WorldWideScience

Sample records for palm tribe chamaedoreeae

  1. A dated phylogeny of the palm tribe Chamaedoreeae supports Eocene dispersal between Africa, North and South America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuenca-Navarro, Argelia; Lange, Conny Bruun Asmussen; Borchsenius, Finn

    2008-01-01

    The palm tribe Chamaedoreeae reaches its higher diversity in Central America, however, its distribution ranges from the north eastern part of Mexico to Bolivia with a disjunction to the Mascarene Islands in the Indian Ocean. The disjunct distribution of Chamaedoreeae is generally considered a res...

  2. Mid-tertiary dispersal, not gondwanan vicariance explains distribution patterns in the wax palm subfamily (Ceroxyloideae: Arecaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trénel, Philipp; Gustafsson, Mats H.G.; Baker, William J.

    2007-01-01

    The Ceroxyloideae is a small but heterogeneous subfamily of palms (Arecaceae, Palmae). It includes a Caribbean lineage (tribe Cyclospathae), a southern hemisphere disjunction (tribe Ceroxyleae), and an amphi-Andean element (tribe Phytelepheae), until recently considered a distinct subfamily (Phyt...

  3. Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  4. Phylogeny and historical biogeography of the cocosoid palms (Arecaceae, Arecoideae, Cocoseae) inferred from sequences of six WRKY gene family loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arecaceae tribe Cocoseae is the most economically important tribe of palms, including both coconut and African oil palm. It is mostly represented in the Neotropics, with one and two genera endemic to South Africa and Madagascar, respectively. Using primers for six single copy WRKY gene family loci...

  5. Evolutionary history of Arecaccea tribe Cocoseae inferred from seven WRKY transcription factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cocoseae is one of 13 tribes of Arecaceae subfam. Arecoideae, and contains a number of palms with significant economic importance, including the monotypic and pantropical Cocos nucifera, the coconut, and African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). Using seven single copy WRKY transcription factor gen...

  6. When species trees collide: phylogeny and historical biogeography of the cocosoid palms (Arecaceae, Arecoideae, Cocoseae) inferred from sequences of six WRKY gene family loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arecaceae tribe Cocoseae is the most economically important tribe of palms, wherein both coconut and African oil palm are classified. It is mostly represented in the Neotropics, with one and two genera endemic to South Africa and Madagascar, respectively. Three subtribes are recognized: Attaleinae...

  7. Variation patterns of pollen production in palm flowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alapetite, Elodie; Barfod, Anders; Albert, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    pollen production and stamen number has never been so far investigated. The diversity in stamen number observed among palms species and genera provides an ideal case study to test for such a correlation, taking into account phylogenetic constraints. Based on a survey of flowers from 82 species...... representative of the various palm tribes and compared it to stamen number, we show that pollen production in palms ranges from hundreds to millions grains. There is a relationship between stamen number and pollen production in our sampling, particularly in Coryphoideae and Arecoideae where there is a tendency...

  8. Oklahoma Tribes: A History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, Kevin

    1977-01-01

    Oklahoma is a microcosm of American Indian country. Water rights, tribal government impotence, jurisdiction, tribal membership, treaty rights, taxation, sovereignty, racism, and poor housing, education, and health are all vital issues facing the Indian tribes of Oklahoma. In order to understand the complexity of these issues, a review of the…

  9. Oil palm: domestication achieved?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsma, W.; Wessel, M.

    1997-01-01

    The natural habitat of the oil palm comprises very wet and relatively dry niches in the lowland rain forest in West and Central Africa. The domestication of the oil palm started with the extraction of fruits from wild forest resources. When forests were cleared for shifting cultivation, oil palms

  10. Oneida Tribe Energy Audits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Ray [Energy Controls Manager; Schubert, Eugene [Policy Analyst

    2014-08-15

    Project funding energy audits of 44 Tribally owned buildings operated by the Oneida Tribe of Indians of WI. Buildings were selected for their size, age, or known energy concerns and total over 1 million square feet. Audits include feasibility studies, lists of energy improvement opportunities, and a strategic energy plan to address cost effective ways to save energy via energy efficiency upgrades over the short and long term.

  11. Sugar from Palms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Anders

    Throughout the tropics and subtropics a large number of products are derived from the sugar-rich sap tapped from palms. I will give an overview of the most important species being exploited, harvesting practices and yields. I will further provide insights in the biomechanmics of sugar...... transportation in palms, which remain an enigma. Finally, the prospects for developing palm sugar into a commodity of worlswide significance will be discussed....

  12. Phylogenetic analysis of six WRKY transcription factor loci across the spiny cocosoid palm subtribes Bactridinae and Elaeidinae (Areceaceae, Cocoseae),and comparison of several gene tree/species tree reconciliation approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cocoseae is one of 13 tribes of Arecaceae subfamily Arecoideae, and contains a number of palms with significant economic importance, including the monotypic and pantropical Cocos nucifera, the coconut, and African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). Using seven single copy WRKY transcription factor g...

  13. Vanglateenistuse enesekaitsekoolitus / Henri Palm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Palm, Henri

    2014-01-01

    Vanglateenistus korraldab Tartus, Tallinnas ja Jõhvis enesekaitsekoolitusi gümnaasiumiõpilastele. Jakob Westholmi abiturient Henri Palm on osalenud treeningutel osalenud kolm aastat ning jagab kogemusi

  14. The palm family (Arecaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadot, Sophie; Alapetite, Elodie; Baker, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Among the 416 angiosperm families, palms (Arecaceae) are striking in possessing almost all possible combinations of hermaphroditic and/or unisexual flowers, making them a particularly interesting subject for studies of the evolution of plant sexuality. The purpose of this review is to highlight...... the amazing diversity of sexual expression in palms with a view to proposing scenarios to explain the evolution of this character, drawing on the numerous advances that have been made over the last 20 years in palm systematics, ecology, developmental biology, phylogenetics and genomics. We provide an overview...... of the variability of sexual expression in palms, with illustrations of the associated morphological diversity and its significance to reproduction. We discuss the evolution of sexual systems using the most recent phylogenetic framework available for palms. Finally, we review advances made towards unravelling...

  15. Three Affliated Tribes Renewable Energy Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belvin Pete; Kent Good; Krista Gordon; Ed McCarthy,

    2006-05-26

    The Three Affliated Tribes on the Fort Berthold Reservation studied the feasibility of a commercial wind facility on land selected and owned by the Tribes and examined the potential for the development of renewable energy resources on Tribal Lands.

  16. Coconut, date and oil palm genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    A review of genomics research is presented for the three most economically important palm crops, coconut (Cocos nucifera), date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), encompassing molecular markers studies of genetic diversity, genetic mapping, quantitative trait loci discovery...

  17. Palm webOS

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Mitch

    2009-01-01

    A Note from the Author and from O'Reilly Media about what this bookdoes--and doesn't--do: Palm webOS is a brand new platform and represents a very different type ofoperating system where the web runtime is used as the basis for the UI andApplication model. Palm and O'Reilly felt that it was important to have abook available to help developers get a basic understanding of the new Palmplatform at the time that the SDK was released; this timing played a majorrole in the content and structure of the book. Ideally this book would have been a complete reference of the new platformbut that wasn't

  18. Entrepreneurial Business Development Through Building Tribes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holzweber, Markus; Mattsson, Jan; Standing, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Understanding tribe development can be critical to the survival of entrepreneurial e-service ventures. This article presents findings on how a Swedish start-up industrial design company termed BETTER-DESIGN attempted to build a global presence by creating a tribe of followers on the web. From thi...... of electronic word of mouth in social network environments....... this single in-depth case study and a comprehensive literature review, a model is developed comprising the necessary components to succeed in tribe building efforts in social media. These components include social cohesion of the inner tribe (founders) in terms of vision, the creation of an icon (a...

  19. African palm ethno-medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruca, Marta; Blach-Overgaard, Anne; Balslev, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    -medicinal data on African palms, and investigate patterns of palm uses in traditional medicine; and highlight possible under-investigated areas. Materials and methods References were found through bibliographic searches using several sources including PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar and search engines...... in traditional medicine, with most of the uses related to fruit (and palm oil), root, seed and leaf. Palms were used in traditional medicine mostly without being mixed with other plants, and less commonly in mixtures, sometimes in mixture with products of animal origin. Future ethno-botanical surveys should...... were able to demonstrate the value of palms in traditional medicine, and provide recommendations for the areas that should be targeted in future ethno-botanical surveys....

  20. A Brief History of the Flathead Tribes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Clarence; And Others

    A source document, illustrated with many black and white photographs of tribe members and activities, provides a brief history of the American Indian tribes, now called the Flatheads, living on the Flathead Indian Reservation in Montana and describes some of their cultural traditions, particularly their ceremonial dances. The booklet traces the…

  1. Oil palm seed distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand-Gasselin Tristan

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available For a tropical plant, the oil palm commodity chain has the peculiarity of possessing a major seed production sector for reasons that are primarily genetic. This seed sector has numerous original aspects. Breeders are also propagators and usually also distribute their seeds. Oil palm seeds are semi-recalcitrant: they display pseudo-dormancy. Achieving seed germination is difficult and requires lengthy treatments and special installations. This restriction greatly influences seed distribution and the role of the different stakeholders in the commodity chain. It was only once it had been discovered how the “sh” gene functioned, which controls shell thickness, and when it became necessary to produce “tenera” seeds derived from exclusively “dura x pisifera” crosses, that a true seed market developed. In addition it is difficult to organize seed distribution to smallholders. This is partly due to difficulties that the profession, or a State-run organization, has in controlling middlemen networks, and partly to the absence of any protective systems (UPOV, plant breeder certificate, etc. that generally oblige breeders to preserve and propagate parents in their own installations. In fact there are major inequalities in the access to seeds between agroindustry and smallholders. Another peculiarity of the oil palm seed market is the virtually total absence of guarantees for buyers: the quality of the research conducted by breeders, the seed production strategies necessary for transferring genetic progress, and the technical quality of production. The only guarantee today comes from the relations of confidence established year after year between breeders/distributors and growers. In this fields, research can lead to some proposals: molecular biology offers some interesting prospects for certifying seed quality and social science develop effective communication methods.

  2. Pediatric Age Palm Oil Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Genova, Lorenza; Cerquiglini, Laura; Penta, Laura; Biscarini, Anna; Esposito, Susanna

    2018-04-01

    Palm oil is widely used in the food industry for its chemical/physical properties, low cost and wide availability. Its widespread use has provoked an intense debate about whether it is a potential danger to human health. In a careful review of the scientific literature, we focused on nutritional characteristics and health effects of the use of palm oil with regards to children, seeking to determine whether there is evidence that justifies fears about the health effects of palm oil. Our review showed that palm oil represents a significant source of saturated fatty acids, to which scientific evidence attributes negative health effects when used in excess, especially with regards to cardiovascular diseases. However, to date, there is no evidence about the harmful effects of palm oil on the health of children. Nevertheless, palm oil has possible ill health effects linked to its composition of fatty acids: its consumption is not correlated to risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in young people with a normal weight and cholesterol level; the elderly and patients with dyslipidaemia or previous cardiovascular events or hypertension are at a greater risk. Therefore, the matter is not palm oil itself but the fatty-acid-rich food group to which it belongs. The most important thing is to consume no more than 10% of saturated fatty acids, regardless of their origin and regardless of one's age. Correct information based on a careful analysis of the scientific evidence, rather than a focus on a singular presumed culprit substance, should encourage better lifestyles.

  3. Chemical composition of Chinese palm fruit and chemical properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... chemical properties and could be used as edible oils and for industrial applications. ... on it, which can provide useful information for Chinese oil palm industry. Key words: Chemical composition, palm fruit, palm oil, palm kernel oil, chemical ...

  4. Renewable Energy Opportunities Saginaw Chippewa Indian Tribe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saginaw Chippewa Indian Tribe Planning Department; Smiley, Steve; Bennett, Keith, DOE Project Officer

    2008-10-22

    The Saginaw Chippewa Indian Tribe has a vision to become self-sufficient in its energy needs and to maintain its culture and protect Mother Earth with respect and honor for the next seven generations. To achieve this vision, green energy sources such as solar, wind and biomass energy are the best energy paths to travel. In this feasibility study the Tribe has analyzed and provided data on the nature of the renewable resources available to the Tribe and the costs of implementing these technologies.

  5. Social Change of Bajo Tribe Society in Karimunjawa: From "Sea Tribe" to "Land Tribe"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titiek Suliyati

    2017-12-01

    The result of the research shows that there is a social change in Bajo society living permanently in Karimunjawa that is, the change of daily behavior in the society, social interaction with other tribes, values held by the society and social institution, structure and social classes. Social change occurring to Bajo society in Karimunjawa brings positive influences. The social changes among others are awareness towards the importance of education, Bajo society has new jobs other than fisherman, the increase of income, living standard, also modernization in fisheries system. The negative impact as a consequence of the social changes is faded culture, changes in life orientation and views of life, and consumerism in the society.

  6. Tribes of Users and System Developers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Dingley

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Effective communication is essential for information systems development crossing functional, organisational and national boundaries. As organisations attempt to overcome cultural barriers to communication across the world, communication with colleagues across the corridor remains problematic; cultural barriers between departments remain unchallenged. This paper introduces the concepts of 'culture' and 'tribe' into the discussion of the relationship between business users and information systems developers. Previous research has focused on identifying specific barriers to user-systems developer communication and on ways of eliminating these barriers. In contrast, this paper suggests that much can be learnt through the recognition of cultural differences inherent to the differing roles of user and systems developer. Maintenance of cultural identity is essential to the individual if he/she is to function effectively as a member of his/her tribe, whether it is the 'tribe' of developers or the 'tribe' of users. Communication problems within the systems development process may be addressed by a mutual understanding of cultural differences between the 'tribes' of users and systems developers. This degree of understanding cannot be achieved by attempting to change, persuade or convert the other tribe. The problems of user-systems developer communication need to be addressed through effective communication which acknowledges the differing cultures.

  7. Declining Yield of Oil Palm: A case study of Four Oil Palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates the achievable yield and extent of oil palm yield decline over time in four large oil palm plantations in Nigeria and Cameroon. In Nigeria the highest achieved palm oil yield was 2.64 tonnes per hectare for 9-year-old palms in one of the plantations studied. By the eighteenth year, the yield had ...

  8. Palm yellows phytoplasmas and their genetic classification

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ntushk

    African Journal of Biotechnology. Review. Palm yellows phytoplasmas and their genetic ... lethal yellowing-type phytoplasma disease was recorded on a number of palm species of mainly ..... Immunodominant membrane protein (imp) Gene.

  9. Palm Harvest Impact on Tropical Forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik; Eiserhardt, Wolf L.

    Palms are the most useful group of plants in tropical American forests and in this project we study the effect of extraction and trade of palms on forest in the western Amazon, Andes and Pacific lowlands. We determine the size of the resource by making palm community studies in the different forest...... formations and determine the number of species and individuals of all palm species. The genetic structure of useful palm species is studied to determine how much harvesting of the species contributes to genetic erosion of its populations, and whether extraction can be made without harm. We determine how much...... palms are used for subsistence purposes by carrying out quantitative, ethnobotanical research in different forest types and we also study trade patterns for palm products from local markets to markets that involve export to other countries and continents. We study different ways in which palms...

  10. Transgenic oil palm: production and projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveez, G K; Masri, M M; Zainal, A; Majid, N A; Yunus, A M; Fadilah, H H; Rasid, O; Cheah, S C

    2000-12-01

    Oil palm is an important economic crop for Malaysia. Genetic engineering could be applied to produce transgenic oil palms with high value-added fatty acids and novel products to ensure the sustainability of the palm oil industry. Establishment of a reliable transformation and regeneration system is essential for genetic engineering. Biolistic was initially chosen as the method for oil palm transformation as it has been the most successful method for monocotyledons to date. Optimization of physical and biological parameters, including testing of promoters and selective agents, was carried out as a prerequisite for stable transformation. This has resulted in the successful transfer of reporter genes into oil palm and the regeneration of transgenic oil palm, thus making it possible to improve the oil palm through genetic engineering. Besides application of the Biolistics method, studies on transformation mediated by Agrobacterium and utilization of the green fluorescent protein gene as a selectable marker gene have been initiated. Upon the development of a reliable transformation system, a number of useful targets are being projected for oil palm improvement. Among these targets are high-oleate and high-stearate oils, and the production of industrial feedstock such as biodegradable plastics. The efforts in oil palm genetic engineering are thus not targeted as commodity palm oil. Due to the long life cycle of the palm and the time taken to regenerate plants in tissue culture, it is envisaged that commercial planting of transgenic palms will not occur any earlier than the year 2020.

  11. Do you believe in palm trees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2013-01-01

    Palms are real, but are they really trees? The answer depends on definitions. As usually tall, peremrial plants with roots, stems, and leaves, palms seem to qualify. Palms should also qualify because arborists care for them, and arborists care for trees, right? My introduction to botany class defined trees as plants that produce wood. Unraveling the question of whether...

  12. Blending of palm oil, palm stearin and palm kernel oil in the preparation of table and pastry margarine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlida, H M; Md Ali, A R; Muhadhir, I

    1996-01-01

    Palm oil (PO ; iodin value = 52), palm stearin (POs1; i.v. = 32 and POs2; i.v. = 40) and palm kernel oil (PKO; i.v. = 17) were blended in ternary systems. The blends were then studied for their physical properties such as melting point (m.p.), solid fat content (SFC), and cooling curve. Results showed that palm stearin increased the blends melting point while palm kernel oil reduced it. To produce table margarine with melting point (m.p.) below 40 degrees C, the POs1 should be added at level of pastry margarine.

  13. Palm oil use in Mortadella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dany Pérez Dubé

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Palm (Elaeis guineensis oil and its fractions can be combined to obtain designed fats with desired composition and physical properties. Incorporation of this type of ingredient in meat products can influence meat products process and sensory quality. In this study, a mixture of palm refined oil and stearin were employed to replace pork fat in a mortadella type product. A two-component mixture design was employed by the D-optimum design. Moisture, fat, protein, cocking losses and instrumental texture profiles were determined, besides a sensory evaluation. Results indicate that 8.8 % of pork fat can be replaced to obtain a good quality mortadella. Maximum palm fat in formulation was 44% of total fat content.

  14. Applicability of the Clean Water Act to Indian tribes - may tribes stop or constrain a cleanup?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emge, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    Indian tribes retain their sovereign rights of self-government and self-determination unless it is specifically waived by the tribe or abrogated by the US Congress, through treaty or statute. The Clean Water Act does not specifically abrogate tribal sovereignty. This raises the issue of what would occur if an on-scene coordinator decides that cleanup of tribal lands is necessary to protect the public health and welfare, but the tribe does not want the cleanup activities to proceed? May a tribe impede cleanup efforts? During the cleanup of the barge Nestucca oil spill, this occurred when the Quinault Tribe did not allow the OSC to clean lands that the tribe holds sacred. This issue with the Clean Water Act has not been decided by Congress, nor by the courts. Recently, courts have applied at least three different approaches to determine if a statute of general application, such as the Clean Water Act, applies to Indian tribes. The different tests do not always yield the same result. An on-scene coordinator, when confronted with this scenario, might handle the situation in several different ways, or perhaps move to prevent such an occurrence. The different approaches used by the courts can be taken together to gain a sense of whether the Clean Water Act may preempt tribal sovereignty

  15. Federally-Recognized Tribes of the Columbia-Snake Basin.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration

    1997-11-01

    This is an omnibus publication about the federally-recognized Indian tribes of the Columbia-Snake river basin, as presented by themselves. It showcases several figurative and literal snapshots of each tribe, bits and pieces of each tribe`s story. Each individual tribe or tribal confederation either submitted its own section to this publication, or developed its own section with the assistance of the writer-editor. A federally-recognized tribe is an individual Indian group, or confederation of Indian groups, officially acknowledged by the US government for purposes of legislation, consultation and benefits. This publication is designed to be used both as a resource and as an introduction to the tribes. Taken together, the sections present a rich picture of regional indian culture and history, as told by the tribes.

  16. BIODIESEL FUELS FROM PALM OIL, PALM OIL METHYLESTER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    determined by methods outlined by A.O.C.S. (American Oil Chemist Society) [12], Usoro et al. [15], Clark [2], and ... diesel have shown that novel vegetable diesels could be obtained from palm oil. .... C-H stretch for alkenes and aromatics.

  17. African fan palm (Borassus aethiopum) and oil palm (Elaeis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Joao Bila

    In this study, potential alternate hosts of the phytoplasma causing coconut lethal yellowing disease. (CLYD) in Mozambique were investigated based on 16S rRNA and secA genes. The results reveal that the naturalized palm species, Elaeis guineensis and Borassus aethiopum are alternate hosts of CLYD phytoplasma in ...

  18. Mescalero Apache Tribe Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peso, F.

    1992-03-13

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended, authorizes the siting, construction and operation of a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. The MRS is intended to be used for the temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel from the nation's nuclear power plants beginning as early as 1998. Pursuant to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator was created. On October 7, 1991, the Nuclear Waste Negotiator invited the governors of states and the Presidents of Indian tribes to apply for government grants in order to conduct a study to assess under what conditions, if any, they might consider hosting an MRS facility. Pursuant to this invitation, on October 11, 1991 the Mescalero Apache Indian Tribe of Mescalero, NM applied for a grant to conduct a phased, preliminary study of the safety, technical, political, environmental, social and economic feasibility of hosting an MRS. The preliminary study included: (1) An investigative education process to facilitate the Tribe's comprehensive understanding of the safety, environmental, technical, social, political, and economic aspects of hosting an MRS, and; (2) The development of an extensive program that is enabling the Tribe, in collaboration with the Negotiator, to reach an informed and carefully researched decision regarding the conditions, (if any), under which further pursuit of the MRS would be considered. The Phase 1 grant application enabled the Tribe to begin the initial activities necessary to determine whether further consideration is warranted for hosting the MRS facility. The Tribe intends to pursue continued study of the MRS in order to meet the following objectives: (1) Continuing the education process towards a comprehensive understanding of the safety, environmental, technical, social and economic aspects of the MRS; (2) Conducting an effective public participation and information program; (3) Participating in MRS meetings.

  19. Mescalero Apache Tribe Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peso, F.

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended, authorizes the siting, construction and operation of a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. The MRS is intended to be used for the temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel from the nation's nuclear power plants beginning as early as 1998. Pursuant to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator was created. On October 7, 1991, the Nuclear Waste Negotiator invited the governors of states and the Presidents of Indian tribes to apply for government grants in order to conduct a study to assess under what conditions, if any, they might consider hosting an MRS facility. Pursuant to this invitation, on October 11, 1991 the Mescalero Apache Indian Tribe of Mescalero, NM applied for a grant to conduct a phased, preliminary study of the safety, technical, political, environmental, social and economic feasibility of hosting an MRS. The preliminary study included: (1) An investigative education process to facilitate the Tribe's comprehensive understanding of the safety, environmental, technical, social, political, and economic aspects of hosting an MRS, and; (2) The development of an extensive program that is enabling the Tribe, in collaboration with the Negotiator, to reach an informed and carefully researched decision regarding the conditions, (if any), under which further pursuit of the MRS would be considered. The Phase 1 grant application enabled the Tribe to begin the initial activities necessary to determine whether further consideration is warranted for hosting the MRS facility. The Tribe intends to pursue continued study of the MRS in order to meet the following objectives: (1) Continuing the education process towards a comprehensive understanding of the safety, environmental, technical, social and economic aspects of the MRS; (2) Conducting an effective public participation and information program; (3) Participating in MRS meetings

  20. Systematic wood anatomy of the tribe Guettardeae (Rubiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welle, ter B.J.H.; Loureiro, A.A.; Lisboa, P.L.B.; Koek-Noorman, J.

    1983-01-01

    Systematic wood anatomy of the tribe Guettardeae (Rubiaceae). The wood anatomy of nearly all genera of the Guettardeae (Rubiaceae, Guettardoideae) has been examined, and in this respect the tribe is heterogeneous. Suggestions are made for a delimitation of the tribe. Guettarda, Bobea, Antirhea,

  1. Long-term response of Caribbean palm forests to hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel Lugo; J.L. Frangi

    2016-01-01

    We studied the response of Prestoea montana (Sierra Palm, hereafter Palm) brakes and a Palm floodplain forest to hurricanes in the Luquillo Experimental Forest in Puerto Rico. Over a span of 78 years, 3 hurricanes passed over the study sites for which we have 64 years of measurements for Palm brakes and 20 years for the Palm floodplain forest. For each stand, species...

  2. for palm kernel oil extraction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Palm nut shell is an aggregate replacement material in concrete production [1]. It is also an economically and ... requirements amongst the machine parameters of vegetable oil expellers. A manually-operated screw ... using such indices as feed rate, capacity, percentage oil recovery, machine efficiency, and oil yield.

  3. Research advancements in palm oil nutrition*

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Choo Yuen; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi

    2014-01-01

    Palm oil is the major oil produced, with annual world production in excess of 50 million tonnes. About 85% of global palm oil produced is used in food applications. Over the past three decades, research on nutritional benefits of palm oil have demonstrated the nutritional adequacy of palm oil and its products, and have resulted in transitions in the understanding these attributes. Numerous studies have demonstrated that palm oil was similar to unsaturated oils with regards to effects on blood lipids. Palm oil provides a healthy alternative to trans-fatty acid containing hydrogenated fats that have been demonstrated to have serious deleterious effects on health. The similar effects of palm oil on blood lipids, comparable to other vegetable oils could very well be due to the structure of the major triglycerides in palm oil, which has an unsaturated fatty acid in the stereospecific numbers (sn)-2 position of the glycerol backbone. In addition, palm oil is well endowed with a bouquet of phytonutrients beneficial to health, such as tocotrienols, carotenoids, and phytosterols. This review will provide an overview of studies that have established palm oil as a balanced and nutritious oil. PMID:25821404

  4. Research advancements in palm oil nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Choo Yuen; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi

    2014-10-01

    Palm oil is the major oil produced, with annual world production in excess of 50 million tonnes. About 85% of global palm oil produced is used in food applications. Over the past three decades, research on nutritional benefits of palm oil have demonstrated the nutritional adequacy of palm oil and its products, and have resulted in transitions in the understanding these attributes. Numerous studies have demonstrated that palm oil was similar to unsaturated oils with regards to effects on blood lipids. Palm oil provides a healthy alternative to trans-fatty acid containing hydrogenated fats that have been demonstrated to have serious deleterious effects on health. The similar effects of palm oil on blood lipids, comparable to other vegetable oils could very well be due to the structure of the major triglycerides in palm oil, which has an unsaturated fatty acid in the stereospecific numbers ( sn) -2 position of the glycerol backbone. In addition, palm oil is well endowed with a bouquet of phytonutrients beneficial to health, such as tocotrienols, carotenoids, and phytosterols. This review will provide an overview of studies that have established palm oil as a balanced and nutritious oil.

  5. The complete plastome of macaw palm [Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd. ex Mart.] and extensive molecular analyses of the evolution of plastid genes in Arecaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santana Lopes, Amanda; Gomes Pacheco, Túlio; Nimz, Tabea; do Nascimento Vieira, Leila; Guerra, Miguel P; Nodari, Rubens O; de Souza, Emanuel Maltempi; de Oliveira Pedrosa, Fábio; Rogalski, Marcelo

    2018-04-01

    The plastome of macaw palm was sequenced allowing analyses of evolution and molecular markers. Additionally, we demonstrated that more than half of plastid protein-coding genes in Arecaceae underwent positive selection. Macaw palm is a native species from tropical and subtropical Americas. It shows high production of oil per hectare reaching up to 70% of oil content in fruits and an interesting plasticity to grow in different ecosystems. Its domestication and breeding are still in the beginning, which makes the development of molecular markers essential to assess natural populations and germplasm collections. Therefore, we sequenced and characterized in detail the plastome of macaw palm. A total of 221 SSR loci were identified in the plastome of macaw palm. Additionally, eight polymorphism hotspots were characterized at level of subfamily and tribe. Moreover, several events of gain and loss of RNA editing sites were found within the subfamily Arecoideae. Aiming to uncover evolutionary events in Arecaceae, we also analyzed extensively the evolution of plastid genes. The analyses show that highly divergent genes seem to evolve in a species-specific manner, suggesting that gene degeneration events may be occurring within Arecaceae at the level of genus or species. Unexpectedly, we found that more than half of plastid protein-coding genes are under positive selection, including genes for photosynthesis, gene expression machinery and other essential plastid functions. Furthermore, we performed a phylogenomic analysis using whole plastomes of 40 taxa, representing all subfamilies of Arecaceae, which placed the macaw palm within the tribe Cocoseae. Finally, the data showed here are important for genetic studies in macaw palm and provide new insights into the evolution of plastid genes and environmental adaptation in Arecaceae.

  6. Sault Tribe Wind Energy Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Osterhout; Global Energy Concepts

    2005-07-31

    The Sault Tribe conducted a feasibility study on tribal lands in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to determine the technical and economic feasibility of both small and large-scale wind power development on tribal lands. The study included a wind resource assessment, transmission system analysis, engineering and regulatory analyzes and assessments.

  7. Rgyas bzang Tibetan Tribe Hunting Lore

    OpenAIRE

    Bkra shis dpal 'bar

    2011-01-01

    The Yul shul (Yushu) Rgyas bzang Tribe historically possessed a rich hunting tradition. Wildlife was hunted for food and other animal products. By 2007, hunting culture had diminished due to improvements in living conditions, wildlife protection laws, greater state control of wildlife product skin market and gun ownership, animal diseases, and the absence of such wildlife as wild yaks in local areas.

  8. Sault Tribe Building Efficiency Energy Audits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, Jeffrey W.

    2013-09-26

    The Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians is working to reduce energy consumption and expense in Tribally-owned governmental buildings. The Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians will conduct energy audits of nine Tribally-owned governmental buildings in three counties in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to provide a basis for evaluating and selecting the technical and economic viability of energy efficiency improvement options. The Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians will follow established Tribal procurement policies and procedures to secure the services of a qualified provider to conduct energy audits of nine designated buildings. The contracted provider will be required to provide a progress schedule to the Tribe prior to commencing the project and submit an updated schedule with their monthly billings. Findings and analysis reports will be required for buildings as completed, and a complete Energy Audit Summary Report will be required to be submitted with the provider?s final billing. Conducting energy audits of the nine governmental buildings will disclose building inefficiencies to prioritize and address, resulting in reduced energy consumption and expense. These savings will allow Tribal resources to be reallocated to direct services, which will benefit Tribal members and families.

  9. The palms of South America: diversity, distribution and evolutionary history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Pintaud

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an inventory of South American palms including 457 species and 50 genera. The distribution of palms within seven phytogeographical entities is analyzed. Factors which influence the evolution of palms in South America are discussed.

  10. Factors affecting oil palm production in Ondo state of Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sola

    ... affecting oil palm production in predominantly oil palm producing areas of Ondo state of Nigeria. ... This was because the mangrove swamp zone does not .... Research stations e.g. NIFOR. Radio .... palm production management practices.

  11. Sugar palm (Argena pinnata). Potential of sugar palm for bio-ethanol production

    OpenAIRE

    Elbersen, H.W.; Oyen, L.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    The energetic and economic feasibility of bioethanol production from sugar palm is virtually unknown. A positive factor are the potentially very high yields while the long non-productive juvenile phase and the high labor needs can be seen as problematic. Expansion to large scale sugar palm cultivation comes with risks. Small-scale cultivation of sugar palm perfectly fits into local farming systems. In order to make a proper assessment of the value palm sugar as bio-ethanol crop more informati...

  12. Palm oil and the heart: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odia, Osaretin J; Ofori, Sandra; Maduka, Omosivie

    2015-03-26

    Palm oil consumption and its effects on serum lipid levels and cardiovascular disease in humans is still a subject of debate. Advocacy groups with varying agenda fuel the controversy. This update intends to identify evidence-based evaluations of the influence of palm oil on serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, it suggests a direction for future research. The sources of information were based on a PubMed, Google Scholar, African Journal online and Medline search using key words including: palm oil, palmitic acid, saturated fatty acids and heart disease. Published animal and human experiments on the association of palm oil and its constituents on the serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease were also explored for relevant information. These papers are reviewed and the available evidence is discussed. Most of the information in mainstream literature is targeted at consumers and food companies with a view to discourage the consumption of palm oil. The main argument against the use of palm oil as an edible oil is the fact that it contains palmitic acid, which is a saturated fatty acid and by extrapolation should give rise to elevated total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. However, there are many scientific studies, both in animals and humans that clearly show that palm oil consumption does not give rise to elevated serum cholesterol levels and that palm oil is not atherogenic. Apart from palmitic acid, palm oil consists of oleic and linoleic acids which are monounsaturated and polyunsaturated respectively. Palm oil also consists of vitamins A and E, which are powerful antioxidants. Palm oil has been scientifically shown to protect the heart and blood vessels from plaques and ischemic injuries. Palm oil consumed as a dietary fat as a part of a healthy balanced diet does not have incremental risk for cardiovascular disease. Little or no additional benefit will be obtained by replacing it with other oils rich in mono

  13. Tribal Energy Program for California Indian Tribes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-10

    A strategic plan is needed to catalyze clean energy in the more than 100 California Indian tribal communities with varying needs and energy resources. We propose to conduct a scoping study to identify tribal lands with clean energy potential, as well as communities with lack of grid-tied energy and communications access. The research focus would evaluate the energy mixture and alternatives available to these tribal communities, and evaluate greenhouse gas emissions associated with accessing fossil fuel used for heat and power. Understanding the baseline of energy consumption and emissions of communities is needed to evaluate improvements and advances from technology. Based on this study, we will develop a strategic plan that assesses solutions to address high energy fuel costs due to lack of electricity access and inform actions to improve economic opportunities for tribes. This could include technical support for tribes to access clean energy technologies and supporting collaboration for on-site demonstrations.

  14. Bereavement rituals in the Muscogee Creek tribe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Andrea C; Balk, David E

    2007-08-01

    A qualitative, collective case study explores bereavement rituals in the Muscogee Creek tribe. Data from interviews with 27 participants, all adult members of the tribe, revealed consensus on participation in certain bereavement rituals. Common rituals included: (a) conducting a wake service the night before burial; (b) never leaving the body alone before burial; (c) enclosing personal items and food in the casket; (d) digging graves by hand; (e) each individual throwing a handful of dirt into the grave before covering, called giving a "farewell handshake"; (f) covering the grave completely by hand; (g) building a house over the grave; (h) waiting 4 days before burial; (i) using medicine/purification; and (j) adhering to socialized mourning period. Cultural values of family, community, religion, importance of the number 4, Indian medicine, and the meaning of death contributed to the development of these rituals.

  15. Yerington Paiute Tribe Energy Plan Version 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Consulting, BB9 [BB9 Consulting; Director, Environmental

    2014-04-01

    The Yerington Paiute Tribe has made energy management and planning a priority. The Tribal Council has recognized that energy is an important component of their goal of self-sufficiency. Recognizing energy development as a component of the Tribe’s natural resources provides for needed economic development.A number of priorities have been identified for energy development. These range from immediate housing needs such as weatherization and solar to interest in energy as economic development.

  16. National Atlas, Indian tribes, cultures & languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturtevant, William C.

    1967-01-01

    Tribal distributions depicted on these maps (and on all other tribal maps covering a comparable area) are arbitrary at many points. Detailed knowledge of tribal areas was acquired at different times in different regions. For example, by the time knowledge was gained of the areas occupied by Plains tribes, many groups in the East had become extinct or had moved from their aboriginal locations. Some of these movements ultimately affected distributions on the Plains prior to reasonably detailed knowledge of Plains occupancy. Hence, it is not possible to approximate aboriginal areas of occupancy on a single map of continental scope. Furthermore, most groups did not occupy sharply defined areas, so that the delineation of territories is misleading.Distributions were derived, with slight modifications, from Indian tribes of North America (Driver and others, 1953), and boundaries within California were simplified after Languages, territories, and names of California Indian tribes (Heizer, 1966). According to the authors of these publications, the boundaries shown are those of the mid-17th century in the Southeast and the eastern part of the Northeast, the late 17th and early 18th centuries farther west in the Northeast, the late 18th and early 19th centuries in the Plains, the late 18th century in California, and the middle-to-late 19th century elsewhere. Even so, many compromises had to be made.

  17. BUILDING TRIBAL CAPABILITIES IN ENERGY RESOURCE TRIBES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mary Lopez

    2003-04-01

    The CERT Tribal Internship Program is part of the education and training opportunities provided by CERT to accelerate the development of American Indian technical professionals available to serve Tribes and expand the pool of these professionals. Tribes are severely impacted by the inadequate number of Indian professionals available to serve and facilitate Tribal participation and support of the energy future of Tribes,and subsequently the energy future of the nation. By providing interns with hands-on work experience in their field of study two goals are accomplished: (1) the intern is provided opportunities for professional enhancement; and (2) The pool of Indian professionals available to meet the needs of Tribal government and Tribal communities in general is increased. As of January 17, 2003, Lance M Wyatt successfully completed his internship with the Interagency Working Group on Environmental Justice on the Task Force that specifically focuses their work on Tribal nations. While working as an intern with the National Transportation Program, Albuquerque operations, Jacqueline Agnew received an offer to work for the Alaska Native Health Board in Anchorage, Alaska. This was an opportunity that Ms. Agnew did not feel she could afford to forego and she left her internship position in February 2003. At present, CERT is in the process of finding another qualified individual to replace the internship position vacated by Ms. Agnew. Mr. Wyatt's and Ms. Agnew's final comments are given.

  18. Biology of the Mangrove Palm, Nypa fruticans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Anders S.

    The Southeast Asian mangrove palm Nypa fruticans Wurmb occurs in large, monospecific stands in estuaries and along rivers. It is the only member of the subfamily Nypoideae, which derived early in palm evolution and is known from a fossil record extending back in time at least 70 millions years...

  19. Palm yellows phytoplasmas and their genetic classification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Palm yellows phytoplasmas have been a subject of debate because of two recent outbreaks. Firstly, a lethal yellowing-type phytoplasma disease was recorded on a number of palm species of mainly the genus Phoenix in Florida in 2008. Shortly afterwards, Sabal palmetto which has never been threatened by a ...

  20. Palm distributions for log Gaussian Cox processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coeurjolly, Jean-Francois; Møller, Jesper; Waagepetersen, Rasmus

    This paper reviews useful results related to Palm distributions of spatial point processes and provides a new result regarding the characterization of Palm distributions for the class of log Gaussian Cox processes. This result is used to study functional summary statistics for a log Gaussian Cox...

  1. Palm distributions for log Gaussian Cox processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coeurjolly, Jean-Francois; Møller, Jesper; Waagepetersen, Rasmus Plenge

    2017-01-01

    This paper establishes a remarkable result regarding Palm distributions for a log Gaussian Cox process: the reduced Palm distribution for a log Gaussian Cox process is itself a log Gaussian Cox process that only differs from the original log Gaussian Cox process in the intensity function. This new...... result is used to study functional summaries for log Gaussian Cox processes....

  2. Council of Energy Resources Tribes 1993 summer internship report: Nez Perce Tribe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crow, J.S.

    1993-08-01

    This paper is designed to be a working part of a larger project which would deal with the topic of Tribal interests affected by the DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management program and the approaches by which those Tribal interests can be advanced. Topics discussed in this paper include: background history of the Nez Perce Tribe`s relations with the US government; a Nez Perce view of tribal interests affected by DOE activities at Hanford; and a Nez Perce framework for private/governmental/tribal interest.

  3. Factors Affecting Oil Palm Production in Ondo State of Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The discovery of crude oil and the civil war adversely affected oil palm production in Nigeria. This has resulted in scarcity and high cost of palm products and palm oil. The study therefore investigated the factors influencing oil palm production in Ondo State, Nigeria. One hundred and fifty respondents were selected from ...

  4. Effect Of Weed On Oil Palm Inflorenscence Production: Implication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Weed consistently depressed the performance of oil palm and this depressive effect was attributed to aggressive growth resources, smothering of the oil palm and preventing the palm from proper ventilation and solar radiation. Weed interference on inflorescence production of oil palm was assessed with the view of ...

  5. Palm oil based polyols for acrylated polyurethane production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rida Tajau; Mohd Hilmi Mahmood; Mek Zah Salleh; Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan; Rosley Che Ismail

    2006-01-01

    Palm oil becomes important renewable resources for the production of polyols for the polyurethane manufacturing industry. The main raw materials used for the production of acrylated polyurethane are polyols, isocyanates and hydroxyl terminated acrylate compounds. In these studies, polyurethane based natural polymer (palm oil), i.e., POBUA (Palm Oil Based Urethane Acrylate) were prepared from three different types of palm oil based polyols i.e., epoxidised palm oil (EPOP), palm oil oleic acid and refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm olein based polyols. The performances of these three acrylated polyurethanes when used for coatings and adhesives were determined and compared with each other. (Author)

  6. 25 CFR 115.804 - Will we account to a tribe for those trust funds the tribe receives through direct pay?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Will we account to a tribe for those trust funds the... OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES TRUST FUNDS FOR TRIBES AND INDIVIDUAL INDIANS Tribal Accounts § 115.804 Will we account to a tribe for those trust funds the tribe receives through direct pay? No...

  7. Mating Compatibility and Restriction Analysis of Ganoderma Isolates from Oil Palm and Other Palm Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Chan Jer; Seman, Idris Abu; Zakaria, Latiffah

    2015-12-01

    Mating compatibility and restriction analyses of Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions were performed to determine the relations between Ganoderma boninense, the most common species associated with basal stem rot in oil palm and Ganoderma isolates from infected oil palm, two ornamental palms, sealing wax palm (Cyrtostachys renda) and MacArthur palm (Ptychosperma macarthurii), an isolate from coconut stump (Cocos nucifera), Ganoderma miniatocinctum, Ganoderma zonatum and Ganoderma tornatum. The results showed that G. boninense was compatible with Ganoderma isolates from oil palm, G. miniatocinctum and G. zonatum, Ganoderma isolates from sealing wax palm, MacArthur palm and coconut stump. G. boninense was not compatible with G. tornatum. Therefore, the results suggested that the G. boninense, G. miniatocinctum, G. zonatum, and Ganoderma isolates from oil palm, ornamental palms and coconut stump could represent the same biological species. In performing a restriction analysis of the ITS regions, variations were observed in which five haplotypes were generated from the restriction patterns. An unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) cluster analysis showed that all the Ganoderma isolates were grouped into five primary groups, and the similarity values of the isolates ranged from 97% to 100%. Thus, a restriction analysis of the ITS regions showed that G. boninense and the Ganoderma isolates from other palm hosts were closely related. On the basis of the mating compatibility test and the restriction analysis of the ITS regions performed in this study, a diverse group of Ganoderma species from oil palm and other palm hosts are closely related, except for G. tornatum and Ganoderma isolates from tea and rubber.

  8. Mating Compatibility and Restriction Analysis of Ganoderma Isolates from Oil Palm and Other Palm Hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Chan Jer; Seman, Idris Abu; Zakaria, Latiffah

    2015-01-01

    Mating compatibility and restriction analyses of Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions were performed to determine the relations between Ganoderma boninense, the most common species associated with basal stem rot in oil palm and Ganoderma isolates from infected oil palm, two ornamental palms, sealing wax palm (Cyrtostachys renda) and MacArthur palm (Ptychosperma macarthurii), an isolate from coconut stump (Cocos nucifera), Ganoderma miniatocinctum, Ganoderma zonatum and Ganoderma tornatum. The results showed that G. boninense was compatible with Ganoderma isolates from oil palm, G. miniatocinctum and G. zonatum, Ganoderma isolates from sealing wax palm, MacArthur palm and coconut stump. G. boninense was not compatible with G. tornatum. Therefore, the results suggested that the G. boninense, G. miniatocinctum, G. zonatum, and Ganoderma isolates from oil palm, ornamental palms and coconut stump could represent the same biological species. In performing a restriction analysis of the ITS regions, variations were observed in which five haplotypes were generated from the restriction patterns. An unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) cluster analysis showed that all the Ganoderma isolates were grouped into five primary groups, and the similarity values of the isolates ranged from 97% to 100%. Thus, a restriction analysis of the ITS regions showed that G. boninense and the Ganoderma isolates from other palm hosts were closely related. On the basis of the mating compatibility test and the restriction analysis of the ITS regions performed in this study, a diverse group of Ganoderma species from oil palm and other palm hosts are closely related, except for G. tornatum and Ganoderma isolates from tea and rubber. PMID:26868709

  9. Penetuan Bilangan Iodin pada Hydrogenated Palm Kernel Oil (HPKO) dan Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Kernel Oil (RBDPKO)

    OpenAIRE

    Sitompul, Monica Angelina

    2015-01-01

    Have been conducted Determination of Iodin Value by method titration to some Hydrogenated Palm Kernel Oil (HPKO) and Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Kernel Oil (RBDPKO). The result of analysis obtained the Iodin Value in Hydrogenated Palm Kernel Oil (A) = 0,16 gr I2/100gr, Hydrogenated Palm Kernel Oil (B) = 0,20 gr I2/100gr, Hydrogenated Palm Kernel Oil (C) = 0,24 gr I2/100gr. And in Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Kernel Oil (A) = 17,51 gr I2/100gr, Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Kernel ...

  10. Protein sequences clustering of herpes virus by using Tribe Markov clustering (Tribe-MCL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamam, A.; Siswantining, T.; Febriyani, N. L.; Novitasari, I. D.; Cahyaningrum, R. D.

    2017-07-01

    The herpes virus can be found anywhere and one of the important characteristics is its ability to cause acute and chronic infection at certain times so as a result of the infection allows severe complications occurred. The herpes virus is composed of DNA containing protein and wrapped by glycoproteins. In this work, the Herpes viruses family is classified and analyzed by clustering their protein-sequence using Tribe Markov Clustering (Tribe-MCL) algorithm. Tribe-MCL is an efficient clustering method based on the theory of Markov chains, to classify protein families from protein sequences using pre-computed sequence similarity information. We implement the Tribe-MCL algorithm using an open source program of R. We select 24 protein sequences of Herpes virus obtained from NCBI database. The dataset consists of three types of glycoprotein B, F, and H. Each type has eight herpes virus that infected humans. Based on our simulation using different inflation factor r=1.5, 2, 3 we find a various number of the clusters results. The greater the inflation factor the greater the number of their clusters. Each protein will grouped together in the same type of protein.

