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Sample records for palladium base alloys

  1. Hydrogen sensor based on palladium-yttrium alloy nanosheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Boyi [Queensland Micro- and Nanotechnology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia); Zhu, Yong, E-mail: y.zhu@griffith.edu.au [Queensland Micro- and Nanotechnology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia); Chen, Youping; Song, Han; Huang, Pengcheng [School of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 (China); Dao, Dzung Viet [Queensland Micro- and Nanotechnology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia)

    2017-06-15

    This paper presents a hydrogen sensor based on palladium-yttrium (Pd-Y) alloy nanosheet. Zigzag-shaped Pd-Y nanosheet with a thickness of 19.3 nm was deposited on a quartz substrate by using an ultrahigh-vacuum magnetron sputtering system and shadow mask. The atomic ratio of palladium to yttrium in the nanosheet was 0.92/0.08. The fabrication process was simple and low-cost, and the sensor can be mass-produced. The experimental results show the sensor has a superior sensitivity, reversibility, and reproducibility. The resistive-based hydrogen detection mechanism in this research is much simpler and more compact compared to the optical-based detection method. - Highlights: • Pd-Y sensing element was fabricated using a magnetron sputtering system and shadow mask. • The Pd-Y compound consisted of 92% Pd and 8% Y. • The fabrication process was simple, low-cost, and mass-production compatible. • The sensor showed superior sensitivity, reversibility, and reproducibility to hydrogen gas. • The device is more compact than the optical-based counterpart.

  2. Hydrogen sensor based on palladium-yttrium alloy nanosheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Boyi; Zhu, Yong; Chen, Youping; Song, Han; Huang, Pengcheng; Dao, Dzung Viet

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a hydrogen sensor based on palladium-yttrium (Pd-Y) alloy nanosheet. Zigzag-shaped Pd-Y nanosheet with a thickness of 19.3 nm was deposited on a quartz substrate by using an ultrahigh-vacuum magnetron sputtering system and shadow mask. The atomic ratio of palladium to yttrium in the nanosheet was 0.92/0.08. The fabrication process was simple and low-cost, and the sensor can be mass-produced. The experimental results show the sensor has a superior sensitivity, reversibility, and reproducibility. The resistive-based hydrogen detection mechanism in this research is much simpler and more compact compared to the optical-based detection method. - Highlights: • Pd-Y sensing element was fabricated using a magnetron sputtering system and shadow mask. • The Pd-Y compound consisted of 92% Pd and 8% Y. • The fabrication process was simple, low-cost, and mass-production compatible. • The sensor showed superior sensitivity, reversibility, and reproducibility to hydrogen gas. • The device is more compact than the optical-based counterpart.

  3. Palladium alloys for hydrogen diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A palladium-base alloy with tin and/or a silicon addition and its use in the production of hydrogen from water via a cycle of chemical reactions, of which the decomposition of HI into H 2 and I 2 is the most important, is described

  4. Low-cost method for fabricating palladium and palladium-alloy thin films on porous supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae H; Park, Chan Young; Lu, Yunxiang; Dorris, Stephen E; Balachandran, Uthamalingham

    2013-11-19

    A process for forming a palladium or palladium alloy membrane on a ceramic surface by forming a pre-colloid mixture comprising a powder palladium source, carrier fluid, dispersant and a pore former and a binder. Ultrasonically agitating the precolloid mixture and applying to a substrate with an ultrasonic nozzle and heat curing the coating form a palladium-based membrane.

  5. Mechanical, electrical, and thermal expansion properties of carbon nanotube-based silver and silver-palladium alloy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Hemant; Sharma, Vimal

    2014-11-01

    The mechanical, electrical, and thermal expansion properties of carbon nanotube (CNT)-based silver and silver-palladium (10:1, w/w) alloy nanocomposites are reported. To tailor the properties of silver, CNTs were incorporated into a silver matrix by a modified molecular level-mixing process. CNTs interact weakly with silver because of their non-reactive nature and lack of mutual solubility. Therefore, palladium was utilized as an alloying element to improve interfacial adhesion. Comparative microstructural characterizations and property evaluations of the nanocomposites were performed. The structural characterizations revealed that decorated type-CNTs were dispersed, embedded, and anchored into the silver matrix. The experimental results indicated that the modification of the silver and silver-palladium nanocomposite with CNT resulted in increases in the hardness and Young's modulus along with concomitant decreases in the electrical conductivity and the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). The hardness and Young's modulus of the nanocomposites were increased by 30%-40% whereas the CTE was decreased to 50%-60% of the CTE of silver. The significantly improved CTE and the mechanical properties of the CNT-reinforced silver and silver-palladium nanocomposites are correlated with the intriguing properties of CNTs and with good interfacial adhesion between the CNTs and silver as a result of the fabrication process and the contact action of palladium as an alloying element.

  6. Development of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry for palladium and Rhodium determination in platinum-based alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacevic, R.; Todorovic, M.; Manojlovic, D.; Mutic, J.

    2008-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy with internal standardization was applied for the analysis of an in-house reference platinum alloy containing palladium and rhodium (approximately 5% by weight). In order to compensate for variations in signal recovery due to matrix interferences, and therefore to improve the precision, platinum. the major component, was chosen as an internal standard. Quantitative analysis was based on calibration using a set of matrix-matched calibration standards with and without employing the internal standard. These results were compared with those obtained by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The results for both techniques were in a good agreement, although the precision was slightly better in the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy technique, with or without the internal standard

  7. Influence of shape and finishing on the corrosion of palladium-based dental alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milheiro, A.; Muris, J.; Kleverlaan, C.J.; Feilzer, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the surface treatment and shape of the dental alloy on the composition of the prosthetic work and its metallic ion release in a corrosive medium after casting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Orion Argos (Pd-Ag) and Orion Vesta (Pd-Cu) were

  8. Study on a multi-component palladium alloy membrane for the fusion fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hiroshi; Okuno, Kenji; Nagasaki, Takanori; Noda, Kenji; Ishii, Yoshinobu; Takeshita, Hidefumi.

    1985-11-01

    A feasibility study on the material integrity with respect to the hydride formation and helium damage of the palladium alloy membrane was performed for an application of the palladium diffuser to a fusion fuel cleanup process. This study was conducted under the Japan/US Fusion Cooperation Program. Experimental works on the crystallography, hydrogen solubility and 3 He release characteristics were carried out with a multi-component palladium alloy(Pd-25Ag.Au.Ru). The excellent hydrogen permeability and mechanical properties of the membrane made of this alloy had been confirmed by authors' previous study. Based on the present study, this alloy membrane has high resistivity to the hydrogen embrittlement, and swelling and fracture due to the helium bubble formation under the practical operating conditions of the diffuser. (author)

  9. Preliminary design of fusion reactor fuel cleanup system by palladium alloy membrane method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hiroshi; Konishi, Satoshi; Naruse, Yuji

    1981-10-01

    A design of palladium diffuser and Fuel Cleanup System (FCU) for D-T fusion reactor is proposed. Feasibility of palladium alloy membrane method is discussed based on the early studies by the authors. Operating conditions of the palladium diffuser are determined experimentally. Dimensions of the diffuser are estimated from computer simulation. FCU system is designed under the feed conditions of Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The system is composed of Pd-diffusers, catalytic oxidizer, freezer and zink beds, and has some advantages in system layout and operation. This design can readily be extended to other conditions of plasma exhaust gases. (author)

  10. Absorption of hydrogen by vanadium-palladium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artman, D.; Lynch, J.F.; Flanagan, T.B.

    1976-01-01

    Pressure composition isotherms (273-373 K) have been determined for the absorption of hydrogen by a series of six palladium alloys (f.c.c) in the composition range from 1 to 8 at.% vanadium. At a given hydrogen content, the equilibrium hydrogen pressure progressively increases with vanadium content. Thermodynamic parameters for the absorption of hydrogen are reported at infinite dilution of hydrogen and for the formation of the nonstoichiometric hydride from the hydrogen-saturated alloy. The relative, partial molar enthalpy of solution of hydrogen at infinite dilution increases slightly with vanadium content. The presence of vanadium, which absorbs hydrogen itself in its normal b.c.c. structure, greatly inhibits the ability of palladium to absorb hydrogen. For example, the isobaric solubility of hydrogen (1 atm, 298K) decreases from H/Pd=0.7 (palladium) to 0.024 (V(6%)-Pd). The lattice expansion due to the presence of interstitial hydrogen has been determined by X-ray diffraction. From these data it can be concluded that the formation of two non-stoichiometric hydride phases does not occur at vanadium contents greater that 5 at.% (298 K). Electrical resistance has been measured as a function of the hydrogen content of the alloys. The electrical resistance increases more markedly with hydrogen content for these alloys than for any of the palladium alloys previously examined. (Auth.)

  11. Sputtering induced surface composition changes in copper-palladium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundararaman, M.; Sharma, S.K.; Kumar, L.; Krishnan, R.

    1981-01-01

    It has been observed that, in general, surface composition is different from bulk composition in multicomponent materials as a result of ion beam sputtering. This compositional difference arises from factors like preferential sputtering, radiation induced concentration gradients and the knock-in effect. In the present work, changes in the surface composition of copper-palladium alloys, brought about by argon ion sputtering, have been studied using Auger electron spectroscopy. Argon ion energy has been varied from 500 eV to 5 keV. Enrichment of palladium has been observed in the sputter-altered layer. The palladium enrichment at the surface has been found to be higher for 500 eV argon ion sputtering compared with argon ion sputtering at higher energies. Above 500 eV, the surface composition has been observed to remain the same irrespective of the sputter ion energy for each alloy composition. The bulk composition ratio of palladium to copper has been found to be linearly related to the sputter altered surface composition ratio of palladium to copper. These results are discussed on the basis of recent theories of alloy sputtering. (orig.)

  12. Characterising palladium-silver and palladium-nickel alloy membranes using SEM, XRD and PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keuler, J.N.; Lorenzen, L.; Sanderson, R.D.; Prozesky, V.; Przybylowicz, W.J.

    1999-01-01

    Palladium alloy membranes were prepared by successive electroless plating steps on an alumina-zirconia support membrane. Palladium, silver and nickel were deposited in layers and then the metal films were heat treated for 5 h in a hydrogen atmosphere at 650 deg. C. The topography of the metal coatings and cross-sections of the films (before and after heating) were characterised using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD was used to determine the crystal phase of the alloy coatings. Both SEM and XRD provide only surface information and therefore micro-PIXE was used to extract depth information of the alloy coating. Concentration profiles across the thickness of the films were constructed to determine penetration of the coating into the support membrane pores during electroless plating and to investigate diffusion of coated layers during the heating step

  13. ERRATUM Study of microstructure in vanadium–palladium alloys by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    ERRATUM. Study of microstructure in vanadium–palladium alloys by X-ray diffraction technique. J Ghosh, S K Chattopadhyay, A K Meikap, S K Chatterjee and P Chatterjee 2007 Bull. Mater. Sci. 30 447–454. In page 448, under §2.1 Warren–Averbach method, after equation (1), the sentence starting with “Then the domain ...

  14. Palladium alloy membrane process for the treatment of hydrogen isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Hongsuk; Paek, Seungwoo; Lee, Minsoo; Kim, Kwangrag; Yim, Sungpaal; Ahn, Dohee [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Myunghwa [Univ. of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-11-15

    Tritium is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen and it has a half-life of 12.3 years; it decays to He-3 by emitting a low energy beta radiation with an average energy of 5.7 keV and a maximum energy of 18.6 keV. Transfer of environmentally tritiated water to humans takes place via an inhalation, diffusion through the skin and ingestion. Radioactive waste containing tritium is continuously generated by the nuclear industry in, for example, nuclear reactor operations and a radioisotope production, as well as in medical research. Methods for removing tritium from liquid waste provide an alternative to the control of tritium emissions and a personnel exposure. A combined electrolysis and catalytic exchange process is a very effective method to remove small quantities of tritium from light or heavy waste water streams. The process consists of three main steps: (a) A front end step that exchanges the tritium to a less toxic hydrogen phase. This can be performed either through a chemical exchange in the presence of a platinum supported catalyst or through the decomposition of water. (b) A back end process that purifies the tritiated hydrogen gas which evolved from the electrolysis. This can be performed through a palladium alloy membrane separator. (c) A means of storing the concentrated gas safely. Uranium is used if the storage is temporary; titanium is usually employed for long term storage. To gain a better understanding of the tritiated hydrogen gas purification process, a mathematical model of the palladium alloy membrane has been used. This model is described herein, and the representative results of the model calculations are presented. The authors selected the palladium alloy membrane for the hydrogen purification process by considering the membrane properties, such as a chemical resistance, mechanical stability, thermal stability, high permeability, and a stable operation. The solution-diffusion model can be a useful tool for designing a membrane permeator. The

  15. Palladium alloy membrane process for the treatment of hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Hongsuk; Paek, Seungwoo; Lee, Minsoo; Kim, Kwangrag; Yim, Sungpaal; Ahn, Dohee; Shim, Myunghwa

    2005-01-01

    Tritium is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen and it has a half-life of 12.3 years; it decays to He-3 by emitting a low energy beta radiation with an average energy of 5.7 keV and a maximum energy of 18.6 keV. Transfer of environmentally tritiated water to humans takes place via an inhalation, diffusion through the skin and ingestion. Radioactive waste containing tritium is continuously generated by the nuclear industry in, for example, nuclear reactor operations and a radioisotope production, as well as in medical research. Methods for removing tritium from liquid waste provide an alternative to the control of tritium emissions and a personnel exposure. A combined electrolysis and catalytic exchange process is a very effective method to remove small quantities of tritium from light or heavy waste water streams. The process consists of three main steps: (a) A front end step that exchanges the tritium to a less toxic hydrogen phase. This can be performed either through a chemical exchange in the presence of a platinum supported catalyst or through the decomposition of water. (b) A back end process that purifies the tritiated hydrogen gas which evolved from the electrolysis. This can be performed through a palladium alloy membrane separator. (c) A means of storing the concentrated gas safely. Uranium is used if the storage is temporary; titanium is usually employed for long term storage. To gain a better understanding of the tritiated hydrogen gas purification process, a mathematical model of the palladium alloy membrane has been used. This model is described herein, and the representative results of the model calculations are presented. The authors selected the palladium alloy membrane for the hydrogen purification process by considering the membrane properties, such as a chemical resistance, mechanical stability, thermal stability, high permeability, and a stable operation. The solution-diffusion model can be a useful tool for designing a membrane permeator. The

  16. Metallurgical characterization of new palladium-containing cobalt chromium and nickel chromium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Raghav

    Recently introduced to the market has been an entirely new subclass of casting alloy composition whereby palladium (˜25 wt%) is added to traditional base metal alloys such as CoCr and NiCr. Objectives. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microstructure and Vickers hardness of two new CoPdCr and one new NiPdCr alloy and compare them to traditional CoCr and NiCr alloys. Methods. The casting alloys investigated were: CoPdCr-A (Noble Crown NF, The Argen Corporation), CoPdCr-I (Callisto CP+, Ivoclar Vivadent), NiPdCr (Noble Crown, Argen), CoCr (Argeloy N.P. Special, Argen), and NiCr (Argeloy N.P. Star, Argen). As-cast cylindrical alloy specimens were mounted in epoxy resin and prepared with standard metallographic procedures, i.e. grinding with successive grades of SiC paper and polishing with alumina suspensions. The alloys were examined with an optical microscope, SEM/EPMA, and XRD to gain insight into their microstructure, composition, and crystal structure. Vickers hardness (VHN) was measured and statistically analyzed by one way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test (alpha=0.05). Results. Optical microscopy showed a dendritic microstructure for all alloys. The Pd-containing alloys appear to possess a more complex microstructure. SEM/EPMA showed Cr to be rather uniformly distributed in the matrix with palladium tending to be segregated apart from Mo and Ni or Co. Areas of different composition may explain the poor electrochemical results noted in previous studies. XRD suggested the main phase in the Ni-containing solutions was a face centered cubic Ni solid solution, whereas the CoCr exhibited a hexagonal crystal structure that was altered to face centered cubic when Pd was included in the composition. For Vickers hardness, the Co-containing alloys possessed a greater hardness than the Ni-containing alloys. However, the incorporation of Pd in CoCr and NiCr had only a slight effect on microhardness. Conclusion. Overall, the inclusion of palladium increases the

  17. The pressure dependence of structural, electronic, mechanical, vibrational, and thermodynamic properties of palladium-based Heusler alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coban, Cansu [Balikesir Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Physics

    2017-07-01

    The pressure dependent behaviour of the structural, electronic, mechanical, vibrational, and thermodynamic properties of Pd{sub 2}TiX (X=Ga, In) Heusler alloys was investigated by ab initio calculations. The lattice constant, the bulk modulus and its first pressure derivative, the electronic band structure and the density of states (DOS), mechanical properties such as elastic constants, anisotropy factor, Young's modulus, etc., the phonon dispersion curves and phonon DOS, entropy, heat capacity, and free energy were obtained under pressure. It was determined that the calculated lattice parameters are in good agreement with the literature, the elastic constants obey the stability criterion, and the phonon dispersion curves have no negative frequency which shows that the compounds are stable. The band structures at 0, 50, and 70 GPa showed valence instability at the L point which explains the superconductivity in Pd{sub 2}TiX (X=Ga, In).

  18. Palladium-based electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation reaction in DEFC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, L.P.R. de; Elsheikh, A.; Silva, E. L. da; Radtke, C.; Amico, S.C.; Malfatti, C.F.

    2014-01-01

    Direct ethanol fuel cells require the use of electrocatalysts to promote bond cleavage of the ethanol molecule in an efficient way. Currently, most electrocatalysts contain platinum, which enables improved catalytic activity and stability in acidic media. However platinum presents high cost and low availability. Based on that, novel catalysts have been developed, such as those based on palladium and its alloys, which have attained excellent results in the oxidation of ethanol in alkaline media. In this work, Pd, PdSn and PdNiSn catalysts supported on Vulcan XC72R carbon were synthesized via impregnation/reduction. The electrocatalysts were characterized by RBS, XRD and cyclic voltammetry. The X-ray diffraction results showed the formation of an alloy and not the deposition of isolated elements. The synthesized catalysts displayed good catalytic activity, as observed by cyclic voltammetry, being the best electrochemical performance achieved by the ternary alloy. (author)

  19. Separation of Hydrogen Isotopes by Palladium Alloy Membranes Separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiangfeng, S.; Deli, L.; Yifu, X.; Congxian, L.; Zhiyong, H.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Separation of hydrogen isotope with palladium alloy membranes is one of the promising methods for hydrogen isotope separation. It has several advantages, such as high separation efficiency, smaller tritium inventory, simple separation device, ect. Limited by the manufacture of membrane and cost of gas transportation pump, this method is still at the stage of conceptual study. The relationship between separation factors and temperatures, feed gas components, split ratios have not been researched in detail, and the calculated results of cascade separation have not been validated with experimental data. In this thesis, a palladium alloy membrane separator was designed to further study its separation performance between H 2 and D 2 . The separation factor of the single stage was affected by the temperature, the feed gas component, the split ratio and the gas flow rate, etc. The experimental results showed that the H 2 -D 2 separation factor decreased with the increasing of temperature. On the temperature from 573 K to 773 K, when the feed rate was 5 L/min, the separation factor of 66.2%H 2 - 33.8%D 2 decreased from 2.09 to 1.85 when the split ratio was 0.1 and from 1.74 to 1.52 when the split ratio was 0.2.The separation factor also decreased with the increasing of split ratio. At 573 K and the feed rate of 5 L/min, the separation factor of 15.0%H 2 and 85.0%D 2 decreased from 2.43 to 1.35 with the increasing of split ratio from 0.050 to 0.534,and for 66.2%H 2 -33.8%D 2 , the separation factor decreased from 2.87 to 1.30 with the increasing of split ratio from 0.050 to 0.688. When the separation factor was the biggest, the flow rate of feed gas was in a perfect value. To gain a best separation performance, perfect flow rate, lower temperature and reflux ratio should be chosen. (authors)

  20. Effects of soldering methods on tensile strength of a gold-palladium metal ceramic alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadhanfari, Husain A; Khajah, Hasan M; Monaco, Edward A; Kim, Hyeongil

    2014-10-01

    The tensile strength obtained by conventional postceramic application soldering and laser postceramic welding may require more energy than microwave postceramic soldering, which could provide similar tensile strength values. The purpose of the study was to compare the tensile strength obtained by microwave postceramic soldering, conventional postceramic soldering, and laser postceramic welding. A gold-palladium metal ceramic alloy and gold-based solder were used in this study. Twenty-seven wax specimens were cast in gold-palladium noble metal and divided into 4 groups: laser welding with a specific postfiller noble metal, microwave soldering with a postceramic solder, conventional soldering with the same postceramic solder used in the microwave soldering group, and a nonsectioned control group. All the specimens were heat treated to simulate a normal porcelain sintering sequence. An Instron Universal Testing Machine was used to measure the tensile strength for the 4 groups. The means were analyzed statistically with 1-way ANOVA. The surface and fracture sites of the specimens were subjectively evaluated for fracture type and porosities by using a scanning electron microscope. The mean (standard deviation) ultimate tensile strength values were as follows: nonsectioned control 818 ±30 MPa, microwave 516 ±34 MPa, conventional 454 ±37 MPa, and laser weld 191 ±39 MPa. A 1-way ANOVA showed a significant difference in ultimate tensile strength among the groups (F3,23=334.5; Ptensile strength for gold and palladium noble metals than either conventional soldering or laser welding. Conventional soldering resulted in a higher tensile strength than laser welding. Under the experimental conditions described, either microwave or conventional postceramic soldering would appear to satisfy clinical requirements related to tensile strength. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sensitization to palladium and nickel in Europe and the relationship with oral disease and dental alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muris, J.; Goossens, A.; Gonçalo, M.; Bircher, A.J.; Giménez-Arnau, A.; Foti, C.; Rustemeyer, T.; Feilzer, A.J.; Kleverlaan, C.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The role of palladium and nickel sensitization in oral disease and dermatitis is not fully understood. Objectives To investigate whether sensitization to these metals was associated with exposure to dental alloys and oral and skin complaints/symptoms in a European multicentre study.

  2. Ab initio study of the structural, magnetic, and electronic properties of copper and silver clusters and their alloys with one palladium atom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J Hashemifar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the structural, magnetic, and electronic properties of two- to nine-atom copper and silver clusters and their alloys with one palladium atom are investigated by using full-potential all-electron density functional computations. After calculating minimized energy of several structural isomers of every nanocluster, it is argued that the small size nanoclusters (up to size of 6, ‎ prefer planar structures, while by increasing size a 2D-3D structural transformation is observed. The structural transformation of pure and copper-palladium clusters occurs in the size of seven and that of silver-palladium cluster in happens at the size of six. The calculated second difference and dissociation energies confirm that the two- and eight- atom pure clusters and three- and seven- atom alloyed clusters are magic clusters. The electronic and magnetic properties of stable isomers are calculated and considered after applying many body based GW correction.

  3. Effects of impurities on hydrogen permeability through palladium alloy membrane at comparatively high pressure and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hiroshi; Konishi, Satoshi; Katsuta, Hiroji; Naruse, Yuji

    1982-02-01

    Palladium alloy membrane method is considered to be a useful technique for fusion reactor fuel purification process. To study the feasibility of this method, the effects of impurities on permeation characteristics of palladium alloy membrane were examined. Experiments were carried out at practical conditions: pressure; 120 - 1200 kPa, temperature; about 700 K. No poisoning effect on hydrogen permeability of commercial Pd-Ag (Au.Ru) alloy was observed for impurities such as NH 3 , CH 4 , CO, CO 2 , O 2 and N 2 , which were mixed with hyper-pure H 2 at low concentration level (10 - 10000 ppm). Deterioration occurred by contamination with oil vapor. However, regeneration of the membrane was easily performed by air baking followed by hydrogen reduction. Chemical reactions in the permeation cell were also examined. (author)

  4. Unsupported palladium alloy membranes and methods of making same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, J. Douglas; Thoen, Paul; Gade, Sabina K.

    2015-06-02

    The invention provides support-free palladium membranes and methods of making these membranes. Single-gas testing of the unsupported foils produced hydrogen permeabilities equivalent to thicker membranes produced by cold-rolling. Defect-free films as thin as 7.2 microns can be fabricated, with ideal H.sub.2/N.sub.2 selectivities as high as 40,000. Homogeneous membrane compositions may also be produced using these methods.

  5. Palladium-alloy catalysts as ethanol tolerant cathodes for direct alcohol fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savadogo, O. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Laboratoire de nouveaux materiaux pour l' energie et l' electrochimie; Varela, F.J.R. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Coahuila (Mexico). Unidad Saltillo

    2008-07-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that electroactive palladium (Pd) and Pd-alloy catalysts prepared using a sputtering technique possess a similar degree of activity as platinum (Pt) electrodes. This study demonstrated that Pd and Pd-alloys show a high degree of tolerance to ethanol during oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) processes. The onset potential of the ORR process in the presence of 0.5M of ethanol decreased by only 33 mV and 18 mV on Pd and Pd-cobalt (Co) catalysts. Linear sweep voltammetry experiments showed that no peak current density caused by the electro-oxidation of ethanol was observed in the Pd-based catalysts. The selective behaviour of the Pd and Pd-Co catalysts was attributed to a slow rate of adsorption of the ethanol as well as the presence of reaction intermediates on the catalytic surface. Results suggested that the Pd and Pd-Co catalysts are suitable candidates for direct alcohol fuel cell applications. 10 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Determination of the Debye-Waller Factor of hydrogen in Palladium and Palladium Silver alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodabakhsh, R.

    1986-01-01

    The mean square amplitude of the vibrating hydrogen in metals can be determined by using coherent elastic neutron scattering experiments, inelastic one-phonon scattering measurements. To determine the D.W.F. Debye-Waller Factor from the coherent elastic scattering measurements, information about the positions of atoms within the unit is required, and vice versa. The main difficulty concerning the determination of the D.W.F. from the inelastic experiment is in elimination of multi-phonon contribution from the measured spectrum. However, the D.W.F. of hydrogen in palladium has been usually determined by the intensity of the quasi-elastic line. An integration of the measured scattering law S(Q,W) at constant Q, over a certain energy window ΔE, results in the quasi-elastic intensity. To obtain an accurate result, this window has to be chosen large enough to comprise most of the quasi-elastic line, but sufficiently small so that the phonon contributions are small. The MARX spectrometer is ideally constructed for this type of measurement where the window is about +-1 Mev for incident neutron wavelength, =4.115 A. Thus, the quasi-elastic scattering method was considered the best method of determining the D.W.F. of hydrogen in palladium using the MARX spectrometer. However, if the acoustic part overlaps with the quasi-elastic part, one has to obtain the D.W.F. by fitting the data to a quasi-elastic model. The work to be reported here is the investigation of variations of the D.W.F. of hydrogen in Pd and PdAgsub(0.085) with temperature and extension of the available data to as high a temperature as possible. Therefore the integrated intensity of incoherent quasi-elastic neutron scattering by proton in polycrystallin Pd/H and PdAgsub(0.085)/H was investigated as a function of the scattering vector Q. A quasi-harmonic D.W.F. behaviour was observed at elevated temperatures. The observed Debye-Waller Factor depends strongly on the form of the amplitude weighted frequency

  7. Potentiodynamic polarization study of the corrosion behavior of palladium-silver dental alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Desheng; Brantley, William A; Frankel, Gerald S; Heshmati, Reza H; Johnston, William M

    2018-04-01

    Although palladium-silver alloys have been marketed for over 3 decades for metal-ceramic restorations, understanding of the corrosion behavior of current alloys is incomplete; this understanding is critical for evaluating biocompatibility and clinical performance. The purpose of this in vitro study was to characterize the corrosion behavior of 3 representative Pd-Ag alloys in simulated body fluid and oral environments and to compare them with a high-noble Au-Pd alloy. The study obtained values of important electrochemical corrosion parameters, with clinical relevance, for the rational selection of casting alloys. The room temperature in vitro corrosion characteristics of the 3 Pd-Ag alloys and the high-noble Au-Pd alloy were evaluated in 0.9% NaCl, 0.09% NaCl, and Fusayama solutions. After simulated porcelain firing heat treatment, 5 specimens of each alloy were immersed in the electrolytes for 24 hours. For each specimen, the open-circuit potential (OCP) was first recorded, and linear polarization was then performed from -20 mV to +20 mV (versus OCP) at a rate of 0.125 mV/s. Cyclic polarization was subsequently performed on 3 specimens of each alloy from -300 mV to +1000 mV and back to -300 mV (versus OCP) at a scanning rate of 1 mV/s. The differences in OCP and corrosion resistance parameters (zero-current potential and polarization resistance) among alloys and electrolyte combinations were compared with the 2-factor ANOVA (maximum-likelihood method) with post hoc Tukey adjustments (α=.05). The 24-hour OCPs and polarization resistance values of the 3 Pd-Ag alloys and the Au-Pd alloy were not significantly different (P=.233 and P=.211, respectively) for the same electrolyte, but significant differences were found for corrosion test results in different electrolytes (Palloy and electrolyte (P=.249 and P=.713, respectively). The 3 Pd-Ag silver alloys appeared to be resistant to chloride ion corrosion, and passivation and de-alloying were identified for these

  8. Platinum and Palladium Alloys Suitable as Fuel Cell Electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention concerns electrode catalysts used in fuel cells, such as proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. The invention is related to the reduction of the noble metal content and the improvement of the catalytic efficiency by low level substitution of the noble metal to provide new...... and innovative catalyst compositions in fuel cell electrodes. The novel electrode catalysts of the invention comprise a noble metal selected from Pt, Pd and mixtures thereof alloyed with a further element selected from Sc, Y and La as well as any mixtures thereof, wherein said alloy is supported on a conductive...

  9. Ratio of dialytic coefficients of hydrogen and tritium in permeation through palladium alloy film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Haruyuki; Fujita, Kunio; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Higashi, Kunio; Okada, Sakae.

    1982-01-01

    The dialytic coefficient for hydrogen is especially large in palladium and its alloys. Recently, with the research on fusion reactors, the dialytic coefficient of tritium permeating through solids and its isotopic effect have been the object of interest. The ratio of the dialytic coefficients of tritium and hydrogen has been usually assumed to be 3. The measurement of the dialytic coefficient in solids using pure tritium is practically difficult. Therefore, the authors carried out the experiment to determine the ratio of the dialytic coefficients of pure T 2 and pure H 2 by permeating the mixed gas of T and H through Pd-Au-Ag alloy. The mixed hydrogen gas was filled in a separation cell containing a palladium alloy tube, and the separation factor of tritium and hydrogen was measured by changing pressure, flow rate and temperature. The separation factor depends mainly on the relative dialytic coefficients of tritium and hydrogen, therefore, the ratio of dialytic coefficients can be determined by the simple analysis of the experimental results. This experimental method is suitable to determine the relative value of dialytic coefficients, and the obtained ratio was about 2.1. (Kako, I.)

  10. Platinum and palladium alloys suitable as fuel cell electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention concerns electrode catalysts used in fuel cells, such as proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. The invention is related to the reduction of the noble metal content and the improvement of the catalytic efficiency by low level substitution of the noble metal to provide new...... and innovative catalyst compositions in fuel cell electrodes. The novel electrode catalysts of the invention comprise a noble metal selected from Pt and Pd alloyed with an alkaline earth metal....

  11. Platinum and palladium alloys suitable as fuel cell electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention concerns electrode catalysts used in fuel cells, such as proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. The invention is related to the reduction of the noble metal content and the improvement of the catalytic5 efficiency by low level substitution of the noble metal to provide new...... and innovative catalyst compositions in fuel cell electrodes. The novel electrode catalysts of the invention comprise a noble metal selected from Pt and Pd alloyed with a lanthanide metal....

  12. Palladium-based nanocatalysts for alcohol electrooxidation in alkaline media

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Modibedi, RM

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available in the electrocatalytic oxidation of alcohols in alkaline media compared to platinum catalysts. Recent efforts have focused on the discovery of palladium-based electrocatalysts with little or no platinum for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). This chapter is an overview...

  13. Characteristics of Iron-Palladium alloy thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Y.-J.; Shen, C.-Y.; Chang, H.-W.; Jian, S.-R.

    2018-06-01

    The microstructural features, magnetic, nanomechanical properties and wettability behaviors of Iron-Palladium (FePd) alloy thin films are investigated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), nanoindentation and water contact angle (CA) techniques, respectively. The FePd alloy thin films were deposited on glass substrates using a magnetron sputtering system. The post-annealing processes of FePd alloy thin films were carried out at 400 °C and 750 °C and resulted in a significant increase of both the average grain size and surface roughness. The XRD analysis showed that FePd alloy thin films exhibited a predominant (1 1 1) orientation. The magnetic field dependence of magnetization of all FePd thin films are measured at room temperature showed the ferromagnetic characteristics. The nanoindentation with continuous stiffness measurement (CSM) is used to measure the hardness and Young's modulus of present films. The contact angle (θCA) increased with increasing surface roughness. The maximum θCA of 75° was achieved for the FePd alloy thin film after annealing at 750 °C and a surface roughness of 4.2 nm.

  14. Palladium configuration dependence of hydrogen detection sensitivity based on graphene FET for breath analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Yuri; Uemura, Kohei; Ikuta, Takashi; Maehashi, Kenzo

    2018-04-01

    We have succeeded in fabricating a hydrogen gas sensor based on palladium-modified graphene field-effect transistors (FETs). The negative-voltage shift in the transfer characteristics was observed with exposure to hydrogen gas, which was explained by the change in work function. The hydrogen concentration dependence of the voltage shift was investigated using graphene FETs with palladium deposited by three different evaporation processes. The results indicate that the hydrogen detection sensitivity of the palladium-modified graphene FETs is strongly dependent on the palladium configuration. Therefore, the palladium-modified graphene FET is a candidate for breath analysis.

  15. The generalized lewis acid-base titration of palladium and niobium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cima, M.; Brewer, L.

    1988-12-01

    The high thermodynamic stability of alloys composed of platinum group metals and group IVB and VB metals has been explained by an electronic interaction analogous to the Lewis acid-base concept for nontransition elements. The analogy is further demonstrated by the titration of palladium by addition of niobium. The activity of niobium in solid palladium was measured as a function of concentration by solid-state galvanic cells and study of the ternary oxide phase diagram. The galvanic cells were of the type Pt/NbO2,Nb2O4.8/YDTJNbOy,Nbpd/Pt where the solid electrolyte is yttria-doped thoria (YDT). Ternary phase diagrams for the Pd-Nb-0 and Rh-Nb-0 systems were obtained by characterizing samples equilibrated at 1000 °C. The phase relationships found in the ternary diagrams were also used to derive thermochemical data for the alloys. Thermochemical quantities for other acid-base stabilized alloys such as Nb-Rh, Ti-Pd, and Ti-Rh were also measured. The excess partial molar ΔGxs/R of niobium at infinite dilution was determined to be -31 kilo-Kelvin at 1000 °C, and the AG°JR of formation of a mole of NbPd3.55 is —21 kilo-Kelvin. These results and those for the other systems are used to assess the importance of valence electron configuration, nuclear charge, and crystal field effects in the context of generalized Lewis acid-base theory. It is concluded that both the nuclear charge of the atom and crystal field splitting of the valence orbitals significantly affect the basicity of the platinum group metals.

  16. Monodisperse gold-palladium alloy nanoparticles and their composition-controlled catalysis in formic acid dehydrogenation under mild conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metin, Önder; Sun, Xiaolian; Sun, Shouheng

    2013-02-07

    Monodisperse 4 nm AuPd alloy nanoparticles with controlled composition were synthesized by co-reduction of hydrogen tetrachloroaurate(III) hydrate and palladium(II) acetylacetonate with a borane-morpholine complex in oleylamine. These NPs showed high activity (TOF = 230 h(-1)) and stability in catalyzing formic acid dehydrogenation and hydrogen production in water at 50 °C without any additives.

  17. Palladium coated fibre Bragg grating based hydrogen sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasinathan, M.; Sosamma, S.; Kishore, S.; Elumalai, V.; Krishnan, R.; Babu Rao, C.; Dash, Sitaram; Murali, N.; Jayakumar, T.

    2011-01-01

    Detection of steam generator leaks in fast nuclear reactors is carried out by monitoring hydrogen in argon cover-gas. Hydrogen released during sodium cleaning of fast reactor components is required to be monitored. Hydrogen sensors with good sensitivity, stability and response time are required for all the above applications. We report a new type of hydrogen sensor with a Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) coated with palladium thin film which is used to detect the leak of hydrogen gas in the Steam Generator (SG) module of the Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR). If water leaks into sodium, it results in sodium-water reaction. In this reaction hydrogen and sodium hydroxide are formed. Due to the explosive risk of hydrogen system, hydrogen sensors are of great interest in this case. It is known that hydrogen forms an explosive mixture with air once its concentration exceeds beyond the explosion limit of four percent. The advantages of FBG based hydrogen sensor over the other hydrogen sensors are its inherent property of safety from sparking, immunity to ambient electromagnetic interference. The sensing mechanism in this device is based on mechanical strain that is induced in the palladium coating when it absorbs hydrogen. This process physically stretches the grating and causes the grating period and grating's refractive index, to change. The Bragg wavelength shift is directly proportional to the strain induced and can be directly related to the percentage of hydrogen exposure. The online monitoring of palladium thin film coating on FBG is carried out and recorded the wavelength change and strain induced on the FBG. A hydrogen sensor set up have been fabricated which consists of SS vessel of capacity 10 litres, provided with pressure gauge, Argon filling line with a valve, Hydrogen injection line with flange, a vent line with valve and Hydrogen sensor fixing point. The Palladium coated FBG based Hydrogen sensor is tested in this experimental facility in the exposure of hydrogen in

  18. Silicon Alloying On Aluminium Based Alloy Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryanto

    2002-01-01

    Silicon alloying on surface of aluminium based alloy was carried out using electron beam. This is performed in order to enhance tribological properties of the alloy. Silicon is considered most important alloying element in aluminium alloy, particularly for tribological components. Prior to silicon alloying. aluminium substrate were painted with binder and silicon powder and dried in a furnace. Silicon alloying were carried out in a vacuum chamber. The Silicon alloyed materials were assessed using some techniques. The results show that silicon alloying formed a composite metal-non metal system in which silicon particles are dispersed in the alloyed layer. Silicon content in the alloyed layer is about 40% while in other place is only 10.5 %. The hardness of layer changes significantly. The wear properties of the alloying alloys increase. Silicon surface alloying also reduced the coefficient of friction for sliding against a hardened steel counter face, which could otherwise be higher because of the strong adhesion of aluminium to steel. The hardness of the silicon surface alloyed material dropped when it underwent a heating cycle similar to the ion coating process. Hence, silicon alloying is not a suitable choice for use as an intermediate layer for duplex treatment

  19. Synthesis and characterization of palladium-cobalt alloy for new medical micro-devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafrouni, Lina

    According to Canadian Cancer Statistics, it is estimated that 196,900 Canadians will develop cancer and 78,000 will die of cancer in 2015. Given that tumor cells are more sensitive to a temperature increase than healthy ones, this property can be used in vivo to destroy the cancerous cells by elevation of body temperature, otherwise known as hyperthermia. Magnetic hyperthermia is a promising technique for cancer treatment because of ease in targeting the cancerous cells using magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and hence having fewer side effects than chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Despite the use of magnetic hyperthermia to treat cancer for thousands of years, the challenge of only heating malignant cells remains daunting. Thus, oncologists often use the heat treatment in combination with radiotherapy or chemotherapy or both. The combined approach results in eliminating many cancer cells in addition to making the resistant cancer cells more vulnerable to other treatments. To use stand-alone magnetic hyperthermia therapy, difficulties in surface modification of magnetic particles for selective uptake by cancerous cells and stability as well as magnetic properties for high heating capacity (> 1000 W/g) must be overcome. The ultimate objective of this thesis is to synthesize an excellent candidate for a powerful magnetic hyperthermia. Due to rapid advances in nanotechnology, a synthesis method of nanoparticles (NPs) with the ability to rigorously control the structure and morphology, such as size, shape and crystallinity, is needed. Electrodeposition is a versatile method for the synthesis of metal NPs directly and selectively onto conductive substrates, simply by regulating applied current or voltage. Furthermore, the particles size and the shape are easily controllable. Besides, studies have shown that the electrodeposition technique is of great utility in the fabrication of nanocrystalline palladium-cobalt (PdCo) alloys. The primary goal of this project is to synthesize

  20. Nested Fermi surfaces and order in the rare earth nickel borocarbides and copper palladium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, Ian

    2002-01-01

    The electronic structure of two systems, each displaying a different type of order believed to derive from their respective Fermi surface topologies, has been investigated using the two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation (2D-ACAR) technique. A particular topological feature of a generic rare earth nickel borocarbide (general formula RNi 2 B 2 C) Fermi surface is popularly believed to be responsible for a particular modulated arrangement of local moments observed in several magnetic borocarbides. Accordingly, c-axis 2D-ACAR spectra were collected from four representative members of the series, namely the Er, Tm, Yb and Lu compounds. A further a-axis projection from LuNi 2 B 2 C provides an additional comparison with electronic structure calculations performed for this compound. The c-axis projected k-space electron occupancies reveal a fundamentally similar Fermi surface topology across the measured compounds. The a- and c-axis k-space occupancies obtained from LuNi 2 B 2 C showed exceptional qualitative agreement with the corresponding calculated electron occupancy. A number of edge-detection methods were employed to identify the projected Fermi surface, and the existence of the proposed feature was confirmed by direct observation in each of the measured compounds. Calipers of this feature were found to be in good general agreement with those predicted by relevant calculation and expected from indirect experimental evidence. The compositional phase behaviour of copper-palladium solid solutions is believed to be strongly influenced by the shape of their respective Fermi surfaces. In particular, the concentration-dependent positions of diffuse peaks in electron and X-ray diffraction patterns from disordered samples has been associated with the corresponding evolution of flat, parallel areas on the alloy Fermi surface. Electronic structure calculations indicate these areas to be maximal around 40 at. % Pd, and it has been further suggested that

  1. Fabrication of palladium-based microelectronic devices by microcontact printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, Daniel B.; Love, J. Christopher; Paul, Kateri E.; Chabinyc, Michael L.; Whitesides, George M.

    2002-01-01

    This letter demonstrates the patterning of thin films of metallic palladium by microcontact printing (μCP) of octadecanethiol, and the use of the patterned films in the fabrication of a functional sensor. This technique was also used to prepare templates of palladium for the electroless deposition of copper. The resistivity of the palladium and copper microstructures was 13.8 and 2.8 μΩ cm, respectively; these values are approximately 40% larger than the values for the pure bulk metals. Palladium patterned into serpentine wires using μCP functioned as a hydrogen sensor with sensitivity of 0.03 vol % H 2 in N 2 , and a response time of ∼10 s (at room temperature)

  2. A nanoflower shaped gold-palladium alloy on graphene oxide nanosheets with exceptional activity for electrochemical oxidation of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qiyu; Cui, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, Xiaoming; Liu, Chang; Xue, Tianyu; Wang, Haitao; Zheng, Weitao; Guan, Weiming

    2014-01-01

    We report on a new and facile method for the preparation of well-dispersed gold-palladium (AuPd) flower-shaped nanostructures on sheets of graphene oxide (GO). Transmission electron microscopy and high angle annular dark field STEM were used to characterize the morphology and composition of the new nanohybrids. The AuPd/GO composites display high electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of ethanol in strongly alkaline medium as examined by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. Both the current density (13.16 mA · cm −2 at a working potential of −0.12 V) and the long-time stability are superior to a commercial Pd-on-carbon catalyst which is attributed to the cooperative action of the catalytic activities of Au and Pd, and the good dispersion of the alloy on the nanosheets. (author)

  3. Nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, R.C.; Korenko, M.K.

    1980-01-01

    Nickel based alloy, the characteristic of which is that it mainly includes in percentages by weight: 57-63 Ni, 7-18 Cr, 10-20 Fe, 4-6 Mo, 1-2 Nb, 0.2-0.8 Si, 0.01-0.05 Zr, 1.0-2.5 Ti, 1.0-2.5 Al, 0.02-0.06 C and 0.002-0.015 B. The aim is to create new nickel-chromium alloys, hardened in a solid solution and by precipitation, that are stable, exhibit reduced swelling and resistant to plastic deformation inside the reactor. These alloys of the gamma prime type have improved mechanical strengthm swelling resistance, structural stability and welding properties compared with Inconel 625 [fr

  4. Cloud point extraction of palladium in water samples and alloy mixtures using new synthesized reagent with flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priya, B. Krishna; Subrahmanayam, P.; Suvardhan, K.; Kumar, K. Suresh; Rekha, D.; Rao, A. Venkata; Rao, G.C.; Chiranjeevi, P.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper outlines novel, simple and sensitive method for the determination of palladium by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) after separation and preconcentration by cloud point extraction (CPE). The cloud point methodology was successfully applied for palladium determination by using new reagent 4-(2-naphthalenyl)thiozol-2yl azo chromotropic acid (NTACA) and hydrophobic ligand Triton X-114 as chelating agent and nonionic surfactant respectively in the water samples and alloys. The following parameters such as pH, concentration of the reagent and Triton X-114, equilibrating temperature and centrifuging time were evaluated and optimized to enhance the sensitivity and extraction efficiency of the proposed method. The preconcentration factor was found to be (50-fold) for 250 ml of water sample. Under optimum condition the detection limit was found as 0.067 ng ml -1 for palladium in various environmental matrices. The present method was applied for the determination of palladium in various water samples, alloys and the result shows good agreement with reported method and the recoveries are in the range of 96.7-99.4%

  5. Palladium-based electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation reaction in DEFC; Eletrocatalisadores de paladio para reacao de oxidacao do etanol em DEFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, L.P.R. de; Elsheikh, A.; Silva, E. L. da; Radtke, C.; Amico, S.C.; Malfatti, C.F., E-mail: leticiaprm@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Direct ethanol fuel cells require the use of electrocatalysts to promote bond cleavage of the ethanol molecule in an efficient way. Currently, most electrocatalysts contain platinum, which enables improved catalytic activity and stability in acidic media. However platinum presents high cost and low availability. Based on that, novel catalysts have been developed, such as those based on palladium and its alloys, which have attained excellent results in the oxidation of ethanol in alkaline media. In this work, Pd, PdSn and PdNiSn catalysts supported on Vulcan XC72R carbon were synthesized via impregnation/reduction. The electrocatalysts were characterized by RBS, XRD and cyclic voltammetry. The X-ray diffraction results showed the formation of an alloy and not the deposition of isolated elements. The synthesized catalysts displayed good catalytic activity, as observed by cyclic voltammetry, being the best electrochemical performance achieved by the ternary alloy. (author)

  6. Oxygen kinetics and mechanism at electrocatalysts on the base of palladium-iron system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasevich, M.R.; Zhutaeva, G.V.; Bogdanovskaya, V.A.; Radina, M.V.; Ehrenburg, M.R.; Chalykh, A.E.

    2007-01-01

    Binary nanodispersed carbon XC72 supported PdFe catalysts with different atomic palladium-to-iron ratios are synthesized and studied in oxygen reduction reaction in acid solution at 60 o C. The Pd:Fe ratio was well controlled by the initial concentrations of Pd and Fe in the precursor solutions. The nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The optimum Pd:Fe ratio for this reaction was determined to be 3:1. The comparison of activities of the catalysts with component ratios equaled 3:1 and 10:1 is shown that the activities are differed from each other by 10-15 times in advantage of catalyst with lesser content of palladium. This phenomenon can be related to the different particle size of both catalysts and different distribution of particles by size discovered by TEM method. The achievement of maximum activity near the ratio of Pd:Fe = 3:1 is due to as effect of alloy-forming and the influence of binary system component ratio and synthesis conditions on dispersity degree of metallic phase nanoparticles. Under optimal conditions of precursor mixture high-temperature pyrolysis, iron produces the stabilizing effect palladium. It gives rise to obtaining the uniform and finely divided (7-8 nm) metallic particles

  7. Reversible, high molecular weight palladium and platinum coordination polymers based on phosphorus ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulusse, J.M.J.; Huijbers, J.P.J.; Sijbesma, R.P.

    2005-01-01

    A general strategy for the preparation and characterization of high molecular weight coordination polymers based on bifunctional phosphorus ligands and palladium or platinum dichloride is described. Metal-to-ligand stoichiometry is of key importance for the formation of linear coordination polymers

  8. Reversible, High Molecular Weight Palladium and Platinum Coordination Polymers Based on Phosphorus Ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulusse, Jos Marie Johannes; Huijbers, Jeroen P.J.; Sijbesma, Rint P.

    2005-01-01

    A general strategy for the preparation and characterization of high molecular weight coordination polymers based on bifunctional phosphorus ligands and palladium or platinum dichloride is described. Metal-to-ligand stoichiometry is of key importance for the formation of linear coordination polymers

  9. Copper-based electrochemical sensor with palladium electrode for cathodic stripping voltammetry of manganese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Wenjing; Pei, Xing; Bange, Adam; Haynes, Erin N; Heineman, William R; Papautsky, Ian

    2014-12-16

    In this work, we report on the development of a palladium-based, microfabricated point-of-care electrochemical sensor for the determination of manganese using square wave cathodic stripping voltammetry. Heavy metals require careful monitoring, yet current methods are too complex for a point-of-care system. Voltammetry offers an attractive approach to metal detection on the microscale, but traditional carbon, gold, or platinum electrodes are difficult or expensive to microfabricate, preventing widespread use. Our sensor uses palladium working and auxiliary electrodes and integrates them with a copper-based reference electrode for simple fabrication and compatibility with microfabrication and printed circuit board processing, while maintaining competitive performance in electrochemical detection. Copper electrodes were prepared on glass substrate using a combination of microfabrication procedures followed by electrodeposition of palladium. The disposable sensor system was formed by bonding a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) well to the glass substrate. Cathodic stripping voltammetry of manganese using our new disposable palladium-based sensors exhibited 334 nM (18.3 ppb) limit of detection in borate buffer. The sensor was used to demonstrate manganese determination in natural water samples from a pond in Burnet Woods, located in Cincinnati, OH, and the Ohio River.

  10. Palladium-based electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation reaction in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Leticia Poras Reis de; Amico, Sandro Campos; Malfatti, Celia de Fraga, E-mail: leticiamoraes@usp.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre (Brazil); Matos, Bruno R.; Santiago, Elisabete Inacio; Fonseca, Fabio Coral [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Direct ethanol fuel cells require adequate electrocatalysts to promote the carbon carbon cleavage of ethanol molecule. Typical electrocatalysts are based on platinum, which have shown improved activity in acidic media. However, Pt-based catalysts have high cost and are easily deactivated by CO poisoning. Therefore, novel catalysts have been developed, and among then, palladium-based materials have shown promising results for the oxidation of ethanol in alkaline media. The present study reports on the performance of alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell (ADEFC) by using carbon-supported Pd, PdSn, PdNi, and PdNiSn produced by impregnation-reduction of the metallic precursors. The effect of chemical functionalization by acid treatment of the carbon support (Vulcan) was investigated. The electrocatalysts were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-rays diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and ADEFC tests. TGA measurements of functionalized Vulcan evidenced the characteristic weight losses attributed to the presence of surface functional groups due to the acid treatment. A high degree of alloying between Pd and Sn was inferred from XRD data, whereas in both PdNi and PdNiSn, Ni occurs mostly segregated in the oxide form. TEM analyses indicated agglomeration of Pd and PdSn particles, whereas a more uniform particle distribution was observed for PdNi and PdNiSn samples. CV curves showed that the peak potential for the oxidation of ethanol shifts towards negative values for all samples supported on functionalized Vulcan indicating that ethanol oxidation is facilitated. Microstructural and electrochemical features were confirmed by ADEFC tests, which revealed that the highest open circuit voltage and maximum power density were achieved for PdNiSn electrocatalysts supported on functionalized Vulcan with uniform particle distribution and improved triple phase boundaries. (author)

  11. Palladium-based electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation reaction in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Leticia Poras Reis de; Amico, Sandro Campos; Malfatti, Celia de Fraga; Matos, Bruno R.; Santiago, Elisabete Inacio; Fonseca, Fabio Coral

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Direct ethanol fuel cells require adequate electrocatalysts to promote the carbon carbon cleavage of ethanol molecule. Typical electrocatalysts are based on platinum, which have shown improved activity in acidic media. However, Pt-based catalysts have high cost and are easily deactivated by CO poisoning. Therefore, novel catalysts have been developed, and among then, palladium-based materials have shown promising results for the oxidation of ethanol in alkaline media. The present study reports on the performance of alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell (ADEFC) by using carbon-supported Pd, PdSn, PdNi, and PdNiSn produced by impregnation-reduction of the metallic precursors. The effect of chemical functionalization by acid treatment of the carbon support (Vulcan) was investigated. The electrocatalysts were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-rays diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and ADEFC tests. TGA measurements of functionalized Vulcan evidenced the characteristic weight losses attributed to the presence of surface functional groups due to the acid treatment. A high degree of alloying between Pd and Sn was inferred from XRD data, whereas in both PdNi and PdNiSn, Ni occurs mostly segregated in the oxide form. TEM analyses indicated agglomeration of Pd and PdSn particles, whereas a more uniform particle distribution was observed for PdNi and PdNiSn samples. CV curves showed that the peak potential for the oxidation of ethanol shifts towards negative values for all samples supported on functionalized Vulcan indicating that ethanol oxidation is facilitated. Microstructural and electrochemical features were confirmed by ADEFC tests, which revealed that the highest open circuit voltage and maximum power density were achieved for PdNiSn electrocatalysts supported on functionalized Vulcan with uniform particle distribution and improved triple phase boundaries. (author)

  12. Influence of adsorbed carbon dioxide on hydrogen electrosorption in palladium-platinum-rhodium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukaszewski, M.; Grden, M.; Czerwinski, A.

    2004-01-01

    Carbon dioxide electroreduction was applied to examine the processes of hydrogen electrosorption (adsorption, absorption and desorption) by thin electrodeposits of Pd-Pt-Rh alloys under conditions of cyclic voltammetric (CV) experiments. Due to different adsorption characteristics towards the adsorption product of the electroreduction of CO 2 (reduced CO 2 ) exhibited by the alloy components hydrogen adsorption and hydrogen absorption signals can be distinguished on CV curves. Reduced CO 2 causes partial blocking of hydrogen adsorbed on surface Pt and Rh atoms, without any significant effect on hydrogen absorption into alloy. It reflects the fact that adsorbed hydrogen bonded to Pd atoms does not participate in CO 2 reduction, while hydrogen adsorbed on Pt and Rh surface sites is inactive in the absorption reaction. In contrast, CO is adsorbed on all alloy components and causes a marked inhibition of hydrogen sorption (both adsorption and absorption)/desorption reactions

  13. Novel Base Metal-Palladium Catalytic Diesel Filter Coating with NO2 Reducing Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, K.; Dahl, S.; Mogensen, G.

    2007-01-01

    A novel alternative base metal/palladium coat has been developed that has limited NO2 formation and which even removes NO2 in a wide temperature range.Soot combustion, HC conversion and CO conversion properties are comparable to current platinum based solutions but the coating has a more attracti...... solutions. Furthermore, durability results from base metal/Pd coated DPFs installed on operating taxis and related tests cycle data is given....

  14. Alloying principles for magnesium base heat resisting alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drits, M.E.; Rokhlin, L.L.; Oreshkina, A.A.; Nikitina, N.I.

    1982-01-01

    Some binary systems of magnesium-base alloys in which solid solutions are formed, are considered for prospecting heat resistant alloys. It is shown that elements having essential solubility in solid magnesium strongly decreasing with temperature should be used for alloying maqnesium base alloys with high strength properties at increased temperatures. The strengthening phases in these alloys should comprise essential quantity of magnesium and be rather refractory

  15. Camphyl-based α-diimine palladium complexes: highly efficient precatalysts for direct arylation of thiazoles in open-air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu-Min; Lu, Dong-Dong; Hu, Li-Qun; Huang, Ju; Liu, Feng-Shou

    2017-07-21

    Based on the strategy of the development of phosphine-free palladium-catalyzed direct C-H arylation, a series of camphyl-based α-diimine palladium complexes bearing sterically bulky substituents were synthesized and characterized. The palladium complexes were applied for the cross-coupling of thiazole derivatives with aryl bromides. The effect of the sterically bulky substituent on the N-aryl moiety as well as the reaction conditions was screened. Under the optimal protocols, a wide range of aryl bromides can be smoothly coupled with thiazoles in good to excellent yields in the presence of a low palladium loading of 0.2 mol% under open-air conditions.

  16. Effect of heating palladium-silver alloys on ceramic bond strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie-yin; Li, Rui-nan; Chang, Shao-hai; Zhuang, Pei-lin; Liao, Juan-kun; Ye, Xiu-hua; Ye, Jian-tao

    2015-11-01

    The effects of different heat treatments on the internal oxidation and metal-ceramic bond in Pd-Ag alloys with different trace elements require further documentation. The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine whether heat treatment affects the metal-ceramic bond strength of 2 Pd-Ag alloys containing different trace elements. Thirteen cast specimens (25×3×0.5 mm) from each of 2 Pd-Ag alloy groups (W-1 and Argelite 61+3) were allocated to heat treatments before porcelain application: heating under reduced atmospheric pressure of 0.0014 MPa and 0.0026 MPa and heating under normal atmospheric pressure. Bond strengths were evaluated using a 3-point bending test according to ISO9693. Results were analyzed using 2-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD test (α=.05). Visual observation was used to determine the failure types of the fractured specimens. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy were used to study morphologies, elemental compositions, and distributions in the specimens. The W-1 group had a mean bond strength significantly higher than that of Argelite 61+3 (PHeating under reduced atmospheric pressures of 0.0014 MPa and 0.0026 MPa resulted in similar bond strengths (P=.331), and both pressures had significantly higher bond strengths than that of heating under normal atmospheric pressure (P=.002, PHeating under different air pressures resulted in Pd-Ag alloys that contained either Sn or In and Ga, with various degrees of internal oxidation and different quantities of metallic nodules. Heating under reduced atmospheric pressure effectively improved the bond strength of the ceramic-to-Pd-Ag alloys. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Electronic influences in the diffusion of hydrogen in the alloy series of palladium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchold, H.; Sicking, G.; Wicke, E.

    1976-01-01

    The mobility of tritium in Pd-alloys with Ag, V and Ni has been investigated by time-lag measurements, where the β-radiation of the tritium decay was taken as measuring signal; this method allows the determination of internal concentration shifts without disturbance by inhibiting effects of interface transfer. It has been found, that small additions of the alloying components do not change the activation energy of tritium diffusion; higher concentrations of Ag and V, however, lead to steep rises of the activation energy, whereas the isoelectronic Ni as alloying partner does not influence the activation energy within the limits of experimental error. For interpretation of the results the activation energy of diffusion is divided into a basic contribution of the Pd host lattice and an additional electronic term. This term is closely connected with the VEC, and can be calculated from the screening potential of the impurity atoms. The basic part of the activation energy can approximately be identified with the energy of elastic strain of the Pd lattice brought about by the diffusion jump. (orig.) [de

  18. Nonenzymatic glucose sensing based on deposited palladium nanoparticles on epoxy-silver electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutes, Albert; Carraro, Carlo; Maboudian, Roya

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → New nonenzymatic glucose sensor material. → Modified epoxy-silver electrodes with palladium nanoparticles. → Simple electroless surface modification. → Wide linear response range. → Easy implementation. - Abstract: A new approach for nonenzymatic glucose sensing, based on a simple modification of epoxy-silver surfaces deposited on the tip of commercial copper electric wires, is presented. Palladium was galvanically displaced on the surface of the epoxy-silver surface in order to obtain metal nanoparticles that act as catalyst for the direct oxidation of glucose. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the formation of the metal nanoparticles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the metallic nature of the formed nanostructures on the surface. Electrochemical characterization and calibration of the palladium-modified epoxy-silver electrode is reported, obtaining a linear range of 1-20 mM for the detection of glucose with low interference of ascorbic acid and uric acid. A simple 3-step coulometry was used as the detection technique. The developed sensing material is believed to be a great candidate for integration in small devices for clinical essays, due to the simplicity and cost effectiveness of the presented approach, compared to the state-of-the-art devices reported recently in the literature. Simplicity in the coulometry determinations makes these Pd-modified epoxy-silver sensors a good candidate for easy glucose determinations.

  19. Characteristics of mechanical alloying of Zn-Al-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Y.H.; Hong Kong Polytechnic; Perez Hernandez, A.; Lee, W.B.

    2001-01-01

    Three pure elemental powder mixtures of Zn-22%Al-18%Cu, Zn-5%Al-11%Cu, and Zn-27%Al-3%Cu (in wt.%) were mechanically alloyed by steel-ball milling processing. The mechanical alloying characteristics were investigated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques. It was explored that mechanical alloying started with the formation of phases from pure elemental powders, and this was followed by mechanical milling-induced phase transformation. During mechanical alloying, phases stable at the higher temperatures formed at the near room temperature of milling. Nano-structure Zn-Al-based alloys were produced by mechanical alloying. (orig.)

  20. Engineering Defect-Free Nanoporous Pd from Optimized Pd-Ni Precursor Alloy by Understanding Palladium-Hydrogen Interactions During Dealloying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoop, Julius; Balk, T. John

    2014-04-01

    Thin films of nanoporous palladium (np-Pd) were produced from binary palladium-nickel (Pd-Ni) precursor alloys. A suitable precursor alloy and a method of dealloying to yield optimum nanoporosity (average pore/ligament size of 7 nm) were developed by studying the effects of various processing parameters on final microstructure. To obtain crack-free np-Pd, a 100 nm thin film of 20 at. pct Pd (80 at. pct Ni) can be dealloyed for ~5 hours in a 1 M solution of sulfuric acid, with oleic acid and oleylamine added as surfactants. Both shorter and longer dealloying times, as well as heating, inhibit the formation of crack-free np-Pd. Stress measurements at different stages of dealloying revealed that the necessary dealloying time is determined by the diffusion-controlled corrosion reaction occurring within the thin film during dealloying. Strong interaction between hydrogen and np-Pd was reflected in the stress evolution during dealloying. A mechanism is proposed for the formation of a Ni-rich dense top layer that results from H-induced swelling during initial dealloying and permits the development of defect-free np-Pd beneath, by limiting the speed of dealloying.

  1. Phase transformation and magnetic anisotropy of an iron-palladium ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, J.; Shield, T.W.; James, R.D.

