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Sample records for palm kernel nut

  1. Optimum drying time for palm nuts for efficient nut cracking in small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Palm kernel, one of the end products of oil palm fruit processing is recovered by the cracking of the palm nuts which is first dried to aid efficient kernel recovery. In small-scale mills palm nuts are air-dried. This paper investigates the optimum drying time necessary for efficient nut cracking. Such factors as wholeness of kernel, ...

  2. Determination of Optimum Moisture Content of Palm Nut Cracking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    ABSTRACT: After processing the palm fruit for oil, the nut is usually dried in order to loosen the kernel from the shell. The drying is necessary to enhance the release of whole kernel when the nut is cracked. A study was carried out to determine the optimum moisture content of nuts for high yield of whole kernels during ...

  3. Properties influencing cracking and separation of palm nuts in a mechanical cracker cum separator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSHUA OLANREWAJU OLAOYE

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies of some properties influencing cracking and separation of palm kernel from the shell was conducted in a palm kernel dual processing machine. A mechanical cracking cum separating machine was developed for the study. The cracking unit consists of feed hopper, impeller shaft, cracking drum and impeller blade. The nut falls by gravity through the hopper channel into the cracking drum where the cracking process takes place through the help of impeller blades that flip the palm nut against the walls of cylindrical cracking drum. The mass of cracked nut flows through the separating unit that separates the kernel from the shell. The separation is induced by high current of air mass generated by an axial fan. A dura palm variety was selected and a total sample of eighteen thousand (18000 palm nuts were obtained and divided into two groups (feed rates, A and B, of eight thousand and ten thousand palm nuts respectively. Sample groups A and B were further divided into five sub – groups of four hundred (400 and five hundred (500 palm kernel nuts. Each sub group (feed rate was replicated four times at different shaft speeds (600, 900, 1200, 1500 and 1800 rpm. Results showed that cracking efficiencies increased with respect to speed. Un-cracked nuts percentage ranged from 1.3 to 5.3% at 7.1% moisture content, and 1.6 to 4.5% for 400 and 500 feed rates, respectively. Cracking time for both feed rates decreased with shaft speed. Throughput capacity of 11.49 kg/h was observed to be the lowest at 600 rpm and moisture content of 7.1% for both 400 feed rates and the highest throughput capacity of 37.16 kg/h was recorded at 1800 rpm at moisture contents of 9.3% and 16.1%. The results of this study shows that moisture content, engine speed and feed rate are significant parameters that influence cracking of nuts and separation of palm kernel from the shell.

  4. Penetuan Bilangan Iodin pada Hydrogenated Palm Kernel Oil (HPKO) dan Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Kernel Oil (RBDPKO)

    OpenAIRE

    Sitompul, Monica Angelina

    2015-01-01

    Have been conducted Determination of Iodin Value by method titration to some Hydrogenated Palm Kernel Oil (HPKO) and Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Kernel Oil (RBDPKO). The result of analysis obtained the Iodin Value in Hydrogenated Palm Kernel Oil (A) = 0,16 gr I2/100gr, Hydrogenated Palm Kernel Oil (B) = 0,20 gr I2/100gr, Hydrogenated Palm Kernel Oil (C) = 0,24 gr I2/100gr. And in Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Kernel Oil (A) = 17,51 gr I2/100gr, Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Kernel ...

  5. Predictive Model Equations for Palm Kernel (Elaeis guneensis J ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimated error of ± 0.18 and ± 0.2 are envisaged while applying the models for predicting palm kernel and sesame oil colours respectively. Keywords: Palm kernel, Sesame, Palm kernel, Oil Colour, Process Parameters, Model. Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology Vol. 6 (1) 2006 pp. 34-38 ...

  6. Viscozyme L pretreatment on palm kernels improved the aroma of palm kernel oil after kernel roasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wencan; Leong, Siew Mun; Zhao, Feifei; Zhao, Fangju; Yang, Tiankui; Liu, Shaoquan

    2018-05-01

    With an interest to enhance the aroma of palm kernel oil (PKO), Viscozyme L, an enzyme complex containing a wide range of carbohydrases, was applied to alter the carbohydrates in palm kernels (PK) to modulate the formation of volatiles upon kernel roasting. After Viscozyme treatment, the content of simple sugars and free amino acids in PK increased by 4.4-fold and 4.5-fold, respectively. After kernel roasting and oil extraction, significantly more 2,5-dimethylfuran, 2-[(methylthio)methyl]-furan, 1-(2-furanyl)-ethanone, 1-(2-furyl)-2-propanone, 5-methyl-2-furancarboxaldehyde and 2-acetyl-5-methylfuran but less 2-furanmethanol and 2-furanmethanol acetate were found in treated PKO; the correlation between their formation and simple sugar profile was estimated by using partial least square regression (PLS1). Obvious differences in pyrroles and Strecker aldehydes were also found between the control and treated PKOs. Principal component analysis (PCA) clearly discriminated the treated PKOs from that of control PKOs on the basis of all volatile compounds. Such changes in volatiles translated into distinct sensory attributes, whereby treated PKO was more caramelic and burnt after aqueous extraction and more nutty, roasty, caramelic and smoky after solvent extraction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Blending of palm oil, palm stearin and palm kernel oil in the preparation of table and pastry margarine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlida, H M; Md Ali, A R; Muhadhir, I

    1996-01-01

    Palm oil (PO ; iodin value = 52), palm stearin (POs1; i.v. = 32 and POs2; i.v. = 40) and palm kernel oil (PKO; i.v. = 17) were blended in ternary systems. The blends were then studied for their physical properties such as melting point (m.p.), solid fat content (SFC), and cooling curve. Results showed that palm stearin increased the blends melting point while palm kernel oil reduced it. To produce table margarine with melting point (m.p.) below 40 degrees C, the POs1 should be added at level of pastry margarine.

  8. Effect of Palm Kernel Cake Replacement and Enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding trial which lasted for twelve weeks was conducted to study the performance of finisher pigs fed five different levels of palm kernel cake replacement for maize (0%, 40%, 40%, 60%, 60%) in a maize-palm kernel cake based ration with or without enzyme supplementation. It was a completely randomized design ...

  9. KARAKTERISTIK MINYAK CAMPURAN RED PALM OIL DENGAN PALM KERNEL OLEIN (Characteristics of Oil Blends from Red Palm Oil and Palm Kernel Olein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ulfah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of oil blends has been produced from red palm oil (RPO and palm kernel olein (PKOo with seven ratios with a total of 100, namely A (0:100, B (25:75, C (40:60, D (50:50, E (60:40, F (75:25 and G (100:0 v/v investigated with randomized complete block design. The result showed that different of ratio levels RPO and PKOo have some effects on peroxide value, saponification value, melting point, cloud point and β-carotene content from RPO-PKOo oil blends, but has not effect on free fatty acid content. Higher level of PKOo content on formulas oil blends were decreased of saponification value and melting point, but was increased of cloud point. The best of RPOPKOo oil blends has been obtained at ratio 50:50 (v/v, with 459.52 ppm β-carotene, 1.35 meq/kg peroxide value, 0.09 % free fatty acid, 202.60 saponification value, 24.15 oC melting point and 7.15 oC cloud point. Fatty acids composition were 1.24 % capric acid, 29.00 % lauric acid, 10.09 % miristic acid, 23.10 % palmitic acid, 5.84 linoleic acid, 27.30 % oleic acid and 3.43 % stearic acid. Keywords: Red palm oil, palm kernel olein, oil blends, chemical and physical properties ABSTRAK Sifat-sifat minyak campuran yang dihasilkan dari red palm oil (RPO dan palm kernel olein (PKOo dengan tujuh tingkat rasio yang totalnya 100, yaitu A (0:100, B (25:75, C (40:60, D (50:50, E (60:40, F (75:25 dan G (100:0 (v/v dikaji menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap kelompok. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa rasio RPO:PKOo mempengaruhi angka peroksida, angka penyabunan, melting point, cloud point dan kadar β-karoten dari minyak campuran RPO-PKOo yang dihasilkan, namun tidak mempengaruhi kadar asam lemak bebas. Peningkatan jumlah PKOo yang ditambahkan dalam minyak campuran RPO-PKOo, akan menurunkan angka penyabunan dan melting point, namun akan menaikkan cloud point. Produk minyak campuran RPO-PKOo terbaik diperoleh pada rasio 50:50 (v/v, dengan kadar β-karoten 459,52 ppm, angka peroksida 1,35 meq

  10. Design and construction of palm kernel cracking and separation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design and construction of palm kernel cracking and separation machines. ... Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Design and construction of palm kernel cracking and separation machines. JO Nordiana, K ...

  11. Dry Separation of Palm Kernel and Palm Shell Using a Novel Five-Stage Winnowing Column System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohaya Mohamed Halim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The conventional separation system for the recovery of palm kernel from its palm shell–kernel mixture using water as process media generates a considerable amount of waste effluent that harms the environment. The aim of this study is to develop a dry separation process for the recovery of palm kernel by using winnowing columns. A commercial system consisting of a series of five winnowing columns was developed and installed at a local palm oil mill. The system parameters, including column height, blower capacity, airflow rate and mesh screen size for shell removal, were studied and optimized to ensure good separation of kernel and shell in the column to enable collection of different sizes of kernel and shell at each column outlet. The performance of the separation process was evaluated in terms of its kernel losses, dirt content and kernel recovery rate. The average kernel losses based on oil palm fresh fruit bunches processed were found to vary from 0.11 to 0.30 wt %, with most of the values obtained being below the targeted limit of 0.30 wt %. The dirt content was in the range 4.56–6.03 wt %, which was mostly below the targeted limit of 5.5 wt %. The kernel recovery rate was in the range 5.69–6.89 wt %, with most of the values achieving the minimum targeted limit of 6.00 wt %. The system operates under completely dry conditions and, therefore, produces zero waste effluent.

  12. Modelling microwave heating of discrete samples of oil palm kernels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, M.C.; Liew, E.L.; Chang, S.L.; Chan, Y.S.; Leo, C.P.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Microwave (MW) drying of oil palm kernels is experimentally determined and modelled. • MW heating of discrete samples of oil palm kernels (OPKs) is simulated. • OPK heating is due to contact effect, MW interference and heat transfer mechanisms. • Electric field vectors circulate within OPKs sample. • Loosely-packed arrangement improves temperature uniformity of OPKs. - Abstract: Recently, microwave (MW) pre-treatment of fresh palm fruits has showed to be environmentally friendly compared to the existing oil palm milling process as it eliminates the condensate production of palm oil mill effluent (POME) in the sterilization process. Moreover, MW-treated oil palm fruits (OPF) also possess better oil quality. In this work, the MW drying kinetic of the oil palm kernels (OPK) was determined experimentally. Microwave heating/drying of oil palm kernels was modelled and validated. The simulation results show that temperature of an OPK is not the same over the entire surface due to constructive and destructive interferences of MW irradiance. The volume-averaged temperature of an OPK is higher than its surface temperature by 3–7 °C, depending on the MW input power. This implies that point measurement of temperature reading is inadequate to determine the temperature history of the OPK during the microwave heating process. The simulation results also show that arrangement of OPKs in a MW cavity affects the kernel temperature profile. The heating of OPKs were identified to be affected by factors such as local electric field intensity due to MW absorption, refraction, interference, the contact effect between kernels and also heat transfer mechanisms. The thermal gradient patterns of OPKs change as the heating continues. The cracking of OPKs is expected to occur first in the core of the kernel and then it propagates to the kernel surface. The model indicates that drying of OPKs is a much slower process compared to its MW heating. The model is useful

  13. Nutrition quality of extraction mannan residue from palm kernel cake on brolier chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafsin, M.; Hanafi, N. D.; Kejora, E.; Yusraini, E.

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to find out the nutrient residue of palm kernel cake from mannan extraction on broiler chicken by evaluating physical quality (specific gravity, bulk density and compacted bulk density), chemical quality (proximate analysis and Van Soest Test) and biological test (metabolizable energy). Treatment composed of T0 : palm kernel cake extracted aquadest (control), T1 : palm kernel cake extracted acetic acid (CH3COOH) 1%, T2 : palm kernel cake extracted aquadest + mannanase enzyme 100 u/l and T3 : palm kernel cake extracted acetic acid (CH3COOH) 1% + enzyme mannanase 100 u/l. The results showed that mannan extraction had significant effect (P<0.05) in improving the quality of physical and numerically increase the value of crude protein and decrease the value of NDF (Neutral Detergent Fiber). Treatments had highly significant influence (P<0.01) on the metabolizable energy value of palm kernel cake residue in broiler chickens. It can be concluded that extraction with aquadest + enzyme mannanase 100 u/l yields the best nutrient quality of palm kernel cake residue for broiler chicken.

  14. Effects of de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizers on sole maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizer formulations on the yield of sole maize and cassava crops. Two de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizer formulations A and B were compounded from different proportions of de-oiled palm kernel cake, urea, muriate of potash and ...

  15. for palm kernel oil extraction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Palm nut shell is an aggregate replacement material in concrete production [1]. It is also an economically and ... requirements amongst the machine parameters of vegetable oil expellers. A manually-operated screw ... using such indices as feed rate, capacity, percentage oil recovery, machine efficiency, and oil yield.

  16. Ecology and behaviour of Palm-nut Vultures Gypohierax angolensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Populations of many vulture species have undergone substantial declines. In Africa, 82% are threatened and although research on vultures has increased, the biology and ecology of several species is still poorly known. The Palm-nut Vulture Gypohierax angolensis has peculiar ecological characteristics, feeding on palm ...

  17. Dense Medium Machine Processing Method for Palm Kernel/ Shell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Cracked palm kernel is a mixture of kernels, broken shells, dusts and other impurities. In ... machine processing method using dense medium, a separator, a shell collector and a kernel .... efficiency, ease of maintenance and uniformity of.

  18. Review of Palm Kernel Oil Processing And Storage Techniques In South East Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okeke CG

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of palm kernel processing and storage in South-Eastern Nigeria was carried out by investigative survey approach. The survey basically ascertained the extent of mechanization applicable in the area to enable the palm kernel processors and agricultural policy makers, device the modalities for improving palm kernel processing in the area. According to the results obtained from the study, in Abia state, 85% of the respondents use mechanical method while 15% use manual method in cracking their kernels. In Imo state, 83% of the processors use mechanical method while 17% use manual method. In Enugu and Ebonyi state, 70% and 50% of the processors respectively use mechanical method. It is only in Anambra state that greater number of the processors (50% use manual method while 45% use mechanical means. It is observable from the results that palm kernel oil extraction has not received much attention in mechanization. The ANOVA of the palm kernel oil extraction technique in South- East Nigeria showed significant difference in both the study area and oil extraction techniques at 5% level of probability. Results further revealed that in Abia State, 70% of the processors use complete fractional process in refining the palm kernel oil; 25% and 5% respectively use incomplete fractional process and zero refining process. In Anambra, 60% of the processors use complete fractional process and 40% use incomplete fractional process. Zero refining method is not applicable in Anambra state. In Enugu sate, 53% use complete fractional process while 25% and 22% respectively use zero refining and incomplete fractional process in refining the palm kernel oil. Imo state, mostly use complete fractional process (85% in refining palm kernel oil. About 10% use zero refining method while 5% of the processors use incomplete fractional process. Plastic containers and metal drums are dominantly used in most areas in south-east Nigeria for the storage of palm kernel oil.

  19. Replacement Value of Palm Kernel Meal for Maize on Carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing maize with palm kernel meal on nutrient composition, fatty acid profile and sensory qualities of the meat of turkeys fed the dietary treatments. Six dietary treatments were formulated using palm kernel meal to replace maize at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 percent.

  20. Feeding behavior of lactating cows fed palm kernel cake in the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidiane Reis Pimentel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of including of palm kernel cake on feeding behavior of lactating crossbred cows. Twelve crossbred Holstein x Zebu cows were distributed in three 4 x 4 latin squares, with the following treatments: control; inclusion of 5%; inclusion of 10%; inclusion of 15% palm kernel cake in the diet dry matter. The animals were observed during four periods as to feeding behavior, 24 hours in each period. There was no effect of inclusion of palm kernel cake (p > 0.05 on time spent on eating, ruminating and idling. The feeding efficiencies of dry matter and corrected neutral detergent fiber, total digestible nutrients, and the rumination efficiency of corrected neutral detergent fiber were not influenced (p > 0.05. There was a linear increase with the inclusion of palm kernel cake (p 0.05. The inclusion of palm kernel cake in diets for dairy cows causes no change in behavior activities and efficiencies of feeding and rumination, until the 15% level of inclusion.

  1. Enzymatic Synthesis of Fatty Hydroxamic Acid Derivatives Based on Palm Kernel Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidik Silong

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Fatty hydroxamic acid derivatives were synthesized using Lipozyme TL IM catalyst at biphasic medium as the palm kernel oil was dissolved in hexane and hydroxylamine derivatives were dissolved in water: (1 N-methyl fatty hydroxamic acids (MFHAs; (2 N-isopropyl fatty hydroxamic acids (IPFHAs and (3 N-benzyl fatty hydroxamic acids (BFHAs were synthesized by reaction of palm kernel oil and N-methyl hydroxylamine (N-MHA, N-isopropyl hydroxylamine (N-IPHA and N-benzyl hydroxylamine (N-BHA, respectively. Finally, after separation the products were characterized by color testing, elemental analysis, FT-IR and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. For achieving the highest conversion percentage of product the optimum molar ratio of reactants was obtained by changing the ratio of reactants while other reaction parameters were kept constant. For synthesis of MFHAs the optimum mol ratio of N-MHA/palm kernel oil = 6/1 and the highest conversion was 77.8%, for synthesis of IPFHAs the optimum mol ratio of N-IPHA/palm kernel oil = 7/1 and the highest conversion was 65.4% and for synthesis of BFHAs the optimum mol ratio of N-BHA/palm kernel oil = 7/1 and the highest conversion was 61.7%.

  2. Analysis of total hydrogen content in palm oil and palm kernel oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A fast and non-destructive technique based on thermal neutron moderation has been used for determining the total hydrogen content in two types of red palm oil (dzomi and amidze) and palm kernel oil produced by traditio-nal methods in Ghana. An equipment consisting of an 241Am-Be neutron source and 3He neutron ...

  3. Optimization of the acceptance of prebiotic beverage made from cashew nut kernels and passion fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebouças, Marina Cabral; Rodrigues, Maria do Carmo Passos; Afonso, Marcos Rodrigues Amorim

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this research was to develop a prebiotic beverage from a hydrosoluble extract of broken cashew nut kernels and passion fruit juice using response surface methodology in order to optimize acceptance of its sensory attributes. A 2(2) central composite rotatable design was used, which produced 9 formulations, which were then evaluated using different concentrations of hydrosoluble cashew nut kernel, passion fruit juice, oligofructose, and 3% sugar. The use of response surface methodology to interpret the sensory data made it possible to obtain a formulation with satisfactory acceptance which met the criteria of bifidogenic action and use of hydrosoluble cashew nut kernels by using 14% oligofructose and 33% passion fruit juice. As a result of this study, it was possible to obtain a new functional prebiotic product, which combined the nutritional and functional properties of cashew nut kernels and oligofructose with the sensory properties of passion fruit juice in a beverage with satisfactory sensory acceptance. This new product emerges as a new alternative for the industrial processing of broken cashew nut kernels, which have very low market value, enabling this sector to increase its profits. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Effect of roasting on phenolic content and antioxidant activities of whole cashew nuts, kernels, and testa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekara, Neel; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2011-05-11

    The effect of roasting on the content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of cashew nuts and testa was studied. Whole cashew nuts, subjected to low-temperature (LT) and high-temperature (HT) treatments, were used to determine the antioxidant activity of products. Antioxidant activities of cashew nut, kernel, and testa phenolics extracted increased as the roasting temperature increased. The highest activity, as determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity, Trolox equivalent antioxidant activity (TEAC), and reducing power, was achieved when nuts were roasted at 130 °C for 33 min. Furthermore, roasting increased the total phenolic content (TPC) in both the soluble and bound extracts from whole nut, kernel, and testa but decreased that of the proanthocyanidins (PC) except for the soluble extract of cashew kernels. In addition, cashew testa afforded a higher extract yield, TPC, and PC in both soluble and bound fractions compared to that in whole nuts and kernels. Phenolic acids, namely, syringic (the predominant one), gallic, and p-coumaric acids, were identified. Flavonoids, namely, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, and epigallocatechin, were also identified, and their contents increased with increasing temperature. The results so obtained suggest that HT-short time (HTST) roasting effectively enhances the antioxidant activity of cashew nuts and testa.

  5. Assessment of the microbiological safety of edible roasted nut kernels on retail sale in England, with a focus on Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, C L; Jemmott, W; Surman-Lee, S; Hucklesby, L; de Pinnal, E

    2009-04-01

    There is little published information on the prevalence of Salmonella in edible nut kernels. A study in early 2008 of edible roasted nut kernels on retail sale in England was undertaken to assess the microbiological safety of this product. A total of 727 nut kernel samples of different varieties were examined. Overall, Salmonella and Escherichia coli were detected from 0.2 and 0.4% of edible roasted nut kernels. Of the nut varieties examined, Salmonella Havana was detected from 1 (4.0%) sample of pistachio nuts, indicating a risk to health. The United Kingdom Food Standards Agency was immediately informed, and full investigations were undertaken. Further examination established the contamination to be associated with the pistachio kernels and not the partly opened shells. Salmonella was not detected in other varieties tested (almonds, Brazils, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamia, peanuts, pecans, pine nuts, and walnuts). E. coli was found at low levels (range of 3.6 to 4/g) in walnuts (1.4%), almonds (1.2%), and Brazils (0.5%). The presence of Salmonella is unacceptable in edible nut kernels. Prevention of microbial contamination in these products lies in the application of good agricultural, manufacturing, and storage practices together with a hazard analysis and critical control points system that encompass all stages of production, processing, and distribution.

  6. Study on Energy Productivity Ratio (EPR) at palm kernel oil processing factory: case study on PT-X at Sumatera Utara Plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryanto, B.; Bukit, R. Br; Situmeang, E. M.; Christina, E. P.; Pandiangan, F.

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the performance, productivity and feasibility of the operation of palm kernel processing plant based on Energy Productivity Ratio (EPR). EPR is expressed as the ratio of output to input energy and by-product. Palm Kernel plan is process in palm kernel to become palm kernel oil. The procedure started from collecting data needed as energy input such as: palm kernel prices, energy demand and depreciation of the factory. The energy output and its by-product comprise the whole production price such as: palm kernel oil price and the remaining products such as shells and pulp price. Calculation the equality of energy of palm kernel oil is to analyze the value of Energy Productivity Ratio (EPR) bases on processing capacity per year. The investigation has been done in Kernel Oil Processing Plant PT-X at Sumatera Utara plantation. The value of EPR was 1.54 (EPR > 1), which indicated that the processing of palm kernel into palm kernel oil is feasible to be operated based on the energy productivity.

  7. Bioconversion of palm kernel meal for aquaculture: Experiences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-17

    Apr 17, 2008 ... es as well as food supplies have existed traditionally with coastal regions of Liberia and ..... Contamination of palm kernel meal with Aspergillus ... Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800, Malaysia. Aquacult. Res.

  8. Effects of Chemical Inter esterification on the Physicochemical Properties of Palm Stearin, Palm Kernel Oil and Soybean Oil Blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti, M. F.H.; Norizzah, A. R.; Zaliha, O.

    2012-01-01

    Palm stearin (PS), palm kernel oil (PKO) and soybean oil (SBO) blends were formulated according to Design Expert 8.0.4 (2010). All the sixteen oil blends were subjected to chemical inter esterification (CIE) using sodium methoxide as the catalyst. The effects of chemical inter esterification on the slip melting point (SMP), solid fat content (SFC), triacylglycerol (TAG) composition and polymorphism were investigated. Palm based trans-free table margarine containing PS/PKO/SBO [49/20/31, (w/w)], was optimally formulated through analysis of multiple ternary phase diagrams and was found to have quite similar SMP and SFC profiles as compared with commercial table margarine. This study has shown that blending and chemical inter esterification are effective in modifying the physicochemical properties of palm stearin, palm kernel oil, soybean oil and their blends. (author)

  9. Quantitative Characterization of Nut Yield and Fruit Components in Indigenous Coconut Germplasm in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. C. N. Perera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coconut (Cocos nucifera L. is a tropical palm offering multiple uses. Conservation of coconut germplasm has been undertaken globally in view of its economic importance. This research was designed to evaluate nine Sri Lankan indigenous coconut germplasm representing the three varieties Typica, Nana, and Aurantiaca. Total annual nut yield and the weights of fresh nut, husked nut, split nut, and fresh and dry kernel were scored and analyzed with analysis of variance. The annual average number of bunches varied from 14.9 to 16.8 which is significantly higher than the generally accepted 12–14 bunches in tall coconuts. The high potential of phenotypes Ran thembili and Gon thembili for kernel production was revealed. The high potential of Gon thembili, Sri Lanka Tall, and Ran thembili to produce fibre was also identified. Phenotypes Ran thembili and Gon thembili displayed their potential as pure cultivars and as parents in hybridization. King coconut, Red dwarf, and Bodiri were shown to be suitable as beverage coconuts due to the high production of nuts, bunches, and the quantity of nut water. This study reiterated the importance of conservation and characterization of indigenous coconut varieties globally for their effective use in the genetic improvement of the coconut palm.

  10. Eucalyptus-Palm Kernel Oil Blends: A Complete Elimination of Diesel in a 4-Stroke VCR Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Kommana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuels derived from biomass are mostly preferred as alternative fuels for IC engines as they are abundantly available and renewable in nature. The objective of the study is to identify the parameters that influence gross indicated fuel conversion efficiency and how they are affected by the use of biodiesel relative to petroleum diesel. Important physicochemical properties of palm kernel oil and eucalyptus blend were experimentally evaluated and found within acceptable limits of relevant standards. As most of vegetable oils are edible, growing concern for trying nonedible and waste fats as alternative to petrodiesel has emerged. In present study diesel fuel is completely replaced by biofuels, namely, methyl ester of palm kernel oil and eucalyptus oil in various blends. Different blends of palm kernel oil and eucalyptus oil are prepared on volume basis and used as operating fuel in single cylinder 4-stroke variable compression ratio diesel engine. Performance and emission characteristics of these blends are studied by varying the compression ratio. In the present experiment methyl ester extracted from palm kernel oil is considered as ignition improver and eucalyptus oil is considered as the fuel. The blends taken are PKE05 (palm kernel oil 95 + eucalyptus 05, PKE10 (palm kernel oil 90 + eucalyptus 10, and PKE15 (palm kernel 85 + eucalyptus 15. The results obtained by operating with these fuels are compared with results of pure diesel; finally the most preferable combination and the preferred compression ratio are identified.

  11. 21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... kernel oil, or both oils. 172.861 Section 172.861 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. The food additive, cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils, may be safely used in food in accordance with the following...

  12. separation of oil palm kernel and shell mixture using soil and palm

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    shape and size of the nuts and a good industrial raw material [3]. ... Large-scale mills have automated hydro-cyclone machines with high separation efficiency, however, clay-baths and hydro cyclones are known for their high energy and water consumption .... A mixture of kernel/shell weighing 20kg were poured into pot 1 ...

  13. Pre-shelling parameters and conditions that influence the whole kernel out-turn of steam-boiled cashew nuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babatunde Sunday Ogunsina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the effect of moisture content (MC, nut size distribution and steam exposure time (SET on the whole kernel out turn (WKO of cashew nuts during shelling using a 3 x 5 x 4 factorial experiment. Three nut sizes: small (18–22 mm, medium (23–25 mm and large (26–35 mm; five levels of MC: 8.34%, 11.80%, 12.57%, 15.40%, 16.84% (wet basis and four levels of steam exposure time (SET: 28, 30, 32, and 34 min were considered. Nuts were conditioned with warm water to the desired moisture content of 8.34%,11.80%, 12.57%, 15.40% and 16.84% (wb; and steam-boiled at 700 kPa for 28, 30,32, and 34 min. The pre-treated nuts were shelled using a hand-operated cashew nuts shelling machine. The results showed that the single effect of MC, steam exposure time (SET or nut size distribution is not enough for estimating WKO; it is rather by an interaction of these parameters. The optimum WKO of steam-boiled nuts was 91.74%, 90.94% and 87.98% for large, medium and small sized nuts at MC∗SET combination of 8.34%∗30 min, 11.80%∗32 min and 8.34%∗30 min, respectively. Pre-treatment of cashew nuts by steam boiling was found to improve whole kernel out-turn of the cashew nut. Whole kernel out-turn decreased as MC increased, thereby limiting the need for moisture adjustment when nuts are to be processed by steam boiling.

  14. The effects of food irradiation on quality of pine nut kernels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goelge, Evren; Ova, Guelden

    2008-01-01

    Pine nuts (Pinus pinae) undergo gamma irradiation process with the doses 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 kGy. The changes in chemical, physical and sensory attributes were observed in the following 3 months of storage period. The data obtained from the experiments showed the peroxide values of the pine nut kernels increased proportionally to the dose. On contrary, irradiation process has no effect on the physical quality such as texture and color, fatty acid composition and sensory attributes

  15. Quantification of Greenhouse Gas Emissions for the Production of Crude Palm Kernel Oil - A Cradle to Gate Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramaniam, V.

    2016-01-01

    The Malaysian oil palm industry is one of the major economic backbones of the country. The industry as a whole brought in an export revenue of RM 63 billion just in the year 2015. In the past, the competitiveness of palm products along the supply chain was based on direct economic comparison with other vegetable oil products. However, with increasing attention on sustainable development, the environmental performance of products are now defining issues in trade. This articles presents the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for the production of crude palm kernel oil (CPKO). Crude palm oil (CPO) and CPKO both come from the oil palm fresh fruit bunch (FFB). CPO is obtained from the mesocarp of the fruit and the lauric CPKO comes from the kernel at the fruit's core. CPO is produced in the palm oil mill while palm kernels which are the by-product of the production of CPO are transported to kernel crushing plants to be processed into CPKO. The objectives of this study are to quantify the GHG emissions for the production of CPKO and suggest the best solution to reduce the emissions if any. The system boundary starts from the production of oil palm seedlings at the nursery stage right till the production of CPKO at the kernel crushing plant which makes it a cradle to gate study. Inventory data for the production of CPKO was collected from 24 crushing plants which were located near the ports and two kernel crushing plants which were integrated with a palm oil mill. Weight allocation was performed at the kernel crushing plant. The largest GHG contribution came from upstream nursery and plantation with continued land use which amounts to 394.19 kg CO 2 eq/ t CPKO followed by emissions from biogas at the palm oil mill which amounts to 87.48 kg CO 2 eq/ t CPKO even though the scenario chosen is the biogas capture scenario. The third largest GHG emissions comes from the kernel crushing plant due to the processing of CPKO using the electricity from the grid which emits 74.33 kg

  16. Use of oil palm kernel meal as a supplement material for abalone mushroom (Pleurotus cystidiosus O.K. Miller cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petcharat, V. and

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the optimum rate of oil palm kernel meal, for an abalone mushroom (Pleurotus cystidiosus cultivation. Different concentrations of oil palm kernel meal (5- 20% were added to pararubber sawdust and used to grow the abalone mushroom in plastic bags. Growth rate of the mycelia, number of days from watering to harvesting and yield were compared to those on 94% sawdust + 5% rice bran + 1% Ca(OH2. The results showed that 10% oil palm kernel meal was the optimum concentration for abalone mushroom cultivation. Yield on 950 g/bag of 89% sawdust + 10% oil palm kernel meal + 1% Ca(OH2 was 202.12 g/bag (B.E. = 60.79% during 120 days of havesting time. Addition of higher concentration of oil palm kernel meal (15-20% did not increase yield of the basidiocarps.

  17. Palm kernel cake obtained from biodiesel production in diets for goats: feeding behavior and physiological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, R L; de Carvalho, G G P; Oliveira, R L; Tosto, M S L; Santos, E M; Ribeiro, R D X; Silva, T M; Correia, B R; de Rufino, L M A

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the inclusion of palm kernel (Elaeis guineensis) cake in diets for goats on feeding behaviors, rectal temperature, and cardiac and respiratory frequencies. Forty crossbred Boer male, non-castrated goats (ten animals per treatment), with an average age of 90 days and an initial body weight of 15.01 ± 1.76 kg, were used. The goats were fed Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp.) hay and palm kernel supplemented at the rates of 0, 7, 14, and 21% of dry matter (DM). The feeding behaviors (rumination, feeding, and idling times) were observed for three 24-h periods. DM and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intake values were estimated as the difference between the total DM and NDF contents of the feed offered and the total DM and NDF contents of the orts. There was no effect of palm kernel cake inclusion in goat diets on DM intake (P > 0.05). However, palm kernel cake promoted a linear increase (P kernel cakes had no effects (P > 0.05) on the chewing, feeding, and rumination efficiency (DM and NDF) or on physiological variables. The use up to 21% palm kernel cake in the diet of crossbred Boer goats maintained the feeding behaviors and did not change the physiological parameters of goats; therefore, its use is recommended in the diet of these animals.

  18. Analysis of total hydrogen content in palm oil and palm kernel oil using thermal neutron moderation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akaho, E.H.K.; Dagadu, C.P.K.; Maaku, B.T.; Anim-Sampong, S.; Kyere, A.W.K.; Jonah, S.A.

    2001-01-01

    A fast and non-destructive technique based on thermal neutron moderation has been used for determining the total hydrogen content in two types of red palm oil (dzomi and amidze) and palm kernel oil produced by traditional methods in Ghana. An equipment consisting of an 241 Am-Be neutron source and 3 He neutron detector was used in the investigation. The equipment was originally designed for detection of liquid levels in petrochemical and other process industries. Standards in the form of liquid hydrocarbons were used to obtain calibration lines for thermal neutron reflection parameter as a function of hydrogen content. Measured reflection parameters with respective hydrogen content with or without heat treatment of the three edible palm oils available on the market were compared with a brand cooking oil (frytol). The average total hydrogen content in the local oil samples prior to heating was measured to be 11.62 w% which compared well with acceptable value of 12 w% for palm oils in the sub-region. After heat treatment, the frytol oil (produced through bleaching process) had the least loss of hydrogen content of 0.26% in comparison with palm kernel oil of 0.44% followed by dzomi of 1.96% and by amidze of 3.22%. (author)

  19. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of lambs that are fed diets with palm kernel cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Conceição Dos Santos, Rozilda; Gomes, Daiany Iris; Alves, Kaliandra Souza; Mezzomo, Rafael; Oliveira, Luis Rennan Sampaio; Cutrim, Darley Oliveira; Sacramento, Samara Bianca Moraes; de Moura Lima, Elizanne; de Carvalho, Francisco Fernando Ramos

    2017-06-01

    The aim was to evaluate carcass characteristics, cut yield, and meat quality in lambs that were fed different inclusion levels of palm kernel cake. Forty-five woolless castrated male Santa Inês crossbred sheep with an initial average body weight of 23.16±0.35 kg were used. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with five treatments, with palm kernel cake in the proportions of 0.0%, 7.5%, 15.0%, 22.5%, and 30.0% with nine replications per treatment. After slaughter, the gastrointestinal tract was weighed when it was full, after which it was then emptied. The heart, liver, kidney, pancreas perirenal fat were also collected and weighed. The carcass was split into two identical longitudinal halves and weighed to determine the quantitative and qualitative characteristics. The empty body weight, carcass weight and yield, and fat thickness decreased linearly (pkernel inclusion in the diet. There was no difference (p>0.05) for the rib eye area of animals that were fed palm kernel cake. There was a reduction in the commercial cut weight (p0.05). The sarcomere length decreased linearly (pkernel cake was not observed in other meat quality variables. It is worth noting that the red staining intensity, indicated as A, had a tendency to decrease (p = 0.050). The inclusion of palm kernel cake up to 30% in the diet does not lead to changes in meat quality characteristics, except for sarcomere length. Nevertheless, carcass quantitative characteristics decrease with the use of palm kernel cake.

  20. Effect of surfactant and surfactant blends on pseudoternary phase diagram behavior of newly synthesized palm kernel oil esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi ES

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Elrashid Saleh Mahdi1, Mohamed HF Sakeena1, Muthanna F Abdulkarim1, Ghassan Z Abdullah1,3, Munavvar Abdul Sattar2, Azmin Mohd Noor11Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, 2Department of Physiology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden, Penang, Malaysia; 3Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, International Medical University, Bukit Jalil, Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaBackground: The purpose of this study was to select appropriate surfactants or blends of surfactants to study the ternary phase diagram behavior of newly introduced palm kernel oil esters.Methods: Nonionic surfactant blends of Tween® and Tween®/Span® series were screened based on their solubilization capacity with water for palm kernel oil esters. Tween® 80 and five blends of Tween® 80/Span® 80 and Tween® 80/Span® 85 in the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB value range of 10.7–14.0 were selected to study the phase diagram behavior of palm kernel oil esters using the water titration method at room temperature.Results: High solubilization capacity was obtained by Tween® 80 compared with other surfactants of Tween® series. High HLB blends of Tween® 80/Span® 85 and Tween® 80/Span® 80 at HLB 13.7 and 13.9, respectively, have better solubilization capacity compared with the lower HLB values of Tween® 80/Span® 80. All the selected blends of surfactants were formed as water-in-oil microemulsions, and other dispersion systems varied in size and geometrical layout in the triangles. The high solubilization capacity and larger areas of the water-in-oil microemulsion systems were due to the structural similarity between the lipophilic tail of Tween® 80 and the oleyl group of the palm kernel oil esters.Conclusion: This study suggests that the phase diagram behavior of palm kernel oil esters, water, and nonionic surfactants is not only affected by the HLB value, but also by the structural similarity between palm kernel oil esters and the surfactant

  1. Rheological, fat bloom, and sensory acceptability effects of mango kernel fat and palm olein blends on chocolate-flavored coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Nieves María Flores March; Gabriela Cristina Chire Fajardo; Carlos Eduardo Lescano Anadón

    2017-01-01

    The effects of replacing cocoa butter with different percentages and proportions of a mango kernel fat/palm olein (MKF/POL) blend, are reported. Samples were prepared by melting together mango kernel fat, palm olein, cocoa butter and cocoa mass and powdered sugar combinated. The samples were milled, conched, tempered, and molded to obtain three sets of seven samples as follows: one control omitting mango kernel fat and palm olein, and six samples with cocoa butter replacement of 15 and 22.5% ...

  2. Mycological deterioration of stored palm kernels recovered from oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Palm kernels obtained from Pioneer Oil Mill Ltd. were stored for eight (8) weeks and examined for their microbiological quality and proximate composition. Seven (7) different fungal species were isolated by serial dilution plate technique. The fungal species included Aspergillus flavus Link; A nidulans Eidem; A niger ...

  3. Briquetting of Palm Kernel Shell | Ugwu | Journal of Applied ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In several developing countries, briquettes from agricultural residues contribute significantly to the energy mix especially for small scale and household requirements. In this work, briquettes were produced from Palm kernel shell. This was achieved by carbonising the shell to get the charcoal followed by the pulverization of ...

  4. Effect of Coconut ( cocus Nucifera ) and Palm Kernel ( eleasis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Coconut ( cocus Nucifera ) and Palm Kernel ( eleasis Guinensis ) Oil Supplmented Diets on Serum Lipid Profile of Albino Wistar Rats. ... were fed normal rat pellet. At the end of the feeding period, animals were anaesthetized under chloroform vapor, dissected and blood obtained via cardiac puncture into tubes.

  5. Bioconversions of Palm Kernel Cake and Rice Bran Mixtures by Trichoderma viride Toward Nutritional Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Sukaryana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research is to examine the mixtures of palm kernel cake and rice bran of fermented by Trichoderma viride. Completely randomized design in factorial pattern 4 x 4 was used in this experiment. factor I is the doses of inoculums; D1 = 0%, D2 =  0,1% , D3 =  0,2%, D4 =  0,3%, and  complement factor II is mixtures of palm kernel cake and rice bran : T1=20:80% ; T2=40:60% ; T3=60:40% ; T4=80:20%. The treatment each of three replicate. Fermentation was conducted at temperature 28 oC as long as 9 days. Determining the best of the mixtures be based on the crude protein increased and the crude fibre decreased. The results showed that the combination of product mix is the best fermentation inoculums doses 0.3% in mixture of palm kernel cake and rice bran ; 80%: 20%, which produces dry matter of 88,12%, crude protein 17.34%, ether extract 5,35%, crude fibre 23.67%, and ash 6.43%. When compared with a mixture of palm kernel cake and rice bran; 80%: 20% without of fermentation is crude protein increase 29.58% and crude fibre decreased 22.53%.

  6. Performance of fly ash based geopolymer incorporating palm kernel shell for lightweight concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Rafiza Abd; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Yahya, Zarina; Jian, Ang Zhi; Nasri, Armia

    2017-09-01

    A concrete which cement is totally replaced by source material such as fly ash and activated by highly alkaline solutions is known as geopolymer concrete. Fly ash is the most common source material for geopolymer because it is a by-product material, so it can get easily from all around the world. An investigation has been carried out to select the most suitable ingredients of geopolymer concrete so that the geopolymer concrete can achieve the desire compressive strength. The samples were prepared to determine the suitable percentage of palm kernel shell used in geopolymer concrete and cured for 7 days in oven. After that, other samples were prepared by using the suitable percentage of palm kernel shell and cured for 3, 14, 21 and 28 days in oven. The control sample consisting of ordinary Portland cement and palm kernel shell and cured for 28 days were prepared too. The NaOH concentration of 12M, ratio Na2SiO3 to NaOH of 2.5, ratio fly ash to alkaline activator solution of 2.0 and ratio water to geopolymer of 0.35 were fixed throughout the research. The density obtained for the samples were 1.78 kg/m3, water absorption of 20.41% and the compressive strength of 14.20 MPa. The compressive strength of geopolymer concrete is still acceptable as lightweight concrete although the compressive strength is lower than OPC concrete. Therefore, the proposed method by using fly ash mixed with 10% of palm kernel shell can be used to design geopolymer concrete.

  7. Sorption Kinetics for the Removal of Cadmium and Zinc onto Palm Kernel Shell Based Activated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Muhammad

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics and mechanism of cadmium and zinc adsorption on palm kernel shell based activated carbons (PKSAC have been studied. A series of batch laboratory studies were conducted in order to investigate the suitability of palm kernel shell based activated carbon (PKSAC for the removal of cadmium (cadmium ions and zinc (zinc ions from their aqueous solutions. All batch experiments were carried out at pH 7.0 and a constant temperature of 30+-1°C using an incubator shaker that operated at 150 rpm. The kinetics investigated includes the pseudo first order, the pseudo-second order and the intraparticle diffusion models. The pseudo-second order model correlate excellently the experimental data, suggesting that chemisorption processes could be the rate-limiting step. Keywords: adsorption, cadmium, kinetics, palm kernel shell, zinc

  8. Kinetic study of Chromium VI adsorption onto palm kernel shell activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Masita; Sadeghi Louyeh, Shiva; Yaakob, Zahira

    2018-04-01

    Heavy metal contamination of industrial effluent is one of the significant environmental problems due to their toxicity and its accumulation throughout the food chain. Adsorption is one of the promising methods for removal of heavy metals from aqua solution because of its simple technique, efficient, reliable and low-cost due to the utilization of residue from the agricultural industry. In this study, activated carbon from palm kernel shells has been produced through chemical activation process using zinc chloride as an activating agent and carbonized at 800 °C. Palm kernel shell activated carbon, PAC was assessed for its efficiency to remove Chromium (VI) ions from aqueous solutions through a batch adsorption process. The kinetic mechanisms have been analysed using Lagergren first-order kinetics model, second-order kinetics model and intra-particle diffusion model. The characterizations such as BET surface area, surface morphology, SEM-EDX have been done. The result shows that the activation process by ZnCl2 was successfully improved the porosity and modified the functional group of palm kernel shell. The result shows that the maximum adsorption capacity of Cr is 11.40mg/g at 30ppm initial metal ion concentration and 0.1g/50mL of adsorbent concentration. The adsorption process followed the pseudo second orders kinetic model.

  9. Preparation and characterization of active carbon using palm kernel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Activated carbons were prepared from Palm kernel shells. Carbonization temperature was 6000C, at a residence time of 5 min for each process. Chemical activation was done by heating a mixture of carbonized material and the activating agents at a temperature of 700C to form a paste, followed by subsequent cooling and ...

  10. Production and detailed characterization of bio-oil from fast pyrolysis of palm kernel shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asadullah, Mohammad; Ab Rasid, Nurul Suhada; Kadir, Sharifah Aishah Syed A.; Azdarpour, Amin

    2013-01-01

    Bio-oil has been produced from palm kernel shell in a fluidized bed reactor. The process conditions were optimized and the detailed characteristics of bio-oil were carried out. The higher feeding rate and higher gas flow rate attributed to higher bio-oil yield. The maximum mass fraction of biomass (57%) converted to bio-oil at 550 °C when 2 L min −1 of gas and 10 g min −1 of biomass were fed. The bio-oil produced up to 500 °C existed in two distinct phases, while it formed one homogeneous phase when it was produced above 500 °C. The higher heating value of bio-oil produced at 550 °C was found to be 23.48 MJ kg −1 . As GC–MS data shows, the area ratio of phenol is the maximum among the area ratio of identified compounds in 550 °C bio-oil. The UV–Fluorescence absorption, which is the indication of aromatic content, is also the highest in 550 °C bio-oil. -- Highlights: • Maximum 56 wt% yield of bio-oil was obtained at 550 °C from palm kernel shell. • Two layer of bio-oil was observed up to 500 °C, while it was one layer above 500 °C. • Bio-oil from palm kernel shell provides more than 40% area ratio of phenol in GC–MS analysis. • The calorific value of palm kernel shell bio-oil is higher than other bio-oil

  11. palm kernel husk ash (pkha) as an admixture (accelerator) in concrete

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A.W. Otunyo. Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B. ... The main contribution of this technical paper is that PKHA can reduce the set- ting time of .... The palm kernel husks were washed to clean.

  12. Fine tuning of process parameters for improving briquette production from palm kernel shell gasification waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazargan, Alireza; Rough, Sarah L; McKay, Gordon

    2018-04-01

    Palm kernel shell biochars (PKSB) ejected as residues from a gasifier have been used for solid fuel briquette production. With this approach, palm kernel shells can be used for energy production twice: first, by producing rich syngas during gasification; second, by compacting the leftover residues from gasification into high calorific value briquettes. Herein, the process parameters for the manufacture of PKSB biomass briquettes via compaction are optimized. Two possible optimum process scenarios are considered. In the first, the compaction speed is increased from 0.5 to 10 mm/s, the compaction pressure is decreased from 80 Pa to 40 MPa, the retention time is reduced from 10 s to zero, and the starch binder content of the briquette is halved from 0.1 to 0.05 kg/kg. With these adjustments, the briquette production rate increases by more than 20-fold; hence capital and operational costs can be reduced and the service life of compaction equipment can be increased. The resulting product satisfactorily passes tensile (compressive) crushing strength and impact resistance tests. The second scenario involves reducing the starch weight content to 0.03 kg/kg, while reducing the compaction pressure to a value no lower than 60 MPa. Overall, in both cases, the PKSB biomass briquettes show excellent potential as a solid fuel with calorific values on par with good-quality coal. CHNS: carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur; FFB: fresh fruit bunch(es); HHV: higher heating value [J/kg]; LHV: lower heating value [J/kg]; PKS: palm kernel shell(s); PKSB: palm kernel shell biochar(s); POME: palm oil mill effluent; RDF: refuse-derived fuel; TGA: thermogravimetric analysis.

  13. Evaluation of palm kernel fibers (PKFs for production of asbestos-free automotive brake pads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.K. Ikpambese

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, asbestos-free automotive brake pads produced from palm kernel fibers with epoxy-resin binder was evaluated. Resins varied in formulations and properties such as friction coefficient, wear rate, hardness test, porosity, noise level, temperature, specific gravity, stopping time, moisture effects, surface roughness, oil and water absorptions rates, and microstructure examination were investigated. Other basic engineering properties of mechanical overload, thermal deformation fading behaviour shear strength, cracking resistance, over-heat recovery, and effect on rotor disc, caliper pressure, pad grip effect and pad dusting effect were also investigated. The results obtained indicated that the wear rate, coefficient of friction, noise level, temperature, and stopping time of the produced brake pads increased as the speed increases. The results also show that porosity, hardness, moisture content, specific gravity, surface roughness, and oil and water absorption rates remained constant with increase in speed. The result of microstructure examination revealed that worm surfaces were characterized by abrasion wear where the asperities were ploughed thereby exposing the white region of palm kernel fibers, thus increasing the smoothness of the friction materials. Sample S6 with composition of 40% epoxy-resin, 10% palm wastes, 6% Al2O3, 29% graphite, and 15% calcium carbonate gave better properties. The result indicated that palm kernel fibers can be effectively used as a replacement for asbestos in brake pad production.

  14. Nutritional evaluation of fermented palm kernel cake using red tilapia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of palm kernel cake (PKC) and other plant residues in fish feeding especially under extensive aquaculture have been in practice for a long time. On the other hand, the use of microbial-based feedstuff is increasing. In this study, the performance of red tilapia raised on Trichoderma longibrachiatum fermented PKC ...

  15. The utilization of endopower β in commercial feed which contains palm kernel cake on performance of broiler chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purba, S. S. A.; Tafsin, M.; Ginting, S. P.; Khairani, Y.

    2018-02-01

    Palm kernel cake is an agricultural waste that can be used as raw material in the preparation of poultry rations. The design used was Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 5 treatments and 4 replications. Level endopower β used 0 % (R0), 0.02% (R1), 0.04% (R2) and 0.06% (R3). The results showed that R0a and R0b were significantly different from R3 in terms of diet consumption, body weight gain and the conversion ratio The utilization of endopower β in commercial diets containing palm kernel cake in broilers can increase body weight gain, feed consumption, improve feed use efficiency and even energy. It is concluded that utilization endpower β improve performances of broiler chicken fed by diet containing palm kernel cake.

  16. Enhancement and prediction of modulus of elasticity of palm kernel shell concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alengaram, U. Johnson; Mahmud, Hilmi; Jumaat, Mohd Zamin

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Micro-pores of size 16-24 μm were found on the outer surface of palm kernel shell. → Infilling of pores by mineral admixtures was evident. → Sand content influenced both modulus of elasticity and compressive strength. → Proposed equation predicts modulus of elasticity within ±1.5 kN/mm 2 of test results. -- Abstract: This paper presents results of an investigation conducted to enhance and predict the modulus of elasticity (MOE) of palm kernel shell concrete (PKSC). Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis on palm kernel shell (PKS) was conducted. Further, the effect of varying sand and PKS contents and mineral admixtures (silica fume and fly ash) on compressive strength and MOE was investigated. The variables include water-to-binder (w/b) and sand-to-cement (s/c) ratios. Nine concrete mixes were prepared, and tests on static and dynamic moduli of elasticity and compressive strength were conducted. The SEM result showed presence of large number of micro-pores on PKS. The mineral admixtures uniformly filled the micro-pores on the outer surface of PKS. Further, the increase in sand content coupled with reduction in PKS content enhanced the compressive strength and static MOE: The highest MOE recorded in this investigation, 11 kN/mm 2 , was twice that previously published. Moreover, the proposed equation based on CEB/FIP code formula appears to predict the MOE close to the experimental values.

  17. Bioconversions of Palm Kernel Cake and Rice Bran Mixtures by Trichoderma viride Toward Nutritional Contents

    OpenAIRE

    Yana Sukaryana; Umi Atmomarsono; Vitus D. Yunianto; Ejeng Supriyatna

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the research is to examine the mixtures of palm kernel cake and rice bran of fermented by Trichoderma viride. Completely randomized design in factorial pattern 4 x 4 was used in this experiment. factor I is the doses of inoculums; D1 = 0%, D2 =  0,1% , D3 =  0,2%, D4 =  0,3%, and  complement factor II is mixtures of palm kernel cake and rice bran : T1=20:80% ; T2=40:60% ; T3=60:40% ; T4=80:20%. The treatment each of three replicate. Fermentation was conduc...

  18. Palm-Kernel Shell Concrete For Structural Use – A Preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper reports on the results of an investigation into the physical and strength characteristics of concrete (norminal mixes), which contains crushed palm-kernel shell as fine aggregates instead of normal river sand. 66 No beams of 100mm x 100mm x 500mm sizes and 396 No 100mm cubes as well were tested with ...

  19. Adsorption studies on bleaching of palm-kernel oil with activated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adsorption studies were performed on bleaching of palm-kernel oil (PKO) with different weight ratios of activated bentonite clay/PKO, ranging from 0.25% to 3% and at different temperatures of 70ºC, 80ºC, 90ºC and 100ºC. The equilibrium data generated were subsequently fitted with Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption ...

  20. Use of palm kernel cake for animal feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuprasert, S.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Palm kernel cake (PKC, a by-product from the palm-oil industry, has the potential for use as a feed ingredient. Crude protein, fiber and metabolizable energy contents of PKC are 12-18%, 18-13% and 1,940- 2,490 kcal/kg, respectively. Availability of amino acid in PKC are approximately 60-70% for chickens and 65-70% for pigs. With fat supplementation, PKC can be used up to 20% in broiler diet and can be increased to 30-40% with further addition of methionine and lysine. For the diets of pullets and laying hen, PKC can be used 30% and 20% respectively if supplemented with fat, methionine and lysine. PKC can be used 30% in diet for grower (30-60 kg and 50% in diet for finisher pigs (60-90 kg., respectively, if supplemented with lysine and cane molasses.

  1. Compressive strength, flexural strength and water absorption of concrete containing palm oil kernel shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Nurazuwa Md; Xiang-ONG, Jun; Noh, Hamidun Mohd; Hamid, Noor Azlina Abdul; Kuzaiman, Salsabila; Ali, Adiwijaya

    2017-11-01

    Effect of inclusion of palm oil kernel shell (PKS) and palm oil fibre (POF) in concrete was investigated on the compressive strength and flexural strength. In addition, investigation of palm oil kernel shell on concrete water absorption was also conducted. Total of 48 concrete cubes and 24 concrete prisms with the size of 100mm × 100mm × 100mm and 100mm × 100mm × 500mm were prepared, respectively. Four (4) series of concrete mix consists of coarse aggregate was replaced by 0%, 25%, 50% and 75% palm kernel shell and each series were divided into two (2) main group. The first group is without POF, while the second group was mixed with the 5cm length of 0.25% of the POF volume fraction. All specimen were tested after 7 and 28 days of water curing for a compression test, and flexural test at 28 days of curing period. Water absorption test was conducted on concrete cube age 28 days. The results showed that the replacement of PKS achieves lower compressive and flexural strength in comparison with conventional concrete. However, the 25% replacement of PKS concrete showed acceptable compressive strength which within the range of requirement for structural concrete. Meanwhile, the POF which should act as matrix reinforcement showed no enhancement in flexural strength due to the balling effect in concrete. As expected, water absorption was increasing with the increasing of PKS in the concrete cause by the porous characteristics of PKS

  2. Nutritional value of high fiber co-products from the copra, palm kernel, and rice industries in diets fed to pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Hans Henrik; Casas, Gloria Amparo; Abelilla, Jerubella Jerusalem; Liu, Yanhong; Sulabo, Rommel Casilda

    2015-01-01

    High fiber co-products from the copra and palm kernel industries are by-products of the production of coconut oil and palm kernel oil. The co-products include copra meal, copra expellers, palm kernel meal, and palm kernel expellers. All 4 ingredients are very high in fiber and the energy value is relatively low when fed to pigs. The protein concentration is between 14 and 22 % and the protein has a low biological value and a very high Arg:Lys ratio. Digestibility of most amino acids is less than in soybean meal but close to that in corn. However, the digestibility of Lys is sometimes low due to Maillard reactions that are initiated due to overheating during drying. Copra and palm kernel ingredients contain 0.5 to 0.6 % P. Most of the P in palm kernel meal and palm kernel expellers is bound to phytate, but in copra products less than one third of the P is bound to phytate. The digestibility of P is, therefore, greater in copra meal and copra expellers than in palm kernel ingredients. Inclusion of copra meal should be less than 15 % in diets fed to weanling pigs and less than 25 % in diets for growing-finishing pigs. Palm kernel meal may be included by 15 % in diets for weanling pigs and 25 % in diets for growing and finishing pigs. Rice bran contains the pericarp and aleurone layers of brown rice that is removed before polished rice is produced. Rice bran contains approximately 25 % neutral detergent fiber and 25 to 30 % starch. Rice bran has a greater concentration of P than most other plant ingredients, but 75 to 90 % of the P is bound in phytate. Inclusion of microbial phytase in the diets is, therefore, necessary if rice bran is used. Rice bran may contain 15 to 24 % fat, but it may also have been defatted in which case the fat concentration is less than 5 %. Concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) are slightly less in full fat rice bran than in corn, but defatted rice bran contains less than 75 % of the DE and ME in

  3. efficacy of olive oil, groundnut oil, soybean oil and palm kernel oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGROSEARCH UIL

    and palm kernel oil exhibiting similar results in the control of the pest. ... the use of chemical pesticide in the protection of both field and stored crops is .... obtained by different methods and neem powder for the management of Callosobruchus.

  4. Performance and Emission of VCR-CI Engine with palm kernel and eucalyptus blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas kommana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at complete replacement of conventional diesel fuel by biodiesel. In order to achieve that, palm kernel oil and eucalyptus oil blend has been chosen. Eucalyptus oil was blended with methyl ester of palm kernel oil in 5%, 10% and 15% by volume. Tests were conducted with diesel fuel and blends on a 4 stroke VCR diesel engine for comparative analysis with 220 bar injection pressure and 19:1 compression ratio. All the test fuels were used in computerized 4 stroke single cylinder variable compression ratio engine at five different loads (0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 N m. Present investigation depicts the improved combustion and reduced emissions for the PKO85% + EuO15% blend when compared to diesel at full load conditions.

  5. Kinetics of palm kernel oil and ethanol transesterification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahiekpor, Julius C. [Centre for Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development (CEESD), P.O. Box FN 793, Kumasi (Ghana); Kuwornoo, David K. [Faculty of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Private Mail Bag, Kumasi (Ghana)

    2010-07-01

    Biodiesel, an alternative diesel fuel made from renewable sources such as vegetable oils and animal fats, has been identified by government to play a key role in the socio-economic development of Ghana. The utilization of biodiesel is expected to be about 10% of the total liquid fuel mix of the country by the year 2020. Despite this great potential and the numerous sources from which biodiesel could be developed in Ghana, there are no available data on the kinetics and mechanisms of transesterification of local vegetable oils. The need for local production of biodiesel necessitates that the mechanism and kinetics of the process is well understood, since the properties of the biodiesel depends on the type of oil use for the transesterification process. The objective of this work is to evaluate the appropriate kinetics mechanism and to find out the reaction rate constants for palm kernel oil transesterification with ethanol when KOH was used as a catalyst. In this present work, 16 biodiesel samples were prepared at specified times based on reported optimal conditions and the samples analysed by gas chromatography. The experimental mass fractions were calibrated and fitted to mathematical models of different proposed mechanisms in previous works.The rate data fitted well to second-order kinetics without shunt mechanism. It was also observed that, although transesterification reaction of crude palm kernel oil is a reversible reaction, the reaction rate constants indicated that the forward reactions were the most prominent.

  6. Combining Lactic Acid Spray with Near-Infrared Radiation Heating To Inactivate Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis on Almond and Pine Nut Kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jae-Won; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of near-infrared radiation (NIR) heating combined with lactic acid (LA) sprays for inactivating Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis on almond and pine nut kernels and to elucidate the mechanisms of the lethal effect of the NIR-LA combined treatment. Also, the effect of the combination treatment on product quality was determined. Separately prepared S. Enteritidis phage type (PT) 30 and non-PT 30 S. Enteritidis cocktails were inoculated onto almond and pine nut kernels, respectively, followed by treatments with NIR or 2% LA spray alone, NIR with distilled water spray (NIR-DW), and NIR with 2% LA spray (NIR-LA). Although surface temperatures of nuts treated with NIR were higher than those subjected to NIR-DW or NIR-LA treatment, more S. Enteritidis survived after NIR treatment alone. The effectiveness of NIR-DW and NIR-LA was similar, but significantly more sublethally injured cells were recovered from NIR-DW-treated samples. We confirmed that the enhanced bactericidal effect of the NIR-LA combination may not be attributable to cell membrane damage per se. NIR heat treatment might allow S. Enteritidis cells to become permeable to applied LA solution. The NIR-LA treatment (5 min) did not significantly (P > 0.05) cause changes in the lipid peroxidation parameters, total phenolic contents, color values, moisture contents, and sensory attributes of nut kernels. Given the results of the present study, NIR-LA treatment may be a potential intervention for controlling food-borne pathogens on nut kernel products. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Response of broiler turkeys to graded dietary levels of Palm Kernel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance of local broiler turkeys fed dietary treatments in which palm kernel meal (PKM) replaced maize at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 percent was evaluated. The replacement levels of 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 percent represented diets 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 respectively. One hundred and eighty dayold unsexed turkey ...

  8. Effect of different combination levels of palm kernel cake, yam peel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ninety six unsexed day old Marshall broiler chickens were divided into 4 groups of 3 replicates each on weight equalization basis (42.87 – 43.24g). The chicks were used to determine the effect of partial replacement of maize with combinations of palm kernel cake (PKC), yam peel meal (YPM) and plantain peel meal (PPM) ...

  9. Replacement value of palm kernel meal for maize on growth, egg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A research was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing maize with palm kernel meal (PKM) in the diet on the performance of duck hens. Five treatment diets were formulated in which PKM replaced maize at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% using a completely randomized design in three replications. The study lasted 8 weeks ...

  10. PEMANFAATAN MINYAK SAWIT MERAH DALAM PEMBUATANBISKUIT KACANG KAYA BETA KAROTEN [Utilization of Red Palm Oil To Produce BetaCarotene-Rich Nuts Biscuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robiyansyah Robiyansyah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to get formulation of red palm oil and cooking oil to produce nuts biscuits with the best organoleptic properties. The formula consisted of red palm oil and cooking oil mixture with 6 comparisons: (0:100, (20:80, (40:60, (60:40, (80:20 and (100:0. These formula were then used as basis to produce nuts biscuits. Observation was done on the organoleptic properties (aroma, texture, taste and color for all biscuits for all samples, while  proximates test (water, fat,protein,ash content and betacarotene content were done only for the best formulation. The data were descriptively analyzed and presented in tables and graphs. The best organoleptic properties of these betacarotene rich nuts biscuits was formulation of 20:80. This biscuits had water content 1,42%, ash content 1,21%, fat content 32,60%, protein content 12,59%, and the total of beta carotene 347,15 ppm, with the less normal for aroma (4,55, less crunchy for the texture (4,40, distinctive flavor beans for the taste (4,28, and yellowish for the color (4,50. Keywords: β-carotene, nuts biscuits,red palm oil.