  11. American palm ethnomedicine: A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balslev Henrik

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many recent papers have documented the phytochemical and pharmacological bases for the use of palms (Arecaceae in ethnomedicine. Early publications were based almost entirely on interviews that solicited local knowledge. More recently, ethnobotanically guided searches for new medicinal plants have proven more successful than random sampling for identifying plants that contain biodynamic ingredients. However, limited laboratory time and the high cost of clinical trials make it difficult to test all potential medicinal plants in the search for new drug candidates. The purpose of this study was to summarize and analyze previous studies on the medicinal uses of American palms in order to narrow down the search for new palm-derived medicines. Methods Relevant literature was surveyed and data was extracted and organized into medicinal use categories. We focused on more recent literature than that considered in a review published 25 years ago. We included phytochemical and pharmacological research that explored the importance of American palms in ethnomedicine. Results Of 730 species of American palms, we found evidence that 106 species had known medicinal uses, ranging from treatments for diabetes and leishmaniasis to prostatic hyperplasia. Thus, the number of American palm species with known uses had increased from 48 to 106 over the last quarter of a century. Furthermore, the pharmacological bases for many of the effects are now understood. Conclusions Palms are important in American ethnomedicine. Some, like Serenoa repens and Roystonea regia, are the sources of drugs that have been approved for medicinal uses. In contrast, recent ethnopharmacological studies suggested that many of the reported uses of several other palms do not appear to have a strong physiological basis. This study has provided a useful assessment of the ethnobotanical and pharmacological data available on palms.

  12. MHC Class II haplotypes of Colombian Amerindian tribes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunis, Juan J.; Yunis, Edmond J.; Yunis, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed 1041 individuals belonging to 17 Amerindian tribes of Colombia, Chimila, Bari and Tunebo (Chibcha linguistic family), Embera, Waunana (Choco linguistic family), Puinave and Nukak (Maku-Puinave linguistic families), Cubeo, Guanano, Tucano, Desano and Piratapuyo (Tukano linguistic family), Guahibo and Guayabero (Guayabero Linguistic Family), Curripaco and Piapoco (Arawak linguistic family) and Yucpa (Karib linguistic family). for MHC class II haplotypes (HLA-DRB1, DQA1, DQB1). Approximately 90% of the MHC class II haplotypes found among these tribes are haplotypes frequently encountered in other Amerindian tribes. Nonetheless, striking differences were observed among Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking tribes. The DRB1*04:04, DRB1*04:11, DRB1*09:01 carrying haplotypes were frequently found among non-Chibcha speaking tribes, while the DRB1*04:07 haplotype showed significant frequencies among Chibcha speaking tribes, and only marginal frequencies among non-Chibcha speaking tribes. Our results suggest that the differences in MHC class II haplotype frequency found among Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking tribes could be due to genetic differentiation in Mesoamerica of the ancestral Amerindian population into Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking populations before they entered into South America. PMID:23885196

  13. Advances in biofuel production from oil palm and palm oil processing wastes: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jundika C. Kurnia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the palm oil industry has been growing rapidly due to increasing demands for food, cosmetic, and hygienic products. Aside from producing palm oil, the industry generates a huge quantity of residues (dry and wet which can be processed to produce biofuel. Driven by the necessity to find an alternative and renewable energy/fuel resources, numerous technologies have been developed and more are being developed to process oil-palm and palm-oil wastes into biofuel. To further develop these technologies, it is essential to understand the current stage of the industry and technology developments. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the palm oil industry, review technologies available to process oil palm and palm oil residues into biofuel, and to summarise the challenges that should be overcome for further development. The paper also discusses the research and development needs, technoeconomics, and life cycle analysis of biofuel production from oil-palm and palm-oil wastes.

  14. Phylogenetic Analysis of Seven WRKY Genes across the Palm Subtribe Attaleinae (Arecaceae) Identifies Syagrus as Sister Group of the Coconut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerow, Alan W.; Noblick, Larry; Borrone, James W.; Couvreur, Thomas L. P.; Mauro-Herrera, Margarita; Hahn, William J.; Kuhn, David N.; Nakamura, Kyoko; Oleas, Nora H.; Schnell, Raymond J.

    2009-01-01

    Background The Cocoseae is one of 13 tribes of Arecaceae subfam. Arecoideae, and contains a number of palms with significant economic importance, including the monotypic and pantropical Cocos nucifera L., the coconut, the origins of which have been one of the “abominable mysteries” of palm systematics for decades. Previous studies with predominantly plastid genes weakly supported American ancestry for the coconut but ambiguous sister relationships. In this paper, we use multiple single copy nuclear loci to address the phylogeny of the Cocoseae subtribe Attaleinae, and resolve the closest extant relative of the coconut. Methodology/Principal Findings We present the results of combined analysis of DNA sequences of seven WRKY transcription factor loci across 72 samples of Arecaceae tribe Cocoseae subtribe Attaleinae, representing all genera classified within the subtribe, and three outgroup taxa with maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian approaches, producing highly congruent and well-resolved trees that robustly identify the genus Syagrus as sister to Cocos and resolve novel and well-supported relationships among the other genera of the Attaleinae. We also address incongruence among the gene trees with gene tree reconciliation analysis, and assign estimated ages to the nodes of our tree. Conclusions/Significance This study represents the as yet most extensive phylogenetic analyses of Cocoseae subtribe Attaleinae. We present a well-resolved and supported phylogeny of the subtribe that robustly indicates a sister relationship between Cocos and Syagrus. This is not only of biogeographic interest, but will also open fruitful avenues of inquiry regarding evolution of functional genes useful for crop improvement. Establishment of two major clades of American Attaleinae occurred in the Oligocene (ca. 37 MYBP) in Eastern Brazil. The divergence of Cocos from Syagrus is estimated at 35 MYBP. The biogeographic and morphological congruence that we see for

  15. Rainforests for palm oil?; Regenwaldopfer fuer Palmoel?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dany, C.

    2007-07-02

    Environmentalists are all fired up as rainforests are cut down for palm oil production in south eastern Asia. An international certification system is to ensure sustainable production and save the rainforests. (orig.)

  16. Phylogeny and palm diversity across scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Svenning, J.-C.; Baker, William J.

    spatial scales. Among others, we ask the following questions: To what extent can niche conservatism explain large-scale distribution patterns? Which assembly mechanisms are responsible for palm community composition on different spatial scales? What is the role of phylogenetic history for spatial patterns...... clustering. On a continental scale in the New World, we inferred from phylogenetic turnover that palms diversified mainly within seven biogeographic regions. This pattern of in situ diversification is strongly driven by a combination of phylogenetic niche conservatism, environmental filtering and dispersal...... limitation. Niche conservatism with respect to temperature seasonality and extremes emerges as an important determinant of palm species and clade distributions and thus there is concern that palms might be considerably vulnerable to climate change. On a regional to local scale in the Western Amazon...

  17. Eero Palm arhitekt / intervjueerinud Kristjan Prii

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Palm, Eero, 1974-

    2011-01-01

    Eero Palm arhitektiks saamisest, oma töödest, tööprotsessist, enda eramust, küsimustest, mida arhitekt peab lahendama objekti luues, kompromissidest, arengutest ehitusturul. Loetletud Eero Palmi töid

  18. Waste to Wealth: Hidden Treasures in the Oil Palm Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loh Soh Kheang; Astimar Abdul Aziz; Ravigadevi Sambathamurthi; Mohd Basri Wahid

    2010-01-01

    The palm oil industry plays an important role in the creation of waste to wealth using the abundant oil palm biomass resources generated from palm oil supply chain i.e. upstream to downstream activities. The oil palm biomass and other palm-derived waste streams available are oil palm trunks (felled), fronds (felled and pruned), shell, mesocarp fibers, empty fruit bunches (EFB), palm oil mill effluent (POME), palm kernel expelled (PKE), palm fatty acid distillates (PFAD), used frying oil (UFO), residual oil from spent bleaching earth (SBE) and glycerol. For 88.5 million tonnes of fresh fruit bunches (FFB) processed in 2008, the amount of oil palm biomass generated was more than 25 million tones (dry weight basis) with the generation of 59 million tonnes of POME from 410 palm oil mills. Oil palm biomass consists of mainly lignocellulose materials that can be potentially and fully utilized for renewable energy, wood-based products and high value-added products such as pytonutrients, phenolics, carotenes and vitamin E. Oil palm biomass can be converted to bio energy with high combustible characteristics such as briquettes, bio-oils, bio-producer gas, boiler fuel, biogas and bio ethanol. Oil palm biomass can also be made into wood-based products such as composite and furniture, pulp and paper and planting medium. The recovery of phenolics from POME as valuable antioxidants has potential drug application. Other possible applications for oil palm biomass include fine chemicals, dietary fibers, animal feed and polymers. There must be a strategic and sustainable resource management to distribute palm oil and palm biomass to maximize the use of the resources so that it can generate revenues, bring benefits to the palm oil industry and meet stringent sustainability requirements in the future. (author)

  19. Useful palms (Arecaceae near Iquitos, Peruvian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Balslev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the uses of 64 species of palms in 28 villages in Departamento de Loreto, Peru. There, the palms are of great use as food (Bactris gasipaes, Mauritia flexuosa, Euterpe precatoria, Oenocarpus bataua, for fiber production (Astrocaryum chambira, Aphandra natalia, for construction of houses (Euterpe precatoria, Iriartea deltoidea,Socratea exorrhiza, thatching (many species of Attalea, Lepidocaryum tenue and for many medicinal purposes (Euterpe precatoria, Oenocarpus bataua.

  20. Pollutant in palm oil production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Ehsan; Abdul Wahid, Mazlan

    2015-07-01

    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is a by-product of the palm industry and it releases large amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Water systems are also contaminated by POME if it is released into nonstandard ponds or rivers where it endangers the lives of fish and water fowl. In this paper, the environmental bottlenecks faced by palm oil production were investigated by analyzing the data collected from wet extraction palm oil mills (POMs) located in Malaysia. Strategies for reducing pollution and technologies for GHG reduction from the wet extraction POMs were also proposed. Average GHG emissions produced from processing 1 ton of crude palm oil (CPO) was 1100 kg CO2eq. This amount can be reduced to 200 kg CO2eq by capturing biogases. The amount of GHG emissions from open ponds could be decreased from 225 to 25 kg CO2eq/MT CPO by covering the ponds. Installation of biogas capturing system can decrease the average of chemical oxygen demand (COD) to about 17,100 mg/L and stabilizing ponds in the final step could decrease COD to 5220 mg/L. Using a biogas capturing system allows for the reduction of COD by 80% and simultaneously using a biogas capturing system and by stabilizing ponds can mitigate COD by 96%. Other ways to reduce the pollution caused by POME, including the installation of wet scrubber vessels and increasing the performance of biogas recovery and biogas upgrading systems, are studied in this paper. Around 0.87 m3 POME is produced per 1 ton palm fruit milled. POME consists of around 2% oil, 2-4% suspended solid, 94-96% water. In palm oil mills, more than 90% of GHGs were emitted from POME. From 1 ton crude palm oil, 1100 kg CO2eq GHGs are generated, which can be reduced to 200 kg CO2eq by installation of biogas capturing equipment.

  1. Palm Oil Milling Wastes and Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    A. C. Er; Abd. R.M. Nor; Katiman Rostam

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Palm oil milling generates solid wastes, effluent and gaseous emissions. The aim of this study is to assess the progress made in waste management by the Malaysian palm oil milling sector towards the path of sustainable development. Sustainable development is defined as the utilization of renewable resources in harmony with ecological systems. Inclusive in this definition is the transition from low value-added to higher value-added transformation of waste...

  2. [How are You, My Tribe? The Health Relationship Among the Tribe, Ethnic Group, and the Self].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasirisir, Kui

    2016-06-01

    Most papers on the status of indigenous health focus on health problems from the individual perspective in the hope that this will spread from the individual to tribal/ethnic perspectives. For most indigenous people, the 'tribe' is their home and this home has been affected by colonial society, which has changed tribal ethics and influenced the status of indigenous health. Similarly, there are fissures in the links between indigenous people and their tribes, their ancestry, and their land because of the loss of their land, traditional culture, and racial discrimination and prejudice. These result in an imbalance between indigenous people and their environment and have a deeply felt influence on indigenous health. Transitional justice is an approach to coping with these issues that include colonization, capitalism, relationships with production, and promoting indigenous health.

  3. New initiatives for managment of red palm weevil threats to historical Arabian date palms

    Science.gov (United States)

    The date palm is an important part of the religious, cultural, and economic heritage of the Arabian Peninsula. This heritage is threatened by the recent invasion of the red palm weevil(RPW) from Southeast Asia. In Saudi Arabia, a national campaign for control of RPW by containment/destruction of inf...

  4. Analysis of total hydrogen content in palm oil and palm kernel oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A fast and non-destructive technique based on thermal neutron moderation has been used for determining the total hydrogen content in two types of red palm oil (dzomi and amidze) and palm kernel oil produced by traditio-nal methods in Ghana. An equipment consisting of an 241Am-Be neutron source and 3He neutron ...

  5. Sugar palm (Argena pinnata). Potential of sugar palm for bio-ethanol production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbersen, H.W.; Oyen, L.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    The energetic and economic feasibility of bioethanol production from sugar palm is virtually unknown. A positive factor are the potentially very high yields while the long non-productive juvenile phase and the high labor needs can be seen as problematic. Expansion to large scale sugar palm

  6. Wood anatomy of tribe Detarieae and comparison with tribe Caesalpinieae (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae) in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melandri, José Luis; de Pernía, Narcisana Espinoza

    2009-01-01

    We studied the wood anatomy of 29 species belonging to 10 genera of the tribe Detarieae, subfamily Caesalpinioideae and compare them with tribe Caesalpinieae. Detarieae is the largest of four tribes of Caesalpinioideae, with 84 genera, only eleven occur in Venezuela with species of timber importance. The specimens were collected in Venezuela and include wood samples from the collection of the Laboratorio de Anatomía de Maderas de la Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Ambientales de la Universidad de Los Andes, Venezuela, and of the Forest Products Laboratory of the USDA Forest Service in Madison, Wisconsin, USA. The terminology and methodology used followed the IAWA List of Microscopic Features for Hardwood Identification of the IAWA Committee, 1989. Measurements from each specimen were averaged (vessel diameters, vessel element lengths, intervessels pit size, fibre lengths and ray height). The species of Detarieae can be separated using a combination of diagnostic features. Wood characters that provide the most important diagnosis and may be used in systematics of Detarieae include: intercellular axial canals, rays heterocellular, rays exclusively or predominantly uniseriate, prismatic crystals common in ray cells, irregular storied structure and fibre wall thickness. For comparative anatomy between Detarieae and Caesalpinieae: intercellular axial canals, heterocellular rays, rays exclusively or predominantly uniseriate, prismatic crystals common in ray cells (in Detarieae) and regular storied structure, fibres septate, fibre wall thick or very thick, rays homocellular, multiseriate rays and silica bodies (in Caesalpinieae). Axial parenchyma is typically a good diagnostic feature for Leguminosae, but not for Detarieae and Caesalpinieae comparisons.

  7. Life Cycle Assessment for the Production of Oil Palm Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Halimah; Ai, Tan Yew; Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; May, Choo Yuen

    2014-12-01

    The oil palm seed production unit that generates germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain, followed by the nursery to produce seedling, the plantation to produce fresh fruit bunches (FFB), the mill to produce crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel, the kernel crushers to produce crude palm kernel oil (CPKO), the refinery to produce refined palm oil (RPO) and finally the palm biodiesel plant to produce palm biodiesel. This assessment aims to investigate the life cycle assessment (LCA) of germinated oil palm seeds and the use of LCA to identify the stage/s in the production of germinated oil palm seeds that could contribute to the environmental load. The method for the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is modelled using SimaPro version 7, (System for Integrated environMental Assessment of PROducts), an internationally established tool used by LCA practitioners. This software contains European and US databases on a number of materials in addition to a variety of European- and US-developed impact assessment methodologies. LCA was successfully conducted for five seed production units and it was found that the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm was not significant. The characterised results of the LCIA for the production of 1000 germinated oil palm seeds showed that fossil fuel was the major impact category followed by respiratory inorganics and climate change.

  8. San Carlos Apache Tribe - Energy Organizational Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, James; Albert, Steve

    2012-04-01

    The San Carlos Apache Tribe (SCAT) was awarded $164,000 in late-2011 by the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Tribal Energy Program's "First Steps Toward Developing Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency on Tribal Lands" Grant Program. This grant funded:  The analysis and selection of preferred form(s) of tribal energy organization (this Energy Organization Analysis, hereinafter referred to as "EOA").  Start-up staffing and other costs associated with the Phase 1 SCAT energy organization.  An intern program.  Staff training.  Tribal outreach and workshops regarding the new organization and SCAT energy programs and projects, including two annual tribal energy summits (2011 and 2012). This report documents the analysis and selection of preferred form(s) of a tribal energy organization.

  9. Phytonutrient deficiency: the place of palm fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattanapenpaiboon, Naiyana; Wahlqvist, Mark W

    2003-01-01

    The oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is native to many West African countries, where local populations have used its oil for culinary and other purposes. Large-scale plantations, established principally in tropical regions (Asia, Africa and Latin America), are mostly aimed at the production of oil, which is extracted from the fleshy mesocarp of the palm fruit, and endosperm or kernel oil. Palm oil is different from other plant and animal oils in that it contains 50% saturated fatty acids, 40% unsaturated fatty acids, and 10% polyunsaturated fatty acids. The fruit also contains components that can endow the oil with nutritional and health beneficial properties. These phytonutrients include carotenoids (alpha-,beta-,and gamma-carotenes), vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols), sterols (sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol), phospholipids, glycolipids and squalene. In addition, it is recently reported that certain water-soluble powerful antioxidants, phenolic acids and flavonoids, can be recovered from palm oil mill effluent. Owing to its high content of phytonutrients with antioxidant properties, the possibility exists that palm fruit offers some health advantages by reducing lipid oxidation, oxidative stress and free radical damage. Accordingly, use of palm fruit or its phytonutrient-rich fractions, particularly water-soluble antioxidants, may confer some protection against a number of disorders or diseases including cardiovascular disease, cancers, cataracts and macular degeneration, cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. However, whilst prevention of disease through use of these phytonutrients as in either food ingredients or nutraceuticals may be a worthwhile objective, dose response data are required to evaluate their pharmacologic and toxicologic effects. In addition, one area of concern about use of antioxidant phytonutrients is how much suppression of oxidation may be compatible with good health, as toxic free radicals are required for defence

  10. Molecular phylogeny of tribe Stachydeae (Lamiaceae subfamily Lamioideae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salmaki, Yasaman; Zarre, Shahin; Ryding, Olof

    2013-01-01

    this largest of all lamioid tribes. We included 143 accessions corresponding to 121 species, representing both Old and New World species, and all 12 recognized genera of tribe Stachydeae. Both nuclear and plastid data corroborate monophyly of the tribe, with Melittis as sister to all remaining Stachydeae...... subclades are congruent between the plastid and nuclear tree topologies, whereas their relative phylogenetic placements are often not. This level of plastid-nuclear incongruence suggests considerable impact of hybridization in the evolution of Stachydeae. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved....

  11. Climate Change Adaptation Needs of Male and Female Oil Palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2008 and Ayodele, 2010) and also results in an increase in demand for palm oil. The demand .... climate change adaptation practice needs of oil palm entrepreneurs in Edo State, .... female respondents had one form of education or the other.

  12. Effects of palm pollen on folliculogenesis process after treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of palm pollen on folliculogenesis process after treatment with cyclophosphamide among rats. ... Background and purpose: Palm pollen is a good source of natural antioxidants and has a high level of health ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  13. Turning palm leaves into wood: Opportunities for Egypt's rural ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-27

    Apr 27, 2016 ... Bedouin women weave handmade baskets, hats, and lamps using dried palm leaves. ... palm tree leaves into hardwood and high-quality wooden products, ... of wood and open doors to job opportunities for rural communities.

  14. Quality Assessment of Soaps Produced from Palm Bunch Ash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality Assessment of Soaps Produced from Palm Bunch Ash-Derived Alkali and ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... The remedial process involved subjecting the dried palm bunch matter to total combustion, ...

  15. Health promoting effects of phytonutrients found in palm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganathan, R; Selvaduray, K R; Nesaretnam, K; Radhakrishnan, A K

    2010-08-01

    The oil palm tree, Elaeis guineesis, is the source of palm oil, otherwise known as the "tropical golden oil". To date, Malaysia and Indonesia are the leading producers of palm oil. Palm oil is widely used for domestic cooking in Malaysia. Palm oil is a rich source of phytonutrients such as tocotrienols, tocopherol, carotene, phytosterols, squalene, coenzyme Q10, polyphenols, and phospholipids. Although the phytonutrients constitute only about 1% of its weight in crude palm oil, these are the main constituents through which palm oil exhibits its nutritional properties. Among the major health promoting properties shown to be associated with the various types of phytonutrients present in palm oil are anti-cancer, cardio-protection and anti-angiogenesis, cholesterol inhibition, brain development and neuro protective properties, antioxidative defence mechanisms, provitamin A activity and anti-diabetes.

  16. germplasm collection of highland palms of afikpo in eastern nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    1Plant Breeding Division, Nigerian Institute For Oil Palm Research (NIFOR) P.M.B 1030 .... computed following standard statistical methods (Steel .... The production of NIFOR elite ... Malaysia Palm Oil Board, Kualar Lumpur, pp 171 – 237.

  17. Political Role of Tribes : Analysis of Tribalism, Islamism and Gender ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Political Role of Tribes : Analysis of Tribalism, Islamism and Gender in Iraq, Jordan ... When countries such as Jordan and Yemen adopted political pluralism, the ... Sign up now for IDRC news and views sent directly to your inbox each month.

  18. Rhinovirus antibodies in an isolated Amazon Indian tribe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thwing, C J; Arruda, E; Vieira Filho, J P; Castelo Filho, A; Gwaltney, J M

    1993-06-01

    In early 1985, the Parakana-Apiterewa, a small, primitive Indian tribe, was contacted in the southern Amazon Basin. The tribe was thought to have been totally isolated from civilization until recent development of their land. Blood specimens were collected in 1985, shortly after the discovery of the tribe, and analyzed for the presence of rhinovirus-neutralizing antibody to nine different immunotypes. Six to forty-seven percent of the serum samples tested contained antibody to at least one immunotype of rhinovirus. The prevalence of rhinovirus antibody in the Parakana-Apiterewa Indians was similar to that reported in United States populations, suggesting that there had been considerable direct or indirect contact in the past between tribe members and persons in the outside world.

  19. Washoe Tribe Alternative Energy Feasibility Study Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Jennifer [Washoe Tribe of NV and CA

    2014-10-01

    The Washoe Tribe of Nevada and California was awarded funding to complete the Washoe Tribe Alternative Energy Feasibility Study project. The main goal of the project was to complete an alternative energy feasibility study. This study was completed to evaluate “the potential for development of a variety of renewable energy projects and to conduct an alternative energy feasibility study that determines which alternative energy resources have the greatest economic opportunity for the Tribe, while respecting cultural and environmental values” (Baker-Tilly, 2014). The study concluded that distributed generation solar projects are the best option for renewable energy development and asset ownership for the Washoe Tribe. Concentrating solar projects, utility scale wind projects, geothermal, and biomass resource projects were also evaluated during the study and it was determined that these alternatives would not be feasible at this time.

  20. Palms and Palm Communities in the Upper Ucayali River Valley - a Little-Known Region in the Amazon Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik; Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Kristiansen, Thea

    2010-01-01

    The Amazon region and its palms are inseparable. Palms make up such an important part of the rain forest ecosystem that it is impossible to imagine the Amazon basin without them. Palms are visible in the canopy and often fill up the forest understory. Palms – because of their edible fruits...... – are cornerstone species for the survival of many animals, and palms contribute substantially to forest inventories in which they are often among the ten most important families. Still, the palms and palm communities of some parts of the Amazon basin remain poorly studied and little known. We travelled to a little......-explored corner of the western Amazon basin, the upper Ucayali river valley. There, we encountered 56 different palms, 18 of which had not been registered for the region previously, and 21 of them were found 150–400 km beyond their previously known limits....

  1. Penetration of RBD palm olein in a lyotropic liquid crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdan bin Suhaimi; Anuar bin Kasim

    1993-01-01

    The inner structure of lamellar liquid crystal before and after addition of RDB palm olein was characterised employing small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) technique and optical microscopy. Results show that the addition of RDB palm olein to both layered structure indicate a temporary disturbance resulting in penetration of RDB palm olein into the layered structure

  2. The Performance Of Oil Palm And Different Food Crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was carried out between 1996 and 2004 to determine the productivity and economic returns to the resource base of farmers practicing different oil palm/food crop intercropping in an intensive four-year sequential cropping using the standard oil palm density. Oil palm was intercropped for four years, ...

  3. Challenges and Prospects of Smallholder Oil Palm Production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the challenges and prospects of smallholder oil palm production in Awka Agricultural Zone of Anambra State. Seventy two smallholder oil palm farmers were interviewed for the purpose of eliciting information. Smallholder oil palm farmers in Awka Agricultural Zone were educated (79.2% - Senior ...

  4. Genetic comparisons of Egyptian date palm cultivars (Phoenix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA technique was used to compare genetic material from four females date palm and four unknown male trees of Egyptian date palm. The genetic similarity between the four females date palm (Zaghloul, Amhat, Samany and Siwi) ranged from 87.5 to 98.9%. The banding profiles obtained ...

  5. Zero additives preservation of Raphia palm wine | Dioha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Palm wine obtained from Raphia palm (Raphia hookeri) in Ayingba, Kogi State, Nigeria, was pasteurized through zero addition of preservative and placed on the shelf for 6 months. After 6 months, another sample of palm wine obtained from the same area was fetched and comparative analysis was carried out on both wine ...

  6. Nanofibers extraction from palm mesocarp fiber for biodegradable polymers incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuana, Vanessa A.; Rodrigues, Vanessa B.; Takahashi, Marcio C.; Campos, Adriana de; Sena Neto, Alfredo R.; Mattoso, Luiz H.C.; Marconcini, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    The palm mesocarp fibers are residues produced by the palm oil industries. The objective of this paper is to determine an efficient treatment to extract crystal cellulose nanofibers from the palm mesocarp fibers to be incorporated in biodegradable polymeric composites. The fibers were saponified, bleached and analyzed with thermal gravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. (author)

  7. A tutorial on Palm distributions for spatial point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coeurjolly, Jean-Francois; Møller, Jesper; Waagepetersen, Rasmus Plenge

    2017-01-01

    This tutorial provides an introduction to Palm distributions for spatial point processes. Initially, in the context of finite point processes, we give an explicit definition of Palm distributions in terms of their density functions. Then we review Palm distributions in the general case. Finally, we...

  8. Economic Assessment of Palm Oil Processing in Owerri Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was on economic analysis of palm oil processing in Owerri Agricultural zone of Imo State, it was designed to determine the costs and returns of palm oil processing in the area of study. Seventy five (75) palm oil processors were randomly sampled from the study location and a structured interview schedule was ...

  9. Characterization of Diclofenac Liposomes Formulated with Palm Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To characterize diclofenac sodium (DS) liposomes prepared using palm oil fractions. Methods: Reverse-phase evaporation method was used to prepare liposomes containing 10, 20, 30 , 40 or 50% palm oil fractions. The effect of palm oil content on liposome formation, surface morphology, shape, size and zeta ...

  10. Contemporary land-use transitions: The global oil palm expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsager, Rico; Reenberg, Anette

    The present report aims at providing an overview of the magnitude and geographical distribution of oil palm cultivation. It also considers recent trends in the palm oil market and the future prospects for palm oil. By way of background, we briefly summarize the agroecological characteristics of o...

  11. Camphor Burns on the Palm: An Unusual New Presentation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in the center), and Type 3 (a full‑thickness burn exposing the palmar fascia). Conclusion: Different types of camphor burns on the palm are described in this study. This is the first study to report ring‑shaped blisters and ring‑shaped partially thick camphor burns caused on the palm. KEYWORDS: Camphor, palm burn, ring ...

  12. Predictive Model Equations for Palm Kernel (Elaeis guneensis J ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimated error of ± 0.18 and ± 0.2 are envisaged while applying the models for predicting palm kernel and sesame oil colours respectively. Keywords: Palm kernel, Sesame, Palm kernel, Oil Colour, Process Parameters, Model. Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology Vol. 6 (1) 2006 pp. 34-38 ...

  13. Evaluation of Palm Oil-Based Paracetamol Suppositories by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The suppository base was prepared by mixing hydrogenated palm oil and palm kernel ... DSC can be used to predict drug release in paracetamol suppository formulations. Keywords: Palm oil, Liquefaction time, Paracetamol, Suppositories, Thermal analysis. ..... Drug Evaluation & Research (CDER), Food and.

  14. Assessing the environmental impact of palm oil produced in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saswattecha, K.; Kroeze, C.; Jawjit, W.; Hein, L.G.

    2015-01-01

    There are several concerns related to the increasing production of palm oil in Southeast Asia, including pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and land conversion. The RSPO (Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil) certification standard provides an incentive for reducing environmental impacts of palm oil

  15. IMPACT OF PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT ON THE ACTIVITIES OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of palm oil mill effluent (POME) on some anti ... In Nigeria, palm oil production ... crude palm oil produced, 5-7.5 tonnes of water ... inter group comparison using least significant .... York, U.S.A. pp.

  16. Aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria from gut of red palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliver is one of the insects that attack date palm trees directly and cause its death. This infection poses serious economical consequences in Saudi Arabia and other gulf countries. RPW assimilates the components of palm tree tissues. Significant amount of microbiota in ...

  17. Species Diversity and Growth Forms in Tropical American Palm Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik; Kahn, Francis; Millán, Betty

    2011-01-01

    To advance our understanding of the processes that govern the assembly of palm communities and the local coexistence of numerous palm species, we here synthesize available information in the literature on species diversity and growth-form composition in palm communities across the Americas. Ameri...

  18. Pleurotus pulmonarius cultivation on amended palm press fibre waste

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the last few decades, rapid global demand for edible oils has resulted in a significant increase in the land area of oil crop cultivation. In the process of extraction of palm oil from oil palm fruit, biomass materials such as palm pressed fibre (PPF) are generated as waste products. This research was undertaken to evaluate ...

  19. 25 CFR 1000.73 - Once a Tribe/Consortium has been awarded a grant, may the Tribe/Consortium obtain information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Once a Tribe/Consortium has been awarded a grant, may the Tribe/Consortium obtain information from a non-BIA bureau? 1000.73 Section 1000.73 Indians OFFICE OF THE... § 1000.73 Once a Tribe/Consortium has been awarded a grant, may the Tribe/Consortium obtain information...

  20. Planning for seven generations: Energy planning of American Indian tribes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookshire, Daniel; Kaza, Nikhil

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of energy resources on American Indian lands, the links between energy management and tribal sovereignty, and recent federal government incentives make tribal energy planning an interesting case study for community energy planning in the US. This paper studies the strategic energy planning efforts, energy resource development, and energy efficiency policies established by tribes within the continental US. The paper analyzes the results of a survey of various tribes′ energy resource development and planning efforts and supplements the responses with publicly available information on resources, economics, and demographics. We find that incentives and advisory services from the federal government are key to developing the capacity of the tribes to pursue energy planning and energy resource development. These incentives largely avoid the misdeeds of past federal policy by promoting tribal control over energy planning and energy resource development efforts. Tribes with formal energy plans or visions are more likely to develop energy resources than tribes without them and are engaged in a more comprehensive and sustainable approach to energy resource development and energy efficiency. - Highlights: • American Indian tribal energy planning is an understudied topic. • Tribal energy planning is interconnected with tribal sovereignty and sustainability. • We report the results of a survey of energy planning and development efforts. • Federal Government assistance is critical to the efforts of the tribes. • Tribes with energy plans take a more comprehensive approach to energy resource development

  1. American Indian tribes and electric industry restructuring: Issues and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, D. [Morse, Richard, and Weisenmiller, and Associates Inc., Oakland, CA (United States); Busch, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Starrs, T. [Kelso, Starrs, and Associates LLC, Vashon, WA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The US electric utility industry is undergoing a period of fundamental change that has significant implications for Native American tribes. Although many details remain to be determined, the future electric power industry will be very different from that of the present. It is anticipated that the new competitive electric industry will be more efficient, which some believe will benefit all participants by lowering electricity costs. Recent developments in the industry, however, indicate that the restructuring process will likely benefit some parties at the expense of others. Given the historical experience and current situation of Native American tribes in the US, there is good reason to pay attention to electric industry changes to ensure that the situation of tribes is improved and not worsened as a result of electric restructuring. This paper provides a review of electricity restructuring in the US and identifies ways in which tribes may be affected and how tribes may seek to protect and serve their interests. Chapter 2 describes the current status of energy production and service on reservations. Chapter 3 provides an overview of the evolution of the electric industry to its present form and introduces the regulatory and structural changes presently taking place. Chapter 4 provides a more detailed discussion of changes in the US electric industry with a specific focus on the implications of these changes for tribes. Chapter 5 presents a summary of the conclusions reached in this paper.

  2. 25 CFR 1000.27 - How does the Director select which Tribes in the applicant pool become self-governance Tribes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... applicant pool become self-governance Tribes? 1000.27 Section 1000.27 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... for Participation in Tribal Self-Governance Admission into the Applicant Pool § 1000.27 How does the Director select which Tribes in the applicant pool become self-governance Tribes? The Director selects up...

  3. Oil Palm Expansion in the Brazilian Amazon (2006-2014): Effects of the 2010 Sustainable Oil Palm Production Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benami, E.; Curran, L. M.

    2017-12-01

    Brazil has the world's largest suitable land area for oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) establishment, with estimates as high as 238 million ha. To promote oil palm development, Brazil launched the Sustainable Palm Oil Production Program (SPOPP) in 2010 and delineated 30 million ha for its growth that excluded forested areas and indigenous reserves. Here we examine oil palm expansion (2006-2014) as well as the SPOPP's effectiveness in Pará, the major oil palm producing state in Brazil. By combining analyses of satellite imagery, land registration data, and site based interviews, we found that oil palm area expanded 205%. Although >50% of oil palm parcels were located within 0.5 km of intact forests, lands. Direct intact forest conversion pre- and post-SPOPP declined from 4% to <1%; however, <1% of the 30 million ha promoted for oil palm was developed by 2014. To explore the major factors that may have constrained oil palm expansion under the SPOPP, we conducted microeconomic simulations of oil palm production, combined with interviews with actors/individuals from oil palm companies, civil society, researchers at universities and NGOs, and governmental agencies. Brazil's oil palm-deforestation dynamics, policies, and economic conditions will be discussed.

  4. Amerindian names of Colombian palms (Palmae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marmolejo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A glossary of 1276 Amerindian names or name variants of palms is presented, representing at least 121 species in 64 aboriginal languages of Colombia. The species with documented names in the largest number of languages are Bactris gasipaes, Oenocarpus bataua, Mauritia flexuosa,Euterpe precatoria, andAstrocaryum chambira, which are five of the most used palms in South America. The languages with the largest number of named species are uitoto (48, tikuna (47, muinane (43, siona (34, sikuani (31 and miraña (30. These figures reflect the detailed studies carried out with these ethnic groups, besides the palm diversity of their territories and their knowledge about it. The names are presented in three separate lists –arranged by species, by language, and a global list of names that includes references for each individual record.

  5. UV curable palm oil based ink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mek Zah Salleh; Mohd Hilmi Mahmood; Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan; Rosley Che Ismail

    2002-01-01

    UV curable inks are useful for their instant drying, energy saving and high productivity properties. The basic materials for formulating UV curable inks consist of prepolymer, monomers, photoinitiators, pigments and other additives. The percentage composition and ingredients depend very much on the types of inks to be produced. Palm oil is one of the main raw materials available in the country. Hence, the diversification of palm oil derivatives into new products has been given priority. The current focus of the present work is to evaluate the use of palm oil urethane acrylate (POBUA) as a prepolymer in the UV ink system. A study was conducted on the use of POBUA with other materials in ink formulation. These include the types and concentration of photoinitiators, monomers and commercial urethane acrylates. The evaluation of the ink properties such as curing, adhesion, color density have been carried out. It was found that POBUA could be introduced in the UV ink system. (Author)

  6. UV curable palm oil based inks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mek Zah Salleh; Hilmi Mahmood

    2002-01-01

    UV curable inks are useful for their instant drying, energy saving and high productivity properties. The basic materials for formulating UV curable inks consist of prepolymer, monomers, photoinitiators, pigments and other additives. The percentage composition and ingredients depend very much on the types of inks to be produced. Palm oil is one of the main raw materials available in the country. Hence, the diversification of palm oil derivatives into new products has been given priority. The current focus of the present work is to evaluate the use of palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA) as a prepolymer in the UV inks system. A study was conducted on the use of POBUA with other materials in ink formulation. These include the types and concentration of photoinitiators, monomers and commercial urethane acrylates. The evaluation of the ink properties such as curing, adhesion, color density have been carried out. It was found that POBUA could be introduced in the UV ink system. (Author)

  7. A study of palm biomass processing strategy in Sarawak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. J. Y.; Ng, W. P. Q.; Law, K. H.

    2017-06-01

    In the past decades, palm industry is booming due to its profitable nature. An environmental concern regarding on the palm industry is the enormous amount of waste produced from palm industry. The waste produced or palm biomass is one significant renewable energy source and raw material for value-added products like fiber mats, activated carbon, dried fiber, bio-fertilizer and et cetera in Malaysia. There is a need to establish the palm biomass industry for the recovery of palm biomass for efficient utilization and waste reduction. The development of the industry is strongly depending on the two reasons, the availability and supply consistency of palm biomass as well as the availability of palm biomass processing facilities. In Malaysia, the development of palm biomass industry is lagging due to the lack of mature commercial technology and difficult logistic planning as a result of scattered locality of palm oil mill, where palm biomass is generated. Two main studies have been carried out in this research work: i) industrial study of the feasibility of decentralized and centralized palm biomass processing in Sarawak and ii) development of a systematic and optimized palm biomass processing planning for the development of palm biomass industry in Sarawak, Malaysia. Mathematical optimization technique is used in this work to model the above case scenario for biomass processing to achieve maximum economic potential and resource feasibility. An industrial study of palm biomass processing strategy in Sarawak has been carried out to evaluate the optimality of centralized processing and decentralize processing of the local biomass industry. An optimal biomass processing strategy is achieved.

  8. Radiation curing applications of palm oil acrylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Hilmi Mahmood; Khairul Zaman; Rida, Anak Tajau; Mek Zah Salleh; Rosley Che Ismail

    2007-01-01

    Various palm oil based urethan acrylate prepolymers (UP) were prepared from palm oil based polyols, diisocyanate compounds and hydroxyl terminated acrylate monomers by following procedure derived from established methods. The products were compared with each other in term of their molecular weights (MW), viscosities, curing speed by UV irradiation, gel contents and film hardness. The molecular structure of diisocyanate compounds and hydroxyl acrylate monomers were tend to determine the molecular weights and hence viscosities of the final products of urethan acrylate prepolymers (UP), whereas, the MW of the UP has no direct effects on the UV curing properties of the prepolymers. (author)

  9. Treatment of Palm Burns in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Argirova, M.; Hadzhiyski, O.

    2005-01-01

    The timing and methods of treatment of palm burns in children vary widely. From January 2002 to November 2004, 492 children with burns - 125 of them with hand burns or other body burns - were hospitalized and treated at the N.I. Pirogov Clinic for Burns and Plastic Surgery in Bulgaria. Fifty-four children (for a total of 73 burned hands) presented isolated palm burns.Twenty-two hands were operated on. In this review we present the incidence, causes, treatment methods, functional results, and ...

  10. SSR mining in oil palm EST database: application in oil palm ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Advanced Biotechnology and Breeding Centre, Malaysian Palm Oil Board, P.O. Box 10620,. 50720 Kuala Lumpur .... Genomic DNA was extracted from young leaves. The DNA ..... tries are essential to avoid the risk of genetic erosion. The.

  11. The Sustainability Status of Partnership of Palm Oil Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Daud

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of existence determining factor of PBS palm oil is a harmonious relation with communities surroundings, thus the partnership between the palm oil plantation with the farmers surroundings is one of effort which has created the harmonization in palm oil plantation. The objective of the article is to express the sustainability of each pattern of palm oil PBS partnership, and this partnership form gives the sustainability advantages for the farmer and palm oil PBS in Central Kalimantan. The article used quantitative method through the survey approach, primary data and secondary data. The article result there are three main patterns of palm oil plantation partnership in Central Kalimantan, they are MSA, KKPA, and IGA. IGA has value as a form which has degree of continuing that higher than MSA and KKPA, thus make IGA can be the reference in frame of PBS palm oil partnership in Central Kalimantan with keeping the superiority and improving the weaknesses.

  12. Current status of ethnobotany research on palms from Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquina Albán

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The current situation concerning research in ethnobotany and economic botany of Peruvian palms is analyzed through a review of the literature with emphasis on knowledge related to uses and vernacular names. Of the 136 Peruvian palm species, 104 have at least one use. A total of 268 different uses distributed in 16 categories were registered. The most frequent categories are "construction", "edible", "craft industry" and "medicinal". There are 109 palm species with at least one vernacular name in Peru. The consulted literature is analyzed in four categories: (i general studies in economic botany, (ii ethnographic and ethnobiological studies, (iii studies of South-American palms of economic interest, (iv studies that exclusively deal with the useful Peruvian palms. Ethnobotanical knowledge of Peruvian palms proves to be essentially descriptive, with much repetitive information. Studies that significantly contribute to the genetic or agronomical improvement of the economically promising palms are rare.

  13. Comparative alteration in atherogenic indices and hypocholesteremic effect of palm oil and palm oil mill effluent in normal albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiboye, John A; Erukainure, Ochuko L; Lawal, Babatunde A; Nwachukwu, Viola A; Tugbobo-Amisu, Adesewa O; Okafor, Ebelechukwu N

    2015-09-01

    The comparative hypocholesteremic effect of feeding palm oil and palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated in male albino rats. Diets were prepared and designed to contain 50% of energy as carbohydrate, 35% as fat, and 15% as protein. Groups of six rats were each fed one of these diets, while a group was fed pelletized mouse chow which served as the control. Feeding on palm oil and POME led to a significant increase (p palm oil fed rats compared to POME. These results indicate the protective potentials of palm oil against cardiovascular disease, as well as hyperlipidemia that characterize obesity and hypertension; as compared to its effluent.

  14. Bioactive compounds from palm fatty acid distillate and crude palm oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estiasih, T.; Ahmadi, K.

    2018-03-01

    Crude palm oil (CPO) and palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) are rich sources of bioactive compounds. PFAD is a by-product of palm oil refinery that produce palm frying oil. Physical refining of palm oil by deodorization produces palm fatty acid distillate. CPO and PFAD contain some bioactive compounds such as vitamin E (tocopherol and tocotrienols), phytosterol, and squalene. Bioactive compounds of CPO and PFAD are vitamin E, phytosterols, and squalene. Vitamin E of CPO and PFAD mainly comprised of tocotrienols and the remaining is tocopherol. Phytosterols of CPO and PFAD contained beta sitosterol, stigmasterol, and campesterol. Tocotrienols and phytosterols of CPO and PFAD, each can be separated to produce tocotrienol rich fraction and phytosterol rich fraction. Tocotrienol rich fraction from PFAD has both antioxidant and cholesterol lowering properties. Bioactive compounds of PFAD silmultaneously have been proven to improve lipid profile, and have hepatoprotector effect, imunomodulator, antioxidant properties, and lactogenic effect in animal test experiment. It is possible to develop separation of bioactive compounds of CPO and PFAD integratively with the other process that utilizes fatty acid.

  15. Draft genome sequence of an elite Dura palm and whole-genome patterns of DNA variation in oil palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jingjing; Lee, May; Bai, Bin; Sun, Yanwei; Qu, Jing; Rahmadsyah; Alfiko, Yuzer; Lim, Chin Huat; Suwanto, Antonius; Sugiharti, Maria; Wong, Limsoon; Ye, Jian; Chua, Nam-Hai; Yue, Gen Hua

    2016-12-01

    Oil palm is the world's leading source of vegetable oil and fat. Dura, Pisifera and Tenera are three forms of oil palm. The genome sequence of Pisifera is available whereas the Dura form has not been sequenced yet. We sequenced the genome of one elite Dura palm, and re-sequenced 17 palm genomes. The assemble genome sequence of the elite Dura tree contained 10,971 scaffolds and was 1.701 Gb in length, covering 94.49% of the oil palm genome. 36,105 genes were predicted. Re-sequencing of 17 additional palm trees identified 18.1 million SNPs. We found high genetic variation among palms from different geographical regions, but lower variation among Southeast Asian Dura and Pisifera palms. We mapped 10,000 SNPs on the linkage map of oil palm. In addition, high linkage disequilibrium (LD) was detected in the oil palms used in breeding populations of Southeast Asia, suggesting that LD mapping is likely to be practical in this important oil crop. Our data provide a valuable resource for accelerating genetic improvement and studying the mechanism underlying phenotypic variations of important oil palm traits. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  16. Trace elements and radionuclides in palm oil, soil, water, and leaves from oil palm plantations: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafisoye, O B; Oguntibeju, O O; Osibote, O A

    2017-05-03

    Oil palm (Elaeisguineensis) is one of the most productive oil producing plant in the world. Crude palm oil is composed of triglycerides supplying the world's need of edible oils and fats. Palm oil also provides essential elements and antioxidants that are potential mediators of cellular functions. Experimental studies have demonstrated the toxicity of the accumulation of significant amounts of nonessential trace elements and radionuclides in palm oil that affects the health of consumers. It has been reported that uptake of trace elements and radionuclides from the oil palm tree may be from water and soil on the palm plantations. In the present review, an attempt was made to revise and access knowledge on the presence of some selected trace elements and radionuclides in palm oil, soil, water, and leaves from oil palm plantations based on the available facts and data. Existing reports show that the presence of nonessential trace elements and radionuclides in palm oil may be from natural or anthropogenic sources in the environment. However, the available literature is limited and further research need to be channeled to the investigation of trace elements and radionuclides in soil, water, leaves, and palm oil from oil palm plantations around the globe.

  17. Application of Neuro-Fuzzy to palm oil production process | Odior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Palm oil is an important nutritional food requirement and in order to facilitate the production of palm oil for consumption, the production process of palm oil has been investigated. The basic operations involved in the production of edible palm oil include; purchase, transportation and reception of oil palm bunches; bunch ...

  18. Naturally p-Hydroxybenzoylated Lignins in Palms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachuang Lu; Steven D. Karlen; Matt Regner; Hoon Kim; Sally A. Ralph; Run-Cang Sun; Ken-ichi Kuroda; Mary Ann Augustin; Raymond Mawson; Henry Sabarez; Tanoj Singh; Gerardo Jimenez-Monteon; Sarani Zakaria; Stefan Hill; Philip J. Harris; Wout Boerjan; Curtis G. Wilkerson; Shawn D. Mansfield; John Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The industrial production of palm oil concurrently generates a substantial amount of empty fruit bunch (EFB) fibers that could be used as a feedstock in a lignocellulose based biorefinery. Lignin byproducts generated by this process may offer opportunities for the isolation of value-added products, such as p-hydroxybenzoate (pBz),...