    2004-01-01

    Martensitic phase transformations in an Fe 7 Pd 3 alloy were studied using various experimental techniques: visual observation, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) measurements and X-ray diffraction. Magnetic measurements on this alloy were made using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and a Susceptibility Kappa bridge. The VSM measurements were made with the sample in a compression fixture to bias the martensite phase to a single variant. Both X-ray and DSC measurements show that the FCC-FCT transformation is a weak first-order thermoelastic transition. The average lattice parameters are a=3.822±0.001 A and c=3.630±0.001 A for the FCT martensite, and a 0 =3.756±0.001 A for the FCC austenite. The latent heat of the FCC-FCT transformation is 10.79±0.01 J/cm 3 . A Susceptibility Kappa bridge measurement determined the Curie temperature to be 450 deg. C. The saturation magnetization from VSM data is m s =1220±10 emu/cm 3 at -20 deg. C for the martensite and m s =1080±10 emu/cm 3 at 60 deg. C for the austenite. The easy axes of a single variant of FCT martensite are the [1 0 0] and [0 1 0] directions (the a-axes of the FCT lattice) and the [0 0 1] direction (FCT c-axis) is the hard direction. The cubic magnetic anisotropy constant K 1 is -5±2x10 3 erg/cm 3 for the austenite at 60 deg. C, and the tetragonal anisotropy constant K 1 +K 2 is 3.41 ± 0.02 x 10 5 erg/cm 3 for the martensite at a temperature of -20 deg. C and under 8 MPa of compressive stress in the [0 0 1] direction

  2. Nickel and cobalt base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houlle, P.

    1994-01-01

    Nickel base alloys have a good resistance to pitting, cavernous or cracks corrosion. Nevertheless, all the nickel base alloys are not equivalent. Some differences exit between all the families (Ni, Ni-Cu, Ni-Cr-Fe, Ni-Cr-Fe-Mo/W-Cu, Ni-Cr-Mo/W, Ni-Mo). Cobalt base alloys in corrosive conditions are generally used for its wear and cracks resistance, with a compromise to its localised corrosion resistance properties. The choice must be done from the perfect knowledge of the corrosive medium and of the alloys characteristics (chemical, metallurgical). A synthesis of the corrosion resistance in three medium (6% FeCl 3 , 4% NaCl + 1% HCl + 0.1% Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 , 11.5% H 2 SO 4 + 1.2% HCl + 1% Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + 1% CuCl 2 ) is presented. (A.B.). 11 refs., 1 fig., 12 tabs

  3. Flexible palladium-based H2 sensor with fast response and low leakage detection by nanoimprint lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Su Hui; Radha, Boya; Chan, Jie Yong; Saifullah, Mohammad S M; Kulkarni, Giridhar U; Ho, Ghim Wei

    2013-08-14

    Flexible palladium-based H2 sensors have a great potential in advanced sensing applications, as they offer advantages such as light weight, space conservation, and mechanical durability. Despite these advantages, the paucity of such sensors is due to the fact that they are difficult to fabricate while maintaining excellent sensing performance. Here, we demonstrate, using direct nanoimprint lithography of palladium, the fabrication of a flexible, durable, and fast responsive H2 sensor that is capable of detecting H2 gas concentration as low as 50 ppm. High resolution and high throughput patterning of palladium gratings over a 2 cm × 1 cm area on a rigid substrate was achieved by heat-treating nanoimprinted palladium benzyl mercaptide at 250 °C for 1 h. The flexible and robust H2 sensing device was fabricated by subsequent transfer nanoimprinting of these gratings into a polycarbonate film at its glass transition temperature. This technique produces flexible H2 sensors with improved durability, sensitivity, and response time in comparison to palladium thin films. At ambient pressure and temperature, the device showed a fast response time of 18 s at a H2 concentration of 3500 ppm. At 50 ppm concentration, the response time was found to be 57 s. The flexibility of the sensor does not appear to compromise its performance.

  4. Palladium allergy in relation to dentistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muris, J.

    2015-01-01

    Palladium is a metal that is used as alloying metal for dental crowns and bridges. This thesis focusses on the possible impact of oral exposure to this metal on the immune system, and allergy in particular. An alternative skin test allergen for diagnosing palladium allergy is introduced: (di)sodium

  5. Nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, R.C.; Korenko, M.K.

    1980-01-01

    The specified alloys consist of Ni, Cr and Fe as main constituents, and Mo, Nb, Si, Zr, Ti, Al, C and B as minor constituents. They are said to exhibit high weldability and long-time structural stability, as well as low swelling under nuclear radiation conditions, making them especially suitable for use as a duct material and control element cladding for sodium-cooled nuclear reactors. (U.K.)

  6. Palladium on Nitrogen-Doped Mesoporous Carbon: A Bifunctional Catalyst for Formate-Based, Carbon-Neutral Hydrogen Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fanan; Xu, Jinming; Shao, Xianzhao; Su, Xiong; Huang, Yanqiang; Zhang, Tao

    2016-02-08

    The lack of safe, efficient, and economical hydrogen storage technologies is a hindrance to the realization of the hydrogen economy. Reported herein is a reversible formate-based carbon-neutral hydrogen storage system that is established over a novel catalyst comprising palladium nanoparticles supported on nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon. The support was fabricated by a hard template method and nitridated under a flow of ammonia. Detailed analyses demonstrate that this bicarbonate/formate redox equilibrium is promoted by the cooperative role of the doped nitrogen functionalities and the well-dispersed, electron-enriched palladium nanoparticles. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Palladium Gate All Around - Hetero Dielectric -Tunnel FET based highly sensitive Hydrogen Gas Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Jaya; Chaujar, Rishu

    2016-12-01

    The paper presents a novel highly sensitive Hetero-Dielectric-Gate All Around Tunneling FET (HD-GAA-TFET) based Hydrogen Gas Sensor, incorporating the advantages of band to band tunneling (BTBT) mechanism. Here, the Palladium supported silicon dioxide is used as a sensing media and sensing relies on the interaction of hydrogen with Palladium-SiO2-Si. The high surface to volume ratio in the case of cylindrical GAA structure enhances the fortuities for surface reactions between H2 gas and Pd, and thus improves the sensitivity and stability of the sensor. Behaviour of the sensor in presence of hydrogen and at elevated temperatures is discussed. The conduction path of the sensor which is dependent on sensors radius has also been varied for the optimized sensitivity and static performance analysis of the sensor where the proposed design exhibits a superior performance in terms of threshold voltage, subthreshold swing, and band to band tunneling rate. Stability of the sensor with respect to temperature affectability has also been studied, and it is found that the device is reasonably stable and highly sensitive over the bearable temperature range. The successful utilization of HD-GAA-TFET in gas sensors may open a new door for the development of novel nanostructure gas sensing devices.

  8. l-Glutamic acid assisted eco-friendly one-pot synthesis of sheet-assembled platinum-palladium alloy networks for methanol oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ya-Cheng; Mei, Li-Ping; Wang, Ai-Jun; Yuan, Tao; Chen, Sai-Sai; Feng, Jiu-Ju

    2017-10-15

    In this work, bimetallic platinum-palladium sheet-assembled alloy networks (PtPd SAANs) were facilely synthesized by an eco-friendly one-pot aqueous approach under the guidance of l-glutamic acid at room temperature, without any additive, seed, toxic or organic solvent involved. l-Glutamic acid was served as the green shape-director and weak-stabilizing agent. A series of characterization techniques were employed to examine the morphology, structure and formation mechanism of the product. The architectures exhibited improved electrocatalytic activity and durable ability toward methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in contrast with commercial Pt black and Pd black catalysts. This is ascribed to the unique structures of the obtained PtPd SAANs and the synergistic effects of the bimetals. These results demonstrate the potential application of the prepared catalyst in fuel cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Noble metal alloys for metal-ceramic restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusavice, K J

    1985-10-01

    A review of the comparative characteristics and properties of noble metal alloys used for metal-ceramic restorations has been presented. Selection of an alloy for one's practice should be based on long-term clinical data, physical properties, esthetic potential, and laboratory data on metal-ceramic bond strength and thermal compatibility with commercial dental porcelains. Although gold-based alloys, such as the Au-Pt-Pd, Au-Pd-Ag, and Au-Pd classes, may appear to be costly compared with the palladium-based alloys, they have clearly established their clinical integrity and acceptability over an extended period of time. Other than the relatively low sag resistance of the high gold-low silver content alloys and the potential thermal incompatibility with some commercial porcelain products, few clinical failures have been observed. The palladium-based alloys are less costly than the gold-based alloys. Palladium-silver alloys require extra precautions to minimize porcelain discoloration. Palladium-copper and palladium-cobalt alloys may also cause porcelain discoloration, as copper and cobalt are used as colorants in glasses. The palladium-cobalt alloys are least susceptible to high-temperature creep compared with all classes of noble metals. Nevertheless, insufficient clinical data exist to advocate the general use of the palladium-copper and palladium-cobalt alloys at the present time. One should base the selection and use of these alloys in part on their ability to meet the requirements of the ADA Acceptance Program. A list of acceptable or provisionally acceptable alloys is available from the American Dental Association and is published annually in the Journal of the American Dental Association. Dentists have the legal and ethical responsibility for selection of alloys used for cast restorations. This responsibility should not be delegated to the dental laboratory technician. It is advisable to discuss the criteria for selection of an alloy with the technician and the

  10. Highly efficient hydrogen storage system based on ammonium bicarbonate/formate redox equilibrium over palladium nanocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ji; Yang, Lisha; Lu, Mi; Lin, Hongfei

    2015-03-01

    A highly efficient, reversible hydrogen storage-evolution process has been developed based on the ammonium bicarbonate/formate redox equilibrium over the same carbon-supported palladium nanocatalyst. This heterogeneously catalyzed hydrogen storage system is comparable to the counterpart homogeneous systems and has shown fast reaction kinetics of both the hydrogenation of ammonium bicarbonate and the dehydrogenation of ammonium formate under mild operating conditions. By adjusting temperature and pressure, the extent of hydrogen storage and evolution can be well controlled in the same catalytic system. Moreover, the hydrogen storage system based on aqueous-phase ammonium formate is advantageous owing to its high volumetric energy density. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Progress in development of iron base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zackay, V.V.; Parker, E.R.

    1980-01-01

    The ways of development of new iron base high-strength alloys are considered. Perspectiveness of ferritic steel strengthening with intermetallides (TaFe 2 , for instance) is shown. Favourable combination of plasticity, strength and fracture toughness in nickel-free iron-manganese alloys (16-20%) is also pointed out. A strength level of alloyed maraging steels can be achieved by changes in chemical composition and by proper heat treatments of low- and medium-alloyed steels

  12. Highly sensitive glucose sensor based on monodisperse palladium nickel/activated carbon nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskun, Yağmur; Şavk, Aysun; Şen, Betül; Şen, Fatih

    2018-06-20

    Glucose enzyme biosensors have been used for a variety of applications such as medical diagnosis, bioprocess engineering, beverage industry and environmental scanning etc. and there is still a growing interest in glucose sensors. For this purpose, addressed herein, as a novel glucose sensor, highly sensitive activated carbon (AC) decorated monodisperse nickel and palladium alloy nanocomposites modified glassy carbon electrode (Ni-Pd@AC/GCE NCs) have been synthesized by in-situ reduction technique. Raman Spectroscopy (RS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA) were used for the characterization of the prepared non-enzymatic glucose sensor. The characteristic sensor properties of the Ni-Pd@AC/GCE electrode were compared with Ni-Pd NCs/GCE, Ni@AC/GCE and Pd@AC/GCE and the results demonstrate that the AC is very effective in the enhancement of the electrocatalytic properties of sensor. In addition, the Ni-Pd@AC/GCE nanocomposites showed a very low detection limit of 0.014 μM, a wide linear range of 0.01 mM-1 mM and a very high sensitivity of 90 mA mM -1  cm -2 . Furthermore, the recommended sensor offer the various advantageous such as facile preparation, fast response time, high selectivity and sensitivity. Lastly, monodisperse Ni-Pd@AC/GCE was utilized to detect glucose in real sample species. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Palladium-based on-wafer electroluminescence studies of GaN-based LED structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salcianu, C.O.; Thrush, E.J.; Humphreys, C.J. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Plumb, R.G. [Centre for Photonic Systems, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FD (United Kingdom); Boyd, A.R.; Rockenfeller, O.; Schmitz, D.; Heuken, M. [AIXTRON AG, Kackertstr. 15-17, 52072 Aachen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Electroluminescence (EL) testing of Light Emitting Diode (LED) structures is usually done at the chip level. Assessing the optical and electrical properties of LED structures at the wafer scale prior to their processing would improve the cost effectiveness of producing LED-lamps. A non-destructive method for studying the luminescence properties of the structure at the wafer-scale is photoluminescence (PL). However, the relationship between the on-wafer PL data and the final device EL can be less than straightforward (Y. H Aliyu et al., Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 437 (1997)) as the two techniques employ different carrier injection mechanisms. This paper provides an overview of some different techniques in which palladium is used as a contact in order to obtain on-wafer electroluminescence information which could be used to screen wafers prior to processing into final devices. Quick mapping of the electrical and optical characteristics was performed using either palladium needle electrodes directly, or using the latter in conjunction with evaporated palladium contacts to inject both electrons and holes into the active region via the p-type capping layer of the structure. For comparison, indium was also used to make contact to the n-layer so that electrons could be directly injected into that layer. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Palladium Nanoparticle Hydrogen Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Pavlovsky

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available An innovative hydrogen sensor based on palladium (Pd nanoparticle networks is described in the article. Made by Applied Nanotech Inc. sensor has a fast response time, in the range of seconds, which is increased at 80 °C due to higher hydrogen diffusion rates into the palladium lattice. The low detection limit of the sensor is 10 ppm of H2, and the high limit is 40,000 ppm. This is 100% of a lowest flammability level of hydrogen. This range of sensitivities complies with the requirements that one would expect for a reliable hydrogen sensor.

  15. A Facile Synthesis of Hollow Palladium/Copper Alloy Nanocubes Supported on N-Doped Graphene for Ethanol Electrooxidation Catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Zhengyu Bai; Rumeng Huang; Lu Niu; Qing Zhang; Lin Yang; Jiujun Zhang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a catalyst of hollow PdCu alloy nanocubes supported on nitrogen-doped graphene support (H-PdCu/ppy-NG) is successfully synthesized using a simple one-pot template-free method. Two other catalyst materials such as solid PdCu alloy particles supported on this same nitrogen-doped graphene support (PdCu/ppy-NG) and hollow PdCu alloy nanocubes supported on the reduced graphene oxide support (H-PdCu/RGO) are also prepared using the similar synthesis conditions for comparison. It is f...

  16. Copper(II) and palladium(II) complexes with tridentate NSO donor Schiff base ligand: Synthesis, characterization and structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sujit Baran; Solanki, Ankita; Kundu, Suman

    2017-09-01

    Mononuclear copper(II) complex [CuL2] and palladium(II) complexes [Pd(X)L] where X = benzoate(bz) or salicylate(sal) and HL = 2-(methylthio)phenylimino)methyl)phenol, a Schiff base ligand with NSO coordination sites have been synthesized and characterized by microanalyses, IR, UV-Visible spectra, conductivity measurement and magnetic studies. Crystal structures of all the complexes have been solved by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies and showed that there are two molecules in a unit cell in the [CuL2] complex - one molecule has square planar geometry whereas second molecule has distorted square pyramidal geometry and palladium(II) complexes have distorted square planar geometry.

  17. PALLADIUM DOPED TIN OXIDE BASED HYDROGEN GAS SENSORS FOR SAFETY APPLICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasthurirengan, S.; Behera, Upendra; Nadig, D. S.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen is considered to be a hazardous gas since it forms a flammable mixture between 4 to 75% by volume in air. Hence, the safety aspects of handling hydrogen are quite important. For this, ideally, highly selective, fast response, small size, hydrogen sensors are needed. Although sensors based on different technologies may be used, thin-film sensors based on palladium (Pd) are preferred due to their compactness and fast response. They detect hydrogen by monitoring the changes to the electrical, mechanical or optical properties of the films. We report the development of Pd-doped tin-oxide based gas sensors prepared on thin ceramic substrates with screen printed platinum (Pt) contacts and integrated nicrome wire heaters. The sensors are tested for their performances using hydrogen-nitrogen gas mixtures to a maximum of 4%H 2 in N 2 . The sensors detect hydrogen and their response times are less than a few seconds. Also, the sensor performance is not altered by the presence of helium in the test gas mixtures. By the above desired performance characteristics, field trials of these sensors have been undertaken. The paper presents the details of the sensor fabrication, electronic circuits, experimental setup for evaluation and the test results.

  18. Nickel(II) and palladium(II) triphenylphosphine complexes incorporating tridentate Schiff base ligands: Synthesis, characterization and biocidal activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabbir, Muhammad; Akhter, Zareen; Ashraf, Ahmad Raza; Ismail, Hammad; Habib, Anum; Mirza, Bushra

    2017-12-01

    Nickel(II) and palladium(II) triphenylphosphine complexes incorporating tridentate Schiff bases have been prepared and characterized by elemental analysis as well as by spectroscopic techniques (FTIR & NMR). The synthesized compounds were assessed to check their potential biocidal activity by using different biological assays (brine shrimp cytotoxicity, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antitumor and drug-DNA interaction). Results of brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay showed that ligand molecules are more bioactive than metal complexes with LD50 as low as 12.4 μg/mL. The prominent antitumor activity was shown by nickel complexes while the palladium complexes exhibited moderate activity. The synthesized compounds have shown high propensity for DNA binding either through intercalation or groove binding which represents the mechanism of antitumor effect of these compounds. Additionally, ligand molecules and nickel metal complexes showed significant antioxidant activity with IC50 values as low as 3.1 μg/mL and 18.9 μg/mL respectively while palladium complexes exhibited moderate activity. Moreover, in antimicrobial assays H2L1, Ni(L1)PPh3 and H2L3 showed dual inhibition against bacterial and fungal strains while for the rest of the compounds varying degree of activity was recorded against different strains. Overall comparison of results suggests that the synthesized compounds can be promising candidate for drug formulation and development.

  19. γ-Diimine palladium(II based complexes mediated polymerization of methyl methacrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Sunjuk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of new palladium(II complexes of the type [Pd(A–NC–ph–CN–ACl2] (4a–e (A = cyclohexyl (a, 2-isoprpropyl (b, pyrenyl (c, naphthyl (d, and 2,6-diisopropyl (e is described. The isolated γ-diimine ligands and their corresponding palladium(II complexes were characterized by their physical properties, elemental analysis, 1H NMR-, 13C NMR, and infrared spectroscopy. The palladium(II complexes (4a–e were employed successfully as catalysts for atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP of methyl methacrylate (MMA in the presence of ethyl-2-bromoisobutyrate (EBIB as initiator at 90 °C. Polymerization with these catalyst systems afforded polymers with low molecular weight distribution (Mw/Mn and syndio-rich atactic poly (MMA with relatively higher [rr] diads.

  20. Low Temperature Steam Methane Reforming Over Ni Based Catalytic Membrane Prepared by Electroless Palladium Plating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Moon; Hong, Sung Chang; Kim, Sung Su

    2018-09-01

    A Pd/Ni-YSZ porous membrane with different palladium loadings and hydrazine as a reducing reagent was prepared by electroless plating and evaluated for the steam methane reforming activity. The steam-reforming activity of a Ni-YSZ porous membrane was greatly increased by the deposition of 4 g/L palladium in the low-temperature range (600 °C). With an increasing amount of reducing reagent, the Pd clusters were well dispersed on the Ni-YSZ surface and were uniform in size (∼500 nm). The Pd/Ni-YSZ catalytic porous membrane prepared by 1 of Pd/hydrazine ratio possessed an abundant amount of metallic Pd. The optimal palladium loadings and Pd/hydrazine ratio increased the catalytic activity in both the steam-reforming reaction and the Pd dispersion.

  1. Study and development of membrane electrode assemblies for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) with palladium based catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonifacio, Rafael Nogueira

    2013-01-01

    PEMFC systems are capable of generating electricity with high efficiency and low or no emissions, but durability and cost issues prevent its large commercialization. In this work MEA with palladium based catalysts were developed, Pd/C, Pt/C and alloys PdPt/C catalysts with different ratios between metals and carbon were synthesized and characterized. A study of the ratio between catalyst and Nafion Ionomer for formation of high performance triple-phase reaction was carried out, a mathematical model to implement this adjustment to catalysts with different relations between metal and support taking into account the volumetric aspects of the catalyst layer was developed and then a study of the catalyst layer thickness was performed. X-ray diffraction, Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Energy Dispersive, Gas Pycnometry, Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry, Gas adsorption according to the BET and BJH equations, and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis techniques were used for characterization and particle size, specific surface areas and lattice parameters determinations were also carried out. All catalysts were used on MEAs preparation and evaluated in 5 cm 2 single cell from 25 to 100 °C at 1 atm and the best composition was also evaluated at 3 atm. In the study of metals for reactions, to reduce the platinum applied to the electrodes without performance losses, Pd/C and PdPt/C 1:1 were selected for anodes and cathodes, respectively. The developed MEA structure used 0,25 mgPt.cm -2 , showing power densities up to 550 mW.cm -2 and power of 2.2 kW net per gram of platinum. The estimated costs showed that there was a reduction of up to 64.5 %, compared to the MEA structures previously known. Depending on the temperature and operating pressure, values from US$ 1,475.30 to prepare MEAs for each installed kilowatt were obtained. Taking into account recent studies, it was concluded that the cost of the developed MEA is compatible with PEMFC stationary application

  2. PALLADIUM/COPPER ALLOY COMPOSITE MEMBRANES FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE HYDROGEN SEPARATION FROM COAL-DERIVED GAS STREAMS; F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Douglas Way; Robert L. McCormick

    2001-01-01

    Recent advances have shown that Pd-Cu composite membranes are not susceptible to the mechanical, embrittlement, and poisoning problems that have prevented widespread industrial use of Pd for high temperature H(sub 2) separation. These membranes consist of a thin ((approx)10(micro)m) film of metal deposited on the inner surface of a porous metal or ceramic tube. Based on preliminary results, thin Pd(sub 60)Cu(sub 40) films are expected to exhibit hydrogen flux up to ten times larger than commercial polymer membranes for H(sub 2) separation, and resist poisoning by H(sub 2)S and other sulfur compounds typical of coal gas. Similar Pd-membranes have been operated at temperatures as high as 750 C. The overall objective of the proposed project is to demonstrate the feasibility of using sequential electroless plating to fabricate Pd(sub 60)Cu(sub 40) alloy membranes on porous supports for H(sub 2) separation. These following advantages of these membranes for processing of coal-derived gas will be demonstrated: High H(sub 2) flux; Sulfur tolerant, even at very high total sulfur levels (1000 ppm); Operation at temperatures well above 500 C; and Resistance to embrittlement and degradation by thermal cycling. The proposed research plan is designed to providing a fundamental understanding of: Factors important in membrane fabrication; Optimization of membrane structure and composition; Effect of temperature, pressure, and gas composition on H(sub 2) flux and membrane selectivity; and How this membrane technology can be integrated in coal gasification-fuel cell systems

  3. Cost-Effective Method for Producing Self Supported Palladium Alloy Membranes for Use in Efficient Production of Coal Derived Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Coulter

    2008-03-31

    Southwest Research Institute{reg_sign} (SwRI{reg_sign}) has utilized its expertise in large-area vacuum deposition methods to conduct research into the fabrication of dense, freestanding Pd-alloy membranes that are 3-5 microns thick and over 100 in{sup 2} in area. The membranes were deposited onto flexible and rigid supports that were subsequently removed and separated using novel techniques developed over the course of the project. Using these methods, the production of novel alloy compositions centered around the Pd-Cu system were developed with the objective of producing a thermally stable, nano-crystalline grain structure with the highest flux recorded as 242 SCFH/ft{sup 2} for a 2 {micro}m thick Pd{sub 53}Cu{sub 47} at 400 C and 20 psig feed pressure which when extrapolated is over twice the 2010 Department of Energy pure H{sub 2} flux target. Several membranes were made with the same permeability, but with different thicknesses and these membranes were highly selective. Researchers at the Colorado School of Mines supported the effort with extensive testing of experimental membranes as well as design and modeling of novel alloy composite structures. IdaTech provided commercial bench testing and analysis of SwRI-manufactured membranes. The completed deliverables for the project include test data on the performance of experimental membranes fabricated by vacuum deposition and several Pd-alloy membranes that were supplied to IdaTech for testing.

  4. Iron-based amorphous alloys and methods of synthesizing iron-based amorphous alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Cheng Kiong; Bauer, William A.; Choi, Jor-Shan; Day, Dan; Farmer, Joseph C.

    2016-05-03

    A method according to one embodiment includes combining an amorphous iron-based alloy and at least one metal selected from a group consisting of molybdenum, chromium, tungsten, boron, gadolinium, nickel phosphorous, yttrium, and alloys thereof to form a mixture, wherein the at least one metal is present in the mixture from about 5 atomic percent (at %) to about 55 at %; and ball milling the mixture at least until an amorphous alloy of the iron-based alloy and the at least one metal is formed. Several amorphous iron-based metal alloys are also presented, including corrosion-resistant amorphous iron-based metal alloys and radiation-shielding amorphous iron-based metal alloys.

  5. External-beam PIXE spectrometry for the study of Punic jewellery (SW Spain): The geographical provenance of the palladium-bearing gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ontalba Salamanca, M.A.; Gomez-Tubio, B.; Ortega-Feliu, I.; Respaldiza, M.A.; Luisa de la Bandera, M.; Ovejero Zappino, G.; Bouzas, A.; Gomez-Moron, A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the study of a set of Punic gold items (400 B.C.), from the Museum of Cadiz (Spain). An external beam set-up has been employed for the absolutely non-destructive analysis of the objects. PIXE spectrometry has been performed in order to characterize the metallic alloys and the manufacturing techniques. Compositional differences have been found and soldering procedures have been identified. By comparison with the rings and other coetaneous jewellery, the presence of palladium in the bulk alloy of the earrings can be pointed out. The geographical provenance of the palladium-bearing gold is discussed based on geological and archaeological considerations

  6. External-beam PIXE spectrometry for the study of Punic jewellery (SW Spain): The geographical provenance of the palladium-bearing gold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ontalba Salamanca, M.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Politecnica, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. de la Universidad s/n., 10071 Caceres (Spain)]. E-mail: ontalba@unex.es; Gomez-Tubio, B. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Sevilla (Spain); Ortega-Feliu, I. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Sevilla (Spain); Respaldiza, M.A. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Sevilla (Spain); Luisa de la Bandera, M. [Departamento de Arqueologia, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Ovejero Zappino, G. [Cobre Las Cruces SA, Gerena, Sevilla (Spain); Bouzas, A. [Instituto Andaluz de Patrimonio Historico, Sevilla (Spain); Gomez-Moron, A. [Instituto Andaluz de Patrimonio Historico, Sevilla (Spain)

    2006-08-15

    This paper presents the study of a set of Punic gold items (400 B.C.), from the Museum of Cadiz (Spain). An external beam set-up has been employed for the absolutely non-destructive analysis of the objects. PIXE spectrometry has been performed in order to characterize the metallic alloys and the manufacturing techniques. Compositional differences have been found and soldering procedures have been identified. By comparison with the rings and other coetaneous jewellery, the presence of palladium in the bulk alloy of the earrings can be pointed out. The geographical provenance of the palladium-bearing gold is discussed based on geological and archaeological considerations.

  7. A Facile Synthesis of Hollow Palladium/Copper Alloy Nanocubes Supported on N-Doped Graphene for Ethanol Electrooxidation Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyu Bai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a catalyst of hollow PdCu alloy nanocubes supported on nitrogen-doped graphene support (H-PdCu/ppy-NG is successfully synthesized using a simple one-pot template-free method. Two other catalyst materials such as solid PdCu alloy particles supported on this same nitrogen-doped graphene support (PdCu/ppy-NG and hollow PdCu alloy nanocubes supported on the reduced graphene oxide support (H-PdCu/RGO are also prepared using the similar synthesis conditions for comparison. It is found that, among these three catalyst materials, H-PdCu/ppy-NG gives the highest electrochemical active area and both the most uniformity and dispersibility of H-PdCu particles. Electrochemical tests show that the H-PdCu/ppy-NG catalyst can give the best electrocatalytic activity and stability towards the ethanol electrooxidation when compared to other two catalysts. Therefore, H-PdCu/ppy-NG should be a promising catalyst candidate for anodic ethanol oxidation in direct ethanol fuel cells.

  8. The application of hydrogen-palladium electrode for potentiometric acid-base determinations in tetrahydrofuran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokić Anja B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of the hydrogen-palladium electrode (H2/Pd as the indicator electrode for the determination of relative acidity scale (Es, mV of tetrahydrofuran (THF and the potentiometric titrations of acids in this solvent was investigated. The relative acidity scale tetrahydrofuran was determined from the difference half-neutralization potentials of perchloric acid and tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAH, which were measured by using both H2/Pd-SCE and glass-SCE electrode pairs. The experimentally obtained value of Es scale THF with a H2/Pd-SCE electrode pair was 1155 mV, and those obtained with glass-SCE electrode pair 880 mV. By using a H2/Pd indicator electrode, the individual acids (benzoic acid, palmitic acid, maleic acid, acetyl acetone, α-naphthol and two component acid mixtures (benzoic acid + α-naphthol, palmitic acid + α-naphthol, maleic acid + α-naphthol and maleic acid + ftalic acid were titrated with a standard solution of TBAH. In addition, sodium methylate and potassium hydroxide proved to be very suitable titrating agents for titrating of the individual acids and the acids in mixtures, respectively. The relative error of the determination of acids in mixture was less than 3%. The results are in agreement with those obtained by a conventional glass electrode. The advantages of H2/Pd electrode over a glass electrode in potentiometric acid-base determinations in tetrahydrofuran lie in the following: this electrode gives wider relative acidity scale THF, higher the potential jumps at the titration end-point and relatively fast response time; furthermore, it is very durable, simple to prepare and can be used in the titrations of small volumes. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br.172051

  9. A Fumonisins Immunosensor Based on Polyanilino-Carbon Nanotubes Doped with Palladium Telluride Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masikini, Milua; Mailu, Stephen N.; Tsegaye, Abebaw; Njomo, Njagi; Molapo, Kerileng M.; Ikpo, Chinwe O.; Sunday, Christopher Edozie; Rassie, Candice; Wilson, Lindsay; Baker, Priscilla G. L.; Iwuoha, Emmanuel I.

    2015-01-01

    An impedimetric immunosensor for fumonisins was developed based on poly(2,5-dimethoxyaniline)-multi-wall carbon nanotubes doped with palladium telluride quantum dots onto a glassy carbon surface. The composite was assembled by a layer-by-layer method to form a multilayer film of quantum dots (QDs) and poly(2,5-dimethoxyaniline)-multi-wall carbon nanotubes (PDMA-MWCNT). Preparation of the electrochemical immunosensor for fumonisins involved drop-coating of fumonisins antibody onto the composite modified glassy carbon electrode. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy response of the FB1 immunosensor (GCE/PT-PDMA-MWCNT/anti-Fms-BSA) gave a linear range of 7 to 49 ng L−1 and the corresponding sensitivity and detection limits were 0.0162 kΩ L ng−1 and 0.46 pg L−1, respectively, hence the limit of detection of the GCE/PT-PDMA-MWCNT immunosensor for fumonisins in corn certified material was calculated to be 0.014 and 0.011 ppm for FB1, and FB2 and FB3, respectively. These results are lower than those obtained by ELISA, a provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) for fumonisins (the sum of FB1, FB2, and FB3) established by the Joint FAO/WHO expert committee on food additives and contaminants of 2 μg kg−1 and the maximum level recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for protection of human consumption (2–4 mg L−1). PMID:25558993

  10. Development of Separation Materials Containing Palladium for Hydrogen Isotopes Separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Xiaojun; Luo Deli; Qian Xiaojing

    2010-01-01

    Displacement chromatography (DC) is a ascendant technique for hydrogen isotopes separation. The performance of separation materials is a key factor to determine the separation effect of DC. At present,kinds of materials are researched, including palladium materials and non-palladium materials. It is hardly replaceable because of its excellent separation performance, although palladium is expensive. The theory of hydrogen isotopes separation using DC was introduced at a brief manner, while several palladium separation materials were expatiated in detail(Pd/K, Pd-Al 2 O 3 , Pd-Pt alloy). Development direction of separation materials for DC was forecasted elementarily. (authors)

  11. Engineering data bases for refractory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.H. Jr.; Harms, W.O.

    1985-01-01

    Refractory alloys based on niobium, molybdenum, tantalum, and tungsten are required for the multi-100kW(e) space nuclear reactor power concepts that have been assessed in the SP-100 Program because of the extremely high temperatures involved. A review is presented of the technology efforts on the candidate refractory alloys in the areas of availability/fabricability, mechanical properties, irradiation effects, and compatibility. Of the niobium-base alloys, only Nb-1Zr has a data base that is sufficiently comprehensive for the high level of confidence required in the reference-alloy selection process for the reactor concept to be tested in the Ground Engineering System (GES) Phase of the SP-100 Program. Based on relatively short-term tests, the alloy PWC-11 (Nb-1Zr-0.1C) appears to have significantly greater creep strength than Nb-1Zr; however, concerns as to whether this precipitation-hardened alloy will remain thermally stable during seven years of full-power reactor operation need to be resolved. Additional information on the reference GES alloy will be needed for the detailed engineering design of a space power system and the fabrication of prototypical GES test components. Expedient development and demonstration of an adequate total manufacturing capability will be required if a high risk of significant schedule slippages and cost overruns is to be avoided. 4 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  12. Surface plasmon resonance-based fiber-optic hydrogen gas sensor utilizing palladium supported zinc oxide multilayers and their nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Rana; Gupta, Banshi D

    2015-02-10

    We analyze surface plasmon resonance-based fiber-optic sensor for sensing of small concentrations of hydrogen gas in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. One of the two probes considered has multilayers of zinc oxide (ZnO) and palladium (Pd) while the other has layer of their composite over a silver coated unclad core of the fiber. The analysis is carried out for different volume fractions of palladium nanoparticles dispersed in zinc oxide host material in the nanocomposite layer. For the analysis, a Maxwell-Garnett model is adopted for calculating the dielectric function of a ZnO:Pd nanocomposite having nanoparticles of dimensions smaller than the wavelength of radiation used. The effects of the volume fraction of the nanoparticles in the nanocomposite and the thickness of the nanocomposite layer on the figure of merit of the sensor have been studied. The film thickness of the layer and the volume fraction of nanoparticles in the ZnO:Pd nanocomposite layer have been optimized to achieve the maximum value of the figure of merit of the sensor. It has been found that the figure of merit of the sensing probe coated with ZnO:Pd nanocomposite is more than twofold of the sensing probe coated with multilayers of Pd and ZnO over a silver coated unclad core of the fiber; hence, the sensor with a nanocomposite layer works better than that with multilayers of zinc oxide and palladium. The sensor can be used for online monitoring and remote sensing of hydrogen gas.

  13. Methanofullerene-Based Palladium Bis(amino)aryl Complexes and Applications in Lewis Acid Catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van; Meijer, M.D.; Ronde, N.; Vogt, D.; Klink, G.P.M. van

    2001-01-01

    Synthetic routes have been developed for the attachment of palladium(II) bis(amino)aryl (NCN or C6H2{CH2NMe2}2-2,6)- complexes to C60. Using diazo and Bingel addition reactions, various methanofullerene NCN-SiMe3 compounds (C60-L-NCN-SiMe3, L = C(Me), C(CO2Et)CO2CH2, and C(Me)C6H4CC) have been

  14. Influence of hydrogen on the thermoelectric power of palladium alloyed with neighbouring elements: I. Pd/Ru/H and Pd/Rh/H alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Szafranski, A W

    2003-01-01

    Pd/Ru and Pd/Rh alloys have been loaded with hydrogen in high-pressure conditions. The resulting hydrogen contents were close to the stoichiometric composition, H/(Pd + Me) = 1. Lower hydrogen contents have been obtained by successive partial desorptions. The thermoelectric power and electrical resistance of one- and two-phase alloys have been measured simultaneously in the temperature range between 80 and 300 K. A Nordheim-Gorter type correlation of the two quantities has been observed in many cases and the partial thermopowers corresponding to electron-phonon scattering and lattice disorder could be determined. The observed anomalous behaviour of the total and partial thermopowers is attributed to virtual bound states of ruthenium or rhodium.

  15. LASER CLADDING ON ALUMINIUM BASE ALLOYS

    OpenAIRE

    Pilloz , M.; Pelletier , J.; Vannes , A.; Bignonnet , A.

    1991-01-01

    laser cladding is often performed on iron or titanium base alloys. In the present work, this method is employed on aluminum alloys ; nickel or silicon are added by powder injection. Addition of silicon leads to sound surface layers, but with moderated properties, while the presence of nickel induces the formation of hard intermetallic compounds and then to an attractive hardening phenomena ; however a recovery treatment has to be carried out, in order to eliminate porosity in the near surface...

  16. MONTANA PALLADIUM RESEARCH INITIATIVE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, John; McCloskey, Jay; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark; Snyder, Stuart; Gurney, Brian

    2012-05-09

    Project Objective: The overarching objective of the Montana Palladium Research Initiative is to perform scientific research on the properties and uses of palladium in the context of the U.S. Department of Energy's Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program. The purpose of the research will be to explore possible palladium as an alternative to platinum in hydrogen-economy applications. To achieve this objective, the Initiatives activities will focus on several cutting-edge research approaches across a range of disciplines, including metallurgy, biomimetics, instrumentation development, and systems analysis. Background: Platinum-group elements (PGEs) play significant roles in processing hydrogen, an element that shows high potential to address this need in the U.S. and the world for inexpensive, reliable, clean energy. Platinum, however, is a very expensive component of current and planned systems, so less-expensive alternatives that have similar physical properties are being sought. To this end, several tasks have been defined under the rubric of the Montana Palladium Research Iniative. This broad swath of activities will allow progress on several fronts. The membrane-related activities of Task 1 employs state-of-the-art and leading-edge technologies to develop new, ceramic-substrate metallic membranes for the production of high-purity hydrogen, and develop techniques for the production of thin, defect-free platinum group element catalytic membranes for energy production and pollution control. The biomimetic work in Task 2 explores the use of substrate-attached hydrogen-producing enzymes and the encapsulation of palladium in virion-based protein coats to determine their utility for distributed hydrogen production. Task 3 work involves developing laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as a real-time, in situ diagnostic technique to characterize PGEs nanoparticles for process monitoring and control. The systems engineering work in task 4

  17. Processing and properties of Nb-Ti-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikka, V.K.; Viswanathan, S.

    1992-01-01

    The processing characteristics, tensile properties, and oxidation response of two Nb-Ti-Al-Cr alloys were investigated. One creep test at 650 C and 172 MPa was conducted on the base alloy which contained 40Nb-40Ti-10Al-10Cr. A second alloy was modified with 0.11 at. % carbon and 0.07 at. % yttrium. Alloys were arc melted in a chamber backfilled with argon, drop cast into a water-cooled copper mold, and cold rolled to obtain a 0.8-mm sheet. The sheet was annealed at 1,100 C for 0.5 h. Longitudinal tensile specimens and oxidation specimens were obtained for both the base alloy and the modified alloy. Tensile properties were obtained for the base alloy at room temperature, 400, 600, 700, 800, 900, and 1,000 C, and for the modified alloy at room temperature, 400, 600, 700, and 800 C. Oxidation tests on the base alloy and modified alloy, as measured by weight change, were carried out at 600, 700, 800, and 900 C. Both the base alloy and the modified alloy were extremely ductile and were cold rolled to the final sheet thickness of 0.8 mm without an intermediate anneal. The modified alloy exhibited some edge cracking during cold during cold rolling. Both alloys recrystallized at the end of a 0.5-h annealing treatment. The alloys exhibited moderate strength and oxidation resistance below 600 C, similar to the results of alloys reported in the literature

  18. Palladium-Based Catalysts as Electrodes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells: A Last Ten Years Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Calderón Gómez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Platinum-based materials are accepted as the suitable electrocatalysts for anodes and cathodes in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs. Nonetheless, the increased demand and scarce world reserves of Pt, as well as some technical problems associated with its use, have motivated a wide research focused to design Pd-based catalysts, considering the similar properties between this metal and Pt. In this review, we present the most recent advancements about Pd-based catalysts, considering Pd, Pd alloys with different transition metals and non-carbon supported nanoparticles, as possible electrodes in DMFCs. In the case of the anode, different reported works have highlighted the capacity of these new materials for overcoming the CO poisoning and promote the oxidation of other intermediates generated during the methanol oxidation. Regarding the cathode, the studies have showed more positive onset potentials, as fundamental parameter for determining the mechanism of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR and thus, making them able for achieving high efficiencies, with less production of hydrogen peroxide as collateral product. This revision suggests that it is possible to replace the conventional Pt catalysts by Pd-based materials, although several efforts must be made in order to improve their performance in DMFCs.

  19. Studies on neutron irradiation effects of iron alloys and nickel-base heat resistant alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Katsutoshi

    1987-09-01

    The present paper describes the results of neutron irradiation effects on iron alloys and nickel-base heat resistant alloys. As for the iron alloys, irradiation hardening and embrittlement were investigated using internal friction measurement, electron microscopy and tensile testings. The role of alloying elements was also investigated to understand the irradiation behavior of iron alloys. The essential factors affecting irradiation hardening and embrittlement were thus clarified. On the other hand, postirradiation tensile and creep properties were measured of Hastelloy X alloy. Irradiation behavior at elevated temperatures is discussed. (author)

  20. A sulfidation-resistant nickel-base alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, G.Y.

    1989-01-01

    For applications in mildly to moderately sulfidizing environments, stainless steels, Fe-Ni-Cr alloys (e.g., alloys 800 and 330), and more recently Fe-Ni-Cr-Co alloys (e.g., alloy 556) are frequently used for construction of process equipment. However, for many highly sulfidizing environments, few existing commercial alloys have adequate performance. Thus, a new nickel-based alloy containing 27 wt.% Co, 28 wt.% Cr, 4 wt.% Fe, 2.75 wt.% Si, 0.5 wt.% Mn and 0.05 wt.% C (Haynes alloy HR-160) was developed

  1. On the superconductivity of vanadium based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouers, F.; Rest, J. Van der

    1984-01-01

    The electron density of states of solid solutions of vanadium based transition metal alloys V 90 X 10 is computed with the aim of calculating the superconducting transition temperature using the McMillan formula. As observed experimentally for X on the left hand side of V in the periodic table, one obtains an increase of Tc while for X on the right hand side of V the critical temperature decreases. The detailed comparison with experiments indicate that when the bandwidths of the two constituents are different, one cannot neglect the variation of the electron-phonon interactions. Another important conclusion is that for alloys which are in the split-band limit like VAu, VPd and VPt, the agreement with experimental data can be obtained only by assuming that these alloys have a short-range order favouring clusters of pure vanadium. (Author) [pt

  2. Segregation in welded nickel-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, J.I.; Shoaib, K.A.; Ahmad, M.; Shaikh, M.A.

    1990-05-01

    Segregation effects have been investigated in nickel-base alloys monel 400, inconel 625, hastelloy C-276 and incoloy 825, test welded under controlled conditions. Deviations from the normal composition have been observed to varying extents in the welded zone of these alloys. Least effect of this type occurred in Monel 400 where the content of Cu increased in some of the areas. Enhancement of Al and Ti has been found over large areas in the other alloys which has been attributed to the formation of low melting slag. Another common feature is the segregation of Cr, Fe or Ti, most likely in the form of carbides. Enrichment of Al, Ti, Nb, Mb, Mo, etc., to different amounts in some of the areas of these materials is in- terpretted in terms of the formation of gamma prime precipitates or of Laves phases. (author)

  3. Nickel foam/polyaniline-based carbon/palladium composite electrodes for hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skowronski, Jan M.; Urbaniak, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The sandwich-like nickel/palladium/carbon electrodes exhibiting ability to absorb hydrogen in alkaline solution are presented. Electrodes were prepared by successive deposition of palladium and polyaniline layers on nickel foam substrate followed by heat treatment to give Ni/Pd/C electrode. It was shown that thermal conversion of polymer into carbon layer and subsequent thermal activation of carbon component bring about the modification of the mechanism of reversible hydrogen sorption. It was proven that carbon layer, interacting with Pd catalyst, plays a considerable role in the process of hydrogen storage. In the other series of experiments, Pd particles were dispersed electrochemically on carbon coating leading to Ni/C/Pd system. The adding of the next carbon layer resulted in Ni/C/Pd/C electrodes. Electrochemical properties of the electrodes depend on both the sequence of Pd and C layers and the preparation/activation of carbon coating. Electrochemical behavior of sandwich-like electrodes in the reaction of hydrogen sorption/desorption was characterized in 6 M KOH using the cyclic voltammetry method and the results obtained were compared to those for Ni/Pd electrode. The anodic desorption of hydrogen from electrodes free and containing carbon layer was considered after the potentiodynamic as well as potentiostatic sorption of hydrogen. The influence of the sorption potential and the time of rest of electrodes at a cut-off circuit on the kinetics of hydrogen recovery were examined. The results obtained for Ni/Pd/C electrodes indicate that the displacement of hydrogen between C and Pd phase takes place during the rest at a cut-off circuit. Electrodes containing carbon layer require longer time for hydrogen electrosorption. On the other hand, the presence of carbon layer in electrodes is advantageous because a considerable longer retention of hydrogen is possible, as compared to Pd/Ni electrode. Hydrogen stored in sandwich-like electrodes can instantly be

  4. Discontinuous precipitation in copper base alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Discontinuous precipitation (DP) is associated with grain boundary migration in the wake of which alternate plates of the precipitate and the depleted matrix form. Some copper base alloys show DP while others do not. In this paper the misfit strain parameter, , has been calculated and predicted that if 100 > ± 0.1, DP is ...

  5. Neutronographic Texture Analysis of Zirconium Based Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruz'elová, M; Vratislav, S; Kalvoda, L; Dlouhá, M

    2012-01-01

    Neutron diffraction is a very powerful tool in texture analysis of zirconium based alloys used in nuclear technique. Textures of five samples (two rolled sheets and three tubes) were investigated by using basal pole figures, inversion pole figures, and ODF distribution function. The texture measurement was performed at diffractometer KSN2 on the Laboratory of Neutron Diffraction, Department of Solid State Engineering, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, CTU in Prague. Procedures for studying textures with thermal neutrons and procedures for obtaining texture parameters (direct and inverse pole figures, three dimensional orientation distribution function) are also described. Observed data were processed by software packages HEXAL and GSAS. Our results can be summarized as follows: i) All samples of zirconium alloys show the distribution of middle area into two maxima in basal pole figures. This is caused by alloying elements. A characteristic split of the basal pole maxima tilted from the normal direction toward the transverse direction can be observed for all samples, ii) Sheet samples prefer orientation of planes (100) and (110) perpendicular to rolling direction and orientation of planes (002) perpendicular to normal direction, iii) Basal planes of tubes are oriented parallel to tube axis, meanwhile (100) planes are oriented perpendicular to tube axis. Level of resulting texture and maxima position is different for tubes and for sheets. The obtained results are characteristic for zirconium based alloys.

  6. Lead and lead-based alloys as waste matrix materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arustamov, A.E.; Ojovan, M.I.; Kachalov, M.B.

    1999-01-01

    Metals and alloys with relatively low melting temperatures such as lead and lead-based alloys are considered in Russia as prospective matrices for encapsulation of spent nuclear fuel in containers in preparation for final disposal in underground repositories. Now lead and lead-based alloys are being used for conditioning spent sealed radioactive sources at radioactive waste disposal facilities

  7. Vanadium-base alloys for fusion reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.; Loomis, B.A.; Diercks, D.R.

    1984-10-01

    Vanadium-base alloys offer potentially significant advantages over other candidate alloys as a structural material for fusion reactor first wall/blanket applications. Although the data base is more limited than that for the other leading candidate structural materials, viz., austenitic and ferritic steels, vanadium-base alloys exhibit several properties that make them particularly attractive for the fusion reactor environment. This paper presents a review of the structural material requirements, a summary of the materials data base for selected vanadium-base alloys, and a comparison of projected performance characteristics compared to other candidate alloys. Also, critical research and development (R and D) needs are defined

  8. Vanadium-base alloys for fusion reactor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.L.; Loomis, B.A.; Diercks, D.R.

    1984-10-01

    Vanadium-base alloys offer potentially significant advantages over other candidate alloys as a structural material for fusion reactor first wall/blanket applications. Although the data base is more limited than that for the other leading candidate structural materials, viz., austenitic and ferritic steels, vanadium-base alloys exhibit several properties that make them particularly attractive for the fusion reactor environment. This paper presents a review of the structural material requirements, a summary of the materials data base for selected vanadium-base alloys, and a comparison of projected performance characteristics compared to other candidate alloys. Also, critical research and development (R and D) needs are defined.

  9. Application of mechanical alloying to synthesis of intermetallic phases based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dymek, S.

    2001-01-01

    Mechanical alloying is the process of synthesis of powder materials during milling in high energetic mills, usually ball mills. The central event in mechanical alloying is the ball-powder-ball collision. Powder particles are trapped between the colliding balls during milling and undergo deformation and/or fracture. Fractured parts are cold welded. The continued fracture and cold welding results in a uniform size and chemical composition of powder particles. The main applications of mechanical alloying are: processing of ODS alloys, syntheses of intermetallic phases, synthesis of nonequilibrium structures (amorphous alloys, extended solid solutions, nanocrystalline, quasi crystals) and magnetic materials. The present paper deals with application of mechanical alloying to synthesis Ni A l base intermetallic phases as well as phases from the Nb-Al binary system. The alloy were processed from elemental powders. The course of milling was monitored by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. After milling, the collected powders were sieved by 45 μm grid and hot pressed (Nb alloys and NiAl) or hot extruded (NiAl). The resulting material was fully dense and exhibited fine grain (< 1 μm) and uniform distribution of oxide dispersoid. The consolidated material was compression and creep tested. The mechanical properties of mechanically alloys were superior to properties of their cast counterparts both in the room and elevated temperatures. Higher strength of mechanically alloyed materials results from their fine grains and from the presence of dispersoid. At elevated temperatures, the Nb-Al alloys have higher compression strength than NiAl-based alloys processed at the same conditions. The minimum creep rates of mechanically alloyed Nb alloys are an order of magnitude lower than analogously processed NiAl-base alloys. (author)

  10. Selective recognition of palladium based on functional mono phthalocyanines; synthesis, characterization and photophysical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaraşir, M. Nilüfer; Aytekin, Ahmet [Department of Chemistry, Sakarya University, TR54187 Serdivan, Sakarya (Turkey); Kandaz, Mehmet, E-mail: mkandaz@sakarya.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Sakarya University, TR54187 Serdivan, Sakarya (Turkey); Güney, Orhan [Istanbul Technical University, Department of Chemistry, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2016-09-15

    We report the synthesis and photophysical properties of 4,5-bis(2-((Z)-(3-hydroxynaphthalen-2-yl) methyleneamino)phenylthio)phthalonitrile ligand (SB) and its star-type functional zincphthalocyanine (SB-ZnPc) compound obtained by the condensation of 2,3,9,10,16,17,23,24-octakis-(2-aminophenylthio)zincphthlocyanines (A-ZnPc) and 1-hydroxy-2-naphthaldehyde (HNA). Each compound was purified and characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR, {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR, UV/vis and MS (Maldi-TOF) spectral data. SB-ZnPc bearing fluorescent SB moieties on the periphery shows selective palladium ion sensing behavior by acting as hard core upon interaction. Electronic spectra of the SB-ZnPc displays pronounced changes in both absorption and fluorescence spectra upon interaction with Pd{sup 2+} ion. The fluorescence of the SB-ZnPc compound is effectively quenched by treatment with Pd{sup 2+} in THF solution. The solvent effect on the photophysical properties of the SB-ZnPc and interference effect of foreign metal ions were also investigated.

  11. The structure of nano-palladium deposited on carbon-based supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikna, Ľubomír; Milkovič, Ondrej; Saksl, Karel; Heželová, Mária; Smrčová, Miroslava; Puliš, Pavel; Michalik, Štefan; Gamcová, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Nano-palladium catalysts, prepared using the same procedure with the same metal content (3 wt%) and two different supports, activated carbon (Pd/C) and activated carbon—multiwalled carbon nanotubes (Pd/C/CNT), are discussed. The simple technique of deposition reduction was applied in the preparation of these two types of Pd catalysts. TEM, XRD analysis, EXAFS signal analysis, and XANES were used for sample characterization. In both samples, transmission electron microscopy identified nanosized Pd particles with nearly spherical morphology but different sizes. The mean diameters of the particles on Pd/C and Pd/C/CNT were estimated to be 5.4 nm and 7.8 nm, respectively. The EXAFS signal analysis showed that Pd atoms on the particle surfaces were coordinated by 4 oxygens to form a PdO monolayer covering a metallic core. The XANES signal analysis indicated a smaller particle size for Pd/C (∅ 5 nm) than for Pd/C/CNT (∅ 10 nm), in good agreement with the TEM observations. - Graphical abstract: Visualization of metallic core (left), oxide monolayer (middle) and nanoparticle of diameter 5 nm (right). - Highlights: • Pd catalysts were prepared on two types of supports: carbon and carbon nanotubes. • BET, TEM, XRD characterization of prepared catalysts. • XAFS: Concentration of Pd in samples Pd/C and Pd/C/CNT. • EXAFS and XANES signal analysis of catalysts. • Visualisation of atoms arrangement at the Pd nanoparticle surface

  12. Synthesis, crystal structure, fluorescence and electrochemical studies of a new tridentate Schiff base ligand and its nickel(II) and palladium(II) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaatian, Bita; Soleymanpour, Ahmad; Kholghi Oskouei, Nasim; Notash, Behrouz; Rezvani, Seyyed Ahmad

    2014-07-01

    A new unsymmetrical tridentate Schiff base ligand was derived from the 1:1 M condensation of ortho-vanillin with 2-mercaptoethylamine. Nickel and palladium complexes were obtained by the reaction of the tridentate Schiff base ligand with nickel(II) acetate tetrahydrate and palladium(II) acetate in 2:1 M ratio. In nickel and palladium complexes the ligand was coordinated to metals via the imine N and enolic O atoms. The S groups of Schiff bases were not coordinated to the metals and S-S coupling was occured. The complexes have been found to possess 1:2 Metal:Ligand stoichiometry and the molar conductance data revealed that the metal complexes were non-electrolytes. The complexes exhibited octahedral coordination geometry. The emission spectra of the ligand and its complexes were studied in methanol. Electrochemical properties of the ligand and its metal complexes were investigated in the CH3CN solvent at the 100 mV s-1 scan rate. The ligand and metal complexes showed both reversible and quasi-reversible processes at this scan rate. The Schiff base and its complexes have been characterized by IR, 1H NMR, UV/Vis, elemental analyses and conductometry. The crystal structure of nickel complex has been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction.

  13. On the superconductivity of vanadium based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouers, F.; Rest, J.V. der

    1985-01-01

    We have computed the electron density of States of solid solutions of vanadium based transition metal alloys V 90 X 10 by using the tight-binding recursion method for degenerate d-bands in order to calculte the alloy superconducting transition temperature with the McMillan formula. As observed experimentally for X on the left hand side of V in the periodic table one obtains an increase of T c while for X on the right hand side of V the critical temperature decreases. The detailed comparison with experiments indicate that when the bandwidths of the two constituents are different, one cannot neglect the variation of the electron-phonon interactions. (author) [pt

  14. Palladium and platinum based solid and hollow nanoparticles: An ab-initio study of structural and electronic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildizhan, Gulsum; Caliskan, Serkan; Ozturk, Ramazan

    2018-04-01

    Nanoparticles composed of palladium and platinum are particularly interesting for catalytic purposes, for instance, selective hydrogenation and alcohol oxidation. The reactivity and selectivity of nanostructures are mostly based on the size and shape of the nanocrystals in catalytic reactions. In this work, we studied the structural stabilities of Pd and Pt based nanocubes and nanocages and adsorption strength of chemisorbed species on these nanostructures to investigate their structure dependent catalytic activities. Solid cubic and hollow cage like nanostructures of different sizes were designed with Pd and Pt atoms. The volume of the crystal cavity in nanocage structures was tuned by removing of atoms from solid cubic structure. The effect of size and shape on the formation energies and HOMO-LUMO energy gap of nanostructures were elucidated and correlated to structural stabilities, hardness-softness, electronegativity and electrophilicity index. The relationship between size and chemical reactivity clearly showed that increasing the number of atoms participating in a catalyst enhances the activity. For further understanding of the catalytic activity we employed 4-nitro thiophenol, as an S-donor representative molecule, to evaluate the adsorption characteristics of the nanostructures.

  15. New Developments of Ti-Based Alloys for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhua; Yang, Chao; Zhao, Haidong; Qu, Shengguan; Li, Xiaoqiang; Li, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    Ti-based alloys are finding ever-increasing applications in biomaterials due to their excellent mechanical, physical and biological performance. Nowdays, low modulus β-type Ti-based alloys are still being developed. Meanwhile, porous Ti-based alloys are being developed as an alternative orthopedic implant material, as they can provide good biological fixation through bone tissue ingrowth into the porous network. This paper focuses on recent developments of biomedical Ti-based alloys. It can be divided into four main sections. The first section focuses on the fundamental requirements titanium biomaterial should fulfill and its market and application prospects. This section is followed by discussing basic phases, alloying elements and mechanical properties of low modulus β-type Ti-based alloys. Thermal treatment, grain size, texture and properties in Ti-based alloys and their limitations are dicussed in the third section. Finally, the fourth section reviews the influence of microstructural configurations on mechanical properties of porous Ti-based alloys and all known methods for fabricating porous Ti-based alloys. This section also reviews prospects and challenges of porous Ti-based alloys, emphasizing their current status, future opportunities and obstacles for expanded applications. Overall, efforts have been made to reveal the latest scenario of bulk and porous Ti-based materials for biomedical applications. PMID:28788539

  16. Laccases as palladium oxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekmouche, Yasmina; Schneider, Ludovic; Rousselot-Pailley, Pierre; Faure, Bruno; Simaan, A Jalila; Bochot, Constance; Réglier, Marius; Tron, Thierry

    2015-02-01

    The first example of a coupled catalytic system involving an enzyme and a palladium(ii) catalyst competent for the aerobic oxidation of alcohol in mild conditions is described. In the absence of dioxygen, the fungal laccase LAC3 is reduced by a palladium(0) species as evidenced by the UV/VIS and ESR spectra of the enzyme. During the oxidation of veratryl alcohol performed in water, at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, LAC3 regenerates the palladium catalyst, is reduced and catalyzes the four-electron reduction of dioxygen into water with no loss of enzyme activity. The association of a laccase with a water-soluble palladium complex results in a 7-fold increase in the catalytic efficiency of the complex. This is the first step in the design of a family of renewable palladium catalysts for aerobic oxidation.

  17. Highly sensitive fiber-optic oxygen sensor based on palladium tetrakis (4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin doped in ormosil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Cheng-Shane; Chuang, Chih-Yung

    2014-01-01

    A simple, low-cost technique for fabrication of highly sensitive fiber-optic oxygen sensor is described. An organically modified silicate (ORMOSIL) as a matrix for the fabrication of oxygen sensing film was produced. The technique is based on coating the end of a plastic optical fiber with ormosil composite xerogel film sequestered with luminophore palladium (II) meso-tetra(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin (PdTCPP) prepared by a sol–gel process. The composite xerogel studied is tetraethylorthosilane (TEOS)/n-octyltriethoxysilane (Octyl-triEOS). Result shows that, expect for PdTCPP-doped TEOS/Octyl-triEOS composite xerogel show the high sensitivity and linear Stern–Volmer relationship which indicate the homogenous environment of the luminophore. The sensitivity of the optical oxygen sensor is quantified in terms of the ratio I N2 /I O2 , where I N2 and I O2 represent the detected fluorescence intensities in pure nitrogen and pure oxygen environments, respectively. The experimental result reveals that the PdTCPP-doped TEOS/Octyl-triEOS oxygen sensor has sensitivity of 153. - Highlights: • A simple, low-cost technique for fabrication of highly sensitive fiber-optic oxygen sensor is described. • ORMOSIL was produced to serve as a matrix for the fabrication of oxygen sensing film. • The fiber-optic oxygen sensor has sensitivity of I N2 /I 100O2 =153. • The stable and reproducible signals were obtained with the fiber-optic oxygen sensor

  18. Based on a new support for synthesis of highly efficient palladium/hydroxyapatite catalyst for ethanol electrooxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Qian; Chao, Shujun; Bai, Zhengyu; Yan, Huiying; Wang, Kui; Yang, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Based on a new support, hydroxyapatite (HAP), a facile and low–cost preparation of palladium/hydroxyapatite catalyst for ethanol electrooxidation is introduced in this paper through a solvothermal reaction without additives. HAP was employed as the catalyst support for its hydroxyl–rich surface in order to increase the stability and utilization ratio of catalyst. According to transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and X–ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, the as–prepared Pd nanoparticles with face–centered cubic crystal structure were evenly deposited on the surface of HAP. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry tests demonstrated that the Pd/HAP catalyst possessed a much higher current density (246 mA cm −2 ) than the Pd/C catalyst (109 mA cm −2 ) towards ethanol electrooxidation, and better stability as well. In the direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) test, Pd/HAP catalyst gives better performance than that with Pd/C in terms of both open-circuit voltage (OCV) and power density. These results indicate that the HAP is a better support and the catalyst developed in this study may be a better candidate for DEFCs. A possible mechanism consistent with the experimental is also proposed

  19. Palladium Nanoparticles-Based Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Aptasensor for Highly Sensitive Detection of Aflatoxin M₁ in Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Yang, Daibin; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Wen; Ding, Xiaoxia; Mao, Jin; Wu, Jing

    2017-10-13

    A highly sensitive aptasensor for aflatoxin M₁ (AFM₁) detection was constructed based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between 5-carboxyfluorescein (FAM) and palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs). PdNPs (33 nm) were synthesized through a seed-mediated growth method and exhibited broad and strong absorption in the whole ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) range. The strong coordination interaction between nitrogen functional groups of the AFM₁ aptamer and PdNPs brought FAM and PdNPs in close proximity, which resulted in the fluorescence quenching of FAM to a maximum extent of 95%. The non-specific fluorescence quenching caused by PdNPs towards fluorescein was negligible. After the introduction of AFM₁ into the FAM-AFM₁ aptamer-PdNPs FRET system, the AFM₁ aptamer preferentially combined with AFM₁ accompanied by conformational change, which greatly weakened the coordination interaction between the AFM₁ aptamer and PdNPs. Thus, fluorescence recovery of FAM was observed and a linear relationship between the fluorescence recovery and the concentration of AFM₁ was obtained in the range of 5-150 pg/mL in aqueous buffer with the detection limit of 1.5 pg/mL. AFM₁ detection was also realized in milk samples with a linear detection range from 6 pg/mL to 150 pg/mL. The highly sensitive FRET aptasensor with simple configuration shows promising prospect in detecting a variety of food contaminants.

  20. Grain Refinement of Permanent Mold Cast Copper Base Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.Sadayappan; J.P.Thomson; M.Elboujdaini; G.Ping Gu; M. Sahoo

    2005-04-01

    Grain refinement is a well established process for many cast and wrought alloys. The mechanical properties of various alloys could be enhanced by reducing the grain size. Refinement is also known to improve casting characteristics such as fluidity and hot tearing. Grain refinement of copper-base alloys is not widely used, especially in sand casting process. However, in permanent mold casting of copper alloys it is now common to use grain refinement to counteract the problem of severe hot tearing which also improves the pressure tightness of plumbing components. The mechanism of grain refinement in copper-base alloys is not well understood. The issues to be studied include the effect of minor alloy additions on the microstructure, their interaction with the grain refiner, effect of cooling rate, and loss of grain refinement (fading). In this investigation, efforts were made to explore and understand grain refinement of copper alloys, especially in permanent mold casting conditions.

  1. Determination of trace level of palladium and platinum content in anticancer drug Imatinib base by ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Ravi; Salunke-Gawali, Sunita

    2013-01-01

    Metal impurities in Pharmaceutical drug substance is of great concern not only because of the intrinsic toxicity of certain contaminants but also due to the opposite effect that the contaminants which may have on drug stability and shelf life. Therefore it is necessary to monitor the organic as well as inorganic impurities throughout the process of manufacturing process at every stage from raw material, intermediate and finished products. An Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) method has been developed for Palladium and Platinum content in the anticancer drug, Imatinib mesylate. Rhodium (Rh) was used as internal standard for determination of Palladium and Platinum content on in Imatinib mesylate. (author)

  2. Ti-Ni-based shape memory alloys as smart materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, K.; Xu, Y.; Ren, X.

