WorldWideScience

Sample records for palestinian guerrilla organizations

  1. The Manipulation of Human Behavior in Guerrilla Warfare: Can It Enhance U.S. Army Special Forces Guerrilla Warfare Operations?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harris, William

    1997-01-01

    .... Proper integration of psychological communications to manipulate behavior in guerrilla warfare may facilitate the recruiting1 motivation, morale, sustainment and popular support for a guerrilla movement and its cause...

  2. Irregular Warfare: Brazil’s Fight Against Criminal Urban Guerrillas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    reflex action on the part of the urban guerrilla. To learn how to shoot and have good aim, the urban guerrilla must train himself systematically, uti ... pharmacist , or who simply has had first-aid training is a necessity in modern guerrilla struggles. A small manual of first aid for urban guerrillas, 76 JSOU

  3. THE APPLICATION OF GUERRILLA MARKETING IN KOSOVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaip BYTYÇI

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Until the year 2000, the marketing in Kosovo used to be of a traditional form with the main focus on advertisements which can be considered outdated. We are all witnessing a continuous growth of television, radio, and print media; however as consumers we are tired of such communications and readings. We need something that creates immediate movement. In this direction different entrepreneurs in Kosovo have chosen different marketing strategies to meet their needs. Nowadays, when we have a technological development and a high mobility enabling access to Internet through different smart devices (smart phone, i-pad, etc. a more dynamic marketing is required compared to a traditional marketing. The traditional marketing is quite expensive and different organizations have been searching for less expensive forms of marketing, because most of organizations do not have the means to do traditional marketing. A form of marketing that fits well with the now days requirements as well as various economic opportunities to these organizations is "guerrilla marketing" without leaving aside the marketing of social networks. The guerrilla marketing is a marketing technique that does not require a lot of financial means and is suitable for the companies that can not afford to allocate a lot of their budget in marketing. Also, the current trends in line with the technological developments require aspects that are suitable for many enterprises in Kosovo, especially those of the private sector such as small and medium enterprises or organizations, associations and movements, which do not have a sufficient budget to make major traditional marketing campaigns..

  4. Organized Chaos: Informal Institution Building among Palestinian Refugees in the Maashouk Gathering in South Lebanon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stel, N.M.; Yassin, Nasser; Rassi, Rima

    2016-01-01

    Informal institutions are increasingly recognized as a core concept in our understanding of the organization of socio-political life in refugee communities. This article contributes to this understanding by exploring the ways in which urban refugees in the Palestinian informal community, known as

  5. Analysis of Brand Awareness and Guerrilla Marketing In Iranian SME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mokhtari Mughari

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at analyzing and investigation of role of brand and guerrilla marketing in keeping and increasing purchasing portfolio of customer in Iran‟s SME and in this respect three hypothesizes are developed. For doing of this research after exploration of models and approaches in brand questionnaire and guerrilla marketing were used for customers of company. The conceptual model based on primary and sub hypothesizes were designed. For gathering data, two questionnaires were used for integration of guerrilla marketing and brand awareness. The research hypotheses were tested by correlation test, all the hypotheses were verified. The sequences of priorities in brand awareness were marketing budget, perceived quality of main product of one brand, perceived proportion of main product of one brand. There was a significant relationship between guerrilla marketing and brand awareness in Iran's SME. Also it was concluded that substitution capability of main product of one brand with mean of 1.73, perceived proportion of main product of one brand by mean of 2.04, marketing budget item by mean of 2.99 and, perceived quality of main product of one brand with mean of 3.10 were first to fourth priority respectively.

  6. The concept of guerrilla warfare in Lithuania in the 1920—1930s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokubauskas Vytautas