  11. The Feasibility of Palm Kernel Shell as a Replacement for Coarse Aggregate in Lightweight Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itam, Zarina; Beddu, Salmia; Liyana Mohd Kamal, Nur; Ashraful Alam, Md; Issa Ayash, Usama

    2016-03-01

    Implementing sustainable materials into the construction industry is fast becoming a trend nowadays. Palm Kernel Shell is a by-product of Malaysia’s palm oil industry, generating waste as much as 4 million tons per annum. As a means of producing a sustainable, environmental-friendly, and affordable alternative in the lightweight concrete industry, the exploration of the potential of Palm Kernel Shell to be used as an aggregate replacement was conducted which may give a positive impact to the Malaysian construction industry as well as worldwide concrete usage. This research investigates the feasibility of PKS as an aggregate replacement in lightweight concrete in terms of compressive strength, slump test, water absorption, and density. Results indicate that by using PKS for aggregate replacement, it increases the water absorption but decreases the concrete workability and strength. Results however, fall into the range acceptable for lightweight aggregates, hence it can be concluded that there is potential to use PKS as aggregate replacement for lightweight concrete.

  12. Some physical and mechanical properties of palm kernel shell (PKS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, some of the mechanical and physical properties of palm kernel shells (PKS) were evaluated. These are moisture content, 7.8325 ± 0.6672%; true density, 1.254 ± 5.292 x 10-3 g/cm3; bulk density, 1.1248g/cm3; mean rupture force along width, and thickness were 3174.52 ± 270.70N and 2806.94 ± 498.45N for ...

  13. Combination of Palm Kernel Husk Ash (PKHA) and Free Lime (CaO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Almost all admixtures used in concrete construction in Nigeria are imported. In this study, various proportions of free Lime (CaO), Palm Kernel Husk Ash (PKHA) and Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) were mixed and the setting times of various mix proportions were determined and compared with that of only OPC.

  14. Isolation of a kernel oleoyl-ACP thioesterase gene from the oil palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We have isolated a cDNA clone from the developing kernel of the oil palm Elaeis guineensis which encodes a thioesterase enzyme. Its highest homology was to the Brassica napus oleoyl-ACP thioesterase with which it had 72% homology at the nucleotide level, over the coding region examined, and 83% identity (90% ...

  15. The effect of palm kernel shell ash on the mechanical properties of as-cast aluminium alloy matrix composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isiaka Oluwole OLADELE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the effect of palm kernel shell ash (PKSA as reinforcement on the mechanical properties of As-cast aluminium alloy. Recycled aluminium alloy from cylinder of an automotive engine block was degreased by using premium motor spirit (PMS also known as petrol, washed thoroughly with soap and water and sun dried for 5 days. The palm kernel shell was screened of dirt and other unwanted foreign materials before being roasted in furnace. The ash was further pulverized by laboratory ball mill machine followed by sieving to obtain particle sizes of 106 µm and divided into two parts. One portion was treated with NaOH solution while the other part was left as untreated before they are used to reinforced molten aluminium alloy in predetermined proportions. The newly developed composites were characterized with respect to their mechanical properties in response to the tests that were carried out on them. The results indicate that palm kernel shell ash can be used as potential reinforcing material for automobile applications.

  16. Biochemical and seminal parameters of lambs fed palm kernel cake under grazing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes César Mugabe

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to assess the effects of palm kernel cake on semen quality and biochemical parameters of Santa Inês lambs. A total of 40 animals with 24.10±2.72 kg body weight and five months old were assigned in a completely randomized design into four groups and 10 replicates. The animals were subjected to four levels of palm kernel cake (0, 15, 30, and 45% based on dry matter. The trial lasted 90 days foregone by 15 days for adaptation. Blood samples were collected every 45 days from jugular vein using vacuum tubes without anticoagulant. Total serum cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and very-low-density lipoprotein were assessed. Once the animals reached puberty at a mean age of 225 days, the semen samples were collected by electroejaculator once a week for three sequence weeks and assessed for volume, color, aspect, wave motion, motility, sperm concentration, sperm vigor, total of spermatozoa per ejaculate, viable spermatozoa per mL, and sperm morphology. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and followed by regression analysis. Non-parametric data were analysed by Kruskal-Wallis test. Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, and very-low-density lipoprotein were linearly increased. There was no difference for low-density lipoprotein. Diets did not affect mass motility, sperm motility, vigor, total spermatozoa per ejaculate, viability sperm per mL, and minor and total sperm defects. Sperm concentration increased linearly. Negative quadratic effects were observed for major sperm defects. Supplementation of diets with palm kernel cake up to 45% on dry matter enhance biochemical parameters and do not impair the qualitative variables of lamb sperm.

  17. The Effect of Moisture Content and Temperature on the Specific Heat Capacity of Nut and Kernel of Two Iranian Pistachio Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R Salari Kia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pistachio has a special ranking among Iranian agricultural products. Iran is known as the largest producer and exporter of pistachio in the world. Agricultural products are imposed under different thermal treatments during storage and processing. Designing all these processes requires thermal parameters of the products such as specific heat capacity. Regarding the importance of pistachio processing as an exportable product, in this study the specific heat capacity of nut and kernel of two varieties of Iranian pistachio (Kalle-Ghochi and Badami were investigated at four levels of moisture content (initial moisture content (5%, 15%, 25% and 40% w.b. and three levels of temperature (40, 50 and 60°C. In both varieties, the differences between the data were significant at the 1% of probability; however, the effect of moisture content was greater than that of temperature. The results indicated that the specific heat capacity of both nuts and kernels increase logarithmically with increase of moisture content and also increase linearly with increase of temperature. This parameter has altered for nut and kernel of Kalle-Ghochi and Badami varieties within the range of 1.039-2.936 kJ kg-1 K-1, 1.236-3.320 kJ kg-1 K-1, 0.887-2.773 kJ kg-1 K-1 and 0.811-2.914 kJ kg-1 K-1, respectively. Moreover, for any given level of temperature, the specific heat capacity of kernels was higher than that of nuts. Finally, regression models with high R2 values were developed to predict the specific heat capacity of pistachio varieties as a function of moisture content and temperature

  18. Physical and chemical characteristics of toilet soap made from apricot kernel oil and palm stearin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girgis, Adel Y.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to use apricot kernel oil with palm stearin in toilet soap-making. Apricot kernel oil was obtained from apricot kernel seed (Prunus armeniaca through hydraulic pressing (12000lb/in2. Kernel contained 43.3% oil. The fatty acids of apricot kernel oil had high oleic acid (81.73% while, the major of the fatty acid in palm stearin was palmitic acid (55.17%. Eight of the toilet soap samples were prepared from apricot kernel oil, palm kernel oil and palm stearin at different ratios. The structure of soap samples nº1 and 8 were sticky and with bad physical properties. On the other hand, the physical characteristics of blends nos 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 had firm consistency and creamy lather while, in soap nº 7, its were moderatement; i. e. medium hard makeup with fairly lather. After storage (6 months on a shelf at room temperature, all soaps (nº1-8 were declined in their moisture content. On contrary, the total fatty acids of the same samples were augmented at different ratios during storage. Physical characteristics of soap samples nos 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 were increased after the storage time (6 months, their consistencies were very firm with creamy lather and reducement in their erosion from handwashing ratios was observed. It can be recommended that apricot kernel oil can be used in the manufacturing of toilet soap until ratio 50% of the fatty blend (the blend was bear palm stearin.

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue el uso del aceite de semilla de albaricoque con estearina de palma en la fabricación de jabón de tocador. El aceite de semilla de albaricoque (Prunus armeniaca se obtuvo por presión hidráulica (12000lb/in2, y la semilla contenía el 43.3% de aceite. Los ácidos grasos del aceite de semilla de albaricoque tenían altos contenidos de ácido oleico (81.73% mientras, el ácido graso mayoritario en la estearina de palma fue el ácido palm

  19. Rheological, fat bloom, and sensory acceptability effects of mango kernel fat and palm olein blends on chocolate-flavored coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves María Flores March

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of replacing cocoa butter with different percentages and proportions of a mango kernel fat/palm olein (MKF/POL blend, are reported. Samples were prepared by melting together mango kernel fat, palm olein, cocoa butter and cocoa mass and powdered sugar combinated. The samples were milled, conched, tempered, and molded to obtain three sets of seven samples as follows: one control omitting mango kernel fat and palm olein, and six samples with cocoa butter replacement of 15 and 22.5% and MKF/POL ratios of 2.3, 4.0, and 9.0. Casson viscosity, Casson yield stress, fat bloom and sensory acceptability were all measured. In fact, all samples had achieved a low Casson viscosity (ηCA and Casson yield stress (τ_oCA, which indicates molding and enrobing as appropriate uses. In addition, some significant differences (p ≤ 0.05 were found among samples. Fat bloom was accelerated in the samples relative to control, but high MKF proportions tended to retard appearance of fat bloom. No differences were observed in organoleptic properties between samples and control.

  20. Chemical Characteristics of Mango (Mangifera Indica L.) Kernel Oil and Palm Oil Blends for Probable use as Vanaspati

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atta Muhammad Arif; Irman Javed; Muhammad Abdullah; Muhammad Irman; Athar Mahmud; Muhammad Nadeem; Muhammad Ayaz

    2016-01-01

    Chemical characteristics of blends of palm oil and mango kernel oil for their probable use as vanaspati was studied. Crude mango kernel oil was blended with refined, bleached and deodorised palm oil from 10 %, 20 %, 30 %, 40 % and 50 % (T 1 , T 2 , T 3 , T 4 and T 5 ) market vanaspati was used as control. Concentration of trans fatty acids in control was 22.7 %, whereas, all the vanaspati samples were virtually trans-free. Slip melting points (degree Celsius) of control, T 1 , T 2 , T 3 , T 4 and T 5 were 37.5, 37.3, 36.4, 35.6, 34.8 and 34. Free fatty acids of control and T5 were respectively 0.11, 0.12 %. Polymer contents of control, T 1 , T 2 , T 3 , T 4 and T 5 , after three heating cycles (18 degree Celsius, for 8 hr) were 21.55 %, 20.97 %, 18.66 %, 17.61 % and 10.22 %, respectively with lower solid fat index (p<0.05). Blends of mango kernel oil and palm oil can be used for the formulation of trans-free vanaspati. (author)

  1. New cost-effective bioconversion process of palm kernel cake into bioinsecticides based on Beauveria bassiana and Isaria javanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento Silva, Jaqueline; Mascarin, Gabriel Moura; Dos Santos Gomes, Isabel Cristina; Tinôco, Ricardo Salles; Quintela, Eliane Dias; Dos Reis Castilho, Leda; Freire, Denise Maria Guimarães

    2018-03-01

    The present study aimed to add value to palm oil by-products as substrates to efficiently produce conidia of Beauveria bassiana and Isaria javanica (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) for biological control of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), through a solid-state fermentation process using palm kernel cake and palm fiber as nutrient source and solid matrix, respectively. The optimum culture conditions yielded high concentrations of viable conidia after air-drying, when the fungi were grown on palm kernel cake (B. bassiana 7.65 × 10 9 and I. javanica 2.91 × 10 9  conidia g -1 dry substrate) after 6 days under optimal growth conditions set to 60% substrate moisture and 32 °C. Both fungal strains exhibited high efficacy against third-instar whitefly nymphs, inducing mortality up to 62.9 and 56.6% by B. bassiana and I. javanica, respectively, assessed after 9 days post-application in a screenhouse. Furthermore, we noted that insect mortality was strongly correlated with high atmospheric moisture, while B. bassiana appeared to require shorter accumulative hours under high moisture to kill whitefly nymphs compared to I. javanica. Our results underpin a feasible and cost-effective mass production method for aerial conidia, using palm kernel as the main substrate in order to produce efficacious fungal bioinsecticides against an invasive whitefly species in Brazil. Finally, our fermentation process may offer a sustainable and cost-effective means to produce eco-friendly mycoinsecticides, using an abundant agro-industrial by-product from Brazil that will ultimately assist in the integrated management of agricultural insect pests.

  2. Comparative microstructure study of oil palm fruit bunch fibre, mesocarp and kernels after microwave pre-treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jessie S. L.; Chan, Y. S.; Law, M. C.; Leo, C. P.

    2017-07-01

    The implementation of microwave technology in palm oil processing offers numerous advantages; besides elimination of polluted palm oil mill effluent, it also reduces energy consumption, processing time and space. However, microwave exposure could damage a material’s microstructure which affected the quality of fruit that can be related to its physical structure including the texture and appearance. In this work, empty fruit bunches, mesocarp and kernel was microwave dried and their respective microstructures were examined. The microwave pretreatments were conducted at 100W and 200W and the microstructure investigation of both treated and untreated samples were evaluated using scanning electron microscope. The micrographs demonstrated that microwave does not significantly influence kernel and mesocarp but noticeable change was found on the empty fruit bunches where the sizes of the granular starch were reduced and a small portion of the silica bodies were disrupted. From the experimental data, the microwave irradiation was shown to be efficiently applied on empty fruit bunches followed by mesocarp and kernel as significant weight loss and size reduction was observed after the microwave treatments. The current work showed that microwave treatment did not change the physical surfaces of samples but sample shrinkage is observed.

  3. Harvestable energy from the coconut palm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banzon, J A

    1984-01-01

    The harvestable energy from the coconut palm is in the form of husks, shells and oil from the nuts and the leaf petioles with a regular monthly production of a bunch of nuts and one leaf. From the known energy content of the husks, nut shells and petioles, the number of palm trees required to provide the total energy for domestic cooking at wood equivalent to 1-3 kg firewood per day ranges from 5-14 for husks, shells and petioles, or 15-47 if the material is first converted to charcoal. In order to provide diesel fuel containing 10% coconut oil and cope with the annual increase in such a demand, the coconut crop would have to increase at the rate of 1 nut per bunch per month from 3-11 nuts to 12 nuts over the next 8 years. Highest coconut sap yield in ethanol terms, amounts to 109 MJ/month per palm which equals the oil in a 20-nut fruit bunch, thus indicating possible greater energy harvest from coconut sap than from coconut oil.

  4. Modeling and Simulation on NOx and N2O Formation in Co-combustion of Low-rank Coal and Palm Kernel Shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahidin Mahidin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available NOx and N2O emissions from coal combustion are claimed as the major contributors for the acid rain, photochemical smog, green house and ozone depletion problems. Based on the facts, study on those emissions formation is interest topic in the combustion area. In this paper, theoretical study by modeling and simulation on NOx and N2O formation in co-combustion of low-rank coal and palm kernel shell has been done. Combustion model was developed by using the principle of chemical-reaction equilibrium. Simulation on the model in order to evaluate the composition of the flue gas was performed by minimization the Gibbs free energy. The results showed that by introduced of biomass in coal combustion can reduce the NOx concentration in considerably level. Maximum NO level in co-combustion of low-rank coal and palm kernel shell with fuel composition 1:1 is 2,350 ppm, low enough compared to single low-rank coal combustion up to 3,150 ppm. Moreover, N2O is less than 0.25 ppm in all cases. Keywords: low-rank coal, N2O emission, NOx emission, palm kernel shell

  5. Isolation and selection of new biosurfactant producing bacteria from degraded palm kernel cake under liquid state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Parveen; Mir, Shajrat; Alam, Md Zahangir; Wan Nawawi, Wan M Fazli

    2014-01-01

    Biosurfactants are surface-active compounds produced by different microorganisms. The aim of this study was to introduce palm kernel cake (PKC) as a novel substrate for biosurfactant production using a potent bacterial strain under liquid state fermentation. This study was primarily based on the isolation and identification of biosurfactant-producing bacteria that could utilize palm kernel cake as a new major substrate. Potential bacterial strains were isolated from degraded PKC and screened for biosurfactant production with the help of the drop collapse assay and by analyzing the surface tension activity. From the screened isolates, a new strain, SM03, showed the best and most consistent results, and was therefore selected as the most potent biosurfactant-producing bacterial strain. The new strain was identified as Providencia alcalifaciens SM03 using the Gen III MicroPlate Biolog Microbial Identification System. The yield of the produced biosurfactant was 8.3 g/L.

  6. Separation of oil palm shell and kernel by using kaolinite media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukpong Sirinupong

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to investigate the possibility of using kaolinite from Ranong province as media in the oil palm shell and kernel separation process by means of heavy media separation. The effect of specific gravity of the slurry, type and amount of dispersant and type of clays on suspension of media and efficiency of separation were studied. It was found that the specific gravity of oil palm shell and kernel are 1.40 and 1.20 respectively. While the average specific gravity of kaolinite grade MRD-B85, RANONG-325 and commercial clay from Univanich Group. PCL., are 2.54, 2.65 and 2.46 respectively. It was apparent that the viscosity of clay slurry increased with the specific gravity of the slurry. For MRD-B85 and RANONG- 325 clays which have the average particle sizes of 10 and 12 microns, the pH of their slurries of about 5.84 and 6.33 respectively were obtained and at these conditions stability of the slurry rarely occurred and they could not be used for separation. However, these clays can also be utilized as media when dispersant such asCalgon or sodium silicate is applied to their slurries. It was found that the efficiency of separation depends on specific gravity and viscosity of the slurry, type and particle size of kaolinite and dosage of dispersant. The optimum separating conditions for MRD-B85 clay were the dosage of Calgon of 0.15% (or 1.5 kg/t of clay at the specific gravity of the slurry of 1.20-1.24 (27-32% Solids in which a pH of 6.14 and viscosity of 104 cP to very low value (could not be measured were obtained. Thus, kernel yielded 97.57-100% and shell contamination of 1.48-6.32% was achieved. While sodium silicate was applied to the slurry about 0.15% at the specific gravity of 1.22, pH of 6.74 and viscosity of 238 cP were obtained and kernel could be recovered 100% with shell contamination of 8.36%. When 0.15% Calgon or 0.25% sodium silicate was introduced to the RANONG-325 clay slurry at the specific gravity

  7. Optimization of factors affecting the production of biodiesel from crude palm kernel oil and ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwornoo, David. K. [Faculty of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Private Mail Bag, Kumasi (Ghana); Ahiekpor, Julius C. [Chemical Engineering Department, Kumasi Polytechnic, P.O. Box 854, Kumasi (Ghana)

    2010-07-01

    Biodiesel, an alternative diesel fuel made from renewable sources such as vegetable oils and animal fats, has been identified by government to play a key role in the socio-economic development of Ghana. The utilization of biodiesel is expected to be about 10% of the total liquid fuel mix of the country by the year 2020. Despite this great potential and the numerous sources from which biodiesel could be developed in Ghana, studies on the sources of biodiesel and their properties as a substitute for fossil diesel have tended to be limited to Jatropha oil. This paper, however, reports the parameters that influences the production of biodiesel from palm kernel oil, one of the vegetable oils obtained from oil palm which is the highest vegetable oil source in Ghana. The parameters studied are; mass ratio of ethanol to oil, reaction temperature, catalyst concentration, and reaction time using completely randomized 24 factorial design. Results indicated that ethanol to oil mass ratio, catalyst concentration and reaction time were the most important factors affecting the ethyl ester yield. There was also an interaction effect between catalyst and time and ethanol- oil ratio and time on the yield. Accordingly, the optimal conditions for the production of ethyl esters from crude palm kernel oil were determined as; 1:5 mass ratio of ethanol to oil, 1% catalyst concentration by weight of oil, 90 minutes reaction time at a temperature of 30 deg C.

  8. Physical and Electrochemical Characterization of Palm Kernel Shell Biochar (PKSB as Supercapacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Ab Karim Ghani Wan Azlina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A potential low cost and environmentally friendly supercapacitor has been prepared from Palm Kernel Shell Biochar (PKSB. In this study, physical and electrochemical properties of raw, activated and chemical treated (potassium hydroxide (KOH as supercapacitors such as high carbon content, high charge storage capacity and stable were evaluated. For physical analyses, the scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used to study the surface morphology and surface area and porosity were measured using Brunaurer-Emmert-Teller (BET. The chemical treated PKSB shows the highest surface area values of 55.15 m2/g as compared to raw and activated samples with surface area are 0.17 m2/g and 19.32 m2/g, respectively. This is verified by in enhancement of capacitance achieved from 1.76 × 10−3 Fg-1 for the activated biochar and 1.87 × 10−6 Fg-1 for untreated PKSB showed by Raman spectroscopy. This enhancement reflected the charge storage capacity is attributed to the creation of broad distribution in pore size and a larger surface area. In addition, this phenomenon also supported by the electrochemical profiles through cyclic voltammogram (CV measured by Potentiostat-Gavanostat (EIS. CV of the treated PKSB gave better square shape than the activated and raw biochar samples. These characterizations conclude that the raw palm kernel biochar need further treatment to become supercapacitor electrodes to replace activated carbon.

  9. Suitability of Recycled Polyethylene/Palm Kernel Shell-Iron Filings Composite for Automobile Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Samotu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A recycling aimed research was carried out to produce a new composite material and proffer suggestion for the possible use of the newly developed composite material. The empty water sachet (commonly called pure water nylon in Nigeria, was used as a matrix, which was reinforced by carbonized palm kernel shell (CPKS particulate and iron fillings. The percentage composition of iron fillings was maintained at 5 wt%, while that of palm kernel shell ash was varied from 5 wt% - 20 wt% at an interval of 5 %. The composites were compounded and compressively moulded. Physical and mechanical properties of the composites were tested for alongside three conventional car bumper samples, and the results obtained shows that the composite material could be used to produce a car bumper among other parts of automobile like dashboard due to their impact strength and low density. Impact strength - density ratio for the materials gave prime information on the possible application of the developed material. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM was used to examine the distribution of the reinforcement within the matrix. After results analysis, materials with 5 wt% of CPKS and that with 10 wt% of CPKS were recommended for the car bumper production following their high impact strength - density ratio of 0.26 and 0.19 respectively, which are higher as compared to that of a conventional bumper material measured alongside the composite materials.

  10. Morphological studies of DHSA/ DHSA-Octyl ester/ RBD palm kernel olein/ medium chain triglycerides system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anuar Kassim; Nadarajan, Rathidevi; Mohd Zaizi Desa; Atan Mohd Sharif; Dzulkefly Kuang; Mohd Jelas Haron

    2007-01-01

    Dihydroxystearic acid (DHSA) and octyl dihydroxystearate (DHSA-octyl ester) have been previously prepared from palm oleic acid and preliminary results showed that these compounds are suitable in personal care and cosmetics products. The objective of this research is to study the phase behavior in ternary system of DHSA/DHSA-octyl ester/RBD Palm Kernel Olein (RBDPKOo) and MCT at 85 degree Celsius. From the ternary phase diagram, results showed that all ratios of were completely in two-phase region with various concentrations of RBDPKOo and MCT. The phase changes were observed through polarizing light while the formation of texture was confirmed using polarizing microscope combination with heating. Needles and spherulite textures were found in this system. (author)

  11. Accurate palm vein recognition based on wavelet scattering and spectral regression kernel discriminant analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnasir, Selma; Shamsuddin, Siti Mariyam; Farokhi, Sajad

    2015-01-01

    Palm vein recognition (PVR) is a promising new biometric that has been applied successfully as a method of access control by many organizations, which has even further potential in the field of forensics. The palm vein pattern has highly discriminative features that are difficult to forge because of its subcutaneous position in the palm. Despite considerable progress and a few practical issues, providing accurate palm vein readings has remained an unsolved issue in biometrics. We propose a robust and more accurate PVR method based on the combination of wavelet scattering (WS) with spectral regression kernel discriminant analysis (SRKDA). As the dimension of WS generated features is quite large, SRKDA is required to reduce the extracted features to enhance the discrimination. The results based on two public databases-PolyU Hyper Spectral Palmprint public database and PolyU Multi Spectral Palmprint-show the high performance of the proposed scheme in comparison with state-of-the-art methods. The proposed approach scored a 99.44% identification rate and a 99.90% verification rate [equal error rate (EER)=0.1%] for the hyperspectral database and a 99.97% identification rate and a 99.98% verification rate (EER=0.019%) for the multispectral database.

  12. Production and characterization of biodiesel using palm kernel oil; fresh and recovered from spent bleaching earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun Aladetuyi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm kernel oil (PKO was recovered from spent bleaching earth with a yield of 16 %, using n-hexane while the fresh oil was extracted from palm kernel with n-hexane and a yield of 40.23% was obtained. These oils were trans-esterified with methanol under the same reaction conditions: 100 oC, 2 h reaction time, and oil-methanol ratio of 5:1 (w/v. The cocoa pod ash (CPA was compared with potassium hydroxide (KOH as catalyst. The percentage yields of biodiesel obtained from PKO catalysed by CPA and KOH were 94 and 90%, respectively. While the yields achieved using the recovered oil catalysed by CPA and KOH were measured at 86 and 81.20 %. The physico-chemical properties of the biodiesel produced showed that the flash point, viscosity, density, ash content, percentage carbon content, specific gravity and the acid value fell within American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM specifications for biodiesel. The findings of this study suggest that agricultural residues such as CPA used in this study could be explored as alternatives for KOH catalyst for biodiesel production.

  13. Deoxygenation of palm kernel oil to jet fuel-like hydrocarbons using Ni-MoS_2/γ-Al_2O_3 catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itthibenchapong, Vorranutch; Srifa, Atthapon; Kaewmeesri, Rungnapa; Kidkhunthod, Pinit; Faungnawakij, Kajornsak

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The Ni-MoS_2/γ-Al_2O_3 catalysts synthesized using thiourea solution processing. • The Ni-MoS_2 showed semi-amorphous crystallinity with crystallite size of 5–10 nm. • The Ni K-edge XANES and EXAFS indicated the Ni substitution in MoS_2 structure. • A high yield of jet fuel-like hydrocarbon (>90%) from the palm kernel oil feedstock. • The HDO pathway was highly selective, while the DCO_2 and DCO pathways were minor. - Abstract: In the current study, palm kernel oil was used as a renewable feedstock for production of jet fuel-like hydrocarbons via the deoxygenation over the Ni-MoS_2/γ-Al_2O_3 catalyst. The dominant C12 fatty acid content in palm kernel oil makes it promising for jet fuel application. Synthesized by a liquid processing method with thiourea organosulfur agent, the catalyst revealed MoS_2 structure with low stacking, while Ni substitution in the MoS_2 structure and interaction with the Al_2O_3 support were determined based on the Ni K-edge XANES and EXAFS results. A high hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) activity, which as the major pathway in the deoxygenation, was observed upon application of a H_2 pressure of 30–50 bar over Ni-MoS_2/γ-Al_2O_3. The optimum product yield of approximately 92% was obtained mainly from the HDO pathway (∼60%) with 58% selectivity to C10–C12 jet fuel hydrocarbons. The flow property of the jet fuel-like hydrocarbons was more desirable than those obtained from palm olein oil-derived fuel.

  14. Analysis Monthly Import of Palm Oil Products Using Box-Jenkins Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nurul F. Y.; Khalid, Kamil; Saifullah Rusiman, Mohd; Ghazali Kamardan, M.; Roslan, Rozaini; Che-Him, Norziha

    2018-04-01

    The palm oil industry has been an important component of the national economy especially the agriculture sector. The aim of this study is to identify the pattern of import of palm oil products, to model the time series using Box-Jenkins model and to forecast the monthly import of palm oil products. The method approach is included in the statistical test for verifying the equivalence model and statistical measurement of three models, namely Autoregressive (AR) model, Moving Average (MA) model and Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA) model. The model identification of all product import palm oil is different in which the AR(1) was found to be the best model for product import palm oil while MA(3) was found to be the best model for products import palm kernel oil. For the palm kernel, MA(4) was found to be the best model. The results forecast for the next four months for products import palm oil, palm kernel oil and palm kernel showed the most significant decrease compared to the actual data.

  15. Chemical composition of meat (kernel) and nut water of major coconut (cocos nucifera l.) cultivars at coastal area of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahid, A.; Ahmad, S.S.; Butt, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Three varieties of the coconut (Tall, Dwarf and Hybrid) were subjected to analyse for physicochemical properties of meat and nut water, Sodium (Na), Moisture %, Ash %, Calcium (Ca), Iron (Fe), Magnesium (Mg), Cobalt (Co), Potassium (K), pH, Volatile matters, Caloric value (CV) and Total dissolved solids (TDS). The chemical analysis of Meat (mature and immature stage) showed high percentage of Mg and Na in study varieties. However, it was apparent that major portion of stored Ca, Mg, and Na were lodged in the nut water. The nutrients Na, K and Ca were high or less evenly distributed in the Kernel and Water, whereas there was nutrient a comparatively greater concentration of P and Mg in the Water. The K (56% to 81%) was higher in nut water as compared to other ones. The results showed Mg 45% to 70% and Na 1% to 53% in mature and immature meat, respectively. (author)

  16. Palm kernel cake extract exerts hepatoprotective activity in heat-induced oxidative stress in chicken hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskoueian, Ehsan; Abdullah, Norhani; Idrus, Zulkifli; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Goh, Yong Meng; Shakeri, Majid; Oskoueian, Armin

    2014-10-02

    Palm kernel cake (PKC), the most abundant by-product of oil palm industry is believed to contain bioactive compounds with hepatoprotective potential. These compounds may serve as hepatoprotective agents which could help the poultry industry to alleviate adverse effects of heat stress on liver function in chickens. This study was performed to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of PKC extract in heat-induced oxidative stress in chicken hepatocytes. The nature of the active metabolites and elucidation of the possible mechanism involved were also investigated. The PKC extract possessed free radical scavenging activity with values significantly (p < 0.05) lower than silymarin as the reference antioxidant. Heat-induced oxidative stress in chicken hepatocyte impaired the total protein, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activity significantly (p < 0.05). Treatment of heat-induced hepatocytes with PKC extract (125 μg/ml) and silymarin as positive control increased these values significantly (p < 0.05). The real time PCR and western blot analyses revealed the significant (p < 0.05) up-regulation of oxidative stress biomarkers including TNF-like, IFN-γ and IL-1β genes; NF-κB, COX-2, iNOS and Hsp70 proteins expression upon heat stress in chicken hepatocytes. The PKC extract and silymarin were able to alleviate the expression of all of these biomarkers in heat-induced chicken hepatocytes. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of PKC extract showed the presence of fatty acids, phenolic compounds, sugar derivatives and other organic compounds such as furfural which could be responsible for the observed hepatoprotective activity. Palm kernel cake extract could be a potential agent to protect hepatocytes function under heat induced oxidative stress.

  17. Sensory and instrumental texture assessment of roasted pistachio nut/kernel by partial least square (PLS) regression analysis: effect of roasting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi Moghaddam, Toktam; Razavi, Seyed M A; Taghizadeh, Masoud; Sazgarnia, Ameneh

    2016-01-01

    Roasting is an important step in the processing of pistachio nuts. The effect of hot air roasting temperature (90, 120 and 150 °C), time (20, 35 and 50 min) and air velocity (0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 m/s) on textural and sensory characteristics of pistachio nuts and kernels were investigated. The results showed that increasing the roasting temperature decreased the fracture force (82-25.54 N), instrumental hardness (82.76-37.59 N), apparent modulus of elasticity (47-21.22 N/s), compressive energy (280.73-101.18 N.s) and increased amount of bitterness (1-2.5) and the hardness score (6-8.40) of pistachio kernels. Higher roasting time improved the flavor of samples. The results of the consumer test showed that the roasted pistachio kernels have good acceptability for flavor (score 5.83-8.40), color (score 7.20-8.40) and hardness (score 6-8.40) acceptance. Moreover, Partial Least Square (PLS) analysis of instrumental and sensory data provided important information for the correlation of objective and subjective properties. The univariate analysis showed that over 93.87 % of the variation in sensory hardness and almost 87 % of the variation in sensory acceptability could be explained by instrumental texture properties.

  18. Urea adsorption by activated carbon prepared from palm kernel shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Chee-Heong; Sim, Yoke-Leng; Yeoh, Fei-Yee

    2017-07-01

    Dialysis treatment is crucial for patients suffer from renal failure. The dialysis system removes the uremic toxin to a safe level in a patient's body. One of the major limitations of the current hemodialysis system is the capability to efficiently remove uremic toxins from patient's body. Nanoporous materials can be applied to improve the treatment. Palm kernel shell (PKS) biomass generated from palm oil mills can be utilized to prepare high quality nanoporous activated carbon (AC) and applied for urea adsorption in the dialysis system. In this study, AC was prepared from PKS via different carbonization temperatures and followed by carbon dioxide gas activation processes. The physical and chemical properties of the samples were studied. The results show that the porous AC with BET surface areas ranging from 541 to 622 m2g-1 and with total pore volumes varying from 0.254 to 0.297 cm3g-1, are formed with different carbonization temperatures. The equilibrium constant for urea adsorption by AC samples carbonized at 400, 500 and 600 °C are 0.091, 0.287 and 0.334, respectively. The increase of carbonization temperatures from 400 to 600 °C resulted in the increase in urea adsorption by AC predominantly due to increase in surface area. The present study reveals the feasibility of preparing AC with good porosity from PKS and potentially applied in urea adsorption application.

  19. Evaluation of the Lubricating Properties of Palm Kernel Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J MUSA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The search for renewable energy resources continues to attract attention in recent times as fossil fuels such as petroleum, coal and natural gas, which are been used to meet the energy needs of man are associated with negative environmental impacts such as global warming. Biodiesel offered reduced exhaust emissions, improved biodegradability, reduced toxicity and higher carotene rating which can improve performance and clean up emissions. Standard methods were used to determine the physical and chemical properties of the oil, which includes the Density, Viscosity, flash/fire point, carbon residue, volatility and Specific Gravity were determined by chemical experimental analysis. The flash/fire points of the Heavy duty oil (SAE 40 and Light duty oil (SAE 30 is 260/300(°C and 243/290(°C respectively while the pour points of the samples are 22°C for palm kernel oil while 9°C and 21°C for SAE 40and SAE 30 respectively.

  20. Dynamics of Polymorphic Transformations in Palm Oil, Palm Stearin and Palm Kernel Oil Characterized by Coupled Powder XRD-DSC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaliha, Omar; Elina, Hishamuddin; Sivaruby, Kanagaratnam; Norizzah, Abd Rashid; Marangoni, Alejandro G

    2018-06-01

    The in situ polymorphic forms and thermal transitions of refined, bleached and deodorized palm oil (RBDPO), palm stearin (RBDPS) and palm kernel oil (RBDPKO) were investigated using coupled X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results indicated that the DSC onset crystallisation temperature of RBDPO was at 22.6°C, with a single reflection at 4.2Å started to appear from 23.4 to 17.1°C, and were followed by two prominent exothermic peaks at 20.1°C and 8.5°C respectively. Further cooling to -40°C leads to the further formation of a β'polymorph. Upon heating, a of β'→βtransformation was observed between 32.1 to 40.8°C, before the sample was completely melted at 43.0°C. The crystallization onset temperature of RBDPS was 44.1°C, with the appearance of the α polymorph at the same temperature as the appearance of the first sharp DSC exothermic peak. This quickly changed from α→β´ in the range 25 to 21.7°C, along with the formation of a small β peak at -40°C. Upon heating, a small XRD peak for the β polymorph was observed between 32.2 to 36.0°C, becoming a mixture of (β´+ β) between 44.0 to 52.5°C. Only the β polymorph survived further heating to 59.8°C. For RBDPKO, the crystallization onset temperature was 11.6°C, with the formation of a single sharp exothermic peak at 6.5°C corresponding to the β' polymorphic form until the temperature reached -40°C. No transformation of the polymorphic form was observed during the melting process of RBDPKO, before being completely melted at 33.2°C. This work has demonstrated the detailed dynamics of polymorphic transformations of PKO and PS, two commercially important hardstocks used widely by industry and will contribute to a greater understanding of their crystallization and melting dynamics.

  1. Electrochemical Immunosensor for the Detection of Aflatoxin B₁ in Palm Kernel Cake and Feed Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azri, Farah Asilah; Selamat, Jinap; Sukor, Rashidah

    2017-11-30

    Palm kernel cake (PKC) is the solid residue following oil extraction of palm kernels and useful to fatten animals either as a single feed with only minerals and vitamins supplementation, or mixed with other feedstuffs such as corn kernels or soy beans. The occurrence of mycotoxins (aflatoxins, ochratoxins, zearalenone, and fumonisins) in feed samples affects the animal's health and also serves as a secondary contamination to humans via consumption of eggs, milk and meats. Of these, aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁) is the most toxically potent and a confirmed carcinogen to both humans and animals. Methods such as High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) are common in the determination of mycotoxins. However, these methods usually require sample pre-treatment, extensive cleanup and skilled operator. Therefore, in the present work, a rapid method of electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of AFB₁ was developed based on an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and chitosan (CS) were used as the electrode modifier for signal enhancement. N -ethyl- N '-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide (EDC) and N -hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) activated the carboxyl groups at the surface of nanocomposite for the attachment of AFB₁-BSA antigen by covalent bonding. An indirect competitive reaction occurred between AFB₁-BSA and free AFB₁ for the binding site of a fixed amount of anti-AFB₁ antibody. A catalytic signal based on horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) and 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) mediator was observed as a result of attachment of the secondary antibody to the immunoassay system. As a result, the reduction peak of TMB (Ox) was measured by using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) analysis. Based on the results, the electrochemical surface area was increased from 0.396 cm² to 1.298 cm² due to the

  2. Climate change sensitivity of the African ivory nut palm, Hyphaena petersiana Klotzsch ex Mart. (arecaceae) - a keystone species in SE Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Anne Blach; Svenning, J.-C.; Balslev, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    the climate sensitivity of the key-stone palm species Hyphaene petersiana (African ivory nut palm) in southern Africa. We tested the relative roles of climate vs. non-climatic range-controls and found that climate had a clear effect on the range of H. petersiana and that especially water-related variables......Africa is the most vulnerable continent to future climate change. Profound changes are projected for southwestern Africa with increased drying, notably with delayed onset of the rainy season in September-November, and temperature increases in all seasons. The projected climate changes combined...... species by humans and livestock are likely to exacerbate the negative effect of future climate changes on its populations, especially, given the expected human population increase in Africa....

  3. Microfocus X-ray imaging of Brazil nuts for quality control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Margareth Kazuyo Kobayashi Dias, E-mail: mkfranco@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Yokaichiya, Fabiano, E-mail: fabiano.yokaichiya@helmholtz-berlin.de [Department Quantum Phenomena in Novel Materials, Helmholtz Zentrum Berlim für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Kardjilov, Nikolay, E-mail: kardjilov@helmholtz-berlim.de [Institut Angewandte Materialforschung, Helmholtz Zentrum Berlim für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Ferraz, Antonio Carlos de Oliveira, E-mail: carlos@feagri.unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Agricola

    2015-07-15

    Non-destructive quality assessment of food prior to processing is desirable in commercial facilities due to its non-invasive nature, for economic reasons and for its safety appeals. Grading Brazil nuts in this way allows for the separation of undesirable nuts to avoid contamination during the automatic nut shelling process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of X-ray phase contrast enhanced imaging in assessing nut quality. For this goal, details of the imaging technique are described and phase contrast X-ray and microtomography imaging of nut samples are investigated. Both high quality (i.e. 'sound' nuts as well as treated nuts were examined. It was concluded that both the X-ray imaging and tomography techniques have the potential to discriminate morphological features of the nut and to identify 'sound' kernels from atypical ones. Larger nuts and nuts with a larger gap area between shell and kernel were concluded to have more atypical formations. Both techniques also seemed promising for use in automatic sorting lines. However, by using microtomography, the visualization of finer formations not noticeable in the X-ray images was possible. Further studies shall be carried out to investigate the nature of these formations, how they affect nut quality and their evolution with storage time. (author)

  4. Microfocus X-ray imaging of Brazil nuts for quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, Margareth Kazuyo Kobayashi Dias; Yokaichiya, Fabiano; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Ferraz, Antonio Carlos de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Non-destructive quality assessment of food prior to processing is desirable in commercial facilities due to its non-invasive nature, for economic reasons and for its safety appeals. Grading Brazil nuts in this way allows for the separation of undesirable nuts to avoid contamination during the automatic nut shelling process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of X-ray phase contrast enhanced imaging in assessing nut quality. For this goal, details of the imaging technique are described and phase contrast X-ray and microtomography imaging of nut samples are investigated. Both high quality (i.e. 'sound' nuts as well as treated nuts were examined. It was concluded that both the X-ray imaging and tomography techniques have the potential to discriminate morphological features of the nut and to identify 'sound' kernels from atypical ones. Larger nuts and nuts with a larger gap area between shell and kernel were concluded to have more atypical formations. Both techniques also seemed promising for use in automatic sorting lines. However, by using microtomography, the visualization of finer formations not noticeable in the X-ray images was possible. Further studies shall be carried out to investigate the nature of these formations, how they affect nut quality and their evolution with storage time. (author)

  5. Life Cycle Assessment for the Production of Oil Palm Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Halimah; Ai, Tan Yew; Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; May, Choo Yuen

    2014-12-01

    The oil palm seed production unit that generates germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain, followed by the nursery to produce seedling, the plantation to produce fresh fruit bunches (FFB), the mill to produce crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel, the kernel crushers to produce crude palm kernel oil (CPKO), the refinery to produce refined palm oil (RPO) and finally the palm biodiesel plant to produce palm biodiesel. This assessment aims to investigate the life cycle assessment (LCA) of germinated oil palm seeds and the use of LCA to identify the stage/s in the production of germinated oil palm seeds that could contribute to the environmental load. The method for the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is modelled using SimaPro version 7, (System for Integrated environMental Assessment of PROducts), an internationally established tool used by LCA practitioners. This software contains European and US databases on a number of materials in addition to a variety of European- and US-developed impact assessment methodologies. LCA was successfully conducted for five seed production units and it was found that the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm was not significant. The characterised results of the LCIA for the production of 1000 germinated oil palm seeds showed that fossil fuel was the major impact category followed by respiratory inorganics and climate change.

  6. Proposed Average Values of Some Engineering Properties of Palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to know what values of engineering properties of palm kernels to use for rational design of handling and processing systems for palm kernels prompted a literature search for collation of published values. These values are presented in this work. And to manage the discrepancies observed among values published ...

  7. Chemical composition of Chinese palm fruit and chemical properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... chemical properties and could be used as edible oils and for industrial applications. ... on it, which can provide useful information for Chinese oil palm industry. Key words: Chemical composition, palm fruit, palm oil, palm kernel oil, chemical ...

  8. ANALISIS KEHILANGAN MINYAK PADA CRUDE PALM OIL (CPO DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN METODE STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Devani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available PKS “XYZ” merupakan perusahaan yang bergerak di bidang pengolahan kelapa sawit. Produk yang dihasilkan adalah Crude Palm Oil (CPO dan Palm Kernel Oil (PKO. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menganalisa kehilangan minyak (oil losses dan faktor-faktor penyebab dengan menggunakan metoda Statistical Process Control. Statistical Process Control adalah sekumpulan strategi, teknik, dan tindakan yang diambil oleh sebuah organisasi untuk memastikan bahwa strategi tersebut menghasilkan produk yang berkualitas atau menyediakan pelayanan yang berkualitas. Sampel terjadinya oil losses pada CPO yang diteliti adalah tandan kosong (tankos, biji (nut, ampas (fibre, dan sludge akhir. Berdasarkan Peta Kendali I-MR dapat disimpulkan bahwa kondisi keempat jenis oil losses CPO berada dalam batas kendali dan konsisten. Sedangkan nilai Cpk dari total oil losses berada di luar batas kendali rata-rata proses, hal ini berarti CPO yang diproduksi telah memenuhi kebutuhan pelanggan, dengan total oil losses kurang dari batas maksimum yang ditetapkan oleh perusahaan yaitu 1,65%.

  9. Comparing the effects of oil palm kernel shell and cockle shell on properties of pervious concrete pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnaz Khankhaje

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, pervious concrete pavement is one of the best materials used in construction industry as a top layer of permeable pavement system to control the storm water at source. In addition, increasing production of waste materials, increased the interest in utilising the waste materials for environmental and technical benefits. Therefore, this paper compared the effect of using two different sizes of oil palm kernel shell (OPKS and cockleshell (CS as partial replacement of natural coarse aggregate on properties of pervious concrete pavement. Thirteen mixtures were made, in which 6.30-mm natural gravel was replaced with 0, 25, 50 and 75% of 6.30-mm and 4.75-mm of both shells. The relationships between the properties of pervious concrete mixtures was also determined. The replacement of OPKS and CS as the natural aggregate decreased the compressive strength, while the angular shape of both shells caused higher void content and permeability as compared to those of control pervious concrete. On the other hand, pervious concrete containing CS showed better properties than those of incorporating OPKS. Apart from that, strong relationships between density, void content, permeability, compressive strength values indicated that they can be used as a pervious concrete quality control tests for prediction of properties of pervious concrete pavement before placement in the field. Keywords: Pervious concrete pavement, Void content, Permeability, Cockleshell, Palm oil kernel shell

  10. Areca nut chewing and systemic inflammation : evidence of a common pathway for systemic diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shafique, Kashif; Mirza, Saira Saeed; Vart, Priya; Memon, Abdul Rauf; Arain, Moin Islam; Tareen, Muhammad Farooq; Haq, Zia Ul

    2012-01-01

    Background: Areca nut, the seed of fruit of an oriental palm, known as Areca catechu, is commonly chewed in many countries. Diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, oropharyngeal and oesophageal cancers have been associated with areca nut chewing and the mechanism by which areca nut chewing

  11. Preliminary use of cashew kernel oil in Clarias gariepinus fingerlings diet: comparison with fish oil and palm oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgane Paul Magouana Anvo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study was performed to investigate the effect of fish oil (FO, palm oil (PO, and cashew kernel oil (CKO as the dietary lipid sources on the growth performance, tissues fatty acids composition and economical profitability in Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. Three isonitrogenous (49.32%, isolipidic (15.18%, and isoenergetic (21 kJ/g diets were formulated, differed only to the added lipid source and coded accordingly as D1 (fish oil, D2 (palm oil, and D3 (cashew kernel oil. Catfish fingerlings (initial body weight = 2.43 ± 0.04 g were stocked at 1 fish/L and fed to trial diets at 5.6%. At the end of 8 weeks, C. gariepinus fingerlings fed with D1 and D3 had significantly identical growth and feed utilization efficiency. Those fed with D2 exhibited significantly and numerically low growth performance compared, respectively, to D1 and D3. Contrary to whole-body composition of fish, the muscle lipids fatty acids composition was influenced by the fatty acids profile of the dietary lipid sources. High net profit value (NPV of 24.59$, high investment cost analysis (ICA of 10.14$ and low benefit: cost ratio (BCR of 2.42 were observed in fish fed with D1 while those fed with D3 allowed to have high NPV (23.15$, low ICA (7.86$ and high BCR (2.95. Like others vegetable oils, cashew kernel oil can replace expensive fish oil in C. gariepinus fingerlings diet without negatively affecting its growth performances.

  12. Evaluation of Palm Oil-Based Paracetamol Suppositories by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The suppository base was prepared by mixing hydrogenated palm oil and palm kernel ... DSC can be used to predict drug release in paracetamol suppository formulations. Keywords: Palm oil, Liquefaction time, Paracetamol, Suppositories, Thermal analysis. ..... Drug Evaluation & Research (CDER), Food and.

  13. Power and Torque Characteristics of Diesel Engine Fuelled by Palm-Kernel Oil Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguntola J. ALAMU

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Short-term engine performance tests were carried out on test diesel engine fuelled with Palm kernel oil (PKO biodiesel. The biodiesel fuel was produced through transesterification process using 100g PKO, 20.0% ethanol (wt%, 1.0% potassium hydroxide catalyst at 60°C reaction temperature and 90min. reaction time. The diesel engine was attached to a general electric dynamometer. Torque and power delivered by the engine were monitored throughout the 24-hour test duration at 1300, 1500, 1700, 2000, 2250 and 2500rpm. At all engine speeds tested, results showed that torque and power outputs for PKO biodiesel were generally lower than those for petroleum diesel. Also, Peak torque for PKO biodiesel occurred at a lower engine speed compared to diesel.

  14. Penentuan Bilangan Asam Dan Bilangan Penyabunan Pada Asam Laurat Hasil Hidrolisis Palm Kernel Oil (PKO) Di PT Socimas Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Tobing, Windy.T.

    2012-01-01

    Has been performed analysis in which the specified number of acid value and saponification value in lauric acid from hydrolysis process of palm kernel oil in PT.Socimas. Analysis of the results obtained acid value 269,9 and saponification value 270,8. Thus the acid value and saponification value correspond to the standart value 269-275 for acid value, and 270-276 for saponification value in PT. Socimas. 092401017

  15. Thermal, crystallinity and morphological studies of the filled RBD palm kernel oil polyurethane foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairiah Badri; Sahrim Ahmad; Sarani Zakaria

    2000-01-01

    The synthesis of RBD palm kernel oil (PKO) polyurethane polyol and the polyurethane foam has well been documented. However, less study has been put in discovering the thermal properties and crystallinity of the foam. It is also an initiative to investigate the effect of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) and sorbitol as fillers in the polyurethane (PU) foam to these properties. Thermogravimetric (TGA) investigation of the PKO PU foam was performed to study their decompositions. The semi-crystalline nature of EFB-filled PU was confirmed by x-ray diffratogram and DSC thermogram of glass transition temperature, T g . The x-ray diffraction (XRD) study of the unfilled PU showed a broad amorphous halo, indicative of absence of crystallinity in the polymer, which has been explained as due to strong hydrogen bonding in the hard phase. Overall crystallinity decreases with an increase in the polyester content in agreement with the XRD results. The crystallinity however, increases with the inclusion of EFB in the polyurethane system. This study was followed by the observation of the surface morphologies of the PKO PU foam with and without fillers. The scanning electron micrographs verified the finding on the improved k-factor values. (Author)

  16. The effect of smelting time and composition of palm kernel shell charcoal reductant toward extractive Pomalaa nickel laterite ore in mini electric arc furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihotang, Iqbal Huda; Supriyatna, Yayat Iman; Ismail, Ika; Sulistijono

    2018-04-01

    Indonesia is a country that is rich in natural resources. Being a third country which has a nickel laterite ore in the world after New Caledonia and Philippines. However, the processing of nickel laterite ore to increase its levels in Indonesia is still lacking. In the processing of nickel laterite ore into metal, it can be processed by pyrometallurgy method that typically use coal as a reductant. However, coal is a non-renewable energy and have high enough levels of pollution. One potentially replace is the biomass, that is a renewable energy. Palm kernel shell are biomass that can be used as a reductant because it has a fairly high fix carbon content. This research aims to make nickel laterite ores become metal using palm kernel shell charcoal as reductant in mini electric arc furnace. The result show that the best smelting time of this research is 60 minutes with the best composition of the reductant is 2,000 gram.

  17. The Influence of Palm Kernel Cake and Rice Bran Fermentation Product Mixture to the Broiler Carcass Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Priabudiman, Yadi; Sukaryana, Yana

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the effect of the use of palm kernel cake (PKC) and rice bran (RB) fermentation products mixture to the percentage of broiler carcass weight pieces. Research using completely randomized design (CRD) with treatments of the fermentation product usage rate of   0% (P0), 10% (P1), 20% (P2), 30%&nbs...

  18. Electrochemical Immunosensor for the Detection of Aflatoxin B1 in Palm Kernel Cake and Feed Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Asilah Azri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Palm kernel cake (PKC is the solid residue following oil extraction of palm kernels and useful to fatten animals either as a single feed with only minerals and vitamins supplementation, or mixed with other feedstuffs such as corn kernels or soy beans. The occurrence of mycotoxins (aflatoxins, ochratoxins, zearalenone, and fumonisins in feed samples affects the animal’s health and also serves as a secondary contamination to humans via consumption of eggs, milk and meats. Of these, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is the most toxically potent and a confirmed carcinogen to both humans and animals. Methods such as High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC and Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS are common in the determination of mycotoxins. However, these methods usually require sample pre-treatment, extensive cleanup and skilled operator. Therefore, in the present work, a rapid method of electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of AFB1 was developed based on an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT and chitosan (CS were used as the electrode modifier for signal enhancement. N-ethyl-N′-(3-dimethylaminopropyl-carbodiimide (EDC and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS activated the carboxyl groups at the surface of nanocomposite for the attachment of AFB1-BSA antigen by covalent bonding. An indirect competitive reaction occurred between AFB1-BSA and free AFB1 for the binding site of a fixed amount of anti-AFB1 antibody. A catalytic signal based on horseradish peroxidase (HRP in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB mediator was observed as a result of attachment of the secondary antibody to the immunoassay system. As a result, the reduction peak of TMB(Ox was measured by using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV analysis. Based on the results, the electrochemical surface area was increased from 0.396 cm2 to 1.298 cm2 due to the electrode

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF BIO-OIL FROM PALM KERNEL SHELL PYROLYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ahmad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis of palm kernel shell in a fixed-bed reactor was studied in this paper. The objectives were to investigate the effect of pyrolysis temperature and particle size on the products yield and to characterize the bio-oil product. In order to get the optimum pyrolysis parameters on bio-oil yield, temperatures of 350, 400, 450, 500 and 550 °C and particle sizes of 212–300 µm, 300–600 µm, 600µm–1.18 mm and 1.18–2.36 mm under a heating rate of 50 °C min-1 were investigated. The maximum bio-oil yield was 38.40% at 450 °C with a heating rate of 50 °C min-1 and a nitrogen sweep gas flow rate of 50 ml min-1. The bio-oil products were analysed by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR and gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GCMS. The FTIR analysis showed that the bio-oil was dominated by oxygenated species. The phenol, phenol, 2-methoxy- and furfural that were identified by GCMS analysis are highly suitable for extraction from the bio-oil as value-added chemicals. The highly oxygenated oils need to be upgraded in order to be used in other applications such as transportation fuels.

  20. Production of palm kernel shell-based activated carbon by direct physical activation for carbon dioxide adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Nor Adilla; Yusup, Suzana

    2018-05-09

    The feasibility of biomass-based activated carbons has received a huge attention due to their excellent characteristics such as inexpensiveness, good adsorption behaviour and potential to reduce a strong dependency towards non-renewable precursors. Therefore, in this research work, eco-friendly activated carbon from palm kernel shell that has been produced from one-stage physical activation by using the Box-Behnken design of Response Surface Methodology is highlighted. The effect of three input parameters-temperature, dwell time and gas flow rate-towards product yield and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) uptake at room temperature and atmospheric pressure are studied. Model accuracy has been evaluated through the ANOVA analysis and lack-of-fit test. Accordingly, the optimum condition in synthesising the activated carbon with adequate CO 2 adsorption capacity of 2.13 mmol/g and product yield of 25.15 wt% is found at a temperature of 850 °C, holding time of 60 min and CO 2 flow rate of 450 cm 3 /min. The synthesised activated carbon has been characterised by diverse analytical instruments including thermogravimetric analyser, scanning electron microscope, as well as N 2 adsorption-desorption isotherm. The characterisation analysis indicates that the synthesised activated carbon has higher textural characteristics and porosity, together with better thermal stability and carbon content as compared to pristine palm kernel shell. Activated carbon production via one-step activation approach is economical since its carbon yield is within the industrial target, whereas CO 2 uptake is comparable to the synthesised activated carbon from conventional dual-stage activation, commercial activated carbon and other published data from literature.

  1. Extraction process of palm kernel cake as a source of mannan for feed additive on poultry diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafsin, M.; Hanafi, N. D.; Yusraini, E.

    2017-05-01

    Palm Kernel Cake (PKC) is a by-product of palm kernel oil extraction and found in large quantity in Indonesia. The inclusion of PKC on poultry diet are limited due to some nutritional problems such as anti-nutritional properties (mannan). On the other hand, mannan containing polysaccharides play in various biological functions particularly in enhancing the immune response and to control pathogen in poultry. The research objective to find out the extraction process of PKC and conducted at animal nutrition and Feed Science Laboratory, Agricultural Faculty, University of Sumatera Utara. Various extraction methode were used in this experiment, including fraction analysis used 7 number sieves, and followed by water and acetic acid extraction. The result indicated that PKC had different particle size according to sieve size and dominated by particle size 850 um. The analysis of sugar content indicated that each particle size had different characteristic on treatment by hot water extraction. The particle size 180—850 um had higher sugar content than coarse PKC (2000—3000 um). The total sugar content were recovered vary between 0.9—3,2% from PKC were extracted. Treatment grinding method followed by hot water extraction (100—120 °C, 1 h) increased total sugar content than previous treatments and reach 8% from PKC were extracted. Utilisation acetic acid decreased the total amount of total sugar from PKC were extracted. It is concluded that treatment by hot temperature (110—120 °C) for 1 h show highest yield to extract sugar from PKC.

  2. Effects of Palm Kernel Shell Ash on Lime-Stabilized Lateritic Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnochiri, Emeka Segun; Ogundipe, Olumide M.; Oluwatuyi, Opeyemi E.

    2017-09-01

    The research investigated the effects of palm kernel shell ash (PKSA) on lime-stabilized lateritic soil. Preliminary tests were performed on three soil samples, i.e., L1, L2 and L3 for identification; the results showed that L1 was A-7-6, L2 was A-7-6, and L3 was A-7-6. The optimum amount of lime for each of the soil samples was achieved. The optimum amount for L1 was 10%, for L2, 8% and for L3, 10%; at these values they recorded the lowest plasticity indexes. The further addition of PKSA was performed by varying the amount of PKSA and lime added to each of the soil samples. The addition of 4% PKSA+ 6% lime, the addition of 4% PKSA + 4% lime, and the addition of 4% PKSA + 6% lime increased the California Bearing Ratio (CBR) to the highest values for L1, L2 and L3 from 8.20%. It was concluded that PKSA can be a suitable complement for lime stabilization in lateritic soil.

  3. Areca nut and its role in oral submucous fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Rachana V; Prabhu, Vishnudas; Chatra, Laxmikanth; Shenai, Prashant; Suvarna, Nithin; Dandekeri, Savita

    2014-12-01

    Areca nut, commonly called as betel nut or supari, is a fruit of areca catechu palm tree, which is native of South Asia and Pacific Islands. The seed or endosperm is consumed fresh, boiled or after sun drying or curing. Chewing areca nut is thought to have central nervous system stimulating effect and along with this it is known to have salivary stimulating and digestive properties. According to the traditional Ayurvedic medicine, chewing areca nut and betel leaf is a good remedy against halitosis. It is also used for its deworming property. Along with these beneficial effects of areca nut one of its most harmful effects on the human body in general and oral cavity in particular is the development of potentially malignant disorder called Oral Submucous Fibrosis. The present paper discusses in detail the effects of the components of areca nut on pathogenesis of Oral Submucous Fibrosis. Key words:Areca nut, oral submucous fibrosis, potentially malignant disorder, supari.

  4. Trends and Effective Use of Energy Input in the Palm Kernel Oil Mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamgboye, AI.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at studying the importance and the efficiency of energy use in a few palm kernel oil mills selected for their representativity. Pattern of energy use, the cost of energy per unit product, energy intensity and normalized performance indicator (NPI were determined. Results show that the medium and the large mills depend largely on fossil fuel; while the small mill depends on electricity. It was found out that the large mill has the most effective use of energy with high energy intensity. The annual cost of energy per unit product of N8,360,000 ($64,307.69; N12,262,250 ($94,325 and N13,353,870 ($102, 722.08 were obtained for small, medium and large mills respectively. The NPI results show that there was no wastage of energy through space heating in energy supplied for production within the factory site.

  5. PENGARUH WAKTU REAKSI ETANOLISIS PADA SUHU RUANG TERHADAP RENDEMEN DAN STABILITAS EMULSI PRODUK ETANOLISIS Palm Kernel Oil (PKO [The Effect of Ethanolisis Reaction Time at Room Temperature on Yield and Emulsion Stability Ofproduct of Ethanolisis Palm Kernel Oil (PKO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Yunggo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available PKO (palm kernel oil is made from palm kernel of Elaesis gueneensis Jacq, which is a mixture of triglycerides. Triglycerides can be converted into a number of derivative products such as mono-diglycerides (MG-DG. MG-DG can be formed by ethanolisis reaction. In this study ethanolisis reaction of PKO was done by adding 96% of technical ethanol containing NaOH 1% (w/w PKO on PKO solution at a room temperature and a shorter time than the another PKO ethanolisis before. This study was aimed to find the best PKO ethanolisis reaction time in providing products of ethanolisis PKO with yield and high emulsion stability. The experiment was a nonfactorial  and arranged in a complete randomized block design (CRBD with four replications.  The single factor studied was 7 levels of  the reaction time in which  were 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 and 13 minutes.  The data  were analysed using ANOVA and  further by Orthogonal polynomial on the significant level of 1% and 5%. The results showed that the reaction time ethanolisis had no effect on the yield and stability of the emulsion of fresh coconut milk. The yield of the resulting range between 17.32% - 18.07% and the stability of emulsion ranged between 88.88% - 92.50% during one day and 85.23% - 89.50% during two days. The sensory observation indicated that PKO ethanolisis product can preserve coconut milk for 3 days of storage time with color and scent of fresh coconut milk, and  more stable compared to control. Keywords: emulsion stability, ethanolisis, PKO, time, yield

  6. The biodiversity of Aspergillus section Flavi in brazil nuts: From rainforest to consumer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderari, Thaiane O.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2013-01-01

    A total of 288 brazil nut samples (173 kernel and 115 shell) from the Amazon rainforest region and São Paulo State, Brazil were collected at different stages of brazil nut production. Samples were analysed for: percentages of aflatoxigenic fungal species and potential for aflatoxin production and...

  7. Abrasive wear behaviour of Al-Cu-Mg/palm kernel shell ash particulate composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gambo Anthony VICTOR

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a systematic approach to develop a wear model of Al-Cu-Mg/Palm kernel shell ash particulate composites (PKSAp produced by double stir-casting method. Four factors, five levels, central composite, rotatable design matrix was used to optimize the number of experiments. The factors considered were sliding velocity, sliding distance, normal load and mass fraction of PKSA reinforcement in the matrix. Response surface methodology (RSM was employed to develop the mathematical model. The developed regression model was validated by statistical software MINITAB and statistical tool such as analysis of variance (ANOVA. It was found that the developed regression model could be effectively used to predict the wear rate at 95% confidence level. The regression model indicated that the wear rate of cast Al-Cu-Mg/PKSAp composite decreased with an increase in the mass fraction of PKSA and increased with an increase of the sliding velocity, sliding distance and normal load acting on the composite specimen.

  8. Functional palm oil-based margarine by enzymatic interesterification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Nuzul Amri Bin; Xu, Xuebing

    Palm stearin, palm kernel and fish oils were blended to a various composition ratios and enzymatically interesterified by Lipozyme TL IM lipase (Thermomyces lanuginosa) using a continuous packed bed reactor. The ratio of the oils ranged from 60-90%, 10-40% and 0-10% respectively. The enzyme was a...