    2003-01-01

    Smart materials consist of three principal materials, ferroelectrics, shape memory alloys (SMA) and electro-active polymers (EAP). Among these SMAs, especially Ti-Ni-based alloys are important, since only they can provide large recoverable strains and high recovery stress. In the present paper the unique characteristics of Ti-Ni-based shape memory alloys are reviewed on an up-to-date basis with the aim of their applications to smart materials and structures. (orig.)

  3. Stress corrosion crack tip microstructure in nickel-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shei, S.A.; Yang, W.J.

    1994-04-01

    Stress corrosion cracking behavior of several nickel-base alloys in high temperature caustic environments has been evaluated. The crack tip and fracture surfaces were examined using Auger/ESCA and Analytical Electron Microscopy (AEM) to determine the near crack tip microstructure and microchemistry. Results showed formation of chromium-rich oxides at or near the crack tip and nickel-rich de-alloying layers away from the crack tip. The stress corrosion resistance of different nickel-base alloys in caustic may be explained by the preferential oxidation and dissolution of different alloying elements at the crack tip. Alloy 600 (UNS N06600) shows good general corrosion and intergranular attack resistance in caustic because of its high nickel content. Thermally treated Alloy 690 (UNS N06690) and Alloy 600 provide good stress corrosion cracking resistance because of high chromium contents along grain boundaries. Alloy 625 (UNS N06625) does not show as good stress corrosion cracking resistance as Alloy 690 or Alloy 600 because of its high molybdenum content

  4. Synthesis and electrochemical characterization of palladium-based cathode catalysts, resistant to the presence of methanol; Sintesis y caracterizacion electroquimica de catalizadores catodicos base paladio, resistentes a la presencia de metanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvador, Jose J. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)] e-mail: jsalvador@cinvestav.mx; Collins, Virginia H. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, Chihuahua, Chihuahua (Mexico); Solorza Feria, Omar [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    This work presents the synthesis and characterization of palladium-based electrocatalysts (PdSn and PdPtSn) prepared with the salt-reduction method for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The compounds obtained are characterized by sweep electron microscopy, electron transmission microscopy and x-ray diffraction of powder. The electrocatalysts obtained had particle sizes less than 10 nm. The evaluation of the catalytic activity of the catalysts was performed using cyclic voltametry and rotating disc electrode. These experiments were conducted in an H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} 0.5 M solution with different methanol concentrations. The presence of methanol improved the catalytic activity of PdSn, but did not show any effect on the PdPtSn alloy. The performance of the DMFC mono cell using PdPtSn as a cathode showed a potential of 10 mW cm{sup -2} at 50 degrees Celsius. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta la sintesis y caracterizacion de electrocatalizadores de base Paladio (PdSn y PdPtSn) preparados mediante el metodo de reduccion de sales, para la reaccion de reduccion de oxigeno (RRO). Los compuestos obtenidos se caracterizaron por microscopia electronica de barrido, microscopia electronica de transmision y difraccion de rayos X de polvos. Los electrocatalizadores obtenidos presentaron un tamano de particula menores a 10 nm. La evaluacion de la actividad catalitica de los catalizadores se llevo a cabo mediante voltametria Ciclica y electrodo de disco rotatorio, estos experimentos fueron realizados en una solucion de H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} 0.5 M con diferentes concentraciones de metanol. La presencia de metanol mejoro la actividad catalitica de PdSn, pero no mostro ningun efecto sobre la aleacion PdPtSn. El desempeno de la monocelda de DMFC usando como catodo PdPtSn, mostro una potencia de 10 mW cm{sup -2} a 50 grados centigrados.

  5. Corrosion behaviour of cladded nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandl, W.; Ruczinski, D.; Nolde, M.; Blum, J.

    1995-01-01

    As a consequence of the high cost of nickel base alloys their use as surface layers is convenient. In this paper the properties of SA-as well as RES-cladded NiMo 16Cr16Ti and NiCr21Mo14W being produced in single and multi-layer technique are compared and discussed with respect to their corrosion behaviour. Decisive criteria describing the qualities of the claddings are the mass loss, the susceptibility against intergranular corrosion and the pitting corrosion resistance. The results prove that RES cladding is the most suitable technique to produce corrosion resistant nickel base coatings. The corrosion behaviour of a two-layer RES deposition shows a better resistance against pitting than a three layer SAW cladding. 7 refs

  6. Corrosion and oxidation of vanadium-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, B.A.; Wiggins, G.

    1983-10-01

    The corrosion of several V-base alloys on exposure at elevated temperatures to helium environments containing hydrogen and/or water vapor are presented. These results are utilized to discuss the consequences of the selection of certain radiation-damage resistant, V-base alloys for structural materials applications in a fusion reactor

  7. Excessively High Vapor Pressure of Al-based Amorphous Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Im Jeong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum-based amorphous alloys exhibited an abnormally high vapor pressure at their approximate glass transition temperatures. The vapor pressure was confirmed by the formation of Al nanocrystallites from condensation, which was attributed to weight loss of the amorphous alloys. The amount of weight loss varied with the amorphous alloy compositions and was inversely proportional to their glass-forming ability. The vapor pressure of the amorphous alloys around 573 K was close to the vapor pressure of crystalline Al near its melting temperature, 873 K. Our results strongly suggest the possibility of fabricating nanocrystallites or thin films by evaporation at low temperatures.

  8. Bulk amorphous Mg-based alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryds, Nini

    2004-01-01

    are discussed in this paper. On the basis of these measurements phase diagrams of the different systems were constructed. Finally, it is demonstrated that when pressing the bulk amorphous alloy onto a metallic dies at temperatures within the supercooled liquid region, the alloy faithfully replicates the surface...

  9. Corrosion resistance improvement of titanium base alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai V. Popa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion resistance of the new Ti-6Al-4V-1Zr alloy in comparison with ternary Ti-6Al-4V alloy in Ringer-Brown solution and artificial Carter-Brugirard saliva of different pH values was studied. In Ringer-Brown solution, the new alloy presented an improvement of all electrochemical parameters due to the alloying with Zr; also, impedance spectra revealed better protective properties of its passive layer. In Carter-Brugirard artificial saliva, an increase of the passive film thickness was proved. Fluoride ions had a slight negative influence on the corrosion and ion release rates, without to affect the very good stability of the new Ti-6Al-4V-1Zr alloy.

  10. Adlayers of palladium particles and their aggregates on porous polypropylene hollow fiber membranes as hydrogenization contractors/reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volkov, V.V.; Lebedeva, V.I.; Petrova, I.V.; Bobyl, A.V.; Konnikov, S.G.; Roldughin, V.I.; Erkel, J. van; Tereshchenko, G.F.

    2011-01-01

    Principal approaches for the preparation of catalytic membrane reactors based on polymer membranes containing palladium nanoparticles and for the description of their characteristics are presented. The method for the development of adlayers composed of palladium nanoparticles and their aggregates on

  11. Langmuir–Blodgett films based on poly(p-phenylene vinylene) and protein-stabilised palladium nanoparticles: Implications in luminescent and conducting properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Thiago E.; Sakai, Andrei [Institute of Environmental, Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Federal University of São Paulo, Diadema, SP 09972-270 (Brazil); Iost, Rodrigo M. [Institute of Chemistry of de São Carlos, University of São Paulo, São Carlos, SP 13560-970 (Brazil); Silva, Welter C. [Center of Nature Sciences, Federal University of Piauí, Teresina, PI 64049-550 (Brazil); Crespilho, Frank N. [Institute of Chemistry of de São Carlos, University of São Paulo, São Carlos, SP 13560-970 (Brazil); Péres, Laura O. [Institute of Environmental, Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Federal University of São Paulo, Diadema, SP 09972-270 (Brazil); Caseli, Luciano, E-mail: lcaseli@unifesp.br [Institute of Environmental, Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Federal University of São Paulo, Diadema, SP 09972-270 (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, poly(p-phenylene vinylene) block copolymers (PPV) were immobilised in stearic acid (HSt) Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) films, and their conducting and luminescent properties were enhanced by the incorporation of palladium nanoparticles stabilised by glucose oxidase (GOx-PdNPs). The nanobiocomposite, based on HSt, PPV, and GOx-PdNPs, was transferred from the air-water interface onto solid supports using the LB technique. The films were characterised by surface pressure–area isotherms, polarisation modulation infrared reflection–absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and conductivity measurements. The results indicated that the incorporation of GOx-PdNPs in PPV-HSt LB films enhances the luminescence and conducting properties of the PPV. Based on the higher conductivity and emission obtained with the hybrid LB films and the ability to tune the molecular-level interactions between the film components by changing the experimental conditions, thus allowing for further optimisation, one may envisage applications for these films in optical and electronic devices, such as organic light-emitting diodes. - Highlights: • Palladium nanoparticles were introduced in conducting polymer-fatty acid monolayers. • Hybrid films were characterised with tensiometry and infrared spectroscopy. • Films were transferred to solid supports with the Langmuir–Blodgett technique. • Nanoparticles enhanced luminescence and conducting properties.

  12. Applications of thermodynamic calculations to Mg alloy design: Mg-Sn based alloy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, In-Ho; Park, Woo-Jin; Ahn, Sang Ho; Kang, Dae Hoon; Kim, Nack J.

    2007-01-01

    Recently an Mg-Sn based alloy system has been investigated actively in order to develop new magnesium alloys which have a stable structure and good mechanical properties at high temperatures. Thermodynamic modeling of the Mg-Al-Mn-Sb-Si-Sn-Zn system was performed based on available thermodynamic, phase equilibria and phase diagram data. Using the optimized database, the phase relationships of the Mg-Sn-Al-Zn alloys with additions of Si and Sb were calculated and compared with their experimental microstructures. It is shown that the calculated results are in good agreement with experimental microstructures, which proves the applicability of thermodynamic calculations for new Mg alloy design. All calculations were performed using FactSage thermochemical software. (orig.)

  13. Electron beam and laser surface alloying of Al-Si base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhille, P.; Tosto, S.; Pelletier, J.M.; Issa, A.; Vannes, A.B.; Criqui, B.

    1992-01-01

    Surface alloying on aluminium-base alloys is achieved either by using an electron beam or a laser beam, in order to improve the mechanical properties of the near-surface region. A predeposit of nickel is first realized by plasma spraying. Melting of both the coating and part of the substrate produces a surface alloy with a fine, dendritic microstructure with a high hardness. Enhancement of this property requires an increase in the nickel content. Various problems occur during the formation of nickel-rich surface layers: incomplete homogenization owing to a progressive increase of the liquidus temperature, cracks owing to the brittleness of this hard suface alloy, formation of a plasma when experiments are carried out in a gaseous environment (laser surface alloying). Nevertheless, various kinds of surface layers may be achieved; for example very hard surface alloys (HV 0.2 =900), with a thickness of about 500-600 μm, or very thick surface alloys (e>2 mm), with a fairly good hardness (greater than 350 HV 0.2 ). Thus, it is possible to obtain a large variety of new materials by using high energy beams on aluminium substrates. (orig.)

  14. Corrosion and wear protective composition modulated alloy coatings based on ternary Ni-P-X alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leisner, P.; Benzon, M. E.; Christoffersen, Lasse

    1996-01-01

    Scattered reporting in the litterature describes a number of ternary Ni-P-X alloyes (where X can be Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Pd, Re or W) with promising corrosin and wear protective performance. Based on a systematic study of Ni-P-X alloys it is the intention to produce coatings with improved corrosion...... and wear performance compared with conventional coatings like electroless nickel, hard chromioum and anodised aluminium....

  15. Palladium and platinum-based nanoparticle functional sensor layers for selective H2 sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohodnicki, Jr., Paul R.; Baltrus, John P.; Brown, Thomas D.

    2017-07-04

    The disclosure relates to a plasmon resonance-based method for H.sub.2 sensing in a gas stream utilizing a hydrogen sensing material. The hydrogen sensing material is comprises Pd-based or Pt-based nanoparticles having an average nanoparticle diameter of less than about 100 nanometers dispersed in an inert matrix having a bandgap greater than or equal to 5 eV, and an oxygen ion conductivity less than approximately 10.sup.-7 S/cm at a temperature of 700.degree. C. Exemplary inert matrix materials include SiO.sub.2, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, and Si.sub.3N.sub.4 as well as modifications to modify the effective refractive indices through combinations and/or doping of such materials. The hydrogen sensing material utilized in the method of this disclosure may be prepared using means known in the art for the production of nanoparticles dispersed within a supporting matrix including sol-gel based wet chemistry techniques, impregnation techniques, implantation techniques, sputtering techniques, and others.

  16. Development of sustainable Palladium-based catalysts for removal of persistent contaminants from drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Danmeng

    Pd-based catalytic reduction has emerged as an advanced treatment technology for drinking water decontamination, and a suite of persistent contaminants including oxyanions, N-nitrosoamines, and halogenated compounds are amenable to catalytic reduction. The primary goal of this study is to develop novel Pd-based catalysts with enhanced performance (i.e., activity, selectivity, and sustainability) to remove contaminants from drinking water. The effects of water quality (i.e., co-contaminants in water matrix), catalyst support, and catalyst metal were explored, and they provide insights for preparing catalysts with faster kinetics, higher selectivity, and extended lifetime. Azo dyes are wide-spread contaminants, and they are potentially co-exisiting with target contaminants amenable for catalytic removal. The probe azo dye methyl orange (MO) enhanced catalytic reduction kinetics of a suite of oxyanions (i.e., nitrate, nitrite, bromate, chlorate, and perchlorate) and diatrizoate significantly but not N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) with a variety of Pd-based catalysts. Nitrate was selected as a probe contaminant, and several different azo dyes (i.e., (methyl orange, methyl red, fast yellow AB, metanil yellow, acid orange 7, congo red, eriochrome black T, acid red 27, acid yellow 11, and acid yellow 17) were evaluated for their ability to enhance reduction. A hydrogen atom shuttling mechanism was proposed and a kinetic model was proposed based on Bronsted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) theory, and they suggest sorbed azo dyes and reduced hydrazo dyes shuttle hydrogen atoms to oxyanions or diatrizoate to enhance their reduction kinetics. Next, vapor-grown carbon nanofiber (CNF) supports were used to explore the effects of Pd nanoparticle size and interior versus exterior loading on nitrite reduction activity and selectivity (i.e., dinitrogen over ammonia production). In order to evaluate the amount of interior versus exterior loading of Pd nanoparticles, a fast and accurate geometric

  17. Effects of alloying elements on nodular and uniform corrosion resistance of zirconium-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Katsuhiro

    1992-01-01

    The effects of alloying and impurity elements (tin, iron, chromium, nickel, niobium, tantalum, oxygen, aluminum, carbon, nitrogen, silicon, and phosphorus) on the nodular and uniform corrosion resistance of zirconium-based alloys were studied. The improving effect of iron, nickel and niobium in nodular corrosion resistance were observed. The uniform corrosion resistance was also improved by nickel, niobium and tantalum. The effects of impurity elements, nitrogen, aluminum and phosphorus were negligibly small but increasing the silicon content seemed to improve slightly the uniform corrosion resistance. Hydrogen pick-up fraction were not changed by alloying and impurity elements except nickel. Nickel addition increased remarkably hydrogen pick-up fraction. Although the composition of secondary precipitates changed with contents of alloying elements, the correlation of composition of secondary precipitates to corrosion resistance was not observed. (author)

  18. Ultra-low power hydrogen sensing based on a palladium-coated nanomechanical beam resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksson, Jonas; Villanueva Torrijo, Luis Guillermo; Brugger, Juergen

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen sensing is essential to ensure safety in near-future zero-emission fuel cell powered vehicles. Here, we present a novel hydrogen sensor based on the resonant frequency change of a nanoelectromechanical clamped-clamped beam. The beam is coated with a Pd layer, which expands in the presence...... of H 2, therefore generating a stress build-up that causes the frequency of the device to drop. The devices are able to detect H2 concentrations below 0.5% within 1 s of the onset of the exposure using only a few hundreds of pW of power, matching the industry requirements for H 2 safety sensors......, whereby the responsivity of the sensors is fully restored and the chemo-mechanical process is accelerated, significantly decreasing response times. The sensors are fabricated using standard processes, facilitating their eventual mass-production. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry....

  19. Investigation of radiation-chemical behaviour of divalent palladium in perchloric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimirova, M.V.; Kalinina, S.V.

    1988-01-01

    Gamma-radiolysis of divalent palladium in perchloric acid solutions is studied. Absorption spectra of intermediate palladium compounds formed in the irradiated solution are taken. The analysis of literature data as well as comparative analysis of the absorption spectra obtained under irradiation of palladium (2) perchloric acid solutions with absorption spectra of palladium chlorocomplexes allows to suppose that the mentioned compounds are chlorocomplexes of palladium (2) of different composition depending on HClO 4 concentration in the initial solution and absorbed radiation dose. Radiation-chemical reduction of palladium (2) up to metal is stated to take place in the whole studied range of initial concentrations of components of the system and dose rates. Kinetic dependences of metallic palladium formation are obtained. Values of radiation-chemical yields of metallic palladium formation depending on the initial concentrations of palladium (2) and perchloric acid are given. A mechanism of radiolytic reduction of palladium (2) in the investigated system is suggested based on the experimental data, and a theoretical value of the radiation-chemical yield of palladium (2) reduction being in a good agreement with experimentally found values is calculated

  20. Precipitation hardened nickel-base alloys for sour gas environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, M.; Mukai, S.; Kudo, T.; Okada, Y.; Ikeda, A.

    1987-01-01

    SCC (Stress Corrosion Cracking) in sour gas environments of γ'(gamma prime: Ni/sub 3/(Ti and/or Al)) and γ''(gamma double prime: Ni/sub 3/Nb) precipitation hardened nickel-base alloys has been studied using the SSRT (Slow Strain Rate Tensile) test, anodic polarization measurement and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The γ'-type alloy containing Ti was more susceptible to SCC in the SSRT tests up to 350 0 F(450 K) than the γ''-type alloy containing Nb. The susceptibility to SCC was related to their deformation structures in terms of stress localization and sensitivity to pitting corrosion in H/sub 2/S solutions. TEM observation showed the γ'-type alloy deformed by the superlattice dislocations in coplanar structures. This mode of deformation induced the stress localization to some boundaries such as grain boundary and as a result the susceptibility to SCC of the γ'-type alloy was increased. On the other hand, the γ''-type alloy deformed by the massive dislocation not in coplanar structures so that it was less susceptible to SCC in terms of the stress localization. The anodic polarization measurement suggested the γ'-type alloy was more susceptible to pitting corrosion compared with the γ''-type alloy

  1. Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric determination of copper in nickel-base alloys with various chemical modifiers*1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Suh-Jen Jane; Shiue, Chia-Chann; Chang, Shiow-Ing

    1997-07-01

    The analytical characteristics of copper in nickel-base alloys have been investigated with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Deuterium background correction was employed. The effects of various chemical modifiers on the analysis of copper were investigated. Organic modifiers which included 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-(diethylamino-phenol) (Br-PADAP), ammonium citrate, 1-(2-pyridylazo)-naphthol, 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and Triton X-100 were studied. Inorganic modifiers palladium nitrate, magnesium nitrate, aluminum chloride, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, hydrogen peroxide and potassium nitrate were also applied in this work. In addition, zirconium hydroxide and ammonium hydroxide precipitation methods have also been studied. Interference effects were effectively reduced with Br-PADAP modifier. Aqueous standards were used to construct the calibration curves. The detection limit was 1.9 pg. Standard reference materials of nickel-base alloys were used to evaluate the accuracy of the proposed method. The copper contents determined with the proposed method agreed closely with the certified values of the reference materials. The recoveries were within the range 90-100% with relative standard deviation of less than 10%. Good precision was obtained.

  2. Microstructures and oxidation behavior of some Molybdenum based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Pratik Kumar [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The advent of Ni based superalloys revolutionized the high temperature alloy industry. These materials are capable of operating in extremely harsh environments, comprising of temperatures around 1050 C, under oxidative conditions. Demands for increased fuel efficiency, however, has highlighted the need for materials that can be used under oxidative conditions at temperatures in excess of 1200 C. The Ni based superalloys are restricted to lower temperatures due to the presence of a number of low melting phases that melt in the 1250 - 1450 C, resulting in softening of the alloys above 1000 C. Therefore, recent research directions have been skewed towards exploring and developing newer alloy systems. This thesis comprises a part of such an effort. Techniques for rapid thermodynamic assessments were developed and applied to two different systems - Mo-Si alloys with transition metal substitutions (and this forms the first part of the thesis) and Ni-Al alloys with added components for providing high temperature strength and ductility. A hierarchical approach towards alloy design indicated the Mo-Ni-Al system as a prospective candidate for high temperature applications. Investigations on microstructures and oxidation behavior, under both isothermal and cyclic conditions, of these alloys constitute the second part of this thesis. It was seen that refractory metal systems show a marked microstructure dependence of oxidation.

  3. Corrosion resistance of tantalum base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gypen, L.A.; Brabers, M.; Deruyttre, A.

    1984-01-01

    The corrosion behaviour of substitutional Ta-Mo, Ta-W, Ta-Nb, Ta-Hf, Ta-Zr, Ta-Re, Ta-Ni, Ta-V, Ta-W-Mo, Ta-W-Nb, Ta-W-Hf and Ta-W-Re alloys has been investigated in various corrosive media, i.e. (1) concentrated sulfuric acid at 250 0 C and 200 0 C, (2) boiling hydrochloric acid of azeotropic composition, (3) concentrated hydrochloric acid at 150 0 C under pressure, (4) HF-Containing solutions and (5) 0.5% H 2 SO 4 at room temperature (anodisation). In highly corrosive media such as concentrated H 2 SO 4 at 250 0 C and concentrated HCl at 150 0 C tantalum is hydrogen embrittled, probably by stress induced precipitation of β-hydride. Both corrosion rate and hydrogen embrittlement in concentrated H 2 SO 4 at 250 0 C are strongly influenced by alloying elements. Small alloying additions of either Mo or Re decrease the corrosion rate and the hydrogen embrittlement, while Hf has the opposite effect. Hydrogen embrittlement in concentrated H 2 SO 4 at 250 0 C is completely eliminated by alloying Ta with 1 to 3 at % Mo (0.5 to 1.5 wt % Mo). These results can be explained in terms of oxygen deficiency of the Ta 2 O 5 film and the electronic structure of these alloys. (orig.) [de

  4. A new electrochemical sensor for the simultaneous determination of acetaminophen and codeine based on porous silicon/palladium nanostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensafi, Ali A; Ahmadi, Najmeh; Rezaei, Behzad; Abarghoui, Mehdi Mokhtari

    2015-03-01

    A porous silicon/palladium nanostructure was prepared and used as a new electrode material for the simultaneous determination of acetaminophen (ACT) and codeine (COD). Palladium nanoparticles were assembled on porous silicon (PSi) microparticles by a simple redox reaction between the Pd precursor and PSi in an aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid. This novel nanostructure was characterized by different spectroscopic and electrochemical techniques including scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The high electrochemical activity, fast electron transfer rate, high surface area and good antifouling properties of this nanostructure enhanced the oxidation peak currents and reduced the peak potentials of ACT and COD at the surface of the proposed sensor. Simultaneous determination of ACT and COD was explored using differential pulse voltammetry. A linear range of 1.0-700.0 µmol L(-1) was achieved for ACT and COD with detection limits of 0.4 and 0.3 µmol L(-1), respectively. Finally, the proposed method was used for the determination of ACT and COD in blood serum, urine and pharmaceutical compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Fe-Mn-Si based shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, T.Y.

    2000-01-01

    Characteristics of martensitic transformation fcc(γ)→hcp(ε) in Fe-Mn-Si based alloys are briefly reviewed. By analyzing the influences of constituents and treatments on shape memory effect (SME) in Fe-Mn-Si, the main factors controlling SME are summarized as austenite strengthening, stacking fault energy (probability) and antiferromagnetic temperature. Contribution of thermomechanical training to SME is introduced. The Fe-Mn-Si-RE (rare earth elements) and Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-N alloys are recommended as two novel shape memory alloys with superior SME. (orig.)

  6. Galvanic corrosion resistance of welded dissimilar nickel-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, R.A.; Morrison, W.S.; Snyder, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    A program for evaluating the corrosion resistance of various dissimilar welded nickel-base alloy combinations is outlined. Alloy combinations included ALLCORR, Hastelloy C-276, Inconel 72 and Inconel 690. The GTAW welding process involved both high and minimum heat in-put conditions. Samples were evaluated in the as-welded condition, as well as after having been aged at various condtions of time and temperature. These were judged to be most representative of process upset conditions which might be expected. Corrosion testing evaluated resistance to an oxidizing acid and a severe service environment in which the alloy combinations might be used. Mechanical properties are also discussed

  7. The development of cobalt-base alloy ball bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xinshui; Chen Jianting; Wang Zaishu; Wang Ximei; Huang Chongming.

    1986-01-01

    The main technologies and experiences in developing a Cobalt-base alloy ball bearing are described. In the hardfacing of bearing races, a lower-hardness alloy of type St-6 is used rather than an alloy with hardness similar to that of the ball and finally the hardness of race is increased to match that of the ball by heat treatment. This improvement has certain advantages. The experience of whole developing technology indicates that strict control of the technology in the bearing-race hardfacing is the key problem in the quality assurance of bearings

  8. Acoustic properties of TiNiMoFe base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyunter, V.Eh.; Chernyshev, V.I.; Chekalkin, T.L.

    2000-01-01

    The regularity of changing the acoustic properties of the TiNi base alloys in dependence on the alloy composition and impact temperature is studied. It is shown that the oscillations of the TiNiMoFe base alloys within the temperature range of the B2 phase existence and possible appearance of the martensite under the load differ from the traditional materials oscillations. After excitation of spontaneous oscillations within the range of M f ≤ T ≤ M d there exists the area of long-term and low-amplitude low-frequency acoustic oscillations. It is established that free low-frequency oscillations of the TH-10 alloy sample are characterized by the low damping level in the given temperature range [ru

  9. Indentation creep behaviors of amorphous Cu-based composite alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Defeng; Ma, Xiangdong; Qian, Linfang

    2018-04-01

    This work reports the indentation creep behaviors of two Si2Zr3/amorphous Cu-based composite alloys utilizing nanoindentation technique. By analysis with Kelvin model, the retardation spectra of alloys at different positions, detached and attached regions to the intermetallics, were deduced. For the indentation of detached regions to Si2Zr3 intermetallics in both alloys, very similarity in creep displacement can be observed and retardation spectra show a distinct disparity in the second retardation peak. For the indentation of detached regions, the second retardation spectra also display distinct disparity. At both positions, the retardation spectra suggest that Si elements may lead to the relatively dense structure in the amorphous matrix and to form excessive Si2Zr3 intermetallics which may deteriorate the plastic deformation of current Cu-based composite alloys.

  10. Cerium Titanate Nano dispersoids in Ni-base ODS Alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Suk Hoon; Chun, Young-Bum; Rhee, Chang-Kyu; Jang, Jinsung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Hee-Suk [Korea Basic Science Institute, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) nickel-base alloys have potential for use in rather demanding elevated-temperature environments, such as aircraft turbine engines, heat exchanger of nuclear reactor. For improved high temperature performance, several ODS alloys were developed which possess good elevated temperature strength and over-temperature capacity plus excellent static oxidation resistance. The high temperature strength of ODS alloys is due to the presence of a uniform dispersion of fine, inert particles. Ceria mixed oxides have been studied because of their application potential in the formation of nanoclusters. By first principle study, it was estimated that the formation energy of the Ce-O dimer with voids in the nickel base alloy is lower than other candidates. The result suggests that the dispersion of the Ceria mixed oxides can suppress the voiding or swelling behavior of nickel base alloy during neutron irradiation. In this study, the evolution of cerium titanate nano particles was investigated using in-situ TEM. It was found that the Ce{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 9} phase was easily formed rather than remain as CeO{sub 2} during annealing; Ti was effective to form the finer oxide particles. Ce{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 9} is expected to do the great roll as dispersoids in Ni-base alloy, contribute to achieve the better high temperature property, high swelling resistance during neutron radiation.

  11. EXAFS investigation on microstructure of La-based alloy deuteride

    CERN Document Server

    Chen Bo Fei; Xie Chao Mei; Chen Xi Ping; Liu Li Juan; Xie Ya Ning; Hu Tian Dou; Zhang Jing

    2002-01-01

    Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra were measured to investigate the microstructure of La-based alloy deuteride. The radial structural functions of LaNi sub 4 sub . sub 2 sub 5 Al sub 0 sub . sub 7 sub 5 D sub x samples were obtained and the comparisons among different samples were performed. The results show that removal of deuterium is fast in La-Ni-Al hydrogen storage alloys under non-airtight condition

  12. Fabrication of tungsten wire reinforced nickel-base alloy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentnall, W. D.; Toth, I. J.

    1974-01-01

    Fabrication methods for tungsten fiber reinforced nickel-base superalloy composites were investigated. Three matrix alloys in pre-alloyed powder or rolled sheet form were evaluated in terms of fabricability into composite monotape and multi-ply forms. The utility of monotapes for fabricating more complex shapes was demonstrated. Preliminary 1093C (2000F) stress rupture tests indicated that efficient utilization of fiber strength was achieved in composites fabricated by diffusion bonding processes. The fabrication of thermal fatigue specimens is also described.

  13. Mechanical properties of soldered joints of niobium base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grishin, V.L.

    1980-01-01

    Mechanical properties of soldered joints of niobium alloys widely distributed in industry: VN3, VN4, VN5A, VN5AE, VN5AEP etc., 0.6-1.2 mm thick are investigated. It is found out that the usage of zirconium-vanadium, titanium-tantalum solders for welding niobium base alloys permits to obtain soldered joints with satisfactory mechanical properties at elevated temperatures

  14. Solvation and stabilization of palladium nanoparticles in phosphonium-based ionic liquids: a combined infrared spectroscopic and density functional theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvereva, Elena E; Grimme, Stefan; Katsyuba, Sergey A; Ermolaev, Vadim V; Arkhipova, Daria A; Yan, Ning; Miluykov, Vasili A; Sinyashin, Oleg G; Aleksandrov, Alexey

    2014-10-14

    Analysis of infrared spectra of palladium nanoparticles (NPs) immersed in the tri-tert-butyl-R-phosphonium-based ionic liquids (ILs) demonstrates that both cations and anions of the ILs interact with the NPs. According to quantum-chemical simulations of these interactions, the binding energy of anions to the Pd6 cluster, taken as a minimal-size model of the NPs, increases from ∼6 to ∼27 kcal mol(-1) in the order [PF6](-)≈ [BF4](-) < [Tf2N](-) < [OTf](-) < [Br](-)≪ [TFA](-). In contrast, the binding energy for all types of the [Bu(t)3PR](+) cations slightly varies at about ∼22 kcal mol(-1) only moderately depending on the choice of the R moiety (n-pentyl, 2-hydroxyethyl, 2-methoxyethyl, 2-ethoxy-2-oxoethyl). As a result, the energies of interaction between a Pd6 cluster and various ion pairs, formed by the abovementioned counter-ions, follow the order found for the anions and vary from ∼24 to ∼47 kcal mol(-1). These values are smaller than the energy of addition of a Pd atom to a Pdn cluster (∼58 kcal mol(-1)), which suggests kinetic stabilization of the NPs in phosphonium-based ILs rather than thermodynamic stabilization. The results are qualitatively similar to the trends found earlier for interactions between palladium clusters and components of imidazolium-based ILs, in spite of much larger contributions of the London dispersion forces to the binding of the [Bu(t)3PR](+) cations to the cluster (up to 80%) relative to the case of 1-R-3-methylimidazolium cations (up to 40%).

  15. Oxidation Behavior of TiAl-Based Alloy Modified by Double-Glow Plasma Surface Alloying with Cr-Mo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiangfei; Zhang, Pingze; Wang, Qiong; Wei, Dongbo; Chen, Xiaohu

    2017-07-01

    A Cr-Mo alloyed layer was prepared on a TiAl-based alloy using plasma surface alloying technique. The isothermal oxidation kinetics of the untreated and treated samples was examined at 850 °C. The microstructure and phase composition of the alloyed layer were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The morphology and constituent of the oxide scales were also analyzed. The results indicated that the oxidation resistance of TiAl was improved significantly after the alloying treatment. The oxide scale eventually became a mixture of Al2O3, Cr2O3 and TiO2. The oxide scale was dense and integrated throughout the oxidation process. The improvement was mainly owing to the enhancing of scale adhesion and the preferential oxidation of aluminum brought by the alloying effect for TiAl-based alloy.

  16. Salt Fog Testing Iron-Based Amorphous Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebak, Raul B.; Aprigliano, Louis F.; Day, S. Daniel; Farmer, Joseph C.

    2007-01-01

    Iron-based amorphous alloys are hard and highly corrosion resistant, which make them desirable for salt water and other applications. These alloys can be produced as powder and can be deposited as coatings on any surface that needs to be protected from the environment. It was of interest to examine the behavior of these amorphous alloys in the standard salt-fog testing ASTM B 117. Three different amorphous coating compositions were deposited on 316L SS coupons and exposed for many cycles of the salt fog test. Other common engineering alloys such as 1018 carbon steel, 316L SS and Hastelloy C-22 were also tested together with the amorphous coatings. Results show that amorphous coatings are resistant to rusting in salt fog. Partial devitrification may be responsible for isolated rust spots in one of the coatings. (authors)

  17. Reliability of copper based alloys for electric resistance spot welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovicj, M.; Mihajlovicj, A.; Sherbedzhija, B.

    1977-01-01

    Durability of copper based alloys (B-5 and B-6) for electric resistance spot-welding was examined. The total amount of Be, Ni and Zr was up to 2 and 1 wt.% respectively. Good durability and satisfactory quality of welded spots were obtained in previous laboratory experiments carried out on the fixed spot-welding machine of an industrial type (only B-5 alloy was examined). Electrodes made of both B-5 and B-6 alloy were tested on spot-welding grips and fixed spot-welding machines in Tvornica automobila Sarajevo (TAS). The obtained results suggest that the durability of electrodes made of B-5 and B-6 alloys is more than twice better than of that used in TAS

  18. COMPOSITIONS BASED ON PALLADIUM(II AND COPPER(II COMPOUNDS, HALIDE IONS, AND BENTONITE FOR OZONE DECOMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. L. Rakitskaya

    2017-05-01

    bromide ion. For Cu(II-KBr/N-Bent composition, kinetic and calculation data show that, in the presence of bromide ions, copper(II inhibits the ozone decomposition. For Pd(II-KBr/NBent composition, it has been found that the maximum activity is attained at СPd(II = 1.02·10-5 mol/g. For bimetallic Pd(II- Cu(II-KBr/N-Bent composition, changes in τ0, τ1/2, k1/2, and Q1/2 parameters depending on a Pd(II content are similar to those for monometallic Pd(II-KBr/NBent composition; however, values of the parameters are higher for the monometallic system. Thus, the inhibiting effect of Cu(II is observed even in the presence of palladium(II.

  19. Production and properties of light-metal base amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Akihisa; Masumoto, Tsuyoshi

    1993-01-01

    Light-metal base alloys with high specific strength and good corrosion resistance were produced through amorphization of Al and Mg-based alloys. The amorphous phase is formed in rapidly solidified Al-TM-Ln and Mg-TM-Ln (TM=transition metal, Ln=lanthanide metal) alloys. The highest tensile strength (σ f ) reaches 1,330 MPa for the Al base and 830 MPa for the Mg base. Furthermore, the Mg-based alloys have a large glass-forming capacity which enables to produce an amorphous phase by a metallic mold casting method. The extrusion of the Al-based amorphous powders at temperatures above crystallization temperature caused the formation of high strength materials with finely mixed structure consisting of dispersed intermetallic compounds in an Al matrix. The highest values of σ f and fatigue limit are as high as 940 and 313 MPa, respectively, at room temperature and 520 and 165 MPa at 473 K. The extruded Al-Ni-Mm alloy has already been used as machine parts and subsequent further development as practical materials is expected by taking these advantages

  20. Fracture assessment for a dissimilar metal weld of low alloy steel and Ni-base alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Takuya, E-mail: takuya4.ogawa@toshiba.co.jp [Toshiba Corporation Power Systems Company, Power and Industrial Systems Research and Development Center, 8, Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama 235-8523 (Japan); Itatani, Masao; Saito, Toshiyuki; Hayashi, Takahiro; Narazaki, Chihiro; Tsuchihashi, Kentaro [Toshiba Corporation Power Systems Company, Power and Industrial Systems Research and Development Center, 8, Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama 235-8523 (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    Recently, instances of SCC in Ni-base alloy weld metal of light water reactor components have been reported. Despite the possibility of propagation of SCC crack to the fusion line between low alloy steel (LAS) of pressure vessel and Ni-base alloy of internal structure, a fracture assessment method of dissimilar metal welded joint has not been established. The objective of this study is to investigate a fracture mode of dissimilar metal weld of LAS and Ni-base alloy for development of a fracture assessment method for dissimilar metal weld. Fracture tests were conducted using two types of dissimilar metal weld test plates with semi-elliptical surface crack. In one of the test plates, the fusion line lies around the surface points of the surface crack and the crack tips at the surface points have intruded into LAS. Material ahead of the crack tip at the deepest point is Ni-base alloy. In the other, the fusion line lies around the deepest point of the surface crack and the crack tip at the deepest point has intruded into LAS. Material ahead of the crack tip at the deepest point is LAS. The results of fracture tests using the former type of test plate reveal that the collapse load considering the proportion of ligament area of each material gives a good estimation for fracture load. That is, fracture assessment based on plastic collapse mode is applicable to the former type of test plate. It is also understood that a fracture assessment method based on the elastic-plastic fracture mode is suitable for the latter type of test plate.

  1. Characterization of the microstructure in Mg based alloy

    KAUST Repository

    Kutbee, Arwa T

    2013-06-01

    The cast products Mg–Sn based alloys are promising candidates for automobile industries, since they provide a cheap yet thermally stable alternative to existing alloys. One drawback of the Mg–Sn based alloys is their insufficient hardness. The hardenability can be improved by engineering the microstructure through additions of Zn to the base alloy and selective aging conditions. Therefore, detailed knowledge about the microstructural characteristics and the role of Zn to promote precipitation hardening is essential for age hardenable Mg-based alloys. In this work, microstructural investigation of the Mg–1.4Sn–1.3Zn–0.1Mn (at.%) precipitation system was performed using TEM. The chemical composition of the precipitates was analyzed using EDS. APT was employed to obtain precise chemical information on the distribution of Zn in the microstructure. It was found from microstructural studies that different precipitates with varying sizes and phases were present; lath-shaped precipitates of the Mg2Sn phase have an incoherent interface with the matrix, unlike the lath-shaped MgZn2 precipitates. Furthermore, nano-sized precipitates dispersed in the microstructure with short-lath morphology can either be enriched with Sn or Zn. On the other hand, APT analysis revealed the strong repulsion between Sn and Zn atoms in a portion of the analysis volume. However, larger reconstruction volume required to identify the role of Zn is still limited to the optimization of specimen preparation.

  2. Variations of color with alloying elements in Pd-free Au-Pt-based high noble dental alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, Takanobu; Takuma, Yasuko; Miura, Eri; Fujita, Takeshi; Hisatsune, Kunihiro

    2007-01-01

    The effects of alloying addition of a small amount of base metals (In, Sn, Fe, Zn) on color variations in Pd-free Au-Pt-based high noble dental alloys were investigated in terms of rectilinear and polar color coordinates. The ternary Au-Pt-X (X = In, Sn, Fe, Zn) and quaternary Au-Pt-In-Y (Y = Sn, Fe, Zn) alloys were prepared from high purity component metals. The amount of alloying base metals, X and Y, were restricted up to 2 at.%. The alloying addition of a small amount of Fe, In, Sn, to a binary Au-10 at.% Pt alloy (referred to as AP10) effectively increased chroma, C *. On the other hand, the addition of Zn to the parent alloy AP10 did not change color coordinates greatly. The increase in chroma in the present Au-Pt-based high noble alloys was attributed to the increase in the slope of spectral reflectance curve at its absorption edge near 515 nm. It was found that the addition of a small amount of Fe to the parent alloy AP10 markedly increased lightness, L *, and the addition of Sn gave a very light tint of red to the parent alloy. Although red-green chromaticity index a * contributed to chroma to some extent, contribution of yellow-blue chromaticity index b * was much greater in determining chroma in this Pd-free Au-Pt-based multi-component alloys. The present results are expected to be valuable in case color is to be taken into account in designing Pd-free Au-Pt-based high noble dental alloys

  3. Variations of color with alloying elements in Pd-free Au-Pt-based high noble dental alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiraishi, Takanobu [Department of Dental and Biomedical Materials Science, Unit of Basic Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-7-1 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8588 (Japan)]. E-mail: siraisi@nagasaki-u.ac.jp; Takuma, Yasuko [Department of Dental and Biomedical Materials Science, Unit of Basic Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-7-1 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8588 (Japan); Miura, Eri [Department of Dental and Biomedical Materials Science, Unit of Basic Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-7-1 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8588 (Japan); Fujita, Takeshi [Department of Dental and Biomedical Materials Science, Unit of Basic Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-7-1 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8588 (Japan); Hisatsune, Kunihiro [Department of Dental and Biomedical Materials Science, Unit of Basic Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-7-1 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8588 (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    The effects of alloying addition of a small amount of base metals (In, Sn, Fe, Zn) on color variations in Pd-free Au-Pt-based high noble dental alloys were investigated in terms of rectilinear and polar color coordinates. The ternary Au-Pt-X (X = In, Sn, Fe, Zn) and quaternary Au-Pt-In-Y (Y = Sn, Fe, Zn) alloys were prepared from high purity component metals. The amount of alloying base metals, X and Y, were restricted up to 2 at.%. The alloying addition of a small amount of Fe, In, Sn, to a binary Au-10 at.% Pt alloy (referred to as AP10) effectively increased chroma, C *. On the other hand, the addition of Zn to the parent alloy AP10 did not change color coordinates greatly. The increase in chroma in the present Au-Pt-based high noble alloys was attributed to the increase in the slope of spectral reflectance curve at its absorption edge near 515 nm. It was found that the addition of a small amount of Fe to the parent alloy AP10 markedly increased lightness, L *, and the addition of Sn gave a very light tint of red to the parent alloy. Although red-green chromaticity index a * contributed to chroma to some extent, contribution of yellow-blue chromaticity index b * was much greater in determining chroma in this Pd-free Au-Pt-based multi-component alloys. The present results are expected to be valuable in case color is to be taken into account in designing Pd-free Au-Pt-based high noble dental alloys.

  4. Poor glass-forming ability of Fe-based alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, H.J.; Hu, L.N.; Zhao, X.

    2017-01-01

    processes. By using the concept of fluid cluster and supercooled liquid fragility in metallic liquids, it has been found that this dynamic transition makes the Fe-based supercooled liquids become more unstable, which leads to the poor GFA of Fe-based alloys. Further, it has been found that the degree...

  5. Physical and welding metallurgy of Gd-enriched austenitic alloys for spent nuclear fuel applications. Part II, nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizia, Ronald E.; Michael, Joseph Richard; Williams, David Brian; Dupont, John Neuman; Robino, Charles Victor

    2004-01-01

    The physical and welding a metallurgy of gadolinium- (Gd-) enriched Ni-based alloys has been examined using a combination of differential thermal analysis, hot ductility testing. Varestraint testing, and various microstructural characterization techniques. Three different matrix compositions were chosen that were similar to commercial Ni-Cr-Mo base alloys (UNS N06455, N06022, and N06059). A ternary Ni-Cr-Gd alloy was also examined. The Gd level of each alloy was ∼2 wt-%. All the alloys initiated solidification by formation of primary austenite and terminated solidification by a Liquid γ + Ni 5 Gd eutectic-type reaction at ∼1270 C. The solidification temperature ranges of the alloys varied from ∼100 to 130 C (depending on alloy composition). This is a substantial reduction compared to the solidification temperature range to Gd-enriched stainless steels (360 to 400 C) that terminate solidification by a peritectic reaction at ∼1060 C. The higher-temperature eutectic reaction that occurs in the Ni-based alloys is accompanied by significant improvements in hot ductility and solidification cracking resistance. The results of this research demonstrate that Gd-enriched Ni-based alloys are excellent candidate materials for nuclear criticality control in spent nuclear fuel storage applications that require production and fabrication of large amounts of material through conventional ingot metallurgy and fusion welding techniques

  6. Degradation mode survey candidate titanium-base alloys for Yucca Mountain project waste package materials. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gdowski, G.E.

    1997-12-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) is evaluating materials from which to fabricate high-level nuclear waste containers (hereafter called waste packages) for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Because of their very good corrosion resistance in aqueous environments titanium alloys are considered for container materials. Consideration of titanium alloys is understandable since about one-third (in 1978) of all titanium produced is used in applications where corrosion resistance is of primary importance. Consequently, there is a considerable amount of data which demonstrates that titanium alloys, in general, but particularly the commercial purity and dilute {alpha} grades, are highly corrosion resistant. This report will discuss the corrosion characteristics of Ti Gr 2, 7, 12, and 16. The more highly alloyed titanium alloys which were developed by adding a small Pd content to higher strength Ti alloys in order to give them better corrosion resistance will not be considered in this report. These alloys are all two phase ({alpha} and {beta}) alloys. The palladium addition while making these alloys more corrosion resistant does not give them the corrosion resistance of the single phase {alpha} and near-{alpha} (Ti Gr 12) alloys.

  7. Hot Corrosion of Cobalt-Base Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-01

    Alloys 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on revet -se tside lf necessary and identify by block number) ~ lThe sodium sulfate-induced hot corrosion of cobalt and...Figures 12 and 13. The Na2 SO 4 was observed to form puddles on the oxide-covered specimen surface. An oxide slag was usually suspended in the... slag (black arrows) were suspended (30 sees at 1000°C in air). b) After washing the Na2SO 4 from the specimen, the exposed oxide surface was highly

  8. Surface alloying of nickel based superalloys by laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, G.P.; Garcia, I.; Damborenea, J.J. de

    1998-01-01

    Ni based superalloys present a high oxidation resistance at high temperature as well as good mechanical properties. But new technology developments force to research in this materials to improve their properties at high temperature. In this work, two Ni based superalloys (Nimonic 80A and Inconel 600) were surface alloyed with aluminium using a high power laser. SEM and EDX were used to study the microstructure of the obtained coatings. Alloyed specimens were tested at 1.273 K between 24 and 250 h. Results showed the generation of a protective and continuous coating of alumina on the laser treated specimens surface that can improve oxidation resistance. (Author) 8 refs

  9. Melting and casting of FeAl-based cast alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, V.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Wilkening, D. [Columbia Falls Aluminum Co., Columbia Falls, MT (United States); Liebetrau, J.; Mackey, B. [AFFCO, L.L.C., Anaconda, MT (United States)

    1998-11-01

    The FeAl-based intermetallic alloys are of great interest because of their low density, low raw material cost, and excellent resistance to high-temperature oxidation, sulfidation, carburization, and molten salts. The applications based on these unique properties of FeAl require methods to melt and cast these alloys into complex-shaped castings and centrifugal cast tubes. This paper addresses the melting-related issues and the effect of chemistry on the microstructure and hardness of castings. It is concluded that the use of the Exo-Melt{trademark} process for melting and the proper selection of the aluminum melt stock can result in porosity-free castings. The FeAl alloys can be melted and cast from the virgin and revert stock. A large variation in carbon content of the alloys is possible before the precipitation of graphite flakes occurs. Titanium is a very potent addition to refine the grain size of castings. A range of complex sand castings and two different sizes of centrifugal cast tubes of the alloy have already been cast.

  10. Noise temperature measurements for the determination of the thermodynamic temperature of the melting point of palladium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edler, F.; Kuhne, M.; Tegeler, E. [Bundesanstalt Physikalisch-Technische, Berlin (Germany)

    2004-02-01

    The thermodynamic temperature of the melting point of palladium in air was measured by noise thermometric methods. The temperature measurement was based on noise comparison using a two-channel arrangement to eliminate parasitic noises of electronic components by cross correlation. Three miniature fixed points filled with pure palladium (purity: {approx}99.99%, mass: {approx}90 g) were used to realize the melts of the fixed point metal. The measured melting temperature of palladium in air amounted to 1552.95 deg C {+-} 0.21 K (k = 2). This temperature is 0.45 K lower than the temperature of the melting point of palladium measured by radiation thermometry. (authors)

  11. Nanomolar electrochemical detection of caffeic acid in fortified wine samples based on gold/palladium nanoparticles decorated graphene flakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangavelu, Kokulnathan; Raja, Nehru; Chen, Shen-Ming; Liao, Wei-Cheng

    2017-09-01

    Amalgamation of noble metal nanomaterials on graphene flakes potentially paves one way to improve their physicochemical properties. This paper deals with the simultaneous electrochemical deposition of gold and palladium nanoparticles on graphene flakes (Au/PdNPs-GRF) for the sensitive determination of caffeic acid (CA). The physiochemical properties of the prepared Au/PdNPs-GRF was characterized by using numerous analytical techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The enhanced electrochemical determination of CA at Au/PdNPs deposition on GRF were studied by using cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. In results, Au/PdNPs-GRF electrode exhibited an excellent electrocatalytic activity towards CA with wide linear range and low limit of detection of 0.03-938.97µM and 6nM, respectively. Eventually, the Au/PdNPs-GRF was found as a selective and stable active material for the sensing of CA. In addition, the proposed sensor showed the adequate results in real sample analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Porous Nb-Ti based alloy produced from plasma spheroidized powder

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Qijun; Zhang, Lin; Wei, Dongbin; Ren, Shubin; Qu, Xuanhui

    2017-01-01

    Spherical Nb-Ti based alloy powder was prepared by the combination of plasma spheroidization and mechanical alloying. Phase constituents, microstructure and surface state of the powder, and pore characteristics of the resulting porous alloy were investigated. The results show that the undissolved W and V in the mechanically alloyed powder is fully alloyed after spheroidization, and single β phase is achieved. Particle size of the spheroidized powder is in the range of 20–110 μm. With the decr...

  13. Techniques for intergranular crack formation and assessment in alloy 600 base and alloy 182 weld metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tae Hyun; Hwang, Il Soon; Kim, Hong Deok; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2015-01-01

    A technique developed to produce artificial intergranular stress corrosion cracks in structural components was applied to thick, forged alloy 600 base and alloy 182 weld metals for use in the qualification of nondestructive examination techniques for welded components in nuclear power plants. An externally controlled procedure was demonstrated to produce intergranular stress corrosion cracks that are comparable to service-induced cracks in both the base and weld metals. During the process of crack generation, an online direct current potential drop method using array probes was used to measure and monitor the sizes and shapes of the cracks. A microstructural characterization of the produced cracks revealed realistic conformation of the crack faces unlike those in machined notches produced by an electrodischarge machine or simple fatigue loading using a universal testing machine. A comparison with a destructive metallographic examination showed that the characteristics, orientations, and sizes of the intergranular cracks produced in this study are highly reproducible.

  14. Plate-shaped transformation products in zirconium-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, S.; Dey, G.K.; Srivastava, D.

    1997-01-01

    Plate-shaped products resulting from martensitic, diffusional, and mixed mode transformations in zirconium-base alloys are compared in the present study. These alloys are particularly suitable for the comparison in view of the fact that the lattice correspondence between the parent β (bcc) and the product α (hcp) or γ-hydride (fct) phases are remarkably similar for different types of transformations. Crystallographic features such as orientation relations, habit planes, and interface structures associated with these transformations have been compared, with a view toward examining whether the transformation mechanisms have characteristic imprints on these experimental observables

  15. Lave phase precipitation in Nb- and Ti-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewari, R.; Vishwanadh, B.; Dey, G.K.

    2010-01-01

    In multicomponent Nb-based alloys system, which are potential candidate materials for high temperature applications, the presence of Laves phase was noticed along with the silicides in equilibrium with the soft β-matrix. In Ti-Cr alloys, which show a tendency for inverse melting, the formation of the phase was noticed in the β matrix upon aging. The Laves phase being topologically closed pack structure appears to have strong tendency for the formation provided the criterion of atomic size factor is met

  16. Advanced nickel base alloys for high strength, corrosion applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinn, J.E.

    1998-11-03

    Improved nickel-base alloys of enhanced strength and corrosion resistance, produced by atomization of an alloy melt under an inert gas atmosphere and of composition 0--20Fe, 10--30Cr, 2--12Mo, 6 max. Nb, 0.05--3 V, 0.08 max. Mn, 0.5 max. Si, less than 0.01 each of Al and Ti, less than 0.05 each of P and S, 0.01--0.08C, less than 0.2N, 0.1 max. 0, bal. Ni. 3 figs.

  17. Effect of B addition to hypereutectic Ti-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louzguina-Luzgina, Larissa V.; Louzguine-Luzgin, Dmitri V.; Inoue, Akihisa

    2009-01-01

    The structure and mechanical properties of Ti-Fe-B and Ti-Fe-Co-B alloys produced in the shape of the arc-melted ingots of about 25 mm diameter and 10 mm height are studied. The hypereutectic alloys showed excellent compressive mechanical properties. The structures of the high-strength and ductile hypereutectic alloys studied by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy were found to consist of the primary cubic cP2 intermetallic compound (TiFe-phase or a solid solution on its base) and a dispersed eutectic consisting of this cP2 intermetallic compound + BCC cI2 β-Ti supersaturated solid solution phase. The addition of B increased mechanical strength. Si causes embrittlement owing to the formation of alternative intermetallic compounds. The structure and deformation behaviour were studied

  18. Improved Mg-based alloys for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapru, K.; Ming, L.; Stetson, N.T.; Evans, J. [Energy Conversion Devices, Inc., Troy, MI (United States)

    1998-08-01

    The overall objective of this on-going work is to develop low temperature alloys capable of reversibly storing at least 3 wt.% hydrogen, allowing greater than for 2 wt.% at the system level which is required by most applications. Surface modification of Mg can be used to improve its H-sorption kinetics. The authors show here that the same Mg-transition metal-based multi-component alloy when prepared by melt-spinning results in a more homogeneous materials with a higher plateau pressure as compared to preparing the material by mechanical grinding. They have also shown that mechanically alloyed Mg{sub 50}Al{sub 45}Zn{sub 5} results in a sample having a higher plateau pressure.

  19. Characterization of the microstructure in Mg based alloy

    KAUST Repository

    Kutbee, Arwa T

    2013-01-01

    hardening is essential for age hardenable Mg-based alloys. In this work, microstructural investigation of the Mg–1.4Sn–1.3Zn–0.1Mn (at.%) precipitation system was performed using TEM. The chemical composition of the precipitates was analyzed using EDS. APT

  20. Improved recovery of trace amounts of gold (III), palladium (II) and platinum (IV) from large amounts of associated base metals using anion-exchange resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsubara, I. [Lab. of Chemistry, Tokyo Women' s Medical Univ. (Japan); Takeda, Y.; Ishida, K. [Lab. of Chemistry, Nippon Medical School, Kawasaki-shi, Kanagawa-ken (Japan)

    2000-02-01

    The adsorption and desorption behaviors of gold (III), palladium (II) and platinum (IV) were surveyed in column chromatographic systems consisting of one of the conventional anion-exchange resins of large ion-exchange capacity and dilute thiourea solutions. The noble metals were strongly adsorbed on the anion-exchange resins from dilute hydrochloric acid, while most base metals did not show any marked adsorbability. These facts made it possible to separate the noble metals from a large quantity of base metals such as Ag (I), Al (III), Co (II), Cu (II), Fe (III), Mn (II), Ni (II), Pb (II), and Zn (II). Although it used to be very difficult to desorb the noble metals from the resins used, the difficulty was easily overcome by use of dilute thiourea solutions as an eluant. In the present study, as little as 1.00 {mu}g of the respective noble metals was quantitatively separated and recovered from as much as ca. 10 mg of a number of metals on a small column by elution with a small amount of dilute thiourea solution. The present systems should be applicable to the separation, concentration and recovery of traces of the noble metals from a number of base metals coexisting in a more extended range of amounts and ratios. (orig.)

  1. Elimination of Iron Based Particles in Al-Si Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolibruchová D.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with influence on segregation of iron based phases on the secondary alloy AlSi7Mg0.3 microstructure by chrome. Iron is the most common and harmful impurity in aluminum casting alloys and has long been associated with an increase of casting defects. In generally, iron is associated with the formation of Fe-rich phases. It is impossible to remove iron from melt by standard operations, but it is possible to eliminate its negative influence by addition some other elements that affect the segregation of intermetallics in less harmful type. Realization of experiments and results of analysis show new view on solubility of iron based phases during melt preparation with higher iron content and influence of chrome as iron corrector of iron based phases. By experimental work were used three different amounts of AlCr20 master alloy a three different temperature of chill mold. Our experimental work confirmed that chrome can be used as an iron corrector in Al-Si alloy, due to the change of intermetallic phases and shortening their length.

  2. Highly corrosion resistant zirconium based alloy for reactor structural material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Yoichi.

    1996-01-01

    The alloy of the present invention is a zirconium based alloy comprising tin (Sn), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and iron (Fe) in zirconium (Zr). The amount of silicon (Si) as an impurity is not more than 60ppm. It is preferred that Sn is from 0.9 to 1.5wt%, that of Cr is from 0.05 to 0.15wt%, and (Fe + Ni) is from 0.17 to 0.5wt%. If not less than 0.12wt% of Fe is added, resistance against nodular corrosion is improved. The upper limit of Fe is preferably 0.40wt% from a view point of uniform suppression for the corrosion. The nodular corrosion can be suppressed by reducing the amount of Si-rich deposition product in the zirconium based alloy. Accordingly, a highly corrosion resistant zirconium based alloy improved for the corrosion resistance of zircaloy-2 and usable for a fuel cladding tube of a BWR type reactor can be obtained. (I.N.)

  3. Design of supported bi-metallic nanoparticles based on Platinum and Palladium using Surface Organometallic Chemistry (SOMC)

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Shareef, Reem A.

    2017-11-01

    Well-defined silica supported bimetallic catalysts Pt100-x Pdx (where x is the molar ratio of Pd) are prepared by Surface Organometallic Chemistry (SOMC) via controlled decomposition of Pd2(allyl)2Cl2 on Pt/SiO2. For comparison purposes, Pt100-x Pdx bimetallic catalysts is also prepared by ion-exchange (IE). According to the results of STEM, XAS and H2 chemisorption, all bimetallic nanoparticles, prepared using neither SOMC nor IE, produce discrete formation of monometallic species (either Pt or Pd). Most catalysts exhibit a narrow particle size distribution with an average diameter ranging from 1 to 3 nm for samples prepared by IE and from 2 to 5 nm for the ones synthesized by SOMC. For all catalysts investigated in the present work, iso-butane reaction with hydrogen under differential conditions (conversions below 5%) leads to the formation of methane and propane (hydrogenolysis), n-butane (isomerization), and traces of iso-butylene (dehydrogenation). The total rate of reaction decreases with increasing the Pd loading for both catalysts series as a result of decreasing turnover rate (expressed as moles converted per total surface metal per second) of both isomerization and hydrogenolysis. In the case of Pt100-x Pdx(SOMC) catalysts, the results suggest a selective coverage of Pt (100) surface by a Pd layer, followed by a buildup of Pd overcoat onto a Pd layer assuming that each metal keeps its intrinsic catalytic properties. There is no mutual electronic charge transfer between the two metals (DFT). For the PtPd catalysts prepared by IE, the catalytic behavior cannot simply be explained by a surface coverage of highly active Pt metal by less active Pd (not observed), suggesting there is formation of a surface alloy between Pt and Pd collaborated by EXAFS and DFT. The catalytic results are explained by a simple structure activity relationship based on the previously proposed mechanism of C-H bond and C-C Bond activation and cleavage for iso-butane hydrogenolysis

  4. Zirconium-based alloys, nuclear fuel rods and nuclear reactors including such alloys, and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Robert Dominick

    2014-09-09

    Zirconium-based metal alloy compositions comprise zirconium, a first additive in which the permeability of hydrogen decreases with increasing temperatures at least over a temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C., and a second additive having a solubility in zirconium over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. At least one of a solubility of the first additive in the second additive over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. and a solubility of the second additive in the first additive over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. is higher than the solubility of the second additive in zirconium over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. Nuclear fuel rods include a cladding material comprising such metal alloy compositions, and nuclear reactors include such fuel rods. Methods are used to fabricate such zirconium-based metal alloy compositions.

  5. Electrochemical hydrogen storage alloys and batteries fabricated from Mg containing base alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovshinsky, Stanford R.; Fetcenko, Michael A.

    1996-01-01

    An electrochemical hydrogen storage material comprising: (Base Alloy).sub.a M.sub.b where, Base Alloy is an alloy of Mg and Ni in a ratio of from about 1:2 to about 2:1, preferably 1:1; M represents at least one modifier element chosen from the group consisting of Co, Mn, Al, Fe, Cu, Mo, W, Cr, V, Ti, Zr, Sn, Th, Si, Zn, Li, Cd, Na, Pb, La, Mm, and Ca; b is greater than 0.5, preferably 2.5, atomic percent and less than 30 atomic percent; and a+b=100 atomic percent. Preferably, the at least one modifier is chosen from the group consisting of Co, Mn, Al, Fe, and Cu and the total mass of the at least one modifier element is less than 25 atomic percent of the final composition. Most preferably, the total mass of said at least one modifier element is less than 20 atomic percent of the final composition.

  6. Alloying behavior of iron, gold and silver in AlCoCrCuNi-based equimolar high-entropy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, U.S.; Hung, U.D.; Yeh, J.W.; Chen, S.K.; Huang, Y.S.; Yang, C.C.

    2007-01-01

    High-entropy alloys are newly developed alloys that are composed, by definition, of at least five principal elements with concentrations in the range of 5-35 at.%. Therefore, the alloying behavior of any given principal element is significantly affected by all the other principal elements present. In order to elucidate this further, the influence of iron, silver and gold addition on the microstructure and hardness of AlCoCrCuNi-based equimolar alloys has been examined. The as-cast AlCoCrCuNi base alloy is found to have a dendritic structure, of which only solid solution FCC and BCC phases can be observed. The BCC dendrite has a chemical composition close to that of the nominal alloy, with a deficiency in copper however, which is found to segregate and form a FCC Cu-rich interdendrite. The microstructure of the iron containing alloys is similar to that of the base alloy. It is found that both of these aforementioned alloys have hardnesses of about 420 HV, which is equated to their similar microstructures. The as-cast ingot forms two layers of distinct composition with the addition of silver. These layers, which are gold and silver in color, are determined to have a hypoeutectic Ag-Cu composition and a multielement mixture of the other principal elements, respectively. This indicates the chemical incompatibility of silver with the other principal elements. The hardnesses of the gold (104 HV) and silver layers (451 HV) are the lowest and highest of the alloy systems studied. This is attributed to the hypoeutectic Ag-Cu composition of the former and the reduced copper content of the latter. Only multielement mixtures, i.e. without copper segregation, form in the gold containing alloy. Thus, it may be said that gold acts as a 'mixing agent' between copper and the other elements. Although several of the atom pairs in the gold containing alloy have positive enthalpies, thermodynamic considerations show that the high entropy contribution is sufficient to counterbalance

  7. Corrosion resistance of Fe-based amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botta, W.J.; Berger, J.E.; Kiminami, C.S.; Roche, V.; Nogueira, R.P.; Bolfarini, C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: ► We report corrosion properties of Fe-based amorphous alloys in different media. ► The Cr-containing alloys had corrosion resistance close to that of Pt in all media. ► The wide range of electrochemical stability is relevant in many industrial domains. -- Abstract: Fe-based amorphous alloys can be designed to present an attractive combination of properties with high corrosion resistance and high mechanical strength. Such properties are clearly adequate for their technological use as coatings, for example, in steel pipes. In this work, we studied the corrosion properties of amorphous ribbons of the following Fe-based compositions: Fe 66 B 30 Nb 4 , [(Fe 0.6 Co 0.4 ) 0.75 B 0.2 Si 0.05 ] 96 Nb 4 , [(Fe 0.7 Co 0.3 ) 0.75 B 0.2 Si 0.05 ] 96 Nb 4 , Fe 56 Cr 23 Ni 5.7 B 16 , Fe 53 Cr 22 Ni 5.6 B 19 and Fe 50 Cr 22 Ni 5.4 B 23 . The ribbons were obtained by rapid solidification using the melt-spinning process, and were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and optical (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The corrosion properties were evaluated by corrosion potential survey and potentiodynamic polarization. The Cr containing alloys, that is the FeCrNiB type of alloys, showed the best corrosion resistance properties with the formation of a stable passive film that ensured a very large passivation plateau

  8. High temperature cathodic charging of hydrogen in zirconium alloys and iron and nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, J.T.; De, P.K.; Gadiyar, H.S.