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the military and tactical training of the members of the Lithuanian Riflemen’s Union for guerrilla warfare in the interwar period. Small nations, such as Lithuania and other Baltic states, being unable to build up military strength in order to ensure national security, were forced to seek for unconventional methods of warfare, including guerrilla strategies. The study places emphasis on the development of the guerrilla war concept in the Union periodicals. The author retraces a change in the intensity of the guerrilla warfare concept propagation amongst Lithuanian population and riflemen, in particular, through publications in the Trimitas — a periodical of the Lithuanian Riflemen’s Union. The author also identifies the narratives associated with the guerrilla matters employed for propaganda purposes in order to create an image of a guerrilla as a defender of the Homeland — Lithuania. Additionally, the structure and numbers of the Union are analysed through a comparison with similar organisations of the other «small nations» of the Baltic North-East. The author addresses the issue of military missions planned by the Lithuanian Army, as well as the way riflemen implemented them. Since the Union did not only offer military training, but was also engaged in the patriotic propaganda, the article focuses on the network of cultural institutions, homes of riflemen, orchestras, libraries, choirs, and athletic clubs used by the Union. The article sets out to establish whether the loss of Lithuanian sovereignty could have been possible without giving rise to a protracted guerrilla war.

  7. GUERRILLA MARKETING : A creative marketing method for start-ups

    OpenAIRE

    Zujewska, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this thesis work was to introduce guerrilla marketing as a valuable marketing method for small and medium size startup companies. The thesis presents the theoretical studies on the subject based on literature and case studies. The practical use of the theory is demonstrated in the marketing plan based on guerrilla marketing approach. The marketing plan was written based on the example of an existing startup company, mCASH. The company is located in Oslo, Norway. The thesis...

  8. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of Palestinian people relating to organ donation in 2016: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abukhaizaran, Nidal; Hashem, Mohammed; Hroub, Osama; Belkebir, Souad; Demyati, Khaled

    2018-02-21

    Organ transplantation is the treatment of choice for organ failure, but organs are scarce and their availability is affected by relational ties, religious beliefs, cultural influences, body integrity, medical mistrust, and other factors. This aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of Palestinian population with respect to organ donation. In this cross-sectional study, we used a validated questionnaire delivered by land telephone to collect data on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices relating to organ donation in the general population of the West Bank. Stratified sampling and simple random sampling were applied using data obtained from the Palestinian Telecommunication Group in 2016. Stata version 20 was used for statistical analysis, and a p value less than 0·05 was considered significant. Ethics approval was obtained from the Institutional Review Board of An-Najah National University, and all participants gave verbal informed consent. The questionnaire was completed by 385 (68%) of 565 people approached (mean age 42 years [SD 14·13]). 266 (69%) respondents were married, 311 (80%) were employed, and 375 (97%) were Muslim. 136 (35%) respondents were university students or post-graduates. Half of participants lived in urban areas. Local religious clergy were reported as being the source of general information by 150 (40%) participants. 273 (71%) respondents had adequate knowledge about organ donation, TV being the main source of information for 207 (60%) participants. 70 (26%) respondents would consider donation only after death, and 342 (67%) respondents would only consider donating to a close family member, whereas 341 (100%) respondents believed that their organ could be misused and 219 (64%) believed organ donation carries a health risk. 135 (49%) respondents preferred to donate to a recipient of the same religion. 266 (78%) individuals believed that organ donation should be promoted in the occupied Palestinian territory

  9. Analysis of Brand Awareness and Guerrilla Marketing In Iranian SME

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Mokhtari Mughari

    2011-01-01

    This research aims at analyzing and investigation of role of brand and guerrilla marketing in keeping and increasing purchasing portfolio of customer in Iran‟s SME and in this respect three hypothesizes are developed. For doing of this research after exploration of models and approaches in brand questionnaire and guerrilla marketing were used for customers of company. The conceptual model based on primary and sub hypothesizes were designed. For gathering data, two questionnaires were used for...

  10. Palestinian Refugees: A Gendered Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nof Nasser Eddin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that the situation of Palestinian refugees is still relevant till this day. There are around five million refugees living in neighbouring Arab countries, such as Lebanon, Jordan, Syria and Egypt, as well as neighbouring areas in Palestine itself, like the West Bank and Gaza Strip, under very precarious conditions. Their situation is extremely unstable as any changes in the region can influence them directly. The need to address this issue is particularly important because Palestinian refugees (as well as internally displaced Palestinians have been both historically and politically marginalised. In particular, I will argue for a need to gender the debate around the Palestinian refugees, because the distinct experience of women Palestinian refugees has been overlooked within this context. Most literature has focused on the Palestinian refugees as a holistic population, which assumes all refugees share the same struggle. However, understanding the position of women within the context of the refugees and the unique struggles they face is essential to understanding their particular experiences as refugees and in highlighting their differential needs; this is why a feminist perspective is needed within the field of refugee studies. This article is based on a feminist journey drawing on research interviews with female Palestinian refugees in camps in Jordan, and with Syrian Palestinian women in Turkey, Jordan and Europe.

