. 50720 Kuala Lumpur .... Genomic DNA was extracted from young leaves. The DNA ..... tries are essential to avoid the risk of genetic erosion. The.

  17. Phytonutrient deficiency: the place of palm fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattanapenpaiboon, Naiyana; Wahlqvist, Mark W

    2003-01-01

    The oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is native to many West African countries, where local populations have used its oil for culinary and other purposes. Large-scale plantations, established principally in tropical regions (Asia, Africa and Latin America), are mostly aimed at the production of oil, which is extracted from the fleshy mesocarp of the palm fruit, and endosperm or kernel oil. Palm oil is different from other plant and animal oils in that it contains 50% saturated fatty acids, 40% unsaturated fatty acids, and 10% polyunsaturated fatty acids. The fruit also contains components that can endow the oil with nutritional and health beneficial properties. These phytonutrients include carotenoids (alpha-,beta-,and gamma-carotenes), vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols), sterols (sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol), phospholipids, glycolipids and squalene. In addition, it is recently reported that certain water-soluble powerful antioxidants, phenolic acids and flavonoids, can be recovered from palm oil mill effluent. Owing to its high content of phytonutrients with antioxidant properties, the possibility exists that palm fruit offers some health advantages by reducing lipid oxidation, oxidative stress and free radical damage. Accordingly, use of palm fruit or its phytonutrient-rich fractions, particularly water-soluble antioxidants, may confer some protection against a number of disorders or diseases including cardiovascular disease, cancers, cataracts and macular degeneration, cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. However, whilst prevention of disease through use of these phytonutrients as in either food ingredients or nutraceuticals may be a worthwhile objective, dose response data are required to evaluate their pharmacologic and toxicologic effects. In addition, one area of concern about use of antioxidant phytonutrients is how much suppression of oxidation may be compatible with good health, as toxic free radicals are required for defence

  18. Combination of Palm Kernel Husk Ash (PKHA) and Free Lime (CaO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Almost all admixtures used in concrete construction in Nigeria are imported. In this study, various proportions of free Lime (CaO), Palm Kernel Husk Ash (PKHA) and Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) were mixed and the setting times of various mix proportions were determined and compared with that of only OPC.

  19. Differential gene expression at different stages of mesocarp development in high- and low-yielding oil palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yick Ching; Teh, Huey Fang; Mebus, Katharina; Ooi, Tony Eng Keong; Kwong, Qi Bin; Koo, Ka Loo; Ong, Chuang Kee; Mayes, Sean; Chew, Fook Tim; Appleton, David R; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna

    2017-06-21

    The oil yield trait of oil palm is expected to involve multiple genes, environmental influences and interactions. Many of the underlying mechanisms that contribute to oil yield are still poorly understood. In this study, we used a microarray approach to study the gene expression profiles of mesocarp tissue at different developmental stages, comparing genetically related high- and low- oil yielding palms to identify genes that contributed to the higher oil-yielding palm and might contribute to the wider genetic improvement of oil palm breeding populations. A total of 3412 (2001 annotated) gene candidates were found to be significantly differentially expressed between high- and low-yielding palms at at least one of the different stages of mesocarp development evaluated. Gene Ontologies (GO) enrichment analysis identified 28 significantly enriched GO terms, including regulation of transcription, fatty acid biosynthesis and metabolic processes. These differentially expressed genes comprise several transcription factors, such as, bHLH, Dof zinc finger proteins and MADS box proteins. Several genes involved in glycolysis, TCA, and fatty acid biosynthesis pathways were also found up-regulated in high-yielding oil palm, among them; pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component Subunit Beta (PDH), ATP-citrate lyase, β- ketoacyl-ACP synthases I (KAS I), β- ketoacyl-ACP synthases III (KAS III) and ketoacyl-ACP reductase (KAR). Sucrose metabolism-related genes such as Invertase, Sucrose Synthase 2 and Sucrose Phosphatase 2 were found to be down-regulated in high-yielding oil palms, compared to the lower yield palms. Our findings indicate that a higher carbon flux (channeled through down-regulation of the Sucrose Synthase 2 pathway) was being utilized by up-regulated genes involved in glycolysis, TCA and fatty acid biosynthesis leading to enhanced oil production in the high-yielding oil palm. These findings are an important stepping stone to understand the processes that lead to

  20. Optimal Design of Biodiesel Production Process from Waste Cooking Palm Oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simasatitkul, Lida; Gani, Rafiqul; Arpornwichanop, Amornchai

    2012-01-01

    A design methodology for biodiesel production from waste cooking palm oil is proposed. The proposed method is flexible to the biodiesel process using various catalyst types: alkali and acid catalyst in homogenous and heterogeneous forms, and different process: enzyme process and supercritical......, oleic acid, linoleic and linolenic acid). A driving force approach and thermodynamic insight are employed to design separation units (e.g., flash separator and distillation) minimizing the energy consumption. Steady-state simulations of the developed biodiesel processes are performed and economic...... analysis is used to find a suitable biodiesel process. The results show that based on a net present value, the heterogeneous acid catalyzed process is the best process for biodiesel production. With the design methodology, the proposed biodiesel process can save the energy requirement of 41.5%, compared...

  1. kernel oil by lipolytic organisms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... Rancidity of extracted cashew oil was observed with cashew kernel stored at 70, 80 and 90% .... method of American Oil Chemist Society AOCS (1978) using glacial ..... changes occur and volatile products are formed that are.

  2. Low-cost RFID-based palm oil monitoring system (PMS): First prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiama, J W; Patrick, T H H; Raman, V

    2014-01-01

    Under collaboration with our local oil palm plantation enterprise, our research focuses on producing proof-of-concept by using RFID technology to monitor palm oil productivity. Passive RFID tags are used in the plantation field to uniquely identify each palm oil tree and their Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) production is collected and monitored by scanning the passive RFID tags using high frequency RFID scanners. This technology aims to convert the harvest data into digital information which can be processed and analyzed by PMS system and presented as informative outputs such as dynamic charts. This analyzed information is further used as input to a proprietary GIS system where it is mapped as color-coded spatial data which enables an accurate evaluation and monitoring of the overall plantation productivity

  3. determining the optimum combination of palm kernel cake

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Twenty (20) female grasscutters at 14 months of age were used for the study, which lasted for ten ... commercial production of grasscutter would boost efforts .... Range test (Steel and Torrie, 1980). .... based on oil palm by-products in Malaysia.

  4. A high performance liquid chromatography method for determination of furfural in crude palm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Chia Chun; Boo, Huey Chern; Mohammed, Abdulkarim Sabo; Ariffin, Abdul Azis

    2011-09-01

    A modified steam distillation method was developed to extract furfural from crude palm oil (CPO). The collected distillates were analysed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with an ultraviolet diode detector at 284nm. The HPLC method allowed identification and quantification of furfural in CPO. The unique thermal extraction of CPO whereby the fresh fruit bunches (FFB) are first subjected to steam treatment, distinguishes itself from other solvent-extracted or cold-pressed vegetable oils. The presence of furfural was also determined in the fresh palm oil from FFB (without undergoing the normal extraction process), palm olein, palm stearin, olive oil, coconut oil, sunflower oil, soya oil and corn oil. The chromatograms of the extracts were compared to that of standard furfural. Furfural was only detected in CPO. The CPO consignments obtained from four mills were shown to contain 7.54 to 20.60mg/kg furfural. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Development narratives, notions of forest crisis, and boom of oil palm plantations in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susanti, Ari; Maryudi, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Indonesia experienced massive deforestation in the last decades where rapid oil palm expansion has been considered as one of the main drivers. This article shows that the process of deforestation and the rapid oil palm expansion cannot be viewed in isolation from broader development contexts.

  6. Conservation value and permeability of neotropical oil palm landscapes for orchid bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Livingston

    Full Text Available The proliferation of oil palm plantations has led to dramatic changes in tropical landscapes across the globe. However, relatively little is known about the effects of oil palm expansion on biodiversity, especially in key ecosystem-service providing organisms like pollinators. Rapid land use change is exacerbated by limited knowledge of the mechanisms causing biodiversity decline in the tropics, particularly those involving landscape features. We examined these mechanisms by undertaking a survey of orchid bees, a well-known group of Neotropical pollinators, across forest and oil palm plantations in Costa Rica. We used chemical baits to survey the community in four regions: continuous forest sites, oil palm sites immediately adjacent to forest, oil palm sites 2 km from forest, and oil palm sites greater than 5 km from forest. We found that although orchid bees are present in all environments, orchid bee communities diverged across the gradient, and community richness, abundance, and similarity to forest declined as distance from forest increased. In addition, mean phylogenetic distance of the orchid bee community declined and was more clustered in oil palm. Community traits also differed with individuals in oil palm having shorter average tongue length and larger average geographic range size than those in the forest. Our results indicate two key features about Neotropical landscapes that contain oil palm: 1 oil palm is selectively permeable to orchid bees and 2 orchid bee communities in oil palm have distinct phylogenetic and trait structure compared to communities in forest. These results suggest that conservation and management efforts in oil palm-cultivating regions should focus on landscape features.

  7. Factors affecting oil palm production in Ondo state of Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sola

    ... affecting oil palm production in predominantly oil palm producing areas of Ondo state of Nigeria. ... This was because the mangrove swamp zone does not .... Research stations e.g. NIFOR. Radio .... palm production management practices.

  8. Torrefaction of oil palm frond: The effect of process condition to calorific value and proximate analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanty, W.; Helwani, Z.; Zulfansyah

    2018-04-01

    Oil palm frond can be used as alternative energy source by torrefaction process. Torrefaction is a treatment process of biomass into solid fuel by heating within temperature range of 200-300°C in an inert environment. This research aims to result solid fuel through torrefaction and to study the effect of process variable interaction. Torrefaction of oil palm frond was using fixed bed horizontal reactor with operation condition of temperature (225-275 °C), time (15-45 minutes) and nitrogen flow rate (50-150 ml/min). Responses resulted were calorific value and proximate (moisture, ash, volatile matter and fixed carbon). Analysis result was processed by using Design Expert v7.0.0. Result obtained for calorific value was 17.700-19.600 kJ/kg and for the proximate were moisture range of 3-4%; ash range of 1.5-4%; volatile matter of 45-55% and fixed carbon of 37-46%. The most affecting factor signficantly towards the responses was temperature then followed by time and nitrogen flow rate.

  9. Emissions of particulate matter and associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from agricultural diesel engine fueled with degummed,deacidified mixed crude palm oil blends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khamphe Phoungthong; Surajit Tekasakul; Perapong Tekasakul; Gumpon Prateepchaikul; Naret Jindapetch; Masami Furuuchi; Mitsuhiko Hata

    2013-01-01

    Mixed crude palm oil (MCPO),the mixture of palm fiber oil and palm kernel oil,has become of great interest as a renewable energy source.It can be easily extracted from whole dried palm fruits.In the present work,the degummed,deacidified MCPO was blended in petroleum diesel at portions of 30% and 40% by volume and then tested in agricultural diesel engines for long term usage.The particulates from the exhaust of the engines were collected every 500 hr using a four-stage cascade air sampler.The 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameters for the first three stages were 10,2.5 and 1 μm,while the last stage collected all particles smaller than 1 μm.Sixteen particle bounded polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed using a high performance liquid chromatography.The results indicated that the size distribution of particulate matter was in the accumulation mode and the pattern of total PAHs associated with fine-particles (< 1 μm) showed a dominance of larger molecular weight PAHs (4-6 aromatic rings),especially pyrene.The mass median diameter,PM and total PAH concentrations decreased when increasing the palm oil content,but increased when the running hours of the engine were increased.In addition,Commercial petroleum diesel (PB0) gave the highest value of carcinogenic potency equivalent (BaPeq) for all particle size ranges.As the palm oil was increased,the BaPeq decreased gradually.Therefore the degummed-deacidified MCPO blends are recommended for diesel substitute.

  10. Transcriptome datasets of oil palm pathogen Ganoderma boninense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Liza Isaac

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ganoderma boninense is known to be the causal agent for basal stem rot (BSR affecting the oil palm industry worldwide thus cumulating to high economic losses every year. Several reports have shown that a compatible monokaryon pair needs to mate; producing dikaryotic mycelia to initiate the infection towards the oil palm. However, the molecular events occurs during mating process are not well understood. We performed transcriptome sequencing using Illumina RNA-seq technology and de novo assembly of the transcripts from monokaryon, mating junction and dikaryon mycelia of G. boninense. Raw reads from these three libraries were deposited in the NCBI database with accession number SRR1745787, SRR1745773 and SRR1745777, respectively.

  11. Electrochemical Immunosensor for the Detection of Aflatoxin B₁ in Palm Kernel Cake and Feed Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azri, Farah Asilah; Selamat, Jinap; Sukor, Rashidah

    2017-11-30

    Palm kernel cake (PKC) is the solid residue following oil extraction of palm kernels and useful to fatten animals either as a single feed with only minerals and vitamins supplementation, or mixed with other feedstuffs such as corn kernels or soy beans. The occurrence of mycotoxins (aflatoxins, ochratoxins, zearalenone, and fumonisins) in feed samples affects the animal's health and also serves as a secondary contamination to humans via consumption of eggs, milk and meats. Of these, aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁) is the most toxically potent and a confirmed carcinogen to both humans and animals. Methods such as High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) are common in the determination of mycotoxins. However, these methods usually require sample pre-treatment, extensive cleanup and skilled operator. Therefore, in the present work, a rapid method of electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of AFB₁ was developed based on an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and chitosan (CS) were used as the electrode modifier for signal enhancement. N -ethyl- N '-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide (EDC) and N -hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) activated the carboxyl groups at the surface of nanocomposite for the attachment of AFB₁-BSA antigen by covalent bonding. An indirect competitive reaction occurred between AFB₁-BSA and free AFB₁ for the binding site of a fixed amount of anti-AFB₁ antibody. A catalytic signal based on horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) and 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) mediator was observed as a result of attachment of the secondary antibody to the immunoassay system. As a result, the reduction peak of TMB (Ox) was measured by using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) analysis. Based on the results, the electrochemical surface area was increased from 0.396 cm² to 1.298 cm² due to the

  12. Impact of Crude Oil Quality on the Refining Conditions and Composition of Nutraceuticals in Refined Palm Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Klicia A; Ayala, Jose Vila; Van Hoed, Vera; Monteiro, Simone; Ceriani, Roberta; Verhé, Roland; Meirelles, Antonio J A

    2017-08-01

    Palm oil is the major vegetable oil used worldwide due to its unique properties. The effect of crude palm oil acidity on the final free fatty acids (FFA) content, neutral oil loss (NOL), and nutraceutical compounds, such as carotenes, total tocols (tocopherols and tocotrienols), squalene, and phytosterols was investigated. A central composite design was employed to study the influence of the refining conditions: temperature (200 to 260 °C), steam percentage (0.5% to 3.5%), and initial FFA content (2.2% to 6.0%) on the quality of the refined product. The results revealed that initial palm oil acidity is a statistically important parameter to obtain commercially acceptable values for final FFA content. The increase of temperature presented the most important effect on the reduction of all nutraceutical compounds. The highest tocopherols (88%), phytosterols (98%), and squalene retention (84%) was obtained when applying the mildest temperature (200 °C). From the experimental results, 3 equations were generated enabling the prediction of the free fatty acids content, the tocols content, and the losses of neutral oil. Therefore, this work contributes to the understanding and optimization of the process for the production of palm oil with high nutraceutical quality and low free fatty acid contents. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  13. Shear strength of palm oil clinker concrete beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, Bashar S.; Foo, W.L.; Hossain, K.M.A.; Abdullahi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Palm oil clinker can be used as lightweight aggregate for the production of structural concrete. ► The palm oil clinker concrete can be classified as lightweight concrete. ► Full scale reinforced palm oil clinker concrete beams without shear reinforcement were tested. ► The CSA based design equation can be used for the prediction of shear capacity with a limit. - Abstract: This paper presents experimental results on the shear behavior of reinforced concrete beams made of palm oil clinker concrete (POCC). Palm oil clinker (POC) is a by-product of palm oil industry and its utilization in concrete production not only solves the problem of disposing this solid waste but also helps to conserve natural resources. Seven reinforced POCC beams without shear reinforcement were fabricated and their shear behavior was tested. POCC has been classified as a lightweight structural concrete with air dry density less than 1850 kg/m 3 and a 28-day compressive strength more than 20 MPa. The experimental variables which have been considered in this study were the POCC compressive strength, shear span–depth ratio (a/d) and the ratio of tensile reinforcement (ρ). The results show that the failure mode of the reinforced POCC beam is similar to that of conventional reinforced concrete beam. In addition, the shear equation of the Canadian Standard Association (CSA) can be used in designing reinforced POCC beam with ρ ⩾ 1. However, a 0.5 safety factor should be included in the formula for ρ < 1

  14. How Unilever palm oil suppliers are burning up Borneo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-04-15

    New evidence shows expansion by Unilever palm oil suppliers is driving species extinction in Central Kalimantan, and fuelling climate change. In November 2007, Greenpeace released 'Cooking the Climate', an 82-page report summarizing the findings of a two-year investigation that revealed how the world's largest food, cosmetic and biofuel companies were driving the wholesale destruction of Indonesia's rainforests and peatlands through growing palm oil consumption. This follow-up report provides further evidence of the expansion of the palm oil sector in Indonesia into remaining rainforests, orang-utan habitat and peatlands in Kalimantan. It links the majority of the largest producers in Indonesia to Unilever, probably the largest palm oil corporate consumer in the world.

  15. Effect of Kevlar and carbon fibres on tensile properties of oil palm/epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, S. M. M.; Sultan, M. T. H.; Jawaid, M.; Cardona, F.; Ishak, M. R.; Yusof, M. R.

    2017-12-01

    Hybrid composites with natural and synthetic fibers have captured the interests of many researchers. In this work, Kevlar/oil palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB)/Kevlar and carbon/oil palm EFB hybrid/carbon composites were prepared using hand lay-up technique by keeping the oil palm EFB fiber as the core material. The tensile properties which include tensile strength, tensile modulus and elongation at break were investigated. It is observed that the tensile strength and modulus for carbon/oil palm EFB/carbon hybrid composites were much higher as compared with Kevlar/oil palm EFB/Kevlar hybrid composites. However, the elongation at break for Kevlar/oil palm EFB/Kevlar hybrid composites exhibited higher value as compared to carbon/oil palm EFB/carbon hybrid composites and oil palm EFB/epoxy composites. The tensile strength for carbon/oil palm EFB/carbon hybrid composites is 93.6 MPa and the tensile modulus for carbon/oil palm EFB/carbon hybrid composites is 6.5 GPa. The elongation at break for Kevlar/oil palm EFB/Kevlar hybrid composites is 3.6%.

  16. Deacidification of palm oil using betaine monohydrate-based natural deep eutectic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahrina, Ida; Nasikin, Mohammad; Krisanti, Elsa; Mulia, Kamarza

    2018-02-01

    In the palm oil industry, the deacidification process is performed by steam stripping which causes the loss of most of palm oil's natural antioxidants due to high temperature. The liquid-liquid extraction process which is carried out at low temperature is preferable in order to preserve these compounds. The use of hydrated ethanol can reduce the losses of antioxidants, but the ability of this solvent to extract free fatty acids also decreases. Betaine monohydrate-based natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) have extensive potential for this process. The selectivity of these NADES was determined to select a preferable solvent. The betaine monohydrate-glycerol NADES in a molar ratio of 1:8 was determined to be the preferred solvent with the highest selectivity. This solvent has an efficiency of palmitic acid extraction of 34.14%, and the amount of antioxidants can be preserved in the refined palm oil up to 99%. The compounds are stable during extraction. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. The effect of palm kernel shell ash on the mechanical properties of as-cast aluminium alloy matrix composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isiaka Oluwole OLADELE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the effect of palm kernel shell ash (PKSA as reinforcement on the mechanical properties of As-cast aluminium alloy. Recycled aluminium alloy from cylinder of an automotive engine block was degreased by using premium motor spirit (PMS also known as petrol, washed thoroughly with soap and water and sun dried for 5 days. The palm kernel shell was screened of dirt and other unwanted foreign materials before being roasted in furnace. The ash was further pulverized by laboratory ball mill machine followed by sieving to obtain particle sizes of 106 µm and divided into two parts. One portion was treated with NaOH solution while the other part was left as untreated before they are used to reinforced molten aluminium alloy in predetermined proportions. The newly developed composites were characterized with respect to their mechanical properties in response to the tests that were carried out on them. The results indicate that palm kernel shell ash can be used as potential reinforcing material for automobile applications.

  18. Removal of oil palm trunk lignin in ammonium hydroxide pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Az-Zahraa, Balqis; Zakaria, Sarani; Daud, Muhammad F. B.; Jaafar, Sharifah Nabihah Syed

    2018-04-01

    Alkaline pretreatment using ammonium hydroxide, NH4OH serves as one of a process to remove lignin from lignocellulosic biomass such as oil palm trunk fiber. In this study, the effect of NH4OH pretreatment on removal of oil palm trunk lignin was investigated. The oil palm trunk fiber was dissolved in NH4OH with different concentrations (6, 8 and 10 %), different duration (3, 5 and 7 h) and temperatures (60, 80 and 100 °C). The samples were analyzed by using UV-Vis to estimate the concentration of extracted lignin. The result indicates that the optimum conditions to gain maximum extracted lignin were 8% NH4OH, 100 °C and 5 h with concentration of 64 mgL-1 while the lowest was at 6% NH4OH, 100 °C and 5 h with concentration of 62.5 mgL-1.

  19. Suitability of online 3D visualization technique in oil palm plantation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat, Ruzinoor Che; Nordin, Norani; Zulkifli, Abdul Nasir; Yusof, Shahrul Azmi Mohd

    2016-08-01

    Oil palm industry has been the backbone for the growth of Malaysia economy. The exports of this commodity increasing almost every year. Therefore, there are many studies focusing on how to help this industry increased its productivity. In order to increase the productivity, the management of oil palm plantation need to be improved and strengthen. One of the solution in helping the oil palm manager is by implementing online 3D visualization technique for oil palm plantation using game engine technology. The potential of this application is that it can helps in fertilizer and irrigation management. For this reason, the aim of this paper is to investigate the issues in managing oil palm plantation from the view of oil palm manager by interview. The results from this interview will helps in identifying the suitable issues could be highlight in implementing online 3D visualization technique for oil palm plantation management.

  20. Valorization of By-Products from Palm Oil Mills for the Production of Generic Fermentation Media for Microbial Oil Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsouko, Erminda; Kachrimanidou, Vasiliki; Dos Santos, Anderson Fragoso; do Nascimento Vitorino Lima, Maria Eduarda; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; de Castro, Aline Machado; Freire, Denise Maria Guimarães; Koutinas, Apostolis A

    2017-04-01

    This study demonstrates the production of a generic nutrient-rich feedstock using by-product streams from palm oil production that could be used as a substitute for commercial fermentation supplements. Solid-state fermentations of palm kernel cake (PKC) and palm-pressed fiber (PPF) were conducted in tray bioreactors and a rotating drum bioreactor by the fungal strain Aspergillus oryzae for the production of crude enzymes. The production of protease was optimized (319.3 U/g) at an initial moisture content of 55 %, when PKC was used as the sole substrate. The highest free amino nitrogen (FAN) production (5.6 mg/g) obtained via PKC hydrolysis using the crude enzymes produced via solid-state fermentation was achieved at 50 °C. Three initial PKC concentrations (48.7, 73.7, and 98.7 g/L) were tested in hydrolysis experiments, leading to total Kjeldahl nitrogen to FAN conversion yields up to 27.9 %. Sequential solid-state fermentation followed by hydrolysis was carried out in the same rotating drum bioreactor, leading to the production of 136.7 U/g of protease activity during fermentation and 196.5 mg/L of FAN during hydrolysis. Microbial oil production was successfully achieved with the oleaginous yeast strain Lipomyces starkeyi DSM 70296 cultivated on the produced PKC hydrolysate mixed with commercial carbon sources, including glucose, xylose, mannose, galactose, and arabinose.