  9. Caracterização sensorial de amêndoas de castanha-de-caju fritas e salgadas Sensory characterization of cashew nut kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice R. LIMA

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Amêndoas de castanha-de-caju fritas e salgadas foram acondicionadas em três embalagens flexíveis (PP/PE=polipropileno/polietileno; PETmet/PE= polietileno tereftalato metalizado/polietileno; PET/Al/PEBD= polietileno tereftalato/alumínio/polietileno de baixa densidade com diferentes propriedades de barreira ao vapor de água e ao oxigênio. As amêndoas foram armazenadas durante 1 ano, a 30° C e 80% de umidade relativa. No final do período de 1 ano de armazenamento, realizou-se análise sensorial descritiva quantitativa (ADQ. Os termos descritivos levantados para caracterização sensorial das amêndoas foram, para aparência: cor torrada, uniformidade de cor e rugosidade; para aroma: castanha torrada, doce, ranço e velho; para sabor: castanha torrada, doce, ranço, velho, sal e amargo; para textura: crocância. Observou-se que os fatores mais diretamente responsáveis pela perda de qualidade sensorial das amêndoas de castanha-de-caju foram desenvolvimento de aroma e sabor de velho e de ranço, perda de sabor e aroma de castanha torrada e perda de crocância. Após o período de armazenamento, estes fatores foram observados com maior intensidade nas amêndoas embaladas em PP/PE.Shelled, roasted and salted cashew nut kernels were packaged in three different flexible materials (PP/PE= polypropylene / polyethylene; PETmet/PE= metallized polyethylene terephthalate / polyethylene; PET/Al/LDPE= polyethylene terephthalate / aluminum foil / low density polyethylene , with different barrier properties. Kernels were stored for one year at 30° C and 80% relative humidity. Quantitative descriptive sensory analysis (QDA were performed at the end of storage time. Descriptive terms obtained for kernels characterization were brown color, color uniformity and rugosity for appearance; toasted kernel, sweet, old and rancidity for odor; toasted kernel, sweet, old rancidity, salt and bitter for taste, crispness for texture. QDA showed that factors responsible

  10. Effect of process parameters on hydrothermal liquefaction of oil palm biomass for bio-oil production and its life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Yi Herng; Yusup, Suzana; Quitain, Armando T.; Tan, Raymond R.; Sasaki, Mitsuru; Lam, Hon Loong; Uemura, Yoshimitsu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Water is used as a clean solvent to liquefy palm biomass to bio-oil. • The optimum liquefaction condition of oil palm biomass is 390 °C and 25 MPa. • Optimum reaction time for liquefaction of empty fruit bunch and palm mesocarp fiber is 120 min. • Optimum reaction time for liquefaction of palm kernel shell is 240 min. • From the life cycle assessment, a net 2.29 kg CO 2 equivalent is generated per kg of bio-oil produced. - Abstract: This paper presents the studies on the effect of three process parameters; temperature, pressure and reaction time on the subcritical and supercritical hydrothermal liquefaction of oil palm empty fruit bunch, palm mesocarp fiber and palm kernel shell. The effect of temperature (330–390 °C), pressure (25–35 MPa) and reaction time (30–240 min) on bio-oil yields were investigated using a Inconel batch reactor. The optimum liquefaction condition for empty fruit bunch, palm mesocarp fiber and palm kernel shell was at supercritical condition of water; 390 °C and 25 MPa. For the effect of reaction time, bio-oil from empty fruit bunch and palm mesocarp fiber attained maximum yields at 120 min, whereas bio-oil yield from palm kernel shell continued to increase at reaction time of 240 min. Lastly, a life cycle assessment based on a conceptual biomass hydrothermal liquefaction process for bio-oil production was constructed and presented

  11. Interactions in interesterified palm and palm kernel oils mixtures. II – Microscopy and Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimaldi, Renato

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil (PO and palm kernel oil (PKO compositions (100/0, 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60, 20/80 and 0/100 were interesterified in laboratory scale under predetermined conditions (0.4% sodium metoxide, 20 minutes, 100ºC. The fourteen samples, before and after interesterification, were characterized by Polarized Light Microscopy and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC. Results showed the effect of various factors on the form and width of crystals. The mean area of crystals revealed the increase of crystals when PKO was added, with values varying from 2.7 x 10E3 µm2 to PO and 1.8 x 10E6 µm2 to PKO. After interesterification, the crystal widths were lower at PO/PKO 100/0, 80/20, 60/40, 20/80 fractions and were higher to anothers. The beta-prime polimorphic form was observed in the pure palm oil sample. The results showed in melting curves, onset values from –19.6ºC to more unsaturated peaks until 20.7ºC to more saturated ones. The higher values to more saturated peak in a melting curve to palm oil, 38.7 J.g-1 before and 48.4 J.g-1 after interesterification, showed a mores table saturated group. I n a genera l way, t h e interesterification promoted an increase of crystallization rate and a better compatibility between PO/PKO fractions.Fueron interesterificados en el laboratorio mezclas de aceite de palma (PO y aceite de palmiste (PKO en diferentes proporciones (100/0, 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60, 20/80 y 0/100 bajo condiciones predeterminadas (0.4% metoxido de sodio, 20 minutos, 100ºC. Las catorce muestras fueron caracterizadas antes y después de la interesterificación por Microscopía de Luz Polarizada y por Calorimetría Diferencial de Barrido (DSC. Los resultados mostraron el efecto de varios factores sobre la forma y anchura de los cristales. El área media de los cristales revela el aumento de tamaño de los mismos cuando aumenta la proporción de PKO, con valores que varían entre 2.7 x 10E3 µm2 para PO y 1.8 x 10E

  12. Purification, crystallization and initial crystallographic characterization of brazil-nut allergen Ber e 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Feng; Jin, Tengchuan; Howard, Andrew; Zhang, Yu-Zhu, E-mail: zhangy@iit.edu [Department of Biology, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States)

    2007-11-01

    The crystallization of the brazil nut allergen Ber e 2 is reported. Peanut and tree-nut allergies have attracted considerable attention because of their frequency and their lifelong persistence. Brazil-nut (Bertholletia excelsa) allergies have been well documented and the 11S legumin-like seed storage protein Ber e 2 (excelsin) is one of the two known brazil-nut allergens. In this study, Ber e 2 was extracted from brazil-nut kernels and purified to high purity by crystalline precipitation and gel-filtration chromatography. Well diffracting single crystals were obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. A molecular-replacement structural solution has been obtained. Refinement of the structure is currently under way.

  13. Applications of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of palm oil and oil from natural sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanda, Mohammed Jahurul Haque; Sarker, Mohammed Zaidul Islam; Ferdosh, Sahena; Manap, Mohd Yazid Abdul; Ab Rahman, Nik Norulaini Nik; Ab Kadir, Mohd Omar

    2012-02-10

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), which has received much interest in its use and further development for industrial applications, is a method that offers some advantages over conventional methods, especially for the palm oil industry. SC-CO₂ refers to supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) that uses carbon dioxide (CO₂) as a solvent which is a nontoxic, inexpensive, nonflammable, and nonpolluting supercritical fluid solvent for the extraction of natural products. Almost 100% oil can be extracted and it is regarded as safe, with organic solvent-free extracts having superior organoleptic profiles. The palm oil industry is one of the major industries in Malaysia that provides a major contribution to the national income. Malaysia is the second largest palm oil and palm kernel oil producer in the World. This paper reviews advances in applications of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO₂) extraction of oils from natural sources, in particular palm oil, minor constituents in palm oil, producing fractionated, refined, bleached, and deodorized palm oil, palm kernel oil and purified fatty acid fractions commendable for downstream uses as in toiletries and confectionaries.

  14. Applications of Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE of Palm Oil and Oil from Natural Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Omar Ab Kadir

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE, which has received much interest in its use and further development for industrial applications, is a method that offers some advantages over conventional methods, especially for the palm oil industry. SC-CO2 refers to supercritical fluid extraction (SFE that uses carbon dioxide (CO2 as a solvent which is a nontoxic, inexpensive, nonflammable, and nonpolluting supercritical fluid solvent for the extraction of natural products. Almost 100% oil can be extracted and it is regarded as safe, with organic solvent-free extracts having superior organoleptic profiles. The palm oil industry is one of the major industries in Malaysia that provides a major contribution to the national income. Malaysia is the second largest palm oil and palm kernel oil producer in the World. This paper reviews advances in applications of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 extraction of oils from natural sources, in particular palm oil, minor constituents in palm oil, producing fractionated, refined, bleached, and deodorized palm oil, palm kernel oil and purified fatty acid fractions commendable for downstream uses as in toiletries and confectionaries.

  15. Moisture Adsorption Isotherm and Storability of Hazelnut Inshells and Kernels Produced in Oregon, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jooyeoun; Wang, Wenjie; McGorrin, Robert J; Zhao, Yanyun

    2018-02-01

    Moisture adsorption isotherms and storability of dried hazelnut inshells and kernels produced in Oregon were evaluated and compared among cultivars, including Barcelona, Yamhill, and Jefferson. Experimental moisture adsorption data fitted to Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) model, showing less hygroscopic properties in Yamhill than other cultivars of inshells and kernels due to lower content of carbohydrate and protein, but higher content of fat. The safe levels of moisture content (MC, dry basis) of dried inshells and kernels for reaching kernel water activity (a w ) ≤0.65 were estimated using the GAB model as 11.3% and 5.0% for Barcelona, 9.4% and 4.2% for Yamhill, and 10.7% and 4.9% for Jefferson, respectively. Storage conditions (2 °C at 85% to 95% relative humidity [RH], 10 °C at 65% to 75% RH, and 27 °C at 35% to 45% RH), times (0, 4, 8, or 12 mo), and packaging methods (atmosphere vs. vacuum) affected MC, a w , bioactive compounds, lipid oxidation, and enzyme activity of dried hazelnut inshells or kernels. For inshells packaged at woven polypropylene bag, MC and a w of inshells and kernels (inside shells) increased at 2 and 10 °C, but decreased at 27 °C during storage. For kernels, lipid oxidation and polyphenol oxidase activity also increased with extended storage time (P adsorption and physicochemical and enzymatic stability during storage. Moisture adsorption isotherm of hazelnut inshells and kernels is useful for predicting the storability of nuts. This study found that water adsorption and storability varied among the different cultivars of nuts, in which Yamhill was less hygroscopic than Barcelona and Jefferson, thus more stable during storage. For ensuring food safety and quality of nuts during storage, each cultivar of kernels should be dried to a certain level of MC. Lipid oxidation and enzyme activity of kernel could be increased with extended storage time. Vacuum packaging was recommended to kernels for reducing moisture adsorption

  16. Physico-chemical properties of Moringa oleifera seed oil enzymatically interesterified with palm stearin and palm kernel oil and its potential application in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollah, Sarafhana; Abdulkarim, Sabo Mohammed; Ahmad, Siti Hajar; Khoramnia, Anahita; Mohd Ghazali, Hasanah

    2016-08-01

    High oleic acid Moringa oleifera seed oil (MoO) has been rarely applied in food products due to the low melting point and lack of plasticity. Enzymatic interesterification (EIE) of MoO with palm stearin (PS) and palm kernel oil (PKO) could yield harder fat stocks that may impart desirable nutritional and physical properties. Blends of MoO and PS or PKO were examined for triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, thermal properties and solid fat content (SFC). EIE caused rearrangement of TAGs, reduction of U3 and increase of U2 S in MoO/PS blends while reduction of U3 and S3 following increase of S2 U and U2 S in MoO/PKO blends (U, unsaturated and S, saturated fatty acids). SFC measurements revealed a wide range of plasticity, enhancements of spreadability, mouthfeel and cooling effect for interesterified MoO/PS, indicating the possible application of these blends in margarines. However, interesterified MoO/PKO was not suitable in margarine application, while ice-cream may be formulated from these blends. A soft margarine formulated from MoO/PS 70:30 revealed high oxidative stability during 8 weeks storage with no significant changes in peroxide and p-anisidine values. EIE of fats with MoO allowed nutritional and oxidative stable plastic fats to be obtained, suitable for possible use in industrial food applications. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Production of ethanol and feed by high dry matter hydrolysis and fermentation of palm kernel press cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Henning; Sanadi, Anand R; Felby, Claus; Lange, Niels Erik Krebs; Fischer, Morten; Ernst, Steffen

    2010-05-01

    Palm kernel press cake (PKC) is a residue from palm oil extraction presently only used as a low protein feed supplement. PKC contains 50% fermentable hexose sugars present in the form of glucan and mainly galactomannan. This makes PKC an interesting feedstock for processing into bioethanol or in other biorefinery processes. Using a combination of mannanase, beta-mannosidase, and cellulases, it was possible without any pretreatment to hydrolyze PKC at solid concentrations of 35% dry matter with mannose yields up to 88% of theoretical. Fermentation was tested using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in both a separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) setup. The hydrolysates could readily be fermented without addition of nutrients and with average fermentation yields of 0.43 +/- 0.02 g/g based on consumed mannose and glucose. Employing SSF, final ethanol concentrations of 70 g/kg was achieved in 216 h, corresponding to an ethanol yield of 70% of theoretical or 200 g ethanol/kg PKC. Testing various enzyme mixtures revealed that including cellulases in combination with mannanases significantly improved ethanol yields. Processing PKC to ethanol resulted in a solid residue enriched in protein from 17% to 28%, a 70% increase, thereby potentially making a high-protein containing feed supplement.

  18. Evaluation of dum palm kernel activated carbon in chromium and lead adsorption from synthetic waste water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HI Mohammed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at the co-current removal of chromium and lead ions from synthetic waste water using dum palm kernel activated carbon. The adsorption experiment was conducted by varying time, pH and concentrations of the simulated solution. The data obtained were analyzed, and the best conditions for the uptake were at pH of 6, equilibrium time of 40 minutes. The two best isotherms models for the adsorption system were Sip, and Dubinin–Radushkevich, models respectively. Based on the Temkin adsorption energy calculated as 9.5793 and 0.4997 J/mol, the uptake of lead and chromium were chemisorption and physico-sorption, respectively. The maximum uptake calculated from Dubinin–Radushkevich plots were 14.1696 and 7.7191 mg/g, for lead and chromium, respectively.International Journal of Environment Vol.5(3 2016, pp.104-118

  19. Repeatedly heated palm kernel oil induces hyperlipidemia, atherogenic indices and hepatorenal toxicity in rats: Beneficial role of virgin coconut oil supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famurewa, Ademola C; Nwankwo, Onyebuchi E; Folawiyo, Abiola M; Igwe, Emeka C; Epete, Michael A; Ufebe, Odomero G

    2017-01-01

    The literature reports that the health benefits of vegetable oil can be deteriorated by repeated heating, which leads to lipid oxidation and the formation of free radicals. Virgin coconut oil (VCO) is emerging as a functional food oil and its health benefits are attributed to its potent polyphenolic compounds. We investigated the beneficial effect of VCO supplementation on lipid profile, liver and kidney markers in rats fed repeatedly heated palm kernel oil (HPO). Rats were divided into four groups (n = 5). The control group rats were fed with   a normal diet; group 2 rats were fed a 10% VCO supplemented diet; group 3 administered 10 ml HPO/kg b.w. orally; group 4 were fed 10% VCO + 10 ml HPO/kg for 28 days. Subsequently, serum markers of liver damage (ALT, AST, ALP and albumin), kidney damage (urea, creatinine and uric acid), lipid profile and lipid ratios as cardiovascular risk indices were evaluated. HPO induced a significant increase in serum markers of liver and kidney damage as well as con- comitant lipid abnormalities and a marked reduction in serum HDL-C. The lipid ratios evaluated for atherogenic and coronary risk indices in rats administered HPO only were remarkably higher than control. It was observed that VCO supplementation attenuated the biochemical alterations, including the indices of cardiovascular risks. VCO supplementation demonstrates beneficial health effects against HPO-induced biochemical alterations in rats. VCO may serve to modulate the adverse effects associated with consumption of repeatedly heated palm kernel oil.

  20. Climate change sensitivity of the African ivory nut palm, Hyphaene petersiana Klotzsch ex Mart. (Arecaceae) - a keystone species in SE Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blach-Overgaard, A; Svenning, J-C; Balslev, H

    2009-01-01

    Africa is the most vulnerable continent to future climate change. Profound changes are projected for southwestern Africa with increased drying, notably with delayed onset of the rainy season in September-November, and temperature increases in all seasons. The projected climate changes combined with land-use changes are thought to constitute the main threats to biodiversity in the 21st century. To be able to predict the potential impact on biodiversity, it is crucial to achieve a better insight into the controls of contemporary species ranges. Using species distribution modeling, we assessed the climate sensitivity of the key-stone palm species Hyphaene petersiana (African ivory nut palm) in southern Africa. We tested the relative roles of climate vs. non-climatic range-controls and found that climate had a clear effect on the range of H. petersiana and that especially water-related variables (annual precipitation and precipitation driest quarter) were of high importance. Nevertheless, latitude was the overall most dominant variable, reflecting spatial constraints on the continental-scale distribution. Of the remaining non-climatic factors, soil type and human influence were as important as the climatic factors. A future decrease in annual precipitation below 400 mm and hydrological changes towards drier conditions could cause a dramatic decline in H. petersiana populations, while the influence of temperature changes is less clear. The ongoing, unsustainable utilization pressures on this palm species by humans and livestock are likely to exacerbate the negative effect of future climate changes on its populations, especially, given the expected human population increase in Africa.

  1. Effect Of Palm Oil Supplementation On The Performance Of Broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 21-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of palm oil supplementation on the performance of broiler starter birds fed palm kernel meal based diets. One hundred and twenty (120) one-week-old Anak broilers were randomly assigned to five (5) treatment diets, each treatment diet was replicated four times at ...

  2. Production of Manooligomannan from Palm Kernel Cake by Mannanase Produced from Streptomyces Cyaenus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awan Purnawan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The increase of public attention to health has prompted researchers to look for new sources of functional food. Palm Cake Kernel (PKC waste was abundant in Indonesia, Oligosaccharide has an important benefit for human health. Recently oligosaccharide is not only important as an artificial sweetener, but also as a functional food component. This study was aimed to produce oligo-mannan enzymatically from PKC waste using mannanase derived from of Streptomyces cyaenus isolates of indigenous Indonesia. The enzyme concentration was determined by enzyme activity assay while oligo-mannan content in the PKC was analyzed using TLC and HPLC. Mannanase enzyme activity of 1706 U/ml on the second day of agitation 200 rpm at a temperature of 30°C Hydrolysis of mannooligomannan by using mannanase produced by streptomyces cyaenus. The optimum mannanase enzyme activity obtained on day 2 with the value of the activity as much of 0.702 U/mL. The protein content of the 2nd day at an agitation speed of 150 rpm, 200 rpm, and 250 rpm, respectively, were 1783, 1950 and 2283 ppm. Streptomyces cyaenus is Indonesian original isolates potentially producing mannanase that can produce mannooligomannan.

  3. proximate and ultimate analysis of fuel pellets from oil palm residues

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    Keywords: Oil Palm Residues, Fuel Pellets, Proximate Analysis, Ultimate Analysis. 1. INTRODUCTION ... Pelletizing of this biomass resources into pellets is a way of ensuring a ... demand for pellets [3], and alternative feed-stocks such as palm kernel ... agro-residues, selection of the best pellets has to be made based on ...

  4. Performance and meat quality characteristics of broilers fed fermented mixture of grated cassava roots and palm kernel cake as replacement for maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwukaelo, A K; Aladi, N O; Okeudo, N J; Obikaonu, H O; Ogbuewu, I P; Okoli, I C

    2018-03-01

    Performance and meat quality characteristics of broilers fed fermented mixture of grated cassava roots and palm kernel cake (FCP-mix) as a replacement for maize were studied. One hundred and eighty (180), 7-day-old broiler chickens were divided into six groups of 30 birds, and each group replicated thrice. Six experimental diets were formulated for both starter and finisher stages with diets 1 and 6 as controls. Diet 1 contained maize whereas diet 6 contained a 1:1 mixture of cassava root meal (CRM) and palm kernel cake (PKC). In diets 2, 3, 4, and 5, the FCP-mix replaced maize at the rate of 25, 50, 75, and 100%, respectively. Each group was assigned to one experimental diet in a completely randomized design. The proximate compositions of the diets were evaluated. Live weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), carcass weight, and sensory attributes of the meats were obtained from each replicate and data obtained was analyzed statistically. The results showed that live weight, average daily weight gain (ADWG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and FCR of birds on treatment diets were better than those on the control diets (Diets 1 and 6). The feed cost per kilogram weight gained decreased with inclusion levels of FCP-mix. Birds on diet 1 recorded significantly (p  0.05) affected by the inclusion of FCP-mix in the diets. FCP-mix is a suitable substitute for maize in broiler diet at a replacement level of up to 100% for best live weight, carcass weight yield, and meat quality.

  5. Sustainable Biofuels and Other Related Bio-Products from Palm Cultivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Farid Nasir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Various kinds of palm trees are grown in the tropical regions of the world that provide edible oils for food consumption. They have in common in providing edible oils from the nuts and some from the mesocarp such as oil palm. More than 400 mills in Malaysia have provided more than sufficient energy from the biomass in processing the fruits to crude palm oil. The biomass are the mesocarp fibres, shells or endocarp, empty fruit bunches and palm oil mill effluents. One option of treatment of this biomass is to convert into bio-oil, bio-char, bio-adhesives and methyl ester. Recent research using microwave processing of biomass and biodiesel are given in this paper.

  6. determining the optimum combination of palm kernel cake

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Twenty (20) female grasscutters at 14 months of age were used for the study, which lasted for ten ... commercial production of grasscutter would boost efforts .... Range test (Steel and Torrie, 1980). .... based on oil palm by-products in Malaysia.

  7. Occurrence of Aspergillus section Flavi and section Nigri and aflatoxins in raw cashew kernels (Anacardium occidentale L.) from Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamboni, Yendouban; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Hell, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    -MS/MS). The average water content and the cashew nuts count were respectively 8.6% and 172 nuts/kg in NG and 8.7% and 174 nuts/kg in SS. Significant differences between villages in both zones were found for both water content and nuts count. In disinfected samples, strains of Aspergillus section Nigri were...... contamination, a total of 100 kernels/sample (with disinfection) and 40 kernels/sample (without disinfection) were plated. Seventy samples from fourteen villages were used. Aflatoxins occurrence was analysed on 84 samples by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC...

  8. Influence of enzymatic and chemical interesterification on crystallisation properties of refined, bleached and deodourised (RBD) palm oil and RBD palm kernel oil blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norizzah, Abd Rashid; Nur Azimah, Kamarulzaman; Zaliha, Omar

    2018-04-01

    Interesterification reaction involves rearrangement of the fatty acid radicals on the glycerol backbone, either randomly (chemical interesterification) or regioselectivity (enzymatic interesterification). Refined, bleached and deodourised palm oil (RBDPO) and palm kernel oil (RBDPKO) were blended in ratios from 25:75 to 75:25 (wt/wt). All blends were subjected to enzymatic (EI) and chemical interesterification (CI) using Lipozyme TL IM (4% w/w) and sodium methoxide (0.2% m/m) as the catalysts, respectively. The effect of EI and CI on the triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, thermal behaviour, polymorphism, crystal morphology and crystallisation kinetics were studied. The aim of this research is to characterise the nature of crystals in food product for certain desired structure. The crystallisation behaviour discussed in this study involves microstructure (PLM), polymorphism (XRD), thermal properties and crystallisation kinetics by DSC. The alteration in TAG composition was greater after CI as compared to EI with the reduction of LaLaLa (from 11.00% to 5.15%) and POO (from 14.28% to 4.87%). The DSC complete melting and crystallisation temperature of blend with 75% PO increased after CI, from 39.58 °C to 41.67 °C and from -30.84 °C to -28.33 °C, respectively. EI contributed to finer crystals than CI. However, the β' and β polymorph mixture and crystallisation kinetics (n = 2) of PO-PKO blends did not change after CI and EI. The knowledge on controlling crystallisation of RBDPO and RBDPKO blends is vital for proper processing condition like margarine production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Tamarind seed powder and palm kernel cake: two novel agro residues for the production of tannase under solid state fermentation by Aspergillus niger ATCC 16620.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabu, A; Pandey, A; Daud, M Jaafar; Szakacs, G

    2005-07-01

    Palm kernel cake (PKC), the residue obtained after extraction of palm oil from oil palm seeds and tamarind seed powder (TSP) obtained after removing the fruit pulp from tamarind fruit pod were tested for the production of tannase under solid-state fermentation (SSF) using Aspergillus niger ATCC 16620. The fungal strain was grown on the substrates without any pretreatment. In PKC medium, a maximum enzyme yield of 13.03 IU/g dry substrate (gds) was obtained when SSF was carried out at 30 degrees C, 53.5% initial substrate moisture, 33 x 10(9) spores/5 g substrate inoculum size and 5% tannic acid as additional carbon source after 96 h of fermentation. In TSP medium, maximum tannase yield of 6.44 IU/gds was obtained at 30 degrees C, 65.75% initial substrate moisture, 11 x 10(9) spores/5 g substrate inoculum, 1% glycerol as additional carbon source and 1% potassium nitrate as additional nitrogen source after 120 h of fermentation. Results from the study are promising for the economic utilization and value addition of these important agro residues, which are abundantly available in many tropical and subtropical countries.

  10. Material flow analysis for resource management towards resilient palm oil production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamahara, H.; Faisal, M.; Hasanudin, U.; Fujie, K.; Daimon, H.

    2018-03-01

    Biomass waste generated from palm oil mill can be considered not only as the feedstock of renewable energy but also as the nutrient-rich resources to produce organic fertilizer. This study explored the appropriate resource management towards resilient palm oil production by applying material flow analysis. This study was conducted based on two palm oil mills in Lampung, Indonesia. The results showed that the empty fruit bunch (EFB) has the largest potential in terms of amount and energy among the biomass waste. The results also showed that the palm oil mills themselves had already self-managed their energy consumption thatwas obtained from palm kernel shell and palm press fiber. Finally, this study recommended the several utilization options of EFB for improvement of soil sustainability to contribute towards resilient palm oil production.

  11. Palm oil and derivatives: fuels or potential fuels?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pioch Daniel

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Scientific and technical information including field trials about uses of palm oil as fuel has been available for more than half a century now. Several ways were investigated, from the simple mixture with petroleum Diesel fuel, to more sophisticated solutions. The quality of vegetable oils in natura as fuel is difficult to assess because of interferences between properties of the triacylglycerols – the main components – and those of the many minor components, their content varying significantly from sample to sample. A methodology set up at Cirad allowed to investigate separately natural triacylglycerols alone and the effect of minor components. In addition to these laboratory experiments, engine test at bench and field trials performed in palm oil producing countries, show that this oil is among the best oils as fuel; palm kernel oil whose chemical and physical properties are very close to those of the best of the series investigated, namely copra oil, should display also very interesting properties as Diesel biofuel. Both oils do require external adaptation of the engine when using an indirect injection type engine but even heavier adaptations for a direct injection model. Thus for use as Diesel fuel palm and palm kernel oils are suitable for captive fleets or for engine gensets, to balance the adaptation cost by a scale-up effect either on the number of identical engines or on the nominal vegetable oil consumption per set. Direct use of palm et palm kernel oils fits very well with technical and economical conditions encountered in remote areas. It is also possible to mix palm oil to Diesel fuel either as simple blend or as micro-emulsion. Out of the direct use, palm oil methyl or ethyl ester, often referred to as biodiesel, displays properties similar to those of petroleum Diesel fuel. This technical solution which is suitable to feed all kinds of standard compression ignited engines requires a chemical plant for carrying out the

  12. PREPARATION OF VARIOUS TYPES OF PULP FROM OIL PALM LIGNOCELLULOSIC RESIDUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ryohei Tanaka; Leh Cheu Peng; Wan Rosli Wan Daud

    2004-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION Oil palm, Elaeis Guineensis, (Figure 1) is one of the most important plants in Malaysia. It produces palm oil and palm kernel oil, which is widely being used in food and other industries such as detergents and cosmetics. Malaysia is the world′s largest producer and exporter of the oil, so that the country′s economy is very much dependent on these oil products. Although oil from the palm tree is an excellent product for the country, residues from oil palm have not been used sufficiently. In this 10~15 years, development in new technologies for utilizing this lignocellulosic waste is categorized as one of the most important issues in science policy of Malaysia.

  13. Design And Performance Characteristics Of Palm Kernel Nuts Drier ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The maximum production requirement was 40kg per day on the basis of an 8- hour shift. The drier is also suitable for drying several agricultural products under varying temperature condition. Key words: control circuit, cabinet drier, agricultural products, temperature, digital display. Nig. J. of Pure & Appl. Physics Vol.3 2004: ...

  14. Modeling and optimization by particle swarm embedded neural network for adsorption of zinc (II) by palm kernel shell based activated carbon from aqueous environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karri, Rama Rao; Sahu, J N

    2018-01-15

    Zn (II) is one the common pollutant among heavy metals found in industrial effluents. Removal of pollutant from industrial effluents can be accomplished by various techniques, out of which adsorption was found to be an efficient method. Applications of adsorption limits itself due to high cost of adsorbent. In this regard, a low cost adsorbent produced from palm oil kernel shell based agricultural waste is examined for its efficiency to remove Zn (II) from waste water and aqueous solution. The influence of independent process variables like initial concentration, pH, residence time, activated carbon (AC) dosage and process temperature on the removal of Zn (II) by palm kernel shell based AC from batch adsorption process are studied systematically. Based on the design of experimental matrix, 50 experimental runs are performed with each process variable in the experimental range. The optimal values of process variables to achieve maximum removal efficiency is studied using response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN) approaches. A quadratic model, which consists of first order and second order degree regressive model is developed using the analysis of variance and RSM - CCD framework. The particle swarm optimization which is a meta-heuristic optimization is embedded on the ANN architecture to optimize the search space of neural network. The optimized trained neural network well depicts the testing data and validation data with R 2 equal to 0.9106 and 0.9279 respectively. The outcomes indicates that the superiority of ANN-PSO based model predictions over the quadratic model predictions provided by RSM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Optimization of palm kernel shell torrefaction to produce energy densified bio-coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asadullah, Mohammad; Adi, Ag Mohammad; Suhada, Nurul; Malek, Nur Hanina; Saringat, Muhammad Ilmam; Azdarpour, Amin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Around 70% of bio-coal yield was achieved from PKS torrefaction at 300 °C. • The higher heating value of optimized bio-coal was 24.5 MJ/kg. • Around 94% of thermal yield was achieved with 70% mass yield. • The grindability of optimized bio-coal was comparable with coal. - Abstract: Biomass torrefaction is a thermal process, which is similar to a mild form of pyrolysis at temperatures ranging from 200 to 320 °C to produce energy densified solid fuel. The torrefied biomass is almost equivalent to coal and is termed as bio-coal. During torrefaction, highly volatile fraction of biomass including moisture and hemicellulose are released as vapors, providing energy enriched solid fuel, which is hydrophobic and brittle. In this study, bio-coal is produced from palm kernel shell (PKS) in a batch feeding reactor. The operating variables such as temperature, residence time and swiping gas flow rate are optimized. Around 73% yield of bio-coal with calorific value of 24.5 MJ/kg was achieved at optimum temperature 300 °C with residence time of 20 min and nitrogen gas flow rate of 300 mL/min. The thermal yield was calculated to be maximum of 94% for the bio-coal produced at 300 °C. The temperature and residence time of torrefaction are found to be the most sensitive parameters in terms of product yield, calorific value and thermal yield of bio-coal

  16. Formulation development and optimization of palm kernel oil esters-based nanoemulsions containing sodium diclofenac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee, Malahat; Basri, Mahiran; Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abdul; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Chaibakhsh, Naz; Karjiban, Roghayeh Abedi

    2014-01-01

    Response surface methodology was employed to study the effect of formulation composition variables, water content (60%-80%, w/w) and oil and surfactant (O/S) ratio (0.17-1.33), as well as high-shear emulsification conditions, mixing rate (300-3,000 rpm) and mixing time (5-30 minutes) on the properties of sodium diclofenac-loaded palm kernel oil esters-nanoemulsions. The two response variables were droplet size and viscosity. Optimization of the conditions according to the four variables was performed for preparation of the nanoemulsions with the minimum values of particle size and viscosity. The results showed that the experimental data could be sufficiently fitted into a third-order polynomial model with multiple regression coefficients (R(2) ) of 0.938 and 0.994 for the particle size and viscosity, respectively. Water content, O/S ratio and mixing time, quadrics of all independent variables, interaction between O/S ratio and mixing rate and between mixing time and rate, as well as cubic term of water content had a significant effect (Pdiclofenac nanoemulsions were predicted to be: 71.36% water content; 0.69 O/S ratio; 950 rpm mixing rate, and 5 minute mixing time. The optimized formulation showed good storage stability in different temperatures.

  17. What Is the "Areca" in "Areca Nuts"? Extraction and Neuroactive Bioassay of Arecoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locock, Katherine; Bakas, Tim; Sanai, Farid; Allan, Robin; Hinton, Tina

    2016-01-01

    A series of three practical sessions are designed to give students firsthand experience with the preparation of natural product extracts and assay using a live tissue preparation. Areca or betel nuts are the seeds from the fruit of the "Areca catechu" palm tree that is known to contain a number of pharmacologically active alkaloids. The…

  18. PREPARATION OF VARIOUS TYPES OF PULP FROM OIL PALM LIGNOCELLULOSIC RESIDUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RyoheiTanaka; LehCheuPeng; WanRosliWanDaud

    2004-01-01

    Oil palm, Elaeis Guineensis, (Figure 1) is one of the most important plants in Malaysia. It produces palm oil and palm kernel oil, which is widely being used in food and other industries such as detergents and cosmetics. Malaysia is the world's largest producer and exporter of the oil, so that the country's economy is very much dependent on these oil products. Although oil from the palm tree is an excellent product for the country, residues from oil palm have not been used sufficiently. In this 10-15 years, development in new technologies for utilizing this lignocellulosic waste is categorized as one of the most important issues in science policy of Malaysia. Here we would like to introduce recent situation of palm oil and oil palm lignocellulosic residues at the first part of this paper. In the second part, our recent studies on the preparation of pulps for different purposes will be summarized.

  19. Effect of pH on ionic liquid mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticle using elaiseguineensis (palm oil) kernel extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, Muhammad; Ahmad, Tausif; Moniruzzaman, Muhammad; Abdullah, Bawadi

    2017-05-01

    This study was conducted for microwave assisted synthesis of stable gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) by reduction of chloroauric acid with Elaeis Guineensis (palm oil) kernel (POK) extract which was prepared in aqueous solution of ionic liquid, [EMIM][OAc], 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate. Effect of initial pH of reaction mixture (3.5 - 8.5) was observed on SPR absorbance, maximum wavelength (λmax ) and size distribution of AuNPs. Change of pH of reaction mixture from acidic to basic region resulted in appearance of strong SPR absorption peaks and blue shifting of λmax from 533 nm to 522 nm. TEM analysis revealed the formation of predominantly spherical AuNPs with mean diameter of 8.51 nm. Presence of reducing moieties such as flavonoids, phenolic and carboxylic groups in POK extract was confirmed by FTIR analysis. Colloidal solution of AuNPs was remained stable at room temperature and insignificant difference in zeta value was recorded within experimental tenure of 4 months.

  20. Production and composition of buffalo milk supplemented with agro industrial byproducts of the african palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Bustamante Hinojosa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal for this applied research was to assess the production and composition of buffalo milk when Oil Palm kernel flour and Oil Palm kernel cake are supplemented to their diet. Thirty buffaloes from the grasslands of the Andes valleys in Colombia with 1 to 3 lactations and an average weight of 575 kg were selected for the experimental. The animals were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups: (T1 Control Group with no diet supplements, (T2 1000 g·day-1 of oil palm kernel cake and 350 g·day-1 of molasses diet supplement, and (T3 1150 g·day-1 of oil palm kernel flour. During the first 100 days of lactation, the milk livestock were individually weighed and milked. Milking was scheduled every 15 days, for a total of seven samples. The supplement consumption was recorded and a bromatological analysis of grasses was performed. The chemical composition of the milk was determined using an ultrasonic Ekomilk analyzer and a fatty acid full profile analysis was made using High Liquid Pressure Chromatography (HLPC. A 7 x 3 multiple variable statistical analysis was performed by sampling seven fifteen day periods and three types of diet. The average values of milk components observed were: 3.54% protein; 7.4% fat; total solids 16.9%; non-fat solids 9.5%; 2.1 fats to protein ratio. The profile of fatty acids showed 2.34% of polyunsaturated; 33.1% of monounsaturated; 64.6% of unsaturated fatty acids; and 0.96% of Omega 6 acids. In conclusion was observed partial effect to fat supplementation in the buffaloes milk production.

  1. Relationship between fatty acid composition and biodiesel quality for nine commercial palm oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanida Lamaisri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is an alternative fuel consisting of alkyl esters of fatty acids from vegetable oils or animal fats. The fatty acid compositions in the oils used as feedstock can influence quality of the biodiesel. In the present study, oil content and fatty acid composition of mesocarp and kernel oil were examined from nine commercial oil palm Elaeis guineensis cultivars. Saponification number, iodine value and cetane number were calculated from palm oil fatty acid methyl ester compositions. Fruits of tenera oil palm were collected from a farmer’s plantation in Dan Makham Tia District, Kanchanaburi Province in 2009. Variation between cultivars was observed in oil content and fatty acid profile of mesocarp oil rather than kernel oil. The percentage of oil in dry mesocarp ranged from 63.8% to 74.9%. The mesocarp oil composed of 41.5 - 51.6% palmitic acid, 3.58-7.10% stearic acid, 32.8-42.5% oleic acid and 9.3-13.0% linoleic acid. Likewise saponification number, iodine value and cetane number of mesocarp oil fatty acid methyl ester showed more variation among cultivars, ranging from 196.5-198.9, 45.7-54.6 and 61.8-63.6, respectively. While those of kernel oil fatty acid methyl ester showed no different among cultivars, ranging from 229-242, 13.6-16.4 and 65.3-66.5, respectively. The cetane number of fatty acid methyl ester positively correlated with contents of myristic, palmitic and stearic acids in palm oil and saponification number of biodiesel, but negatively correlated with iodine value

  2. Black Ink of Activated Carbon Derived From Palm Kernel Cake (PKC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selamat, M. H.; Ahmad, A. H.

    2009-06-01

    Recycling the waste from natural plant to produce useful end products will benefit many industries and help preserve the environment. The research reported in this paper is an investigation on the use of the natural waste of palm kernel cake (PKC) to produce carbon residue as a black carbon for pigment source by using pyrolysis process. The activated carbons (AC) is produced in powder form using ball milling process. Rheological spectra in ink is one of quality control process in determining its performance properties. Findings from this study will help expand the scientific knowledge-base for black ink production and formulation base on PKC. Various inks with different weight percentage compositions of AC will be made and tested against its respective rheological properties in order to determine ideal ink printing system. The items in the formulation used comprised of organic and bio-waste materials with added additive to improve the quality of the black ink. Modified Polyurethane was used as binder. The binder's properties highlighted an ideal vehicle to be applied for good black ink opacity performance. The rheological behaviour is a general foundation for ink characterization where the wt% of AC-PKC resulted in different pseudoplastic behaviors, including the Newtonian behavior. The result found that Newtonian field was located in between 2 wt% and 10 wt% of AC-PKC composition with binder. Mass spectroscopy results shown that the carbon content in PKC is high and very suitable for black performance. In the ageing test, the pigment of PKC perform fairly according to the standard pigment of Black carbon (CB) of ferum oxide pigment. The contact angle for substrate's wettability of the ink system shown a good angle proven to be a water resistive coating on paper subtrates; an advantage of the PKC ink pigment performance.

  3. A new Density Functional Theory (DFT) based method for supporting the assignment of vibrational signatures of mannan and cellulose—Analysis of palm kernel cake hydrolysis by ATR-FT-IR spectroscopy as a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barsberg, Søren Talbro; Sanadi, Anand Ramesh; Jørgensen, Henning

    2011-01-01

    Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) FT-IR spectroscopy gives in situ information on molecular concentration, organization and interactions in plant cell walls. We demonstrate its potential for further developments by a case study which combines ATR-FT-IR spectroscopy with a recently published DFT...... a decreasing degree of polymerization to be a plausible cause, although others may interfere. Keywords: Cellulose; Mannan; FT-IR; DFT; Molecular modelling; Palm kernel...

  4. Supervised Kernel Optimized Locality Preserving Projection with Its Application to Face Recognition and Palm Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kernel Locality Preserving Projection (KLPP algorithm can effectively preserve the neighborhood structure of the database using the kernel trick. We have known that supervised KLPP (SKLPP can preserve within-class geometric structures by using label information. However, the conventional SKLPP algorithm endures the kernel selection which has significant impact on the performances of SKLPP. In order to overcome this limitation, a method named supervised kernel optimized LPP (SKOLPP is proposed in this paper, which can maximize the class separability in kernel learning. The proposed method maps the data from the original space to a higher dimensional kernel space using a data-dependent kernel. The adaptive parameters of the data-dependent kernel are automatically calculated through optimizing an objective function. Consequently, the nonlinear features extracted by SKOLPP have larger discriminative ability compared with SKLPP and are more adaptive to the input data. Experimental results on ORL, Yale, AR, and Palmprint databases showed the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  5. Combustion of palm kernel shell in a fluidized bed: Optimization of biomass particle size and operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninduangdee, Pichet; Kuprianov, Vladimir I.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Safe burning of palm kernel shell is achievable in a FBC using alumina as the bed material. • Thermogravimetric analysis of the shell with different particle sizes is performed. • Optimal values of the shell particle size and excess air lead to the minimum emission costs. • Combustion efficiency of 99.4–99.7% is achievable when operated under optimal conditions. • CO and NO emissions of the FBC are at levels substantially below national emission limits. - Abstract: This work presents a study on the combustion of palm kernel shell (PKS) in a conical fluidized-bed combustor (FBC) using alumina sand as the bed material to prevent bed agglomeration. Prior to combustion experiments, a thermogravimetric analysis was performed in nitrogen and dry air to investigate the effects of biomass particle size on thermal and combustion reactivity of PKS. During the combustion tests, the biomass with different mean particle sizes (1.5 mm, 4.5 mm, 7.5 mm, and 10.5 mm) was burned at a 45 kg/h feed rate, while excess air was varied from 20% to 80%. Temperature and gas concentrations (O 2 , CO, C x H y as CH 4 , and NO) were recorded along the axial direction in the reactor as well as at stack. The experimental results indicated that the biomass particle size and excess air had substantial effects on the behavior of gaseous pollutants (CO, C x H y , and NO) in different regions inside the reactor, as well as on combustion efficiency and emissions of the conical FBC. The CO and C x H y emissions can be effectively controlled by decreasing the feedstock particle size and/or increasing excess air, whereas the NO emission can be mitigated using coarser biomass particles and/or lower excess air. A cost-based approach was applied to determine the optimal values of biomass particle size and excess air, ensuring minimum emission costs of burning the biomass in the proposed combustor. From the optimization analysis, the best combustion and emission performance of the

  6. The partial replacement of palm kernel shell by carbon black and halloysite nanotubes as fillers in natural rubber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Shuhairiah; Ismail, Hanafi; Bakar, Azhar Abu

    2017-07-01

    The effect of partial replacement of palm kernel shell powder by carbon black (CB) and halloysite nanotube (HNT) on the tensile properties, rubber-filler interaction, thermal properties and morphological studies of natural rubber (NR) composites were investigated. Four different compositions of NR/PKS/CB and NR/PKS/HNT composites i.e 20/0, 15/5, 10/10,5/15 and 0/20 parts per hundred rubber (phr) were prepared on a two roll mill. The results showed that the tensile strength and modulus at 100% elongation (M100) and 300% elongation (M300) were higher for NR/PKS/CB compared to NR/PKS/HNT composites. NR/PKS/CB composites had the lowest elongation at break (Eb). The effect of commercial fillers in NR/PKS composites on tensile properties was confirmed by the rubber-filler interaction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study. The thermal stability of PKS filled NR composites with partially replaced by commercial fillers also determined by Thermo gravimetric Analysis (TGA).

  7. Fabrication and Performance Evaluation of a Thevetia Nut Cracking Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Odewole

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Thevetia seed contains about 64 percent of non-edible oil in its oily kernel and this oil can be used for various purposes such as biofuel and bio-oil; making of paints, insecticides, cosmetics, lubricants and cooling oil in electrical transformers. The cakes obtained after oil extraction are incorporated on the field as manure. In order to get quality oil kernels from the hard nuts, there is need to properly crack them; this process of cracking is still a great challenge. As result of the aforementioned problem, this work focused on the design, fabrication and performance evaluation of a thevetia nut cracking machine. The machine works based on the principle of attrition force. Some of the parts designed for were diameter of shaft (13 mm solid shaft and length of belt (A55, power required to operate the machine (2.5 hp, speed of operation (9.14 m/s and the appropriate dimension of angle iron bar of 45 mm × 45 mm × 3 mm was used for the structural support. The fabrication was done systematically followed by the performance evaluation of the machine. The result of the overall cracking efficiency and throughput capacity of the machine were evaluated to be 96.65 % and 510 g⁄min respectively.

  8. Evaluating oil palm fresh fruit bunch processing in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyaoha, Kelechi E; Sakrabani, Ruben; Patchigolla, Kumar; Mouazen, Abdul M

    2018-03-01

    Three routes of oil palm fresh fruit bunch (FFB) processing in Nigeria namely, industrial, small-scale and traditional were compared by means of determining fruit losses associated with each route. The fruits that are not recovered after each process were hand-picked and quantified in terms of crude palm oil (CPO), palm kernel (PK), mesocarp fibre (MF) and palm kernel shell (PKS). The energy value of empty fruit bunch (EFB), MF and PKS were used to determine the value of energy lost for each route. Additionally, the environmental implications of disposal of EFB were estimated, and socio-economics of the industrial and small-scale routes were related. The analysis showed that 29, 18, 75 and 27 kg of CPO, PK, MF and PKS were lost for every 1000 kg of FFB processed with the industrial route, whereas 5.6, 3.2, 1.4 and 5.1 g were lost with the small-scale route, respectively. Approximately 89 kWh and 31 kWh more energy were lost from MF and PKS with the industrial route than the other two routes, respectively. An equivalent of 6670 tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent of methane and nitrogen oxide was released due to the disposal of 29,000 tonnes of EFB from one palm oil mill. The monetary value of lost CPO per 1000 kg of FFB processed in the industrial route is more than the labour cost of processing 1000 kg of FFB in the small-scale route. The advantages of the industrial route are high throughput in terms of FFB processed per hour and high quality of CPO; however, high fruit loss is associated with it and therefore, the poorly threshed EFB is recommended to be fed into the small-scale route.

  9. The influence of Palm Kernel Cake and Rice Bran Fermentation Product Mixture to the Broiler Carcass Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadi Priabudiman

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study the effect of the use of palm kernel cake (PKC and rice bran (RB fermentation products mixture to the percentage of broiler carcass weight pieces. Research using completely randomized design (CRD with treatments of the fermentation product usage rate of   0% (P0, 10% (P1, 20% (P2, 30% (P3 and 40% (P4 of the total ration of 4replications.  Variables measured were percentage of carcass weight ratio cut    pieces  of carcass weight (carcass front, rear carcass, breast meat, wings, back, and thigh with carcass weight multiplied by 100%. The results showed that the percentage of carcass weight piece front and rear carcass was shown at P3.

  10. Waste to Wealth: Hidden Treasures in the Oil Palm Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loh Soh Kheang; Astimar Abdul Aziz; Ravigadevi Sambathamurthi; Mohd Basri Wahid

    2010-01-01

    The palm oil industry plays an important role in the creation of waste to wealth using the abundant oil palm biomass resources generated from palm oil supply chain i.e. upstream to downstream activities. The oil palm biomass and other palm-derived waste streams available are oil palm trunks (felled), fronds (felled and pruned), shell, mesocarp fibers, empty fruit bunches (EFB), palm oil mill effluent (POME), palm kernel expelled (PKE), palm fatty acid distillates (PFAD), used frying oil (UFO), residual oil from spent bleaching earth (SBE) and glycerol. For 88.5 million tonnes of fresh fruit bunches (FFB) processed in 2008, the amount of oil palm biomass generated was more than 25 million tones (dry weight basis) with the generation of 59 million tonnes of POME from 410 palm oil mills. Oil palm biomass consists of mainly lignocellulose materials that can be potentially and fully utilized for renewable energy, wood-based products and high value-added products such as pytonutrients, phenolics, carotenes and vitamin E. Oil palm biomass can be converted to bio energy with high combustible characteristics such as briquettes, bio-oils, bio-producer gas, boiler fuel, biogas and bio ethanol. Oil palm biomass can also be made into wood-based products such as composite and furniture, pulp and paper and planting medium. The recovery of phenolics from POME as valuable antioxidants has potential drug application. Other possible applications for oil palm biomass include fine chemicals, dietary fibers, animal feed and polymers. There must be a strategic and sustainable resource management to distribute palm oil and palm biomass to maximize the use of the resources so that it can generate revenues, bring benefits to the palm oil industry and meet stringent sustainability requirements in the future. (author)

  11. Recovery and subsequent characterization of polyhydroxybutyrate from Rhodococcus equi cells grown on crude palm kernel oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Altaee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The gram-positive bacterium Rhodococcus equi was isolated from fertile soil, and mineral salt media (MM and trace elements were used to provide the necessary elements for its growth and PHB production in addition to using crude palm kernel oil (CPKO 1% as the carbon source. Gas chromatography (GC demonstrated that the composition of the recovered biopolymer was homopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB. The strain of the present study has a dry biomass of 1.43 (g/l with 38% PHB, as determined by GC. The recovered PHB was characterized by NMR to study the chemical structure. In addition, DSC and TGA were used to study the thermal properties of the recovered polymer, where the melting temperature (Tm was 173 °C, the glass transition temperature (Tg was 2.79 °C, and the decomposition temperature (Td was 276 °C. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC was used to study the molecular mass of the recovered PHB in addition to comparing the results with other studies using different bacteria and substrates, where the molecular weight was 642 kDa, to enable its usage in many applications. The present study demonstrated the use of an inexpensive substrate for PHB production, i.e., using gram-positive bacteria to produce PHB polymer with characterization.

  12. An Experimental Study of Briquetting Process of Torrefied Rubber Seed Kernel and Palm Oil Shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fadzli Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Torrefaction process of biomass material is essential in converting them into biofuel with improved calorific value and physical strength. However, the production of torrefied biomass is loose, powdery, and nonuniform. One method of upgrading this material to improve their handling and combustion properties is by densification into briquettes of higher density than the original bulk density of the material. The effects of critical parameters of briquetting process that includes the type of biomass material used for torrefaction and briquetting, densification temperature, and composition of binder for torrefied biomass are studied and characterized. Starch is used as a binder in the study. The results showed that the briquette of torrefied rubber seed kernel (RSK is better than torrefied palm oil shell (POS in both calorific value and compressive strength. The best quality of briquettes is yielded from torrefied RSK at the ambient temperature of briquetting process with the composition of 60% water and 5% binder. The maximum compressive load for the briquettes of torrefied RSK is 141 N and the calorific value is 16 MJ/kg. Based on the economic evaluation analysis, the return of investment (ROI for the mass production of both RSK and POS briquettes is estimated in 2-year period and the annual profit after payback was approximately 107,428.6 USD.

  13. Biodegradation of Palm Kernel Cake by Cellulolytic and Hemicellulolytic Bacterial Cultures through Solid State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Idris Alshelmani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Four cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic bacterial cultures were purchased from the Leibniz Institute DSMZ-German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Culture (DSMZ and the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC. Two experiments were conducted; the objective of the first experiment was to determine the optimum time period required for solid state fermentation (SSF of palm kernel cake (PKC, whereas the objective of the second experiment was to investigate the effect of combinations of these cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic bacteria on the nutritive quality of the PKC. In the first experiment, the SSF was lasted for 12 days with inoculum size of 10% (v/w on different PKC to moisture ratios. In the second experiment, fifteen combinations were created among the four microbes with one untreated PKC as a control. The SSF lasted for 9 days, and the samples were autoclaved, dried, and analyzed for proximate analysis. Results showed that bacterial cultures produced high enzymes activities at the 4th day of SSF, whereas their abilities to produce enzymes tended to be decreased to reach zero at the 8th day of SSF. Findings in the second experiment showed that hemicellulose and cellulose was significantly P<0.05 decreased, whereas the amount of reducing sugars were significantly P<0.05 increased in the fermented PKC (FPKC compared with untreated PKC.

  14. Condição hepática de cordeiros mantidos com dietas contendo torta de dendê proveniente da produção de biodiesel Hepatic condition of lambs fed diets with palm kernel cake from biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandro Silva Nunes

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi conduzida com o objetivo de verificar o melhor nível de torta de dendê na dieta de cordeiros por meio da avaliação da condição hepática. Foram utilizados 32 cordeiros Santa Inês não-castrados distribuídos em quatro dietas com 0,0; 6,5; 13,0 e 19,5% de torta de dendê na matéria seca (MS. A cada 15 dias, foram coletadas amostras de sangue dos animais, totalizando cinco coletas em todo o período experimental. Foram determinados os teores de triglicérides, colesterol, proteínas totais, albumina e globulina; as atividades das enzimas alanina aminotransferase (ALT, aspartatoaminotransferase (AST e gama glutamiltransferase (GGT; e as concentrações séricas de bilirrubina total, direta e indireta. O aumento do percentual de torta de dendê na dieta não influenciou a concentração de triglicérides, cujo valor médio foi de 40,57 mg/dL, mas elevou as concentrações de colesterol. Também não ocasionou diferença no conteúdo de proteínas totais, mas teve efeito quadrático crescente nos níveis de albumina e ureia e efeito linear decrescente nos níveis de globulinas. Não foram observadas diferenças estatísticas nas atividades das enzimas alanina-aminotransferase, aspartato-aminotransferase e gama-glutamiltransferase, que foram de 6,40; 37,59 e 62,38 UI/L, respectivamente. Igualmente, não foi detectada influência sobre a bilirrubina total, direta e indireta, cujas médias foram de 0,50; 0,11; e 0,38 mg/dL, respectivamente. O uso de torta de dendê em níveis de até 19,5% da dieta não causa transtornos metabólicos hepáticos em cordeiros.This study was conducted in order to verify the best level of palm kernel cake in the diet for lambs through evaluation of hepatic condition. It was used 32 non-castrated Santa Inês lambs distributed into four diets with palm kernel cake levels of 0.0; 6.5; 13.0 and 19.5% in the dry matter (DM. Every 15 days, blood samples were collected, totalizing five collects for the

  15. Processing of palm oil mill wastes based on zero waste technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvan

    2018-02-01

    Indonesia is currently the main producer of palm oil in the world with a total production reached 33.5 million tons per year. In the processing of fresh fruit bunches (FFB) besides producing palm oil and kernel oil, palm oil mills also produce liquid and solid wastes. The increase of palm oil production will be followed by an increase in the production of waste generated. It will give rise to major environmental issues especially the discharge of liquid waste to the rivers, the emission of methane from digestion pond and the incineration of empty fruit bunches (EFB). This paper describes a zero waste technology in processing palm oil mill waste after the milling process. The technology involves fermentation of palm oil mill effluent (POME) to biogas by using continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) in the presence of thermophilic microbes, producing activated liquid organic fertilizer (ALOF) from discharge of treated waste effluent from biogas digester, composting EFB by spraying ALOF on the EFB in the composter, and producing pellet or biochar from EFB by pyrolysis process. This concept can be considered as a promising technology for palm oil mills with the main objective of eliminating the effluent from their mills.

  16. Proteome analysis of the almond kernel (Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shugang; Geng, Fang; Wang, Ping; Lu, Jiankang; Ma, Meihu

    2016-08-01

    Almond (Prunus dulcis) is a popular tree nut worldwide and offers many benefits to human health. However, the importance of almond kernel proteins in the nutrition and function in human health requires further evaluation. The present study presents a systematic evaluation of the proteins in the almond kernel using proteomic analysis. The nutrient and amino acid content in almond kernels from Xinjiang is similar to that of American varieties; however, Xinjiang varieties have a higher protein content. Two-dimensional electrophoresis analysis demonstrated a wide distribution of molecular weights and isoelectric points of almond kernel proteins. A total of 434 proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS, and most were proteins that were experimentally confirmed for the first time. Gene ontology (GO) analysis of the 434 proteins indicated that proteins involved in primary biological processes including metabolic processes (67.5%), cellular processes (54.1%), and single-organism processes (43.4%), the main molecular function of almond kernel proteins are in catalytic activity (48.0%), binding (45.4%) and structural molecule activity (11.9%), and proteins are primarily distributed in cell (59.9%), organelle (44.9%), and membrane (22.8%). Almond kernel is a source of a wide variety of proteins. This study provides important information contributing to the screening and identification of almond proteins, the understanding of almond protein function, and the development of almond protein products. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Determination of pyrolysis characteristics and kinetics of palm kernel shell using TGA–FTIR and model-free integral methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Zhongqing; Chen, Dengyu; Gu, Jie; Bao, Binfu; Zhang, Qisheng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Model-free integral kinetics method and analytical TGA–FTIR were conducted on pyrolysis process of PKS. • The pyrolysis mechanism of PKS was elaborated. • Thermal stability was established: lignin > cellulose > xylan. • Detailed compositions in the volatiles of PKS pyrolysis were determinated. • The interaction of biomass three components led to the fluctuation of activation energy in PKS pyrolysis. - Abstract: Palm kernel shell (PKS) from palm oil production is a potential biomass source for bio-energy production. A fundamental understanding of PKS pyrolysis behavior and kinetics is essential to its efficient thermochemical conversion. The thermal degradation profile in derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) analysis shown two significant mass-loss peaks mainly related to the decomposition of hemicellulose and cellulose respectively. This characteristic differentiated with other biomass (e.g. wheat straw and corn stover) presented just one peak or accompanied with an extra “shoulder” peak (e.g. wheat straw). According to the Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) analysis, the prominent volatile components generated by the pyrolysis of PKS were CO 2 (2400–2250 cm −1 and 586–726 cm −1 ), aldehydes, ketones, organic acids (1900–1650 cm −1 ), and alkanes, phenols (1475–1000 cm −1 ). The activation energy dependent on the conversion rate was estimated by two model-free integral methods: Flynn–Wall–Ozawa (FWO) and Kissinger–Akahira–Sunose (KAS) method at different heating rates. The fluctuation of activation energy can be interpreted as a result of interactive reactions related to cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin degradation, occurred in the pyrolysis process. Based on TGA–FTIR analysis and model free integral kinetics method, the pyrolysis mechanism of PKS was elaborated in this paper

  18. Drying Shrinkage of Mortar Incorporating High Volume Oil Palm Biomass Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukor Lim, Nor Hasanah Abdul; Samadi, Mostafa; Rahman Mohd. Sam, Abdul; Khalid, Nur Hafizah Abd; Nabilah Sarbini, Noor; Farhayu Ariffin, Nur; Warid Hussin, Mohd; Ismail, Mohammed A.

    2018-03-01

    This paper studies the drying shrinkage of mortar incorporating oil palm biomass waste including Palm Oil Fuel Ash, Oil Palm Kernel Shell and Oil Palm Fibre. Nano size of palm oil fuel ash was used up to 80 % as cement replacement by weight. The ash has been treated to improve the physical and chemical properties of mortar. The mass ratio of sand to blended ashes was 3:1. The test was carried out using 25 × 25 × 160 mm prism for drying shrinkage tests and 70 × 70 ×70 mm for compressive strength test. The results show that the shrinkage value of biomass mortar is reduced by 31% compared with OPC mortar thus, showing better performance in restraining deformation of the mortar while the compressive strength increased by 24% compared with OPC mortar at later age. The study gives a better understanding of how the biomass waste affect on mortar compressive strength and drying shrinkage behaviour. Overall, the oil palm biomass waste can be used to produce a better performance mortar at later age in terms of compressive strength and drying shrinkage.

  19. Tree Nut Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blog Vision Awards Common Allergens Tree Nut Allergy Tree Nut Allergy Learn about tree nut allergy, how ... a Tree Nut Label card . Allergic Reactions to Tree Nuts Tree nuts can cause a severe and ...

  20. Personal Affairs: Child Development Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-15

    compete in the local labor market . Installations may not use the high cost range to compensate for inadequate funding with appropriated funds. Higher...for quarters or living quarters allowance (BAQ/LQA) soldiers or civilians would receive if they lived off post or fair market value for on–post quarters...Kernels), Arrowhead, Avocado (leaves), Azaleas, Betel Nut Palm, Bittersweet, Bleeding Heart, Buckeye, Buttercups, Caladium, Calla Lily, Castor Bean, Cat

  1. Hydraulic nuts (HydraNuts) for reactor vessel tensioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwell, Steve

    2008-01-01

    The paper will present how the introduction of hydraulic nuts - HydraNuts, has reduced critical path times, dose exposure for workers and improved working safety conditions around the reactor vessel during tensioning or de-tensioning operations. It will focus upon detailing the advantages realized by utilities that have introduced the technology and providing examples of the improvements made to the process as well as discussing the engineering design change packages required to make the conversion to the new system. HydraNuts replace the traditional mechanical nut/stud tensioning equipment, combining the two functions into a single system, designed for easy installation and operation by one individual. The primary components of the HydraNut can be assembled without the need for external crane or hoist support and are designed so that each sub assembly can be fitted separately. Once all HydraNuts are fitted to the Rx vessel studs and are sitting on the main Rx vessel head flange, then a system of flexible hydraulic hoses is connected to them, forming a closed loop hydraulic harness, which will allow for simultaneous pressurization of all HydraNuts. Hydraulic pressure is obtained by the use of a hydraulic pumping unit and the resultant load generated in each HydraNut is transferred to the stud and main flange closure is obtained. While maintaining hydraulic pressure, a locking ring is rotated into place on the HydraNut assembly that will support the tensioned load mechanically when the hydraulic pressure is released from the hose harness assembly. The hose harness is removed and the HydraNut is now functioning as a mechanical nut retaining the tensioned load. The HydraNut system for Rx vessel applications was first introduced into a plant in the U.S. in October 2006 and based upon the benefits realized subsequent projects are under way within the Asian and U.S. operating fleet. (author)

  2. Dynamic Changes in Phenolics and Antioxidant Capacity during Pecan (Carya illinoinensis) Kernel Ripening and Its Phenolics Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaodong; Luo, Huiting; Xu, Mengyang; Zhai, Min; Guo, Zhongren; Qiao, Yushan; Wang, Liangju

    2018-02-16

    Pecan ( Carya illinoinensis ) kernels have a high phenolics content and a high antioxidant capacity compared to other nuts-traits that have attracted great interest of late. Changes in the total phenolic content (TPC), condensed tannins (CT), total flavonoid content (TFC), five individual phenolics, and antioxidant capacity of five pecan cultivars were investigated during the process of kernel ripening. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadruple time-of-flight mass (UPLC-Q/TOF-MS) was also used to analyze the phenolics profiles in mixed pecan kernels. TPC, CT, TFC, individual phenolics, and antioxidant capacity were changed in similar patterns, with values highest at the water or milk stages, lowest at milk or dough stages, and slightly varied at kernel stages. Forty phenolics were tentatively identified in pecan kernels, of which two were first reported in the genus Carya , six were first reported in Carya illinoinensis , and one was first reported in its kernel. The findings on these new phenolic compounds provide proof of the high antioxidant capacity of pecan kernels.

  3. Characterizing haploinsufficiency of SHELL gene to improve fruit form prediction in introgressive hybrids of oil palm

    OpenAIRE

    Teh, Chee Keng; Muaz, Siti Dalila; Tangaya, Praveena; Fong, Po-Yee; Ong, Ai Ling; Mayes, Sean; Chew, Fook Tim; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna; Appleton, David Ross

    2017-01-01

    The fundamental trait in selective breeding of oil palm (Eleais guineensis Jacq.) is the shell thickness surrounding the kernel. The monogenic shell thickness is inversely correlated to mesocarp thickness, where the crude palm oil accumulates. Commercial thin-shelled tenera derived from thick-shelled dura???shell-less pisifera generally contain 30% higher oil per bunch. Two mutations, sh MPOB (M1) and sh AVROS (M2) in the SHELL gene ? a type II MADS-box transcription factor mainly present in ...

  4. Effects of de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizers on sole maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-03-08

    Mar 8, 2012 ... formulations on the yield of sole maize and cassava crops. Two de-oiled palm ..... establishment of nitrogen fixing bacteria in the rhizosphere. Microb ... Biological, and Social Sciences Research, 2nd Edition. Optimal Publ.