    1990-01-01

    These investigations lead to the development of a new technique for charging hydrogen into metals and alloys. In this technique a mixture of sulfates and bisulfates of sodium and potassium is kept saturated with water at 250-300degC in an open pyrex glass beaker and electrolysed using platinum anode and the material to be charged as the cathode. Most of the studies were carried out on Zr alloys. It is shown that because of the high hydrogen flux available at the surface and the high diffusivity of hydrogen in metals at these temperatures the materials pick up hydrogen faster and more uniformly than the conventional electrolytic charging at room temperature and high temperature autoclaving in LiOH solutions. Chemical analysis, metallographic examination and XRD studies confirm this. This technique has been used to charge hydrogen into many iron and nickel base austentic alloys, which are very resistant to hydrogen pick up and to H-embrittlement. Since this involved a novel method of electrolysing water, the hydrogen/deuterium isotopic ratio has been studied. At this temperatures the D/H ratio in the evolved hydrogen gas was found to be closer to the value in the liquid water, which means a smaller separation factor. This confirm the earlier observation that separation factor decreases with increase of temperature. (author). 16 refs., 21 fi gs., 6 tabs

  9. Glass formation and crystallization in Zr based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, G. K.

    2011-01-01

    Metallic glasses have come in to prominence in recent times because their nanocrystalline atomic arrangement imparts many useful and unusual properties to these metallic solids. Though these have been produced for the last four decades, the necessity of rapid solidification at cooling rates of 10 5 K/sec or higher for their production, have restricted their geometry to thin ribbons and prevented their application to many areas despite their excellent properties. It has been shown in recent investigations that, many Zr base multicomponent alloys can be obtained in glassy state by cooling at much lower rate typically 10 2 to 10 3 K/sec. This has enabled production of these alloys in the glassy stat in bulk. By now, bulk metallic glasses have been produced in Mg, Ln, Zr, Fe, Pd-Cu, Pd-Fe, Ti and Ni- based alloys. Production of these glasses in bulk has opened avenue for their application in many areas where their excellent mechanical properties an corrosion resistance can be exploited. The transformation of the amorphous phase in these alloys to one or more crystalline phases, is an interesting phase transformation and can lead to formation of crystals in a variety of morphologies and a wide range of crystal sizes, including nanometer size crystals or nanocrystals. The bulk amorphous alloys exhibit higher fracture stress, combined with higher hardness and lower young's modulus than those of any crystalline alloy. The Zr- and Ti-based bulk amorphous alloy exhibit high bending and flexural strength values which are typically 2.0 to 2.5 time higher than those for crystalline counterparts. The composites of bulk metallic glass containing crystalline phases have been found to have special properties. This has been demonstrated in the case of composites of bulk metallic glass and tungsten wires wit the glass forming the matrix. Such a composite has a very high impact strength and is especially suitable for application as an armour penetrator in various types of shells used

  10. High temperature soldering of the VT14 titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besednyj, V.A.

    1978-01-01

    Two methods of brazing the VT14 alloys have been investigated, as well as the effect of annealing and heating during brazing and on mechanical properties of this alloy. Contact reaction brazing using a palladium layer has been shown to be applicable for simple-shape products, while capillary brazing using Cu-Ti, Ni-Ti and Fe-Ti brazing alloy systems, for complex-shape products. Brazed joints strength is similar to the strength of the VT14 alloy. Heating during brazing (960 deg - 1160 deg C) and the following annealing (900 deg C) have but a slight effect on the properties of the base metal, reducing strength by 2-5% and increasing ductility by 10-20%

  11. Oxide characterization and hydrogen behaviors of Zr-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. S.; Kim, D. J.; Kwon, S. H.; Lee, H. S.; Oh, S. J.; Yim, B. J.; Son, S. B.; Yun, S. P.

    2006-03-01

    The work scope and contents of the research are as follows : basic properties of zirconium alloys, hydrogen pick-up mechanism of zirconium alloy, effects of hydride on the corrosion behaviors of zirconium alloys, estimation on stress of oxide layer in the zirconium alloy, microstructure and characteristic of oxide in pre-hydrided zirconium alloys

  12. Effect of Microstructure and Alloy Chemistry on Hydrogen Embrittlement of Precipitation-Hardened Ni-Based Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obasi, G. C.; Zhang, Z.; Sampath, D.; Morana, Roberto; Akid, R.; Preuss, M.

    2018-04-01

    The sensitivity to hydrogen embrittlement (HE) has been studied in respect of precipitation size distributions in two nickel-based superalloys: Alloy 718 (UNS N07718) and Alloy 945X (UNS N09946). Quantitative microstructure analysis was carried out by the combination of scanning and transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). While Alloy 718 is mainly strengthened by γ″, and therefore readily forms intergranular δ phase, Alloy 945X has been designed to avoid δ formation by reducing Nb levels providing high strength through a combination of γ' and γ″. Slow strain rate tensile tests were carried out for different microstructural conditions in air and after cathodic hydrogen (H) charging. HE sensitivity was determined based on loss of elongation due to the H uptake in comparison to elongation to failure in air. Results showed that both alloys exhibited an elevated sensitivity to HE. Fracture surfaces of the H precharged material showed quasi-cleavage and transgranular cracks in the H-affected region, while ductile failure was observed toward the center of the sample. The crack origins observed on the H precharged samples exhibited quasi-cleavage with slip traces at high magnification. The sensitivity is slightly reduced for Alloy 718, by coarsening γ″ and reducing the overall strength of the alloy. However, on further coarsening of γ″, which promotes continuous decoration of grain boundaries with δ phase, the embrittlement index rose again indicating a change of hydrogen embrittlement mechanism from hydrogen-enhanced local plasticity (HELP) to hydrogen-enhanced decohesion embrittlement (HEDE). In contrast, Alloy 945X displayed a strong correlation between strength, based on precipitation size and embrittlement index, due to the absence of any significant formation of δ phase for the investigated microstructures. For the given test parameters, Alloy 945X did not display any reduced sensitivity to HE compared with

  13. Palladium nanoparticle anchored polyphosphazene nanotubes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    607–610. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Palladium ... 2Department of Chemistry, APA College of Arts and Culture, Palani, Tamil Nadu 624 601, India. 3Department of .... K Dinakaran acknowledges the financial support from. Department of ...

  14. Nitriding behavior of Ni and Ni-based binary alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonovic, Matej

    2015-01-15

    Gaseous nitriding is a prominent thermochemical surface treatment process which can improve various properties of metallic materials such as mechanical, tribological and/or corrosion properties. This process is predominantly performed by applying NH{sub 3}+H{sub 2} containing gas atmospheres serving as the nitrogen donating medium at temperatures between 673 K and 873 K (400 C and 600 C). NH{sub 3} decomposes at the surface of the metallic specimen and nitrogen diffuses into the surface adjacent region of the specimen whereas hydrogen remains in the gas atmosphere. One of the most important parameters characterizing a gaseous nitriding process is the so-called nitriding potential (r{sub N}) which determines the chemical potential of nitrogen provided by the gas phase. The nitriding potential is defined as r{sub N} = p{sub NH{sub 3}}/p{sub H{sub 2}{sup 3/2}} where p{sub NH{sub 3}} and p{sub H{sub 2}} are the partial pressures of the NH{sub 3} and H{sub 2} in the nitriding atmosphere. In contrast with nitriding of α-Fe where the nitriding potential is usually in the range between 0.01 and 1 atm{sup -1/2}, nitriding of Ni and Ni-based alloys requires employing nitriding potentials higher than 100 atm{sup -1/2} and even up to ∞ (nitriding in pure NH{sub 3} atmosphere). This behavior is compatible with decreased thermodynamic stability of the 3d-metal nitrides with increasing atomic number. Depending on the nitriding conditions (temperature, nitriding potential and treatment time), different phases are formed at the surface of the Ni-based alloys. By applying very high nitriding potential, formation of hexagonal Ni{sub 3}N at the surface of the specimen (known as external nitriding) leads to the development of a compound layer, which may improve tribological properties. Underneath the Ni{sub 3}N compound layer, two possibilities exist: (i) alloying element precipitation within the nitrided zone (known as internal nitriding) and/or (ii) development of metastable and

  15. In vitro corrosion of dental Au-based casting alloys in polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasusuki, Norio; Ida, Yusuke; Hirose, Yukito; Ochi, Morio; Endo, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    The corrosion and tarnish behaviors of two Au-based casting alloys (ISO type 1 and type 4 Au alloys) and their constituent pure metals, Au, Ag, Cu, Pt, and Pd in a polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine solution were examined. The two Au alloys actively corroded, and the main anodic reaction for both was dissolution of Au as AuI₂(-). The amount of Au released from the ISO type 1 Au alloy was significantly larger than that from the ISO type 4 Au alloy (Palloy exhibited higher susceptibility to tarnishing than the type 4 alloy. The corrosion forms of the two Au alloys were found to be completely different, i.e., the type 1 alloy exhibited the corrosion attack over the entire exposed surface with a little irregularity whereas the type 4 alloy exhibited typical intergranular corrosion, which was caused by local cells produced by segregation of Pd and Pt.

  16. Three dimensional atom probe study of Ni-base alloy/low alloy steel dissimilar metal weld interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Kyoung Joon; Shin, Sang Hun; Kim, Jong Jin; Jung, Ju Ang; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Three dimensional atom probe tomography (3D APT) is applied to characterize the dissimilar metal joint which was welded between the Ni-based alloy, Alloy 690 and the low alloy steel, A533 Gr. B, with Alloy 152 filler metal. While there is some difficulty in preparing the specimen for the analysis, the 3D APT has a truly quantitative analytical capability to characterize nanometer scale particles in metallic materials, thus its application to the microstructural analysis in multicomponent metallic materials provides critical information on the mechanism of nanoscale microstructural evolution. In this study, the procedure for 3D APT specimen preparation was established, and those for dissimilar metal weld interface were prepared near the fusion boundary by a focused ion beam. The result of the analysis in this study showed the precipitation of chromium carbides near the fusion boundary between A533 Gr. B and Alloy 152.

  17. Three dimensional atom probe study of Ni-base alloy/low alloy steel dissimilar metal weld interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyoung Joon; Shin, Sang Hun; Kim, Jong Jin; Jung, Ju Ang; Kim, Ji Hyun [Interdisciplinary School of Green Energy, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Three dimensional atom probe tomography (3D APT) is applied to characterize the dissimilar metal joint which was welded between the Ni-based alloy, Alloy 690 and the low alloy steel, A533 Gr. B, with Alloy 152 filler metal. While there is some difficulty in preparing the specimen for the analysis, the 3D APT has a truly quantitative analytical capability to characterize nanometer scale particles in metallic materials, thus its application to the microstructural analysis in multicomponent metallic materials provides critical information on the mechanism of nanoscale microstructural evolution. In this study, the procedure for 3D APT specimen preparation was established, and those for dissimilar metal weld interface were prepared near the fusion boundary by a focused ion beam. The result of the analysis in this study showed the precipitation of chromium carbides near the fusion boundary between A533 Gr. B and Alloy 152.

  18. Aqueous electrochemistry of precipitation-hardened nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoya, K.; Ballinger, R.; Prybylowski, J.; Hwang, I.S.

    1990-11-01

    An investigation has been conducted to explore the importance of local crack tip electrochemical processes in precipitation-hardened Ni-Cr-Fe alloys driven by galvanic couples between grain boundary precipitates and the local matrix. The electrochemical behavior of γ' [Ni 3 (Al,Ti)] has been determined as a function of titanium concentration, temperature, and solution pH. The electrochemical behavior of Ni-Cr-Fe solid solution alloys has been investigated as a function of chromium content for a series of 10 Fe-variable Cr (6--18%)-balance Ni alloys, temperature, and pH. The investigation was conducted in neutral and pH3 solutions over the temperature range 25--300 degree C. The results of the investigation show that the electrochemical behavior of these systems is a strong function of temperature and composition. This is especially true for the γ' [Ni 3 (Al,Ti)] system where a transition from active/passive behavior to purely active behavior and back again occurs over a narrow temperature range near 100 degree C. Behavior of this system was also found to be a strong function of titanium concentration. In all cases, the Ni 3 (Al,Ti) phase was active with respect to the matrix. The peak in activity near 100 degree C correlates well with accelerated crack growth in this temperature range, observed in nickel-base alloy X-750 heat treated to precipitate γ' on the grain boundaries. 20 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Tungsten wire-nickel base alloy composite development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentnall, W. D.; Moracz, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    Further development and evaluation of refractory wire reinforced nickel-base alloy composites is described. Emphasis was placed on evaluating thermal fatigue resistance as a function of matrix alloy composition, fabrication variables and reinforcement level and distribution. Tests for up to 1,000 cycles were performed and the best system identified in this current work was 50v/o W/NiCrAlY. Improved resistance to thermal fatigue damage would be anticipated for specimens fabricated via optimized processing schedules. Other properties investigated included 1,093 C (2,000 F) stress rupture strength, impact resistance and static air oxidation. A composite consisting of 30v/o W-Hf-C alloy fibers in a NiCrAlY alloy matrix was shown to have a 100-hour stress rupture strength at 1,093 C (2,000 F) of 365 MN/square meters (53 ksi) or a specific strength advantage of about 3:1 over typical D.S. eutectics.

  20. Investigation of the Precipitation Behavior in Aluminum Based Alloys

    KAUST Repository

    Khushaim, Muna S.

    2015-11-30

    The transportation industries are constantly striving to achieve minimum weight to cut fuel consumption and improve overall performance. Different innovative design strategies have been placed and directed toward weight saving combined with good mechanical behavior. Among different materials, aluminum-based alloys play a key role in modern engineering and are widely used in construction components because of their light weight and superior mechanical properties. Introduction of different nano-structure features can improve the service and the physical properties of such alloys. For intelligent microstructure design in the complex Al-based alloy, it is important to gain a deep physical understanding of the correlation between the microstructure and macroscopic properties, and thus atom probe tomography with its exceptional capabilities of spatially resolution and quantitative chemical analyses is presented as a sophisticated analytical tool to elucidate the underlying process of precipitation phenomena in aluminum alloys. A complete study examining the influence of common industrial heat treatment on the precipitation kinetics and phase transformations of complex aluminum alloy is performed. The qualitative evaluation results of the precipitation kinetics and phase transformation as functions of the heat treatment conditions are translated to engineer a complex aluminum alloy. The study demonstrates the ability to construct a robust microstructure with an excellent hardness behavior by applying a low-energy-consumption, cost-effective method. The proposed strategy to engineer complex aluminum alloys is based on both mechanical strategy and intelligent microstructural design. An intelligent microstructural design requires an investigation of the different strengthen phases, such as T1 (Al2CuLi), θ′(Al2Cu), β′(Al3Zr) and δ′(Al3Li). Therefore, the early stage of phase decomposition is examined in different binary Al-Li and Al-Cu alloys together with different

  1. Sensitization to palladium in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muris, Joris; Goossens, An; Gonçalo, Margarida

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently, sodium tetrachloropalladate (Na2 PdCl4 ) was found to be a more sensitive palladium patch test allergen than palladium dichloride (PdCl2 ). OBJECTIVES: To determine the optimal test concentration of Na2 PdCl4 , to evaluate the prevalence of palladium sensitization with Na2 P...... patch test concentration. Sensitization to palladium is almost as prevalent as sensitization to nickel. The sex distribution is different between nickel-sensitized and palladium-sensitized patients, suggesting different sources of exposure.......Cl4 and PdCl2 , and to compare the results with nickel sensitization in a European multicentre study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In addition to the European or national baseline series including NiSO4 ·6H2 0 5% pet., consecutive patients were tested with PdCl2 and Na2 PdCl4 2%, 3% and 4% pet. in eight...... European dermatology clinics. The age and sex distributions were also evaluated in patients sensitized to nickel and palladium. RESULTS: In total, 1651 patients were tested. Relative to 3% Na2 PdCl4 , 4% Na2 PdCl4 did not add any information. Two per cent Na2 PdCl4 resulted in more doubtful reactions...

  2. CuZn Alloy- Based Electrocatalyst for CO2 Reduction

    KAUST Repository

    Alazmi, Amira

    2014-06-01

    ABSTRACT CuZn Alloy- Based Electrocatalyst for CO2 Reduction Amira Alazmi Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the major greenhouse gases and its emission is a significant threat to global economy and sustainability. Efficient CO2 conversion leads to utilization of CO2 as a carbon feedstock, but activating the most stable carbon-based molecule, CO2, is a challenging task. Electrochemical conversion of CO2 is considered to be the beneficial approach to generate carbon-containing fuels directly from CO2, especially when the electronic energy is derived from renewable energies, such as solar, wind, geo-thermal and tidal. To achieve this goal, the development of an efficient electrocatalyst for CO2 reduction is essential. In this thesis, studies on CuZn alloys with heat treatments at different temperatures have been evaluated as electrocatalysts for CO2 reduction. It was found that the catalytic activity of these electrodes was strongly dependent on the thermal oxidation temperature before their use for electrochemical measurements. The polycrystalline CuZn electrode without thermal treatment shows the Faradaic efficiency for CO formation of only 30% at applied potential ~−1.0 V vs. RHE with current density of ~−2.55 mA cm−2. In contrast, the reduction of oxide-based CuZn alloy electrode exhibits 65% Faradaic efficiency for CO at lower applied potential about −1.0 V vs. RHE with current density of −2.55 mA cm−2. Furthermore, stable activity was achieved over several hours of the reduction reaction at the modified electrodes. Based on electrokinetic studies, this improvement could be attributed to further stabilization of the CO2•− on the oxide-based Cu-Zn alloy surface.

  3. Diffusion of hydrogen interstitials in Zr based AB2 and mischmetal based AB5 alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mani, N; Ravi, N; Ramaprabhu, S

    2005-01-01

    The Zr based AB 2 alloys ZrMnFe 0.5 Ni 0.5 , ZrMnFe 0.5 Co 0.5 and mischmetal (Mm) based AB 5 alloy MmNi 3.5 Al 0.5 Fe 0.5 Co 0.5 have been prepared and characterized by means of powder x-ray diffractograms. The hydrogen absorption kinetics of these alloys have been studied in the temperature and pressure ranges 450-650 0 C and 10-100 mbar respectively with a maximum H to host alloy formula unit ratio of 0.01, using a pressure reduction technique. The diffusion coefficient of the hydrogen interstitials has been determined from hydrogen absorption kinetics experiments. The dependence of the diffusion coefficient on the alloy content has been discussed. For Mm based MmNi 3.5 Al 0.5 Fe 0.5 Co 0.5 alloy, the diffusion coefficient is about an order of magnitude higher than that of the Zr based alloys

  4. Magnetic properties of fcc Ni-based transition metal alloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kudrnovský, Josef; Drchal, Václav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 9 (2009), s. 1193-1196 ISSN 1862-5282 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 150; GA AV ČR IAA100100616 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : transition metal alloys * Ni-based * pair exchange interactions * Curie temperatures * renormalized RPA Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.862, year: 2009

  5. Combined thermodynamic study of nickel-base alloys. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, C.R.; Meschter, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    Achievements during this period are the following: (1) initiation of a high-temperature study of the Ni-Ta system using the galvanic cell technique, (2) emf study of high-temperature thermodynamics in the Ni-Mo system, (3) measured heat capacity data on ordered and disordered Ni 4 Mo, (4) heat capacities of Ni and disordered Ni 3 Fe, and (5) computer correlation of thermodynamic and phase diagram data in binary Ni-base alloys

  6. Thermal behaviour in dynamic recrystallisation. Application for iron base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkebir, A.; Kobylanski, A.

    1995-01-01

    A constitutive relationship for predicting the flow stress with dynamic recrystallization were proposed. The approach is based on a phenomenological formalism of the law θ-ε where θ correspond to the work-hardening rate at constant strain rate and temperature. The equations proposed were justified by the experimental data collected by hot compression test of low-alloy steels. The model can be used to estimate the critical strain for the onset of dynamic recrystallization. (orig.)

  7. Magnetic properties of fcc Ni-based transition metal alloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kudrnovský, Josef; Drchal, Václav; Bruno, P.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 22 (2008), 224422/1-224422/8 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 150; GA AV ČR IAA100100616; GA ČR GA202/07/0456 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : Ni-based alloys * magnetic properties * Curie temperatures Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.322, year: 2008

  8. The prospects of biodegradable magnesium-based alloys in osteosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Chorny

    2013-12-01

    various types of implants for osteosynthesis in traumatology and orthopedics. As the analysis of scientific papers over the past decade, the number of scientific articles devoted to the study of the properties of magnesium alloys and their effect on bone formation, as well as their use in osteosynthesis has grown significantly. Implants which are based on magnesium, may have several advantages over bioinert metal alloys, polymers, and bioceramics. They are not toxic, not carcinogenic, the mechanical properties of a structure close to the cortical bone, and may have osteoinductive and anti-bacterial action. Also, there is no need for a second surgical intervention. The main problems to be addressed, in our view, are as follows. 1. Need to examine the nature of -bone formation in the fracture in the presence of the implant based on magnesium alloy. 2. To examine the impact of products of magnesium degradation on the surrounding tissue and the body as a whole. 3. Loss of rigidity of the implant magnesium based alloy in the process of biodegradation.

  9. Kinetic Characteristics of Hydrogen Transfer Through Palladium-Modified Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petriev, I. S.; Frolov, V. Yu.; Bolotin, S. N.; Baryshev, M. G.; Kopytov, G. F.

    2018-01-01

    The paper deals with hydrogen transfer through Pd-23%Ag alloy membrane, the surface of which is modified by the electrolytic deposition of highly dispersed palladium. The dependence between the density of hydrogen flow and its excess pressure on the input surface of membrane is well approximated by the first-order curve. This fact indicates that the process of hydrogen permeability is defined by its dissociation on the input surface. Activation energy of this process is 47.9 kJ/mol which considerably exceeds that of the process of hydrogen transfer through palladium (22-30 kJ/mol). This confirms the fact that the chemisorption is a rate-controlling step of the hydrogen transfer through membrane.

  10. Effect of alloying elements on the stability of Ni2M in Alloy690 based upon thermodynamic calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, Toshiaki; Kuwano, Kazuhiro; Satoh, Naohiro

    2012-01-01

    Some researchers recently point out that Ni based alloys used in nuclear power plants have the ordering tendency, which is a potential to decrease mechanical properties within the expected lifetime of the plants. In the present study, authors evaluated the effect of 8 alloying elements on the ordering tendency in Alloy690 based upon thermodynamic calculation by Thermo-Calc. It is clarified that the additive amount of Fe, Cr, Ti and Si, particularly Fe and Cr, was influential for the stability of Ni 2 M, while that of Mn, Cu, B and C had almost no effect for that. Authors therefore designed the Ni 2 M stabilized alloy by no addition of Fe in Alloy690. Ni 2 M is estimated to be stable even at 773 K in the Ni 2 M stabilized alloy. The influence by long range ordering or precipitating of Ni 2 M in Alloy690 for mechanical properties or SCC susceptibility is expected to be clarified by the sample obtained in the present study. (author)

  11. A cost-effective and practical polybenzanthrone-based fluorescent sensor for efficient determination of palladium (II) ion and its application in agricultural crops and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ge [Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang 330013 (China); Wen, Yangping [Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology, Ecology and Genetic Breeding, Ministry of Education, and Key Laboratory of Physiology, Ecology and Cultivation of Double Cropping Rice, Ministry of Agriculture, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang 330045 (China); Guo, Chaoqun [Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang 330013 (China); Xu, Jingkun, E-mail: xujingkun@tsinghua.org.cn [Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang 330013 (China); Lu, Baoyang; Duan, Xuemin [Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang 330013 (China); He, Haohua; Yang, Jun [Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology, Ecology and Genetic Breeding, Ministry of Education, and Key Laboratory of Physiology, Ecology and Cultivation of Double Cropping Rice, Ministry of Agriculture, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang 330045 (China)

    2013-12-17

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •PBA was facilely electrosynthesized in the binary solvent system containing of acetonitrile and boron trifluoride diethyl etherate. •“On–off” type fluorescent sensor based on this polymer for highly selective, sensitive, and practical detection of Pd{sup 2+} was designed. •The possible mechanism between Pd{sup 2+} and PBA has been discussed and TEM preliminary proved the proposed mechanism. •This fluorescent CP-based sensor has been used to practically detect Pd{sup 2+} in agricultural crops and environment samples with satisfactory results. -- Abstract: A highly selective and sensitive fluorescent chemosensor suitable for practical measurement of palladium ion (Pd{sup 2+}) in agricultural crops and environment samples has been successfully fabricated using polybenzanthrone (PBA). PBA was facilely electrosynthesized in the mixed electrolyte of acetonitrile and boron trifluoride diethyl etherate. The fluorescence intensity of PBA showed a linear response to Pd{sup 2+} in the concentration range of 5 nM–0.12 mM with a detection limit of 0.277 nM and quantification limit of 0.925 nM. Different compounds existing in agricultural crops and environment such as common metal ions, anions, natural amino acids, carbohydrates, and organic acids were used to examine the selectivity of the as-fabricated sensor, and no obvious fluorescence change could be observed in these interferents and their mixtures. A possible mechanism was proposed that the coordination of PBA and Pd{sup 2+} enhance the aggregation of polymer chains, which led to a significant quenching of PBA emission, and this was further confirmed by absorption spectra monitoring and transmission electron microscopy. The excellent performance of the proposed sensor and satisfactory results of the Pd{sup 2+} determination in practical samples suggested that the PBA-based fluorescent sensor for the determination of Pd{sup 2+} will be a good candidate for application in

  12. Corrosion of iron-base alloys by lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selle, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    A review of corrosion mechanisms operating in lithium-iron-base alloy systems is presented along with data obtained with thermal-convection loops of niobium-stabilized 2 1 / 4 percent Cr-1 percent Mo steel and types 304L and 321 stainless steels. A corrosion rate of 2.3 μm/year (0.09 mil/year) was obtained on the 2 1 / 4 percent Cr-1 percent Mo steel at 600 0 C. Considerably more mass transport of alloying constituents and a maximum corrosion rate of about 14 μm/year (0.55 mil/year) was obtained with the austenitic stainless steels. Results of metallography, x-ray fluorescence analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and weight-change data are presented and discussed

  13. High Frequency Vibration Based Fatigue Testing of Developmental Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holycross, Casey M.; Srinivasan, Raghavan; George, Tommy J.; Tamirisakandala, Seshacharyulu; Russ, Stephan M.

    Many fatigue test methods have been previously developed to rapidly evaluate fatigue behavior. This increased test speed can come at some expense, since these methods may require non-standard specimen geometry or increased facility and equipment capability. One such method, developed by George et al, involves a base-excited plate specimen driven into a high frequency bending resonant mode. This resonant mode is of sufficient frequency (typically 1200 to 1700 Hertz) to accumulate 107 cycles in a few hours. One of the main limitations of this test method is that fatigue cracking is almost certainly guaranteed to be surface initiated at regions of high stress. This brings into question the validity of the fatigue test results, as compared to more traditional uniaxial, smooth-bar testing, since high stresses are subjecting only a small volume to fatigue damage. This limitation also brings into question the suitability of this method to screen developmental alloys, should their initiation life be governed by subsurface flaws. However, if applicable, the rapid generation of fatigue data using this method would facilitate faster design iterations, identifying more quickly, material and manufacturing process deficiencies. The developmental alloy used in this study was a powder metallurgy boron-modified Ti-6Al-4V, a new alloy currently being considered for gas turbine engine fan blades. Plate specimens were subjected to fully reversed bending fatigue. Results are compared with existing data from commercially available Ti-6Al-4V using both vibration based and more traditional fatigue test methods.

  14. Aluminium base amorphous and crystalline alloys with Fe impurity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitek, J.; Degmova, J.

    2006-01-01

    Aluminium base alloys show remarkable mechanical properties, however their low thermal stability still limits the technological applications. Further improvement of mechanical properties can be reached by partial crystallization of amorphous alloys, which gives rise to nanostructured composites. Our work was focused on aluminium based alloys with Fe, Nb and V additions. Samples of nominal composition Al 90 Fe 7 Nb 3 and Al 94 Fe 2 V 4 were studied in amorphous state and after annealing up to 873 K. From Moessbauer spectra taken on the samples in amorphous state the value of f-factor was determined as well as corresponding Debye temperatures were calculated. Annealing at higher temperatures induced nano and microcrystalline crystallization. Moessbauer spectra of samples annealed up to 573 K are fitted only by distribution of quadrupole doublets corresponding to the amorphous state. An increase of annealing temperature leads to the structural transformation, which consists in growth of nanometer sized aluminium nuclei. This is partly reflected in Moessbauer parameters. After annealing at 673 K intermetallic phase Al 3 Fe and other Al-Fe phases are created. In this case Moessbauer spectra are fitted by quadrupole doublets. During annealing up to 873 K large grains of Fe-Al phases are created. (authors)

  15. Technical assessment of vanadium-base alloys for fusion reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.E.; Harrod, D.L.; Ammon, R.L.; Buckman, R.W. Jr.; Svedberg, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    A large data base has been compiled on vanadium-base alloys but the data base on any one alloy is quite limited. Great flexibility exists in the composition-microstructure-property relationship and this facilitates alloy optimization to meet diverse property requirements. Tensile properties and creep properties of existing alloys exceed likely requirements. Fatigue strength, including crack growth rate, is probably the most critical material property but no data exists for vanadium alloys. Swelling and irradiated ductility behavior look promising but require further evaluation. Vanadium alloy-liquid metal compatibility, particularly interstitial mass transfer, may be equally as critical as fatigue behavior; viability cannot be established with the existing data base. Fabricability must be given early consideration in alloys selection to guard against potentially serious problems in subsequent scale-up and production

  16. Analysis of iron-base alloys by low-wattage glow discharge emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagatsuma, K.; Hirokawa, K.

    1984-01-01

    Several iron-base alloys were investigated by low-wattage glow discharge emission spectrometry. The emission intensity principally depended on the sputtering parameters of constituent elements in the alloy. However, in the case of chromium, stable and firm oxides formed on the surface influencing the yield of ejected atoms. This paper discusses the relation between the sputtering parameters in Fe-Ni, Fe-Cr, and Fe-Co alloys and their relative emission intensities. Additionally, quantitative analysis was performed for some ternary iron-base alloys and commercial stainless steels with the calibration factors of binary alloy systems

  17. Synthesis of vanadium-doped palladium nanoparticles for hydrogen storage materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yuki; Miyachi, Mariko; Yamanoi, Yoshinori; Minoda, Ai; Maekawa, Shunsuke; Oshima, Shinji; Kobori, Yoshihiro; Nishihara, Hiroshi

    2011-12-01

    Palladium-vanadium (Pd/V) alloy nanoparticles stabilized with n-pentyl isocyanide were prepared as new hydrogen storage materials by a facile polyol-based synthetic route with tetraethylene glycol and NaOH at 250 °C. The size distribution of the nanoparticles thus obtained featured two peaks at 4.0 ± 1.1 and 1.4 ± 0.3 nm in diameter, which were the mixture of Pd/V alloy and Pd nanoparticles. The ratio between the number of Pd/V and that of Pd nanoparticles was 51:49, and the Pd:V ratio of the overall product was 9:1 in wt%, indicating that the 4.0 nm Pd/V nanoparticles were composed of 81% Pd and 19% V. The inclusion of vanadium caused the increase in the d-spacing and thus expansion of lattice constant. A rapid increase in hydrogen content at low H2 pressures was observed for the Pd/V nanoparticles, and a 0.47 wt% H2 adsorption capacity was achieved under a H2 pressure of 10 MPa at 303 K. Hydrogen storage performances of Pd/V alloy nanoparticles was superior compared with Pd nanoparticles.

  18. Alloy 690 in PWR type reactors; Aleaciones base niquel en condiciones de primario de los reactores tipo PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Briceno, D.; Serrano, M.

    2005-07-01

    Alloy 690, used as replacement of Alloy 600 for vessel head penetration (VHP) nozzles in PWR, coexists in the primary loop with other components of Alloy 600. Alloy 690 shows an excellent resistance to primary water stress corrosion cracking, while Alloy 600 is very susceptible to this degradation mechanisms. This article analyse comparatively the PWSCC behaviour of both Ni-based alloys and associated weld metals 52/152 and 82/182. (Author)

  19. Effects of Alloying Elements on Room and High Temperature Tensile Properties of Al-Si Cu-Mg Base Alloys =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyaldin, Loay

    In recent years, aluminum and aluminum alloys have been widely used in automotive and aerospace industries. Among the most commonly used cast aluminum alloys are those belonging to the Al-Si system. Due to their mechanical properties, light weight, excellent castability and corrosion resistance, these alloys are primarily used in engineering and in automotive applications. The more aluminum is used in the production of a vehicle, the less the weight of the vehicle, and the less fuel it consumes, thereby reducing the amount of harmful emissions into the atmosphere. The principal alloying elements in Al-Si alloys, in addition to silicon, are magnesium and copper which, through the formation of Al2Cu and Mg2Si precipitates, improve the alloy strength via precipitation hardening following heat treatment. However, most Al-Si alloys are not suitable for high temperature applications because their tensile and fatigue strengths are not as high as desired in the temperature range 230-350°C, which are the temperatures that are often attained in automotive engine components under actual service conditions. The main challenge lies in the fact that the strength of heat-treatable cast aluminum alloys decreases at temperatures above 200°C. The strength of alloys under high temperature conditions is improved by obtaining a microstructure containing thermally stable and coarsening-resistant intermetallics, which may be achieved with the addition of Ni. Zr and Sc. Nickel leads to the formation of nickel aluminide Al3Ni and Al 9FeNi in the presence of iron, while zirconium forms Al3Zr. These intermetallics improve the high temperature strength of Al-Si alloys. Some interesting improvements have been achieved by modifying the composition of the base alloy with additions of Mn, resulting in an increase in strength and ductility at both room and high temperatures. Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloys such as the 354 (Al-9wt%Si-1.8wt%Cu-0.5wt%Mg) alloys show a greater response to heat treatment as a

  20. Metallic ion release from biocompatible cobalt-based alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimić Ivana D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metallic biomaterials, which are mainly used for the damaged hard tissue replacements, are materials with high strength, excellent toughness and good wear resistance. The disadvantages of metals as implant materials are their susceptibility to corrosion, the elastic modulus mismatch between metals and human hard tissues, relatively high density and metallic ion release which can cause serious health problems. The aim of this study was to examine metallic ion release from Co-Cr-Mo alloy in artificial saliva. In that purpose, alloy samples were immersed into artificial saliva with different pH values (4.0, 5.5 and 7.5. After a certain immersion period (1, 3 and 6 weeks the concentrations of released ions were determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrophotometer (ICP-MS. The research findings were used in order to define the dependence between the concentration of released metallic ions, artificial saliva pH values and immersion time. The determined released metallic ions concentrations were compared with literature data in order to describe and better understand the phenomenon of metallic ion release from the biocompatible cobalt-based alloy. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46010 i br. ON 174004

  1. My Experience with Ti-Ni-Based and Ti-Based Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Shuichi

    2017-12-01

    The present author has been studying shape memory alloys including Cu-Al-Ni, Ti-Ni-based, and Ni-free Ti-based alloys since 1979. This paper reviews the present author's research results for the latter two materials since 1981. The topics on the Ti-Ni-based alloys include the achievement of superelasticity in Ti-Ni alloys through understanding of the role of microstructures consisting of dislocations and precipitates, followed by the contribution to the development of application market of shape memory effect and superelasticity, characterization of the R-phase and monoclinic martensitic transformations, clarification of the basic characteristics of fatigue properties, development of sputter-deposited shape memory thin films and fabrication of prototypes of microactuators utilizing thin films, development of high temperature shape memory alloys, and so on. The topics of Ni-free Ti-based shape memory alloys include the characterization of the orthorhombic phase martensitic transformation and related shape memory effect and superelasticity, the effects of texture, omega phase and adding elements on the martensitic transformation and shape memory properties, clarification of the unique effects of oxygen addition to induce non-linear large elasticity, Invar effect and heating-induced martensitic transformation, and so on.

  2. Calculations of hydrogen diffusivity in Zr-based alloys: Influence of alloying elements and effect of stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, J.; Jiang, C.; Zhang, Y.

    2017-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress on modeling hydrogen diffusivity in Zr-based alloys. The presence of hydrogen (H) can detrimentally affect the mechanical properties of many metals and alloys. To mitigate these detrimental effects requires fundamental understanding of the thermodynamics and kinetics governing H pickup and hydride formation. In this work, we focus on H diffusion in Zr-based alloys by studying the effects of alloying elements and stress, factors that have been shown to strongly affect H pickup and hydride formation in nuclear fuel claddings. A recently developed accelerated kinetic Monte Carlo method is used for the study. It is found that for the alloys considered here, H diffusivity depends weakly on composition, with negligible effect at high temperatures in the range of 600-1200 K. Therefore, the small variation in compositions of these alloys is likely not a major cause of the very different H pickup rates. In contrast, stress strongly affects H diffusivity. This effect needs to be considered for studying hydride formation and delayed hydride cracking.

  3. Calculations of hydrogen diffusivity in Zr-based alloys: Influence of alloying elements and effect of stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Jiang, C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhang, Y. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-06-01

    This report summarizes the progress on modeling hydrogen diffusivity in Zr-based alloys. The presence of hydrogen (H) can detrimentally affect the mechanical properties of many metals and alloys. To mitigate these detrimental effects requires fundamental understanding of the thermodynamics and kinetics governing H pickup and hydride formation. In this work, we focus on H diffusion in Zr-based alloys by studying the effects of alloying elements and stress, factors that have been shown to strongly affect H pickup and hydride formation in nuclear fuel claddings. A recently developed accelerated kinetic Monte Carlo method is used for the study. It is found that for the alloys considered here, H diffusivity depends weakly on composition, with negligible effect at high temperatures in the range of 600-1200 K. Therefore, the small variation in compositions of these alloys is likely not a major cause of the very different H pickup rates. In contrast, stress strongly affects H diffusivity. This effect needs to be considered for studying hydride formation and delayed hydride cracking.

  4. Amorphous Alloy Membranes Prepared by Melt-Spin methods for Long-Term use in Hydrogen Separation Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, Dhanesh; Kim, Sang-Mun; Adibhatla, Anasuya; Dolan, Michael; Paglieri, Steve; Flanagan, Ted; Chien, Wen-Ming; Talekar, Anjali; Wermer, Joseph

    2013-02-28

    Amorphous Ni-based alloy membranes show great promise as inexpensive, hydrogenselective membrane materials. In this study, we developed membranes based on nonprecious Ni-Nb-Zr alloys by adjusting the alloying content and using additives. Several studies on crystallization of the amorphous ribbons, in-situ x-ray diffraction, SEM and TEM, hydrogen permeation, hydrogen solubility, hydrogen deuterium exchange, and electrochemical studies were conducted. An important part of the study was to completely eliminate Palladium coatings of the NiNbZr alloys by hydrogen heattreatment. The amorphous alloy (Ni0.6Nb0.4)80Zr20 membrane appears to be the best with high hydrogen permeability and good thermal stability.

  5. A Fundamental Approach to Developing Aluminium based Bulk Amorphous Alloys based on Stable Liquid Metal Structures and Electronic Equilibrium - 154041

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-28

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0027 A Fundamental Approach to Developing Aluminium -based Bulk Amorphous Alloys based on Stable Liquid-Metal Structures and...to 16 Dec 2016 4.  TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Fundamental Approach to Developing Aluminium -based Bulk Amorphous Alloys based on Stable Liquid-Metal...Air Force Research Laboratory for accurately predicting compositions of new amorphous alloys specifically based on aluminium with properties superior

  6. Determination of palladium content in palladium-alumina/palladium-silica/palladium-tin oxide catalyst for nuclear reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, P.K.; Bassan, M.K.T.; Avhad, D.K.; Singhal, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    Alumina and silica act as support for finely divided palladium metal powder in synthesis of catalyst. These catalyst (Pd-Al 2 O 3 , Pd-SiO 2 and Pd-SnO 2 ) used in nuclear power reactor (moderator cover gas system) for the conversion of hydrogen. In Indian nuclear power programme these catalyst are regularly used in Kaiga 1 and 2 and Rajasthan atomic power plant 3 and 4. The performance of the catalyst, solely depends on the concentration of palladium, which is the active component in this catalyst composition. Therefore it is highly desirable to have rouged analytical methodology for the accurate estimation of palladium. Leaching of Pd from the bulk matrix is tedious due to the less reactive nature of Pd therefore complete solubilization of the matrix is carried out by fusion method

  7. Thermogravimetric study of reduction of oxides present in oxidized nickel-base alloy powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbell, T. P.

    1976-01-01

    Carbon, hydrogen, and hydrogen plus carbon reduction of three oxidized nickel-base alloy powders (a solid solution strengthened alloy both with and without the gamma prime formers aluminum and titanium and the solid solution strengthened alloy NiCrAlY) were evaluated by thermogravimetry. Hydrogen and hydrogen plus carbon were completely effective in reducing an alloy containing chromium, columbium, tantalum, molybdenum, and tungsten. However, with aluminum and titanium present the reduction was limited to a weight loss of about 81 percent. Carbon alone was not effective in reducing any of the alloys, and none of the reducing conditions were effective for use with NiCrAlY.

  8. Method for palladium activating molybdenum metallized features on a ceramic substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.H.; Schwartz, B.

    1985-01-01

    A molybdenum or tungsten metallurgical pattern is formed on or in a dielectric green sheet. Palladium, nickel, platinum or rhodium is coated on a layer of polyvinyl butyral which is carried on a polyester film. The metal layer of this assembly is laminated to a dielectric green sheet which carries the molybdenum or tungsten metallurgy. The polyester film is stripped off. The resulting assembly is sintered to a fired structure, whereby the polyvinyl butyral is volatilized off and the palladium, nickel, platinum or rhodium is alloyed with the molybdenum or tungsten metallurgy to provide a densified metallurgy whose surface is free of glass

  9. Local atomic order in nanocrystalline Fe-based alloys obtained by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jartych, E.

    2003-01-01

    Using the 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy, a local atomic order in nanocrystalline alloys of iron with Al, Ni, W and Mo has been determined. Alloys were prepared by mechanical alloying method. Analysis of Moessbauer spectra was performed on the basis of the local environment model in terms of Warren-Cowley parameters. It was shown that impurity atoms are not randomly distributed in the volume of the first and the second co-ordination spheres of 57 Fe nuclei and they form clusters

  10. Effects of thermal aging on microstructures of low alloy steel–Ni base alloy dissimilar metal weld interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Kyoung Joon; Kim, Jong Jin; Lee, Bong Ho; Bahn, Chi Bum; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the advanced instrumental analysis has been performed to investigate the effect of long-term thermal aging on the microstructural evolution in the fusion boundary region between weld metal and low alloy steel in dissimilar metal welds. A representative dissimilar weld mock-up made of Alloy 690-Alloy 152-A533 Gr. B was fabricated and aged at 450 °C for 2750 h. The micro- and nano-scale characterization were conducted mainly near in a weld root region by using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and three dimensional atom probe tomography. It was observed that the weld root was generally divided into several regions including dilution zone in the Ni-base alloy weld metal, fusion boundary, and heat-affected zone in the low alloy steel. A steep gradient was shown in the chemical composition profile across the interface between A533 Gr. B and Alloy 152. The precipitation of carbides was also observed along and near the fusion boundary of as-welded and aged dissimilar metal joints. It was also found that the precipitation of Cr carbides was enhanced by the thermal aging near the fusion boundary

  11. Effects of thermal aging on microstructures of low alloy steel–Ni base alloy dissimilar metal weld interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyoung Joon; Kim, Jong Jin [Interdisciplinary School of Green Energy, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), 100 Banyeon-ri, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Bong Ho [National Center for Nanomaterials Technology (NCNT), Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), 77 Cheongam-ro, Nam-gu, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Bahn, Chi Bum [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Kim, Ji Hyun, E-mail: kimjh@unist.ac.kr [Interdisciplinary School of Green Energy, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), 100 Banyeon-ri, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this study, the advanced instrumental analysis has been performed to investigate the effect of long-term thermal aging on the microstructural evolution in the fusion boundary region between weld metal and low alloy steel in dissimilar metal welds. A representative dissimilar weld mock-up made of Alloy 690-Alloy 152-A533 Gr. B was fabricated and aged at 450 °C for 2750 h. The micro- and nano-scale characterization were conducted mainly near in a weld root region by using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and three dimensional atom probe tomography. It was observed that the weld root was generally divided into several regions including dilution zone in the Ni-base alloy weld metal, fusion boundary, and heat-affected zone in the low alloy steel. A steep gradient was shown in the chemical composition profile across the interface between A533 Gr. B and Alloy 152. The precipitation of carbides was also observed along and near the fusion boundary of as-welded and aged dissimilar metal joints. It was also found that the precipitation of Cr carbides was enhanced by the thermal aging near the fusion boundary.

  12. Effect of ternary alloying elements on microstructure and mechanical property of Nb-Si based refractory intermetallic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W.Y.; Kim, H.S.; Kim, S.K.; Ra, T.Y.; Kim, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    Microstructure and mechanical property at room temperature and at 1773 K of Nb-Si based refractory intermetallic alloys were investigated in terms of compression and fracture toughness test. Mo and V were chosen as ternary alloying elements because of their high melting points, atomic sizes smaller than Nb. Both ternary alloying elements were found to have a significant role in modifying the microstructure from dispersed structure to eutectic-like structure in Nb solid solution/Nb 5 Si 3 intermetallic composites. The 0.2% offset yield strength at room temperature increased with increasing content of ternary elements in Nb solid solution and volume fraction of Nb 5 Si 3 . At 1773 K, Mo addition has a positive role in increasing the yield strength. On the other hand, V addition has a role in decreasing the yield strength. The fracture toughness of ternary alloys was superior to binary alloys. Details will be discussed in correlation with ternary alloying, volume fraction of constituent phase, and the microstructure. (orig.)

  13. Influence of S. mutans on base-metal dental casting alloy toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, E L; Dowling, A H; Moran, G P; Fleming, G J P

    2013-01-01

    We have highlighted that exposure of base-metal dental casting alloys to the acidogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans significantly increases cellular toxicity following exposure to immortalized human TR146 oral keratinocytes. With Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), S. mutans-treated nickel-based (Ni-based) and cobalt-chromium-based (Co-Cr-based) dental casting alloys were shown to leach elevated levels of metal ions compared with untreated dental casting alloys. We targeted several biological parameters: cell morphology, viable cell counts, cell metabolic activity, cell toxicity, and inflammatory cytokine expression. S. mutans-treated dental casting alloys disrupted cell morphology, elicited significantly decreased viable cell counts (p casting alloys induced elevated levels of cellular toxicity compared with S. mutans-treated Co-Cr-based dental casting alloys. While our findings indicated that the exacerbated release of metal ions from S. mutans-treated base-metal dental casting alloys was the likely result of the pH reduction during S. mutans growth, the exact nature of mechanisms leading to accelerated dissolution of alloy-discs is not yet fully understood. Given the predominance of S. mutans oral carriage and the exacerbated cytotoxicity observed in TR146 cells following exposure to S. mutans-treated base-metal dental casting alloys, the implications for the long-term stability of base-metal dental restorations in the oral cavity are a cause for concern.

  14. High chromium nickel base alloys hot cracking susceptibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirand, G.; Primault, C.; Robin, V.

    2014-01-01

    High Chromium nickel based alloys (FM52) have a higher ductility dip cracking sensitivity. New filler material with higher niobium and molybdenum content are developed to decrease the hot crack formation. The behavior of these materials is studied by coupling microstructural analyses and hot cracking test, PVR test. The metallurgical analyses illustrate an Nb and Mo enrichment of the inter-dendritic spaces of the new materials. A niobium high content (FM52MSS) induces the formation of primary carbide at the end of solidification. The PVR test reveal a solidification crack sensitivity of the new materials, and a lowest ductility dip cracking sensitivity for the filler material 52MSS. (authors)

  15. Study of internal oxidation kinetics of molybdenum base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krushinskij, Yu.Yu.; Belyakov, B.G.; Belomyttsev, M.Yu.

    1989-01-01

    Metallographic and microdurometric method as well as new technique were used to study kinetics of internal oxidation (IO). It is shown that study of IO kinetics on the base of metallographic measurements of layers depth is not correct because it is related with insufficient sensitivity of the method. IO kinetics under conditions of formation of molybdenum oxide layer on saturated material surface as well as IO of alloy with high carbon content were investigated. Oxide film formation does not affect the IO kinetics; decarburization observed along with oxidation increases the apparent activation energy and K exponent on time dependence of diffusion layer depth

  16. Porous palladium coated conducting polymer nanoparticles for ultrasensitive hydrogen sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Seop; Kim, Sung Gun; Cho, Sunghun; Jang, Jyongsik

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogen, a clean-burning fuel, is of key importance to various industrial applications, including fuel cells and in the aerospace and automotive industries. However, hydrogen gas is odorless, colorless, and highly flammable; thus appropriate safety protocol implementation and monitoring are essential. Highly sensitive hydrogen leak detection and surveillance sensor systems are needed; additionally, the ability to maintain uniformity through repetitive hydrogen sensing is becoming increasingly important. In this report, we detail the fabrication of porous palladium coated conducting polymer (3-carboxylate polypyrrole) nanoparticles (Pd@CPPys) to detect hydrogen gas. The Pd@CPPys are produced by means of facile alkyl functionalization and chemical reduction of a pristine 3-carboxylate polypyrrole nanoparticle-contained palladium precursor (PdCl2) solution. The resulting Pd@CPPy-based sensor electrode exhibits ultrahigh sensitivity (0.1 ppm) and stability toward hydrogen gas at room temperature due to the palladium sensing layer.Hydrogen, a clean-burning fuel, is of key importance to various industrial applications, including fuel cells and in the aerospace and automotive industries. However, hydrogen gas is odorless, colorless, and highly flammable; thus appropriate safety protocol implementation and monitoring are essential. Highly sensitive hydrogen leak detection and surveillance sensor systems are needed; additionally, the ability to maintain uniformity through repetitive hydrogen sensing is becoming increasingly important. In this report, we detail the fabrication of porous palladium coated conducting polymer (3-carboxylate polypyrrole) nanoparticles (Pd@CPPys) to detect hydrogen gas. The Pd@CPPys are produced by means of facile alkyl functionalization and chemical reduction of a pristine 3-carboxylate polypyrrole nanoparticle-contained palladium precursor (PdCl2) solution. The resulting Pd@CPPy-based sensor electrode exhibits ultrahigh sensitivity (0.1 ppm

  17. Investigation on corrosion and wear behaviors of nanoparticles reinforced Ni-based composite alloying layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jiang; Tao Jie; Jiang Shuyun; Xu Zhong

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the role of amorphous SiO 2 particles in corrosion and wear resistance of Ni-based metal matrix composite alloying layer, the amorphous nano-SiO 2 particles reinforced Ni-based composite alloying layer has been prepared by double glow plasma alloying on AISI 316L stainless steel surface, where Ni/amorphous nano-SiO 2 was firstly predeposited by brush plating. The composition and microstructure of the nano-SiO 2 particles reinforced Ni-based composite alloying layer were analyzed by using SEM, TEM and XRD. The results indicated that the composite alloying layer consisted of γ-phase and amorphous nano-SiO 2 particles, and under alloying temperature (1000 deg. C) condition, the nano-SiO 2 particles were uniformly distributed in the alloying layer and still kept the amorphous structure. The corrosion resistance of composite alloying layer was investigated by an electrochemical method in 3.5%NaCl solution. Compared with single alloying layer, the amorphous nano-SiO 2 particles slightly decreased the corrosion resistance of the Ni-Cr-Mo-Cu alloying layer. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that the passive films formed on the composite alloying consisted of Cr 2 O 3 , MoO 3 , SiO 2 and metallic Ni and Mo. The dry wear test results showed that the composite alloying layer had excellent friction-reduced property, and the wear weight loss of composite alloying layer was less than 60% of that of Ni-Cr-Mo-Cu alloying layer

  18. The influence of a hyperbaric environment and increased oxygen partial pressure on the corrosion of dental alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl, Christian; Heblich, Frank; Lenz, Rudolf; Ludwig, Klaus; Kern, Matthias

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this in-vitro study was to determine whether there is a correlation between a hyperbaric environment or increased oxygen partial pressure and the corrosion of dental alloys used for dental restorations in divers. Samples of three commercially available dental alloys (palladium-based, reduced-gold-content and high-gold-content) were tested in the DIN EN ISO 1562 static immersion test and the amount of dissolved ions measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. The specimens were exposed to one of the following three conditions: normobaric and normoxic conditions (PO2 21 kPa); 608 kPa (6 bar, PO2 127 kPa) pressurised air in a pressure chamber or 506 kPa (5 bar, PO2 304 kPa) pressurised nitrox in a pressure chamber. None of the exposures suggested a correlation between increased ion solubility as a measure of corrosion and increased ambient pressure of the three alloys. The reduced-gold-content alloy released zinc ions at twice the weekly recommended dose. When the palladium-based alloy was exposed to a hyperbaric or hyperbaric/hyperoxic environment, ion solubility increased only slightly for gallium and silver. Within the limited sample size of the current study it can be concluded that hyperbaric and/or hyperoxic conditions do not seem to be a risk for increased corrosion for any of the three tested alloys.

  19. Replacement of Co-base alloy for radiation exposure reduction in the primary system of PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jeong Ho; Nyo, Kye Ho; Lee, Deok Hyun; Lim, Deok Jae; Ahn, Jin Keun; Kim, Sun Jin

    1996-01-01

    Of numerous Co-free alloys developed to replace Co-base stellite used in valve hardfacing material, two iron-base alloys of Armacor M and Tristelle 5183 and one nickel-base alloy of Nucalloy 488 were selected as candidate Co-free alloys, and Stellite 6 was also selected as a standard hardfacing material. These four alloys were welded on 316SS substrate using TIG welding method. The first corrosion test loop of KAERI simulating the water chemistry and operation condition of the primary system of PWR was designed and fabricated. Corrosion behaviors of the above four kinds of alloys were evaluated using this test loop under the condition of 300 deg C, 1500 psi. Microstructures of weldment of these alloys were observed to identify both matrix and secondary phase in each weldment. Hardnesses of weld deposit layer including HAZ and substrate were measured using micro-Vickers hardness tester. The status on the technology of Co-base alloy replacement in valve components was reviewed with respect to the classification of valves to be replaced, the development of Co-free alloys, the application of Co-free alloys and its experiences in foreign NPPs, and the Co reduction program in domestic NPPs and industries. 18 tabs., 20 figs., 22 refs. (Author)

  20. The development of additive manufacturing technique for nickel-base alloys: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadi-Maad, Ahmad; Basuki, Arif

    2018-04-01

    Nickel-base alloys are an attractive alloy due to its excellent mechanical properties, a high resistance to creep deformation, corrosion, and oxidation. However, it is a hard task to control performance when casting or forging for this material. In recent years, additive manufacturing (AM) process has been implemented to replace the conventional directional solidification process for the production of nickel-base alloys. Due to its potentially lower cost and flexibility manufacturing process, AM is considered as a substitute technique for the existing. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the previous work related to the AM techniques for Ni-base alloys while highlighting current challenges and methods to solving them. The properties of conventionally manufactured Ni-base alloys are also compared with the AM fabricated alloys. The mechanical properties obtained from tension, hardness and fatigue test are included, along with discussions of the effect of post-treatment process. Recommendations for further work are also provided.

  1. A Study on Development of High Strength Al-Zn Based alloy for Die Casting Ⅲ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sang-Soo; Park, Ik-Min [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Yeom, Gil-Young; Lim, Kyoung-Mook [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Son, Hyun-Jin [Oh-Sung Co. Ltd., Siheung (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    In this study, the microstructural evolution and various characteristics of Al-20⁓45wt%Zn alloys were investigated. In terms of microstructure, as the amount of Zn addition to the alloys increased, the α-phase size decreased and the α+η non-equilibrium solidification phase fraction increased. Also, increasing Zn content improved the wear resistance of the alloys, but reduced the damping capacity and toughness of the alloys. Their physical properties of the Al-Zn alloy with high Zn content, specifically the wear resistance and toughness, were superior to those of commercial ALDC12 alloys for die-casting. Based on these results, we considered the possibility of application of the developed Al-Zn alloy as a structural material.

  2. A Study on Development of High Strength Al-Zn Based alloy for Die Casting Ⅲ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Sang-Soo; Park, Ik-Min; Yeom, Gil-Young; Lim, Kyoung-Mook; Son, Hyun-Jin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the microstructural evolution and various characteristics of Al-20⁓45wt%Zn alloys were investigated. In terms of microstructure, as the amount of Zn addition to the alloys increased, the α-phase size decreased and the α+η non-equilibrium solidification phase fraction increased. Also, increasing Zn content improved the wear resistance of the alloys, but reduced the damping capacity and toughness of the alloys. Their physical properties of the Al-Zn alloy with high Zn content, specifically the wear resistance and toughness, were superior to those of commercial ALDC12 alloys for die-casting. Based on these results, we considered the possibility of application of the developed Al-Zn alloy as a structural material.

  3. Investigation of mechanical and structural characteristics of platinum and palladium at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumie, B. T.; Gomidzelovie, L.; Marjanovic, S. R.; Krstic, V. R.

    2015-03-30

    In order to broaden future application of products based on platinum and palladium a comparative analysis of their high-temperature mechanical properties was performed. Platinum and palladium are of great importance and are widely used in chemical industry, electronics, for making laboratory dishes, to name a few. Mechanical properties of pure metals, such as: tensile strength, creep rate and rupture time were investigated using universal testing machine for tensile testing of materials. Microstructure of samples was investigated by optical microscopy. Based on obtained results it can be concluded that the platinum, compared to palladium, is superior for high-temperature applications. (Author)

  4. Investigation of mechanical and structural characteristics of platinum and palladium at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trumie, B. T.; Gomidzelovie, L.; Marjanovic, S. R.; Krstic, V. R.

    2015-01-01

    In order to broaden future application of products based on platinum and palladium a comparative analysis of their high-temperature mechanical properties was performed. Platinum and palladium are of great importance and are widely used in chemical industry, electronics, for making laboratory dishes, to name a few. Mechanical properties of pure metals, such as: tensile strength, creep rate and rupture time were investigated using universal testing machine for tensile testing of materials. Microstructure of samples was investigated by optical microscopy. Based on obtained results it can be concluded that the platinum, compared to palladium, is superior for high-temperature applications. (Author)

  5. Nickel, palladium and rhodium induced IFN-gamma and IL-10 production as assessed by in vitro ELISpot-analysis in contact dermatitis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ensoli Fabrizio

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent attempts to diminish nickel use in most industrial products have led to an increasing utilization of alternative metal compounds for destinations such as the alloys used in orthopaedics, jewellery and dentistry. The present study was undertaken with the aim to evaluate the potential for an allergic response to nickel, palladium and rhodium on the basis of antigen-specific induction of inflammatory/regulatory cytokines, and to characterize, according to the cytokine profiles, the nature of simultaneous positive patch tests elicited in vivo. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from 40 patients with different patch test results were kept in short term cultures in the presence of optimized concentrations of NiSO4 × 6H2O, PdCl2 and Rh(CH3COO2. The production of IFN-γ and IL-10 elicited by metal compounds were analyzed by the ELISpot assay. Results We found a specific IFN-γ response by PBMC upon in vitro stimulation with nickel or palladium in well recognized allergic individuals. All controls with a negative patch test to a metal salt showed an in vitro IL-10 response and not IFN-γ production when challenged with the same compound. Interestingly, all subjects with positive patch test to both nickel and palladium (group 3 showed an in vitro response characterized by the release of IFN-γ after nickel stimulation and production of IL-10 in response to palladium. Conclusion These results strongly suggest that the different cytokine profiles elicited in vitro reflect different immune responses which may lead to the control of the allergic responses or to symptomatic allergic contact dermatitis. The development of sensitive and specific in vitro assays based on the determination of the cytokine profiles in response to contact allergens may have important diagnostic and prognostic implications and may prove extremely useful in complementing the diagnostic limits of traditional patch testing.

  6. Nickel, palladium and rhodium induced IFN-gamma and IL-10 production as assessed by in vitro ELISpot-analysis in contact dermatitis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordignon, Valentina; Palamara, Francesca; Cordiali-Fei, Paola; Vento, Antonella; Aiello, Arianna; Picardo, Mauro; Ensoli, Fabrizio; Cristaudo, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Background Recent attempts to diminish nickel use in most industrial products have led to an increasing utilization of alternative metal compounds for destinations such as the alloys used in orthopaedics, jewellery and dentistry. The present study was undertaken with the aim to evaluate the potential for an allergic response to nickel, palladium and rhodium on the basis of antigen-specific induction of inflammatory/regulatory cytokines, and to characterize, according to the cytokine profiles, the nature of simultaneous positive patch tests elicited in vivo. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 40 patients with different patch test results were kept in short term cultures in the presence of optimized concentrations of NiSO4 × 6H2O, PdCl2 and Rh(CH3COO)2. The production of IFN-γ and IL-10 elicited by metal compounds were analyzed by the ELISpot assay. Results We found a specific IFN-γ response by PBMC upon in vitro stimulation with nickel or palladium in well recognized allergic individuals. All controls with a negative patch test to a metal salt showed an in vitro IL-10 response and not IFN-γ production when challenged with the same compound. Interestingly, all subjects with positive patch test to both nickel and palladium (group 3) showed an in vitro response characterized by the release of IFN-γ after nickel stimulation and production of IL-10 in response to palladium. Conclusion These results strongly suggest that the different cytokine profiles elicited in vitro reflect different immune responses which may lead to the control of the allergic responses or to symptomatic allergic contact dermatitis. The development of sensitive and specific in vitro assays based on the determination of the cytokine profiles in response to contact allergens may have important diagnostic and prognostic implications and may prove extremely useful in complementing the diagnostic limits of traditional patch testing. PMID:18482439

  7. Methanol oxidation reaction on core-shell structured Ruthenium-Palladium nanoparticles: Relationship between structure and electrochemical behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kübler, Markus; Jurzinsky, Tilman; Ziegenbalg, Dirk; Cremers, Carsten

    2018-01-01

    In this work the relationship between structural composition and electrochemical characteristics of Palladium(Pd)-Ruthenium(Ru) nanoparticles during alkaline methanol oxidation reaction is investigated. The comparative study of a standard alloyed and a precisely Ru-core-Pd-shell structured catalyst allows for a distinct investigation of the electronic effect and the bifunctional mechanism. Core-shell catalysts benefit from a strong electronic effect and an efficient Pd utilization. It is found that core-shell nanoparticles are highly active towards methanol oxidation reaction for potentials ≥0.6 V, whereas alloyed catalysts show higher current outputs in the lower potential range. However, differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) experiments reveal that the methanol oxidation reaction on core-shell structured catalysts proceeds via the incomplete oxidation pathway yielding formaldehyde, formic acid or methyl formate. Contrary, the alloyed catalyst benefits from the Ru atoms at its surface. Those are found to be responsible for high methanol oxidation activity at lower potentials as well as for complete oxidation of CH3OH to CO2 via the bifunctional mechanism. Based on these findings a new Ru-core-Pd-shell-Ru-terrace catalyst was synthesized, which combines the advantages of the core-shell structure and the alloy. This novel catalyst shows high methanol electrooxidation activity as well as excellent selectivity for the complete oxidation pathway.