  1. Stability evaluation of quality parameters for palm oil products at low temperature storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Nur Aainaa Syahirah; Mohd Noor, Mohd Azmil; Musa, Hajar; Ghazali, Razmah

    2018-07-01

    Palm oil is one of the major oils and fats produced and traded worldwide. The value of palm oil products is mainly influenced by their quality. According to ISO 17025:2005, accredited laboratories require a quality control procedure with respect to monitoring the validity of tests for determination of quality parameters. This includes the regular use of internal quality control using secondary reference materials. Unfortunately, palm oil reference materials are not currently available. To establish internal quality control samples, the stability of quality parameters needs to be evaluated. In the present study, the stability of quality parameters for palm oil products was examined over 10 months at low temperature storage (6 ± 2 °C). The palm oil products tested included crude palm oil (CPO); refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm oil (RBDPO); RBD palm olein (RBDPOo); and RBD palm stearin (RBDPS). The quality parameters of the oils [i.e. moisture content, free fatty acid content (FFA), iodine value (IV), fatty acids composition (FAC) and slip melting point (SMP)] were determined prior to and throughout the storage period. The moisture, FFA, IV, FAC and SMP for palm oil products changed significantly (P  0.05). The stability study indicated that the quality of the palm oil products was stable within the specified limits throughout the storage period at low temperature. The storage conditions preserved the quality of palm oil products throughout the storage period. These findings qualify the use of the palm oil products CPO, RBDPO, RBDPOo and RBDPS as control samples in the validation of test results. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Dietary supplementation with hybrid palm oil alters liver function in the common Marmoset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreafico, Flavia; Sales, Rafael Carvalho; Gil-Zamorano, Judit; Medeiros, Priscylla da Costa; Latasa, Maria-Jesús; Lima, Monique Ribeiro; de Souza, Sergio Augusto Lopes; Martin-Hernández, Roberto; Gómez-Coronado, Diego; Iglesias-Gutierrez, Eduardo; Mantilla-Escalante, Diana C; das Graças Tavares do Carmo, Maria; Dávalos, Alberto

    2018-02-09

    Hybrid palm oil, which contains higher levels of oleic acid and lower saturated fatty acids in comparison with African palm oil, has been proposed to be somehow equivalent to extra virgin olive oil. However, the biological effects of its consumption are poorly described. Here we have explored the effects of its overconsumption on lipid metabolism in a non-human primate model, the common marmoset. Dietary supplementation of marmoset with hyperlipidic diet containing hybrid palm oil for 3 months did not modify plasma lipids levels, but increased glucose levels as compared to the supplementation with African palm oil. Liver volume was unexpectedly found to be more increased in marmosets consuming hybrid palm oil than in those consuming African palm oil. Hepatic total lipid content and circulating transaminases were dramatically increased in animals consuming hybrid palm oil, as well as an increased degree of fibrosis. Analysis of liver miRNAs showed a selective modulation of certain miRNAs by hybrid palm oil, some of which were predicted to target genes involved in cell adhesion molecules and peroxisomal pathways. Our data suggest that consumption of hybrid palm oil should be monitored carefully, as its overconsumption compared to that of African palm oil could involve important alterations to hepatic metabolism.

  3. Preliminary studies of epoxidized palm oil as sizing chemical for carbon fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salleh, S.N.M.; Ubaidillah, E.A.E.; Abidin, M.F.Z.

    2010-01-01

    Epoxidized palm oil is derived from palm oil through chemical reaction with peracetic acid. Preliminary studies to coat carbon fibers have shown promising result towards applying natural product in carbon fibre composites. Mechanical studies of sized carbon fibers with epoxidized palm oil showed significant increase in tensile and interfacial shear strength. Surface morphology of sized or coated carbon fibers with epoxidized palm oil reveals clear increase in root means square-roughness (RMS). This indicates the change of the surface topography due to sized or coated carbon fibers with epoxidized palm oil. (author)

  4. Effect of Different Sterilization Methods on the Extracted Oil from Oil Palm Fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasimah Kasmin; Hasimah Kasmin; Roila Awang; Azwan Mat Lazim

    2015-01-01

    Sterilization is important process during the processing of oil palm fruits in order to produce crude palm oil (CPO). This process can be carried out using steam (conventional method), dry heating or wet heating method. In this study, the effectiveness of the dry heating and wet heating method for sterilization and solvent extraction were carried out. The sterilization time of these two methods were varied at 30, 60 and 90 min in order to determine their effectiveness on the oil extraction and their quality. Results showed that, at 30 min of sterilization, the wet heating produced a higher percentage of oil extraction compared to the conventional and dry heating, with average of 27.65 %, 19.01 % and 20.21 % respectively. In comparison with the conventional method, both sterilization methods gave better FFA and DOBI results. This can be seen where the average of free fatty acid (FFA) content for proposed sterilization method was between 0.37 % to 0.93 % while, average deterioration of bleach ability index (DOBI) was from 4.89 to 6.12. The average carotene content was in agreement with the conventional method at a range of 644.64 ppm to 764.80 ppm. (author)

  5. Indonesia`s Palm Oil Industrialization: the Resistance of Tanjung Pusaka Villagers, Central Kalimantan Against Palm Oil Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Wulansari, Ica

    2017-01-01

    Indonesia`s Palm oil industry is the greatest export commodity in the world. Palm oil industry has been developed since Soeharto`s administration with World Bank`s initiative. Indonesia`s development pattern is modernization which is fully supported by global capitalist agent. Furthermore, the government of Indonesia has issued policies to support this industry and the ease of accessibilty for investor to build in Indonesia. Most of the policies focus on economic interest with lack of attenti...

  6. Rapid epoxidation of palm acid oil with lipase action under microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saifuddin, N.; Wei Zhan Lee; Koh, X.N.; Ramesh, S.; Abdullah, S.F.

    2010-01-01

    In view of growing environmental concerns and tightened regulations over contaminants and pollution in the environment in recent years, calls for biodegradable and nontoxic vegetable oil-based lubricants are abound. They have very low volatility due to the higher molecular weight of the triacylglycerol molecule and a narrow range of viscosity changes with temperature. Polar ester groups in the molecule are able to adhere to metal surfaces, and therefore, possess good boundary lubrication properties. In addition, vegetable oils have high solubilising power for polar contaminants and additive molecules. However, vegetable oils show poor oxidative and thermal stability primarily due to the presence of unsaturation. The presence of ester functionality also renders these oils susceptible to hydrolytic breakdown. The proposed modification of the vegetable oils is an important manner to obtain potentially useful products using a renewable feedstock. In designing a green process to effectively carry out the epoxidation reaction, we report herein, an inexpensive, practical, safe and environmentally friendly method to epoxidize palm acid oil under extremely mild conditions. This work highlights the increased reaction rate of the epoxidation process when microwave irradiation is introduced. The starting material used is Palm Acid Oil, a by-product of the alkali refining process of palm oil. Acid oil can serve as an inexpensive raw materials and are very good substitute for neat vegetable oil such as palm oil for the production of bio lubricant. It is high in Free Fatty Acids (FFA) and is the ideal material for the epoxidation process due to the importance of FFAs in producing peroxy-acids as an oxygen carrier. The double bonds the triglycerides are reacted with a per acid, generated for safety reasons in situ using hydrogen peroxide. Novozym 435 acts as the catalyst in the process and with its good selectivity, the occurrence of by-products is controlled. The method and

  7. Life Cycle Assessment of Sago Palm, Oil Palm, and Paddy Cultivated on Peat Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saptarining Wulan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The continuously increasing population growth more than food agriculture growth on the existing land, has been encouraging to this research. The land use competition for agriculture and housing purposes have caused the land use change from forest to agriculture and housing. Within forested landscapes food production, commodity agriculture, biodiversity, resource extraction and other land uses are also competing for space. The forest land use change (deforestation is one of the climate change causes. The impact of climate change among others is the uncertain climate, such as the long drought period, flood, and the extreme temperature that cause decreasing in agriculture production. Therefore, at present, many people use the marginal land, such as peat land for agriculture cultivation to increase the food agriculture production and to achieve the domestic and export demand. Indonesia has a huge peat land and the fourth biggest in the world after Rusia, Canada, and America. The focus of this study is comparing the life cycle assessment of three agriculture commodities: sago palm, oil palm, and paddy cultivated on peat land. The purpose of this research is to contribute a recommendation of the most sustainable commodity from the aspect carbon dioxide (CO2 emission among three food agriculture commodities include oil palm and paddy that currently as excellent commodities, and sago palm, the neglected indigenous plant, which are cultivated on peat land. The method applied for this research to analyze the environmental aspect using life cycle assessment (LCA started from seedling, plantation, harvesting, transportation, and production process. The analysis result reveals that sago palm is the most environmental friendly. The lowest CO2 emission (ton/ha/year is sago palm (214.75 ± 23.49 kg CO2 eq, then paddy (322.03 ± 7.57 kg CO2 eq and the highest CO2 emission (ton/ha/year is oil palm (406.88 ± 97.09 kg CO2 eq.

  8. Life Cycle Assessment of Sago Palm, Oil Palm, and Paddy Cultivated on Peat Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saptarining Wulan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuously increasing population growth more than food agriculture growth on the existing land, has been encouraging to this research. The land use competition for agriculture and housing purposes have caused the land use change from forest to agriculture and housing. Within forested landscapes food production, commodity agriculture, biodiversity, resource extraction and other land uses are also competing for space. The forest land use change (deforestation is one of the climate change causes. The impact of climate change among others is the uncertain climate, such as the long drought period, flood, and the extreme temperature that cause decreasing in agriculture production. Therefore, at present, many people use the marginal land, such as peat land for agriculture cultivation to increase the food agriculture production and to achieve the domestic and export demand. Indonesia has a huge peat land and the fourth biggest in the world after Rusia, Canada, and America. The focus of this study is comparing the life cycle assessment of three agriculture commodities: sago palm, oil palm, and paddy cultivated on peat land. The purpose of this research is to contribute a recommendation of the most sustainable commodity from the aspect carbon dioxide (CO2 emission among three food agriculture commodities include oil palm and paddy that currently as excellent commodities, and sago palm, the neglected indigenous plant, which are cultivated on peat land. The method applied for this research to analyze the environmental aspect using life cycle assessment (LCA started from seedling, plantation, harvesting, transportation, and production process. The analysis result reveals that sago palm is the most environmental friendly. The lowest CO2 emission (ton/ha/year is sago palm (214.75 ± 23.49 kg CO2 eq, then paddy (322.03 ± 7.57 kg CO2 eq and the highest CO2 emission (ton/ha/year is oil palm (406.88 ± 97.09 kg CO2 eq.

  9. Biochemical and seminal parameters of lambs fed palm kernel cake under grazing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes César Mugabe

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to assess the effects of palm kernel cake on semen quality and biochemical parameters of Santa Inês lambs. A total of 40 animals with 24.10±2.72 kg body weight and five months old were assigned in a completely randomized design into four groups and 10 replicates. The animals were subjected to four levels of palm kernel cake (0, 15, 30, and 45% based on dry matter. The trial lasted 90 days foregone by 15 days for adaptation. Blood samples were collected every 45 days from jugular vein using vacuum tubes without anticoagulant. Total serum cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and very-low-density lipoprotein were assessed. Once the animals reached puberty at a mean age of 225 days, the semen samples were collected by electroejaculator once a week for three sequence weeks and assessed for volume, color, aspect, wave motion, motility, sperm concentration, sperm vigor, total of spermatozoa per ejaculate, viable spermatozoa per mL, and sperm morphology. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and followed by regression analysis. Non-parametric data were analysed by Kruskal-Wallis test. Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, and very-low-density lipoprotein were linearly increased. There was no difference for low-density lipoprotein. Diets did not affect mass motility, sperm motility, vigor, total spermatozoa per ejaculate, viability sperm per mL, and minor and total sperm defects. Sperm concentration increased linearly. Negative quadratic effects were observed for major sperm defects. Supplementation of diets with palm kernel cake up to 45% on dry matter enhance biochemical parameters and do not impair the qualitative variables of lamb sperm.

  10. Performance of palm oil as a biobased machining lubricant when drilling inconel 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Rahim Erween

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Metalworking fluid acts as cooling and lubrication agent at the cutting zone in the machining process. However, conventional Metalworking fluid such mineral oil gives negative impact on the human and environment. Therefore, the manufacture tends to substitute the mineral oil to bio-based oil such as vegetables and synthetic oil. In this paper, the drilling experiment was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of palm oil and compare it with minimal quantity lubrication technique using synthetic ester, flood coolant and air blow with respect to cutting temperature, cutting force, torque and tool life. The experimental results showed that the application of palm oil under minimal quantity lubrication condition as the cutting fluid was more efficient process as it improves the machining performances.

  11. Bacterial community shift for monitoring the co-composting of oil palm empty fruit bunch and palm oil mill effluent anaerobic sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainudin, Mohd Huzairi Mohd; Ramli, Norhayati; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Shirai, Yoshihito; Tashiro, Kosuke; Sakai, Kenji; Tashiro, Yukihiro

    2017-06-01

    A recently developed rapid co-composting of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME) anaerobic sludge is beginning to attract attention from the palm oil industry in managing the disposal of these wastes. However, a deeper understanding of microbial diversity is required for the sustainable practice of the co-compositing process. In this study, an in-depth assessment of bacterial community succession at different stages of the pilot scale co-composting of OPEFB-POME anaerobic sludge was performed using 454-pyrosequencing, which was then correlated with the changes of physicochemical properties including temperature, oxygen level and moisture content. Approximately 58,122 of 16S rRNA gene amplicons with more than 500 operational taxonomy units (OTUs) were obtained. Alpha diversity and principal component analysis (PCoA) indicated that bacterial diversity and distributions were most influenced by the physicochemical properties of the co-composting stages, which showed remarkable shifts of dominant species throughout the process. Species related to Devosia yakushimensis and Desemzia incerta are shown to emerge as dominant bacteria in the thermophilic stage, while Planococcus rifietoensis correlated best with the later stage of co-composting. This study proved the bacterial community shifts in the co-composting stages corresponded with the changes of the physicochemical properties, and may, therefore, be useful in monitoring the progress of co-composting and compost maturity.

  12. Macauba: a promising tropical palm for the production of vegetable oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colombo Carlos Augusto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing global demand for vegetable oils for food and for replacing fossil fuels leads to increased oilseeds production. Almost 122 of the current 187 million tons of vegetable oils produced in the world correspond to palm and soybean oils. The oil palm is cultivated in the tropical zone, in areas formerly occupied by forests, and soybean oil is a by-product of protein meal production. The diversification of raw materials for the vegetable oil market is thus strategic for both food and non-food sectors. Sources for vegetable oil should be economically competitive and provide sustainability indexes higher than that provided by oil palm and soybean. In this context, we describe the potential of Acrocomia aculeata, popularly known as macauba. Macauba is an American palm from the tropical zones which presents oil productivity and quality similar to that of the oil palm. It grows spontaneously in a wide range of environments and it is not very water demanding. Macauba palm has a high potential for oil production and for diversification of co-products with some potential of value aggregation. Such a perennial and sustainable species will probably fulfill the requirements to become an important new commercial oilseed crop.

  13. Study on upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds by radiation and fermentation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Ito, Hitoshi

    1998-03-01

    Upgrading of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), which is a main by-product of palm oil industry, to animal feeds by radiation pasteurization and fermentation was investigated for recycling the agro-resources and reducing the environmental pollution. The following results were obtained: 1) The necessary dose for pasteurization of EFB contaminated by various microorganisms including aflatoxin producing fungi was determined as 10 kGy. The chemical and biological properties of EFB were changed little by irradiation up to 50 kGy. 2) In the fermentation process, Pleurotus sajor-caju was selected as the most effective fungi and the optimum condition for fermentation was clarified. The process of fermentation in suspension was also established for the liquid seed preparation. 3) The digestibility and nutritional value of fermented products were evaluated as ruminant animal feeds and the mushroom can be produced as by-product. 4) The pilot plant named Sterifeed was built at MINT and a large volume production has been trying for animal feeding test and economical evaluation. It is expected to develop the process for the commercial use in Malaysia and to expand the technique to Asian region through UNDP/RCA/IAEA project. (author)

  14. Study on upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds by radiation and fermentation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; and others

    1998-03-01

    Upgrading of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), which is a main by-product of palm oil industry, to animal feeds by radiation pasteurization and fermentation was investigated for recycling the agro-resources and reducing the environmental pollution. The following results were obtained: (1) The necessary dose for pasteurization of EFB contaminated by various microorganisms including aflatoxin producing fungi was determined as 10 kGy. The chemical and biological properties of EFB were changed little by irradiation up to 50 kGy. (2) In the fermentation process, Pleurotus sajor-caju was selected as the most effective fungi and the optimum condition for fermentation was clarified. The process of fermentation in suspension was also established for the liquid seed preparation. (3) The digestibility and nutritional value of fermented products were evaluated as ruminant animal feeds and the mushroom can be produced as by-product. (4) The pilot plant named Sterifeed was built at MINT and a large volume production has been trying for animal feeding test and economical evaluation. It is expected to develop the process for the commercial use in Malaysia and to expand the technique to Asian region through UNDP/RCA/IAEA project. (author)

  15. Palm oil based biofuel using blended crude palm oil/medium fuel oil: physical and thermal properties studies. Paper no. IGEC-1-015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuah, T.G.; Zakiah, M.; Wan Hasamuddin, W.H.; Hj. Ahmad, H.; Fakhru'l-Razi, A.; Robiah, Y.; Choong, T.S.Y.; Yip, Y.F.

    2005-01-01

    Crude Palm Oil (CPO) is renewable bio-based resource. It is an attractive alternative fuel which provides the potential to reduce emission problems. CPO is an example of biofuels that can be blended with petroleum distillates as a fuel in mobile engines and industrial processes to help offset the increasing energy demand. This paper highlights the results of blended Crude Palm Oil (CPO)/Medium Fuel Oil (MFO) as an alternative environmentally friendly boiler's fuel. Heating values of the blend fuels have been measured using an oxygen bomb calorimeter. Combustion performance of a blend containing 50% CPO in MFO fuel was examined using a commercial boiler. The blend burned satisfactorily without major modification to the appliance and fuel delivery system. SO 2 emissions were 51.67% lower than MFO, H 2 S decreased about 55.61% while NO x were 18.67% reduced. Results indicate potential reductions of SO 2 , H 2 S and NO x , and greenhouse gas emissions for the petroleum distillates can be replaced with this blend. (author)

  16. Forecasting Palm Oil Price Movements In Malaysia: Empirical Evidence from the Malaysian Palm Oil Futures Market.

    OpenAIRE

    Amran, Zulfathi

    2010-01-01

    The palm oil industry is one of the main commodity industries in South East Asia. This is the case for the two main producers and exporters of crude palm oil in the world, Malaysia and Indonesia, and thus there is an importance placed on the trading of the commodity in Malaysia, especially for hedging purposes for the producers. This is because; the main use of the product is for exporting purposes rather than for consumption, and thus it is important if there is a tool that the producers or ...

  17. Time series ARIMA models for daily price of palm oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariff, Noratiqah Mohd; Zamhawari, Nor Hashimah; Bakar, Mohd Aftar Abu

    2015-02-01

    Palm oil is deemed as one of the most important commodity that forms the economic backbone of Malaysia. Modeling and forecasting the daily price of palm oil is of great interest for Malaysia's economic growth. In this study, time series ARIMA models are used to fit the daily price of palm oil. The Akaike Infromation Criterion (AIC), Akaike Infromation Criterion with a correction for finite sample sizes (AICc) and Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) are used to compare between different ARIMA models being considered. It is found that ARIMA(1,2,1) model is suitable for daily price of crude palm oil in Malaysia for the year 2010 to 2012.

  18. Design of transportation and distribution Oil Palm Trunk of (OPT) in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norita, Defi; Arkeman, Yandra

    2018-03-01

    This research initiated from the area of oil palm plantations in Indonesia 13 million hectares, triggering consternation of abundance of oil palm trunk when garden regeneration is done. If 4 percent of the area is rehabilitated every year, almost 100 million cubic feet of oil palm will be trash. Biomass in the form of pellets can be processed from oil palm trunk. It is then disseminated back to the palm oil processing area into biomass. The amount of transportation cost of the used ships and trucks was defined as parameters. So the objective function determined the type and number of ship and truck trips that provide the minimum transportation cost. To optimize logistics transportation network in regional port cluster, combining hub-and-spoke transportation system among regional port with consolidation and dispersing transportation systems between ports and their own hinterlands, a nonlinear optimization model for two-stage logistics system in regional port cluster was introduced to simultaneously determine the following factors: the hinterlands serviced by individual ports and transportation capacity operated between each port and its hinterland, cargo transportation volume and corresponding transportation capacity allocated via a hub port from an original port to a destination port, cargo transportation volume and corresponding transportation capacity allocated directly from an original port to a destination port. Finally, a numerical example is given to demonstrate the application of the proposed model. It can be shown that the solution to the proposed non-linear model can be obtained by transforming it into linear programming models.

  19. UV curable palm oil based ink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mek Zah Salleh; Mohd Hilmi Mahmood; Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan; Rosley Che Ismail

    2002-01-01

    UV curable inks are useful for their instant drying, energy saving and high productivity properties. The basic materials for formulating UV curable inks consist of prepolymer, monomers, photoinitiators, pigments and other additives. The percentage composition and ingredients depend very much on the types of inks to be produced. Palm oil is one of the main raw materials available in the country. Hence, the diversification of palm oil derivatives into new products has been given priority. The current focus of the present work is to evaluate the use of palm oil urethane acrylate (POBUA) as a prepolymer in the UV ink system. A study was conducted on the use of POBUA with other materials in ink formulation. These include the types and concentration of photoinitiators, monomers and commercial urethane acrylates. The evaluation of the ink properties such as curing, adhesion, color density have been carried out. It was found that POBUA could be introduced in the UV ink system. (Author)

  20. UV curable palm oil based inks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mek Zah Salleh; Hilmi Mahmood

    2002-01-01

    UV curable inks are useful for their instant drying, energy saving and high productivity properties. The basic materials for formulating UV curable inks consist of prepolymer, monomers, photoinitiators, pigments and other additives. The percentage composition and ingredients depend very much on the types of inks to be produced. Palm oil is one of the main raw materials available in the country. Hence, the diversification of palm oil derivatives into new products has been given priority. The current focus of the present work is to evaluate the use of palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA) as a prepolymer in the UV inks system. A study was conducted on the use of POBUA with other materials in ink formulation. These include the types and concentration of photoinitiators, monomers and commercial urethane acrylates. The evaluation of the ink properties such as curing, adhesion, color density have been carried out. It was found that POBUA could be introduced in the UV ink system. (Author)

  1. The Effect of the Operating Conditions on the Apparent Viscosity of Crude Palm Oil During Oil Clarification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Al-Zuhair, Mirghani I. Ahmed and Yousif A. Abakr

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the apparent viscosity of crude palm oil, using rotary viscometer, under different boundary conditions. It was experimentally shown that the apparent viscosity of palm oil drops with increasing of the shear rate and the temperature.  However, the effect of temperature on the viscosity tends to fade at temperatures beyond 80 oC.  A correlation between the apparent viscosity of crude palm oil and the operating conditions was developed. This correlation can be used in design of crude palm oil settlers and in determining the optimum operating conditions.Key Words:  Crude palm oil, apparent viscosity, shear rate, modelling, separation 

  2. Enzymatic biodiesel production from sludge palm oil (SPO) using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biodiesel is a non-toxic, renewable and environmental friendly fuel. This study involved the production of biodiesel from sludge palm oil (SPO), a low-cost waste oil via enzymatic catalysis. The enzyme catalyst was a Candida cylindracea lipase, locally-produced using palm oil mill effluent as the low cost based medium.