  5. Microbiological, sensorial and chemical quality of gamma irradiated pistachio nut (Pistacia vera l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfouz AL-BACHIR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of gamma irradiation and storage period on quality retention of raw pistachio nut. Var. Halebi. Kernel of the pistachio nuts were exposed to 1, 2 and 3 kGy of gamma irradiation. Irradiated and unirradiated nuts were kept at room temperature for 12 months. Used doses of irradiation significantly reduced the total bacterial plate counts (TBPCs and total fungal counts up to undetectable level (less than 10 CFU g-1. Irradiation doses of 1, 2 and 3 kGy of gamma irradiation seem to be suitable for post-harvest sanitation and decontamination treatment, without significant changes in the sensorial properties (texture, odor, color and taste, chemical quality (free fatty acids and pH value or in contents of moisture, proteins, sugars, lipid, and ash, with respect to the control samples. The highest used dose (3kGy slightly decreased the fatty acid content and pH value, and treatment with higher doses (2 and 3 kGy significantly increased the total volatile nitrogen TVN.

  6. Bio ethanol production from oil palm empty fruit bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loh Soh Kheang; Muhammad Asyraf Kasim; Nasrin Abu Bakar

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The oil palm industry has an abundance of oil palm biomass. The type of biomass generated includes empty fruit bunches (EFB), oil palm trunk (OPT), kernel, shell and fronds. Generally, ligno celluloses biomass derived from oil palm has great potential to be converted into various forms of renewable energy. In this study, EFB in pulverized form was used as a feedstock for bio ethanol production. EFB contains lignin, hemicelluloses and cellulose which can be converted into fermentable sugar and bio ethanol. The EFB was initially pre-treated with 1% NaOH followed by acid hydrolysis with 0.7% sulfuric acid and enzyme prior to fermentation process with Saccharomyces cerevisea. The various process parameters for bio ethanol production was optimized i.e. pH, temperature, rate of agitation and initial feedstock concentration. The fermentation of EFB hydrolysate was at pH 4, 30 degree Celsius and 100 rpm within 72 hours of incubation yielded 10.48 g/L of bio ethanol from 50 g/L of EFB. The bio ethanol production in a 6-L bioreactor showed 36% conversion of fermentable sugar from EFB into bio ethanol. (author)

  7. Hydrogen Production from Gasification of Palm Kernel Shell in the Presence of Fe/ CeO_2 Catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anita Ramli; Mas Fatiha Mohamad; Suzana Yusup; Taufiq, Y.Y.H.

    2016-01-01

    Bio hydrogen is a renewable source of clean fuel and energy which can be derived from biomass. One of the suitable candidate as a source of biomass is palm kernel shell (PKS). Our initial work shows that bio hydrogen may be produced from PKS in the presence of zeolite supported catalysts. The potential of using cerium oxide (CeO_2) supported catalysts for the production of bio hydrogen from PKS is explored in this work using 2.5 - 10 % Fe loading. The catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method and calcined at 500 degree Celsius for 16 h. The physicochemical properties of these catalysts were characterized using BET and XRD. The catalysts were tested in dry and steam gasification of PKS at 700 degree Celsius using PKS feeding rate of 2 g h"-"1 under N_2 atmosphere with biomass to catalyst ratio of 3:1 (wt/ wt). Steam to biomass ratio of 3.5:1 (wt/ wt) was used in steam gasification reaction. The gaseous products were analyzed using an on-line gas chromatography equipped with thermal conductivity detectors (TCD) and fitted with Molsieve 5A and Hayesep Q columns. Result shows that 2.5 % Fe/ CeO_2 gave the highest hydrogen production in both the dry and steam gasification of PKS. (author)

  8. Palm fruit in traditional African food culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atinmo, Tola; Bakre, Aishat Taiwo

    2003-01-01

    The centre of origin of the oil palm is the tropical rain forest region of West Africa. It is considered to be the 200-300 kilometre wide coastal belt between Liberia and Mayumbe. The oil palm tree has remained the 'tree of life' of Yoruba land as well as of other parts of southern West Africa to which it is indigenous. The Yoruba are adept at spinning philosophical and poetical proverbs around such ordinary things as hills, rivers, birds, animals and domestic tools. Hundreds of the traditional proverbs are still with us, and through them one can see the picture of the environment that contributed to the moulding of the thoughts of the people. Yoruba riddles or puzzles were also couched in terms of the environment and the solutions to them were also environmental items. They have a popular saying: A je eran je eran a kan egungun, a je egungun je egungun a tun kan eran: 'A piece of meat has an outer layer of flesh, an intermediate layer of bone and an inner layer of flesh'. What is it? A palm fruit: it has an outer edible layer, the mesocarp; then a layer of shell, inedible, and the kernel inside, edible. The solution to this puzzle summarises the botanical and cultural characteristics of the palm fruit.

  9. Physical Properties of Biomass Fuel Briquette from Oil Palm Residues

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Palm Kernel Shell (PKS) and Mesocarp Fibre (MF) were used for the production of fuel briquettes in this study in order to supplement the energy mix of the nation. PKS was pulverized and then sieved into different grain particles of 350 μm, 250 μm and 150 μm, before mixing with MF in the ratios: 90:10, 80:20 and 70:30 ...

  10. An experimental investigation to evaluate the heating value of palm oil waste by calorimetry. Paper no. IGEC-1-040

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supeni, E.E.; Megat Mohd, M.H.; Mohd Sapuan, S.; Nor Maria, A.; Ismail, M.Y.; Thoguluva, R.V.; Chuah, T.G.

    2005-01-01

    A palm oil mill produces palm oil and kernel palm oil as main products and biomass residue (fiber and shell). This excess biomass residue can be used as fuel in boilers to meet energy and process heat demand in the industries. Quality of the palm oil waste (POW) is characterized by low fixed carbon and relatively high moisture content which may affect the heating value (HV). By applying the principle of calorimetry, a bomb calorimeter is utilized to evaluate the heating value of POW. From the experimental results, it is found that higher heating value (HHV) varies with the moisture content (MC) and it is observed as a function of MC. (author)

  11. Prospective study for the production of oleochemicals derivates from palm and palm kernel oil in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ibeth Jaimes Moreno

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many ways get close to the future, being the prospective the one that concives the future, not like an unique reality but like a multiple one, obtained as a result of the identification of the human being future actions. For all this, the human being takes the knowledge, the yearnings and the fears that he sees for the actions he will undertake. Keeping in mind the characteristic of the palm cultivation (pereninal, of late growth, with a 25 years productive horizon, and the future of the sector captured in "Visión y estrategias de la palmicultura colombiana 2000 - 2020" together with the economic tendencies of the world, the methodology of planning denominated prospective, becomes an appropriate tool to establish the future of the oleochemical sector derived from the palm and palmist oils, which is right now very incipient in our country. Using the prospective, this article outlines the dynamics that will have the sector, starting from the definition of the keys that define the current and future behavior of the system, the position and the power that each one of the involved actors will have, and the determination of the scenarios (future representations will more probability to occur, as well as the definition of the scenario wanted and the strategies that will allow to reach it.

  12. Devolatilization studies of oil palm biomass for torrefaction process optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daud, D; Rahman, A Abd; Shamsuddin, A H

    2013-01-01

    Torrefaction of palm biomass, namely Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) and Palm Kernel Shell (PKS), was conducted using thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). The experiment was conducted in variation of temperatures of 200 °C, 260 °C and 300 °C at a constant residence time of 30 minutes. During the torrefaction process, the sample went through identifiable drying and devolatilization stages from the TGA mass loss. The percentage of volatile gases released was then derived for each condition referring to proximate analysis results for both biomass. It was observed an average of 96.64% and 87.53 % of the total moisture is released for EFB and PKS respectively. In all cases the volatiles released was observed to increase as the torrefaction temperature was increased with significant variation between EFB and PKS. At 300°C EFB lost almost half of its volatiles matter while PKS lost slightly over one third. Results obtained can be used to optimise condition of torrefaction according to different types of oil palm biomass.

  13. Effects of Enzyme Treated Palm Kernel Expeller on Metabolizable Energy, Growth Performance, Villus Height and Digesta Viscosity in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Saenphoom

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined whether pre-treating palm kernel expeller (PKE with exogenous enzyme would degrade its fiber content; thus improving its metabolizable energy (ME, growth performance, villus height and digesta viscosity in broiler chickens fed diets containing PKE. Our results showed that enzyme treatment decreased (p0.05 among treatment groups in the finisher period, ADG of chickens in the control (PKE-free diet was higher (p0.05 FCR. The intestinal villus height and crypt depth (duodenum, jejunum and ileum were not different (p>0.05 among treatments except for duodenal crypt depth. The villus height and crypt depth of birds in enzyme treated PKE diets were higher (p0.05 among treatments. Results of this study suggest that exogenous enzyme is effective in hydrolyzing the fiber (hemicellulose and cellulose component and improved the ME values of PKE, however, the above positive effects were not reflected in the growth performance in broiler chickens fed the enzyme treated PKE compared to those received raw PKE. The results suggest that PKE can be included up to 5% in the grower diet and 20% in the finisher diet without any significant negative effect on FCR in broiler chickens.

  14. Potential Development of Bioindustry in Cattle and Oil Palm Integration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An integrated system between cattle and oil palm plantation has a great potency for development of bioindustry, either in the form of animal feed or organic fertilizer bioindustry. Bioindustry of cattle feed is developed from biomass of plantations, such as stem and leaves of palm, palm kernel and solid. Bioindustry of organic fertilizer is developed from cattle manure. The targets of development of bioindustry are palm plantations in Sumatera and Kalimantan regions, covering 9.25 million hectares. It is estimated to be able to produce biomass quantity as much as 54.60 million tons per year which can be used as fodder for 12.13 million animal unit (AU of beef cattle, whereas currently there are only 3.06 million AU cattle in Sumatera and Kalimantan, so the opportunities for the addition of cattle in both islands are 9.07 million AU. The existing beef cattle population of 3.06 million AU has the potency to produce 6.1 million tons of organic fertilizer can be used to fertilize 3.0 million hectares, therefore the rest of 6.25 million hectares remain unfertilised. The prospect of bioindustries on integration system of cattle with oil palm plantations in Sumatera and Kalimantan is very potential to meet the needs of organic fertilizer for plants and to utilize oil palm biomass for cattle feed.

  15. Effect of Acrocomia aculeata Kernel Oil on Adiposity in Type 2 Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Ângela A; Buccini, Danieli F; Jaques, Jeandre A S; Portugal, Luciane C; Guimarães, Rita C A; Favaro, Simone P; Caldas, Ruy A; Carvalho, Cristiano M E

    2018-03-01

    The macauba palm (Acrocomia aculeata) is native of tropical America and is found mostly in the Cerrados and Pantanal biomes. The fruits provide an oily pulp, rich in long chain fatty acids, and a kernel that encompass more than 50% of lipids rich in medium chain fatty acids (MCFA). Based on biochemical and nutritional evidences MCFA is readily catabolized and can reduce body fat accumulation. In this study, an animal model was employed to evaluate the effect of Acrocomia aculeata kernel oil (AKO) on the blood glucose level and the fatty acid deposit in the epididymal adipose tissue. The A. aculeata kernel oil obtained by cold pressing presented suitable quality as edible oil. Its fatty acid profile indicates high concentration of MCFA, mainly lauric, capric and caprilic. Type 2 diabetic rats fed with that kernel oil showed reduction of blood glucose level in comparison with the diabetic control group. Acrocomia aculeata kernel oil showed hypoglycemic effect. A small fraction of total dietary medium chain fatty acid was accumulated in the epididymal adipose tissue of rats fed with AKO at both low and high doses and caprilic acid did not deposit at all.

  16. Microwave heat treatment as a substitute for conventional treatment of palm oil fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mujahid H Al-Fayadh; Nor Azura Masabbir Ali

    1996-01-01

    Microwave energy has become a sound method of heat treatment because of its high penetration power, cleanliness and possible economic significance. In this research, microwave heat was used as a substitute for conventional blanching method of palm oil fruits. Microwave treatment at 2450 MHz and 800 watts gave very close color and frn,frying characteristics to oil of blanched fruits after one minute exposure time. However, five minutes of microwave heat gave severe husk oil discoloration after 49 hours of deep frying, compared to all oils extracted from fruits treated by either low, microwave exposure time or conventional steam treatment. Kernel oil, after five minutes of microwave treatment, was less discolored than both steam or microwave-treated fruits for one minute. More carotenes and discoloration compounds may be contributed to discoloration during microwave treatments. Oil chemical constants of both husk and kernel oils treated by microwave heat were close to those treated by conventional heat. Further research is needed to investigate detailed oil characteristics and evaluate the feasibility study for using microwave energy, as a substitute for conventional heat in palm oil industry

  17. Standardized Total Tract Digestibility of Phosphorus in Copra Expellers, Palm Kernel Expellers, and Cassava Root Fed to Growing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Son

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD of phosphorus (P in copra expellers (CE, palm kernel expellers (PKE, and cassava root (CR. Eight barrows (initial BW of 40.0 kg, SD = 4.5 were individually housed in metabolism crates. A replicated 4×3 incomplete Latin square design was employed involving 4 dietary treatments, 3 periods, and 8 animals. Three experimental diets contained 40% CE, PKE or CR as the only source of P. A P-free diet mainly based on corn starch, sucrose, and gelatin was also prepared to estimate the basal endogenous loss of P. The marker-to-marker method was used for fecal collection. Values for the ATTD of P in the CE and PKE were greater than in the CR (46.0 and 39.7 vs −14.0%; p<0.05. However, the STTD of P did not differ greatly among the test ingredients (56.5, 49.0, and 43.2% in the CE, PKE, and CR, respectively. In conclusion, the ATTD of P values in CE and PKE were greater than that in CR, but the STTD of P did not differ greatly among CE, PKE, and CR.

  18. Cellulase Activity in Solid State Fermentation of Palm Kernel Cake with Trichoderma sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massaud, M. B. N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The effect of different types of fungal inocula to the cellulase activity measured on palm kernel cake (PKC was studied. Methodology and Results: Isolate Pro-A1 which was identified as Trichoderma sp. was selected as a potential producer of cellulase via solid state fermentation technique (SSF. Two types of PKCs were used; raw PKC (containing residual oil and defatted PKC. The PKCs were inoculated with different concentrations of conidia and varying amounts (g of solid mycelia plugs (SMP for SSF. The effect of ultrafiltered crude fungal filtrate (CFF as inocula was also being tested. The highest cellulase activity of 2.454 FPU/mL was detected with 60% (wt/wt SMP applied to the raw PKC. Conversely, 2.059 FPU/mL of cellulase activity was measured when 80% (wt/wt of SMP was applied to the defatted PKC which is 62.3% higher than the untreated defatted PKC; and more than 100% increase in enzymatic activity compared to raw PKC. The cellulase activity in the SSF inoculated with 8 x 106 conidia /mL and 12 x 106 conidia /mL were 1.704 FPU/mL for raw PKC and 1.856 FPU/mL for defatted PKC, an enhancement of about 46% from uninoculated batch. Inoculation with CFF bears corresponding maximum improvement of the cellulase activity on both PKCs of 13.58% (raw and 2.86% (defatted. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The current study proves that Trichoderma sp. in the form of SMP can enhance the cellulase activity on PKCs effectively with more than 100% increment. Fungal conidia are also a better choice in enhancing cellulase activity of Trichoderma sp. permitted that the PKC used is devoid of oil. From this study, Trichoderma sp. holds the potential of converting lignocellulosic materials into products of commercial and industrial values such as glucose and other biofuels.

  19. Oil palm natural diversity and the potential for yield improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Edson; Rios, Sara de Almeida; Cunha, Raimundo N V; Lopes, Ricardo; Motoike, Sérgio Y; Babiychuk, Elena; Skirycz, Aleksandra; Kushnir, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    African oil palm has the highest productivity amongst cultivated oleaginous crops. Species can constitute a single crop capable to fulfill the growing global demand for vegetable oils, which is estimated to reach 240 million tons by 2050. Two types of vegetable oil are extracted from the palm fruit on commercial scale. The crude palm oil and kernel palm oil have different fatty acid profiles, which increases versatility of the crop in industrial applications. Plantations of the current varieties have economic life-span around 25-30 years and produce fruits around the year. Thus, predictable annual palm oil supply enables marketing plans and adjustments in line with the economic forecasts. Oil palm cultivation is one of the most profitable land uses in the humid tropics. Oil palm fruits are the richest plant source of pro-vitamin A and vitamin E. Hence, crop both alleviates poverty, and could provide a simple practical solution to eliminate global pro-vitamin A deficiency. Oil palm is a perennial, evergreen tree adapted to cultivation in biodiversity rich equatorial land areas. The growing demand for the palm oil threatens the future of the rain forests and has a large negative impact on biodiversity. Plant science faces three major challenges to make oil palm the key element of building the future sustainable world. The global average yield of 3.5 tons of oil per hectare (t) should be raised to the full yield potential estimated at 11-18t. The tree architecture must be changed to lower labor intensity and improve mechanization of the harvest. Oil composition should be tailored to the evolving needs of the food, oleochemical and fuel industries. The release of the oil palm reference genome sequence in 2013 was the key step toward this goal. The molecular bases of agronomically important traits can be and are beginning to be understood at the single base pair resolution, enabling gene-centered breeding and engineering of this remarkable crop.

  20. Oil palm natural diversity and the potential for yield improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson eBarcelos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available African oil palm has the highest productivity amongst cultivated oleaginous crops. Species can constitute a single crop capable to fulfil the growing global demand for vegetable oils, which is estimated to reach 240 million tons by 2050. Two types of vegetable oil are extracted from the palm fruit on commercial scale. The crude palm oil and kernel palm oil have different fatty acid profiles, which increases versatility of the crop in industrial applications. Plantations of the current varieties have economic life-span around 25-30 years and produce fruits around the year. Thus, predictable annual palm oil supply enables marketing plans and adjustments in line with the economic forecasts. Oil palm cultivation is one of the most profitable land uses in the humid tropics. Oil palm fruits are the richest plant source of pro-vitamin A and vitamin E. Hence, crop both alleviates poverty, and could provide a simple practical solution to eliminate global pro-vitamin A deficiency. Oil palm is a perennial, evergreen tree adapted to cultivation in biodiversity rich equatorial land areas. The growing demand for the palm oil threatens the future of the rain forests and has a large negative impact on biodiversity. Plant science faces three major challenges to make oil palm the key element of building the future sustainable world. The global average yield of 3.5 tons of oil per hectare (t should be raised to the full yield potential estimated at 11-18t. The tree architecture must be changed to lower labor intensity and improve mechanization of the harvest. Oil composition should be tailored to the evolving needs of the food, oleochemical and fuel industries. The release of the oil palm reference genome sequence in 2013 was the key step towards this goal. The molecular bases of agronomically important traits can be and are beginning to be understood at the single base pair resolution, enabling gene-centered breeding and engineering of this remarkable crop.

  1. Oil palm natural diversity and the potential for yield improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Edson; Rios, Sara de Almeida; Cunha, Raimundo N. V.; Lopes, Ricardo; Motoike, Sérgio Y.; Babiychuk, Elena; Skirycz, Aleksandra; Kushnir, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    African oil palm has the highest productivity amongst cultivated oleaginous crops. Species can constitute a single crop capable to fulfill the growing global demand for vegetable oils, which is estimated to reach 240 million tons by 2050. Two types of vegetable oil are extracted from the palm fruit on commercial scale. The crude palm oil and kernel palm oil have different fatty acid profiles, which increases versatility of the crop in industrial applications. Plantations of the current varieties have economic life-span around 25–30 years and produce fruits around the year. Thus, predictable annual palm oil supply enables marketing plans and adjustments in line with the economic forecasts. Oil palm cultivation is one of the most profitable land uses in the humid tropics. Oil palm fruits are the richest plant source of pro-vitamin A and vitamin E. Hence, crop both alleviates poverty, and could provide a simple practical solution to eliminate global pro-vitamin A deficiency. Oil palm is a perennial, evergreen tree adapted to cultivation in biodiversity rich equatorial land areas. The growing demand for the palm oil threatens the future of the rain forests and has a large negative impact on biodiversity. Plant science faces three major challenges to make oil palm the key element of building the future sustainable world. The global average yield of 3.5 tons of oil per hectare (t) should be raised to the full yield potential estimated at 11–18t. The tree architecture must be changed to lower labor intensity and improve mechanization of the harvest. Oil composition should be tailored to the evolving needs of the food, oleochemical and fuel industries. The release of the oil palm reference genome sequence in 2013 was the key step toward this goal. The molecular bases of agronomically important traits can be and are beginning to be understood at the single base pair resolution, enabling gene-centered breeding and engineering of this remarkable crop. PMID:25870604

  2. Economic potential of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Sierra Márquez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to highlight the economic importance of the optimal use of products and byproducts of oil palm. In Colombia, productive crops per hectare can generate, over one year, an average of 3.14 tons of oil, and up to 21.68 t of solid and liquid waste when the plant is on a productive stage. These data allowed the researcher to estimate that more than nine million of t of solid and liquid waste was produced from the 450 131 ha present in 2014, in Colombia; the produced biomass was used to generate energy and steam, releasing carbon dioxide back again into the environment. These residues have great potential in many industries, some to be developed, therefore, it is of special importance to try to maximize the use of waste produced by oil palm production, to generate economic and environmental benefits. An example of this is the palm kernel cake, with a nutritional potential in animal feed, fiber in the biocompound industry, biomass and stipe in the timber industry, glycerol, biodiesel, and liquid effluents in the chemical and biotechnological industry. The use of these raw materials may help to establish a positive balance in the cultivation of this species of oil palm in the country.

  3. Biotechnological applications for the utilisation of wastes from palm oil mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheah, S C; Ma, A N; Ooi, L C.L.; Ong, A S.H.

    1988-05-01

    The milling of oil palm fruits produces about two-and-a-half to three times as much effluent as oil does. It also generates a large amount of lignocellulosic wastes, mainly in the form of empty fruit bunches, press cake fibres and nut shell. Research efforts at PORIM have been directed towards the utilisation of these wastes as a means to solve the problem of environmental pollution as well as for the generation of economic returns for the mills. We have studied a thermophilic contact process for the anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent and its potential for generating biogas for energy uses. Our work has also shown that the condensate derived from the fruit sterilisation process during milling is amenable to fermentation for the production of single cell protein (SCP) and exo-enzymes. The enzymes produced have been applied for oil clarification, oil recovery from press cake fibers and saccharification of the fibers for the production of sugar feedstocks. This paper will also introduce the concept of integrated waste management for the palm oil mill through the implementation of these technologies.

  4. Phytonutrient deficiency: the place of palm fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattanapenpaiboon, Naiyana; Wahlqvist, Mark W

    2003-01-01

    The oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is native to many West African countries, where local populations have used its oil for culinary and other purposes. Large-scale plantations, established principally in tropical regions (Asia, Africa and Latin America), are mostly aimed at the production of oil, which is extracted from the fleshy mesocarp of the palm fruit, and endosperm or kernel oil. Palm oil is different from other plant and animal oils in that it contains 50% saturated fatty acids, 40% unsaturated fatty acids, and 10% polyunsaturated fatty acids. The fruit also contains components that can endow the oil with nutritional and health beneficial properties. These phytonutrients include carotenoids (alpha-,beta-,and gamma-carotenes), vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols), sterols (sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol), phospholipids, glycolipids and squalene. In addition, it is recently reported that certain water-soluble powerful antioxidants, phenolic acids and flavonoids, can be recovered from palm oil mill effluent. Owing to its high content of phytonutrients with antioxidant properties, the possibility exists that palm fruit offers some health advantages by reducing lipid oxidation, oxidative stress and free radical damage. Accordingly, use of palm fruit or its phytonutrient-rich fractions, particularly water-soluble antioxidants, may confer some protection against a number of disorders or diseases including cardiovascular disease, cancers, cataracts and macular degeneration, cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. However, whilst prevention of disease through use of these phytonutrients as in either food ingredients or nutraceuticals may be a worthwhile objective, dose response data are required to evaluate their pharmacologic and toxicologic effects. In addition, one area of concern about use of antioxidant phytonutrients is how much suppression of oxidation may be compatible with good health, as toxic free radicals are required for defence

  5. A Survey on the Usage of Biomass Wastes from Palm Oil Mills on Sustainable Development of Oil Palm Plantations in Sarawak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phang, K. Y.; Lau, S. W.

    2017-06-01

    As one of the world’s largest palm oil producers and exporters, Malaysia is committed to sustainable management of this industry to address the emerging environmental challenges. This descriptive study aims to evaluate the oil palm planters’ opinions regarding the usage of biomass wastes from palm oil mills and its impact on sustainable development of oil palm plantations in Sarawak. 253 planters across Sarawak were approached for their opinions about the usage of empty fruit bunch (EFB), palm oil mill effluent (POME), mesocarp fibre (MF), and palm kernel shell (PKS). This study revealed that the planters had generally higher agreement on the beneficial application of EFB and POME in oil palm plantations. This could be seen from the higher means of agreement rating of 3.64 - 4.22 for EFB and POME, compared with the rating of 3.19 - 3.41 for MF and PKS in the 5-point Likert scale (with 5 being the strongest agreement). Besides, 94.7 percent of the planters’ companies were found to comply with the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) requirements where nearly 38 percent carried out the EIA practice twice a year. Therefore high means of agreement were correlated to the compliance of environmental regulations, recording a Likert rating of 3.89 to 4.31. Lastly, the usage of EFB and POME also gained higher Likert scale point of 3.76 to 4.17 against MF and PKS of 3.34 to 3.49 in the evaluation of the impact of sustainability in oil palm plantations. The planters agreed that the usage of EFB and POME has reduced the environmental impact and improved the sustainable development, and its application has been improved and increased by research and development. However the planters were uncertain of the impact of usage of biomass wastes with respect to the contribution to social responsibility and company image in terms of transparency in waste management.

  6. Decision Support Model for Selection Technologies in Processing of Palm Oil Industrial Liquid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Aulia; Ali, Amir Yazid bin

    2017-12-01

    The palm oil industry continues to grow from year to year. Processing of the palm oil industry into crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel oil (PKO). The ratio of the amount of oil produced by both products is 30% of the raw material. This means that 70% is palm oil waste. The amount of palm oil waste will increase in line with the development of the palm oil industry. The amount of waste generated by the palm oil industry if it is not handled properly and effectively will contribute significantly to environmental damage. Industrial activities ranging from raw materials to produce products will disrupt the lives of people around the factory. There are many alternative technologies available to process other industries, but problems that often occur are difficult to implement the most appropriate technology. The purpose of this research is to develop a database of waste processing technology, looking for qualitative and quantitative criteria to select technology and develop Decision Support System (DSS) that can help make decisions. The method used to achieve the objective of this research is to develop a questionnaire to identify waste processing technology and develop the questionnaire to find appropriate database technology. Methods of data analysis performed on the system by using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and to build the model by using the MySQL Software that can be used as a tool in the evaluation and selection of palm oil mill processing technology.

  7. Vis-NIR hyperspectral imaging and multivariate analysis for prediction of the moisture content and hardness of Pistachio kernels roasted in different conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Mohammadi Moghaddam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pistachio nut is one of the most delicious and nutritious nuts in the world and it is being used as a salted and roasted product or as an ingredient in snacks, ice cream, desserts, etc. (Maghsudi, 2010; Kashaninejad et al. 2006. Roasting is one of the most important food processes which provides useful attributes to the product. One of the objectives of nut roasting is to alter and significantly enhance the flavor, texture, color and appearance of the product (Ozdemir, 2001. In recent years, spectral imaging techniques (i.e. hyperspectral and multispectral imaging have emerged as powerful tools for safequality inspection of various agricultural commodities (Gowen et al., 2007. The objectives of this study were to apply reflectance hyperspectral imaging for non-destructive determination of moisture content and hardness of pistachio kernels roasted in different conditions. Materials and methods: Dried O’hadi pistachio nuts were supplied from a local market in Mashhad. Pistachio nuts were soaked in 5L of 20% salt solution for 20min (Goktas Seyhan, 2003. For roasting process, three temperatures (90, 120 and 150°C, three times (20, 35 and 50 min and three air velocities (0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 m s-1 were applied. The moisture content of pistachio kernels was measured in triplicate using oven drying (3 gr samples at 105 °C for 12 hours. Uniaxial compression test by a 35mm diameter plastic cylinder, was made on the pistachio kernels, which were mounted on a platform. Samples were compressed at a depth of 2mm and speed of 30 mm min-1. A hyperspectral imaging system in the Vis-NIR range (400-1000 nm was employed. The spectral pre-processing techniques: first derivative and second derivative, median filter, Savitzkye-Golay, wavelet, multiplicative scatter correction (MSC and standard normal variate transformation (SNV were used. To make models at PLSR and ANN methods, ParLeS software and Matlab R2009a were used, respectively. The coefficient

  8. ADSORPTION OF COPPER FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION BY ELAIS GUINEENSIS KERNEL ACTIVATED CARBON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAJUA DELAILA TUMIN

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a series of batch laboratory experiments were conducted in order to investigate the feasibility of Elais Guineensis kernel or known as palm kernel shell (PKS-based activated carbon for the removal of copper from aqueous solution by the adsorption process. Investigation was carried out by studying the influence of initial solution pH, adsorbent dosage and initial concentration of copper. The particle size of PKS used was categorized as PKS–M. All batch experiments were carried out at a constant temperature of 30°C (±2°C using mechanical shaker that operated at 100 rpm. The single component equilibrium data was analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson, Temkin and Toth adsorption isotherms.

  9. Emission Studies in CI Engine using LPG and Palm Kernel Methyl Ester as Fuels and Di-ethyl Ether as an Additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dora, Nagaraju; Jothi, T. J. Sarvoththama

    2018-05-01

    The present study investigates the effectiveness of using di-ethyl ether (DEE) as the fuel additive in engine performance and emissions. Experiments are carried out in a single cylinder four stroke diesel engine at constant speed. Two different fuels namely liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and palm kernel methyl ester (PKME) are used as primary fuels with DEE as the fuel additive. LPG flow rates of 0.6 and 0.8 kg/h are considered, and flow rate of DEE is varied to maintain the constant engine speed. In case of PKME fuel, it is blended with diesel in the latter to the former ratio of 80:20, and DEE is varied in the volumetric proportion of 1 and 2%. Results indicate that for the engine operating in LPG-DEE mode at 0.6 kg/h of LPG, the brake thermal efficiency is lowered by 26%; however, NOx is subsequently reduced by around 30% compared to the engine running with only diesel fuel at 70% load. Similarly, results of PKME blended fuel showed a drastic reduction in the NOx and CO emissions. In these two modes of operation, DEE is observed to be significant fuel additive regarding emissions reduction.

  10. Structured Triacylglycerol of Palm-based Margarine Fat by Enzymatic Interesterification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Nuzul Amri Bin

    2008-01-01

    blends containing palm stearin (PS) (60 to 90%), palm kernel oil (PKO) (10 to 40%) and fish oil (FO) (0 to 10%) were interesterified by Lipozyme TL IM (Thermomyces lanuginosa) using a continuous packed bed reactor (PBR). FO in the blend had a similar effect as PKO on solid fat content (SFC...... PBR for enzymatic interesterification of sunflower oil and fish oil blend. The pre-column functions as a protector of the enzyme bed to prolong the lifespan of the enzyme. Deactivation kinetic of enzymes subjected to interesterification using a pre-column was compared against without a pre......-column. The deactivation rate of enzyme bed without a pre-column was 7.4 times faster than the one with a pre-column, where the half-life were 8 and 58 days respectively....

  11. Oil palm genome sequence reveals divergence of interfertile species in old and new worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajinder; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina; Low, Eng-Ti Leslie; Manaf, Mohamad Arif Abdul; Rosli, Rozana; Nookiah, Rajanaidu; Ooi, Leslie Cheng-Li; Ooi, Siew–Eng; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Halim, Mohd Amin; Azizi, Norazah; Nagappan, Jayanthi; Bacher, Blaire; Lakey, Nathan; Smith, Steven W; He, Dong; Hogan, Michael; Budiman, Muhammad A; Lee, Ernest K; DeSalle, Rob; Kudrna, David; Goicoechea, Jose Louis; Wing, Rod; Wilson, Richard K; Fulton, Robert S; Ordway, Jared M; Martienssen, Robert A; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi

    2013-01-01

    Oil palm is the most productive oil-bearing crop. Planted on only 5% of the total vegetable oil acreage, palm oil accounts for 33% of vegetable oil, and 45% of edible oil worldwide, but increased cultivation competes with dwindling rainforest reserves. We report the 1.8 gigabase (Gb) genome sequence of the African oil palm Elaeis guineensis, the predominant source of worldwide oil production. 1.535 Gb of assembled sequence and transcriptome data from 30 tissue types were used to predict at least 34,802 genes, including oil biosynthesis genes and homologues of WRINKLED1 (WRI1), and other transcriptional regulators1, which are highly expressed in the kernel. We also report the draft sequence of the S. American oil palm Elaeis oleifera, which has the same number of chromosomes (2n=32) and produces fertile interspecific hybrids with E. guineensis2, but appears to have diverged in the new world. Segmental duplications of chromosome arms define the palaeotetraploid origin of palm trees. The oil palm sequence enables the discovery of genes for important traits as well as somaclonal epigenetic alterations which restrict the use of clones in commercial plantings3, and thus helps achieve sustainability for biofuels and edible oils, reducing the rainforest footprint of this tropical plantation crop. PMID:23883927

  12. Life cycle energy efficiency and potentials of biodiesel production from palm oil in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papong, Seksan; Chom-In, Tassaneewan; Noksa-nga, Soottiwan

    2010-01-01

    Biodiesel production from palm oil has been considered one of the most promising renewable resources for transportation fuel in Thailand. The objective of this study was to analyze the energy performance and potential of the palm oil methyl ester (PME) production in Thailand. The PME system was divided into four stages: the oil palm plantation, transportation, crude palm oil (CPO) production, and transesterification into biodiesel. The results showed that the highest fossil-based energy consumption was in the transesterification process, followed by the plantation, transportation, and CPO production. A net energy value and net energy ratio (NER) of 24.0 MJ/FU and 2.5, respectively, revealed that the PME system was quite energy efficient. In addition, if all the by-products from the CPO production (such as empty fruit branches, palm kernel shells, and biogas) were considered in terms of energy sources, the NER would be more than 3.0. The PME can be a viable substitute for diesel and can decrease the need for oil imports. Based on B100 demand in 2008, PME can be substituted for 478 million liters of diesel. Moreover, with palm oil output potential and B5 implementation, it can be substituted for 1134 million liters of diesel. (author)

  13. Robust Kernel (Cross-) Covariance Operators in Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Space toward Kernel Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Md. Ashad; Fukumizu, Kenji; Wang, Yu-Ping

    2016-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, there are no general well-founded robust methods for statistical unsupervised learning. Most of the unsupervised methods explicitly or implicitly depend on the kernel covariance operator (kernel CO) or kernel cross-covariance operator (kernel CCO). They are sensitive to contaminated data, even when using bounded positive definite kernels. First, we propose robust kernel covariance operator (robust kernel CO) and robust kernel crosscovariance operator (robust kern...

  14. Effect of feeding palm oil by-products based diets on total bacteria, cellulolytic bacteria and methanogenic archaea in the rumen of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakr, Abdelrahim; Alimon, Abdul Razak; Yaakub, Halimatun; Abdullah, Norhani; Ivan, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Rumen microorganisms are responsible for digestion and utilization of dietary feeds by host ruminants. Unconventional feed resources could be used as alternatives in tropical areas where feed resources are insufficient in terms of quality and quantity. The objective of the present experiment was to evaluate the effect of diets based on palm oil (PO), decanter cake (DC) or palm kernel cake (PKC) on rumen total bacteria, selected cellulolytic bacteria, and methanogenic archaea. Four diets: control diet (CD), decanter cake diet (DCD), palm kernel cake diet (PKCD) and CD plus 5% PO diet (CPOD) were fed to rumen cannulated goats and rumen samples were collected at the start of the experimental diets (day 0) and on days 4, 6, 8, 12, 18, 24 and 30 post dietary treatments. Feeding DCD and PKCD resulted in significantly higher (Pgoats fed PKCD and CPOD and the trend showed a severe reduction on days 4 and 6 post experimental diets. In conclusion, results indicated that feeding DCD and PKC increased the populations of cellulolytic bacteria and decreased the density of methanogenic archaea in the rumen of goats.

  15. Changes in carbohydrate metabolism in coconut palms infected with the lethal yellowing phytoplasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maust, B E; Espadas, F; Talavera, C; Aguilar, M; Santamaría, J M; Oropeza, C

    2003-08-01

    ABSTRACT Lethal yellowing (LY), a disease caused by a phytoplasma, is the most devastating disease affecting coconut (Cocos nucifera) in Mexico. Thousands of coconut palm trees have died on the Yucatan peninsula while plantations in Central America and on the Pacific coast of Mexico are severely threatened. Polymerase chain reaction assays enable identification of incubating palm trees (stage 0+, phytoplasma detected but palm asymptomatic). With the development of LY, palm trees exhibit various visual symptoms such as premature nut fall (stage 1), inflorescence necrosis (stages 2 to 3), leaf chlorosis and senescence (stages 4 to 6), and finally palm death. However, physiological changes occur in the leaves and roots prior to onset of visual symptoms. Stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, and root respiration decreased in stages 0+ to 6. The number of active photosystem II (PSII) reaction centers decreased during stage 2, but maximum quantum use efficiency of PSII remained similar until stage 3 before declining. Sugar and starch concentrations in intermediate leaves (leaf 14) and upper leaves (leaf 4) increased from stage 0- (healthy) to stages 2 to 4, while root carbohydrate concentrations decreased rapidly from stage 0- to stage 0+ (incubating phytoplasma). Although photosynthetic rates and root carbohydrate concentrations decreased, leaf carbohydrate concentrations increased, suggesting inhibition of sugar transport in the phloem leading to stress in sink tissues and development of visual symptoms of LY.

  16. Oil Palm Counting and Age Estimation from WorldView-3 Imagery and LiDAR Data Using an Integrated OBIA Height Model and Regression Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Mojaddadi Rizeei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study proposes a new method for oil palm age estimation and counting. A support vector machine algorithm (SVM of object-based image analysis (OBIA was implemented for oil palm counting. It was integrated with height model and multiregression methods to accurately estimate the age of trees based on their heights in five different plantation blocks. Multiregression and multi-kernel size models were examined over five different oil palm plantation blocks to achieve the most optimized model for age estimation. The sensitivity analysis was conducted on four SVM kernel types (sigmoid (SIG, linear (LN, radial basis function (RBF, and polynomial (PL with associated parameters (threshold values, gamma γ, and penalty factor (c to obtain the optimal OBIA classification approaches for each plantation block. Very high-resolution imageries of WorldView-3 (WV-3 and light detection and range (LiDAR were used for oil palm detection and age assessment. The results of oil palm detection had an overall accuracy of 98.27%, 99.48%, 99.28%, 99.49%, and 97.49% for blocks A, B, C, D, and E, respectively. Moreover, the accuracy of age estimation analysis showed 90.1% for 3-year-old, 87.9% for 4-year-old, 88.0% for 6-year-old, 87.6% for 8-year-old, 79.1% for 9-year-old, and 76.8% for 22-year-old trees. Overall, the study revealed that remote sensing techniques can be useful to monitor and detect oil palm plantation for sustainable agricultural management.

  17. Analysis of pecan nut (Carya illinoinensis) unsaponifiable fraction. Effect of ripening stage on phytosterols and phytostanols composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouali, Intidhar; Trabelsi, Hajer; Herchi, Wahid; Martine, Lucy; Albouchi, Ali; Bouzaien, Ghaith; Sifi, Samira; Boukhchina, Sadok; Berdeaux, Olivier

    2014-12-01

    Changes in 4-desmethylsterol, 4-monomethylsterol, 4,4-dimethylsterol and phytostanol composition were quantitatively and qualitatively investigated during the ripening of three varieties of Tunisian-grown pecan nuts (Mahan, Moore and Burkett). These components have many health benefits, especially in lowering LDL-cholesterol and preventing heart disease. The phytosterol composition of whole pecan kernel was quantified by Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionisation Detection (GC-FID) and identified by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Fifteen phytosterols and one phytostanol were quantified. The greatest amount of phytosterols (2852.5mg/100g of oil) was detected in Mahan variety at 20 weeks after the flowering date (WAFD). Moore had the highest level of phytostanols (7.3mg/100g of oil) at 20 WAFD. Phytosterol and phytostanol contents showed a steep decrease during pecan nut development. Results from the quantitative characterisation of pecan nut oils revealed that β-sitosterol, Δ5-avenasterol, and campesterol were the most abundant phytosterol compounds at all ripening stages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Nuts and Your Heart: Eating Nuts for Heart Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... benefits of nuts if they're covered with chocolate, sugar or salt. Here's some nutrition information on ... disease. Clinical Cardiology. 2015;38:570. Ros E. Health benefits of nut consumption. Nutrients. 2010;2:652. Suggested ...

  19. Productivity improvement with green approach to palm oil factory productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matondang, N.

    2018-02-01

    The palm oil factory (POF) processes fresh fruit bunches into crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel oil (PKO) by products in the form of liquid and solid waste. One of the solid wastes produced in POF Tanjung Kasau is empty fruit bunches of palm oil (FBPO) which have been burned completely on incinerator tubes so that potentially produces pollutants that pollute the environment. If FBPO waste is managed properly, it will improve the productivity of the company. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct a study to find out how far the increased productivity of the company can reduce their impact on the environment, if FBPO is used as raw material of liquid smoke. The productivity improvement approach is done by Green Productivity concept, by looking at three aspects: environmental, social and economical. Green Productivity aims to protect the environment simultaneously by increasing the productivity of the company. One way is to turn FBPO waste into liquid smoke product is by pyrolysis process. The results showed that turning FBPO solid waste into liquid smoke will increase productivity by 18.18%. Implementation of Green Productivity can improve productivity through the improvement of FBPO waste treatment process which has been done by perfect combustion by pyrolysis process so that waste can be minimized to create environment industry POF clean and friendly environment.

  20. The oil palm Shell gene controls oil yield and encodes a homologue of SEEDSTICK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajinder; Leslie Low, Eng-Ti; Ooi, Leslie Cheng-Li; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina; Chin, Ting Ngoot; Nagappan, Jayanthi; Nookiah, Rajanaidu; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; Rosli, Rozana; Abdul Manaf, Mohamad Arif; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Halim, Mohd Amin; Azizi, Norazah; Lakey, Nathan; Smith, Steven W; Budiman, Muhammad A; Hogan, Michael; Bacher, Blaire; Van Brunt, Andrew; Wang, Chunyan; Ordway, Jared M; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Martienssen, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    A key event in the domestication and breeding of the oil palm, Elaeis guineensis, was loss of the thick coconut-like shell surrounding the kernel. Modern E. guineensis has three fruit forms, dura (thick-shelled), pisifera (shell-less) and tenera (thin-shelled), a hybrid between dura and pisifera1–4. The pisifera palm is usually female-sterile but the tenera yields far more oil than dura, and is the basis for commercial palm oil production in all of Southeast Asia5. Here, we describe the mapping and identification of the Shell gene responsible for the different fruit forms. Using homozygosity mapping by sequencing we found two independent mutations in the DNA binding domain of a homologue of the MADS-box gene SEEDSTICK (STK) which controls ovule identity and seed development in Arabidopsis. The Shell gene is responsible for the tenera phenotype in both cultivated and wild palms from sub-Saharan Africa, and our findings provide a genetic explanation for the single gene heterosis attributed to Shell, via heterodimerization. This gene mutation explains the single most important economic trait in oil palm, and has implications for the competing interests of global edible oil production, biofuels and rainforest conservation6. PMID:23883930

  1. Nut and Peanut Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Nut and Peanut Allergy KidsHealth / For Kids / Nut and Peanut Allergy What's ... getting worse. How Is a Nut or Peanut Allergy Diagnosed? If your doctor thinks you might have ...

  2. Combustion characteristics of Malaysian oil palm biomass, sub-bituminous coal and their respective blends via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Siti Shawalliah; Rahman, Norazah Abd; Ismail, Khudzir

    2012-11-01

    The combustion characteristics of Malaysia oil palm biomass (palm kernel shell (PKS), palm mesocarp fibre (PMF) and empty fruit bunches (EFB)), sub-bituminous coal (Mukah Balingian) and coal/biomass blends via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were investigated. Six weight ratios of coal/biomass blends were prepared and oxidised under dynamic conditions from temperature 25 to 1100°C at four heating rates. The thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated that the EFB and PKS evolved additional peak besides drying, devolatilisation and char oxidation steps during combustion. Ignition and burn out temperatures of blends were improved in comparison to coal. No interactions were observed between the coal and biomass during combustion. The apparent activation energy during this process was evaluated using iso-conversional model free kinetics which resulted in highest activation energy during combustion of PKS followed by PMF, EFB and MB coal. Blending oil palm biomass with coal reduces the apparent activation energy value. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Low percentage of clinically relevant pistachio nut and mango co-sensitisation in cashew nut sensitised children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Valk, J. P. M.; el Bouche, R.; van Wijk, R. Gerth; de Groot, H.; Wichers, H. J.; Dubois, A. E. J.; de Jong, N. W.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cashew nut, pistachio nut and mango belong to the Anacardiaceae family and are botanically related. Therefore, cashew nut sensitised children are frequently advised to eliminate cashew nuts and pistachio nuts from their diet. The 'Improvement of Diagnostic mEthods for ALlergy assessment

  4. Low percentage of clinically relevant pistachio nut and mango co-sensitisation in cashew nut sensitised children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P.M. van der Valk; Bouche, R.E. (R. el); R. Gerth van Wijk (Roy); H. de Groot (Hans); H.J. Wichers; A.E.J. Dubois; N.W. de Jong (Nicolette)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Cashew nut, pistachio nut and mango belong to the Anacardiaceae family and are botanically related. Therefore, cashew nut sensitised children are frequently advised to eliminate cashew nuts and pistachio nuts from their diet. The ‘Improvement of Diagnostic mEthods for ALlergy

  5. Low percentage of clinically relevant pistachio nut and mango co-sensitisation in cashew nut sensitised children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, van der J.P.M.; Bouche, el R.; Gerth van Wijk, R.; Groot, de H.; Wichers, H.J.; Dubois, A.E.J.; Jong, de N.W.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cashew nut, pistachio nut and mango belong to the Anacardiaceae family and are botanically related. Therefore, cashew nut sensitised children are frequently advised to eliminate cashew nuts and pistachio nuts from their diet. The ‘Improvement of Diagnostic mEthods for ALlergy

  6. Effect of inclusion level and adaptation duration on digestible energy and nutrient digestibility in palm kernel meal fed to growing-finishing pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Stein, Hans Henrik; Zhao, Jinbiao; Li, Defa

    2018-01-01

    Objective An experiment was conducted to evaluate effects of inclusion level of palm kernel meal (PKM) and adaptation duration on the digestible energy (DE) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of chemical constituents in diets fed to growing-finishing pigs. Methods Thirty crossbred barrows (Duroc×Landrace×Large White) with an average initial body weight of 85.0±2.1 kg were fed 5 diets in a completely randomized design. The diets included a corn-soybean meal basal diet and 4 additional diets in which corn and soybean meal were partly replaced by 10%, 20%, 30%, or 40% PKM. After 7 d of adaptation to the experimental diets, feces were collected from d 8 to 12, d 15 to 19, d 22 to 26, and d 29 to 33, respectively. Results The DE and ATTD of gross energy (GE), dry matter (DM), ash, organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and crude protein (CP) in diets decreased linearly as the dietary PKM increased within each adaptation duration (p 0.05). Considering a stable determination, 21 days of adaptation to a diet containing 19.5% PKM is needed in pigs and a longer adaptation time is recommended as dietary PKM increases. PMID:28920411

  7. Devolatilization Studies of Oil Palm Biomass for Torrefaction Process through Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, D.; Abd. Rahman, A.; Shamsuddin, A. H.

    2016-03-01

    In this work, palm oil biomass consisting of empty fruit bunch (EFB), mesocarp fibre and palm kernel shell (PKS) were chosen as raw material for torrefaction process. Torrefaction process was conducted at various temperatures of 240 °C, 270 °C and 300 °C with a residence time of 60 minutes. The morphology of the raw and torrefied biomass was then observed through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images. Also, through this experiment the correlation between the torrefaction temperatures with the volatile gases released were studied. From the observation, the morphology structure of the biomass exhibited inter-particle gaps due to the release of volatile gases and it is obviously seen more at higher temperatures. Moreover, the change of the biomass structure is influenced by the alteration of the lignocellulose biomass.

  8. In Ovo and dietary administration of oligosaccharides extracted from palm kernel cake influence general health of pre- and neonatal broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammad; Shokryazdan, Parisa; Idrus, Zulkifli; Ebrahimi, Rohollah; Liang, Juan Boo

    2017-01-01

    Palm kernel cake (PKC) is the main byproduct from the palm oil industry in several tropical countries that contains considerable amounts of oligosaccharide. We earlier demonstrated beneficial prebiotic effects of oligosaccharides extract of PKC (OligoPKC) in starter and finisher broiler birds. This study was envisaged to elucidate the effects of in ovo and/or oral administration of the OligoPKC on prenatal and post-hatched broiler chicks. A total of 140 broiler (Cobb500) eggs were randomly divided into two groups (n = 70 each), and on day 12 of incubation, eggs in one group received in ovo injection of 0.1 mL (containing 20 mg) of OligoPKC, while those in the other group received 0.1 mL of saline (placebo) solution. Of these in ovo placebo or OligoPKC injected eggs, after hatching, six chicks from each group were sampled for day-one analysis, while 48 chicks from each group were randomly allocated to two dietary regimes involving either no feeding or feeding of OligoPKC through basal diet for a 14 days experiment forming the experimental groups as: (i) saline-injected (Control, C), (ii) OligoPKC-injected (PREBovo), (iii) saline-injected, but fed 1% OligoPKC (PREBd), and (iv) OligoPKC-injected and also 1% OligoPKC (PREBovo+d). In ovo injection of prebiotic OligoPKC had no effect on body weight and serum immunoglobulins concentrations of day old chicks, except for IgG, which was increased significantly (P C and PREBovo), but lesser influenced by in ovo OligoPKC injection. Irrespective of its prior in ovo exposure, chicks fed OligoPKC diets had lower population of pathogenic bacteria. Overall serum immunoglobulin status of birds was improved by feeding of OligoPKC but in ovo OligoPKC injection had minor effect on that. In most cases, in ovo OligoPKC injection and feeding of OligoPKC reduced the expression of nutrient transporters in the intestine and improved antioxidant capacity of liver and serum. It is concluded that in ovo injection of OligoPKC increased Ig

  9. Study of activity based costing implementation for palm oil production using value-added and non-value-added activity consideration in PT XYZ palm oil mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembiring, M. T.; Wahyuni, D.; Sinaga, T. S.; Silaban, A.

    2018-02-01

    Cost allocation at manufacturing industry particularly in Palm Oil Mill still widely practiced based on estimation. It leads to cost distortion. Besides, processing time determined by company is not in accordance with actual processing time in work station. Hence, the purpose of this study is to eliminates non-value-added activities therefore processing time could be shortened and production cost could be reduced. Activity Based Costing Method is used in this research to calculate production cost with Value Added and Non-Value-Added Activities consideration. The result of this study is processing time decreasing for 35.75% at Weighting Bridge Station, 29.77% at Sorting Station, 5.05% at Loading Ramp Station, and 0.79% at Sterilizer Station. Cost of Manufactured for Crude Palm Oil are IDR 5.236,81/kg calculated by Traditional Method, IDR 4.583,37/kg calculated by Activity Based Costing Method before implementation of Activity Improvement and IDR 4.581,71/kg after implementation of Activity Improvement Meanwhile Cost of Manufactured for Palm Kernel are IDR 2.159,50/kg calculated by Traditional Method, IDR 4.584,63/kg calculated by Activity Based Costing Method before implementation of Activity Improvement and IDR 4.582,97/kg after implementation of Activity Improvement.

  10. Systematic review on cashew nut allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Valk, J P M; Dubois, A E J; Gerth van Wijk, R; Wichers, H J; de Jong, N W

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies on cashew nut allergy suggest that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing. Cashew nut consumption by allergic patients can cause severe reactions, including anaphylaxis. This review summarizes current knowledge on cashew nut allergy to facilitate timely clinical recognition and to promote awareness of this emerging food allergy amongst clinicians. The goal of this study is to present a systematic review focused on the clinical aspects of allergy to cashew nut including the characteristics of cashew nut, the prevalence, allergenic components, cross-reactivity, diagnosis and management of cashew nut allergy. The literature search yielded 255 articles of which 40 met our selection criteria and were considered to be relevant for this review. The 40 articles included one prospective study, six retrospective studies and seven case reports. The remaining 26 papers were not directly related to cashew nut allergy. The literature suggests that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing, although the level of evidence for this is low. A minimal amount of cashew nut allergen may cause a severe allergic reaction, suggesting high potency comparable with other tree nuts and peanuts. Cashew allergy is clearly an underestimated important healthcare problem, especially in children. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Production of Medium-Chain-Length Poly(3-Hydroxyalkanoates from Saponified Palm Kernel Oil by Pseudomonas putida: Kinetics of Batch and Fed-Batch Fermentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annuar, M. S. M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of medium-chain-length poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates, PHAMCL production by Pseudomonas putida PGA1 in batch and fed-batch fermentations were studied. With saponified palm kernel oil (SPKO supplying the free fatty acids mixture as the sole carbon and energy source, PHAMCL accumulation is encouraged under ammonium-limited condition, which is a nitrogen stress environment. The amount of PHAMCL accumulated and its specific production rate, qPHA were influenced by the residual ammonium concentration level in the culture medium. It was observed that in both fermentation modes, when the residual ammonium was exhausted (< 0.05 gL-1, the PHAMCL accumulation (11.9% and qPHA (0.0062 h-1 were significantly reduced. However, this effect can be reversed by feeding low amount of ammonium to the culture, resulting in significantly improved PHAMCL yield (71.4% and specific productivity (0.6 h-1. It is concluded that the feeding of low ammonium concentration to the culture medium during the PHAMCL accumulation has a positive effect on sustaining the PHAMCL biosynthetic capability of the organism. It was also found that increasing SPKO concentration in the medium significantly reduced (up to 50% the volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (KLa of the fermentation system.

  12. Taub-Nut Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imazato, Harunobu; Mizoguchi, Shun'ya; Yata, Masaya

    We consider the Gibbons-Hawking metric for a three-dimensional periodic array of multi-Taub-NUT centers, containing not only centers with a positive NUT charge but also ones with a negative NUT charge. The latter are regarded as representing the asymptotic form of the Atiyah-Hitchin metric. The periodic arrays of Taub-NUT centers have close parallels with ionic crystals, where the Gibbons-Hawking potential plays the role of the Coulomb static potential of the ions, and are similarly classified according to their space groups. After a periodic identification and a Z2 projection, the array is transformed by T-duality to a system of NS5-branes with the SU(2) structure, and a further standard embedding yields, though singular, a half-BPS heterotic 5-brane background with warped compact transverse dimensions. A discussion is given on the possibility of probing the singular geometry by two-dimensional gauge theories.

  13. Systematic review on cashew nut allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Valk, J. P. M.; Dubois, A. E. J.; van Wijk, R. Gerth; Wichers, H. J.; de Jong, N. W.

    Recent studies on cashew nut allergy suggest that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing. Cashew nut consumption by allergic patients can cause severe reactions, including anaphylaxis. This review summarizes current knowledge on cashew nut allergy to facilitate timely clinical

  14. Systematic review on cashew nut allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, van der J.P.M.; Dubois, A.E.J.; Wichers, H.J.; Jong, de N.W.; Wijk, van R.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies on cashew nut allergy suggest that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing. Cashew nut consumption by allergic patients can cause severe reactions, including anaphylaxis. This review summarizes current knowledge on cashew nut allergy to facilitate timely clinical

  15. Thermal properties of biopolyol from oil palm fruit fibre (OPFF) using solvolysis liquefaction technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormin, Shaharuddin; Rus, Anika Zafiah M.; Azahari, M. Shafiq M.

    2017-09-01

    Liquefaction is known to be an effective method for converting biomass into a biopolyol. The biomass liquefaction of oil palm fruit waste (PFW) in the presence of liquefaction solvent/polyhydric alcohol (PA): polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400) using sulfuric acid as catalyst was studied. For all experiments, the liquefaction was conducted at 150°C and atmospheric pressure. The mass ratio of OPFW to liquefaction solvents used in all the experiments was, 1/3. Thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were used to analyze their biopolyol and residue behaviors. It was found that thermal stability of oil palm mesocarp fibre (PM), oil palm shell (PS) and oil palm kernel (PK) fibre exhibited the first degradation of hard segment at (232, 104, 230°C) and the second degradation of soft segment at (314, 226, 412°C) as compared to PM, PS and PK residue which (229, 102, 227°C) of hard segment and (310, 219, 299°C) of segment, respectively. This behavior of thermal degradation of the hard segment and soft segment of biopolyol was changes after undergo solvolysis liquefaction process. The result analysis showed that the resulting biopolyol and its residue was suitable monomer for polyurethane (PU) synthesis for the production of PU foams.

  16. Small-scale production in the Congo basin of low-acid carotene-rich red palm oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silou Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The red palm oil consumed in the Congo basin come essentially from small-scale production from the dura or tenera varieties (the latter being a hybrid of dura and pisifera. These three varieties are endemic to the Congo basin. The tenera variety is characterized a thick pulp (about 50% of the nut from which 70–90% of oil (based on fresh pulp can be extracted. The dura variety has less pulp (30% of the nut by weight, and gives an oil yield of the same order of magnitude. The oil is extracted from the crushed pulp after a series of mixing steps in hot water at about 60 °C. When obtained from freshly harvested nuts (at most 3 days storage, this oil is rich in carotenoids (800–2600 ppm and polyphenols (5–13 mg/g, and presents low acid values (IA < 5 and peroxide values (IP < 10. Here we describe this traditional production process, widespread in the Congo basin, and suggest innovations that substantially increase the quantity of oil extracted and significantly improve the quality of the end product.

  17. Evaluation of the Properties of Lightweight Concrete Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    research, compared concrete made with coconut shells and palm kernel shells as replacement for coarse aggregates and concluded that coconut shells performed better than palm kernel shells as replacement for ... kernel shell and palm kernel fiber as a coarse aggregate, the values of the slump obtained for mix. 1:1½:3 ...

  18. The lignin pyrolysis composition and pyrolysis products of palm kernel shell, wheat straw, and pine sawdust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Guozhang; Huang, Yanqin; Xie, Jianjun; Yang, Huikai; Liu, Huacai; Yin, Xiuli; Wu, Chuangzhi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The primarily pyrolysis composition of PKS lignin was p-hydroxyphenyl unit. • Higher phenol yield and lower gas energy yield were obtained from PKS pyrolysis. • PKS produced more bio-oil and biochar than WS and PS from pyrolysis at 650–850 °C. • PKS-char had poorer gasification reactivity due to higher ordering carbon degree. - Abstract: The lignin monomer composition of palm kernel shell (PKS) was characterized using pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS), and the characteristics and distributions of products obtained from PKS pyrolysis were investigated using Py-GC/MS, GC, and a specially designed pyrolysis apparatus. The gasification reactivity of PKS biochar was also characterized using thermogravimetry (TG) and Raman spectroscopy. All the results were compared with those obtained from wheat straw (WS) and pine sawdust (PS). The results showed that PKS lignin is primarily composed of p-hydroxyphenyl structural units, while WS and PS lignins are mainly made up of guaiacyl units. Both the mass and energy yields of non-condensable gases from PKS pyrolysis were lower than those obtained from WS and PS pyrolysis at 650–850 °C, owing to the lower volatile content (75.21%) and lack of methoxy groups in PKS. Compared with WS and PS, higher bio-oil productivity was observed during PKS pyrolysis. Phenols were the main component of PKS bio-oil from pyrolysis at 500 °C, and the phenol content of PKS bio-oil (13.49%) was higher than in WS bio-oil (1.62%) and PS bio-oil (0.55%). A higher yield of biochar (on an ash-free basis) was also obtained from PKS pyrolysis. Because of its greater relative degree of ordered carbon, PKS biochar exhibited lower in situ reactivity during CO_2 or H_2O gasification than WS and PS biochars. A longer residence time and addition of steam were found to be beneficial during PKS biochar gasification.

  19. Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  20. RHAGOLETIS COMPLETA (DIPTERA; TEPHRITIDAE DISTRIBUTION, FLIGHT DYNAMICS AND INFLUENCE ON WALNUT KERNEL QUALITY IN THE CONTINENTAL CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božena Barić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Walnut husk fly (WHF, Rhagoletis completa Cresson 1929 is an invasive species spreading quickly and damaging walnuts in Croatia and neighbouring countries. We researched distribution of this pest in the continental part of Croatia, flight dynamics in Međimurje County and its influence on quality of walnut kernels. CSALOMON®PALz traps were used for monitoring the spread and flight dynamics of R. completa. Weight and the protein content of kernels and the presence of mycotoxin contamination were measured. Walnut husk fly was found in six counties (Istria County: pest reconfirmation, Zagreb County, The City of Zagreb, Varaždin County, Međimurje County and Koprivnica-Križevci County. The presence of the fly was not confirmed on one site in Koprivnica-Križevci County (locality Ferdinandovac and in the eastern part of Croatia (Vukovar-Srijem County: Vinkovci locality. The flight dynamics showed rapid increase in number of adults only a year after the introduction into new area. The weight of infested kernels was 5.81% lower compared to not infested. Protein content was 14.04% in infested kernels and 17.31% in not infested kernels. There was no difference in mycotoxins levels. Additional researches on mycotoxin levels in stored nuts, ovipositional preferences of walnut husk fly and protection measures against this pest are suggested.