  8. TiAu based shape memory alloys for high temperature applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadood, Abdul; Yamabe-Mitarai, Yoko; Hosoda, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    TiAu (equiatomic) exhibits phase transformaion from B2 (ordered bcc) to thermo-elastic orthorhombic B19 martensite at about 875K and thus TiAu is categorized as high temperature shape memory alloy. In this study, recent research and developments related to TiAu based high temperature shape memory alloys will be discussed in the Introduction part. Then some results of our research group related to strengthening of TiAu based high temperature shape memory alloys will be presented. Potential of TiAu based shape memory alloys for high temperature shape memory materials applications will also be discussed

  9. Study of electroplated silver-palladium biofouling inhibiting coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiang, Wen-Chi; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Schroll, Casper

    2008-01-01

    Biofouling can cause many undesirable effects in industrial and medical settings. In this study, a new biofouling inhibiting Ag-Pd surface was designed to form an inhibiting effect by itself. This design was based on silver combined with nobler palladium, both with catalytic properties. Owing to ...

  10. Effect of Alloy 625 Buffer Layer on Hardfacing of Modified 9Cr-1Mo Steel Using Nickel Base Hardfacing Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Gopa; Das, C. R.; Albert, S. K.; Bhaduri, A. K.; Murugesan, S.; Dasgupta, Arup

    2016-04-01

    Dashpot piston, made up of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel, is a part of diverse safety rod used for safe shutdown of a nuclear reactor. This component was hardfaced using nickel base AWS ER NiCr-B alloy and extensive cracking was experienced during direct deposition of this alloy on dashpot piston. Cracking reduced considerably and the component was successfully hardfaced by application of Inconel 625 as buffer layer prior to hardface deposition. Hence, a separate study was undertaken to investigate the role of buffer layer in reducing the cracking and on the microstructure of the hardfaced deposit. Results indicate that in the direct deposition of hardfacing alloy on modified 9Cr-1Mo steel, both heat-affected zone (HAZ) formed and the deposit layer are hard making the thickness of the hard layer formed equal to combined thickness of both HAZ and deposit. This hard layer is unable to absorb thermal stresses resulting in the cracking of the deposit. By providing a buffer layer of Alloy 625 followed by a post-weld heat treatment, HAZ formed in the modified 9Cr-1Mo steel is effectively tempered, and HAZ formed during the subsequent deposition of the hardfacing alloy over the Alloy 625 buffer layer is almost completely confined to Alloy 625, which does not harden. This reduces the cracking susceptibility of the deposit. Further, unlike in the case of direct deposition on modified 9Cr-1Mo steel, dilution of the deposit by Ni-base buffer layer does not alter the hardness of the deposit and desired hardness on the deposit surface could be achieved even with lower thickness of the deposit. This gives an option for reducing the recommended thickness of the deposit, which can also reduce the risk of cracking.

  11. The development of platinum-based alloys and their thermodynamic database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornish L.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of quaternary platinum-based alloys have been demonstrated to exhibit the same two-phase structure as Ni-based superalloys and showed good mechanical properties. The properties of ternary alloys were a good indication that the quaternary alloys, with their better microstructure, will be even better. The quaternary alloy composition has been optimised at Pt84:Al11:Ru2:Cr3 for the best microstructure and hardness. Work has begun on establishing a thermodynamic database for Pt-Al-Ru-Cr alloys, and further work will be done to enhance the mechanical and oxidation properties of the alloys by adding small amounts of other elements to the base composition of Pt84:Al11:Ru2:Cr3.

  12. Corrosion behaviour of powder metallurgical and cast Al-Zn-Mg base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sameljuk, A.V.; Neikov, O.D.; Krajnikov, A.V.; Milman, Yu.V.; Thompson, G.E.

    2004-01-01

    The behaviour of Al-Zn-Mg base alloys produced by powder metallurgy and casting has been studied using potentiodynamic polarisation in 0.3% and 3% NaCl solutions. The influence of alloy production route on microstructure has been examined by scanning electron microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry. An improvement in performance of powder metallurgy (PM) materials, compared with the cast alloy, was evident in solutions of low chloride concentration; less striking differences were revealed in high chloride concentration. Both powder metallurgy and cast alloys show two main types of precipitates, which were identified as Zn-Mg and Zr-Sc base intermetallic phases. The microstructure of the PM alloys is refined compared with the cast material, which assists understanding of the corrosion performance. The corrosion process commences with dissolution of the Zn-Mg base phases, with the relatively coarse phases present in the cast alloy showing ready development of corrosion

  13. Palladium-Catalysed Coupling Reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Johannes G.; Beller, M; Blaser, HU

    2012-01-01

    Palladium-catalysed coupling reactions have gained importance as a tool for the production of pharmaceutical intermediates and to a lesser extent also for the production of agrochemicals, flavours and fragrances, and monomers for polymers. In this review only these cases are discussed where it seems

  14. γ' Precipitation Study of a Co-Ni-Based Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locq, D.; Martin, M.; Ramusat, C.; Fossard, F.; Perrut, M.

    2018-05-01

    A Co-Ni-based alloy strengthened by γ'-(L12) precipitates was utilized to investigate the precipitation evolution after various cooling rates and several aging conditions. In this study, the precipitate size and volume fraction have been studied via scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The influence of the precipitation evolution was measured via microhardness tests. The cooling rate study shows a more sluggish γ' precipitation reaction compared to that observed in a Ni-based superalloy. Following a rapid cooling rate, the application of appropriate double aging treatments allows for the increase of the γ' volume fraction as well as the control of the size and distribution of the precipitates. The highest hardness values reach those measured on supersolvus cast and wrought Ni-based superalloys. The observed γ' precipitation behavior should have implications for the production, the heat treatment, the welding, or the additive manufacturing of this new class of high-temperature materials.

  15. Nano-structureal and nano-chemical analysis of Ni-based alloy/low alloy steel dissimilar metal weld interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Kyoung Joon; Shin, Sang Hun; Kim, Jong Jin; Jung, Ju Ang; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2012-01-01

    The dissimilar metal joints welded between Ni-based alloy, Alloy 690 and low alloy steel, A533 Gr. B with Alloy 152 filler metal were characterized by using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, secondary ion mass spectrometry and 3-dimensional atom probe tomography. It was found that in the weld root region, the weld was divided into several regions including unmixed zone in Ni-base alloy, fusion boundary, and heat-affected zone in the low alloy steel. The result of nanostructural and nanochemical analyses in this study showed the non-homogeneous distribution of elements with higher Fe but lower Mn, Ni and Cr in A533 Gr. B compared with Alloy 152, and the precipitation of carbides near the fusion boundary.

  16. Nano-structureal and nano-chemical analysis of Ni-based alloy/low alloy steel dissimilar metal weld interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyoung Joon; Shin, Sang Hun; Kim, Jong Jin; Jung, Ju Ang; Kim, Ji Hyun [Interdisciplinary School of Green Energy, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    The dissimilar metal joints welded between Ni-based alloy, Alloy 690 and low alloy steel, A533 Gr. B with Alloy 152 filler metal were characterized by using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, secondary ion mass spectrometry and 3-dimensional atom probe tomography. It was found that in the weld root region, the weld was divided into several regions including unmixed zone in Ni-base alloy, fusion boundary, and heat-affected zone in the low alloy steel. The result of nanostructural and nanochemical analyses in this study showed the non-homogeneous distribution of elements with higher Fe but lower Mn, Ni and Cr in A533 Gr. B compared with Alloy 152, and the precipitation of carbides near the fusion boundary.

  17. Thermodynamic properties of uranium in gallium–aluminium based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkovich, V.A.; Maltsev, D.S.; Yamshchikov, L.F.; Chukin, A.V.; Smolenski, V.V.; Novoselova, A.V.; Osipenko, A.G.

    2015-01-01

    Activity, activity coefficients and solubility of uranium was determined in gallium-aluminium alloys containing 1.6 (eutectic), 5 and 20 wt.% aluminium. Additionally, activity of uranium was determined in aluminium and Ga–Al alloys containing 0.014–20 wt.% Al. Experiments were performed up to 1073 K. Intermetallic compounds formed in the alloys were characterized by X-ray diffraction. Partial and excess thermodynamic functions of U in the studied alloys were calculated. - Highlights: • Thermodynamics of uranium is determined in Ga–Al alloys of various compositions. • Uranium in the mixed alloys interacts with both components, Ga and Al. • Interaction of U with Al increases with decreasing temperature. • Activity and solubility of uranium depend on Al content in Ga–Al alloys.

  18. Thermodynamic properties of uranium in gallium–aluminium based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkovich, V.A., E-mail: v.a.volkovich@urfu.ru [Department of Rare Metals and Nanomaterials, Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation); Maltsev, D.S.; Yamshchikov, L.F. [Department of Rare Metals and Nanomaterials, Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation); Chukin, A.V. [Department of Theoretical Physics and Applied Mathematics, Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation); Smolenski, V.V.; Novoselova, A.V. [Institute of High-Temperature Electrochemistry UD RAS, Ekaterinburg, 620137 (Russian Federation); Osipenko, A.G. [JSC “State Scientific Centre - Research Institute of Atomic Reactors”, Dimitrovgrad, 433510 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    Activity, activity coefficients and solubility of uranium was determined in gallium-aluminium alloys containing 1.6 (eutectic), 5 and 20 wt.% aluminium. Additionally, activity of uranium was determined in aluminium and Ga–Al alloys containing 0.014–20 wt.% Al. Experiments were performed up to 1073 K. Intermetallic compounds formed in the alloys were characterized by X-ray diffraction. Partial and excess thermodynamic functions of U in the studied alloys were calculated. - Highlights: • Thermodynamics of uranium is determined in Ga–Al alloys of various compositions. • Uranium in the mixed alloys interacts with both components, Ga and Al. • Interaction of U with Al increases with decreasing temperature. • Activity and solubility of uranium depend on Al content in Ga–Al alloys.

  19. Self Passivating W-based Alloys as Plasma Facing Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, F.; Koeppl, S.; Bolt, H.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Tungsten (W) is presently the main candidate material for the plasma-facing protection of future fusion power reactors due to the low sputter erosion under bombardment by energetic D, T and He ions. Thus a W-based protection material may provide a wall erosion lifetime of the order of five years which is a pre-requisite for economic fusion reactor operation. A potential problem with the use of pure W in a fusion reactor is the formation of radioactive and highly volatile WO 3 compounds and their potential release under accidental conditions. A loss-of-coolant event in a He-cooled reactor would lead to a temperature rise to 1100 deg. C after approx. 10 to 30 days due to the nuclear decay heat of the in-vessel components. In such a situation additional accidental intense air ingress into the reactor vessel would lead to the formation of WO 3 and subsequent evaporation of radioactive (WO 3 ) x -clusters. The use of self passivating W alloys either as bulk material or as thick coating on the steel wall may be a passively safe alternative for the plasma-facing protection. The use of this material would eliminate the above mentioned concern related to pure W. To enable the formation of a protective film in oxidizing atmosphere which seals the tungsten surface from further oxidation, different elements have been investigated as corrosion protection additives. Therefore binary and ternary tungsten alloys were synthesised using magnetron sputtering. The oxidation behaviour of films deposited on inert substrates was measured with a thermo-balance set up under synthetic air at temperatures up to 1000 deg. C. Binary alloys of W-Si showed good self passivation properties by forming a SiO 2 film at the surface. The oxidation rate of a compound containing 11 wt.% Si was reduced by a factor of 10 2 compared to pure tungsten between 800 deg. C and 1000 deg. C. Using ternary alloys the oxidation behaviour could be further improved. A compound of W

  20. Dinuclear Tetrapyrazolyl Palladium Complexes Exhibiting Facile Tandem Transfer Hydrogenation/Suzuki Coupling Reaction of Fluoroarylketone

    KAUST Repository

    Dehury, Niranjan; Maity, Niladri; Tripathy, Suman Kumar; Basset, Jean-Marie; Patra, Srikanta

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we report an unprecedented example of dinuclear pyrazolyl-based Pd complexes exhibiting facile tandem catalysis for fluoroarylketone: Tetrapyrazolyl di-palladium complexes with varying Pd-Pd distances efficiently catalyze the tandem reaction

  1. The development of platinum-based alloys and their thermodynamic database

    OpenAIRE

    Cornish L.A.; Hohls J.; Hill P.J.; Prins S.; Süss R.; Compton D.N.

    2002-01-01

    A series of quaternary platinum-based alloys have been demonstrated to exhibit the same two-phase structure as Ni-based superalloys and showed good mechanical properties. The properties of ternary alloys were a good indication that the quaternary alloys, with their better microstructure, will be even better. The quaternary alloy composition has been optimised at Pt84:Al11:Ru2:Cr3 for the best microstructure and hardness. Work has begun on establishing a thermodynamic database for Pt-Al-Ru-Cr ...

  2. Corrosion mechanism of a Ni-based alloy in supercritical water: Impact of surface plastic deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payet, Mickaël; Marchetti, Loïc; Tabarant, Michel; Chevalier, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The dissolution of Ni and Fe cations occurs during corrosion of Ni-based alloys in SCW. • The nature of the oxide layer depends locally on the alloy microstructure. • The corrosion mechanism changes when cold-work increases leading to internal oxidation. - Abstract: Ni–Fe–Cr alloys are expected to be a candidate material for the generation IV nuclear reactors that use supercritical water at temperatures up to 600 °C and pressures of 25 MPa. The corrosion resistance of Alloy 690 in these extreme conditions was studied considering the surface finish of the alloy. The oxide scale could suffer from dissolution or from internal oxidation. The presence of a work-hardened zone reveals the competition between the selective oxidation of chromium with respect to the oxidation of nickel and iron. Finally, corrosion mechanisms for Ni based alloys are proposed considering the effects of plastically deformed surfaces and the dissolution.

  3. Mechanical and microstructural characterization of the nickel base alloy (Alloy 600) after heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Stela Maria de Carvalho

    1993-01-01

    The characterization of microstructural and mechanical properties of cold rolled and heat treated alloys 600 made in Brazil were investigated. The recovery and recrystallization behavior as well as solubilization and aging have been studied using optical, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. Microhardness and tensile testing have been carried out. The recovery process of the cold rolled alloy 600 occurred until 600 deg C and the recrystallization stage was situated between 600 and 850 deg C. The primary recrystallization temperature was obtained at 850 deg C after 1 hour (isochronal heat treatments). The aged alloy 600 shows carbide precipitation on grains bu with ductility maintenance. (author)

  4. A Shape Memory Alloy Based Cryogenic Thermal Conduction Switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notardonato, W. U.; Krishnan, V. B.; Singh, J. D.; Woodruff, T. R.; Vaidyanathan, R.

    2005-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) can produce large strains when deformed (e.g., up to 8%). Heating results in a phase transformation and associated recovery of all the accumulated strain. This strain recovery can occur against large forces, resulting in their use as actuators. Thus an SMA element can integrate both sensory and actuation functions, by inherently sensing a change in temperature and actuating by undergoing a shape change as a result of a temperature-induced phase transformation. Two aspects of our work on cryogenic SMAs are addressed here. First - a shape memory alloy based cryogenic thermal conduction switch for operation between dewars of liquid methane and liquid oxygen in a common bulkhead arrangement is discussed. Such a switch integrates the sensor element and the actuator element and can be used to create a variable thermal sink to other cryogenic tanks for liquefaction, densification, and zero boil-off systems for advanced spaceport applications. Second - fabrication via arc-melting and subsequent materials testing of SMAs with cryogenic transformation temperatures for use in the aforementioned switch is discussed.

  5. Evaluation of different finish line designs in base metal alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghandeh R

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was performed according to the widespread application of base metal alloys"nand few articles published about the marginal integrity of restorations fabricated by these metals."nThree standard dies of a maxillary first premolar were prepared with a flat shoulder finish line in buccal"naspect and chamfer in palatal. One of them left with no change. On the buccal aspect of the second and"nthird dies 135?and 1607 bevel were added respectively"nUsing dual wax technique, nine wax patterns were formed on each die and casting procedure of selected"nnon precious alloy was performed by centrifugal method. Marginal gaps of each copping seated on dies"nwere measured by scanning electron microscope (SEM with X500 magnification. Measurements were"ndone on three areas of marked dies on buccal aspect. Measurement son palatal aspect was done on"nmarked midpalatal point as control."nResults and statistical analysis showed no significant difference among marginal gaps in lingual aspect."nBut on the buccal aspect there were statistically significant differences among the groups (P<0.001. Flat"nshoulder had the best marginal integrity (mean 4 micron. Shoulder with 160' bevel had the most marginal"ngap (mean 26.5 micron and shoulder with 1357 bevel was between two other groups (mean 15.7 micron.

  6. A Shape Memory Alloy Based Cryogenic Thermal Conduction Switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, V.B.; Singh, J.D.; Woodruff, T.R.; Vaidyanathan, R.; Notardonato, W.U.

    2004-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) can produce large strains when deformed (e.g., up to 8%). Heating results in a phase transformation and associated recovery of all the accumulated strain. This strain recovery can occur against large forces, resulting in their use as actuators. Thus an SMA element can integrate both sensory and actuation functions, by inherently sensing a change in temperature and actuating by undergoing a shape change as a result of a temperature-induced phase transformation. Two aspects of our work on cryogenic SMAs are addressed here. First - a shape memory alloy based cryogenic thermal conduction switch for operation between dewars of liquid methane and liquid oxygen in a common bulkhead arrangement is discussed. Such a switch integrates the sensor element and the actuator element and can be used to create a variable thermal sink to other cryogenic tanks for liquefaction, densification, and zero boil-off systems for advanced spaceport applications. Second - fabrication via arc-melting and subsequent materials testing of SMAs with cryogenic transformation temperatures for use in the aforementioned switch is discussed

  7. Machinability of nickel based alloys using electrical discharge machining process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. Adam; Gokul, A. K.; Bharani Dharan, M. P.; Jeevakarthikeyan, R. V. S.; Uthayakumar, M.; Thirumalai Kumaran, S.; Duraiselvam, M.

    2018-04-01

    The high temperature materials such as nickel based alloys and austenitic steel are frequently used for manufacturing critical aero engine turbine components. Literature on conventional and unconventional machining of steel materials is abundant over the past three decades. However the machining studies on superalloy is still a challenging task due to its inherent property and quality. Thus this material is difficult to be cut in conventional processes. Study on unconventional machining process for nickel alloys is focused in this proposed research. Inconel718 and Monel 400 are the two different candidate materials used for electrical discharge machining (EDM) process. Investigation is to prepare a blind hole using copper electrode of 6mm diameter. Electrical parameters are varied to produce plasma spark for diffusion process and machining time is made constant to calculate the experimental results of both the material. Influence of process parameters on tool wear mechanism and material removal are considered from the proposed experimental design. While machining the tool has prone to discharge more materials due to production of high energy plasma spark and eddy current effect. The surface morphology of the machined surface were observed with high resolution FE SEM. Fused electrode found to be a spherical structure over the machined surface as clumps. Surface roughness were also measured with surface profile using profilometer. It is confirmed that there is no deviation and precise roundness of drilling is maintained.

  8. Irradiation induced precipitation in tungsten based, W-Re alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R. K.; Wiffen, F. W.; Bentley, J.; Stiegler, J. O.

    1983-03-01

    Tungsten-base alloys containing 5, 11, and 25 pct Re were irradiated in the EBR-II reactor. Irradiation temperatures ranged from 600 to 1500 °C. All compositions were irradiated to fluences in the range 4.3 to 6.1 X 1025 n/m2 (E > 0.1 MeV), and three 25 pct Re samples were also irradiated to 3.7 X 1026 n/m2 at temperatures 700 to 900 °C. Postirradiation examination included measurement of electrical resistivity at room temperature and lower temperatures, X-ray diffraction, optical metallography, microprobe analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. Irradiation induced resistivity decreases observed in most of the samples suggested second-phase precipitation. Complete results confirmed the precipitate formation in all samples, in disagreement with existing phase diagrams for the W-Re system. Electron diffraction showed the precipitates to be consistent with the cubic, Re-rich X-phase and inconsistent with the σ-phase. Large variations in precipitate morphology and distribution were observed between the different compositions and irradiation conditions. For the 5 and 11 pct Re-alloys, spherically symmetric strain fields surrounded the equiaxed precipitate particles, and were observed even where no particles were visible. These strain fields are believed to arise from local Re enrichment. Thermoelectric data show that the precipitation can lead to decalibration of W/Re thermocouples.

  9. Effect of heat treatment on the microstructure and properties of Ni based soft magnetic alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunhong; Ruan, Hui; Chen, Dengming; Li, Kejian; Guo, Donglin; Shao, Bin

    2018-04-20

    A Ni-based alloy was heat treated by changing the temperature and ambient atmosphere of the heat treatment. Morphology, crystal structure, and physical performance of the Ni-based alloy were characterized via SEM, XRD, TEM, and PPMS. Results show that due to the heat treatment process, the grain growth of the Ni-based alloy and the removal of impurities and defects are promoted. Both the orientation and stress caused by rolling are reduced. The permeability and saturation magnetization of the alloy are improved. The hysteresis loss and coercivity are decreased. Higher heat treatment temperature leads to increased improvement of permeability and saturation magnetization. Heat treatment in hydrogen is more conducive to the removal of impurities. At the same temperature, the magnetic performance of the heat-treated alloy in hydrogen is better than that of an alloy with heat treatment in vacuum. The Ni-based alloy shows an excellent magnetic performance on 1,373 K heat treatment in hydrogen atmosphere. In this process, the µ m , B s , P u , and H c of the obtained alloy are 427 mHm -1 , 509 mT, 0.866 Jm -3 , and 0.514 Am -1 , respectively. At the same time, the resistivity of alloy decreases and its thermal conductivity increases in response to heat treatment. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Mechanisms of improving the cyclic stability of V-Ti-based hydrogen storage electrode alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao He; Wang Weiguo

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → The corrosion resistance of V-based phase is much lower than that of C14 Laves phase of V-Ti-based alloys. → The addition of Cr which mostly distributes in V-based phase can effectively increase the anti-corrosion ability of V-Ti-based alloys. → The addition of Cr which mostly distributes in V-based phase can effectively increase the anti-corrosion ability of V-Ti-based alloys. - Abstract: In this work, the mechanisms of improving the cyclic stability of V-Ti-based hydrogen storage electrode alloys were investigated systemically. Several key factors for example corrosion resistance, pulverization resistance and oxidation resistance were evaluated individually. The V-based solid solution phase has much lower anti-corrosion ability than C14 Laves phase in KOH solution, and the addition of Cr in V-Ti-based alloys can suppress the dissolution of the main hydrogen absorption elements of the V-based phase in the alkaline solution. During the charge/discharge cycling, the alloy particles crack or break into several pieces, which accelerates their corrosion/oxidation and increases the contact resistance of the alloy electrodes. Proper decreasing the Vickers hardness and enhancing the fracture toughness can increase the pulverization resistance of the alloy particles. The oxidation layer thickness on the alloy particle surface obviously increases during charge/discharge cycling. This deteriorates their electro-catalyst activation to the electrochemical reaction, and leads to a quick degradation. Therefore, enhancing the oxide resistance can obviously improve the cyclic stability of V-Ti-based hydrogen storage electrode alloys.

  11. Sacrificial Template-Based Synthesis of Unified Hollow Porous Palladium Nanospheres for Formic Acid Electro-Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Qiu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Large scale syntheses of uniform metal nanoparticles with hollow porous structure have attracted much attention owning to their high surface area, abundant active sites and relatively efficient catalytic activity. Herein, we report a general method to synthesize hollow porous Pd nanospheres (Pd HPNSs by templating sacrificial SiO2 nanoparticles with the assistance of polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAH through layer-by-layer self-assembly. The chemically inert PAH is acting as an efficient stabilizer and complex agent to control the synthesis of Pd HPNSs, probably accounting for its long aliphatic alkyl chains, excellent coordination capability and good hydrophilic property. The physicochemical properties of Pd HPNSs are thoroughly characterized by various techniques, such as transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The growth mechanism of Pd HPNSs is studied based on the analysis of diverse experimental observations. The as-prepared Pd HPNSs exhibit clearly enhanced electrocatalytic activity and durability for the formic oxidation reaction (FAOR in acid medium compared with commercial Pd black.

  12. New technique for producing the alloys based on transition metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolukhanyan, S.K.; Aleksanyan, A.G.; Shekhtman, V.Sh.; Mantashyan, A.A.; Mayilyan, D.G.; Ter-Galstyan, O.P.

    2007-01-01

    In principle new technique was elaborated for obtaining the alloys of refractory metals by their hydrides compacting and following dehydrogenation. The elaborated technique is described. The conditions of alloys formation from different hydrides of appropriate metals was investigated in detail. The influence of the process parameters such as: chemical peculiarities, composition of source hydrides, phase transformation during dehydrogenation, etc. on the alloys formation were established. The binary and tertiary alloys of α and ω phases: Ti 0 .8Zr 0 .8; Ti 0 .66Zr 0 .33; Ti 0 .3Zr 0 .8; Ti 0 .2Zr 0 .8; Ti 0 .8Hf 0 .2; Ti 0 .6Hf 0 .4Ti 0 .66Zr 0 .23Hf 0 .11; etc were recieved. Using elaborated special hydride cycle, an earlier unknown effective process for formation of alloys of transition metals was realized. The dependence of final alloy structure on the composition of initial mixture and hydrogen content in source hydrides was established

  13. Dual Microstructure Heat Treatment of a Nickel-Base Disk Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayda, John

    2001-01-01

    Existing Dual Microstructure Heat Treat (DMHT) technology was successfully applied to Alloy 10, a high strength, nickel-base disk alloy, to produce a disk with a fine grain bore and coarse grain rim. Specimens were extracted from the DMHT disk and tested in tension, creep, fatigue, and crack growth using conditions pertinent to disk applications. These data were then compared with data from "traditional" subsolvus and supersolvus heat treatments for Alloy 10. The results showed the DMHT disk to have a high strength, fatigue resistant bore comparable to that of subsolvus Alloy 10. Further, creep resistance of the DMHT rim was comparable to that of supersolvus Alloy 10. Crack growth resistance in the DMHT rim, while better than that for subsolvus, was inferior to that of supersolvus Alloy 10. The slow cool at the end of the DMHT conversion and/or the subsolvus resolution step are thought to be responsible for degrading rim DMHT crack growth resistance.

  14. Study of superficial films and of electrochemical behaviour of some nickel base alloys and titanium base alloys in solution representation of granitic, argillaceous and salted ground waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quang, K.V.; Da Cunha Belo, M.; Benabed, M.S.; Bourelier, F.; Jallerat, N.; Pari, F.L.

    1985-01-01

    The corrosion behaviour of the stainless steels 304, 316 Ti, 25Cr-20Ni-Mo-Ti, nickel base alloys Hastelloy C4, Inconel 625, Incoloy 800, Ti and Ti-0.2% Pd alloy has been studied in the aerated or deaerated solutions at 20 0 C and 90 0 C whose compositions are representative of interstitial ground waters: granitic or clay waters or salt brine. The electrochemical techniques used are voltametry, polarization resistance and complexe impedance measurements. Electrochemical data show the respective influence of the parameters such as temperature, solution composition and dissolved oxygen, addition of soluble species chloride, fluoride, sulfide and carbonates, on which depend the corrosion current density, the passivation and the pitting potential. The inhibition efficiency of carbonate and bicarbonate activities against pitting corrosion is determined. In clay water at 90 0 C, Ti and Ti-Pd show very high passivation aptitude and a broad passive potential range. Alloying Pd increases cathodic overpotential and also transpassive potential. It makes the alloy less sensitive to the temperature effect. Optical Glow Discharge Spectra show three parts in the composition depth profiles of surface films on alloys. XPS and SIMS spectrometry analyses are also carried out. Electron microscopy observation shows that passive films formed on Ti and Ti-Pd alloy have amorphous structure. Analysis of the alloy constituents dissolved in solutions, by radioactivation in neutrons, gives the order of magnitude of the Ni base alloy corrosion rates in various media. It also points out the preferential dissolution of alloying iron and in certain cases of chromium

  15. Phases stability of shape memory alloys Cu based under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelaya, Maria Eugenia

    2006-01-01

    The effects of irradiation on the relative phase stability of phases related by a martensitic transformation in copper based shape memory alloys were studied in this work.Different kind of particles and energies were employed in the irradiation experiments.The first kind of irradiation was performed with 2,6 MeV electrons, the second one with 170 keV and 300 keV Cu ions and the third one with swift heavy ions (Kr, Xe, Au) with energies between 200 and 600 MeV.Stabilization of the 18 R martensite in Cu-Zn-Al-Ni induced by electron irradiation was studied.The results were compared to those of the stabilization induced by quenching and ageing in the same alloy, and the ones obtained by irradiation in 18 R-Cu-Zn-Al alloys.The effects of Cu irradiation over b phase were analyzed with several electron microscopy techniques including: scanning electron microscopy (S E M), high resolution electron microscopy (H R E M), micro diffraction and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (E D S). Structural changes in Cu-Zn-Al b phase into a closed packed structure were induced by Cu ion implantation.The closed packed structures depend on the irradiation fluence.Based on these results, the interface between these structures (closed packed and b) and the stability of disordered phases were analyzed. It was also compared the evolution of long range order in the Cu-Zn-Al and in the Cu-Zn-Al-Ni b phase as a function of fluence.The evolution of the g phase was also compared. Both results were discussed in terms of the mobility of irradiation induced point defects.Finally, the effects induced by swift heavy ions in b phase and 18 R martensite were studied. The results of the irradiation in b phase were qualitatively similar to those produced by irradiation with lower energies. On the contrary, nano metric defects were found in the irradiated 18 R martensite.These defects were characterized by H R E M.The characteristic contrast of the defects was associated to a local change in the

  16. Technical assessment of niobium alloys data base for fusion reactor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pionke, L J; Davis, J W

    1979-08-01

    Refractory metals are one class of material to be developed in the Alloy Development For Irradiation Performance (ADIP) program recently initiated. A principal purpose of the assessment reported herein is to establish the existing data base for niobium alloys in order to help guide the work to be performed in the ADIP program. Major ADIP decisions include alloy selection/modification and irradiated/unirradiated material testing. This Assessment addressed the topics of: (1) niobium alloy development history and niobium metallurgy, (2) unirradiated mechanical properties, (3) irradiated properties, (4) corrosion, and (5) environmental effects.

  17. Hydrogen embrittlement considerations in niobium-base alloys for application in the ITER divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, D.T.; Hull, A.B.; Loomis, B.A.

    1991-01-01

    The ITER divertor will be subjected to hydrogen from aqueous corrosion by the coolant and by transfer from the plasma. Global hydrogen concentrations are one factor in assessing hydrogen embrittlement but local concentrations affected by source fluxes and thermotransport in thermal gradients are more important considerations. Global hydrogen concentrations is some corrosion- tested alloys will be presented and interpreted. The degradation of mechanical properties of Nb-base alloys due to hydrogen is a complex function of temperature, hydrogen concentration, stresses and alloy composition. The known tendencies for embrittlement and hydride formation in Nb alloys are reviewed

  18. Low in reactor creep Zr-base alloy tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheadle, B.A.; Holt, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    This invention relates to zirconium alloy tubes especially for use in nuclear power reactors. More particularly it relates to quaternary 3.5 percent Sn, 1 percent Mo, 1 percent Nb, balance Zr alloy tubes which have been extruded, cold worked and heat treated to lower their dislocation density. In one embodiment the alloys are cold worked less than 5 percent and stress relieved to produce a low dislocation density and in another embodiment the alloys are cold worked up to about 50 percent and annealed to produce a very low dislocation density and also small equiaxed β grains

  19. Shape Memory Alloy-Based Periodic Cellular Structures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I effort will develop and demonstrate an innovative shape memory alloy (SMA) periodic cellular structural technology. Periodic cellular structures...

  20. Corrosion performance of new Zircaloy-2-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudling, P.; Mikes-Lindbaeck, M.; Lethinen, B.; Andren, H.O.; Stiller, K.

    1994-01-01

    A material development project was initiated to develop a new zirconium alloy, outside the ASTM specifications for Zircaloy-2 and Zircaloy-4, with optimized hydriding and corrosion properties for both boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors. A number of different alloys were manufactured. These alloys were long-term corrosion tested in autoclaves at 400 C in steam. Also, a 520 C/24 h steam test was carried out. The zirconium metal microstructure and the chemistry of precipitates were characterized by analytical electron microscopy. The metal matrix chemistry was determined by atom probe analysis. The paper describes the correlations between corrosion material performance and zirconium alloy microstructure

  1. Stress corrosion cracking of nickel base alloys characterization and prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santarini, G.; Pinard-Legry, G.

    1988-01-01

    For many years, studies have been carried out in several laboratories to characterize the IGSCC (Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking) behaviour of nickel base alloys in aqueous environments. For their relative shortness, CERTs (Constant Extension Rate Tests) have been extensively used, especially at the Corrosion Department of the CEA. However, up to recently, the results obtained with this method remained qualitative. This paper presents a first approach to a quantitative interpretation of CERT results. The basic datum used is the crack trace depth distribution determined on a specimen section at the end of a CERT. It is shown that this information can be used for the calculation of initiation and growth parameters which quantitatively characterize IGSCC phenomenon. Moreover, the rationale proposed should lead to the determination of intrinsic cracking parameters, and so, to in-service behaviour prediction

  2. Nanocrystalline Al-based alloys - lightweight materials with attractive mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latuch, J; Cieslak, G; Dimitrov, H; Krasnowski, M; Kulik, T

    2009-01-01

    In this study, several ways of bulk nanocrystalline Al-based alloys' production by high-pressure compaction of powders were explored. The effect of chemical composition and compaction parameters on the structure, quality and mechanical properties of the bulk samples was studied. Bulk nanocrystalline Al-Mm-Ni-(Fe,Co) alloys were prepared by ball-milling of amorphous ribbons followed by consolidation. The maximum microhardness (540 HV0.1) was achieved for the samples compacted at 275 deg. C under 7.7 GPa (which resulted in an amorphous bulk) and nanocrystallised at 235 deg. C for 20 min. Another group of the produced materials were bulk nanocrystalline Al-Si-(Ni,Fe)-Mm alloys obtained by ball-milling of nanocrystalline ribbons and consolidation. The hardness of these samples achieved the value five times higher (350HV) than that of commercial 4xxx series Al alloys. Nanocrystalline Al-based alloys were also prepared by mechanical alloying followed by hot-pressing. In this group of materials, there were Al-Fe alloys containing 50-85 at.% of Al and ternary or quaternary Al-Fe-(Ti, Si, Ni, Mg, B) alloys. Microhardness of these alloys was in the range of 613 - 1235 HV0.2, depending on the composition.

  3. Cu-based shape memory alloys with enhanced thermal stability and mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, C.Y.; Lam, C.W.H.

    1999-01-01

    Cu-based shape memory alloys were developed in the 1960s. They show excellent thermoelastic martensitic transformation. However the problems in mechanical properties and thermal instability have inhibited them from becoming promising engineering alloys. A new Cu-Zn-Al-Mn-Zr Cu-based shape memory alloy has been developed. With the addition of Mn and Zr, the martensitic transformation behaviour and the grain size ca be better controlled. The new alloys demonstrates good mechanical properties with ultimate tensile strenght and ductility, being 460 MPa and 9%, respectively. Experimental results revealed that the alloy has better thermal stability, i.e. martensite stabilisation is less serious. In ordinary Cu-Zn-Al alloys, martensite stabilisation usually occurs at room temperature. The new alloy shows better thermal stability even at elevated temperature (∝150 C, >A f =80 C). A limited small amount of martensite stabilisation was observed upon ageing of the direct quenched samples as well as the step quenched samples. This implies that the thermal stability of the new alloy is less dependent on the quenching procedure. Furthermore, such minor martensite stabilisation can be removed by subsequent suitable parent phase ageing. The new alloy is ideal for engineering applications because of its better thermal stability and better mechanical properties. (orig.)

  4. Corrosion resistance and electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation testing of some iron-base hardfacing alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockeram, B.V.

    1999-01-01

    Hardfacing alloys are weld deposited on a base material to provide a wear resistant surface. Commercially available iron-base hardfacing alloys are being evaluated for replacement of cobalt-base alloys to reduce nuclear plant activation levels. Corrosion testing was used to evaluate the corrosion resistance of several iron-base hardfacing alloys in highly oxygenated environments. The corrosion test results indicate that iron-base hardfacing alloys in the as-deposited condition have acceptable corrosion resistance when the chromium to carbon ratio is greater than 4. Tristelle 5183, with a high niobium (stabilizer) content, did not follow this trend due to precipitation of niobium-rich carbides instead of chromium-rich carbides. This result indicates that iron-base hardfacing alloys containing high stabilizer contents may possess good corrosion resistance with Cr:C < 4. NOREM 02, NOREM 01, and NoCo-M2 hardfacing alloys had acceptable corrosion resistance in the as-deposited and 885 C/4 hour heat treated condition, but rusting from sensitization was observed in the 621 C/6 hour heat treated condition. The feasibility of using an Electrochemical Potentiokinetic Reactivation (EPR) test method, such as used for stainless steel, to detect sensitization in iron-base hardfacing alloys was evaluated. A single loop-EPR method was found to provide a more consistent measurement of sensitization than a double loop-EPR method. The high carbon content that is needed for a wear resistant hardfacing alloy produces a high volume fraction of chromium-rich carbides that are attacked during EPR testing. This results in inherently lower sensitivity for detection of a sensitized iron-base hardfacing alloy than stainless steel using conventional EPR test methods

  5. Study of oxidation behaviour of Zr-based bulk amorphous alloy Zr 65 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The oxidation behaviour of Zr-based bulk amorphous alloy Zr65Cu17.5Ni10Al7.5 has been studied in air environment at various temperatures in the temperature range 591–684 K using a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). The oxidation kinetics of the alloy in the amorphous phase obeys the parabolic rate law for oxidation ...

  6. An experimental study of the magnetic ordering in Pd-based Fe and Mn alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbeek, B.H.

    1979-01-01

    This thesis presents the results of an investigation on the magnetic ordering phenomena in some Pd based alloys with small concentrations of magnetic impurities. It has been the object to explore the ordering mechanisms in these alloys which lead to various types of magnetism at low temperature. The experimental techniques used are described. (Auth.)

  7. Improvement of the performance of Mg-based alloy electrodes at ambient temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.K.; Chen, J.; Sun, L.; Bradhurst, D.H.; Dou, S.X.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Rechargeable batteries are finding increased application in modern communications, computers, and electric vehicles. The Nickel-Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) battery has the best comprehensive properties. It is known that the important step to increase the energy density of Ni-MH battery is to improve the negative (metal hydride) electrode properties. Of all the hydrogen storage alloys studied previously, (the best know alloys are LaNi 5 , Mg 2 Ni, Ti 2 Ni , TiNi and Zr 2 Ni), the intermetallic compound Mg 2 Ni has the highest theoretical hydrogen storage capacity. The Mg 2 Ni-based hydrogen storage alloy is a promising material for increasing the negative electrode capacity of Ni-MH batteries because this alloy is superior to the LaNi 5 -system or the Zr-based alloys in materials cost and hydrogen absorption capacity. A serious disadvantage, however, is that the reactions of most magnesium based alloys with hydrogen require relatively high temperature (>300 deg C) and pressure (up to 10 atm) due to the slowness of the hydriding/dehydriding reactions. In this paper it is shown that with a combination of modifications to the alloy composition and methods of electrode preparation, magnesium-based alloys can be made into electrodes which will not only be useful at ambient temperatures but will have a useful cycle life and extremely high capacity

  8. Prospects for designing structural cast eutectic alloys on Al-Ce-Ni system base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, N.A.; Naumova, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    The phase diagram of Al-Ce-Ni system is built for an aluminium corner at component concentration up to 16 mass %Ce and 8 mass%Ni. A ternary eutectic reaction is established at 12%Ce, 5%Ni and 626 deg C. The ternary eutectic alloy is similar in structure to rapidly cooled Al base alloys with transition metals. The possibility to design new cast alloys based on three-phase (Al)+NiAl 3 +CeAl 4 eutectics is under consideration. Al-Zn-Mg-Cu, Al-Sc and Al-Zr base alloys can be used as (Al) constituent of the eutectics. The new alloys may be considered as heat resistant ones due to the fact that no structural changes are observed in castings on heating up to 350 deg C. 18 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  9. Formation and Applications of Bulk Glassy Alloys in Late Transition Metal Base System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Akihisa; Shen Baolong

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews our recent results of the formation, fundamental properties, workability and applications of late transition metal (LTM) base bulk glassy alloys (BGAs) developed since 1995. The BGAs were obtained in Fe-(Al,Ga)-(P,C,B,Si), Fe-(Cr,Mo)-(C,B), Fe-(Zr,Hf,Nb,Ta)-B, Fe-Ln-B(Ln=lanthanide metal), Fe-B-Si-Nb and Fe-Nd-Al for Fe-based alloys, Co-(Ta,Mo)-B and Co-B-Si-Nb for Co-based alloys, Ni-Nb-(Ti,Zr)-(Co,Ni) for Ni-based alloys, and Cu-Ti-(Zr,Hf), Cu-Al-(Zr,Hf), Cu-Ti-(Zr,Hf)-(Ni,Co) and Cu-Al-(Zr,Hf)-(Ag,Pd) for Cu-based alloys. These BGAs exhibit useful properties of high mechanical strength, large elastic elongation and high corrosion resistance. In addition, Fe- and Co-based glassy alloys have good soft magnetic properties which cannot be obtained for amorphous and crystalline type magnetic alloys. The Fe- and Ni-based BGAs have already been used in some application fields. These LTM base BGAs are promising as new metallic engineering materials

  10. Effects of Cr and Nb contents on the susceptibility of Alloy 600 type Ni-base alloys to stress-corrosion cracking in a simulated BWR environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akashi, Masatsune

    1995-01-01

    In order to discuss the effects of chromium and niobium contents on the susceptibility of Alloy 600 type nickel-base alloys to stress-corrosion cracking in the BWR primary coolant environment, a series of creviced bent-beam (CBB) tests were conducted in a high-temperature, high-purity water environment. Chromium, niobium, and titanium as alloying elements improved the resistivity to stress-corrosion cracking, whereas carbon enhanced the susceptibility to it. Alloy-chemistry-based correlations have been defined to predict the relative resistances of alloys to stress-corrosion cracking. A strong correlation was found, for several heats of alloys, between grain-boundary chromium depletion and the susceptibility to stress-corrosion cracking

  11. The corrosion behaviour of Zr3Al-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, E.V.; Wieler, R.

    1977-07-01

    The corrosion resistance of several zirconium-aluminum alloys with aluminum contents ranging from 7.6 to 9.6 wt% was examined in 300 deg C and 325 deg C water, 350 deg C and 400 deg C steam and in air and wet CO 2 at 325 deg C and 400 deg C. In the transformed alloys there are three phases present, αZr, Zr 2 Al and Zr 3 Al of which the αZr phase is the least corrosion resistant. The most important factor controlling the corrosion behaviour of these alloys was found to be the size, distribution and amount of the αZr phase in the transformed alloys, which in turn was dependent upon the microstructural scale of the untransformed alloys

  12. Creep-Rupture Behavior of Ni-Based Alloy Tube Bends for A-USC Boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shingledecker, John

    Advanced ultrasupercritical (A-USC) boiler designs will require the use of nickel-based alloys for superheaters and reheaters and thus tube bending will be required. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section II PG-19 limits the amount of cold-strain for boiler tube bends for austenitic materials. In this summary and analysis of research conducted to date, a number of candidate nickel-based A-USC alloys were evaluated. These alloys include alloy 230, alloy 617, and Inconel 740/740H. Uniaxial creep and novel structural tests and corresponding post-test analysis, which included physical measurements, simplified analytical analysis, and detailed microscopy, showed that different damage mechanisms may operate based on test conditions, alloy, and cold-strain levels. Overall, creep strength and ductility were reduced in all the alloys, but the degree of degradation varied substantially. The results support the current cold-strain limits now incorporated in ASME for these alloys for long-term A-USC boiler service.

  13. Corrosion assessment and enhanced biocompatibility analysis of biodegradable magnesium-based alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompa, Luis Enrique

    Magnesium alloys have raised immense interest to many researchers because of its evolution as a new third generation material. Due to their biocompatibility, density, and mechanical properties, magnesium alloys are frequently reported as prospective biodegradable implant materials. Moreover, magnesium based alloys experience a natural phenomena to biodegrade in aqueous solutions due to its corrosive activity, which is excellent for orthopedic and cardiovascular applications. However, major concerns with such alloys are fast and non-uniform corrosion degradation. Controlling the degradation rate in the physiological environment determines the success of an implant. In this investigation, three grades of magnesium alloys: AZ31B, AZ91E and ZK60A were studied for their corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and contact angle meter are used to study surface morphology, chemistry, roughness and wettability, respectively. Additionally, the cytotoxicity of the leached metal ions was evaluated by a tetrazolium based bio-assay, MTS.

  14. Research into Oil-based Colloidal-Graphite Lubricants for Forging of Al-based Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, A.; Petrov, P.; Petrov, M.

    2011-01-01

    The presented paper describes the topical problem in metal forging production. It deals with the choice of an optimal lubricant for forging of Al-based alloys. Within the scope of the paper, the properties of several oil-based colloidal-graphite lubricants were investigated. The physicochemical and technological properties of these lubricants are presented. It was found that physicochemical properties of lubricant compositions have an influence on friction coefficient value and quality of forgings.The ring compression method was used to estimate the friction coefficient value. Hydraulic press was used for the test. The comparative analysis of the investigated lubricants was carried out. The forging quality was estimated on the basis of production test. The practical recommendations were given to choose an optimal oil-based colloidal-graphite lubricant for isothermal forging of Al-based alloy.

  15. Ductile-phase toughening and fatigue crack growth in Nb3Al base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnanamoorthy, R.; Hanada, S.

    1996-01-01

    Niobium aluminide (Nb 3 Al) base intermetallic compounds exhibit good high-temperature strength and creep properties and potential for applications above 1,200 C provided their inadequately low room-temperature ductility, fracture toughness and fatigue crack growth behavior are improved. Addition of tantalum to Nb 3 Al base materials improves the high-temperature strength significantly and seems to be a potential alloying element. In the present study, room temperature fracture toughness and fatigue crack growth behavior of tantalum alloyed Nb 3 Al base alloy prepared by ingot metallurgy are investigated

  16. Influence of alkali metal hydroxides on corrosion of Zr-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yong Hwan

    1996-01-01

    The influence of group-1 alkali hydroxides on different Zr-based alloys have been carried out in static autoclaves at 350 deg C in pressurized water, conditioned in low(0.32 mmol), medium(4.3 mmol) and high(31.5 mmol) equimolar concentration of Li-, Na-, K-, Rb- and Cs-hydroxide. Two types of alloys have been investigated: Zr-Sn-(TRM, Transition metal) and Zr-Sn-Nb-(TRM, Transition metal). From the experiments the cation could be identified as the responsible species for corrosion of Zr alloy in alkalized water. The radius of the cation governs the accelerated corrosion in the pre-transition region of Zr alloy. Incorporation of alkali cation into the zirconium oxide lattice is probably the mechanism which allows the corrosion enhancement for Li and Na and the significant lower effect for the other bases. Nb containing alloys showed lower corrosion resistance than Zr-Sn-TRM alloys in all alkali solutions. Both types of alloys were corroded significantly more in LiOH and NaOH than in the other alkali environments. Lowest corrosive aggressiveness has been found for CsOH followed by KOH. Concluding from the corrosion behavior in the different alkali environments and taking into account the tendency to accelerate the corrosion of Zr alloys, CsOH and KOH are possible alternate alkali for PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) application. (author)

  17. Amorphization of Fe-based alloy via wet mechanical alloying assisted by PCA decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neamţu, B.V., E-mail: Bogdan.Neamtu@stm.utcluj.ro [Materials Science and Engineering Department, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 103-105, Muncii Avenue, 400641, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Chicinaş, H.F.; Marinca, T.F. [Materials Science and Engineering Department, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 103-105, Muncii Avenue, 400641, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Isnard, O. [Université Grenoble Alpes, Institut NEEL, F-38042, Grenoble (France); CNRS, Institut NEEL, 25 rue des martyrs, BP166, F-38042, Grenoble (France); Pană, O. [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath Street, 400293, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Chicinaş, I. [Materials Science and Engineering Department, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 103-105, Muncii Avenue, 400641, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2016-11-01

    Amorphization of Fe{sub 75}Si{sub 20}B{sub 5} (at.%) alloy has been attempted both by wet and dry mechanical alloying starting from a mixture of elemental powders. Powder amorphization was not achieved even after 140 hours of dry mechanical alloying. Using the same milling parameters, when wet mechanical alloying was used, the powder amorphization was achieved after 40 h of milling. Our assumption regarding the powder amorphization capability enhancement by contamination with carbon was proved by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) measurements which revealed the presence of carbon in the chemical composition of the wet mechanically alloyed sample. Using shorter milling times and several process control agents (PCA) (ethanol, oleic acid and benzene) with different carbon content it was proved that the milling duration required for powder amorphization is linked to the carbon content of the PCA. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), thermomagnetic (TG) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) measurements performed to the heated samples revealed the fact that, the crystallisation occurs at 488 °C, thus leading to the formation of Fe{sub 3}Si and Fe{sub 2}B. Thermogravimetry measurements performed under H{sub 2} atmosphere, showed the same amount of contamination with C, which is about 2.3 wt%, for the amorphous samples regardless of the type of PCA. Saturation magnetisation of the wet milled samples decreases upon increasing milling time. In the case of the amorphous samples wet milled with benzene up to 20 h and with oleic acid up to 30 h, the saturation magnetisation has roughly the same value, indicating the same degree of contamination. The XRD performed on the samples milled using the same parameters, revealed that powder amorphization can be achieved even via dry milling, just by adding the equivalent amount of elemental C calculated from the TG plots. This proves that in this system by considering the atomic species which can contaminate the powder, they can be

  18. Review of lithium iron-base alloy corrosion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVan, J.H.; Selle, J.E.; Morris, A.E.

    1976-01-01

    An extensive literature search was conducted on the compatibility of ferrous alloys with lithium, with the emphasis on austenitic stainless steels. The information is summarized and is divided into two sections. The first section gives a brief summary and the second is an annotated bibliography. Comparisons of results are complicated by differences in lithium purity, alloy composition, alloy treatment, flow rates, and lithium handling procedures. For long-term application, austenitic stainless steels appear to be limited to about 500 0 C. While corrosion can probably not be decreased to zero, a considerable reduction to tolerable and predictable amounts appears possible

  19. Hollow raspberry-like PdAg alloy nanospheres: High electrocatalytic activity for ethanol oxidation in alkaline media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cheng; Hu, Yongli; Liu, Mingrui; Zheng, Yixiong

    2015-03-01

    Palladium-silver (PdAg) alloy nanospheres with unique structure were prepared using a one-pot procedure based on the galvanic replacement reaction. Their electrocatalytic activity for ethanol oxidation in alkaline media was evaluated. The morphology and crystal structure of the samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Electrochemical characterization techniques, including cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA) measurements were used to analyze the electrochemical performance of the PdAg alloy nanospheres. The SEM and TEM images showed that the PdAg alloy nanospheres exhibit a hierarchical nanostructure with hollow interiors and porous walls. Compared to the commercial Pd/C catalyst, the as-prepared PdAg alloy nanospheres exhibit superior electrocatalytic activity and stability towards ethanol electro-oxidation in alkaline media, showing its potential as a new non-Pt electro-catalyst for direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFCs).

  20. Transmission electron microscopy characterization of laser-clad iron-based alloy on Al-Si alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, Z.; Wang, W.Y.; Wang, A.H.

    2006-01-01

    Microstructure characterization is important for controlling the quality of laser cladding. In the present work, a detailed microstructure characterization by transmission electron microscopy was carried out on the iron-based alloy laser-clad on Al-Si alloy and an unambiguous identification of phases in the coating was accomplished. It was found that there is austenite, Cr 7 C 3 and Cr 23 C 6 in the clad region; α-Al, NiAl 3 , Fe 2 Al 5 and FeAl 2 in the interface region; and α-Al and silicon in the heat-affected region. A brief discussion was given for their existence based on both kinetic and thermodynamic principles

  1. Microstructure evolution and texture development in thermomechanically processed Mg-Li-Al based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Vinod [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, IIT Kanpur (India); Govind [Vikram Sarabhai Space Center, Trivandrum (India); Shekhar, Rajiv; Balasubramaniam, R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, IIT Kanpur (India); Balani, Kantesh, E-mail: kbalani@iitk.ac.in [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, IIT Kanpur (India)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermomechanical processing of novel LAT 971 and LATZ 9531 Mg-Al-Li based alloys. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructural deviation from the equilibrium phase diagram. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Disparity in texture of these alloys after hot-rolling (recrystallization and grain growth). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Role of alloying and phase distribution in affecting the texture/interplaner spacing. - Abstract: In the present study, the influence of alloying and thermomechanical processing on the microstructure and texture evolution on the two Mg-Li-Al based alloys, namely Mg-9 wt% Li-7 wt% Al-1 wt% Sn (LAT971) and Mg-9 wt% Li-5 wt% Al-3 wt% Sn-1 wt% Zn (LATZ9531) has been elicited. Novel Mg-Li-Al based alloys were cast (induction melting under protective atmosphere) followed by hot rolling at {approx}573 K with a cumulative reduction of five. A contrary dual phase dendritic microstructure rich in {alpha}-Mg, instead of {beta}-Li phase predicted by equilibrium phase diagram of Mg-Li binary alloy was observed. Preferential presence of Mg-Li-Sn primary precipitates (size 4-10 {mu}m) within {alpha}-Mg phase and Mg-Li-Al secondary precipitates (<3 {mu}m) interspersed in {beta}-Li indicated their degree of dissolution during hot-rolling and homogenization in the dual phase matrix. Presence of Al, Sn and Zn alloying elements in the Mg-Li based alloy has resulted an unusual dual-phase microstructure, change in the lattice parameter, and intriguing texture evolution after hot-rolling of cast LAT 971 and LATZ9531 alloy. Strong texture was absent in the as-cast samples whereas texture development after hot-rolling revealed an increased activity of the non-basal (101{sup Macron }0) slip planes. The quantification of the grain average misorientation (less than 2 Degree-Sign ) using electron backscattered diffraction confirmed the presence of strain free grains in majority of the grains (fraction >0.75) after hot-rolling of Mg

  2. Self-positioned thin Pb-alloy base electrode Josephson junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, K.; Sato, K.

    1986-01-01

    A self-positioned thin (SPOT) Pb-alloy base electrode Josephson junction is developed. In this junction, a 50-nm thick Pb-alloy base electrode is restricted within the junction region on an Nb underlayer using a self-alignment technique. The grain size reduction and the base electrode area restriction greatly improve thermal cycling stability, where the thermal cycling tests of 4000 proposed junctions (5 x 5 μm 2 ) showed no failures after 4000 cycles. In addition, the elimination of insulator layer stress on the Pb-alloy base electrode rectifies the problem of size effect on current density. The Nb underlayers also serve to isolate the Pb-alloy base electrodes from the resistors

  3. Alloy catalysts for fuel cell-based alcohol sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavidel, Mohammadreza Zamanzad

    Direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) are attractive from both economic and environmental standpoints for generating renewable energy and powering vehicles and portable electronic devices. There is a great interest recently in developing DEFC systems. The cost and performance of the DEFCs are mainly controlled by the Pt-base catalysts used at each electrode. In addition to energy conversion, DEFC technology is commonly employed in the fuel-cell based breath alcohol sensors (BrAS). BrAS is a device commonly used to measure blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and enforce drinking and driving laws. The BrAS is non-invasive and has a fast respond time. However, one of the most important drawback of the commercially available BrAS is the very high loading of Pt employed. One well-known and cost effective method to reduce the Pt loading is developing Pt-alloy catalysts. Recent studies have shown that Pt-transition metal alloy catalysts enhanced the electroactivity while decreasing the required loadings of the Pt catalysts. In this thesis, carbon supported Pt-Mn and Pt-Cu electrocatalysts were synthesized by different methods and the effects of heat treatment and structural modification on the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) activity, oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity and durability of these samples were thoroughly studied. Finally, the selected Pt-Mn and Pt-Cu samples with the highest EOR activity were examined in a prototype BrAS system and compared to the Pt/C and Pt 3Sn/C commercial electrocatalysts. Studies on the Pt-Mn catalysts produced with and without additives indicate that adding trisodium citrate (SC) to the impregnation solution improved the particle dispersion, decreased particle sizes and reduced the time required for heat treatment. Further studies show that the optimum weight ratio of SC to the metal loading in the impregnation solution was 2:1 and optimum results achieved at pH lower than 4. In addition, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses indicate

  4. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis of high pure palladium and platinum by ion exchange chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadikov, I.I.; Zinov'ev, V.G.; Sadikova, Z.O.; Salimov, M.I.

    2006-01-01

    volume was obtained by elution curve of the determined elements and distribution profile of the matrix elements. Chemical yields of determined elements were measured by 'entered - found' method. Chemical yields of Sn is 31.2%; Zn is 54.5%; Se is 74.%1, and for other elements it is more than 85 %. Based on the carried out researches the radiochemical neutron activation analysis techniques of a high pure palladium and platinum are developed. These techniques allow determination of more than 30 elements with detection limits 10 -5 -10 -9 % with S r 0.15-0.2. (author)

  5. Determination of palladium in various samples by atomic absorption spectrometry after preconcentration with dimethylglyoxime on silica gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokalioglu, Serife; Oymak, Tuelay; Kartal, Senol

    2004-01-01

    A preconcentration method based on the adsorption of palladium-dimethylglyoxime (DMG) complex on silica gel for the determination of palladium at trace levels by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) has been developed. The retained palladium as Pd(DMG) 2 complex was eluted with 1 mol l -1 HCl in acetone. The effect of some analytical parameters such as pH, amount of reagent and the sample volume on the recovery of palladium was examined in synthetic solutions containing street dust matrix. The influence of some matrix ions on the recovery of palladium was investigated by using the developed method when the elements were present both individually and together. The results showed that 2500 μg ml -1 Na + , K + , Mg 2+ , Al 3+ and Fe 3+ ; 5000 μg ml -1 Ca 2+ ; 500 μg ml -1 Pb 2+ ; 125 μg ml -1 Zn 2+ ; 50 μg ml -1 Cu 2+ and 25 μg ml -1 Ni 2+ did not interfere with the palladium signal. At the optimum conditions determined experimentally, the recovery for palladium was found to be 95.3±1.2% at the 95% confidence level. The relative standard deviation and limit of detection (3s/b) of the method were found to be 1.7% and 1.2 μg l -1 , respectively. In order to determine the adsorption behaviour of silica gel, the adsorption isotherm of palladium was studied and the binding equilibrium constant and adsorption capacity were calculated to be 0.38 l mg -1 and 4.06 mg g -1 , respectively. The determination of palladium in various samples was performed by using both flame AAS and graphite furnace AAS. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of palladium in the street dust, anode slime, rock and catalytic converter samples

  6. Investigation of the Precipitation Behavior in Aluminum Based Alloys

    KAUST Repository

    Khushaim, Muna S.

    2015-01-01

    A complete study examining the influence of common industrial heat treatment on the precipitation kinetics and phase transformations of complex aluminum alloy is performed. The qualitative evaluation results of the precipitation

  7. Shape Memory Alloy-Based Periodic Cellular Structures, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase II effort will continue to develop and demonstrate an innovative shape memory alloy (SMA) periodic cellular structural technology. Periodic cellular...

  8. Knowledge-based artificial neural network model to predict the properties of alpha+ beta titanium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banu, P. S. Noori; Rani, S. Devaki [Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, HyderabadI (India)

    2016-08-15

    In view of emerging applications of alpha+beta titanium alloys in aerospace and defense, we have aimed to develop a Back propagation neural network (BPNN) model capable of predicting the properties of these alloys as functions of alloy composition and/or thermomechanical processing parameters. The optimized BPNN model architecture was based on the sigmoid transfer function and has one hidden layer with ten nodes. The BPNN model showed excellent predictability of five properties: Tensile strength (r: 0.96), yield strength (r: 0.93), beta transus (r: 0.96), specific heat capacity (r: 1.00) and density (r: 0.99). The developed BPNN model was in agreement with the experimental data in demonstrating the individual effects of alloying elements in modulating the above properties. This model can serve as the platform for the design and development of new alpha+beta titanium alloys in order to attain desired strength, density and specific heat capacity.

  9. Hydrogenation properties and microstructure of Ti-Mn-based alloys for hybrid hydrogen storage vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibuya, Masachika; Nakamura, Jin; Akiba, Etsuo

    2008-01-01

    Ti-Mn-based AB 2 -type alloys which are suitable for a hybrid hydrogen storage vessel have been synthesized and evaluated hydrogenation properties. As the third element V was added to Ti-Mn binary alloys. All the alloys synthesized in this work mainly consist of the C14 Laves and BCC phase. In the case of Ti0.5V0.5Mn alloy, the amounts of hydrogen absorption was 1.8 wt.% at 243 K under the atmosphere of 7 MPa H 2 , and the hydrogen desorption pressure was in the range of 0.2-0.4 MPa at 243 K. The hydrogen capacity of this alloy did not saturate under 7 MPa H 2 and seems to increase with hydrogen pressure up to 35 MPa that is estimated working pressure of the hybrid hydrogen storage vessel

  10. Migration behavior of palladium in UO2, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneyama, Mitsuru; Sato, Seichi; Ohashi, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Toru; Ito, Akinori; Fukuda, Kousaku.