  3. Identification of molecular performance from oil palm clones based on SSR markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Lollie Agustina P.; Basyuni, M.; Bayu, Eva S.; Arvita, D.; Arifiyanto, D.; Syahputra, I.

    2018-03-01

    In Indonesia, the oil palms are an important economic crop, producing food and raw materials for the food, confectionary, cosmetics and oleo-chemical industrial demands of oil palm products. Clonal oil palm offers the potential for greater productivity because it is possible to establish uniform tree stands comprising identical copies (clones) of a limited number of highly productive oil palms. Unfortunately, tissue culture sometimes accentuates the expression of detects in oil palm, particularly when embryogenesis is induced in particullar callus for prolonged periods. This research is conducted by taking individual tree sample of clone germplasm two years old. The purpose of this research is to molecular performance analysis of some oil palm clones based on SSR markers. A total of 30 trees oil palm clones were used for analysis. In this experiment, the DNA profile diversity was assessed using five loci of oil palm’s specific SSR markers. The results of the experiment indicated out of 3 SSR markers (FR-0779, FR-3663 and FR-0782) showed monomorphic of PCR product and 2 SSR markers (FR-0783 and FR- 3745) showed polymorphic of PCR product. There are 10 total number of PCR product. These preliminary results demonstrated SSR marker can be used to evaluate genetic relatedness among trees of oil palm clones.

  4. Estimation the Amount of Oil Palm Trees Production Using Remote Sensing Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitrianto, A. C.; Tokimatsu, K.; Sufwandika, M.

    2017-12-01

    Currently, fossil fuels were used as the main source of power supply to generate energy including electricity. Depletion in the amount of fossil fuels has been causing the increasing price of crude petroleum and the demand for alternative energy which is renewable and environment-friendly and it is defined from vegetable oils such palm oil, rapeseed and soybean. Indonesia known as the big palm oil producer which is the largest agricultural industry with total harvested oil palm area which is estimated grew until 8.9 million ha in 2015. On the other hand, lack of information about the age of oil palm trees and changes also their spatial distribution is mainly problem for energy planning. This research conducted to estimate fresh fruit bunch (FFB) of oil palm and their distribution using remote sensing technique. Cimulang oil palm plantation was choose as study area. First step, estimated the age of oil palm trees based on their canopy density as the result from Landsat 8 OLI analysis and classified into five class. From this result, we correlated oil palm age with their average FFB production per six months and classified into seed (0-3 years, 0kg), young (4-8 years, 68.77kg), teen (9-14 years, 109.08kg), and mature (14-25 years, 73.91kg). The result from satellite image analysis shows if Cimulang plantation area consist of teen old oil palm trees that it is covers around 81.5% of that area, followed by mature oil palm trees with 18.5% or corresponding to 100 hectares and have total production of FFB every six months around 7,974,787.24 kg.

  5. Reconciling Oil Palm Expansion and Climate Change Mitigation in Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Kemen G.; Kasibhatla, Prasad S.; Urban, Dean L.; Stolle, Fred; Vincent, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Our society faces the pressing challenge of increasing agricultural production while minimizing negative consequences on ecosystems and the global climate. Indonesia, which has pledged to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from deforestation while doubling production of several major agricultural commodities, exemplifies this challenge. Here we focus on palm oil, the world’s most abundant vegetable oil and a commodity that has contributed significantly to Indonesia’s economy. Most oil palm expansion in the country has occurred at the expense of forests, resulting in significant GHG emissions. We examine the extent to which land management policies can resolve the apparently conflicting goals of oil palm expansion and GHG mitigation in Kalimantan, a major oil palm growing region of Indonesia. Using a logistic regression model to predict the locations of new oil palm between 2010 and 2020 we evaluate the impacts of six alternative policy scenarios on future emissions. We estimate net emissions of 128.4–211.4 MtCO2 yr-1 under business as usual expansion of oil palm plantations. The impact of diverting new plantations to low carbon stock land depends on the design of the policy. We estimate that emissions can be reduced by 9-10% by extending the current moratorium on new concessions in primary forests and peat lands, 35% by limiting expansion on all peat and forestlands, 46% by limiting expansion to areas with moderate carbon stocks, and 55–60% by limiting expansion to areas with low carbon stocks. Our results suggest that these policies would reduce oil palm profits only moderately but would vary greatly in terms of cost-effectiveness of emissions reductions. We conclude that a carefully designed and implemented oil palm expansion plan can contribute significantly towards Indonesia’s national emissions mitigation goal, while allowing oil palm area to double. PMID:26011182

  6. Reconciling oil palm expansion and climate change mitigation in Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Kemen G; Kasibhatla, Prasad S; Urban, Dean L; Stolle, Fred; Vincent, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Our society faces the pressing challenge of increasing agricultural production while minimizing negative consequences on ecosystems and the global climate. Indonesia, which has pledged to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from deforestation while doubling production of several major agricultural commodities, exemplifies this challenge. Here we focus on palm oil, the world's most abundant vegetable oil and a commodity that has contributed significantly to Indonesia's economy. Most oil palm expansion in the country has occurred at the expense of forests, resulting in significant GHG emissions. We examine the extent to which land management policies can resolve the apparently conflicting goals of oil palm expansion and GHG mitigation in Kalimantan, a major oil palm growing region of Indonesia. Using a logistic regression model to predict the locations of new oil palm between 2010 and 2020 we evaluate the impacts of six alternative policy scenarios on future emissions. We estimate net emissions of 128.4-211.4 MtCO2 yr(-1) under business as usual expansion of oil palm plantations. The impact of diverting new plantations to low carbon stock land depends on the design of the policy. We estimate that emissions can be reduced by 9-10% by extending the current moratorium on new concessions in primary forests and peat lands, 35% by limiting expansion on all peat and forestlands, 46% by limiting expansion to areas with moderate carbon stocks, and 55-60% by limiting expansion to areas with low carbon stocks. Our results suggest that these policies would reduce oil palm profits only moderately but would vary greatly in terms of cost-effectiveness of emissions reductions. We conclude that a carefully designed and implemented oil palm expansion plan can contribute significantly towards Indonesia's national emissions mitigation goal, while allowing oil palm area to double.

  7. Somaclonal variation associated with oil palm (Elaeis guineensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2014-02-26

    Feb 26, 2014 ... Malaysia and Indonesia together accounting for around. 83% of world palm oil production in 2001 (Wahid et al.,. 2004). The oil palm is an important economic crop, producing food and raw materials for the food, confectionary, cosmetics and ... inherently very slow, and high heterogeneity is still observed ...

  8. Carbon stock of oil palm plantations and tropical forests in Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kho, Lip Khoon; Jepsen, Martin Rudbeck

    2015-01-01

    cultivation (fallow forests) and 3) oil palm plantations. The forest ecosystems are classified by successional stage and edaphic conditions and represent samples along a forest succession continuum spanning pioneer species in shifting cultivation fallows to climax vegetation in old-growth forests. Total......In Malaysia, the main land change process is the establishment of oil palm plantations on logged-over forests and areas used for shifting cultivation, which is the traditional farming system. While standing carbon stocks of old-growth forest have been the focus of many studies, this is less...... the case for Malaysian fallow systems and oil palm plantations. Here, we collate and analyse Malaysian datasets on total carbon stocks for both above- and below-ground biomass. We review the current knowledge on standing carbon stocks of 1) different forest ecosystems, 2) areas subject to shifting...

  9. The making of quality : a technography of small-scale women's groups and a medium-scale firm processing oil palm in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adjei, B.E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary

    Palm oil is an important product in local diets and domestic markets in the South. The current attention for market quality standards and certification schemes in the palm oil sector has the risk to marginalise the role of palm oil in local food security and to

  10. Capturing stakeholders´ views on oil palm-based biofuel and biomass utilisation in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darshini, Dina; Dwivedi, Puneet; Glenk, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Malaysia is the world′s second largest producer of palm oil and generates surplus palm biomass waste that can be used for bioenergy development. Malaysia aims to diversify its energy portfolio by investing into renewable energy mostly to reduce its reliance on fossil fuels. This paper captures synergetic and conflicting interests of key stakeholders, who play an important role in shaping the regulatory and business environment in Malaysia′s renewable energy sector. Particularly, this research analyses the perceptions of three stakeholder groups (government agencies, industry players, and non-governmental organisations) regarding palm-based biofuel and biomass utilisation in Malaysia by combining Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis with an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) framework. Overall, results show a greater sense of optimism among the three stakeholder groups for the development of palm-based biomass utilisation in Malaysia, compared to the development of first generation palm-oil based biodiesel. We discuss the findings in light of on-going debates and policy processes, highlighting some key issues that need to be addressed in order to meet oil-palm related targets set in Malaysia’s ambitious renewable energy plan. - Highlights: • Optimism of stakeholders is greater for palm biomass utilisation than palm biodiesel. • The negative overall outlook for palm biodiesel is perhaps a symptom of hindsight. • Palm biodiesel: strengths (18%), weaknesses (34%), opportunities (23%), and threats (25%). • Palm biomass: strengths (42%), weaknesses (23%), opportunities (15%), and threats (21%). • Views of stakeholder groups are relevant to meeting Malaysia´s renewables target

  11. Palm oil and cardiovascular disease: a randomized trial of the effects of hybrid palm oil supplementation on human plasma lipid patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucci, P; Borrero, M; Ruiz, A; Pacetti, D; Frega, N G; Diez, O; Ojeda, M; Gagliardi, R; Parra, L; Angel, M

    2016-01-01

    This study examines, for the first time, the effect of hybrid Elaeis oleifera × E. guineensis palm oil supplementation on human plasma lipids related to CVD risk factors. One hundred sixty eligible participants were randomized and assigned to one of the two treatments: 25 mL hybrid palm oil (HPO group) or 25 mL extra virgin olive oil (EVOO group) daily for 3 months. Fasting venous samples were obtained at baseline and after 1, 2 and 3 months for measurement of plasma lipids (TC, LDL-C, HDL-C and TAGs). Changes in body mass index and waist circumference were also assessed. Although there was an overall reduction in TC (7.4%, p lipids to EVOO, thus providing additional support for the concept that hybrid Elaeis oleifera × E. guineensis palm oil can be seen as a "tropical equivalent of olive oil".

  12. Subcritical Water Extraction of Monosaccharides from Oil Palm Fronds Hemicelluloses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norsyabilah, R.; Hanim, S.S.; Norsuhaila, M.H.; Noraishah, A.K.; Siti Kartina

    2013-01-01

    Oil palm plantations in Malaysia generate more than 36 million tones of pruned and felled oil palm fronds (OPF) and are generally considered as waste. The composition of monosaccharide in oil palm frond can be extracted using hydrothermal treatment for useful applications. The objectives of this study were to quantify the yield of monosaccharides at various reaction conditions; temperature 170 to 200 degree Celsius, pressure from 500 psi to 800 psi, reaction time from 5 to 15 min using subcritical water extraction and to determine the composition of oil palm frond hemicelluloses at optimum condition. The monosaccharides composition of oil palm frond hemicelluloses were analysed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The highest yield of monosaccharides can be extracted from OPF at temperature of 190 degree Celsius, pressure of 600 psi and 10 min of contact time which is xylose the most abundant composition (11.79 %) followed with arabinose (2.82 %), glucose (0.61 %) and mannose (0.66 %). (author)

  13. Production and composition of buffalo milk supplemented with agro industrial byproducts of the african palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Bustamante Hinojosa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal for this applied research was to assess the production and composition of buffalo milk when Oil Palm kernel flour and Oil Palm kernel cake are supplemented to their diet. Thirty buffaloes from the grasslands of the Andes valleys in Colombia with 1 to 3 lactations and an average weight of 575 kg were selected for the experimental. The animals were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups: (T1 Control Group with no diet supplements, (T2 1000 g·day-1 of oil palm kernel cake and 350 g·day-1 of molasses diet supplement, and (T3 1150 g·day-1 of oil palm kernel flour. During the first 100 days of lactation, the milk livestock were individually weighed and milked. Milking was scheduled every 15 days, for a total of seven samples. The supplement consumption was recorded and a bromatological analysis of grasses was performed. The chemical composition of the milk was determined using an ultrasonic Ekomilk analyzer and a fatty acid full profile analysis was made using High Liquid Pressure Chromatography (HLPC. A 7 x 3 multiple variable statistical analysis was performed by sampling seven fifteen day periods and three types of diet. The average values of milk components observed were: 3.54% protein; 7.4% fat; total solids 16.9%; non-fat solids 9.5%; 2.1 fats to protein ratio. The profile of fatty acids showed 2.34% of polyunsaturated; 33.1% of monounsaturated; 64.6% of unsaturated fatty acids; and 0.96% of Omega 6 acids. In conclusion was observed partial effect to fat supplementation in the buffaloes milk production.

  14. Genome-wide analysis of LTR-retrotransposons in oil palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beulé, Thierry; Agbessi, Mawussé Dt; Dussert, Stephane; Jaligot, Estelle; Guyot, Romain

    2015-10-15

    The oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is a major cultivated crop and the world's largest source of edible vegetable oil. The genus Elaeis comprises two species E. guineensis, the commercial African oil palm and E. oleifera, which is used in oil palm genetic breeding. The recent publication of both the African oil palm genome assembly and the first draft sequence of its Latin American relative now allows us to tackle the challenge of understanding the genome composition, structure and evolution of these palm genomes through the annotation of their repeated sequences. In this study, we identified, annotated and compared Transposable Elements (TE) from the African and Latin American oil palms. In a first step, Transposable Element databases were built through de novo detection in both genome sequences then the TE content of both genomes was estimated. Then putative full-length retrotransposons with Long Terminal Repeats (LTRs) were further identified in the E. guineensis genome for characterization of their structural diversity, copy number and chromosomal distribution. Finally, their relative expression in several tissues was determined through in silico analysis of publicly available transcriptome data. Our results reveal a congruence in the transpositional history of LTR retrotransposons between E. oleifera and E. guineensis, especially the Sto-4 family. Also, we have identified and described 583 full-length LTR-retrotransposons in the Elaeis guineensis genome. Our work shows that these elements are most likely no longer mobile and that no recent insertion event has occurred. Moreover, the analysis of chromosomal distribution suggests a preferential insertion of Copia elements in gene-rich regions, whereas Gypsy elements appear to be evenly distributed throughout the genome. Considering the high proportion of LTR retrotransposon in the oil palm genome, our work will contribute to a greater understanding of their impact on genome organization and evolution

  15. Energy fluxes in oil palm plantations as affected by water storage in the trunk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijide, Ana; Röll, Alexander; Fan, Yuanchao; Herbst, Mathias; Niu, Furong; Tiedemann, Frank; June, Tania; Rauf, Abdul; Hölscher, Dirk; Knohl, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Oil palm is increasingly expanding, particularly in Indonesia, but information on water and energy fluxes in oil palm plantations is still very limited and on how those are affected by environmental conditions or oil palm age. Using the eddy covariance technique, we studied turbulent fluxes of sensible (H) and latent (LE) heat and gross primary production (GPP) for 8 months each in a young oil palm plantation (1-year old) and subsequently in a mature plantation (12-year old) in Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia. We measured transpiration (T) simultaneously using a sap flux technique. The energy budget was dominated by LE in both plantations, particularly in the mature one, where it represented up to 70% of the available energy. In the young oil palm plantation, evapotranspiration (ET) was significantly reduced and H fluxes were higher. This affected the Bowen ratio, defined as the ratio of H and LE, which was higher in the 1-year old plantation (0.67±0.33), where it remained constant during the day, than in the mature plantation (0.14±0.09), where it varied considerably over the day, suggesting that water accumulated inside the canopy. Using the Community Land Model (CLM), a process based land surface model that has been adapted to oil palm functional traits (i.e. CLM-Palm), we investigated the contribution of different water sources to the measured fluxes. CLM-Palm differentiates leaf and stem surfaces in modelling water interception and is therefore able to diagnose the fraction of dry leaves that contribute to T and the wet fraction of all vegetation surfaces (leaf and stem) that contributes to evaporation. Results from our simulations strengthen our hypothesis of significant contribution of canopy evaporation to ET. As observed in the field, water accumulates inside the canopy in the mature plantation in oil palm trunk surfaces including epiphytes, creating water reservoirs in the trunk, which potentially contribute to ET when they evaporate. The decoupling

  16. In vitro digestibility of oil palm frond treated by local microorganism (MOL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafsin, M.; Khairani, Y.; Hanafi, N. D.; Yunilas

    2018-02-01

    Oil palm frond is by product from oil palm plantation and were found in large quantity in Indonesia. This research aims to examine the ability of local microorganisms and buffalo rumen isolates in improving the digestibility of dry matter and organic matter in vitro of oil palm frond. The research used experimental method with four treatments and three replications. The treatments were given: Oil palms without treatment (P0); Starbio (P2); Aspergillus niger + Saccharomyces cerevisiae (P3); Aspergillus niger + Saccharomyces cerevisiae + Isolate of buffalo rumen bacteria (P4). The results showed that the fermented Oil Palm Frond had higher (PAspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae plus buffalo rumen bacterial isolates had higher (P<0.05) DMD and OMD than other treatments. It can be concluded that the utilisation of MOL can improve the digestibility of oil palm frond in vitro.

  17. Predicting Malaysian palm oil price using Extreme Value Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Chuangchid, K; Sriboonchitta, S; Rahman, S; Wiboonpongse, A

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses the extreme value theory (EVT) to predict extreme price events of Malaysian palm oil in the future, based on monthly futures price data for a 25 year period (mid-1986 to mid-2011). Model diagnostic has confirmed non-normal distribution of palm oil price data, thereby justifying the use of EVT. Two principal approaches to model extreme values – the Block Maxima (BM) and Peak-Over- Threshold (POT) models – were used. Both models revealed that the palm oil price will peak at ...

  18. Effect of feeding palm oil by-products based diets on total bacteria, cellulolytic bacteria and methanogenic archaea in the rumen of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakr, Abdelrahim; Alimon, Abdul Razak; Yaakub, Halimatun; Abdullah, Norhani; Ivan, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Rumen microorganisms are responsible for digestion and utilization of dietary feeds by host ruminants. Unconventional feed resources could be used as alternatives in tropical areas where feed resources are insufficient in terms of quality and quantity. The objective of the present experiment was to evaluate the effect of diets based on palm oil (PO), decanter cake (DC) or palm kernel cake (PKC) on rumen total bacteria, selected cellulolytic bacteria, and methanogenic archaea. Four diets: control diet (CD), decanter cake diet (DCD), palm kernel cake diet (PKCD) and CD plus 5% PO diet (CPOD) were fed to rumen cannulated goats and rumen samples were collected at the start of the experimental diets (day 0) and on days 4, 6, 8, 12, 18, 24 and 30 post dietary treatments. Feeding DCD and PKCD resulted in significantly higher (Pgoats fed PKCD and CPOD and the trend showed a severe reduction on days 4 and 6 post experimental diets. In conclusion, results indicated that feeding DCD and PKC increased the populations of cellulolytic bacteria and decreased the density of methanogenic archaea in the rumen of goats.

  19. A study of palm biomass processing strategy in Sarawak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. J. Y.; Ng, W. P. Q.; Law, K. H.

    2017-06-01

    In the past decades, palm industry is booming due to its profitable nature. An environmental concern regarding on the palm industry is the enormous amount of waste produced from palm industry. The waste produced or palm biomass is one significant renewable energy source and raw material for value-added products like fiber mats, activated carbon, dried fiber, bio-fertilizer and et cetera in Malaysia. There is a need to establish the palm biomass industry for the recovery of palm biomass for efficient utilization and waste reduction. The development of the industry is strongly depending on the two reasons, the availability and supply consistency of palm biomass as well as the availability of palm biomass processing facilities. In Malaysia, the development of palm biomass industry is lagging due to the lack of mature commercial technology and difficult logistic planning as a result of scattered locality of palm oil mill, where palm biomass is generated. Two main studies have been carried out in this research work: i) industrial study of the feasibility of decentralized and centralized palm biomass processing in Sarawak and ii) development of a systematic and optimized palm biomass processing planning for the development of palm biomass industry in Sarawak, Malaysia. Mathematical optimization technique is used in this work to model the above case scenario for biomass processing to achieve maximum economic potential and resource feasibility. An industrial study of palm biomass processing strategy in Sarawak has been carried out to evaluate the optimality of centralized processing and decentralize processing of the local biomass industry. An optimal biomass processing strategy is achieved.

  20. Kolkhoung (Pistacia khinjuk Hull Oil and Kernel Oil as Antioxidative Vegetable Oils with High Oxidative Stability and Nutritional Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Asnaashari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, in order to introduce natural antioxidative vegetable oil in food industry, the kolkhoung hull oil and kernel oil were extracted. To evaluate their antioxidant efficiency, gas chromatography analysis of the composition of kolkhoung hull and kernel oil fatty acids and high–performance liquid chromatography analysis of tocopherols were done. Also, the oxidative stability of the oil was considered based on the peroxide value and anisidine value during heating at 100, 110 and 120 °C. Gas chromatography analysis showed that oleic acid was the major fatty acid of both types of oil (hull and kernel and based on a low content of saturated fatty acids, high content of monounsaturated fatty acids, and the ratio of ω-6 and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, they were nutritionally well-balanced. Moreover, both hull and kernel oil showed high oxidative stability during heating, which can be attributed to high content of tocotrienols. Based on the results, kolkhoung hull oil acted slightly better than its kernel oil. However, both of them can be added to oxidation–sensitive oils to improve their shelf life.