  19. Palm fruit in traditional African food culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atinmo, Tola; Bakre, Aishat Taiwo

    2003-01-01

    The centre of origin of the oil palm is the tropical rain forest region of West Africa. It is considered to be the 200-300 kilometre wide coastal belt between Liberia and Mayumbe. The oil palm tree has remained the 'tree of life' of Yoruba land as well as of other parts of southern West Africa to which it is indigenous. The Yoruba are adept at spinning philosophical and poetical proverbs around such ordinary things as hills, rivers, birds, animals and domestic tools. Hundreds of the traditional proverbs are still with us, and through them one can see the picture of the environment that contributed to the moulding of the thoughts of the people. Yoruba riddles or puzzles were also couched in terms of the environment and the solutions to them were also environmental items. They have a popular saying: A je eran je eran a kan egungun, a je egungun je egungun a tun kan eran: 'A piece of meat has an outer layer of flesh, an intermediate layer of bone and an inner layer of flesh'. What is it? A palm fruit: it has an outer edible layer, the mesocarp; then a layer of shell, inedible, and the kernel inside, edible. The solution to this puzzle summarises the botanical and cultural characteristics of the palm fruit.

  20. Hybridization of Palm Wine Yeasts ( Saccharomyces Cerevisiae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haploid auxotrophic strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were selected from palm wine and propagated by protoplast fusion with Brewers yeast. Fusion resulted in an increase in both ethanol production and tolerance against exogenous ethanol. Mean fusion frequencies obtained for a mating types ranged between 8 x ...

  1. Glucose tolerance in two unacculturated Indian tribes of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielman, R S; Fajans, S S; Neel, J V; Pek, S; Floyd, J C; Oliver, W J

    1982-08-01

    Plasma levels of glucose, insulin, growth hormone, and pancreatic polypeptide in response to a standard oral glucose load were studied in the Yanomama and the Marubo, two relatively unacculturated Amerindian tribes of the Brazilian Amazon. The findings in the two tribes differed significantly from each other and in the degree of deviation from control subjects. The average responses in both tribes differed significantly from those of age- and sex-matched Caucasoid control subjects studied in Ann Arbor, Michigan; however, of the two tribes, the Marubo, the more acculturated group, resembled the controls more closely. Plasma concentrations of glucose and the hormones at three time points (fasting, 1 h, 2 h) were compared by means of a multivariate analysis. When the Marubo were compared with the control subjects, the only highly significant difference was in the plasma glucose concentrations (all three points were higher in the Marubo); however, the Yanomama differed significantly from the control subjects with respect to all four plasma indicators (p less than 0.05). Unlike the Marubo, the Yanomama showed no significant rise in plasma glucose at 1 h and no decrease at 2 h. Neither tribe exhibited the bimodality of the 2 h glucose value characteristic of acculturated Amerindians, such as the Pima, but the samples studied were small.

  2. Analyses of Hypomethylated Oil Palm Gene Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanthi, Nagappan; Mohd-Amin, Ab Halim; Azizi, Norazah; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Maqbool, Nauman J.; Maclean, Paul; Brauning, Rudi; McCulloch, Alan; Moraga, Roger; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina; Singh, Rajinder

    2014-01-01

    Demand for palm oil has been increasing by an average of ∼8% the past decade and currently accounts for about 59% of the world's vegetable oil market. This drives the need to increase palm oil production. Nevertheless, due to the increasing need for sustainable production, it is imperative to increase productivity rather than the area cultivated. Studies on the oil palm genome are essential to help identify genes or markers that are associated with important processes or traits, such as flowering, yield and disease resistance. To achieve this, 294,115 and 150,744 sequences from the hypomethylated or gene-rich regions of Elaeis guineensis and E. oleifera genome were sequenced and assembled into contigs. An additional 16,427 shot-gun sequences and 176 bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) were also generated to check the quality of libraries constructed. Comparison of these sequences revealed that although the methylation-filtered libraries were sequenced at low coverage, they still tagged at least 66% of the RefSeq supported genes in the BAC and had a filtration power of at least 2.0. A total 33,752 microsatellites and 40,820 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were identified. These represent the most comprehensive collection of microsatellites and SNPs to date and would be an important resource for genetic mapping and association studies. The gene models predicted from the assembled contigs were mined for genes of interest, and 242, 65 and 14 oil palm transcription factors, resistance genes and miRNAs were identified respectively. Examples of the transcriptional factors tagged include those associated with floral development and tissue culture, such as homeodomain proteins, MADS, Squamosa and Apetala2. The E. guineensis and E. oleifera hypomethylated sequences provide an important resource to understand the molecular mechanisms associated with important agronomic traits in oil palm. PMID:24497974

  3. Will oil palm's homecoming spell doom for Africa's great apes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wich, Serge A; Garcia-Ulloa, John; Kühl, Hjalmar S; Humle, Tatanya; Lee, Janice S H; Koh, Lian Pin

    2014-07-21

    Expansion of oil palm plantations has led to extensive wildlife habitat conversion in Southeast Asia [1]. This expansion is driven by a global demand for palm oil for products ranging from foods to detergents [2], and more recently for biofuels [3]. The negative impacts of oil palm development on biodiversity [1, 4, 5], and on orangutans (Pongo spp.) in particular, have been well documented [6, 7] and publicized [8, 9]. Although the oil palm is of African origin, Africa's production historically lags behind that of Southeast Asia. Recently, significant investments have been made that will likely drive the expansion of Africa's oil palm industry [10]. There is concern that this will lead to biodiversity losses similar to those in Southeast Asia. Here, we analyze the potential impact of oil palm development on Africa's great apes. Current great ape distribution in Africa substantially overlaps with current oil palm concessions (by 58.7%) and areas suitable for oil palm production (by 42.3%). More importantly, 39.9% of the distribution of great ape species on unprotected lands overlaps with suitable oil palm areas. There is an urgent need to develop guidelines for the expansion of oil palm in Africa to minimize the negative effects on apes and other wildlife. There is also a need for research to support land use decisions to reconcile economic development, great ape conservation, and avoiding carbon emissions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Environmental sustainability assessment of palm biodiesel production in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silalertruksa, Thapat; Gheewala, Shabbir H.

    2012-01-01

    The study assesses the environmental sustainability of palm biodiesel production systems in Thailand by focusing on their energy efficiency and environmental impact potentials. The Net Energy Balance (NEB) and Renewability indicate energy gain for palm biodiesel and its co-products as compared to fossil energy inputs. In addition, life cycle assessment also reveals lower values of environmental impact potentials of biodiesel as compared to conventional diesel. For example, palm biodiesel can provide greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction of around 46–73% as compared to diesel. Nitrogen-fertilizer production and application in the plantation and the air emissions from the ponds treating palm oil mill effluent (POME) are found to be the major environmental aspects. However, the energy and environmental performances depend on various factors such as the management efficiency of empty fruit bunches (EFB) and POME and the possible land-use change in the future. Recommendations are made for improving environmental performance of palm biodiesel and for securing the long-term availability of crude palm oil supply with a view towards sustainable palm biodiesel production. -- Highlights: ► Environmental sustainability of palm biodiesel production in Thailand is assessed. ► Palm biodiesel can provide GHG reduction of around 46–73% as compared to diesel. ► Net energy ratio and renewability of palm biodiesel both range between 2 and 4. ► Efficient use of by-products in the value chain enhances environmental benefits.

  5. Oil palm mapping for Malaysia using PALSAR-2 dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, P.; Qi, C. Y.; Yu, L.; Cracknell, A.

    2016-12-01

    Oil palm is one of the most productive vegetable oil crops in the world. The main oil palm producing areas are distributed in humid tropical areas such as Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, western and central Africa, northern South America, and central America. Increasing market demands, high yields and low production costs of palm oil are the primary factors driving large-scale commercial cultivation of oil palm, especially in Malaysia and Indonesia. Global demand for palm oil has grown exponentially during the last 50 years, and the expansion of oil palm plantations is linked directly to the deforestation of natural forests. Satellite remote sensing plays an important role in monitoring expansion of oil palm. However, optical remote sensing images are difficult to acquire in the Tropics because of the frequent occurrence of thick cloud cover. This problem has led to the use of data obtained by synthetic aperture radar (SAR), which is a sensor capable of all-day/all-weather observation for studies in the Tropics. In this study, the ALOS-2 (Advanced Land Observing Satellite) PALSAR-2 (Phased Array type L-band SAR) datasets for year 2015 were used as an input to a support vector machine (SVM) based machine learning algorithm. Oil palm/non-oil palm samples were collected using a hexagonal equal-area sampling design. High-resolution images in Google Earth and PALSAR-2 imagery were used in human photo-interpretation to separate oil palm from others (i.e. cropland, forest, grassland, shrubland, water, hard surface and bareland). The characteristics of oil palms from various aspects, including PALSAR-2 backscattering coefficients (HH, HV), terrain and climate by using this sample set were further explored to post-process the SVM output. The average accuracy of oil palm type is better than 80% in the final oil palm map for Malaysia.

  6. 18 CFR 2.1c - Policy statement on consultation with Indian tribes in Commission proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... relationship between the United States and Indian tribes as defined by treaties, statutes, and judicial... between these agencies and tribes. In essence, this means that consultation should involve direct contact...

  7. Life Cycle Assessment of Sago Palm, Oil Palm, and Paddy Cultivated on Peat Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saptarining Wulan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The continuously increasing population growth more than food agriculture growth on the existing land, has been encouraging to this research. The land use competition for agriculture and housing purposes have caused the land use change from forest to agriculture and housing. Within forested landscapes food production, commodity agriculture, biodiversity, resource extraction and other land uses are also competing for space. The forest land use change (deforestation is one of the climate change causes. The impact of climate change among others is the uncertain climate, such as the long drought period, flood, and the extreme temperature that cause decreasing in agriculture production. Therefore, at present, many people use the marginal land, such as peat land for agriculture cultivation to increase the food agriculture production and to achieve the domestic and export demand. Indonesia has a huge peat land and the fourth biggest in the world after Rusia, Canada, and America. The focus of this study is comparing the life cycle assessment of three agriculture commodities: sago palm, oil palm, and paddy cultivated on peat land. The purpose of this research is to contribute a recommendation of the most sustainable commodity from the aspect carbon dioxide (CO2 emission among three food agriculture commodities include oil palm and paddy that currently as excellent commodities, and sago palm, the neglected indigenous plant, which are cultivated on peat land. The method applied for this research to analyze the environmental aspect using life cycle assessment (LCA started from seedling, plantation, harvesting, transportation, and production process. The analysis result reveals that sago palm is the most environmental friendly. The lowest CO2 emission (ton/ha/year is sago palm (214.75 ± 23.49 kg CO2 eq, then paddy (322.03 ± 7.57 kg CO2 eq and the highest CO2 emission (ton/ha/year is oil palm (406.88 ± 97.09 kg CO2 eq.

  8. Life Cycle Assessment of Sago Palm, Oil Palm, and Paddy Cultivated on Peat Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saptarining Wulan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuously increasing population growth more than food agriculture growth on the existing land, has been encouraging to this research. The land use competition for agriculture and housing purposes have caused the land use change from forest to agriculture and housing. Within forested landscapes food production, commodity agriculture, biodiversity, resource extraction and other land uses are also competing for space. The forest land use change (deforestation is one of the climate change causes. The impact of climate change among others is the uncertain climate, such as the long drought period, flood, and the extreme temperature that cause decreasing in agriculture production. Therefore, at present, many people use the marginal land, such as peat land for agriculture cultivation to increase the food agriculture production and to achieve the domestic and export demand. Indonesia has a huge peat land and the fourth biggest in the world after Rusia, Canada, and America. The focus of this study is comparing the life cycle assessment of three agriculture commodities: sago palm, oil palm, and paddy cultivated on peat land. The purpose of this research is to contribute a recommendation of the most sustainable commodity from the aspect carbon dioxide (CO2 emission among three food agriculture commodities include oil palm and paddy that currently as excellent commodities, and sago palm, the neglected indigenous plant, which are cultivated on peat land. The method applied for this research to analyze the environmental aspect using life cycle assessment (LCA started from seedling, plantation, harvesting, transportation, and production process. The analysis result reveals that sago palm is the most environmental friendly. The lowest CO2 emission (ton/ha/year is sago palm (214.75 ± 23.49 kg CO2 eq, then paddy (322.03 ± 7.57 kg CO2 eq and the highest CO2 emission (ton/ha/year is oil palm (406.88 ± 97.09 kg CO2 eq.

  9. EFFECT OF PALM EMPTY BUNCH ASH ON TRANSESTERIFICATION OF PALM OIL INTO BIODIESEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Sibarani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel conversion from transesterification reaction palm oil with methanol was studied by using an ash of palm empty bunch as a base catalyst. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS and indicator titration analysis were used as tools for characterization of ash sample. Chemical structure of biodiesel was analyzed by GC-MS. The effects of ash sample weight (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 g immersed in 75 mL methanol and the methanol-palm oil mol ratio (3:1; 6:1; 9:1 and 12:1 toward the conversion of biodiesel were investigated. Biodiesel was prepared by refluxing palm oil and methanol containing ash sample. The reflux was done at room temperature for 2 h. Ester layer was distillated at 74 oC, extracted with aquadest and then dried using Na2SO4 anhydrous. The product was characterized by GC-MS, ASTM D 1298 (specific gravity 60/60 °F, ASTM D 97 (pour point, ASTM D 2500 (cloud point, ASTM D 93 (flash point, ASTM D 445 (kinematics viscosity 40 °C and ASTM D 482 (ash content. The result of GC-MS analysis showed that methyl palmitate is primary content of biodiesel product. A 15 g weight of ash sample gave the maximum biodiesel conversion. By increasing methanol mole quantity, biodiesel conversion increased progressively and maximum at 9:1 methanol-palm oil ratio (84.12 % and decreased on 12:1 ratio (75.58 %. Most of the biodiesel products were similar to those of the diesel physical characters.   Keywords: Biodiesel conversion, transesterification, palm oil, palm empty bunch

  10. Impact of Nigerian Institute For Oil Palm Research (N.I.F.O.R.) on oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIFOR) on oil palm industry in Nigeria. It interfaces of achievements and developmental strides of the Institute on oil palm industry in Nigeria from its was establishment during colonial period as Oil Palm Research Station (OPRS.) in 1939 ...

  11. A synopsis of the tribe Desmodieae (Fabaceae in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. D. Schrire

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available The tribe Desmodieae has a pantropical distribution and is one of the most advanced tribes in the subfamily Papilionoideae. Its greatest centres of development are in tropical Asia and America. Africa is relatively poorly endowed and only four genera comprising 16 species occur in the flora of southern Africa. Many of these species are widespread in the Old World tropics and the few African endemics appear to be closely related to them. A synopsis of the genera Desmodium, Pseudarthria, Alysicarpus and Lespedeza is given for southern Africa.

  12. Comparative transcriptome and metabolite analysis of oil palm and date palm mesocarp that differ dramatically in carbon partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgis, Fabienne; Kilaru, Aruna; Cao, Xia; Ngando-Ebongue, Georges-Frank; Drira, Noureddine; Ohlrogge, John B.; Arondel, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Oil palm can accumulate up to 90% oil in its mesocarp, the highest level observed in the plant kingdom. In contrast, the closely related date palm accumulates almost exclusively sugars. To gain insight into the mechanisms that lead to such an extreme difference in carbon partitioning, the transcriptome and metabolite content of oil palm and date palm were compared during mesocarp development. Compared with date palm, the high oil content in oil palm was associated with much higher transcript levels for all fatty acid synthesis enzymes, specific plastid transporters, and key enzymes of plastidial carbon metabolism, including phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and pyruvate dehydrogenase. Transcripts representing an ortholog of the WRI1 transcription factor were 57-fold higher in oil palm relative to date palm and displayed a temporal pattern similar to its target genes. Unexpectedly, despite more than a 100-fold difference in flux to lipids, most enzymes of triacylglycerol assembly were expressed at similar levels in oil palm and date palm. Similarly, transcript levels for all but one cytosolic enzyme of glycolysis were comparable in both species. Together, these data point to synthesis of fatty acids and supply of pyruvate in the plastid, rather than acyl assembly into triacylglycerol, as a major control over the storage of oil in the mesocarp of oil palm. In addition to greatly increasing molecular resources devoted to oil palm and date palm, the combination of temporal and comparative studies illustrates how deep sequencing can provide insights into gene expression patterns of two species that lack genome sequence information. PMID:21709233

  13. 25 CFR 170.149 - How do tribes identify transit needs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How do tribes identify transit needs? 170.149 Section 170... ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Transit Facilities § 170.149 How do tribes identify transit needs? Tribes identify transit needs during the tribal transportation...

  14. 25 CFR 170.122 - Can a tribe close a cultural access road?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a tribe close a cultural access road? 170.122 Section... ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Use of Irr and Cultural Access Roads § 170.122 Can a tribe close a cultural access road? (a) A tribe with jurisdiction over a cultural...

  15. 25 CFR 18.101 - May a tribe create and adopt its own tribal probate code?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May a tribe create and adopt its own tribal probate code... PROBATE CODES Approval of Tribal Probate Codes § 18.101 May a tribe create and adopt its own tribal probate code? Yes. A tribe may create and adopt a tribal probate code. ...

  16. 25 CFR 170.917 - Can tribes receive direct payment of tribal employment taxes or fees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Preference § 170.917 Can tribes receive direct payment of tribal employment taxes or fees? This section... payment schedule. Tribes may consider requesting direct payment of tribal employment taxes or fees from... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can tribes receive direct payment of tribal employment...

  17. 25 CFR 170.300 - May tribes use flexible financing to finance IRR transportation projects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Financing § 170.300 May tribes use flexible financing to finance IRR transportation projects? Yes. Tribes may use flexible financing in the same manner as States to finance IRR transportation projects, unless... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May tribes use flexible financing to finance IRR...

  18. The systematic wood anatomy of the Moraceae (Urticales) II. Tribe Dorstenieae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Topper, S.M.C.; Welle, ter B.J.H.

    1984-01-01

    The wood anatomy of the tribe Dorstenieae sensu Berg is described. Similarities and differences are discussed in relation to his concepts of the taxonomy of the tribe. Wood anatomically the tribe Dorstenieae is fairly homogeneous, Dorstenia deviating most in the juvenilistic composition of its rays,

  19. Palm harvest impacts in north-western South America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Tropical forests harbor thousands of useful plants that are harvested and used in subsistence economies or traded in local, regional or international markets. The effect on the ecosystem is little known, and the forests resilience is badly understood. Palms are the most useful group of plants...... in tropical American forests. This paper introduces a cross-disciplinary study of the effects of harvesting palm products from the tropical forests in north-western South America. The size of the resource is estimated through palm community studies in the different forest formations that determines the number...... of species and individuals of all palm species. The genetic structure of useful palm species is studied to determine how much harvesting of the species contributes to genetic erosion of its populations, and whether extraction can be made without harm. Almost all palm species are used in rural communities...

  20. Future prospects for palm oil refining and modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibon Véronique

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil is rich in minor components that impart unique nutritional properties and need to be preserved. In this context, refining technologies have been improved, with the dual temperature deodorizer, the double condensing unit and the ice condensing system. The DOBI is a good tool to assess quality of the crude palm oil and its ability to be properly refined. Specially refined oils open a market for new high quality products (golden palm oil, red palm oil, white soaps, etc.. Palm oil is a good candidate for the multi-step dry fractionation process, aiming to the production of commodity oils and specialty fats (cocoa butter replacers. New technological developments allow quality and yield improvements. Palm oil and fractions are also valuable feedstock for enzymatic interesterification in which applications are for commodity oil (low-trans margarines and shortenings and for special products (cocoa butter equivalents, infant formulation, ….

  1. Palm oil and the heart:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osaretin; J; Odia; Sandra; Ofori; Omosivie; Maduka

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil consumption and its effects on serum lipid levels and cardiovascular disease in humans is still a subject of debate. Advocacy groups with varying agenda fuel the controversy. This update intends to identify evidence-based evaluations of the influence of palm oil on serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, it suggests a direction for future research. The sources of information were based on a Pub Med, Google Scholar, African Journal online and Medline search using key words including: palm oil, palmitic acid, saturated fatty acids and heart disease. Published animal and human experiments on the association of palm oil and its constituents on the serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease were also explored for relevant information. These papers are reviewed and the available evidence is discussed. Most of the information in mainstream literature is targeted at consumers and food companies with a view to discourage the consumption of palm oil. The main argument against the use of palm oil as an edible oil is the fact that it contains palmitic acid, which is a saturated fatty acid and by extrapolation should give rise to elevated total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. However, there are many scientific studies, both in animals and humans that clearly show that palm oil consumption does not give rise to elevated serum cholesterol levels and that palm oil is not atherogenic. Apart from palmitic acid, palm oil consists of oleic and linoleic acids which are monounsaturated and polyunsaturated respectively. Palm oil also consists of vitamins A and E, which are powerful antioxidants. Palm oil has been scientifically shown to protect the heart and blood vessels from plaques and ischemic injuries. Palm oil consumed as a dietary fat as a part of a healthy balanced diet does not have incremental risk for cardiovascular disease. Little or no additional benefit will be obtained by replacing it with other oils rich in

  2. The Palm Wine Trade: Occupational and Health Hazards

    OpenAIRE

    L Mbuagbaw; SG Noorduyn

    2012-01-01

    The palm wine trade is an important economic activity for many tropical rural areas worldwide. In West Africa, palm wine holds high sociocultural and traditional values. Wine tappers often climb very tall trees with rudimentary equipment to harvest palm sap and risk severe injuries in the event of a fall. Furthermore, the wine quickly ferments beyond the desired taste and alcohol content, reducing the market power of these tappers. Therefore, to maximize benefits or to enhance shelf life, a v...

  3. Sugar palm ethanol. Analysis of economic feasibility and sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Staaij, J.; Van den Bos, A.; Hamelinck, C. [Ecofys Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands); Martini, E.; Roshetko, J.; Walden, D. [Winrock, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2011-08-15

    This study evaluates whether sugar palm is a suitable crop for biofuels and how production of ethanol from sugar palm in a large-scale setting is sustainable and economically feasible. Key questions are: Are the assumed high yields realistic in practice for sustained periods in largescale plantations?; Can sugar palm indeed compete economically with other crops for biofuels?; What are the effects of large-scale cultivation and processing of sugar palm for the natural environment and the local community? To answer these questions, Ecofys and Winrock have assessed the feasibility of largescale sugar palm cultivation for the production of ethanol using empirical data from existing sugar palm plantings. We analysed two production models to investigate the range of outcomes when varying important parameters: (1) a conservative system, whereby sugar palms are mixed with other crops and (2) an intensive system to explore the theoretical maximum yield when solely focusing on sugar palm. As background, Chapter 2 first describes the process of sugar palm cultivation, the 'tapping' and conversion into ethanol. Chapter 3 describes the data collection by Winrock. It presents an overview of the collected field data and explains the main empirical findings. Chapter 4 elaborates the two production systems and presents the results of the economic analyses (summarized in cash flow diagrams showing the timing of costs and benefits). Chapter 5 analyses the possible sustainability risks and benefits of sugar palm ethanol and investigates the integration possibilities of sugar palm in agro-forestry systems with other crops. Finally, Chapter 6 concludes by evaluating the potential of sugar palm as a source of biofuel and providing recommendations.

  4. The Factors Influencing on Consumption of Palm Cooking Oil in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermy Teti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cooking oil is one of the most sensitive basic needs in Indonesia. The aims of the researchare to analyze factors influencing consumption of cooking oil, the cooking oil price, and theCrude Palm Oil price in Indonesia. Using simultaneous equation model, the study show thatpalm cooking oil consumption is significantly affected by domestic palm cooking oil priceand number of population. Whilst palm cooking oil price is significantly influenced by thecooking palm oil production and the domestic Crude Palm Oil price. Finally, the domesticCrude Palm Oil is significantly affected by international Crude Palm Oil price.Keywords: consumption, cooking oil price, crude palm oil price and cooking oil

  5. Gender Identification in Date Palm Using Molecular Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Faisal Saeed; Maryam; Jaskani, Muhammad J; Sadia, Bushra

    2017-01-01

    Breeding of date palm is complicated because of its long life cycle and heterozygous nature. Sexual propagation of date palm does not produce true-to-type plants. Sex of date palms cannot be identified until the first flowering stage. Molecular markers such as random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), sequence-characterized amplified regions (SCAR), and simple sequence repeats (SSR) have successfully been used to identify the sex-linked loci in the plant genome and to isolate the corresponding genes. This chapter highlights the use of three molecular markers including RAPD, SCAR, and SSR to identify the gender of date palm seedlings.

  6. IMPACT OF CPO EXPORT DUTIES ON MALAYSIAN PALM OIL INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Ibragimov Abdulla; Fatimah Mohamed Arshad; B. K. Bala; Kusairi Mohd Noh; Muhammad Tasrif

    2014-01-01

    In January 2013, Malaysia reduced the export duty structure to be in line with the Indonesia’s duty structure. Both countries export crude and processed palm oil. Since Malaysia and Indonesia are close competitors and they compete in the same market, a change in export duty rate in one country will affect the other. Indonesia, as the world’s biggest palm oil producer, has drastically widened the values between the crude palm oil and refined palm oil export taxes since October 2011...

  7. Molecular research on the genetic diversity of Tunisian date palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular research on the genetic diversity of Tunisian date palm ( Phoenix dactylifera L.) using the random amplified microsatellite polymorphism (RAMPO) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) methods.

  8. Time series ARIMA models for daily price of palm oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariff, Noratiqah Mohd; Zamhawari, Nor Hashimah; Bakar, Mohd Aftar Abu

    2015-02-01

    Palm oil is deemed as one of the most important commodity that forms the economic backbone of Malaysia. Modeling and forecasting the daily price of palm oil is of great interest for Malaysia's economic growth. In this study, time series ARIMA models are used to fit the daily price of palm oil. The Akaike Infromation Criterion (AIC), Akaike Infromation Criterion with a correction for finite sample sizes (AICc) and Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) are used to compare between different ARIMA models being considered. It is found that ARIMA(1,2,1) model is suitable for daily price of crude palm oil in Malaysia for the year 2010 to 2012.

  9. Oil palm deserves government attention in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, José R.; Goldemberg, José

    2015-07-01

    Englund et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 10 044002) have recently analyzed biodiesel production from oil palm plantations as one possible way to mitigate climate change while providing cost effective results. They show that data for detailed quantification of biological carbon sequestration is available allowing a high confidence evaluation of positive impacts when oil palm plantation for food and biodiesel production is carried out in degraded, cultivated soil, and also with some varieties of natural vegetation in the Amazon. Nevertheless, economic risk associated with the future price of fossil fuels and uncertainties related with carbon subsidy are barriers. Here we discuss the assumptions under which such controversial proposal is based and suggest further analysis for Brazilian decision makers.

  10. KARAKTERISTIK MINYAK CAMPURAN RED PALM OIL DENGAN PALM KERNEL OLEIN (Characteristics of Oil Blends from Red Palm Oil and Palm Kernel Olein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ulfah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of oil blends has been produced from red palm oil (RPO and palm kernel olein (PKOo with seven ratios with a total of 100, namely A (0:100, B (25:75, C (40:60, D (50:50, E (60:40, F (75:25 and G (100:0 v/v investigated with randomized complete block design. The result showed that different of ratio levels RPO and PKOo have some effects on peroxide value, saponification value, melting point, cloud point and β-carotene content from RPO-PKOo oil blends, but has not effect on free fatty acid content. Higher level of PKOo content on formulas oil blends were decreased of saponification value and melting point, but was increased of cloud point. The best of RPOPKOo oil blends has been obtained at ratio 50:50 (v/v, with 459.52 ppm β-carotene, 1.35 meq/kg peroxide value, 0.09 % free fatty acid, 202.60 saponification value, 24.15 oC melting point and 7.15 oC cloud point. Fatty acids composition were 1.24 % capric acid, 29.00 % lauric acid, 10.09 % miristic acid, 23.10 % palmitic acid, 5.84 linoleic acid, 27.30 % oleic acid and 3.43 % stearic acid. Keywords: Red palm oil, palm kernel olein, oil blends, chemical and physical properties ABSTRAK Sifat-sifat minyak campuran yang dihasilkan dari red palm oil (RPO dan palm kernel olein (PKOo dengan tujuh tingkat rasio yang totalnya 100, yaitu A (0:100, B (25:75, C (40:60, D (50:50, E (60:40, F (75:25 dan G (100:0 (v/v dikaji menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap kelompok. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa rasio RPO:PKOo mempengaruhi angka peroksida, angka penyabunan, melting point, cloud point dan kadar β-karoten dari minyak campuran RPO-PKOo yang dihasilkan, namun tidak mempengaruhi kadar asam lemak bebas. Peningkatan jumlah PKOo yang ditambahkan dalam minyak campuran RPO-PKOo, akan menurunkan angka penyabunan dan melting point, namun akan menaikkan cloud point. Produk minyak campuran RPO-PKOo terbaik diperoleh pada rasio 50:50 (v/v, dengan kadar β-karoten 459,52 ppm, angka peroksida 1,35 meq

  11. Palm theory for random time changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masakiyo Miyazawa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm distributions are basic tools when studying stationarity in the context of point processes, queueing systems, fluid queues or random measures. The framework varies with the random phenomenon of interest, but usually a one-dimensional group of measure-preserving shifts is the starting point. In the present paper, by alternatively using a framework involving random time changes (RTCs and a two-dimensional family of shifts, we are able to characterize all of the above systems in a single framework. Moreover, this leads to what we call the detailed Palm distribution (DPD which is stationary with respect to a certain group of shifts. The DPD has a very natural interpretation as the distribution seen at a randomly chosen position on the extended graph of the RTC, and satisfies a general duality criterion: the DPD of the DPD gives the underlying probability P in return.

  12. Olof Palme: One Life, Many Readings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Quirico

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available he aim of this article is not only to review the latest three biographies of Olof Palme, - written respectively by Kjell Östberg (2007-9, Klas Eklund (2010 and Henrik Berggren (2010 - but also and above all to identify their methodology, so as to single out some of the controversial points in Palme’s political career, yet leaving out both scandals and vulgar attacks.

  13. Microbial degradation of palm (Elaeis guineensis biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Lutz

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of biodegradation of palm-derived fatty methyl and ethyl esters (Elaeis guineensis biodiesel by a wild-type aerobic bacterial population was measured at 20 °C, as the rate of oxygen uptake by a manometric technique. The methyl and ethyl biodiesels were obtained by potassium-hydroxide catalysed transesterification of palm oil, respectively. The bacterial flora included the genera Bacillus, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Citrobacter and Enterobacter. The rate of oxygen uptake for palm biodiesel is similar to the quantity observed in the biodegradation of 1.0 mM solutions of simple substrates such as carbohydrates or amino acids.Palm methyl or ethyl biodiesel is subjected to facile aerobic biodegradation by wild-type bacteria commonly present in natural open environments. This result should lessen any environmental concern for its use as alternative fuel, solvent or lubricant. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(1: 59-63.Epub 2006 Mar 31.La cinética de la biodegradación de los ésteres metílicos y etílicos derivados de palma (biodiesel por una población silvestre de bacterias aeróbicas fue medida a 20 °C, como medición manométrica del consumo de oxígeno. Los ésteres metílicos y etílicos se obtuvieron por transesterificación del aceite de palma con metanol y etanol,respectivamente. La flora bacteriana incluyó a los géneros Bacillus, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Citrobacter y Enterobacter. Las velocidades de consumo de oxígeno para las muestras de biodiesel fueron similares a lo observado en la biodegradación de disoluciones 1.0 mM de sustratos sencillos solubles en agua, tales como carbohidratos, aminoácidos y albúmina de huevo.

  14. Anticestodal Efficacy of Folklore Medicinal Plants of Naga Tribes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moderate activity was recorded for the leaves of Clerodendrum colebrookianum, Lasia spinosa and Centella asiatica, while Curcuma longa, Cinnamomum cassia, Gynura angulosa, Lasia spinosa (stem) and Aloe vera revealed a negligible degree of anticestodal activity. Key Words: Anticestodal Efficacy, Naga Tribes, India, ...

  15. Novel Phialophora species from leaf-cutting ants (tribe Attini)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Attili-Angelis, D.; Duarte, A.P.M.; Pagnocca, F.C.; Nagamoto, N.S.; de Vries, M.; Stielow, J.B.; de Hoog, G.S.

    2014-01-01

    Ants in the tribe Attini (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) maintain a 50 million-year-old lifestyle of co-evolution with symbiotic basidiomycetous fungi which they cultivate as essential source of nutrition. However, other microorganisms have been reported from ant habitats indicating a higher diversity of

  16. AHP 10: Rgyas bzang Tibetan Tribe Hunting Lore

    OpenAIRE

    Bkra shis dpal 'bar བཀྲ་ཤིས་དཔལ་འབར།

    2011-01-01

    The Yul shul (Yushu) ngas bzang Tribe historically possessed a rich hunting tradition. Wildlife was hunted for food and other animal products. By 2007, hunting culture had diminished due to improvements in living conditions, wildlife protection laws, greater state control of wildlife product skin market and gun ownership, animal diseases, and the absence of such wildlife as wild yaks in local areas.

  17. Phylogenetic Analysis of the Bee Tribe Anthidiini | Combey | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phylogenetic relationships among members of long tongue bee tribe Anthidiini (Megachilidae: Megachilinae) were investigated at the Department of Entomology and Wildlife, University of Cape Coast (Ghana) and the Agricultural Research Council, Pretoria (South Af-rica) from July, 2006 to May, 2007. Ten museums ...

  18. Numerical taxonomic studies of some tribes of Brassicaceae from Egypt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdel Khalik, K.; Maesen, van der L.J.G.; Koopman, W.J.M.; Berg, van den R.G.

    2002-01-01

    A systematic study of 45 taxa belonging to 23 genera of tribes Arabideae, Euclidieae, Hesperideae, Lunarieae, Matthioleae and Sisymbrieae of Brassicaceae from Egypt was conducted by means of numerical analysis based on sixty two morphological characters, including vegetative parts, pollen grains and

  19. Socio-cultural attitudes of Igbomina tribe toward marriage and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article namely: "Socio-cultural attitudes of Igbomina tribe toward marriage and abortion in Osun and Kwara states of Nigeria" by Adeleke Gbadebo Fatai has been updated with a new version bearing the author's current affiliation with significant editorial intervention. Abortion has been a social menace and its ...

  20. Harvestable energy from the coconut palm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banzon, J A

    1984-01-01

    The harvestable energy from the coconut palm is in the form of husks, shells and oil from the nuts and the leaf petioles with a regular monthly production of a bunch of nuts and one leaf. From the known energy content of the husks, nut shells and petioles, the number of palm trees required to provide the total energy for domestic cooking at wood equivalent to 1-3 kg firewood per day ranges from 5-14 for husks, shells and petioles, or 15-47 if the material is first converted to charcoal. In order to provide diesel fuel containing 10% coconut oil and cope with the annual increase in such a demand, the coconut crop would have to increase at the rate of 1 nut per bunch per month from 3-11 nuts to 12 nuts over the next 8 years. Highest coconut sap yield in ethanol terms, amounts to 109 MJ/month per palm which equals the oil in a 20-nut fruit bunch, thus indicating possible greater energy harvest from coconut sap than from coconut oil.

  1. The Palm Desert renewable [hydrogen] transportation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamberlin, C.E.; Lehman, P. [Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, CA (United States). Schatz Energy Research Center

    1998-08-01

    This paper describes the Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) progress on the Palm Desert Renewable Hydrogen Transportation System Project for the period June 1997 through May 1998. The project began in March 1996. The goal of the Palm Desert Project is to develop a clean and sustainable transportation system for a community. The project demonstrates the practical utility of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell as a vehicle power system. The project includes designing and building 4 fuel cell powered vehicles, a solar hydrogen generating and refueling station, and a fuel cell vehicle diagnostic center. Over this last year, SERC has built a fuel cell powered neighborhood electric vehicle and delivered it to the City of Palm Desert. The design of the hydrogen refueling station is near completion and it is anticipated that construction will be complete in the fall of 1998. The vehicles are currently being refueled at a temporary refueling station. The diagnostic center is being designed and maintenance procedures as well as computer diagnostic programs for the fuel cell vehicles are being developed. City employees are driving the vehicles daily and monitoring data are being collected. The drivers are pleased with the performance of the vehicles.

  2. Palm to Finger Ulnar Sensory Nerve Conduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidowich, Eduardo; Nascimento, Osvaldo J M; Orsini, Marco; Pupe, Camila; Pessoa, Bruno; Bittar, Caroline; Pires, Karina Lebeis; Bruno, Carlos; Coutinho, Bruno Mattos; de Souza, Olivia Gameiro; Ribeiro, Pedro; Velasques, Bruna; Bittencourt, Juliana; Teixeira, Silmar; Bastos, Victor Hugo

    2015-12-29

    Ulnar neuropathy at the wrist (UNW) is rare, and always challenging to localize. To increase the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis of UNW many authors advocate the stimulation of the ulnar nerve (UN) in the segment of the wrist and palm. The focus of this paper is to present a modified and simplified technique of sensory nerve conduction (SNC) of the UN in the wrist and palm segments and demonstrate the validity of this technique in the study of five cases of type III UNW. The SNC of UN was performed antidromically with fifth finger ring recording electrodes. The UN was stimulated 14 cm proximal to the active electrode (the standard way) and 7 cm proximal to the active electrode. The normal data from amplitude and conduction velocity (CV) ratios between the palm to finger and wrist to finger segments were obtained. Normal amplitude ratio was 1.4 to 0.76. Normal CV ratio was 0.8 to 1.23.We found evidences of abnormal SNAP amplitude ratio or substantial slowing of UN sensory fibers across the wrist in 5 of the 5 patients with electrophysiological-definite type III UNW.

  3. Palm to finger ulnar sensory nerve conduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Davidowich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ulnar neuropathy at the wrist (UNW is rare, and always challenging to localize. To increase the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis of UNW many authors advocate the stimulation of the ulnar nerve (UN in the segment of the wrist and palm. The focus of this paper is to present a modified and simplified technique of sensory nerve conduction (SNC of the UN in the wrist and palm segments and demonstrate the validity of this technique in the study of five cases of type III UNW. The SNC of UN was performed antidromically with fifth finger ring recording electrodes. The UN was stimulated 14 cm proximal to the active electrode (the standard way and 7 cm proximal to the active electrode. The normal data from amplitude and conduction velocity (CV ratios between the palm to finger and wrist to finger segments were obtained. Normal amplitude ratio was 1.4 to 0.76. Normal CV ratio was 0.8 to 1.23.We found evidences of abnormal SNAP amplitude ratio or substantial slowing of UN sensory fibers across the wrist in 5 of the 5 patients with electrophysiological-definite type III UNW.

  4. SwissPalm: Protein Palmitoylation database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Mathieu; David, Fabrice; Abrami, Laurence; Migliozzi, Daniel; Armand, Florence; Bürgi, Jérôme; van der Goot, Françoise Gisou

    2015-01-01

    Protein S-palmitoylation is a reversible post-translational modification that regulates many key biological processes, although the full extent and functions of protein S-palmitoylation remain largely unexplored. Recent developments of new chemical methods have allowed the establishment of palmitoyl-proteomes of a variety of cell lines and tissues from different species.  As the amount of information generated by these high-throughput studies is increasing, the field requires centralization and comparison of this information. Here we present SwissPalm ( http://swisspalm.epfl.ch), our open, comprehensive, manually curated resource to study protein S-palmitoylation. It currently encompasses more than 5000 S-palmitoylated protein hits from seven species, and contains more than 500 specific sites of S-palmitoylation. SwissPalm also provides curated information and filters that increase the confidence in true positive hits, and integrates predictions of S-palmitoylated cysteine scores, orthologs and isoform multiple alignments. Systems analysis of the palmitoyl-proteome screens indicate that 10% or more of the human proteome is susceptible to S-palmitoylation. Moreover, ontology and pathway analyses of the human palmitoyl-proteome reveal that key biological functions involve this reversible lipid modification. Comparative analysis finally shows a strong crosstalk between S-palmitoylation and other post-translational modifications. Through the compilation of data and continuous updates, SwissPalm will provide a powerful tool to unravel the global importance of protein S-palmitoylation.

  5. Water footprints of products of oil palm plantations and palm oil mills in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttayakul, Phetrada; H-Kittikun, Aran; Suksaroj, Chaisri; Mungkalasiri, Jitti; Wisansuwannakorn, Ruthairat; Musikavong, Charongpun

    2016-01-15

    The water footprint (WF) of fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) from oil palm plantations and crude palm oil (CPO) from palm oil mills in southern and eastern Thailand were determined over 25 years. Climatic conditions, soil characteristics, and the characteristics of oil palm growth were considered. The WF of FFBs was 1063 m(3)/ton (t) on average. Green, blue, and grey waters comprised of 68, 18, and 14% of total WF, respectively. The oil palm plantations in Thailand required smaller amounts of indirect blue water. The average WF for producing a ton of CPO of seven mills was 5083 m(3). Most of the waters used in the mills originated from indirect green, blue and grey waters from the plantations. The direct blue water used in the mills had less impact on the total WF, lower than 1% of the total WF. Average percentages of green, blue, and grey waters of 69, 16, and 15% of total WF were determined for the mills, respectively. The water deprivation of the FFBs and CPO ranged from 0.73-12.9 and 3.44-58.3 m(3)H2Oeq/t, respectively. In 2013, the CPO production in Thailand including green, blue, and grey waters from plantation and blue water from mills required 11,343 million m(3) water. If the oil palm variety Suratthani 7 is used in the plantation, it would increase the yield from 15.2 to 22.8 t FFBs/ha-year and decrease the WF to 888 m(3)/t FFBs. The average value of the oil extraction rate (OER) of mills was 18.1%. With an increase in the OER of 1%, a reduction of the WF of 250 m(3)/t CPO or 5.1% of total WF could be obtained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Forecasting Palm Oil Price Movements In Malaysia: Empirical Evidence from the Malaysian Palm Oil Futures Market.

    OpenAIRE

    Amran, Zulfathi

    2010-01-01

    The palm oil industry is one of the main commodity industries in South East Asia. This is the case for the two main producers and exporters of crude palm oil in the world, Malaysia and Indonesia, and thus there is an importance placed on the trading of the commodity in Malaysia, especially for hedging purposes for the producers. This is because; the main use of the product is for exporting purposes rather than for consumption, and thus it is important if there is a tool that the producers or ...

  7. Oil palm natural diversity and the potential for yield improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Edson; Rios, Sara de Almeida; Cunha, Raimundo N. V.; Lopes, Ricardo; Motoike, Sérgio Y.; Babiychuk, Elena; Skirycz, Aleksandra; Kushnir, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    African oil palm has the highest productivity amongst cultivated oleaginous crops. Species can constitute a single crop capable to fulfill the growing global demand for vegetable oils, which is estimated to reach 240 million tons by 2050. Two types of vegetable oil are extracted from the palm fruit on commercial scale. The crude palm oil and kernel palm oil have different fatty acid profiles, which increases versatility of the crop in industrial applications. Plantations of the current varieties have economic life-span around 25–30 years and produce fruits around the year. Thus, predictable annual palm oil supply enables marketing plans and adjustments in line with the economic forecasts. Oil palm cultivation is one of the most profitable land uses in the humid tropics. Oil palm fruits are the richest plant source of pro-vitamin A and vitamin E. Hence, crop both alleviates poverty, and could provide a simple practical solution to eliminate global pro-vitamin A deficiency. Oil palm is a perennial, evergreen tree adapted to cultivation in biodiversity rich equatorial land areas. The growing demand for the palm oil threatens the future of the rain forests and has a large negative impact on biodiversity. Plant science faces three major challenges to make oil palm the key element of building the future sustainable world. The global average yield of 3.5 tons of oil per hectare (t) should be raised to the full yield potential estimated at 11–18t. The tree architecture must be changed to lower labor intensity and improve mechanization of the harvest. Oil composition should be tailored to the evolving needs of the food, oleochemical and fuel industries. The release of the oil palm reference genome sequence in 2013 was the key step toward this goal. The molecular bases of agronomically important traits can be and are beginning to be understood at the single base pair resolution, enabling gene-centered breeding and engineering of this remarkable crop. PMID:25870604

  8. Oil palm natural diversity and the potential for yield improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Edson; Rios, Sara de Almeida; Cunha, Raimundo N V; Lopes, Ricardo; Motoike, Sérgio Y; Babiychuk, Elena; Skirycz, Aleksandra; Kushnir, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    African oil palm has the highest productivity amongst cultivated oleaginous crops. Species can constitute a single crop capable to fulfill the growing global demand for vegetable oils, which is estimated to reach 240 million tons by 2050. Two types of vegetable oil are extracted from the palm fruit on commercial scale. The crude palm oil and kernel palm oil have different fatty acid profiles, which increases versatility of the crop in industrial applications. Plantations of the current varieties have economic life-span around 25-30 years and produce fruits around the year. Thus, predictable annual palm oil supply enables marketing plans and adjustments in line with the economic forecasts. Oil palm cultivation is one of the most profitable land uses in the humid tropics. Oil palm fruits are the richest plant source of pro-vitamin A and vitamin E. Hence, crop both alleviates poverty, and could provide a simple practical solution to eliminate global pro-vitamin A deficiency. Oil palm is a perennial, evergreen tree adapted to cultivation in biodiversity rich equatorial land areas. The growing demand for the palm oil threatens the future of the rain forests and has a large negative impact on biodiversity. Plant science faces three major challenges to make oil palm the key element of building the future sustainable world. The global average yield of 3.5 tons of oil per hectare (t) should be raised to the full yield potential estimated at 11-18t. The tree architecture must be changed to lower labor intensity and improve mechanization of the harvest. Oil composition should be tailored to the evolving needs of the food, oleochemical and fuel industries. The release of the oil palm reference genome sequence in 2013 was the key step toward this goal. The molecular bases of agronomically important traits can be and are beginning to be understood at the single base pair resolution, enabling gene-centered breeding and engineering of this remarkable crop.