    1992-08-01

    Palladium (Pd) is easily released from UO 2 kernels in HTGR coated fuel particles, and reacts with SiC coating layer. In addition, Pd is one of metallic fission products in irradiation UO 2 , which constitutes in dissoluble residue in reprocessing of LWR fuels. In the present investigation, the migration of palladium in UO 2 was examined by heating diffusion pairs sandwiched Pd foil between UO 2 wafers at 1300 ∼ 1800degC. Experiments were also carried out on affinity of Pd to UP 2 and a formation of U-Pd alloy. Pd was found mainly in the pores of UO 2 . The maximum depth intruded by Pd in fairly large amount was more than 100 μm for UO 2 with 90%TD and 50μm for UO 2 with 95%TD, while the maximum length of open pores was 330 μm for UO 2 with 90%TD, and 50 m for that with 95%TD. Fused Pd wetted UO 2 very much. Pd intruded deeply into UO 2 , especially in the edge of Pd droplet. Furthermore, U was detected either in precipitates or the Pd source with α-Pd phase of U-Pd alloy containing Pd at about 10at%. This fact indicates that Pd highly reacts with UO 2 . From the above results, the transport of Pd in UO 2 was explained by the model of gaseous diffusion through pores in UO 2 , which is retarded by formation of U-Pd alloy. It is also indicated that UPd 3 forms even at the oxygen potential condition of O/U ratio, which is a little higher than 2.00 on the basis of thermodynamic calculation. (author)

  11. Atomic-scale properties of Ni-based FCC ternary, and quaternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamm, Artur; Aabloo, Alvo; Klintenberg, Mattias; Stocks, Malcolm; Caro, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize some atomic-scale properties of Ni-based FCC multicomponent alloys. For this purpose, we use Monte Carlo method combined with density functional theory calculations to study short-range order (SRO), atomic displacements, electronic density of states, and magnetic moments in equimolar ternary NiCrCo, and quaternary NiCrCoFe alloys. According to our study, the salient features for the ternary alloy are a negative SRO parameter between Ni–Cr and a positive between Cr–Cr pairs as well as a weakly magnetic state. For the quaternary alloy we predict negative SRO parameter for Ni–Cr and Ni–Fe pairs and positive for Cr–Cr and Fe–Fe pairs. Atomic displacements for both ternary and quaternary alloys are negligible. In contrast to the ternary, the quaternary alloy shows a complex magnetic structure. The electronic structure of the ternary and quaternary alloys shows differences near the Fermi energy between a random solid solution and the predicted structure with SRO. Despite that, the calculated EXAFS spectra does not show enough contrast to discriminate between random and ordered structures. The predicted SRO has an impact on point-defect energetics, electron–phonon coupling and thermodynamic functions and thus, SRO should not be neglected when studying properties of these two alloys

  12. Damage structures in fission-neutron irradiated Ni-based alloys at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, K.; Shimomura, Y.

    1999-01-01

    The defects formed in Ni based (Ni-Si, Ni-Cu and Ni-Fe) alloys which were irradiated with fission-neutrons were examined by electron microscopy. Irradiations were carried out at 473 K and 573 K. In the 473 K irradiated specimens, a high density of large interstitial loops and small vacancy clusters with stacking fault tetrahedra (SFT) were observed. The number densities of these two types of defects did not strongly depend on the amount of solute atoms in each alloy. The density of the loops in Ni-Si alloys was much higher than those in Ni-Cu and Ni-Fe alloys, while the density of SFT only slightly depended on the kind of solute. Also, the size of the loops depended on the kinds and amounts of solute. In 573 K irradiated Ni-Cu specimens, a high density of dislocation lines developed during the growth of interstitial loops. In Ni-Si alloys, the number density and size of the interstitial loops changed as a function of the amount of solute. Voids were formed in Ni-Cu alloys but scarcely formed in Ni-Si alloys. The number density of voids was one hundredth of that of SFT observed in 473 K irradiated Ni-Cu alloys. Possible formation processes of interstitial loops, SFT dislocation lines and voids are discussed.

  13. Damage structures in fission-neutron irradiated Ni-based alloys at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamakawa, K.; Shimomura, Y. [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1999-01-01

    The defects formed in Ni based (Ni-Si, Ni-Cu and Ni-Fe) alloys which were irradiated with fission-neutrons were examined by electron microscopy. Irradiations were carried out at 473 K and 573 K. In the 473 K irradiated specimens, a high density of large interstitial loops and small vacancy clusters with stacking fault tetrahedra (SFT) were observed. The number densities of these two types of defects did not strongly depend on the amount of solute atoms in each alloy. The density of the loops in Ni-Si alloys was much higher than those in Ni-Cu and Ni-Fe alloys, while the density of SFT only slightly depended on the kind of solute. Also, the size of the loops depended on the kinds and amounts of solute. In 573 K irradiated Ni-Cu specimens, a high density of dislocation lines developed during the growth of interstitial loops. In Ni-Si alloys, the number density and size of the interstitial loops changed as a function of the amount of solute. Voids were formed in Ni-Cu alloys but scarcely formed in Ni-Si alloys. The number density of voids was one hundredth of that of SFT observed in 473 K irradiated Ni-Cu alloys. Possible formation processes of interstitial loops, SFT, dislocation lines and voids are discussed. (orig.) 8 refs.

  14. The Importance of Rare-Earth Additions in Zr-Based AB2 Metal Hydride Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwo-Hsiung Young

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Effects of substitutions of rare earth (RE elements (Y, La, Ce, and Nd to the Zr-based AB2 multi-phase metal hydride (MH alloys on the structure, gaseous phase hydrogen storage (H-storage, and electrochemical properties were studied and compared. Solubilities of the RE atoms in the main Laves phases (C14 and C15 are very low, and therefore the main contributions of the RE additives are through the formation of the RENi phase and change in TiNi phase abundance. Both the RENi and TiNi phases are found to facilitate the bulk diffusion of hydrogen but impede the surface reaction. The former is very effective in improving the activation behaviors. −40 °C performances of the Ce-doped alloys are slightly better than the Nd-doped alloys but not as good as those of the La-doped alloys, which gained the improvement through a different mechanism. While the improvement in ultra-low-temperature performance of the Ce-containing alloys can be associated with a larger amount of metallic Ni-clusters embedded in the surface oxide, the improvement in the La-containing alloys originates from the clean alloy/oxide interface as shown in an earlier transmission electron microscopy study. Overall, the substitution of 1 at% Ce to partially replace Zr gives the best electrochemical performances (capacity, rate, and activation and is recommended for all the AB2 MH alloys for electrochemical applications.

  15. Test of the palladium diffuser in the JAERI Fuel Cleanup System in the Tritium Systems Test Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Satoshi; Hayashi, Takumi; O-hira, Shigeru

    1993-03-01

    The JAERI Fuel Cleanup System (JFCU) is a major subsystem of the TSTA simulated fusion fuel loop. The palladium diffuser, that accepts simulated plasma exhaust and purifies the hydrogen isotopes mixture for the feed to the Isotope Separation System, was tested with deuterium to investigate the characteristics of the components. Permeation flow rate is a linear function of the difference of the square root of the pressure across the palladium alloy membrane. However at the low pressure region, an impediment on the permeation was observed. It was suspected to be caused by the impurity adsorbed on the surface of the permeated side of the membrane and was reduced by oxidation treatment. (author)

  16. Facile synthesis of bacitracin-templated palladium nanoparticles with superior electrocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanji; Wang, Zi; Li, Xiaoling; Yin, Tian; Bian, Kexin; Gao, Faming; Gao, Dawei

    2017-02-01

    Palladium nanomaterials have attracted great attention on the development of electrocatalysts for fuel cells. Herein, we depicted a novel strategy in the synthesis of palladium nanoparticles with superior electrocatalytic activity. The new approach, based on the self-assembly of bacitracin biotemplate and palladium salt for the preparation of bacitracin-palladium nanoparticles (Bac-PdNPs), was simple, low-cost, and green. The complex, composed by a series of spherical Bac-PdNPs with a diameter of 70 nm, exhibited a chain-liked morphology in TEM and a face-centered cubic crystal structure in X-Ray diffraction and selected area electron diffraction. The palladium nanoparticles were mono-dispersed and stable in aqueous solution as shown in TEM and zeta potential. Most importantly, compared to the commercial palladium on carbon (Pd/C) catalyst (8.02 m2 g-1), the Bac-PdNPs showed a larger electrochemically active surface area (47.57 m2 g-1), which endowed the products an excellent electrocatalytic activity for ethanol oxidation in alkaline medium. The strategy in synthesis of Bac-PdNPs via biotemplate approach might light up new ideas in anode catalysts for direct ethanol fuel cells.

  17. Elastic characteristics and microplastic deformation of amorphous alloys on iron base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pol'dyaeva, G.P.; Zakharov, E.K.; Ovcharov, V.P.; Tret'yakov, B.N.

    1983-01-01

    Investigation results of elasticity and microplasticity properties (modulus of normal elasticity E, elasticity limit σsub(0.01) and yield limit σsub(0.2)) of three amorphous alloys on iron base Fe 80 B 20 , Fe 70 Cr 10 B 20 and Fe 70 Cr 5 Ni 5 B 20 are given. Amorphous band of the alloys is obtained using the method of melt hardening. It is shown that amorphous alloys on iron base possess high elasticity and yield limits and hardness and are very perspective for the use as spring materials

  18. Elastic characteristics and microplastic deformation of amorphous alloys on iron base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pol' dyaeva, G.P.; Zakharov, E.K.; Ovcharov, V.P.; Tret' yakov, B.N. (Tsentral' nyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Chernoj Metallurgii, Moscow (USSR))

    1983-01-01

    Investigation results of elasticity and microplasticity properties (modulus of normal elasticity E, elasticity limit sigmasub(0.01) and yield limit sigmasub(0.2)) of three amorphous alloys on iron base Fe/sub 80/B/sub 20/, Fe/sub 70/Cr/sub 10/B/sub 20/ and Fe/sub 70/Cr/sub 5/Ni/sub 5/B/sub 20/ are given. Amorphous band of the alloys is obtained using the method of melt hardening. It is shown that amorphous alloys on iron base possess high elasticity and yield limits and hardness and are very perspective for the use as spring materials.

  19. Inconel type resistive alloys based on ultrahigh purity nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsarin, K.A.; Matsarin, S.K.

    2000-01-01

    The new nickel high-ohm alloys (ρ = 1.2-1.4 μOhm · m), containing the W, Al, Mo alloying elements in the quantity, not exceeding their solubility in a solid solution, are developed on the basis of the Inconel-type standard alloy. The optical composition of the alloy was determined by the results of the alloy was determined by the results of the electric resistance measurement and technological effectiveness indices (relative to the pressure and workable metal yield). The following optimal component concentrations were established: 14-17 %Cr; 10-12 %Fe; 0.5-1.0 %Cu; 1.0-1.5 %Mn; 0.1-0.2 %C; 0.4-0.6 %Si; 0.5-3.0 %W; 5-16 %Mo; 0.5-2.0 %Al; the remainder - Ni. The new alloys are recommended as materials for resistive elements of direct-glow cathode nodes of low capacity electron tubes [ru

  20. Liquid alkali metals and alkali-based alloys as electron-ion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosi, M.P.

    1981-06-01

    The article reviews the theory of thermodynamic and structural properties of liquid alkali metals and alkali-based alloys, within the framework of linear screening theory for the electron-ion interactions. (author)

  1. Microstructural characterisation of friction stir welding joints of mild steel to Ni-based alloy 625

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, J. [Brazilian Nanotechnology National Laboratory (LNNano), P.O. Box 6192, Campinas, SP (Brazil); University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Ramirez, A.J., E-mail: ramirezlondono.1@osu.edu [Brazilian Nanotechnology National Laboratory (LNNano), P.O. Box 6192, Campinas, SP (Brazil); University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University — OSU, Columbus, OH 43221 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    In this study, 6-mm-thick mild steel and Ni-based alloy 625 plates were friction stir welded using a tool rotational speed of 300 rpm and a travel speed of 100 mm·min{sup −1}. A microstructural characterisation of the dissimilar butt joint was performed using optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (XEDS). Six different weld zones were found. In the steel, the heat-affected zone (HAZ) was divided into three zones and was composed of ferrite, pearlite colonies with different morphologies, degenerated regions of pearlite and allotriomorphic and Widmanstätten ferrite. The stir zone (SZ) of the steel showed a coarse microstructure consisting of allotriomorphic and Widmanstätten ferrite, degenerate pearlite and MA constituents. In the Ni-based alloy 625, the thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ) showed deformed grains and redistribution of precipitates. In the SZ, the high deformation and temperature produced a recrystallised microstructure, as well as fracture and redistribution of MC precipitates. The M{sub 23}C{sub 6} precipitates, present in the base material, were also redistributed in the stir zone of the Ni-based alloy. TMAZ in the steel and HAZ in the Ni-based alloy could not be identified. The main restorative mechanisms were discontinuous dynamic recrystallisation in the steel, and discontinuous and continuous dynamic recrystallisation in the Ni-based alloy. The interface region between the steel and the Ni-based alloy showed a fcc microstructure with NbC carbides and an average length of 2.0 μm. - Highlights: • Comprehensive microstructural characterisation of dissimilar joints of mild steel to Ni-based alloy • Friction stir welding of joints of mild steel to Ni-based alloy 625 produces sound welds. • The interface region showed deformed and recrystallised fcc grains with NbC carbides and a length of 2.0 μm.

  2. Reducing Stress-Corrosion Cracking in Bearing Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton, N. E.; Dennies, D. P.; Lumsden, I., J.b.

    1986-01-01

    Resistance to stress-corrosion cracking in some stainless-steel alloys increased by addition of small amounts of noble metals. 0.75 to 1.00 percent by weight of palladium or platinum added to alloy melt sufficient to improve properties of certain stainless steels so they could be used in manufacture of high-speed bearings.

  3. Effect of alloying on elastic properties of ZrN based transition metal nitride alloys

    KAUST Repository

    Kanoun, Mohammed; Goumri-Said, Souraya

    2014-01-01

    We report the effect of composition and metal sublattice substitutional element on the structural, elastic and electronic properties of ternary transition metal nitrides Zr1-xMxN with M=Al, Ti, Hf, V, Nb, W and Mo. The analysis of the elastic constants, bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, and Poisson's ratio provides insights regarding the mechanical behavior of Zr1-xMxN. We predict that ternary alloys are more ductile compared to their parent binary compounds. The revealed trend in the mechanical behavior might help for experimentalists on the ability of tuning the mechanical properties during the alloying process by varying the concentration of the transition metal. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  4. Effect of alloying on elastic properties of ZrN based transition metal nitride alloys

    KAUST Repository

    Kanoun, Mohammed

    2014-09-01

    We report the effect of composition and metal sublattice substitutional element on the structural, elastic and electronic properties of ternary transition metal nitrides Zr1-xMxN with M=Al, Ti, Hf, V, Nb, W and Mo. The analysis of the elastic constants, bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young\\'s modulus, and Poisson\\'s ratio provides insights regarding the mechanical behavior of Zr1-xMxN. We predict that ternary alloys are more ductile compared to their parent binary compounds. The revealed trend in the mechanical behavior might help for experimentalists on the ability of tuning the mechanical properties during the alloying process by varying the concentration of the transition metal. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Oxidation influence on crystallisation in iron-based amorphous alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gloriant, T.; Surinach, S.; Munoz, J.S.; Baro, M.D. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain). Dept. de Fisica; Inoue, A. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. for Materials Research

    2001-07-01

    The partially crystalline iron-based nanophase composites elaborated by rapid solidification techniques are very attractive for their excellent soft magnetic properties and their potential for industrial applications. In these nanocomposite materials a control of both the structure (size, shape and distribution of the nanoparticles in the amorphous matrix) and the kinetic behaviour (nucleation and growth mechanism) is essential in order to obtain the best properties and to be able to produce them at the industrial scale. Our group has been working in this research area for a long time and the investigation presented here is the result of an international collaboration. This study deals with the effect of cobalt addition in Fe-Nb-B melt-spun amorphous alloys on the devitrification/crystallisation processes induced by thermal treatments and characterised by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), thermomagnetic analysis (TMG) and transmission electron microscopy observations (TEM). The transformation sequences, from the initial amorphous phase to the fully crystallised final state, were carried out using different annealing experiments (under vacuum and in air) and have revealed a strong influence of the environmental atmosphere during devitrification. It is shown that oxidation can greatly affect the crystallisation behaviour as a result of the high metastable state of the initial amorphous phase. The results and observations of this phenomenon will be presented. (orig.)

  6. Shape Memory Alloy (SMA)-Based Launch Lock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2014-01-01

    Most NASA missions require the use of a launch lock for securing moving components during the launch or securing the payload before release. A launch lock is a device used to prevent unwanted motion and secure the controlled components. The current launch locks are based on pyrotechnic, electro mechanically or NiTi driven pin pullers and they are mostly one time use mechanisms that are usually bulky and involve a relatively high mass. Generally, the use of piezoelectric actuation provides high precession nanometer accuracy but it relies on friction to generate displacement. During launch, the generated vibrations can release the normal force between the actuator components allowing shaft's free motion which could result in damage to the actuated structures or instruments. This problem is common to other linear actuators that consist of a ball screw mechanism. The authors are exploring the development of a novel launch lock mechanism that is activated by a shape memory alloy (SMA) material ring, a rigid element and an SMA ring holding flexure. The proposed design and analytical model will be described and discussed in this paper.

  7. FEATURES OF SPHEROIDIZING MODIFICATION OF HIGH-STRENGTH CAST IRON WITH MASTER ALLOYS BASED ON COPPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kalinichenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase of efficiency of modification process for ductile iron is topically, thereby increasing its mechanical and operational properties. For these purposes, in practice, various magnesium containing alloys are used, including «heavy» ones on the basis of Copper and Nickel. The analysis has shown that the application of bulk inoculating alloys based on copper basis were not effectively due to long dissolution period. From this point of view, the interest is high-speed casting, allowing the production of inoculating alloys in the form of strips – chips that are characterized by a low dissolution time and low piroeffekt. The aim of this work is to study the features of structure formation in nodular cast iron using different spheroidizing alloys based on copper. Studies have shown that the transition from the use of briquetted form alloys based on copper and magnesium to the «chips-inoculating alloys» allowed increasing the efficiency of the spheroidizing process. Further improvement in the quality of ductile iron can be achieved by the use in «chip-inoculating alloys» additives of nanosized yttrium oxide powder. 

  8. Effect of Al and Y2O3 on Mechanical Properties in Mechanically Alloyed Nanograin Ni-Based Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chung Seok; Kim, Il-Ho

    2015-08-01

    The effects of aluminum and Y2O3 on the mechanical properties in nano grain Ni-based alloys have been investigated. The test specimens are prepared by mechanical alloying at an Ar atmosphere. The addition of Y2O3 and Al may cause an increase in the tensile strength at room temperature, 400 °C and 600 °C. However, it was confirmed that the increase of tensile strength at room temperature and 400 °C was predominantly caused by addition of Y2O3, while that at 600 °C was mainly due to addition of Al. These results can be attributed to the dispersion strengthening of Y2O3, preventing the formation of Cr2O3 and the change of fracture mode at 600 °C by the addition of Al.

  9. The role of Si and Ca on new wrought Mg-Zn-Mn based alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Hamu, G.; Eliezer, D.; Shin, K.S.

    2007-01-01

    The development of new wrought magnesium alloys for automotive industry has increased in recent years due to their high potential as structural materials for low density and high strength/weight ratio demands. However, the poor mechanical properties of the magnesium alloys have led to search a new kind of magnesium alloys for better strength and ductility. Magnesium alloys show strong susceptibility to localized corrosion in chlorides solutions due to their inhomogeneous microstructure. The existence of intermetallics in the microstructure of magnesium alloys might represent initiation sites for localized corrosion. This is due to the formation of galvanic couples between the intermetallics and the surrounding matrix. The main objective of this research is to investigate the corrosion behavior of new magnesium alloys; Mg-Zn-Mn-Si-Ca (ZSMX) alloys. The ZSM6X1 + YCa alloys were prepared by using hot extrusion method. AC and DC polarization tests were carried out on the extruded rods, which contain different amounts of silicon or calcium. The potential difference in air between different phases and the matrix was examined using scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM). The phases present in the alloys have been identified by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Four different phases were found, i.e. intermetallics containing Si-Mn, Mg-Si, Mg-Zn and Mg-Si-Ca phase. All phases exhibited higher potential differences relative to magnesium matrix indicating a cathodic behavior. The potential difference revealed significant dependence on the chemical composition of the phases. Based on the results obtained from the scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy, the cathodic phases are effective sites for the initiation of localized corrosion in Mg-Zn-Mn-Si-Ca alloys

  10. Ductile Bulk Aluminum-Based Alloy with Good Glass-Forming Ability and High Strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-Chao, Zhuo; Shu-Jie, Pang; Hui, Wang; Tao, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Based on a new approach for designing glassy alloy compositions, bulk Al-based alloys with good glass-forming ability (GFA) are synthesized. The cast Al 86 Si 0.5 Ni 4.06 Co 2.94 Y 6 Sc 0.5 rod with a diameter of 1 mm shows almost fully amorphous structure besides about 5% fcc-Al nucleated in the center of the rod. The bulk alloy with high Al concentration exhibits an ultrahigh yield strength of 1.18 GPa and maximum strength of 1.27 GPa as well as an obvious plastic strain of about 2.4% during compressive deformation. This light Al-based alloy with good GFA and mechanical properties is promising as a new high specific strength material with good deformability. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)

  11. Hydrogen storage in binary and ternary Mg-based alloys. A comprehensive experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalisvaart, W.P.; Harrower, C.T.; Haagsma, J.; Zahiri, B.; Luber, E.J.; Ophus, C.; Miltin, D. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton (Canada); Poirier, E.; Fritzsche, H. [Canadian Neutron Beam Centre, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This study focuses on hydrogen sorption properties of cosputtered 1.5 micrometer thick Mg-based films with Al, Fe and Ti as alloying elements. We show that ternary Mg-Al-Ti and Mg-Fe-Ti alloys in particular display remarkable sorption behavior: at 200 C, the films are capable of absorbing 4-6 wt.% hydrogen in seconds, and desorbing in minutes. Furthermore, this sorption behavior is stable for over 100 ab- and desorption cycles for Mg-Al-Ti and Mg-Fe-Ti alloys. No degradation in capacity or kinetics is observed. Based on these observations, some general design principles for Mg-based hydrogen storage alloys are suggested. For Mg-Fe-Ti, encouraging preliminary results on multilayered systems are also presented. (orig.)

  12. Porous Nb-Ti based alloy produced from plasma spheroidized powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qijun Li

    Full Text Available Spherical Nb-Ti based alloy powder was prepared by the combination of plasma spheroidization and mechanical alloying. Phase constituents, microstructure and surface state of the powder, and pore characteristics of the resulting porous alloy were investigated. The results show that the undissolved W and V in the mechanically alloyed powder is fully alloyed after spheroidization, and single β phase is achieved. Particle size of the spheroidized powder is in the range of 20–110 μm. With the decrease of particle size, a transformation from typical dendrite solidification structure to fine cell microstructure occurs. The surface of the spheroidized powder is coated by a layer of oxides consisting mainly of TiO2 and Nb2O5. Probabilities of sinter-neck formation and particle coalescence increases with increasing sintering temperature. Porous skeleton with relatively homogeneous pore distribution and open pore channel is formed after vacuum sintering at 1700 °C, and the porosity is 32%. The sintering kinetic analysis indicates that grain boundary diffusion is the primary mass transport mechanism during sintering process. Keywords: Powder metallurgy, Nb-Ti based alloy, Porous material, Mechanical alloying, Plasma spheroidizing, Solidification microstructure

  13. Shape memory alloy wire-based smart natural rubber bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedayati Dezfuli, F; Shahria Alam, M

    2013-01-01

    In this study, two types of smart elastomeric bearings are presented using shape memory alloy (SMA) wires. Due to the unique characteristics of SMAs, such as the superelastic effect and the recentering capability, the residual deformation in SMA-based natural rubber bearings (SMA-NRBs) is significantly reduced whereas the energy dissipation capacity is increased. Two different configurations of SMA wires incorporated in elastomeric bearings are considered. The effect of several parameters, including the shear strain amplitude, the type of SMA, the aspect ratio of the base isolator, the thickness of SMA wire, and the amount of pre-strain in the wires on the performance of SMA-NRBs is investigated. Rubber bearings are composed of natural rubber layers bonded to steel shims as reinforcement. Results show that ferrous SMA wire, FeNiCuAlTaB, with 13.5% superelastic strain and a very low austenite finish temperature (−62 °C), is the best candidate to be used in SMA-NRBs subjected to high shear strain amplitudes. In terms of the lateral flexibility and wire strain level, the smart rubber bearing with a cross configuration of SMA wires is more efficient. Moreover, the cross configuration can be implemented in high-aspect-ratio elastomeric bearings since the strain induced in the wire does not exceed the superelastic range. When cross SMA wires with 2% pre-strain are used in a smart NRB, the dissipated energy is increased by 74% and the residual deformation is decreased by 15%. (paper)

  14. Thermodynamic properties of some gallium-based binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awe, O.E.; Odusote, Y.A.; Akinlade, O.; Hussain, L.A.

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the concentration dependence of the free energy of mixing, concentration-concentration fluctuations in the long-wavelength limit, the chemical short-range order parameter, the enthalpy and entropy of mixing of Ga-Zn, Ga-Mg and Al-Ga binary alloys at different temperatures using a quasi-chemical approximation for compound forming binary alloys and that for simple regular alloys. From the study of the thermodynamic quantities, we observed that thermodynamic properties of Ga-Zn and Al-Ga exhibit positive deviations from Raoultian behaviour, while Ga-Mg exhibits negative deviation. Hence, this study reveals that both Ga-Zn and Al-Ga are segregating systems, while chemical order exists in Ga-Mg alloy in the whole concentration range. Furthermore, our investigation indicate that Al-Ga binary alloy have a tendency to exhibit ideal mixture behaviour in the concentration range 0≤c Al ≤0.30 and 0.7≤c Al ≤1

  15. Hot corrosion studies on nickel-based alloys containing silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, T.W.; Simkovich, G.

    1976-01-01

    Alloys of Ni--Cr, Ni--Si and Ni--Cr--Si were oxidized and ''hot corroded'' in pure oxygen at 1000 0 C. In the oxidation experiments it was found that small amounts of either chromium or silicon in nickel increased the oxidation rates in comparison to pure nickel in accord with Wagner's parabolic oxidation theory. At high concentrations of the alloying elements the oxidation rates decreased due to the formation of oxide phases other than nickel oxide in the scale. Hot corrosion experiments were conducted on both binary and ternary alloys by oxidizing samples coated with 1.0 mg/cm 2 of Na 2 SO 4 in oxygen at 1000 0 C. In general it was found that high chromium and high silicon alloys displayed excellent resistance to the hot corrosion process gaining or losing less than 0.5 mg/cm 2 in 1800 min at temperature. Microprobe and x-ray diffraction studies of the alloy and the scale indicate that amorphous SiO 2 probably formed to aid in retarding both the oxidation and the hot corrosion process

  16. Creep and creep rupture properties of unalloyed vanadium and solid-solution-strengthened vanadium-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainuma, T.; Iwao, N.; Suzuki, T.; Watanabe, R.

    1982-01-01

    The creep and creep rupture properties of vanadium and vanadium-base alloys were studied at 700 and 1000 0 C. The alloys were vanadium-base binary alloys containing about 5 - 21 at.% Al, Ti, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo or Fe, three V-20wt.%Nb-base ternary alloys containing 5 or 10 wt.% Al, Cr or Mo, V-10wt.%Ta-10wt.%Al and V-25wt.%Cr-0.8wt.%Zr. The creep rupture stress of the binary alloys, except the V-Al and V-Ti alloys, increased linearly with increasing concentration of the alloying elements. The V-Nb alloy had the best properties with respect to the rupture stress and creep rate at 700 0 C and the rupture stress at 1000 0 C, but the V-Mo alloy appeared likely to have better creep properties at longer times and higher temperatures. Of the five ternary alloys, V-20wt.%Nb-5wt.%Cr and V-20wt.%Nb-10wt.%Mo showed the best creep properties. The creep properties of these two alloys were compared with those of other vanadium alloys and of type 316 stainless steel. (Auth.)

  17. Superconductivity and the structural phase transitions in palladium hydride and palladium deuteride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standley, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The results of two experimental studies of the superconducting transition temperature, T/sub c/, of palladium hydride, PdH/sub x/, and palladium deuteride, PdD/sub x/, are presented. In the first study, the superconducting transition temperature of PdH/sub x/(D/sub x/) is studied as a function of H(D) concentration, x, in the temperature range from 0.2 K to 4K. The data join smoothly with those reported previously by Miller and Satterthwaite at higher temperatures, and the composite data are described by the empirical relation T/sub c/ = 150.8 (x-x/sub o/) 2 244 , where x/sub o/ = 0.715 for hydride samples and 0.668 for deuteride samples. The results, when compared with the theoretical predictions of Klein and Papaconstantopoulos, et al., raise questions about the validity of their explanation of the reverse isotope effect, which is based solely on a difference in force constants. In the second study, the effect of the order-disorder structural transition associated with the 50 K anomaly on the superconductivity of PdH/sub x/(D/sub x/) is investigated. Samples were quenched to low temperatures in the disordered state, and their transition temperatures measured. The samples were then annealed just below the anomaly temperature, and the ordering process followed by monitoring the change in sample resistance. The transition temperatures in the ordered state were then measured

  18. Shape memory and pseudoelastic properties of Fe-Mn-Si and Ti-Ni based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenin, G.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this presentation is to analyse and discuss some recent advances in shape memory and pseudoelastic properties of different alloys. Experimental work in connection with theoretical ones will be reviewed. The first part is devoted to the microstructural origin of shape memory properties of Fe-Mn-Si based alloys (γ-ε transformation); the second part is a synthetic analysis of the effects of thermomechanical treatments on shape memory and pseudoelastic effects in Ti-Ni alloys, with some focus on the behaviour of the R phase introduced. (orig.)

  19. Investigations of carbon diffusion and carbide formation in nickel-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulten, R.; Bongartz, K.; Quadakkers, W.J.; Schuster, H.; Nickel, H.

    1989-11-01

    The present thesis describes the carburization behaviour of nickel based alloys in heavily carburizing environments. The mechanisms of carbon diffusion and carbide precipitation in NiCr alloys with and without ternary additions of iron, cobalt or molybdenum have been investigated. Using the results of carburization experiments, a mathematical model which describes carbon diffusion and carbide formation, was developed. The simulation of the carburization process was carried out by an iterative calculation of the local thermodynamic equilibrium in the alloy. An accurate description of the carbon profiles as a function of time became possible by using a finite-difference calculation. (orig.) [de

  20. Vanadium-based alloy hydrides for heat pumps, compressors, and isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libowitz, G.G.

    1988-01-01

    A series of body-centered cubic (b.c.c.) solid solution alloys have been developed which appears to be unusually suitable for several applications involving metal hydrides. It is normally very difficult to induce the body-centered cubic metals, Nb, V, and Ta, to react with hydrogen; in bulk form the reaction will simply not occur at room temperature. Alloys containing Nb exhibited very large hysteresis effects on hydride formation and thus are not suitable for most applications. However, the V-Ti based alloys showed relatively little hysteresis, and because of their unusual thermodynamic properties offer significant advantages for the specific applications discussed below. (orig./HB)

  1. Long-life fatigue test results for two nickel-base structural alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mowbray, D.F.; Giaquinto, E.V.; Mehringer, F.J.

    1978-11-01

    The results are reported of fatigue tests on two nickel--base alloys, hot-cold-worked and stress-relieved nickel--chrome--iron Alloy 600 and mill-annealed nickel--chrome--moly--iron Alloy 625 in which S-N data were obtained in the life range of 10 6 to 10 10 cycles. The tests were conducted in air at 600 0 F, in the reversed membrane loading mode, at a frequency of approx. 1850 Hz. An electromagnetic, closed loop servo-controlled machine was built to perform the tests. A description of the machine is given

  2. Interstitial-phase precipitation in iron-base alloys: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelton, A.R.

    1982-06-01

    Recent developments have elucidated the atomistic mechanisms of precipitation of interstitial elements in simple alloy systems. However, in the more technologically important iron base alloys, interstitial phase precipitation is generally not well understood. The present experimental study was therefore designed to test the applicability of these concepts to more complex ferrous alloys. Hence, a comparative study was made of interstitial phase precipitation in ferritic Fe-Si-C and in austenitic phosphorus-containing Fe-Cr-Ni steels. These systems were subjected to a variety of quench-age thermal treatments, and the microstructural development was subsequently characterized by transmission electron microscopy

  3. An overview of advanced high-strength nickel-base alloys for LWR applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prybylowski, J.; Ballinger, R.G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews our current understanding of the behavior of high strength nickel base alloys used in light water reactor (LWR) applications. Emphasis is placed on understanding the fundamental mechanisms controlling crack propagation in these environments. To provide a foundation for this survey, general mechanisms of stress corrosion cracking and hydrogen embrittlement are first reviewed. The behavior of high strength nickel base alloys in LWR environments, as well as in other relevant environments is then reviewed. Suggested mechanisms of crack propagation are discussed. Alternate alloys and microstructural modifications that may result in improved behavior are presented. It is now clear that, at temperatures near 100C, alloy X-750, the predominant high strength nickel base alloy used today in LWR applications, is susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. A review of published data from hydrogen embrittlement studies of nickel base superalloys during electrolytic charging and in hydrogen sulfide/brine solutions suggests that other nickel base superalloys are available possessing resistance to hydrogen embrittlement superior to that of alloy X-750. Available results of tests in gaseous hydrogen suggest that reduced grain boundary precipitation and a fine distribution of intragranular precipitates that act as irreversible hydrogen traps is the optimum microstructure for hydrogen embrittlement resistance. 42 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  4. Further studies on gold alloys used in fabrication of porcelain-fused-to-metal restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civjan, S; Huget, E F; Dvivedi, N; Cosner, H J

    1975-03-01

    Composition, microstructure, castability, mechanical properties, and heat treatment characteristics of two gold-palladium-silver-based alloys were studied. The materials exhibited compositional as well as microstructural differences. Clinically acceptable castings could not be obtained when manufacturers' recommended casting temperatures were used. Ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, modulus of elasticity, and Brinell hardness values for the alloys were comparable. The elastic limit of Cameo, however, was significantly higher than that of vivo-star. Maximum rehardening of annealed castings occurred on reheat treatment at temperatures between 1,200 and 1,300 F. As-cast specimens, however, were not heat hardenable. The sequence of heat treatments used in the application of porcelain reduced slightly the hardness of both alloys. Hardness of the metal substructures was not increased by return of porcelain-coated specimens to a 1,250 F oven for final heat treatment.

  5. Study and development of membrane electrode assemblies for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) with palladium based catalysts; Estudo e desenvolvimento de conjuntos membrana-eletrodos (MEA) para celula a combustivel de eletrolito polimerico condutor de protons (PEMFC) com eletrocatalisadores a base de paladio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonifacio, Rafael Nogueira

    2013-07-01

    PEMFC systems are capable of generating electricity with high efficiency and low or no emissions, but durability and cost issues prevent its large commercialization. In this work MEA with palladium based catalysts were developed, Pd/C, Pt/C and alloys PdPt/C catalysts with different ratios between metals and carbon were synthesized and characterized. A study of the ratio between catalyst and Nafion Ionomer for formation of high performance triple-phase reaction was carried out, a mathematical model to implement this adjustment to catalysts with different relations between metal and support taking into account the volumetric aspects of the catalyst layer was developed and then a study of the catalyst layer thickness was performed. X-ray diffraction, Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Energy Dispersive, Gas Pycnometry, Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry, Gas adsorption according to the BET and BJH equations, and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis techniques were used for characterization and particle size, specific surface areas and lattice parameters determinations were also carried out. All catalysts were used on MEAs preparation and evaluated in 5 cm{sup 2} single cell from 25 to 100 °C at 1 atm and the best composition was also evaluated at 3 atm. In the study of metals for reactions, to reduce the platinum applied to the electrodes without performance losses, Pd/C and PdPt/C 1:1 were selected for anodes and cathodes, respectively. The developed MEA structure used 0,25 mgPt.cm{sup -2}, showing power densities up to 550 mW.cm{sup -2} and power of 2.2 kW{sub net} per gram of platinum. The estimated costs showed that there was a reduction of up to 64.5 %, compared to the MEA structures previously known. Depending on the temperature and operating pressure, values from US$ 1,475.30 to prepare MEAs for each installed kilowatt were obtained. Taking into account recent studies, it was concluded that the cost of the developed MEA is compatible with PEMFC stationary

  6. Silver-palladium catalysts for the direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zainab; Dummer, Nicholas F.; Edwards, Jennifer K.

    2017-11-01

    A series of bimetallic silver-palladium catalysts supported on titania were prepared by wet impregnation and assessed for the direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide, and its subsequent side reactions. The addition of silver to a palladium catalyst was found to significantly decrease hydrogen peroxide productivity and hydrogenation, but crucially increase the rate of decomposition. The decomposition product, which is predominantly hydroxyl radicals, can be used to decrease bacterial colonies. The interaction between silver and palladium was characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and temperature programmed reduction (TPR). The results of the TPR and XPS indicated the formation of a silver-palladium alloy. The optimal 1% Ag-4% Pd/TiO2 bimetallic catalyst was able to produce approximately 200 ppm of H2O2 in 30 min. The findings demonstrate that AgPd/TiO2 catalysts are active for the synthesis of hydrogen peroxide and its subsequent decomposition to reactive oxygen species. The catalysts are promising for use in wastewater treatment as they combine the disinfectant properties of silver, hydrogen peroxide production and subsequent decomposition. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'Providing sustainable catalytic solutions for a rapidly changing world'.

  7. Knowledge and method base for shape memory alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welp, E.G.; Breidert, J. [Ruhr-University Bochum, Institute of Engineering Design, 44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2004-05-01

    It is often impossible for design engineers to decide whether it is possible to use shape memory alloys (SMA) for a particular task. In case of a decision to use SMA for product development, design engineers normally do not know in detail how to proceed in a correct and beneficial way. In order to support design engineers who have no previous knowledge about SMA and to assist in the transfer of results from basic research to industrial practice, an essential knowledge and method base has been developed. Through carefully conducted literature studies and patent analysis material and design information could be collected. All information is implemented into a computer supported knowledge and method base that provides design information with a particular focus on the conceptual and embodiment design phase. The knowledge and method base contains solution principles and data about effects, material and manufacturing as well as design guidelines and calculation methods for dimensioning and optimization. A browser-based user interface ensures that design engineers have immediate access to the latest version of the knowledge and method base. In order to ensure a user friendly application, an evaluation with several test users has been carried out. Reactions of design engineers from the industrial sector underline the need for support related to knowledge on SMA. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Fuer Konstrukteure ist es haeufig schwierig zu entscheiden, ob sich der Einsatz von Formgedaechtnislegierungen (FGL) fuer eine bestimmte Aufgabe eignet. Fuer den Fall, dass FGL fuer die Produktentwicklung genutzt werden sollen, besitzen Ingenieure zumeist nur unzureichende Detailkenntnisse, um Formgedaechtnislegierungen richtig und in vorteilhafter Weise anwenden zu koennen. Zur Unterstuetzung von Konstrukteuren, die ueber kein Vorwissen und keine Erfahrungen zu FGL verfuegen und zum Transfer von Forschungsergebnissen in die industrielle Praxis, ist eine

  8. Heat treatment effect on ductility of nickel-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnakov, K.K.; Khasin, G.A.; Danilov, V.F.; Oshchepkov, B.V.; Listkova, A.I.

    1979-01-01

    Causes of low ductility of the KhN75MBTYu and KhN78T alloys were studied along with the heat treatment effects. Samples were tested at 20, 900, 1100, 1200 deg C. Large amount of inclusions was found in intercrystalline fractures of the above low-ductile alloys. The inclusions of two types took place: (α-Al 2 O 3 , FeO(Cr 2 O 3 xAl 2 O 3 )) dendrite-like ones and large-size laminated SiO 2 , FeO,(CrFe) 2 O 3 inclusions situated as separate colonies. Heat treatment of the alloys does not increase high-temperature impact strength and steel ductility. The heating above 1000 deg C leads to a partial dissolution and coagulation of film inclusions which results in an impact strength increase at room temperature

  9. Superconducting pinning in BCC niobium-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, S.

    1981-01-01

    The structure dependence of critical current density J/sub c/ in superconducting alloys Nb--Zr and Nb--Ti was studied by means of x-ray analysis and tensile test. Experimental results indicate that, in the absence of second phase particles, annealing increases J/sub c/ in deformed alloys due to rearrangement of dislocations into cell structure and the cell walls are effective pinning centers for magnetic flux. In the precipitation process of second phase particles, new dislocations are formed due to the relaxation of coherent stress field. These new dislocations increases the dislocation density and the flux pinning ability of the cell walls, which in turn lead to a further increase of J/sub c/. The mechanism that causes precipitates to increase the current-carrying ability in Nb--Zr and Nb--Ti alloys is therefore the same as that of cold-work deformation

  10. Wetting of refractory metals with copper base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikeev, E.F.; Kostikov, V.I.; Chepelenko, V.N.; Batov, V.M.

    1978-01-01

    The effect is studied of phosphorus upon the wetting of molybdenum, niobium and tantalum by an alloy of the system copper-silver (10%) as a function of contact time and phosphorus concentration. Experiments have been conducted in vacuum of 5x10 -4 mm Hg at 900 deg C. It is established that the introduction of phosphorus into a copper-silver alloy improves the wetting of molybdenum, niobium and tantalum. Formation of intermetallic compounds on the alloy-refractory metal interface can be avoided by adjusting the time of contact of the solder with molybdenum, niobium and tantalum. As a solder with 2.9% phosphorus spreads well over copper, it is suggested to use said solder for brazing copper and the investigated refractory metals in items intended for service at temperatures of up to 600 deg C

  11. Alloy Development, Processing and Characterization of Devitrified Titanium Base Microcrystalline Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    1.5m wide by injecting the molten alloy onto a rotating copper ’. disk through the orifice at the bottom of the copper crucible under inert gas...icrocrystalline forms [10, 271. 7his technique adopts the combination of a water-cooled cold copper crucible with an arc heating scheme that uses non-consumable...are malted in the cold copper crucible and spun in an inert gas atmosphere. he ribbon produced has a uniform thickness of 20 to SOgm. 5’ -7 -. -F -i

  12. Swelling in neutron irradiated nickel-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brager, H.R.; Bell, W.L.

    1972-01-01

    Inconel 625, Incoloy 800 and Hastelloy X were neutron irradiated at 500 to 700 0 C. It was found that of the three alloys investigated, Inconel 625 offers the greatest swelling resistance. The superior swelling resistance of Inconel 625 relative to that of Hastelloy-X is probably related to differences in the concentrations of the minor rather than major alloy constituents, and can involve (a) enhanced recombination of defects in the Inconel 625 and (b) preferential attraction of vacancies to incoherent precipitates. (U.S.)

  13. Martensitic transformation in Co-based ferromagnetic shape memory alloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopeček, Jaromír; Yokaichiya, F.; Laufek, F.; Jarošová, Markéta; Jurek, Karel; Drahokoupil, Jan; Sedláková-Ignácová, Silvia; Molnár, Peter; Heczko, Oleg

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 3 (2012), s. 475-477 ISSN 0587-4246. [International Symposium on Physics of Materials, ISPMA /12./. Praha, 04.09.2011-08.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA101/09/0702; GA ČR GAP107/10/0824; GA AV ČR IAA100100920 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : microstructure * shape memory alloys * neutron diffraction * cobalt alloys Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 0.531, year: 2012

  14. Mechanical strenght and niobium and niobium-base alloys substructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, W.A.; Andrade, A.H.P. de

    1986-01-01

    Niobium and some of its alloys have been used in several fields of technological applications such as the aerospace, chemical and nuclear industries. This is due to its excelent mechanical stringth at high temperatures and reasonable ductility at low temperatures. In this work, we review the main features of the relationship mechanical strength - substructure in niobium and its alloys, taking into account the presence of impurities, the influence of initial thermal and thermo - mechanical treatments as well as the irradiation by energetic particles. (Author) [pt

  15. Iron-based alloy and nitridation treatment for PEM fuel cell bipolar plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Michael P [Oak Ridge, TN; Yang, Bing [Oak Ridge, TN; Maziasz, Philip J [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-11-09

    A corrosion resistant electrically conductive component that can be used as a bipolar plate in a PEM fuel cell application is composed of an alloy substrate which has 10-30 wt. % Cr, 0.5 to 7 wt. % V, and base metal being Fe, and a continuous surface layer of chromium nitride and vanadium nitride essentially free of base metal. A oxide layer of chromium vanadium oxide can be disposed between the alloy substrate and the continuous surface nitride layer. A method to prepare the corrosion resistant electrically conductive component involves a two-step nitridization sequence by exposing the alloy to a oxygen containing gas at an elevated temperature, and subsequently exposing the alloy to an oxygen free nitrogen containing gas at an elevated temperature to yield a component where a continuous chromium nitride layer free of iron has formed at the surface.

  16. Nickel-base alloy overlay weld with improved ultrasonic flaw detection by magnetic stirring welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashi, Hirano; Kenji, Hirano; Masayuki, Watando; Takahiro, Arakawa; Minoru, Maeda

    2001-01-01

    Ultrasonic flaw detection is more difficult in Nickel-base alloy welds containing dendrites owing to the decrease ultrasonic transmissibility they cause. The present paper discusses application of magnetic stirring welding as a means for reducing dendrite growth with consequent improvement in ultrasonic transmissibility. Single pass and multi-pass welding tests were conducted to determine optimal welding conditions. By PT and macro observation subsequent to welding was carried out, optimal operation conditions were clarified. Overlay welding tests and UT clearly indicated ultrasonic beam transmissibility in overlay welds to be improved and detection capacity to be greater through application of magnetic stirring welding. Optimal operation conditions were determined based on examination of temper bead effects in the heat affected zone of low alloy steel by application of magnetic stirring welding to the butt welded joints between low alloy and stainless steel. Hardness in this zone of low alloy steel after the fourth layer was less than 350 HV. (author)

  17. Determination of trace impurities in iron-based alloy using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, J.H.; Waheed, S.; Ahmad, S.

    2000-01-01

    A radiochemical neutron activation analysis procedure has been developed and applied to investigate 40 major, minor, and trace impurities in iron-based alloy. A comparison of RNAA and INAA indicated a significant improvement in the detection limits. The extensive use of these alloys in the heavy mechanical industry, manufacturing of aircraft engines, nuclear applications, medical devices and chemical equipment requires their precise characterization. The concentration of iron in the iron-based alloy was found to be 86.7%, whereas Ca, Cr, K, Mg, Mn, V and W were the other constituents of the alloy, which constituted to around 12.89%. The rest of the elements were present in minor or trace levels. Most of the rare earth elements were also present in trace amounts. (orig.)

  18. Advanced Class of FML on the Base Al-Li Alloy 1441 with Lower Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipov, V. V.; Senatorova, O. G.; Lukina, N. F.

    Structure, composition, properties combination of specimens and components, a number of technological parameters for production of advanced FML based on high-modulus Al-Li 1441 alloy (E 79 GPa) with reduced density (d 2.6 g/m3) and optimized adhesive prepreg reinforced with high-strength high-modulus VMP glass fibres are described. Service life 1441 alloy provides the possibility of manufacture of thin sheets (up to 0.3 mm), clad and unclad. Moreover, some experience on the usage of 1441 T1, T11 sheets and shapes in Be 200 and Be 103 aircraft was accumulated. The class of FML materials based on Al-Li alloy provide an 5% improvement in weight efficiency and stiffness of skin structures as compared with those made from FML with conventional Al-Cu-Mg (2024T3 a.o.) and Al-Zn-Mg-Cu (7475T76 a.o.) alloys.

  19. Supercritical water corrosion of high Cr steels and Ni-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Jin Sung; Han, Chang Hee; Hwang, Seong Sik

    2004-01-01

    High Cr steels (9 to 12% Cr) have been widely used for high temperature high pressure components in fossil power plants. Recently the concept of SCWR (supercritical water-cooled reactor) has aroused a keen interest as one of the next generation (Generation IV) reactors. Consequently Ni-base (or high Ni) alloys as well as high Cr steels that have already many experiences in the field are among the potential candidate alloys for the cladding or reactor internals. Tentative inlet and outlet temperatures of the anticipated SCWR are 280 and 510 .deg. C respectively. Among many candidate alloys there are austenitic stainless steels, Ni base alloys, ODS alloys as well as high Cr steels. In this study the corrosion behavior of the high Cr steels and Ni base (or high Ni) alloys in the supercritical water were investigated. The corrosion behavior of the unirradiated base metals could be used in the near future as a guideline for the out-of-pile or in-pile corrosion evaluation tests

  20. Quality assurance when surface welding nickel-based alloys; Qualitaetssicherung bei der Auftragsschweissung von Nickelbasislackierungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metschke, J. [Muellkraftwerk Schwandorf Betriebsgesellschaft mbH (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The cladding of evaporator heat exchanger surfaces in refuse incineration boilers with alloy 625 can effectively protect against the corrosive wear of the basic tube if the described rules concerning the pre-treatment, processing, quality control and after-care are observed. This statement is supported by the positive experience with this alloy at the Schwandorf refuse-fired power plant over a period of eight years now. Since the maximum service temperature is limited to 420 C, alloy 625 is only suitable for protecting superheater pipes subject to certain conditions. Long-term experience with alternative nickel-based alloys (alloy 622, alloy 686 and others) are not yet available. (orig.) [German] Die Schweissplattierung von Verdampferwaermetauscherflaechen in Muellverbrennungskesseln mit Alloy 625 kann einen wirksamen Schutz gegen den korrosiven Verschleiss des Grundrohres darstellen, wenn die vorstehenden Regeln ueber Vorbehandlung, Verarbeitung, Qualitaetskontrolle und laufende Nachsorgearbeiten beachtet werden. Diese Aussage wird durch die positiven Erfahrungen mit dieser Legierung im Muellkraftwerk Schwandorf ueber einen Zeitraum von nunmehr acht Jahren gestuetzt. (orig.)

  1. Strain ageing and yield plateau phenomena in γ-TiAl based alloys containing boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, T.T.; Bate, P.S.; Botten, R.R.; Lipsitt, H.A.

    1999-01-01

    There has been considerable interest over the past few years in γ-TiAl based alloys since they offer a combination of low density and useful mechanical properties at temperatures higher than those possible with conventional titanium alloys. However, there are still serious limitations to their use in engineering components due to their limited ductility and fracture toughness. Much of the recent work has been focused on improving the room temperature ductility of these materials, and a significant part of the work has been involved with studying the effects of thermo-mechanical processing (TMP) and alloying. One of the alloying additions which has received much attention is boron. Addition of boron (≥0.5 at.%) leads to refined as-cast grain structures and can increase the strength and ductility of these alloys. If boron does segregate to grain boundaries, it would be expected that segregation would also occur at dislocations, which can result in solute locking and yield point phenomena. Nakano and Umakoshi's results show some signs of this, with regions of distinct upward curvature in stress-strain curves for boron-containing material, although the flow stress was always increasing with strain. Evidence of strain ageing in TiAl alloys containing boron has also been reported by Wheeler et al., and the work reported here also suggests that boron can act to produce solute locking of glide dislocations in a different class of near γ-TiAl alloys

  2. Mechanical properties of molybdenum alloyed liquid phase-sintered tungsten-based composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, P.B.; German, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    Tungsten-based composites are fabricated from mixed elemental powders using liquid phase sintering, usually with a nickel-iron matrix. During sintering, the tungsten undergoes grain growth, leading to microstructure coarsening that lowers strength but increases ductility. Often the desire is to increase strength at the sacrifice of ductility, and historically, this has been performed by postsintering deformation. There has been considerable research on alloying to adjust the as-sintered mechanical properties to match those of swaged alloys. Prior reports cover many additions, seemingly including much of the periodic table. Unfortunately, many of the modified alloys proved disappointing, largely due to degraded strength at the tungsten-matrix interface. Of these modified alloys, the molybdenum-containing systems exhibit a promising combination of properties, cost, and processing ease. For example, the 82W-8Mo-7Ni-3Fe alloy gives a yield strength that is 34% higher than the equivalent 90W-7Ni-3Fe alloy (from 535 to 715 MPa) but with a 33% decrease in fracture elongation (from 30 to 20% elongation). This article reports on experiments geared to promoting improved properties in the W-Mo-Ni-Fe alloys. However, unlike the prior research which maintained a constant Ni + Fe content and varied the W:Mo ratio, this study considers the Mo:(Ni + Fe) ratio effect for 82, 90, and 93 wt pct W

  3. Localized electrochemical corrosion of nickel-based alloys. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, H.S.; Oyeleye, O.; Davidson, M.; Dudek, D.; Hatton, T.A.; Tester, J.W.; Helling, R.K.; Erickson, J.C.

    1986-09-01

    The technique of monitoring open-circuit potential over time to study pitting corrosion of Alloy 600 was demonstrated at 95 0 C. Chloride ion and oxygen levels were varied to determine the conditions required for pit initiation and propagation at 25 0 C and 95 0 C. Without applied potential pitting was not observed at 25 0 C in solutions of up to 2.6 M NaCl. At 95 0 C pit initiation occurred above 0.22 M NaCl for a nitrogen sparged system, 0.042 M NaCl for a contaminated air sparged system and 0.059 M for an O 2 sparged system. At 95 0 C initiation followed by propagation was observed at 0.22 M, 0.12 M and 0.11 M NaCl for the N 2 , air and O 2 sparged systems, respectively. A theoretical model, using a hemispherical pit geometry and transport based on the Nernst-Einstein equation, was developed to predict changes in ion concentration, current and pit size. For a pit with an initial radius of 100 A, a fixed potential difference of 0.5 V and constant ionic diffusivities on the order of 10 -5 , cm 2 /sec, the model predicts that the solution within the pit will become saturated with metal chloride within 2 x 10 -7 seconds. The current density increases exponentially with time and reaches a maximum value of 7.2 x 10 4 A/cm 2 at the point of saturation

  4. Basic research for alloy design of Nb-base alloys as ultra high temperature structural materials; Chokoon kozoyo niobuki gokin no gokin sekkei no tame no kisoteki kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, E [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Yoshimi, K; Hanada, S [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Inst. for Iron, Steel and Other Metals

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes an influence of additional elements on the high temperature deformation behavior of Nb-base solid solution alloys. Highly concentrated solid solution single crystals of Nb-Ta and Nb-Mo alloys were prepared. Compression test and strain rate sudden change test were conducted in the vacuum at temperatures ranging from 77 to 1773 K, to determine the strain rate sensitivity index. Yield stress of the Nb-Ta alloy was similar to that of Nb alloy at temperatures over 0.3{times}T{sub M}, where T{sub M} is fusing point of Nb. While, the yield stress increased with increasing the impurity oxygen concentration at temperatures below 0.3{times}T{sub M}. The yield stress became much higher than that of Nb alloy. The strain rate sensitivity index showed positive values in the whole temperature range. On the other hand, the yield stress of Nb-Mo alloy was higher than that of Nb alloy in the whole temperature range, and increased with increasing the Mo concentration. The strain rate sensitivity index showed negative values at the temperature range from 0.3{times}T{sub M} to 0.4{times}T{sub M}. It was found that serration occurred often for Nb-40Mo alloys. 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Superparamagnetic bimetallic iron-palladium nanoalloy: synthesis and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazir, Rabia; Mazhar, Muhammad [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Akhtar, M Javed; Nadeem, M; Siddique, Muhammad [Physics Division, PINSTECH, PO Nilore, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Shah, M Raza [HEJ Research Institute of Chemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan); Khan, Nawazish A [Material Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Mehmood, Mazhar [National Centre for Nanotechnology, PIEAS, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan); Butt, N M [Pakistan Science Foundation, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)], E-mail: mazhar42pk@yahoo.com

    2008-05-07

    Iron-palladium nanoalloy in the particle size range of 15-30 nm is synthesized by the relatively low temperature thermal decomposition of coprecipitated [Fe(Bipy){sub 3}]Cl{sub 2} and [Pd(Bipy){sub 3}]Cl{sub 2} in an inert ambient of dry argon gas. The silvery black Fe-Pd alloy nanoparticles are air-stable and have been characterized by EDX-RF, XRD, AFM, TEM, magnetometry, {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer and impedance spectroscopy. This Fe-Pd nanoalloy is in single phase and contains iron sites having up to 11 nearest-neighboring atoms. It is superparamagnetic in nature with high magnetic susceptibility, low coercivity and hyperfine field.

  6. Progress with alloy 33 (UNS R20033), a new corrosion resistant chromium-based austenitic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, M.; Heubner, U.; Eichenhofer, K.W.; Renner, M.

    1996-01-01

    Alloy 33 (UNS R20033), a new chromium-based corrosion resistant austenitic material with nominally (wt. %) 33 Cr, 32 Fe, 31 Ni, 1.6 Mo, 0.6 Cu, 0.4 N has been introduced to the market in 1995. This paper provides new data on this alloy with respect to mechanical properties, formability, weldability, sensitization characteristics and corrosion behavior. Mechanical properties of weldments including ductility have been established, and match well with those of wrought plate material, without any degradation of ISO V-notch impact toughness in the heat affected zone. When aged up to 8 hours between 600 C and 1,000 C the alloy is not sensitized when tested in boiling azeotropic nitric acid (Huey test). Under field test conditions alloy 33 shows excellent resistance to corrosion in flowing 96--98.5% H 2 SO 4 at 135 C--140 C and flowing 99.1% H 2 SO 4 at 150 C. Alloy 33 has also been tested with some success in 96% H 2 SO 4 with nitrosyl additions at 240 C. In nitric acid alloy 33 is corrosion resistant up to 85% HNO 3 and 75 C or even more. Alloy 33 is also corrosion resistant in 1 mol. HCl at 40 C and in NaOH/NaOCl-solutions. In artificial seawater the pitting potential remains unchanged up to 75 C and is still well above the seawater's redox potential at 95 C. Alloy 33 can be easily manufactured into all product forms required. The new data provided support the multipurpose character of alloy 33 to cope successfully with many requirements of the Chemical Process Industry, the Oil and Gas Industry and the Refinery Industry

  7. Nickel-base alloy forgings for advanced high temperature power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donth, B.; Diwo, A.; Blaes, N.; Bokelmann, D. [Saarschmiede GmbH Freiformschmiede, Voelklingen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The strong efforts to reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions lead to the demand for improved thermal efficiency of coal fired power plants. An increased thermal efficiency can be realised by higher steam temperatures and pressures in the boiler and the turbine. The European development aims for steam temperatures of 700 C which requires the development and use of new materials and also associated process technology for large components. Temperatures of 700 C and above are too high for the application of ferritic steels and therefore only Nickel-Base Alloys can fulfill the required material properties. In particular the Nickel-Base Alloy A617 is the most candidate alloy on which was focused the investigation and development in several German and European programs during the last 10 years. The goal is to verify and improve the attainable material properties and ultrasonic detectability of large Alloy 617 forgings for turbine rotors and boiler parts. For many years Saarschmiede has been manufacturing nickel and cobalt alloys and is participating the research programs by developing the manufacturing routes for large turbine rotor forgings up to a maximum diameter of 1000 mm as well as for forged tubes and valve parts for the boiler side. The experiences in manufacturing and testing of very large forgings made from nickel base alloys for 700 C steam power plants are reported. (orig.)

  8. Undercooling and demixing of copper-based alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolbe, M.; Brillo, J.; Egry, I.

    2006-01-01

    Since the beginning of materials science research under microgravity conditions immiscible alloys have been an interesting subject. New possibilities to investigate such systems are offered by containerless processing techniques. Of particular interest is the ternary system Cu-Fe-Co, and its...

  9. Fracture behavior of nickel-based alloys in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, W.J.; Brown, C.M.

    1999-08-01

    The cracking resistance of Alloy 600, Alloy 690 and their welds, EN82H and EN52, was characterized by conducting J{sub IC} tests in air and hydrogenated water. All test materials displayed excellent toughness in air and high temperature water, but Alloy 690 and the two welds were severely embrittled in low temperature water. In 54 C water with 150 cc H{sub 2}/kg H{sub 2}O, J{sub IC} values were typically 70% to 95% lower than their air counterparts. The toughness degradation was associated with a fracture mechanism transition from microvoid coalescence to intergranular fracture. Comparison of the cracking response in water with that for hydrogen-precharged specimens tested in air demonstrated that susceptibility to low temperature cracking is due to hydrogen embrittlement of grain boundaries. The effects of water temperature, hydrogen content and loading rate on low temperature crack propagation were studied. In addition, testing of specimens containing natural weld defects and as-machined notches was performed to determine if low temperature cracking can initiate at these features. Unlike the other materials, Alloy 600 is not susceptible to low temperature cracking as the toughness in 54 C water remained high and a microvoid coalescence mechanism was operative in both air and water.

  10. CuZn Alloy- Based Electrocatalyst for CO2 Reduction

    KAUST Repository

    Alazmi, Amira

    2014-01-01

    , especially when the electronic energy is derived from renewable energies, such as solar, wind, geo-thermal and tidal. To achieve this goal, the development of an efficient electrocatalyst for CO2 reduction is essential. In this thesis, studies on CuZn alloys

  11. Anionic Palladium(0) and Palladium(II) Ate Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolter, Marlene; Böck, Katharina; Karaghiosoff, Konstantin; Koszinowski, Konrad

    2017-10-16

    Palladium ate complexes are frequently invoked as important intermediates in Heck and cross-coupling reactions, but so far have largely eluded characterization at the molecular level. Here, we use electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry, electrical conductivity measurements, and NMR spectroscopy to show that the electron-poor catalyst [L 3 Pd] (L=tris[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]phosphine) readily reacts with Br - ions to afford the anionic, zero-valent ate complex [L 3 PdBr] - . In contrast, more-electron-rich Pd catalysts display lower tendencies toward the formation of ate complexes. Combining [L 3 Pd] with LiI and an aryl iodide substrate (ArI) results in the observation of the Pd II ate complex [L 2 Pd(Ar)I 2 ] - . © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Recovery of hydrogen from impurities using a palladium membrane reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willms, R.S.; Okuno, K.

    1993-01-01

    One of the important steps in processing the exhaust from a fusion reactor is recovering tritium which is incorporated into molecules such as water and methane. One device which may prove to be very effective for this purpose is a palladium membrane reactor. This is a reactor which incorporates a Pd/Ag membrane in the reactor geometry. Reactions such as water gas shift, steam reforming and methane cracking can be carried out over the reactor catalyst, and the product hydrogen can be simultaneously removed from the reacting mixture. Because product is removed, greater than usual conversions can be obtained. In addition ultrapure hydrogen is produced, eliminating the need for an additional processing step. A palladium membrane reactor has been built and tested with three different catalysts. Initial results with a Ni-based catalyst show that it is very effective at promoting all three reactions listed above. Under the proper conditions, hydrogen recoveries approaching 100% have been observed. This study serves to experimentally validate the palladium membrane reactor as potentially important tool for fusion fuel processing

  13. Determination of palladium by flame photometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parellada Bellod, R.

    1964-01-01

    A study on the determination of palladium by lame photometry, fixing the most convent experimental conditions and using solvents to increase the emission of this elements is carried out. Among the organic solvents, acetone has been found the most efficient. The interferences produced by anions and cations have also been studied and an analytical method is related, in which lines of calibration of 0 to 100 ppm palladium re used. (Author) 7 refs

  14. Mechanical properties of Fe3Al-based alloys with addition of carbon, niobium and titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhengrong; Liu Wenxi

    2006-01-01

    Several Fe 3 Al-based iron aluminides with the addition of alloying elements carbon, niobium and titanium were produced by vacuum induction melting (VIM) and hot spinning forging. Analytic techniques including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used in studying the microstructure and fracture manner of these alloys. The results show that due to the addition of alloying elements, the superlattice dislocations tend towards multiple slipping, leaving behind on their slip plane ribbons of square-shaped slip-induced antiphase boundaries. The elongation of Fe 3 Al in tension at room temperature increased to about 10% by the addition of suitable alloying elements, the usage of thermo-mechanical processing that has the function of refining grains and substructures, and subsequent annealing

  15. Computational design of precipitation-strengthened titanium-nickel-based shape memory alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Matthew D.