  1. The global palm oil sector must change to save biodiversity and improve food security in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Badrul; Saadun, Norzanalia; Prideaux, Margi; Lindenmayer, David B

    2017-12-01

    Most palm oil currently available in global markets is sourced from certified large-scale plantations. Comparatively little is sourced from (typically uncertified) smallholders. We argue that sourcing sustainable palm oil should not be determined by commercial certification alone and that the certification process should be revisited. There are so-far unrecognized benefits of sourcing palm oil from smallholders that should be considered if genuine biodiversity conservation is to be a foundation of 'environmentally sustainable' palm oil production. Despite a lack of certification, smallholder production is often more biodiversity-friendly than certified production from large-scale plantations. Sourcing palm oil from smallholders also alleviates poverty among rural farmers, promoting better conservation outcomes. Yet, certification schemes - the current measure of 'sustainability' - are financially accessible only for large-scale plantations that operate as profit-driven monocultures. Industrial palm oil is expanding rapidly in regions with weak environmental laws and enforcement. This warrants the development of an alternative certification scheme for smallholders. Greater attention should be directed to deforestation-free palm oil production in smallholdings, where production is less likely to cause large scale biodiversity loss. These small-scale farmlands in which palm oil is mixed with other crops should be considered by retailers and consumers who are interested in promoting sustainable palm oil production. Simultaneously, plantation companies should be required to make their existing production landscapes more compatible with enhanced biodiversity conservation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Rheological, fat bloom, and sensory acceptability effects of mango kernel fat and palm olein blends on chocolate-flavored coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves María Flores March

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of replacing cocoa butter with different percentages and proportions of a mango kernel fat/palm olein (MKF/POL blend, are reported. Samples were prepared by melting together mango kernel fat, palm olein, cocoa butter and cocoa mass and powdered sugar combinated. The samples were milled, conched, tempered, and molded to obtain three sets of seven samples as follows: one control omitting mango kernel fat and palm olein, and six samples with cocoa butter replacement of 15 and 22.5% and MKF/POL ratios of 2.3, 4.0, and 9.0. Casson viscosity, Casson yield stress, fat bloom and sensory acceptability were all measured. In fact, all samples had achieved a low Casson viscosity (ηCA and Casson yield stress (τ_oCA, which indicates molding and enrobing as appropriate uses. In addition, some significant differences (p ≤ 0.05 were found among samples. Fat bloom was accelerated in the samples relative to control, but high MKF proportions tended to retard appearance of fat bloom. No differences were observed in organoleptic properties between samples and control.

  3. Tamarind seed powder and palm kernel cake: two novel agro residues for the production of tannase under solid state fermentation by Aspergillus niger ATCC 16620.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabu, A; Pandey, A; Daud, M Jaafar; Szakacs, G

    2005-07-01

    Palm kernel cake (PKC), the residue obtained after extraction of palm oil from oil palm seeds and tamarind seed powder (TSP) obtained after removing the fruit pulp from tamarind fruit pod were tested for the production of tannase under solid-state fermentation (SSF) using Aspergillus niger ATCC 16620. The fungal strain was grown on the substrates without any pretreatment. In PKC medium, a maximum enzyme yield of 13.03 IU/g dry substrate (gds) was obtained when SSF was carried out at 30 degrees C, 53.5% initial substrate moisture, 33 x 10(9) spores/5 g substrate inoculum size and 5% tannic acid as additional carbon source after 96 h of fermentation. In TSP medium, maximum tannase yield of 6.44 IU/gds was obtained at 30 degrees C, 65.75% initial substrate moisture, 11 x 10(9) spores/5 g substrate inoculum, 1% glycerol as additional carbon source and 1% potassium nitrate as additional nitrogen source after 120 h of fermentation. Results from the study are promising for the economic utilization and value addition of these important agro residues, which are abundantly available in many tropical and subtropical countries.

  4. Biodiesel fuels from palm oil, palm oil methylester and ester-diesel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Because of increasing cost and environmental pollution effects of fossil fuels, palm oil, its methylester and ester-diesel blends were analyzed comparatively with diesel for their fuel properties that will make them serve as alternatives to diesel in diesel engines. Equally, the samples were comparatively analyzed for their trace ...

  5. Improved Method for the Qualitative Analyses of Palm Oil Carotenes Using UPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Mei Han; Choo, Yuen May

    2016-04-01

    Palm oil is the richest source of natural carotenes, comprising 500-700 ppm in crude palm oil (CPO). Its concentration is found to be much higher in oil extracted from palm-pressed fiber, a by-product from the milling of oil palm fruits. There are 11 types of carotenes in palm oil, excluding the cis/trans isomers of some of the carotenes. Qualitative separation of these individual carotenes is particularly useful for the identification and confirmation of different types of oil as the carotenes profile is unique to each type of vegetable oil. Previous studies on HPLC separation of the individual palm carotenes reported a total analyses time of up to 100 min using C30 stationary phase. In this study, the separation was completed in <5 min. The qualitative separation was successfully carried out using a commonly used stationary phase, C18. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Ergonomics observation: Harvesting tasks at oil palm plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Yee Guan; Shamsul Bahri, Mohd Tamrin; Irwan Syah, Md Yusoff; Mori, Ippei; Hashim, Zailina

    2014-01-01

    Production agriculture is commonly associated with high prevalence of ergonomic injuries, particularly during intensive manual labor and during harvesting. This paper intends to briefly describe an overview of oil palm plantation management highlighting the ergonomics problem each of the breakdown task analysis. Although cross-sectional field visits were conducted in the current study, insight into past and present occupational safety and health concerns particularly regarding the ergonomics of oil palm plantations was further exploited. Besides discussion, video recordings were extensively used for ergonomics analysis. The unique commodity of oil palm plantations presents significantly different ergonomics risk factors for fresh fruit bunch (FFB) cutters during different stages of harvesting. Although the ergonomics risk factors remain the same for FFB collectors, the intensity of manual lifting increases significantly with the age of the oil palm trees-weight of FFB. There is urgent need to establish surveillance in order to determine the current prevalence of ergonomic injuries. Thereafter, ergonomics interventions that are holistic and comprehensive should be conducted and evaluated for their efficacy using approaches that are integrated, participatory and cost-effective.

  7. An investigation of age and yield of fresh fruit bunches of oil palm based on ALOS PALSAR 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmawan, S.; Takeuchi, W.; Haryati, A.; M, R. Najib A.; Na'aim, M.

    2016-06-01

    The objective on this study is to investigate age and yield of FFB of oil palms based on ALOS PALSAR 2. Study areas in oil palm plantations areas of Jerantut, Pahang Malaysia. Methodology consists collecting of ALOS PALSAR 2 and tabular data on the study area, processing of ALOS PALSAR 2 including of converting digital numbers to normalize radar cross sections (NRCS), topography correction and filtering, making of regions of interest according to areas of age and yield of FFB of oil palms and making of relationship analysis between backscatter value of HH, HV and age and yield of FFB of oil palm. The results have showed relationship between HH, HV and age of oil palm which R2 of 0.63 for HH and 0.42 for HV that indicated increasing of age of oil palm as increasing of HH and HV value. Also relationship between HH, HV and yield of FFB of oil palm which R2 of 0.26 for HH and 0.15 for HV, that indicated increasing of yield of FFB as decreasing of HH and HV value.

  8. Exploring Opportunities for Sustainability in the Malaysian Palm Oil Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padfield, Rory; Hansen, Sune Balle; Preece, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The global thirst for vegetable oil can be regarded as one of the greatest environmental challenges of the 21st Century and interest has intensified with the prospect of biofuels. Palm oil has risen to become the dominant player on the vegetable oil market – and the main recipient of environmental...... scrutiny. Focusing specifically on the Malaysian context, this paper analyses the major environmental, social and economic impacts associated with palm oil production. Drawing on recently published research, publicly available data and a comparison made with a recent sustainability initiative undertaken...... by the hydropower industry – an equally controversial and highly scrutinised sector – it is argued that the full extent of the impacts of palm oil should be acknowledged by those on both sides of the debate. Moreover, it is argued that by moving towards a less polarised version of the palm oil narrative and one...

  9. The Effects Of Fresh And Thermoxidized Palm Oil Diets On Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of fresh and thermoxidized palm oil diets on some haematalogical indices in the rat were investigated in albino rats (Wistar strain). The animals were divided into three groups namely, the first group fed on thermoxidized palm oil (TPO) diet, a second group fed on fresh palm oil (FPO) diet and a third fed on normal ...

  10. Kolkhoung (Pistacia khinjuk) Hull Oil and Kernel Oil as Antioxidative Vegetable Oils with High Oxidative Stability 
and Nutritional Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnaashari, Maryam; Hashemi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Mehr, Hamed Mahdavian; Yousefabad, Seyed Hossein Asadi

    2015-03-01

    In this study, in order to introduce natural antioxidative vegetable oil in food industry, the kolkhoung hull oil and kernel oil were extracted. To evaluate their antioxidant efficiency, gas chromatography analysis of the composition of kolkhoung hull and kernel oil fatty acids and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of tocopherols were done. Also, the oxidative stability of the oil was considered based on the peroxide value and anisidine value during heating at 100, 110 and 120 °C. Gas chromatography analysis showed that oleic acid was the major fatty acid of both types of oil (hull and kernel) and based on a low content of saturated fatty acids, high content of monounsaturated fatty acids, and the ratio of ω-6 and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, they were nutritionally well--balanced. Moreover, both hull and kernel oil showed high oxidative stability during heating, which can be attributed to high content of tocotrienols. Based on the results, kolkhoung hull oil acted slightly better than its kernel oil. However, both of them can be added to oxidation-sensitive oils to improve their shelf life.

  11. The effect of coconut oil and palm oil as substituted oils to cocoa butter on chocolate bar texture and melting point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbardo, Rebecca Putri; Santoso, Herry; Witono, Judy Retti

    2017-05-01

    Cocoa butter has responsibility for dispersion medium to create a stable chocolate bar. Due to the economic reason, cocoa butter is partially or wholly substituted by edible oils e.g palm oil and coconut oil. The objective of the research was to observe the effect of oil substitution in the chocolate bar towards its melting point and texture. The research were divided in three steps which were preliminary research started with fat content analysis in cocoa powder, melting point analysis of substituted oils anc cocoa butter, and iodine number analysis in vegetable fats (cocoa butter, coconut oil, and palm oil), chocolate bar production with substitution 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%wt of cocoa butter with each of substituted oils, and analysis process to determine the chocolate bar melting point with DSC and chocolate bar hardness with texture analyser. The increasement of substituted oils during substitution in chocolate bar would reduce the melting point of chocolate bar from 33.5°C to 31.6°C in palm oil substitution with cocoa butter and 33.5°C to 30.75°C in coconut oil substitution. The hardness of chocolate with palm oil were around 88.5 to 139 g on the 1st cycle and 22.75 to 132 g on the 2nd cycle. The hardness of chocolate with coconut oil were around 74.75 to 152.5 g on the 1st cycle and 53.25 to 132 g on the 2nd cycle. Maximum amount of fats substitution to produce a stable texture chocolate bar is 60% wt.

  12. Large estragole fluxes from oil palms in Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Misztal

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available During two field campaigns (OP3 and ACES, which ran in Borneo in 2008, we measured large emissions of estragole (methyl chavicol; IUPAC systematic name 1-allyl-4-methoxybenzene; CAS number 140-67-0 in ambient air above oil palm canopies (0.81 mg m−2 h−1 and 3.2 ppbv for mean midday fluxes and mixing ratios respectively and subsequently from flower enclosures. However, we did not detect this compound at a nearby rainforest. Estragole is a known attractant of the African oil palm weevil (Elaeidobius kamerunicus, which pollinates oil palms (Elaeis guineensis. There has been recent interest in the biogenic emissions of estragole but it is normally not included in atmospheric models of biogenic emissions and atmospheric chemistry despite its relatively high potential for secondary organic aerosol formation from photooxidation and high reactivity with OH radical. We report the first direct canopy-scale measurements of estragole fluxes from tropical oil palms by the virtual disjunct eddy covariance technique and compare them with previously reported data for estragole emissions from Ponderosa pine. Flowers, rather than leaves, appear to be the main source of estragole from oil palms; we derive a global estimate of estragole emissions from oil palm plantations of ~0.5 Tg y−1. The observed ecosystem mean fluxes (0.44 mg m−2 h−1 and mean ambient volume mixing ratios (3.0 ppbv of estragole are the highest reported so far. The value for midday mixing ratios is not much different from the total average as, unlike other VOCs (e.g. isoprene, the main peak occurred in the evening rather than in the middle of the day. Despite this, we show that the estragole flux can be parameterised using a modified G06 algorithm for emission. However, the model underestimates the afternoon peak even though a similar approach works well for isoprene. Our measurements suggest that this biogenic

  13. Palm Oil Milling Wastes and Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    A. C. Er; Abd. R.M. Nor; Katiman Rostam

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Palm oil milling generates solid wastes, effluent and gaseous emissions. The aim of this study is to assess the progress made in waste management by the Malaysian palm oil milling sector towards the path of sustainable development. Sustainable development is defined as the utilization of renewable resources in harmony with ecological systems. Inclusive in this definition is the transition from low value-added to higher value-added transformation of waste...

  14. Soil C dynamics under intensive oil palm plantations in poor tropical soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Thomas; Ruegg, Johanna; Quezada, Juan Carlos; Buttler, Alexandre

    2017-04-01

    Oil palm cultivation mainly takes place on heavily-weathered tropical soils where nutrients are limiting factors for plant growth and microbial activity. Intensive fertilization and changes of C input by oil palms strongly affects soil C and nutrient dynamics, challenging long-term soil fertility. Oil palm plantations management offers unique opportunities to study soil C and nutrients interactions in field conditions because 1) they can be considered as long-term litter manipulation experiments since all aboveground C inputs are concentrated in frond pile areas and 2) mineral fertilizers are only applied in specific areas, i.e. weeded circle around the tree and interrows, but not in harvest paths. Here, we determined impacts of mineral fertilizer and organic matter input on soil organic carbon dynamics and microbial activity in mature oil palm plantation established on savanna grasslands. Rates of savanna-derived soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition and oil palm-derived SOC net stabilization were determined using changes in isotopic signature of in C input following a shift from C4 (savanna) to C3 (oil palm) vegetation. Application of mineral fertilizer alone did not affect savanna-derived SOC decomposition or oil palm-derived SOC stabilization rates, but fertilization associated with higher C input lead to an increase of oil palm-derived SOC stabilization rates, with about 50% of topsoil SOC derived from oil palm after 9 years. High carbon and nutrients inputs did not increase microbial biomass but microorganisms were more active per unit of biomass and SOC. In conclusion, soil organic matter decomposition was limited by C rather than nutrients in the studied heavily-weathered soils. Fresh C and nutrient inputs did not lead to priming of old savanna-derived SOC but increased turnover and stabilization of new oil palm-derived SOC.

  15. Experiment on the Effects of Storage Duration of Biodiesel produced from Crude Palm Oil, Waste Cooking oil and Jatropha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanihar, Nadiarulah; Khalid, Amir; Mustaffa, Norrizal; Jaat, Norrizam; Sapit, Azwan; Razali, Azahari; Sunar, Norshuhaila Mohamed

    2017-10-01

    Biodiesel based on vegetable oil is an alternative that had various advantage in term of sustainability and environmental attractive compare to others conventional diesel. Biodiesel is product of any fat or oil that derived from any organic sources through a refinery process called transesterification process. This research investigates the effects of storage duration and variant ambient condition on the biodiesel properties and characteristics. In this study, there are three types of blending which is 5vol% blends ( 5vol% plant oil 95vol% diesel), 10vol% blending (10vol% plant oil and 90vol% diesel) and 15vol% blending (15vol% plant oil and 85vol% diesel) each called CPO5 (crude palm oil 5vol%), CPO10 (crude palm oil 10vol%),CPO15 (crude palm oil 15vol%), JO5 (jatropha oil 5vol%), JO10 (jatropha oil 10vol%),and JO15 (jatropha oil 15vol%) respectively. Biodiesel samples were stored at indoor condition and outdoor condition for a 3 months period. The fuel properties such as acid value, viscosity, density, water content and flash point are observed with the laboratory instrument. Flash point value and water content increased under both of indoor and outdoor condition and a steady data for viscosity and density. However, acid value at indoor condition nearly constant but increased dramatically for outdoor condition over the time.

  16. Numerical studies of spray combustion processes of palm oil biodiesel and diesel fuels using reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms

    KAUST Repository

    Kuti, Olawole; Sarathy, Mani; Nishida, Keiya; Roberts, William L.

    2014-01-01

    Spray combustion processes of palm oil biodiesel (PO) and conventional diesel fuels were simulated using the CONVERGE CFD code. Thermochemical and reaction kinetic data (115 species and 460 reactions) by Luo et al. (2012) and Lu et al. (2009) (68

  17. Development of palm oil-based UV-curable epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins for wood coating application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rida Tajau; Nurulhuda Mohd Yunus; Mohd Hilmi Mahmood; Mek Zah Salleh; Nik Ghazali Nik Salleh

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: The trend of using renewable sources such as palm oil as raw material in radiation curing is growing due to the demand from the market to produce a more environmental friendly product. In this study, the radiation curable process was done using epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins which are known as epoxidized palm olein acrylate (EPOLA) and palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA), respectively. The purpose of the study was to investigate curing properties and the application of this UV-curable palm oil resins for wood coating. Furthermore, the properties of palm oil based coatings are compared with the petrochemical-based compound such as ebecryl (EB) for example EB264 and EB830. From the experiment done, the resins from petrochemical-based compounds resulted higher degree of crosslinking (up to 80 %) than the palm oil based compounds (up to 70 %), where the different is around 10-15 %. The hardness property from this two type coatings can reached until 50 % at the lower percentage of the oligomer. However, the coatings from petrochemical-based have a high scratch resistance as it can withstand at least up to 3.0 Newton's (N) compared to the palm oil-based compounds which are difficult to withstand the load up to 1.0 N. Finally, the test on the rubber wood substrate showed that the coatings containing benzophenone photo initiator give higher adhesion property and their also showed a higher glossiness property on the glass substrate compared to the coatings containing irgacure-819 photo initiator. This study showed that the palm oil coatings can be a suitable for the replacement of petrochemicals compound for wood coating. The palm oil coatings can be more competitive in the market if the problems of using high percentage palm oil oligomer can be overcome as the palm oil price is cheap enough. (author)

  18. Development of palm oil-based UV-curable epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins for wood coating application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajau, Rida; Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi; Salleh, Mek Zah; Salleh, Nik Ghazali Nik; Ibrahim, Mohammad Izzat; Yunus, Nurulhuda Mohd

    2014-01-01

    The trend of using renewable sources such as palm oil as raw material in radiation curing is growing due to the demand from the market to produce a more environmental friendly product. In this study, the radiation curable process was done using epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins which are known as epoxidised palm olein acrylate (EPOLA) and palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA), respectively. The purpose of the study was to investigate curing properties and the application of this UV-curable palm oil resins for wood coating. Furthermore, the properties of palm oil based coatings are compared with the petrochemical-based compound such as ebecryl (EB) i.e. EB264 and EB830. From the experiment done, the resins from petrochemical-based compounds resulted higher degree of crosslinking (up to 80%) than the palm oil based compounds (up to 70%), where the different is around 10-15%. The hardness property from this two type coatings can reached until 50% at the lower percentage of the oligomer. However, the coatings from petrochemical-based have a high scratch resistance as it can withstand at least up to 3.0 Newtons (N) compared to the palm oil-based compounds which are difficult to withstand the load up to 1.0 N. Finally, the test on the rubber wood substrate showed that the coatings containing benzophenone photoinitiator give higher adhesion property and their also showed a higher glosiness property on the glass substrate compared to the coatings containing irgacure-819 photoinitiator. This study showed that the palm oil coatings can be a suitable for the replacement of petrochemicals compound for wood coating. The palm oil coatings can be more competitive in the market if the problems of using high percentage palm oil oligomer can be overcome as the palm oil price is cheap enough

  19. Development of palm oil-based UV-curable epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins for wood coating application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajau, Rida; Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi; Salleh, Mek Zah; Salleh, Nik Ghazali Nik [Radiation Processing Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Ibrahim, Mohammad Izzat [Faculty of Science, University of Malaya (UM), 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Yunus, Nurulhuda Mohd [Faculty of Science and Technology, National University Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-02-12

    The trend of using renewable sources such as palm oil as raw material in radiation curing is growing due to the demand from the market to produce a more environmental friendly product. In this study, the radiation curable process was done using epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins which are known as epoxidised palm olein acrylate (EPOLA) and palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA), respectively. The purpose of the study was to investigate curing properties and the application of this UV-curable palm oil resins for wood coating. Furthermore, the properties of palm oil based coatings are compared with the petrochemical-based compound such as ebecryl (EB) i.e. EB264 and EB830. From the experiment done, the resins from petrochemical-based compounds resulted higher degree of crosslinking (up to 80%) than the palm oil based compounds (up to 70%), where the different is around 10-15%. The hardness property from this two type coatings can reached until 50% at the lower percentage of the oligomer. However, the coatings from petrochemical-based have a high scratch resistance as it can withstand at least up to 3.0 Newtons (N) compared to the palm oil-based compounds which are difficult to withstand the load up to 1.0 N. Finally, the test on the rubber wood substrate showed that the coatings containing benzophenone photoinitiator give higher adhesion property and their also showed a higher glosiness property on the glass substrate compared to the coatings containing irgacure-819 photoinitiator. This study showed that the palm oil coatings can be a suitable for the replacement of petrochemicals compound for wood coating. The palm oil coatings can be more competitive in the market if the problems of using high percentage palm oil oligomer can be overcome as the palm oil price is cheap enough.

  20. Comparison of butterfly diversity in forested area and oil palm plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANTO SANTOSA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Santosa Y, Purnamasari I, Wahyuni I. 2017. Comparison of butterfly diversity in forested area and oil palm plantation. Pros Sem Nas Masy Biodiv Indon 7: 104-109. Land use change from the forested area into oil palm monoculture plantations was suspected to have reduced the number of biodiversities, including butterfly. In addressing such issues, this research was conducted from March to April 2016 in PT. Mitra Unggul Pusaka oil palm plantation of Riau Province and the forest area around the plantation. Data were collected from secondary forest and High Conservation Value representing forest areas, and oil palm plantations representing non-forest areas (young-growth oil palm and old-growth oil palm simultaneously using 3 repetitions with time search method for 3 hours (8-10 pm. The results showed that there were 30 species (117 individuals found belonging to five families, i.e.: Papilionidae (3 species, Nymphalidae (17 species, Pieridae (5 species, Lycaenidae (4 species, and Hesperidae (1 species. Species richness was greater in a forested area (Dmg=7.35 than in non-forested areas (Dmg=3.16. Based on the Similarity Index, 50% of the species in forested area were also found in non-forested areas. Therefore, it could be concluded that butterfly diversity in forested areas was higher than non-forested areas (oil palms.

  1. Two-component mixture model: Application to palm oil and exchange rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoong, Seuk-Yen; Ismail, Mohd Tahir; Hamzah, Firdaus Mohamad

    2014-12-01

    Palm oil is a seed crop which is widely adopt for food and non-food products such as cookie, vegetable oil, cosmetics, household products and others. Palm oil is majority growth in Malaysia and Indonesia. However, the demand for palm oil is getting growth and rapidly running out over the years. This phenomenal cause illegal logging of trees and destroy the natural habitat. Hence, the present paper investigates the relationship between exchange rate and palm oil price in Malaysia by using Maximum Likelihood Estimation via Newton-Raphson algorithm to fit a two components mixture model. Besides, this paper proposes a mixture of normal distribution to accommodate with asymmetry characteristics and platykurtic time series data.

  2. Palm oil price forecasting model: An autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Mohd Fahmi Abdul; Shabri, Ani

    2017-05-01

    Palm oil price fluctuated without any clear trend or cyclical pattern in the last few decades. The instability of food commodities price causes it to change rapidly over time. This paper attempts to develop Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model in modeling and forecasting the price of palm oil. In order to use ARDL as a forecasting model, this paper modifies the data structure where we only consider lagged explanatory variables to explain the variation in palm oil price. We then compare the performance of this ARDL model with a benchmark model namely ARIMA in term of their comparative forecasting accuracy. This paper also utilize ARDL bound testing approach to co-integration in examining the short run and long run relationship between palm oil price and its determinant; production, stock, and price of soybean as the substitute of palm oil and price of crude oil. The comparative forecasting accuracy suggests that ARDL model has a better forecasting accuracy compared to ARIMA.