  1. Nuclear fuel element nut retainer cup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, L.A.

    1977-01-01

    A typical embodiment has an end fitting for a nuclear reactor fuel element that is joined to the control rod guide tubes by means of a nut plate assembly. The nut plate assembly has an array of nuts, each engaging the respective threaded end of the control rod guide tubes. The nuts, moreover, are retained on the plate during handling and before fuel element assembly by means of hollow cylindrical locking cups that are brazed to the plate and loosely circumscribe the individual enclosed nuts. After the nuts are threaded onto the respective guide tube ends, the locking cups are partially deformed to prevent one or more of the nuts from working loose during reactor operation. The locking cups also prevent loose or broken end fitting parts from becoming entrained in the reactor coolant

  2. PALM KERNEL OIL SOLUBITY EXAMINATION AND ITS MODELING IN EXTRACTION PROCESS USING SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Bahari Setianto

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Application of  supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 to vegetable oil extraction became an attractive technique due to its high solubility, short extraction time and simple purification. The method is considered as earth friendly technology due to the absence of chemical usage. Solubility of solute-SC-CO2 is an important data for application of the SC-CO2 extraction. In this work, the equilibrium solubility of the palm kernel oil (PKO in SC-CO2 has been examined using extraction curve analysis. The examinations were performed at temperature and pressure ranges of  323.15 K to 353.15 K and 20.7 to 34.5 MPa respectively. It was obtained that the experimental solubility were from 0.0160 to 0.0503 g oil/g CO2 depend on the extraction condition. The experimental solubility data was well correlated with a solvent density based model with absolute percent deviation of 0.96. PENENTUAN KELARUTAN MINYAK INTI KELAPA SAWIT DAN PEMODELAN EKSTRAKSI DENGAN KARBON DIOKSIDA SUPERKRITIK. Sehubungan dengan kelarutan yang tinggi, waktu ekstraksi yang pendek dan pemurnian hasil yang mudah, aplikasi karbon dioksida superkritis (SC-CO2 pada ekstraksi minyak nabati menjadi sebuah teknik ekstraksi yang menarik. Karena tanpa penggunaan bahan kimia, metode ekstraksi ini dianggap sebagai teknologi yang ramah lingkungan. Kelarutan zat terlarut pada SC-CO2 merupakan data yang penting dalam aplikasi SC-CO2 pada proses ekstraksi.  Pada penelitian ini,  kelarutan kesetimbangan dari minyak biji sawit (PKO dalam SC-CO2 telah diuji dengan mengunakan analisa kurva proses ekstraksi. Pengujian kelarutan tersebut dilakukan pada rentang suhu 323,15 K sampai 353,15 K dan rentang tekanan 20,7 MPa sampai 34,5 MPa. Hasil analisa menunjukkan bahwa kelarutan kesetimbangan hasil percobaan  PKO pada SC-CO2 adalah 0.0160 g minyak/g CO2 sampai 0,0503 g minyak/g CO2 tergantung pada kondisi ekstraksi. Data kelarutan kesetimbangan hasil percobaan  telah dikorelasaikan dengan baik menggunakan

  3. Hydrogen production from palm kernel shell via integrated catalytic adsorption (ICA) steam gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Zakir; Yusup, Suzana; Ahmad, Murni Melati; Chin, Bridgid Lai Fui

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The paper presents integrated catalytic adsorption (ICA) steam gasification for H 2 yield. • Effects of adsorbent to biomass, biomass particle size and fluidization velocity on H 2 yield are examined. • The present study produces higher H 2 yield as compared to that obtained in literatures. • The ICA provides enhancement of H 2 yield as compared to independent catalytic and CO 2 adsorption gasification systems. - Abstract: The present study investigates the integrated catalytic adsorption (ICA) steam gasification of palm kernel shell for hydrogen production in a pilot scale atmospheric fluidized bed gasifier. The biomass steam gasification is performed in the presence of an adsorbent and a catalyst in the system. The effect of adsorbent to biomass (A/B) ratio (0.5–1.5 wt/wt), fluidization velocity (0.15–0.26 m/s) and biomass particle size (0.355–2.0 mm) are studied at temperature of 675 °C, steam to biomass (S/B) ratio of 2.0 (wt/wt) and biomass to catalyst ratio of 0.1 (wt/wt). Hydrogen composition and yield, total gas yield, and lower product gas heating values (LHV gas ) increases with increasing A/B ratio, while particle size has no significant effect on hydrogen composition and yield, total gas and char yield, gasification and carbon conversion efficiency. However, gas heating values increased with increasing biomass particle size which is due to presence of high methane content in product gas. Meanwhile, medium fluidization velocity of 0.21 m/s favoured hydrogen composition and yield. The results showed that the maximum hydrogen composition and yield of 84.62 vol% and 91.11 g H 2 /kg biomass are observed at A/B ratio of 1.5, S/B ratio of 2.0, catalyst to biomass ratio of 0.1 and temperature of 675 °C. The product gas heating values are observed in the range of 10.92–17.02 MJ/N m 3 . Gasification and carbon conversion efficiency are observed in the range of 25.66–42.95% and 20.61–41.95%, respectively. These lower

  4. Estimation of carbon allocation of Macauba palm (Acrocomia aculeata) - A new Brazilian biofuel alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbuzeiro, H. A.; Moreira, S. L. S.; Motoike, S. Y.; Fernandes, R. B. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Macauba palm (Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lood. ex Mart) is a native oil palm of the tropical America growing in anthropic areas, especially in grazing lands of Brazilian Cerrado. Macauba palm displays intense fruiting which results in high fruit and oil yield (3.0 - 6.0 ton/ha/year). The main Macauba palm differentials are: it is adapted to the environment with marked water restriction (1000 mm annual precipitation) which makes it resistant to drought and it does not compete with areas of rainforest; the oil is similar in composition to the African palm oil (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) and can be used in several industrial applications such as biofuels, food, cosmetics, pharmaceutics and oil chemistry. Additionally, Macauba fruit processing generates several by-products like edible pulp bran, high-protein edible kernel bran, dense endocarp biomass, and husk biomass, all valuable products. Today, 172 million hectares of Brazilian land are used for grazing, of which 30 million hectares of these lands are degraded due to poor land use, 6 million in the state of Minas Gerais, in Brazil. Macauba could be cultivated in these degraded lands and is a candidate to become the main raw material for production of biokerosene. A new productive chain is forming in Brazil, the first commercial plantation of Macauba was implemented last year in Minas Gerais state and it is important to estimate the environmental impacts of this plantation, in terms of carbon (C) allocation. There is a lack of experimental data on Macauba carbon allocation and this study aimed to estimate the carbon allocation (leaves, stems and roots) of Macauba palm. The results suggest that Macauba palm is important in contributing to the carbon allocation.

  5. Pestle-pounding and nut-cracking by wild chimpanzees at Kpala, Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Gaku

    2015-04-01

    Bossou in Guinea is one of the longitudinal study sites of wild chimpanzees, and is located only a few kilometers away from the national border between Guinea and Liberia. The forests in the area spread over the national border of Guinea, and the Bossou chimpanzees have been found to use the neighboring Liberian forest. Local assistants and I started surveying these forests in Liberia, and found that additional groups of chimpanzees lived in Nimba County, Liberia. The present study reports tool use behaviors by chimpanzees living in forests of the Kpala area in Nimba County. We directly observed pestle-pounding behavior, which had been confirmed only in the Bossou group of wild chimpanzees. Moreover, we heard sounds of nut-cracking, and successfully filmed chimpanzees cracking open oil palm nuts with stones. The uniqueness of stone-tool use behaviors has been emphasized with the group of chimpanzees that have been longitudinally studied at Bossou, but the behaviors probably have a wide distribution in this area. Emigrant chimpanzees are thought to contribute to the propagation of the cultural tool-use behaviors. It is also thought that, if the distantly located groups share similar cultural behaviors, there might be genetic exchange between them. Conservation efforts should be needed not only at Bossou, but also in a wider area including nonprotected forests beyond the national border.

  6. A Kerr-NUT metric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidya, P.C.; Patel, L.K.; Bhatt, P.V.

    1976-01-01

    Using Galilean time and retarded distance as coordinates the usual Kerr metric is expressed in form similar to the Newman-Unti-Tamburino (NUT) metric. The combined Kerr-NUT metric is then investigated. In addition to the Kerr and NUT solutions of Einstein's equations, three other types of solutions are derived. These are (i) the radiating Kerr solution, (ii) the radiating NUT solution satisfying Rsub(ik) = sigmaxisub(i)xisub(k), xisub(i)xisup(i) = 0, and (iii) the associated Kerr solution satisfying Rsub(ik) = 0. Solution (i) is distinct from and simpler than the one reported earlier by Vaidya and Patel (Phys. Rev.; D7:3590 (1973)). Solutions (ii) and (iii) gave line elements which have the axis of symmetry as a singular line. (author)

  7. Locally linear approximation for Kernel methods : the Railway Kernel

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz, Alberto; González, Javier

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present a new kernel, the Railway Kernel, that works properly for general (nonlinear) classification problems, with the interesting property that acts locally as a linear kernel. In this way, we avoid potential problems due to the use of a general purpose kernel, like the RBF kernel, as the high dimension of the induced feature space. As a consequence, following our methodology the number of support vectors is much lower and, therefore, the generalization capab...

  8. Characteristics of bio-oil from the pyrolysis of palm kernel shell in a newly developed two-stage pyrolyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Seung-Jin; Choi, Gyung-Goo; Kim, Joo-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Pyrolysis of palm kernel shell was performed using a two-stage pyrolyzer consisting of an auger reactor and a fluidized bed reactor within the auger reactor temperature range of ∼290–380 °C at the fluidized bed reactor temperature of ∼520 °C, and with a variable residence time of the feed material in the auger reactor. The highest bio-oil yield of the two-stage pyrolysis was ∼56 wt%. The bio-oil derived from the auger reactor contained degradation products of the hemicelluloses of PKS, such as acetic acid, and furfural, whereas the fluidized bed reactor produced a bio-oil with high concentrations of acetic acid and phenol. The auger reactor temperature and the residence time of PKS in the auger reactor had an influence on the acetic acid concentration in the bio-oil, while their changes did not induce an observable trend on the phenol concentration in the bio-oil derived from the fluidized bed reactor. The maximum concentrations of acetic acid and phenol in bio-oil were ∼78 and 12 wt% dry basis, respectively. As a result, it was possible for the two-stage pyrolyzer to separately produce two different bio-oils in one operation without any costly fractionation process of bio-oils. - Highlights: • The two-stage pyrolyzer is composed of an auger and a fluidized bed reactor. • The two-stage pyrolyzer produced two different bio-oils in a single operation. • The maximum bio-oil yield of the two-stage pyrolysis was ∼56 wt%. • The maximum concentration of acetic acid in bio-oil was ∼78 wt% dry basis. • The maximum concentration of phenol in bio-oil was ∼12 wt% dry basis.

  9. Caracterização química da amêndoa de coquinho-azedo (Butia capitata var capitata Chemical characterization of nut of Butia capitata var capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Pereira Faria

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A palmeira Butia capitata var capitata produz o coquinho-azedo, fruto de odor agradável e penetrante, cuja polpa é aproveitada para a produção de um suco saboroso na região norte de Minas Gerais. As sementes apresentam uma amêndoa cuja exploração ainda é bastante limitada. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a composição da amêndoa do coquinho-azedo, visando a avaliar suas possibilidades de uso. Na amêndoa, a composição química (umidade, proteínas, lipídios, cinzas e fibras foi determinada por métodos gravimétricos. Os teores dos principais minerais foram avaliados por espectrofotometria de emissão atômica com fonte de plasma indutivo, e a composição dos ácidos graxos presentes na gordura da semente foi determinada por cromatografia a gás. A amêndoa do coquinho-azedo apresentou 9,9 % de umidade e 57,8 % de lipídios totais, 25,8 % de fibra detergente neutro, 17,6 % de fibra detergente ácido e 1,6 % de cinzas em base seca. A gordura extraída da amêndoa de coquinho-azedo apresentou elevados teores de ácido láurico (42,1 %, que foi seguido pelo ácido oléico (16,9 %. Predominaram os ácidos graxos saturados (78,9 %, principalmente os de cadeia média (C6-C12.The Butia capitata palm tree produce a very aromatic fruit named "coquinho-azedo", which freeze pulp is frequently used to produce agreeable juice in north of Minas Gerais, Brazil. "Coquinho-azedo" kernel contains a nut that is not frequently explored. The purpose of the present study was the chemical characterization of "coquinho-azedo" nut to evaluate the possibilities of its use. The moisture, lipids, ash and fiber contents were determined by gravimetric methods. The mineral profile was characterized by inductively coupled plasma spectrophotometer and the fatty acids profile was characterized by gas chromatography. The coquinho-azedo nut presented 9,9 % of moisture, 57,8 % of total lipid, 25,8 % of neutral detergent fiber, 17,6 % of acid detergent fiber

  10. Design and Performance Test of Locking Curved-Nut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Min Cheol; Kang, Ho Sung; Kim, Do Yeop; Lee, Suk Yong; Lee, Eung Suk [Chungbuk Nat’l Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hui Jong [Viblock Company, Cheongwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Many types of locking nut are commercializing in the various industries where has heavy vibration. Because Nut's loosing causes a serious accident. But the most locking nuts are too expensive as the complicate manufacturing process. In this study, we design the new type of locking nut, 'Curved-Nut' that is relatively simple making process. We study a relation between the elastic energy and the nut loosing mechanism. So it is analysed, the elastic energy of Curved-Nut comparing with the locking test. The Curved-Nut was manufactured on the commercial nut using a milling tool with horizontal cutting, one or two time under the nut. As the result, the more elastic energy the more prevent the loosing of the nut. We verified the performance of the loosing nut using the vibration testing equipment (NAS3350).

  11. Nut-enriched bread is an effective and acceptable vehicle to improve regular nut consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Asika; Chisholm, Alexandra; Gray, Andrew; Tey, Siew Ling; Williamson-Poutama, Destynee; Cameron, Sonya L; Brown, Rachel C

    2016-10-01

    Consuming 30 g of nuts/day is recommended to reduce chronic disease. However, nut consumption appears far from ideal among several populations. A potential strategy to increase consumption is to add nuts to a staple, for example, bread. Whether the health benefits and acceptability of nuts persist in this form is currently unknown. Thus, we examined the effects of consuming three nut-enriched breads on postprandial glycaemia, satiety, gastrointestinal tolerance, dietary intakes, and acceptance. In this controlled, crossover study, 32 participants were randomly allocated to receive one of four breads for 8 days each. Three breads contained either 30 g of finely sliced hazelnuts, 30 g semi-defatted hazelnut flour, or 15 g of each (amounts per 120 g bread) and were compared with a control nut-free bread. Blood glucose response was measured over 120 min, along with ratings of gastrointestinal discomfort. Appetite ratings and diet diaries were completed during each treatment period. Area under the blood glucose curve was significantly lower for the nut breads compared to the control bread (all P breads (all P ≥ 0.130). There were no significant differences in satiety (all P ≥ 0.135) or gastrointestinal symptoms (all P ≥ 0.102) between the breads. Acceptance was highest for the finely sliced hazelnut bread. Furthermore, consuming hazelnut-enriched bread improved diet quality, increasing monounsaturated fat, vitamin E, and dietary fibre intakes. Bread appears to be an effective and acceptable vehicle for increasing nut consumption, resulting in improved postprandial glycaemia and diet profiles. Long-term studies are now required.

  12. An Extreme Learning Machine Based on the Mixed Kernel Function of Triangular Kernel and Generalized Hermite Dirichlet Kernel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senyue Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the characteristics that the kernel function of extreme learning machine (ELM and its performance have a strong correlation, a novel extreme learning machine based on a generalized triangle Hermitian kernel function was proposed in this paper. First, the generalized triangle Hermitian kernel function was constructed by using the product of triangular kernel and generalized Hermite Dirichlet kernel, and the proposed kernel function was proved as a valid kernel function of extreme learning machine. Then, the learning methodology of the extreme learning machine based on the proposed kernel function was presented. The biggest advantage of the proposed kernel is its kernel parameter values only chosen in the natural numbers, which thus can greatly shorten the computational time of parameter optimization and retain more of its sample data structure information. Experiments were performed on a number of binary classification, multiclassification, and regression datasets from the UCI benchmark repository. The experiment results demonstrated that the robustness and generalization performance of the proposed method are outperformed compared to other extreme learning machines with different kernels. Furthermore, the learning speed of proposed method is faster than support vector machine (SVM methods.

  13. Acute and Subchronic Toxicity of Self Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery Systems (SNEDDS) from Chloroform Bay Leaf Extract (Eugenia Polyantha W.) with Palm Kernel Oil as A Carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prihapsara, F.; Mufidah; Artanti, A. N.; Harini, M.

    2018-03-01

    The present study was aimed to study the acute and subchronic toxicity of Self Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery Systems (SNEDDS) from chloroform bay leaf extract with Palm Kernel Oil as carrier. In acute toxicity test, five groups of rat (n=5/groups) were orally treated with Self Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery Systems (SNEDDS) from chloroform bay leaf extract with doses at 48, 240, 1200 and 6000 mg/kg/day respectively, then the median lethal dose LD50, advers effect and mortality were recorded up to 14 days. Meanwhile, in subchronic toxicity study, 4 groups of rats (n=6/group) received by orally treatment of SNEDDS from chloroform bay leaf extract with doses at 91.75; 183.5; 367 mg/kg/day respectively for 28 days, and biochemical, hematological and histopatological change in tissue such as liver, kidney, and pancreatic were determined. The result show that LD50 is 1045.44 mg/kg. Although histopathological examination of most of the organs exhibited no structural changes, some moderate damage was observed in high‑ dose group animals (367 mg/kg/day). The high dose of SNEDDS extract has shown mild signs of toxicity on organ function test.

  14. Morphometry of the ruminal mucosa of Santa Ines lambs fed with levels of palm kernel cake (Elaeis guineensis, from biodiesel productionMorfometria da mucosa ruminal de cordeiros Santa Inês alimentados com níveis de torta de dendê (Elaeis guineensis, oriunda da produção do biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Regina Bagaldo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The work was carried out to determine the best level of inclusion of palm kernel cake in the concentrate-based morphometry evaluation of the ruminal mucosa in Santa Ines lambs. The experiment lasted 80 days, the Tifton-85 hay in a proportion 50 forage 50concentrado. The food was offered at 9:00 and 16:00. We used 32 sheep of Santa Ines, between 4 and 6 months and body weight of 22 ± 2.75 kg. The experiment was a completely randomized design with four treatments and eight repetitions. The treatments consisted in the inclusion levels of palm kernel cake (0.0, 6.5, 13.0 and 19.5% in the dry matter. Variables evaluated in the ruminal mucosa were: height, width, area, density and thickness of papillary muscular layer of the rumen in the regions of the dorsal and ventral sac. There were no significant differences in the region of the dorsal sac of the rumen for variables analyzed with the inclusion of palm kernel cake in the diet. The ventral surface papillary bag quadratic effect, whereas the thickness of muscular layer decreasing linear effect. The inclusion of up to 19.5% palm kernel cake had no significant effect on the morphology of the papillae may be included in the diet of Santa Ines lambs.O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de determinar o melhor nível de inclusão da torta de dendê no concentrado com base na avaliação da morfometria da mucosa ruminal em cordeiros Santa Inês. O período experimental foi de 80 dias, sendo o feno de tifton-85 utilizado na proporção 50 volumoso:50concentrado. O alimento foi ofertado às 9h00 e 16h00. Foram empregados 32 ovinos da raça Santa Inês, entre 4 e 6 meses e peso corporal de 22 ± 2,75kg. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e oito repetições. Os tratamentos constituíram-se nos níveis de inclusão da torta de dendê (0,0; 6,5; 13,0 e 19,5 % na matéria seca da ração. As variáveis avaliadas na mucosa ruminal foram: altura, largura, superf

  15. An overview of the Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB potential as reinforcing fibre in polymer composite for energy absorption applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faizi M.K.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB natural fibres were comprehensively reviewed to assess their potential as reinforcing materials in polymer composites for energy absorption during low-velocity impact. The typical oil palm wastes include trunks, fronds, kernel shells, and empty fruit bunches. This has a tendency to burden the industry players with disposal difficulties and escalates the operating cost. Thus, there are several initiatives have been employed to convert these wastes into value added products. The objective of this study is to review the potential of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB as natural fibre polymer composite reinforcement to absorb the energy during low-velocity impact as another option for value added products. Initially, this paper reviewed the local oil palm waste issues. Previous research works on OPEFB polymer composite, and their mechanical characterization is appraised. Their potential for energy absorption in low-velocity impact application was also elaborated. The review suggests high potential applications of OPEFB as reinforcing materials in composite structures. Furthermore, it is wisely to utilize the oil palm biomass waste into a beneficial composite, hence, promotes the green environment.

  16. Penentuan Kadar Air Dan Kadar Kotoran Minyak Inti Sawit Di PTPN III PKS Kebun Rambutan – Tebing Tinggi

    OpenAIRE

    Nadapdap, Nova Dana Isabela

    2010-01-01

    PTPN III PKS Kebun Rambutan – tebing tinggi is factory which manufactures CPO starting from fresh fruit bunch to be crude oil.And the second product produced by PTPN III is Palm kernel.The proses of palm kernel oil within several steps are separation,solution,drying and storage.In other to be distributed,palm kernel must the following the quality specification free fatty acid 0,5 %,water content 7,0 %,pollutant content 6,0 %,ang these are the standart for obtaining high quality palm kernel.An...

  17. Kernel Machine SNP-set Testing under Multiple Candidate Kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Michael C.; Maity, Arnab; Lee, Seunggeun; Simmons, Elizabeth M.; Harmon, Quaker E.; Lin, Xinyi; Engel, Stephanie M.; Molldrem, Jeffrey J.; Armistead, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Joint testing for the cumulative effect of multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms grouped on the basis of prior biological knowledge has become a popular and powerful strategy for the analysis of large scale genetic association studies. The kernel machine (KM) testing framework is a useful approach that has been proposed for testing associations between multiple genetic variants and many different types of complex traits by comparing pairwise similarity in phenotype between subjects to pairwise similarity in genotype, with similarity in genotype defined via a kernel function. An advantage of the KM framework is its flexibility: choosing different kernel functions allows for different assumptions concerning the underlying model and can allow for improved power. In practice, it is difficult to know which kernel to use a priori since this depends on the unknown underlying trait architecture and selecting the kernel which gives the lowest p-value can lead to inflated type I error. Therefore, we propose practical strategies for KM testing when multiple candidate kernels are present based on constructing composite kernels and based on efficient perturbation procedures. We demonstrate through simulations and real data applications that the procedures protect the type I error rate and can lead to substantially improved power over poor choices of kernels and only modest differences in power versus using the best candidate kernel. PMID:23471868

  18. Performance Comparison Between Support Vector Regression and Artificial Neural Network for Prediction of Oil Palm Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustakim Mustakim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The largest region that produces oil palm in Indonesia has an important role in improving the welfare of society and economy. Oil palm has increased significantly in Riau Province in every period, to determine the production development for the next few years with the functions and benefits of oil palm carried prediction production results that were seen from time series data last 8 years (2005-2013. In its prediction implementation, it was done by comparing the performance of Support Vector Regression (SVR method and Artificial Neural Network (ANN. From the experiment, SVR produced the best model compared with ANN. It is indicated by the correlation coefficient of 95% and 6% for MSE in the kernel Radial Basis Function (RBF, whereas ANN produced only 74% for R2 and 9% for MSE on the 8th experiment with hiden neuron 20 and learning rate 0,1. SVR model generates predictions for next 3 years which increased between 3% - 6% from actual data and RBF model predictions.

  19. Formulation and in vitro release evaluation of newly synthesized palm kernel oil esters-based nanoemulsion delivery system for 30% ethanolic dried extract derived from local Phyllanthus urinaria for skin antiaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi ES

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Elrashid Saleh Mahdi1, Azmin Mohd Noor1, Mohamed Hameem Sakeena1, Ghassan Z Abdullah1, Muthanna F Abdulkarim1, Munavvar Abdul Sattar2 1Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, 2Department of Physiology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia Background: Recently there has been a remarkable surge of interest about natural products and their applications in the cosmetic industry. Topical delivery of antioxidants from natural sources is one of the approaches used to reverse signs of skin aging. The aim of this research was to develop a nanoemulsion cream for topical delivery of 30% ethanolic extract derived from local Phyllanthus urinaria (P. urinaria for skin antiaging. Methods: Palm kernel oil esters (PKOEs-based nanoemulsions were loaded with P. urinaria extract using a spontaneous method and characterized with respect to particle size, zeta potential, and rheological properties. The release profile of the extract was evaluated using in vitro Franz diffusion cells from an artificial membrane and the antioxidant activity of the extract released was evaluated using the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method. Results: Formulation F12 consisted of wt/wt, 0.05% P. urinaria extract, 1% cetyl alcohol, 0.5% glyceryl monostearate, 12% PKOEs, and 27% Tween® 80/Span® 80 (9/1 with a hydrophilic lipophilic balance of 13.9, and a 59.5% phosphate buffer system at pH 7.4. Formulation F36 was comprised of 0.05% P. urinaria extract, 1% cetyl alcohol, 1% glyceryl monostearate, 14% PKOEs, 28% Tween® 80/Span® 80 (9/1 with a hydrophilic lipophilic balance of 13.9, and 56% phosphate buffer system at pH 7.4 with shear thinning and thixotropy. The droplet size of F12 and F36 was 30.74 nm and 35.71 nm, respectively, and their nanosizes were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy images. Thereafter, 51.30% and 51.02% of the loaded extract was released from F12 and F36 through an artificial cellulose membrane

  20. Pistachio nut allergy: An updated overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Joana; Silva, Isa; Vicente, António A; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Mafra, Isabel

    2017-09-19

    Pistachio nut (Pistacia vera) is highly appreciated for its organoleptic characteristics and potential health benefits. However, this tree nut is also responsible for triggering moderate to severe IgE-mediated reactions in allergic individuals. Currently, pistachio nut allergy has gained some special attention, mainly due to its intrinsic relation with cashew nut allergy. Like for other nuts, the prevalence of pistachio nut allergy seems to be increasing at a global scale. Until now, there are five allergenic proteins officially listed for pistachio nut (Pis v 1, Pis v 2, Pis v 3, Pis v 4 and Pis v 5). Relevant data on their biochemical classification has become available, enabling establishing a correlation with the respective clinical symptoms. The establishment of an effective allergen risk assessment is a key issue for the food industry, policy makers and regulatory agencies. Thus, the availability of fast, specific and sensitive methods to detect trace amounts of allergens in processed foods is crucial. In the specific case of pistachio nut, there are some protein- and DNA-based methods for its detection/quantification in foods, which can aid to verify label information. Accordingly, all relevant research advances on this topic were summarised, updated and critically discussed in this review.

  1. LA INDUSTRIA DE LA PALMA DE ACEITE EN ACAPETAHUA, CHIAPAS: EL CASO DE PROPALMA

    OpenAIRE

    Mazariegos Sánchez, Adriana; Ã guila González, José Manuel; Martínez Chávez, Josefina; Arévalo Lozano, Ovidio

    2014-01-01

    This research presents a socio-organizational within the African Palm industry in Mexico, specifically in the company "Promotora de Palma del Soconusco S.A.P.I. CV- (Propalma)5, located in the municipality of Acapetahua, in the State of Chiapas, whose primary activity is the extraction of palm oil and palm kernel oil, and the production of products such as palm kernel and palm kernel husk flour. This research was developed under the qualitative approach, using the descriptive method, to see f...

  2. Nuts and oxidation: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Mònica Bulló; Patricia López-Uriarte; Patricia Casas-Agustench; Nancy Babio; Jordi Salas-Salvadó

    2009-01-01

    Nuts and oxidation: a systematic review In recent years, nuts have received special attention because of their potential role in preventing cardiovascular disease. Because nuts are very rich in total fat that can potentially be oxidized and their skins contain several antioxidants, studies have been conducted to evaluate the potential effect of nut consumption on oxidative stress. This review evaluates the in vitro and in vivo studies conducted in animals or humans to analyze the effect of...

  3. Extraction and Assessment of Physicochemical Properties of Rosigold Mango (Mangifera indica Seed Kernel Oil for Bioresin Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Sadiq

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents research report on extraction and assessment of physicochemical properties of Rosigold mango kernel oil. This is with a view to using the oil for bioresin production so as to mitigate some of the problems associated with petrochemical resins currently used for bulk of composite production activities. The seeds of the mango were identified and collected from the wastes discarded by marketers and consumers in Bauchi town. The Oil was obtained using soxhlet extraction with n-Hexane as solvent. The oil was characterized for yield, relative density, free fatty acid value, acid value, iodine value, and saponification value. Mean values of the characteristic parameters were: oil yield 19.6%, relative density 0.874 g/cm3, free fatty acid value 3.09 mg NaOH/g oil, acid value 6.18 mg KOH/g oil, iodine value 60.7 mg iodine/100 g oil and saponification value 143.6 mg KOH/ g oil. Analysis and comparison of these results with the physicochemical properties of palm oil, Soya bean oil and Hemp seed oil respectively, revealed that the iodine value of Rosigold mango seed kernel oil is higher than palm oil, but lower than Soya bean and Hemp seed oils respectively. Bioresin production is heavily dependent on the degree of unsaturation of the oil which is reflected by the iodine value. However, the overall results suggested that Rosigold mango seed kernel oil is suitable for bioresin production since the minimum iodine bench mark for renewable oil suitable for bioresin production is 50 mg iodine/100 g oil. The extracted oil has an added advantage in that the source (mango seed is a waste material that is readily available, affordable and sustainable in Nigeria and many other countries.

  4. Batch sorption-desorption of As(III) from waste water by magnetic palm kernel shell activated carbon using optimized Box-Behnken design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyika, Chinedum; Asri, Nur Asilayana Mohd; Majid, Zaiton Abdul; Jaafar, Jafariah; Yahya, Adibah

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we converted activated carbon (AC) into magnetic activated carbon (MAC), which was established to have removed arsenic (III) from wastewater. Arsenic (III) is a toxic heavy metal which is readily soluble in water and can be detrimental to human health. The MAC was prepared by incorporating Fe3O4 into the AC by using Fe3O4 extracted from a ferrous sulfate solution, designated: magnetic palm kernel shell from iron suspension (MPKSF). Batch experiments were conducted using two methods: (1) one-factor-at-a-time and (2) Box-Behnken statistical analysis. Results showed that the optimum conditions resulted in 95% of As(III) removal in the wastewater sample. The adsorption data were best fitted to the Langmuir isotherm. The adsorption of As(III) onto the MPKSF was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry analysis which detected the presence of As(III) of 0.52% on the surface of the MPKSF. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis of the MPKSF-As presented a peak at 573 cm-1, which was assigned to M-O (metal-oxygen) bending, indicating the coordination of As(III) with oxygen through the formation of inner-sphere complexation, thereby indicating a covalent bonding between the MPKSF functional groups and As(III). The findings suggested that the MPKSF exhibited a strong capacity to efficiently remove As(III) from wastewater, while the desorption studies showed that the As(III) was rigidly bound to the MPKSF thereby eliminating the possibility of secondary pollution.

  5. Functional characterization of acetylated Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa HBK kernel globulin Caracterizaçao funcional das globulinas de amêndoa de castanha-do-Pará após a acetilação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Maria Pinto Ramos

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Defatted Brazil nut kernel flour, a rich source of high quality proteins, is presently being utilized in the formulation of animal feeds. One of the possible ways to improve its utilization for human consumption is through improvement in its functional properties. In the present study, changes in some of the functional properties of Brazil nut kernel globulin were evaluated after acetylation at 58.6, 66.2 and 75.3% levels. The solubility of acetylated globulin was improved above pH 6.0 but was reduced in the pH range of 3.0-4.0. Water and oil absorption capacity, as well as the viscosity increased with increase in the level of acetylation. Level of modification also influenced the emulsifying capacity: decreased at pH 3.0, but increased at pH 7.0 and 9.0. Highest emulsion activity (approximately 62.2% was observed at pH 3.0 followed by pH 9.0 and pH 7.0 and least (about 11.8% at pH 5.0. Emulsion stability also followed similar behavior as that of emulsion activity.Farinha desengordurada de amêndoa de castanha-do-Pará, fonte rica de proteína de alta qualidade, vem sendo, atualmente, aproveitada apenas na formulação de ração animal. Uma das possíveis maneiras de melhorar seu aproveitamento para o consumo humano é através do melhoramento de suas propriedades funcionais. No presente trabalho, mudanças em algumas propriedades funcionais da globulina de castanha-do-Pará, após acetilação, aos níveis de 58,6, 66,2 e 75,3% foram estudadas. A solubilidade da globulina acetilada aumentou acima de pH 6,0, porém diminuiu na faixa de pH 3,0 a 4,0. As capacidades de absorção de água e de óleo como também a viscosidade, melhoraram com o aumento de grau de acetilação. O grau de modificação também influenciou a capacidade de emulsificação: reduziu em pH 3,0, e aumentou nos pHs 7,0 e 9,0. A máxima atividade de emulsão (aproximadamente 62,2% foi observada em pH 3,0 seguida de pH 9,0 e a mínima foi observada (11,8% em pH 5,0. A

  6. Catolé palm (Syagrus oleracea Mart fruits: fatty and amino acids composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira, Rosalynd V. R.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Catolé Palm (Syagrus oleracea Mart Fruits were analysed for their chemical composition. The pulp and kernel portions contained 0.7 and 40.0% lipids. Freshly extracted kernel oil showed a small concentration (0.4 meq/kg of peroxides but did not contain free fatty acids. The iodine and saponification values were 27.4 and 226, respectively. A large qualitative as well as quantitative difference in the fatty acid composition between the catolé pulp and kernel oil was observed. Fifteen and 19 fatty acids were identified in the pulp and kernel oil, respectively. These oils contained 48.9 and 73.2 % saturated fatty acids. The principal saturated fatty acids of the pulp oil was palmitic (C16 acid, while that of kernel oil was lauric (C12 acid. Oleic acid was the main monounsaturated fatty acid in both oils. In pulp oil, linoleic (C18:2 and linolenic (C18:3 were present at 23.5 and 11,3% concentrations, while kernel oil contained only linoleic acid (3.59%. In relation to amino acid composition of proteins, pulp proteins presented better amino acid profile than kernel proteins. In pulp proteins, the essential amino acids were present at concentrations higher than recommended by FAO except for methionine and lysine, while kernel proteins were deficient in all essential amino acids except phenylalanine, isoleucine and threonine.Los frutos de la Palmera catolé (Syagrus oleracea Mart fueron analizados para determinar su composición química. Las fracciones de la pulpa y almendra contenían 0,7 y 40.0 % de lípidos. El aceite de almendra fresca mostró una pequeña concentración de peróxidos pero no presentó ácidos grasos libres. El índice de iodo y de saponificación fueron 27,4 y 226, respectivamente. Fue observada una gran diferencia cualitativa como también cuantitativa en la composición de ácidos grasos entre el aceite de la pulpa y de la almendra. 15 y 19 ácidos grasos fueron identificados en el aceite de la pulpa y de la almendra

  7. Nuts for Physical Health and Fitness: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetaka Hamasaki

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nuts are rich in various nutrients. Recent evidence suggests that nut consumption has beneficial effects on blood pressure, lipid profile, obesity, inflammation, and oxidative stress, which reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have shown that nut consumption improves body composition without causing weight gain, despite total energy intake increases. However, evidence regarding nut consumption and physical fitness is limited. The aim of this mini review is to summarize the evidence regarding effects of nuts on physical health, fitness, and exercise performance. Almond supplementation improves exercise performance, but pistachio supplementation does not. The effect of nuts on exercise performance was controversial. On the other hand, unsaturated fatty acid-enriched nuts had a beneficial effect on skeletal muscle mass and oxygen consumption. A diet enriched with nuts also improved physical fitness, which was enhanced by exercise. Although the characteristics of the study participants and the interventions used in the studies are heterogeneous, nuts have a potential to improve physical fitness. However, further studies are required to reveal the effects of nuts on physical fitness, exercise performance, and endurance capacity.

  8. Properties of Brazil nuts: A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2015-02-25

    Feb 25, 2015 ... Brazil nut products, including oil, cake and flour, milk extract and extruded products. NUTRITIONAL ASPECTS. Brazil nut has high content of proteins, carbohydrates, unsaturated ... nuts, as part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol may reduce ..... products since it enables the mixing of different raw.

  9. Genetic diversity based on morphological traits in walnut (Juglans regia L.) landraces from Karakoram region-I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, I.; Sultan, A.; Shinwari, Z. K.

    2016-01-01

    Walnut is one of the most important nutritive nut crops and widely grown in Gilgit-Baltistan region of Pakistan. In the present study 19 local landraces were analyzed for morphological traits to investigate genetic diversity and identify promising landraces for cultivar development. Multivariate analyses showed high variation for morphological traits and nut and kernel characteristics. Cluster analyses depicted diversity among the local land races which separated them into 2 major clusters groups, showing more association to morphological differences. PCA revealed that the 1st four principal components (PCs) possessed Eigen value >1.0, where PC1 and PC2 contributed total variance of 41.65 percent and 23.42 percent respectively with total variance (65.05 percent) showing maximum factor loadings by kernel ratio, shell percent, kernel yield and nut width by the first two PCs. Pearson correlation coefficient among walnut landraces revealed positively significant correlation between shell yield and nut weight(r=0.96), kernel yield and nut width(r=0.85), whereas negative correlation were observed (r = -0.89 and r = -0.76) between kernel ratio with shell yield and nut weight respectively. A wide range of diversity was observed among the local landraces from Karakoram regions and the landrace HKK and GNAG were reported as promising one with highest kernel ratio. These landraces are potential for future breeding of nut crops with distinct morphological traits. (author)

  10. Taking actions to quit chewing betel nuts and starting a new life: taxi drivers' successful experiences of quitting betel nut chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tsui-Yun; Lin, Hung-Ru

    2017-04-01

    To understand taxi drivers' successful experiences of quitting betel nut chewing. Previous studies verified that betel nut chewing significantly increases the risk of oral cancer. In Taiwan, taxi drivers work for approximately 10-13 hours per day, and 31·7-80% of them choose to chew betel nuts for their invigorating qualities, which enable them to work more hours and receive more income. A qualitative research design was used. This study used the grounded theory method with purposive sampling to perform in-depth interviews with male taxi drivers who had successfully quit betel nut chewing for more than six months. The interviewed participants were 25 taxi drivers aged 45-67 who had chewed betel nuts for an average of 30·9 years. A constant comparative analysis of the 25 interviews revealed six categories, namely the first experience of chewing betel nuts, a part of work and life, perceiving the impact of betel nuts, trying to change, acting to quit betel nut chewing and starting a new life. During the cessation process, taxi drivers tended to be affected by their addiction to chewing betel nuts and the temptation of friends' invitations to chew betel nuts. However, their recognition of the physical effects of betel nut chewing and their sense of responsibility and commitment to family were the critical factors affecting their determination to quit betel nut chewing. Their willpower to not to chew betel nuts and the source of their motivation to exercise self-control also contributed to their success. Healthcare personnel should understand the experiences and perceptions of betel nut chewers, strengthen their understanding of the effects of betel nut chewing on physical health during the cessation period and support their self-efficacy and quitting behaviours with the assistance of significant others. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Physic nut (Jatropha curcas):

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    else

    Hence a serious of silvicultural and genotype testing have been carried out in the Central Rift Valley of. Ethiopia. The result indicated that physic nut has a very narrow genetic ... physic nut as a source of raw material for biodiesel industry. .... such level of seed yield per hectare was achieved through good management and.

  12. Data-variant kernel analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Motai, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    Describes and discusses the variants of kernel analysis methods for data types that have been intensely studied in recent years This book covers kernel analysis topics ranging from the fundamental theory of kernel functions to its applications. The book surveys the current status, popular trends, and developments in kernel analysis studies. The author discusses multiple kernel learning algorithms and how to choose the appropriate kernels during the learning phase. Data-Variant Kernel Analysis is a new pattern analysis framework for different types of data configurations. The chapters include

  13. Characterizing haploinsufficiency of SHELL gene to improve fruit form prediction in introgressive hybrids of oil palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Chee-Keng; Muaz, Siti Dalila; Tangaya, Praveena; Fong, Po-Yee; Ong, Ai-Ling; Mayes, Sean; Chew, Fook-Tim; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna; Appleton, David

    2017-06-08

    The fundamental trait in selective breeding of oil palm (Eleais guineensis Jacq.) is the shell thickness surrounding the kernel. The monogenic shell thickness is inversely correlated to mesocarp thickness, where the crude palm oil accumulates. Commercial thin-shelled tenera derived from thick-shelled dura × shell-less pisifera generally contain 30% higher oil per bunch. Two mutations, sh MPOB (M1) and sh AVROS (M2) in the SHELL gene - a type II MADS-box transcription factor mainly present in AVROS and Nigerian origins, were reported to be responsible for different fruit forms. In this study, we have tested 1,339 samples maintained in Sime Darby Plantation using both mutations. Five genotype-phenotype discrepancies and eight controls were then re-tested with all five reported mutations (sh AVROS , sh MPOB , sh MPOB2 , sh MPOB3 and sh MPOB4 ) within the same gene. The integration of genotypic data, pedigree records and shell formation model further explained the haploinsufficiency effect on the SHELL gene with different number of functional copies. Some rare mutations were also identified, suggesting a need to further confirm the existence of cis-compound mutations in the gene. With this, the prediction accuracy of fruit forms can be further improved, especially in introgressive hybrids of oil palm. Understanding causative variant segregation is extremely important, even for monogenic traits such as shell thickness in oil palm.

  14. Hydraulic nuts (hydranuts) for critical bolted joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwell, S.

    2008-01-01

    HydraNuts replace the original nut and torquing equipment, combining the two functions into one system. Designed for simple installation and operation, HydraNuts are fitted to the stud bolts. Once all HydraNuts are fitted to the application, flexible hydraulic hoses are connected, forming a closed loop hydraulic harness, allowing simultaneous pressurization of all HydraNuts. Hydraulic pressure is obtained by the use of a pumping unit and the resultant load generated is transferred to the studs and flange closure is obtained. Locking rings are rotated into place, supporting the tensioned load mechanically after hydraulic pressure is released. The hose harness is removed. (author)

  15. Effects of palm kernel cake (PKC on growth performance, blood components and liver histopathology of sex reversed red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukasem, N.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Effects of Palm Kernel Cake (PKC on growth performance, blood components and liver histopathology of sex- reversed red tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were studied using seven isocaloric diets (3400 kCal/ kg containing different levels of protein and PKC. Diet 1, 2 and 3 contained 20% protein with the supplementation of 15, 30 and 45% PKC, respectively. Diets 4, 5 and 6 contained 24% protein in combinationwith the same PKC supplemention levels mentioned above, and diet 7 was commercial feed containing 20% protein as a control diet. Experimental diets were fed to experimental fish of 48.65 g initial average body weight cultured in floating cages (3 cages/diet for 10 weeks. Fish fed diets containing higher protein (24%; diets 4, 5 and 6 had significantly better growth performance (p<0.05 than those fed lower protein (20%; diets 1, 2 and 3. Considering the effect of PKC, fish fed diet 5 (Prot. 24%, PKC 30% gave the greatest growth performance (p<0.05 and all the PKC-fed groups had significantly higher growth than fish fed control diet. There was evidence that supplementation of PKC in fish feed ranging from 15 to 45% had no effect to the survival rate, blood components, or hepatocytic cells of tilapia. However, liver tissue showed higher numbers of lipid droplets in fish fed diet contained 45% PKC (diets 3 and 6. For the production cost, all test diets with PKC supplementation had significantly higher price (p<0.05 than commercial feed. However, when considering the feeding cost per unit of fish production, fish reared with PKC supplemented diets had significantly lower cost (p<0.05 than fish fed commercial feed.

  16. Hydraulic Apparatus for Mechanical Testing of Nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkel, Todd J.; Dean, Richard J.; Hacker, Scott C.; Harrington, Douglas W.; Salazar, Frank

    2004-01-01

    The figure depicts an apparatus for mechanical testing of nuts. In the original application for which the apparatus was developed, the nuts are of a frangible type designed for use with pyrotechnic devices in spacecraft applications in which there are requirements for rapid, one-time separations of structures that are bolted together. The apparatus can also be used to test nonfrangible nuts engaged without pyrotechnic devices. This apparatus was developed to replace prior testing systems that were extremely heavy and immobile and characterized by long setup times (of the order of an hour for each nut to be tested). This apparatus is mobile, and the setup for each test can now be completed in about five minutes. The apparatus can load a nut under test with a static axial force of as much as 6.8 x 10(exp 5) lb (3.0 MN) and a static moment of as much as 8.5 x 10(exp 4) lb in. (9.6 x 10(exp 3) N(raised dot)m) for a predetermined amount of time. In the case of a test of a frangible nut, the pyrotechnic devices can be exploded to break the nut while the load is applied, in which case the breakage of the nut relieves the load. The apparatus can be operated remotely for safety during an explosive test. The load-generating portion of the apparatus is driven by low-pressure compressed air; the remainder of the apparatus is driven by 110-Vac electricity. From its source, the compressed air is fed to the apparatus through a regulator and a manually operated valve. The regulated compressed air is fed to a pneumatically driven hydraulic pump, which pressurizes oil in a hydraulic cylinder, thereby causing a load to be applied via a hydraulic nut (not to be confused with the nut under test). During operation, the hydraulic pressure is correlated with the applied axial load, which is verified by use of a load cell. Prior to operation, one end of a test stud (which could be an ordinary threaded rod or bolt) is installed in the hydraulic nut. The other end of the test stud passes

  17. Effects of dietary inclusion of palm kernel cake on nutrient utilization, rumen fermentation characteristics and microbial populations of goats fed Paspalum plicatulum hay-based diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahutaya Pongprayoon

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of inclusion of palm kernel cake (PKC in the diets on intake, digestibility, rumen fermentationcharacteristics, nitrogen balance and microbial N supply, five goats (initial BW = 20±1 kg were randomly assigned to a55 Latin square design to receive five diets, T1 = concentrate with 15% PKC, T2 = 25% PKC, T3 = 35% PKC, T4 = 45% PKCand T5 = 55% PKC, of dietary dry matter, respectively. Plicatulum hay was offered ad libitum as the roughage. A metabolismtrial lasted for 21 days during which live weight changes and feed intakes were measured. Based on this experiment, therewere no significant differences (p>0.05 among treatment groups regarding dry matter (DM intake and digestion coefficientsof DM, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber, except in T4 and T5 (45 and 55% PKCwhich had lower (p0.05, however the concentration of total volatile fatty acids and protozoal populations were slightly lower forgoats fed inclusion of 45-55% PKC as compared with other treatments. Based on this experiment, it could be concluded thatthe optimal level of PKC in concentrate should be 15-35% for goats fed with plicatulum hay and that it may be an effectivemeans of exploiting the use of local feed resources for goat production.

  18. Approximate kernel competitive learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-Sheng; Zheng, Wei-Shi; Lai, Jian-Huang

    2015-03-01

    Kernel competitive learning has been successfully used to achieve robust clustering. However, kernel competitive learning (KCL) is not scalable for large scale data processing, because (1) it has to calculate and store the full kernel matrix that is too large to be calculated and kept in the memory and (2) it cannot be computed in parallel. In this paper we develop a framework of approximate kernel competitive learning for processing large scale dataset. The proposed framework consists of two parts. First, it derives an approximate kernel competitive learning (AKCL), which learns kernel competitive learning in a subspace via sampling. We provide solid theoretical analysis on why the proposed approximation modelling would work for kernel competitive learning, and furthermore, we show that the computational complexity of AKCL is largely reduced. Second, we propose a pseudo-parallelled approximate kernel competitive learning (PAKCL) based on a set-based kernel competitive learning strategy, which overcomes the obstacle of using parallel programming in kernel competitive learning and significantly accelerates the approximate kernel competitive learning for large scale clustering. The empirical evaluation on publicly available datasets shows that the proposed AKCL and PAKCL can perform comparably as KCL, with a large reduction on computational cost. Also, the proposed methods achieve more effective clustering performance in terms of clustering precision against related approximate clustering approaches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Preparation and characterization of plasticized palm-based polyurethane solid polymer electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daud, Farah Nadia; Ahmad, Azizan; Badri, Khairiah Haji [School of Chemical Science and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    Palm-based polyurethane solid polymer electrolyte was prepared via prepolymerization method between palm kernel oil based polyols (PKO-p) and 2,4’-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (2,4’-MDI) in acetone at room temperature with the vary amount of lithium trifuoromethanesulfonate (LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}) salt and polyethylene glycol (PEG). The film was analyzed using attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). EIS result indicated ionic conductivity obtained with 30 wt% LiCF3SO3 increased to 6.55 × 10{sup −6} S cm{sup −1} when 10 wt.% of plasticizer was added into the system. FTIR analysis showed the interaction between lithium ions and amine (-N-H) at 3600–3100 cm{sup −1}, carbonyl (-C=O) at 1750–1650 cm{sup −1} and ether (-C-O-C-) at 1150–1000 cm{sup −1} of the polyurethane forming polymer-salt complexes. The XRD result confirmed that LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} salt completely dissociated within the polyurethane film with the absence of crystalline peaks of LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}.

  20. Preparation and characterization of plasticized palm-based polyurethane solid polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daud, Farah Nadia; Ahmad, Azizan; Badri, Khairiah Haji

    2013-01-01

    Palm-based polyurethane solid polymer electrolyte was prepared via prepolymerization method between palm kernel oil based polyols (PKO-p) and 2,4’-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (2,4’-MDI) in acetone at room temperature with the vary amount of lithium trifuoromethanesulfonate (LiCF 3 SO 3 ) salt and polyethylene glycol (PEG). The film was analyzed using attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). EIS result indicated ionic conductivity obtained with 30 wt% LiCF3SO3 increased to 6.55 × 10 −6 S cm −1 when 10 wt.% of plasticizer was added into the system. FTIR analysis showed the interaction between lithium ions and amine (-N-H) at 3600–3100 cm −1 , carbonyl (-C=O) at 1750–1650 cm −1 and ether (-C-O-C-) at 1150–1000 cm −1 of the polyurethane forming polymer-salt complexes. The XRD result confirmed that LiCF 3 SO 3 salt completely dissociated within the polyurethane film with the absence of crystalline peaks of LiCF 3 SO 3

  1. Effect of Reinforced Hybrid Palm Shells on Mechanical Properties of Polyurethane-Jute Woven/ Vinyl Ester Sandwich Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, T.S.; Nurul Ain Nanyan; Lan, D.N.U.; Leng, T.P.

    2014-01-01

    A natural fiber sandwich was constructed from palm shells/polyurethane core and jute woven/vinyl ester face sheets by the in-situ sandwich process (core and panel prepared simultaneously). The polyurethane sandwich core was reinforced by hybrid shell systems of dried palm shell (DPS) and palm kernel shell (PKS) (50P-50D, 25P-75D), and single shell system of PKS (100P) as well as 20 phr empty fruit bunch (EFB) based on hundred part of polyurethane. The sandwich face sheets are prepared by using two jute woven layers and impregnated by vinyl ester. Interlocking between DPS and polyurethane matrix was formed, which hence enhanced the mechanical properties. The interfacial adhesion between DPS, PKS, and EFB with the polyurethane binder played the important role to achieve high mechanical properties. It was found that hybrid shells exhibited high reinforcement for sandwich's performance resulting better compression (50P-50D) and flexural (25P-75D) properties. The single shell 100P showed only improvement on flexural modulus.The fracture surface morphology of sandwich under mechanical test was performed by using optical microscopy. (author)

  2. Trace metals content (contaminants) as initial indicator in the quality of heat treated palm oil whole extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohd Fauzi, Noor Akhmazillah bt [Chemical and Bioprocess Department, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia); Sarmidi, Mohd Roji [Chemical Engineering Pilot Plant, Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia)

    2011-07-01

    An investigation was carried out on the effect of different sterilization time on the trace metals concentration of palm oil whole extract. Palm fruits were collected, cleaned and sterilized for 0, 20, 40 and 60 minutes. The kernels were then stripped from the sterilized fruits to get the pulp and later the pulp was pressed using small scale expeller. The resulting puree was centrifuge at 4000 rpm for 20 minutes. The palm oil whole extract were then collected and trace metals analysis was conducted using Inductively Couple Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The result showed that the highest yield was obtained at 40 minutes of sterilization with 19.9 {+-} 0.21 % (w/w). There was no significant different (p < 0.5) in total trace metals content between the degrees of the heat treatment. Na+ was found as the highest trace metals content in the extract with mean concentration ranging from 1.05 {+-} 0.03 ppm to 2.36 {+-} 0.01 ppm. 40 minutes of heating time was predicted to have good oil quality due to higher content in trace metals that inhibit the lipase enzyme activity.

  3. Declining Yield of Oil Palm: A case study of Four Oil Palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates the achievable yield and extent of oil palm yield decline over time in four large oil palm plantations in Nigeria and Cameroon. In Nigeria the highest achieved palm oil yield was 2.64 tonnes per hectare for 9-year-old palms in one of the plantations studied. By the eighteenth year, the yield had ...

  4. 7 CFR 51.2547 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Pistachio Nuts in the Shell § 51.2547 Definitions. (a) Well dried means the kernel... to nuts, or any substance other than pistachio shells or kernels. Glass, metal or live insects shall... inch round opening. (5) Undersize means pistachio nuts in the shell which fall through a 30/64 inch...

  5. Classification With Truncated Distance Kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaolin; Suykens, Johan A K; Wang, Shuning; Hornegger, Joachim; Maier, Andreas

    2018-05-01

    This brief proposes a truncated distance (TL1) kernel, which results in a classifier that is nonlinear in the global region but is linear in each subregion. With this kernel, the subregion structure can be trained using all the training data and local linear classifiers can be established simultaneously. The TL1 kernel has good adaptiveness to nonlinearity and is suitable for problems which require different nonlinearities in different areas. Though the TL1 kernel is not positive semidefinite, some classical kernel learning methods are still applicable which means that the TL1 kernel can be directly used in standard toolboxes by replacing the kernel evaluation. In numerical experiments, the TL1 kernel with a pregiven parameter achieves similar or better performance than the radial basis function kernel with the parameter tuned by cross validation, implying the TL1 kernel a promising nonlinear kernel for classification tasks.

  6. Areca (Betel) Nut Chewing Practices in Micronesian Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulino, Yvette C; Novotny, Rachel; Miller, Mary Jane; Murphy, Suzanne P

    2011-03-01

    To describe the areca nut/betel quid chewing practices of Micronesian chewers living in Guam. Two studies were conducted using qualitative data from focus groups and quantitative cross-sectional data from the 2007 Guam Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Ten focus groups included 49 men and women aged 18-60 years living in Guam in 2007. Participants were areca nut/betel quid chewers selected to reflect Guam's age and ethnic group (Chamorro, Chuukese, Palauan, and Yapese) distributions. Salient themes were extracted from transcripts of the sessions by three expert reviewers. A second method, latent class analysis, was used to identify unique groups of chewers. The groups were then compared on demographics and chewing-related behaviors. Areca nut and betel quid recipes collected from the focus groups showed that Chamorros had a preference for the ripe nut and swallowed the nut, whereas, the Chuukese, Palauan, and Yapese groups preferred the unripe nut and did not swallow it. Similarly, latent class analysis resulted in the identification of two groups of areca nut/betel quid chewers. Group 1 was all Chamorros. Compared to Group 2, the chewers in Group 1 preferred red and ripe nuts, did not add slake lime (calcium hydroxide) or tobacco, and swallowed the masticated areca nut (with or without Piper betle leaf). The quantitative analysis confirmed the qualitative exploration of areca nut/betel quid chewers in Guam, thus providing evidence that chewing practices vary among Micronesian populations. If future research should include an intervention, the differences in chewing practices among Micronesian populations should be taken into consideration to ensure programmatic success.

  7. Exact Heat Kernel on a Hypersphere and Its Applications in Kernel SVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenchao Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Many contemporary statistical learning methods assume a Euclidean feature space. This paper presents a method for defining similarity based on hyperspherical geometry and shows that it often improves the performance of support vector machine compared to other competing similarity measures. Specifically, the idea of using heat diffusion on a hypersphere to measure similarity has been previously proposed and tested by Lafferty and Lebanon [1], demonstrating promising results based on a heuristic heat kernel obtained from the zeroth order parametrix expansion; however, how well this heuristic kernel agrees with the exact hyperspherical heat kernel remains unknown. This paper presents a higher order parametrix expansion of the heat kernel on a unit hypersphere and discusses several problems associated with this expansion method. We then compare the heuristic kernel with an exact form of the heat kernel expressed in terms of a uniformly and absolutely convergent series in high-dimensional angular momentum eigenmodes. Being a natural measure of similarity between sample points dwelling on a hypersphere, the exact kernel often shows superior performance in kernel SVM classifications applied to text mining, tumor somatic mutation imputation, and stock market analysis.

  8. Simultaneous determination of multi-mycotoxins in palm kernel cake (PKC) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yibadatihan, S; Jinap, S; Mahyudin, N A

    2014-01-01

    Palm kernel cake (PKC) is a useful source of protein and energy for livestock. Recently, it has been used as an ingredient in poultry feed. Mycotoxin contamination of PKC due to inappropriate handling during production and storage has increased public concern about economic losses and health risks for poultry and humans. This concern has accentuated the need for the evaluation of mycotoxins in PKC. Furthermore, a method for quantifying mycotoxins in PKC has so far not been established. The aims of this study were therefore (1) to develop a method for the simultaneous determination of mycotoxins in PKC and (2) to validate and verify the method. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method using an electrospray ionisation interface (ESI) in both positive- and negative-ion modes was developed for the simultaneous determination of aflatoxins (AFB₁, AFB₂, AFG₁ and AFG₂), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEA), deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisins (FB₁ and FB₂), T-2 and HT-2 toxin in PKC. An optimum method using a 0.2 ml min⁻¹ flow rate, 0.2% formic acid in aqueous phase, 10% organic phase at the beginning and 90% organic phase at the end of the gradient was achieved. The extraction of mycotoxins was performed using a solvent mixture of acetonitrile-water-formic acid (79:20:1, v/v) without further clean-up. The mean recoveries of mycotoxins in spiked PKC samples ranged from 81% to 112%. Limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) for mycotoxin standards and PKC samples ranged from 0.02 to 17.5 μg kg⁻¹ and from 0.06 to 58.0 μg kg⁻¹, respectively. Finally, the newly developed method was successfully applied to PKC samples. The results illustrated the fact that the method is efficient and accurate for the simultaneous multi-mycotoxin determination in PKC, which can be ideal for routine analysis.

  9. Areca (Betel) Nut Chewing Practices in Micronesian Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulino, Yvette C.; Novotny, Rachel; Miller, Mary Jane; Murphy, Suzanne P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the areca nut/betel quid chewing practices of Micronesian chewers living in Guam. Design Two studies were conducted using qualitative data from focus groups and quantitative cross-sectional data from the 2007 Guam Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Ten focus groups included 49 men and women aged 18–60 years living in Guam in 2007. Participants were areca nut/betel quid chewers selected to reflect Guam's age and ethnic group (Chamorro, Chuukese, Palauan, and Yapese) distributions. Salient themes were extracted from transcripts of the sessions by three expert reviewers. A second method, latent class analysis, was used to identify unique groups of chewers. The groups were then compared on demographics and chewing-related behaviors. Results Areca nut and betel quid recipes collected from the focus groups showed that Chamorros had a preference for the ripe nut and swallowed the nut, whereas, the Chuukese, Palauan, and Yapese groups preferred the unripe nut and did not swallow it. Similarly, latent class analysis resulted in the identification of two groups of areca nut/betel quid chewers. Group 1 was all Chamorros. Compared to Group 2, the chewers in Group 1 preferred red and ripe nuts, did not add slake lime (calcium hydroxide) or tobacco, and swallowed the masticated areca nut (with or without Piper betle leaf). Conclusion The quantitative analysis confirmed the qualitative exploration of areca nut/betel quid chewers in Guam, thus providing evidence that chewing practices vary among Micronesian populations. Implication If future research should include an intervention, the differences in chewing practices among Micronesian populations should be taken into consideration to ensure programmatic success. PMID:25678943

  10. Irradiation disinfestation and biochemical quality of dry nuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattar, Abdus; Jan, M.; Ahmad, A.; Wahid, M.; Khan, I.

    1989-01-01

    The effectiveness of gamma irradiation disinfestation of Pakistani nuts such as almond, groundnut, pine nut and walnut, was studied. Species of insects involved were determined. Concentration of potential nutrients, phytate, total phosphorus and iron contents were determined. The data on the influence of gamma irradiation on the extent and nature of insect infestation in dry nuts revealed that only higher dose (1.0 kGy) was effective to completely check infestation in almond, groundnut, pine nut and walnut. Low doses (0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 kGy) decreased insect infestation differentially depending on the dose level and the type of dry nut. It was concluded that these nuts although contained high amount of potential nutrients, they also have appreciable amount of phytate which can reduce bioavailability of essential metals. (author) 17 refs.; 1 fig.; 4 tabs

  11. Repetibilidade em características biométricas do fruto de macaúba Repeatability in biometric characteristics of macaw palm fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candida Elisa Manfio

    2011-01-01

    there are no reports of such studies. In this context it is important to determine the repeatability coefficient of the following biometric characteristics of fruits: fruit weight, fruit volume, equatorial diameter of the fruit, kernel weight, kernel volume, equatorial diameter of de kernel, and thickness of the endocarp, and the determination of the minimum number of ratings for an efficient selection process and evaluation of macaw palm subsamples. The study was conducted at the Department of Plant Science, Federal University of Viçosa, and 145 macaw palm subsamples were analyzed, from collections made in the states of Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Mato Grosso do Sul, Pará, Maranhão and Pernambuco. There were significant differences for all traits analyzed, and there was agreement on the magnitude of repeatability coefficients of each feature obtained by different methods. However, the repeatability coefficients ranging between eight characteristics, from 0.68 to 0.99, and were observed for feature endocarp thickness and volume of kernel, respectively. The coefficient of determination obtained from 10 repetitions for the eight features and the four methods were superior to 95%. The evaluation of four fruits is sufficient to assess the traits of macaw palm subsamples with 90% accuracy.

  12. Production of adsorbent from palm shell for radioactive iodine scrubbing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Azman Che Mat Isa; Ku Halim Ku Hamid; Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus; Mohamad Puad Abu; Abdul Halim Badaruddin; Mohammad Nizammudin Abd Aziz; Muhd Ridwan Abdul Rahim

    2010-01-01

    The biggest biomass source in Malaysia comes from oil palm industry. According to the statistic of year 2004, Malaysia produced 40 million tones per year of biomass which 30 million tones of biomass originated from the oil palm industries. Therefore, the biomass waste such as palm kernel shell can be used to produce granular adsorbent for radioactive materials. For that reason, a newly system, called Rocking Kiln - Fluidized Bed (RK - FB) was developed to utilize large amount of the biomass to produce high value added product. Charcoal or chemically produced activated carbon could be produced by using the kiln. Washing process was introduced to remove particles, minerals and volatile matters from charcoal produced and then would create more surface area in the adsorbent by creating more active sites. In this research, the adsorbent produced was used to scrub iodine 131. In nuclear power reactor, iodine isotope 131 is produced during nuclear fission, and this elementary radioactive iodine may pollute exhaust air streams that could cause thyroid cancer. For removal of radioactive iodine, normally a potassium iodide - impregnated activated carbon (KI - AC) is used. Thus, a process will be developed to produce KI - AC and this product will be used to calculate the efficiency to remove the radioactive iodine 131.The results obtain show that adsorbent produced has a high potential to be used in radioactive adsorbing and likely more economics. This paper will elaborate further the experimental set-up of in Kiln - Fluidized Bed (RK - FB), adsorbent quality and radioactive scrubbing process. (author)

  13. Characterization of Aspergillus species on Brazil nut from the Brazilian Amazonian region and development of a PCR assay for identification at the genus level

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Brazil nut is a protein-rich extractivist tree crop in the Amazon region. Fungal contamination of shells and kernel material frequently includes the presence of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species from the section Flavi. Aflatoxins are polyketide secondary metabolites, which are hepatotoxic carcinogens in mammals. The objectives of this study were to identify Aspergillus species occurring on Brazil nut grown in different states in the Brazilian Amazon region and develop a specific PCR method for collective identification of member species of the genus Aspergillus. Results Polyphasic identification of 137 Aspergillus strains isolated from Brazil nut shell material from cooperatives across the Brazilian Amazon states of Acre, Amapá and Amazonas revealed five species, with Aspergillus section Flavi species A. nomius and A. flavus the most abundant. PCR primers ASP_GEN_MTSSU_F1 and ASP_GEN_MTSSU_R1 were designed for the genus Aspergillus, targeting a portion of the mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. Primer specificity was validated through both electronic PCR against target gene sequences at Genbank and in PCR reactions against DNA from Aspergillus species and other fungal genera common on Brazil nut. Collective differentiation of the observed section Flavi species A. flavus, A. nomius and A. tamarii from other Aspergillus species was possible on the basis of RFLP polymorphism. Conclusions Given the abundance of Aspergillus section Flavi species A. nomius and A. flavus observed on Brazil nut, and associated risk of mycotoxin accumulation, simple identification methods for such mycotoxigenic species are of importance for Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system implementation. The assay for the genus Aspergillus represents progress towards specific PCR identification and detection of mycotoxigenic species. PMID:24885088

  14. Subsampling Realised Kernels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Lunde, Asger

    2011-01-01

    In a recent paper we have introduced the class of realised kernel estimators of the increments of quadratic variation in the presence of noise. We showed that this estimator is consistent and derived its limit distribution under various assumptions on the kernel weights. In this paper we extend our...... that subsampling is impotent, in the sense that subsampling has no effect on the asymptotic distribution. Perhaps surprisingly, for the efficient smooth kernels, such as the Parzen kernel, we show that subsampling is harmful as it increases the asymptotic variance. We also study the performance of subsampled...