  9. Oil palm natural diversity and the potential for yield improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson eBarcelos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available African oil palm has the highest productivity amongst cultivated oleaginous crops. Species can constitute a single crop capable to fulfil the growing global demand for vegetable oils, which is estimated to reach 240 million tons by 2050. Two types of vegetable oil are extracted from the palm fruit on commercial scale. The crude palm oil and kernel palm oil have different fatty acid profiles, which increases versatility of the crop in industrial applications. Plantations of the current varieties have economic life-span around 25-30 years and produce fruits around the year. Thus, predictable annual palm oil supply enables marketing plans and adjustments in line with the economic forecasts. Oil palm cultivation is one of the most profitable land uses in the humid tropics. Oil palm fruits are the richest plant source of pro-vitamin A and vitamin E. Hence, crop both alleviates poverty, and could provide a simple practical solution to eliminate global pro-vitamin A deficiency. Oil palm is a perennial, evergreen tree adapted to cultivation in biodiversity rich equatorial land areas. The growing demand for the palm oil threatens the future of the rain forests and has a large negative impact on biodiversity. Plant science faces three major challenges to make oil palm the key element of building the future sustainable world. The global average yield of 3.5 tons of oil per hectare (t should be raised to the full yield potential estimated at 11-18t. The tree architecture must be changed to lower labor intensity and improve mechanization of the harvest. Oil composition should be tailored to the evolving needs of the food, oleochemical and fuel industries. The release of the oil palm reference genome sequence in 2013 was the key step towards this goal. The molecular bases of agronomically important traits can be and are beginning to be understood at the single base pair resolution, enabling gene-centered breeding and engineering of this remarkable crop.

  10. Oil palm growth, yield and financial returns from interplanted food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maize, soyabean and pigeon pea were inter-planted with a juvenile oil palm plantation in 1999-2002 at the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (7°15'N, 3°25', altitude 144m above sea level) to evaluate the growth of the interplanted oil palm as well as yield and overall economic returns ...

  11. Inflorescence rot disease of date palm caused by Fusarium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Date palm is one of the important income sources for many farmers in different parts of several countries, including Iraq, Iran, Saudi Arabia, North Africa etc. Inflorescence rot is a serious disease of date palm which limits its yield. The identification of the causal organism is a key step to tackling this disease, and such studies ...

  12. Replacement Value of Palm Kernel Meal for Maize on Carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing maize with palm kernel meal on nutrient composition, fatty acid profile and sensory qualities of the meat of turkeys fed the dietary treatments. Six dietary treatments were formulated using palm kernel meal to replace maize at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 percent.

  13. Effect of Palm Kernel Cake Replacement and Enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding trial which lasted for twelve weeks was conducted to study the performance of finisher pigs fed five different levels of palm kernel cake replacement for maize (0%, 40%, 40%, 60%, 60%) in a maize-palm kernel cake based ration with or without enzyme supplementation. It was a completely randomized design ...

  14. Characteristic of oil palm residue for energy conversion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muharnif; Zainal, Z.A.

    2006-01-01

    Malaysia is the major producer of palm oil in the world. It produces 8.5 tones per year (8.5 x 10 6 ty -1 ) of palm oil from 38.6 x 10 6 ty - 1 of fresh fruit bunches. Palm oil production generates large amounts of process residue such as fiber (5.4 x 10 6 ty - 1 ), shell (2.3 x 10 6 ty - 1 ), and empty fruit bunches (8.8 x 10 6 ty - 1 ). A large fraction of the fiber and much of the shell are used as fuel to generate process steam and electricity. The appropriate energy conversion system depends on the characteristic of the oil palm residue. In this paper, a description of characteristic of the oil palm residue is presented. The types of the energy conversion system presented are stoker type combustor and gasified. The paper focuses on the pulverized biomass material and the use of fluidized bed gasified. In the fluidized bed gasified, the palm shell and fiber has to be pulverized before feeding into gasified. For downdraft gasified and furnace, the palm shell and fiber can be used directly into the reactor for energy conversion. The heating value, burning characteristic, ash and moisture content of the oil palm residue are other parameters of the study

  15. Adoption of improved oil palm processing technology in Umuahia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was found that a large percentage of the respondents were aware of the 5 improved oil palm processing technologies with friends and relatives as major source of information. Adoption was significant for 3 out of 5 technologies under study. The major constraints to improved oil palm processing technologies were high ...

  16. Characteristics of small-scale palm oil production enterprise in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined characteristics of small-scale palm oil production enterprise in Anambra State, Nigeria. All the palm oil producers in Anambra State formed the population of the study. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 120 respondents for the study. Data were collected from primary source through ...

  17. A review of the palm genus Acrocomia: Neotropical green gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Acrocomia, popularly known as macaw palm or macaúba, occurs in savanna areas and open forests of tropical America, with distribution from Central to southern South America. They are important oleaginous palm trees, due to their role in ecosystems, local economies, and their potential for b...

  18. Palm oil fresh fruit bunch ripeness grading identification using color ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research investigates the ripeness grading identification of the palm oil FFB using color features that are color histogram, color moment and color correlogram. Palm is harvested during the optimum stage of its ripeness since it improves the FFB oil quality and quantity. Harvesting wrong bunches decreases the oil ...

  19. English-Igbo glossary creation of palm oil production and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Igbo speaking people are well known for palm oil production and processing in Nigeria. This occupation is one of the lucrative ventures among other trades or occupations for which the Igbo are known. With recent technological advancement in the method of production and processing palm oil, more English terms that ...

  20. Effect Of Palm Oil Supplementation On The Performance Of Broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 21-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of palm oil supplementation on the performance of broiler starter birds fed palm kernel meal based diets. One hundred and twenty (120) one-week-old Anak broilers were randomly assigned to five (5) treatment diets, each treatment diet was replicated four times at ...

  1. Enzymatic biodiesel production from sludge palm oil (SPO) using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biodiesel is a non-toxic, renewable and environmental friendly fuel. This study involved the production of biodiesel from sludge palm oil (SPO), a low-cost waste oil via enzymatic catalysis. The enzyme catalyst was a Candida cylindracea lipase, locally-produced using palm oil mill effluent as the low cost based medium.

  2. Proposed Average Values of Some Engineering Properties of Palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to know what values of engineering properties of palm kernels to use for rational design of handling and processing systems for palm kernels prompted a literature search for collation of published values. These values are presented in this work. And to manage the discrepancies observed among values published ...

  3. Degradation of Palm Oil Induced By Ionizing Radiation | Egbe | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    X-irradiated Palm Oil of the Elaeis guineensis specie was studied by assessing the effect of the radiation on the Peroxide, Iodine and Fatty acid values of the oil. These were compared with values of fresh and thermoxidized palm oil. Results showed a rise in the peroxide value by as much as 52.5% for thermoxidized oil and ...

  4. Pollination mechanisms in palms – a synoecological perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Anders S.; Hagen, Melanie; Borchsenius, Finn

    closed forest. The palm inflorescence constitutes the structural and chemical framework within which interaction with the visiting insects take place. By investing in protective features such as sclerenchyme, raphide-containing ideoblasts and tannin rich tissues the palm may prevent destructive...

  5. production of materials from Raffia palm leaves: Their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The palm family which is very versatile, of great service to man, and in great abundance in the tropics has not attracted the desired research efforts. In this work, raffia palm leaves, serving as raw materials, have been processed into a refined, researchful, value added form and produced into specimens which are then ...

  6. Design and construction of palm kernel cracking and separation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design and construction of palm kernel cracking and separation machines. ... Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Design and construction of palm kernel cracking and separation machines. JO Nordiana, K ...

  7. Inflorescence rot disease of date palm is caused by Fusarium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zulfiqar-Ali

    2012-05-01

    May 1, 2012 ... Key words: Fusarium proliferatum, ITS1, ITS4, pathogenecity, PCR, isolates, phylogeny. INTRODUCTION. Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is one of the important income sources for many farmers in different parts of. Iraq, Iran and North Africa. Date palm trees are infected by several pathogens like fungi, ...

  8. Functional palm oil-based margarine by enzymatic interesterification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Nuzul Amri Bin; Xu, Xuebing

    Palm stearin, palm kernel and fish oils were blended to a various composition ratios and enzymatically interesterified by Lipozyme TL IM lipase (Thermomyces lanuginosa) using a continuous packed bed reactor. The ratio of the oils ranged from 60-90%, 10-40% and 0-10% respectively. The enzyme was a...

  9. Economic assessment of oil palm projects in Nigeria. | Nwawe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, this study was designed to economically assess oil palm projects in Nigeria. Secondary data used for this study were collected from Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research (NIFOR) and related journals. The data collected were analyzed using discounted cash flow techniques. The result shows that at 32% interest ...

  10. Production of Mineral Water Using Palm Bunch Ash (PBA) From ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A public health strategy for increasing the potassium and magnesium intake of the population was explored. These electrolytes have been confirmed by epidemiological studies to have some health benefits. A process for production of mineral water using palm bunch ash was developed. The composition of the palm bunch ...

  11. Systematic approach for synthesis of palm oil-based biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NG, Rex T. L.; NG, Denny K. S.; LAM, Hon Loong [Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Centre of Excellence for Green Technologies, Univ. of Nottingham, Selangor, (Malaysia); TAY, Douglas H. S.; LIM, Joseph H. E. [2GGS Eco Solutions Sdn Bhd, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2012-11-01

    Various types of palm oil biomasses are generated from palm oil mill when crude palm oil (CPO) is produced from fresh fruit bunch (FFB). In the current practice, palm oil biomasses are used as the main source of energy input in the palm oil mill to produce steam and electricity. Moreover, those biomasses are regarded as by-products and can be reclaimed easily. Therefore, there is a continuous increasing interest concerning biomasses generated from the palm oil mill as a source of renewable energy. Although various technologies have been exploited to produce bio-fuel (i.e., briquette, pellet, etc.) as well as heat and power generation, however, no systematic approach which can analyse and optimise the synthesise biorefinery is presented. In this work, a systematic approach for synthesis and optimisation of palm oil-based biorefinery which including palm oil mill and refinery with maximum economic performance is developed. The optimised network configuration with achieves the maximum economic performance can also be determined. To illustrate the proposed approach, a case study is solved in this work.

  12. Effects of drying temperature on viability of macaw palm ( Acrocomia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In response to a growing interest in improving seedling production of oilseed species (like macaw palm), a fruit drying protocol for facilitating seed extraction was proposed. This enabled the production of macaw palm seedlings, but the temperature most suitable for seed extraction without losing its physiological quality is ...

  13. Analysis of profitability and cost determinants of smallholder oil palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oil palm processing is a source of livelihood to many people. The study analyzed cost determinants and profitability of smallholders' oil palm processors using traditional and improved processing technologies. A multistage sampling technique was used to select respondents. Data were collected through questionnaire; ...

  14. Ecology and behaviour of Palm-nut Vultures Gypohierax angolensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Populations of many vulture species have undergone substantial declines. In Africa, 82% are threatened and although research on vultures has increased, the biology and ecology of several species is still poorly known. The Palm-nut Vulture Gypohierax angolensis has peculiar ecological characteristics, feeding on palm ...

  15. Somaclonal variation associated with oil palm (Elaeis guineensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2014-02-26

    Feb 26, 2014 ... Malaysia and Indonesia together accounting for around. 83% of world palm oil production in 2001 (Wahid et al.,. 2004). The oil palm is an important economic crop, producing food and raw materials for the food, confectionary, cosmetics and ... inherently very slow, and high heterogeneity is still observed ...

  16. Biodiesel fuels from palm oil, palm oil methylester and ester-diesel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Because of increasing cost and environmental pollution effects of fossil fuels, palm oil, its methylester and ester-diesel blends were analyzed comparatively with diesel for their fuel properties that will make them serve as alternatives to diesel in diesel engines. Equally, the samples were comparatively analyzed for their trace ...

  17. Palm oil mill effluent treatment and utilization to ensure the sustainability of palm oil industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanudin, U; Sugiharto, R; Haryanto, A; Setiadi, T; Fujie, K

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current condition of palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment and utilization and to propose alternative scenarios to improve the sustainability of palm oil industries. The research was conducted through field survey at some palm oil mills in Indonesia, in which different waste management systems were used. Laboratory experiment was also carried out using a 5 m(3) pilot-scale wet anaerobic digester. Currently, POME is treated through anaerobic digestion without or with methane capture followed by utilization of treated POME as liquid fertilizer or further treatment (aerobic process) to fulfill the wastewater quality standard. A methane capturing system was estimated to successfully produce renewable energy of about 25.4-40.7 kWh/ton of fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by about 109.41-175.35 kgCO2e/tonFFB (CO2e: carbon dioxide equivalent). Utilization of treated POME as liquid fertilizer increased FFB production by about 13%. A palm oil mill with 45 ton FFB/hour capacity has potential to generate about 0.95-1.52 MW of electricity. Coupling the POME-based biogas digester and anaerobic co-composting of empty fruit bunches (EFBs) is capable of adding another 0.93 MW. The utilization of POME and EFB not only increases the added value of POME and EFB by producing renewable energy, compost, and liquid fertilizer, but also lowers environmental burden.

  18. New Initiatives for Management of Red Palm Weevil Threats to Historical Arabian Date Palms *

    KAUST Repository

    Mukhtar, Muhammad

    2011-12-01

    The date palm is an important part of the religious, cultural, and economic heritage of the Arabian Peninsula. This heritage is threatened by the recent invasion of the red palm weevil (RPW) from Southeast Asia. In Saudi Arabia, a national campaign for control of RPW by containment/destruction of infested plants, injection and spraying of biochemical and chemical pesticide treatments in heavily infested and newly infested areas, and the use of pheromone/ kairomone traps for monitoring and reduction of RPW populations has been only partially successful in controlling its spread. New methods are needed to help manage the RPW populations. At a workshop in Riyadh in March 2010, plans were recommended to 1) devise and test new biological, chemical, and biotechnological methods to manage RPW in farms and urban palms; 2) compare the economic and logistic feasibility of acoustic and other detection methods against RPW larvae; and 3) develop biosensor indicators of RPW infestation in date palms. If these initiatives are successful, they will be of great assistance to landscape and orchard managers dealing with such a challenging pest of a highly valuable tree.

  19. A review of remote sensing applications for oil palm studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khai Loong Chong; Kasturi Devi Kanniah; Christine Pohl; Kian Pang Tan

    2017-01-01

    Oil palm becomes an increasingly important source of vegetable oil for its production exceeds soybean,sunflower,and rapeseed.The growth of the oil palm industry causes degradation to the environment,especially when the expansion of plantations goes uncontrolled.Remote sensing is a useful tool to monitor the development of oil palm plantations.In order to promote the use of remote sensing in the oil palm industry to support their drive for sustainability,this paper provides an understanding toward the use of remote sensing and its applications to oil palm plantation monitoring.In addition,the existing knowledge gaps are identified and recommendations for further research are given.

  20. Palm Power Free-Piston Stirling Engine Control Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiter, Douglas E.; Holliday, Ezekiel

    2007-01-01

    A prototype 35We, JP-8 fueled, soldier-wearable power system for the DARPA Palm Power program has been developed and tested by Sunpower. A hermetically-sealed 42We Sunpower Free-Piston Stirling Engine (FPSE) with integral linear alternator is the prime mover for this system. To maximize system efficiency over a broad range of output power, a non-dissipative, highly efficient electronic control system which modulates engine output power by varying piston stroke and converts the AC output voltage of the FPSE into 28Vdc for the Palm Power end user, has been designed and demonstrated as an integral component of the Palm Power system. This paper reviews the current status and progress made in developing the control electronics for the Palm Power system, in addition to describing the operation and demonstrated performance of the engine controller in the context of the current JP-8 fueled Palm Power system.

  1. Subcritical Water Extraction of Monosaccharides from Oil Palm Fronds Hemicelluloses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norsyabilah, R.; Hanim, S.S.; Norsuhaila, M.H.; Noraishah, A.K.; Siti Kartina

    2013-01-01

    Oil palm plantations in Malaysia generate more than 36 million tones of pruned and felled oil palm fronds (OPF) and are generally considered as waste. The composition of monosaccharide in oil palm frond can be extracted using hydrothermal treatment for useful applications. The objectives of this study were to quantify the yield of monosaccharides at various reaction conditions; temperature 170 to 200 degree Celsius, pressure from 500 psi to 800 psi, reaction time from 5 to 15 min using subcritical water extraction and to determine the composition of oil palm frond hemicelluloses at optimum condition. The monosaccharides composition of oil palm frond hemicelluloses were analysed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The highest yield of monosaccharides can be extracted from OPF at temperature of 190 degree Celsius, pressure of 600 psi and 10 min of contact time which is xylose the most abundant composition (11.79 %) followed with arabinose (2.82 %), glucose (0.61 %) and mannose (0.66 %). (author)

  2. Indonesia palm oil production without deforestation and peat conversion by 2050

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afriyanti, Dian; Kroeze, Carolien; Saad, Asmadi

    2016-01-01

    Palm oil is a promising source of cooking oil and biodiesel. The demand for palm oil has been increasing worldwide. However, concerns exist surrounding the environmental and socio-economic sustainability of palm oil production. Indonesia is a major palm oil producing country. We explored

  3. Genetic determinism of oil acidity among some DELI oil palm (Elaeis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2016-08-24

    Aug 24, 2016 ... Key words: Elaeis guineensis Jacq., free fatty acid content, crude palm oil, inheritance. INTRODUCTION. The oil palm (Elaeis ... of world's production of vegetable oils. The highest palm oil producing countries ... Without prior refining, acidic palm oil is improper for human consumption (Anonymous, 2005).

  4. Optimum drying time for palm nuts for efficient nut cracking in small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Palm kernel, one of the end products of oil palm fruit processing is recovered by the cracking of the palm nuts which is first dried to aid efficient kernel recovery. In small-scale mills palm nuts are air-dried. This paper investigates the optimum drying time necessary for efficient nut cracking. Such factors as wholeness of kernel, ...

  5. Properties of palm wine yeasts and its performance in wine making ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fresh palm wine samples were obtained from oil palm and raffia palm into sterile flasks. The samples were examined for yeasts properties and performance in wine making using grapes. The yeasts in the palm wine were characterized, identified, and screened for their sedimentation rate, ethanol tolerance, alcohol content, ...

  6. The fate of populations of Euterpe oleracea harvested for palm heart in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallejo, M.I.; Galeano, G.; Bernal, R.; Zuidema, P.

    2014-01-01

    Palm heart is an important non-timber forest product obtained from various palm species in tropical forests. We studied the effect of four decades of palm heart extraction from the clonal palm Euterpe oleracea at the southern Pacific coast of Colombia. We monitored populations that had been subject

  7. Is there a sex difference in palm print ridge density?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchan, Tanuj; Krishan, Kewal; Aparna, K R; Shyamsundar, S

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of fingerprints and palm prints at the crime scene is vital to identify the suspect and establish a crime. Dermatoglyphics can even be valuable in identification of a dismembered hand during medicolegal investigations to establish the identity of an individual in cases of mass disasters/mass homicides. The present research studies the variation in ridge density in different areas of the palm prints among men and women. The four prominent areas were analysed on the palm prints that included central prominent part of the thenar eminence (P1), hypothenar region; inner to the proximal axial triradius (P2), medial mount; proximal to the triradius of the second digit (P3) and lateral mount; proximal to the triradius of the fifth digit (P4). The mean palm print ridge density was significantly higher among women than men in all the designated areas in both hands except for the P3 area in the right hand. Statistically significant differences were observed in the palm print ridge density between the different palm areas in men and women in right and left hands. No significant right-left differences were observed in the palm print ridge density in any of the four areas of palm prints among men. In women, right-left differences were observed only in the P3 and P4 areas of palm prints. This preliminary study indicates that though the palm print ridge density is a sexually dimorphic variable, its utility for estimation of sex in forensic identification may be limited owing to significant overlapping of values.

  8. Population density of oil palm pollinator weevil Elaeidobius kamerunicus based on seasonal effect and age of oil palm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Syarifah Nadiah Syed Mat; Ghani, Idris Abd.

    2016-11-01

    The pollinating weevil, Elaedobius kamerunicus (EK) has been known to be the most efficient insect pollinator of oil palm, and has successfully improved the oil palm pollination and increased the yield. Its introduction has greatly reduced the need for assisted pollination. The purpose of this study was to identify the population density of oil palm pollinator weevil EK using the concept of pollinator force and to relate the population density with the seasonal effect and the age of oil palm at Lekir Oil Palm Plantation Batu 14, Perak, Peninsular Malaysia. The pollinator force of the weevil was sustained at a range between 3095.2 to 19126.1 weevils per ha. The overall mean of weevil per spikelet shows that the range of weevil was between 13.51 and 54.06 per spikelet. There was no correlation between rainfall and population density of EK. However, positive correlation was obtained between weevil density and the number of anthesising female inflorescence of oil palm (r= 0.938, poil palm stands had significantly different population density than that of a 8-year old oil palm stand. The information of this study should be useful as a baseline data to investigate why there is such a wide range of weevils per ha or spikelet. Further study should also be done to relate the number pollinator force per spikelete and the Fresh fruit Bunch (FFB), fruit set or fruit to bunch ratio.

  9. THE STUDY ON IN VITRO DIGESTIBILITY OF SOAKED PALM OIL FIBER BY FILTRATED PALM OIL FRUIT BUNCH ASH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari L. Darmawan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil fiber has its potency as feed fiber source for ruminant, but contains high lignin and causes limited digestibility. This research was carried out to find the effect of soaking palm oil fiber in filtrated palm oil fruit bunch ash (FPOFBA on in vitro digestibility. This experiment used a completely randomized design that repeated for 4times. Palm oil fruit bunch ash was mixed in water and entered into container for 24 hours within concentrations, consists of: 50, 100, 150 and 200 g/L. Moreover, this filtrate used to soak palm oil fiber for 3 hours. The processed products were analyzed for their level of lignin and crude fiber. Meanwhile, in vitro test was used to measure digestibility. It showed that soaking in filtrated palm oil fruit bunch ash gave significant effect to decrease level of lignin and crude fiber (P0.05, such as 23.48 and 24.12% as well as 16.70 and 17.06 % in each. It can be concluded that soaked palm oil fiber with 150 g/L concentration of filtrated palm oil fruit bunch ash was more effective in improving digestibility.

  10. Effects of Chemical Inter esterification on the Physicochemical Properties of Palm Stearin, Palm Kernel Oil and Soybean Oil Blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti, M. F.H.; Norizzah, A. R.; Zaliha, O.

    2012-01-01

    Palm stearin (PS), palm kernel oil (PKO) and soybean oil (SBO) blends were formulated according to Design Expert 8.0.4 (2010). All the sixteen oil blends were subjected to chemical inter esterification (CIE) using sodium methoxide as the catalyst. The effects of chemical inter esterification on the slip melting point (SMP), solid fat content (SFC), triacylglycerol (TAG) composition and polymorphism were investigated. Palm based trans-free table margarine containing PS/PKO/SBO [49/20/31, (w/w)], was optimally formulated through analysis of multiple ternary phase diagrams and was found to have quite similar SMP and SFC profiles as compared with commercial table margarine. This study has shown that blending and chemical inter esterification are effective in modifying the physicochemical properties of palm stearin, palm kernel oil, soybean oil and their blends. (author)

  11. The Tribe Anisoscelini (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, Coreidae) in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscarón, María Del Carmen; Pall, José Luis

    2015-10-23

    Eight genera and 21 species of the tribe Anisoscelini (Coreidae, Coreinae) are recorded in Argentina: Anisoscelis foliaceus (Fabricius); Coribergia declivicollis (Berg); Dalmatomammurius vandoesburgi (Brailovsky); Holymenia hystrio (Fabricius); Leptoglossus chilensis (Spinola); L. cinctus (Herrich-Schaeffer); L. concolor Walker; L. crassicornis (Dallas); L. dentatus Berg; L. fasciatus (Westwood); L. gonagra (Fabricius); L. impictus (Stål); L. ingens (Mayr); L. neovexillatus Allen; L. quadricollis (Westwood); L. stigma (Herbst); L. vexillatus (Stål); L. zonatus (Dallas); Phthia lunata (Fabricius); Phthiacnemia picta (Drury) and Ugnius kermesinus (Linnaeus). A key to genera belonging to the tribe is provided. L. stigma is recorded for the first time in Argentina with new locality records for La Rioja, Salta and San Juan.

  12. AHP 10: Rgyas bzang Tibetan Tribe Hunting Lore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bkra shis dpal 'bar བཀྲ་ཤིས་དཔལ་འབར།

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Yul shul (Yushu ngas bzang Tribe historically possessed a rich hunting tradition. Wildlife was hunted for food and other animal products. By 2007, hunting culture had diminished due to improvements in living conditions, wildlife protection laws, greater state control of wildlife product skin market and gun ownership, animal diseases, and the absence of such wildlife as wild yaks in local areas.

  13. Coeur d'Alene Tribe Energy Efficiency Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgood, Tiffany L. [Coeur d' Alene Tribe, Plummer, ID (United States); Sorter, Andy [Coeur d' Alene Tribe, Plummer, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The Coeur d'Alene Tribe's Energy Efficiency Feasibility Study (EEFS) is the culminating document that compiles the energy efficiency and building performance assessment and project prioritization process completed on 36 Tribally owned and operated facilities within Tribal lands. The EEFS contains sections on initial findings, utility billing analyses, energy conservation measures and prioritization and funding sources and strategies for energy project implementation.

  14. Ute Mountain Ute Tribe Community-Scale Solar Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Jim [Parametrix; Knight, Tawnie [Ute Mountain Ute Tribe

    2014-01-30

    Parametrix Inc. conducted a feasibility study for the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe to determine whether or not a community-scale solar farm would be feasible for the community. The important part of the study was to find where the best fit for the solar farm could be. In the end, a 3MW community-scale solar farm was found best fit with the location of two hayfield sites.

  15. Ethnobotany of MandailingTribe in Batang Gadis National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aswarina Nasution

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Batang Gadis National Park (BGNP located in Bukit Barisan Mountains, Sumatera Utara. A Mandailing tribe  who lives around the BGNP, has the unique local knowledge, such as processing young stem of rattan (Calamus manan into pakkat (traditional food and use rimbang (Solanum torvum to neutralize toxins. These local knowledge could be lost because it only inherited orally from generation to generation. This study was aimed to reveal ethnobotany knowledge of Mandailing Tribe. The study was conducted in November 2015 in four villages around the BGNP, Sibanggor Jae, Hutabaringin Julu, Pastap Jae, and Botung Villages. Data were collected by interviewing informants in each village as well as the field survey through two approaches, emic and etic. A total of 262 plant species is used by Mandailing Tribe for subsistence and commercial needs. The highest utilization is for food  (106 species, followed by traditional medicines (81 species, firewood (29 species, building materials (35 species, and animal feed (25 species. People also used plant for household appliances, agricultural equipment, art materials, ropes and wrap, and pest control materials. Eme/rice (Oryza sativa have the highest Index of Cultural Significance (ICS values. The existence of this species is maintained for its local wisdom. Thus, involvement of  local  community will give great contribution to manage and conserve the BGNP area.

  16. Camphor Burns on the Palm: An Unusual New Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B A Ramesh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Camphor burns on the palm are uncommon and rarely encountered by a plastic surgeon. Aim: This study aims to analyze different patterns of camphor burns on the palm. Methods: Five women and one man presented with camphor burns on their palm. All patients had burns on their right palm. The shape of camphor, the duration of contact with the ignited camphor on the palm, and post-burn treatments were evaluated. Results: Three types of camphor burns were noted: Type 1 (a ring-shaped or a dome-shaped blister with unburned skin in the center, Type 2 (an oval-shaped partially thick burn with unburned skin in the center, and Type 3 (a full-thickness burn exposing the palmar fascia. Conclusion: Different types of camphor burns on the palm are described in this study. This is the first study to report ring-shaped blisters and ring-shaped partially thick camphor burns caused on the palm.

  17. Molecular defense response of oil palm to Ganoderma infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C-L; Tan, Y-C

    2015-06-01

    Basal stem rot (BSR) of oil palm roots is due to the invasion of fungal mycelia of Ganoderma species which spreads to the bole of the stem. In addition to root contact, BSR can also spread by airborne basidiospores. These fungi are able to break down cell wall components including lignin. BSR not only decreases oil yield, it also causes the stands to collapse thus causing severe economic loss to the oil palm industry. The transmission and mode of action of Ganoderma, its interactions with oil palm as a hemibiotroph, and the molecular defence responses of oil palm to the infection of Ganoderma boninense in BSR are reviewed, based on the transcript profiles of infected oil palms. The knowledge gaps that need to be filled in oil palm-Ganoderma molecular interactions i.e. the associations of hypersensitive reaction (HR)-induced cell death and reactive oxygen species (ROS) kinetics to the susceptibility of oil palm to Ganoderma spp., the interactions of phytohormones (salicylate, jasmonate and ethylene) at early and late stages of BSR, and cell wall strengthening through increased production of guaiacyl (G)-type lignin, are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Biodiesel's Characteristics Preparation from Palm Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilani Hamid

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Using vegetable oils directly as an alternative diesel fuel has presented engine problems. The problems have been attributed to high viscosity of vegetable oil that causes the poor atomization of fuel in the injector system and pruduces uncomplete combustion. Therefore, it is necessary to convert the vegetable oil into ester (metil ester by tranesterification process to decrease its viscosity. In this research has made biodiesel by reaction of palm oil and methanol using lye (NaOH as catalyst with operation conditions: constant temperature at 60 oC in atmosferic pressure, palm oil : methanol volume ratio = 5 : 1, amount of NaOH used as catalyst = 3.5 gr, 4.5 gr, 5 gr and 5.5 gr and it takes about one hour time reaction. The ester (metil ester produced are separated from glycerin and washed until it takes normal pH (6-7 where more amount of catalyst used will decrease the ester (biodiesel produced. The results show that biodiesels' properties made by using 3.5 (M3.5 gr, 4.5 gr (M4.5 and 5 (M5.0 gr catalyst close to industrial diesel oil and the other (M5.5 closes to automotive diesel oil, while blending diesel oil with 20 % biodiesel (B20 is able to improve the diesel engine performances.

  19. Energetic Efficiency of red palm oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron Jiménez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to determine the energy efficiency in the production of red palm oil (Elaeis guineensis by using the biophysical indicator EROI, postulated by the Ecological Economics. This indicator is applied to compare the energy used in the preparation of synthetic fertilizers (to fill its nutritional demands versus the energy contained in the oil. In 2009, there were 195.550 hectares of land planted with African palm in Ecuador (INEC, 2011. In addition, between 2002 and 2009, there were 2,7 million tons of red oil (FEDEPAL, 2010. It is determined that for each unit of energy consumed, 4.82 units of energy are contained in the red oil. The energy used in making pesticides for cultivation, consumed in transportation, refining, and post harvest is excluded because this other energy would drastically reduce the absolute data of the indicator, which is already inefficient for the high energy consumption it requires to generate the energy contained in the oil. On the other hand, agroecology has proven to be more efficient in the generation of energy per unit of invested energy (Altieri et. al., 2010; Moore, 2004.

  20. Degradation of automotive materials in palm biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazal, M.A.; Haseeb, A.S.M.A.; Masjuki, H.H.

    2012-01-01

    As compared to petroleum diesel, biodiesel is more corrosive for automotive materials. Studies on the characterization of corrosion products of fuel exposed automotive materials are scarce. Automotive fuel system and engine components are made from different ferrous and non-ferrous materials. The present study aims to investigate the corrosion products of different types of automotive materials such as copper, brass, aluminum and cast iron upon exposure to diesel and palm biodiesel. Changes in fuel properties due to exposure of different materials were also examined. Degradation of metal surface was characterized by digital camera, SEM/EDS and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Fuel properties were examined by measuring TAN (total acid number), density and viscosity. Among the metal investigated, copper is found to be least resistant in biodiesel and formed comparatively more corrosion products than other metals. Upon exposure of metals in biodiesel, TAN number crosses the limit given by standard while density and viscosity remain within the acceptable range of limit. -- Highlights: ► Order of incompatible metals in palm biodiesel: copper > brass > aluminum > cast iron. ► The possible reactions for the degradation of copper and cast iron have been discussed. ► For metal exposed biodiesel, only TAN number crosses the limit while density and viscosity remain within the limit. ► Copper and copper based alloy (brass) increase TAN number comparatively more than other metals.

  1. The hidden carbon liability of Indonesian palm oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-05-15

    This report highlights the urgent need for global palm oil consumers and investors to support Unilever's call for an immediate moratorium on deforestation and peatland clearance in Indonesia. This report focuses on Unilever, which shares major institutional investors with other leading corporations including Nestle, Procter and Gamble and Kraft. Not only do these corporations share investors, they also share growing carbon liability within their raw material supply chains through the expansion in the palm oil sector in Indonesia. Unilever has recognised the global problems associated with palm oil expansion and the need for drastic reform to this sector. Unilever has taken a bold move in calling for an immediate moratorium on deforestation and peatland clearance. While Unilever's position is strengthened by its status as the largest palm oil consumer in the world, this report shows how, unless companies like Nestle, Procter and Gamble and Kraft support its call for a halt to deforestation, the palm oil industry will continue to present a massive carbon liability over the coming years. This report uses Unilever's palm oil supply chains as a case study to help quantify the carbon liability and collateral risks associated with the Indonesian palm oil sector. It shows how, by buying palm oil from suppliers who account for more than one-third of Indonesia's palm oil production, Unilever and its competitors are increasing their potential carbon liability and thus leaving investors exposed to potentially significant levels of hidden risk, compromising long-term financial and brand stability.

  2. Ethnomedicinal plants used by the Nag clan of the Rai Ghatual tribe of Moulvibazar district, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Protiva Rani; Islam, Md. Tabibul; Jahan, Rownak; Rahmatullah, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Context: Medicinal practices of the tribes of Bangladesh remain largely un-documented. Aims: The aim of the present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey and documentation among the Nag clan of the Rai Ghatual tribe of Bangladesh. Settings and Design: The survey was carried out among the Nag clan of the Rai Ghatual tribal community of Moulvibazar district. The clan, according to them, is the only Nag clan of the Rai Ghatual tribe in Bangladesh. The clan has three tribal healer...

  3. Dynamics of Polymorphic Transformations in Palm Oil, Palm Stearin and Palm Kernel Oil Characterized by Coupled Powder XRD-DSC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaliha, Omar; Elina, Hishamuddin; Sivaruby, Kanagaratnam; Norizzah, Abd Rashid; Marangoni, Alejandro G

    2018-06-01

    The in situ polymorphic forms and thermal transitions of refined, bleached and deodorized palm oil (RBDPO), palm stearin (RBDPS) and palm kernel oil (RBDPKO) were investigated using coupled X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results indicated that the DSC onset crystallisation temperature of RBDPO was at 22.6°C, with a single reflection at 4.2Å started to appear from 23.4 to 17.1°C, and were followed by two prominent exothermic peaks at 20.1°C and 8.5°C respectively. Further cooling to -40°C leads to the further formation of a β'polymorph. Upon heating, a of β'→βtransformation was observed between 32.1 to 40.8°C, before the sample was completely melted at 43.0°C. The crystallization onset temperature of RBDPS was 44.1°C, with the appearance of the α polymorph at the same temperature as the appearance of the first sharp DSC exothermic peak. This quickly changed from α→β´ in the range 25 to 21.7°C, along with the formation of a small β peak at -40°C. Upon heating, a small XRD peak for the β polymorph was observed between 32.2 to 36.0°C, becoming a mixture of (β´+ β) between 44.0 to 52.5°C. Only the β polymorph survived further heating to 59.8°C. For RBDPKO, the crystallization onset temperature was 11.6°C, with the formation of a single sharp exothermic peak at 6.5°C corresponding to the β' polymorphic form until the temperature reached -40°C. No transformation of the polymorphic form was observed during the melting process of RBDPKO, before being completely melted at 33.2°C. This work has demonstrated the detailed dynamics of polymorphic transformations of PKO and PS, two commercially important hardstocks used widely by industry and will contribute to a greater understanding of their crystallization and melting dynamics.

  4. Recycled palm oil spoilage: Correlation between physicochemical properties and oleophilicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Ili Afiqa Ab; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan; Jurid, Lailatul Syema

    2016-11-01

    Palm oil is widely used for domestic and commercial frying due to its techno-economic advantages as compared to other vegetable oils. However, if the oil is used beyond its recommended usage cycle, it might lead to oil spoilage. Therefore this study focuses on the comprehensive analysis of chemical and physical properties of recycled palm oil. Recycled palm oil was prepared by frying potato strips up to 4 batches; 5 cycles for each batch) was carried out with potato (g)-to-oil (ml) ratio of 3/20 prior to physico-chemical analysis (moisture content, color measurement, viscosity, density and iodine value. From 5 tests used to indicate physico-chemical properties of recycled palm oil, only color measurement, viscosity and IV shows results accordingly to theories. Whereas moisture content and density were not comply to theories. With increasing frying times, recycled palm oil color has been darker due to chemical reaction that occurs during frying. The trend line illustrates that with increasing frying times, recycled palm oil lightness decreases. It also means that its color has been darker. Meanwhile, b* rate increase indicating that recycled palm oil show tendency towards green color. Whereas, a* rate decreased, showing low tendency towards red color. Viscosity and moisture content increase with frying cycle. This situation occurred might be due to formation of hydrolysis products which are volatile while frying process. But the remaining non-volatile compounds among the hydrolysis products might also accumulate in palm oil and thus affect the total oil/fat chemical changes. Meanwhile the density of palm oil was quite constant at 0.15 g/cm3 except for cycle 2 with 0.17 g/cm3. The result obtained from this experiment were comply with previous study that stated frying batch number is a significant variable (a = 0.05) affecting the density of oil only after 20 frying batch. The contact angle of recycled palm oil on PHBV thin film was more than 90 °. Hence it shows

  5. Predicting Malaysian palm oil price using Extreme Value Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Chuangchid, K; Sriboonchitta, S; Rahman, S; Wiboonpongse, A

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses the extreme value theory (EVT) to predict extreme price events of Malaysian palm oil in the future, based on monthly futures price data for a 25 year period (mid-1986 to mid-2011). Model diagnostic has confirmed non-normal distribution of palm oil price data, thereby justifying the use of EVT. Two principal approaches to model extreme values – the Block Maxima (BM) and Peak-Over- Threshold (POT) models – were used. Both models revealed that the palm oil price will peak at ...

  6. Life cycle assessment of two palm oil production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stichnothe, Heinz; Schuchardt, Frank

    2011-01-01

    In 2009 approx. 40 Mt of palm oil were produced globally. Growing demand for palm oil is driven by an increasing human population as well as subsidies for biodiesel and is likely to increase further in coming years. The production of 1 t crude palm oil requires 5 t of fresh fruit bunches (FFB). On average processing of 1 t FFB in palm oil mills generates 0.23 t empty fruit bunches (EFB) and 0.65 t palm oil mill effluents (POME) as residues. In this study it is assumed that land use change does not occur. In order to estimate the environmental impacts of palm oil production a worst and a best case scenario are assessed and compared in the present study using 1000 kg of FFB as functional unit. The production and treatment of one t FFB causes more than 460 kg CO 2eq in the worst case scenario and 110 kg CO 2eq in the best case scenario. The significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction is achieved by co-composting residues of the palm oil mill. Thus treating those residues appropriately is paramount for reducing environmental impacts particularly global warming potential (GWP) and eutrophication potential (EP). Another important contributor to the EP but also to the human toxicity potential (HTP) is the biomass powered combined heat and power (CHP) plant of palm oil mills. Frequently CHP plants of palm oil mills operate without flue gas cleaning. The CHP plant emits heavy metals and nitrogen oxides and these account for 93% of the HTP of the advanced palm oil production system, of which heavy metal emissions to air are responsible for 79%. The exact emission reduction potential from CHP plants could not be quantified due to existing data gaps, but it is apparent that cleaning the exhaust gas would reduce eutrophication, acidification and toxicity considerably. -- Highlights: → We have estimated the environmental impacts of two palm oil production systems. → Residues from palm oil mills are a wasted resource rather than waste. → Co-composting of EFB and

  7. Electron beam pasteurised oil palm waste: a potential feed resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat Rasol Awang; Hassan Hamdani Mutaat; Tamikazu Kume; Tachibana, H.

    2002-01-01

    Pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was performed using electron beam single sided irradiation. The dose profiles of oil palm EFB samples for different thickness in both directions X and Y were established. The results showed the usual characteristics dose uniformity as sample thickness decreased. The mean average absorbed dose on both sides at the surface and bottom of the samples for different thickness samples lead to establishing depth dose curve. Based on depth dose curve and operation conditions of electron beam machine, the process throughput for pasteurized oil palm EFB were estimated. (Author)

  8. Co-occurrence and community assembly in Amazonian palms (Arecaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Balslev, Henrik; Kristiansen, Thea

    where palms abound in all major habitats. Using a dataset including >340,000 palm individuals in 430 transects, we analysed species richness, compositional turnover, and phylogenetic structure of palm assemblages in this region. We found a strong relationship of alpha-diversity and species turnover...... to habitat, indicating niche assembly. Habitat associations were phylogenetically non- random, leading to, e.g., co-existence of close relatives on flood plains. Dispersal and biogeographic history had a clear effect on alpha diversity, gamma diversity, and species turnover, and to a lesser degree...

  9. Diversity of palm uses in the western Amazon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paniagua Zambrana, N.Y.; Byg, A.; Svenning, J.-C.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract  We used palm knowledge to understand the interaction between people and the rainforests and the factors that influence this dynamic process. We interviewed 278 informants in 12 villages in the Pastaza and Madidi areas of the western Amazon basin. Together they used 38 different palm......, the great variation in the knowledge they possess, and the fact that the differences between villages is so great, are important elements to consider when developing management plans for the sustainable use of the rainforest resources in the western Amazon. Keywords  Local knowledge - Palms - Western Amazon...

  10. Systematics of the subfamily Poeciliinae Bonaparte (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae, with an emphasis on the tribe Cnesterodontini Hubbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Franco Lucinda

    Full Text Available Osteological and soft anatomical features of representatives of poeciliine genera were studied to test the monophyly of the poeciliine tribes and to advance a hypothesis of relationships within the subfamily. The resultant hypothesis supports the proposal of a new classification for the subfamily Poeciliinae. Diagnoses are provided for suprageneric clades. The tribe Tomeurini is resurrected and the new tribes Brachyrhaphini and Priapichthyini as well as the supertribe Poeciliini are described. New usages of old tribe names are proposed based on the phylogenetic framework.

  11. Positive and Negative Impacts of Oil Palm Expansion in Indonesia and the Prospect to Achieve Sustainable Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahputra, M. A.; Zen, Z.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the study is to deepen understanding the role of palm oil on Indonesian economy, poverty elevation and to investigate the positive and negative impacts of oil palm expansion, due to the burden of GHG emissions; and prospect to be more sustainable palm oil industry. The statistics show that average rural poverty tends to be lower and Gross Regional Product tends to be higher in provinces which have greater levels of oil palm cultivation. Indonesian oil palm will grow from 10.6 in 2013 to 13.7 million ha by 2020. This will release 135.59 million tons of CO2 if nothing is done to mitigate BAU emissions. Unless there are sustained efforts to redirect development and expansion of oil palm, plantation growth will continue to encroach on intact forest and peat land.. In fact Indonesia has large areas of degraded land, an estimated total 19,144,000 ha is available for planting oil palm and other crops. A large-scale expansion program driven by estate companies needs to be accompanied by effective smallholder development program in order to achieve the best outcome for local farmers and avoid the conflicts.

  12. Irradiation effect on chemical components of oil palm empty fruit bunch and palm press fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainon Othman; Mat Rasol Awang; Hassan Hamdani Mutaat; Tamikazu Kume; Hitoshi Ito; Shinpei Matsuhashi; Ishigaki, I.

    1998-01-01

    Physico-chemical properties of empty fruit bunch (EFB) and palm press fibre (PPF), which are major by-products of the oil palm industries, were studied for upgrading their utilisation as animal feed by radiation-fermentation process. Comparative analyses of raw EFB and PPF from 3 different mills showed significant variations in some of their chemical components. Significant differences were also observed between the chemical components of EFB and PPF samples. The water holding capacities (WHC) of both EFB and PPF suggested their suitability for use as fermentation media. Gamma irradiation of up to 50 kGy have little effect on the components of both EFB and PPF. Irradiation dose of 25 kGy appeared to produce enhancement effect on cellulase hydrolysis of holocellulose and alpha-cellulose of EFB but a retarding effect on hydrolysis of PPF

  13. Study on effective utilization of palm oil (Part 2). Extraction of carotenes from palm oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamuro, Hideo; Kubota, Yasuhiko; Shiina, Hisako; Nakasato, Satoshi

    1987-01-08

    This report is a part of the result of an international cooperation project with Malaysia Palm Oil Research Institute. Extraction of carotenes from palm oil was carried out by means of molecular distillation or adsorption method. High recovery and enrichment of carotene was obtained from the sample treated with phosphoric acid or polyphosphoric acid. However, even the maximum enrichment was only 3.8 times of carotene concentration of the sample, which was far remote from the target value of 10. The yield of recovery was also as low as 40%. Adsorption of carotenes was found to be chemisorptive in nature. The highest enrichment and recovery were obtained in the caseof oil pretreated with the phosphorous pentoxide, the recovery was 34.3% and enrichment was 11.3 which exceeded the target of 10. This adsorption process may be commercialized if the demand for carotene will grow to justify it. (2 figs, 7 tabs, 18 refs)

  14. Modification of Oil Palm Plantation Wastes as Oil Adsorbent for Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noraisah Jahi; Ling, E.S.; Rizafizah Othaman; Suria Ramli

    2015-01-01

    This research was conducted to modify oil palm solid wastes chemically to become oil adsorbent for palm oil mill effluent (POME). The purpose of modification on oil palm leaves (OPL) and oil palm frond (OPF) was to change the hydrophilic nature to a more hydrophobic character. This study also exploited the production of sorbent materials with high efficiency in the oil uptake for POME from OPL and OPF. Chemical modification was carried out using 200 mL of 1.0 M lauric acid solution for 6 hrs at room temperature. The modified OPL and OPF were preceded to adsorption test for POME and the capacity of oil adsorbed was compared between them. FTIR analysis supported the modification to occur with the increase in a peak of C-H group and the presence of C=O originated from lauric acid structure chain. The hydrophobicity of modified OPL and OPF samples was supported by XRD and contact angle analysis with modified OPL became more hydrophobic than the modified OPF, which had been 38.15 % and 24.67 % respectively. Both the analyses proved that the result from the oil adsorption test on POME showed the presence of a new peak attribute at C=C stretching of aromatics for the oil in POME proved that it was attached on the sorbent materials. Based on SEM analysis, the perforated and rough surface had been observed on modified OPL and OPF samples because oil layers on OPL and OPF surfaces were observed on the modified samples after the adsorption test. All the analyses in the study agreed that the results from oil adsorption test showed that the modified OPL had higher adsorption capacity than the modified OPF with the percentage of oil uptake at 83.74 % and 39.84 % respectively. The prepared adsorbent showed the potential to be used as a low-cost adsorbent in oil for POME. (author)

  15. Some chemical properties of irradiated empty fruit bunch and palm press fiber of oil palm byproducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Kume, Tamikazu; Othman, Z.BT.; Awang, M.R.