  3. Proposed Average Values of Some Engineering Properties of Palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to know what values of engineering properties of palm kernels to use for rational design of handling and processing systems for palm kernels prompted a literature search for collation of published values. These values are presented in this work. And to manage the discrepancies observed among values published ...

  4. Spatial undergrowth species composition in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) in West Sumatra

    OpenAIRE

    Germer, Jörn Uwe

    2003-01-01

    The area planted to oil palm expanded during the last decades substantially, making it become the world's second most important oil crop. Despite its economic significance the oil palm remains remarkably unknown. Little attention is paid also to the oil palm undergrowth, though important in stabilizing the agro-ecosystem in plantations. Comprehensive knowledge of undergrowth species adapted to specific ecological niches in oil palm plantations is essential to investigate their function in ...

  5. Biotechnology of oil palm: strategies towards manipulation of lipid content and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad; Rasid, Omar Abdul; Masani, Mat Yunus Abdul; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi

    2015-04-01

    Oil palm is a major economic crop for Malaysia. The major challenges faced by the industry are labor shortage, availability of arable land and unstable commodity price. This has caused the industry to diversify its applications into higher value products besides increasing its yield. While conventional breeding has its limitations, biotechnology was identified as one of the tools for overcoming the above challenges. Research on biotechnology of oil palm began more than two decades ago leveraging a multidisciplinary approach involving biochemical studies, gene and promoter isolation, transformation vector construction and finally genetic transformation to produce the targeted products. The main target of oil palm biotechnology research is to increase oleic acid in the mesocarp. Other targets are stearic acid, palmitoleic acid, ricinoleic acid, lycopene (carotenoid) and biodegradable plastics. Significant achievements were reported for the biochemical studies, isolation of useful oil palm genes and characterization of important promoters. A large number of transformation constructs for various targeted products were successfully produced using the isolated oil palm genes and promoters. Finally transformation of these constructs into oil palm embryogenic calli was carried out while the regeneration of transgenic oil palm harboring the useful genes is in progress.

  6. Degradation of Palm Oil Induced By Ionizing Radiation | Egbe | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    X-irradiated Palm Oil of the Elaeis guineensis specie was studied by assessing the effect of the radiation on the Peroxide, Iodine and Fatty acid values of the oil. These were compared with values of fresh and thermoxidized palm oil. Results showed a rise in the peroxide value by as much as 52.5% for thermoxidized oil and ...

  7. Questioning the sustainable palm oil demand: case study from French-Indonesia supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalil, D.; Barus, R.

    2018-02-01

    Sustainable palm oil has been widely debated. Consuming countries insist certified sustainable produces palm oil, but in fact the absorption of the certified palm oil is still less than 60%. This raise questions about the sustainable palm oil demand. In this study, such a condition will be analysed in French-Indonesia supply chain case. Using monthly and quarterly data from 2010 to 2016 with Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) approach and Error Correction Model, demand influencing factors and price integration in each market of the supply chain is estimated. Two scenarios namely re-export and direct export models are considered in the Error Correction Model. The results show that France Gross Domestic Product, prices of France palm oil import from Indonesia, Malaysia, and Germany, and price of France groundnut import significantly influence the France palm oil import volume from Indonesia. Prices in each market along palm oil re-export France-Indonesia supply chain are co-integrated and converge towards long-run equilibrium, but not in the direct export supply chain. This leads to a conclusion that France market preferences in specific and EU market preferences in general need to be considered by Indonesian palm oil decision makers.

  8. Stability analysis of oil yield in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) progenies in different environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafii, M Y; Jalani, B S; Rajanaidu, N; Kushairi, A; Puteh, A; Latif, M A

    2012-10-04

    We evaluated 38 dura x pisifera (DP) oil palm progenies in four locations in Malaysia for genotype by environment interaction and genotypic stability studies. The DP progenies derived from crosses between pisifera palms of AVROS, Serdang S27B, Serdang 29/36, and Lever Cameroon were chosen to be the males' parent and Deli dura palms designated as females' parent. All the locations differed in terms of soil physical and chemical properties, and the soil types ranged from coastal clay to inland soils. The genotype by environment interaction and stability of the individual genotypes were analyzed for oil yield trait using several stability techniques. A genotype by environment interaction was detected for oil yield and it had a larger variance component than genotypic variance (σ(2)(gl)/σ(2)(g) = 139.7%). Genotype by environment interaction of oil yield was largely explained by a non-linear relationship between genotypic and environmental values. Overall assessment of individual genotypic stability showed that seven genotypes were highly stable and had consistent performance over the environments for the oil yield trait [total individual genotype stability scored more than 10 and mean oil yielded above the average of the environment (genotype means are more than 34.37 kg·palm(-1)·year(-1))]. These genotypes will be useful for oil palm breeding and tissue culture programs for developing high oil yielding planting materials with stable performance.

  9. Characterization of Bio-Oil from Fast Pyrolysis of Palm Frond and Empty Fruit Bunch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solikhah, M. D.; Pratiwi, F. T.; Heryana, Y.; Wimada, A. R.; Karuana, F.; Raksodewanto, AA; Kismanto, A.

    2018-04-01

    As the world’s biggest producer of palm oil, 109 million tons of palm frond and 46 million tons of empty fruit bunch (EFB) were produced annually in Indonesia. These two kinds of palm biomass were still in low-application and could be potentially used as future energy resources such as biofuel. One of the promising methods to convert palm frond and EFB into biofuel, as a dense and easy to transport material, is fast pyrolysis. Before pyrolysis, biomass feedstock was characterized their component and elemental compositions, moisture content and higher heating value (HHV). Fast pyrolysis processes were conducted at a temperature of 350˚C using thermal oil heater as a heat carrier. The gas phase from pyrolysis was condensed and produced a dark color and water soluble liquid called bio-oil. As GC-MS data shows, the bio-oil from both feed stocks was dominated by acetic acid, furans, phenols, aldehydes, and ketones. The HHV was reported 12.19 and 26.49 MJ/kg, while water content was 41.91 and 11.54 wt% for bio-oil from palm frond and EFB, respectively. The high content of lignin in EFB effects to the low content of water, high content of phenolic compound, and high calorific value in the bio-oil from EFB.

  10. Genetic determinism of oil acidity among some DELI oil palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic determinism of oil acidity among some DELI oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) progenies. Benoit Constant Likeng-Li-Ngue, Joseph Martin Bell, Georges Franck Ngando-Ebongue, Godswill Ntsefong Ntsomboh, Hermine Bille Ngalle ...

  11. Relationships among rat numbers, abundance of oil palm fruit and damage levels to fruit in an oil palm plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puan, Chong Leong; Goldizen, Anne W; Zakaria, Mohamed; Hafidzi, Mohd N; Baxter, Greg S

    2011-06-01

    The relationships between vertebrate pests and crop damage are often complex and difficult to study. In palm oil plantations rodents remain the major pests, causing substantial monetary losses. The present study examined the numerical and functional responses of rodents to changes in the availability of oil palm fruit and the damage associated with that response. For the study, 200 traps were set in pairs on a 10 × 10 trapping grid for 3 consecutive nights in each of 6 study plots at 8-week intervals in a 2569 ha oil palm plantation at Labu, Negeri Sembilan state in Peninsular Malaysia over 14 months. A total of 1292 individual rats were captured over 25 200 trap-nights. Animals were identified, aged, sexed, weighed and measured. An index of the relative abundance of rats was calculated based on trapping success. Damage to infructescences was assessed at each trap point. Regardless of the age of palms, there were positive and significant relationships between the relative abundance of rats and numbers of infructescences. The levels of damage to infructescences were significantly correlated with the relative abundance of rats. A steep increase in damage was observed with an increase in mature infructescences, indicating a feeding preference of rats for mature infructescences. For both males and females of all rat species, there were weak and non-significant correlations between body condition and infructescence numbers. These results indicated that there was a numerical and a functional response by rats to the availability of palm fruit and a resulting increase in depredation of oil palm fruits. The ways in which this information might aid in future pest control are discussed. © 2011 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  12. Palm oil – strategic source of renewable energy in Indonesia and Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Prokurat, Sergiusz

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to answer the question of how the global industry of palm oil is affecting the economies and natural environments of its two main producers – Indonesia and Malaysia. The first section examines the contemporary uses of palm oil in a variety of products and industries. It also sets out to describe the global palm oil market. The second section takes a historical perspective, analysing the origins of palm oil cultivation and trade and its rapid rise to global prominence. The thi...

  13. Testing market efficiency of crude palm oil futures to European participants

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xing

    2009-01-01

    Palm oil is the most consumed and traded vegetable oils in the EU and the world. Increasing non-food uses for vegetable oils in especially feedstock of biofuels in recent years have caused the price volatility to rise in both EU and global market. The most efficient pricing of crude palm oil (CPO) is to found on Bursa Malaysia (BMD), and it provides by far the world’s most liquid palm oil contract. The goal of this study is to investigate CPO futures market efficiency of BMD for the European ...

  14. Palm oil fresh fruit bunch ripeness grading identification using color ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research investigates the ripeness grading identification of the palm oil FFB using color features that are color histogram, color moment and color correlogram. Palm is harvested during the optimum stage of its ripeness since it improves the FFB oil quality and quantity. Harvesting wrong bunches decreases the oil ...

  15. The effect of smelting time and composition of palm kernel shell charcoal reductant toward extractive Pomalaa nickel laterite ore in mini electric arc furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihotang, Iqbal Huda; Supriyatna, Yayat Iman; Ismail, Ika; Sulistijono

    2018-04-01

    Indonesia is a country that is rich in natural resources. Being a third country which has a nickel laterite ore in the world after New Caledonia and Philippines. However, the processing of nickel laterite ore to increase its levels in Indonesia is still lacking. In the processing of nickel laterite ore into metal, it can be processed by pyrometallurgy method that typically use coal as a reductant. However, coal is a non-renewable energy and have high enough levels of pollution. One potentially replace is the biomass, that is a renewable energy. Palm kernel shell are biomass that can be used as a reductant because it has a fairly high fix carbon content. This research aims to make nickel laterite ores become metal using palm kernel shell charcoal as reductant in mini electric arc furnace. The result show that the best smelting time of this research is 60 minutes with the best composition of the reductant is 2,000 gram.

  16. Financial assessment of oil palm cultivation on peatland in Selangor, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Noormahayu

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm plantations on peat soils are generally believed to have greater environmental impacts than those on other soil types. Nonetheless, Malaysia operates substantial incentives to maximise palm oil production, which in practice encourage the establishment of plantations on peatland. This paper explores the social and economic basis of oil palm cultivation on one peatland estate at Sungai Panjang in the state of Selangor, peninsular Malaysia. Data were obtained by conducting a questionnaire survey of 200 farmers who cultivate oil palm on peat soil. Some of the data were cross-tabulated against farmers’ ages in order to identify any age-related trends in education level, the area of land farmed, annual income and knowledge about oil palm cultivation. The Cobb-Douglas production function was used to model the financial output from oil palm in terms of the costs of chemical inputs and labour. The results indicated that cultivation of this crop gives decreasing returns to scale on peatland in Sungai Panjang, and that chemical inputs are more important than labour cost in determining the level of financial output. Finally, the financial viability of oil palm cultivation for farmers was assessed by calculating three financial indicators (NPV, BCR and IRR. This can be a profitable investment so long as growth conditions, costs, selling price and interest rate do not fluctuate substantially. Greater annual returns can be achieved over 20–25 years than over shorter periods, especially of less than 10 years.

  17. An analysis of price and volatility transmission in butter, palm oil and crude oil markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Bergmann

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent changes to the common agricultural policy (CAP saw a shift to greater market orientation for the EU dairy industry. Given this reorientation, the volatility of EU dairy commodity prices has sharply increased, creating the need to develop proper risk management tools to protect farmers’ income and to ensure stable prices for processors and consumers. In addition, there is a perceived threat that these commodities may be replaced by cheaper substitutes, such as palm oil, as dairy commodity prices become more volatile. Global production of palm oil almost doubled over the last decade while butter production remained relatively flat. Palm oil also serves as a feedstock for biodiesel production, thus establishing a new link between agricultural commodities and crude oil. Price and volatility transmission effects between EU and World butter prices, as well as between butter, palm oil and crude oil prices, before and after the Luxembourg agreement, are analysed. Vector autoregression (VAR models are applied to capture price transmission effects between these markets. These are combined with a multivariate GARCH model to account for potential volatility transmission. Results indicate strong price and volatility transmission effects between EU and World butter prices. EU butter shocks further spillover to palm oil volatility. In addition, there is evidence that oil prices spillover to World butter prices and World butter volatility.

  18. Effect of unground oil palm ash as mixing ingredient towards properties of concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, M. A.; Muthusamy, K.; Mat Aris, S.; Rasid, M. H. Mohd; Paramasivam, R.; Othman, R.

    2018-04-01

    Malaysia being one of the world largest palm oil producers generates palm oil fuel ash (POFA), a by-product in increasing quantity. This material which usually disposed as solid waste causes pollution to the environment. Success in converting this waste material into benefitting product would reduce amount of waste disposed and contributes towards cleaner environment. This research explores the potential of unground oil palm ash being used as partial sand replacement in normal concrete production. Experimental work has been conducted to determine the workability, compressive strength and flexural strength of concrete when unground oil palm ash is added as partial sand replacement. A total of five mixes containing various percentage of oil palm ash, which are 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% have been prepared. All specimens were water cured until the testing date. The slump test, compressive strength test and flexural strength test was conducted. The findings show that mix produced using 10% of palm oil fuel ash exhibit higher compressive strength and flexural strength as compared to control specimen. Utilization of unground oil palm ash as partial sand replacement would be able to reduce dependency of construction industry on natural sand supply and also as one of the solution to reuse palm oil industry waste.

  19. Oil palm monoculture induces drastic erosion of an Amazonian forest mammal fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes-Oliveira, Ana Cristina; Peres, Carlos A; Maués, Paula Cristina R de A; Oliveira, Geovana Linhares; Mineiro, Ivo G B; de Maria, Susanne L Silva; Lima, Renata C S

    2017-01-01

    Oil palm monoculture comprises one of the most financially attractive land-use options in tropical forests, but cropland suitability overlaps the distribution of many highly threatened vertebrate species. We investigated how forest mammals respond to a landscape mosaic, including mature oil palm plantations and primary forest patches in Eastern Amazonia. Using both line-transect censuses (LTC) and camera-trapping (CT), we quantified the general patterns of mammal community structure and attempted to identify both species life-history traits and the environmental and spatial covariates that govern species intolerance to oil palm monoculture. Considering mammal species richness, abundance, and species composition, oil palm plantations were consistently depauperate compared to the adjacent primary forest, but responses differed between functional groups. The degree of forest habitat dependency was a leading trait, determining compositional dissimilarities across habitats. Considering both the LTC and CT data, distance from the forest-plantation interface had a significant effect on mammal assemblages within each habitat type. Approximately 87% of all species detected within oil palm were never farther than 1300 m from the forest edge. Our study clearly reinforces the notion that conventional oil palm plantations are extremely hostile to native tropical forest biodiversity, which does not bode well given prospects for oil palm expansion in both aging and new Amazonian deforestation frontiers.

  20. Treatment and Valorization of Palm Oil Mill Effluent through Production of Food Grade Yeast Biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Joy O. Iwuagwu; J. Obeta Ugwuanyi

    2014-01-01

    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is high strength wastewater derived from processing of palm fruit. It is generated in large quantities in all oil palm producing nations where it is a strong pollutant amenable to microbial degradation being rich in organic carbon, nitrogen, and minerals. Valorization and treatment of POME with seven yeast isolates was studied under scalable conditions by using POME to produce value-added yeast biomass. POME was used as sole source of carbon and nitrogen and the ...

  1. Soil burial biodegradation studies of palm oil-based UV-curable films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajau, Rida; Salleh, Mek Zah; Salleh, Nik Ghazali Nik; Abdurahman, Mohamad Norahiman; Salih, Ashraf Mohammed; Fathy, Siti Farhana; Azman, Anis Asmi; Hamidi, Nur Amira

    2016-01-01

    The palm oil-based ultraviolet (uv)-curable films were subjected to an outdoor soil burial test to investigate the biodegradation under natural environment. The films were burial in the soil experiment plot at the Nuclear Malaysia's Dengkil complex. The uv-curable films were synthesized from the epoxidized palm oil acrylated (EPOLA) resin and the polyurethane palm oil (POBUA) resin, respectively. Biodegradation tests are more specific to burial film in soil experiments for 12 months under natural conditions. The biodegradability of palm oil resin based uv-curable films were investigated and compared with the petrochemical resin based film. The films properties were compared with respect to properties of the thermal characteristic, the crystallinity, the morphology and the weight loss which are analyzed using the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the scanning electron microscope (SEM), an optical microscope and the weight loss of film calculation. These findings suggested that the palm oil-based uv-curable films show quite satisfactory biodegradation levels.

  2. Soil burial biodegradation studies of palm oil-based UV-curable films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajau, Rida; Salleh, Mek Zah; Salleh, Nik Ghazali Nik; Abdurahman, Mohamad Norahiman; Salih, Ashraf Mohammed; Fathy, Siti Farhana; Azman, Anis Asmi; Hamidi, Nur Amira

    2016-01-01

    The palm oil-based ultraviolet (uv)-curable films were subjected to an outdoor soil burial test to investigate the biodegradation under natural environment. The films were burial in the soil experiment plot at the Nuclear Malaysia’s Dengkil complex. The uv-curable films were synthesized from the epoxidized palm oil acrylated (EPOLA) resin and the polyurethane palm oil (POBUA) resin, respectively. Biodegradation tests are more specific to burial film in soil experiments for 12 months under natural conditions. The biodegradability of palm oil resin based uv-curable films were investigated and compared with the petrochemical resin based film. The films properties were compared with respect to properties of the thermal characteristic, the crystallinity, the morphology and the weight loss which are analyzed using the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the scanning electron microscope (SEM), an optical microscope and the weight loss of film calculation. These findings suggested that the palm oil-based uv-curable films show quite satisfactory biodegradation levels

  3. Soil burial biodegradation studies of palm oil-based UV-curable films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajau, Rida, E-mail: rida@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Salleh, Mek Zah, E-mail: mekzah@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Salleh, Nik Ghazali Nik, E-mail: nik-ghazali@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Abdurahman, Mohamad Norahiman, E-mail: iman5031@yahoo.com [Division of Radiation Processing Technology, Malaysia Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Salih, Ashraf Mohammed, E-mail: ashraf.msalih@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Processing, Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, Khartoum, 1111 Sudan (Sudan); Fathy, Siti Farhana, E-mail: farhana811@hotmail.com [Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience (IBS), Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Azman, Anis Asmi, E-mail: anisasmi18@gmail.com; Hamidi, Nur Amira, E-mail: amirahamidi93@yahoo.com [School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), 11800 USM, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    The palm oil-based ultraviolet (uv)-curable films were subjected to an outdoor soil burial test to investigate the biodegradation under natural environment. The films were burial in the soil experiment plot at the Nuclear Malaysia’s Dengkil complex. The uv-curable films were synthesized from the epoxidized palm oil acrylated (EPOLA) resin and the polyurethane palm oil (POBUA) resin, respectively. Biodegradation tests are more specific to burial film in soil experiments for 12 months under natural conditions. The biodegradability of palm oil resin based uv-curable films were investigated and compared with the petrochemical resin based film. The films properties were compared with respect to properties of the thermal characteristic, the crystallinity, the morphology and the weight loss which are analyzed using the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the scanning electron microscope (SEM), an optical microscope and the weight loss of film calculation. These findings suggested that the palm oil-based uv-curable films show quite satisfactory biodegradation levels.

  4. Economic assessment of oil palm projects in Nigeria. | Nwawe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, this study was designed to economically assess oil palm projects in Nigeria. Secondary data used for this study were collected from Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research (NIFOR) and related journals. The data collected were analyzed using discounted cash flow techniques. The result shows that at 32% interest ...

  5. Characteristics of small-scale palm oil production enterprise in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined characteristics of small-scale palm oil production enterprise in Anambra State, Nigeria. All the palm oil producers in Anambra State formed the population of the study. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 120 respondents for the study. Data were collected from primary source through ...

  6. Molecular performance of commercial MTG variety oil palm based on RAPD markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, L. A. P.; Setyo, I. E.; Basyuni, M.; Bayu, E. S.; Setiado, H.; Reynaldi, N. F.; Laia, H.; Puteri, S. A. K.; Arifiyanto, D.; Syahputra, I.

    2018-02-01

    The oil palm, an economically important tree in Indonesia, has been one of the world’s major sources of edible oil and a significant precursor of biodiesel fuel. This research is conducted by taking individual tree sample of commercial MTG variety germplasm oil palm one years old. The purpose of this research is to analyse molecular performance of some oil palm MTG variety based on RAPD markers. In this experiment, the DNA profile diversity was assessed using markers of oil palm’s random RAPD markers (OPD-20, SB-19, OPM-01 and OPO-11). A total of 15 trees commercial MTG oil palm variety were used for analysis. The results of the experiment indicated out of 4 RAPD markers (OPD-20, SB-19, OPM-01 and OPO-11) showed polymorphic of PCR product. These preliminary results demonstrated RAPD marker can be used to evaluate genetic relatedness among trees of commercial MTG variety oil palm and detecting either genetic variants or mislabelled.

  7. The potential of the Malaysian oil palm biomass as a renewable energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loh, Soh Kheang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An energy resource data for oil palm biomass is generated. • The data encompasses crucial fuel and physicochemical characteristics. • These characteristics guide on biomass behaviors and technology selection. • Oil palm biomass is advantageous in today’s energy competitive markets. • Overall, it is a green alternative for biorefinery establishment. - Abstract: The scarcity of conventional energy such as fossil fuels (which will lead to eventual depletion) and the ever-increasing demand for new energy sources have resulted in the world moving into an era of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency. The Malaysian oil palm industry has been one of the largest contributor of lignocellulosic biomass, with more than 90% of the country’s total biomass deriving from 5.4 million ha of oil palms. Recent concerns on accelerating replanting activity, improving oil extraction rate, expanding mill capacity, etc. are expected to further increase the total oil palm biomass availability in Malaysia. This situation has presented a huge opportunity for the utilization of oil palm biomass in various applications including RE. This paper characterizes the various forms of oil palm biomass for their important fuel and other physicochemical properties, and assesses this resource data in totality – concerning energy potential, the related biomass conversion technologies and possible combustion-related problems. Overall, oil palm biomass possesses huge potential as one of the largest alternative energy sources for commercial exploitation.