    Motivated by performance requirements of future medical stent applications, experimental research addresses the design of novel TiNi-based, superelastic shape-memory alloys employing nanoscale precipitation strengthening to minimize accommodation slip for cyclic stability and to increase output stress capability for smaller devices. Using a thermodynamic database describing the B2 and L21 phases in the Al-Ni-Ti-Zr system, Thermo-Calc software was used to assist modeling the evolution of phase composition during 600°C isothermal evolution of coherent L21 Heusler phase precipitation from supersaturated TiNi-based B2 phase matrix in an alloy experimentally characterized by atomic-scale Local Electrode Atom Probe (LEAP) microanalysis. Based on measured evolution of the alloy hardness (under conditions stable against martensitic transformation) a model for the combined effects of solid solution strengthening and precipitation strengthening was calibrated, and the optimum particle size for efficient strengthening was identified. Thermodynamic modeling of the evolution of measured phase fractions and compositions identified the interfacial capillary energy enabling thermodynamic design of alloy microstructure with the optimal strengthening particle size. Extension of alloy designs to incorporate Pt and Pd for reducing Ni content, enhancing radiopacity, and improving manufacturability were considered using measured Pt and Pd B2/L2 1 partitioning coefficients. After determining that Pt partitioning greatly increases interphase misfit, full attention was devoted to Pd alloy designs. A quantitative approach to radiopacity was employed using mass attenuation as a metric. Radiopacity improvements were also qualitatively observed using x-ray fluoroscopy. Transformation temperatures were experimentally measured as a function of Al and Pd content. Redlich-Kister polynomial modeling was utilized for the dependence of transformation reversion Af temperature on B2 matrix phase

  16. Cobalt-based orthopaedic alloys: Relationship between forming route, microstructure and tribological performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Bhairav [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Favaro, Gregory [CSM Instruments SA, Rue de la Gare 4, Galileo Center, CH-2034 Peseux (Switzerland); Inam, Fawad [Advanced Composite Training and Development Centre and School of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Glyndwr University, Mold Road, Wrexham LL11 2AW (United Kingdom); School of Engineering and Materials Science and Nanoforce Technology Ltd, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Reece, Michael J. [School of Engineering and Materials Science and Nanoforce Technology Ltd, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Angadji, Arash [Orthopaedic Research UK, Furlong House, 10a Chandos Street, London W1G 9DQ (United Kingdom); Bonfield, William [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Huang, Jie [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Edirisinghe, Mohan, E-mail: m.edirisinghe@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    The average longevity of hip replacement devices is approximately 10-15 years, which generally depends on many factors. But for younger generation patients this would mean that revisions may be required at some stage in order to maintain functional activity. Therefore, research is required to increase the longevity to around 25-30 years; a target that was initially set by John Charnley. The main issues related to metal-on-metal (MoM) hip replacement devices are the high wear rates when malpositioned and the release of metallic ions into the blood stream and surrounding tissues. Work is required to reduce the wear rates and limit the amount of metallic ions being leached out of the current MoM materials, to be able to produce an ideal hip replacement material. The most commonly used MoM material is the cobalt-based alloys, more specifically ASTM F75, due to their excellent wear and corrosion resistance. They are either fabricated using the cast or wrought method, however powder processing of these alloys has been shown to improve the properties. One powder processing technique used is spark plasma sintering, which utilises electric current Joule heating to produce high heating rates to sinter powders to form an alloy. Two conventionally manufactured alloys (ASTM F75 and ASTM F1537) and a spark plasma sintered (SPS) alloy were evaluated for their microstructure, hardness, tribological performance and the release of metallic content. The SPS alloy with oxides and not carbides in its microstructure had the higher hardness, which resulted in the lowest wear and friction coefficient, with lower amounts of chromium and molybdenum detected from the wear debris compared to the ASTM F75 and ASTM F1537. In addition the wear debris size and size distribution of the SPS alloy generated were considerably small, indicating a material that exhibits excellent performance and more favourable compared to the current conventional cobalt based alloys used in orthopaedics. - Highlights

  17. Effects of composition on the order-disorder transformation in Ni-Cr based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marucco, A.

    1991-01-01

    The Ni-Cr based alloys undergo an ordering transformation, due to the formation of an ordered Ni 2 Cr phase, which causes a lattice contraction and it is responsisble for ''negative creep'' or excessive stresses in constrained components. A short-range ordered (SRO) structure develops in the matrix phase after solution treatment and at early stages of ageing, which can transform to a long-range ordered (LRO) structure, depending on the alloy composition and on time and temperature of ageing, upon prolonged annealing below the critical temperature. In stoichiometric Ni 2 Cr alloy LRO forms in a few hours, but in off-stoichiometric alloys the transformation kinetics are very sluggish and LRO takes several tens of thousands of hours to form, when it forms. The ordering behaviours of stoichiometric Ni 2 Cr and Ni 3 Cr were studied by means of isothermal treatments in the temperature range 450-600degC for different ageing times up to 30 000 h, followed by lattice parameter measurements by X-ray diffraction and electrical resistivity measurements. Similar studies performed on a series of ternary Ni-Cr-Fe alloys revealed the dependence of the degree of order on Cr concentration and a markedly delaying influence of Fe on the ordering kinetics. Finally, long-term microstructural stability of some commercial Ni-Cr based alloys, widely used for high temperature applications, have been studied: the ordering behaviour and associated microstructural changes are discussed in this paper

  18. Influence of alkali metal hydroxides on corrosion of Zr-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Y.H.; Ruhmann, H.; Garzarolli, F.

    1997-01-01

    In this study the influence of group-1 alkali hydroxides on different zirconium based alloys has been evaluated. The experiments have been carried out in small stainless steel autoclaves at 350 deg. C in pressurized 17 MPa water, with in low (0.32 mmol), medium (4.3 mmol) and high (31.5 mmol) equimolar concentrations of Li-, Na-, K-, Rb- and Cs-Hydroxides. Two types of alloys have been investigated: Zr-Sn-(Transition metal) and Zr-Sn-Nb-(Transition metal). The corrosion behaviour was evaluated from weight gain measurements. From the experiments the cation could be identified as the responsible species for zirconium alloy corrosion in alkalized water. The radius of the cation governs the corrosion behaviour in the pre accelerated region of zircaloy corrosion. Incorporating of alkali cations into the zirconium oxide lattice is probably the mechanism which allows the corrosion enhancement for Li and Na and the significantly lower effect for the other bases. Nb containing alloys show lower corrosion resistance than alloys from the Zr-Sn-TRM system in all alkali solutions. Both types of alloys corrode significantly more in LiOH and NaOH than in the other alkali environments. Lowest corrosive aggressiveness has been found for CsOH followed by KOH. Concluding from the corrosion behaviour in the different alkali environments and taking into account the tendency to promote accelerate corrosion, CsOH and KOH are possible alternate alkalis for PWR application. (author). 17 refs, 15 figs, 5 tabs

  19. Pack cementation diffusion coatings for Fe-base and refractory alloys. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, R.A. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1998-03-10

    With the aid of computer-assisted calculations of the equilibrium vapor pressures in halide-activated cementation packs, processing conditions have been identified and experimentally verified for the codeposition of two or more alloying elements in a diffusion coating on a variety of steels and refractory metal alloys. A new comprehensive theory to treat the multi-component thermodynamic equilibria in the gas phase for several coexisting solid phases was developed and used. Many different processes to deposit various types of coatings on several types of steels were developed: Cr-Si codeposition for low- or medium-carbon steels, Cr-Al codeposition on low-carbon steels to yield either a Kanthal-type composition (Fe-25Cr-4Al in wt.%) or else a (Fe, Cr){sub 3}Al surface composition. An Fe{sub 3}Al substrate was aluminized to achieve an FeAl surface composition, and boron was also added to ductilize the coating. The developmental Cr-lean ORNL alloys with exceptional creep resistance were Cr-Al coated to achieve excellent oxidation resistance. Alloy wires of Ni-base were aluminized to provide an average composition of Ni{sub 3}Al for use as welding rods. Several different refractory metal alloys based on Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb have been silicided, also with germanium additions, to provide excellent oxidation resistance. A couple of developmental Cr-Zr alloys were similarly coated and tested.

  20. Ambient-temperature high damping capacity in TiPd-based martensitic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Dezhen; Zhou, Yumei; Ding, Xiangdong; Otsuka, Kazuhiro; Lookman, Turab; Sun, Jun; Ren, Xiaobing

    2015-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) have attracted considerable attention for their high damping capacities. Here we investigate the damping behavior of Ti 50 (Pd 50−x D x ) SMAs (D=Fe, Co, Mn, V) by dynamic mechanical analysis. We find that these alloys show remarkably similar damping behavior. There exists a sharp damping peak associated with the B2–B19 martensitic transformation and a high damping plateau (Q −1 ~0.02–0.05) over a wide ambient-temperature range (220–420 K) due to the hysteretic twin boundary motion. After doping hydrogen into the above alloys, a new relaxation-type damping peak appears in the martensite phase over 270–360 K. Such a peak is considered to originate from the interaction of hydrogen atoms with twin boundaries and the corresponding damping capacity (Q −1 ~0.05–0.09) is enhanced by roughly twice that of the damping plateau for each alloy. Moreover, the relaxation peaks are at higher temperatures for the TiPd-based alloys (270–370 K) than for the TiNi-based alloys (190–260 K). We discuss the influence of hydrogen diffusion, mobility of twin boundaries and hydrogen–twin boundary interaction on the temperature range of the relaxation peak. Our results suggest that a martensite, with appropriate values for twinning shear and hydrogen doping level, provides a route towards developing high damping SMAs for applications in desired temperature ranges

  1. Fabrication and study of double sintered TiNi-based porous alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergey, Anikeev; Valentina, Hodorenko; Timofey, Chekalkin; Victor, Gunther; Ji-hoon, Kang; Ji-soon, Kim

    2017-05-01

    Double-sintered porous TiNi-based alloys were fabricated and their structural characteristics and physico-mechanical properties were investigated. A fabrication technology of powder mixtures is elaborated in this article. Sintering conditions were chosen experimentally to ensure good structure and properties. The porous alloys were synthesized by solid-state double diffusion sintering (DDS) of Ti-Ni powder and prepare to obtain dense, crack-free, and homogeneous samples. The Ti-Ni compound sintered at various temperatures was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. Phase composition of the sintered alloys was determined by x-ray diffraction. Analysis of the data confirmed the morphology and structural parameters. Mechanical and physical properties of the sintered alloys were evaluated. DDS at 1250 °C was found to be optimal to produce porous samples with a porosity of 56% and mean pore size of 90 μm. Pore size distribution was unimodal within the narrow range of values. The alloys present enhanced strength and ductility, owing to both the homogeneity of the macrostructure and relative elasticity of the bulk, which is hardened by the Ni-rich precipitates. These results suggest the possibility to manufacture porous TiNi-based alloys for application as a new class of dental implants.

  2. Magnesium-based hydrogen alloy anodes for a nickel metal hydrides secondary battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, N.; Luan, B.; Zhao, H.J.; Liu, H.K.; Dou, S.X. [Univ of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW (Australia). Centre for Superconducting and Electronic Materials

    1996-12-31

    Extensive work has been carried out in our group to try utilizing magnesium-based hydrogen storage alloys as a low cost and high performance anode materials for Ni-MH battery. It was found that the modified Mg{sub 2}Ni alloy anodes were able to be charged-discharged effectively in a KOH aqueous solution at ambient temperature. The discharge capacity and cycle have been substantially improved in four ways: (1) by partial substitution of La, Ti, V, Zr, Ca for Mg and Fe, Co, Cu, Al, Si, Y, Mn for Ni in Mg{sub 2}Ni; (2) by composite of Mg{sub 2}Ni with another hydrogen storage alloys; (3) by room-temperature surface microencapsulation and, (4) by ultrasound treatment of alloy powders. A discharge capacity of 170 mAh/g has been obtained from the modified Mg{sub 2}Ni-type alloy electrode, and the cycle life has exceeded 350 cycles. The high rate dischargeability was also significantly improved by the modification. It was concluded that magnesium-based hydrogen storage alloys would become promising anode materials for Ni- MH secondary battery with further improvement of discharge capacity and cycling performance

  3. Compatibility between vandium-base alloys and flowing lithium: Partitioning of hydrogen at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, A.B.; Chopra, O.K.; Loomis, B.; Smith, D.

    1989-12-01

    A major concern in fusion reactor design is possible hydrogen-isotope-induced embrittlement of structural alloys in the neutron environment expected in these reactors. Hydrogen fractionation occurs between lithium and various refractory metals according to a temperature-dependent distribution coefficient, K H , that is defined as the ration of the hydrogen concentration in the metallic specimen to that in the liquid lithium. In the present work, K H was determined for pure vanadium and several binary and ternary alloys, and the commercial Vanstar 7. Hydrogen distribution studies were performed in an austenitic steel forced-circulation lithium loop. Equilibrium concentrations of hydrogen in vanadium-base alloys exposed to flowing lithium at temperatures of 350 to 550 degree C were measured by inert gas fusion techniques and residual gas analysis. Thermodynamic calculations are consistent with the effect of chromium and titanium in the alloys on the resultant hydrogen fractionation. Experimental and calculated results indicate that K H values are very low; i.e., the hydrogen concentrations in the lithium-equilibrated vanadium-base alloy specimens are about two orders of magnitude lower than those in the lithium. Because of this low distribution coefficient, embrittlement of vanadium alloys by hydrogen in lithium would not be expected. 15 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Correlation Between Superheated Liquid Fragility And Onset Temperature Of Crystallization For Al-Based Amorphous Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo J.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous alloys or metallic glasses have attracted significant interest in the materials science and engineering communities due to their unique physical, mechanical, and chemical properties. The viscous flow of amorphous alloys exhibiting high strain rate sensitivity and homogeneous deformation is considered to be an important characteristic in thermoplastic forming processes performed within the supercooled liquid region because it allows superplastic-like deformation behavior. Here, the correlation between the superheated liquid fragility, and the onset temperature of crystallization for Al-based alloys, is investigated. The activation energy for viscous flow of the liquid is also investigated. There is a negative correlation between the parameter of superheated liquid fragility and the onset temperature of crystallization in the same Al-based alloy system. The activation energy decreases as the onset temperature of crystallization increases. This indicates that the stability of a superheated liquid can affect the thermal stability of the amorphous alloy. It also means that a liquid with a large superheated liquid fragility, when rapidly solidified, forms an amorphous alloy with a low thermal stability.

  5. Magnesium-based hydrogen alloy anodes for a nickel metal hydrides secondary battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, N.; Luan, B.; Zhao, H.J.; Liu, H.K.; Dou, S.X.

    1996-01-01

    Extensive work has been carried out in our group to try utilizing magnesium-based hydrogen storage alloys as a low cost and high performance anode materials for Ni-MH battery. It was found that the modified Mg 2 Ni alloy anodes were able to be charged-discharged effectively in a KOH aqueous solution at ambient temperature. The discharge capacity and cycle have been substantially improved in four ways: (1) by partial substitution of La, Ti, V, Zr, Ca for Mg and Fe, Co, Cu, Al, Si, Y, Mn for Ni in Mg 2 Ni; (2) by composite of Mg 2 Ni with another hydrogen storage alloys; (3) by room-temperature surface microencapsulation and, (4) by ultrasound treatment of alloy powders. A discharge capacity of 170 mAh/g has been obtained from the modified Mg 2 Ni-type alloy electrode, and the cycle life has exceeded 350 cycles. The high rate dischargeability was also significantly improved by the modification. It was concluded that magnesium-based hydrogen storage alloys would become promising anode materials for Ni- MH secondary battery with further improvement of discharge capacity and cycling performance

  6. Influence of alkali metal hydroxides on corrosion of Zr-based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Y H [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Dae Jun (Korea, Republic of); Ruhmann, H; Garzarolli, F [Siemens-KWU, Power Generation Group, Erlangen (Germany)

    1997-02-01

    In this study the influence of group-1 alkali hydroxides on different zirconium based alloys has been evaluated. The experiments have been carried out in small stainless steel autoclaves at 350 deg. C in pressurized 17 MPa water, with in low (0.32 mmol), medium (4.3 mmol) and high (31.5 mmol) equimolar concentrations of Li-, Na-, K-, Rb- and Cs-Hydroxides. Two types of alloys have been investigated: Zr-Sn-(Transition metal) and Zr-Sn-Nb-(Transition metal). The corrosion behaviour was evaluated from weight gain measurements. From the experiments the cation could be identified as the responsible species for zirconium alloy corrosion in alkalized water. The radius of the cation governs the corrosion behaviour in the pre accelerated region of zircaloy corrosion. Incorporating of alkali cations into the zirconium oxide lattice is probably the mechanism which allows the corrosion enhancement for Li and Na and the significantly lower effect for the other bases. Nb containing alloys show lower corrosion resistance than alloys from the Zr-Sn-TRM system in all alkali solutions. Both types of alloys corrode significantly more in LiOH and NaOH than in the other alkali environments. Lowest corrosive aggressiveness has been found for CsOH followed by KOH. Concluding from the corrosion behaviour in the different alkali environments and taking into account the tendency to promote accelerate corrosion, CsOH and KOH are possible alternate alkalis for PWR application. (author). 17 refs, 15 figs, 5 tabs.

  7. Straining electrode behavior and corrosion resistance of nickel base alloys in high temperature acidic solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Kazuo

    1992-01-01

    Repassivation behavior and IGA resistance of nickel base alloys containing 0∼30 wt% chromium was investigated in high temperature acid sulfate solution. (1) The repassivation rate was increased with increasing chromium content. And so the amounts of charge caused by the metal dissolution were decreased with increasing chromium content. (2) Mill-annealed Alloy 600 suffered IGA at low pH environment below about 3.5 at the fixed potentials above the corrosion potential in 10%Na 2 SO 4 +H 2 SO 4 solution at 598K. On the other hand, thermally-treated Alloy 690 was hard to occur IGA at low pH environments which mill-annealed Alloy 600 occurred IGA. (3) It was considered that the reason, why nickel base alloys containing high chromium content such as Alloy 690 (60%Ni-30%Cr-10%Fe) had high IGA/SCC resistance in high temperature acidic solution containing sulfate ion, is due to both the promotion of the repassivation and the suppression of the film dissolution by the formation of the dense chromium oxide film

  8. Neutronics and activation analysis of lithium-based ternary alloys in IFE blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolodosky, Alejandra, E-mail: aleja311@berkeley.edu [University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94706 (United States); Kramer, Kevin [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA (United States); Meier, Wayne; DeMuth, James; Reyes, Susana [TerraPower, Bellevue, WA 98005 (United States); Fratoni, Massimiliano [University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94706 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Monte Carlo calculations were performed on numerous lithium ternary alloys. • Elements with high neutron multiplication performed well with low absorbers. • Enriching lithium decreases minimum lithium concentration of alloys by 60% or more. • Alloys that performed well neutronically were selected for activation calculations. • Alloys activated, except LiBaBi, do not pose major environmental or safety concerns. - Abstract: An attractive feature of using liquid lithium as the breeder and coolant in fusion blankets is that it has very high tritium solubility and results in very low levels of tritium permeation throughout the facility infrastructure. However, lithium metal vigorously reacts with air and water and presents plant safety concerns. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is carrying an effort to develop a lithium-based ternary alloy that maintains the beneficial properties of lithium (e.g. high tritium breeding and solubility) and at the same time reduces overall flammability concerns. This study evaluates the neutronics performance of lithium-based alloys in the blanket of an inertial fusion energy chamber in order to inform such development. 3-D Monte Carlo calculations were performed to evaluate two main neutronics performance parameters for the blanket: tritium breeding ratio (TBR), and the fusion energy multiplication factor (EMF). It was found that elements that exhibit low absorption cross sections and higher q-values such as Pb, Sn, and Sr, perform well with those that have high neutron multiplication such as Pb and Bi. These elements meet TBR constrains ranging from 1.02 to 1.1. However, most alloys do not reach EMFs greater than 1.15. Additionally, it was found that enriching lithium with {sup 6}Li significantly increases the TBR and decreases the minimum lithium concentration by more than 60%. The amount of enrichment depends on how much total lithium is in the alloy to begin with. Alloys that performed well in the TBR

  9. Fatigue properties of MA 6000E, a gamma-prime strengthened ODS alloy. [Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Ni-base alloy for gas turbine blade applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y. G.; Merrick, H. F.

    1980-01-01

    MA 6000E is a corrosion resistant, gamma-prime strengthened ODS alloy under development for advanced turbine blade applications. The high temperature, 1093 C, rupture strength is superior to conventional nickel-base alloys. This paper addresses the fatigue behavior of the alloy. Excellent properties are exhibited in low and high cycle fatigue and also thermal fatigue. This is attributed to a unique combination of microstructural features, i.e., a fine distribution of dispersed oxides and other nonmetallics, and the highly elongated grain structure which advantageously modify the deformation characteristics and crack initiation and propagation modes from that characteristic of conventional gamma-prime hardened superalloys.

  10. Thermophysical properties of some liquid binary Mg-based alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plevachuk Y.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, some structure-sensitive thermophysical properties, namely, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and thermoelectric power of liquid binary alloys Al33.3Mg66.7, Mg47.6Zn52.4 and Mg33.3Zn66.7 (all in wt.%, as the most promising cast alloys to fabricate components for cars, aircraft and other complex engineering products, were investigated. The electrical conductivity and thermoelectric power were measured in a wide temperature range by the four-point contact method. The thermal conductivity was measured by the steady-state concentric cylinder method. The obtained results are compared with literature experimental and calculated data.

  11. Fracture of niobium-base silicide coated alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davydova, A.D.; Zotov, Yu.P.; Ivashchenko, O.V.; Kushnareva, N.P.; Yarosh, I.P.

    1990-01-01

    Mechanical properties and character of fracture of Nb-W-Mo-Zr-C alloy composition with complex by composition and structure silicide coating under different states of stage-by-stage coating are studied. Structural features, character of fracture from ductile to quasibrittle transcrystalline one and, respectively, the composition plasticity level are defined by interrelation of fracture processes in coating, matrix plastic flow and possibility and way of stress relaxation on their boundary

  12. The mode of stress corrosion cracking in Ni-base alloys in high temperature water containing lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, S.S.; Kim, H.P.; Lee, D.H.; Kim, U.C.; Kim, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    The mode of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in Ni-base alloys in high temperature aqueous solutions containing lead was studied using C-rings and slow strain rate testing (SSRT). The lead concentration, pH and the heat treatment condition of the materials were varied. TEM work was carried out to observe the dislocation behavior in thermally treated (TT) and mill annealed (MA) materials. As a result of the C-ring test in 1M NaOH+5000 ppm lead solution, intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) was found in Alloy 600MA, whereas transgranular stress corrosion cracking (TGSCC) was found in Alloy 600TT and Alloy 690TT. In most solutions used, the SCC resistance increased in the sequence Alloy 600MA, Alloy 600TT and Alloy 690TT. The number of cracks that was observed in alloy 690TT was less than in Alloy 600TT. However, the maximum crack length in Alloy 690TT was much longer than in Alloy 600TT. As a result of the SSRT, at a nominal strain rate of 1 x 10 -7 /s, it was found that 100 ppm lead accelerated the SCC in Alloy 600MA (0.01%C) in pH 10 at 340 C. IGSCC was found in a 100 ppm lead condition, and some TGSCC was detected on the fracture surface of Alloy 600MA cracked in the 10000 ppm lead solution. The mode of cracking for Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 changed from IGSCC to TGSCC with increasing grain boundary carbide content in the material and lead concentration in the solution. IGSCC seemed to be retarded by stress relaxation around the grain boundaries, and TGSCC in the TT materials seemed to be a result of the crack blunting at grain boundary carbides and the enhanced Ni dissolution with an increase of the lead concentration. (orig.)

  13. Thermodynamic Tuning of Mg-Based Hydrogen Storage Alloys: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Lu, Yanshan; Ouyang, Liuzhang; Wang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Mg-based hydrides are one of the most promising hydrogen storage materials because of their relatively high storage capacity, abundance, and low cost. However, slow kinetics and stable thermodynamics hinder their practical application. In contrast to the substantial progress in the enhancement of the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation kinetics, thermodynamic tuning is still a great challenge for Mg-based alloys. At present, the main strategies to alter the thermodynamics of Mg/MgH2 are alloying, nanostructuring, and changing the reaction pathway. Using these approaches, thermodynamic tuning has been achieved to some extent, but it is still far from that required for practical application. In this article, we summarize the advantages and disadvantages of these strategies. Based on the current progress, finding reversible systems with high hydrogen capacity and effectively tailored reaction enthalpy offers a promising route for tuning the thermodynamics of Mg-based hydrogen storage alloys. PMID:28788353

  14. Computational studies of physical properties of Nb-Si based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang, Lizhi [Middle Tennessee State Univ., Murfreesboro, TN (United States)

    2015-04-16

    The overall goal is to provide physical properties data supplementing experiments for thermodynamic modeling and other simulations such as phase filed simulation for microstructure and continuum simulations for mechanical properties. These predictive computational modeling and simulations may yield insights that can be used to guide materials design, processing, and manufacture. Ultimately, they may lead to usable Nb-Si based alloy which could play an important role in current plight towards greener energy. The main objectives of the proposed projects are: (1) developing a first principles method based supercell approach for calculating thermodynamic and mechanic properties of ordered crystals and disordered lattices including solid solution; (2) application of the supercell approach to Nb-Si base alloy to compute physical properties data that can be used for thermodynamic modeling and other simulations to guide the optimal design of Nb-Si based alloy.

  15. Atomic scale properties of magnetic Mn-based alloys probed by emission Mössbauer spectroscopy

    CERN Multimedia

    Mn-based alloys are characterized by a wealth of properties, which are of interest both from fundamental physics point of view and particularly attractive for different applications in modern technology: from magnetic storage to sensing and spin-based electronics. The possibility to tune their magnetic properties through post-growth thermal processes and/or stoichiometry engineering is highly important in order to target different applications (i.e. Mn$_{x}$Ga) or to increase their Curie temperature above room temperature (i.e. off-stoichiometric MnSi). In this project, the Mössbauer effect will be applied at $^{57}$Fe sites following implantation of radioactive $^{57}$Mn, to probe the micro-structure and magnetism of Mn-based alloys on the atomic-scale. The proposed experimental plan is devoted to establish a direct correlation between the local structure and bulk magnetism (and other physical properties) of Mn-based alloys.

  16. Palladium-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reactions of Perfluoro Organic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Ohashi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we summarize our recent development of palladium(0-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of perfluoro organic compounds with organometallic reagents. The oxidative addition of a C–F bond of tetrafluoroethylene (TFE to palladium(0 was promoted by the addition of lithium iodide, affording a trifluorovinyl palladium(II iodide. Based on this finding, the first palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of TFE with diarylzinc was developed in the presence of lithium iodide, affording α,β,β-trifluorostyrene derivatives in excellent yield. This coupling reaction was expanded to the novel Pd(0/PR3-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of TFE with arylboronates. In this reaction, the trifluorovinyl palladium(II fluoride was a key reaction intermediate that required neither an extraneous base to enhance the reactivity of organoboronates nor a Lewis acid additive to promote the oxidative addition of a C–F bond. In addition, our strategy utilizing the synergetic effect of Pd(0 and lithium iodide could be applied to the C–F bond cleavage of unreactive hexafluorobenzene (C6F6, leading to the first Pd(0-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of C6F6 with diarylzinc compounds.

  17. Some remarks on the neutron elastic- and enelastic-scattering cross sections of palladium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, S.; Guenther, P.T.; Smith, A.B.

    1989-05-01

    The cross sections for the elastic-scattering of 5.9, 7.1 and 8.0 MeV neutrons from elemental palladium were measured at forty scattering angles distributed between ∼15/degree/ and 160/degree/. The inelastic-scattering cross sections for the excitation of palladium levels at energies of 260 keV to 560 keV were measured with high resolution at the same energies, and at a scattering angle of 80/degree/. The experimental results were combined with lower-energy values previously obtained by this group to provide a comprehensive data base extending from near the inelastic-scattering threshold to 8 MeV. That data base was interpreted in terms of a coupled-channel model, including the inelastic excitation of one- and two-phonon vibrational levels of the even isotopes of palladium. It was concluded that the palladium inelastic-scattering cross section, at the low energies of interest in assessment of fast-fission-reactor performance, are large (∼50% greater than given in widely used evaluated fission-product data files). They primarily involve compound-nucleus processes, with only a small direct-reaction component attributable to the excitation of the one-phonon, 2 + , vibrational levels of the even isotopes of palladium. 24 refs., 6 figs

  18. A novel method for producing magnesium based hydrogen storage alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, A.; Matthews, J.; Barlow, R.; Almamouri, M.M.; Speight, J.D.; Harris, I.R.

    2003-01-01

    Conventional melt casting techniques for producing Mg 2 Ni often result in no stoichiometric compositions due to the excess Mg which is added to the melt in order to counterbalance sublimation during processing. In this work a vapour phase process known as Low Pressure Pack Sublimation (LPPS) has been used to coat Ni substrates with Mg at 460-600 o C producing layers of single phase Mg 2 Ni. Ni substrates coated to date include powder, foils and wire. Using Ni-Fe substrates it has also been demonstrated that Fe can be distributed through the Mg 2 Ni alloy layer which could have a beneficial effect on the hydrogen storage characteristics. The alloy layers formed have been characterised by XRD and SEM equipped with EDX analysis. Hydrogen storage properties have been evaluated using an Intelligent Gravimetric Analyser (IGA). LPPS avoids most of the sintering of powder particles during processing which is observed in other vapour phase techniques while producing a stoichiometric composition of Mg 2 Ni. It is also a simple, low cost technique for producing these alloys. (author)

  19. Experiments on a ceramic electrolysis cell and a palladium diffuser at the tritium systems test assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Satoshi; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Ohno, Hideo; Naruse, Yuji; Coffin, D.O.; Walthers, C.R.; Binning, K.E.

    1985-01-01

    A ceramic electrolysis cell and a palladium diffuser are developed in Japan and is tested with tritium in Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) of the Los Alamos National Laboratory, in order to confirm the feasibility as possible upgrades for the fuel cleanup system (PCU). The ceramic electrolysis cell made of stabilized zirconia was operated at 630 0 C for an extended period with a mixture of 3% T 2 O in He carrier gas in the circulation system with oxidizing catalyst bed. The palladium diffuser was tested with circulated pure tritium gas at 280 0 C to verify the compatibility of the alloy with tritium, since the 3 He produced in the metal could cause a degradation. The isotopic effects were also measured for both devices

  20. A sensitive electrochemical aptasensor based on palladium nanoparticles decorated graphene–molybdenum disulfide flower-like nanocomposites and enzymatic signal amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Pei; Yi, Huayu; Xue, Shuyan; Chai, Yaqin; Yuan, Ruo; Xu, Wenju, E-mail: xwju@swu.edu.cn

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • PDDA–G–MoS{sub 2} nanoflowers were firstly used for the fabrication of thrombin aptasensor. • MoS{sub 2} was adopted to enhance the surface area of graphene and accelerate the electron transfer. • GOD, PdNPs and hemin/G-quadruplex could amplify the electrochemical signal through synergetic catalysis. • The proposed aptasensor displayed an improved sensitivity. - Abstract: In the present study, with the aggregated advantages of graphene and molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}), we prepared poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)–graphene/molybdenum disulfide (PDDA–G–MoS{sub 2}) nanocomposites with flower-like structure, large surface area and excellent conductivity. Furthermore, an advanced sandwich-type electrochemical assay for sensitive detection of thrombin (TB) was fabricated using palladium nanoparticles decorated PDDA–G–MoS{sub 2} (PdNPs/PDDA–G–MoS{sub 2}) as nanocarriers, which were functionalized by hemin/G-quadruplex, glucose oxidase (GOD), and toluidine blue (Tb) as redox probes. The signal amplification strategy was achieved as follows: Firstly, the immobilized GOD could effectively catalyze the oxidation of glucose to gluconolactone, coupling with the reduction of the dissolved oxygen to H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Then, both PdNPs and hemin/G-quadruplex acting as hydrogen peroxide (HRP)-mimicking enzyme could further catalyze the reduction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, resulting in significant electrochemical signal amplification. So the proposed aptasensor showed high sensitivity with a wide dynamic linear range of 0.0001 to 40 nM and a relatively low detection limit of 0.062 pM for TB determination. The strategy showed huge potential of application in protein detection and disease diagnosis.

  1. The electrochemical behaviour of various non-precious Ni and Co based alloys in artificial saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareci D.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Five non-precious Ni-Co based alloys were analyzed with respect to their corrosion behaviour. The correlation between the amount of the elements Cr, Mo, V and the corrosion behaviour, expressed by the PREN (pitting resistance equivalent number index in the case of the allied steels, was extended for Ni-Cr and Co-Cr dental alloys characterization. Open circuit potential, corrosion current densities, as a measure of the corrosion rate, and main parameters of the corrosion process were evaluated from linear and cyclic polarization curves, for five Ni-Cr or Co-Cr alloys in an Afnor type artificial saliva. The maintenance times of the alloy in the corrosive medium influence the corrosion rate; the corrosion current values decrease with the maintenance time due to their passivation in solution. The microscopic analysis of the alloy surfaces shows that this passivation in solution does not modify the corrosion type. The alloys with PREN 32.9 are susceptible of localized corrosion.

  2. Magnetic properties of Co and Ni based alloy nanoparticles dispersed in a silica matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Julian Fernandez, C. E-mail: dejulian@padova.infm.it; Sangregorio, C.; Mattei, G.; Maurizio, C.; Battaglin, G.; Gonella, F.; Lascialfari, A.; Lo Russo, S.; Gatteschi, D.; Mazzoldi, P.; Gonzalez, J.M.; D' Acapito, F

    2001-04-01

    A comparative study of the magnetic properties of Co and Ni based alloy nanoparticles (Ni-Co, Ni-Cu and Co-Cu) formed in a silica matrix by ion implantation is presented. Different ion doses and implantation sequences were realized in order to obtain different nanostructures. The structural and magnetic properties observed for the Cu{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} nanoparticles are similar to those of the Cu{sub 60}Ni{sub 40} bulk alloy. The crystal structure of Co{sub x}Ni{sub 1-x} (0{<=}x{<=}1) nanoparticles is similar to that of the corresponding bulk alloy. The magnetic properties depend on the ion-implanted dose and on the alloy composition. The samples prepared by implanting a 15x10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2} total dose contain nanoparticles, which are superparamagnetic at room temperature and their magnetic behavior is influenced by dipolar interparticle interactions. The magnetization of the CoNi samples at high magnetic field is larger than that of the corresponding bulk alloy and follows the same composition dependence of that quantity measured in the alloy.

  3. Magnetic properties of Co and Ni based alloy nanoparticles dispersed in a silica matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Julian Fernandez, C.; Sangregorio, C.; Mattei, G.; Maurizio, C.; Battaglin, G.; Gonella, F.; Lascialfari, A.; Lo Russo, S.; Gatteschi, D.; Mazzoldi, P.; Gonzalez, J.M.; D'Acapito, F.

    2001-01-01

    A comparative study of the magnetic properties of Co and Ni based alloy nanoparticles (Ni-Co, Ni-Cu and Co-Cu) formed in a silica matrix by ion implantation is presented. Different ion doses and implantation sequences were realized in order to obtain different nanostructures. The structural and magnetic properties observed for the Cu 50 Ni 50 nanoparticles are similar to those of the Cu 60 Ni 40 bulk alloy. The crystal structure of Co x Ni 1-x (0≤x≤1) nanoparticles is similar to that of the corresponding bulk alloy. The magnetic properties depend on the ion-implanted dose and on the alloy composition. The samples prepared by implanting a 15x10 16 ions/cm 2 total dose contain nanoparticles, which are superparamagnetic at room temperature and their magnetic behavior is influenced by dipolar interparticle interactions. The magnetization of the CoNi samples at high magnetic field is larger than that of the corresponding bulk alloy and follows the same composition dependence of that quantity measured in the alloy

  4. Formation and crystallization kinetics of Nd-Fe-B-based bulk amorphous alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Qiong; Ge, Hongliang; Zhang, Pengyue; Li, Dongyun; Wang, Zisheng [China Jiliang University, Magnetism Key Laboratory of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou (China)

    2014-06-15

    In order to improve the glass-forming ability (GFA) of Nd-Fe-B ternary alloys to obtain fully amorphous bulk Nd-Fe-B-based alloy, the effects of Mo and Y doping on GFA of the alloys were investigated. It was found that the substitution of Mo for Fe and Y for Nd enhanced the GFA of the Nd-Y-Fe-Mo-B alloys. It was also revealed that the GFA of the samples was optimized by 4 at.% Mo doping and increased with theYcontent. The fully amorphous structures were all formed in the Nd{sub 6-x}Y{sub x}Fe{sub 68}Mo{sub 4}B{sub 22} (x =1-5) alloy rods with 1.5 mm-diameter. After subsequent crystallization, the devitrified Nd{sub 3}Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 68}Mo{sub 4}B{sub 22} alloy rod exhibited a uniform distribution of grains with a coercivity of 364.1 kA/m. The crystallization behavior of Nd{sub 3}Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 68}Mo{sub 4}B{sub 22} BMG was investigated in isothermal situation. The Avrami exponent n determined by JAM plot is lower than 2.5, implying that the crystallization is mainly governed by a growth of particles with decreasing nucleation rate. (orig.)

  5. Room temperature synthesis of Ni-based alloy nanoparticles by radiolysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenoff, Tina Maria; Berry, Donald T.; Lu, Ping; Leung, Kevin; Provencio, Paula Polyak; Stumpf, Roland Rudolph; Huang, Jian Yu; Zhang, Zhenyuan

    2009-09-01

    Room temperature radiolysis, density functional theory, and various nanoscale characterization methods were used to synthesize and fully describe Ni-based alloy nanoparticles (NPs) that were synthesized at room temperature. These complementary methods provide a strong basis in understanding and describing metastable phase regimes of alloy NPs whose reaction formation is determined by kinetic rather than thermodynamic reaction processes. Four series of NPs, (Ag-Ni, Pd-Ni, Co-Ni, and W-Ni) were analyzed and characterized by a variety of methods, including UV-vis, TEM/HRTEM, HAADF-STEM and EFTEM mapping. In the first focus of research, AgNi and PdNi were studied. Different ratios of Ag{sub x}- Ni{sub 1-x} alloy NPs and Pd{sub 0.5}- Ni{sub 0.5} alloy NP were prepared using a high dose rate from gamma irradiation. Images from high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) show that the Ag-Ni NPs are not core-shell structure but are homogeneous alloys in composition. Energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) maps show the homogeneity of the metals in each alloy NP. Of particular interest are the normally immiscible Ag-Ni NPs. All evidence confirmed that homogeneous Ag-Ni and Pd-Ni alloy NPs presented here were successfully synthesized by high dose rate radiolytic methodology. A mechanism is provided to explain the homogeneous formation of the alloy NPs. Furthermore, studies of Pd-Ni NPs by in situ TEM (with heated stage) shows the ability to sinter these NPs at temperatures below 800 C. In the second set of work, CoNi and WNi superalloy NPs were attempted at 50/50 concentration ratios using high dose rates from gamma irradiation. Preliminary results on synthesis and characterization have been completed and are presented. As with the earlier alloy NPs, no evidence of core-shell NP formation occurs. Microscopy results seem to indicate alloying occurred with the CoNi alloys. However, there appears to be incomplete reduction of the Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4} to form the W

  6. Microstructure and mechanical properties of multiphase NiAl-based alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pank, D. R.; Koss, D. A.; Nathal, M. V.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of the gamma-prime phase on the deformation behavior and fracture resistance of melt-spun ribbons and consolidated bulk specimens of a series of Nial-based alloys with Co and Hf additions has been examined. The morphology, location, and volume fraction of the gamma-prime phase are significant factors in enhancing the fracture resistance of the normally brittle NiAl-based alloys. In particular, the results indicate that a continuous-grain-boundary film of gamma-prime can impart limited room-temperature ductility regardless of whether B2 or L10 NiAl is present. Guidelines for microstructure control in multiphase NiAl-based alloys are also presented.

  7. Resistivity and Passivity Characterization of Ni-Base Glassy Alloys in NaOH Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijah M. Emran

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistivity and passivation behavior of two Ni-base bulk metallic glasses, with the nominal composition of Ni70Cr21Si0.5B0.5P8C ≤ 0.1Co ≤ 1Fe ≤ 1 (VZ1 and Ni72.65Cr7.3-Si6.7B2.15C ≤ 0.06Fe8.2Mo3 (VZ2, in various concentrations of NaOH solutions were studied. The investigations involved cyclic polarization (CP, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, and electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM methods. Cyclic polarization measurements showed spontaneous passivation for both Ni-base glassy alloys at all alkaline concentrations, due to the presence of chromium as an alloying element that formed an oxide film on the alloy surface. The EIS analysis showed that the passive layers grown on the two Ni-base glassy alloy surfaces are formed by a double oxide layer structure. Scanning electron microscope (SEM examinations of the electrode surface showed Cr, Ni, Fe, and O rich corrosion products that reduced the extent of corrosion damage. Atomic force microscopy (AFM imaging technique was used to evaluate the topographic and morphologic features of surface layers formed on the surface of the alloys.

  8. Microstructure-based modeling of tensile deformation of a friction stir welded AZ31 Mg alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Weijun, E-mail: weijun.he@cqu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Zheng, Li [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenyang University of Technology, Shenyang 110870 (China); Xin, Renlong, E-mail: rlxin@cqu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Liu, Qing [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2017-02-27

    The deformation and fracture behaviors of friction stir welded (FSWed) Mg alloys are topics under investigation. The microstructure and texture of a FSWed Mg alloy were characterized by electron back scattered diffraction. Four characteristic sub-zones with different orientations in the FSWed Mg alloy joint were identified. The texture distribution across the stir zones and transition zone were obviously inhomogeneous. For comparison, four sub-regions in the base material were also characterized. Based on the experimental microstructure and texture, a crystal plasticity finite element model was developed to represent the friction stir welded Mg alloy. Simulations were carried out to study the effect of texture variation on the deformation behaviors during transverse tension. Compared with the base material case, strong macroscopic strain localization was observed for the FSWed joint case after transverse tension. Strain localization may have contributed to the decayed elongation of the FSWed joint in the transverse tension. Texture variation in the thermal-mechanical affected zone did not change the deformation mechanism in the stir zones, while it did decrease the strain localization, thus assuming to improve the elongation of the friction stir welded Mg alloy.

  9. Hydrogen storage in binary and ternary Mg-based alloys: A comprehensive experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalisvaart, W.P.; Harrower, C.T.; Haagsma, J.; Zahiri, B.; Luber, E.J.; Ophus, C.; Mitlin, D. [Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta and National Research Council Canada, National Institute for Nanotechnology, T6G 2V4, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Poirier, E.; Fritzsche, H. [National Research Council Canada, SIMS, Canadian Neutron Beam Centre, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (Canada)

    2010-03-15

    This study focused on hydrogen sorption properties of 1.5 {mu}m thick Mg-based films with Al, Fe and Ti as alloying elements. The binary alloys are used to establish as baseline case for the ternary Mg-Al-Ti, Mg-Fe-Ti and Mg-Al-Fe compositions. We show that the ternary alloys in particular display remarkable sorption behavior: at 200 C the films are capable of absorbing 4-6 wt% hydrogen in seconds, and desorbing in minutes. Furthermore, this sorption behavior is stable over cycling for the Mg-Al-Ti and Mg-Fe-Ti alloys. Even after 100 absorption/desorption cycles, no degradation in capacity or kinetics is observed. For Mg-Al-Fe, the properties are clearly worse compared to the other ternary combinations. These differences are explained by considering the properties of all the different phases present during cycling in terms of their hydrogen affinity and catalytic activity. Based on these considerations, some general design principles for Mg-based hydrogen storage alloys are suggested. (author)

  10. The strengthening mechanism of a nickel-based alloy after laser shock processing at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yinghong; Zhou, Liucheng; He, Weifeng; He, Guangyu; Wang, Xuede; Nie, Xiangfan; Wang, Bo; Luo, Sihai; Li, Yuqin

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the strengthening mechanism of laser shock processing (LSP) at high temperatures in the K417 nickel-based alloy. Using a laser-induced shock wave, residual compressive stresses and nanocrystals with a length of 30–200 nm and a thickness of 1 μm are produced on the surface of the nickel-based alloy K417. When the K417 alloy is subjected to heat treatment at 900 °C after LSP, most of the residual compressive stress relaxes while the microhardness retains good thermal stability; the nanocrystalline surface has not obviously grown after the 900 °C per 10 h heat treatment, which shows a comparatively good thermal stability. There are several reasons for the good thermal stability of the nanocrystalline surface, such as the low value of cold hardening of LSP, extreme high-density defects and the grain boundary pinning of an impure element. The results of the vibration fatigue experiments show that the fatigue strength of K417 alloy is enhanced and improved from 110 to 285 MPa after LSP. After the 900 °C per 10 h heat treatment, the fatigue strength is 225 MPa; the heat treatment has not significantly reduced the reinforcement effect. The feature of the LSP strengthening mechanism of nickel-based alloy at a high temperature is the co-working effect of the nanocrystalline surface and the residual compressive stress after thermal relaxation. (paper)

  11. Microstructure-based modeling of tensile deformation of a friction stir welded AZ31 Mg alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Weijun; Zheng, Li; Xin, Renlong; Liu, Qing

    2017-01-01

    The deformation and fracture behaviors of friction stir welded (FSWed) Mg alloys are topics under investigation. The microstructure and texture of a FSWed Mg alloy were characterized by electron back scattered diffraction. Four characteristic sub-zones with different orientations in the FSWed Mg alloy joint were identified. The texture distribution across the stir zones and transition zone were obviously inhomogeneous. For comparison, four sub-regions in the base material were also characterized. Based on the experimental microstructure and texture, a crystal plasticity finite element model was developed to represent the friction stir welded Mg alloy. Simulations were carried out to study the effect of texture variation on the deformation behaviors during transverse tension. Compared with the base material case, strong macroscopic strain localization was observed for the FSWed joint case after transverse tension. Strain localization may have contributed to the decayed elongation of the FSWed joint in the transverse tension. Texture variation in the thermal-mechanical affected zone did not change the deformation mechanism in the stir zones, while it did decrease the strain localization, thus assuming to improve the elongation of the friction stir welded Mg alloy.

  12. Processing of Ni30Pt20Ti50 High-Temperature Shape-Memory Alloy Into Thin Rod Demonstrated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noebe, Ronald D.; Draper, Susan L.; Biles, Tiffany A.; Leonhardt, Todd

    2005-01-01

    High-temperature shape-memory alloys (HTSMAs) based on nickel-titanium (NiTi) with significant ternary additions of palladium (Pd), platinum (Pt), gold (Au), or hafnium (Hf) have been identified as potential high-temperature actuator materials for use up to 500 C. These materials provide an enabling technology for the development of "smart structures" used to control the noise, emissions, or efficiency of gas turbine engines. The demand for these high-temperature versions of conventional shape-memory alloys also has been growing in the automotive, process control, and energy industries. However these materials, including the NiPtTi alloys being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center, will never find widespread acceptance unless they can be readily processed into useable forms.

  13. VANADIUM ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K.F.; Van Thyne, R.J.

    1959-05-12

    This patent deals with vanadium based ternary alloys useful as fuel element jackets. According to the invention the ternary vanadium alloys, prepared in an arc furnace, contain from 2.5 to 15% by weight titanium and from 0.5 to 10% by weight niobium. Characteristics of these alloys are good thermal conductivity, low neutron capture cross section, good corrosion resistance, good welding and fabricating properties, low expansion coefficient, and high strength.

  14. Modification of fuel performance code to evaluate iron-based alloy behavior under LOCA scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovedi, Claudia; Martins, Marcelo Ramos, E-mail: claudia.giovedi@labrisco.usp.br, E-mail: mrmartin@usp.br [Laboratorio de Analise, Avaliacao e Gerenciamento de Risco (LabRisco/POLI/USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Abe, Alfredo; Muniz, Rafael O.R.; Gomes, Daniel de Souza; Silva, Antonio Teixeira e, E-mail: ayabe@ipen.br, E-mail: dsgomes@ipen.br, E-mail: teixiera@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Accident tolerant fuels (ATF) has been studied since the Fukushima Daiichi accident in the research efforts to develop new materials which under accident scenarios could maintain the fuel rod integrity for a longer period compared to the cladding and fuel system usually utilized in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). The efforts have been focused on new materials applied as cladding, then iron-base alloys appear as a possible candidate. The aim of this paper is to implement modifications in a fuel performance code to evaluate the behavior of iron based alloys under Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) scenario. For this, initially the properties related to the thermal and mechanical behavior of iron-based alloys were obtained from the literature, appropriately adapted and introduced in the fuel performance code subroutines. The adopted approach was step by step modifications, where different versions of the code were created. The assessment of the implemented modification was carried out simulating an experiment available in the open literature (IFA-650.5) related to zirconium-based alloy fuel rods submitted to LOCA conditions. The obtained results for the iron-based alloy were compared to those obtained using the regular version of the fuel performance code for zircaloy-4. The obtained results have shown that the most important properties to be changed are those from the subroutines related to the mechanical properties of the cladding. The results obtained have shown that the burst is observed at a longer time for fuel rods with iron-based alloy, indicating the potentiality of this material to be used as cladding with ATF purposes. (author)

  15. Modification of fuel performance code to evaluate iron-based alloy behavior under LOCA scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovedi, Claudia; Martins, Marcelo Ramos; Abe, Alfredo; Muniz, Rafael O.R.; Gomes, Daniel de Souza; Silva, Antonio Teixeira e

    2017-01-01

    Accident tolerant fuels (ATF) has been studied since the Fukushima Daiichi accident in the research efforts to develop new materials which under accident scenarios could maintain the fuel rod integrity for a longer period compared to the cladding and fuel system usually utilized in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). The efforts have been focused on new materials applied as cladding, then iron-base alloys appear as a possible candidate. The aim of this paper is to implement modifications in a fuel performance code to evaluate the behavior of iron based alloys under Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) scenario. For this, initially the properties related to the thermal and mechanical behavior of iron-based alloys were obtained from the literature, appropriately adapted and introduced in the fuel performance code subroutines. The adopted approach was step by step modifications, where different versions of the code were created. The assessment of the implemented modification was carried out simulating an experiment available in the open literature (IFA-650.5) related to zirconium-based alloy fuel rods submitted to LOCA conditions. The obtained results for the iron-based alloy were compared to those obtained using the regular version of the fuel performance code for zircaloy-4. The obtained results have shown that the most important properties to be changed are those from the subroutines related to the mechanical properties of the cladding. The results obtained have shown that the burst is observed at a longer time for fuel rods with iron-based alloy, indicating the potentiality of this material to be used as cladding with ATF purposes. (author)

  16. Tetradentate N2O2 Chelated Palladium(II Complexes: Synthesis, Characterization, and Catalytic Activity towards Mizoroki-Heck Reaction of Aryl Bromides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Kamilah Che Soh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Four air and moisture-stable palladium(II-Schiff base complexes, N,N′-bis(α-methylsalicylidenepropane-1,3-diamine palladium(II (2a, N,N′-bis(4-methyl-α-methylsalicylidenepropane-1,3-diamine palladium(II (2b, N,N′-bis(3,5-di-tert-butylsalicylidenepropane-1,3-diamine palladium(II (2c, and N,N′-bis(4-methoxy-salicylidenepropane-1,3-diamine palladium(II (2d, have been successfully synthesised and characterised by CHN elemental analyses and conventional spectroscopic methods. These complexes were investigated as catalysts in the phosphine-free Mizoroki-Heck cross-coupling reactions of aryl bromides with methyl acrylate.

  17. Novel Zn-based alloys for biodegradable stent applications: Design, development and in vitro degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostaed, E; Sikora-Jasinska, M; Mostaed, A; Loffredo, S; Demir, A G; Previtali, B; Mantovani, D; Beanland, R; Vedani, M

    2016-07-01

    The search for a degradable metal simultaneously showing mechanical properties equal or higher to that of stainless steel and uniform degradation is still an open challenge. Several magnesium-based alloys have been studied, but their degradation rate has proved to be too fast and rarely homogeneous. Fe-based alloys show appropriate mechanical properties but very low degradation rate. In the present work, four novel Zn-Mg and two Zn-Al binary alloys were investigated as potential biodegradable materials for stent applications. The alloys were developed by casting process and homogenized at 350°C for 48h followed by hot extrusion at 250°C. Tube extrusion was performed at 300°C to produce tubes with outer/inner diameter of 4/1.5mm as precursors for biodegradable stents. Corrosion tests were performed using Hanks׳ modified solution. Extruded alloys exhibited slightly superior corrosion resistance and slower degradation rate than those of their cast counterparts, but all had corrosion rates roughly half that of a standard purity Mg control. Hot extrusion of Zn-Mg alloys shifted the corrosion regime from localized pitting to more uniform erosion, mainly due to the refinement of second phase particles. Zn-0.5Mg is the most promising material for stent applications with a good combination of strength, ductility, strain hardening exponent and an appropriate rate of loss of mechanical integrity during degradation. An EBSD analysis in the vicinity of the laser cut Zn-0.5Mg tube found no grain coarsening or texture modification confirming that, after laser cutting, the grain size and texture orientation of the final stent remains unchanged. This work shows the potential for Zn alloys to be considered for stent applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Palladium-cobalt particles as oxygen-reduction electrocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adzic, Radoslav [East Setauket, NY; Huang, Tao [Manorville, NY

    2009-12-15

    The present invention relates to palladium-cobalt particles useful as oxygen-reducing electrocatalysts. The invention also relates to oxygen-reducing cathodes and fuel cells containing these palladium-cobalt particles. The invention additionally relates to methods for the production of electrical energy by using the palladium-cobalt particles of the invention.

  19. Unexpectedly high uptake of palladium by bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakatos, J. [Research Lab. for Mining Chemistry, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Miskolc-Egyetemvaros (Hungary); Brown, S.D.; Snape, C.E. [Univ. of Strathclyde, Dept. of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    The uptake of palladium as a conversion catalyst onto coals of different rank was investigated. Palladium fixation occurs by a different mode to that for alkaline earth and first row transition metals. Therefore, the dispersion of relatively high concentration of palladium by an ion sorption process is even possible for bituminous coals. (orig.)

  20. : Recyclable, ligand free palladium(II) catalyst for Heck reaction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    well as heterogeneous palladium catalysts, generated from either palladium(0) compounds or palladium(II) acetate or chloride salts.6 Several ligands such as phosphines, phoshites, carbenes, thioethers have been successfully employed for this reaction.7 However, homogeneous catalysis results in problems of recovery.

  1. Influence of aluminium content on the physical, mechanical and sliding wear properties of zinc-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, B.K.; Patwardhan, A.K.; Yegneswaran, A.H.

    1997-01-01

    Attention has been focussed on the influence of Al content on the physical, mechanical and sliding wear properties of Zn-based alloys. Aspects studied include microstructure, density, electrical conductivity, hardness, tensile strength and elongation as well as sliding wear response of the alloys. Microstructural features of the alloys showed the presence of primary α, eutectic/eutectoid α + η (depending on whether the alloy was hypereutectic/hypereutectoid with regard to the concentration of Al) along with the meta stable ε phase. The study suggests that it is possible to design and develop Zn-based alloys with a wide range of concentration of Al. The alloys in turn attain different combinations of physical, mechanical and wear properties which could suit a variety of engineering applications. Increasing the Al content in the alloy system proves beneficial within limits. In other words, there exists an optimum quantity of Al which could reap its advantage to the maximum extent. This of course varies with reference to a specific property of the alloy(s). The changing response of the alloys has been explained in terms of their microstructural features and the effects produced as a result of the test conditions maintained while characterizing the specimens. (orig.)

  2. Hydrogen Induced Intergranular Cracking of Nickel-Base Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    alloys are discussed. Experimental The steel used in the present investigation is a fully bainitic 2 1/4 Cr-lMo pressure vessel steel , ASTM A542 Class 3...Appendix A describes recent experiments performed in order to study the influence of plastic deformation on hydrogen transport in a 214 Cr-lMo steel (8...PLASTIC DEFORMATION ON HYDROGEN TRANSPORT IN 2 1/4 Cr-lMo STEEL M. Kurkela, G.S. Frankel, and R.M. Latanision Department of Materials Science and

  3. Preparation and characterization of aluminum based alloy - mica composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, M.A.; Shamim, A.

    1999-01-01

    In this work, six pallets each of 2.0 cm dia and 0.5 cm thickness were prepared by powder metallurgy; half of them also contained 1% mica-powder to form a composite. Inclusion of mica resulted in a decreased density and an increased porosity of the sample. Brinell hardness was found to be 21% less for the composite than for the pure alloy. Micro-graphs of different areas of the sample show uniform distribution of mica particles and avoids around them. (author)

  4. Using the PSCPCSP computer software for optimization of the composition of industrial alloys and development of new high-temperature nickel-base alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rtishchev, V. V.

    1995-11-01

    Using computer programs some foreign firms have developed new deformable and castable high-temperature nickel-base alloys such as IN, Rene, Mar-M, Udimet, TRW, TM, TMS, TUT, with equiaxial, columnar, and single-crystal structures for manufacturing functional and nozzle blades and other parts of the hot duct of transport and stationary gas-turbine installations (GTI). Similar investigations have been carried out in Russia. This paper presents examples of the use of the PSCPCSP computer software for a quantitative analysis of structural und phase characteristics and properties of industrial alloys with change (within the grade range) in the concentrations of the alloying elements for optimizing the composition of the alloys and regimes of their heat treatment.

  5. A new high-strength iron base austenitic alloy with good toughness and corrosion resistance (GE-EPRI alloy-TTL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesh, S.

    1989-01-01

    A new high strength, iron based, austenitic alloy has been successfully developed by GE-EPRI to satisfy the strength and corrosion resistance requirements of large retaining rings for high capacity generators (>840Mw). This new alloy is a modified version of the EPRI alloy-T developed by the University of California, Berkeley, in an earlier EPRI program. It is age hardenable and has the nominal composition (weight %): 34.5 Ni, 5Cr, 3Ti, 1Nb, 1Ta, 1Mo, .5Al, .3V, .01B. This composition was selected based on detailed metallurgical and processing studies on modified versions of alloy-T. These studies helped establish the optimum processing conditions for the new alloy and enabled the successful scale-up production of three large (50-52 inch dia) test rings from a 5,000 lb VIM-VAR billet. The rings were metallurgically sound and exhibited yield strength capabilities in the range 145 to 220 ksi depending on the extent of hot/cold work induced. The test rings met or exceeded all the property goals. The above alloy can provide a good combination of strength, toughness and corrosion resistance and, through an suitable modification of chemistry or processing conditions, could be a viable candidate for high strength LWR internal applications. 3 figs

  6. Fabrication and nano-imprintabilities of Zr-, Pd- and Cu-based glassy alloy thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, Kana; Saidoh, Noriko; Nishiyama, Nobuyuki; Inoue, Akihisa

    2011-01-01

    With the aim of investigating nano-imprintability of glassy alloys in a film form, Zr 49 Al 11 Ni 8 Cu 32 , Pd 39 Cu 29 Ni 13 P 19 and Cu 38 Zr 47 Al 9 Ag 6 glassy alloy thin films were fabricated on Si substrate by a magnetron sputtering method. These films exhibit a very smooth surface, a distinct glass transition phenomenon and a large supercooled liquid region of about 80 K, which are suitable for imprinting materials. Moreover, thermal nano-imprintability of these obtained films is demonstrated by using a dot array mold with a dot diameter of 90 nm. Surface observations revealed that periodic nano-hole arrays with a hole diameter of 90 nm were successfully imprinted on the surface of these films. Among them, Pd-based glassy alloy thin film indicated more precise pattern imprintability, namely, flatter residual surface plane and sharper hole edge. It is said that these glassy alloy thin films, especially Pd-based glassy alloy thin film, are one of the promising materials for fabricating micro-machines and nano-devices by thermal imprinting.

  7. Shape recovery characteristics of biaxially prestrained Fe-Mn-Si-based shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, M.; Naoi, H.; Yasuda, H.; Maruyama, T.

    2008-01-01

    Fe-Mn-Si-based shape memory alloy has already been used practically for steel pipe joints. In most of the applications including the steel pipe joints, it is possible to estimate the reduction of diameter from the experimental data of the shape recovery after uniaxial stretching of the alloy materials. However, studies on shape recovery effects after biaxial stretching are important for the extensive applications of the alloy. In this study, we investigated the shape recovery strain after uniaxial and biaxial stretching and the microstructures of the alloy in order to see the effects of uniaxial and biaxial prestrain on the stress-induced martensitic transformation. Amounts of shape recovery strain in the biaxially prestrained specimens are smaller than those in the uniaxially prestrained specimens. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that reverse transformations of stress-induced martensitic ε-phase are prevented by slip bands formed at the same time in the biaxially prestrained specimens, but not in the uniaxially prestrained specimens. The technological data and interpretations presented in this study should be useful in forming design guidelines for promoting the extensive applications of Fe-Mn-Si-based shape memory alloy

  8. Thermo-mechanical processing (TMP) of Ti-48Al-2Nb-2Cr based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, G.E.

    1995-02-01

    The effects of heat treatment and deformation processing on the microstructures and properties of γ-TiAl based alloys produced by ingot metallurgy (I/M) and powder metallurgy (P/M) techniques were examined. The alloy selected for this work is the second generation γ-TiAl based alloy -- Ti-48Al-2Nb-2Cr (at %). Homogenization of I/M samples was performed at a variety of temperatures, followed by hot working by isothermal forging. P/M samples were prepared from gas atomized powders, consolidated by both HIP and extrusion and some of the HIPed material was then hot worked by isothermal forging. The effects of processing, heat treatment and hot working on the microstructures and properties will be discussed

  9. Multi-step wrought processing of TiAl-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, G.E.

    1997-04-01

    Wrought processing will likely be needed for fabrication of a variety of TiAl-based alloy structural components. Laboratory and development work has usually relied on one-step forging to produce test material. Attempts to scale-up TiAl-based alloy processing has indicated that multi-step wrought processing is necessary. The purpose of this study was to examine potential multi-step processing routes, such as two-step isothermal forging and extrusion + isothermal forging. The effects of processing (I/M versus P/M), intermediate recrystallization heat treatments and processing route on the tensile and creep properties of Ti-48Al-2Nb-2Cr alloys were examined. The results of the testing were then compared to samples from the same heats of materials processed by one-step routes. Finally, by evaluating the effect of processing on microstructure and properties, optimized and potentially lower cost processing routes could be identified

  10. Fabrication of polymer-alloy based on polytetrafluoroethylene by radiation-crosslinking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, A.; Asano, S.; Hyunga, T.; Ichizuri, S.; Washio, M.

    2003-01-01

    Perfluoropolymer such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), tetrafluoroethylene co-perfluoroalkylvinylether (PFA) and tetrafluoroethylene-co-hexafluoropropylene (FFP) have been classified to be a typical polymer of radiation-induced degradation. However, we confirmed that the crosslinking of PTFE, PFA and FEP proceed by irradiation under selective condition where oxygen-free and high temperature above the melting temperature of them. In this study, fabrication of polymer-alloy based on PTFE has been demonstrated by radiation-crosslinking techniques. The polymer alloy, which was PTFE fine powder contained with other polymeric materials, was obtained by electron beams irradiation under oxygen-free atmosphere. Characterization of polymer-alloy based on PTFE has been studied by various measurements such as solid state 19F- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy, thermal analysis (DSC, TGA)

  11. Au-Ge based Candidate Alloys for High-Temperature Lead-Free Solder Alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chidambaram, Vivek; Hald, John; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2009-01-01

    Au-Ge based candidate alloys have been proposed as an alternative to high-lead content solders that are currently being used for high-temperature applications. The influence of the low melting point metals namely In, Sb and Sn to the Au-Ge eutectic with respect to the microstructure and microhard......Au-Ge based candidate alloys have been proposed as an alternative to high-lead content solders that are currently being used for high-temperature applications. The influence of the low melting point metals namely In, Sb and Sn to the Au-Ge eutectic with respect to the microstructure...... was primarily strengthened by the refined (Ge) dispersed phase. The distribution of phases played a relatively more crucial role in determining the ductility of the bulk solder alloy. In the present work it was found that among the low melting point metals, the addition of Sb to the Au-Ge eutectic would...