    1992-01-01

    Effect of irradiation and alkali treatment for digestibility of oil palm by-products by commercial enzymes was investigated to obtain the informations about formation of carbohydrate polymers or sugar components for producing animal feed from cellulosic by-products. According to the colorimetric analysis, produced reducing sugar from holocellulose of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) and Palm Press Fiber (PPF) by Cellulase ONOZUKA 3S were about ten times higher than those from raw samples. The results show that the digestibility of EFB and PPF increased significantly by delignification. The differences of digestibility between irradiated and unirradiated samples were shown clearly by the combination of enzymatic degradation and the HPLC analysis. By irradiation, digestibility of EFB was significantly increased. Higher dose is more effective for the digestion of EFB by enzyme. Alkali treatment is also quite effective to enzymatic degradation. The difference of neutral sugar component was observed between alkali treated and untreated samples. These results suggest that the combination of alkali treatment and irradiation is effective for digestion by enzyme. The analysis of products by HPLC after enzymatic degradation is useful method to examine the digestibility and the sugar composition of oil palm by-products. (author)

  16. Origin and Dispersal of Domesticated Peach Palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R. Clement

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth is a Neotropical palm domesticated by Native Americans. Its domestication resulted in a set of landraces (var. gasipaes, some with very starchy fruit used for fermentation, others with an equilibrium of starch and oil used as snacks. Which of the three wild types (var. chichagui was involved and where the domestication process began are unclear, with three hypotheses under discussion: an origin in southwestern Amazonia; or in northwestern South America; or multiple origins. We reevaluate one of the wild types, defining it as the incipient domesticate, and then evaluate these hypotheses using the Brazilian peach palm Core Collection and selected herbaria samples to: (1 model the potential distributions of wild and domesticated populations; (2 identify the probable origin of domestication with a phylogeographic analysis of chloroplast DNA sequences; and (3 determine the dispersal routes after domestication using spatial analysis of genetic diversity based on 17 nuclear microsatellite loci. The two very small-fruited wild types have distinct distributions in the northern Andes region and across southern Amazonia, both under moderately humid climates, while the incipient domesticate, partly sympatric with the southern wild type, is also found along the Equatorial Andes, in a more humid climatic envelope, more similar to that of the domesticated landraces. Two distribution models for Last Glacial Maximum conditions (CCSM4, MIROC also suggest distinct distributions for the two wild populations. The chloroplast DNA phylogeographic network confirms the area of sympatry of the incipient domesticate and the southern wild type in southwestern Amazonia as the origin of domestication. The spatial patterns of genetic diversity confirm the proposal of two dispersals, one along the Ucayali River, into western Amazonia, northwestern South America and finally Central America; the other along the Madeira River into central and

  17. Population matrix models and palm resource management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available MATRICES DE POPULATIONS ET MISE EN VALEUR DES PALMIERS. Au cours des 20 dernières années, les structures de population de nombreuses espèces de palmiers ont été décrites et discutées. La croissance et la stabilité des populations ont été analysées à l’aide de matrices. Dans cet article, nous reprenons un modèle et en discutons les aspects méthodologiques en vue d’une estimation des paramètres de l’histoire de la vie des palmiers. Les généralisations résultant de précédentes études sont présentées et les conséquences pour la mise en valeur des palmiers, concernant en particulier la confection de toitures, les fruits, la récolte des stipes, sont discutées. MATRICES DE POBLACIONES Y MANEJO DE PALMERAS. En los últimos 20 años, las estructuras de población de numerosas especies de palmeras han sido descritas y discutidas. El crecimiento y la estabilidad de las poblaciones han sido analizadas, utilizando matrices. En el presente artículo, presentamos un modelo y discutimos los aspectos metodológicos específicos para hacer una estimación de los parámetros de la historia de la vida de las palmeras. Son presentadas las generalizaciones diseñadas por estudios previos, y discutidas las implicancias en el manejo de las palmeras, en cuanto a techado, frutas, cosecha de los estípites. Population structures of numerous palm species have been described and discussed in the last 20 years. Population growth and stability have been analyzed with matrix models. In this paper we review matrix models and discuss methodological issues specific to estimating palm life history parameters. Generalizations drawn from previous studies are presented and implications for palm resource management, specifically for thatch, fruit, and stem harvest, are discussed.

  18. Ritual uses of palms in traditional medicine in sub-Saharan Africa: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruca, Marta; van Andel, Tinde; Balslev, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Palms (Arecaceae) are prominent elements in African traditional medicines. It is, however, a challenge to find detailed information on the ritual use of palms, which are an inextricable part of African medicinal and spiritual systems. This work reviews ritual uses of palms within African ethnomed......Palms (Arecaceae) are prominent elements in African traditional medicines. It is, however, a challenge to find detailed information on the ritual use of palms, which are an inextricable part of African medicinal and spiritual systems. This work reviews ritual uses of palms within African...... guineensis, Hyphaene coriacea, H. petersiana, Phoenix reclinata, Raphia farinifera, R. hookeri, and R. vinifera. In some rituals, palms play a central role as sacred objects, for example the seeds accompany oracles and palm leaves are used in offerings. In other cases, palms are added as a support to other...

  19. Fruit maturation and in vitro germination of macaw palm embryos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -industrial potential. Seed dormancy in palm species may be due to embryo immaturity, which could result from delayed embryogenesis. We evaluated the correspondence between the visual characteristics of maturing fruits and their ...

  20. Plantform Bioreactor for Mass Micropropagation of Date Palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almusawi, Abdulminam H A; Sayegh, Abdullah J; Alshanaw, Ansam M S; Griffis, John L

    2017-01-01

    A novel protocol for the commercial production of date palm through micropropagation is presented. This protocol includes the use of a semisolid medium alternation or in combination with a temporary immersion system (TIS, Plantform bioreactor) in date palm micropropagation. The use of the Plantform bioreactor for date palm results in an improved multiplication rate, reduced micropropagation time, and improved weaning success. It also reduces the cost of saleable units and thus improves economic return for commercial micropropagation. The use of the Plantform bioreactor successfully addresses other hindrances that can occur during the scale-up of date palm micropropagation, including asynchrony of somatic embryos, limited maturation of somatic embryos, and highly variable germination frequencies of embryos.

  1. Chemical composition of Chinese palm fruit and chemical properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl user 4

    2012-05-15

    May 15, 2012 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. ... (PK) of oil palm fruit (Elaeis guineensis S.L.Dura) produced in Hainan, China were investigated. The ..... MS conditions: ionization type, .... number of fatty acids of low molecular weight.

  2. Proposed average values of some engineering properties of palm

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-07-02

    Jul 2, 2012 ... ture resistance, toughness, deformation, and hardness of palm ... useful in the determination of the amount of heat re- quired for ... to measure the volume required for the investigation. A result of .... vanized steel, and glass.

  3. Exploring Opportunities for Sustainability in the Malaysian Palm Oil Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padfield, Rory; Hansen, Sune Balle; Preece, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The global thirst for vegetable oil can be regarded as one of the greatest environmental challenges of the 21st Century and interest has intensified with the prospect of biofuels. Palm oil has risen to become the dominant player on the vegetable oil market – and the main recipient of environmental...... scrutiny. Focusing specifically on the Malaysian context, this paper analyses the major environmental, social and economic impacts associated with palm oil production. Drawing on recently published research, publicly available data and a comparison made with a recent sustainability initiative undertaken...... by the hydropower industry – an equally controversial and highly scrutinised sector – it is argued that the full extent of the impacts of palm oil should be acknowledged by those on both sides of the debate. Moreover, it is argued that by moving towards a less polarised version of the palm oil narrative and one...

  4. ENGLISH-IGBO GLOSSARY CREATION OF PALM OIL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dean SPGS NAU

    Abstract. The Igbo speaking people are well known for palm oil production ... ventures among other trades or occupations for which the Igbo are known. .... Q na-eme aka ntxtx vii. ..... Professionals – teachers, lawyers, writers, journalists and.

  5. Bioconversion of palm kernel meal for aquaculture: Experiences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-17

    Apr 17, 2008 ... es as well as food supplies have existed traditionally with coastal regions of Liberia and ..... Contamination of palm kernel meal with Aspergillus ... Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800, Malaysia. Aquacult. Res.

  6. Research Note: Comparative antibacterial activities of oil-palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Note: Comparative antibacterial activities of oil-palm Elaeis ... The antimicrobial activities liquid pyrolysates (obtained by destructive distillation), their ... respective chloroform fractions which showed higher activities than the crude ...

  7. Dense Medium Machine Processing Method for Palm Kernel/ Shell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Cracked palm kernel is a mixture of kernels, broken shells, dusts and other impurities. In ... machine processing method using dense medium, a separator, a shell collector and a kernel .... efficiency, ease of maintenance and uniformity of.

  8. Accelerated in vitro propagation of elite oil palm genotypes (Elaeis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Usuario

    2016-12-14

    Dec 14, 2016 ... Thus, this study aimed to apply a cloning protocol, using somatic embryogenesis, .... A: Cutting of an adult plant oil palm to perform stem slitting and measurements, in ..... strand breaks induced by reactive oxygen species.

  9. Indigenous fungal entomopathogens associated with the oil palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-11-30

    Nov 30, 2014 ... is the most devastating insect pest of the African oil palm Elaeis guineensis Jacquin. Like most insect ... (Carrere, 2006). Malaysia and Indonesia, the world's ... environment, and residues in the fruits produced, it has become ...

  10. Ocular Dynamics of Bolus Ingestion of Eleis guineensis Sap (Palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elaeis guineensis), and is widely consumed among the various ethnic nationalities in Nigeria. The effect of bolus ingestion of 600ml, palm wine was undertaken so as to determine its ocular dynamics in healthy volunteers. Results showed that ...

  11. The effect of irradiation on date palm pollen grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, M M; Alajaily, F R [The National Academy for Scientific Research Tripoli (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya)

    1995-10-01

    The evaluation of male date palm is very important in date palm culture, it is very well known that the source of pollen has its influence on fruit set, physical and chemical characters of the fruits. Date pollen was collected from previously studied male date palm trees. The pollen was subjected to the following irradiation treatments: 0,5, 10, 20, 40, 80 krad. The irradiated pollen was treated with acetocarmine and its viability was studied under the light microscope. No differences were observed between the treated pollen and the control. The pollen was germinated on agar, sucrose and boric acid media in an incubator at 27 degree C for hours. Germination count under the light microscope indicated that there were no significant differences between 5, 10, 20 krad treatments and the control, but the high doses reduced the germination percentage. The irradiated pollen used to pollinate date palm trees and the effect of metaxynia was studied. 3 tabs.

  12. Pleurotus pulmonarius cultivation on amended palm press fibre waste

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bola

    2015-05-13

    May 13, 2015 ... Seven different substrates (A to G) were prepared from saw dust, palm press ... can grow in a wide range of soil types with relatively low ..... documented to include; cotton waste, sugar cane ..... Canada wood ash sources. Can.

  13. Gender Role in Sustainable Palm Oil Production in Imo State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E M IGBOKWE

    Abstracted by: EBSCOhost, Electronic Journals Service (EJS),. Vol. .... food processing and pharmaceutical industries, production of toiletries, paints, etc.) .... strides witnessed in Malaysia who collected palm fruits from Nigeria can be traced to.

  14. PALM-COEIN Nomenclature for Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deneris, Angela

    2016-05-01

    Approximately 30% of women will experience abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) during their life time. Previous terms defining AUB have been confusing and imprecisely applied. As a consequence, both clinical management and research on this common problem have been negatively impacted. In 2011, the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Menstrual Disorders Group (FMDG) published PALM-COEIN, a new classification system for abnormal bleeding in the reproductive years. Terms such as menorrhagia, menometrorrhagia, metrorrhagia, dysfunctional uterine bleeding, polymenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, and uterine hemorrhage are no longer recommended. The PALM-COEIN system was developed to standardize nomenclature to describe the etiology and severity of AUB. A brief description of the PALM-COEIN nomenclature is presented as well as treatment options for each etiology. Clinicians will frequently encounter women with AUB and should report findings utilizing the PALM-COEIN system. © 2016 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  15. Palm Beach, Florida Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Palm Beach, Florida Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  16. Genetic determinism of oil acidity among some DELI oil palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic determinism of oil acidity among some DELI oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) progenies. Benoit Constant Likeng-Li-Ngue, Joseph Martin Bell, Georges Franck Ngando-Ebongue, Godswill Ntsefong Ntsomboh, Hermine Bille Ngalle ...

  17. development of motorized development of motorized oil palm fruit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    industrial activity in a number of developing West. African and ... pharmaceutical industries for the manufacture of drugs. ... production line of which oil palm fruit digestion is one. Thus, one ... For effective design of the machine, it was necessary.

  18. determining the optimum combination of palm kernel cake

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Twenty (20) female grasscutters at 14 months of age were used for the study, which lasted for ten ... commercial production of grasscutter would boost efforts .... Range test (Steel and Torrie, 1980). .... based on oil palm by-products in Malaysia.

  19. PALM and STORM: unlocking live-cell super-resolution

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Henriques, R

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available microscopy methods such as PALM and STORM to achieve this important goal. ? 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 95: 322?331, 2011. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/bip.21586/abstract ...

  20. Factors of enzymatic biodiesel production from sludge palm oil (SPO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ika

    2013-07-31

    Jul 31, 2013 ... Biodiesel is a non-toxic, renewable and environmental friendly fuel. This study ... of biodiesel from sludge palm oil (SPO), a low-cost waste oil via enzymatic catalysis. ... Increasing energy crisis and environmental concerns by.

  1. Economics of palm oil marketing in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economics of palm oil marketing in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria. ... Data on trades socio economic factors, marketing cost and marketing margin were collected from 80 traders randomly selected from the ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  2. How Unilever palm oil suppliers are burning up Borneo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-04-15

    New evidence shows expansion by Unilever palm oil suppliers is driving species extinction in Central Kalimantan, and fuelling climate change. In November 2007, Greenpeace released 'Cooking the Climate', an 82-page report summarizing the findings of a two-year investigation that revealed how the world's largest food, cosmetic and biofuel companies were driving the wholesale destruction of Indonesia's rainforests and peatlands through growing palm oil consumption. This follow-up report provides further evidence of the expansion of the palm oil sector in Indonesia into remaining rainforests, orang-utan habitat and peatlands in Kalimantan. It links the majority of the largest producers in Indonesia to Unilever, probably the largest palm oil corporate consumer in the world.

  3. The Kalimantan Border Oil Palm Mega-project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakker, E. [AIDEnvironment, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-04-15

    A few years ago, the Indonesian government and sections of the palm oil industry united in the Indonesian Palm Oil Commission (IPOC) to undertake efforts to restore the atrocious public image that the palm oil industry had earned abroad for its role in the demise of Indonesia's tropical rainforests, the massive forest fires and haze in 1997-1998, and for the widespread conflicts between plantation companies and local communities. If IPOC succeeded in restoring the palm oil industry's image abroad, it was shattered again after June 2005 when the Indonesian Minister of Agriculture revealed details of a government plan to develop the world's largest oil palm plantation in a 5-10 kilometer band along the border of Kalimantan and Malaysia. To finance the USD 567 million plantation project, the Indonesian President and Chamber of Commerce and Industry (KADIN) had already met up with the Chinese government and private sector several times, resulting in Memoranda of Understanding between (among other) the Artha Graha and Sinar Mas groups from Indonesia and the Chinese CITIC group and Chinese Development Bank (CDB). The oil palm mega-project, launched in Indonesia under the banner of 'bringing prosperity, security and environmental protection to the Kalimantan border area', turned sour when a business plan developed by the Indonesian State Plantation Corporation (PTPN) began to circulate. This document contained a map that showed beyond doubt how the 1.8 million hectare oil palm project would trash the primary forests of three National Parks, cut through rugged slopes and mountains utterly unsuitable for oil palm cultivation and annihilate the customary rights land of the indigenous Dayak communities in the border area. This report describes what has come of the Kalimantan border oil palm mega-plan since it was announced, who is involved and what research, lobby and campaigning has led to so far. In particular, this study aims to inform civil

  4. The Kalimantan Border Oil Palm Mega-project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakker, E.

    2006-04-01

    A few years ago, the Indonesian government and sections of the palm oil industry united in the Indonesian Palm Oil Commission (IPOC) to undertake efforts to restore the atrocious public image that the palm oil industry had earned abroad for its role in the demise of Indonesia's tropical rainforests, the massive forest fires and haze in 1997-1998, and for the widespread conflicts between plantation companies and local communities. If IPOC succeeded in restoring the palm oil industry's image abroad, it was shattered again after June 2005 when the Indonesian Minister of Agriculture revealed details of a government plan to develop the world's largest oil palm plantation in a 5-10 kilometer band along the border of Kalimantan and Malaysia. To finance the USD 567 million plantation project, the Indonesian President and Chamber of Commerce and Industry (KADIN) had already met up with the Chinese government and private sector several times, resulting in Memoranda of Understanding between (among other) the Artha Graha and Sinar Mas groups from Indonesia and the Chinese CITIC group and Chinese Development Bank (CDB). The oil palm mega-project, launched in Indonesia under the banner of 'bringing prosperity, security and environmental protection to the Kalimantan border area', turned sour when a business plan developed by the Indonesian State Plantation Corporation (PTPN) began to circulate. This document contained a map that showed beyond doubt how the 1.8 million hectare oil palm project would trash the primary forests of three National Parks, cut through rugged slopes and mountains utterly unsuitable for oil palm cultivation and annihilate the customary rights land of the indigenous Dayak communities in the border area. This report describes what has come of the Kalimantan border oil palm mega-plan since it was announced, who is involved and what research, lobby and campaigning has led to so far. In particular, this study aims to inform civil society organizations, palm oil

  5. Temporary Immersion System for Date Palm Micropropagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othmani, Ahmed; Bayoudh, Chokri; Sellemi, Amel; Drira, Noureddine

    2017-01-01

    The temporary immersion system (TIS) is being used with tremendous success for automation of micropropagation of many plant species. TIS usually consists of a culture vessel comprising two compartments, an upper one with the plant material and a lower one with the liquid culture medium and an automated air pump. The latter enables contact between all parts of the explants and the liquid medium by setting overpressure to the lower part of the container. These systems are providing the most satisfactory conditions for date palm regeneration via shoot organogenesis and allow a significant increase of multiplication rate (5.5-fold in comparison with that regenerated on agar-solidified medium) and plant material quality, thereby reducing production cost.

  6. Electrocoagulation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustin, Melissa B.; Sengpracha, Waya P.; Phutdhawong, Weerachai

    2008-01-01

    Electrocoagulation (EC) is an electrochemical technique which has been employed in the treatment of various kinds of wastewater. In this work the potential use of EC for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated. In a laboratory scale, POME from a factory site in Chumporn Province (Thailand) was subjected to EC using aluminum as electrodes and sodium chloride as supporting electrolyte. Results show that EC can reduce the turbidity, acidity, COD, and BOD of the POME as well as some of its heavy metal contents. Phenolic compounds are also removed from the effluent. Recovery techniques were employed in the coagulated fraction and the recovered compounds was analysed for antioxidant activity by DPPH method. The isolate was found to have a moderate antioxidant activity. From this investigation, it can be concluded that EC is an efficient method for the treatment of POME. PMID:19139537

  7. The heart of date palm: its nutritional and functional constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Movahed

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. is one of the three important fruit crops in the palm family. Kabkub is the main cultivated species in southern part of Iran, Bushehr. Every part of this tree has its own uses. The tree's terminal buds (heart of palm or palmitos are believed to have many nutritional values. As a folk medicine, it has been used for the improvement of stamina and treatment of sexual weakness. In order to evaluate the nutritional values of this product of date palm, we analyzed the total carbohydrates, proteins, minerals, and fats in the sample. Methods: The palm hearts were obtained from local trees, minced, dried, and ground to powder. Fats were extracted and analyzed using Bligh-Dyer method and gas chromatography. Total proteins and carbohydrates were determined by Kjeldahl and Lane-Eynon methods, respectively. The minerals were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results: The total fat content of the sample was 0.27g/28g. The unsaturated fatty acids present in the sample were mainly linoleic, linolenic and oleic acids, all together comprised 27.2% of the fats. Palmitic acid was the main saturated fat. The total protein estimated was 0.3g/28g. The carbohydrate content of the palm heart was 2.29 g and the minerals present in the sample were mainly Zn, Fe, Mg, P, Mn, Ca, Cu, Na, K, and Se. Conclusion: Date palm contains many essential fatty acids and known anti-inflammatory nutrients including zinc. The amount of crude fiber present in the heart of palm makes it as a valuable dietary product to be used as a tasty fat-cholesterol free nutrient.

  8. Aquagenic Wrinkling of the Palms in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, H; Brustad, N; Pressler, T

    2018-01-01

    Aquagenic wrinkling of the palms (AWP) is a condition characterized by oedema, confluent white papules and excessive wrinkling of the palms after few minutes exposure to water. The phenomenon may be associated with pain, numbness and pruritus1,2. It was first noticed and described in 1974 in chil...... in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) by a paediatrician R.B. Elliott3. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  9. Palm diversity and abundance in the Colombian Amazon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik; Copete, Juan Carlos; Pedersen, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    We studied diversity and abundance of palms in the eastern Colombian Amazon in 71 transects, 61 measuring 5×500 m and 10 transects measuring 4×500 m, innventoring a total of 17.25 hectares. We found a total of 74 species in 21 genera. In terra firme we found 68 species in 20 genera and an average...... found in this study (Euterpe precatoria, Oenocarpus bataua, Attalea butyracea, Iriartella setigera) coincide with dominant species in other Amazonian palm communities....

  10. Design And Development Of Chopper Machine For Palm Oil Midrib

    OpenAIRE

    Arif, Muhammad; Azmi, Azmi; Purba, Immanuel

    2016-01-01

    The midrib of palm oil has good potency to be processed become animal feed (silage) and compost where the midribs are chopped into small pieces. The opportunity of this development process that can more be benefit and valuable encourages researcher to design and create a machine that capable to chop the midribs of palm oil. In this research, researcher designs and creates a chopper machine which can be operated safely and more efficient based on ergonomics approach. Researcher also uses anthr...

  11. Cryopreservation of peach palm zygotic embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmacher, Douglas A; Saldanha, Cleber W; Clement, Charles R; Guerra, Miguel P

    2007-01-01

    Cryopreservation is a safe and cost-effective option for long-term germplasm conservation of non-orthodox seed species, such as peach palm (Bactris gasipaes). The objective of the present study was to establish a cryopreservation protocol for peach palm zygotic embryos based on the encapsulation-dehydration technique. After excision, zygotic embryos were encapsulated with 3 percent sodium alginate plus 2 M glycerol and 0.4 M sucrose, and pre-treated or not with 1 M sucrose during 24 h, followed by air-drying. Fresh weight water contents of beads decreased from 83 percent and 87 percent to 18 percent and 20 percent for pre-treated or non-pretreated beads, respectively, after 4 h of dehydration. Sucrose pre-treatment at 1 M caused lower zygotic embryo germination and plantlet height in contrast to non-treated beads. All the variables were statistically influenced by dehydration time. Optimal conditions for recovery of cryopreserved zygotic embryos include encapsulation and dehydration for 4 h in a forced air cabinet to 20 percent water content, followed by rapid freezing in liquid nitrogen (-196 degree C) and rapid thawing at 45 degree C. In these conditions 29 percent of the zygotic embryos germinated in vitro. However, plantlets obtained from dehydrated zygotic embryos had stunted haustoria and lower heights. Histological analysis showed that haustorium cells were large, vacuolated, with few protein bodies. In contrast, small cells with high nucleus:cytoplasm ratio formed the shoot apical meristem of the embryos, which were the cell types with favorable characteristics for survival after exposure to liquid nitrogen. Plantlets were successfully acclimatized and showed 41+/-9 percent and 88+/-4 percent survival levels after 12 weeks of acclimatization from cryopreserved and non-cryopreserved treatments, respectively.

  12. Skin color variation in Orang Asli tribes of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khai C Ang

    Full Text Available Pigmentation is a readily scorable and quantitative human phenotype, making it an excellent model for studying multifactorial traits and diseases. Convergent human evolution from the ancestral state, darker skin, towards lighter skin colors involved divergent genetic mechanisms in people of European vs. East Asian ancestry. It is striking that the European mechanisms result in a 10-20-fold increase in skin cancer susceptibility while the East Asian mechanisms do not. Towards the mapping of genes that contribute to East Asian pigmentation there is need for one or more populations that are admixed for ancestral and East Asian ancestry, but with minimal European contribution. This requirement is fulfilled by the Senoi, one of three indigenous tribes of Peninsular Malaysia collectively known as the Orang Asli. The Senoi are thought to be an admixture of the Negrito, an ancestral dark-skinned population representing the second of three Orang Asli tribes, and regional Mongoloid populations of Indo-China such as the Proto-Malay, the third Orang Asli tribe. We have calculated skin reflectance-based melanin indices in 492 Orang Asli, which ranged from 28 (lightest to 75 (darkest; both extremes were represented in the Senoi. Population averages were 56 for Negrito, 42 for Proto-Malay, and 46 for Senoi. The derived allele frequencies for SLC24A5 and SLC45A2 in the Senoi were 0.04 and 0.02, respectively, consistent with greater South Asian than European admixture. Females and individuals with the A111T mutation had significantly lighter skin (p = 0.001 and 0.0039, respectively. Individuals with these derived alleles were found across the spectrum of skin color, indicating an overriding effect of strong skin lightening alleles of East Asian origin. These results suggest that the Senoi are suitable for mapping East Asian skin color genes.

  13. Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin Energy Optimization Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troge, Michael [Little Bear Development Center, Oneida, WI (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Oneida Nation is located in Northeast Wisconsin. The reservation is approximately 96 square miles (8 miles x 12 miles), or 65,000 acres. The greater Green Bay area is east and adjacent to the reservation. A county line roughly splits the reservation in half; the west half is in Outagamie County and the east half is in Brown County. Land use is predominantly agriculture on the west 2/3 and suburban on the east 1/3 of the reservation. Nearly 5,000 tribally enrolled members live in the reservation with a total population of about 21,000. Tribal ownership is scattered across the reservation and is about 23,000 acres. Currently, the Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin (OTIW) community members and facilities receive the vast majority of electrical and natural gas services from two of the largest investor-owned utilities in the state, WE Energies and Wisconsin Public Service. All urban and suburban buildings have access to natural gas. About 15% of the population and five Tribal facilities are in rural locations and therefore use propane as a primary heating fuel. Wood and oil are also used as primary or supplemental heat sources for a small percent of the population. Very few renewable energy systems, used to generate electricity and heat, have been installed on the Oneida Reservation. This project was an effort to develop a reasonable renewable energy portfolio that will help Oneida to provide a leadership role in developing a clean energy economy. The Energy Optimization Model (EOM) is an exploration of energy opportunities available to the Tribe and it is intended to provide a decision framework to allow the Tribe to make the wisest choices in energy investment with an organizational desire to establish a renewable portfolio standard (RPS).

  14. The tribe Phanaeini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Figueroa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We examine the occurrence of the tribe Phanaeini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae in Peru based on the collection at Museo de Historia Natural of the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos and on data provided in literature. Each species is presented with citations of its diagnosis, distribution and related comments. Peruvian Phanaeini includes 30 species in nine genera: Coprophanaeus, Dendropaemon, Gromphas, Oruscatus, Oxysternon, Phanaeus, Sulcophanaeus, Tetramereia and Megatharsis. Oruscatus davus is the only species distributed in the high Andes; Phanaeus lunaris and P. achilles occur in the northern arid zone shared by Peru and Ecuador; the remaining species are Amazonian.

  15. Feasibility study of gasification of oil palm fronds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Sulaiman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the large and consistent supply, oil palm fronds could be a promising source of biomass energy through gasification. There is very scarce information on the characteristics of oil palm fronds, which is vital in deciding if such biomass is technically suitable for gasification. In the present work, the feasibility of oil palm fronds for biomass gasification is studied. The study is conducted experimentally via standard tests to determine their thermochemical characteristics. Ultimate analysis is conducted to determine the contents of carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen and sulphide in oil palm fronds. Proximate analysis is performed to identify the burning characteristics of the biomass. The energy content in the fronds is determined by using a bomb calorie meter and is around 18 MJ/kg. The ignitability of the fronds is also studied experimentally to assess the ease to start-up combustion of the fronds. The characteristics of the flame of the resulting syngas from gasification of oil palm fronds are qualitatively studied. Simulated syngas composition study reveals potentials of 22% CO, 1.3% H2, 18.5% CO2 and traces of CH4. The study is extended to computer simulation to predict composition of the syngas. It is found from this work that oil palm fronds are feasible for gasification and has a good potential as a renewable energy source.

  16. Evaluation of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) processed by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Priscila Vieira da

    2009-01-01

    The peach palm can be obtained from several species of palms, but the peach palm has attracted great interest by producers, as has characteristics of precocity, rusticity and tillering, producing a palm-quality differentiating it from other palmettos for their sweet flavor and yellowish . The food irradiation has been used as a treatment to ensure microbiological food safety of products to avoid infection. Its use combined with minimal processing could increase the safety and quality of minimally processed vegetables. We aimed at evaluating the effect of gamma radiation and electron beams to control bacteria; assess the physical characteristics through analysis of color and texture in peach palm in natura minimally processed and subjected to ionizing radiation stored at 8 deg C as well as evaluating the sensory characteristics. The results in the microbiological analysis showed that ionizing radiation promotes reduction of microbial load in both treatments. In the analysis of color we can conclude that among all the treatments the sample irradiated with 1.5 kGy showed more differences when compared with the other samples. Observing texture characteristics we could conclude that irradiation changed the texture of the palm, unlike the treatment by electron beams that showed no difference between samples. For the sensory analysis, the gamma radiation with dose of 1.5 kGy, induced changes in sensory properties to the attributes and overall appearance. The dose of 1 kGy caused no significant difference, so a recommended dose for the irradiation of the studied product. (author)

  17. Utilization of Palm Oil Clinker as Cement Replacement Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanadasan, Jegathish; Abdul Razak, Hashim

    2015-12-16

    The utilization of waste materials from the palm oil industry provides immense benefit to various sectors of the construction industry. Palm oil clinker is a by-product from the processing stages of palm oil goods. Channelling this waste material into the building industry helps to promote sustainability besides overcoming waste disposal problems. Environmental pollution due to inappropriate waste management system can also be drastically reduced. In this study, cement was substituted with palm oil clinker powder as a binder material in self-compacting mortar. The fresh, hardened and microstructure properties were evaluated throughout this study. In addition, sustainability component analysis was also carried out to assess the environmental impact of introducing palm oil clinker powder as a replacement material for cement. It can be inferred that approximately 3.3% of cement production can be saved by substituting palm oil clinker powder with cement. Reducing the utilization of cement through a high substitution level of this waste material will also help to reduce carbon emissions by 52%. A cleaner environment free from pollutants can be created to ensure healthier living. Certain industries may benefit through the inclusion of this waste material as the cost and energy consumption of the product can be minimized.

  18. The palm wine trade: occupational and health hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbuagbaw, L; Noorduyn, S G

    2012-10-01

    The palm wine trade is an important economic activity for many tropical rural areas worldwide. In West Africa, palm wine holds high sociocultural and traditional values. Wine tappers often climb very tall trees with rudimentary equipment to harvest palm sap and risk severe injuries in the event of a fall. Furthermore, the wine quickly ferments beyond the desired taste and alcohol content, reducing the market power of these tappers. Therefore, to maximize benefits or to enhance shelf life, a variety of components are added to the palm tree sap, introducing the possibility of deadly contaminants. This paper highlights the public health implications of uncontrolled palm wine production and the relative neglect of the wine tapper. We draw from the limited published literature and use Cameroon as a case study. The palm wine trade can be more productive and safe if tappers work in cooperatives to improve their market power. Public health authorities need to monitor the quality of this cheap and common source of alcohol and enact regulations to protect wine tappers from the current level of occupational hazards. There are varying levels of progress to control quality and ensure safety in different parts of the world. Legislation and collaboration with traditional structures may offer a framework for change.

  19. Utilization of Palm Oil Clinker as Cement Replacement Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jegathish Kanadasan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of waste materials from the palm oil industry provides immense benefit to various sectors of the construction industry. Palm oil clinker is a by-product from the processing stages of palm oil goods. Channelling this waste material into the building industry helps to promote sustainability besides overcoming waste disposal problems. Environmental pollution due to inappropriate waste management system can also be drastically reduced. In this study, cement was substituted with palm oil clinker powder as a binder material in self-compacting mortar. The fresh, hardened and microstructure properties were evaluated throughout this study. In addition, sustainability component analysis was also carried out to assess the environmental impact of introducing palm oil clinker powder as a replacement material for cement. It can be inferred that approximately 3.3% of cement production can be saved by substituting palm oil clinker powder with cement. Reducing the utilization of cement through a high substitution level of this waste material will also help to reduce carbon emissions by 52%. A cleaner environment free from pollutants can be created to ensure healthier living. Certain industries may benefit through the inclusion of this waste material as the cost and energy consumption of the product can be minimized.

  20. The Palm Wine Trade: Occupational and Health Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Mbuagbaw

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The palm wine trade is an important economic activity for many tropical rural areas worldwide. In West Africa, palm wine holds high sociocultural and traditional values. Wine tappers often climb very tall trees with rudimentary equipment to harvest palm sap and risk severe injuries in the event of a fall. Furthermore, the wine quickly ferments beyond the desired taste and alcohol content, reducing the market power of these tappers. Therefore, to maximize benefits or to enhance shelf life, a variety of components are added to the palm tree sap, introducing the possibility of deadly contaminants. This paper highlights the public health implications of uncontrolled palm wine production and the relative neglect of the wine tapper. We draw from the limited published literature and use Cameroon as a case study. The palm wine trade can be more productive and safe if tappers work in cooperatives to improve their market power. Public health authorities need to monitor the quality of this cheap and common source of alcohol and enact regulations to protect wine tappers from the current level of occupational hazards. There are varying levels of progress to control quality and ensure safety in different parts of the world. Legislation and collaboration with traditional structures may offer a framework for change.

  1. Feeding behavior of lambs fed diets containing peach palm meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Batista dos Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the feeding behavior of lambs fed diets containing peach palm meal replacing maize (0, 10, 40, 60, and 85% DM. Thirty Santa Inês sheep with an average initial body weight of 21.6 ± 0.87 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with five diets and six replicates. Feeding time in min kg–1 DM and min kg–1 NDFap increased by 34 min and 99.6 min, respectively, with each level of substitution of maize for the peach palm meal. Rumination and chewing times, in min kg–1 DM and min kg–1 NDF, also increased in response to the substitution of maize for peach palm meal. When expressed in min day–1, rumination and chewing activities decreased by 12.4 and 14.6 min, respectively, as the amount of peach palm meal in the concentrate was increased. The time spent idle increased linearly (P < 0.05, by 14.6 min day–1, with the replacement levels, compared with the control diet. Peach palm meal in the composition of sheep diets reduces the intakes of dry matter and fiber and decreases the feed and rumination efficiencies. Replacing maize by peach palm meal increases the feeding time and rumination and chewing activities of feedlot lambs.

  2. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT AND OIL PALM FROND WASTE MIXTURE AS AN ALTERNATIVE BIOMASS FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. HASSAN, L. S. KEE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil mill effluent (POME sludge generated from palm oil mill industry and oil palm frond (OPF from oil palm plantation are considered biomass wastes that can be fully utilized as a renewable energy sources. In this study, an attempt has been made to convert these residues into solid biomass fuel. The study was conducted by developing experimental testing on the POME and OPF mixture. The performance of each sample with different weight percentage was investigated using standard tests. The biomass mixture was converted into compressed form of briquette through a simple process. The properties of the briquettes were observed and compared at different weight percentage following standard testing methods included ultimate and proximate analyses, burning characteristics, dimensional stability and crack analysis. Experimental results showed that POME sludge and OPF mixture is feasible as an alternative biomass fuel, with briquette of 90:10 POME sludge to OPF ratio has a good combination of properties as an overall.

  3. Chemical Compounds Of Granulated Palm Sugar Made From Sap Of Nipa Palm (Nypa Fruticans Wurmb Growing In Three Different Places

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosidah R Radam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Production of granulated sugar from sap of nipa palms in South Kalimantan Province is a new innovation. The purpose of this study was to find out the chemical compounds contained in granulated sugar made from sap of nipa palms growing in 3 different places, which was expected to benefit wider community as a source of alternative sweetener. The chemical compound test of granulated nipa palm sugar was conducted at the Laboratory of Institute for Research and Standardization of Industry, Banjarbaru. Chemical parameters tested were water, sucrose, reducing sugar, fat, protein, phosphorus, and potassium content. The test results showed that the water content of granulated nipa palm sugar in treatment A1, A2, and A3 was 3.69%, 4.04%, and 2.31%, respectively; the protein content 0.65%, 2.19%, and 1.10%; the fat content 0.27 %, 0.34 %, and 0.20 %; the reducing sugar content 2.39%, 0.51%, and 0.52%; the sucrose content 75.14%, 68.15%, and 88.46%; the phosphorus content 1.1342%, 1.1196%, and 1.138%; and the potassium content 1.60%, 1.40%, and 1.58%, respectively. The test parameters of granulated nipa palm sugar that met the Mandatory Indonesia National Standard (SNI 01-3743-1995 were the water content of granulated sugar from sap of nipa palms growing in dry place (land, the reducing sugar content and sucrose content in all treatments. It can be concluded from the three required parameters that granulated nipa palm sugar is able to become the source of new sweetener in addition to block arenga palm sugar and crystal cane sugar for the community in South Kalimantan.

  4. Indonesia`s Palm Oil Industrialization: the Resistance of Tanjung Pusaka Villagers, Central Kalimantan Against Palm Oil Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Wulansari, Ica

    2017-01-01

    Indonesia`s Palm oil industry is the greatest export commodity in the world. Palm oil industry has been developed since Soeharto`s administration with World Bank`s initiative. Indonesia`s development pattern is modernization which is fully supported by global capitalist agent. Furthermore, the government of Indonesia has issued policies to support this industry and the ease of accessibilty for investor to build in Indonesia. Most of the policies focus on economic interest with lack of attenti...

  5. 25 CFR 170.903 - Who notifies tribes of the transport of radioactive waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who notifies tribes of the transport of radioactive waste... INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Miscellaneous Provisions Hazardous and Nuclear Waste Transportation § 170.903 Who notifies tribes of the transport of radioactive waste? The Department of Energy (DOE) has...

  6. 77 FR 10547 - Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas-First Amended Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... Amended Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice publishes the amendment to the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas' Beer and Liquor Tax... adopted this amendment to the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas' Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance by...

  7. 36 CFR 219.15 - Interaction with American Indian tribes and Alaska Natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interaction with American Indian tribes and Alaska Natives. 219.15 Section 219.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST... Collaborative Planning for Sustainability § 219.15 Interaction with American Indian tribes and Alaska Natives...

  8. Medicinal Plants Used by the Mandais - A Little Known Tribe of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Mandais are a little known tribe of Bangladesh inhabiting the north central regions, particularly Tangail district of Bangladesh. Their population has been estimated to be less than 10,000 people. Although the tribe has for the most part assimilated with the mainstream Bengali-speaking population, they to some extent ...

  9. 24 CFR 1000.20 - Is an Indian tribe required to assume environmental review responsibilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Is an Indian tribe required to assume environmental review responsibilities? 1000.20 Section 1000.20 Housing and Urban Development... § 1000.20 Is an Indian tribe required to assume environmental review responsibilities? (a) No. It is an...

  10. 43 CFR 30.261 - How does a tribe exercise its statutory option to purchase?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... tribe may purchase all or part of the available interests specified in the probate decision. A tribe may... option to purchase? 30.261 Section 30.261 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior INDIAN PROBATE HEARINGS PROCEDURES Tribal Purchase of Interests Under Special Statutes § 30.261 How does...

  11. 25 CFR 1200.13 - How does a tribe apply to withdraw funds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... contain the items listed below. (a) Proof that the tribe has notified its members of its intent to remove... proof that the tribe has notified its members of intent to transfer the funds. The resolution must... governing body has the legal authority to withdraw funds from trust status and that the withdrawal does not...

  12. 77 FR 38821 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin's Proposed Fee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ..., with the Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin (Tribe), the National Indian Gaming Commission (NIGC), the... III gaming would be conducted inside the existing clubhouse until the new casino is built. The FEIS..., environmental justice, cumulative effects, indirect effects and mitigation. The BIA has afforded other...

  13. 40 CFR 35.6010 - Indian Tribe and intertribal consortium eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (the National Contingency Plan or NCP), except that Indian... jurisdiction is not needed for the Tribe to carry out the support agency activities of the work plan. (b... substantially the same as a State, the subpart O definition of “State” does not include Indian Tribes because...

  14. 78 FR 55737 - Notice of Service Delivery Area Designation for the Tejon Indian Tribe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... on the availability of funds, the person's relative medical priority, and the actual availability and.... Sublette, WY. Aroostook Band of Micmac Indians of Aroostook, ME.\\3\\ Maine. Assiniboine and Sioux Tribes of..., Sheridan, MT, Valley, MT. Bad River Band of the Lake Superior Ashland, WI, Iron, WI. Tribe of Chippewa...

  15. 77 FR 467 - Notice of Tribal Consultation Meetings Regarding How the Current SACWIS Regulations Affect Tribes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... about current Federal regulations governing child welfare automation, please contact Mr. Peter Howe... consultation reflects our growing familiarity with the automation needs and preferences of Tribes and our... citing the related section of regulations or program guidance. (1) What are the obstacles for your Tribe...

  16. 75 FR 66387 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Assisting States, Federal Agencies, and Tribes in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-28

    ...] Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Assisting States, Federal Agencies, and Tribes in Managing...) announces the availability for public review of a draft national plan to assist States, Federal agencies... Management, National Park Service, and FWS; St. Regis Mohawk Tribe; Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife...

  17. 25 CFR 115.807 - Will OTFM consult with tribes about investments of tribal trust funds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Tribal Trust Funds § 115.807 Will OTFM consult with tribes about investments of tribal trust funds? Upon... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Will OTFM consult with tribes about investments of tribal trust funds? 115.807 Section 115.807 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  18. 25 CFR 1200.34 - Can a tribe withdraw redeposited funds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a tribe withdraw redeposited funds? 1200.34 Section 1200.34 Indians OFFICE OF THE SPECIAL TRUSTEE FOR AMERICAN INDIANS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR AMERICAN INDIAN TRUST FUND MANAGEMENT REFORM ACT Returning Tribal Funds to Trust § 1200.34 Can a tribe withdraw...

  19. Wood anatomy of the Brazilian species of Swartizia and considerations within the tribe Swartzieae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronica Angyalossy-Alfonso

    2002-01-01

    Fifty-one Brazilian species and varieties of Swartzia Schreber and eight other genera from the tribe Swartzieae were examined. Features with the greatest diagnostic value for the tribe are intervascular pit size, ray width and frequency, storied structure, axial parenchyma strand length, parenchyma band width, and vessel diameter. We analyzed the wood anatomical data...

  20. The systematic wood anatomy of the Moraceae (Urticales) I. Tribe Castilleae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Topper, S.M.C.; Welle, ter B.J.H.

    1984-01-01

    The wood anatomy of the tribe Castilleae sensu Berg is described. Similarities and differences are discussed in relation to his concepts of the taxonomy of the tribe. The wood anatomical variation does not enable to distinguish between Maquira, Perebea and Pseudolmedia. Antiaris, Castilla,

  1. 75 FR 41518 - Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish (Gun Lake) Tribe Liquor Control Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... ethyl alcohol, hydrated oxide of ethyl, or spirit of wine, commonly produced by the fermentation or... benefit of the Tribe. (j) ``Tribe'' means the Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish Band of Pottawatomi Indians of... and wine shall be purchased from distributors licensed by the Michigan Liquor Control Commission. (f...

  2. 25 CFR 115.817 - How does OTFM disburse money to a tribe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does OTFM disburse money to a tribe? 115.817 Section 115.817 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES TRUST FUNDS... OTFM disburse money to a tribe? Upon receipt of all necessary documentation, OTFM will process the...

  3. Revisiting the phylogeny of Ocellularieae, the second largest tribe within Graphidaceae (lichenized Ascomycota: Ostropales)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekaphan Kraichak; Sittiporn Parnmen; Robert Lücking; Eimy Rivas Plata; Andre Aptroot; Marcela E.S. Caceres; Damien Ertz; Armin Mangold; Joel A. Mercado-Diaz; Khwanruan Papong; Dries Van der Broeck; Gothamie Weerakoon; H. Thorsten. Lumbsch; NO-VALUE

    2014-01-01

    We present an updated 3-locus molecular phylogeny of tribe Ocellularieae, the second largest tribe within subfamily Graphidoideae in the Graphidaceae. Adding 165 newly generated sequences from the mitochondrial small subunit rDNA (mtSSU), the nuclear large subunit rDNA (nuLSU), and the second largest subunit of the DNA-directed RNA polymerase II (RPB2), we currently...

  4. Effect of palm oil fuel ash on compressive strength of palm oil boiler stone lightweight aggregate concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthusamy, K.; Zamri, N. A.; Kusbiantoro, A.; Lim, N. H. A. S.; Ariffin, M. A. Mohd

    2018-04-01

    Both palm oil fuel ash (POFA) and palm oil boiler stone (POBS) are by-products which has been continuously generated by local palm oil mill in large amount. Both by products is usually disposed as profitless waste and considered as nuisance to environment. The present research investigates the workability and compressive strength performance of lightweight aggregate concrete (LWAC) made of palm oil boiler stone (POBS) known as palm oil boiler stone lightweight aggregate concrete (POBS LWAC) containing various content of palm oil fuel ash. The control specimen that is POBS LWAC of grade 60 were produced using 100% OPC. Then, another 4 mixes were prepared by varying the POFA percentage from 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% by weight of cement. Fresh mixes were subjected to slump test to determine its workability before casted in form of cubes. Then, all specimens were subjected to water curing up to 28 days and then tested for its compressive strength. It was found out that utilizing of optimum amount of POFA in POBS LWAC would improve the workability and compressive strength of the concrete. However, inclusion of POFA more than optimum amount is not recommended as it will increase the water demand leading to lower workability and strength reduction.

  5. Oil palm land conversion in Pará, Brazil, from 2006-2014: evaluating the 2010 Brazilian Sustainable Palm Oil Production Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benami, E.; Curran, L. M.; Cochrane, M.; Venturieri, A.; Franco, R.; Kneipp, J.; Swartos, A.