  8. Upgrading of oil palm wastes by radiation processing - project review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahrul Khair Alang Md Rashid

    1998-01-01

    Early works on oil palm waste treatment at MINT started in 1984 with the objective of degrading EFB (Empty Fruit Bunches) by radiation. This idea was shared by JAERI that adopted the research project with MINT in 1986 under the Japanese Science and Technology Agency (STA) programme. The results of these preliminary works show that EFB can be degraded using gamma radiation at a dose of ranging from 500 to 1000 kGy - 50 to 100 times higher than what is considered to be the economic dose. It is generally accepted that the economics of radiation treatment process could only be realised if the treatment dose can be kept below 10 kGy, which was incidentally, during the course of this early works, found to be the pasteurisation dose for oil palm by - products. With these information, MINT and JAERI agreed to pursue further research in this area and formulated a bilateral research co-operation in radiation pasteurisation of EFB and subsequent degradation by cellulolytic fungi or mushrooms. The research has the objective of upgrading EFB, which was not considered as suitable for feed due to its known physical properties as coarse and highly fibrous, to animal feed as well as substrate for mushroom cultivation and enzyme production. In addition to the desire to provide an environment friendly method for waste disposal to a growing industry, the possibility of catalysing the development of livestock industry by commercial farming in the process is another motivation for this project. Malaysia is estimated to be only about 40% self-sufficient in beef production. Thus there is great opportunity for the growth and expansion of this industry in Malaysia. However, growth in ruminant population should not result in the alienation of land for pastures. Among the reasons for the lack of interest in livestock production through commercial farming is the unavailability of local feed material which could be cheaper than imported feed grains, particularly maize. Feed is one the main cost

  9. Upgrading of oil palm wastes by radiation processing - project review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alang Md Rashid, Nahrul Khair [Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Bangi (Malaysia)

    1998-07-01

    Early works on oil palm waste treatment at MINT started in 1984 with the objective of degrading EFB (Empty Fruit Bunches) by radiation. This idea was shared by JAERI that adopted the research project with MINT in 1986 under the Japanese Science and Technology Agency (STA) programme. The results of these preliminary works show that EFB can be degraded using gamma radiation at a dose of ranging from 500 to 1000 kGy - 50 to 100 times higher than what is considered to be the economic dose. It is generally accepted that the economics of radiation treatment process could only be realised if the treatment dose can be kept below 10 kGy, which was incidentally, during the course of this early works, found to be the pasteurisationdose for oil palm by - products. With these information, MINT and JAERI agreed to pursue further research in this area and formulated a bilateral research co-operation in radiation pasteurisation of EFB and subsequent degradation by cellulolytic fungi or mushrooms. The research has the objective of upgrading EFB, which was not considered as suitable for feed due to its known physical properties as coarse and highly fibrous, to animal feed as well as substrate for mushroom cultivation and enzyme production. In addition to the desire to provide an environment friendly method for waste disposal to a growing industry, the possibility of catalysing the development of livestock industry by commercial farming in the process is another motivation for this project. Malaysia is estimated to be only about 40% self-sufficient in beef production. Thus there is great opportunity for the growth and expansion of this industry in Malaysia. However, growth in ruminant population should not result in the alienation of land for pastures. Among the reasons for the lack of interest in livestock production through commercial farming is the unavailability of local feed material which could be cheaper than imported feed grains, particularly maize. Feed is one the main cost

  10. Steam gasification of oil palm trunk waste for clean syngas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nipattummakul, Nimit; Ahmed, Islam I.; Kerdsuwan, Somrat; Gupta, Ashwani K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Initial high values of syngas flow rate are attributed to rapid devolatilization. ► Over 50% of syngas generated was obtained during the first five minutes of the process. ► Increase in steam flow rate resulted in reduced gasification time. ► Variation in steam flow rate slightly affected the apparent thermal efficiency. ► Oil palm yielded more energy than that from mangrove wood, paper and food waste. -- Abstract: Waste and agricultural residues offer significant potential for harvesting chemical energy with simultaneous reduction of environmental pollution, providing carbon neutral (or even carbon negative) sustained energy production, energy security and alleviating social concerns associated with the wastes. Steam gasification is now recognized as one of the most efficient approaches for waste to clean energy conversion. Syngas generated during the gasification process can be utilized for electric power generation, heat generation and for other industrial and domestic uses. In this paper results obtained from the steam assisted gasification of oil palm trunk waste are presented. A batch type gasifier has been used to examine the syngas characteristics from gasification of palm trunk waste using steam as the gasifying agent. Reactor temperature was fixed at 800 °C. Results show initial high values of syngas flow rate, which is attributed to rapid devolatilization of the sample. Approximately over 50% of the total syngas generated was obtained during the first five minutes of the process. An increase in steam flow rate accelerated the gasification reactions and resulted in reduced gasification time. The effect of steam flow rate on the apparent thermal efficiency has also been investigated. Variation in steam flow rate slightly affected the apparent thermal efficiency and was found to be very high. Properties of the syngas obtained from the gasification of oil palm trunk waste have been compared to other samples under similar operating

  11. Analysis of quality of the biogasoils of palm oil and castor oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjumea, Pedro Nel; Agudelo, Jhon Ramiro; Benavides, Alirio Yovany

    2004-01-01

    Biodiesel is a fuel made from raw materials of renewable origin such as vegetable oils. The objective of this work is to make a quality analysis of two types of biodiesel made from raw materials available in Colombia such as palm oil and castor oil. Biodiesel from palm oil complies with the majority of technical requirements specified by ASTM standards D-975 y D-6751. A high cloud point is the main drawback of this kind of biodiesel. This is a consequence of its highly saturated chemical nature. On the other hand, biodiesel from castor oil presents more difficulties in order to be used in diesel engines because of having a low cetane index and a high viscosity

  12. An overview of empty fruit bunch from oil palm as feedstock for bio-oil production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Siu Hua

    2014-01-01

    Empty fruit bunch (EFB) from oil palm is one of the potential biomass to produce biofuels like bio-oil due to its abundant supply and favorable physicochemical characteristics. Confirming the assertion, this paper presents an overview of EFB as a feedstock for bio-oil production. The fundamental characteristics of EFB in terms of proximate analysis, ultimate analysis and chemical composition, as well as the recent advances in EFB conversion processes for bio-oil production like pyrolysis and solvolysis are outlined and discussed. A comparison of properties in terms of proximate analysis, ultimate analysis and fuel properties between the bio-oil from EFB and petroleum fuel oil is included. The major challenges and future prospects towards the utilization of EFB as a useful resource for bio-oil production are also addressed. - Highlights: • Palm EFB has high heating value and low greenhouse gas emissions during combustion. • Conversion of EFB to bio-oil is mainly by fast pyrolysis without and with catalyst. • Bio-oil from EFB is lower in heating value, heavier and more acidic than fuel oil. • The viscosity of bio-oil from EFB is between those of light and heavy fuel oils. • The flash and pour points of bio-oil from EFB are close to those of light fuel oil

  13. Palm oil based polymer materials obtained by ROMP: study by low field NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Henrique; Azevedo, Eduardo R. de; Lima-Neto, Benedito S.

    2015-01-01

    Aiming to study and develop new materials synthesized from sustainable sources, several polymers were prepared using in its monomeric composition, different amounts of NPO (Norbornenyl Palm Oil) monomer. This monomer was developed based on a vegetable oil rather produced in northern Brazil, the Palm Oil. Since this oil have a low content of unsaturation, its use in developing new monomer for ROMP (Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization) is not exploited. In this regard, polymeric materials were obtained using the NOP and both the reaction process and the resulting products were analyzed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in the time domain (TD-NMR) at low magnetic field. (author)

  14. Climate Change Adaptation Needs of Male and Female Oil Palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2008 and Ayodele, 2010) and also results in an increase in demand for palm oil. The demand .... climate change adaptation practice needs of oil palm entrepreneurs in Edo State, .... female respondents had one form of education or the other.

  15. Effect of oil palm sustainability certification on deforestation and fire in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kimberly M; Heilmayr, Robert; Gibbs, Holly K; Noojipady, Praveen; Burns, David N; Morton, Douglas C; Walker, Nathalie F; Paoli, Gary D; Kremen, Claire

    2018-01-02

    Many major corporations and countries have made commitments to purchase or produce only "sustainable" palm oil, a commodity responsible for substantial tropical forest loss. Sustainability certification is the tool most used to fulfill these procurement policies, and around 20% of global palm oil production was certified by the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) in 2017. However, the effect of certification on deforestation in oil palm plantations remains unclear. Here, we use a comprehensive dataset of RSPO-certified and noncertified oil palm plantations (∼188,000 km 2 ) in Indonesia, the leading producer of palm oil, as well as annual remotely sensed metrics of tree cover loss and fire occurrence, to evaluate the impact of certification on deforestation and fire from 2001 to 2015. While forest loss and fire continued after RSPO certification, certified palm oil was associated with reduced deforestation. Certification lowered deforestation by 33% from a counterfactual of 9.8 to 6.6% y -1 Nevertheless, most plantations contained little residual forest when they received certification. As a result, by 2015, certified areas held less than 1% of forests remaining within Indonesian oil palm plantations. Moreover, certification had no causal impact on forest loss in peatlands or active fire detection rates. Broader adoption of certification in forested regions, strict requirements to avoid all peat, and routine monitoring of clearly defined forest cover loss in certified and RSPO member-held plantations appear necessary if the RSPO is to yield conservation and climate benefits from reductions in tropical deforestation. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  16. Effect of oil palm sustainability certification on deforestation and fire in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Holly K.; Noojipady, Praveen; Burns, David N.; Morton, Douglas C.; Walker, Nathalie F.; Paoli, Gary D.; Kremen, Claire

    2018-01-01

    Many major corporations and countries have made commitments to purchase or produce only “sustainable” palm oil, a commodity responsible for substantial tropical forest loss. Sustainability certification is the tool most used to fulfill these procurement policies, and around 20% of global palm oil production was certified by the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) in 2017. However, the effect of certification on deforestation in oil palm plantations remains unclear. Here, we use a comprehensive dataset of RSPO-certified and noncertified oil palm plantations (∼188,000 km2) in Indonesia, the leading producer of palm oil, as well as annual remotely sensed metrics of tree cover loss and fire occurrence, to evaluate the impact of certification on deforestation and fire from 2001 to 2015. While forest loss and fire continued after RSPO certification, certified palm oil was associated with reduced deforestation. Certification lowered deforestation by 33% from a counterfactual of 9.8 to 6.6% y−1. Nevertheless, most plantations contained little residual forest when they received certification. As a result, by 2015, certified areas held less than 1% of forests remaining within Indonesian oil palm plantations. Moreover, certification had no causal impact on forest loss in peatlands or active fire detection rates. Broader adoption of certification in forested regions, strict requirements to avoid all peat, and routine monitoring of clearly defined forest cover loss in certified and RSPO member-held plantations appear necessary if the RSPO is to yield conservation and climate benefits from reductions in tropical deforestation. PMID:29229857

  17. separation of oil palm kernel and shell mixture using soil and palm

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    shape and size of the nuts and a good industrial raw material [3]. ... Large-scale mills have automated hydro-cyclone machines with high separation efficiency, however, clay-baths and hydro cyclones are known for their high energy and water consumption .... A mixture of kernel/shell weighing 20kg were poured into pot 1 ...

  18. Application of lidar and optical data for oil palm plantation management in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafri, Helmi Z. M.; Ismail, Mohd Hasmadi; Razi, Mohd Khairil M.; Anuar, Mohd Izzuddin; Ahmad, Abdul Rahman

    2012-11-01

    Proper oil palm plantation management is crucial for Malaysia as the country depends heavily on palm oil as a major source of national income. Precision agriculture is considered as one of the approaches that can be adopted to improve plantation practices for plantation managers such as the government-owned FELDA. However, currently the implementation of precision agriculture based on remote sensing and GIS is still lacking. This study explores the potential of the use of LiDAR and optical remote sensing data for plantation road and terrain planning for planting purposes. Traditional approaches use land surveying techniques that are time consuming and costly for vast plantation areas. The first ever airborne LiDAR and multispectral survey for oil palm plantation was carried out in early 2012 to test its feasibility. Preliminary results show the efficiency of such technology in demanding engineering and agricultural requirements of oil palm plantation. The most significant advantage of the approach is that it allows plantation managers to accurately plan the plantation road and determine the planting positions of new oil palm seedlings. Furthermore, this creates for the first time, digital database of oil palm estate and the airborne imagery can also be used for related activities such as oil palm tree inventory and detection of palm diseases. This work serves as the pioneer towards a more frequent application of LiDAR and multispectral data for oil palm plantation in Malaysia.

  19. Characterizing commercial oil palm expansion in Latin America: land use change and trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furumo, Paul Richard; Aide, T. Mitchell

    2017-02-01

    Commodity crop expansion has increased with the globalization of production systems and consumer demand, linking distant socio-ecological systems. Oil palm plantations are expanding in the tropics to satisfy growing oilseed and biofuel markets, and much of this expansion has caused extensive deforestation, especially in Asia. In Latin America, palm oil output has doubled since 2001, and the majority of expansion seems to be occurring on non-forested lands. We used MODIS satellite imagery (250 m resolution) to map current oil palm plantations in Latin America and determined prior land use and land cover (LULC) using high-resolution images in Google Earth. In addition, we compiled trade data to determine where Latin American palm oil flows, in order to better understand the underlying drivers of expansion in the region. Based on a sample of 342 032 ha of oil palm plantations across Latin America, we found that 79% replaced previously intervened lands (e.g. pastures, croplands, bananas), primarily cattle pastures (56%). The remaining 21% came from areas that were classified as woody vegetation (e.g. forests), most notably in the Amazon and the Petén region in northern Guatemala. Latin America is a net exporter of palm oil but the majority of palm oil exports (70%) stayed within the region, with Mexico importing about half. Growth of the oil palm sector may be driven by global factors, but environmental and economic outcomes vary between regions (i.e. Asia and Latin America), within regions (i.e. Colombia and Peru), and within single countries (i.e. Guatemala), suggesting that local conditions are influential. The present trend of oil palm expanding onto previously cleared lands, guided by roundtable certifications programs, provides an opportunity for more sustainable development of the oil palm sector in Latin America.

  20. Study on Fired Clay Bricks by Replacing Clay with Palm Oil Waste: Effects on Physical and Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, A. A.; Sarani, N. A.; Abdullah, M. M. A. B.; Perju, M. C.; Sandu, A. V.

    2017-06-01

    Palm oil is one of the major agricultural industries in Malaysia. Due to the poor management system, the discarded palm oil waste has always been linked to the environment issues. During processing of palm oil, a considerable amount of solid waste by-products in the form of fibres, shells, empty fruit bunches and fly ashes are produce rapidly. Therefore, this study was conducted to incorporate 1%, 5% and 10% of palm oil waste into fired clay brick. Samples of brick were fired at 1050°C temperature with heating rates of 1°C/min. Manufactured bricks were tested with physical and mechanical properties including firing shrinkage, dry density, water absorption and compressive strength. The results demonstrated that the replacement of 1% up to 5% of palm oil waste had improved several properties, although, a decrease of performance in certain aspects has also been observed. As a result, palm oil waste can be utilized in an environmentally safe way into fired clay brick thus providing adequate properties of fired clay brick.

  1. Mitigating the impact of oil-palm monoculture on freshwater fishes in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giam, Xingli; Hadiaty, Renny K; Tan, Heok Hui; Parenti, Lynne R; Wowor, Daisy; Sauri, Sopian; Chong, Kwek Yan; Yeo, Darren C J; Wilcove, David S

    2015-10-01

    Anthropogenic land-cover change is driving biodiversity loss worldwide. At the epicenter of this crisis lies Southeast Asia, where biodiversity-rich forests are being converted to oil-palm monocultures. As demand for palm oil increases, there is an urgent need to find strategies that maintain biodiversity in plantations. Previous studies found that retaining forest patches within plantations benefited some terrestrial taxa but not others. However, no study has focused on aquatic taxa such as fishes, despite their importance to human well-being. We assessed the efficacy of forested riparian reserves in conserving freshwater fish biodiversity in oil-palm monoculture by sampling stream fish communities in an oil-palm plantation in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Forested riparian reserves maintained preconversion local fish species richness and functional diversity. In contrast, local and total species richness, biomass, and functional diversity declined markedly in streams without riparian reserves. Mechanistically, riparian reserves appeared to increase local species richness by increasing leaf litter cover and maintaining coarse substrate. The loss of fishes specializing in leaf litter and coarse substrate decreased functional diversity and altered community composition in oil-palm plantation streams that lacked riparian reserves. Thus, a land-sharing strategy that incorporates the retention of forested riparian reserves may maintain the ecological integrity of fish communities in oil-palm plantations. We urge policy makers and growers to make retention of riparian reserves in oil-palm plantations standard practice, and we encourage palm-oil purchasers to source only palm oil from plantations that employ this practice. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  2. The effects of the interaction of various oil types and rates on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lentinus squarrosulus and Psathyrella atroumbonata, two edible indigenous mushroom species, were cultured in various different media supplemented with coconut, cotton, groundnut, butterfat, palm kernel and palm oil respectively, at 5 different rates. The interaction of the various oil types with different rates produced ...

  3. A MODEL FOR THE PALM OIL MARKET IN NIGERIA: AN ECONOMETRICS APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Egwuma

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to formulate and estimate a model for the palm oil market in Nigeria with a view to identifying principal factors that shape the Nigerian palm oil industry. Four structural equation models comprising palm oil production, import demand, domestic demand and producer price have been estimated using the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL cointegration approach over the 1970 to 2011 period. The results reveal that significant factors that influence the Nigerian palm oil industry include the own price, technological improvements, and income level. Government expenditure on agricultural development is also an important determinant, which underscores the need for government support in agriculture. Our model provides a useful framework for analyzing the effects of changes in major exogenous variables such as income or import tariff on the production, demand, and price of palm oil.

  4. Efficient Transformation of Oil Palm Protoplasts by PEG-Mediated Transfection and DNA Microinjection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masani, Mat Yunus Abdul; Noll, Gundula A.; Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Prüfer, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Background Genetic engineering remains a major challenge in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) because particle bombardment and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation are laborious and/or inefficient in this species, often producing chimeric plants and escapes. Protoplasts are beneficial as a starting material for genetic engineering because they are totipotent, and chimeras are avoided by regenerating transgenic plants from single cells. Novel approaches for the transformation of oil palm protoplasts could therefore offer a new and efficient strategy for the development of transgenic oil palm plants. Methodology/Principal Findings We recently achieved the regeneration of healthy and fertile oil palms from protoplasts. Therefore, we focused on the development of a reliable PEG-mediated transformation protocol for oil palm protoplasts by establishing and validating optimal heat shock conditions, concentrations of DNA, PEG and magnesium chloride, and the transfection procedure. We also investigated the transformation of oil palm protoplasts by DNA microinjection and successfully regenerated transgenic microcalli expressing green fluorescent protein as a visible marker to determine the efficiency of transformation. Conclusions/Significance We have established the first successful protocols for the transformation of oil palm protoplasts by PEG-mediated transfection and DNA microinjection. These novel protocols allow the rapid and efficient generation of non-chimeric transgenic callus and represent a significant milestone in the use of protoplasts as a starting material for the development of genetically-engineered oil palm plants. PMID:24821306

  5. Study on the Spectrophotometric Detection of Free Fatty Acids in Palm Oil Utilizing Enzymatic Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Hidayah Azeman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a comprehensive study has been made on the detection of free fatty acids (FFAs in palm oil via an optical technique based on enzymatic aminolysis reactions. FFAs in crude palm oil (CPO were converted into fatty hydroxamic acids (FHAs in a biphasic lipid/aqueous medium in the presence of immobilized lipase. The colored compound formed after complexation between FHA and vanadium (V ion solution was proportional to the FFA content in the CPO samples and was analyzed using a spectrophotometric method. In order to develop a rapid detection system, the parameters involved in the aminolysis process were studied. The utilization of immobilized lipase as catalyst during the aminolysis process offers simplicity in the product isolation and the possibility of conducting the process under extreme reaction conditions. A good agreement was found between the developed method using immobilized Thermomyces lanuginose lipase as catalyst for the aminolysis process and the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB standard titration method (R2 = 0.9453.

  6. Carbon Mobilization in Oil Palm Plantation and Milling Based on a Carbon-Balanced Model – A Case Study in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Withida Patthanaissaranukool; Chongchin Polprasert

    2011-01-01

    Damage to agricultural areas and household properties occurs more frequently all year round from extreme weather, which is believed to be due to climate change caused by the increase of greenhouse gases – particularly, CO2. In order to help reduce its concentration in the atmosphere, palm oil is a renewable energy which can be used for this purpose. In this study, the carbon mobilization of palm oil was investigated, from oil palm plantation process to the milling process, so as to determine ...

  7. Compressive and flexural strength of concrete containing palm oil biomass clinker and polypropylene fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, M. H. Wan; Mangi, Sajjad Ali; Burhanudin, M. K.; Ridzuan, M. B.; Jamaluddin, N.; Shahidan, S.; Wong, YH; Faisal, SK; Fadzil, M. A.; Ramadhansyah, P. J.; Ayop, S. S.; Othman, N. H.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents the effects of using palm oil biomass (POB) clinker with polypropylene (PP) fibres in concrete on its compressive and flexural strength performances. Due to infrastructural development works, the use of concrete in the construction industry has been increased. Simultaneously, it raises the demand natural sand, which causes depletion of natural resources. While considering the environmental and economic benefits, the utilization of industrial waste by-products in concrete will be the alternative solution of the problem. Among the waste products, one of such waste by-product is the palm oil biomass clinker, which is a waste product from burning processes of palm oil fibres. Therefore, it is important to utilize palm oil biomass clinker as partial replacement of fine aggregates in concrete. Considering the facts, an experimental study was conducted to find out the potential usage of palm oil fibres in concrete. In this study, total 48 number of specimens were cast to evaluate the compressive and flexural strength performances. Polypropylene fibre was added in concrete at the rate of 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.6%, and sand was replaced at a constant rate of 10% with palm oil biomass clinker. The flexural strength of concrete was noticed in the range of 2.25 MPa and 2.29 MPa, whereas, the higher value of flexural strength was recorded with 0.4% polypropylene fibre addition. Hence, these results show that the strength performances of concrete containing POB clinker could be improved with the addition of polypropylene fibre.

  8. Effective utilizations of palm oil mill fly ash for synthetic amorphous silica and carbon zeolite composite synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utama, P. S.; Saputra, E.; Khairat

    2018-04-01

    Palm Oil Mill Fly Ash (POMFA) the solid waste of palm oil industry was used as a raw material for synthetic amorphous silica and carbon zeolite composite synthesis in order to minimize the wastes of palm oil industry. The alkaline extraction combine with the sol-gel precipitation and mechanical fragmentation was applied to produce synthetic amorphous silica. The byproduct, extracted POMFA was rich in carbon and silica content in a significant amount. The microwave heated hydrothermal process used to synthesize carbon zeolite composite from the byproduct. The obtained silica had chemical composition, specific surface area and the micrograph similar to commercial precipitated silica for rubber filler. The microwave heated hydrothermal process has a great potential for synthesizing carbon zeolite composite. The process only needs one-step and shorter time compare to conventional hydrothermal process.