  15. Advances in biofuel production from oil palm and palm oil processing wastes: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jundika C. Kurnia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the palm oil industry has been growing rapidly due to increasing demands for food, cosmetic, and hygienic products. Aside from producing palm oil, the industry generates a huge quantity of residues (dry and wet which can be processed to produce biofuel. Driven by the necessity to find an alternative and renewable energy/fuel resources, numerous technologies have been developed and more are being developed to process oil-palm and palm-oil wastes into biofuel. To further develop these technologies, it is essential to understand the current stage of the industry and technology developments. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the palm oil industry, review technologies available to process oil palm and palm oil residues into biofuel, and to summarise the challenges that should be overcome for further development. The paper also discusses the research and development needs, technoeconomics, and life cycle analysis of biofuel production from oil-palm and palm-oil wastes.

  16. Chemical Characterization of Major and Minor Compounds of Nut Oils: Almond, Hazelnut, and Pecan Nut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel D. Fernandes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to characterize the major and minor compounds of laboratory-extracted and commercial oils from sweet almond, hazelnut, and pecan nut. Oils from sweet almond, hazelnut, and pecan nut were obtained by means of an expeller system, while the corresponding commercial oils were provided from Vital Âtman (BR. The contents of triacylglycerols, fatty acids, aliphatic and terpenic alcohols, desmethyl-, methyl-, and dimethylsterols, squalene, and tocopherols were determined. Oleic, palmitic, and linoleic acids were the main fatty acids. Desmethylsterols were the principal minor compounds with β-sitosterol being the most abundant component. Low amounts of aliphatic and terpenic alcohols were also found. The major tocopherol in hazelnut and sweet almond oils was α-tocopherol, whereas γ-tocopherol prevailed in pecan nut oil. Principal component analysis made it possible for us to differentiate among samples, as well as to distinguish between commercial and laboratory-extracted oils. Heatmap highlighted the main variables featuring each sample. Globally, these results have brought a new approach on nut oil characterization.

  17. (physic nut) kernel development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fatty acid levels were found to differ between all eight developmental stages, although the major fatty acid in each stage was oleic acid followed by linoleic, palmitic and stearic acids, respectively, except in stage I where linoleic acid was more common than oleic acid. All fatty acids showed a maximum content at stage III, ...

  18. Bioactive compounds from palm fatty acid distillate and crude palm oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estiasih, T.; Ahmadi, K.

    2018-03-01

    Crude palm oil (CPO) and palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) are rich sources of bioactive compounds. PFAD is a by-product of palm oil refinery that produce palm frying oil. Physical refining of palm oil by deodorization produces palm fatty acid distillate. CPO and PFAD contain some bioactive compounds such as vitamin E (tocopherol and tocotrienols), phytosterol, and squalene. Bioactive compounds of CPO and PFAD are vitamin E, phytosterols, and squalene. Vitamin E of CPO and PFAD mainly comprised of tocotrienols and the remaining is tocopherol. Phytosterols of CPO and PFAD contained beta sitosterol, stigmasterol, and campesterol. Tocotrienols and phytosterols of CPO and PFAD, each can be separated to produce tocotrienol rich fraction and phytosterol rich fraction. Tocotrienol rich fraction from PFAD has both antioxidant and cholesterol lowering properties. Bioactive compounds of PFAD silmultaneously have been proven to improve lipid profile, and have hepatoprotector effect, imunomodulator, antioxidant properties, and lactogenic effect in animal test experiment. It is possible to develop separation of bioactive compounds of CPO and PFAD integratively with the other process that utilizes fatty acid.

  19. Kernel abortion in maize. II. Distribution of 14C among kernel carboydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanft, J.M.; Jones, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the uptake and distribution of 14 C among fructose, glucose, sucrose, and starch in the cob, pedicel, and endosperm tissues of maize (Zea mays L.) kernels induced to abort by high temperature with those that develop normally. Kernels cultured in vitro at 309 and 35 0 C were transferred to [ 14 C]sucrose media 10 days after pollination. Kernels cultured at 35 0 C aborted prior to the onset of linear dry matter accumulation. Significant uptake into the cob, pedicel, and endosperm of radioactivity associated with the soluble and starch fractions of the tissues was detected after 24 hours in culture on atlageled media. After 8 days in culture on [ 14 C]sucrose media, 48 and 40% of the radioactivity associated with the cob carbohydrates was found in the reducing sugars at 30 and 35 0 C, respectively. Of the total carbohydrates, a higher percentage of label was associated with sucrose and lower percentage with fructose and glucose in pedicel tissue of kernels cultured at 35 0 C compared to kernels cultured at 30 0 C. These results indicate that sucrose was not cleaved to fructose and glucose as rapidly during the unloading process in the pedicel of kernels induced to abort by high temperature. Kernels cultured at 35 0 C had a much lower proportion of label associated with endosperm starch (29%) than did kernels cultured at 30 0 C (89%). Kernels cultured at 35 0 C had a correspondingly higher proportion of 14 C in endosperm fructose, glucose, and sucrose

  20. Electrophysiological responses of male and female Amyelois transitella antennae to pistachio and almond host plant volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The polyphagous navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a major insect pest of California tree nuts. The larvae of A. transitella feed on kernels inflicting damage and lowering nut kernel quality. Moreover, larvae vector aflatoxigenic aspergilli resulting in internationa...

  1. APATITE’S MICROFLOTATION USING MACAÚBA’S (ACROCOMIA ACULEATA NUT OIL AS COLLECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Carlos Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Macaúba (Acrocomia Aculeata is a palm tree typical of the Brazilian savanna with great socioeconomic interest due to its high capacity of vegetable oil production with high levels of fatty acids. This paper evaluated the technical viability of saponified macaúba’s nut oil (SMNO as a collector in apatite’s micro flotation in Hallimond tube, being the oil chemically characterized and saponified before its utilization. Tests were performed varying the solution pH (8, 9 and 10 and collector concentration (2.5, 5.0, 7.5 e 10 mg/L. To compare the obtained results with SMNO the industrial collector Clariant’s Flotigan 5806 was used in the same tests conditions. Results shows that SMNO reached the highest recoveries rates of apatite in pH 8 and 9, particularly at the concentrations 7.5 and 10 mg/L. When compared to Flotigam 5806, the MNO showed lower recoveries at all pHs and concentrations tested.

  2. Sugar palm (Argena pinnata). Potential of sugar palm for bio-ethanol production

    OpenAIRE

    Elbersen, H.W.; Oyen, L.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    The energetic and economic feasibility of bioethanol production from sugar palm is virtually unknown. A positive factor are the potentially very high yields while the long non-productive juvenile phase and the high labor needs can be seen as problematic. Expansion to large scale sugar palm cultivation comes with risks. Small-scale cultivation of sugar palm perfectly fits into local farming systems. In order to make a proper assessment of the value palm sugar as bio-ethanol crop more informati...

  3. Mating Compatibility and Restriction Analysis of Ganoderma Isolates from Oil Palm and Other Palm Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Chan Jer; Seman, Idris Abu; Zakaria, Latiffah

    2015-12-01

    Mating compatibility and restriction analyses of Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions were performed to determine the relations between Ganoderma boninense, the most common species associated with basal stem rot in oil palm and Ganoderma isolates from infected oil palm, two ornamental palms, sealing wax palm (Cyrtostachys renda) and MacArthur palm (Ptychosperma macarthurii), an isolate from coconut stump (Cocos nucifera), Ganoderma miniatocinctum, Ganoderma zonatum and Ganoderma tornatum. The results showed that G. boninense was compatible with Ganoderma isolates from oil palm, G. miniatocinctum and G. zonatum, Ganoderma isolates from sealing wax palm, MacArthur palm and coconut stump. G. boninense was not compatible with G. tornatum. Therefore, the results suggested that the G. boninense, G. miniatocinctum, G. zonatum, and Ganoderma isolates from oil palm, ornamental palms and coconut stump could represent the same biological species. In performing a restriction analysis of the ITS regions, variations were observed in which five haplotypes were generated from the restriction patterns. An unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) cluster analysis showed that all the Ganoderma isolates were grouped into five primary groups, and the similarity values of the isolates ranged from 97% to 100%. Thus, a restriction analysis of the ITS regions showed that G. boninense and the Ganoderma isolates from other palm hosts were closely related. On the basis of the mating compatibility test and the restriction analysis of the ITS regions performed in this study, a diverse group of Ganoderma species from oil palm and other palm hosts are closely related, except for G. tornatum and Ganoderma isolates from tea and rubber.

  4. Emissions of particulate matter and associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from agricultural diesel engine fueled with degummed,deacidified mixed crude palm oil blends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khamphe Phoungthong; Surajit Tekasakul; Perapong Tekasakul; Gumpon Prateepchaikul; Naret Jindapetch; Masami Furuuchi; Mitsuhiko Hata

    2013-01-01

    Mixed crude palm oil (MCPO),the mixture of palm fiber oil and palm kernel oil,has become of great interest as a renewable energy source.It can be easily extracted from whole dried palm fruits.In the present work,the degummed,deacidified MCPO was blended in petroleum diesel at portions of 30% and 40% by volume and then tested in agricultural diesel engines for long term usage.The particulates from the exhaust of the engines were collected every 500 hr using a four-stage cascade air sampler.The 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameters for the first three stages were 10,2.5 and 1 μm,while the last stage collected all particles smaller than 1 μm.Sixteen particle bounded polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed using a high performance liquid chromatography.The results indicated that the size distribution of particulate matter was in the accumulation mode and the pattern of total PAHs associated with fine-particles (< 1 μm) showed a dominance of larger molecular weight PAHs (4-6 aromatic rings),especially pyrene.The mass median diameter,PM and total PAH concentrations decreased when increasing the palm oil content,but increased when the running hours of the engine were increased.In addition,Commercial petroleum diesel (PB0) gave the highest value of carcinogenic potency equivalent (BaPeq) for all particle size ranges.As the palm oil was increased,the BaPeq decreased gradually.Therefore the degummed-deacidified MCPO blends are recommended for diesel substitute.

  5. Optimized Kernel Entropy Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo-Verdiguier, Emma; Laparra, Valero; Jenssen, Robert; Gomez-Chova, Luis; Camps-Valls, Gustau

    2017-06-01

    This brief addresses two main issues of the standard kernel entropy component analysis (KECA) algorithm: the optimization of the kernel decomposition and the optimization of the Gaussian kernel parameter. KECA roughly reduces to a sorting of the importance of kernel eigenvectors by entropy instead of variance, as in the kernel principal components analysis. In this brief, we propose an extension of the KECA method, named optimized KECA (OKECA), that directly extracts the optimal features retaining most of the data entropy by means of compacting the information in very few features (often in just one or two). The proposed method produces features which have higher expressive power. In particular, it is based on the independent component analysis framework, and introduces an extra rotation to the eigen decomposition, which is optimized via gradient-ascent search. This maximum entropy preservation suggests that OKECA features are more efficient than KECA features for density estimation. In addition, a critical issue in both the methods is the selection of the kernel parameter, since it critically affects the resulting performance. Here, we analyze the most common kernel length-scale selection criteria. The results of both the methods are illustrated in different synthetic and real problems. Results show that OKECA returns projections with more expressive power than KECA, the most successful rule for estimating the kernel parameter is based on maximum likelihood, and OKECA is more robust to the selection of the length-scale parameter in kernel density estimation.

  6. A comparison between a yeast cell wall extract (Bio-Mos® and palm kernel expeller as mannan-oligosaccharides sources on the performance and ileal microbial population of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Navidshad

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the effect of a yeast cell wall extract (Bio- Mos and palm kernel expeller (PKE on the performance, nutrient digestibility, and ileal bacteria population of broiler chickens. A total of 60 1-d-old male broiler chicks (Cobb 500 were fed one of the 3 isonitrogenous and isocaloric diet including a control diet, or a control diet supplemented with 2 g/kg Bio-Mos (1-42 d, and for the third group, the control diet at 1-28 d following a diet containing 200 g/kg of an enzymatically-treated PKE at 29-42 d. The weight gains of birds fed the PKE containing diet (96.17 g/d were less than other groups (109.10 and 104.42 g/d for the Bio-Mos and control diet, respectively (P0.05, but the birds fed PKE or Bio-Mos containing diets had a lower population of Escherichia coli than the control group (P<0.05. The results showed that PKE potentially has a prebiotic property for chicken; however, a 200 g/kg dietary inclusion rate of PKE is not commercially recommendable because of its negative effects on the nutrients digestibility.

  7. NUT Carcinoma of the Sublingual Gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Simon; French, C A; Josiassen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    NUT carcinoma (NC) is a recently described, rare and extremely aggressive cancer primarily located to supradiaphragmatic structures and affecting young individuals. NC is characterized by translocations involving the NUT gene on 15q14 with the most common translocation partner gene being BRD4 on ...

  8. Tiger Nut

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    proximate analysis show brown yellow variety had higher ash, crude protein and crude fiber contents with values of 1.85%, 2.75% and ... wooden mortar and pestle until a fine powder was obtained to .... from tiger nut so as to boost economic.

  9. Strategies to Reduce Water Footprint in Palm Oil Production: A Case of PTP Mitra Ogan, Baturaja, South Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara Kospa Herda Sabriyah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The massive expansion of palm oil industry in Indonesia has triggered environmental issues including water-related problems which have become an important concern. Regarding the issues, sustainable practice standard has been set up as a requirement for palm oil to enter global market. Inevitably, water consumption in this sector is very crucial to be analyzed. One of the methods that can be used as a tool for sustainable appropriation of fresh water resources is water footprint analysis. The primary aim of this study was to formulate the strategies to reduce the water footprint in the palm oil production based on the best practice criteria. Both quantitative and qualitative research was conducted to get the value blue water (volume of surface or groundwater evaporated and grey water (dilution volume to dilute pollutants according to agreed water quality standards. The values of water footprint in palm oil production obtained were used to represent the existing water use and were utilized as the basis for formulating strategies in reducing water use in the palm oil milling processes which was compared with the best practice criteria. The result showed that the blue water of CPO was 109.6 m3/ton and the grey water was 537.7 m3/ton, while the blue water of palm kernel was 62,4 m3/ton and grey water was 306,2 m3/ton. The value indicated that there was an inefficient use of water in the production of palm oil. The use of steam accumulator has been proposed to reduce the use of blue water by optimizing the steam supply. Besides, the reuse of water from fat-pit pond for pressing purposes, or recovery of condensate water as dilution water in the press unit which will affect the amount of wastewater discharged can be done as the strategies in reducing both blue and grey water, as well as reuse of cooling water turbines.

  10. Mating Compatibility and Restriction Analysis of Ganoderma Isolates from Oil Palm and Other Palm Hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Chan Jer; Seman, Idris Abu; Zakaria, Latiffah

    2015-01-01

    Mating compatibility and restriction analyses of Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions were performed to determine the relations between Ganoderma boninense, the most common species associated with basal stem rot in oil palm and Ganoderma isolates from infected oil palm, two ornamental palms, sealing wax palm (Cyrtostachys renda) and MacArthur palm (Ptychosperma macarthurii), an isolate from coconut stump (Cocos nucifera), Ganoderma miniatocinctum, Ganoderma zonatum and Ganoderma tornatum. The results showed that G. boninense was compatible with Ganoderma isolates from oil palm, G. miniatocinctum and G. zonatum, Ganoderma isolates from sealing wax palm, MacArthur palm and coconut stump. G. boninense was not compatible with G. tornatum. Therefore, the results suggested that the G. boninense, G. miniatocinctum, G. zonatum, and Ganoderma isolates from oil palm, ornamental palms and coconut stump could represent the same biological species. In performing a restriction analysis of the ITS regions, variations were observed in which five haplotypes were generated from the restriction patterns. An unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) cluster analysis showed that all the Ganoderma isolates were grouped into five primary groups, and the similarity values of the isolates ranged from 97% to 100%. Thus, a restriction analysis of the ITS regions showed that G. boninense and the Ganoderma isolates from other palm hosts were closely related. On the basis of the mating compatibility test and the restriction analysis of the ITS regions performed in this study, a diverse group of Ganoderma species from oil palm and other palm hosts are closely related, except for G. tornatum and Ganoderma isolates from tea and rubber. PMID:26868709

  11. Allowable stem nut wear and diagnostic monitoring for MOVs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinburne, P.

    1994-01-01

    After a motor-operated valve (MOV) stem nut failure in 1991 that contributed to a forced plant shutdown, the FitzPatrick Plant staff developed criteria to check for excessive stem nut wear in MOVs. Allowable stem nut wear monitoring uses both direct dimensional measurement and diagnostic test data interpretation. The wear allowance is based on the recommended permitted backlash discussed in the Electric Power Research Institute/Nuclear Maintenance Assistance Center Technical Repair Guideline for the Limitorque SMB-000 Motor Actuator. The diagnostic analysis technique measures the time at zero load and compares this with a precalculated allowable zero force time. Excessive zero force time may be the result of other MOV problems, such as a loose stem nut lock nut or excessive free play in the drive sleeve bearing. Stress levels for new or nominal stem nuts and stem nuts with the full wear allowance were compared. Bending and shear stresses at the thread root increase for the maximum wear condition when compared with a open-quotes newclose quotes stem nut. These stresses are directly related to the thread root thickness. For typical MOV loading and common stem threading (with two diameters of thread engagement), the thread stresses are well within acceptable limits for ASTM B584-C86300 (formerly B147-863) manganese bronze (typical stem nut material)

  12. Sugar from Palms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Anders

    Throughout the tropics and subtropics a large number of products are derived from the sugar-rich sap tapped from palms. I will give an overview of the most important species being exploited, harvesting practices and yields. I will further provide insights in the biomechanmics of sugar...... transportation in palms, which remain an enigma. Finally, the prospects for developing palm sugar into a commodity of worlswide significance will be discussed....

  13. Bolt and nut evaluator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerley, James J.; Burkhardt, Raymond; White, Steven

    1994-02-01

    A device for testing fasteners such as nuts and bolts is described which consists of a fixed base plate having a number of threaded and unthreaded holes of varying size for receiving the fasteners to be tested, a torque marking paper taped on top the fixed base plate for marking torque-angle indicia, a torque wrench for applying torque to the fasteners being tested, and an indicator for showing the torque applied to the fastener. These elements provide a low cost, nondestructive device for verifying the strength of bolts and nuts.

  14. African palm ethno-medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruca, Marta; Blach-Overgaard, Anne; Balslev, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    -medicinal data on African palms, and investigate patterns of palm uses in traditional medicine; and highlight possible under-investigated areas. Materials and methods References were found through bibliographic searches using several sources including PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar and search engines...... in traditional medicine, with most of the uses related to fruit (and palm oil), root, seed and leaf. Palms were used in traditional medicine mostly without being mixed with other plants, and less commonly in mixtures, sometimes in mixture with products of animal origin. Future ethno-botanical surveys should...... were able to demonstrate the value of palms in traditional medicine, and provide recommendations for the areas that should be targeted in future ethno-botanical surveys....

  15. A novel adaptive kernel method with kernel centers determined by a support vector regression approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, L.G.; De Visser, C.C.; Chu, Q.P.; Mulder, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    The optimality of the kernel number and kernel centers plays a significant role in determining the approximation power of nearly all kernel methods. However, the process of choosing optimal kernels is always formulated as a global optimization task, which is hard to accomplish. Recently, an

  16. Determination of total mercury in nuts at ultratrace level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Maria José da, E-mail: maryquimica@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Química – Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Rue Dom Manoel de Medeiros s/n. Dois irmãos, 52171-900 Recife, PE (Brazil); Paim, Ana Paula S. [Departamento de Química Fundamental – Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Cidade Universitária, 50740-550 Recife, PE (Brazil); Pimentel, Maria Fernanda [Departamento de Engenharia Química – Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Cervera, M. Luisa; Guardia, Miguel de la [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Research Building, University of Valencia, 50th Dr. Moliner Street, E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • Direct analysis of Hg in nuts has been improved by a previous fat removal. • Comparison of cold vapour atomic fluorescence and direct analysis of Hg in nuts. • Mercury content in tree nuts was determined. - Abstract: Total mercury, at μg kg{sup −1} level, was determined in different types of nuts (cashew nut, Brazil nuts, almond, pistachio, peanut, walnut) using a direct mercury analyser after previous sample defatting and by cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry. There is not enough sensitivity in the second approach to determine Hg in previously digested samples due to the strong matrix effect. Mercury levels in 25 edible nut samples from Brazil and Spain were found in the range from 0.6 to 2.7 μg kg{sup −1} by using the pyrolysis of sample after the extraction of the nut fat. The accuracy of the proposed method was confirmed by analysing certified reference materials of Coal Fly Ash-NIST SRM 1633b, Fucus-IAEA 140 and three unpolished Rice Flour NIES-10. The observed results were in good agreement with the certified values. The recoveries of different amounts of mercury added to nut samples ranged from 94 to 101%. RSD values corresponding to three measurements varied between 2.0 and 14% and the limit of detection and quantification of the method were 0.08 and 0.3 μg kg{sup −1}, respectively.

  17. Determination of total mercury in nuts at ultratrace level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Maria José da; Paim, Ana Paula S.; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; Cervera, M. Luisa; Guardia, Miguel de la

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Direct analysis of Hg in nuts has been improved by a previous fat removal. • Comparison of cold vapour atomic fluorescence and direct analysis of Hg in nuts. • Mercury content in tree nuts was determined. - Abstract: Total mercury, at μg kg −1 level, was determined in different types of nuts (cashew nut, Brazil nuts, almond, pistachio, peanut, walnut) using a direct mercury analyser after previous sample defatting and by cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry. There is not enough sensitivity in the second approach to determine Hg in previously digested samples due to the strong matrix effect. Mercury levels in 25 edible nut samples from Brazil and Spain were found in the range from 0.6 to 2.7 μg kg −1 by using the pyrolysis of sample after the extraction of the nut fat. The accuracy of the proposed method was confirmed by analysing certified reference materials of Coal Fly Ash-NIST SRM 1633b, Fucus-IAEA 140 and three unpolished Rice Flour NIES-10. The observed results were in good agreement with the certified values. The recoveries of different amounts of mercury added to nut samples ranged from 94 to 101%. RSD values corresponding to three measurements varied between 2.0 and 14% and the limit of detection and quantification of the method were 0.08 and 0.3 μg kg −1 , respectively

  18. Symmetries of Taub-NUT dual metrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baleanu, D.; Codoban, S.

    1998-01-01

    Recently geometric duality was analyzed for a metric which admits Killing tensors. An interesting example arises when the manifold has Killing-Yano tensors. The symmetries of the dual metrics in the case of Taub-NUT metric are investigated. Generic and non-generic symmetries of dual Taub-NUT metric are analyzed

  19. NUT carcinoma presenting in the palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjornstrup, Libana Raffoul; Reibel, Jesper; Kiss, Katalin

    2017-01-01

    NUT carcinomas (NC) are rare and aggressive tumours characterized by chromosomal rearrangements of the gene encoding for nuclear protein of the testis (NUT) located on chromosome 15q14. This article presents a case of a 60-year-old woman diagnosed with NC presenting as a fast growing primary tumo...

  20. Protein Subcellular Localization with Gaussian Kernel Discriminant Analysis and Its Kernel Parameter Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shunfang; Nie, Bing; Yue, Kun; Fei, Yu; Li, Wenjia; Xu, Dongshu

    2017-12-15

    Kernel discriminant analysis (KDA) is a dimension reduction and classification algorithm based on nonlinear kernel trick, which can be novelly used to treat high-dimensional and complex biological data before undergoing classification processes such as protein subcellular localization. Kernel parameters make a great impact on the performance of the KDA model. Specifically, for KDA with the popular Gaussian kernel, to select the scale parameter is still a challenging problem. Thus, this paper introduces the KDA method and proposes a new method for Gaussian kernel parameter selection depending on the fact that the differences between reconstruction errors of edge normal samples and those of interior normal samples should be maximized for certain suitable kernel parameters. Experiments with various standard data sets of protein subcellular localization show that the overall accuracy of protein classification prediction with KDA is much higher than that without KDA. Meanwhile, the kernel parameter of KDA has a great impact on the efficiency, and the proposed method can produce an optimum parameter, which makes the new algorithm not only perform as effectively as the traditional ones, but also reduce the computational time and thus improve efficiency.

  1. Fatty acids profile of pulp and nuts of Brazilian fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Afonso da Costa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruits and nuts from the North and Northeast regions of Brazil were collected to determine the fatty acid profile of their oils. The species studied were Brazil (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K., Mucajá (Couma rigida M., Inajá (Maximiliana maripa D., Jenipapo (Genipa Americana L., and Buriti (Mauritia flexuosa L. nuts. Fatty acid methyl esters were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID. Brazil nut major fatty acid was 18:3n-3 (α-linolenic acid, and Buriti nut had approximately 23 times more 18:3n-3 than the pulp. Mucajá nut presented high content of 12:0 (lauric acid and 16:0 (palmitic acid, and Mucajá pulp showed significant levels of 18:2n-6 (linoleic acid. Considering the PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acid sum values, almost all fruits and nuts analyzed presented very high levels of these compounds. Regarding n-6/n-3 ratio, only Brazil Nut, Buriti Nut, Inajá pulp, and Jenipapo pulp corresponded to the desired profile. These Brazilian fruits and nuts could be of potential interest due to their high nutritive value and lipid content.

  2. Pesticide residues in nut-planted soils of China and their relationship between nut/soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yongxiang; Mo, Runhong; Yuan, Xinyue; Zhong, Donglian; Tang, Fubin; Ye, Caifen; Liu, Yihua

    2017-08-01

    Twenty-nine pesticide residues in nut-planted soils from China were investigated. One organophosphate (chlorpyrifos) was detected in 5.3% soils, and the residue levels of 7.2 μg/kg to 77.2 μg/kg. The concentrations of six organochlorines (DDT, HCH, endosulfan, quintozene, aldrin and dieldrin) detected in 78.9% soils were 0.6 μg/kg to 90.1 μg/kg. The residue levels of six pyrethroids (bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate and deltamethrin) detected in 65.8% soils were 1.5 μg/kg to 884.3 μg/kg. Triadimefon and buprofezin were found in 71.1% and 52.6% samples, respectively, with the corresponding concentrations of 9.8 μg/kg to 193.7 μg/kg and 87.9 μg/kg to 807.4 μg/kg. The multiple residues were found in 76.3% soils. A significant correlation between pesticide residues in nuts and soils was observed, with the correlation coefficient (r) 0.83 (P < 0.001). In addition, the bioconcentration factor (BCF) values for the explanation of pesticides from soils into nuts were ranged from 0.8 to 16.5. The results showed that some pesticides could accumulate in nut by the uptake effect from soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Oil palm: domestication achieved?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsma, W.; Wessel, M.

    1997-01-01

    The natural habitat of the oil palm comprises very wet and relatively dry niches in the lowland rain forest in West and Central Africa. The domestication of the oil palm started with the extraction of fruits from wild forest resources. When forests were cleared for shifting cultivation, oil palms

  4. 7 CFR 981.7 - Edible kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Edible kernel. 981.7 Section 981.7 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.7 Edible kernel. Edible kernel means a kernel, piece, or particle of almond kernel that is not inedible. [41 FR 26852, June 30, 1976] ...

  5. Adsorption of mercury from aqueous solutions using palm oil fuel ash as an adsorbent - batch studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imla Syafiqah, M. S.; Yussof, H. W.

    2018-03-01

    Palm oil fuel ash (POFA) is one of the most abundantly produced waste materials. POFA is widely used by the oil palm industry which was collected as ash from the burning of empty fruit bunches fiber (EFB) and palm oil kernel shells (POKS) in the boiler as fuel to generate electricity. Mercury adsorption was conducted in a batch process to study the effects of contact time, initial Hg(II) ion concentration, and temperature. In this study, POFA was prepared and used for the removal of mercury(II) ion from the aqueous phase. The effects of various parameters such as contact time (0- 360 min), temperature (15 – 45 °C) and initial Hg(II) ion concentration (1 – 5 mg/L) for the removal of Hg(II) ion were studied in a batch process. The surface characterization was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and particle size distribution analysis. From this study, it was found that the highest Hg(II) ion removal was 99.60 % at pH 7, contact time of 4 h, initial Hg(II) ion concentration of 1 mg/L, adsorbent dosage 0.25 g and agitation speed of 100 rpm. The results implied that POFA has the potential as a low-cost and environmental friendly adsorbent for the removal of mercury from aqueous solution.

  6. Kernel versions of some orthogonal transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    Kernel versions of orthogonal transformations such as principal components are based on a dual formulation also termed Q-mode analysis in which the data enter into the analysis via inner products in the Gram matrix only. In the kernel version the inner products of the original data are replaced...... by inner products between nonlinear mappings into higher dimensional feature space. Via kernel substitution also known as the kernel trick these inner products between the mappings are in turn replaced by a kernel function and all quantities needed in the analysis are expressed in terms of this kernel...... function. This means that we need not know the nonlinear mappings explicitly. Kernel principal component analysis (PCA) and kernel minimum noise fraction (MNF) analyses handle nonlinearities by implicitly transforming data into high (even infinite) dimensional feature space via the kernel function...

  7. Model Selection in Kernel Ridge Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Exterkate, Peter

    Kernel ridge regression is gaining popularity as a data-rich nonlinear forecasting tool, which is applicable in many different contexts. This paper investigates the influence of the choice of kernel and the setting of tuning parameters on forecast accuracy. We review several popular kernels......, including polynomial kernels, the Gaussian kernel, and the Sinc kernel. We interpret the latter two kernels in terms of their smoothing properties, and we relate the tuning parameters associated to all these kernels to smoothness measures of the prediction function and to the signal-to-noise ratio. Based...... on these interpretations, we provide guidelines for selecting the tuning parameters from small grids using cross-validation. A Monte Carlo study confirms the practical usefulness of these rules of thumb. Finally, the flexible and smooth functional forms provided by the Gaussian and Sinc kernels makes them widely...

  8. Physical properties of wild mango fruit and nut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehiem, J. C.; Simonyan, K. J.

    2012-02-01

    Physical properties of two wild mango varieties were studied at 81.9 and 24.5% moisture (w.b.) for the fruits and nuts, respectively. The shape and size of the fruit are the same while that of nuts differs at P = 0.05. The mass, density and bulk density of the fruits are statistically different at P = 0.05 but the volume is the same. The shape and size, volume and bulk density of the nuts are statistically the same at P = 0.05. The nuts of both varieties are also the same at P = 0.05 in terms of mass and density. The packing factor for both fruits and nut of the two varieties are the same at 0.95. The relevant data obtained for the two varieties would be useful for design and development of machines and equipment for processing and handling operations.

  9. Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Whey Cheese with Pine Nuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Anamaria Semeniuc

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a value-added whey cheese through addition of pine nuts. Therefore, different concentrations of pine nuts [2, 4, 6 and 8% (w/w] were added to whey cheese. The study was designed to evaluate the influence of pine nuts on physicochemical and sensory properties of whey cheese. The addition of pine nuts resulted in an increase in fat content and total solids and a decrease in moisture content. However, no statistically significant difference was found in pH values. Sensory analysis was performed using the 9-point hedonic scale, with selected assessors. The whey cheese sample with 4% pine nuts was the most appreciated (7.6 points, followed by the classic whey cheese, whey cheese with 6 and 8% pine nuts (7.4 points, and whey cheese with 2% pine nuts (7.3 points. Nevertheless, the sensory characteristics of whey cheese were not significantly influenced by the addition of pine nuts. Whey cheese sensory profiling was successful in differential characterization of whey cheese samples.

  10. The palm family (Arecaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadot, Sophie; Alapetite, Elodie; Baker, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Among the 416 angiosperm families, palms (Arecaceae) are striking in possessing almost all possible combinations of hermaphroditic and/or unisexual flowers, making them a particularly interesting subject for studies of the evolution of plant sexuality. The purpose of this review is to highlight...... the amazing diversity of sexual expression in palms with a view to proposing scenarios to explain the evolution of this character, drawing on the numerous advances that have been made over the last 20 years in palm systematics, ecology, developmental biology, phylogenetics and genomics. We provide an overview...... of the variability of sexual expression in palms, with illustrations of the associated morphological diversity and its significance to reproduction. We discuss the evolution of sexual systems using the most recent phylogenetic framework available for palms. Finally, we review advances made towards unravelling...

  11. 7 CFR 981.8 - Inedible kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inedible kernel. 981.8 Section 981.8 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.8 Inedible kernel. Inedible kernel means a kernel, piece, or particle of almond kernel with any defect scored as serious damage, or damage due to mold, gum, shrivel, or...

  12. 7 CFR 981.408 - Inedible kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inedible kernel. 981.408 Section 981.408 Agriculture... Administrative Rules and Regulations § 981.408 Inedible kernel. Pursuant to § 981.8, the definition of inedible kernel is modified to mean a kernel, piece, or particle of almond kernel with any defect scored as...

  13. Mycology and spoilage of retail cashew nuts | Adebajo | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All the species recovered induced detectable loss in weights of the milled nuts, though to varying extents and would be expected to cause considerable spoilage of the nuts. Key words: Cashew nut, Anacardium occidentale, fungal count, mycology, Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp., spoilage. African Journal of Biotechnology ...

  14. Oil Palm Expansion in the Brazilian Amazon (2006-2014): Effects of the 2010 Sustainable Oil Palm Production Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benami, E.; Curran, L. M.

    2017-12-01

    Brazil has the world's largest suitable land area for oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) establishment, with estimates as high as 238 million ha. To promote oil palm development, Brazil launched the Sustainable Palm Oil Production Program (SPOPP) in 2010 and delineated 30 million ha for its growth that excluded forested areas and indigenous reserves. Here we examine oil palm expansion (2006-2014) as well as the SPOPP's effectiveness in Pará, the major oil palm producing state in Brazil. By combining analyses of satellite imagery, land registration data, and site based interviews, we found that oil palm area expanded 205%. Although >50% of oil palm parcels were located within 0.5 km of intact forests, lands. Direct intact forest conversion pre- and post-SPOPP declined from 4% to <1%; however, <1% of the 30 million ha promoted for oil palm was developed by 2014. To explore the major factors that may have constrained oil palm expansion under the SPOPP, we conducted microeconomic simulations of oil palm production, combined with interviews with actors/individuals from oil palm companies, civil society, researchers at universities and NGOs, and governmental agencies. Brazil's oil palm-deforestation dynamics, policies, and economic conditions will be discussed.

  15. Transgenic oil palm: production and projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveez, G K; Masri, M M; Zainal, A; Majid, N A; Yunus, A M; Fadilah, H H; Rasid, O; Cheah, S C

    2000-12-01

    Oil palm is an important economic crop for Malaysia. Genetic engineering could be applied to produce transgenic oil palms with high value-added fatty acids and novel products to ensure the sustainability of the palm oil industry. Establishment of a reliable transformation and regeneration system is essential for genetic engineering. Biolistic was initially chosen as the method for oil palm transformation as it has been the most successful method for monocotyledons to date. Optimization of physical and biological parameters, including testing of promoters and selective agents, was carried out as a prerequisite for stable transformation. This has resulted in the successful transfer of reporter genes into oil palm and the regeneration of transgenic oil palm, thus making it possible to improve the oil palm through genetic engineering. Besides application of the Biolistics method, studies on transformation mediated by Agrobacterium and utilization of the green fluorescent protein gene as a selectable marker gene have been initiated. Upon the development of a reliable transformation system, a number of useful targets are being projected for oil palm improvement. Among these targets are high-oleate and high-stearate oils, and the production of industrial feedstock such as biodegradable plastics. The efforts in oil palm genetic engineering are thus not targeted as commodity palm oil. Due to the long life cycle of the palm and the time taken to regenerate plants in tissue culture, it is envisaged that commercial planting of transgenic palms will not occur any earlier than the year 2020.

  16. Model selection in kernel ridge regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Exterkate, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Kernel ridge regression is a technique to perform ridge regression with a potentially infinite number of nonlinear transformations of the independent variables as regressors. This method is gaining popularity as a data-rich nonlinear forecasting tool, which is applicable in many different contexts....... The influence of the choice of kernel and the setting of tuning parameters on forecast accuracy is investigated. Several popular kernels are reviewed, including polynomial kernels, the Gaussian kernel, and the Sinc kernel. The latter two kernels are interpreted in terms of their smoothing properties......, and the tuning parameters associated to all these kernels are related to smoothness measures of the prediction function and to the signal-to-noise ratio. Based on these interpretations, guidelines are provided for selecting the tuning parameters from small grids using cross-validation. A Monte Carlo study...

  17. Research advancements in palm oil nutrition*

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Choo Yuen; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi

    2014-01-01

    Palm oil is the major oil produced, with annual world production in excess of 50 million tonnes. About 85% of global palm oil produced is used in food applications. Over the past three decades, research on nutritional benefits of palm oil have demonstrated the nutritional adequacy of palm oil and its products, and have resulted in transitions in the understanding these attributes. Numerous studies have demonstrated that palm oil was similar to unsaturated oils with regards to effects on blood lipids. Palm oil provides a healthy alternative to trans-fatty acid containing hydrogenated fats that have been demonstrated to have serious deleterious effects on health. The similar effects of palm oil on blood lipids, comparable to other vegetable oils could very well be due to the structure of the major triglycerides in palm oil, which has an unsaturated fatty acid in the stereospecific numbers (sn)-2 position of the glycerol backbone. In addition, palm oil is well endowed with a bouquet of phytonutrients beneficial to health, such as tocotrienols, carotenoids, and phytosterols. This review will provide an overview of studies that have established palm oil as a balanced and nutritious oil. PMID:25821404

  18. Research advancements in palm oil nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Choo Yuen; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi

    2014-10-01

    Palm oil is the major oil produced, with annual world production in excess of 50 million tonnes. About 85% of global palm oil produced is used in food applications. Over the past three decades, research on nutritional benefits of palm oil have demonstrated the nutritional adequacy of palm oil and its products, and have resulted in transitions in the understanding these attributes. Numerous studies have demonstrated that palm oil was similar to unsaturated oils with regards to effects on blood lipids. Palm oil provides a healthy alternative to trans-fatty acid containing hydrogenated fats that have been demonstrated to have serious deleterious effects on health. The similar effects of palm oil on blood lipids, comparable to other vegetable oils could very well be due to the structure of the major triglycerides in palm oil, which has an unsaturated fatty acid in the stereospecific numbers ( sn) -2 position of the glycerol backbone. In addition, palm oil is well endowed with a bouquet of phytonutrients beneficial to health, such as tocotrienols, carotenoids, and phytosterols. This review will provide an overview of studies that have established palm oil as a balanced and nutritious oil.

  19. LZW-Kernel: fast kernel utilizing variable length code blocks from LZW compressors for protein sequence classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filatov, Gleb; Bauwens, Bruno; Kertész-Farkas, Attila

    2018-05-07

    Bioinformatics studies often rely on similarity measures between sequence pairs, which often pose a bottleneck in large-scale sequence analysis. Here, we present a new convolutional kernel function for protein sequences called the LZW-Kernel. It is based on code words identified with the Lempel-Ziv-Welch (LZW) universal text compressor. The LZW-Kernel is an alignment-free method, it is always symmetric, is positive, always provides 1.0 for self-similarity and it can directly be used with Support Vector Machines (SVMs) in classification problems, contrary to normalized compression distance (NCD), which often violates the distance metric properties in practice and requires further techniques to be used with SVMs. The LZW-Kernel is a one-pass algorithm, which makes it particularly plausible for big data applications. Our experimental studies on remote protein homology detection and protein classification tasks reveal that the LZW-Kernel closely approaches the performance of the Local Alignment Kernel (LAK) and the SVM-pairwise method combined with Smith-Waterman (SW) scoring at a fraction of the time. Moreover, the LZW-Kernel outperforms the SVM-pairwise method when combined with BLAST scores, which indicates that the LZW code words might be a better basis for similarity measures than local alignment approximations found with BLAST. In addition, the LZW-Kernel outperforms n-gram based mismatch kernels, hidden Markov model based SAM and Fisher kernel, and protein family based PSI-BLAST, among others. Further advantages include the LZW-Kernel's reliance on a simple idea, its ease of implementation, and its high speed, three times faster than BLAST and several magnitudes faster than SW or LAK in our tests. LZW-Kernel is implemented as a standalone C code and is a free open-source program distributed under GPLv3 license and can be downloaded from https://github.com/kfattila/LZW-Kernel. akerteszfarkas@hse.ru. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics Online.

  20. Trace elements and radionuclides in palm oil, soil, water, and leaves from oil palm plantations: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafisoye, O B; Oguntibeju, O O; Osibote, O A

    2017-05-03

    Oil palm (Elaeisguineensis) is one of the most productive oil producing plant in the world. Crude palm oil is composed of triglycerides supplying the world's need of edible oils and fats. Palm oil also provides essential elements and antioxidants that are potential mediators of cellular functions. Experimental studies have demonstrated the toxicity of the accumulation of significant amounts of nonessential trace elements and radionuclides in palm oil that affects the health of consumers. It has been reported that uptake of trace elements and radionuclides from the oil palm tree may be from water and soil on the palm plantations. In the present review, an attempt was made to revise and access knowledge on the presence of some selected trace elements and radionuclides in palm oil, soil, water, and leaves from oil palm plantations based on the available facts and data. Existing reports show that the presence of nonessential trace elements and radionuclides in palm oil may be from natural or anthropogenic sources in the environment. However, the available literature is limited and further research need to be channeled to the investigation of trace elements and radionuclides in soil, water, leaves, and palm oil from oil palm plantations around the globe.

  1. Viscosity kernel of molecular fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puscasu, Ruslan; Todd, Billy; Daivis, Peter

    2010-01-01

    , temperature, and chain length dependencies of the reciprocal and real-space viscosity kernels are presented. We find that the density has a major effect on the shape of the kernel. The temperature range and chain lengths considered here have by contrast less impact on the overall normalized shape. Functional...... forms that fit the wave-vector-dependent kernel data over a large density and wave-vector range have also been tested. Finally, a structural normalization of the kernels in physical space is considered. Overall, the real-space viscosity kernel has a width of roughly 3–6 atomic diameters, which means...

  2. Kernel learning algorithms for face recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jun-Bao; Pan, Jeng-Shyang

    2013-01-01

    Kernel Learning Algorithms for Face Recognition covers the framework of kernel based face recognition. This book discusses the advanced kernel learning algorithms and its application on face recognition. This book also focuses on the theoretical deviation, the system framework and experiments involving kernel based face recognition. Included within are algorithms of kernel based face recognition, and also the feasibility of the kernel based face recognition method. This book provides researchers in pattern recognition and machine learning area with advanced face recognition methods and its new

  3. Taub-NUT black holes in third order Lovelock gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendi, S.H.; Dehghani, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    We consider the existence of Taub-NUT solutions in third order Lovelock gravity with cosmological constant, and obtain the general form of these solutions in eight dimensions. We find that, as in the case of Gauss-Bonnet gravity and in contrast with the Taub-NUT solutions of Einstein gravity, the metric function depends on the specific form of the base factors on which one constructs the circle fibration. Thus, one may say that the independence of the NUT solutions on the geometry of the base space is not a robust feature of all generally covariant theories of gravity and is peculiar to Einstein gravity. We find that when Einstein gravity admits non-extremal NUT solutions with no curvature singularity at r=N, then there exists a non-extremal NUT solution in third order Lovelock gravity. In 8-dimensional spacetime, this happens when the metric of the base space is chosen to be CP 3 . Indeed, third order Lovelock gravity does not admit non-extreme NUT solutions with any other base space. This is another property which is peculiar to Einstein gravity. We also find that the third order Lovelock gravity admits extremal NUT solution when the base space is T 2 xT 2 xT 2 or S 2 xT 2 xT 2 . We have extended these observations to two conjectures about the existence of NUT solutions in Lovelock gravity in any even-dimensional spacetime

  4. [Tooth wear in Hindu betel nut chewers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerreth, Karolina

    2006-01-01

    Literature data describe the impact of certain factors on oral health. Very well known is habitual chewing of different plant products, including tobacco, which depending on the geographical area and the substances used, have various names. It has been estimated that approximately 200 million residents of the West Pacific Rim and South-East Asia indulge in betel chewing. Betel is composed of a leaf of the betel pepper, lime, tobacco and the nut of the areca palm. This study aimed to assess the degree of abrasive changes in residents of the Korunalaya Leprosy Care Center. The examinations were carried out on 85 patients (45 females and 40 males), aged 35-95 years, at the local dental surgery. Patients had their teeth assessed and they were further interviewed as to the duration of their habit with regard to their sex and age (35-44; 45-64 and > or = 65 years). The abrasive changes were evaluated using Gerasimov's 7-degree scale. Interview data indicate that 71.76% of the patients were habitual betel chewers. Among female patients, third-degree abrasion was the most frequent change while among males--fifth degree (53.3% and 45.0%, respectively). The abrasive changes, increasing with age, can be attributed to the duration of betel chewing. It is worth noticing that a vegetarian diet can be a contributing factor to abrasion as most of the food consumed by Hindus are plants.

  5. Stereo and scanning electron microscopy of in-shell Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K.): part two-surface sound nut fungi spoilage susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scussel, Vildes M; Manfio, Daniel; Savi, Geovana D; Moecke, Elisa H S

    2014-11-01

    This work reports the in-shell Brazil nut spoilage susceptible morpho-histological characteristics and fungi infection (shell, edible part, and brown skin) through stereo and scanning electron microscopies (SEM). The following characteristics related to shell (a) morphology-that allow fungi and insects' entrance to inner nut, and (b) histology-that allow humidity absorption, improving environment conditions for living organisms development, were identified. (a.1) locule in testae-the nut navel, which is a cavity formed during nut detaching from pods (located at 1.0 to 2.0/4th of the shell B&C nut faces linkage). It allows the nut brown skin (between shell and edible part) first contact to the external environment, through the (a.2) nut channel-the locule prolongation path, which has the water/nutrients cambium function for their transport and distribution to the inner seed (while still on the tree/pod). Both, locule followed by the channel, are the main natural entrance of living organisms (fungi and insects), including moisture to the inner seed structures. In addition, the (a.3) nut shell surface-which has a crinkled and uneven surface morphology-allows water absorption, thus adding to the deterioration processes too. The main shell histological characteristic, which also allows water absorption (thus improving environment conditions for fungi proliferation), is the (b.1) cell wall porosity-the multilayered wall and porous rich cells that compose the shell faces double tissue layers and the (b.2) soft tissue-the mix of tissues 2 faces corner/linkage. This work also shows in details the SEM nut spoilage susceptible features highly fungi infected with hyphae and reproductive structures distribution. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Bacterial and yeast counts in Brazilian commodities and spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freire Francisco das Chagas Oliveira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of thirteen genera of bacteria and two genera of yeasts were detected in surface sterilized and unsterilized Brazilian commodities and spices such as cashew kernels, Brazil nut kernels, black and white pepper. The genus Bacillus with eight species was by far the most common. The yeasts isolated were Pichia sp., P. guillermondii and Rhodotorula sp. Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in cashew and Brazil nut kernels.

  7. Palm Harvest Impact on Tropical Forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik; Eiserhardt, Wolf L.

    Palms are the most useful group of plants in tropical American forests and in this project we study the effect of extraction and trade of palms on forest in the western Amazon, Andes and Pacific lowlands. We determine the size of the resource by making palm community studies in the different forest...... formations and determine the number of species and individuals of all palm species. The genetic structure of useful palm species is studied to determine how much harvesting of the species contributes to genetic erosion of its populations, and whether extraction can be made without harm. We determine how much...... palms are used for subsistence purposes by carrying out quantitative, ethnobotanical research in different forest types and we also study trade patterns for palm products from local markets to markets that involve export to other countries and continents. We study different ways in which palms...

  8. Partial Deconvolution with Inaccurate Blur Kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Dongwei; Zuo, Wangmeng; Zhang, David; Xu, Jun; Zhang, Lei

    2017-10-17

    Most non-blind deconvolution methods are developed under the error-free kernel assumption, and are not robust to inaccurate blur kernel. Unfortunately, despite the great progress in blind deconvolution, estimation error remains inevitable during blur kernel estimation. Consequently, severe artifacts such as ringing effects and distortions are likely to be introduced in the non-blind deconvolution stage. In this paper, we tackle this issue by suggesting: (i) a partial map in the Fourier domain for modeling kernel estimation error, and (ii) a partial deconvolution model for robust deblurring with inaccurate blur kernel. The partial map is constructed by detecting the reliable Fourier entries of estimated blur kernel. And partial deconvolution is applied to wavelet-based and learning-based models to suppress the adverse effect of kernel estimation error. Furthermore, an E-M algorithm is developed for estimating the partial map and recovering the latent sharp image alternatively. Experimental results show that our partial deconvolution model is effective in relieving artifacts caused by inaccurate blur kernel, and can achieve favorable deblurring quality on synthetic and real blurry images.Most non-blind deconvolution methods are developed under the error-free kernel assumption, and are not robust to inaccurate blur kernel. Unfortunately, despite the great progress in blind deconvolution, estimation error remains inevitable during blur kernel estimation. Consequently, severe artifacts such as ringing effects and distortions are likely to be introduced in the non-blind deconvolution stage. In this paper, we tackle this issue by suggesting: (i) a partial map in the Fourier domain for modeling kernel estimation error, and (ii) a partial deconvolution model for robust deblurring with inaccurate blur kernel. The partial map is constructed by detecting the reliable Fourier entries of estimated blur kernel. And partial deconvolution is applied to wavelet-based and learning

  9. Textural, Rheological and Sensory Properties and Oxidative Stability of Nut Spreads—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanah Mohd Ghazali

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Tree nuts are rich in macro and micronutrients, phytochemicals, tocopherols and phenolic compounds. The development of nut spreads would potentially increase the food uses of nuts and introduce consumers with a healthier, non-animal breakfast snack food. Nut spreads are spreadable products made from nuts that are ground into paste. Roasting and milling (particle size reduction are two important stages for the production of nut spreads that affected the textural, rheological characteristic and overall quality of the nut spread. Textural, color, and flavor properties of nut spreads play a major role in consumer appeal, buying decisions and eventual consumption. Stability of nut spreads is influenced by its particle size. Proper combination of ingredients (nut paste, sweetener, vegetable oil and protein sources is also required to ensure a stable nut spread product is produced. Most of the nut spreads behaved like a non-Newtonian pseudo-plastic fluid under yield stress which help the producers how to start pumping and stirring of the nut spreads. Similar to other high oil content products, nut spreads are susceptible to autoxidation. Their oxidation can be controlled by application of antioxidants, using processing techniques that minimize tocopherol and other natural antioxidant losses.

  10. Kernel methods for deep learning

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Youngmin

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a new family of positive-definite kernels that mimic the computation in large neural networks. We derive the different members of this family by considering neural networks with different activation functions. Using these kernels as building blocks, we also show how to construct other positive-definite kernels by operations such as composition, multiplication, and averaging. We explore the use of these kernels in standard models of supervised learning, such as support vector mach...

  11. Physicochemical properties and composition of lipid fraction of selected edible nuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derewiaka, D.; Szwed, E.; Wolosiak, R. [Warsaw Univ. of Life Sciences, Warsaw (Poland). Dept. of Biotechnology

    2014-01-15

    The study presents the characteristics of oil fraction of 8 types of edible nuts available on the Polish market. All tested nuts were characterized with high content of dry matter. Fatty acid and sterol composition was analyzed by GC-MS. Squalene and tocopherol profiles were examined by HPLC with diode array (DAD) and fluorescence detectors (FLDs). The highest level of fat was found in macadamia (75.4 g/100 g) and the lowest in cashew nuts (46.9 g/100 g). Fatty analysis showed that nuts were rich in unsaturated fatty acids. Monounsaturated fatty acids were predominant in most cases, with the exception of Brazilian nuts, walnuts and pine nuts which were richer in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Sitosterol was the main sterol of nuts, and its content ranged from 96.9 mg/100 g of oil (in macadamia) to 474.8 mg/100 g of oil (in pistachio). Tocopherol homologue was predominant among its fraction with the largest content determined in pistachio (8.3 mg/100 g of oil) and walnuts (8.6 mg/100 g of oil). The presence of squalene was confirmed in seven types of nuts, and the richest source of it were Brazilian nuts (145.8 mg/100 g of oil). The study proofs the variation of nut oil composition, especially phytosterol and tocopherol content and can be used for better characterization of nuts derived from different geographic areas or cultivars. (author)

  12. Physicochemical properties and composition of lipid fraction of selected edible nuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derewiaka, D.; Szwed, E.; Wolosiak, R.

    2014-01-01

    The study presents the characteristics of oil fraction of 8 types of edible nuts available on the Polish market. All tested nuts were characterized with high content of dry matter. Fatty acid and sterol composition was analyzed by GC-MS. Squalene and tocopherol profiles were examined by HPLC with diode array (DAD) and fluorescence detectors (FLDs). The highest level of fat was found in macadamia (75.4 g/100 g) and the lowest in cashew nuts (46.9 g/100 g). Fatty analysis showed that nuts were rich in unsaturated fatty acids. Monounsaturated fatty acids were predominant in most cases, with the exception of Brazilian nuts, walnuts and pine nuts which were richer in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Sitosterol was the main sterol of nuts, and its content ranged from 96.9 mg/100 g of oil (in macadamia) to 474.8 mg/100 g of oil (in pistachio). Tocopherol homologue was predominant among its fraction with the largest content determined in pistachio (8.3 mg/100 g of oil) and walnuts (8.6 mg/100 g of oil). The presence of squalene was confirmed in seven types of nuts, and the richest source of it were Brazilian nuts (145.8 mg/100 g of oil). The study proofs the variation of nut oil composition, especially phytosterol and tocopherol content and can be used for better characterization of nuts derived from different geographic areas or cultivars. (author)

  13. BETEL-NUTS AS CONTAMINATED WITH A CANCER PRODUCING FUNGUS

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdihassan, S.

    1987-01-01

    Betel nuts prematurely harvested and allowed to dry in heaps contain moisture which permits Aspergillus flavous to enter and spread over the central portions. Such betel – nuts consumed with betel leaves can cause cancer of the mouth since A. flavus is a carcinogen. Samples collected showed that the most betel – nuts were contaminated.

  14. Sapucaia nuts ( Lecythis pisonis ) modulate the hepatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sapucaia nuts ( Lecythis pisonis ) modulate the hepatic inflammatory and antioxidant metabolism activity in rats fed high-fat diets. ... that “sapucaia” could serve as a potential source of antioxidants and as a protector agent for the examined animals. Keywords: Sapucaia nuts, inflammation, oxidative stress, gene expression ...

  15. Biodegradation of shea nut cake by indigenous soil bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yeast extracts enhanced growth. Pseudomanas strain G9 degraded 71.25% shea nut cake, while Pseudomonas strain G38 degraded 50.35% shea nut cake within 48 h. Pseudomonas G9 can be used to degrade shea nut cake. G9 and G38 are different species of Pseudomonas and molecular typing such as PCR can be ...

  16. 7 CFR 981.9 - Kernel weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Kernel weight. 981.9 Section 981.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.9 Kernel weight. Kernel weight means the weight of kernels, including...

  17. Draft genome sequence of an elite Dura palm and whole-genome patterns of DNA variation in oil palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jingjing; Lee, May; Bai, Bin; Sun, Yanwei; Qu, Jing; Rahmadsyah; Alfiko, Yuzer; Lim, Chin Huat; Suwanto, Antonius; Sugiharti, Maria; Wong, Limsoon; Ye, Jian; Chua, Nam-Hai; Yue, Gen Hua

    2016-12-01

    Oil palm is the world's leading source of vegetable oil and fat. Dura, Pisifera and Tenera are three forms of oil palm. The genome sequence of Pisifera is available whereas the Dura form has not been sequenced yet. We sequenced the genome of one elite Dura palm, and re-sequenced 17 palm genomes. The assemble genome sequence of the elite Dura tree contained 10,971 scaffolds and was 1.701 Gb in length, covering 94.49% of the oil palm genome. 36,105 genes were predicted. Re-sequencing of 17 additional palm trees identified 18.1 million SNPs. We found high genetic variation among palms from different geographical regions, but lower variation among Southeast Asian Dura and Pisifera palms. We mapped 10,000 SNPs on the linkage map of oil palm. In addition, high linkage disequilibrium (LD) was detected in the oil palms used in breeding populations of Southeast Asia, suggesting that LD mapping is likely to be practical in this important oil crop. Our data provide a valuable resource for accelerating genetic improvement and studying the mechanism underlying phenotypic variations of important oil palm traits. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  18. Veto-Consensus Multiple Kernel Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Y.; Hu, N.; Spanos, C.J.

    2016-01-01

    We propose Veto-Consensus Multiple Kernel Learning (VCMKL), a novel way of combining multiple kernels such that one class of samples is described by the logical intersection (consensus) of base kernelized decision rules, whereas the other classes by the union (veto) of their complements. The

  19. 7 CFR 51.2295 - Half kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Half kernel. 51.2295 Section 51.2295 Agriculture... Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Definitions § 51.2295 Half kernel. Half kernel means the separated half of a kernel with not more than one-eighth broken off. ...

  20. Comparative transcriptome and metabolite analysis of oil palm and date palm mesocarp that differ dramatically in carbon partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgis, Fabienne; Kilaru, Aruna; Cao, Xia; Ngando-Ebongue, Georges-Frank; Drira, Noureddine; Ohlrogge, John B.; Arondel, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Oil palm can accumulate up to 90% oil in its mesocarp, the highest level observed in the plant kingdom. In contrast, the closely related date palm accumulates almost exclusively sugars. To gain insight into the mechanisms that lead to such an extreme difference in carbon partitioning, the transcriptome and metabolite content of oil palm and date palm were compared during mesocarp development. Compared with date palm, the high oil content in oil palm was associated with much higher transcript levels for all fatty acid synthesis enzymes, specific plastid transporters, and key enzymes of plastidial carbon metabolism, including phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and pyruvate dehydrogenase. Transcripts representing an ortholog of the WRI1 transcription factor were 57-fold higher in oil palm relative to date palm and displayed a temporal pattern similar to its target genes. Unexpectedly, despite more than a 100-fold difference in flux to lipids, most enzymes of triacylglycerol assembly were expressed at similar levels in oil palm and date palm. Similarly, transcript levels for all but one cytosolic enzyme of glycolysis were comparable in both species. Together, these data point to synthesis of fatty acids and supply of pyruvate in the plastid, rather than acyl assembly into triacylglycerol, as a major control over the storage of oil in the mesocarp of oil palm. In addition to greatly increasing molecular resources devoted to oil palm and date palm, the combination of temporal and comparative studies illustrates how deep sequencing can provide insights into gene expression patterns of two species that lack genome sequence information. PMID:21709233

  1. Morphological, mechanical and antioxidant properties of Portuguese almond cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Ivo; Meyer, Anne S.; Afonso, Silvia

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate morphological (of fruit and kernel), mechanical (namely shell rupture force) and antioxidant properties (including phenolics and flavonoid content) of five Portuguese almond cultivars, comparing them with two commercial cultivars (Glorieta and Ferragnès). Of ...... high kernel weight, low percentages of double kernels or losses during shelling and considerable higher phenolics and flavonoids content may be considered by industry during selection of almond.......). Of the analyzed traits, nut and kernel dimensions varied substantially and were used to describe cultivars. However, some traditional cultivars recorded similar (Pegarinhos), or even higher (Amendoão, Casanova and Refêgo) nut and kernel weight than commercial cultivars. Furthermore, shelling percentage...... of traditional cultivar (Bonita) was higher than commercial cultivars. Rupture force necessary to break fruits of all traditional cultivars was higher than commercial ones, and was correlated to nut weight cultivars. The phenolics, flavonoids content and antioxidants were higher for Casanova. Parameters like...

  2. Betel Nut Beauty in Taiwan: Chinese Tourists- Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Shwu-Huey Wang; Hsiu-Yuan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Tourists- eyes will often be attracted by the unique phenomenon of the roadsides: betel nut beauties (pronounced as binlang xishi in Mandarin), if they drive on the roads of Taiwan. Sitting in the neon-lit glass stalls with attractive dress on the roadsides, betel nut beauties usually sell betel nuts to the passing truckers or car drivers with much of their efforts. Moreover, in order to attract peoples- eyesight and increase the sales volume, the young girls are in skimp...

  3. Cylinder valve packing nut studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blue, S.C. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Paducah, KY (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The design, manufacture, and use of cylinder valve packing nuts have been studied to improve their resistance to failure from stress corrosion cracking. Stress frozen photoelastic models have been analyzed to measure the stress concentrations at observed points of failure. The load effects induced by assembly torque and thermal expansion of stem packing were observed by strain gaging nuts. The effects of finishing operations and heat treatment were studied by the strain gage hole boring and X-ray methods. Modifications of manufacturing and operation practices are reducing the frequency of stress corrosion failures.

  4. Moisture Dependence of physical Properties and Specific Heat Capacity of Neem (Azadirachta Indica A. Juss Kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dauda

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of moisture content on the physical properties and specific heat capacity of Neem (Azadirachta Indica A. Juss nut kernels. The major, intermediate and minor axial dimensions of the kernels increased from 1.04 to 1.23cm, 0.42 to 0.6cm, and 0.32 to 0.45cm respectively, as the moisture content increased from 5.2 to 44.9 % (db. The arithmetic and geometric mean diameters determined at the same moisture level were significantly different from each other, with the arithmetic mean diameter being higher. In the above moisture range, one thousand kernel weight, true density, porosity, sphericity, roundness and surface area all increased linearly from 0.0987 to 0.1755kg, 632 to 733kgm-3, 6.42 to 32.14%, 41.3 to 47.5%, 22 to 36% and 13 to 24cm2 respectively, while bulk density decreased from 591.4 to 497.4kgm-3 with increase in moisture content. Angle of repose increased from 21.22 to 29.8o with increase in moisture content. The Static coefficient of friction on ply wood with grains parallel to the direction of movement ranged from 0.41 to 0.61, it ranged from 0.19 to 0.24 on on fiber glass, 0.28 to .038 on hessian bag material and 0.25 to 0.33 on galvanized steel sheet. The specific heat of the seed varied from 2738.1- 4345.4J/kg/oC in the above moisture range.