    2018-03-01

    Global models of biophysical suitability for oil palm consistently rank Brazil as having the greatest potential for expansion, with estimates as high as 238 Mha of suitable lands. In 2010, Brazil launched the Sustainable Palm Oil Production Program (SPOPP) to incentivize oil palm development without deforestation on as much as 30 Mha. Here we examine oil palm expansion before and after the SPOPP’s launch. In Pará, the major oil palm producing state in Brazil, we analyze the extent and change in oil palm cultivation from 2006-2014 using satellite imagery, ground-truthed verification, site-based interviews, and rural environmental (land) registration data. Between 2006-2014, oil palm area (≥9 ha) expanded >200% to ~219 000 ha. Of the ~148 000 ha of oil palm developed, ~91% converted pasturelands while ~8% replaced natural vegetation, including intact and secondary forests. Although >80% of all oil palm parcels rest role of agro-ecological suitability mapping among them. Interviews indicated that: (1) individual effects of suitability mapping efforts to encourage oil palm expansion on cleared areas, i.e. without deforestation, cannot be disentangled from pre-existing public and private deforestation reduction initiatives; and, (2) socio-economic constraints, e.g. high relative production costs and limited familiarity with this crop, appear to partially explain the major discrepancy between estimated potential suitable areas with realized oil palm development.

  6. 42 CFR 137.16 - What if more than 50 Indian Tribes apply to participate in self-governance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... participate in self-governance? 137.16 Section 137.16 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...-GOVERNANCE Selection of Indian Tribes for Participation in Self-Governance § 137.16 What if more than 50 Indian Tribes apply to participate in self-governance? The first Indian Tribes who apply and are...

  7. 42 CFR 137.351 - Is a Self-Governance Tribe required to submit construction project progress and financial reports...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Is a Self-Governance Tribe required to submit..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Roles of Self-Governance Tribe in Establishing and Implementing Construction Project Agreements § 137.351 Is a Self-Governance Tribe required to...

  8. 25 CFR 170.614 - Can a tribe receive funds before BIA publishes the notice of funding availability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a tribe receive funds before BIA publishes the notice... Contracts and Agreements Under Isdeaa § 170.614 Can a tribe receive funds before BIA publishes the notice of funding availability? A tribe can receive funds before BIA publishes the notice of funding availability...

  9. 25 CFR 170.935 - How does a direct service tribe begin the alternative dispute resolution process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....935 How does a direct service tribe begin the alternative dispute resolution process? (a) To begin the ADR process, a direct service tribe must write to the BIA Regional Director or the Chief of BIA... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does a direct service tribe begin the alternative...

  10. 25 CFR 291.13 - When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe become effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe... ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.13 When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe become effective? Upon approval of Class III gaming procedures for the Indian tribe under either...

  11. 75 FR 62395 - Calculation of Annual Federal Medical Assistance Percentages for Indian Tribes for Use in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ... IV-E plan development grants intended to assist Indian Tribes to develop their programs and prepare... the Social Security Act.) B. Calculation of FMAP for Indian Tribes The formula for calculating FMAP... Percentages for Indian Tribes for Use in the Title IV-E Foster Care, Adoption Assistance, and Kinship...

  12. 25 CFR 20.203 - Can a tribe incorporate assistance from other sources into a tribal redesign plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-477 federal funding sources) in the plan. ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a tribe incorporate assistance from other sources... tribe incorporate assistance from other sources into a tribal redesign plan? Yes, when a tribe redesigns...

  13. 42 CFR 137.293 - Are Self-Governance Tribes required to adopt a separate resolution or take equivalent Tribal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are Self-Governance Tribes required to adopt a...-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.293 Are Self-Governance Tribes required to adopt a separate... project agreement? No, the Self-Governance Tribe may adopt a single resolution or take equivalent Tribal...

  14. 25 CFR 115.801 - How often will a tribe receive information about its trust account(s)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... a tribe receive information about its trust account(s)? The OTFM is required to provide each tribe... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How often will a tribe receive information about its trust account(s)? 115.801 Section 115.801 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  15. Solar Feasibility Study May 2013 - San Carlos Apache Tribe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Jim [Parametrix; Duncan, Ken [San Carlos Apache Tribe; Albert, Steve [Parametrix

    2013-05-01

    The San Carlos Apache Tribe (Tribe) in the interests of strengthening tribal sovereignty, becoming more energy self-sufficient, and providing improved services and economic opportunities to tribal members and San Carlos Apache Reservation (Reservation) residents and businesses, has explored a variety of options for renewable energy development. The development of renewable energy technologies and generation is consistent with the Tribe’s 2011 Strategic Plan. This Study assessed the possibilities for both commercial-scale and community-scale solar development within the southwestern portions of the Reservation around the communities of San Carlos, Peridot, and Cutter, and in the southeastern Reservation around the community of Bylas. Based on the lack of any commercial-scale electric power transmission between the Reservation and the regional transmission grid, Phase 2 of this Study greatly expanded consideration of community-scale options. Three smaller sites (Point of Pines, Dudleyville/Winkleman, and Seneca Lake) were also evaluated for community-scale solar potential. Three building complexes were identified within the Reservation where the development of site-specific facility-scale solar power would be the most beneficial and cost-effective: Apache Gold Casino/Resort, Tribal College/Skill Center, and the Dudleyville (Winkleman) Casino.

  16. Eleven Tribes Jump START Clean Energy Projects, Summer 2012 (Newsletter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-06-01

    This newsletter describes key activities of the DOE Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs for Summer 2012. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs (DOE-IE) has selected 11 Tribes - five in Alaska and six in the contiguous United States - to receive on-the-ground technical support for community-based energy efficiency and renewable energy projects as part of DOE-IE's Strategic Technical Assistance Response Team (START) Program. START finalists were selected based on the clarity of their requests for technical assistance and the ability of START to successfully work with their projects or community. Technical experts from DOE and its National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) will work directly with community-based project teams to analyze local energy issues and assist the Tribes in moving their projects forward. In Alaska, the effort will be bolstered by DOE-IE's partnership with the Denali Commission, which will provide additional assistance and expertise, as well as funding to fuel the Alaska START initiative.

  17. Improvement in Sensitivity of an Inductive Oil Palm Fruit Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhisam Misron

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Among palm oil millers, the ripeness of oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB is determined through visual inspection. To increase the productivity of the millers, many researchers have proposed with a new detection method to replace the conventional one. The sensitivity of such a sensor plays a crucial role in determining the effectiveness of the method. In our preliminary study a novel oil palm fruit sensor to detect the maturity of oil palm fruit bunches is proposed. The design of the proposed air coil sensor based on an inductive sensor is further investigated to improve its sensitivity. This paper investigates the results pertaining to the effects of the air coil structure of an oil palm fruit sensor, taking consideration of the used copper wire diameter ranging from 0.10 mm to 0.18 mm with 60 turns. The flat-type shape of air coil was used on twenty samples of fruitlets from two categories, namely ripe and unripe. Samples are tested with frequencies ranging from 20 Hz to 120 MHz. The sensitivity of the sensor between air to fruitlet samples increases as the coil diameter increases. As for the sensitivity differences between ripe and unripe samples, the 5 mm air coil length with the 0.12 mm coil diameter provides the highest percentage difference between samples and it is amongst the highest deviation value between samples. The result from this study is important to improve the sensitivity of the inductive oil palm fruit sensor mainly with regards to the design of the air coil structure. The efficiency of the sensor to determine the maturity of the oil palm FFB and the ripening process of the fruitlet could further be enhanced.

  18. The economy of palm oil production and marketing in Igala land ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The economy of palm oil production and marketing in Igala land. ... Palm oil processing and marketing constituted one of the major occupations of the people as men, women and even the young ones ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  19. Modelling the Stem Curve of a Palm in a Strong Wind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Claus; Markvorsen, Steen; Kliem, Wolfhard

    1996-01-01

    Nonlinear differential equations governing the stem curve of a wind-loaded palm are derived and solved numerically.......Nonlinear differential equations governing the stem curve of a wind-loaded palm are derived and solved numerically....

  20. Costs And Returns Analysis Of Palm Wine Marketing In Uyo Area Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Costs And Returns Analysis Of Palm Wine Marketing In Uyo Area Of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. ... Abstract. This study examined the marketing of palm wine (Ukot) in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. The socio ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  1. Impact analysis of palm oil mill effluent on the aerobic bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2007-01-18

    Jan 18, 2007 ... Key words: Palm oil mill effluent, total aerobic bacteria, ammonium oxidizers. INTRODUCTION ... bacteria help in the degradation of macromolecules from plant and animal .... Anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent.

  2. Will Improved Palm Oil Yields suffice to the Development of Sustainable Biodiesel Feedstock in indonesia?

    OpenAIRE

    Palmén, Carl; Silveira, Semida; Khatiwada, Dilip

    2015-01-01

    By the expansion of oil palm plantations, Indonesia has become a world leading producer of crude palm oil. However, Indonesia has also been largely criticized due to issues of land use change and deforestation. The country now promotes the use of palm oil for biodiesel production as part of policies to achieve renewable energy targets. Currently yields on palm oil plantations are far from optimal. Do new policies promoting biodiesel production address the issue of yields properly? This study ...

  3. Closing oil palm yield gaps among Indonesian smallholders through industry schemes, pruning, weeding and improved seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Soliman, T.; Lim, F. K. S.; Lee, J. S. H.; Carrasco, L. R.

    2016-01-01

    Oil palm production has led to large losses of valuable habitats for tropical biodiversity. Sparing of land for nature could in theory be attained if oil palm yields increased. The efficiency of oil palm smallholders is below its potential capacity, but the factors determining efficiency are poorly understood. We employed a two-stage data envelopment analysis approach to assess the influence of agronomic, supply chain and management factors on oil palm production efficiency in 190 smallholder...

  4. Palm oil - towards a sustainable future? : Challanges and opportunites for the Swedish food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Sara

    2013-01-01

    The food industry faces problems relating to the sustainability of palm oil as a food commodity. These problem areas include social, environmental, economic and health issues. The food industry also competes with increasing palm oil demands from the energy sector. This case study identifies and analyzes different perspectives regarding sustainable palm oil as a food commodity in Sweden through interviews with palm oil experts in different businesses and organizations. This study focuses on ho...

  5. The Factors Influencing on Consumption of Palm Cooking Oil in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Teti, Ermy; Hutabarat, Sakti; Nofionna, Asriati

    2011-01-01

    Cooking oil is one of the most sensitive basic needs in Indonesia. The aims of the researchare to analyze factors influencing consumption of cooking oil, the cooking oil price, and theCrude Palm Oil price in Indonesia. Using simultaneous equation model, the study show thatpalm cooking oil consumption is significantly affected by domestic palm cooking oil priceand number of population. Whilst palm cooking oil price is significantly influenced by thecooking palm oil production and the domestic ...

  6. The Factors Influencing on Consumption of Palm Cooking Oil in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Teti, Ermy; Hutabarat, Sakti; Nofionna, Asriati

    2009-01-01

    Cooking oil is one of the most sensitive basic needs in Indonesia. The aims of the researchare to analyze factors influencing consumption of cooking oil, the cooking oil price, and theCrude Palm Oil price in Indonesia. Using simultaneous equation model, the study show thatpalm cooking oil consumption is significantly affected by domestic palm cooking oil priceand number of population. Whilst palm cooking oil price is significantly influenced by thecooking palm oil production and the domestic ...

  7. Spatial undergrowth species composition in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) in West Sumatra

    OpenAIRE

    Germer, Jörn Uwe

    2003-01-01

    The area planted to oil palm expanded during the last decades substantially, making it become the world's second most important oil crop. Despite its economic significance the oil palm remains remarkably unknown. Little attention is paid also to the oil palm undergrowth, though important in stabilizing the agro-ecosystem in plantations. Comprehensive knowledge of undergrowth species adapted to specific ecological niches in oil palm plantations is essential to investigate their function in ...

  8. Linking Agricultural Trade, Land Demand and Environmental Externalities: Case of Oil Palm in South East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Othman, Jamal

    2003-01-01

    Reduction of support measures affecting soybean oil in the major soybean producing countries, as a consequence of WTO rules, coupled with rising demand for palm oil in non-traditional palm oil importing countries may lead to pronounced increases in agricultural land demand for oil palm expansion in Malaysia and Indonesia – two main palm oil producing and exporting countries. However, it is expected that the effects on agricultural land demand and consequently impact upon the environment will ...

  9. Palm oil and derivatives: fuels or potential fuels?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pioch Daniel

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Scientific and technical information including field trials about uses of palm oil as fuel has been available for more than half a century now. Several ways were investigated, from the simple mixture with petroleum Diesel fuel, to more sophisticated solutions. The quality of vegetable oils in natura as fuel is difficult to assess because of interferences between properties of the triacylglycerols – the main components – and those of the many minor components, their content varying significantly from sample to sample. A methodology set up at Cirad allowed to investigate separately natural triacylglycerols alone and the effect of minor components. In addition to these laboratory experiments, engine test at bench and field trials performed in palm oil producing countries, show that this oil is among the best oils as fuel; palm kernel oil whose chemical and physical properties are very close to those of the best of the series investigated, namely copra oil, should display also very interesting properties as Diesel biofuel. Both oils do require external adaptation of the engine when using an indirect injection type engine but even heavier adaptations for a direct injection model. Thus for use as Diesel fuel palm and palm kernel oils are suitable for captive fleets or for engine gensets, to balance the adaptation cost by a scale-up effect either on the number of identical engines or on the nominal vegetable oil consumption per set. Direct use of palm et palm kernel oils fits very well with technical and economical conditions encountered in remote areas. It is also possible to mix palm oil to Diesel fuel either as simple blend or as micro-emulsion. Out of the direct use, palm oil methyl or ethyl ester, often referred to as biodiesel, displays properties similar to those of petroleum Diesel fuel. This technical solution which is suitable to feed all kinds of standard compression ignited engines requires a chemical plant for carrying out the

  10. Infrared optical constants of liquid palm oil and palm oil biodiesel determined by the combined ellipsometry-transmission method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C C; Tan, J Y; Ma, Y Q; Liu, L H

    2017-06-20

    The optical constants of vegetable oils and biodiesels are the basic input parameters in the study of the thermal radiation transfer and monitoring the productivity of vegetable oils converting to biodiesels. In this work, a combined ellipsometry-transmission method is presented to obtain the optical constants of palm oil and palm oil biodiesel between 20°C and 150°C in the spectral range 600-4100  cm -1 and to study the temperature effect on the optical constants. In the combined method, a modified ellipsometry method is used to measure the optical constants of palm oil and palm oil biodiesel for the whole researched wave bands. For the weak absorption regions in which the ellipsometry method cannot give precise absorption indices, the transmission method is conducted to get the absorption indices using the refractive indices obtained by the proposed ellipsometry method. Deionized water and methanol are taken as examples to verify the combined ellipsometry-transmission method. It is shown that the combined method can overcome the deficiencies of the traditional ellipsometry and transmission method, which can be used for the measurements of both strong and weak absorption wave bands. The experimental analyses indicate that temperature exerts a noticeable influence on the infrared optical constants of palm oil and palm oil biodiesel. With the increase of temperature, the refractive indices at certain wavenumbers decrease nearly linearly, and the amplitudes of dominant absorption peaks show a decreasing trend. The absorption peaks located around 3550  cm -1 show blueshift trends as temperature increases. Comparing these two kinds of oils, palm oil presents larger values in refractive indices and dominant absorption peaks.

  11. Palm Vein Verification Using Multiple Features and Locality Preserving Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohsin Al-juboori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics is defined as identifying people by their physiological characteristic, such as iris pattern, fingerprint, and face, or by some aspects of their behavior, such as voice, signature, and gesture. Considerable attention has been drawn on these issues during the last several decades. And many biometric systems for commercial applications have been successfully developed. Recently, the vein pattern biometric becomes increasingly attractive for its uniqueness, stability, and noninvasiveness. A vein pattern is the physical distribution structure of the blood vessels underneath a person’s skin. The palm vein pattern is very ganglion and it shows a huge number of vessels. The attitude of the palm vein vessels stays in the same location for the whole life and its pattern is definitely unique. In our work, the matching filter method is proposed for the palm vein image enhancement. New palm vein features extraction methods, global feature extracted based on wavelet coefficients and locality preserving projections (WLPP, and local feature based on local binary pattern variance and locality preserving projections (LBPV_LPP have been proposed. Finally, the nearest neighbour matching method has been proposed that verified the test palm vein images. The experimental result shows that the EER to the proposed method is 0.1378%.

  12. Synthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoate from palm oil and some new applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudesh, Kumar; Bhubalan, Kesaven; Chuah, Jo-Ann; Kek, Yik-Kang; Kamilah, Hanisah; Sridewi, Nanthini; Lee, Yan-Fen

    2011-03-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a potential substitute for some petrochemical-based plastics. This biodegradable plastic is derived from microbial fermentation using various carbon substrates. Since carbon source has been identified as one of the major cost-absorbing factors in PHA production, cheap and renewable substrates are currently being investigated as substitutes for existing sugar-based feedstock. Plant oils have been found to result in high-yield PHA production. Malaysia, being the world's second largest producer of palm oil, is able to ensure continuous supply of palm oil products for sustainable PHA production. The biosynthesis and characterization of various types of PHA using palm oil products have been described in detail in this review. Besides, by-products and waste stream from palm oil industry have also demonstrated promising results as carbon sources for PHA biosynthesis. Some new applications in cosmetic and wastewater treatment show the diversity of PHA usage. With proper management practices and efficient milling processes, it may be possible to supply enough palm oil-based raw materials for human consumption and other biotechnological applications such as production of PHA in a sustainable manner.

  13. Palm tree syrup: nutritional composition of a natural edulcorant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, G; Rubio, C; Gutiérrez, A J; Hernández, C; González-Weller, D; Revert, C; Castilla, A; Abreu, P; Hardisson, A

    2012-01-01

    Palm syrup is a typical product from the Canary Islands, traditionally produced from the sap of the tropical palm tree Phoenix canariensis. Its high caloric content has led to its increasing use as a health food supplement for athletes, children and elderly. Furthermore, demand for this natural syrup is continuously increasing due also to its medicinal uses in homeopathic medicine. Palm Tree syrup samples prepared with palm sap from primary producers in La Gomera island (Canary Islands, Spain) were analyzed for their nutritional composition (moisture, ash, sugars, fat, vitamins and minerals). 35 syrup samples from five different producing regions in La Gomera island were analyzed. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine sugars and vitamins and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (FAAS) was used to analyze the minerals. Major carbohydrates were sucrose (37.8%), glucose (9.50%) and fructose (4.80%), respectively. The presence of arabinose could not be confirmed. Niacin was the water-soluble vitamin with the highest concentration with an average content of 0.003%. Fat content was found to be under 0.20%. Potassium was the mineral with highest contents (0.45%). Results suggest that palm tree syrup can play an important role as a sugar and mineral source in human nutrition, suggesting that future applications for this product could be developed.

  14. Powered exoskeleton with palm degrees of freedom for hand rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Daniel S; Georgilas, Ioannis; Dagnino, Giulio; Dogramadzi, Sanja

    2015-08-01

    Robotic rehabilitation is a currently underutilised field with the potential to allow huge cost savings within healthcare. Existing rehabilitation exoskeletons oversimplify the importance of movement of the hand while undertaking everyday tasks. Within this study, an investigation was undertaken to establish the extent to which the degrees of freedom within the palm affect ability to undertake everyday tasks. Using a 5DT data glove, bend sensing resistors and restrictors of palm movement, 20 participants were recruited to complete tasks that required various hand shapes. Collected data was processed and palm arching trends were identified for each grasping task. It was found that the extent of utilizing arches in the palm varied with each exercise, but was extensively employed throughout. An exoskeleton was subsequently designed with consideration of the identified palm shapes. This design included a number of key features that accommodated for a variety of hand sizes, a novel thumb joint and a series of dorsally mounted servos. Initial exoskeleton testing was undertaken by having a participant complete the same exercises while wearing the exoskeleton. The angles formed by the user during this process were then compared to those recorded by 2 other participants who had completed the same tasks without exoskeleton. It was found that the exoskeleton was capable of forming the required arches for completing the tasks, with differences between participants attributed to individual ergonomic differences.

  15. Production of haploids and doubled haploids in oil palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Croxford Adam E

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oil palm is the world's most productive oil-food crop despite yielding well below its theoretical maximum. This maximum could be approached with the introduction of elite F1 varieties. The development of such elite lines has thus far been prevented by difficulties in generating homozygous parental types for F1 generation. Results Here we present the first high-throughput screen to identify spontaneously-formed haploid (H and doubled haploid (DH palms. We secured over 1,000 Hs and one DH from genetically diverse material and derived further DH/mixoploid palms from Hs using colchicine. We demonstrated viability of pollen from H plants and expect to generate 100% homogeneous F1 seed from intercrosses between DH/mixoploids once they develop female inflorescences. Conclusions This study has generated genetically diverse H/DH palms from which parental clones can be selected in sufficient numbers to enable the commercial-scale breeding of F1 varieties. The anticipated step increase in productivity may help to relieve pressure to extend palm cultivation, and limit further expansion into biodiverse rainforest.

  16. Integrated Bali Cattle Development Model Under Oil Palm Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasali Hakim Matondang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bali cattle have several advantages such as high fertility and carcass percentage, easy adaptation to the new environment as well. Bali cattle productivity has not been optimal yet. This is due to one of the limitation of feed resources, decreasing of grazing and agricultural land. The aim of this paper is to describe Bali cattle development integrated with oil palm plantations, which is expected to improve productivity and increase Bali cattle population. This integration model is carried out by raising Bali cattle under oil palm plantation through nucleus estate scheme model or individual farmers estates business. Some of Bali cattle raising systems have been applied in the integration of palm plantation-Bali cattle. One of the intensive systems can increase daily weight gain of 0.8 kg/head, calfcrop of 35% per year and has the potency for industrial development of feed and organic fertilizer. In the semi-intensive system, it can improve the production of oil palm fruit bunches (PFB more than 10%, increase harvested-crop area to 15 ha/farmer and reduce the amount of inorganic fertilizer. The extensive system can produce calfcrop ³70%, improve ³30% of PFB, increase business scale ³13 cows/farmer and reduce weeding costs ³16%. Integrated Bali cattle development may provide positive added value for both, palm oil business and cattle business.

  17. Palm oil industry in Ecuador. Good business for small farmers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley P. Potter

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ecuador is the second largest producer in Latin America of crude palm oil and is the seventh largest producer worldwide, but with yields per hectare still lower than Colombia and Costa Rica. Although producers with over 1 000 hectares have the leadership in the palm oil industry, 87% of producers produce with less than 50 hectares. Moreover, the deforestation rate in Ecuador is ranked by FAO as the ninth highest in the world and the highest in South America. The African palm plantations have been criticized for causing deforestation and worsening work conditions. However, government sectors see the oil palm companies as a source of employment and development for poor regions. This fieldwork shows that there is a difference in perception among small farmers. Farmers from Quinindé-La Concordia were satisfied with the income they earn and the rising prices of land planted with palm. Farmers in San Lorenzo, in contrast, are not happy since the survey shows that a disease devastated trees and as a result, land prices have fallen in San Lorenzo.

  18. Effects of de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizers on sole maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizer formulations on the yield of sole maize and cassava crops. Two de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizer formulations A and B were compounded from different proportions of de-oiled palm kernel cake, urea, muriate of potash and ...

  19. Assessment of an oil palm population from Nigerian Institute for Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.), a monocotyledonous plant belonging to the Arecaceae family, is one of the most important oil crops in the world. In Nigeria, oil palm has benefited immensely from conventional breeding efforts resulting in high yields that have been achieved with this breeding material. However, oil palm ...

  20. An overview of palms in SE Asian Agroforestry and home gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Anders S.

    Throughout SE Asia palms constitute an important component in agroforestry systems and home gardens. Most species are used for multiple purposes based on their physical or nutritional properties. Except for a few commodities of worldwide importance such as palm oil and coconut, many palm products...

  1. The Effects Of Fresh And Thermoxidized Palm Oil Diets On Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of fresh and thermoxidized palm oil diets on some haematalogical indices in the rat were investigated in albino rats (Wistar strain). The animals were divided into three groups namely, the first group fed on thermoxidized palm oil (TPO) diet, a second group fed on fresh palm oil (FPO) diet and a third fed on normal ...

  2. Some mineral profiles of fresh and bottled palm wine – a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some mineral profiles of fresh palm wine and those of seven brands of bottled palm wine were analysed using atomic absorption spectroscopy and the values were compared. Three of the bottled samples contained toxic levels of either Pb or Cd or both. Neither metal was detected in fresh palm wine. Zn, Cr and Ni were 2 to ...

  3. Palm Functional Traits: which traits matter and how do we measure them?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Balslev, Henrik; Barfod, Anders S.

    role of palms in tropical forest ecosystems. We review data availability for palms for four traits that are commonly used in functional plant ecology: specific leaf area (SLA), wood density, seed size, and maximum height. We suggest that palm functional ecology is impeded by some of the standard...

  4. Palm harvest impact in the western Amazon, Andes and Pacific lowlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Palms are the most useful group of plants in tropical American forests and in this project we study the effect of extraction and trade of palms on forests in the western Amazon, Andes, and Pacific lowlands. We determine the size of the resource by making palm community studies in the different...

  5. Fast pyrolysis of oil palm shell (OPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Nurhayati; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Aliasak, Zalila

    2015-04-01

    Biomass is an important renewable source of energy. Residues that are obtained from harvesting and agricultural products can be utilised as fuel for energy generation by conducting any thermal energy conversion technology. The conversion of biomass to bio oil is one of the prospective alternative energy resources. Therefore, in this study fast pyrolysis of oil palm shell was conducted. The main objective of this study was to find the optimum condition for high yield bio-oil production. The experiment was conducted using fixed-bed fluidizing pyrolysis system. The biomass sample was pyrolysed at variation temperature of 450°C - 650°C and at variation residence time of 0.9s - 1.35s. The results obtained were further discussed in this paper. The basic characteristic of the biomass sample was also presented here. The experiment shows that the optimum bio-oil yield was obtained at temperature of 500°C at residence time 1.15s.

  6. Compatibility of elastomers in palm biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haseeb, A.S.M.A.; Masjuki, H.H.; Siang, C.T.; Fazal, M.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2010-10-15

    In recent time, environmental awareness and concern over the rapid exhaustion of fossil fuels have led to an increased popularity of biodiesel as an alternative fuel for automobiles. However, there are concerns over enhanced degradation of automotive materials in biodiesel. The present study aims to investigate the impact of palm biodiesel on the degradation behavior of elastomers such as nitrile rubber (NBR), polychloroprene, and fluoro-viton A. Static immersion tests in B0 (diesel), B10 (10% biodiesel in diesel), B100 (biodiesel) were carried out at room temperature (25 C) and at 50 C for 500 h. At the end of immersion test, degradation behavior was investigated by measuring mass, volume, hardness as well as tensile strength and elongation. The exposed elastomer surface was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was carried out to identify the chemical and structural changes. Results showed that the extent of degradation was higher for both polychloroprene and NBR while fluoro-viton exhibited good resistance to degradation and was least attacked. (author)

  7. Corrosion mechanism of copper in palm biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazal, M.A.; Haseeb, A.S.M.A.; Masjuki, H.H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Corrosion of copper in biodiesel increases with the increase of immersion time. ► The corrosion patina is found to be composed of CuO, Cu 2 O, CuCO 3 and Cu(OH) 2 . ► Green CuCO 3 was found as the major corrosion product. ► The mechanisms governing corrosion of copper in palm biodiesel are discussed. - Abstract: Biodiesel is a promising alternative fuel. However, it causes enhanced corrosion of automotive materials, especially of copper based components. In the present study, corrosion mechanism of copper was investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Compositional change of biodiesel due to the exposure of copper was also investigated. Corrosion patina on copper is found to be composed of Cu 2 O, CuO, Cu(OH) 2 and CuCO 3. Dissolved O 2 , H 2 O, CO 2 and RCOO − radical in biodiesel seem to be the leading factors in enhancing the corrosiveness of biodiesel.

  8. Prospective study for the production of oleochemicals derivates from palm and palm kernel oil in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ibeth Jaimes Moreno

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many ways get close to the future, being the prospective the one that concives the future, not like an unique reality but like a multiple one, obtained as a result of the identification of the human being future actions. For all this, the human being takes the knowledge, the yearnings and the fears that he sees for the actions he will undertake. Keeping in mind the characteristic of the palm cultivation (pereninal, of late growth, with a 25 years productive horizon, and the future of the sector captured in "Visión y estrategias de la palmicultura colombiana 2000 - 2020" together with the economic tendencies of the world, the methodology of planning denominated prospective, becomes an appropriate tool to establish the future of the oleochemical sector derived from the palm and palmist oils, which is right now very incipient in our country. Using the prospective, this article outlines the dynamics that will have the sector, starting from the definition of the keys that define the current and future behavior of the system, the position and the power that each one of the involved actors will have, and the determination of the scenarios (future representations will more probability to occur, as well as the definition of the scenario wanted and the strategies that will allow to reach it.

  9. Climate change affecting oil palm agronomy, and oil palm cultivation increasing climate change, require amelioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, R Russell M; Lima, Nelson

    2018-01-01

    Palm oil is used in various valued commodities and is a large global industry worth over US$ 50 billion annually. Oil palms (OP) are grown commercially in Indonesia and Malaysia and other countries within Latin America and Africa. The large-scale land-use change has high ecological, economic, and social impacts. Tropical countries in particular are affected negatively by climate change (CC) which also has a detrimental impact on OP agronomy, whereas the cultivation of OP increases CC. Amelioration of both is required. The reduced ability to grow OP will reduce CC, which may allow more cultivation tending to increase CC, in a decreasing cycle. OP could be increasingly grown in more suitable regions occurring under CC. Enhancing the soil fauna may compensate for the effect of CC on OP agriculture to some extent. The effect of OP cultivation on CC may be reduced by employing reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation plans, for example, by avoiding illegal fire land clearing. Other ameliorating methods are reported herein. More research is required involving good management practices that can offset the increases in CC by OP plantations. Overall, OP-growing countries should support the Paris convention on reducing CC as the most feasible scheme for reducing CC.

  10. Viscozyme L pretreatment on palm kernels improved the aroma of palm kernel oil after kernel roasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wencan; Leong, Siew Mun; Zhao, Feifei; Zhao, Fangju; Yang, Tiankui; Liu, Shaoquan

    2018-05-01

    With an interest to enhance the aroma of palm kernel oil (PKO), Viscozyme L, an enzyme complex containing a wide range of carbohydrases, was applied to alter the carbohydrates in palm kernels (PK) to modulate the formation of volatiles upon kernel roasting. After Viscozyme treatment, the content of simple sugars and free amino acids in PK increased by 4.4-fold and 4.5-fold, respectively. After kernel roasting and oil extraction, significantly more 2,5-dimethylfuran, 2-[(methylthio)methyl]-furan, 1-(2-furanyl)-ethanone, 1-(2-furyl)-2-propanone, 5-methyl-2-furancarboxaldehyde and 2-acetyl-5-methylfuran but less 2-furanmethanol and 2-furanmethanol acetate were found in treated PKO; the correlation between their formation and simple sugar profile was estimated by using partial least square regression (PLS1). Obvious differences in pyrroles and Strecker aldehydes were also found between the control and treated PKOs. Principal component analysis (PCA) clearly discriminated the treated PKOs from that of control PKOs on the basis of all volatile compounds. Such changes in volatiles translated into distinct sensory attributes, whereby treated PKO was more caramelic and burnt after aqueous extraction and more nutty, roasty, caramelic and smoky after solvent extraction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 42 CFR 137.297 - If the environmental review procedures of a Federal agency are adopted by a Self-Governance Tribe...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... agency are adopted by a Self-Governance Tribe, is the Self-Governance Tribe responsible for ensuring the... INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa...-Governance Tribe, is the Self-Governance Tribe responsible for ensuring the agency's policies and procedures...

  12. Revision of Coprosma (Rubiaceae, tribe Anthospermeae in the Marquesas Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Wagner

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available During the preparation of the Vascular Flora of the Marquesas Islands three new species of Coprosma (Rubiaceae, tribe Anthospermeae have come to light and are described herein: C. fatuhivaensis W. L. Wagner & Lorence, C. meyeri W. L. Wagner & Lorence, and C. temetiuensis W. L. Wagner & Lorence. Descriptions, illustrations, conservation status, and specimen citations are provided. Amended descriptions of three previously described Marquesan Coprosma species are also provided as well as a key to the species, four of which fall into the Critically Endangered (CR and two into the Endangered (EN category. With the description of these the new species, Coprosma becomes the sixth largest lineage in the Marquesas Islands with six species after Psychotria (one lineage which has 9 spp., Cyrtandra (8 spp., Bidens (8 spp., and Melicope (7 spp., and Ixora (7 spp..

  13. Tribes and chiefdoms: An analytical study of some Brazilian ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabino, C.V.S.; Prous, A.P.; Wuest, I.; Guapindaia, V.

    2003-01-01

    There is no evidence of urban civilization in Brazilian prehistory; most inhabitants lived in tribal organizations, probably with regional economic integration among several independent tribes. There is little evidence of seasonal migrations between the coastal and inland areas of southern Brazil. Some specialized horticulturists competed among themselves but other groups lived more in isolation, and probably peacefully, in the upper interfluvial regions.The chiefdom system is supposed to have existed only along the river Amazon. In this region, some pottery makers may have been specialized craftsmen, and the finest ceramics that could have been exported from one village or region to another can be found. Outside this region, pottery was generally plain, except the tupiguarani, which was partly decorated. In this study some limited possibilities were tested, in three different cultural and regional contexts, to find out if the application of chemical analysis to economically and politically 'simple' societies can produce any results of additional archaeological relevance. (author)

  14. Analysis of total hydrogen content in palm oil and palm kernel oil using thermal neutron moderation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akaho, E.H.K.; Dagadu, C.P.K.; Maaku, B.T.; Anim-Sampong, S.; Kyere, A.W.K.; Jonah, S.A.

    2001-01-01

    A fast and non-destructive technique based on thermal neutron moderation has been used for determining the total hydrogen content in two types of red palm oil (dzomi and amidze) and palm kernel oil produced by traditional methods in Ghana. An equipment consisting of an 241 Am-Be neutron source and 3 He neutron detector was used in the investigation. The equipment was originally designed for detection of liquid levels in petrochemical and other process industries. Standards in the form of liquid hydrocarbons were used to obtain calibration lines for thermal neutron reflection parameter as a function of hydrogen content. Measured reflection parameters with respective hydrogen content with or without heat treatment of the three edible palm oils available on the market were compared with a brand cooking oil (frytol). The average total hydrogen content in the local oil samples prior to heating was measured to be 11.62 w% which compared well with acceptable value of 12 w% for palm oils in the sub-region. After heat treatment, the frytol oil (produced through bleaching process) had the least loss of hydrogen content of 0.26% in comparison with palm kernel oil of 0.44% followed by dzomi of 1.96% and by amidze of 3.22%. (author)

  15. Modeling smog along the Los Angeles-Palm Springs trajectory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, S.R.

    1976-01-01

    Observations of smog concentrations and wind patterns during the summer of 1973 in Los Angeles, Pomona, Riverside, Banning, and Palm Springs, California are presented which show that high oxidant concentrations at Banning and Palm Springs are often due to advection of smog from source regions in the more densely populated western part of the Los Angeles basin. At Pomona and Riverside, advection from upwind source regions combines with the effects of local emissions to cause long durations of high oxidant concentrations with peak times in the mid afternoon. An empirical model for the diurnal oxidant variation is suggested which satisfactorily simulates observed concentrations. More complex models which include chemical kinetics systems do not perform very satisfactorily at the rural stations of Banning and Palm Springs, especially at night when observed oxidant concentrations remain high

  16. Thermal stability evaluation of palm oil as energy transport media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Nik, W.B.; Ani, F.N.; Masjuki, H.H.

    2005-01-01

    The thermal stability of palm oil as energy transport media in a hydraulic system was studied. The oils were aged by circulating the oil in an open loop hydraulic system at an isothermal condition of 55 deg. C for 600 h. The thermal behavior and kinetic parameters of fresh and degraded palm oil, with and without oxidation inhibitor, were studied using the dynamic heating rate mode of a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). Viscometric properties, total acid number and iodine value analyses were used to complement the TGA data. The thermodynamic parameter of activation energy of the samples was determined by direct Arrhenius plot and integral methods. The results may have important applications in the development of palm oil based hydraulic fluid. The results were compared with commercial vegetable based hydraulic fluid. The use of F10 and L135 additives was found to suppress significantly the increase of acid level and viscosity of the fluid

  17. Removal of oil palm trunk lignin in ammonium hydroxide pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Az-Zahraa, Balqis; Zakaria, Sarani; Daud, Muhammad F. B.; Jaafar, Sharifah Nabihah Syed

    2018-04-01

    Alkaline pretreatment using ammonium hydroxide, NH4OH serves as one of a process to remove lignin from lignocellulosic biomass such as oil palm trunk fiber. In this study, the effect of NH4OH pretreatment on removal of oil palm trunk lignin was investigated. The oil palm trunk fiber was dissolved in NH4OH with different concentrations (6, 8 and 10 %), different duration (3, 5 and 7 h) and temperatures (60, 80 and 100 °C). The samples were analyzed by using UV-Vis to estimate the concentration of extracted lignin. The result indicates that the optimum conditions to gain maximum extracted lignin were 8% NH4OH, 100 °C and 5 h with concentration of 64 mgL-1 while the lowest was at 6% NH4OH, 100 °C and 5 h with concentration of 62.5 mgL-1.

  18. Following basal stem rot in young oil palm plantings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchal, G; Bridge, P D

    2005-01-01

    The PCR primer GanET has previously been shown to be suitable for the specific amplification of DNA from Ganoderma boninense. A DNA extraction and PCR method has been developed that allows for the amplification of the G. boninense DNA from environmental samples of oil palm tissue. The GanET primer reaction was used in conjunction with a palm-sampling programme to investigate the possible infection of young palms through cut frond base surfaces. Ganoderma DNA was detected in frond base material at a greater frequency than would be expected by comparison with current infection levels. Comparisons are made between the height of the frond base infected, the number of frond bases infected, and subsequent development of basal stem rot. The preliminary results suggest that the development of basal stem rot may be more likely to occur when young lower frond bases are infected.

  19. Assessing Date Palm Genetic Diversity Using Different Molecular Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atia, Mohamed A M; Sakr, Mahmoud M; Adawy, Sami S

    2017-01-01

    Molecular marker technologies which rely on DNA analysis provide powerful tools to assess biodiversity at different levels, i.e., among and within species. A range of different molecular marker techniques have been developed and extensively applied for detecting variability in date palm at the DNA level. Recently, the employment of gene-targeting molecular marker approaches to study biodiversity and genetic variations in many plant species has increased the attention of researchers interested in date palm to carry out phylogenetic studies using these novel marker systems. Molecular markers are good indicators of genetic distances among accessions, because DNA-based markers are neutral in the face of selection. Here we describe the employment of multidisciplinary molecular marker approaches: amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), start codon targeted (SCoT) polymorphism, conserved DNA-derived polymorphism (CDDP), intron-targeted amplified polymorphism (ITAP), simple sequence repeats (SSR), and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) to assess genetic diversity in date palm.

  20. Assembly and phylogenetic structure of Neotropical palm communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Svenning, J.-C.; Balslev, Henrik

    Diversity, composition and dynamics of Neotropical palm communities are receiving an increasing amount of attention due to their economic importance, but also because their high species richness and functional diversity render them valuable model systems for overall forest biodiversity. However......, to better understand these palm communities, it is crucial to gain insight into the mechanisms responsible for their assembly. These can be dispersal limitation, environmental filtering, or biotic interactions. If the degree of niche conservatism is known for a group of organisms, patterns of community...... an unspecific assumption of “general niche conservatism”, phylogenetic signal will be analysed for Neotropical palms. Moreover, as an example for evolutionary mechanisms disrupting phylogenetic signal, speciation modes will be examined in selected genera. With the combined results we aim to show the relative...

  1. Image Segmentation of Historical Handwriting from Palm Leaf Manuscripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surinta, Olarik; Chamchong, Rapeeporn

    Palm leaf manuscripts were one of the earliest forms of written media and were used in Southeast Asia to store early written knowledge about subjects such as medicine, Buddhist doctrine and astrology. Therefore, historical handwritten palm leaf manuscripts are important for people who like to learn about historical documents, because we can learn more experience from them. This paper presents an image segmentation of historical handwriting from palm leaf manuscripts. The process is composed of three steps: 1) background elimination to separate text and background by Otsu's algorithm 2) line segmentation and 3) character segmentation by histogram of image. The end result is the character's image. The results from this research may be applied to optical character recognition (OCR) in the future.

  2. Pre-germination treatments on palm tree seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitê dos Santos Ribeiro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm tree seeds present slow and uneven germination. Therefore, the objective of this research was to evaluate the efficiency of pre-germination treatments in promoting germination and early seedling growth of palm tree (Euterpe edulis Martius. Treatments were: control, immersion in GA3 solution, exposure to ethylene, water immersion, H2SO4 immersion, mechanical scarification, stratification for 30 days at 10 °C, and scarification followed by stratification. Soaking seeds in gibberellic acid (GA3; 2000 µL L-1 for 24 h or their exposure to ethylene (1000 µL L-1 for 24 h are effective for promoting emergence, which started 30 days after seed treatment, and for early seedling growth of palm tree.

  3. Indonesia palm oil production without deforestation and peat conversion by 2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afriyanti, Dian; Kroeze, Carolien; Saad, Asmadi

    2016-07-01

    Palm oil is a promising source of cooking oil and biodiesel. The demand for palm oil has been increasing worldwide. However, concerns exist surrounding the environmental and socio-economic sustainability of palm oil production. Indonesia is a major palm oil producing country. We explored scenarios for palm oil production in Indonesia until 2050, focusing on Sumatra, Kalimantan and Papua. Our scenarios describe possible trends in crude palm oil production in Indonesia, while considering the demand for cooking oil and biodiesel, the available land for plantations, production capacity (for crude palm oil and fresh fruit bunches) and environmentally restricting conditions. We first assessed past developments in palm oil production. Next, we analysed scenarios for the future. In the past 20years, 95% of the Indonesian oil palm production area was in Sumatra and Kalimantan and was increasingly cultivated in peatlands. Our scenarios for the future indicate that Indonesia can meet a considerable part of the global and Asian demand for palm oil, while avoiding further cultivation of peatlands and forest. By 2050, 264-447Mt crude palm oil may be needed for cooking oil and biodiesel worldwide. In Indonesia, the area that is potentially suitable for oil palm is 17 to 26Mha with a potential production rate of 27-38t fresh fruit bunches/ha, yielding 130-176Mt crude palm oil. Thus Indonesia can meet 39-60% of the international demand. In our scenarios this would be produced in Sumatra (21-26%), Kalimantan (12-16%), and Papua (2%). The potential areas include the current oil palm plantation in mineral lands, but exclude the current oil palm plantations in peatlands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Estimating primary productivity of tropical oil palm in Malaysia using remote sensing technique and ancillary data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanniah, K. D.; Tan, K. P.; Cracknell, A. P.

    2014-10-01

    The amount of carbon sequestration by vegetation can be estimated using vegetation productivity. At present, there is a knowledge gap in oil palm net primary productivity (NPP) at a regional scale. Therefore, in this study NPP of oil palm trees in Peninsular Malaysia was estimated using remote sensing based light use efficiency (LUE) model with inputs from local meteorological data, upscaled leaf area index/fractional photosynthetically active radiation (LAI/fPAR) derived using UK-DMC 2 satellite data and a constant maximum LUE value from the literature. NPP values estimated from the model was then compared and validated with NPP estimated using allometric equations developed by Corley and Tinker (2003), Henson (2003) and Syahrinudin (2005) with diameter at breast height, age and the height of the oil palm trees collected from three estates in Peninsular Malaysia. Results of this study show that oil palm NPP derived using a light use efficiency model increases with respect to the age of oil palm trees, and it stabilises after ten years old. The mean value of oil palm NPP at 118 plots as derived using the LUE model is 968.72 g C m-2 year-1 and this is 188% - 273% higher than the NPP derived from the allometric equations. The estimated oil palm NPP of young oil palm trees is lower compared to mature oil palm trees (oil palm trees contribute to lower oil palm LAI and therefore fPAR, which is an important variable in the LUE model. In contrast, it is noted that oil palm NPP decreases with respect to the age of oil palm trees as estimated using the allomeric equations. It was found in this study that LUE models could not capture NPP variation of oil palm trees if LAI/fPAR is used. On the other hand, tree height and DBH are found to be important variables that can capture changes in oil palm NPP as a function of age.

  5. Shear strength of palm oil clinker concrete beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, Bashar S.; Foo, W.L.; Hossain, K.M.A.; Abdullahi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Palm oil clinker can be used as lightweight aggregate for the production of structural concrete. ► The palm oil clinker concrete can be classified as lightweight concrete. ► Full scale reinforced palm oil clinker concrete beams without shear reinforcement were tested. ► The CSA based design equation can be used for the prediction of shear capacity with a limit. - Abstract: This paper presents experimental results on the shear behavior of reinforced concrete beams made of palm oil clinker concrete (POCC). Palm oil clinker (POC) is a by-product of palm oil industry and its utilization in concrete production not only solves the problem of disposing this solid waste but also helps to conserve natural resources. Seven reinforced POCC beams without shear reinforcement were fabricated and their shear behavior was tested. POCC has been classified as a lightweight structural concrete with air dry density less than 1850 kg/m 3 and a 28-day compressive strength more than 20 MPa. The experimental variables which have been considered in this study were the POCC compressive strength, shear span–depth ratio (a/d) and the ratio of tensile reinforcement (ρ). The results show that the failure mode of the reinforced POCC beam is similar to that of conventional reinforced concrete beam. In addition, the shear equation of the Canadian Standard Association (CSA) can be used in designing reinforced POCC beam with ρ ⩾ 1. However, a 0.5 safety factor should be included in the formula for ρ < 1

  6. Palm-vein classification based on principal orientation features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujia Zhou

    Full Text Available Personal recognition using palm-vein patterns has emerged as a promising alternative for human recognition because of its uniqueness, stability, live body identification, flexibility, and difficulty to cheat. With the expanding application of palm-vein pattern recognition, the corresponding growth of the database has resulted in a long response time. To shorten the response time of identification, this paper proposes a simple and useful classification for palm-vein identification based on principal direction features. In the registration process, the Gaussian-Radon transform is adopted to extract the orientation matrix and then compute the principal direction of a palm-vein image based on the orientation matrix. The database can be classified into six bins based on the value of the principal direction. In the identification process, the principal direction of the test sample is first extracted to ascertain the corresponding bin. One-by-one matching with the training samples is then performed in the bin. To improve recognition efficiency while maintaining better recognition accuracy, two neighborhood bins of the corresponding bin are continuously searched to identify the input palm-vein image. Evaluation experiments are conducted on three different databases, namely, PolyU, CASIA, and the database of this study. Experimental results show that the searching range of one test sample in PolyU, CASIA and our database by the proposed method for palm-vein identification can be reduced to 14.29%, 14.50%, and 14.28%, with retrieval accuracy of 96.67%, 96.00%, and 97.71%, respectively. With 10,000 training samples in the database, the execution time of the identification process by the traditional method is 18.56 s, while that by the proposed approach is 3.16 s. The experimental results confirm that the proposed approach is more efficient than the traditional method, especially for a large database.