  9. Impact of Interception on Infiltration and Soil Moisture in Dipterocarp Forest and Oil Palm Plantations in Tasik Chini, Pahang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ata, F.M.; Mohd Ekhwan Toriman; Mohd Ekhwan Toriman

    2015-01-01

    In local water balance, the dipterocarp forest and oil palm plantation are two locations which demonstrated different processes in terms of interception, soil moisture and infiltration. To evaluate the process, this study was carried out at Tasik Chini watershed, Pahang, Malaysia for over ten months commencing April 2011 until January 2012. The main idea of this study is to study the characteristics of interception at two variants canopy and effect of interception on the infiltration process. The methodology used involves primary data including stremflow, through fall and soil moisture. 104 samples for stem flow and four samples for palm oil trees, 9 sets of through fall and 7 soil moisture stations were measured at dipterocarp forest and oil palm plantation, respectively the regression analysis was used to analyses the relationship between rate of infiltration and interception with soil moisture and rainfall. The result indicate that total interceptions were registered at 29.7 percent in Plot A, 29.1 percent in Plot B and 41.2 in oil palm plantation. The average for stem flow in the forest area is 8.65 mm per tree compared to 12.7 mm for every oil palm tree. Meanwhile, the average for through fall in oil palm plantation was higher compared to the forest area. This is about 0.49 mm and 0.42 mm respectively. The results of the interception at the Dipterocarp forest and palm areas were affected by physiographic characteristic such as the diameter size and branches of tree. The correlation coefficient between through fall and soil moisture in the oil palm plantation is r"2=0.49, in comparison to through fall and soil moisture in forest area is r"2=0.42. Positive correlation means that the amount of through fall increase than soil moisture will increase also. (author)

  10. Establishing the evidence base for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem function in the oil palm landscapes of South East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, William A.; Snaddon, Jake L.; Turner, Edgar C.; Fayle, Tom M.; Cockerill, Timothy D.; Ellwood, M. D. Farnon; Broad, Gavin R.; Chung, Arthur Y. C.; Eggleton, Paul; Khen, Chey Vun; Yusah, Kalsum M.

    2011-01-01

    The conversion of natural forest to oil palm plantation is a major current threat to the conservation of biodiversity in South East Asia. Most animal taxa decrease in both species richness and abundance on conversion of forest to oil palm, and there is usually a severe loss of forest species. The extent of loss varies significantly across both different taxa and different microhabitats within the oil palm habitat. The principal driver of this loss in diversity is probably the biological and physical simplification of the habitat, but there is little direct evidence for this. The conservation of forest species requires the preservation of large reserves of intact forest, but we must not lose sight of the importance of conserving biodiversity and ecosystem processes within the oil palm habitat itself. We urgently need to carry out research that will establish whether maintaining diversity supports economically and ecologically important processes. There is some evidence that both landscape and local complexity can have positive impacts on biodiversity in the oil palm habitat. By intelligent manipulation of habitat complexity, it could be possible to enhance not only the number of species that can live in oil palm plantations but also their contribution to the healthy functioning of this exceptionally important and widespread landscape. PMID:22006968

  11. Electrochemical Immunosensor for the Detection of Aflatoxin B1 in Palm Kernel Cake and Feed Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Asilah Azri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Palm kernel cake (PKC is the solid residue following oil extraction of palm kernels and useful to fatten animals either as a single feed with only minerals and vitamins supplementation, or mixed with other feedstuffs such as corn kernels or soy beans. The occurrence of mycotoxins (aflatoxins, ochratoxins, zearalenone, and fumonisins in feed samples affects the animal’s health and also serves as a secondary contamination to humans via consumption of eggs, milk and meats. Of these, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is the most toxically potent and a confirmed carcinogen to both humans and animals. Methods such as High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC and Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS are common in the determination of mycotoxins. However, these methods usually require sample pre-treatment, extensive cleanup and skilled operator. Therefore, in the present work, a rapid method of electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of AFB1 was developed based on an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT and chitosan (CS were used as the electrode modifier for signal enhancement. N-ethyl-N′-(3-dimethylaminopropyl-carbodiimide (EDC and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS activated the carboxyl groups at the surface of nanocomposite for the attachment of AFB1-BSA antigen by covalent bonding. An indirect competitive reaction occurred between AFB1-BSA and free AFB1 for the binding site of a fixed amount of anti-AFB1 antibody. A catalytic signal based on horseradish peroxidase (HRP in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB mediator was observed as a result of attachment of the secondary antibody to the immunoassay system. As a result, the reduction peak of TMB(Ox was measured by using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV analysis. Based on the results, the electrochemical surface area was increased from 0.396 cm2 to 1.298 cm2 due to the electrode

  12. Impact analysis of palm oil mill effluent on the aerobic bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2007-01-18

    Jan 18, 2007 ... Key words: Palm oil mill effluent, total aerobic bacteria, ammonium oxidizers. INTRODUCTION ... bacteria help in the degradation of macromolecules from plant and animal .... Anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent.

  13. Experimental Biodiversity Enrichment in Oil-Palm-Dominated Landscapes in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuscher, Miriam; Gérard, Anne; Brose, Ulrich; Buchori, Damayanti; Clough, Yann; Ehbrecht, Martin; Hölscher, Dirk; Irawan, Bambang; Sundawati, Leti; Wollni, Meike; Kreft, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Tropical biodiversity is threatened by the expansion of oil-palm plantations. Reduced-impact farming systems such as agroforests, have been proposed to increase biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. In regions where oil-palm plantations already dominate the landscape, this increase can only be achieved through systematic ecological restoration. However, our knowledge about the underlying ecological and socio-economic processes, constraints, and trade-offs of ecological restoration in oil-palm landscapes is very limited. To bridge this gap, we established a long-term biodiversity enrichment experiment. We established experimental tree islands in a conventional oil-palm plantation and systematically varied plot size, tree diversity, and tree species composition. Here, we describe the rationale and the design of the experiment, the ecosystem variables (soil, topography, canopy openness) and biotic characteristics (associated vegetation, invertebrates, birds) of the experimental site prior to the establishment of the experiment, and initial experimental effects on the fauna. Already one year after establishment of the experiment, tree plantings had an overall positive effect on the bird and invertebrate communities at the plantation scale. The diversity and abundance of invertebrates was positively affected by the size of the tree islands. Based on these results, we expect a further increase of biodiversity and associated ecological functions in the future. The long-term interdisciplinary monitoring of ecosystem variables, flora, fauna, and socio-economic aspects will allow us to evaluate the suitability of tree islands as a restoration measure. Thereof, guidelines for ecologically improved and socio-economically viable restoration and management concepts could be developed.

  14. Experimental Biodiversity Enrichment in Oil-Palm-Dominated Landscapes in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Teuscher

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tropical biodiversity is threatened by the expansion of oil-palm plantations. Reduced-impact farming systems such as agroforests, have been proposed to increase biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. In regions where oil-palm plantations already dominate the landscape, this increase can only be achieved through systematic ecological restoration. However, our knowledge about the underlying ecological and socio-economic processes, constraints, and trade-offs of ecological restoration in oil-palm landscapes is very limited. To bridge this gap, we established EFForTS-BEE, a long-term biodiversity enrichment experiment. We established experimental tree islands in a conventional oil-palm plantation and systematically varied plot size, tree diversity, and tree species composition. Here, we describe the rationale and the design of the experiment, the ecosystem variables (soil, topography, canopy openness and biotic characteristics (associated vegetation, invertebrates, birds of the experimental site prior to the establishment of the experiment, and initial experimental effects on the fauna. Already one year after establishment of the experiment, tree plantings had an overall positive effect on the bird and invertebrate communities at the plantation scale. The diversity and abundance of invertebrates was positively affected by the size of tree islands. Based on these results, we expect a further increase of biodiversity and associated ecological functions in the future. The long-term interdisciplinary monitoring of ecosystem variables, flora, fauna, and socio-economic aspects will allow us to evaluate the suitability of tree islands as a restoration measure. Thereof, guidelines for ecologically improved and socio-economically viable restoration and management concepts could be developed.

  15. Evaluation of Palm Oil as a Suitable Vegetable Oil for Vitamin A Fortification Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignitter, Marc; Hernler, Natalie; Zaunschirm, Mathias; Kienesberger, Julia; Somoza, Mark Manuel; Kraemer, Klaus; Somoza, Veronika

    2016-06-21

    Fortification programs are considered to be an effective strategy to mitigate vitamin A deficiency in populations at risk. Fortified vegetable oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids were shown to be prone to oxidation, leading to limited vitamin A stability. Thus, it was hypothesized that fortified oils consisting of mainly saturated fatty acids might enhance the stability of vitamin A. Mildly (peroxide value: 1.0 meq O₂/kg) and highly (peroxide value: 7.5 meq O₂/kg) oxidized palm oil was stored, after fortification with 60 International Units/g retinyl palmitate, in 0.5 L transparent polyethylene terephthalate bottles under cold fluorescent lighting (12 h/day) at 32 °C for 57 days. An increase of the peroxide value by 15 meq O₂/kg, which was also reflected by a decrease of α-tocopherol congener by 15%-18%, was determined independent of the initial rancidity. The oxidative deterioration of the highly oxidized palm oil during storage was correlated with a significant 46% decline of the vitamin A content. However, household storage of mildly oxidized palm oil for two months did not induce any losses of vitamin A. Thus, mildly oxidized palm oil may be recommended for vitamin A fortification programs, when other sources of essential fatty acids are available.

  16. Case study: Preliminary assessment of integrated palm biomass biorefinery for bioethanol production utilizing non-food sugars from oil palm frond petiole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, Sharifah Soplah Syed; Shirai, Yoshihito; Ali, Ahmad Amiruddin Mohd; Mustapha, Mahfuzah; Hassan, Mohd Ali

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Fermentable sugars production from oil palm frond by integrated technology concept. • Bioethanol production from oil palm frond sugars in a biorefinery. • Palm oil mills have sufficient excess energy and steam to support biorefinery. • The net energy ratio of bioethanol from oil palm frond petiole is 7.48. - Abstract: In this case study, a preliminary assessment on the bioethanol production from oil palm frond (OPF) petiole sugars within an integrated palm biomass biorefinery was carried out. Based on the case study of 4 neighbouring palm oil mills, approximately 55,600 t/y of fermentable sugars could be obtained from OPF petiole. The integrated biorefinery will be located at one of the 4 mills. The mill has potential excess energy comprising 3.64 GW h/y of electricity and 177,000 t/y of steam which are sufficient to run the biorefinery. With 33.9 million litres/y of bioethanol production, the specific production cost of bioethanol is estimated at $ 0.52/l bioethanol, compared to $ 0.31–0.34/l bioethanol produced from sugarcane and $ 0.49–0.60/l bioethanol from other lignocellulosics. The net energy ratio of 7.48 for bioethanol production from OPF provides a promising alternative for OPF utilization as a non-food sugar feedstock.

  17. Systematic review of palm oil consumption and the risk of cardiovascular disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Rasheeqa Ismail

    Full Text Available The high amount of saturated fatty acids (SFA coupled with the rising availability and consumption of palm oil have lead to the assumption that palm oil contributes to the increased prevalence of cardiovascular diseases worldwide. We aimed at systematically synthesising the association of palm oil consumption with cardiovascular disease risk and cardiovascular disease-specific mortality.We systematically searched Central, Medline and Embase databases up to June 2017 without restriction on setting or language. We performed separate searches based on the outcomes: coronary heart disease and stroke, using keywords related to these outcomes and palm oil. We searched for published interventional and observational studies in adults (Age: >18 years old. Two investigators extracted data and a consensus was reached with involvement of a third. Only narrative synthesis was performed for all of the studies, as the data could not be pooled.Our search retrieved 2,738 citations for stroke with one included study and 1,777 citations for coronary heart disease (CHD with four included studies. Palmitic acid was reported to be associated with risk of myocardial infarction (MI (OR 2.76; 95%CI = 1.39-5.47. Total SFA intake was reported to be not significant for risk of MI. Varying intake of fried foods, highest contributor to total SFA with 36% of households using palm oil for frying, showed no significant associations to risk of MI. Odds of developing first non-fatal acute MI was higher in palm oil compared to soybean oil with 5% trans-fat (OR = 1.33; 95%CI = 1.09-1.62 than palm oil compared to soybean oil with 22% trans-fat (OR = 1.16; 95%CI = 0.86-1.56. Nevertheless, these risk estimates were non-significant and imprecise. The trend amongst those taking staple pattern diet (characterised by higher palm oil, red meat and added sugar consumption was inconsistent across the factor score quintiles. During the years of 1980 and 1997, for every additional kilogram of

  18. Systematic review of palm oil consumption and the risk of cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Azizan

    2018-01-01

    Background The high amount of saturated fatty acids (SFA) coupled with the rising availability and consumption of palm oil have lead to the assumption that palm oil contributes to the increased prevalence of cardiovascular diseases worldwide. We aimed at systematically synthesising the association of palm oil consumption with cardiovascular disease risk and cardiovascular disease-specific mortality. Methods We systematically searched Central, Medline and Embase databases up to June 2017 without restriction on setting or language. We performed separate searches based on the outcomes: coronary heart disease and stroke, using keywords related to these outcomes and palm oil. We searched for published interventional and observational studies in adults (Age: >18 years old). Two investigators extracted data and a consensus was reached with involvement of a third. Only narrative synthesis was performed for all of the studies, as the data could not be pooled. Results Our search retrieved 2,738 citations for stroke with one included study and 1,777 citations for coronary heart disease (CHD) with four included studies. Palmitic acid was reported to be associated with risk of myocardial infarction (MI) (OR 2.76; 95%CI = 1.39–5.47). Total SFA intake was reported to be not significant for risk of MI. Varying intake of fried foods, highest contributor to total SFA with 36% of households using palm oil for frying, showed no significant associations to risk of MI. Odds of developing first non-fatal acute MI was higher in palm oil compared to soybean oil with 5% trans-fat (OR = 1.33; 95%CI = 1.09–1.62) than palm oil compared to soybean oil with 22% trans-fat (OR = 1.16; 95%CI = 0.86–1.56). Nevertheless, these risk estimates were non-significant and imprecise. The trend amongst those taking staple pattern diet (characterised by higher palm oil, red meat and added sugar consumption) was inconsistent across the factor score quintiles. During the years of 1980 and 1997, for every

  19. Systematic review of palm oil consumption and the risk of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Sophia Rasheeqa; Maarof, Siti Khuzaimah; Siedar Ali, Syazwani; Ali, Azizan

    2018-01-01

    The high amount of saturated fatty acids (SFA) coupled with the rising availability and consumption of palm oil have lead to the assumption that palm oil contributes to the increased prevalence of cardiovascular diseases worldwide. We aimed at systematically synthesising the association of palm oil consumption with cardiovascular disease risk and cardiovascular disease-specific mortality. We systematically searched Central, Medline and Embase databases up to June 2017 without restriction on setting or language. We performed separate searches based on the outcomes: coronary heart disease and stroke, using keywords related to these outcomes and palm oil. We searched for published interventional and observational studies in adults (Age: >18 years old). Two investigators extracted data and a consensus was reached with involvement of a third. Only narrative synthesis was performed for all of the studies, as the data could not be pooled. Our search retrieved 2,738 citations for stroke with one included study and 1,777 citations for coronary heart disease (CHD) with four included studies. Palmitic acid was reported to be associated with risk of myocardial infarction (MI) (OR 2.76; 95%CI = 1.39-5.47). Total SFA intake was reported to be not significant for risk of MI. Varying intake of fried foods, highest contributor to total SFA with 36% of households using palm oil for frying, showed no significant associations to risk of MI. Odds of developing first non-fatal acute MI was higher in palm oil compared to soybean oil with 5% trans-fat (OR = 1.33; 95%CI = 1.09-1.62) than palm oil compared to soybean oil with 22% trans-fat (OR = 1.16; 95%CI = 0.86-1.56). Nevertheless, these risk estimates were non-significant and imprecise. The trend amongst those taking staple pattern diet (characterised by higher palm oil, red meat and added sugar consumption) was inconsistent across the factor score quintiles. During the years of 1980 and 1997, for every additional kilogram of palm oil

  20. Enzymatic interesterification of vegetable oil/ fish oil blend for margarine production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Nuzul Amri Bin; Xu, Xuebing

    the desired properties. In this study, palm stearin (PS), palm kernel oil (PKO) and fish oil (FO) are blended and modified by enzymatic interesterification. PS functioned as the hard stock, PKO as the soft oil and FO as a source for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/ docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The purpose...... cause the product to be susceptible to oxidation due to the presence of high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Furthermore, FO could also influence the melting properties of the product. Therefore, in addition to determining the fatty acid position on the glycerol backbone, it is also pertinent...

  1. Liquid Soap Production with Blends Of Rubber Seed Oil (RSO) And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The production of liquid detergent using locally sourced palm fruit bunch (Elaeis Guineesis) waste saponier has been investigated. An optimum blend ratio of rubber seed oil to palm kernel oil RSO:PKO 20:80 being constituent elements used for the production of the soap; was obtained using the Duncan Multiple Range ...

  2. Recovery of Palm Oil and Valuable Material from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch by Sub-critical Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Kurnin, Nor Azrin; Shah Ismail, Mohd Halim; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Izhar, Shamsul

    2016-01-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) is one of the solid wastes produced in huge volume by palm oil mill. Whilst it still contains valuable oil, approximately 22.6 million tons is generated annually and treated as solid waste. In this work, sub-critical water (sub-cw) was used to extract oil, sugar and tar from spikelet of EFB. The spikelet was treated with sub-cw between 180-280°C and a reaction time of 2 and 5 minutes. The highest yield of oil was 0.075 g-oil/g-dry EFB, obtained at 240°C and reaction time of 5 minutes. Astonishingly, oil that was extracted through this method was 84.5% of that obtained through Soxhlet method using hexane. Yield of oil extracted was strongly affected by the reaction temperature and time. Higher reaction temperature induces the dielectric constant of water towards the non-polar properties of solvent; thus increases the oil extraction capability. Meanwhile, the highest yield of sugar was 0.20 g-sugar/g-dry EFB obtained at 220°C. At this temperature, the ion product of water is high enough to enable maximum sub-critical water hydrolysis reaction. This study showed that oil and other valuable material can be recovered using water at sub-critical condition, and most attractive without the use of harmful organic solvent.

  3. Estimating primary productivity of tropical oil palm in Malaysia using remote sensing technique and ancillary data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanniah, K. D.; Tan, K. P.; Cracknell, A. P.

    2014-10-01

    The amount of carbon sequestration by vegetation can be estimated using vegetation productivity. At present, there is a knowledge gap in oil palm net primary productivity (NPP) at a regional scale. Therefore, in this study NPP of oil palm trees in Peninsular Malaysia was estimated using remote sensing based light use efficiency (LUE) model with inputs from local meteorological data, upscaled leaf area index/fractional photosynthetically active radiation (LAI/fPAR) derived using UK-DMC 2 satellite data and a constant maximum LUE value from the literature. NPP values estimated from the model was then compared and validated with NPP estimated using allometric equations developed by Corley and Tinker (2003), Henson (2003) and Syahrinudin (2005) with diameter at breast height, age and the height of the oil palm trees collected from three estates in Peninsular Malaysia. Results of this study show that oil palm NPP derived using a light use efficiency model increases with respect to the age of oil palm trees, and it stabilises after ten years old. The mean value of oil palm NPP at 118 plots as derived using the LUE model is 968.72 g C m-2 year-1 and this is 188% - 273% higher than the NPP derived from the allometric equations. The estimated oil palm NPP of young oil palm trees is lower compared to mature oil palm trees (oil palm trees contribute to lower oil palm LAI and therefore fPAR, which is an important variable in the LUE model. In contrast, it is noted that oil palm NPP decreases with respect to the age of oil palm trees as estimated using the allomeric equations. It was found in this study that LUE models could not capture NPP variation of oil palm trees if LAI/fPAR is used. On the other hand, tree height and DBH are found to be important variables that can capture changes in oil palm NPP as a function of age.

  4. Production and Characterisation of Microfine Sized Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA Originated from Bau, Lundu Palm Oil Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadi R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates an effective and economical way for laboratory scale production of micro fine sized palm oil fuel ash (POFA using an electric powder grinder. The raw POFA obtained from the palm oil mill is initially grinded by using Los Angeles abrasion machine, and then sieved using 150 μm sieve before it is burned in a furnace at 500°C. The burned POFA is then grinded using electric powder grinder to obtain the targeted micro fine sized. The physical, morphological and chemical properties of the micro fine sized POFA produced are analysed in the form of cement paste using Particle Size Analyzer (PSA, nitrogen sorption by using BET method, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS. The results show that 96% micro fine sized POFA is produced when using the optimum grinding process. The microstructural analyses of cement paste with 20% micro fine sized POFA replacement give the optimum results that contribute to higher compressive strength. The overall results of this research show that the optimum grinding process by using electric powder grinder is relevant and can be used as pioneering work in the concrete production industry.

  5. Relationship between Sampling Distance and Carbon Dioxide Emission under Oil Palm Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Dariah

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A carbon dioxide emission on peatland under oil palm plantation was highly varied due to many factors involved. The objectives of the research were to evaluate the effect of sampling distance from center of oil palm tree on Carbon dioxide flux, and to study the factors that cause variability of carbon dioxide flux on peatland under oil palm plantation. The study was conducted on peatland at Arang-Arang Village, Kumpek Ulu Sub-District, Muaro Jambi District, Jambi Province, on six-years old oil palm plantation. The study was conducted in the form of observational exploratory. Emission measurements were performed on 5 selected oil palm trees at points within 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, and 400 cm from the center of trunk. Carbon dioxide flux was measured using (IRGA, Li-COR 820. The results showed that there was significant correlation between the distance of sampling from center of oil palm tree and Carbon dioxide flux. The farther distance from the tree, the more decreased of Carbon dioxide flux . Before applying fertilizer, variability of soil fertility was not significantly correlated with the flux of Carbon dioxide, so the difference of Carbon dioxide flux based on distance sampling can be caused by root distribution factor. After fertilizer application, variability of Carbon dioxide flux under the oil palm tree were not only affected by differences in root distribution but also greatly influenced by fertilization.

  6. A Gate-to-gate Case Study of the Life Cycle Assessment of an Oil Palm Seedling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Halimah; Sahid, Ismail Bin; Surif, Salmijah; Ai, Tan Yew; May, Choo Yuen

    2012-01-01

    The palm oil industry has played an important role in the economic development of Malaysia and has enhanced the economic welfare of its people. To determine the environmental impact of the oil palm seedling at the nursery stage, information on inputs and outputs need to be assessed. The oil palm nursery is the first link in the palm oil supply chain. A gate-to-gate study was carried out whereby the system boundary was set to only include the process of the oil palm seedling. The starting point was a germinated seed in a small polyethylene bag (6 in × 9 in) in which it remained until the seedling was approximately 3 to 4 months old. The seedling was then transferred into a larger polyethylene bag (12 in × 15 in), where it remained until it was 10–12 months old, when it was planted in the field (plantation). The functional unit for this life cycle inventory (LCI) is based on the production of one seedling. Generally, within the system boundary, the production of an oil palm seedling has only two major environmental impact points, the polybags used to grow the seedling and the fungicide (dithiocarbamate) used to control pathogenic fungi, as both the polybags and the dithiocarbamate are derived from fossil fuel. PMID:24575222

  7. Utilization of oil palm fronds in producing activated carbon using Na2CO3 as an activator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulina, S.; Anwari, FN

    2018-02-01

    Oil Palm Frond is a waste in palm oil plantations that have the potential to be processed into more valuable products. This possibility is because of the presence of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in oil palm fronds. Therefore, this study aimed to utilize oil palm fronds in manufacturing of activated carbon through pyrolysis and impregnation that meets the requirements of the Industrial National Standard 06-3730-1995. The palm-fringed oil palm fronds were pyrolyzed in reactors at 150°C, 200°C, and 250°C for 60 minutes. Subsequently, the charcoal produced from the pyrolysis was smoothed with a ball mill, sieved with a size of 140 meshes, and impregnated using a Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3) for 24 hours at a concentration of 0 %, 2.5%, 5%, and 7.5 % (w/v). The activated carbon has 35.13% of charcoal yield, 8.6% of water content, 14.25% of ash content, 24.75% of volatile matter, 72.75% of fixed carbon, and 492.29 of iodine number. Moreover, SEM analysis indicated that activated carbon porous are coarse and distributed.