  5. An Approximate Approach to Automatic Kernel Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lizhong; Liao, Shizhong

    2016-02-02

    Kernel selection is a fundamental problem of kernel-based learning algorithms. In this paper, we propose an approximate approach to automatic kernel selection for regression from the perspective of kernel matrix approximation. We first introduce multilevel circulant matrices into automatic kernel selection, and develop two approximate kernel selection algorithms by exploiting the computational virtues of multilevel circulant matrices. The complexity of the proposed algorithms is quasi-linear in the number of data points. Then, we prove an approximation error bound to measure the effect of the approximation in kernel matrices by multilevel circulant matrices on the hypothesis and further show that the approximate hypothesis produced with multilevel circulant matrices converges to the accurate hypothesis produced with kernel matrices. Experimental evaluations on benchmark datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of approximate kernel selection.

  6. Palauans who chew betel nut: social impact of oral disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn Griffin, M T; Mott, M; Burrell, P M; Fitzpatrick, J J

    2014-03-01

    Chewing betel nut is a tradition extending from Southeast Asia to the Pacific. Globally, betel nut is the fourth main psychotropic substance containing a stimulant, arecoline, that has a similar effect to nicotine. In Palau, there is broad acceptance of betel nut chewing. One of the largest immigrant groups in Hawaii is the Palauans. Chewing betel nut has significant social implications that make it difficult for those who engage in this practice to separate potential oral disease from the social importance. However, little is known about the social impact of oral disease from chewing betel nut on Palauans in Hawaii. The study aimed to describe the perceptions of betel-chewing Palauans in Hawaii regarding betel nut and to determine the social impact of oral disease among these individuals. Descriptive study conducted on the island of Oahu, Hawaii with 30 adult Palauans. Data were collected using the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 to measure perceptions of social impact of oral disease on well-being. Demographic and general health information was collected. Participants perceived little negative social impact of oral disease on well-being. Families, peers and society exert a strong influence on the decision to chew betel nut, a known carcinogen. Participants in this study showed little concern on the impact of betel nut chewing on their oral health. They continue the habit in spite of the awareness of potential for oral disease. Nurses face challenges in educating Palauans about the negative aspects of betel nut, particularly those related to oral health especially when they do not perceive problems. Nurses must be involved in the development of health policies to design and implement strategies to promote behavioural change, and to ensure clinical services that are culturally sensitive to betel nut chewers. © 2014 International Council of Nurses.

  7. Iterative software kernels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duff, I.

    1994-12-31

    This workshop focuses on kernels for iterative software packages. Specifically, the three speakers discuss various aspects of sparse BLAS kernels. Their topics are: `Current status of user lever sparse BLAS`; Current status of the sparse BLAS toolkit`; and `Adding matrix-matrix and matrix-matrix-matrix multiply to the sparse BLAS toolkit`.

  8. A kernel version of spatial factor analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2009-01-01

    . Schölkopf et al. introduce kernel PCA. Shawe-Taylor and Cristianini is an excellent reference for kernel methods in general. Bishop and Press et al. describe kernel methods among many other subjects. Nielsen and Canty use kernel PCA to detect change in univariate airborne digital camera images. The kernel...... version of PCA handles nonlinearities by implicitly transforming data into high (even infinite) dimensional feature space via the kernel function and then performing a linear analysis in that space. In this paper we shall apply kernel versions of PCA, maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysis...

  9. 7 CFR 51.1441 - Half-kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Half-kernel. 51.1441 Section 51.1441 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Shelled Pecans Definitions § 51.1441 Half-kernel. Half-kernel means one of the separated halves of an entire pecan kernel with not more than one-eighth of its original volume missing...

  10. Palms and Palm Communities in the Upper Ucayali River Valley - a Little-Known Region in the Amazon Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik; Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Kristiansen, Thea

    2010-01-01

    The Amazon region and its palms are inseparable. Palms make up such an important part of the rain forest ecosystem that it is impossible to imagine the Amazon basin without them. Palms are visible in the canopy and often fill up the forest understory. Palms – because of their edible fruits...... – are cornerstone species for the survival of many animals, and palms contribute substantially to forest inventories in which they are often among the ten most important families. Still, the palms and palm communities of some parts of the Amazon basin remain poorly studied and little known. We travelled to a little......-explored corner of the western Amazon basin, the upper Ucayali river valley. There, we encountered 56 different palms, 18 of which had not been registered for the region previously, and 21 of them were found 150–400 km beyond their previously known limits....

  11. Effect of tiger nut-derived products in gluten-free batter and bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Núria; Albanell, Elena; Miñarro, Begoña; Guamis, Buenaventura; Capellas, Marta

    2015-07-01

    Tiger nut is a tuber used to produce tiger nut milk that yields a high quantity of solid waste, which can be dried and used as fiber source. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the quality of gluten-free bread formulated with different tiger nut-derived products in order to substitute soya flour (which is an allergen ingredient) and, at the same time, increase the use of tiger nut-derived products. Four gluten-free formulations based on corn starch and containing tiger nut milk, tiger nut milk by-product, tiger nut flour, or soya flour (as reference formulation) were studied. Tiger nut milk increased G' of gluten-free batter and rendered breads with the softest crumb (502.46 g ± 102.05), the highest loaf-specific volume (3.35 cm(3)/g ± 0.25), and it was mostly preferred by consumers (61.02%). Breads elaborated with tiger nut flour had similar characteristics than soya flour breads (except in color and crumb structure). The addition of tiger nut milk by-product resulted in a hard (1047.64 g ± 145.74) and dark (L(*)  = 70.02 ± 3.38) crumb bread, which was the least preferred by consumers. Results showed that tiger nut is a promising ingredient to formulate gluten-free baked products. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. EFFECT OF PALM EMPTY BUNCH ASH ON TRANSESTERIFICATION OF PALM OIL INTO BIODIESEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Sibarani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel conversion from transesterification reaction palm oil with methanol was studied by using an ash of palm empty bunch as a base catalyst. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS and indicator titration analysis were used as tools for characterization of ash sample. Chemical structure of biodiesel was analyzed by GC-MS. The effects of ash sample weight (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 g immersed in 75 mL methanol and the methanol-palm oil mol ratio (3:1; 6:1; 9:1 and 12:1 toward the conversion of biodiesel were investigated. Biodiesel was prepared by refluxing palm oil and methanol containing ash sample. The reflux was done at room temperature for 2 h. Ester layer was distillated at 74 oC, extracted with aquadest and then dried using Na2SO4 anhydrous. The product was characterized by GC-MS, ASTM D 1298 (specific gravity 60/60 °F, ASTM D 97 (pour point, ASTM D 2500 (cloud point, ASTM D 93 (flash point, ASTM D 445 (kinematics viscosity 40 °C and ASTM D 482 (ash content. The result of GC-MS analysis showed that methyl palmitate is primary content of biodiesel product. A 15 g weight of ash sample gave the maximum biodiesel conversion. By increasing methanol mole quantity, biodiesel conversion increased progressively and maximum at 9:1 methanol-palm oil ratio (84.12 % and decreased on 12:1 ratio (75.58 %. Most of the biodiesel products were similar to those of the diesel physical characters.   Keywords: Biodiesel conversion, transesterification, palm oil, palm empty bunch

  13. Cashew nut shell liquid: an agricultural by-product with great ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is recommended that further work be done to scale‐up production of CNSL based products and demonstrate feasibility of the same. Production and local processing of the cashew nuts accompanied by recovery of CNSL should be enhanced. Key words: Cashew nuts, CNSL utilization, cashew nut production, Kenya ...

  14. Pistachio allergy-prevalence and in vitro cross-reactivity with other nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorbakhsh, Reihaneh; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Sankian, Mojtaba; Shahidi, Fakhri; Tehrani, Mohsen; Azad, Farahzad Jabbari; Behmanesh, Fatemeh; Varasteh, AbdolReza

    2011-12-01

    Tree nut allergy is characterized by a high frequency of life-threatening reactions and is typically lifelong persistent. Some people with a pistachio nut allergy, which is common in the pistachio rich area of Iran, develop a hypersensitivity to other tree nuts as well. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of pistachio nut allergy in Iran, the major pistachio cultivation region in the world. The study also addressed the presence of allergenic cross-reactivity between pistachio and other nuts, including almond, peanut, and cashew in pistachio allergic patients. A survey was conducted to determine whether the prevalence of pistachio allergy is affected by exposure to this nut in pistachio cultivation regions, as well as possible cross-reactivity between pistachio and other nuts including cashew, almond, and peanut. Inhibition Western blot and inhibition ELISA studies were conducted to assess the presence of allergenic cross-reactivity between pistachio and the other tree nuts. Our results revealed that the prevalence of pistachio allergy is twice as much in pistachio cultivation regions than other areas. Western blotting and inhibition ELISA presented high percentages of inhibition with pistachio and cashew, followed by almond and, to some degree, peanut which indicates different levels of allergenic cross-reactivity. The results indicate that exposure of people to pistachio significantly affects the prevalence of its allergic reactions. In addition, it was observed that, among pistachio allergic subjects, such exposure may affect the co-sensitivities with other nuts, including cashew and almond. The plant taxonomic classification of pistachio and other tree nuts does appear to predict allergenic cross-reactivity.

  15. Local Observed-Score Kernel Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiberg, Marie; van der Linden, Wim J.; von Davier, Alina A.

    2014-01-01

    Three local observed-score kernel equating methods that integrate methods from the local equating and kernel equating frameworks are proposed. The new methods were compared with their earlier counterparts with respect to such measures as bias--as defined by Lord's criterion of equity--and percent relative error. The local kernel item response…

  16. Credit scoring analysis using kernel discriminant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiharih, T.; Mukid, M. A.; Mustafid

    2018-05-01

    Credit scoring model is an important tool for reducing the risk of wrong decisions when granting credit facilities to applicants. This paper investigate the performance of kernel discriminant model in assessing customer credit risk. Kernel discriminant analysis is a non- parametric method which means that it does not require any assumptions about the probability distribution of the input. The main ingredient is a kernel that allows an efficient computation of Fisher discriminant. We use several kernel such as normal, epanechnikov, biweight, and triweight. The models accuracy was compared each other using data from a financial institution in Indonesia. The results show that kernel discriminant can be an alternative method that can be used to determine who is eligible for a credit loan. In the data we use, it shows that a normal kernel is relevant to be selected for credit scoring using kernel discriminant model. Sensitivity and specificity reach to 0.5556 and 0.5488 respectively.

  17. [Epidemiological investigation of chewing fresh or dried betel nut and oral mucosal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongxiu, Du; Dongye, Sun; Xinchun, Jian; Qiuhua, Mao; Yanan, Cheng; Pu, Xu

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of chewing fresh or dried betel nut on the inci-dence and canceration of oral mucosa disease in Haikou City in Hainan Province. Through a survey questionnaire, clinical examination, and regular follow-up, we collected clinical data from 1 722 cases and divided them into two groups, among which 704 of the afflicted people chew dried betel nut, whereas the other 1 018 chew fresh betel nut. The data were 
statistically analyzed using different variables which included age, number, time of onset of the disease, and the cancerous condition associated with common oral mucosa disease, including oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), oral leukoplakia (OLK), and oral Lichen planus (OLP). 1) The study found no significant difference in the prevalence of oral mucosa diseases between the dried betel nut group (n=704) and fresh betel nut group (n=1 018) among the 1 722 cases (P>0.05), but the peak age of oral mucosal disease was more advanced in the dried betel nut group (Pbetel nut group was significantly higher than that in the fresh betel nut group (Pbetel nut group was significantly higher than that in the fresh betel nut group (Pbetel nut is more pathogenic and carcinogenic than chewing fresh betel nut. The extremely harmful components of the dried betel nut synergistically play a vital role in the occurrence and carcinogenesis of oral mucosal diseases.

  18. IJAAAR 2012 COMPLETE ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011

    readily available agro-industrial by- products is palm kernel cake. The palm kernel represents 50% of .... The remaining carcass was weighed with a 100kg capacity weighing scale (Hanging scale) and expressed as a ... removal of the contents) were also weighed using a sensitive top- loading balance and expressed as a.

  19. Valorization of By-Products from Palm Oil Mills for the Production of Generic Fermentation Media for Microbial Oil Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsouko, Erminda; Kachrimanidou, Vasiliki; Dos Santos, Anderson Fragoso; do Nascimento Vitorino Lima, Maria Eduarda; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; de Castro, Aline Machado; Freire, Denise Maria Guimarães; Koutinas, Apostolis A

    2017-04-01

    This study demonstrates the production of a generic nutrient-rich feedstock using by-product streams from palm oil production that could be used as a substitute for commercial fermentation supplements. Solid-state fermentations of palm kernel cake (PKC) and palm-pressed fiber (PPF) were conducted in tray bioreactors and a rotating drum bioreactor by the fungal strain Aspergillus oryzae for the production of crude enzymes. The production of protease was optimized (319.3 U/g) at an initial moisture content of 55 %, when PKC was used as the sole substrate. The highest free amino nitrogen (FAN) production (5.6 mg/g) obtained via PKC hydrolysis using the crude enzymes produced via solid-state fermentation was achieved at 50 °C. Three initial PKC concentrations (48.7, 73.7, and 98.7 g/L) were tested in hydrolysis experiments, leading to total Kjeldahl nitrogen to FAN conversion yields up to 27.9 %. Sequential solid-state fermentation followed by hydrolysis was carried out in the same rotating drum bioreactor, leading to the production of 136.7 U/g of protease activity during fermentation and 196.5 mg/L of FAN during hydrolysis. Microbial oil production was successfully achieved with the oleaginous yeast strain Lipomyces starkeyi DSM 70296 cultivated on the produced PKC hydrolysate mixed with commercial carbon sources, including glucose, xylose, mannose, galactose, and arabinose.

  20. The Nutrient Digestibility of Locally Sheep Fed with Amofer Palm Oil Byproduct-Based Complete Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi Mayulu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE Utilization of palm oil by-product such as palm fronds, leaves, empty fruit bunches (EFB, fiber fruit juice (FFJ, palm kernel cake (PKC, and palm oil sludge (POS as the source of energy and protein for ruminants, especially sheep is an efficient effort to make a new opportunities in term of economical and beneficial product that will reduce environmental pollution. The objectives of this research were to analyze the effect of palm oil’s byproduct-based complete feed on sheep’s nutrient digestibility. Sixteen male sheeps of nine month old with average body weight 14.69+0.82 kg were used. The complete feed was formulated by ammoniated-fermented technology from palm fronds and leaves, EFB and FFJ, also Centrosema sp., PKC, POS, ground corn, rice bran, cassava, molasses, urea, mineral mix and salt. The complete feed with different levels of crude protein (CP and TDN were used in this research which consisted of T1=10,63% CP; 63.46% TDN; T2=12.27% CP; 62.38% TDN; T3=13.70% CP; 64.11% TDN; and T4=15.90% CP; 61.28% TDN. The study used a completely randomized design (CRD which consisted of four treatments and four replications. Data was analyzed using ANOVA with significance level at 95% and followed by Duncan Multiple Range Test. The experimental results showed that the protein level affected the feed digestibility. The highest digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and crude protein were 65.79%, 70.30%, and 84.34% respectively, resulting in 14% protein level (T3 were significantly different with treatment at protein level 10% (T1, 12% (T2 and 16% (T4 at p <0.05. It can be concluded that by-product of palm oil plantation and mill had good nutritional value. Therefore, this feedstuff can be used to formulate complete feed for sheep and it successfully increased the nutrient digestibility /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso

  1. Association of Areca Nut Chewing With Risk of Erectile Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yung-Jui; Jiann, Bang-Ping

    2017-09-01

    Areca nut chewing has been shown to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, but its association with erectile dysfunction (ED) has not been investigated. To investigate the association between areca nut chewing and risk of ED. Consecutive men at public health centers for oral malignancy screening or health checkup were invited to complete a questionnaire. The Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM). Of the 2,652 respondents, 1,038 (mean age = 43.8 ± 11.1 years) were eligible for the areca nut chewing group and 1,090 non-areca nut chewers were selected as the age-matched control group. In the areca nut group, the mean duration of chewing was 13.2 ± 9.6 years, 61.7% consumed more than 10 portions per day, and 76.2% used it with betel leaf, 16.7% used it with betel inflorescence, and 7.1% used it with betel leaf and inflorescence. Smoking, alcohol drinking, obesity, hypertension, and diabetes were more predominant in areca nut chewers compared with controls. ED defined by self-report and by SHIM score was more prevalent in areca nut chewers than in controls (13.7% vs 9.8% and 48.7% vs 43.3%, respectively; P betel inflorescence was associated with a higher risk of ED (odds ratio = 2.25, 95% confidence interval = 1.55-3.28) with a dose-dependent effect, whereas using it with betel leaf was not (odds ratio = 1.00, 95% confidence interval = 0.79-1.26) after adjustment of possible confounders. Areca nut chewing with betel inflorescence was associated with an increased risk of ED. These findings warrant further studies. Huang Y-J, Jiann B-P. Association of Areca Nut Chewing With Risk of Erectile Dysfunction. Sex Med 2017;5:e163-e168. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Kernel parameter dependence in spatial factor analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2010-01-01

    kernel PCA. Shawe-Taylor and Cristianini [4] is an excellent reference for kernel methods in general. Bishop [5] and Press et al. [6] describe kernel methods among many other subjects. The kernel version of PCA handles nonlinearities by implicitly transforming data into high (even infinite) dimensional...... feature space via the kernel function and then performing a linear analysis in that space. In this paper we shall apply a kernel version of maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) [7, 8] analysis to irregularly sampled stream sediment geochemistry data from South Greenland and illustrate the dependence...... of the kernel width. The 2,097 samples each covering on average 5 km2 are analyzed chemically for the content of 41 elements....

  3. Tiger nut: as a plant, its derivatives and benefits | Bamishaiye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... thrombosis and colon cancer, among others. The presence of anti-nutrients like polyphenols and tannins can be eliminated by boiling in water. The tiger nut, though under-utilized, is still a good food snack for all. There is a need for awareness creation on tiger nut's inherent nutritional properties. Key words: nut, nutrition, ...

  4. Elemental analysis of Taiwanese areca nut and limes with INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Y.Y.; Chung, C.

    1997-01-01

    The popular areca nuts were sampled and their stuffed white and red lime were collected simultaneously from four marketplaces in Taiwan in different growing seasons. Samples of areca nut were treated via homogenizer prior to freeze drying, about 100-150 mg each of the areca nut and lime were packed into PE bag. Samples were irradiated with neutron flux about 10 12 n x cm -2 x s -1 . A total of 17, 18, and 13 elements was analyzed with INAA for white lime, red lime, and areca nut, respectively. The results indicated that Ca have the highest concentration in both limes. Most elements in collected samples have wide range of concentrations among different seasons and marketplaces. It is suggested that the elemental concentration of areca nut and limes exists in divergence originated from various farms in Taiwan. In addition, four elements of Ca, Fe, Mg, and Sc are probably overtaken by persons having chewing habit of areca nut and their effects on oral cancer are discussed. (author)

  5. Attention Inhibition Training Can Reduce Betel-Nut Chewing Time

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Ming-Chou; Li, Ren-Hau; Tang, Tze-Chun

    2011-01-01

    Betel nut (or areca) is the fourth most commonly used drug worldwide after tobacco, alcohol, and caffeine. Many chemical ingredients of betel nut are carcinogenic. We examined whether the manipulation of attentional inhibition toward the areca-related stimuli could affect betel-nut chewing time. Three matched groups of habitual chewers were recruited: inhibit-areca, inhibit-non-areca, and control. This study consisted of a Go/No-Go task for inhibition training, followed by a taste test for ob...

  6. More Nuts and Bolts of Michaelis-Menten Enzyme Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Joseph H.

    2011-01-01

    Several additions to a classroom activity are proposed in which an "enzyme" (the student) converts "substrates" (nut-bolt assemblies) into "products" (separated nuts and bolts) by unscrewing them. (Contains 1 table.)

  7. Coconut, date and oil palm genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    A review of genomics research is presented for the three most economically important palm crops, coconut (Cocos nucifera), date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), encompassing molecular markers studies of genetic diversity, genetic mapping, quantitative trait loci discovery...

  8. Multiple Kernel Learning with Data Augmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-22

    JMLR: Workshop and Conference Proceedings 63:49–64, 2016 ACML 2016 Multiple Kernel Learning with Data Augmentation Khanh Nguyen nkhanh@deakin.edu.au...University, Australia Editors: Robert J. Durrant and Kee-Eung Kim Abstract The motivations of multiple kernel learning (MKL) approach are to increase... kernel expres- siveness capacity and to avoid the expensive grid search over a wide spectrum of kernels . A large amount of work has been proposed to

  9. OS X and iOS Kernel Programming

    CERN Document Server

    Halvorsen, Ole Henry

    2011-01-01

    OS X and iOS Kernel Programming combines essential operating system and kernel architecture knowledge with a highly practical approach that will help you write effective kernel-level code. You'll learn fundamental concepts such as memory management and thread synchronization, as well as the I/O Kit framework. You'll also learn how to write your own kernel-level extensions, such as device drivers for USB and Thunderbolt devices, including networking, storage and audio drivers. OS X and iOS Kernel Programming provides an incisive and complete introduction to the XNU kernel, which runs iPhones, i

  10. Model selection for Gaussian kernel PCA denoising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kasper Winther; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2012-01-01

    We propose kernel Parallel Analysis (kPA) for automatic kernel scale and model order selection in Gaussian kernel PCA. Parallel Analysis [1] is based on a permutation test for covariance and has previously been applied for model order selection in linear PCA, we here augment the procedure to also...... tune the Gaussian kernel scale of radial basis function based kernel PCA.We evaluate kPA for denoising of simulated data and the US Postal data set of handwritten digits. We find that kPA outperforms other heuristics to choose the model order and kernel scale in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR...

  11. Sugar palm (Argena pinnata). Potential of sugar palm for bio-ethanol production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbersen, H.W.; Oyen, L.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    The energetic and economic feasibility of bioethanol production from sugar palm is virtually unknown. A positive factor are the potentially very high yields while the long non-productive juvenile phase and the high labor needs can be seen as problematic. Expansion to large scale sugar palm

  12. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Johnson, NC. Vol 27, No 1 (2000) - Articles Metabolisable energy values of whole palm kernel and palm kernel oil sludge using laying hens and adult broiler chickens. Abstract. ISSN: 0331-2062. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  13. Efficiency measurement of cashew nut marketing in Enugu State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficiency measurement of cashew nut marketing in Enugu State, Nigeria. ... were the multiple regression analysis to measure the profit function of cashew nut marketing inputs, Marketing margin, Lorenz curve, ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  14. Betel nut usage is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Shahzeb; Bawany, Faizan Imran; Ahmed, Muhammad Umer; Hussain, Mehwish; Khan, Asadullah; Lashari, Muhammad Nawaz

    2013-12-27

    The objective of our study was to assess betel nut usage as one of the major risk factors associated with coronary artery disease. This case control study consisted of 300 controls and 300 cases. A structured questionnaire was administered to the participants to assess consumption of betel nut and confounding variables. A respondent was considered a regular consumer of betel nut if he/she consumed one or more pieces of betel nut every day for a period of greater than 6 months. About 8 in 10 betel nut chewers developed coronary artery disease. After adjusting for diabetes and hypertension, the odds ratio analysis depicted 7.72 times greater likelihood for coronary artery disease in patients who chewed betel nut for more than 10 years. Our study concludes that betel nut chewing is a significant risk factor leading to the development of coronary artery disease.

  15. Paramecium: An Extensible Object-Based Kernel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, L.; Homburg, P.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we describe the design of an extensible kernel, called Paramecium. This kernel uses an object-based software architecture which together with instance naming, late binding and explicit overrides enables easy reconfiguration. Determining which components reside in the kernel protection

  16. DETERMINATION OF THE POMOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ALMONDS (Prunus amygdalus Batsh GROWN IN MALATYA (TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turan Karadeniz

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available About 500 types of Almond were taken under investigated with the view of fruit characteristics grown in Malatya. In these types, the nut shell weights between 2.73 and 10.74 g, kernel weights were 0.71 and 1.40 g, the percentage of kernel 11.17 and 50.91 %, the shell thickness 3.5 and 8.1 mm, the nut width 12.0 and 28.6 mm, the nut length 18.2 and 48.2 mm, the fruit hight 7.1 and 20.3 mm were determined.

  17. Theory of reproducing kernels and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Saitoh, Saburou

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a large extension of the general theory of reproducing kernels published by N. Aronszajn in 1950, with many concrete applications. In Chapter 1, many concrete reproducing kernels are first introduced with detailed information. Chapter 2 presents a general and global theory of reproducing kernels with basic applications in a self-contained way. Many fundamental operations among reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces are dealt with. Chapter 2 is the heart of this book. Chapter 3 is devoted to the Tikhonov regularization using the theory of reproducing kernels with applications to numerical and practical solutions of bounded linear operator equations. In Chapter 4, the numerical real inversion formulas of the Laplace transform are presented by applying the Tikhonov regularization, where the reproducing kernels play a key role in the results. Chapter 5 deals with ordinary differential equations; Chapter 6 includes many concrete results for various fundamental partial differential equations. In Chapt...

  18. THE STUDY ON IN VITRO DIGESTIBILITY OF SOAKED PALM OIL FIBER BY FILTRATED PALM OIL FRUIT BUNCH ASH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari L. Darmawan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil fiber has its potency as feed fiber source for ruminant, but contains high lignin and causes limited digestibility. This research was carried out to find the effect of soaking palm oil fiber in filtrated palm oil fruit bunch ash (FPOFBA on in vitro digestibility. This experiment used a completely randomized design that repeated for 4times. Palm oil fruit bunch ash was mixed in water and entered into container for 24 hours within concentrations, consists of: 50, 100, 150 and 200 g/L. Moreover, this filtrate used to soak palm oil fiber for 3 hours. The processed products were analyzed for their level of lignin and crude fiber. Meanwhile, in vitro test was used to measure digestibility. It showed that soaking in filtrated palm oil fruit bunch ash gave significant effect to decrease level of lignin and crude fiber (P0.05, such as 23.48 and 24.12% as well as 16.70 and 17.06 % in each. It can be concluded that soaked palm oil fiber with 150 g/L concentration of filtrated palm oil fruit bunch ash was more effective in improving digestibility.

  19. Kernels for structured data

    CERN Document Server

    Gärtner, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This book provides a unique treatment of an important area of machine learning and answers the question of how kernel methods can be applied to structured data. Kernel methods are a class of state-of-the-art learning algorithms that exhibit excellent learning results in several application domains. Originally, kernel methods were developed with data in mind that can easily be embedded in a Euclidean vector space. Much real-world data does not have this property but is inherently structured. An example of such data, often consulted in the book, is the (2D) graph structure of molecules formed by

  20. Physic nut (Jatropha curcas):

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    else

    seed production. Although, physic nut is thought to have least disease and insect incidence, it ... A serious of experiments has been carried out at Melkassa Agriculture Research ... productive and high value to cover the cost of irrigation.

  1. Pistachio Allergy-Prevalence and In vitro Cross-Reactivity with Other Nuts

    OpenAIRE

    Reihaneh Noorbakhsh; Seyed Ali Mortazavi; Mojtaba Sankian; Fakhri Shahidi; Mohsen Tehrani; Farahzad Jabbari Azad; Fatemeh Behmanesh; AbdolReza Varasteh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Tree nut allergy is characterized by a high frequency of life-threatening reactions and is typically lifelong persistent. Some people with a pistachio nut allergy, which is common in the pistachio rich area of Iran, develop a hypersensitivity to other tree nuts as well. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of pistachio nut allergy in Iran, the major pistachio cultivation region in the world. The study also addressed the presence of allergenic cross-reactivity be...

  2. Analysis of acetal toilet fill valve supply line nut failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Timpanaro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a rise in the number of product liability cases involving the failure of toilet water supply line acetal plastic nuts. These nuts can fail in service, causing water leaks that result in significant property and financial losses. This study examines three possible failure modes of acetal plastic toilet water supply nuts. The three failure modes tested were all due to over load failure of the acetal nut and are as follows: (1 Overtightening of the supply line acetal nut, (2 Supply line lateral pull and, (3 Embrittled supply line lateral pull. Additionally, a “hand-tight” torque survey was conducted. The fracture surfaces and characteristics of these failure tests were examined with Stereo Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. The failure modes were compared and contrasted to provide guidance in determination of cause in these investigations.

  3. 7 CFR 981.401 - Adjusted kernel weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjusted kernel weight. 981.401 Section 981.401... Administrative Rules and Regulations § 981.401 Adjusted kernel weight. (a) Definition. Adjusted kernel weight... kernels in excess of five percent; less shells, if applicable; less processing loss of one percent for...

  4. Nuts as part of a healthy cardiovascular diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Stephen D; Nash, David T

    2008-12-01

    The increasing trend of obesity has been associated with a greater prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and may lead to more vascular disease. Nuts, a rich source of monounsaturated fatty acids and fiber, have been shown to decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. Numerous studies have demonstrated that nuts favorably affect serum lipids. They also exhibit a number of nonlipid benefits, including improved weight management, greater insulin sensitivity, and favorable endothelial effects, as well as having anti-inflammatory properties. Incorporating nuts into the diets of more people may lead to a variety of cardiovascular benefits.

  5. 7 CFR 51.2560 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Shelled Pistachio Nuts § 51.2560 Definitions. (a) Well dried means the kernel is... than pistachio kernels. No allowable tolerances for metal or glass. (d) Whole kernel means 3/4 of a...

  6. Quasi-Static Behavior of Palm-Based Elastomeric Polyurethane: For Strengthening Application of Structures under Impulsive Loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Chandima Chathuranga Somarathna

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, attention has been focused on elastomeric polymers as a potential retrofitting material considering their capability in contributing towards the impact resistance of various structural elements. A comprehensive understanding of the behavior and the morphology of this material are essential to propose an effective and feasible alternative to existing structural strengthening and retrofitting materials. This article presents the findings obtained from a series of experimental investigations to characterize the physical, mechanical, chemical and thermal behavior of eight types of palm-based polyurethane (PU elastomers, which were synthesized from the reaction between palm kernel oil-based monoester polyol (PKO-p and 4,4-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI with polyethylene glycol (PEG as the plasticizer via pre-polymerization. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy analysis was conducted to examine the functional groups in PU systems. Mechanical and physical behavior was studied with focus on elongation, stresses, modulus, energy absorption and dissipation, and load dispersion capacities by conducting hardness, tensile, flexural, Izod impact, and differential scanning calorimetry tests. Experimental results suggest that the palm-based PU has positive effects as a strengthening and retrofitting material against dynamic impulsive loadings both in terms of energy absorption and dissipation, and load dispersion. In addition, among all PUs with different plasticizer contents, PU2 to PU8 (which contain 2% to 8% (w/w PEG with respect to PKO-p content show the best correlation with mechanical response under quasi-static conditions focusing on energy absorption and dissipation and load dispersion characteristics.

  7. Betel nut chewing, oral premalignant lesions, and the oral microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Brenda Y; Zhu, Xuemei; Goodman, Marc T; Gatewood, Robert; Mendiola, Paul; Quinata, Katrina; Paulino, Yvette C

    2017-01-01

    Oral cancers are attributed to a number of causal agents including tobacco, alcohol, human papillomavirus (HPV), and areca (betel) nut. Although betel nut chewing has been established as an independent cause of oral cancer, the mechanisms of carcinogenesis are poorly understood. An investigation was undertaken to evaluate the influence of betel nut chewing on the oral microbiome and oral premalignant lesions. Study participants were recruited from a dental clinic in Guam. Structured interviews and oral examinations were performed. Oral swabbing and saliva samples were evaluated by 454 pyrosequencing of the V3- V5 region of the 16S rRNA bacterial gene and genotyped for HPV. One hundred twenty-two adults were enrolled including 64 current betel nut chewers, 37 former chewers, and 21 with no history of betel nut use. Oral premalignant lesions, including leukoplakia and submucous fibrosis, were observed in 10 chewers. Within-sample bacterial diversity was significantly lower in long-term (≥10 years) chewers vs. never chewers and in current chewers with oral lesions vs. individuals without lesions. Between-sample bacterial diversity based on Unifrac distances significantly differed by chewing status and oral lesion status. Current chewers had significantly elevated levels of Streptococcus infantis and higher and lower levels of distinct taxa of the Actinomyces and Streptococcus genera. Long-term chewers had reduced levels of Parascardovia and Streptococcus. Chewers with oral lesions had significantly elevated levels of Oribacterium, Actinomyces, and Streptococcus, including Streptococcus anginosus. In multivariate analyses, controlling for smoking, oral HPV, S.anginosus, and S. infantis levels, current betel nut chewing remained the only predictor of oral premalignant lesions. Our study provides evidence that betel nut chewing alters the oral bacterial microbiome including that of chewers who develop oral premalignant lesions. Nonetheless, whether microbial changes

  8. Testing Infrastructure for Operating System Kernel Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Maxwell; Karlsson, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Testing is an important part of system development, and to test effectively we require knowledge of the internal state of the system under test. Testing an operating system kernel is a challenge as it is the operating system that typically provides access to this internal state information. Multi......-core kernels pose an even greater challenge due to concurrency and their shared kernel state. In this paper, we present a testing framework that addresses these challenges by running the operating system in a virtual machine, and using virtual machine introspection to both communicate with the kernel...... and obtain information about the system. We have also developed an in-kernel testing API that we can use to develop a suite of unit tests in the kernel. We are using our framework for for the development of our own multi-core research kernel....

  9. Physical, chemical and microbiological properties of mixed hydrogenated palm kernel oil and cold-pressed rice bran oil as ingredients in non-dairy creamer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunakorn Katsri

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The physical, chemical and microbiological properties of hydrogenated palm kernel oil (PKO and cold-pressed rice bran oil (RBOas ingredients in the production of liquid and powdered non-dairy creamer (coffee whitener were studied. The mixing ratios between hydrogenated PKO and cold-pressed RBO were statistically designed as of 100:0, 90:10,80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60, 30:70, 20:80, 10:90 and 0:100.The color, absorbanceand viscosity of the mixtures were investigated. As the ratio of cold-pressed RBO increased, the color became darker (L*of 93.06 to 86.25 and the absorbance significantly increased, while the viscosity of the mixtures of 20:80, 10:90 and 0:100 (54 cp. were the highest amongst the ratios tested.The hydrogenated PKO and cold-pressed RBO mixtures were further chemically tested for fatty acids, -oryzanol, -tocopherol, trans-fat contents andantioxidant activity. There were 10 fatty acids present in hydrogenated PKO with saturated fatty acid being the most predominant. Comparatively, there were only 5 fatty acids found in cold-pressed RBO with monounsaturated fatty acid being the major fatty acid. -Oryzanol and -tocopherol contents were higher with increasingcold-pressed RBO from 0-100% (0 to 1,155.00 mg/100g oil and 0.09 to 30.82 mg/100g oil, respectively. Antioxidant activity was increased with increasing cold-pressed RBO from 0-100% (9.26 to 94.24%.The pure hydrogenated PKO contained higher trans-fat content than that of the 90:10 and 80:20 mixtures (2.73, 1.93 and 1.85mg/100g oil,respectively while other samples had no trans-fat. No microorganisms were present in any of the samples.Therefore, substitution of hydrogenated PKO by cold-pressed RBO from 30-100% would offer more nutritional values and better chemical and physical properties of non-dairy creamer.

  10. Palm oil based polyols for acrylated polyurethane production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rida Tajau; Mohd Hilmi Mahmood; Mek Zah Salleh; Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan; Rosley Che Ismail

    2006-01-01

    Palm oil becomes important renewable resources for the production of polyols for the polyurethane manufacturing industry. The main raw materials used for the production of acrylated polyurethane are polyols, isocyanates and hydroxyl terminated acrylate compounds. In these studies, polyurethane based natural polymer (palm oil), i.e., POBUA (Palm Oil Based Urethane Acrylate) were prepared from three different types of palm oil based polyols i.e., epoxidised palm oil (EPOP), palm oil oleic acid and refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm olein based polyols. The performances of these three acrylated polyurethanes when used for coatings and adhesives were determined and compared with each other. (Author)

  11. Betel nut chewing associated with increased risk of arterial stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu-Ting; Chou, Yu-Tsung; Yang, Yi-Ching; Chou, Chieh-Ying; Lu, Feng-Hwa; Chang, Chih-Jen; Wu, Jin-Shang

    2017-11-01

    Betel nut chewing is associated with certain cardiovascular outcomes. Subclinical atherosclerosis may be one link between betel nut chewing and cardiovascular risk. Few studies have examined the association between chewing betel nut and arterial stiffness. The aim of this study was thus to determine the relationship between betel nut chewing and arterial stiffness in a Taiwanese population. We enrolled 7540 eligible subjects in National Cheng Kung University Hospital from October 2006 to August 2009. The exclusion criteria included history of cerebrovascular events, coronary artery disease, and taking lipid-lowering drugs, antihypertensives, and hypoglycemic agents. Increased arterial stiffness was defined as brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) ≥1400cm/s. According to their habit of betel nut use, the subjects were categorized into non-, ex-, and current chewers. The prevalence of increased arterial stiffness was 32.7, 43.3, and 43.2% in non-, ex- and current chewers, respectively (p=0.011). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that ex-chewers (odds ratio [OR] 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.08-2.65) and current chewers (OR 2.29, 95% CI=1.05-4.99) had elevated risks of increased arterial stiffness after adjustment for co-variables. Both ex- and current betel nut chewing were associated with a higher risk of increased arterial stiffness. Stopping betel nut chewing may thus potentially be beneficial to reduce cardiovascular risk, based on the principals of preventive medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. 7 CFR 51.1403 - Kernel color classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Kernel color classification. 51.1403 Section 51.1403... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Pecans in the Shell 1 Kernel Color Classification § 51.1403 Kernel color classification. (a) The skin color of pecan kernels may be described in terms of the color...

  13. Neural net classification of x-ray pistachio nut data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasent, David P.; Sipe, Michael A.; Schatzki, Thomas F.; Keagy, Pamela M.; Le, Lan Chau

    1996-12-01

    Classification results for agricultural products are presented using a new neural network. This neural network inherently produces higher-order decision surfaces. It achieves this with fewer hidden layer neurons than other classifiers require. This gives better generalization. It uses new techniques to select the number of hidden layer neurons and adaptive algorithms that avoid other such ad hoc parameter selection problems; it allows selection of the best classifier parameters without the need to analyze the test set results. The agriculture case study considered is the inspection and classification of pistachio nuts using x- ray imagery. Present inspection techniques cannot provide good rejection of worm damaged nuts without rejecting too many good nuts. X-ray imagery has the potential to provide 100% inspection of such agricultural products in real time. Only preliminary results are presented, but these indicate the potential to reduce major defects to 2% of the crop with 1% of good nuts rejected. Future image processing techniques that should provide better features to improve performance and allow inspection of a larger variety of nuts are noted. These techniques and variations of them have uses in a number of other agricultural product inspection problems.

  14. Pediatric Age Palm Oil Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Genova, Lorenza; Cerquiglini, Laura; Penta, Laura; Biscarini, Anna; Esposito, Susanna

    2018-04-01

    Palm oil is widely used in the food industry for its chemical/physical properties, low cost and wide availability. Its widespread use has provoked an intense debate about whether it is a potential danger to human health. In a careful review of the scientific literature, we focused on nutritional characteristics and health effects of the use of palm oil with regards to children, seeking to determine whether there is evidence that justifies fears about the health effects of palm oil. Our review showed that palm oil represents a significant source of saturated fatty acids, to which scientific evidence attributes negative health effects when used in excess, especially with regards to cardiovascular diseases. However, to date, there is no evidence about the harmful effects of palm oil on the health of children. Nevertheless, palm oil has possible ill health effects linked to its composition of fatty acids: its consumption is not correlated to risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in young people with a normal weight and cholesterol level; the elderly and patients with dyslipidaemia or previous cardiovascular events or hypertension are at a greater risk. Therefore, the matter is not palm oil itself but the fatty-acid-rich food group to which it belongs. The most important thing is to consume no more than 10% of saturated fatty acids, regardless of their origin and regardless of one's age. Correct information based on a careful analysis of the scientific evidence, rather than a focus on a singular presumed culprit substance, should encourage better lifestyles.

  15. Use of Straight –Run Gasoline (Srg) as A Leaching Solvent for Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted on the use of straight-run gasoline (SRG) as an extraction solvent for the leaching of palm kernel to produce palm kernel oil (PKO). SRG is an intermediate product fraction in the second fraction of crude petroleum oil fractionation that has not undergone any purification process. It is intended as a ...

  16. Oil palm land conversion in Pará, Brazil, from 2006-2014: evaluating the 2010 Brazilian Sustainable Palm Oil Production Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benami, E.; Curran, L. M.; Cochrane, M.; Venturieri, A.; Franco, R.; Kneipp, J.; Swartos, A.

    2018-03-01

    Global models of biophysical suitability for oil palm consistently rank Brazil as having the greatest potential for expansion, with estimates as high as 238 Mha of suitable lands. In 2010, Brazil launched the Sustainable Palm Oil Production Program (SPOPP) to incentivize oil palm development without deforestation on as much as 30 Mha. Here we examine oil palm expansion before and after the SPOPP’s launch. In Pará, the major oil palm producing state in Brazil, we analyze the extent and change in oil palm cultivation from 2006-2014 using satellite imagery, ground-truthed verification, site-based interviews, and rural environmental (land) registration data. Between 2006-2014, oil palm area (≥9 ha) expanded >200% to ~219 000 ha. Of the ~148 000 ha of oil palm developed, ~91% converted pasturelands while ~8% replaced natural vegetation, including intact and secondary forests. Although >80% of all oil palm parcels rest role of agro-ecological suitability mapping among them. Interviews indicated that: (1) individual effects of suitability mapping efforts to encourage oil palm expansion on cleared areas, i.e. without deforestation, cannot be disentangled from pre-existing public and private deforestation reduction initiatives; and, (2) socio-economic constraints, e.g. high relative production costs and limited familiarity with this crop, appear to partially explain the major discrepancy between estimated potential suitable areas with realized oil palm development.

  17. Estimating energy requirement in cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) nut processing operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jekayinfa, S.O. [Department of Agricultural Engineering, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B. 4000, Ogbomoso, Oyo State (Nigeria); Bamgboye, A.I. [Department of Agricultural Engineering, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria)

    2006-07-15

    This work deals with a study on estimation of energy consumption in eight readily defined unit operations of cashew nut processing. Data for analysis were collected from nine cashew nut mills stratified into small, medium and large categories to represent different mechanization levels. Series of equations were developed to easily compute requirements of electricity, fuel and labour for each of the unit operations. The computation of energy use was done using spreadsheet program on Microsoft Excel. The results of application test of the equations show that the total energy intensity in the cashew nut mills varied between 0.21 and 1.161MJ/kg. Electrical energy intensity varied between 0.0052 and 0.029MJ/kg, while thermal energy intensity varied from 0.085 to 1.064MJ/kg. The two identified energy intensive operations in cashew nut processing are cashew nut drying and cashew nut roasting, altogether accounting for over 85% of the total energy consumption in all the three mill categories. Thermal energy, obtained from diesel fuel, represented about 90% of the unit energy cost for cashew nut processing. The developed equations have therefore proven to be a useful tool for carrying out budgeting, forecasting energy requirements and planning plant expansion. (author)

  18. The definition of kernel Oz

    OpenAIRE

    Smolka, Gert

    1994-01-01

    Oz is a concurrent language providing for functional, object-oriented, and constraint programming. This paper defines Kernel Oz, a semantically complete sublanguage of Oz. It was an important design requirement that Oz be definable by reduction to a lean kernel language. The definition of Kernel Oz introduces three essential abstractions: the Oz universe, the Oz calculus, and the actor model. The Oz universe is a first-order structure defining the values and constraints Oz computes with. The ...

  19. Fabrication of Uranium Oxycarbide Kernels for HTR Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, Charles; Richardson, Clay; Nagley, Scott; Hunn, John; Shaber, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) has been producing high quality uranium oxycarbide (UCO) kernels for Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) fuel tests at the Idaho National Laboratory. In 2005, 350-(micro)m, 19.7% 235U-enriched UCO kernels were produced for the AGR-1 test fuel. Following coating of these kernels and forming the coated-particles into compacts, this fuel was irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) from December 2006 until November 2009. B and W produced 425-(micro)m, 14% enriched UCO kernels in 2008, and these kernels were used to produce fuel for the AGR-2 experiment that was inserted in ATR in 2010. B and W also produced 500-(micro)m, 9.6% enriched UO2 kernels for the AGR-2 experiments. Kernels of the same size and enrichment as AGR-1 were also produced for the AGR-3/4 experiment. In addition to fabricating enriched UCO and UO2 kernels, B and W has produced more than 100 kg of natural uranium UCO kernels which are being used in coating development tests. Successive lots of kernels have demonstrated consistent high quality and also allowed for fabrication process improvements. Improvements in kernel forming were made subsequent to AGR-1 kernel production. Following fabrication of AGR-2 kernels, incremental increases in sintering furnace charge size have been demonstrated. Recently small scale sintering tests using a small development furnace equipped with a residual gas analyzer (RGA) has increased understanding of how kernel sintering parameters affect sintered kernel properties. The steps taken to increase throughput and process knowledge have reduced kernel production costs. Studies have been performed of additional modifications toward the goal of increasing capacity of the current fabrication line to use for production of first core fuel for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) and providing a basis for the design of a full scale fuel fabrication facility.

  20. Palm oil and the heart:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osaretin; J; Odia; Sandra; Ofori; Omosivie; Maduka

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil consumption and its effects on serum lipid levels and cardiovascular disease in humans is still a subject of debate. Advocacy groups with varying agenda fuel the controversy. This update intends to identify evidence-based evaluations of the influence of palm oil on serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, it suggests a direction for future research. The sources of information were based on a Pub Med, Google Scholar, African Journal online and Medline search using key words including: palm oil, palmitic acid, saturated fatty acids and heart disease. Published animal and human experiments on the association of palm oil and its constituents on the serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease were also explored for relevant information. These papers are reviewed and the available evidence is discussed. Most of the information in mainstream literature is targeted at consumers and food companies with a view to discourage the consumption of palm oil. The main argument against the use of palm oil as an edible oil is the fact that it contains palmitic acid, which is a saturated fatty acid and by extrapolation should give rise to elevated total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. However, there are many scientific studies, both in animals and humans that clearly show that palm oil consumption does not give rise to elevated serum cholesterol levels and that palm oil is not atherogenic. Apart from palmitic acid, palm oil consists of oleic and linoleic acids which are monounsaturated and polyunsaturated respectively. Palm oil also consists of vitamins A and E, which are powerful antioxidants. Palm oil has been scientifically shown to protect the heart and blood vessels from plaques and ischemic injuries. Palm oil consumed as a dietary fat as a part of a healthy balanced diet does not have incremental risk for cardiovascular disease. Little or no additional benefit will be obtained by replacing it with other oils rich in

  1. Palm oil and the heart: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odia, Osaretin J; Ofori, Sandra; Maduka, Omosivie

    2015-03-26

    Palm oil consumption and its effects on serum lipid levels and cardiovascular disease in humans is still a subject of debate. Advocacy groups with varying agenda fuel the controversy. This update intends to identify evidence-based evaluations of the influence of palm oil on serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, it suggests a direction for future research. The sources of information were based on a PubMed, Google Scholar, African Journal online and Medline search using key words including: palm oil, palmitic acid, saturated fatty acids and heart disease. Published animal and human experiments on the association of palm oil and its constituents on the serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease were also explored for relevant information. These papers are reviewed and the available evidence is discussed. Most of the information in mainstream literature is targeted at consumers and food companies with a view to discourage the consumption of palm oil. The main argument against the use of palm oil as an edible oil is the fact that it contains palmitic acid, which is a saturated fatty acid and by extrapolation should give rise to elevated total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. However, there are many scientific studies, both in animals and humans that clearly show that palm oil consumption does not give rise to elevated serum cholesterol levels and that palm oil is not atherogenic. Apart from palmitic acid, palm oil consists of oleic and linoleic acids which are monounsaturated and polyunsaturated respectively. Palm oil also consists of vitamins A and E, which are powerful antioxidants. Palm oil has been scientifically shown to protect the heart and blood vessels from plaques and ischemic injuries. Palm oil consumed as a dietary fat as a part of a healthy balanced diet does not have incremental risk for cardiovascular disease. Little or no additional benefit will be obtained by replacing it with other oils rich in mono

  2. American palm ethnomedicine: A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balslev Henrik

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many recent papers have documented the phytochemical and pharmacological bases for the use of palms (Arecaceae in ethnomedicine. Early publications were based almost entirely on interviews that solicited local knowledge. More recently, ethnobotanically guided searches for new medicinal plants have proven more successful than random sampling for identifying plants that contain biodynamic ingredients. However, limited laboratory time and the high cost of clinical trials make it difficult to test all potential medicinal plants in the search for new drug candidates. The purpose of this study was to summarize and analyze previous studies on the medicinal uses of American palms in order to narrow down the search for new palm-derived medicines. Methods Relevant literature was surveyed and data was extracted and organized into medicinal use categories. We focused on more recent literature than that considered in a review published 25 years ago. We included phytochemical and pharmacological research that explored the importance of American palms in ethnomedicine. Results Of 730 species of American palms, we found evidence that 106 species had known medicinal uses, ranging from treatments for diabetes and leishmaniasis to prostatic hyperplasia. Thus, the number of American palm species with known uses had increased from 48 to 106 over the last quarter of a century. Furthermore, the pharmacological bases for many of the effects are now understood. Conclusions Palms are important in American ethnomedicine. Some, like Serenoa repens and Roystonea regia, are the sources of drugs that have been approved for medicinal uses. In contrast, recent ethnopharmacological studies suggested that many of the reported uses of several other palms do not appear to have a strong physiological basis. This study has provided a useful assessment of the ethnobotanical and pharmacological data available on palms.

  3. Effects of dietary inclusions of oilseed meals on physical characteristics and feed intake of diets for the Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwasi Adu Obirikorang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effects of the inclusion of three oilseed by-products (soybean, copra and palm kernel meals on some physical characteristics of pelletized feeds as well as on voluntary feed intake and faecal matter production by the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. The dietary inclusion of soybean meal resulted in a significantly higher feed bulk density relative to the fishmeal control diet. The inclusions of copra and palm kernel meals, however, resulted in lower feed bulk densities. Sinking rates, water stabilities and nutrient retention efficiencies of feed pellets were directly related to feed bulk densities. The soybean meal diet had the fastest sinking velocities, greatest water stability and highest nutrient retention rates. The dietary inclusion of soybean meal, however, significantly impaired feed intake compared to the other three diets. Mean daily feed intakes of the control, palm kernel meal and copra meal diets corresponded to 28.88, 27.01 and 28.31 g during the experimental period and varied significantly from the mean daily intake of the soybean meal diet which corresponded to 20.01 g. Faecal matter production (g dry mass kg−1 ingested feed was significantly higher in the tilapia groups fed the copra and palm kernel meals. The results obtained from this study show that 30% inclusions of unrefined forms of copra and palm kernel meal in Nile tilapia diets is possible, without adversely affecting feed intake or pellet nutrient losses prior to ingestion.

  4. Anisotropic hydrodynamics with a scalar collisional kernel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaalol, Dekrayat; Strickland, Michael

    2018-04-01

    Prior studies of nonequilibrium dynamics using anisotropic hydrodynamics have used the relativistic Anderson-Witting scattering kernel or some variant thereof. In this paper, we make the first study of the impact of using a more realistic scattering kernel. For this purpose, we consider a conformal system undergoing transversally homogenous and boost-invariant Bjorken expansion and take the collisional kernel to be given by the leading order 2 ↔2 scattering kernel in scalar λ ϕ4 . We consider both classical and quantum statistics to assess the impact of Bose enhancement on the dynamics. We also determine the anisotropic nonequilibrium attractor of a system subject to this collisional kernel. We find that, when the near-equilibrium relaxation-times in the Anderson-Witting and scalar collisional kernels are matched, the scalar kernel results in a higher degree of momentum-space anisotropy during the system's evolution, given the same initial conditions. Additionally, we find that taking into account Bose enhancement further increases the dynamically generated momentum-space anisotropy.

  5. Object classification and detection with context kernel descriptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pan, Hong; Olsen, Søren Ingvor; Zhu, Yaping

    2014-01-01

    Context information is important in object representation. By embedding context cue of image attributes into kernel descriptors, we propose a set of novel kernel descriptors called Context Kernel Descriptors (CKD) for object classification and detection. The motivation of CKD is to use spatial...... consistency of image attributes or features defined within a neighboring region to improve the robustness of descriptor matching in kernel space. For feature selection, Kernel Entropy Component Analysis (KECA) is exploited to learn a subset of discriminative CKD. Different from Kernel Principal Component...

  6. Effect of chewing betel nut (Areca catechu) on salivary cortisol measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konečná, Martina; Urlacher, Samuel S

    2015-09-01

    Cultural practices may compromise the accuracy of salivary hormone measurements and must be considered when designing human biology research protocols. This study aims to evaluate the acute effect of one common human practice-chewing betel nut-on the measurement of salivary cortisol levels under field conditions. Data were collected from 17 adult habitual betel nut users (males = 11; females = 6; mean age = 32.8 years) from a small rural community in Papua New Guinea. Saliva was collected in time series from each participant before and at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75 min after chewing betel nut. Samples were analyzed by radioimmunoassay and cortisol levels were compared across time using linear mixed effects modeling. Measured mean cortisol concentration fell nearly 40% immediately following betel nut use and remained significantly below baseline levels for the following 45 min (all P  0.16). Chewing betel nut is associated with a transient but significant reduction in measured levels of salivary cortisol. Future research must take this into account in populations where betel nut use is prevalent. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Ranking Support Vector Machine with Kernel Approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Li, Rongchun; Dou, Yong; Liang, Zhengfa; Lv, Qi

    2017-01-01

    Learning to rank algorithm has become important in recent years due to its successful application in information retrieval, recommender system, and computational biology, and so forth. Ranking support vector machine (RankSVM) is one of the state-of-art ranking models and has been favorably used. Nonlinear RankSVM (RankSVM with nonlinear kernels) can give higher accuracy than linear RankSVM (RankSVM with a linear kernel) for complex nonlinear ranking problem. However, the learning methods for nonlinear RankSVM are still time-consuming because of the calculation of kernel matrix. In this paper, we propose a fast ranking algorithm based on kernel approximation to avoid computing the kernel matrix. We explore two types of kernel approximation methods, namely, the Nyström method and random Fourier features. Primal truncated Newton method is used to optimize the pairwise L2-loss (squared Hinge-loss) objective function of the ranking model after the nonlinear kernel approximation. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method gets a much faster training speed than kernel RankSVM and achieves comparable or better performance over state-of-the-art ranking algorithms.

  8. Ranking Support Vector Machine with Kernel Approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Learning to rank algorithm has become important in recent years due to its successful application in information retrieval, recommender system, and computational biology, and so forth. Ranking support vector machine (RankSVM is one of the state-of-art ranking models and has been favorably used. Nonlinear RankSVM (RankSVM with nonlinear kernels can give higher accuracy than linear RankSVM (RankSVM with a linear kernel for complex nonlinear ranking problem. However, the learning methods for nonlinear RankSVM are still time-consuming because of the calculation of kernel matrix. In this paper, we propose a fast ranking algorithm based on kernel approximation to avoid computing the kernel matrix. We explore two types of kernel approximation methods, namely, the Nyström method and random Fourier features. Primal truncated Newton method is used to optimize the pairwise L2-loss (squared Hinge-loss objective function of the ranking model after the nonlinear kernel approximation. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method gets a much faster training speed than kernel RankSVM and achieves comparable or better performance over state-of-the-art ranking algorithms.

  9. Technical intelligence and culture: Nut cracking in humans and chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, Christophe; Bombjaková, Daša; Boyette, Adam; Meier, Amelia

    2017-06-01

    According to the technical intelligence hypothesis, humans are superior to all other animal species in understanding and using tools. However, the vast majority of comparative studies between humans and chimpanzees, both proficient tool users, have not controlled for the effects of age, prior knowledge, past experience, rearing conditions, or differences in experimental procedures. We tested whether humans are superior to chimpanzees in selecting better tools, using them more dexteriously, achieving higher performance and gaining access to more resource as predicted under the technical intelligence hypothesis. Aka and Mbendjele hunter-gatherers in the rainforest of Central African Republic and the Republic of Congo, respectively, and Taï chimpanzees in the rainforest of Côte d'Ivoire were observed cracking hard Panda oleosa nuts with different tools, as well as the soft Coula edulis and Elaeis guinensis nuts. The nut-cracking techniques, hammer material selection and two efficiency measures were compared. As predicted, the Aka and the Mbendjele were able to exploit more species of hard nuts in the forest than chimpanzees. However, the chimpanzees were sometimes more efficient than the humans. Social roles differed between the two species, with the Aka and especially the Mbendjele exhibiting cooperation between nut-crackers whereas the chimpanzees were mainly individualistic. Observations of nut-cracking by humans and chimpanzees only partially supported the technical intelligence hypothesis as higher degrees of flexibility in tool selection seen in chimpanzees compensated for use of less efficient tool material than in humans. Nut cracking was a stronger social undertaking in humans than in chimpanzees. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Dose point kernels for beta-emitting radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prestwich, W.V.; Chan, L.B.; Kwok, C.S.; Wilson, B.

    1986-01-01

    Knowledge of the dose point kernel corresponding to a specific radionuclide is required to calculate the spatial dose distribution produced in a homogeneous medium by a distributed source. Dose point kernels for commonly used radionuclides have been calculated previously using as a basis monoenergetic dose point kernels derived by numerical integration of a model transport equation. The treatment neglects fluctuations in energy deposition, an effect which has been later incorporated in dose point kernels calculated using Monte Carlo methods. This work describes new calculations of dose point kernels using the Monte Carlo results as a basis. An analytic representation of the monoenergetic dose point kernels has been developed. This provides a convenient method both for calculating the dose point kernel associated with a given beta spectrum and for incorporating the effect of internal conversion. An algebraic expression for allowed beta spectra has been accomplished through an extension of the Bethe-Bacher approximation, and tested against the exact expression. Simplified expression for first-forbidden shape factors have also been developed. A comparison of the calculated dose point kernel for 32 P with experimental data indicates good agreement with a significant improvement over the earlier results in this respect. An analytic representation of the dose point kernel associated with the spectrum of a single beta group has been formulated. 9 references, 16 figures, 3 tables

  11. A study of palm biomass processing strategy in Sarawak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. J. Y.; Ng, W. P. Q.; Law, K. H.

    2017-06-01

    In the past decades, palm industry is booming due to its profitable nature. An environmental concern regarding on the palm industry is the enormous amount of waste produced from palm industry. The waste produced or palm biomass is one significant renewable energy source and raw material for value-added products like fiber mats, activated carbon, dried fiber, bio-fertilizer and et cetera in Malaysia. There is a need to establish the palm biomass industry for the recovery of palm biomass for efficient utilization and waste reduction. The development of the industry is strongly depending on the two reasons, the availability and supply consistency of palm biomass as well as the availability of palm biomass processing facilities. In Malaysia, the development of palm biomass industry is lagging due to the lack of mature commercial technology and difficult logistic planning as a result of scattered locality of palm oil mill, where palm biomass is generated. Two main studies have been carried out in this research work: i) industrial study of the feasibility of decentralized and centralized palm biomass processing in Sarawak and ii) development of a systematic and optimized palm biomass processing planning for the development of palm biomass industry in Sarawak, Malaysia. Mathematical optimization technique is used in this work to model the above case scenario for biomass processing to achieve maximum economic potential and resource feasibility. An industrial study of palm biomass processing strategy in Sarawak has been carried out to evaluate the optimality of centralized processing and decentralize processing of the local biomass industry. An optimal biomass processing strategy is achieved.

  12. Rare variant testing across methods and thresholds using the multi-kernel sequence kernel association test (MK-SKAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, Eugene; Lee, Seunggeun; Maity, Arnab; Zhao, Ni; Shen, Judong; Li, Yun; Wu, Michael C

    Analysis of rare genetic variants has focused on region-based analysis wherein a subset of the variants within a genomic region is tested for association with a complex trait. Two important practical challenges have emerged. First, it is difficult to choose which test to use. Second, it is unclear which group of variants within a region should be tested. Both depend on the unknown true state of nature. Therefore, we develop the Multi-Kernel SKAT (MK-SKAT) which tests across a range of rare variant tests and groupings. Specifically, we demonstrate that several popular rare variant tests are special cases of the sequence kernel association test which compares pair-wise similarity in trait value to similarity in the rare variant genotypes between subjects as measured through a kernel function. Choosing a particular test is equivalent to choosing a kernel. Similarly, choosing which group of variants to test also reduces to choosing a kernel. Thus, MK-SKAT uses perturbation to test across a range of kernels. Simulations and real data analyses show that our framework controls type I error while maintaining high power across settings: MK-SKAT loses power when compared to the kernel for a particular scenario but has much greater power than poor choices.

  13. Do you believe in palm trees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2013-01-01

    Palms are real, but are they really trees? The answer depends on definitions. As usually tall, peremrial plants with roots, stems, and leaves, palms seem to qualify. Palms should also qualify because arborists care for them, and arborists care for trees, right? My introduction to botany class defined trees as plants that produce wood. Unraveling the question of whether...

  14. Invasioni biologiche. Il caso drammatico delle palme e di due specie di insetti, il Punteruolo rosso delle palme (Rynchophorus ferrugineus, Coleotteri e il castnide delle palme (Paysandisia archon, Lepidotteri in Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Di Domenico

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The biological invasions represent today a serious ecological problem, and is one of the main threats to biodiversity, in Italy as in the rest of the world. In the last century several species of palm trees have been introduced in gardens, parks and lanes of great part of Italy, where climate allows their life and growth. Among the others Phoenix canariensis, P. dactylifera, Washingtonia robusta, W. filifera, Jubaea spectabilis and Trachycarpus fortunei. All of these species are exotic, as the only indigenous palm in Italy is the dwarf fan palm (Chamaerops humilis, which occurs along the tirrenian coast from Sicily to Liguria, in Sardinia and most of the smaller islands. Palm trees have become by now part of the Italian landscape, as do pine tree in Rome or cypress in Tuscany. Recently, two different species of exotic insects where recorded for the first time in Italy: the south American moth Paysandisia archon and the chinese beetle Rhynchophorus ferrugineus. Both of them lay their eggs on palm trees, and their larvae feed into the stem and kill the palms. Both arrived in Italy and in other Mediterranean countries as larvae or eggs hidden into the plants imported from the native regions. These insects are rapidly spreading through Italy, following palm plantations, and destroying palms from north to south, with a huge economic damage. Furthermore, they are locally changing probably for ever the Italian landscape. More recently, there is evidence of infestation on dwarf fan palm by both the moth and the beetle. This could cause a local extinction of the palm.