  7. Preliminary studies of epoxidized palm oil as sizing chemical for carbon fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salleh, S.N.M.; Ubaidillah, E.A.E.; Abidin, M.F.Z.

    2010-01-01

    Epoxidized palm oil is derived from palm oil through chemical reaction with peracetic acid. Preliminary studies to coat carbon fibers have shown promising result towards applying natural product in carbon fibre composites. Mechanical studies of sized carbon fibers with epoxidized palm oil showed significant increase in tensile and interfacial shear strength. Surface morphology of sized or coated carbon fibers with epoxidized palm oil reveals clear increase in root means square-roughness (RMS). This indicates the change of the surface topography due to sized or coated carbon fibers with epoxidized palm oil. (author)

  8. The tensile properties of single sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachtiar, D.; Sapuan, S. M.; Zainudin, E. S.; Khalina, A.; Dahlan, K. Z. M.

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a brief description and characterization of the sugar palm fibres, still rare in the scientific community, compared to other natural fibres employed in polymeric composites. Sugar palm fibres are cellulose-based fibres extracted from the Arenga pinnata plant. The characterization consists of tensile test and the morphological examination. The average tensile properties results of fibres such as Young's modulus is equal to 3.69 GPa, tensile strength is equal to 190.29 MPa, and strain at failure is equal to 19.6%.

  9. The tensile properties of single sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachtiar, D; Sapuan, S M; Zainudin, E S; Khalina, A; Dahlan, K Z M

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a brief description and characterization of the sugar palm fibres, still rare in the scientific community, compared to other natural fibres employed in polymeric composites. Sugar palm fibres are cellulose-based fibres extracted from the Arenga pinnata plant. The characterization consists of tensile test and the morphological examination. The average tensile properties results of fibres such as Young's modulus is equal to 3.69 GPa, tensile strength is equal to 190.29 MPa, and strain at failure is equal to 19.6%.

  10. Maxent modelling for predicting the potential distribution of Thai Palms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tovaranonte, Jantrararuk; Barfod, Anders S.; Overgaard, Anne Blach

    2011-01-01

    on presence data. The aim was to identify potential hot spot areas, assess the determinants of palm distribution ranges, and provide a firmer knowledge base for future conservation actions. We focused on a relatively small number of climatic, environmental and spatial variables in order to avoid...... overprediction of species distribution ranges. The models with the best predictive power were found by calculating the area under the curve (AUC) of receiver-operating characteristic (ROC). Here, we provide examples of contrasting predicted species distribution ranges as well as a map of modeled palm diversity...

  11. Palm oil transesterified by metanolysis as diesel engine biofuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agudelo Santamaria, John R; Pena, Diego Leon; Mejia, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews a general background of biodiesel and its potentialities and possibilities as automotive fuel. The paper also compares the colombian production capacity in the world context, and shows its advantages and disadvantages as diesel engine biofuel. The paper discusses some relevant processing techniques of crude palm oil, the methanol transesterification technique being found to be the most suitable one. Finally it shows the results of some important physicochemical characterization of a crude palm oil transesterificated with methanol at the Universidad de Antioquia

  12. Modelling microwave heating of discrete samples of oil palm kernels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, M.C.; Liew, E.L.; Chang, S.L.; Chan, Y.S.; Leo, C.P.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Microwave (MW) drying of oil palm kernels is experimentally determined and modelled. • MW heating of discrete samples of oil palm kernels (OPKs) is simulated. • OPK heating is due to contact effect, MW interference and heat transfer mechanisms. • Electric field vectors circulate within OPKs sample. • Loosely-packed arrangement improves temperature uniformity of OPKs. - Abstract: Recently, microwave (MW) pre-treatment of fresh palm fruits has showed to be environmentally friendly compared to the existing oil palm milling process as it eliminates the condensate production of palm oil mill effluent (POME) in the sterilization process. Moreover, MW-treated oil palm fruits (OPF) also possess better oil quality. In this work, the MW drying kinetic of the oil palm kernels (OPK) was determined experimentally. Microwave heating/drying of oil palm kernels was modelled and validated. The simulation results show that temperature of an OPK is not the same over the entire surface due to constructive and destructive interferences of MW irradiance. The volume-averaged temperature of an OPK is higher than its surface temperature by 3–7 °C, depending on the MW input power. This implies that point measurement of temperature reading is inadequate to determine the temperature history of the OPK during the microwave heating process. The simulation results also show that arrangement of OPKs in a MW cavity affects the kernel temperature profile. The heating of OPKs were identified to be affected by factors such as local electric field intensity due to MW absorption, refraction, interference, the contact effect between kernels and also heat transfer mechanisms. The thermal gradient patterns of OPKs change as the heating continues. The cracking of OPKs is expected to occur first in the core of the kernel and then it propagates to the kernel surface. The model indicates that drying of OPKs is a much slower process compared to its MW heating. The model is useful

  13. Exports of Palm Oil from Ghana: A Demand Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kuwornu, John K.M.; Darko, Francis A.; Osei-Asare, Yaw B.; Egyir, Irene S.

    2009-01-01

    Studies have shown that the economy of Ghana cannot afford to rely solely on cocoa exports. It is imperative to diversify the export base of the Ghanaian economy. In this respect, the palm oil sub-sector of the agricultural sector, which until the early part of the 20th century was the major agricultural export commodity of Ghana, needs to be considered for promotion. Currently the palm oil industry faces the challenge of bleak export potential. This study examines trends in the quantity expo...

  14. Understanding the oil palm change in Nong Khai Province: the farmers perspectives and the policy processes of the oil palm plantations

    OpenAIRE

    Sethaputra, Kampree

    2014-01-01

    Since 2005, the Thai government has, as a matter of policy, been seeking to increase production of biodiesel from oil palms. As a result, the number of oil palm plantations in the Northeast region has been growing, particularly in Nong Khai province. Nong Khai is a relatively remote, predominantly agricultural area and is the field site for this research. However, oil palm production is a complex and hotly contested issue both globally and in Thailand and it has ardent critics and supporters....

  15. An interesterified palm olein test meal decreases early-phase postprandial lipemia compared to palm olein:a Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Wendy; Fiuza Brito, Marcela; Huang, Junlan; Wood, Lucy; Filippou, Androulla; Sanders, Thomas A. B.; Berry, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Palm oil that has been interesterified to produce a higher proportion of palmitic acid (16:0) in the sn-2 position reduces postprandial lipemia in young, normolipidemic men and women, but effects in older subjects with higher fasting triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that high-fat meals rich in interesterified palm olein (IPO) decrease lipemia and alter plasma lipoprotein fraction composition compared to native palm olein (NPO) in men aged 40–70 years ...

  16. Palm-Based Standard Reference Materials for Iodine Value and Slip Melting Point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmil Haizam Ahmad Tarmizi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work described study protocols on the production of Palm-Based Standard Reference Materials for iodine value and slip melting point. Thirty-three laboratories collaborated in the inter-laboratory proficiency tests for characterization of iodine value, while thirty-two laboratories for characterization of slip melting point. The iodine value and slip melting point of palm oil, palm olein and palm stearin were determined in accordance to MPOB Test Methods p3.2:2004 and p4.2:2004, respectively. The consensus values and their uncertainties were based on the acceptability of statistical agreement of results obtained from collaborating laboratories. The consensus values and uncertainties for iodine values were 52.63 ± 0.14 Wijs in palm oil, 56.77 ± 0.12 Wijs in palm olein and 33.76 ± 0.18 Wijs in palm stearin. For the slip melting points, the consensus values and uncertainties were 35.6 ± 0.3 ° C in palm oil, 22.7 ± 0.4 ° C in palm olein and 53.4 ± 0.2 ° C in palm stearin. Repeatability and reproducibility relative standard deviations were found to be good and acceptable, with values much lower than that of 10%. Stability of Palm-Based Standard Reference Materials remained stable at temperatures of -20 ° C, 0 ° C, 6 ° C and 24 ° C upon storage for one year.

  17. Effect of Kevlar and carbon fibres on tensile properties of oil palm/epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, S. M. M.; Sultan, M. T. H.; Jawaid, M.; Cardona, F.; Ishak, M. R.; Yusof, M. R.

    2017-12-01

    Hybrid composites with natural and synthetic fibers have captured the interests of many researchers. In this work, Kevlar/oil palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB)/Kevlar and carbon/oil palm EFB hybrid/carbon composites were prepared using hand lay-up technique by keeping the oil palm EFB fiber as the core material. The tensile properties which include tensile strength, tensile modulus and elongation at break were investigated. It is observed that the tensile strength and modulus for carbon/oil palm EFB/carbon hybrid composites were much higher as compared with Kevlar/oil palm EFB/Kevlar hybrid composites. However, the elongation at break for Kevlar/oil palm EFB/Kevlar hybrid composites exhibited higher value as compared to carbon/oil palm EFB/carbon hybrid composites and oil palm EFB/epoxy composites. The tensile strength for carbon/oil palm EFB/carbon hybrid composites is 93.6 MPa and the tensile modulus for carbon/oil palm EFB/carbon hybrid composites is 6.5 GPa. The elongation at break for Kevlar/oil palm EFB/Kevlar hybrid composites is 3.6%.

  18. Relationships among rat numbers, abundance of oil palm fruit and damage levels to fruit in an oil palm plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puan, Chong Leong; Goldizen, Anne W; Zakaria, Mohamed; Hafidzi, Mohd N; Baxter, Greg S

    2011-06-01

    The relationships between vertebrate pests and crop damage are often complex and difficult to study. In palm oil plantations rodents remain the major pests, causing substantial monetary losses. The present study examined the numerical and functional responses of rodents to changes in the availability of oil palm fruit and the damage associated with that response. For the study, 200 traps were set in pairs on a 10 × 10 trapping grid for 3 consecutive nights in each of 6 study plots at 8-week intervals in a 2569 ha oil palm plantation at Labu, Negeri Sembilan state in Peninsular Malaysia over 14 months. A total of 1292 individual rats were captured over 25 200 trap-nights. Animals were identified, aged, sexed, weighed and measured. An index of the relative abundance of rats was calculated based on trapping success. Damage to infructescences was assessed at each trap point. Regardless of the age of palms, there were positive and significant relationships between the relative abundance of rats and numbers of infructescences. The levels of damage to infructescences were significantly correlated with the relative abundance of rats. A steep increase in damage was observed with an increase in mature infructescences, indicating a feeding preference of rats for mature infructescences. For both males and females of all rat species, there were weak and non-significant correlations between body condition and infructescence numbers. These results indicated that there was a numerical and a functional response by rats to the availability of palm fruit and a resulting increase in depredation of oil palm fruits. The ways in which this information might aid in future pest control are discussed. © 2011 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  19. PREPARATION OF VARIOUS TYPES OF PULP FROM OIL PALM LIGNOCELLULOSIC RESIDUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RyoheiTanaka; LehCheuPeng; WanRosliWanDaud

    2004-01-01

    Oil palm, Elaeis Guineensis, (Figure 1) is one of the most important plants in Malaysia. It produces palm oil and palm kernel oil, which is widely being used in food and other industries such as detergents and cosmetics. Malaysia is the world's largest producer and exporter of the oil, so that the country's economy is very much dependent on these oil products. Although oil from the palm tree is an excellent product for the country, residues from oil palm have not been used sufficiently. In this 10-15 years, development in new technologies for utilizing this lignocellulosic waste is categorized as one of the most important issues in science policy of Malaysia. Here we would like to introduce recent situation of palm oil and oil palm lignocellulosic residues at the first part of this paper. In the second part, our recent studies on the preparation of pulps for different purposes will be summarized.

  20. Suitability of online 3D visualization technique in oil palm plantation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat, Ruzinoor Che; Nordin, Norani; Zulkifli, Abdul Nasir; Yusof, Shahrul Azmi Mohd

    2016-08-01

    Oil palm industry has been the backbone for the growth of Malaysia economy. The exports of this commodity increasing almost every year. Therefore, there are many studies focusing on how to help this industry increased its productivity. In order to increase the productivity, the management of oil palm plantation need to be improved and strengthen. One of the solution in helping the oil palm manager is by implementing online 3D visualization technique for oil palm plantation using game engine technology. The potential of this application is that it can helps in fertilizer and irrigation management. For this reason, the aim of this paper is to investigate the issues in managing oil palm plantation from the view of oil palm manager by interview. The results from this interview will helps in identifying the suitable issues could be highlight in implementing online 3D visualization technique for oil palm plantation management.

  1. Material flow analysis for resource management towards resilient palm oil production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamahara, H.; Faisal, M.; Hasanudin, U.; Fujie, K.; Daimon, H.

    2018-03-01

    Biomass waste generated from palm oil mill can be considered not only as the feedstock of renewable energy but also as the nutrient-rich resources to produce organic fertilizer. This study explored the appropriate resource management towards resilient palm oil production by applying material flow analysis. This study was conducted based on two palm oil mills in Lampung, Indonesia. The results showed that the empty fruit bunch (EFB) has the largest potential in terms of amount and energy among the biomass waste. The results also showed that the palm oil mills themselves had already self-managed their energy consumption thatwas obtained from palm kernel shell and palm press fiber. Finally, this study recommended the several utilization options of EFB for improvement of soil sustainability to contribute towards resilient palm oil production.

  2. Ethnobotanical relevance in tribal life: A study on Warli tribe of Thane district, Maharashtra, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pereira, N.

    An ethnobotanical study of Warli tribe belonging to the Thane district of Maharashtra, India was conducted. Plants of social, religious, medicinal as well as domestic uses were studied. Totally 59 species of plants are documented. Of these, 23...

  3. Quotidian of accompanying family members in an environment of care: the emergence of hospital tribes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia da Silva Santos Passos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Understand the quotidian relationships of accompanying family members in an environment of care, which are close to the metaphor of a tribe in hospital environment. METHODQualitative study with data gathered from semi-structured interviews and observations with 16 family members accompanying hospitalized individuals with dependence on self-care. Data were submitted to thematic analysis, and analyzed through the metaphor of "tribe" proposed by comprehensive sociology. RESULTS Family members build up social clusters around caring, where we find traits typical of tribes: emotional ambience; solidarity based on links of sympathy and mutual assistance; an affectual nebula in the process of interaction; a logic of fusion in tactile relations; and communion/religiosity in the process of connecting in a collective identity. CONCLUSION In the presence of tragedy, families build social clusters similar to tribes having care as a totem.

  4. The use of epoxidised palm oil products (EPOP) for the synthesis of radiation curable resins 1. Synthesis of epoxidised RBD palm olein acrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussin bin Mohd Nor; Mohd Hilmi bin Mahmood; Hamirin bin Kifli; Masni bin Abdul Rahman; Azman bin Rafie

    1990-01-01

    The synthesis of acrylated olein utilizing epoxidised refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm olein has been carried out by acrylation reaction. This is done by the introduction of acrylic acid into oxirane group of the epoxidised RBD palm olein. The reaction was confirmed by analytical data i.e. oxirane oxygen content, iodine value and acid value and IR spectrophotometric method. It was found that, oxirane group in triglyceride molecule of epoxidised RBD palm olein (EPOL) is attacked by acrylic acid to yield epoxidised RBD palm olein acrylate (EPOLA). The EPOLA was found curable when subjected to ultraviolet radiation

  5. CO2 and CH4 fluxes from oil palm plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia: effects of palm age and environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijide, A.; Hassler, E.; Corre, M. D.; June, T.; Sabajo, C.; Veldkamp, E.; Knohl, A.

    2015-12-01

    Global increasing demand of palm oil is leading to the expansion of oil palm plantations, particularly in SE Asia, which in Sumatran lowlands has resulted in a 21% forest area loss. Large photosynthesis rates are expected for oil palms, due to their high growth and yield production. However, there is very limited information on their effect on carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes and their sink or source strength at ecosystem scale. For methane (CH4) fluxes, research has mainly focused in oil palm plantations located on peatlands, but no information is available at ecosystem level from plantations on mineral soils. With the aim of studying CO2 fluxes during the non-productive and productive phases of oil palm cultivation, an eddy covariance (EC) tower was installed in a 2 year old oil palm plantation, where it was measuring for 8 months, and was subsequently moved to a 12 year old plantation, both in the province of Jambi, Sumatra. The EC system consisted of a Licor 7500A and an ultrasonic Metek anemometer, operating at 10 Hz, installed on a 7m and 22m tower respectively. In the 12 year old plantation, the tower was also equipped with a Los Gatos FGGA-24EP, to assess CH4 fluxes. Chamber measurements were also carried out to obtain information on respiration and CH4 fluxes from the soil. Radiation was the major driver controlling net carbon uptake, while soil moisture did not play a significant role. Average net ecosystem exchange in the hours of the day with higher radiation for the whole measurement period was 10 μmol m-2 s-1 for the 2 year old plantation and -22 μmol m-2 s-1 in the 12 year old. The analysis of the cumulative fluxes show that the non-productive plantation was a carbon source of around 636 g CO2 m-2 during the 8 months of measurements, while in the productive period, it acted as a strong carbon sink (-794 g CO2 m-2 yr-1). Methane uptake was observed in the soil in both plantations and also for the whole ecosystem in the 12 year old one, but its

  6. 25 CFR 1001.8 - Selection criteria for tribes/consortia to receive a negotiation grant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Selection criteria for tribes/consortia to receive a negotiation grant. 1001.8 Section 1001.8 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SELF-GOVERNANCE PROGRAM § 1001.8 Selection criteria for tribes/consortia to receive a negotiation grant. (a) Who may be...

  7. Counterinsurgency: Clear-Hold-Build and the Pashtun Tribes in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    against his troops.45 The British fared no better when they occupied the region in the late 19th century . They artificially divided the Pashtun tribes...and Afghanistan. Alexander the Great invaded the valley in the fourth century B.C. and the local inhabitants burned their homes and took up arms...a single clan or tribe. Historically, unrest has always bubbled up from this stratum-whether against Alexander, the Victorian British, or the Soviet

  8. The Doryctinae (Braconidae) of Costa Rica: genera and species of the tribe Heterospilini

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, Paul; Wild, Alexander; Whitfield, James

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A comprehensive taxonomic study is presented for the four genera and 286 species of the doryctine tribe Heterospilini occurring in Costa Rica. The tribe is represented almost entirely by the 280 species of the genus Heterospilus Haliday. Keys for identification of the genera and species are provided and the genera and species are described and illustrated. An interactive key to the species of Heterospilus also was prepared using Lucid Builder. The following new genus and species are ...

  9. Representation of states on effect-tribes and effect algebras by integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvurečenskij, Anatolij

    2011-02-01

    We describe σ-additive states on effect-tribes by integrals. Effect-tribes are monotone σ-complete effect algebras of functions where operations are defined pointwise. Then we show that every state on an effect algebra is an integral through a Borel regular probability measure. Finally, we show that every σ-convex combination of extremal states on a monotone σ-complete effect algebra is a Jauch-Piron state.

  10. Washoe Tribe Nevada Inter-Tribal Energy Consortium Energy Organization Enhancement Project Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Jennifer [Washoe Tribe of NV and Ca

    2014-11-06

    The Washoe Tribe of Nevada and California was awarded funding from the Department of Energy to complete the Nevada Inter-Tribal Energy Consortium Energy Organization Enhancement Project. The main goal of the project was to enhance the capacity of the Nevada Inter-Tribal Energy Consortium (NITEC) to effectively assist tribes within Nevada to technically manage tribal energy resources and implement tribal energy projects.

  11. Management of the palm Astrocaryum chambira Burret (Arecaceae in northwest Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor García

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied the management of the fiber-producing chambira palm Astrocaryum chambira by indigenous people in the Colombian Amazon. Between 2009 and 2012, we visited four communities and two marketing centers, where we interviewed 12 people. In addition, we specifically observed A. chambira harvesting, processing, and commercialization; studied palm populations at five localities; measured leaf production rate; and integrated secondary data. At least 21 aboriginal groups in the Colombian Amazon use chambira fiber. The palm grows in association with human communities, and it has been widely used and managed in past agroforestry systems. The fiber is obtained from the unexpanded leaves of juvenile or adult palms, and harvesting is often unsustainable because of overharvesting acaulescent palms or of cutting down adult palms. This is leading to a depletion of palm population. Annual leaf production rate was 1.59-2.89 leaves/palm year−1, which is lower than that reported in other studies. Based in our results, we recommended a harvest of 1 leaf/palm year−1 in acaulescent palms, and 1-2 leaves/palm year−1 in stemmed palms. Chambira-derived products are mostly handicrafts for marketing, and their trade represents 40%-100% of artisan household cash income. Improving the management of chambira palms requires the introduction of non-destructive harvest techniques and a wider use of the palm in agroforestry systems. An analysis of traditional management practices and of the role of chambira among Amerindian people indicates that A. chambira was an incipient domesticate at the time of the European conquest.

  12. An experiment of used palm oil refinery using the value engineering method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiati; Waluyo, M.

    2018-01-01

    Palm Oil is one of prime materials which very necessary for Indonesia. In the development of palm oil industry the constraint which faced is raw material availability and the economic crisis that attack Indonesia which cause increasing of cost industry so that the salaes price become very expensive . With using alternative raw material namely used palm oil them be made palm oil design to solve this problems. In the designing which comply the consideration of good pal oil planning aspect be use value engineer study. While the criteria parameter of hygienic palm oil which obtained from the questioner area free fatty acid, water content, Iodine number, peroxide number, odor, taste and the color. The research which use value engineer study is throught any phase that is information phase, analyzes phase, creative phase, development phase and presentation phase. This research began with doing the identification of palm oil demand, continued by methodology development in order to measure oil design. By using creative process could be obtained flow rate position, the amount of adsorbent and the best settling time for palm oil alternative that is in the flow rate 70 ml/sec, 4% of adsorbent and the 70 minute for the settling time with free fatty acid value: 0.299. While the best palm oil alternative are palm oil with free fatty acid value = 0.299, water content = 0.31, Iodine number = 40.08, Peroxide number = 3.72, odor and taste = Normal, the color = Normal. The Evalution which done by value engineer study generate the value from alternative palm oil is 1.330 and market palm oil 1.392. Thus, can be conclude thet the value engineer study can be good implemented in the alternative palm oil planning so that alternative palm oil can be produced largely because they have better value that market palm oil and appropriate for little industries.

  13. Community-wise evaluation of rice beer prepared by some ethnic tribes of Tripura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushanta Ghosh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tripura is inhabited by many indigenous communities having unique ethno-socio-cultural lifestyle with age-old rice beer brewing techniques using wild herbs and local rice varieties popularly known as chuwak or zu. The present study is focused on comparative evaluation of brewing methods and nutritional aspects of rice beer among Debbarma, Jamatia, Koloi, and Molsom tribes of Tripura. Sample ingredients and plant species are properly identified before reporting. Rice beer is also prepared in laboratory conditions for comparative studies of qualitative and quantitative aspects. Thirteen different plant species are used by these four tribes for preparation of starter cultures using soaked rice flour. Markhamia stipulate (Wall. Seem. is common to all communities for starter cake preparation. Litsea monopetala (Roxb. Pers. is used by all three communities except Jamatia. The use of Ananus comosus Mill. is common among Debbarma and Jamatia tribes, whereas that of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. is common among Molsom and Koloi tribes. However, Aporusa diocia (Roxb. Muell., Combretum indicum (L. DeFilipps., and Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck. are used only by Debbarma tribe for unique tangy flavor. The physicochemical properties of rice beer varied within tribes for its moisture content, carbohydrate content, reducing sugar, and alcohol percentage. The concentration of alcohol increases with aging and prolonged fermentation. The plants reported here are also reported for having nutritional and medicinal benefits for the metabolic stability in humans, which make the process more prospective for commercialization if a standard for maintaining a quality and associated risk can be determined.

  14. Determination of Optimum Moisture Content of Palm Nut Cracking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    ABSTRACT: After processing the palm fruit for oil, the nut is usually dried in order to loosen the kernel from the shell. The drying is necessary to enhance the release of whole kernel when the nut is cracked. A study was carried out to determine the optimum moisture content of nuts for high yield of whole kernels during ...

  15. Techno-economic packaging of palm wine preservation and bottling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to investigate the economic viability of setting up a small scale palm wine bottling factory with a view to providing investment data to guide entrepreneurs in making investment decisions. The economic evaluation was based on a factory capacity of 750,000 bottles (60cl) per annum with production ...

  16. Regeneration and molecular analysis of date palm ( Phoenix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clonal plants of date palm (Poenix dactylifera L.) were regenerated from juvenile leaves on regimes consisting of the use of 2,4-D. Success depended on the concentrations of 2,4-D tested. The cultures produced adventitious shoot buds directly at the basal part of leaves as well as excessive calli. Somaclonal variation in ...

  17. Recloning of regenerated plantlets from elite oil palm ( Elaeis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant regeneration in oil palm cv. Tenera via somatic embryogenesis was conducted using regenerated plantlets as an explant source. Explants from different positions – apex, middle and basal segments of regenerated plantlets – were cultured in N6 medium supplemented with 100, 120 and 140 mg/L 2 ...

  18. Development of Motorized Oil Palm Fruit Rotary Digester | Asoiro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A motorized oil palm fruit rotary digester comprising of a feed hopper, hammers, axle, screening plate, v-belt, 2hp electric motor, digesting chamber and frame was designed and developed using standard and locally sourced materials. The performance test analysis showed that its throughput capacity is 117.93kg/hr with a ...

  19. Mycological deterioration of stored palm kernels recovered from oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Palm kernels obtained from Pioneer Oil Mill Ltd. were stored for eight (8) weeks and examined for their microbiological quality and proximate composition. Seven (7) different fungal species were isolated by serial dilution plate technique. The fungal species included Aspergillus flavus Link; A nidulans Eidem; A niger ...

  20. Palm leaves from the Late Oligocene sediments of Makum Coalfield ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Two new palm leaf impressions, cf. Iguanura wallichiana and Palmacites makumensis sp. nov. are described from the Makum Coalfield, Tinsukia District, Assam. They belong to the Tikak Parbat Formation being considered as Late Oligocene (Chattian 28–23 Myr) in age. Their presence, along with the other known fossil ...

  1. Genetic stability among date palm plantlets regenerated from petiole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The regeneration capacity between the shoot tip and petiole explants that excised from two date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cutivar namely Unknown and Ferhi was compared. It was noted that the shoot tip explants started to swill after several subculture when placed on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented ...

  2. The disciplining of illegal palm oil plantations in Sumatra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pramudya, Eusebius Pantja; Hospes, Otto; Termeer, C.J.A.M.

    2018-01-01

    The Indonesian state has issued many regulations to control palm oil expansion, but they have been weakly enforced, resulting in widespread illegal plantations. During the last decade, Indonesian authorities have used force to reduce illegal plantations. This article analyses the drivers behind

  3. Synthesis of palm biodiesel using sodium methoxide catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhari; Robiah Yunus; Rasyid, S.A.; Abdullah, L.C.

    2006-01-01

    Synthesis of palm biodiesel (methyl ester) was successfully carried out from refined bleached deodorized palm oil (RBDPO) by transesterification reaction. Two kinds of alkali catalyst were selected for this reaction namely sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium methoxide (NaOCH 3 ), and the effects of operating variables such as molar ratio, reaction temperature and quantity of catalyst were also investigated. The reaction was carried out under atmosphere pressure. The reaction temperature and time were varied between 55 to 70 degree C and 50 to 90 minutes respectively. The methanol to oil molar ratios were also varied at 6:1, 5:1, 4:1 and 3:1 to examine its effect on reaction yield. The reaction conversion was 99% by use of NaOCH 3 as a catalyst. However, with NaOH as catalyst, the conversion was slightly lower compared to using NaOCH 3 . The optimum conditions for NaOCH 3 as catalyst were reaction temperature, 65 degree C; reaction time, 60 minutes; molar ratio, 6:1; and catalyst amount, 1.0% w/w. The kinetics study on transesterification of RBDPO with methanol established that the reaction occurred via two stepwise and irreversible elementary reactions following second order model. A vacuum distillation process was used to reduce the pour point of palm biodiesel. The lowest pour point attainable for palm biodiesel was at 3 degree C. (Author)

  4. modification of sequence of unit operations in mechanized palm fruit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    palm fruits processing sector, and requires less .... factory mill is a fully mechanized (non-labour ... in the digested fruit are to be all just touch- ing one ... fruits with human foot to pounding with pes- ... tural Service Bulletin 148 of Food and Agri-.

  5. Productivity improvement with green approach to palm oil factory productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matondang, N.

    2018-02-01

    The palm oil factory (POF) processes fresh fruit bunches into crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel oil (PKO) by products in the form of liquid and solid waste. One of the solid wastes produced in POF Tanjung Kasau is empty fruit bunches of palm oil (FBPO) which have been burned completely on incinerator tubes so that potentially produces pollutants that pollute the environment. If FBPO waste is managed properly, it will improve the productivity of the company. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct a study to find out how far the increased productivity of the company can reduce their impact on the environment, if FBPO is used as raw material of liquid smoke. The productivity improvement approach is done by Green Productivity concept, by looking at three aspects: environmental, social and economical. Green Productivity aims to protect the environment simultaneously by increasing the productivity of the company. One way is to turn FBPO waste into liquid smoke product is by pyrolysis process. The results showed that turning FBPO solid waste into liquid smoke will increase productivity by 18.18%. Implementation of Green Productivity can improve productivity through the improvement of FBPO waste treatment process which has been done by perfect combustion by pyrolysis process so that waste can be minimized to create environment industry POF clean and friendly environment.

  6. Simple Arm Muscle Model for Oil Palm Harvesting Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Aliff

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Arm are essential in order to perform manual material handling work that normally involves lifting, handling, placing, push and pull, carrying and moving heavy loads. When these work elements are performed over prolonged periods repeatedly, it will expose workers arm to awkward posture and possible ergonomic risk factor. For example, work element that requires repetitions frequently may lead the arm to face physical stress and mental fatigue. The situation can be extremely risky if the worker task requires higher focus or time consumable. These issues are unavoidable in palm oil harvesting process since the workers are still using manual handling when harvesting the fresh fruit bunch (FFB. The worker using a chisel to harvest the young palms and a sickle mounted on a bamboo or aluminum pole to harvest taller palms. When perform this work element combining with heavy physical workload, it may lead to work-related muscle disorders (WSMDs. This study was conducted to identify the force reaction and inverse dynamic analysis during oil palm harvesting process using ergonomics software called Anybody Technology. Inverse dynamic analysis is a technique for figuring strengths and/or moments of power (torques taking into account the kinematics (movement of a body and the body’s inertial properties.

  7. Quality Attributes of Fresh Palm Oils Produced from Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The oils were analyzed for their physical (refractive index, impurities, density, smoke point, flash point and fire point) and chemical (moisture, free fatty acids, peroxide value, saponification value iodine value and unsaponificable matter) qualities using standard methods. Palm oil processors in the selected communities were ...

  8. Comparative study of the chemical properties of palm oil extracted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemical properties of oil samples determined were free fatty acid, acid value, saponification value, peroxide value, iodine value and moisture content. The experimental design adopted was 3 x 2 x 2 factorial randomized complete block design in three replicates. The data of chemical properties of extracted palm oil ...

  9. Economic potential of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Sierra Márquez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to highlight the economic importance of the optimal use of products and byproducts of oil palm. In Colombia, productive crops per hectare can generate, over one year, an average of 3.14 tons of oil, and up to 21.68 t of solid and liquid waste when the plant is on a productive stage. These data allowed the researcher to estimate that more than nine million of t of solid and liquid waste was produced from the 450 131 ha present in 2014, in Colombia; the produced biomass was used to generate energy and steam, releasing carbon dioxide back again into the environment. These residues have great potential in many industries, some to be developed, therefore, it is of special importance to try to maximize the use of waste produced by oil palm production, to generate economic and environmental benefits. An example of this is the palm kernel cake, with a nutritional potential in animal feed, fiber in the biocompound industry, biomass and stipe in the timber industry, glycerol, biodiesel, and liquid effluents in the chemical and biotechnological industry. The use of these raw materials may help to establish a positive balance in the cultivation of this species of oil palm in the country.

  10. Biodiversity of Soil Arthropods in Nigerian Institute for oil Palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... A survey of soil arthropod fauna inhabiting Nigeria Institute for Oil Palm Research ... These individuals were represented in 4 classes, 11 orders and 21 families which were collected and extracted using the pitfall trap method and the ... OTHER RESOURCES.

  11. Economic potentials of oil palm products and weed control on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out at the Research Farm of National Root Crops Research Institute Umudike, southeastern Nigeria (05o, 29'N, 07o 33'E and 122 m above sea level), in 2015 and 2016 cropping seasons to study the economic potentials of oil palm products and weed control on sustainable turmeric production and some ...

  12. Palm harvest impacts in north-western South America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Tropical forests harbor thousands of useful plants that are harvested and used in subsistence economies or traded in local, regional or international markets. The effect on the ecosystem is little known, and the forests resilience is badly understood. Palms are the most useful group of plants in ...

  13. Effect of Coconut ( cocus Nucifera ) and Palm Kernel ( eleasis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Coconut ( cocus Nucifera ) and Palm Kernel ( eleasis Guinensis ) Oil Supplmented Diets on Serum Lipid Profile of Albino Wistar Rats. ... were fed normal rat pellet. At the end of the feeding period, animals were anaesthetized under chloroform vapor, dissected and blood obtained via cardiac puncture into tubes.

  14. Inhibition of palm oil oxidation by zeolite nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kok-Hou; Awala, Hussein; Mukti, Rino R; Wong, Ka-Lun; Rigaud, Baptiste; Ling, Tau Chuan; Aleksandrov, Hristiyan A; Koleva, Iskra Z; Vayssilov, Georgi N; Mintova, Svetlana; Ng, Eng-Poh

    2015-05-13

    The efficiency of zeolite X nanocrystals (FAU-type framework structure) containing different extra-framework cations (Li(+), Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+)) in slowing the thermal oxidation of palm oil is reported. The oxidation study of palm oil is conducted in the presence of zeolite nanocrystals (0.5 wt %) at 150 °C. Several characterization techniques such as visual analysis, colorimetry, rheometry, total acid number (TAN), FT-IR spectroscopy, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and Karl Fischer analyses are applied to follow the oxidative evolution of the oil. It was found that zeolite nanocrystals decelerate the oxidation of palm oil through stabilization of hydroperoxides, which are the primary oxidation product, and concurrently via adsorption of the secondary oxidation products (alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, and esters). In addition to the experimental results, periodic density functional theory (DFT) calculations are performed to elucidate further the oxidation process of the palm oil in the presence of zeolite nanocrystals. The DFT calculations show that the metal complexes formed with peroxides are more stable than the complexes with alkenes with the same ions. The peroxides captured in the zeolite X nanocrystals consequently decelerate further oxidation toward formation of acids. Unlike the monovalent alkali metal cations in the zeolite X nanocrystals (K(+), Na(+), and Li(+)), Ca(2+) reduced the acidity of the oil by neutralizing the acidic carboxylate compounds to COO(-)(Ca(2+))1/2 species.

  15. Determinants of profitability of smallholder palm oil processing units ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 70 questionnaires were administered to the palm oil farmers randomly selected from five purposively sampled towns in Ogun state. Selection was based on the predominance of producers in the towns as well as their geographical spread covering the entire land space of the state. The response rate was 95.71 ...

  16. Large estragole fluxes from oil palms in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    During two field campaigns (OP3 and ACES), which ran in Borneo in 2008, we measured large emissions of estragole in ambient air above oil palm canopies flower enclosures. However, we did not detect this compound at a nearby rainforest. Estragole is a known attractant of the Afric...

  17. Oil palm expansion in Indonesia : serving people, planet and profit?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susanti, A.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to provide a more holistic understanding of how drivers at various levels interplay and continue to feed the expansion of oil palm plantations with its associated land use/cover change (LUCC) particularly deforestation, local economic development and people’s livelihoods. Recent

  18. Predicting the nutritional health status of locally produced palm oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three physical properties of locally produced palm oil – viscosity, thermal conductivity and density for varying temperatures were determined. The values obtained were compared with corresponding internationally stipulated standard values using statistics of mean and graphs. The purpose of the comparison was to predict ...

  19. Cultivation of oyster mushroom ( Pleurotus spp.) on palm oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oyster mushroom is a popular mushroom due to its nutritional, medicinal and potential commercial value. In Malaysia, the fungus is currently cultivated on sawdust and rice husk. In this study, the efficiency of cultivating oyster mushroom was assessed using palm oil mesocarp fibre as a substrate. The experiment consisted ...

  20. The application of foliar analysis in oil palm cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeshart, H.

    1955-01-01

    The chemical analysis of leaves was studied as an indication of fertilizer requirements of the oil-palm in the former Belgian Congo. Position and age of the leaf both markedly influenced chemical composition. Leaflets from the same position in leaf and plant must be compared. The age of the whole

  1. Dissipation of the fungicide hexaconazole in oil palm plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maznah, Zainol; Halimah, Muhamad; Ismail, Sahid; Idris, Abu Seman

    2015-12-01

    Hexaconazole is a potential fungicide to be used in the oil palm plantation for controlling the basal stem root (BSR) disease caused by Ganoderma boninense. Therefore, the dissipation rate of hexaconazole in an oil palm agroecosystem under field conditions was studied. Two experimental plots were treated with hexaconazole at the recommended dosage of 4.5 g a.i. palm(-1) (active ingredient) and at double the recommended dosage (9.0 g a.i. palm(-1)), whilst one plot was untreated as control. The residue of hexaconazole was detected in soil samples in the range of 2.74 to 0.78 and 7.13 to 1.66 mg kg(-1) at the recommended and double recommended dosage plots, respectively. An initial relatively rapid dissipation rate of hexaconazole residues occurred but reduced with time. The dissipation of hexaconazole in soil was described using first-order kinetics with the value of coefficient regression (r (2) > 0.8). The results indicated that hexaconazole has moderate persistence in the soil and the half-life was found to be 69.3 and 86.6 days in the recommended and double recommended dosage plot, respectively. The results obtained highlight that downward movement of hexaconazole was led by preferential flow as shown in image analysis. It can be concluded that varying soil conditions, environmental factors, and pesticide chemical properties of hexaconazole has a significant impact on dissipation of hexaconazole in soil under humid conditions.

  2. Life cycle assessment of palm-derived biodiesel in Taiwan

    KAUST Repository

    Maharjan, Sumit

    2016-10-01

    In Taiwan, due to the limited capacity of waste cooking oil, palm oil has been viewed as the potential low-cost imported feedstock for producing biodiesel, in the way of obtaining oil feedstock in Malaysia and producing biodiesel in Taiwan. This study aims to evaluate the cradle-to-grave life cycle environmental performance of palm biodiesel within two different Asian countries, Malaysia and Taiwan. The phases of the life cycle such as direct land-use-change impact, plantation and milling are investigated based on the Malaysia case and those of refining, and fuel production as well as engine combustion is based on Taiwan case. The greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and energy consumption for the whole life cycle were calculated as −28.29 kg CO2-equiv. and +23.71 MJ/kg of palm-derived biodiesel. We also analyze the impacts of global warming potential (GWP) and the payback time for recovering the GHG emissions when producing and using biodiesel. Various scenarios include (1) clearing rainforest or peat-forest; (2) treating or discharging palm-oil-milling effluent (POME) are further developed to examine the effectiveness of improving the environmental impacts © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  3. Can palm wine metamorphose into a health drink? | Ordinioha | Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Can palm wine metamorphose into a health drink? B Ordinioha, S Brisibe. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  4. Sweet Little Gabonese Palm Wine: A Neglected Alcohol | Mavioga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: During the last ten years, consumption of palm wine, a popular traditional alcoholic beverage, seriously increases in Gabon. This sweet beverage seems to be the main alcohol and the most drunken in low socioeconomic population. OBJECTIVE: To have an idea of it composition and toxicity, 21 samples of ...

  5. Characterization of a Treated Palm Oil Fuel Ash | Hassan | Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Palm oil fuel ash (POFA) has been known to possess a pozzolanic property. ... for 1.5 hours in a ball mill to reduce the particle size and to improve reactivity. ... that POFA is a good candidate for various applications by ceramic industries.

  6. techno-economic packaging of palm wine preservation and bottling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    The study was carried out to investigate the economic viability of setting up a small scale palm wine bottling factory with a view to ... F. S. Adeyemo, Federal Institute of Industrial Research Oshodi (fiiro), P.M.B 21023, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria. C. F. Kupoluyi, Federal ... weighing scale, holding tank, refractometer and PH meter. 22.

  7. Life cycle assessment of palm-derived biodiesel in Taiwan

    KAUST Repository

    Maharjan, Sumit; Wang, Wei-Cheng; Teah, Heng Yi

    2016-01-01

    . This study aims to evaluate the cradle-to-grave life cycle environmental performance of palm biodiesel within two different Asian countries, Malaysia and Taiwan. The phases of the life cycle such as direct land-use-change impact, plantation and milling

  8. Microbiological quality of raw and roasted African palm weevil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbiological quality of raw and roasted African palm weevil ( Rhynchophorus phoenicis ) consumed in the south eastern Nigeria. ... Rhynchophorus phoenicis though reported to be highly nutritious in terms of amino acid profile and presence of unsaturated fatty acid can be a source of food poison if not properly handled ...

  9. Simulating potential growth and yield of oil palm with PALMSIM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, M.P.; Vera, A.C.; Wijk, van M.T.; Giller, K.E.; Oberthur, R.; Donough, C.; Whitbread, A.M.; Fisher, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    The growing demand for palm oil can be met by reducing the gap between potential yield and actual yield. Simulation models can quantify potential yield, and therefore indicate the scope for intensification. A relatively simple physiological approach was used to develop PALMSIM, which is a model that

  10. Clean technology for the crude palm oil industry in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chavalparit, O.

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the potential contribution of clean(er) technology to improve the environmental performance of the crude palm oil industry inThailand, to analyse implementation barriers for

  11. Identification of a partial oil palm polygalacturonase-inhibiting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Basal stem rot disease (BSR) is a common and serious fungal disease of the oil palm caused by Ganoderma boninense. This fungal disease infects thousands of hectares of plantings in Southeast Asia every year causing not only yield but also tree losses. A natural plant self defence mechanism against fungal infection is ...

  12. Assessment of genetic diversity for some Iraqi date palms ( Phoenix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) were used to evaluate the genetic diversity between 18 date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) varieties (11 females and 7 males) collected from the center of Iraq. Six primer pairs were applied to detect polymorphism between varieties. A total of 83 polymorphic AFLP fragments ...

  13. Isolation and identification of fungal species from dried date palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 360 dried date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) fruits were collected from hawkers, shops and market places within Maiduguri metropolis for the detection of the presence of fungal species. Investigation was based on cultural, microscopically and biochemical tests. Of the 327 (90.83%) fungal isolates recovered on ...

  14. Briquetting of Palm Kernel Shell | Ugwu | Journal of Applied ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In several developing countries, briquettes from agricultural residues contribute significantly to the energy mix especially for small scale and household requirements. In this work, briquettes were produced from Palm kernel shell. This was achieved by carbonising the shell to get the charcoal followed by the pulverization of ...

  15. Bayoud disease of date palm in Algeria: History, epidemiology and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gab

    2015-02-18

    Feb 18, 2015 ... The first symptom of the disease appears on a palm leaf of the middle .... of different isolates of F. oxysporum f. sp. albedinis, but they did not ... cross wall, the microconidia germinate, the germ tubes penetrate the .... October, during the hot season in the northern hemisphere ... Water should be provided by a ...

  16. Ergonomics observation: Harvesting tasks at oil palm plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Yee Guan; Shamsul Bahri, Mohd Tamrin; Irwan Syah, Md Yusoff; Mori, Ippei; Hashim, Zailina

    2014-01-01

    Production agriculture is commonly associated with high prevalence of ergonomic injuries, particularly during intensive manual labor and during harvesting. This paper intends to briefly describe an overview of oil palm plantation management highlighting the ergonomics problem each of the breakdown task analysis. Although cross-sectional field visits were conducted in the current study, insight into past and present occupational safety and health concerns particularly regarding the ergonomics of oil palm plantations was further exploited. Besides discussion, video recordings were extensively used for ergonomics analysis. The unique commodity of oil palm plantations presents significantly different ergonomics risk factors for fresh fruit bunch (FFB) cutters during different stages of harvesting. Although the ergonomics risk factors remain the same for FFB collectors, the intensity of manual lifting increases significantly with the age of the oil palm trees-weight of FFB. There is urgent need to establish surveillance in order to determine the current prevalence of ergonomic injuries. Thereafter, ergonomics interventions that are holistic and comprehensive should be conducted and evaluated for their efficacy using approaches that are integrated, participatory and cost-effective.

  17. Antifungal evaluation of shell pyrolysates of oil palm ( Elaeis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The medicinal values of oil palm and coconut shells are not much known in herbal medicine and the two mostly constitute waste products. The antifungal effects of steam-distilled pyrolysates obtained from the two shells and the respective organic solvent fractions were evaluated against human pathogenic fungi ...

  18. Nutritional evaluation of fermented palm kernel cake using red tilapia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of palm kernel cake (PKC) and other plant residues in fish feeding especially under extensive aquaculture have been in practice for a long time. On the other hand, the use of microbial-based feedstuff is increasing. In this study, the performance of red tilapia raised on Trichoderma longibrachiatum fermented PKC ...

  19. Preparation and characterization of active carbon using palm kernel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Activated carbons were prepared from Palm kernel shells. Carbonization temperature was 6000C, at a residence time of 5 min for each process. Chemical activation was done by heating a mixture of carbonized material and the activating agents at a temperature of 700C to form a paste, followed by subsequent cooling and ...

  20. Economic sustainability of palm oil plantations among smallholders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the economic sustainability indicators of oil palm smallholders in Lahad Datu, Sabah. A survey based on a set of questionnaires with 58 smallholder respondents were carried out. The findings indicated that majority smallholders have income above the poverty income level,, The income earned by the ...