  8. Palm oil - towards a sustainable future? : Challanges and opportunites for the Swedish food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Sara

    2013-01-01

    The food industry faces problems relating to the sustainability of palm oil as a food commodity. These problem areas include social, environmental, economic and health issues. The food industry also competes with increasing palm oil demands from the energy sector. This case study identifies and analyzes different perspectives regarding sustainable palm oil as a food commodity in Sweden through interviews with palm oil experts in different businesses and organizations. This study focuses on ho...

  9. Stem rots of oil palm caused by Ganoderma boninense: pathogen biology and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilotti, C A

    2005-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) has been grown in Papua New Guinea since the early 1960s. The most important disease of oil palm in PNG is a stem rot of the palm base. This is the same disease that constitutes a major threat to sustainable oil palm production in SE Asia. Investigations into the causal pathogen have revealed that the stem rots in PNG are caused predominantly by the basidiomycete Ganoderma boninense, with a minor pathogen identified as G. tornatum G. tornatum was found to have a broad host range whereas G. boninense appears to be restricted to palms. The population structure of G. boninense was investigated using inter-fertility studies between isolates collected from basal stem rots on oil palm. Although the G. boninense field populations are predominantly comprised of distinct individuals, a number of isolates were found that share single mating alleles. This indicates that out-crossing had occurred over several generations in the resident or wild population of G. boninense prior to colonization of oil palm. No direct hereditary relationship between isolates on neighbouring diseased palms was found, although an indirect link between isolates causing upper stem rot and basal stem rot was detected.

  10. Evaluation of methods and marker Systems in Genomic Selection of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Qi Bin; Teh, Chee Keng; Ong, Ai Ling; Chew, Fook Tim; Mayes, Sean; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna; Tammi, Martti; Yeoh, Suat Hui; Appleton, David Ross; Harikrishna, Jennifer Ann

    2017-12-11

    Genomic selection (GS) uses genome-wide markers as an attempt to accelerate genetic gain in breeding programs of both animals and plants. This approach is particularly useful for perennial crops such as oil palm, which have long breeding cycles, and for which the optimal method for GS is still under debate. In this study, we evaluated the effect of different marker systems and modeling methods for implementing GS in an introgressed dura family derived from a Deli dura x Nigerian dura (Deli x Nigerian) with 112 individuals. This family is an important breeding source for developing new mother palms for superior oil yield and bunch characters. The traits of interest selected for this study were fruit-to-bunch (F/B), shell-to-fruit (S/F), kernel-to-fruit (K/F), mesocarp-to-fruit (M/F), oil per palm (O/P) and oil-to-dry mesocarp (O/DM). The marker systems evaluated were simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). RR-BLUP, Bayesian A, B, Cπ, LASSO, Ridge Regression and two machine learning methods (SVM and Random Forest) were used to evaluate GS accuracy of the traits. The kinship coefficient between individuals in this family ranged from 0.35 to 0.62. S/F and O/DM had the highest genomic heritability, whereas F/B and O/P had the lowest. The accuracies using 135 SSRs were low, with accuracies of the traits around 0.20. The average accuracy of machine learning methods was 0.24, as compared to 0.20 achieved by other methods. The trait with the highest mean accuracy was F/B (0.28), while the lowest were both M/F and O/P (0.18). By using whole genomic SNPs, the accuracies for all traits, especially for O/DM (0.43), S/F (0.39) and M/F (0.30) were improved. The average accuracy of machine learning methods was 0.32, compared to 0.31 achieved by other methods. Due to high genomic resolution, the use of whole-genome SNPs improved the efficiency of GS dramatically for oil palm and is recommended for dura breeding programs. Machine learning slightly

  11. Integrated Bali Cattle Development Model Under Oil Palm Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasali Hakim Matondang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bali cattle have several advantages such as high fertility and carcass percentage, easy adaptation to the new environment as well. Bali cattle productivity has not been optimal yet. This is due to one of the limitation of feed resources, decreasing of grazing and agricultural land. The aim of this paper is to describe Bali cattle development integrated with oil palm plantations, which is expected to improve productivity and increase Bali cattle population. This integration model is carried out by raising Bali cattle under oil palm plantation through nucleus estate scheme model or individual farmers estates business. Some of Bali cattle raising systems have been applied in the integration of palm plantation-Bali cattle. One of the intensive systems can increase daily weight gain of 0.8 kg/head, calfcrop of 35% per year and has the potency for industrial development of feed and organic fertilizer. In the semi-intensive system, it can improve the production of oil palm fruit bunches (PFB more than 10%, increase harvested-crop area to 15 ha/farmer and reduce the amount of inorganic fertilizer. The extensive system can produce calfcrop ³70%, improve ³30% of PFB, increase business scale ³13 cows/farmer and reduce weeding costs ³16%. Integrated Bali cattle development may provide positive added value for both, palm oil business and cattle business.

  12. An overview of renewable hydrogen production from thermochemical process of oil palm solid waste in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, Seyed Ehsan; Wahid, Mazlan Abdul; Ganjehkaviri, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • 40% of energy demand of Malaysia could be supplied by thermochemical process of PSR. • SCWG of PSR is preferable thermochemical process due to char and tar elimination. • Potential of H 2 production from SCWG of PSR is 1.05 × 10 10 kgH 2 per year in Malaysia. • Highly moisturized PSR could be used in hydrogen production by SCWG process. - Abstract: Hydrogen is one of the most promising energy carriers for the future of the world due to its tremendous capability of pollution reduction. Hydrogen utilization is free of toxic gases formation as well as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission. Hydrogen production can be implemented using a wide variety of resources including fossil fuels, nuclear energy and renewable and sustainable energy (RSE). Amongst various RSE resources, biomass has great capacity to be employed for renewable hydrogen production. Hydrogen production from palm solid residue (PSR) via thermochemical process is a perfect candidate for waste-to-well strategy in palm oil mills in Malaysia. In this paper, various characteristics of hydrogen production from thermochemical process of PSR includes pyrolysis and gasification are reviewed. The annual oil palm fruits production in Malaysia is approximately 100 million tonnes which the solid waste of the fruits is capable to generate around 1.05 × 10 10 kgH 2 (1.26 EJ) via supercritical water gasification (SCWG) process. The ratio of energy output to energy input of SCWG process of PSR is about 6.56 which demonstrates the priority of SCWG to transform the energy of PSR into a high energy end product. The high moisture of PSR which is the most important barrier for its direct combustion, emerges as an advantage in thermochemical reactions and highly moisturized PSR (even more than 50%) is utilized directly in SCWG without application of any high cost drying process. Implementation of appropriate strategies could lead Malaysia to supply about 40% of its annual energy demand by hydrogen yield from

  13. Oil palm and the emission of greenhouse gasses- from field measurements in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Niharika; Bruun, Thilde Bech; Giller, Ken E.; Magid, Jakob; van de Ven, Gerrie; de Neergaard, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Palm oil from the oil palm (Elaeis guianensis) has in recent years become the world's most important vegetable oil. The increasing demand for palm oil has led to expansion of oil palm plantations, which has caused environmental controversies associated with carbon losses and the use of large amounts of mineral fertilizers. Efforts to increase sustainability of oil palm cultivation, include recycling of oil-mill residues and pruning's, but with this comes increased potential for methane emission from the plantations. Until now no field-based data on greenhouse gas emissions from oil palm plantations have been reported. Here for the first time we present data from a long term (360 days) field trial in Bah Lias Research Station, North Sumatra, Indonesia on greenhouse gas emissions from an oil palm plantation with various treatments of recycled oil palm waste products, fertilizers and simulated rainfall. The first experiment was conducted over a full year (dry + wet season) with mineral fertilizer treatments including urea and ammonium sulphate, and organic fertilizer treatments constituting: empty fruit bunches (EFB), enriched mulch (EFB + palm oil mill effluent (POME) ) and pruned oil palm fronds (OPF). Treatment doses represent the current management in Indonesian plantations and the higher doses that are expected in the imminent future. For the organic treatments several methods of application (applied in inter-rows, piles, patches or bands) were evaluated. The second experiment investigated effects of soil water saturation on GHG emissions through adding 25 mm simulated rainfall per day for 21 days. Each palm tree received 1 kg of N fertilizer as urea or ammonium sulphate and enriched mulch. The gas fluxes in the fields was measured by a large static-chamber (1.8 m x 1.2 m) method and CH4 and N2O concentrations were determined using gas chromatographs. We found that emissions were significantly affected by the type and dose of mineral fertilizers. Application of

  14. The Effect of the Operating Conditions on the Apparent Viscosity of Crude Palm Oil During Oil Clarification

    OpenAIRE

    Sulaiman Al-Zuhair, Mirghani I. Ahmed and Yousif A. Abakr

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the apparent viscosity of crude palm oil, using rotary viscometer, under different boundary conditions. It was experimentally shown that the apparent viscosity of palm oil drops with increasing of the shear rate and the temperature.  However, the effect of temperature on the viscosity tends to fade at temperatures beyond 80 oC.  A correlation between the apparent viscosity of crude palm oil and the operating conditions was developed. This correlation can be used...

  15. Recycled palm oil is better than soy oil in maintaining bone properties in a menopausal syndrome model of ovariectomized rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun; Chuan, Loh Hong; Mohamed, Norazlina; Jaarin, Kamsiah; Fong, Yew Su; Soelaiman, Ima Nirwana

    2007-01-01

    Palm oil is shown to have antioxidant, anticancer and cholesterol lowering effects. It is resistant to oxidation when heated compared to other frying oils such as soy oil. When a frying oil is heated repeatedly, it forms toxic degradation products, such as aldehydes which when consumed, may be absorbed into the systemic circulation. We have studied the effects of taking soy or palm oil that were mixed with rat chow on the bone histomorphometric parameters of ovariectomised rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into eight groups: (1) normal control group; (2) ovariectomised-control group; (3) ovariectomised and fresh soy oil; (4) ovariectomised and soy oil heated once; (5) ovariectomised and soy oil heated five times; (6) ovariectomised and fresh palm oil; (7) ovariectomised and palm oil heated once; (8) ovariectomised and palm oil heated five times. These oils were mixed with rat chow at weight ratio of 15:100 and were given to the rats daily for six months. Ovariectomy had caused negative effects on the bone histomorphometric parameters. Ingestion of both fresh and once-heated oils, were able to offer protections against the negative effects of ovariectomy, but these protections were lost when the oils were heated five times. Soy oil that was heated five times actually worsens the histomorphometric parameters of ovariectomised rats. Therefore, it may be better for postmenopausal who are at risk of osteoporosis to use palm oil as frying oil especially if they practice recycling of frying oils.

  16. Radiation curing applications of palm oil acrylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Hilmi Mahmood; Khairul Zaman; Rida, Anak Tajau; Mek Zah Salleh; Rosley Che Ismail

    2007-01-01

    Various palm oil based urethan acrylate prepolymers (UP) were prepared from palm oil based polyols, diisocyanate compounds and hydroxyl terminated acrylate monomers by following procedure derived from established methods. The products were compared with each other in term of their molecular weights (MW), viscosities, curing speed by UV irradiation, gel contents and film hardness. The molecular structure of diisocyanate compounds and hydroxyl acrylate monomers were tend to determine the molecular weights and hence viscosities of the final products of urethan acrylate prepolymers (UP), whereas, the MW of the UP has no direct effects on the UV curing properties of the prepolymers. (author)

  17. Oil palm seed distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand-Gasselin Tristan

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available For a tropical plant, the oil palm commodity chain has the peculiarity of possessing a major seed production sector for reasons that are primarily genetic. This seed sector has numerous original aspects. Breeders are also propagators and usually also distribute their seeds. Oil palm seeds are semi-recalcitrant: they display pseudo-dormancy. Achieving seed germination is difficult and requires lengthy treatments and special installations. This restriction greatly influences seed distribution and the role of the different stakeholders in the commodity chain. It was only once it had been discovered how the “sh” gene functioned, which controls shell thickness, and when it became necessary to produce “tenera” seeds derived from exclusively “dura x pisifera” crosses, that a true seed market developed. In addition it is difficult to organize seed distribution to smallholders. This is partly due to difficulties that the profession, or a State-run organization, has in controlling middlemen networks, and partly to the absence of any protective systems (UPOV, plant breeder certificate, etc. that generally oblige breeders to preserve and propagate parents in their own installations. In fact there are major inequalities in the access to seeds between agroindustry and smallholders. Another peculiarity of the oil palm seed market is the virtually total absence of guarantees for buyers: the quality of the research conducted by breeders, the seed production strategies necessary for transferring genetic progress, and the technical quality of production. The only guarantee today comes from the relations of confidence established year after year between breeders/distributors and growers. In this fields, research can lead to some proposals: molecular biology offers some interesting prospects for certifying seed quality and social science develop effective communication methods.

  18. Palm oil and the emission of carbon-based greenhouse gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.; Huijbregts, M.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The current use of South Asian palm oil as biofuel is far from climate neutral. Dependent on assumptions, losses of biogenic carbon associated with ecosystems, emission of CO2 due to the use of fossil fuels and the anaerobic conversion of palm oil mill effluent currently correspond in South Asia

  19. Synergies for Improving Oil Palm Production and Forest Conservation in Floodplain Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abram, Nicola K.; Xofis, Panteleimon; Tzanopoulos, Joseph; MacMillan, Douglas C.; Ancrenaz, Marc; Chung, Robin; Peter, Lucy; Ong, Robert; Lackman, Isabelle; Goossens, Benoit; Ambu, Laurentius; Knight, Andrew T.

    2014-01-01

    Lowland tropical forests are increasingly threatened with conversion to oil palm as global demand and high profit drives crop expansion throughout the world’s tropical regions. Yet, landscapes are not homogeneous and regional constraints dictate land suitability for this crop. We conducted a regional study to investigate spatial and economic components of forest conversion to oil palm within a tropical floodplain in the Lower Kinabatangan, Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. The Kinabatangan ecosystem harbours significant biodiversity with globally threatened species but has suffered forest loss and fragmentation. We mapped the oil palm and forested landscapes (using object-based-image analysis, classification and regression tree analysis and on-screen digitising of high-resolution imagery) and undertook economic modelling. Within the study region (520,269 ha), 250,617 ha is cultivated with oil palm with 77% having high Net-Present-Value (NPV) estimates ($413/ha− yr–$637/ha− yr); but 20.5% is under-producing. In fact 6.3% (15,810 ha) of oil palm is commercially redundant (with negative NPV of $-299/ha− yr-$-65/ha− yr) due to palm mortality from flood inundation. These areas would have been important riparian or flooded forest types. Moreover, 30,173 ha of unprotected forest remain and despite its value for connectivity and biodiversity 64% is allocated for future oil palm. However, we estimate that at minimum 54% of these forests are unsuitable for this crop due to inundation events. If conversion to oil palm occurs, we predict a further 16,207 ha will become commercially redundant. This means that over 32,000 ha of forest within the floodplain would have been converted for little or no financial gain yet with significant cost to the ecosystem. Our findings have globally relevant implications for similar floodplain landscapes undergoing forest transformation to agriculture such as oil palm. Understanding landscape level constraints to this crop, and transferring

  20. Simulation of thin-film deodorizers in palm oil refining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceriani, Roberta; Meirelles, Antonio J.A.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2010-01-01

    As the need for healthier fats and oils (natural vitamin and trans fat contents) and interest in biofuels are growing, many changes in the world's vegetable oil market are driving the oil industry to developing new technologies and recycling traditional ones. Computational simulation is widely used...... in the chemical and petrochemical industries as a tool for optimization and design of (new) processes, but that is not the case for the edible oil industry. Thin-film deodorizers are novel equipment developed for steam deacidification of vegetable oils, and no work on the simulation of this type of equipment...... could be found in the open literature. This paper tries to fill this gap by presenting results from the study of the effect of processing variables, such as temperature, pressure and percentage of stripping steam, in the final quality of product (deacidified palm oil) in terms of final oil acidity...

  1. Biogasoline Production from Palm Oil Via Catalytic Hydrocracking over Gamma-Alumina Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anondho Wijanarko

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Bio gasoline conversion from palm oil is an alternative energy resources method which can be substituted fossil fuel base energy utilization. Previous research resulted that palm oil can be converted into hydrocarbon by catalytic cracking reaction with γ-alumina catalyst. In this research, catalytic cracking reaction of palm oil by γ-alumina catalyst is done in  a stirrer batch reactor with the oil/catalyst weight ratio variation of 100:1, 75:1, and 50:1; at suhue variation of 260 to 340oC and reaction time variation of 1 to 2 hour. Post cracking reaction, bio gasoline yield could be obtained after 2 steps batch distillation. Physical property test result such as density and viscosity of this cracking reaction product and commercial gasoline tended a closed similarity. According to result of the cracking product's density, viscosity and FTIR, it  can conclude that optimum yield of the palm oil catalytic cracking reaction could be occurred when oil/catalyst weight  ratio 100:1 at 340 oC in 1.5 hour and base on this bio gasoline's FTIR, GC and GC-MS identification results, its  hydrocarbons content was resembled to the commercial  gasoline. This palm oil catalytic cracking reaction shown 11.8% (v/v in yield and 28.0% (v/v in conversion concern to feed palm oil base and produced a 61.0 octane number's biogasoline.

  2. liquid soap production with blends of rubber seed oil (rso)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Chemical Engineering, Edo State Institute of Technology and Management, Usen,. P.M.B 1104, Benin City, Edo State. ... The basic processes for making soap have re- mained unchanged for the past 200 years. How- ... palm kernel oil for good quality liquid soap using locally produced caustic potash from ...

  3. In-situ data collection for oil palm tree height determination using synthetic aperture radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, C.; Loong, C. K.

    2016-04-01

    The oil palm is recognized as the “golden crop,” producing the highest oil yield among oil seed crops. Malaysia, the world's second largest producer of palm oil, has 16 per cent of its territory planted with oil palms. To cope with the increasing global demand on edible oil, additional areas of oil palm are forecast to increase globally by 12 to 19 million hectares by 2050. Due to the limited land bank in Malaysia, new strategies have to be developed to avoid unauthorized clearing of primary forest for the use of oil palm cultivation. Microwave remote sensing could play a part by providing relevant, timely and accurate information for a plantation monitoring system. The use of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has the advantage of daylight- and weather-independence, a criterion that is very relevant in constantly cloud-covered tropical regions, such as Malaysia. Using interferometric SAR, (InSAR) topographical and tree height profiles of oil palm plantations can be created; such information is useful for mapping oil palm age profiles of the plantations in the country. This paper reports on the use of SAR and InSAR in a multisensory context to provide up-to-date information at plantation level. Remote sensing and in-situ data collection for tree height determination are described. Further research to be carried out over the next two years is outlined.

  4. Expression Comparison of Oil Biosynthesis Genes in Oil Palm Mesocarp Tissue Using Custom Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yick Ching Wong

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression changes that occur during mesocarp development are a major research focus in oil palm research due to the economic importance of this tissue and the relatively rapid increase in lipid content to very high levels at fruit ripeness. Here, we report the development of a transcriptome-based 105,000-probe oil palm mesocarp microarray. The expression of genes involved in fatty acid (FA and triacylglycerol (TAG assembly, along with the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA and glycolysis pathway at 16 Weeks After Anthesis (WAA exhibited significantly higher signals compared to those obtained from a cross-species hybridization to the Arabidopsis (p-value < 0.01, and rice (p-value < 0.01 arrays. The oil palm microarray data also showed comparable correlation of expression (r2 = 0.569, p < 0.01 throughout mesocarp development to transcriptome (RNA sequencing data, and improved correlation over quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR (r2 = 0.721, p < 0.01 of the same RNA samples. The results confirm the advantage of the custom microarray over commercially available arrays derived from model species. We demonstrate the utility of this custom microarray to gain a better understanding of gene expression patterns in the oil palm mesocarp that may lead to increasing future oil yield.

  5. Expression Comparison of Oil Biosynthesis Genes in Oil Palm Mesocarp Tissue Using Custom Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yick Ching; Kwong, Qi Bin; Lee, Heng Leng; Ong, Chuang Kee; Mayes, Sean; Chew, Fook Tim; Appleton, David R.; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna

    2014-01-01

    Gene expression changes that occur during mesocarp development are a major research focus in oil palm research due to the economic importance of this tissue and the relatively rapid increase in lipid content to very high levels at fruit ripeness. Here, we report the development of a transcriptome-based 105,000-probe oil palm mesocarp microarray. The expression of genes involved in fatty acid (FA) and triacylglycerol (TAG) assembly, along with the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) and glycolysis pathway at 16 Weeks After Anthesis (WAA) exhibited significantly higher signals compared to those obtained from a cross-species hybridization to the Arabidopsis (p-value < 0.01), and rice (p-value < 0.01) arrays. The oil palm microarray data also showed comparable correlation of expression (r2 = 0.569, p < 0.01) throughout mesocarp development to transcriptome (RNA sequencing) data, and improved correlation over quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) (r2 = 0.721, p < 0.01) of the same RNA samples. The results confirm the advantage of the custom microarray over commercially available arrays derived from model species. We demonstrate the utility of this custom microarray to gain a better understanding of gene expression patterns in the oil palm mesocarp that may lead to increasing future oil yield. PMID:27600348

  6. Characteristics of activated carbon resulted from pyrolysis of the oil palm fronds powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulina, S.; Iriansyah, M.

    2018-02-01

    Activated carbon is the product of a charcoal impregnation process that has a higher absorption capacity and has more benefits than regular char. Therefore, this study aims to cultivate the powder of oil palm fronds into activated carbon that meets the requirements of Standard National Indonesia 06-3730-1995. To do so, the carbonization process of the powder of oil palm fronds was carried out using a pyrolysis reactor for 30 minutes at a temperature of 150 °C, 200 °C, and 250 °C in order to produce activated char. Then, the char was impregnated using Phosphoric Acid activator (H3PO4) for 24 hours. Characteristics of activated carbon indicate that the treatment of char by chemical activation of oil palm fronds powder has an effect on the properties of activated carbon. The activated carbons that has the highest absorption properties to Iodine (822.91 mg/g) were obtained from the impregnation process with 15% concentration of Phosphoric Acid (H3PO4) at pyrolysis temperature of 200 °C. Furthermore, the activation process resulted in activated carbon with water content of 8%, ash content of 4%, volatile matter 39%, and fixed carbon 75%, Iodine number 822.91 mg/g.

  7. Impact of savanna conversion to oil palm plantations on C stocks dynamics and soil fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quezada, Juan Carlos; Guillaume, Thomas; Buttler, Alexandre; Ruegg, Johanna

    2017-04-01

    Large-scale expansion of oil palm cultivation on forested land in South-East Asia during the last decades lead to high negative environmental impacts. Because rainforests store high amount of C, their conversion to oil palm plantations results in large net CO2 emissions. Oil palm cultivation in tropical ecosystems such as savanna that store less C than forests is seen as an alternative to reduce greenhouse gas emissions of future oil palm development. While this option is more and more frequently mentioned, few data are available on the effective gain in C storage. Furthermore negative impact on soil organic carbon and soil fertility could offset gains of C s