  12. On the use of titanium hydride for powder injection moulding of titanium-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrenoo-Morelli, E.; Bidaux, J.-E.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Titanium and titanium-based alloys are excellent materials for a number of engineering applications because of their high strength, lightweight, good corrosion resistance, non magnetic characteristic and biocompatibility. The current processing steps are usually costly, and there is a growing demand for net-shape solutions for manufacturing parts of increasing complexity. Powder injection moulding is becoming a competitive alternative, thanks to the advances in production of good quality base-powders, binders and sintering facilities. Titanium hydride powders, have the attractiveness of being less reactive than fine titanium powders, easier to handle, and cheaper. This paper summarizes recent advances on PIM of titanium and titanium alloys from TiH2 powders, including shape-memory NiTi alloys. (author)

  13. Palladium transport in SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier, E.J.; Neethling, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We investigate the reaction of Pd with SiC at typical HTGR operating temperatures. ► The high temperature mobility of palladium silicides within polycrystalline SiC was studied. ► Corrosion of SiC by Pd was seen in all cases. ► The preferential corrosion and penetration of Pd along grain boundaries in SiC was found. ► The penetration and transport of palladium silicides in SiC along grain boundaries was found. - Abstract: This paper reports on a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study of Pd corroded SiC. The reaction of Pd with different types of SiC at typical HTGR operating temperatures was examined. In addition the high temperature mobility of palladium silicides within polycrystalline SiC was investigated. The results indicated corrosion of the SiC by Pd in all cases studied. The corrosion leads to the formation of palladium silicides within the SiC, with the predominant phase found being Pd 2 Si. Evidence for the preferential corrosion and penetration of Pd along grain boundaries in polycrystalline SiC was found. The penetration and transport, without significant corrosion, of palladium silicides into polycrystalline SiC along grain boundaries was also observed. Implications of the findings with reference to the use of Tri Isotropic particles in HTGRs will be discussed.

  14. Palladium transport in SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivier, E.J., E-mail: jolivier@nmmu.ac.za [Centre for High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Neethling, J.H. [Centre for High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate the reaction of Pd with SiC at typical HTGR operating temperatures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The high temperature mobility of palladium silicides within polycrystalline SiC was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Corrosion of SiC by Pd was seen in all cases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The preferential corrosion and penetration of Pd along grain boundaries in SiC was found. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The penetration and transport of palladium silicides in SiC along grain boundaries was found. - Abstract: This paper reports on a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study of Pd corroded SiC. The reaction of Pd with different types of SiC at typical HTGR operating temperatures was examined. In addition the high temperature mobility of palladium silicides within polycrystalline SiC was investigated. The results indicated corrosion of the SiC by Pd in all cases studied. The corrosion leads to the formation of palladium silicides within the SiC, with the predominant phase found being Pd{sub 2}Si. Evidence for the preferential corrosion and penetration of Pd along grain boundaries in polycrystalline SiC was found. The penetration and transport, without significant corrosion, of palladium silicides into polycrystalline SiC along grain boundaries was also observed. Implications of the findings with reference to the use of Tri Isotropic particles in HTGRs will be discussed.

  15. Phonon structures of GaN-based random semiconductor alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mei; Chen, Xiaobin; Li, Gang; Zheng, Fawei; Zhang, Ping

    2017-12-01

    Accurate modeling of thermal properties is strikingly important for developing next-generation electronics with high performance. Many thermal properties are closely related to phonon dispersions, such as sound velocity. However, random substituted semiconductor alloys AxB1-x usually lack translational symmetry, and simulation with periodic boundary conditions often requires large supercells, which makes phonon dispersion highly folded and hardly comparable with experimental results. Here, we adopt a large supercell with randomly distributed A and B atoms to investigate substitution effect on the phonon dispersions of semiconductor alloys systematically by using phonon unfolding method [F. Zheng, P. Zhang, Comput. Mater. Sci. 125, 218 (2016)]. The results reveal the extent to which phonon band characteristics in (In,Ga)N and Ga(N,P) are preserved or lost at different compositions and q points. Generally, most characteristics of phonon dispersions can be preserved with indium substitution of gallium in GaN, while substitution of nitrogen with phosphorus strongly perturbs the phonon dispersion of GaN, showing a rapid disintegration of the Bloch characteristics of optical modes and introducing localized impurity modes. In addition, the sound velocities of both (In,Ga)N and Ga(N,P) display a nearly linear behavior as a function of substitution compositions. Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at http://https://doi.org/10.1140/epjb/e2017-80481-0.

  16. Effect of chromium and phosphorus on the physical properties of iron and titanium-based amorphous metallic alloy films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distefano, S.; Rameshan, R.; Fitzgerald, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    Amorphous iron and titanium-based alloys containing various amounts of chromium, phosphorus, and boron exhibit high corrosion resistance. Some physical properties of Fe and Ti-based metallic alloy films deposited on a glass substrate by a dc-magnetron sputtering technique are reported. The films were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry, stress analysis, SEM, XRD, SIMS, electron microprobe, and potentiodynamic polarization techniques.

  17. Grain refinement of permanent mold cast copper base alloys. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadayappan, M.; Thomson, J. P.; Elboujdaini, M.; Gu, G. Ping; Sahoo, M.

    2004-04-29

    control tool was proved in two foundries. The method can also correctly predict the onset of fading. The corrosion resistance of the grain refined alloys was measured in two solutions having different hydrogen activities, pH 6 and pH8, and compared with the base alloys. Potentiodynamic polarization and long term weight loss experiments were conducted to evaluate the corrosion resistance. Cu-Zn alloys were evaluated for dezincification. In general, the grain refined alloys performed marginally better than the base alloys.

  18. Nanostructured palladium tailored via carbonyl chemical route towards oxygen reduction reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Y.; Mora-Hernández, J.M.; Estudillo-Wong, L.A.; Arce-Estrada, E.M.; Alonso-Vante, N.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical Abstract: Mass-depending morphologies of nanostructured Palladium obtained via the carbonyl chemical route. Display Omitted -- Highlights: •Mass-depending morphology was observed in nanostructured palladium supported on carbon prepared by the carbonyl chemical route. •The Morphological effect of carbon supported Pd was investigated towards ORR. -- Abstract: Carbon supported palladium nanostructures were synthesized via the carbonyl chemical route. Compared with nanostructured platinum, prepared via carbonyl chemical route, Pd nanomaterials showed mass-loading morphology, whereas particle size and morphology of Pt nanostructures was constant. The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on nanostructured Pd, with different morphology in both acid and alkaline medium was investigated. A relationship, based on X-ray diffraction structural analysis pattern, transmission electron microscope, with the Pd morphological effect on ORR activity was identified

  19. Dual Microstructure Heat Treatment of a Nickel-Base Disk Alloy Assessed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayda, John

    2002-01-01

    Gas turbine engines for future subsonic aircraft will require nickel-base disk alloys that can be used at temperatures in excess of 1300 F. Smaller turbine engines, with higher rotational speeds, also require disk alloys with high strength. To address these challenges, NASA funded a series of disk programs in the 1990's. Under these initiatives, Honeywell and Allison focused their attention on Alloy 10, a high-strength, nickel-base disk alloy developed by Honeywell for application in the small turbine engines used in regional jet aircraft. Since tensile, creep, and fatigue properties are strongly influenced by alloy grain size, the effect of heat treatment on grain size and the attendant properties were studied in detail. It was observed that a fine grain microstructure offered the best tensile and fatigue properties, whereas a coarse grain microstructure offered the best creep resistance at high temperatures. Therefore, a disk with a dual microstructure, consisting of a fine-grained bore and a coarse-grained rim, should have a high potential for optimal performance. Under NASA's Ultra-Safe Propulsion Project and Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Program, a disk program was initiated at the NASA Glenn Research Center to assess the feasibility of using Alloy 10 to produce a dual-microstructure disk. The objectives of this program were twofold. First, existing dual-microstructure heat treatment (DMHT) technology would be applied and refined as necessary for Alloy 10 to yield the desired grain structure in full-scale forgings appropriate for use in regional gas turbine engines. Second, key mechanical properties from the bore and rim of a DMHT Alloy 10 disk would be measured and compared with conventional heat treatments to assess the benefits of DMHT technology. At Wyman Gordon and Honeywell, an active-cooling DMHT process was used to convert four full-scale Alloy 10 disks to a dual-grain microstructure. The resulting microstructures are illustrated in the

  20. Californium Recovery from Palladium Wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Jon D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The recovery of 252Cf from palladium-252Cf cermet wires was investigated to determine the feasibility of implementing it into the cermet wire production operation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Radiochemical Engineering Development Center. The dissolution of Pd wire in 8 M HNO3 and trace amounts of HCl was studied at both ambient and elevated temperatures. These studies showed that it took days to dissolve the wire at ambient temperature and only 2 hours at 60°C. Adjusting the ratio of the volume of solvent to the mass of the wire segment showed little change in the kinetics of dissolution, which ranged from 0.176 mL/mg down to 0.019 mL/mg. A successful chromatographic separation of 153Gd, a surrogate for 252Cf, from Pd was demonstrated using AG 50x8 cation exchange resin with a bed volume of 0.5 mL and an internal diameter of 0.8 cm.

  1. RF plasma nitriding of severely deformed iron-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferkel, H.; Glatzer, M.; Estrin, Y.; Valiev, R.Z.; Blawert, C.; Mordike, B.L.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of severe plastic deformation by cold high pressure torsion (HPT) on radio frequency (RF) plasma nitriding of pure iron, as well as St2K50 and X5CrNi1810 steels was investigated. Nitriding was carried out for 3 h in a nitrogen atmosphere at a pressure of 10 -5 bar and temperatures of 350 and 400 deg. C. Nitrided specimens were analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and micro hardness measurements. It was found that HPT enhances the effect of nitriding leading almost to doubling of the thickness of the nitrided layer for pure iron and the high alloyed steel. The largest increase in hardness was observed when HPT was combined with RF plasma nitriding at 350 deg. C. In the case of pure iron, the X-ray diffraction spectra showed the formation of ε and γ' nitrides in the compound layer, with a preferential formation of γ' at the expense of the α-phase at the higher nitriding temperature. The corresponding surface hardness was up to 950 HV0.01. While the HPT-processed St2K50 exhibits both nitride phases after nitriding at 350 deg. C, only the γ'-phase was observed after nitriding at 400 deg. C. A surface hardness of up to 1050 HV0.01 was measured for this steel. The high alloyed steel X5CrNi1810 exhibited the highest increase in surface hardness when HPT was combined with nitriding at 350 deg. C. The surface hardness of this steel was greater than 1400 HV0.025. The XRD analyses indicate the formation of the expanded austenite (S-phase) in the surface layer as a result of RF plasma nitriding. Furthermore, after HPT X5CrNi1810 was transformed completely into deformation martensite which did not transform back to austenite under thermochemical treatment. However, in the case of nitriding of the HPT-processed high alloyed steel at 400 deg. C, the formation of the S-phase was less pronounced. In view of the observed XRD peak broadening, the formation of nitrides, such as e.g. CrN, cannot be ruled out

  2. TA [B] Predicting Microstructure-Creep Resistance Correlation in High Temperature Alloys over Multiple Time Scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomar, Vikas [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2017-03-06

    DoE-NETL partnered with Purdue University to predict the creep and associated microstructure evolution of tungsten-based refractory alloys. Researchers use grain boundary (GB) diagrams, a new concept, to establish time-dependent creep resistance and associated microstructure evolution of grain boundaries/intergranular films GB/IGF controlled creep as a function of load, environment, and temperature. The goal was to conduct a systematic study that includes the development of a theoretical framework, multiscale modeling, and experimental validation using W-based body-centered-cubic alloys, doped/alloyed with one or two of the following elements: nickel, palladium, cobalt, iron, and copper—typical refractory alloys. Prior work has already established and validated a basic theory for W-based binary and ternary alloys; the study conducted under this project extended this proven work. Based on interface diagrams phase field models were developed to predict long term microstructural evolution. In order to validate the models nanoindentation creep data was used to elucidate the role played by the interface properties in predicting long term creep strength and microstructure evolution.

  3. Palladium-catalysed arylation of acetoacetate esters to yield 2-arylacetic acid esters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zeevaart, JG

    2004-05-24

    Full Text Available , was developed simultaneously by Hart- wig and Buchwald.5 Typically the tert-butyl ester of propionic acid is treated with an aryl halide (bromide or chloride) in the presence of a strong base, palladium and a bulky phosphine ligand or a bulky imidazolinium CO2t... novel palladium- catalysed conditions for the arylation of acetoacetate esters resulting in the formation of 2-arylacetic acid esters. When we attempted the arylation of tert-butyl aceto- acetate 1a with bromobenzene 2a using mild reaction conditions (K3...

  4. Evaluation of mechanically alloyed Cu-based powders as filler alloy for brazing tungsten to a reduced activation ferritic-martensitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prado, J. de, E-mail: javier.deprado@urjc.es; Sánchez, M.; Ureña, A.

    2017-07-15

    80Cu-20Ti powders were evaluated for their use as filler alloy for high temperature brazing of tungsten to a reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel (Eurofer), and its application for the first wall of the DEMO fusion reactor. The use of alloyed powders has not been widely considered for brazing purposes and could improve the operational brazeability of the studied system due to its narrower melting range, determined by DTA analysis, which enhances the spreading capabilities of the filler. Ti contained in the filler composition acts as an activator element, reacting and forming several interfacial layers at the Eurofer-braze, which enhances the wettability properties and chemical interaction at the brazing interface. Brazing thermal cycle also activated the diffusion phenomena, which mainly affected to the Eurofer alloying elements causing in it a softening band of approximately 400 μm of thickness. However, this softening effect did not degrade the shear strength of the brazed joints (94 ± 23 MPa), because failure during testing was always located at the tungsten-braze interface. - Highlights: •W-Eurofer brazed joints, manufactured using Cu-based mechanically alloyed powders as filler is proposed. •The benefits derivate from the alloyed composition could improve the operational brazeability of the studied system. •Tested pre-alloyed fillers have a more homogeneous melting stage which enhances its spreading and flowing capabilities. •This behaviour could lead to work with higher heating rates and lower brazing temperatures.

  5. Investigation of phase stability of novel equiatomic FeCoNiCuZn based-high entropy alloy prepared by mechanical alloying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Vinay Kumar; Sanyal, S.; Sinha, S. K.

    2018-05-01

    The present work reports the structural and phase stability analysis of equiatomic FeCoNiCuZn High entropy alloy (HEA) systems prepared by mechanical alloying (MA) method. In this research effort some 1287 alloy combinations were extensively studied to arrive at most favourable combination. FeCoNiCuZn based alloy system was selected on the basis of physiochemical parameters such as enthalpy of mixing (ΔHmix), entropy of mixing (ΔSmix), atomic size difference (ΔX) and valence electron concentration (VEC) such that it fulfils the formation criteria of stable multi component high entropy alloy system. In this context, we have investigated the effect of novel alloying addition in view of microstructure and phase formation aspect. XRD plots of the MA samples shows the formation of stable solid solution with FCC (Face Cantered Cubic) after 20 hr of milling time and no indication of any amorphous or intermetallic phase formation. Our results are in good agreement with calculation and analysis done on the basis of physiochemical parameters during selection of constituent elements of HEA.

  6. Experimental Studies on Al (5.7% Zn) Alloy based Hybrid MMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivaprakash, Y. M.; Ramu, H. C.; Chiranjivee; Kumar, Roushan; Kumar, Deepak

    2018-02-01

    In this investigation, an attempt is made to disperse SiC (20-25 microns) and Gr (15-20 microns) in the aluminium alloy having Zn, Mg and coper as major alloying elements. The composite is further subjected to mechanical testing to determine various properties like hardness, tensile strength and wear resistance. The alloy and composite samples were tested in the un heat treated conditions. All the tests were done at the laboratory conditions as per ASTM standards. The Pin-On-Disc tribometer is used to test the two-body abrasive sliding wear behaviour in dry conditions. The wear pattern is analysed by the optical images of worn surface taken in an inverted metallurgical microscope. The calculated density is found to be reducing as the SiC and Gr quantity is increased in the base alloy. The as cast Al alloy was found to be having highest hardness. The introduction of SiC tend to increase the hardness and UTS, since Gr is also introduced simultaneously which tends to reduce the hardness and UTS of composite. The composite having highest quantity of Gr showed superior wear resistance which is mainly because the Gr particulates provide an inbuilt lubricating properties to composite. The analysis of images of worn surface showed the abrasive and delamination pattern of wear. The composites developed in the present work can be used in the automobile and aerospace parts that are light in weight and require self-lubricating properties to enhance the wear resistance.

  7. Hydrogen absorption/desorption properties in the TiCrV based alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Martínez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Three different Ti-based alloys with bcc structure and Laves phase were studied. The TiCr1.1V0.9, TiCr1.1V0.45Nb0.45 and TiCr1.1V0.9 + 4%Zr7Ni10 alloys were melted in arc furnace under argon atmosphere. The hydrogen absorption capacity was measured by using aparatus type Sievert's. Crystal structures, and the lattice parameters were determined by using X-ray diffraction, XRD. Microestructural analysis was performed by scanning electron microscope, SEM and electron dispersive X-ray, EDS. The hydrogen storage capacity attained a value of 3.6 wt. (% for TiCr1.1V0.9 alloy in a time of 9 minutes, 3.3 wt. (% for TiCr1.1V0.45Nb0.45 alloy in a time of 7 minutes and 3.6 wt. (% TiCr1.1V0.9 + 4%Zr7Ni10 with an increase of the hydrogen absorption kinetics attained in 2 minutes. This indicates that the addition of Nb and 4%Zr7Ni10 to the TiCrV alloy acts as catalysts to accelerate the hydrogen absorption kinetics.

  8. Effect of irradiation damage and helium on the swelling and structure of vanadium-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, H.M.; Loomis, B.A.; Smith, D.L.

    1993-12-01

    Swelling behavior and microstructural evolution of V-Ti, V-Cr-Ti, and V-Ti-Si alloys were investigated after irradiation at 420--600C up to 114 dpa. The alloys exhibited swelling maxima between 30 and 80 dpa and swelling decreased on irradiation to higher dpa. This is in contrast to the monotonically increasing swelling of binary alloys that contain Fe, Ni, Cr, Mo, W, and Si. Precipitation of dense Ti 5 Si 3 promotes good resistance to swelling of the Ti-containing alloys and it was concluded that Ti of >3 wt.% and 400--1000 wppm Si are necessary to effectively suppress swelling. Swelling was minimal in V-4Cr-4Ti, identified as the most promising alloy based on good mechanical properties and superior resistance to irradiation embrittlement. V-20Ti doped with B exhibited somewhat higher swelling because of He generation. Lithium atoms, generated from transmutation of 10 B, formed γ-LiV 2 O 5 precipitates and did not seem to produce undesirable effects on mechanical properties

  9. Effect of similar elements on improving glass-forming ability of La-Ce-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tao; Li Ran; Pang Shujie

    2009-01-01

    To date the effect of unlike component elements on glass-forming ability (GFA) of alloys have been studied extensively, and it is generally recognized that the main consisting elements of the alloys with high GFA usually have large difference in atomic size and atomic interaction (large negative heat of mixing) among them. In our recent work, a series of rare earth metal-based alloy compositions with superior GFA were found through the approach of coexistence of similar constituent elements. The quinary (La 0.5 Ce 0.5 ) 65 Al 10 (Co 0.6 Cu 0.4 ) 25 bulk metallic glass (BMG) in a rod form with a diameter up to 32 mm was synthesized by tilt-pour casting, for which the glass-forming ability is significantly higher than that for ternary Ln-Al-TM alloys (Ln = La or Ce; TM = Co or Cu) with critical diameters for glass-formation of several millimeters. We suggest that the strong frustration of crystallization by utilizing the coexistence of La-Ce and Co-Cu to complicate competing crystalline phases is helpful to construct BMG component with superior GFA. The results of our present work indicate that similar elements (elements with similar atomic size and chemical properties) have significant effect on GFA of alloys.

  10. Structural investigations of mechanical properties of Al based rapidly solidified alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakoese, Ercan; Keskin, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Rapid solidification processing (RSP) involves exceptionally high cooling rates. → We correlate the microstructure of the intermetallic Al 3 Fe, Al 2 Cu and Al 3 Ni phases with the cooling rate. → The solidification rate is high enough to retain most of alloying elements in the Al matrix. → The rapid solidification has effect on the phase constitution. -- Abstract: In this study, Al based Al-3 wt.%Fe, Al-3 wt.%Cu and Al-3 wt.%Ni alloys were prepared by conventional casting. They were further processed using the melt-spinning technique and characterized by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) together with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the Vickers microhardness tester. The rapidly solidified (RS) binary alloys were composed of supersaturated α-Al solid solution and finely dispersed intermetallic phases. Experimental results showed that the mechanical properties of RS alloys were enhanced, which can be attributed to significant changes in the microstructure. RS samples were measured using a microhardness test device. The dependence of microhardness H V on the solidification rate (V) was analysed. These results showed that with the increasing values of V, the values of H V increased. The enthalpies of fusion for the same alloys were determined by DSC.

  11. Zr - based alloys as hydride electrodes in Ni-MH batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biris, A.R.; Biris, A.S.; Misan, I.; Lupu, D.

    1999-01-01

    Hydrogen storage alloys, MH, are already used in Ni-MH alkaline batteries conquering an important share of the rechargeable nickel-cadmium battery market. This remarkable success is due not only to the replacement of the toxic material, cadmium, by metal hydrides but also to an increased specific energy, which makes them attractive for electric vehicles. Many research groups are concerned in the improvement of the hydride electrode characteristics: hydrogen storage capacity, high-rate discharge ability, increased cycle life. These properties can be modified by substitution of the base components of a given alloy. A comparison of two types of alloys suitable for MH electrodes LaNi 5 able to store 1.36 w/o hydrogen with Zr(Ti)-Ni alloys of the AB 2 Laves phase type structure showed that the latter could absorb higher amounts of hydrogen. We report part of studies on Zr-V-Cr-Ni of the 15 C type Laves phase structure using our original procedure for pasted electrodes. The substitution of Cr for V atoms in ZrV 0.5 Ni 1 . 5 did not increase the discharge capacity. However, it proved to have a remarkable effect on the discharge capacity C at low temperatures. C at - 12 deg. C as compared to 20 deg.C increases up to ∼ 65 % for Cr containing alloys. (authors)

  12. Porous Nb-Ti based alloy produced from plasma spheroidized powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qijun; Zhang, Lin; Wei, Dongbin; Ren, Shubin; Qu, Xuanhui

    Spherical Nb-Ti based alloy powder was prepared by the combination of plasma spheroidization and mechanical alloying. Phase constituents, microstructure and surface state of the powder, and pore characteristics of the resulting porous alloy were investigated. The results show that the undissolved W and V in the mechanically alloyed powder is fully alloyed after spheroidization, and single β phase is achieved. Particle size of the spheroidized powder is in the range of 20-110 μm. With the decrease of particle size, a transformation from typical dendrite solidification structure to fine cell microstructure occurs. The surface of the spheroidized powder is coated by a layer of oxides consisting mainly of TiO2 and Nb2O5. Probabilities of sinter-neck formation and particle coalescence increases with increasing sintering temperature. Porous skeleton with relatively homogeneous pore distribution and open pore channel is formed after vacuum sintering at 1700 °C, and the porosity is 32%. The sintering kinetic analysis indicates that grain boundary diffusion is the primary mass transport mechanism during sintering process.

  13. Silver-Palladium Surfaces Inhibit Biofilm Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiang, Wen-Chi; Schroll, Casper; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2009-01-01

    Undesired biofilm formation is a major concern in many areas. In the present study, we investigated biofilm-inhibiting properties of a silver-palladium surface that kills bacteria by generating microelectric fields and electrochemical redox processes. For evaluation of the biofilm inhibition...... efficacy and study of the biofilm inhibition mechanism, the silver-sensitive Escherichia coli J53 and the silver-resistant E. coli J53[pMG101] strains were used as model organisms, and batch and flow chamber setups were used as model systems. In the case of the silver-sensitive strain, the silver......-palladium surfaces killed the bacteria and prevented biofilm formation under conditions of low or high bacterial load. In the case of the silver-resistant strain, the silver-palladium surfaces killed surface-associated bacteria and prevented biofilm formation under conditions of low bacterial load, whereas under...

  14. Emeraldine base as corrosion protective layer on aluminium alloy AA5182, effect of the surface microstructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cecchetto, L; Ambat, Rajan; Davenport, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    AA5182 aluminium alloy cold rolled samples were coated by thin Wlms of emeraldine base (EB) obtained from a 5% solution in N-methylpyrrolidinone. Accelerated corrosion tests prove this coating very eVective for corrosion protection of aluminium alloys in neutral environment. This study underlines......: • a weak redox activity of the polymer which passivate the metal, • a proton involving self-healing process taking place at the polymer–metal interface, which contributes to delay local acidiWcation in Wrst steps of corrosion on EB coated aluminium surfaces....

  15. Formation of electrically insulating coatings on aluminided vanadium-base alloys in liquid lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.H.; Dragel, G.

    1993-01-01

    Aluminide coatings were produced on vanadium and vanadium-base alloys by exposure of the materials to liquid lithium that contained 3-5 at.% dissolved aluminum in sealed capsules at temperatures between 775 and 880 degrees C. Reaction of the aluminide layer with dissolved nitrogen in liquid lithium provides a means of developing an in-situ electrical insulator coating on the surface of the alloys. The electrical resistivity of A1N coatings on aluminided V and V-20 wt.% Ti was determined in-situ

  16. Ultra-precision machining induced phase decomposition at surface of Zn-Al based alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To, S.; Zhu, Y.H.; Lee, W.B.

    2006-01-01

    The microstructural changes and phase transformation of an ultra-precision machined Zn-Al based alloy were examined using X-ray diffraction and back-scattered electron microscopy techniques. Decomposition of the Zn-rich η phase and the related changes in crystal orientation was detected at the surface of the ultra-precision machined alloy specimen. The effects of the machining parameters, such as cutting speed and depth of cut, on the phase decomposition were discussed in comparison with the tensile and rolling induced microstrucutural changes and phase decomposition

  17. Room-Temperature Deformation and Martensitic Transformation of Two Co-Cr-Based Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, S.; Schaffer, J. E.; Huang, D.; Gao, J.; Ren, Y.

    2018-05-01

    Deformation of two Co-Cr alloys was studied by in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Both alloys show stress-induced martensite transformation, which is affected by phase stabilities and transformation strains. Crystal structure of WC in Co-20Cr-15W-10Ni is identified. Compared with other phases present, it is elastically isotropic, exhibits high strength, and can elastically withstand strains exceeding 1 pct. Texture change during phase transformation is explained based on the crystal orientation relationship between γ- and ɛ-phases.

  18. Chemical durability and degradation mechanisms of HT9 based alloy waste forms with variable Zr content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, L. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-30

    In Corrosion studies were undertaken on alloy waste forms that can result from advanced electrometallurgical processing techniques to better classify their durability and degradation mechanisms. The waste forms were based on the RAW3-(URe) composition, consisting primarily of HT9 steel and other elemental additions to simulate nuclear fuel reprocessing byproducts. The solution conditions of the corrosion studies were taken from an electrochemical testing protocol, and meant to simulate conditions in a repository. The alloys durability was examined in alkaline and acidic brines.

  19. Low cycle fatigue life of two nickel-base casting alloys in a hydrogen environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    Results of low cycle fatigue tests on alloy Mar-M-246 and Inconel 713 are presented. Based on the limited data, it was concluded that the Mar-M-246 material had a cyclic life in hydrogen that averaged three times higher than the alloy 713LC material for similar strain ranges. The hydrogen environment reduced life for both materials. The life reduction was more than an order of magnitude for the 713LC material. Porosity content of the cast specimens was as expected and was an important factor governing low cycle fatigue life

  20. Corrosion and oxidation of vanadium-base alloys in helium environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, B.A.; Smith, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    The increase in weight of unalloyed V and V-5Ti, V-15Cr and V-15Cr-5Ti alloys at 725, 825 and 925 K was determined for exposure times ranging up to 1000 hours in He containing H 2 and/or H 2 O impurity. The microhardness of the specimens in a transverse section was also determined after exposure for 1000 hours. These results were utilized to discuss the consequences of the selection of certain radiation-damage resistant, V-base alloys for structural materials applications in a fusion reactor

  1. Evolution of precipitate in nickel-base alloy 718 irradiated with argon ions at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Shuoxue; Luo, Fengfeng; Ma, Shuli; Chen, Jihong; Li, Tiecheng; Tang, Rui; Guo, Liping

    2013-01-01

    Alloy 718 is a nickel-base superalloy whose strength derives from γ′(Ni 3 (Al,Ti)) and γ″(Ni 3 Nb) precipitates. The evolution of the precipitates in alloy 718 irradiated with argon ions at elevated temperature were examined via transmission electron microscopy. Selected-area electron diffraction indicated superlattice spots disappeared after argon ion irradiation, which showing that the ordered structure of the γ′ and γ″ precipitates became disordered. The size of the precipitates became smaller with the irradiation dose increasing at 290 °C

  2. New high strength technologically ecological and expedient economically advantageous alloys on Fe-C base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolev, B.V.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents framework a part of by now obtained results of the authors studies in the period 1967(68) - 2002 about possibilities for obtaining new high-strength and wear resistant cast alloys on, Fe-C base (complex alloyed steels and cast irons of different systems with different structure, reflected in over 125 articles, 15 inventions (patents) and other scientific studies. The paper includes summarized results and discussion. Key words: new austenite steels and cast irons, mechanical characteristics, wear resistance. (Original)

  3. Anodic solubility and electrochemical machining of hard alloys on the base of chromium and titanium carbides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davydov, A D; Klepikov, A N; Malofeeva, A N; Moroz, I I

    1985-01-01

    The regularities of anodic behaviour and electrochemical machining (ECM) of the samples of three materials with the following compositions: 25% of Cr/sub 3/C/sub 2/, 15% of Ni, 70% of TiC, 25% of Ni, 5% of Cr, 70% of TiC, 15% of Ni, 15% of Mo are investigated. It is shown that the electrochemical method is applicable to hard alloys machining on the base of chromium and titanium carbides, the machining of which mechanically meets serious difficulties. The alloys machining rate by a mobile cathode constitutes about 0.5 mm/min.

  4. Chromium depletion on the surface of nickel based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dille, E.R.; McDonald, J.L.; Berry, P.

    1988-01-01

    Successful selection of corrosion resistant materials for flue gas desuflurization applications is tricky business at best. Most simulated, accelerated, concentrated corrosion tests try to rank materials to known corrosive condition. If you check the actual data, occasionally you find anomalies such as highly corrosion resistant materials performing below what was expected, while the rest of the group is performing normally. In the field the authors have observed similar results with few acceptable explanations. Recently the authors have found numerous cases of Ni/Cr/Mo alloys with a surface analysis below the ASTM specified range for the element chromium. These surface analysis have been done with a portable X-ray Fluorescent Instrument with the initial results confirmed by an independent laboratory

  5. Bubble formation upon crystallization of high nitrogen iron base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svyazhin, A.G.; Sivka, E.; Skuza, Z.

    2000-01-01

    A study is made into the conditions of nitrogen bubble formation during crystallization of unalloyed iron, alloys of Fe-O, Fe-O-S systems, steels 1Kh13, 0Kh18N9 and a two-phase Fe-11%Cr-1%Mo-0.2%V steel. It is revealed that the amount of bubbles in a high nitrogen steel casting increases with a degree of nitrogen supersaturation and decreases with a cooling rate growth and with a rise of surfactant concentration in the metal. In sound castings a nitrogen content can be increased due to a cooling rate growth, nitrogen dilution with inert gas, an increase of nitrogen pressure during crystallization as well as due to the introduction of such surfactants as sulphur, selenium, tellurium, tin [ru

  6. Hydrogen-plasticity interactions in nickel and nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardin, G.

    2004-03-01

    We evaluate the different contributions of the hydrogen-dislocation interactions to the plasticity of fcc materials in order to feed predictive models of stress corrosion cracking. Static strain ageing experiments are used to quantify the hardening contribution of solute drag by dislocations to the flow stress. We demonstrate the role of hydrogen transport by dislocations on the fracture mechanism. We model the influence of the screening of the elastic field of dislocations by hydrogen on elementary plasticity mechanisms and we conclude that the decrease of the cross slip ability arises from the combined action of elastic and core effects. The testing of single crystals shows that the major effect is on the cross slip mechanism. Tensile tests on polycrystals enlighten the diversity of macroscopic responses observed in alloys. (author)

  7. Antimony Influence on Shape of Eutectic Silicium in Al-Si Based Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolibruchová D.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Liquid AI-Si alloys are usually given special treatments before they are cast to obtain finer or modified matrix and eutectic structures, leading to improved properties. For many years, sodium additions to hypoeutectic and eutectic AI-Si melts have been recognized as the most effective method of modifying the eutectic morphology, although most of the group IA or IIA elements have significant effects on the eutectic structure. Unfortunately, many of these approaches also have associated several founding difficulties, such as fading, forming dross in presence of certain alloying elements, reduced fluidity, etc. ln recent years, antimony additions to AI-Si castings have attracted considerable attention as an alternative method of refining the eutectic structure. Such additions eliminate many of the difficulties listed above and provide permanent (i.e. non-fading refining ability. In this paper, the authors summarize work on antimony treatment of Al-Si based alloys.

  8. Nb-Based Nb-Al-Fe Alloys: Solidification Behavior and High-Temperature Phase Equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Frank; Philips, Noah

    2018-03-01

    High-melting Nb-based alloys hold significant promise for the development of novel high-temperature materials for structural applications. In order to understand the effect of alloying elements Al and Fe, the Nb-rich part of the ternary Nb-Al-Fe system was investigated. A series of Nb-rich ternary alloys were synthesized from high-purity Nb, Al, and Fe metals by arc melting. Solidification paths were identified and the liquidus surface of the Nb corner of the ternary system was established by analysis of the as-melted microstructures and thermal analysis. Complementary analysis of heat-treated samples yielded isothermal sections at 1723 K and 1873 K (1450 °C and 1600 °C).

  9. Development of aluminide coatings on vanadium-base alloys in liquid lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.H.; Dragel, D.

    1993-01-01

    Aluminide coatings were produced on vanadium and vanadium-base alloys by exposure of the materials to liquid lithium that contained 3/5 at.% dissolved aluminum in sealed V and V-20 wt.% Ti capsules at temperatures between 775 and 880 degrees C. After each test, the capsules were opened and the samples were examined by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and analyzed by electron-energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction. Hardness of the coating layers and bulk alloys was determined by microidentation techniques. The nature of the coatings, i.e., surface coverage, thickness, and composition, varied with exposure time and temperature, solute concentration in lithium, and alloy composition. Solute elements that yielded adherent coatings on various substrates can provide a means of developing in-situ electrical insulator coatings by reaction of the reactive layers with dissolved nitrogen in liquid lithium

  10. The Degradation Interface of Magnesium Based Alloys in Direct Contact with Human Primary Osteoblast Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezha Ahmad Agha

    Full Text Available Magnesium alloys have been identified as a new generation material of orthopaedic implants. In vitro setups mimicking physiological conditions are promising for material / degradation analysis prior to in vivo studies however the direct influence of cell on the degradation mechanism has never been investigated. For the first time, the direct, active, influence of human primary osteoblasts on magnesium-based materials (pure magnesium, Mg-2Ag and Mg-10Gd alloys is studied for up to 14 days. Several parameters such as composition of the degradation interface (directly beneath the cells are analysed with a scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray and focused ion beam. Furthermore, influence of the materials on cell metabolism is examined via different parameters like active mineralisation process. The results are highlighting the influences of the selected alloying element on the initial cells metabolic activity.

  11. The Degradation Interface of Magnesium Based Alloys in Direct Contact with Human Primary Osteoblast Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Agha, Nezha; Willumeit-Römer, Regine; Laipple, Daniel; Luthringer, Bérengère; Feyerabend, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium alloys have been identified as a new generation material of orthopaedic implants. In vitro setups mimicking physiological conditions are promising for material / degradation analysis prior to in vivo studies however the direct influence of cell on the degradation mechanism has never been investigated. For the first time, the direct, active, influence of human primary osteoblasts on magnesium-based materials (pure magnesium, Mg-2Ag and Mg-10Gd alloys) is studied for up to 14 days. Several parameters such as composition of the degradation interface (directly beneath the cells) are analysed with a scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray and focused ion beam. Furthermore, influence of the materials on cell metabolism is examined via different parameters like active mineralisation process. The results are highlighting the influences of the selected alloying element on the initial cells metabolic activity.

  12. Influence of ecologically friendly cores on surface quality of castings based on magnesium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lichý

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Constructional materials as Al - alloys can be replaced by other materials with high strength to low mass density ratio, e.g. Mg-alloys. In order to pre-casting of holes and cavities cores based on pure inorganic salt can be applied due to easy cleaning of even geometrically complex pre-cast holes. This technology is applied mainly for gravity and low-pressure casting technology. This contribution is aimed at studying of mutual interaction of the Mg-alloy and the salt core. Experiments were focused on surface quality; macro- and microstructure of testing casting samples determination. Metallographic analysis and scanning electron microscope (SEM with X-ray energy-dispersion superficial and spot microanalysis (EDAX were employed.

  13. Microstructures and mechanical properties of two-phase alloys based on NbCr{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, K.C.; Kotula, P.G.; Cady, C.M.; Mauro, M.E.; Thoma, D.J.

    1999-07-01

    A two-phase, NbCrTi alloy (bcc + C15 Laves phase) has been developed using several alloy design methodologies. In efforts to understand processing-microstructure-property relationships, different processing routes were employed. The resulting microstructures and mechanical properties are discussed and compared. Plasma arc melted (PAM) samples served to establish baseline, as-cast properties. In addition, a novel processing technique, involving decomposition of a supersaturated and metastable precursor phase during hot isostatic pressing (HIP), was used to produce a refined, equilibrium two-phase microstructure. Quasi-static compression tests as a function of temperature were performed on both alloy types. Different deformation mechanisms were encountered based upon temperature and microstructure.

  14. Application of feal intermetallic phase matrix based alloys in the turbine components of a turbocharger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cebulski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a possible application of the state-of-the-art alloys based on the FeAl intermetallic phases as materials for the manufacture of heat-proof turbine components in an automobile turbocharger. The research was aimed at determining the resistance to corrosion of Fe40Al5CrTiB alloy in a gaseous environment containing 9 % O2 + 0,2 % HCl + 0,08 % SO2 + N2. First the kinetics of corrosion processes for the considered alloy were determined at the temperatures of 900 °C, 1 000 °C and 1 100 °C, which was followed by validation under operating conditions. To do so, the tests were carried out over a distance of 20 000 km. The last stage involved examination of the surfaces after the test drive. The obtained results are the basis for further research in this field.

  15. Vanadium Influence on Iron Based Intermetallic Phases in AlSi6Cu4 Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolibruchová D.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Negative effect of iron in Al-Si alloys mostly refers with iron based intermetallic phases, especially Al5FeSi phases. These phases are present in platelet-like forms, which sharp edges are considered as main cracks initiators and also as contributors of porosity formation. In recent times, addition of some elements, for example Mn, Co, Cr, Ni, V, is used to reduce influence of iron. Influence of vanadium in aluminium AlSi6Cu4 alloy with intentionally increased iron content is presented in this article. Vanadium amount has been graduated and chemical composition of alloy has been analysed by spectral analysis. Vanadium influence on microstructural changes was evaluated by microstructural analysis and some of intermetallic particles were reviewed by EDX analysis.

  16. Stress Corrosion Cracking of Ni-base Alloys in Sulfur Containing Solutions at 340 .deg. C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Hee; Hwang, Seong Sik; Kim, Dong Jin; Kim, Sung Woo [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Sulfur has been identified as one of the major impurities introduced into the secondary water of pressurized water-reactors (PWRs). Sulfur can originate from various sources, such as resin sources, feed water, cooling water in-leakage, and condenser leaks. Many authors have investigated effects of reduced sulfur in a wide pH range with or without additives. The presence of reduced sulfur species on the surfaces of pulled tubes having stress corrosion cracking (SCC) was also identified. In present work, SCC tests were conducted to investigate effects of reduced sulfur species on the SCC behavior of Ni-base Alloys. The Alloy 690 TT showed the most SCC resistant, regardless of the sulfur species. The Cr content and heat treatments of alloys appeared the increase in the SCC resistance.

  17. Micromechanics-Based Damage Analysis of Fracture in Ti5553 Alloy with Application to Bolted Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettaieb, Mohamed Ben; Van Hoof, Thibaut; Minnebo, Hans; Pardoen, Thomas; Dufour, Philippe; Jacques, Pascal J.; Habraken, Anne Marie

    2015-03-01

    A physics-based, uncoupled damage model is calibrated using cylindrical notched round tensile specimens made of Ti5553 and Ti-6Al-4V alloys. The fracture strain of Ti5553 is lower than for Ti-6Al-4V in the full range of stress triaxiality. This lower ductility originates from a higher volume fraction of damage sites. By proper heat treatment, the fracture strain of Ti5553 increases by almost a factor of two, as a result of a larger damage nucleation stress. This result proves the potential for further optimization of the damage resistance of the Ti5553 alloy. The damage model is combined with an elastoviscoplastic law in order to predict failure in a wide range of loading conditions. In particular, a specific application involving bolted sectors is addressed in order to determine the potential of replacing the Ti-6Al-4V by the Ti5553 alloy.

  18. Creep resistance in a new alloy based on Fe3Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, D.G.

    1994-01-01

    Iron aluminide alloys based on the composition Fe 3 Al are receiving considerable attention as structural materials for applications at high temperatures in view of their excellent resistance to oxidation and corrosion as well as reasonable mechanical properties. Recently, problems associated with poor ductility at room temperature have been alleviated by small additions of Cr and by microstructure control, as well by as the realization that the low ductility is, in part, extrinsic behavior due to environmental attack. These materials suffer also from a loss of their good strength at temperatures above about 600 C, and recent attention has led also to the development of creep resistant alloys. The present report considers a new alloy developed for improved creep resistance which shows also good oxidation and erosion resistance. Effort has been devoted to an examination of the dislocation structures that characterize deformation, both cold and hot, during fast tensile straining as well as during creep testing

  19. Corrosion properties of plasma deposited nickel and nickel-based alloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Voleník, Karel; Pražák, M.; Kalabisová, E.; Kreislová, K.; Had, J.; Neufuss, Karel

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 3 (2003), s. 215-226 ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/99/0298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : plasma deposits, nickel, nickel-based alloys Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials

  20. ZnO-based semiconductors studied by Raman spectroscopy. Semimagnetic alloying, doping, and nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumm, Marcel

    2009-07-01

    ZnO-based semiconductors were studied by Raman spectroscopy and complementary methods (e.g. XRD, EPS) with focus on semimagnetic alloying with transition metal ions, doping (especially p-type doping with nitrogen as acceptor), and nanostructures (especially wet-chemically synthesized nanoparticles). (orig.)

  1. Intragranular nucleation sites of massive gamma grains in a TiAl-based alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dey, Suhash Ranjan; Bouzy, E.; Hazotte, A.

    2007-01-01

    Massive gamma grains were generated in a TiAl-based alloy through ice-water quenching from the alpha domain. Apart from those located along alpha(2)/alpha(2) grain boundaries, a few massive gamma grains were detected inside the alpha(2) grains. Some of these intragranular grains were revealed...

  2. Laser cladding of Zr-based coating on AZ91D magnesium alloy for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    based coating made of Zr powder was fabricated on AZ91D magnesium alloy by laser cladding. The microstructure of the coating was characterized by XRD, SEM and TEM techniques. The wear resistance of the coating was evaluated under dry ...

  3. Laser cladding of Zr-based coating on AZ91D magnesium alloy for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3Hubei Key Laboratory of Hydroelectric Machinery Design & Maintenance, ... To improve the wear and corrosion resistance of AZ91D magnesium alloy, Zr-based coating made of ... process that lead to inflammatory cascades which reduce bio- ... tions regarding their application as protective films on load- ... Experimental.

  4. Performance Comparison of Steam-Based and Chromate Conversion Coatings on Aluminum Alloy 6060

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, oxide layers generated on aluminum alloy 6060(UNS A96060) using a steam-based process were compared with conventional chromate and chromate-phosphate conversion coatings. Chemical composition and microstructure of the conversion coatings were investigated and their corrosion perfor...

  5. Development of elastic properties of Cu-based shape memory alloys during martensitic transformation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Václav; Landa, Michal; Šittner, Petr

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 115, - (2004), s. 363 ISSN 1155-4339 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : Cu-based shape memory alloy s * elastic properties * elastic constants * modelling Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.294, year: 2004

  6. Tungsten determination in heat resistant nickel-base-alloys by the method of atomic absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregorczyk, S.; Wycislik, A.

    1980-01-01

    A method of atomic absorption was developed. It allows for the tungsten to be determined in heatresistant nickel-base-alloys within the range 0.01 to 7%. It consists in precipitating tungsten acid in the presence of alkaloids with its following decomposition by hydrofluoric acid in the teflon bomb. (author)

  7. Quaternary alloys based on II-VI semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Tomashyk, Vasyl

    2014-01-01

    Systems Based on ZnSSystems Based on ZnSeSystems Based on ZnTeSystems Based on CdSSystems Based on CdSeSystems Based on CdTeSystems Based on HgSSystems Based on HgSeSystems Based on HgTeIndexReferences appear at the end of each chapter.

  8. Ternary alloys based on II-VI semiconductor compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Tomashyk, Vasyl; Shcherbak, Larysa

    2013-01-01

    Phase Equilibria in the Systems Based on ZnSSystems Based on ZnSeSystems Based on ZnTeSystems Based on CdSSystem Based on CdSeSystem Based on CdTeSystems Based on HgSSystems Based on HgSeSystems Based on HgTeIndexReferences appear at the end of each chapter.

  9. Ambient-temperature high damping capacity in TiPd-based martensitic alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Dezhen [Multi-disciplinary Materials Research Center, Frontier Institute of Science and Technology, State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Zhou, Yumei, E-mail: zhouyumei@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Multi-disciplinary Materials Research Center, Frontier Institute of Science and Technology, State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Ding, Xiangdong [Multi-disciplinary Materials Research Center, Frontier Institute of Science and Technology, State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Otsuka, Kazuhiro [Ferroic Physics Group, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047, Ibaraki (Japan); Lookman, Turab [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Sun, Jun [Multi-disciplinary Materials Research Center, Frontier Institute of Science and Technology, State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Ren, Xiaobing [Multi-disciplinary Materials Research Center, Frontier Institute of Science and Technology, State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Ferroic Physics Group, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2015-04-24

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) have attracted considerable attention for their high damping capacities. Here we investigate the damping behavior of Ti{sub 50}(Pd{sub 50−x}D{sub x}) SMAs (D=Fe, Co, Mn, V) by dynamic mechanical analysis. We find that these alloys show remarkably similar damping behavior. There exists a sharp damping peak associated with the B2–B19 martensitic transformation and a high damping plateau (Q{sup −1}~0.02–0.05) over a wide ambient-temperature range (220–420 K) due to the hysteretic twin boundary motion. After doping hydrogen into the above alloys, a new relaxation-type damping peak appears in the martensite phase over 270–360 K. Such a peak is considered to originate from the interaction of hydrogen atoms with twin boundaries and the corresponding damping capacity (Q{sup −1}~0.05–0.09) is enhanced by roughly twice that of the damping plateau for each alloy. Moreover, the relaxation peaks are at higher temperatures for the TiPd-based alloys (270–370 K) than for the TiNi-based alloys (190–260 K). We discuss the influence of hydrogen diffusion, mobility of twin boundaries and hydrogen–twin boundary interaction on the temperature range of the relaxation peak. Our results suggest that a martensite, with appropriate values for twinning shear and hydrogen doping level, provides a route towards developing high damping SMAs for applications in desired temperature ranges.

  10. Effects of metallurgical factors on stress corrosion cracking of Ni-base alloys in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonezawa, T.; Sasaguri, N.; Onimura, K.

    1988-01-01

    Nickel-base Alloy 600 is the principal material used for the steam generator tubes of PWRs. Generally, this alloy has been proven to be satisfactory for this application, however when it is subjected to extremely high stress level in PWR primary water, it may suffer from stress corrosion cracking. The authors have systematically studied the effects of test temperature and such metallurgical factors as cold working, chemical composition and heat treatment on the stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 in high temperature water, and also on that of Alloy 690 which is a promising material for the tubes and may provide improved crrosion resistance for steam generators. The test materials, the stress corrosion cracking test and the test results are reported. When the test temperature was raise, the stress corrosion cracking of the nickel-base alloys was accelerated. The time of stress corrosion cracking occurrence decreased with increasing applied stress, and it occurred at the stress level higher than the 0.2 % offset proof stress of Alloy 600. In Alloy 690, stress corrosion cracking was not observed at such stress level. Cold worked Alloy 600 showed higher resistance to stress corrosion cracking than the annealed alloy. (Kako, I.)

  11. Intergranular tellurium cracking of nickel-based alloys in molten Li, Be, Th, U/F salt mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatiev, Victor; Surenkov, Alexander; Gnidoy, Ivan; Kulakov, Alexander; Uglov, Vadim; Vasiliev, Alexander; Presniakov, Mikhail

    2013-09-01

    In Russia, R&D on Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) are concentrated now on fast/intermediate spectrum concepts which were recognized as long term alternative to solid fueled fast reactors due to their attractive features: strong negative feedback coefficients, easy in-service inspection, and simplified fuel cycle. For high-temperature MSR corrosion of the metallic container alloy in primary circuit is the primary concern. Key problem receiving current attention include surface fissures in Ni-based alloys probably arising from fission product tellurium attack. This paper summarizes results of corrosion tests conducted recently to study effect of oxidation state in selected fuel salt on tellurium attack and to develop means of controlling tellurium cracking in the special Ni-based alloys recently developed for molten salt actinide recycler and tranforming (MOSART) system. Tellurium corrosion of Ni-based alloys was tested at temperatures up to 750 °C in stressed and unloaded conditions in molten LiF-BeF2 salt mixture fueled by about 20 mol% of ThF4 and 2 mol% of UF4 at different [U(IV)]/[U(III)] ratios: 0.7, 4, 20, 100 and 500. Following Ni-based alloys (in mass%): HN80М-VI (Mo—12, Cr—7.6, Nb—1.5), HN80МТY (Mo—13, Cr—6.8, Al—1.1, Ti—0.9), HN80МТW (Mo—9.4, Cr—7.0, Ti—1.7, W—5.5) and ЕМ-721 (W—25.2, Cr—5.7, Ti—0.17) were used for the study in the corrosion facility. If the redox state the fuel salt is characterized by uranium ratio [U(IV)]/[U(III)] uranium intermetallic compounds and alloys with nickel and molybdenum. This leads to spontaneous behavior of alloy formation processes on the specimens' surface and further diffusion of uranium deep into the metallic phase. As consequence of this films of intermetallic compounds and alloys of nickel, molybdenum, tungsten with uranium are formed on the alloys specimens' surface, and intergranular corrosion does not take place. In the fuel salt with [U(IV)]/[U(III)] = 4-20 the potentials of uranium

  12. Surface treatments for controlling corrosion rate of biodegradable Mg and Mg-based alloy implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uddin, M S; Hall, Colin; Murphy, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Due to their excellent biodegradability characteristics, Mg and Mg-based alloys have become an emerging material in biomedical implants, notably for repair of bone as well as coronary arterial stents. However, the main problem with Mg-based alloys is their rapid corrosion in aggressive environments such as human bodily fluids. Previously, many approaches such as control of alloying materials, composition and surface treatments, have been attempted to regulate the corrosion rate. This article presents a comprehensive review of recent research focusing on surface treatment techniques utilised to control the corrosion rate and surface integrity of Mg-based alloys in both in vitro and in vivo environments. Surface treatments generally involve the controlled deposition of thin film coatings using various coating processes, and mechanical surfacing such as machining, deep rolling or low plasticity burnishing. The aim is to either make a protective thin layer of a material or to change the micro-structure and mechanical properties at the surface and sub-surface levels, which will prevent rapid corrosion and thus delay the degradation of the alloys. We have organised the review of past works on coatings by categorising the coatings into two classes—conversion and deposition coatings—while works on mechanical treatments are reviewed based on the tool-based processes which affect the sub-surface microstructure and mechanical properties of the material. Various types of coatings and their processing techniques under two classes of coating and mechanical treatment approaches have been analysed and discussed to investigate their impact on the corrosion performance, biomechanical integrity, biocompatibility and cell viability. Potential challenges and future directions in designing and developing the improved biodegradable Mg/Mg-based alloy implants were addressed and discussed. The literature reveals that no solutions are yet complete and hence new and innovative approaches

  13. Surface treatments for controlling corrosion rate of biodegradable Mg and Mg-based alloy implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, M S; Hall, Colin; Murphy, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Due to their excellent biodegradability characteristics, Mg and Mg-based alloys have become an emerging material in biomedical implants, notably for repair of bone as well as coronary arterial stents. However, the main problem with Mg-based alloys is their rapid corrosion in aggressive environments such as human bodily fluids. Previously, many approaches such as control of alloying materials, composition and surface treatments, have been attempted to regulate the corrosion rate. This article presents a comprehensive review of recent research focusing on surface treatment techniques utilised to control the corrosion rate and surface integrity of Mg-based alloys in both in vitro and in vivo environments. Surface treatments generally involve the controlled deposition of thin film coatings using various coating processes, and mechanical surfacing such as machining, deep rolling or low plasticity burnishing. The aim is to either make a protective thin layer of a material or to change the micro-structure and mechanical properties at the surface and sub-surface levels, which will prevent rapid corrosion and thus delay the degradation of the alloys. We have organised the review of past works on coatings by categorising the coatings into two classes—conversion and deposition coatings—while works on mechanical treatments are reviewed based on the tool-based processes which affect the sub-surface microstructure and mechanical properties of the material. Various types of coatings and their processing techniques under two classes of coating and mechanical treatment approaches have been analysed and discussed to investigate their impact on the corrosion performance, biomechanical integrity, biocompatibility and cell viability. Potential challenges and future directions in designing and developing the improved biodegradable Mg/Mg-based alloy implants were addressed and discussed. The literature reveals that no solutions are yet complete and hence new and innovative approaches

  14. Synthesis of Dihydrobenzofurans via Palladium-Catalyzed Heteroannulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozhkov, Roman Vladimirovich [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Palladium-catalyzed heteroannulation of 1,3-dienes with 3-iodo-2-alkenols, and 2-iodo-2-alkenols, as well as their amino analogs, affords the corresponding cyclic ethers and amines respectively. The presence of a β-hydrogen in the vinylic halide results in β-hydride elimination giving the corresponding alkyne. The presence of a bulky group in the α-position of the vinylic halide results in failure or reduced amounts of annulation products. A chloride source, pyridine base and electron-rich phosphine are essential for this reaction.

  15. Room temperature deformation of in-situ grown quasicrystals embedded in Al-based cast alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boštjan Markoli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An Al-based cast alloy containing Mn, Be and Cu has been chosen to investigate the room temperature deformation behavior of QC particles embedded in Al-matrix. Using LOM, SEM (equipped with EDS, conventional TEM with SAED and controlled tensile and compression tests, the deformation response of AlMn2Be2Cu2 cast alloy at room temperature has been examined. Alloy consisted of Al-based matrix, primary particles and eutectic icosahedral quasicrystalline (QC i-phase and traces of Θ-Al2Cu and Al10Mn3. Tensile and compression specimens were used for evaluation of mechanical response and behavior of QC i-phase articles embedded in Al-cast alloy. It has been established that embedded QC i-phase particles undergo plastic deformation along with the Al-based matrix even under severe deformation and have the response resembling that of the metallic materials by formation of typical cup-and-cone feature prior to failure. So, we can conclude that QC i-phase has the ability to undergo plastic deformation along with the Al-matrix to greater extent contrary to e.g. intermetallics such as Θ-Al2Cu for instance.

  16. Multimodal Nanoscale Characterization of Transformation and Deformation Mechanisms in Several Nickel Titanium Based Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalena, Lee

    The development of viable high-temperature shape memory alloys (HTSMAs) demands a coordinated multimodal characterization effort linking nanoscale crystal structure to macroscale thermomechanical properties. In this work, several high performance NiTi-based shape memory alloys are comprehensively explored with the goal of gaining insight into the complex transformation and deformation mechanisms responsible for their remarkable behavior. Through precise control of alloying and aging parameters, microstructures are optimized to enhance properties such as high-temperature strength and stability. These are crucial requirements for the development of advanced applications such as actuators and adaptive components that operate in demanding automotive and aerospace environments. An array of NiTiHf and NiTiAu alloys are at the core of this effort, offering the possibility of increased capability over traditional pneumatic and hydraulic systems, while simultaneously reducing weight and energy requirements. NiTi-20Hf alloys exhibit a favorable balance of properties, including high strength, stability, and work output at temperatures in excess of 150 °C. The raw material cost of Hf is also much lower compared with Pt, Pd, and Au containing counterparts. Advanced scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and synchrotron X-ray characterization techniques are used to explore unusual nanoscale effects of precipitate-matrix interactions, coherency strain, and dislocation activity in these alloys. Novel use of the 4D STEM strain mapping technique is used to quantify strain fields associated with precipitates, which are being coupled with new phase field modeling approaches to particle/defect interactions. Volume fractions of nanoscale precipitates are measured using STEM-based tomography techniques, atom probe tomography, and synchrotron diffraction of bulk samples. Plastic deformation of the HTSMA austenite phase is shown to occur through B2 type slip for the first time

  17. Designing and Validating Ternary Pd Alloys for Optimum Sulfur/Carbon Resistance in Hydrogen Separation and Carbon Capture Membrane Systems Using High-Throughput Combinatorial Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Amanda [Pall Corporation, Port Washington, NY (United States); Zhao, Hongbin [Pall Corporation, Port Washington, NY (United States); Hopkins, Scott [Pall Corporation, Port Washington, NY (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This report summarizes the work completed under the U.S. Department of Energy Project Award No.: DE-FE0001181 titled “Designing and Validating Ternary Pd Alloys for Optimum Sulfur/Carbon Resistance in Hydrogen Separation and Carbon Capture Membrane Systems Using High-Throughput Combinatorial Methods.” The project started in October 1, 2009 and was finished September 30, 2014. Pall Corporation worked with Cornell University to sputter and test palladium-based ternary alloys onto silicon wafers to examine many alloys at once. With the specialized equipment at Georgia Institute of Technology that analyzed the wafers for adsorbed carbon and sulfur species six compositions were identified to have resistance to carbon and sulfur species. These compositions were deposited on Pall AccuSep® supports by Colorado School of Mines and then tested in simulated synthetic coal gas at the Pall Corporation. Two of the six alloys were chosen for further investigations based on their performance. Alloy reproducibility and long-term testing of PdAuAg and PdZrAu provided insight to the ability to manufacture these compositions for testing. PdAuAg is the most promising alloy found in this work based on the fabrication reproducibility and resistance to carbon and sulfur. Although PdZrAu had great initial resistance to carbon and sulfur species, the alloy composition has a very narrow range that hindered testing reproducibility.

  18. Ni-Cr based dental alloys; Ni release, corrosion and biological evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reclaru, L., E-mail: lucien.reclaru@pxgroup.com [PX Holding S.A., Dep R and D Corrosion and Biocompatibility Group, Bd. des Eplatures 42, CH-2304 La Chaux-de-Fonds (Switzerland); Unger, R.E.; Kirkpatrick, C.J. [Institute for Pathology, REPAIR Lab, University Medical Center, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Langenbeckstr.1, D-55101 Mainz (Germany); Susz, C.; Eschler, P.-Y.; Zuercher, M.-H. [PX Holding S.A., Dep R and D Corrosion and Biocompatibility Group, Bd. des Eplatures 42, CH-2304 La Chaux-de-Fonds (Switzerland); Antoniac, I. [Materials Science and Engineering Faculty, Politehnica of Bucharest, 060042 Bucharest (Romania); Luethy, H. [Institute of Dental Materials Science and Technology, University of Basel, Hebelstrasse 3, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2012-08-01

    In the last years the dental alloy market has undergone dramatic changes for reasons of economy and biocompatibility. Nickel based alloys have become widely used substitute for the much more expensive precious metal alloys. In Europe the prevalence of nickel allergy is 10-15% for female adults and 1-3% for male adults. Despite the restrictions imposed by the EU for the protection of the general population in contact dermatitis, the use of Ni-Cr dental alloys is on the increase. Some questions have to be faced regarding the safety risk of nickel contained in dental alloys. We have collected based on many EU markets, 8 Ni-Cr dental alloys. Microstructure characterization, corrosion resistance (generalized, crevice and pitting) in saliva and the quantities of cations released in particular nickel and CrVI have been evaluated. We have applied non parametric classification tests (Kendall rank correlation) for all chemical results. Also cytotoxicity tests and an evaluation specific to TNF-alpha have been conducted. According to the obtained results, it was found that their behavior to corrosion was weak but that nickel release was high. The quantities of nickel released are higher than the limits imposed in the EU concerning contact with the skin or piercing. Surprisingly the biological tests did not show any cytotoxic effect on Hela and L929 cells or any change in TNF-alpha expression in monocytic cells. The alloys did not show any proinflammatory response in endothelial cells as demonstrated by the absence of ICAM-1 induction. We note therefore that there is really no direct relationship between the in vitro biological evaluation tests and the physico-chemical characterization of these dental alloys. Clinical and epidemiological studies are required to clarify these aspects. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nickel released was higher than the limits imposed in EU in contact with the skin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No direct relationship between the

  19. Electrochemical catalytic activities of nanoporous palladium rods for methanol electro-oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaoguang; Wang, Weimin; Qi, Zhen; Zhao, Changchun; Ji, Hong; Zhang, Zhonghua [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (MOE), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jingshi Road 73, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2010-10-01

    A novel electrocatalyst, nanoporous palladium (npPd) rods can be facilely fabricated by dealloying a binary Al{sub 80}Pd{sub 20} alloy in a 5 wt.% HCl aqueous solution under free corrosion conditions. The microstructure of these nanoporous palladium rods has been characterized using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that each Pd rod is several microns in length and several hundred nanometers in diameter. Moreover, all the rods exhibit a typical three-dimensional bicontinuous interpenetrating ligament-channel structure with length scale of 15-20 nm. The electrochemical experiments demonstrate that these peculiar nanoporous palladium rods (mixed with Vulcan XC-72 carbon powders to form a npPd/C catalyst) reveal a superior electrocatalytic performance toward methanol oxidation in the alkaline media. In addition, the electrocatalytic activity obviously depends on the metal loading on the electrode and will reach to the highest level (223.52 mA mg{sup -1}) when applying 0.4 mg cm{sup -2} metal loading on the electrode. Moreover, a competing adsorption mechanism should exist when performing methanol oxidation on the surface of npPd rods, and the electro-oxidation reaction is a diffusion-controlled electrochemical process. Due to the advantages of simplicity and high efficiency in the mass production, the npPd rods can act as a promising candidate for the anode catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). (author)

  20. Design of lead-free candidate alloys for high-temperature soldering based on the Au–Sn system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chidambaram, Vivek; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Hald, John

    2010-01-01

    of the Au–Sn binary system were explored in this work. Furthermore, the effects of thermal aging on the microstructure and microhardness of these promising Au–Sn based ternary alloys were investigated. For this purpose, the candidate alloys were aged at a lower temperature, 150°C for up to 1week...