  15. BSACI guideline for the diagnosis and management of peanut and tree nut allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiefel, G; Anagnostou, K; Boyle, R J; Brathwaite, N; Ewan, P; Fox, A T; Huber, P; Luyt, D; Till, S J; Venter, C; Clark, A T

    2017-06-01

    Peanut nut and tree nut allergy are characterised by IgE mediated reactions to nut proteins. Nut allergy is a global disease. Limited epidemiological data suggest varying prevalence in different geographical areas. Primary nut allergy affects over 2% of children and 0.5% of adults in the UK. Infants with severe eczema and/or egg allergy have a higher risk of peanut allergy. Primary nut allergy presents most commonly in the first five years of life, often after the first known ingestion with typical rapid onset IgE-mediated symptoms. The clinical diagnosis of primary nut allergy can be made by the combination of a typical clinical presentation and evidence of nut specifc IgE shown by a positive skin prick test (SPT) or specific IgE (sIgE) test. Pollen food syndrome is a distinct disorder, usually mild, with oral/pharyngeal symptoms, in the context of hay fever or pollen sensitisation, which can be triggered by nuts. It can usually be distinguish clinically from primary nut allergy. The magnitude of a SPT or sIgE relates to the probability of clinical allergy, but does not relate to clinical severity. SPT of ≥ 8 mm or sIgE ≥ 15 KU/L to peanut is highly predictive of clinical allergy. Cut off values are not available for tree nuts. Test results must be interpreted in the context of the clinical history. Diagnostic food challenges are usually not necessary but may be used to confirm or refute a conflicting history and test result. As nut allergy is likely to be a long-lived disease, nut avoidance advice is the cornerstone of management. Patients should be provided with a comprehensive management plan including avoidance advice, patient specific emergency medication and an emergency treatment plan and training in administration of emergency medication. Regular re-training is required. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Wigner functions defined with Laplace transform kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Se Baek; Petruccelli, Jonathan C; Tian, Lei; Barbastathis, George

    2011-10-24

    We propose a new Wigner-type phase-space function using Laplace transform kernels--Laplace kernel Wigner function. Whereas momentum variables are real in the traditional Wigner function, the Laplace kernel Wigner function may have complex momentum variables. Due to the property of the Laplace transform, a broader range of signals can be represented in complex phase-space. We show that the Laplace kernel Wigner function exhibits similar properties in the marginals as the traditional Wigner function. As an example, we use the Laplace kernel Wigner function to analyze evanescent waves supported by surface plasmon polariton. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  17. Metabolic network prediction through pairwise rational kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche-Lima, Abiel; Domaratzki, Michael; Fristensky, Brian

    2014-09-26

    Metabolic networks are represented by the set of metabolic pathways. Metabolic pathways are a series of biochemical reactions, in which the product (output) from one reaction serves as the substrate (input) to another reaction. Many pathways remain incompletely characterized. One of the major challenges of computational biology is to obtain better models of metabolic pathways. Existing models are dependent on the annotation of the genes. This propagates error accumulation when the pathways are predicted by incorrectly annotated genes. Pairwise classification methods are supervised learning methods used to classify new pair of entities. Some of these classification methods, e.g., Pairwise Support Vector Machines (SVMs), use pairwise kernels. Pairwise kernels describe similarity measures between two pairs of entities. Using pairwise kernels to handle sequence data requires long processing times and large storage. Rational kernels are kernels based on weighted finite-state transducers that represent similarity measures between sequences or automata. They have been effectively used in problems that handle large amount of sequence information such as protein essentiality, natural language processing and machine translations. We create a new family of pairwise kernels using weighted finite-state transducers (called Pairwise Rational Kernel (PRK)) to predict metabolic pathways from a variety of biological data. PRKs take advantage of the simpler representations and faster algorithms of transducers. Because raw sequence data can be used, the predictor model avoids the errors introduced by incorrect gene annotations. We then developed several experiments with PRKs and Pairwise SVM to validate our methods using the metabolic network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. As a result, when PRKs are used, our method executes faster in comparison with other pairwise kernels. Also, when we use PRKs combined with other simple kernels that include evolutionary information, the accuracy

  18. Development of a method for the mineralization of coffee husk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    start and improve combustion, three types of fuel namely; cocoa husk, palm bunches and palm nut cake was ... Cameroon is one of the main coffee producing countries. Its annual .... American santosrican chemical society symposium series,.

  19. Gnomoniopsis castanea is the main agent of chestnut nut rot in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca G. DENNERT

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nuts of sweet chestnut have been an important food source for the alpine population in Switzerland since the Middle Ages and are still valued today for the preparation of traditional food commodities. Nut quality is reduced by insect damage and by various pathogenic fungi. In the last few years, producers and consumers perceived an increase of brown nut rot; while the nut rot agent Gnomoniopsis castanea was reported locally in southern Switzerland, its presence has not been investigated over large areas until now. This study assessed the incidence of brown nut rot and identified the causal agent present in Switzerland. Fully ripened nuts were collected from the main sweet chestnut growing areas of Switzerland. A filamentous fungus morphologically identified as G. castanea was isolated from 10 to 91% of the sampled nuts, despite only 3 to 21% of the sampled nuts showing brown rot symptoms. This fungus was isolated from symptomatic chestnuts as well as from apparently healthy chestnuts. Our results suggest a possible endophytic lifestyle in ripened nuts as well as in branches, leaves and unripe nuts as previously found. Species identity of 45 isolates was confirmed by EF-1alpha, beta-tubulin and ITS sequencing. Concatenation of β-tubulin and calmodulin sequences showed that several haplotypes were present at each sampling locality. No other nut rot pathogens could be isolated in this study, suggesting that G. castanea is the main causal agent of nut rot in Switzerland. The presence of this species is reported for the first time in a site in northern Switzerland. Further studies are needed to assess the influence of meteorological conditions and chestnut varieties on the incidence of G. castanea in order to provide prevention strategies for chestnut growers. Normal 0 21 false false false FR-CH X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso

  20. Positive and Negative Impacts of Oil Palm Expansion in Indonesia and the Prospect to Achieve Sustainable Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahputra, M. A.; Zen, Z.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the study is to deepen understanding the role of palm oil on Indonesian economy, poverty elevation and to investigate the positive and negative impacts of oil palm expansion, due to the burden of GHG emissions; and prospect to be more sustainable palm oil industry. The statistics show that average rural poverty tends to be lower and Gross Regional Product tends to be higher in provinces which have greater levels of oil palm cultivation. Indonesian oil palm will grow from 10.6 in 2013 to 13.7 million ha by 2020. This will release 135.59 million tons of CO2 if nothing is done to mitigate BAU emissions. Unless there are sustained efforts to redirect development and expansion of oil palm, plantation growth will continue to encroach on intact forest and peat land.. In fact Indonesia has large areas of degraded land, an estimated total 19,144,000 ha is available for planting oil palm and other crops. A large-scale expansion program driven by estate companies needs to be accompanied by effective smallholder development program in order to achieve the best outcome for local farmers and avoid the conflicts.

  1. Attention Inhibition Training Can Reduce Betel-Nut Chewing Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chou Ho

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Betel nut (or areca is the fourth most commonly used drug worldwide after tobacco, alcohol, and caffeine. Many chemical ingredients of betel nut are carcinogenic. We examined whether the manipulation of attentional inhibition toward the areca-related stimuli could affect betel-nut chewing time. Three matched groups of habitual chewers were recruited: inhibit-areca, inhibit-non-areca, and control. This study consisted of a Go/No-Go task for inhibition training, followed by a taste test for observing chewing behavior. The Go/No-Go task constituted three phases (pretest, training and posttest. In the taste test, the habitual chewers were asked to rate the flavors of one betel nut and one gum. The purpose (blind to the chewers of this taste test was to observe whether their picking order and chewing time were affected by experimental manipulation. Results from the Go/No-Go task showed successful training. Further, the training groups (the inhibit-areca and inhibit-non-areca groups showed a significant reduction in betel nut chewing time, in comparison to the control group. Since both training groups showed reduced chewing time, the inhibition training may affect general control ability, in regardless of the stimulus (areca or not to be inhibited. Reduced chewing time is important for reducing areca-related diseases.

  2. Fungal Presence in Selected Tree Nuts and Dried Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.H. Tournas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixty-four tree nut samples (almonds, pecans, pine nuts, and walnuts and 50 dried fruit samples (apricots, cranberries, papaya, pineapple, and raisins were purchased from local supermarkets and analyzed for fungal contamination using conventional culture as well as molecular methods. The results of our study showed that the highest yeast and mold (YM counts (5.34 log 10 CFU g -1 were found in walnuts and the lowest in pecans. The most common mold in nuts was Aspergillus niger , relatively low numbers of A. flavus were found across the board, while Penicillium spp. were very common in pine nuts and walnuts. Low levels (2.00–2.84 log 10 CFU g -1 of yeasts were recovered from only two pine nut samples. Fungal contamination in dried fruits was minimal (ranging from <2.00 to 3.86 log 10 CFU g -1 . The highest fungal levels were present in raisins. All papaya samples and the majority of cranberry, pineapple, and apricot samples were free of live fungi. The most common mold in dried fruits was A. niger followed by Penicillium spp. One apricot sample also contained low levels (2.00 log 10 CFU g -1 of yeasts.

  3. Influence Function and Robust Variant of Kernel Canonical Correlation Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Md. Ashad; Fukumizu, Kenji; Wang, Yu-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Many unsupervised kernel methods rely on the estimation of the kernel covariance operator (kernel CO) or kernel cross-covariance operator (kernel CCO). Both kernel CO and kernel CCO are sensitive to contaminated data, even when bounded positive definite kernels are used. To the best of our knowledge, there are few well-founded robust kernel methods for statistical unsupervised learning. In addition, while the influence function (IF) of an estimator can characterize its robustness, asymptotic ...

  4. Betel nut chewing and its deleterious effects on oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Anand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The habit of chewing betel nut has a long history of use. Betel nut and products derived from it are widely used as a masticatory product among various communities and in several countries across the world. Over a long period, several additives have been added to a simple betel nut preparation; thus, creating the betel quid (BQ and encompassing chewing tobacco in the preparation. Betel nut has deleterious effects on oral soft tissues. Its effects on dental caries and periodontal diseases, two major oral diseases are less well-documented. Betel-induced lichenoid lesions mainly on buccal mucosa have been reported at quid retained sites. In chronic chewers, a condition called betel chewers mucosa is often found where the quid is placed. Betel nut chewing is implicated in oral submucous fibrosis (OSF and its use along with tobacco can cause leukoplakia, both of which are potentially malignant in the oral cavity. Oral cancer often arises from such precancerous changes. Thus, public health measures to quit betel use are recommended to control disabling conditions such as OSF and oral cancer.

  5. Betel nut chewing and its deleterious effects on oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Richa; Dhingra, Chandan; Prasad, Sumanth; Menon, Ipseeta

    2014-01-01

    The habit of chewing betel nut has a long history of use. Betel nut and products derived from it are widely used as a masticatory product among various communities and in several countries across the world. Over a long period, several additives have been added to a simple betel nut preparation; thus, creating the betel quid (BQ) and encompassing chewing tobacco in the preparation. Betel nut has deleterious effects on oral soft tissues. Its effects on dental caries and periodontal diseases, two major oral diseases are less well-documented. Betel-induced lichenoid lesions mainly on buccal mucosa have been reported at quid retained sites. In chronic chewers, a condition called betel chewers mucosa is often found where the quid is placed. Betel nut chewing is implicated in oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) and its use along with tobacco can cause leukoplakia, both of which are potentially malignant in the oral cavity. Oral cancer often arises from such precancerous changes. Thus, public health measures to quit betel use are recommended to control disabling conditions such as OSF and oral cancer.

  6. Physicochemical Properties and Fatty Acid Profiles of Elaeagnus mollis Diels Nut Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shaohua; Yang, Ruinan; Dong, Caiwen; Yang, Qingping

    2015-01-01

    The physicochemical properties, fatty acid profiles, content of tocopherol and sterol of the oils extracted from the nuts of Elaeagnus mollis Diels grown in different regions of China were studied in this work. The results indicated that the Elaeagnus mollis Diels nut oils contained about 0.2% sterols and the tocopherol contents were in the range of 119.6-128.6mg/100g. The nut oils were all rich in unsaturated fatty acids, especially oleic acid and linoleic acid. Furthermore, the main triacylglycerols species of the nut oils were all dilinoleoyl-monoolein (LOL), dioleoyl-monolinoleoyl (OLO) and trilinoleate (LLL). This work might be useful for developing applications for Elaeagnus mollis Diels nut oil.

  7. AVAILABILITY AND CHARACTERISTICS OF BETEL PRODUCTS IN THE U.S.†

    OpenAIRE

    Blank, Melissa; Deshpande, Laxmikant; Balster, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Betel use involves oral placement of shards of areca nut (Areca catechu palm seed containing the cholinergic agonist arecoline) wrapped with slaked lime in a betel leaf (Piper betle plant) or various chopped or powdered products containing areca nut and/or parts of the betel plant. Additives to this mixture include catechu (areca palm extract), spices/sweeteners (e.g., saccharin, cloves), and/or tobacco. Betel use is most common in Asia and East India; however, little is known about the avail...

  8. The Linux kernel as flexible product-line architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Jonge (Merijn)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe Linux kernel source tree is huge ($>$ 125 MB) and inflexible (because it is difficult to add new kernel components). We propose to make this architecture more flexible by assembling kernel source trees dynamically from individual kernel components. Users then, can select what

  9. Machine recognition of navel orange worm damage in x-ray images of pistachio nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keagy, Pamela M.; Parvin, Bahram; Schatzki, Thomas F.

    1995-01-01

    Insect infestation increases the probability of aflatoxin contamination in pistachio nuts. A non- destructive test is currently not available to determine the insect content of pistachio nuts. This paper uses film X-ray images of various types of pistachio nuts to assess the possibility of machine recognition of insect infested nuts. Histogram parameters of four derived images are used in discriminant functions to select insect infested nuts from specific processing streams.

  10. Radiation preservation of tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.) with special reference to fungi and the effect of the physico-chemical properties of the nuts before and after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agyeman, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Tiger nut (Cyperus Esculentus L.) is an important minor crop in Ghana and is cultivated in at least four major Regions of Ghana (Central, Eastern, Brong Ahafo and Northern). A structured rapid appraisal questionnaire was designed to provide information on the sex distribution, age structure, educational level of respondents, knowledge of local names, types of cultivars or varieties, packaging and storage material, post-harvest losses, local utilisation and knowledge of its nutritional value. The sources of tiger nuts on the local market were also ascertained. To provide further information on its keeping quality in prolonged storage, moisture sorption isotherms of the nuts (using Glycerol: water mixture to simulate Equilibrium Relative Humidities ERH's of 20, 55, 65, 75, 85, 95%) was studied at 28 degrees Celsius to 30 degrees Celsius for 30 days. Some physical (length, width, water absorption capacity; moisture loss under ambient conditions) characteristics were investigated using conventional methods. These were supplemented with anatomical studies of the transverse section of the nuts to provide knowledge on the anatomical barrier characteristics of the cultivars from the various Regions. Resident mycoflora in the tiger nuts from Asebu Ekroful (Central Region), Bawjiase (Central Region), Kwahu Aduamoa (Eastern Region), Techiman (Brong Ahafo Region) and Bole (Northern Region) was ascertained by the decimal serial dilution technique up to 1:10 4 dilutions. The samples from Asebu Ekroful, Bawjiase and Kwahu Aduamoa were treated with gamma irradiation doses of 0.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.00 kGy in different packaging material (polyethylene terephthalate bottle, perforated and non-perforated polythene bags for 3 months. Moisture content (%), ash content (%), oil content (%) and total carbohydrate content of the samples were determined before and after irradiation using conventional methods. Elemental composition of tiger nuts were also determined using X-Ray Fluorescence

  11. Exploiting graph kernels for high performance biomedical relation extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panyam, Nagesh C; Verspoor, Karin; Cohn, Trevor; Ramamohanarao, Kotagiri

    2018-01-30

    Relation extraction from biomedical publications is an important task in the area of semantic mining of text. Kernel methods for supervised relation extraction are often preferred over manual feature engineering methods, when classifying highly ordered structures such as trees and graphs obtained from syntactic parsing of a sentence. Tree kernels such as the Subset Tree Kernel and Partial Tree Kernel have been shown to be effective for classifying constituency parse trees and basic dependency parse graphs of a sentence. Graph kernels such as the All Path Graph kernel (APG) and Approximate Subgraph Matching (ASM) kernel have been shown to be suitable for classifying general graphs with cycles, such as the enhanced dependency parse graph of a sentence. In this work, we present a high performance Chemical-Induced Disease (CID) relation extraction system. We present a comparative study of kernel methods for the CID task and also extend our study to the Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) extraction task, an important biomedical relation extraction task. We discuss novel modifications to the ASM kernel to boost its performance and a method to apply graph kernels for extracting relations expressed in multiple sentences. Our system for CID relation extraction attains an F-score of 60%, without using external knowledge sources or task specific heuristic or rules. In comparison, the state of the art Chemical-Disease Relation Extraction system achieves an F-score of 56% using an ensemble of multiple machine learning methods, which is then boosted to 61% with a rule based system employing task specific post processing rules. For the CID task, graph kernels outperform tree kernels substantially, and the best performance is obtained with APG kernel that attains an F-score of 60%, followed by the ASM kernel at 57%. The performance difference between the ASM and APG kernels for CID sentence level relation extraction is not significant. In our evaluation of ASM for the PPI task, ASM

  12. Occupational Dermatoses Among the Cashew Nut Workers in Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Pasricha

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventy five female workers employed in the cashew nut industry in Karnataka to slice off the outer hard shells from the nuts and thus exposed to the chashew nut shell oil had a characteristic cauterization type of reaction manifesting as brownish-black, thickened sheets of dead skin covering the dorsal as well as the palmar aspects of hands including the fingers and feet. Smaller but similer lesions were also seen on these parts of the forearms, abdomen, neck and face which were not covered with clothes. The fingers were thinned and tapering and several nails of the hands and feet were thickened, discolored and eaten away. The other changes included loss of the dermatoglyphic patterns, maceration of the hands, small pits on the finger tips and pitted keratolysis seen in some cases only. Similar changes were also seen on the feet of both the male workers exposed to the same oil, in the section which extracts the oil from the sliced shells. In contrast 29, feamle wokers engaged to peel off the thin reddish covering on the cashew nut had normal hands and feet, except for the two callosities on the flexural aspect of the proximal phalanx of the right middle finger and proximal interphalangeal joint of the right index finger respectively, caused by the friction of the peeling knife. An open patch test with the cashew nut shell oil used as such in 17 workers produced a cauterization type of reaction in 32 workers irrespective of the nature of their duties, while the standard occluded patch test with 10% cashew nut shell oil in polyethylene glycol showed a mild cauterization type of reaction in only 6 workers. Patch tests with 1% and 0.1% concentrations of the shell oil were negative in all the workers. Two barrier creams tested to protect the workers from the cashew nut shell oil produced reasonably effective results within a week.

  13. Thermodynamics of Taub-NUT/bolt black holes in Einstein-Maxwell gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehghani, M.H.; Khodam-Mohammadi, A.

    2006-01-01

    First, we construct the Taub-NUT/bolt solutions of (2k+2)-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell gravity, when all the factor spaces of 2k-dimensional base space B have positive curvature. These solutions depend on two extra parameters, other than the mass and the NUT charge. These are electric charge q and electric potential at infinity V. We investigate the existence of Taub-NUT solutions and find that in addition to the two conditions of uncharged NUT solutions, there exist two extra conditions. These two extra conditions come from the regularity of vector potential at r=N and the fact that the horizon at r=N should be the outer horizon of the NUT charged black hole. We find that the NUT solutions in 2k+2 dimensions have no curvature singularity at r=N, when the 2k-dimensional base space is chosen to be CP 2k . For bolt solutions, there exists an upper limit for the NUT parameter which decreases as the potential parameter increases. Second, we study the thermodynamics of these spacetimes. We compute temperature, entropy, charge, electric potential, action and mass of the black hole solutions, and find that these quantities satisfy the first law of thermodynamics. We perform a stability analysis by computing the heat capacity, and show that the NUT solutions are not thermally stable for even k's, while there exists a stable phase for odd k's, which becomes increasingly narrow with increasing dimensionality and wide with increasing V. We also study the phase behavior of the 4 and 6 dimensional bolt solutions in canonical ensemble and find that these solutions have a stable phase, which becomes smaller as V increases

  14. Prevalence of areca nut chewing in the middle school-going children of Indore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Khandelwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess areca nut chewing habit among middle school-aged children in Indore, India. Areca nut is chewed by itself, and in various scented preparations. It is associated with carcinogenesis, foreign body aspiration in children, and oral submucous fibrosis and may aggravate asthma. Materials and Methods: A retrospective collection of data to evaluate the prevalence of areca nut chewing among 3896 children was done. A simple random sampling was done. Children of both sexes were included in this study. Results: 27.06% of the school-going children (1054/3896 had areca nut chewing habit. More boys chewed areca nut than girls (2:1. 45.42% of school going children of rural area pander to areca nut chewing habit, whereas in urban area 20.09% children are indulged. Government school children are more involved in areca nut chewing habit. 81.02% of the children used sweetened and flavoured form of areca nut. The majority of the users were not aware of harmful effects that the use of areca nut might be harmful for health Conclusion: To diminish the use of areca nut, the Indian Government should consider limiting trade, advertising, and actively communicating its health risks to the public and should deem heavy taxes on it.

  15. Population density of oil palm pollinator weevil Elaeidobius kamerunicus based on seasonal effect and age of oil palm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Syarifah Nadiah Syed Mat; Ghani, Idris Abd.

    2016-11-01

    The pollinating weevil, Elaedobius kamerunicus (EK) has been known to be the most efficient insect pollinator of oil palm, and has successfully improved the oil palm pollination and increased the yield. Its introduction has greatly reduced the need for assisted pollination. The purpose of this study was to identify the population density of oil palm pollinator weevil EK using the concept of pollinator force and to relate the population density with the seasonal effect and the age of oil palm at Lekir Oil Palm Plantation Batu 14, Perak, Peninsular Malaysia. The pollinator force of the weevil was sustained at a range between 3095.2 to 19126.1 weevils per ha. The overall mean of weevil per spikelet shows that the range of weevil was between 13.51 and 54.06 per spikelet. There was no correlation between rainfall and population density of EK. However, positive correlation was obtained between weevil density and the number of anthesising female inflorescence of oil palm (r= 0.938, poil palm stands had significantly different population density than that of a 8-year old oil palm stand. The information of this study should be useful as a baseline data to investigate why there is such a wide range of weevils per ha or spikelet. Further study should also be done to relate the number pollinator force per spikelete and the Fresh fruit Bunch (FFB), fruit set or fruit to bunch ratio.

  16. Machine recognition of navel orange worm damage in X-ray images of pistachio nuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keagy, P.M.; Schatzki, T.F. [USDA-ARS Western Regional Research Center, Albany, CA (United States); Parvin, B. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-01

    Insect infestation increases the probability of aflatoxin contamination in pistachio nuts. A non-destructive test is currently not available to determine the insect content of pistachio nuts. This paper presents the use of film X-ray images of various types of pistachio nuts to assess the possibility of machine recognition of insect infested nuts. Histogram parameters of four derived images are used in discriminant functions to select insect infested nuts from specific processing streams.

  17. GRIM : Leveraging GPUs for Kernel integrity monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koromilas, Lazaros; Vasiliadis, Giorgos; Athanasopoulos, Ilias; Ioannidis, Sotiris

    2016-01-01

    Kernel rootkits can exploit an operating system and enable future accessibility and control, despite all recent advances in software protection. A promising defense mechanism against rootkits is Kernel Integrity Monitor (KIM) systems, which inspect the kernel text and data to discover any malicious

  18. 7 CFR 51.2296 - Three-fourths half kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Three-fourths half kernel. 51.2296 Section 51.2296 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards...-fourths half kernel. Three-fourths half kernel means a portion of a half of a kernel which has more than...

  19. Health promoting effects of phytonutrients found in palm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganathan, R; Selvaduray, K R; Nesaretnam, K; Radhakrishnan, A K

    2010-08-01

    The oil palm tree, Elaeis guineesis, is the source of palm oil, otherwise known as the "tropical golden oil". To date, Malaysia and Indonesia are the leading producers of palm oil. Palm oil is widely used for domestic cooking in Malaysia. Palm oil is a rich source of phytonutrients such as tocotrienols, tocopherol, carotene, phytosterols, squalene, coenzyme Q10, polyphenols, and phospholipids. Although the phytonutrients constitute only about 1% of its weight in crude palm oil, these are the main constituents through which palm oil exhibits its nutritional properties. Among the major health promoting properties shown to be associated with the various types of phytonutrients present in palm oil are anti-cancer, cardio-protection and anti-angiogenesis, cholesterol inhibition, brain development and neuro protective properties, antioxidative defence mechanisms, provitamin A activity and anti-diabetes.

  20. Determination of aflatoxins in nuts of Tabriz confectionaries by ELISA and HPLC methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siahi Shadbad Mohammad Reza

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Aflatoxins (AFs are a group of mycotoxins and secondary metabolites of various species of Aspergillus. There are various forms of aflatoxins including B1, B2, G1, G2, M1 and M2 types. Aflatoxins cause important health problems and have high potential effect on liver cancer. Therefore, numerous investigations have been conducted during last three decades. The aim of this work is to determine the contamination levels of nuts used by the confectionaries in Tabriz. Methods: A total of 142 samples including 35 almond , 26 walnut, 4 seeds of apricot, 6 sunflower seeds kernel, 6 sesame seed, 6 peanuts , 32 pistachio,13 hazelnuts and 14 cashews samples were collected from Tabriz confectionaries. The ELISA method was employed for the screening of total aflatoxins. Results: In 13 cases (28.1% of pistachios, 5.1% of walnuts and 7.1% of cashews contamination rate of higher than 15 ppb were observed. The HPLC method was applied for the confirmation of ELISA results. Aflatoxin B1 was the highest detected AFs. Conclusion: The overall results of the tested samples indicated that the rate of contamination of pistachios is higher than the other tested samples.

  1. Quantum anomalies for generalized Euclidean Taub-NUT metrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotaescu, Ion I; Moroianu, Sergiu; Visinescu, Mihai

    2005-01-01

    The generalized Taub-NUT metrics exhibit in general gravitational anomalies. This is in contrast with the fact that the original Taub-NUT metric does not exhibit gravitational anomalies, which is a consequence of the fact that it admits Killing-Yano tensors forming Staeckel-Killing tensors as products. We have found that for axial anomalies, interpreted as the index of the Dirac operator, the presence of Killing-Yano tensors is irrelevant. In order to evaluate the axial anomalies, we compute the index of the Dirac operator with the APS boundary condition on balls and on annular domains. The result is an explicit number-theoretic quantity depending on the radii of the domain. This quantity is 0 for metrics close to the original Taub-NUT metric but it does not vanish in general

  2. Associations between Nut Consumption and Health Vary between Omnivores, Vegetarians, and Vegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel C. Brown

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Regular nut consumption is associated with reduced risk factors for chronic disease; however, most population-based studies lack consideration of effect modification by dietary pattern. The UK Women’s Cohort Study (UKWCS provides an ideal opportunity to examine relationships between nut consumption and chronic disease risk factors in a large sample with diverse dietary patterns. Nut and nutrient intake from 34,831 women was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire among self-identified omnivores, vegetarians and vegans. In this cross-sectional analysis, higher nut consumption was associated with lower body weight (difference between highest and lowest consumption categories from adjusted model: 6.1 kg; 95% CI: 4.7, 7.6 body mass index (BMI, 2.4 units difference; 95% CI: 1.9, 2.9, and waist circumference (2.6 cm difference; 95% CI: 1.4, 3.8 (all p for linear trend < 0.001. Higher nut consumption was also associated with reduced prevalence of high cholesterol and high blood pressure; having a history of heart attack, diabetes and gallstones; and markers of diet quality (all adjusted p for linear trend ≤ 0.011. Higher nut consumption appeared overall to be associated with greater benefits amongst omnivores compared to vegetarians and vegans. Findings support existing literature around beneficial effects of nut consumption and suggest that benefits may be larger among omnivores. Nut promotion strategies may have the highest population impact by specifically targeting this group.

  3. Life Cycle Assessment of Sago Palm, Oil Palm, and Paddy Cultivated on Peat Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saptarining Wulan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The continuously increasing population growth more than food agriculture growth on the existing land, has been encouraging to this research. The land use competition for agriculture and housing purposes have caused the land use change from forest to agriculture and housing. Within forested landscapes food production, commodity agriculture, biodiversity, resource extraction and other land uses are also competing for space. The forest land use change (deforestation is one of the climate change causes. The impact of climate change among others is the uncertain climate, such as the long drought period, flood, and the extreme temperature that cause decreasing in agriculture production. Therefore, at present, many people use the marginal land, such as peat land for agriculture cultivation to increase the food agriculture production and to achieve the domestic and export demand. Indonesia has a huge peat land and the fourth biggest in the world after Rusia, Canada, and America. The focus of this study is comparing the life cycle assessment of three agriculture commodities: sago palm, oil palm, and paddy cultivated on peat land. The purpose of this research is to contribute a recommendation of the most sustainable commodity from the aspect carbon dioxide (CO2 emission among three food agriculture commodities include oil palm and paddy that currently as excellent commodities, and sago palm, the neglected indigenous plant, which are cultivated on peat land. The method applied for this research to analyze the environmental aspect using life cycle assessment (LCA started from seedling, plantation, harvesting, transportation, and production process. The analysis result reveals that sago palm is the most environmental friendly. The lowest CO2 emission (ton/ha/year is sago palm (214.75 ± 23.49 kg CO2 eq, then paddy (322.03 ± 7.57 kg CO2 eq and the highest CO2 emission (ton/ha/year is oil palm (406.88 ± 97.09 kg CO2 eq.

  4. Life Cycle Assessment of Sago Palm, Oil Palm, and Paddy Cultivated on Peat Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saptarining Wulan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuously increasing population growth more than food agriculture growth on the existing land, has been encouraging to this research. The land use competition for agriculture and housing purposes have caused the land use change from forest to agriculture and housing. Within forested landscapes food production, commodity agriculture, biodiversity, resource extraction and other land uses are also competing for space. The forest land use change (deforestation is one of the climate change causes. The impact of climate change among others is the uncertain climate, such as the long drought period, flood, and the extreme temperature that cause decreasing in agriculture production. Therefore, at present, many people use the marginal land, such as peat land for agriculture cultivation to increase the food agriculture production and to achieve the domestic and export demand. Indonesia has a huge peat land and the fourth biggest in the world after Rusia, Canada, and America. The focus of this study is comparing the life cycle assessment of three agriculture commodities: sago palm, oil palm, and paddy cultivated on peat land. The purpose of this research is to contribute a recommendation of the most sustainable commodity from the aspect carbon dioxide (CO2 emission among three food agriculture commodities include oil palm and paddy that currently as excellent commodities, and sago palm, the neglected indigenous plant, which are cultivated on peat land. The method applied for this research to analyze the environmental aspect using life cycle assessment (LCA started from seedling, plantation, harvesting, transportation, and production process. The analysis result reveals that sago palm is the most environmental friendly. The lowest CO2 emission (ton/ha/year is sago palm (214.75 ± 23.49 kg CO2 eq, then paddy (322.03 ± 7.57 kg CO2 eq and the highest CO2 emission (ton/ha/year is oil palm (406.88 ± 97.09 kg CO2 eq.

  5. Examining Potential Boundary Bias Effects in Kernel Smoothing on Equating: An Introduction for the Adaptive and Epanechnikov Kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, Jaime A; von Davier, Alina A

    2015-05-01

    Test equating is a method of making the test scores from different test forms of the same assessment comparable. In the equating process, an important step involves continuizing the discrete score distributions. In traditional observed-score equating, this step is achieved using linear interpolation (or an unscaled uniform kernel). In the kernel equating (KE) process, this continuization process involves Gaussian kernel smoothing. It has been suggested that the choice of bandwidth in kernel smoothing controls the trade-off between variance and bias. In the literature on estimating density functions using kernels, it has also been suggested that the weight of the kernel depends on the sample size, and therefore, the resulting continuous distribution exhibits bias at the endpoints, where the samples are usually smaller. The purpose of this article is (a) to explore the potential effects of atypical scores (spikes) at the extreme ends (high and low) on the KE method in distributions with different degrees of asymmetry using the randomly equivalent groups equating design (Study I), and (b) to introduce the Epanechnikov and adaptive kernels as potential alternative approaches to reducing boundary bias in smoothing (Study II). The beta-binomial model is used to simulate observed scores reflecting a range of different skewed shapes.

  6. Adaptive Kernel in Meshsize Boosting Algorithm in KDE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper proposes the use of adaptive kernel in a meshsize boosting algorithm in kernel density estimation. The algorithm is a bias reduction scheme like other existing schemes but uses adaptive kernel instead of the regular fixed kernels. An empirical study for this scheme is conducted and the findings are comparatively ...

  7. Long-term response of Caribbean palm forests to hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel Lugo; J.L. Frangi

    2016-01-01

    We studied the response of Prestoea montana (Sierra Palm, hereafter Palm) brakes and a Palm floodplain forest to hurricanes in the Luquillo Experimental Forest in Puerto Rico. Over a span of 78 years, 3 hurricanes passed over the study sites for which we have 64 years of measurements for Palm brakes and 20 years for the Palm floodplain forest. For each stand, species...

  8. THE EFFECTIVITY TEST OF SHEEP RUMEN LIQUOR ENZYME ADDED TO PALM KERNEL MEAL ON ITS DECREASE OF CRUDE FIBER AND APPARENT DIGESTIBILITY COEFFICIENT FOR CATFISH Pangasius hypophthalmus DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Pamungkas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the hydrolysis of fiber content in palm kernel meal (PKM by sheep rumen liquor enzyme and to know the apparent digestibility coefficient of hydrolyzed PKM for catfish Pangasius hypophthalmus. The first trial examined effectivity of sheep rumen liquor enzyme to decrease crude fiber content of PKM. The added volume of sheep rumen liquor enzyme was 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mL/kg PKM and then it was incubated for 0, 12, and 24 hours. A factorial completely randomized experimental design consisted of 2 variables and triplicates were selected. The second trial was conducted to evaluate the apparent digestibility coefficients of hydrolized PKM for catfish. Apparent digestibility coefficients were determined using chromic oxide indicator added to both reference and test diets. The feed ingredients used in the trial were hydrolyzed PKM (PKMe and unhydrolyzed PKM (PKM. Ten fishes with weighing around 20 g were used in the trial and held in 80 l tanks. Feces were collected from three replicate groups of fish using a fecal collection column attached to fish rearing tank. PKM hydrolyzed with 100 mL/kg and incubated for 24 hour showed the lowest crude fiber content (6.99% among the treatments (P<0.05. Apparent digestibility coefficient of hydrolyzed PKM was 57.57% compared with unhydrolyzed PKM 15.31%. Based on the evaluation in those parameters it was concluded that sheep rumen liquor enzyme added to PKM was effective to decrease crude fiber content of PKM and improve apparent digestibility coefficient of PKM for catfish.

  9. Distribuição estereoespecífica de lipídios estruturados a partir de gorduras de palma, palmiste e triacilgliceróis de cadeia média Stereospecific distribution of structured lipids obtained from palm oil, palm kernel oil, and medium chain triacylglycerols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise D'Agostini

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Por meio de interesterificação química foram sintetizados lipídios estruturados a partir das gorduras de palma, palmiste e triacilgliceróis de cadeia média. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a distribuição estereoespecífica dos ácidos graxos nos lipídios estruturados. Foi possível comprovar a ocorrência da interesterificação através da hidrólise enzimática, que permitiu conhecer a composição dos ácidos graxos em posições específicas dos triacilgliceróis. Foram estudadas 10 amostras, representadas por 3 amostras individuais, 3 misturas binárias e 4 misturas ternárias. As amostras foram submetidas à hidrólise com lipase pancreática suína à temperatura de 40 ºC e posteriormente analisadas por cromatografia gasosa quanto à composição em ácidos graxos na posição sn-2. A partir dos resultados foram calculados os grupos de triacilgliceróis nas amostras individuais e nas misturas antes e após a reação de interesterificação, utilizando as teorias 1,3-random 2-random e 1,2,3-random. Os resultados demonstraram que antes do rearranjo ao acaso houve preferência do ácido oléico pela posição sn-2, enquanto que os ácidos palmítico e esteárico distribuíram-se principalmente pelas posições sn-1 e sn-3. Nos lipídios estruturados, os ácidos graxos saturados aumentaram sua participação na posição central do triacilglicerol, enquanto que os ácidos graxos insaturados apresentaram diminuição nesta mesma posição.Structured lipids were synthesized by chemical interesterification from palm oil, palm kernel oil, and medium chain triacylglycerols. The objective of this study was to verify the fatty acids positional distribution in the structured lipids. It was possible to confirm the interesterification occurrence through enzymatic hydrolysis, which allowed to know the fatty acids composition in specific positions of the triacylglycerols. Ten samples composed by three individual samples, three binary

  10. A kernel version of multivariate alteration detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Vestergaard, Jacob Schack

    2013-01-01

    Based on the established methods kernel canonical correlation analysis and multivariate alteration detection we introduce a kernel version of multivariate alteration detection. A case study with SPOT HRV data shows that the kMAD variates focus on extreme change observations.......Based on the established methods kernel canonical correlation analysis and multivariate alteration detection we introduce a kernel version of multivariate alteration detection. A case study with SPOT HRV data shows that the kMAD variates focus on extreme change observations....

  11. Potential of aqueous ozone to control aflatoxigenic fungi in Brazil nuts

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Otniel Freitas; Morales-Valle, H.; Venâncio, Armando

    2011-01-01

    The Brazil nut (Bertholethia excelsa) is an important non timber forest product (NTFP) from the Amazonian forest. Despite their nutritious value, Brazil nuts are susceptible to contamination with Aspergillus section Flavi fungi and consequently with aflatoxins. Since aqueous ozone reduces microorganisms population and has oxidant effect on aflatoxins, the effect of ozone on. Both natural and artificially contaminated Brasil nuts were studied in the present work. The former were inoculated wit...

  12. Implementing Kernel Methods Incrementally by Incremental Nonlinear Projection Trick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Nojun

    2016-05-20

    Recently, the nonlinear projection trick (NPT) was introduced enabling direct computation of coordinates of samples in a reproducing kernel Hilbert space. With NPT, any machine learning algorithm can be extended to a kernel version without relying on the so called kernel trick. However, NPT is inherently difficult to be implemented incrementally because an ever increasing kernel matrix should be treated as additional training samples are introduced. In this paper, an incremental version of the NPT (INPT) is proposed based on the observation that the centerization step in NPT is unnecessary. Because the proposed INPT does not change the coordinates of the old data, the coordinates obtained by INPT can directly be used in any incremental methods to implement a kernel version of the incremental methods. The effectiveness of the INPT is shown by applying it to implement incremental versions of kernel methods such as, kernel singular value decomposition, kernel principal component analysis, and kernel discriminant analysis which are utilized for problems of kernel matrix reconstruction, letter classification, and face image retrieval, respectively.

  13. Machine vision system for automated detection of stained pistachio nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Tom C.

    1995-01-01

    A machine vision system was developed to separate stained pistachio nuts, which comprise of about 5% of the California crop, from unstained nuts. The system may be used to reduce labor involved with manual grading or to remove aflatoxin contaminated product from low grade process streams. The system was tested on two different pistachio process streams: the bi- chromatic color sorter reject stream and the small nut shelling stock stream. The system had a minimum overall error rate of 14% for the bi-chromatic sorter reject stream and 15% for the small shelling stock stream.

  14. Uranium kernel formation via internal gelation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, R.D.; Collins, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    In the 1970s and 1980s, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conducted numerous studies on the fabrication of nuclear fuel particles using the internal gelation process. These amorphous kernels were prone to flaking or breaking when gases tried to escape from the kernels during calcination and sintering. These earlier kernels would not meet today's proposed specifications for reactor fuel. In the interim, the internal gelation process has been used to create hydrous metal oxide microspheres for the treatment of nuclear waste. With the renewed interest in advanced nuclear fuel by the DOE, the lessons learned from the nuclear waste studies were recently applied to the fabrication of uranium kernels, which will become tri-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles. These process improvements included equipment modifications, small changes to the feed formulations, and a new temperature profile for the calcination and sintering. The modifications to the laboratory-scale equipment and its operation as well as small changes to the feed composition increased the product yield from 60% to 80%-99%. The new kernels were substantially less glassy, and no evidence of flaking was found. Finally, key process parameters were identified, and their effects on the uranium microspheres and kernels are discussed. (orig.)

  15. New initiatives for managment of red palm weevil threats to historical Arabian date palms

    Science.gov (United States)

    The date palm is an important part of the religious, cultural, and economic heritage of the Arabian Peninsula. This heritage is threatened by the recent invasion of the red palm weevil(RPW) from Southeast Asia. In Saudi Arabia, a national campaign for control of RPW by containment/destruction of inf...

  16. Associations between Nut Consumption and Health Vary between Omnivores, Vegetarians, and Vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel C; Gray, Andrew R; Tey, Siew Ling; Chisholm, Alexandra; Burley, Victoria; Greenwood, Darren C; Cade, Janet

    2017-11-06

    Regular nut consumption is associated with reduced risk factors for chronic disease; however, most population-based studies lack consideration of effect modification by dietary pattern. The UK Women's Cohort Study (UKWCS) provides an ideal opportunity to examine relationships between nut consumption and chronic disease risk factors in a large sample with diverse dietary patterns. Nut and nutrient intake from 34,831 women was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire among self-identified omnivores, vegetarians and vegans. In this cross-sectional analysis, higher nut consumption was associated with lower body weight (difference between highest and lowest consumption categories from adjusted model: 6.1 kg; 95% CI: 4.7, 7.6) body mass index (BMI, 2.4 units difference; 95% CI: 1.9, 2.9), and waist circumference (2.6 cm difference; 95% CI: 1.4, 3.8) (all p for linear trend vegans. Findings support existing literature around beneficial effects of nut consumption and suggest that benefits may be larger among omnivores. Nut promotion strategies may have the highest population impact by specifically targeting this group.

  17. Comparative alteration in atherogenic indices and hypocholesteremic effect of palm oil and palm oil mill effluent in normal albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiboye, John A; Erukainure, Ochuko L; Lawal, Babatunde A; Nwachukwu, Viola A; Tugbobo-Amisu, Adesewa O; Okafor, Ebelechukwu N

    2015-09-01

    The comparative hypocholesteremic effect of feeding palm oil and palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated in male albino rats. Diets were prepared and designed to contain 50% of energy as carbohydrate, 35% as fat, and 15% as protein. Groups of six rats were each fed one of these diets, while a group was fed pelletized mouse chow which served as the control. Feeding on palm oil and POME led to a significant increase (p palm oil fed rats compared to POME. These results indicate the protective potentials of palm oil against cardiovascular disease, as well as hyperlipidemia that characterize obesity and hypertension; as compared to its effluent.

  18. The Kalimantan Border Oil Palm Mega-project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakker, E. [AIDEnvironment, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-04-15

    A few years ago, the Indonesian government and sections of the palm oil industry united in the Indonesian Palm Oil Commission (IPOC) to undertake efforts to restore the atrocious public image that the palm oil industry had earned abroad for its role in the demise of Indonesia's tropical rainforests, the massive forest fires and haze in 1997-1998, and for the widespread conflicts between plantation companies and local communities. If IPOC succeeded in restoring the palm oil industry's image abroad, it was shattered again after June 2005 when the Indonesian Minister of Agriculture revealed details of a government plan to develop the world's largest oil palm plantation in a 5-10 kilometer band along the border of Kalimantan and Malaysia. To finance the USD 567 million plantation project, the Indonesian President and Chamber of Commerce and Industry (KADIN) had already met up with the Chinese government and private sector several times, resulting in Memoranda of Understanding between (among other) the Artha Graha and Sinar Mas groups from Indonesia and the Chinese CITIC group and Chinese Development Bank (CDB). The oil palm mega-project, launched in Indonesia under the banner of 'bringing prosperity, security and environmental protection to the Kalimantan border area', turned sour when a business plan developed by the Indonesian State Plantation Corporation (PTPN) began to circulate. This document contained a map that showed beyond doubt how the 1.8 million hectare oil palm project would trash the primary forests of three National Parks, cut through rugged slopes and mountains utterly unsuitable for oil palm cultivation and annihilate the customary rights land of the indigenous Dayak communities in the border area. This report describes what has come of the Kalimantan border oil palm mega-plan since it was announced, who is involved and what research, lobby and campaigning has led to so far. In particular, this study aims to inform civil

  19. The Kalimantan Border Oil Palm Mega-project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakker, E.

    2006-04-01

    A few years ago, the Indonesian government and sections of the palm oil industry united in the Indonesian Palm Oil Commission (IPOC) to undertake efforts to restore the atrocious public image that the palm oil industry had earned abroad for its role in the demise of Indonesia's tropical rainforests, the massive forest fires and haze in 1997-1998, and for the widespread conflicts between plantation companies and local communities. If IPOC succeeded in restoring the palm oil industry's image abroad, it was shattered again after June 2005 when the Indonesian Minister of Agriculture revealed details of a government plan to develop the world's largest oil palm plantation in a 5-10 kilometer band along the border of Kalimantan and Malaysia. To finance the USD 567 million plantation project, the Indonesian President and Chamber of Commerce and Industry (KADIN) had already met up with the Chinese government and private sector several times, resulting in Memoranda of Understanding between (among other) the Artha Graha and Sinar Mas groups from Indonesia and the Chinese CITIC group and Chinese Development Bank (CDB). The oil palm mega-project, launched in Indonesia under the banner of 'bringing prosperity, security and environmental protection to the Kalimantan border area', turned sour when a business plan developed by the Indonesian State Plantation Corporation (PTPN) began to circulate. This document contained a map that showed beyond doubt how the 1.8 million hectare oil palm project would trash the primary forests of three National Parks, cut through rugged slopes and mountains utterly unsuitable for oil palm cultivation and annihilate the customary rights land of the indigenous Dayak communities in the border area. This report describes what has come of the Kalimantan border oil palm mega-plan since it was announced, who is involved and what research, lobby and campaigning has led to so far. In particular, this study aims to inform civil society organizations, palm oil

  20. Kernel learning at the first level of inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, Gavin C; Talbot, Nicola L C

    2014-05-01

    Kernel learning methods, whether Bayesian or frequentist, typically involve multiple levels of inference, with the coefficients of the kernel expansion being determined at the first level and the kernel and regularisation parameters carefully tuned at the second level, a process known as model selection. Model selection for kernel machines is commonly performed via optimisation of a suitable model selection criterion, often based on cross-validation or theoretical performance bounds. However, if there are a large number of kernel parameters, as for instance in the case of automatic relevance determination (ARD), there is a substantial risk of over-fitting the model selection criterion, resulting in poor generalisation performance. In this paper we investigate the possibility of learning the kernel, for the Least-Squares Support Vector Machine (LS-SVM) classifier, at the first level of inference, i.e. parameter optimisation. The kernel parameters and the coefficients of the kernel expansion are jointly optimised at the first level of inference, minimising a training criterion with an additional regularisation term acting on the kernel parameters. The key advantage of this approach is that the values of only two regularisation parameters need be determined in model selection, substantially alleviating the problem of over-fitting the model selection criterion. The benefits of this approach are demonstrated using a suite of synthetic and real-world binary classification benchmark problems, where kernel learning at the first level of inference is shown to be statistically superior to the conventional approach, improves on our previous work (Cawley and Talbot, 2007) and is competitive with Multiple Kernel Learning approaches, but with reduced computational expense. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Global Polynomial Kernel Hazard Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiabu, Munir; Miranda, Maria Dolores Martínez; Nielsen, Jens Perch

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a new bias reducing method for kernel hazard estimation. The method is called global polynomial adjustment (GPA). It is a global correction which is applicable to any kernel hazard estimator. The estimator works well from a theoretical point of view as it asymptotically redu...

  2. Radiation preservation of dry fruits and nuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, M.; Sattar, A.; Ahmad, W.A.; Khan, I.

    1990-06-01

    Present studies were conducted to investigate insect infestation and oxidative changes of packaging materials. Dry fruits and nuts such as apricots, dates raisins, almonds, pinenuts and walnuts were used for these experiments. Insect infestation and other physico-chemical parameters were used for quality evaluation of the stored dry fruits and nuts. The effect of irradiation and polyethylene (PE) thickness on the over all acceptance of dry fruits on their color, texture, taste and flavor were evaluated. Radiation treatment and low temperature independently inhibited insect infestation during storage. (A.B.)

  3. Effect of palm oil fuel ash on compressive strength of palm oil boiler stone lightweight aggregate concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthusamy, K.; Zamri, N. A.; Kusbiantoro, A.; Lim, N. H. A. S.; Ariffin, M. A. Mohd

    2018-04-01

    Both palm oil fuel ash (POFA) and palm oil boiler stone (POBS) are by-products which has been continuously generated by local palm oil mill in large amount. Both by products is usually disposed as profitless waste and considered as nuisance to environment. The present research investigates the workability and compressive strength performance of lightweight aggregate concrete (LWAC) made of palm oil boiler stone (POBS) known as palm oil boiler stone lightweight aggregate concrete (POBS LWAC) containing various content of palm oil fuel ash. The control specimen that is POBS LWAC of grade 60 were produced using 100% OPC. Then, another 4 mixes were prepared by varying the POFA percentage from 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% by weight of cement. Fresh mixes were subjected to slump test to determine its workability before casted in form of cubes. Then, all specimens were subjected to water curing up to 28 days and then tested for its compressive strength. It was found out that utilizing of optimum amount of POFA in POBS LWAC would improve the workability and compressive strength of the concrete. However, inclusion of POFA more than optimum amount is not recommended as it will increase the water demand leading to lower workability and strength reduction.

  4. Quantum tomography, phase-space observables and generalized Markov kernels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellonpaeae, Juha-Pekka

    2009-01-01

    We construct a generalized Markov kernel which transforms the observable associated with the homodyne tomography into a covariant phase-space observable with a regular kernel state. Illustrative examples are given in the cases of a 'Schroedinger cat' kernel state and the Cahill-Glauber s-parametrized distributions. Also we consider an example of a kernel state when the generalized Markov kernel cannot be constructed.

  5. Oil palm mapping for Malaysia using PALSAR-2 dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, P.; Qi, C. Y.; Yu, L.; Cracknell, A.

    2016-12-01

    Oil palm is one of the most productive vegetable oil crops in the world. The main oil palm producing areas are distributed in humid tropical areas such as Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, western and central Africa, northern South America, and central America. Increasing market demands, high yields and low production costs of palm oil are the primary factors driving large-scale commercial cultivation of oil palm, especially in Malaysia and Indonesia. Global demand for palm oil has grown exponentially during the last 50 years, and the expansion of oil palm plantations is linked directly to the deforestation of natural forests. Satellite remote sensing plays an important role in monitoring expansion of oil palm. However, optical remote sensing images are difficult to acquire in the Tropics because of the frequent occurrence of thick cloud cover. This problem has led to the use of data obtained by synthetic aperture radar (SAR), which is a sensor capable of all-day/all-weather observation for studies in the Tropics. In this study, the ALOS-2 (Advanced Land Observing Satellite) PALSAR-2 (Phased Array type L-band SAR) datasets for year 2015 were used as an input to a support vector machine (SVM) based machine learning algorithm. Oil palm/non-oil palm samples were collected using a hexagonal equal-area sampling design. High-resolution images in Google Earth and PALSAR-2 imagery were used in human photo-interpretation to separate oil palm from others (i.e. cropland, forest, grassland, shrubland, water, hard surface and bareland). The characteristics of oil palms from various aspects, including PALSAR-2 backscattering coefficients (HH, HV), terrain and climate by using this sample set were further explored to post-process the SVM output. The average accuracy of oil palm type is better than 80% in the final oil palm map for Malaysia.

  6. Single pass kernel k-means clustering method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    paper proposes a simple and faster version of the kernel k-means clustering ... It has been considered as an important tool ... On the other hand, kernel-based clustering methods, like kernel k-means clus- ..... able at the UCI machine learning repository (Murphy 1994). ... All the data sets have only numeric valued features.

  7. Analysis of total oil and fatty acids composition by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy in edible nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandala, Chari V.; Sundaram, Jaya

    2014-10-01

    Near Infrared (NIR) Reflectance spectroscopy has established itself as an important tool in quantifying water and oil present in various food materials. It is rapid and nondestructive, easier to use, and does not require processing the samples with corrosive chemicals that would render them non-edible. Earlier, the samples had to be ground into powder form before making any measurements. With the development of new soft ware packages, NIR techniques could now be used in the analysis of intact grain and nuts. While most of the commercial instruments presently available work well with small grain size materials such as wheat and corn, the method present here is suitable for large kernel size products such as shelled or in-shell peanuts. Absorbance spectra were collected from 400 nm to 2500 nm using a NIR instrument. Average values of total oil contents (TOC) of peanut samples were determined by standard extraction methods, and fatty acids were determined using gas chromatography. Partial least square (PLS) analysis was performed on the calibration set of absorption spectra, and models were developed for prediction of total oil and fatty acids. The best model was selected based on the coefficient of determination (R2), Standard error of prediction (SEP) and residual percent deviation (RPD) values. Peanut samples analyzed showed RPD values greater than 5.0 for both absorbance and reflectance models and thus could be used for quality control and analysis. Ability to rapidly and nondestructively measure the TOC, and analyze the fatty acid composition, will be immensely useful in peanut varietal improvement as well as in the grading process of grain and nuts.

  8. Water footprints of products of oil palm plantations and palm oil mills in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttayakul, Phetrada; H-Kittikun, Aran; Suksaroj, Chaisri; Mungkalasiri, Jitti; Wisansuwannakorn, Ruthairat; Musikavong, Charongpun

    2016-01-15

    The water footprint (WF) of fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) from oil palm plantations and crude palm oil (CPO) from palm oil mills in southern and eastern Thailand were determined over 25 years. Climatic conditions, soil characteristics, and the characteristics of oil palm growth were considered. The WF of FFBs was 1063 m(3)/ton (t) on average. Green, blue, and grey waters comprised of 68, 18, and 14% of total WF, respectively. The oil palm plantations in Thailand required smaller amounts of indirect blue water. The average WF for producing a ton of CPO of seven mills was 5083 m(3). Most of the waters used in the mills originated from indirect green, blue and grey waters from the plantations. The direct blue water used in the mills had less impact on the total WF, lower than 1% of the total WF. Average percentages of green, blue, and grey waters of 69, 16, and 15% of total WF were determined for the mills, respectively. The water deprivation of the FFBs and CPO ranged from 0.73-12.9 and 3.44-58.3 m(3)H2Oeq/t, respectively. In 2013, the CPO production in Thailand including green, blue, and grey waters from plantation and blue water from mills required 11,343 million m(3) water. If the oil palm variety Suratthani 7 is used in the plantation, it would increase the yield from 15.2 to 22.8 t FFBs/ha-year and decrease the WF to 888 m(3)/t FFBs. The average value of the oil extraction rate (OER) of mills was 18.1%. With an increase in the OER of 1%, a reduction of the WF of 250 m(3)/t CPO or 5.1% of total WF could be obtained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Natural variation of selenium in Brazil nuts and soils from the Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Junior, E C; Wadt, L H O; Silva, K E; Lima, R M B; Batista, K D; Guedes, M C; Carvalho, G S; Carvalho, T S; Reis, A R; Lopes, G; Guilherme, L R G

    2017-12-01

    Brazil nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa) is native of the Amazon rainforest. Brazil nuts are consumed worldwide and are known as the richest food source of selenium (Se). Yet, the reasoning for such Se contents is not well stablished. We evaluated the variation in Se concentration of Brazil nuts from Brazilian Amazon basin, as well as soil properties, including total Se concentration, of the soils sampled directly underneath the trees crown, aiming to investigate which soil properties influence Se accumulation in the nuts. The median Se concentration in Brazil nuts varied from 2.07 mg kg - 1 (in Mato Grosso state) to 68.15 mg kg - 1 (in Amazonas state). Therefore, depending on its origin, a single Brazil nut could provide from 11% (in the Mato Grosso state) up to 288% (in the Amazonas state) of the daily Se requirement for an adult man (70 μg). The total Se concentration in the soil also varied considerably, ranging from Brazil nuts generally increased in soils with higher total Se content, but decreased under acidic conditions in the soil. This indicates that, besides total soil Se concentration, soil acidity plays a major role in Se uptake by Brazil nut trees, possibly due to the importance of this soil property to Se retention in the soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Relationship between attenuation coefficients and dose-spread kernels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    Dose-spread kernels can be used to calculate the dose distribution in a photon beam by convolving the kernel with the primary fluence distribution. The theoretical relationships between various types and components of dose-spread kernels relative to photon attenuation coefficients are explored. These relations can be valuable as checks on the conservation of energy by dose-spread kernels calculated by analytic or Monte Carlo methods

  11. Mixture Density Mercer Kernels: A Method to Learn Kernels

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper presents a method of generating Mercer Kernels from an ensemble of probabilistic mixture models, where each mixture model is generated from a Bayesian...

  12. Application of Neuro-Fuzzy to palm oil production process | Odior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Palm oil is an important nutritional food requirement and in order to facilitate the production of palm oil for consumption, the production process of palm oil has been investigated. The basic operations involved in the production of edible palm oil include; purchase, transportation and reception of oil palm bunches; bunch ...

  13. Trace element intake and dietary status of nuts consumed in Pakistan: study using INAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waheed, S; Siddique, N; Rahman, A [Pakistan Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan). Nuclear Chemistry Div.

    2007-07-01

    Five nuts, namely almond, cashew nuts, peanuts, pine nuts and pistachio, commonly consumed in Pakistan, were analyzed for their inorganic element contents. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) methodology, using different irradiation, cooling and counting protocols, was adopted to determine Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hg, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Sc, Se, Sr and Zn. The investigated nuts were found to contain substantial amounts of Ca, Cl, Fe, Mg, K, Na and Zn. Dietary intake of the essential inorganic elements present in these nuts, as compared to the recommended dietary allowance, has also been calculated. This has further substantiated the nutrient role of nuts in the prevention of cardiovascular disease, as in addition to their established efficacy in improving the lipid profile, they are a rich source of cardioprotective trace elements such as magnesium, zinc, iron and calcium. Toxic elements were present in very low concentrations in nuts. (orig.)

  14. Trace element intake and dietary status of nuts consumed in Pakistan: study using INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, S.; Siddique, N.; Rahman, A.

    2007-01-01

    Five nuts, namely almond, cashew nuts, peanuts, pine nuts and pistachio, commonly consumed in Pakistan, were analyzed for their inorganic element contents. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) methodology, using different irradiation, cooling and counting protocols, was adopted to determine Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hg, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Sc, Se, Sr and Zn. The investigated nuts were found to contain substantial amounts of Ca, Cl, Fe, Mg, K, Na and Zn. Dietary intake of the essential inorganic elements present in these nuts, as compared to the recommended dietary allowance, has also been calculated. This has further substantiated the nutrient role of nuts in the prevention of cardiovascular disease, as in addition to their established efficacy in improving the lipid profile, they are a rich source of cardioprotective trace elements such as magnesium, zinc, iron and calcium. Toxic elements were present in very low concentrations in nuts. (orig.)

  15. Effect Of Weed On Oil Palm Inflorenscence Production: Implication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Weed consistently depressed the performance of oil palm and this depressive effect was attributed to aggressive growth resources, smothering of the oil palm and preventing the palm from proper ventilation and solar radiation. Weed interference on inflorescence production of oil palm was assessed with the view of ...

  16. The Application of Bio-organic Fertilizer on Physic nut Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumavip, Amnag; Piadiang, Nattaya

    2006-09-01

    The Application of bio-organic fertilizers on Physics nut production were conduction in an area of Agricultural Occupational Promotion and Development Center, Cholburi Province (Plant Cultural) Cholburi. The period of 3 months (August - November 2006), Physic nut production both with and without husk were on the field. Experimental design was RCBD with 5 treatments. Results revealed that no significant difference between treatments (P>0.05). physic nut applied with the microbial fertilizer (OAP) produced greater yields with husks (71.21 Kg/rai) and without husks( 24.30 kg/rai) than chemical treatment 45.18 and 17.22 kg/rai respectively.

  17. Sugar palm ethanol. Analysis of economic feasibility and sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Staaij, J.; Van den Bos, A.; Hamelinck, C. [Ecofys Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands); Martini, E.; Roshetko, J.; Walden, D. [Winrock, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2011-08-15

    This study evaluates whether sugar palm is a suitable crop for biofuels and how production of ethanol from sugar palm in a large-scale setting is sustainable and economically feasible. Key questions are: Are the assumed high yields realistic in practice for sustained periods in largescale plantations?; Can sugar palm indeed compete economically with other crops for biofuels?; What are the effects of large-scale cultivation and processing of sugar palm for the natural environment and the local community? To answer these questions, Ecofys and Winrock have assessed the feasibility of largescale sugar palm cultivation for the production of ethanol using empirical data from existing sugar palm plantings. We analysed two production models to investigate the range of outcomes when varying important parameters: (1) a conservative system, whereby sugar palms are mixed with other crops and (2) an intensive system to explore the theoretical maximum yield when solely focusing on sugar palm. As background, Chapter 2 first describes the process of sugar palm cultivation, the 'tapping' and conversion into ethanol. Chapter 3 describes the data collection by Winrock. It presents an overview of the collected field data and explains the main empirical findings. Chapter 4 elaborates the two production systems and presents the results of the economic analyses (summarized in cash flow diagrams showing the timing of costs and benefits). Chapter 5 analyses the possible sustainability risks and benefits of sugar palm ethanol and investigates the integration possibilities of sugar palm in agro-forestry systems with other crops. Finally, Chapter 6 concludes by evaluating the potential of sugar palm as a source of biofuel and providing recommendations.

  18. Use of palm oil decanter cake as a new substrate for the production of bio-oil by vacuum pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewayanto, Nugroho; Isha, Ruzinah; Nordin, Mohd Ridzuan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Vacuum pyrolysis has been employed to produce bio-oil from palm oil waste. • Effect of the pyrolysis temperature was investigated in this study. • Bio-oil properties of cellulosic and oily based material were determined. • Bio-oil from decanter cake has potential to be used as fuel. - Abstract: The present study was carried out to investigate the potential of palm oil decanter cake (PDC) for bio-oil production at various temperatures by vacuum pyrolysis. PDC was first dried in oven at 105 °C for 24 h to remove moisture and ground to particle size of 0.85–2 mm. Pyrolysis experiments were carried out at 400, 450, 500, 550 and 600 °C, with heating rate of 15 °C/min. The highest yield of bio-oil (22.12 wt%) was obtained at pyrolysis temperature of 500 °C. The chemical characterization of bio-oil was studied using 1 H NMR, FTIR, CHNS analyzer and GC–MS. The other properties like pH, calorific value and thermal volatilization were also determined. The pH value recorded to be 6.38, which is found to be higher as compared to other bio-oils. The calorific value of PDC bio-oil found to be 36.79 MJ/kg, which is slightly lower than that of conventional liquid fuel such as gasoline and diesel fuel. However, the bio-oil obtained from PDC has better fuel characteristics than that of bio-oil derived from palm kernel shell (PKS)

  19. 21 CFR 164.120 - Shelled nuts in rigid or semirigid containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION TREE NUT AND PEANUT PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific... plane representing the average height of the product, read the volume of the nuts, and record as the...

  20. Palm harvest impacts in north-western South America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Tropical forests harbor thousands of useful plants that are harvested and used in subsistence economies or traded in local, regional or international markets. The effect on the ecosystem is little known, and the forests resilience is badly understood. Palms are the most useful group of plants...... in tropical American forests. This paper introduces a cross-disciplinary study of the effects of harvesting palm products from the tropical forests in north-western South America. The size of the resource is estimated through palm community studies in the different forest formations that determines the number...... of species and individuals of all palm species. The genetic structure of useful palm species is studied to determine how much harvesting of the species contributes to genetic erosion of its populations, and whether extraction can be made without harm. Almost all palm species are used in rural communities...