  1. Bio ethanol production from oil palm empty fruit bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loh Soh Kheang; Muhammad Asyraf Kasim; Nasrin Abu Bakar

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The oil palm industry has an abundance of oil palm biomass. The type of biomass generated includes empty fruit bunches (EFB), oil palm trunk (OPT), kernel, shell and fronds. Generally, ligno celluloses biomass derived from oil palm has great potential to be converted into various forms of renewable energy. In this study, EFB in pulverized form was used as a feedstock for bio ethanol production. EFB contains lignin, hemicelluloses and cellulose which can be converted into fermentable sugar and bio ethanol. The EFB was initially pre-treated with 1% NaOH followed by acid hydrolysis with 0.7% sulfuric acid and enzyme prior to fermentation process with Saccharomyces cerevisea. The various process parameters for bio ethanol production was optimized i.e. pH, temperature, rate of agitation and initial feedstock concentration. The fermentation of EFB hydrolysate was at pH 4, 30 degree Celsius and 100 rpm within 72 hours of incubation yielded 10.48 g/L of bio ethanol from 50 g/L of EFB. The bio ethanol production in a 6-L bioreactor showed 36% conversion of fermentable sugar from EFB into bio ethanol. (author)

  2. Response of Palm Oil Sludge on Sexual Reproductive Biology and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    doris

    They also reported that in Malaysia, Palm Oil and Rubber industries are sources of ... discharged to arable land. Most of the food items being produced in Nigeria today are by ... The choice of these crops was attributed to their wide utilization ...

  3. Adoption of improved oil palm production and processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This suggests the need for the provision of subsidies and financial support to farmers to enable them pay for the necessary farm inputs. Keywords: Oil palm, Improved technologies, Information sources, Nigeria Agro-Science Vol. 5 (1) 2006: pp. 26-35. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/as.v5i1.1541 · AJOL African Journals Online.

  4. Biomodification of palm shell activated carbon using Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adsorption of lead ions from aqueous solutions using commercial untreated granular palm shell activated carbon (PSAC) and PSAC biomodified with Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus niger biomass, respectively, was studied. The adsorption capacity of the three biosorbents was evaluated in batch adsorption experiments at ...

  5. Large estragole fluxes from oil palms in Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Misztal

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available During two field campaigns (OP3 and ACES, which ran in Borneo in 2008, we measured large emissions of estragole (methyl chavicol; IUPAC systematic name 1-allyl-4-methoxybenzene; CAS number 140-67-0 in ambient air above oil palm canopies (0.81 mg m−2 h−1 and 3.2 ppbv for mean midday fluxes and mixing ratios respectively and subsequently from flower enclosures. However, we did not detect this compound at a nearby rainforest. Estragole is a known attractant of the African oil palm weevil (Elaeidobius kamerunicus, which pollinates oil palms (Elaeis guineensis. There has been recent interest in the biogenic emissions of estragole but it is normally not included in atmospheric models of biogenic emissions and atmospheric chemistry despite its relatively high potential for secondary organic aerosol formation from photooxidation and high reactivity with OH radical. We report the first direct canopy-scale measurements of estragole fluxes from tropical oil palms by the virtual disjunct eddy covariance technique and compare them with previously reported data for estragole emissions from Ponderosa pine. Flowers, rather than leaves, appear to be the main source of estragole from oil palms; we derive a global estimate of estragole emissions from oil palm plantations of ~0.5 Tg y−1. The observed ecosystem mean fluxes (0.44 mg m−2 h−1 and mean ambient volume mixing ratios (3.0 ppbv of estragole are the highest reported so far. The value for midday mixing ratios is not much different from the total average as, unlike other VOCs (e.g. isoprene, the main peak occurred in the evening rather than in the middle of the day. Despite this, we show that the estragole flux can be parameterised using a modified G06 algorithm for emission. However, the model underestimates the afternoon peak even though a similar approach works well for isoprene. Our measurements suggest that this biogenic

  6. Validating the Physical Activity and Leisure Motivation Scale (PALMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molanorouzi, Keyvan; Khoo, Selina; Morris, Tony

    2014-09-03

    Although there is abundant evidence to recommend a physically active lifestyle, adult physical activity (PA) levels have declined over the past two decades. In order to understand why this happens, numerous studies have been conducted to uncover the reasons for people's participation in PA. Often, the measures used were not broad enough to reflect all the reasons for participation in PA. The Physical Activity and Leisure Motivation Scale (PALMS) was created to be a comprehensive tool measuring motives for participating in PA. This 40-item scale related to participation in sport and PA is designed for adolescents and adults. Five items constitute each of the eight sub-scales (mastery, enjoyment, psychological condition, physical condition, appearance, other's expectations, affiliation, competition/ego) reflecting motives for participation in PA that can be categorized as features of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation based on self-determination theory. The aim of the current study was to validate the PALMS in the cultural context of Malaysia, including to assess how well the PALMS captures the same information as the Recreational Exercise Motivation Measure (REMM). To do so, 502 Malaysian volunteer participants, aged 18 to 67 years (mean ± SD; 31.55 ± 11.87 years), from a variety of PA categories, including individual sports, team sports, martial arts and exercise, completed the study. The hypothesized 8-factor model demonstrated a good fit with the data (CMIN/DF = 2.820, NFI = 0.90, CFI = 0.91, RMSEA = 0.06). Cronbach's alpha coefficient (α = 0.79) indicated good internal consistency for the overall measure. Internal consistency for the PALMS subscales was sound, ranging from 0.78 to 0.82. The correlations between each PALMS sub-scale and the corresponding sub-scale on the validated REMM (the 73-item questionnaire from which the PALMS was developed) were also high and varied from 0.79 to 0.95. Also, test-retest reliability for the questionnaire sub-scales was

  7. Greenhouse gas emissions and energy balance of palm oil biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Souza, Simone Pereira; Pacca, Sergio [Graduate Program on Environmental Engineering Science, School of Engineering of Sao Carlos, University of Sao Paulo, Rua Arlindo Bettio, 1000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); de Avila, Marcio Turra; Borges, Jose Luiz B. [Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa - Soja) (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    The search for alternatives to fossil fuels is boosting interest in biodiesel production. Among the crops used to produce biodiesel, palm trees stand out due to their high productivity and positive energy balance. This work assesses life cycle emissions and the energy balance of biodiesel production from palm oil in Brazil. The results are compared through a meta-analysis to previous published studies: Wood and Corley (1991) [Wood BJ, Corley RH. The energy balance of oil palm cultivation. In: PORIM intl. palm oil conference - agriculture; 1991.], Malaysia; Yusoff and Hansen (2005) [Yusoff S, Hansen SB. Feasibility study of performing an life cycle assessment on crude palm oil production in Malaysia. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 2007;12:50-8], Malaysia; Angarita et al. (2009) [Angarita EE, Lora EE, Costa RE, Torres EA. The energy balance in the palm oil-derived methyl ester (PME) life cycle for the cases in Brazil and Colombia. Renewable Energy 2009;34:2905-13], Colombia; Pleanjai and Gheewala (2009) [Pleanjai S, Gheewala SH. Full chain energy analysis of biodiesel production from palm oil in Thailand. Applied Energy 2009;86:S209-14], Thailand; and Yee et al. (2009) [Yee KF, Tan KT, Abdullah AZ, Lee KT. Life cycle assessment of palm biodiesel: revealing facts and benefits for sustainability. Applied Energy 2009;86:S189-96], Malaysia. In our study, data for the agricultural phase, transport, and energy content of the products and co-products were obtained from previous assessments done in Brazil. The energy intensities and greenhouse gas emission factors were obtained from the Simapro 7.1.8. software and other authors. These factors were applied to the inputs and outputs listed in the selected studies to render them comparable. The energy balance for our study was 1:5.37. In comparison the range for the other studies is between 1:3.40 and 1:7.78. Life cycle emissions determined in our assessment resulted in 1437 kg CO{sub 2}e/ha, while our analysis

  8. Evaluating oil palm fresh fruit bunch processing in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyaoha, Kelechi E; Sakrabani, Ruben; Patchigolla, Kumar; Mouazen, Abdul M

    2018-03-01

    Three routes of oil palm fresh fruit bunch (FFB) processing in Nigeria namely, industrial, small-scale and traditional were compared by means of determining fruit losses associated with each route. The fruits that are not recovered after each process were hand-picked and quantified in terms of crude palm oil (CPO), palm kernel (PK), mesocarp fibre (MF) and palm kernel shell (PKS). The energy value of empty fruit bunch (EFB), MF and PKS were used to determine the value of energy lost for each route. Additionally, the environmental implications of disposal of EFB were estimated, and socio-economics of the industrial and small-scale routes were related. The analysis showed that 29, 18, 75 and 27 kg of CPO, PK, MF and PKS were lost for every 1000 kg of FFB processed with the industrial route, whereas 5.6, 3.2, 1.4 and 5.1 g were lost with the small-scale route, respectively. Approximately 89 kWh and 31 kWh more energy were lost from MF and PKS with the industrial route than the other two routes, respectively. An equivalent of 6670 tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent of methane and nitrogen oxide was released due to the disposal of 29,000 tonnes of EFB from one palm oil mill. The monetary value of lost CPO per 1000 kg of FFB processed in the industrial route is more than the labour cost of processing 1000 kg of FFB in the small-scale route. The advantages of the industrial route are high throughput in terms of FFB processed per hour and high quality of CPO; however, high fruit loss is associated with it and therefore, the poorly threshed EFB is recommended to be fed into the small-scale route.

  9. Cell longevity and sustained primary growth in palm stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, P Barry; Huggett, Brett A

    2012-12-01

    Longevity, or organismal life span, is determined largely by the period over which constituent cells can function metabolically. Plants, with modular organization (the ability continually to develop new organs and tissues) differ from animals, with unitary organization (a fixed body plan), and this difference is reflected in their respective life spans, potentially much longer in plants than animals. We draw attention to the observation that palm trees, as a group of monocotyledons without secondary growth comparable to that of lignophytes (plants with secondary growth from a bifacial cambium), retain by means of sustained primary growth living cells in their trunks throughout their organismal life span. Does this make palms the longest-lived trees because they can grow as individuals for several centuries? No conventional lignophyte retains living metabolically active differentiated cell types in its trunk for this length of time, even though the tree as a whole can exist for millennia. Does this contrast also imply that the long-lived cells in a palm trunk have exceptional properties, which allows this seeming immortality? We document the long-life of many tall palm species and their inherent long-lived stem cell properties, comparing such plants to conventional trees. We provide a summary of aspects of cell age and life span in animals and plants. Cell replacement is a feature of animal function, whereas conventional trees rely on active growth centers (meristems) to sustain organismal development. However, the long persistence of living cells in palm trunks is seen not as evidence for unique metabolic processes that sustain longevity, but is a consequence of unique constructional features. This conclusion suggests that the life span of plant cells is not necessarily genetically determined.

  10. Thermal characterization of oil palm fiber and eucalyptus in torrefaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Kuo, Po-Chih; Liu, Shih-Hsien; Wu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Thermal behavior of biomass in torrefaction plays an important role in the operation of pretreatment. To understand the endothermic and/or exothermic characteristics of biomass in the course of torrefaction, an experimental system is conducted and two kinds of biomass (oil palm fiber and eucalyptus) are investigated. The results indicate that the thermal behavior is significantly influenced by the lignocellulosic composition in biomass and the torrefaction temperature. The thermal decomposition of hemicellulose is the dominant mechanism for oil palm fiber torrefied at 200 and 250 °C, whereas the thermal degradation of cellulose is crucial when the biomass is torrefied at 300 °C. Therefore, the heat of reaction of oil palm fiber increases with increasing torrefaction temperature. The torrefaction of eucalyptus is always endothermic, as a consequence of high cellulose contained in the biomass. It is less endothermic when the torrefaction temperature increases, presumably due to the char formation from cellulose thermal degradation and the exothermic lignin decomposition. As a whole, the values of the heat of reaction of the two samples are between −3.50 and 2.23 MJ/kg. The obtained results have provided a useful insight into the control of torrefaction operation and the design of torrefaction reactor. - Highlights: • Thermal behavior of oil palm fiber and eucalyptus in torrefaction is studied. • Thermal characteristic of biomass in torrefaction depends on lignocellulosic composition. • Heat of reaction of oil palm fiber increases with increasing torrefaction temperature. • Eucalyptus torrefaction is always endothermic because of high cellulose contained. • Torrefaction of eucalyptus is less endothermic when the torrefaction temperature increases

  11. Invasioni biologiche. Il caso drammatico delle palme e di due specie di insetti, il Punteruolo rosso delle palme (Rynchophorus ferrugineus, Coleotteri e il castnide delle palme (Paysandisia archon, Lepidotteri in Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Di Domenico

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The biological invasions represent today a serious ecological problem, and is one of the main threats to biodiversity, in Italy as in the rest of the world. In the last century several species of palm trees have been introduced in gardens, parks and lanes of great part of Italy, where climate allows their life and growth. Among the others Phoenix canariensis, P. dactylifera, Washingtonia robusta, W. filifera, Jubaea spectabilis and Trachycarpus fortunei. All of these species are exotic, as the only indigenous palm in Italy is the dwarf fan palm (Chamaerops humilis, which occurs along the tirrenian coast from Sicily to Liguria, in Sardinia and most of the smaller islands. Palm trees have become by now part of the Italian landscape, as do pine tree in Rome or cypress in Tuscany. Recently, two different species of exotic insects where recorded for the first time in Italy: the south American moth Paysandisia archon and the chinese beetle Rhynchophorus ferrugineus. Both of them lay their eggs on palm trees, and their larvae feed into the stem and kill the palms. Both arrived in Italy and in other Mediterranean countries as larvae or eggs hidden into the plants imported from the native regions. These insects are rapidly spreading through Italy, following palm plantations, and destroying palms from north to south, with a huge economic damage. Furthermore, they are locally changing probably for ever the Italian landscape. More recently, there is evidence of infestation on dwarf fan palm by both the moth and the beetle. This could cause a local extinction of the palm.

  12. Snohomish RARE project update for Tulalip Tribes | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rising atmospheric CO2 due to anthropogenic emissions alters local atmospheric gas exchange rates in estuaries, causing alterations of the seawater carbonate system and reductions in pH broadly described as coastal acidification. These changes in marine chemistry have been demonstrated to negatively affect a variety of coastal and estuarine organisms. The naturally dynamic carbonate chemistry of estuaries driven by biological activity, hydrodynamic processes, and intensive biogeochemical cycling has led to uncertainty regarding the role of rising atmospheric CO2 as a driver in these systems, and the suggestion that altered atmospheric exchange may be relatively unimportant to estuarine biogeochemistry. In this presentation, we illustrate how rising atmospheric CO2 from 1765 through 2100 interacts with the observed local carbonate chemistry dynamics of a seagrass bed, and calculated how pHT, pCO2, and Ωaragonite respond. This presentation is part of an informal meeting with the Tulalip Tribes of Tulalip, WA to update them on the progress of the ORD/Region 10 RARE project in the Snohomish estuary to study drivers of coastal acidification. Multiple processes, including primary production and respiration, river runoff, cultural eutrophication, oceanic upwelling, and atmospheric exchange contribute to the characteristically dynamic carbonate conditions in these habitats, with potential interactions amongst these processes leading to coastal acidification. As a

  13. Renewable Energy Development in Indian Country: A Handbook for Tribes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacCourt, D. C.

    2010-06-01

    This handbook is designed to be an accessible reference for those who are new to tribal energy project development or seek a refresher on key development issues as they navigate the project development process. It builds upon the wealth of feedback and experiences shared by tribal and other participants in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's tribal energy training sessions to provide tribal leaders, tribal economic and energy enterprises, and those supporting them with a general overview of the renewable energy project development process as well as detailed guidance on the following: how to structure a renewable energy project transaction to protect tribal interests, with an emphasis on joint project development efforts undertaken with nontribal parties; key energy development agreements, including power sale agreements, transmission and interconnection agreements, and land leases; and ways tribes can finance renewable energy projects, including the sources of funding or financing that may be available, the types of investors that may be available, and federal tax incentives for renewable energy projects.

  14. An overview of cytogenetics of the tribe Meliponini (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Mara Garcia; Lopes, Denilce Meneses; Campos, L A O

    2017-06-01

    The present study provides a comprehensive review of cytogenetic data on Meliponini and their chromosomal evolution. The compiled data show that only 104 species of stingless bees, representing 32 of the 54 living genera have been studied cytogenetically and that among these species, it is possible to recognize three main groups with n = 9, 15 and 17, respectively. The first group comprises the species of the genus Melipona, whereas karyotypes with n = 15 and n = 17 have been detected in species from different genera. Karyotypes with n = 17 are the most common among the Meliponini studied to date. Cytogenetic information on Meliponini also shows that although chromosome number, in general, is conserved among species of a certain genus, other aspects, such as chromosome morphology, quantity, distribution and composition of heterochromatin, may vary between them. This reinforces the fact that the variations observed in the karyotypes of different Meliponini groups cannot be explained by a single theory or a single type of structural change. In addition, we present a discussion about how these karyotype variations are related to the phylogenetic relationships among the different genera of this tribe.

  15. Fertility in Hill Korwas -- a primitive tribe of Madhya Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, G D; Tiwary, R S

    1996-12-01

    This study examines fertility behavior among 604 eligible couples in Hill Korwa tribes in Madhya Pradesh state, India. Low fertility patterns are compared to those of neighboring Gonds and nontribals from rural Jabalpur. The Hill Korwa are a subtribe of the Korwa, who remained in the hills and dense forests. Over 60% live in three tehsils of Surguja district, including Ambikapur tehsil where the study was conducted. Data were obtained in March 1991. Eligible couples were those where both partners live together and the noncontracepting wife is under age 50 and nonmenopausal. Only 3% were literate. Female marriage age was about 15 years. The median age was 23.8 years. 92% lived below the poverty line. The average number of children ever born (CEB) per couple was 1.9, compared to 2.5 for the Gond and 2.9 for nontribal couples. The CEB in a reproductive lifetime was 2.9, compared to 5.3 for Gond women and 5.9 for nontribal women. Fecundity among Hill Korwa women was 66% lower at younger ages (16-17 years and 17-18 years), and the differences increased with an increase in age at marriage. Hill Korwas had a low female age at marriage, low literacy, low percentages engaged in agriculture, and higher percentages living above the poverty line.

  16. Analysis Monthly Import of Palm Oil Products Using Box-Jenkins Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nurul F. Y.; Khalid, Kamil; Saifullah Rusiman, Mohd; Ghazali Kamardan, M.; Roslan, Rozaini; Che-Him, Norziha

    2018-04-01

    The palm oil industry has been an important component of the national economy especially the agriculture sector. The aim of this study is to identify the pattern of import of palm oil products, to model the time series using Box-Jenkins model and to forecast the monthly import of palm oil products. The method approach is included in the statistical test for verifying the equivalence model and statistical measurement of three models, namely Autoregressive (AR) model, Moving Average (MA) model and Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA) model. The model identification of all product import palm oil is different in which the AR(1) was found to be the best model for product import palm oil while MA(3) was found to be the best model for products import palm kernel oil. For the palm kernel, MA(4) was found to be the best model. The results forecast for the next four months for products import palm oil, palm kernel oil and palm kernel showed the most significant decrease compared to the actual data.

  17. Dietary supplementation with hybrid palm oil alters liver function in the common Marmoset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreafico, Flavia; Sales, Rafael Carvalho; Gil-Zamorano, Judit; Medeiros, Priscylla da Costa; Latasa, Maria-Jesús; Lima, Monique Ribeiro; de Souza, Sergio Augusto Lopes; Martin-Hernández, Roberto; Gómez-Coronado, Diego; Iglesias-Gutierrez, Eduardo; Mantilla-Escalante, Diana C; das Graças Tavares do Carmo, Maria; Dávalos, Alberto

    2018-02-09

    Hybrid palm oil, which contains higher levels of oleic acid and lower saturated fatty acids in comparison with African palm oil, has been proposed to be somehow equivalent to extra virgin olive oil. However, the biological effects of its consumption are poorly described. Here we have explored the effects of its overconsumption on lipid metabolism in a non-human primate model, the common marmoset. Dietary supplementation of marmoset with hyperlipidic diet containing hybrid palm oil for 3 months did not modify plasma lipids levels, but increased glucose levels as compared to the supplementation with African palm oil. Liver volume was unexpectedly found to be more increased in marmosets consuming hybrid palm oil than in those consuming African palm oil. Hepatic total lipid content and circulating transaminases were dramatically increased in animals consuming hybrid palm oil, as well as an increased degree of fibrosis. Analysis of liver miRNAs showed a selective modulation of certain miRNAs by hybrid palm oil, some of which were predicted to target genes involved in cell adhesion molecules and peroxisomal pathways. Our data suggest that consumption of hybrid palm oil should be monitored carefully, as its overconsumption compared to that of African palm oil could involve important alterations to hepatic metabolism.

  18. Stability evaluation of quality parameters for palm oil products at low temperature storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Nur Aainaa Syahirah; Mohd Noor, Mohd Azmil; Musa, Hajar; Ghazali, Razmah

    2018-07-01

    Palm oil is one of the major oils and fats produced and traded worldwide. The value of palm oil products is mainly influenced by their quality. According to ISO 17025:2005, accredited laboratories require a quality control procedure with respect to monitoring the validity of tests for determination of quality parameters. This includes the regular use of internal quality control using secondary reference materials. Unfortunately, palm oil reference materials are not currently available. To establish internal quality control samples, the stability of quality parameters needs to be evaluated. In the present study, the stability of quality parameters for palm oil products was examined over 10 months at low temperature storage (6 ± 2 °C). The palm oil products tested included crude palm oil (CPO); refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm oil (RBDPO); RBD palm olein (RBDPOo); and RBD palm stearin (RBDPS). The quality parameters of the oils [i.e. moisture content, free fatty acid content (FFA), iodine value (IV), fatty acids composition (FAC) and slip melting point (SMP)] were determined prior to and throughout the storage period. The moisture, FFA, IV, FAC and SMP for palm oil products changed significantly (P  0.05). The stability study indicated that the quality of the palm oil products was stable within the specified limits throughout the storage period at low temperature. The storage conditions preserved the quality of palm oil products throughout the storage period. These findings qualify the use of the palm oil products CPO, RBDPO, RBDPOo and RBDPS as control samples in the validation of test results. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. 25 CFR 115.815 - How does a tribe request trust funds from a tribal trust account?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does a tribe request trust funds from a tribal trust account? 115.815 Section 115.815 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES TRUST FUNDS FOR TRIBES AND INDIVIDUAL INDIANS Tribal Accounts Withdrawing Tribal Trust Funds § 115.815 How does a tribe request trust...

  20. A survey of medicinal plants used by the Deb barma clan of the Tripura tribe of Moulvibazar district, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Kabir, Mohammad Humayun; Hasan, Nur; Rahman, Md Mahfuzur; Rahman, Md Ashikur; Khan, Jakia Alam; Hoque, Nazia Tasnim; Bhuiyan, Md Ruhul Quddus; Mou, Sadia Moin; Jahan, Rownak; Rahmatullah, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Background The number of tribes present within Bangladesh has been estimated to approximate one hundred and fifty. Information on traditional medicinal practices, particularly of the smaller tribes and their clans is lacking. It was the objective of the study to document the tribal medicinal practices of the Deb barma clan of the Tripura tribe, which clan can be found residing in Dolusora Tripura Palli of Moulvibazar district of Bangladesh. A further objective was to determine the extent of t...

  1. Dry Separation of Palm Kernel and Palm Shell Using a Novel Five-Stage Winnowing Column System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohaya Mohamed Halim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The conventional separation system for the recovery of palm kernel from its palm shell–kernel mixture using water as process media generates a considerable amount of waste effluent that harms the environment. The aim of this study is to develop a dry separation process for the recovery of palm kernel by using winnowing columns. A commercial system consisting of a series of five winnowing columns was developed and installed at a local palm oil mill. The system parameters, including column height, blower capacity, airflow rate and mesh screen size for shell removal, were studied and optimized to ensure good separation of kernel and shell in the column to enable collection of different sizes of kernel and shell at each column outlet. The performance of the separation process was evaluated in terms of its kernel losses, dirt content and kernel recovery rate. The average kernel losses based on oil palm fresh fruit bunches processed were found to vary from 0.11 to 0.30 wt %, with most of the values obtained being below the targeted limit of 0.30 wt %. The dirt content was in the range 4.56–6.03 wt %, which was mostly below the targeted limit of 5.5 wt %. The kernel recovery rate was in the range 5.69–6.89 wt %, with most of the values achieving the minimum targeted limit of 6.00 wt %. The system operates under completely dry conditions and, therefore, produces zero waste effluent.

  2. Mescalero Apache Tribe Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS). Phase 1 feasibility study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peso, F.

    1992-03-13

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended, authorizes the siting, construction and operation of a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. The MRS is intended to be used for the temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel from the nation`s nuclear power plants beginning as early as 1998. Pursuant to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator was created. On October 7, 1991, the Nuclear Waste Negotiator invited the governors of states and the Presidents of Indian tribes to apply for government grants in order to conduct a study to assess under what conditions, if any, they might consider hosting an MRS facility. Pursuant to this invitation, on October 11, 1991 the Mescalero Apache Indian Tribe of Mescalero, NM applied for a grant to conduct a phased, preliminary study of the safety, technical, political, environmental, social and economic feasibility of hosting an MRS. The preliminary study included: (1) An investigative education process to facilitate the Tribe`s comprehensive understanding of the safety, environmental, technical, social, political, and economic aspects of hosting an MRS, and; (2) The development of an extensive program that is enabling the Tribe, in collaboration with the Negotiator, to reach an informed and carefully researched decision regarding the conditions, (if any), under which further pursuit of the MRS would be considered. The Phase 1 grant application enabled the Tribe to begin the initial activities necessary to determine whether further consideration is warranted for hosting the MRS facility. The Tribe intends to pursue continued study of the MRS in order to meet the following objectives: (1) Continuing the education process towards a comprehensive understanding of the safety, environmental, technical, social and economic aspects of the MRS; (2) Conducting an effective public participation and information program; (3) Participating in MRS meetings.

  3. A mobile element-based evolutionary history of guenons (tribe Cercopithecini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tosi Anthony J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guenons (tribe Cercopithecini are a species-rich group of primates that have attracted considerable attention from both primatologists and evolutionary biologists. The complex speciation pattern has made the elucidation of their relationships a challenging task, and many questions remain unanswered. SINEs are a class of non-autonomous mobile elements and are essentially homoplasy-free characters with known ancestral states, making them useful genetic markers for phylogenetic studies. Results We identified 151 novel Alu insertion loci from 11 species of tribe Cercopithecini, and used these insertions and 17 previously reported loci to infer a phylogenetic tree of the tribe Cercopithecini. Our results robustly supported the following relationships: (i Allenopithecus is the basal lineage within the tribe; (ii Cercopithecus lhoesti (L'Hoest's monkey forms a clade with Chlorocebus aethiops (African green monkey and Erythrocebus patas (patas monkey, supporting a single arboreal to terrestrial transition within the tribe; (iii all of the Cercopithecus except C. lhoesti form a monophyletic group; and (iv contrary to the common belief that Miopithecus is one of the most basal lineages in the tribe, M. talapoin (talapoin forms a clade with arboreal members of Cercopithecus, and the terrestrial group (C. lhoesti, Chlorocebus aethiops and E. patas diverged from this clade after the divergence of Allenopithecus. Some incongruent loci were found among the relationships within the arboreal Cercopithecus group. Several factors, including incomplete lineage sorting, concurrent polymorphism and hybridization between species may have contributed to the incongruence. Conclusion This study presents one of the most robust phylogenetic hypotheses for the tribe Cercopithecini and demonstrates the advantages of SINE insertions for phylogenetic studies.

  4. In vitro digestibility of oil palm frond treated by local microorganism (MOL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafsin, M.; Khairani, Y.; Hanafi, N. D.; Yunilas

    2018-02-01

    Oil palm frond is by product from oil palm plantation and were found in large quantity in Indonesia. This research aims to examine the ability of local microorganisms and buffalo rumen isolates in improving the digestibility of dry matter and organic matter in vitro of oil palm frond. The research used experimental method with four treatments and three replications. The treatments were given: Oil palms without treatment (P0); Starbio (P2); Aspergillus niger + Saccharomyces cerevisiae (P3); Aspergillus niger + Saccharomyces cerevisiae + Isolate of buffalo rumen bacteria (P4). The results showed that the fermented Oil Palm Frond had higher (PAspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae plus buffalo rumen bacterial isolates had higher (P<0.05) DMD and OMD than other treatments. It can be concluded that the utilisation of MOL can improve the digestibility of oil palm frond in vitro.

  5. Effects of Substituting Palm Olein with Carbohydrates on Insulin Sensitivity: A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim-Tiu, T.; Faun, C.L.

    2016-01-01

    The role of palm olein on insulin resistance, which predisposes to disease progression of type 2 diabetes, is unclear. This article summarises the effects of substituting palm olein with carbohydrates on insulin sensitivity. Two intervention studies have reported conflicting findings. The RISCK (Reading, Imperial, Surreys, Cambridge and King's) study suggested that saturated fat-enriched diet consisting of mainly palm oil and milk fat did not differ from both high and low glycemic carbohydrates on insulin sensitivity in subjects at risk of developing metabolic syndrome. However, another study reported reduced insulin sensitivity after a diet enriched with palm olein and butter compared with high carbohydrate intake. No epidemiological data exists in this context. More clinical trials using solely palm olein in this area are needed. Further well-controlled large scale studies are needed to furnish the information on palm olein replacement with carbohydrates in diabetes prevention. (author)

  6. DNA fingerprinting of some pakistani date palm (phoenix dactylifera L.) cultive ARS using issr markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirbahar, A.; Khan, S.; Markhand, G.S.

    2016-01-01

    Date palm is one of the oldest cultivated and economically important fruit trees. First time Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) markers were used with twenty five economically important date palm cultivars of Pakistan for DNA fingerprinting analysis. Samples were collected from four provinces of Pakistan i.e., Sindh, Punjab, Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa and Balochistan. The study was carried out using seven ISSR markers. The twenty five date palm cultivars showed variation at the DNA level. The ISSR primers showed high polymorphism (84%) in the studied date palm cultivars. Dice similarity index was in range from 0.608 to 0.980 and Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) divided twenty five date palm cultivars into two main clusters and sub-clusters. However ISSR markers efficiently discriminated for assessing genetic diversity among commercial Pakistani date palm cultivars. (author)

  7. Interactions in interesterified palm and palm kernel oils mixtures. II – Microscopy and Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimaldi, Renato

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil (PO and palm kernel oil (PKO compositions (100/0, 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60, 20/80 and 0/100 were interesterified in laboratory scale under predetermined conditions (0.4% sodium metoxide, 20 minutes, 100ºC. The fourteen samples, before and after interesterification, were characterized by Polarized Light Microscopy and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC. Results showed the effect of various factors on the form and width of crystals. The mean area of crystals revealed the increase of crystals when PKO was added, with values varying from 2.7 x 10E3 µm2 to PO and 1.8 x 10E6 µm2 to PKO. After interesterification, the crystal widths were lower at PO/PKO 100/0, 80/20, 60/40, 20/80 fractions and were higher to anothers. The beta-prime polimorphic form was observed in the pure palm oil sample. The results showed in melting curves, onset values from –19.6ºC to more unsaturated peaks until 20.7ºC to more saturated ones. The higher values to more saturated peak in a melting curve to palm oil, 38.7 J.g-1 before and 48.4 J.g-1 after interesterification, showed a mores table saturated group. I n a genera l way, t h e interesterification promoted an increase of crystallization rate and a better compatibility between PO/PKO fractions.Fueron interesterificados en el laboratorio mezclas de aceite de palma (PO y aceite de palmiste (PKO en diferentes proporciones (100/0, 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60, 20/80 y 0/100 bajo condiciones predeterminadas (0.4% metoxido de sodio, 20 minutos, 100ºC. Las catorce muestras fueron caracterizadas antes y después de la interesterificación por Microscopía de Luz Polarizada y por Calorimetría Diferencial de Barrido (DSC. Los resultados mostraron el efecto de varios factores sobre la forma y anchura de los cristales. El área media de los cristales revela el aumento de tamaño de los mismos cuando aumenta la proporción de PKO, con valores que varían entre 2.7 x 10E3 µm2 para PO y 1.8 x 10E

  8. TRIBE TRITICEAE L. AND THE BIOCENOTIC MECHANISMS OF ADAPTABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Z. Moskalets

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The cultural species in the process ontogenesis and phylogenesis to favorable and unfavorable environmental conditions produce a number of biological mechanisms (molecular genetic, physiological, biochemical, morphological, biocenotic, plants identification behind them reflects the degree of their ecological of adaptability, plasticity and stability. Studying the and comparison of morphological parameters and relations with consort-species and representatives of tribe Triticeae allowed to find out what plants differently realize their life potential. Which are based on structural and functional features biocenotic mechanisms that manifested in adaptive properties. On example cultural cereal species shows that the basic mechanisms of adaptability are: mechanisms of functional sustainability, morphological tolerance and ontogenetic avoidance. The first group is associated with functional parameters forming and manifestation life potential of plants (accumulation protein, accumulation gluten, duration assimilatory ability flag leaf; erection leaves the upper tier; depth of node tillering; strength of the stem, ie the, low penchant to lodging; total tillering plants; synchronicity growth of main stem; the intensity fading ear after full ripeness. The second group includes mechanisms of morphological tolerance (hairiness of leaves, stems; wax-colored bloom; plaza of leaf; type of bush; density head; beardedness; glossy coating of leaf, culm; glaucous color of leaf, culm; placing spicate of scales near granule; plant height. To mechanisms of ontogenetic avoidance relating such as mismatch of pathogen, phytophage and plant; photoperiodic sensitivity; duration interphase periods in particular florification, ripening; duration of vegetation period; duration of primary dormancy (latent period; multivariation of synontоgenesis; photoperiodic sensitivity. Knowing the biocenotic mechanisms formation of adaptability cultural species discloses up new

  9. Genetic uniqueness of the Waorani tribe from the Ecuadorian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, S; Alfonso-Sánchez, M A; Valverde, L; Sánchez, D; Zarrabeitia, M T; Odriozola, A; Martínez-Jarreta, B; de Pancorbo, M M

    2012-06-01

    South America and especially the Amazon basin is known to be home to some of the most isolated human groups in the world. Here, we report on a study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the Waorani from Ecuador, probably the most warlike human population known to date. Seeking to look in more depth at the characterization of the genetic diversity of this Native American tribe, molecular markers from the X and Y chromosomes were also analyzed. Only three different mtDNA haplotypes were detected among the Waorani sample. One of them, assigned to Native American haplogroup A2, accounted for more than 94% of the total diversity of the maternal gene pool. Our results for sex chromosome molecular markers failed to find close genetic kinship between individuals, further emphasizing the low genetic diversity of the mtDNA. Bearing in mind the results obtained for both the analysis of the mtDNA control region and complete mitochondrial genomes, we suggest the existence of a 'Waorani-specific' mtDNA lineage. According to current knowledge on the phylogeny of haplogroup A2, we propose that this lineage could be designated as subhaplogroup A2s. Its wide predominance among the Waorani people might have been conditioned by severe genetic drift episodes resulting from founding events, long-term isolation and a traditionally small population size most likely associated with the striking ethnography of this Amazonian community. In all, the Waorani constitute a fine example of how genetic imprint may mirror ethnopsychology and sociocultural features in human populations.

  10. Distributional patterns and possible origins of the tribes and genera of Coelidiinae (Homoptera, Membracoidea, Cicadellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervin W Nielson

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Leafhoppers are well known biological indicators of zoogeographical regions owing, in part, to their phytodependency, high host plant specificity and relatively low vagility. In this connection, we discuss distributional patterns and possible zoogeographical origins of nine constituent tribes and their genera of the pantropical subfamily Coelidiinae. Among 118 known genera, only eight currently occupy more than one zoogeographical region, indicating an extremely high endemic profile which supports the proposed centers of origin and relatively low rate of intercontinental dispersal. The pantropical tribe Coelidiini is suggested as the basal group of the subfamily which is believed to have arisen prior to continental drift (late Jurassic-early Cretaceous because there appears to be no other evidence at the present time to explain its near cosmopolitan distribution. Possible origins of three Old World tribes, Hikangiini (Ethiopian, Thagriini (Oriental and Thanini (Australian and four New World -(Neotropical tribes, Teruliini, Tinobregmini, Gabritini and Sandersellini are elucidated. The tribe Youngolidiini occupies the Neotropical and Ethiopian realms but its origin is problematical. There appears to be ample evidence that origin/dispersal patterns are related to the geological history of the areas occupied by its faunal members.

  11. Dispersing towards Madagascar: Biogeography and evolution of the Madagascan endemics of the Spermacoceae tribe (Rubiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Steven B; Groeninckx, Inge; De Block, Petra J; Verstraete, Brecht; Smets, Erik F; Dessein, Steven

    2016-02-01

    Despite the close proximity of the African mainland, dispersal of plant lineages towards Madagascar remains intriguing. The composition of the Madagascan flora is rather mixed and shows besides African representatives, also floral elements of India, Southeast Asia, Australia, and the Neotropics. Due to its proportionally large number of Madagascan endemics, the taxonomically troublesome Spermacoceae tribe is an interesting group to investigate the origin and evolution of the herbaceous Rubiaceae endemic to Madagascar. The phylogenetic position of these endemics were inferred using four plastid gene markers. Age estimates were obtained by expanding the Spermacoceae dataset with representatives of all Rubiaceae tribes. This allowed incorporation of multiple fossil-based calibration points from the Rubiaceae fossil record. Despite the high morphological diversity of the endemic herbaceous Spermacoceae on Madagascar, only two colonization events gave rise to their current diversity. The first clade contains Lathraeocarpa, Phylohydrax and Gomphocalyx, whereas the second Madagascan clade includes the endemic genera Astiella, Phialiphora, Thamnoldenlandia and Amphistemon. The tribe Spermacoceae is estimated to have a Late Eocene origin, and diversified during Oligocene and Miocene. The two Madagascan clades of the tribe originated in the Oligocene and radiated in the Miocene. The origin of the Madagascan Spermacoceae cannot be explained by Gondwanan vicariance but only by means of Cenozoic long distance dispersal events. Interestingly, not only colonization from Africa occurred but also long distance dispersal from the Neotropics shaped the current diversity of the Spermacoceae tribe on Madagascar. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Using Outreach and Engagement Efforts to Inform the Makah Tribe's Climate Adaptation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, L. K.; Chang, M.; Howk, F.

    2017-12-01

    The Makah Tribe views climate change as one of the biggest challenges to their natural resource management, threatening their livelihoods, economy, and culture. As part of their work towards climate adaptation planning, the Makah Tribal Council and tribal natural resource managers prioritized early community outreach and engagement efforts in order to accomplish three goals: continually update and inform the tribal community about the Tribe's climate adaptation efforts; gather community input and priorities for the Makah Climate Adaptation Plan; and provide a series of targeted educational events to inform the tribal community about projected climate change impacts to our resources. Our first community climate event, the Makah Climate Change Awareness Dinner, was held on February 8, 2017. At this event, we provided an overview of the Makah Tribe's Climate Vulnerability Assessment and administered an initial climate survey that gathered information regarding community members' observed environmental changes, knowledge about climate change and impacts, and any concerns and priorities to include in the Tribe's adaptation plan. We developed a framework for incorporating community engagement into climate adaptation planning and used results of our community survey to ensure community concerns were being addressed in the plan in addition to risks identified in western science. We also used survey results to inform a series of educational events to address knowledge gaps in the community and requested topics. These are two of next steps that the Makah Tribe is pursuing towards climate adaptation planning.

  13. The I-Tribe Community Pharmacy Practice Model: professional pharmacy unshackled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Greg L; Waitzman, Jennifer A

    2013-01-01

    To describe a mechanism by which pharmacists could create a disruptive innovation to provide professional primary care services via a Web-based delivery model. Several obstacles have prevented pharmacists from using available technology to develop business models that capitalize on their clinical skills in primary care. Community practice has experienced multiple sustaining innovations that have improved dispensing productivity but have not stimulated sufficient demand for pharmacy services to disrupt the marketplace and provide new opportunities for pharmacists. Pharmacists are in a unique position to bridge the gap between demand for basic primary medical care and access to a competent medical professional. Building on the historic strengths of community pharmacy practice, modern pharmacists could provide a disruptive innovation in the marketplace for primary care by taking advantage of new technology and implementing the I-Tribe Community Pharmacy Practice Model (I-Tribe). This model would directly connect pharmacists to patients through an interactive, secure Web presence that would liberate the relationship from geographic restrictions. The I-Tribe is a disruptive innovation that could become the foundation for a vibrant market in pharmacist professional service offerings. The I-Tribe model could benefit society by expanding access to primary medical care while simultaneously providing a new source of revenue for community practice pharmacists. Entrepreneurial innovation through I-Tribe pharmacy would free pharmacists to become the care providers envisioned by the profession's thought leaders.

  14. Dual Resonant Frequencies Effects on an Induction-Based Oil Palm Fruit Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Hasmiza Harun

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As the main exporter in the oil palm industry, the need to improve the quality of palm oil has become the main interest among all the palm oil millers in Malaysia. To produce good quality palm oil, it is important for the miller to harvest a good oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB. Conventionally, the main reference used by Malaysian harvesters is the manual grading standard published by the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB. A good oil palm FFB consists of all matured fruitlets, aged between 18 to 21 weeks of antheses (WAA. To expedite the harvesting process, it is crucial to implement an automated detection system for determining the maturity of the oil palm FFB. Various automated detection methods have been proposed by researchers in the field to replace the conventional method. In our preliminary study, a novel oil palm fruit sensor to detect the maturity of oil palm fruit bunch was proposed. The design of the proposed air coil sensor based on the inductive sensor was further investigated mainly in the context of the effect of coil diameter to improve its sensitivity. In this paper, the sensitivity of the inductive sensor was further examined with a dual flat-type shape of air coil. The dual air coils were tested on fifteen samples of fruitlet from two categories, namely ripe and unripe. Samples were tested within 20 Hz to 10 MHz while evaluations on both peaks were done separately before the gap between peaks was analyzed. A comparative analysis was conducted to investigate the improvement in sensitivity of the induction-based oil palm fruit sensor as compared to previous works. Results from the comparative study proved that the inductive sensor using a dual flat-type shape air coil has improved by up to 167%. This provides an indication in the improvement in the coil sensitivity of the palm oil fruit sensor based on the induction concept.

  15. Effects of dietary intake of red palm oil on fatty acid composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Little is known about the effects of the dietary intake of red palm oil (RPO) on fatty acid composition in the liver of rats. Male Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups were fed with different doses of red palm oil. The control group received no red palm oil; while the experimental groups were fed with 1 ml, 2 ml and 4 ml of ...

  16. The Impacts of Oil Palm on Recent Deforestation and Biodiversity Loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Vijay

    Full Text Available Palm oil is the most widely traded vegetable oil globally, with demand projected to increase substantially in the future. Almost all oil palm grows in areas that were once tropical moist forests, some of them quite recently. The conversion to date, and future expansion, threatens biodiversity and increases greenhouse gas emissions. Today, consumer pressure is pushing companies toward deforestation-free sources of palm oil. To guide interventions aimed at reducing tropical deforestation due to oil palm, we analysed recent expansions and modelled likely future ones. We assessed sample areas to find where oil palm plantations have recently replaced forests in 20 countries, using a combination of high-resolution imagery from Google Earth and Landsat. We then compared these trends to countrywide trends in FAO data for oil palm planted area. Finally, we assessed which forests have high agricultural suitability for future oil palm development, which we refer to as vulnerable forests, and identified critical areas for biodiversity that oil palm expansion threatens. Our analysis reveals regional trends in deforestation associated with oil palm agriculture. In Southeast Asia, 45% of sampled oil palm plantations came from areas that were forests in 1989. For South America, the percentage was 31%. By contrast, in Mesoamerica and Africa, we observed only 2% and 7% of oil palm plantations coming from areas that were forest in 1989. The largest areas of vulnerable forest are in Africa and South America. Vulnerable forests in all four regions of production contain globally high concentrations of mammal and bird species at risk of extinction. However, priority areas for biodiversity conservation differ based on taxa and criteria used. Government regulation and voluntary market interventions can help incentivize the expansion of oil palm plantations in ways that protect biodiversity-rich ecosystems.

  17. Drying of macaw palm fruits and its influence on oil quality

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierres Nelson Silva; Anderson Barbosa Evaristo; José Antonio Saraiva Grossi; Larissa Sousa Campos; Marcela Silva Carvalho; Leonardo Duarte Pimentel

    2017-01-01

    After harvest, macaw palm fruits show high deterioration rates when improperly preserved. A possible cause is the high fruit water content favoring enzymatic and microbiological degradation. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of drying on the mesocarp oil quality during storage and to set the drying curve of macaw palm fruits. For that, two experiments were carried out. In the first, the drying curve of macaw palm fruits was determined at 60 °C, and mathematical models were de...

  18. Intelligent Color Vision System for Ripeness Classification of Oil Palm Fresh Fruit Bunch

    OpenAIRE

    Fadilah, Norasyikin; Mohamad-Saleh, Junita; Halim, Zaini Abdul; Ibrahim, Haidi; Ali, Syed Salim Syed

    2012-01-01

    Ripeness classification of oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) during harvesting is important to ensure that they are harvested during optimum stage for maximum oil production. This paper presents the application of color vision for automated ripeness classification of oil palm FFB. Images of oil palm FFBs of type DxP Yangambi were collected and analyzed using digital image processing techniques. Then the color features were extracted from those images and used as the inputs for Artificial Ne...

  19. The development of epoxidised palm oil acrylate (EPOLA) and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Hilmi Mahmood

    1993-01-01

    The topics are discussed briefly. Acrylated palm oil is prepared through acrylation process, whereby, acrylic acid is introduced into oxirane group of the EPOP (epoxidised palm oil products), EPOLA (epoxidised palm oil products acrylate) was found curable when subjected to UV (ultrviolet) light giving soft coatings. EPOLA is used as radiation curable filler/sealer, radiation curable pressure sensitive adhesives and satisfactorily be coated on wood substrates (rubberwood parquets)

  20. The development of epoxidised palm oil acrylate (EPOLA) and its applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi [Nuclear Energy Unit, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    1994-12-31

    The topics are discussed briefly. Acrylated palm oil is prepared through acrylation process, whereby, acrylic acid is introduced into oxirane group of the EPOP (epoxidised palm oil products), EPOLA (epoxidised palm oil products acrylate) was found curable when subjected to UV (ultrviolet) light giving soft coatings. EPOLA is used as radiation curable filler/sealer, radiation curable pressure sensitive adhesives and satisfactorily be coated on wood substrates (rubberwood parquets).