  11. Lifestyle physical activity among urban Palestinians and Israelis: a cross-sectional comparison in the Palestinian-Israeli Jerusalem risk factor study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Urban Palestinians have a high incidence of coronary heart disease, and alarming prevalences of obesity (particularly among women) and diabetes. An active lifestyle can help prevent these conditions. Little is known about the physical activity (PA) behavior of Palestinians. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of insufficient PA and its socio-demographic correlates among urban Palestinians in comparison with Israelis. Methods An age-sex stratified random sample of Palestinians and Israelis aged 25-74 years living in east and west Jerusalem was drawn from the Israel National Population Registry: 970 Palestinians and 712 Israelis participated. PA in a typical week was assessed by the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) questionnaire. Energy expenditure (EE), calculated in metabolic equivalents (METs), was compared between groups for moderate to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test, and for domain-specific prevalence rates of meeting public health guidelines and all-domain insufficient PA. Correlates of insufficient PA were assessed by multivariable logistic modeling. Results Palestinian men had the highest median of MVPA (4740 METs-min*wk-1) compared to Israeli men (2,205 METs-min*wk-1 p < 0.0001), or to Palestinian and Israeli women, who had similar medians (2776 METs-min*wk-1). Two thirds (65%) of the total MVPA reported by Palestinian women were derived from domestic chores compared to 36% in Israeli women and 25% among Palestinian and Israeli men. A high proportion (63%) of Palestinian men met the PA recommendations by occupation/domestic activity, compared to 39% of Palestinian women and 37% of the Israelis. No leisure time PA was reported by 42% and 39% of Palestinian and Israeli men (p = 0.337) and 53% and 28% of Palestinian and Israeli women (p < 0.0001). Palestinian women reported the lowest level of walking. Considering all domains, 26% of Palestinian women were classified as

  12. Both sides retaliate in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haushofer, Johannes; Biletzki, Anat; Kanwisher, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Ending violent international conflicts requires understanding the causal factors that perpetuate them. In the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, Israelis and Palestinians each tend to see themselves as victims, engaging in violence only in response to attacks initiated by a fundamentally and implacably violent foe bent on their destruction. Econometric techniques allow us to empirically test the degree to which violence on each side occurs in response to aggression by the other side. Prior studies using these methods have argued that Israel reacts strongly to attacks by Palestinians, whereas Palestinian violence is random (i.e., not predicted by prior Israeli attacks). Here we replicate prior findings that Israeli killings of Palestinians increase after Palestinian killings of Israelis, but crucially show further that when nonlethal forms of violence are considered, and when a larger dataset is used, Palestinian violence also reveals a pattern of retaliation: (i) the firing of Palestinian rockets increases sharply after Israelis kill Palestinians, and (ii) the probability (although not the number) of killings of Israelis by Palestinians increases after killings of Palestinians by Israel. These findings suggest that Israeli military actions against Palestinians lead to escalation rather than incapacitation. Further, they refute the view that Palestinians are uncontingently violent, showing instead that a significant proportion of Palestinian violence occurs in response to Israeli behavior. Well-established cognitive biases may lead participants on each side of the conflict to underappreciate the degree to which the other side's violence is retaliatory, and hence to systematically underestimate their own role in perpetuating the conflict. PMID:20921415

  13. Lifestyle physical activity among urban Palestinians and Israelis: a cross-sectional comparison in the Palestinian-Israeli Jerusalem risk factor study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merom Dafna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urban Palestinians have a high incidence of coronary heart disease, and alarming prevalences of obesity (particularly among women and diabetes. An active lifestyle can help prevent these conditions. Little is known about the physical activity (PA behavior of Palestinians. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of insufficient PA and its socio-demographic correlates among urban Palestinians in comparison with Israelis. Methods An age-sex stratified random sample of Palestinians and Israelis aged 25-74 years living in east and west Jerusalem was drawn from the Israel National Population Registry: 970 Palestinians and 712 Israelis participated. PA in a typical week was assessed by the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA questionnaire. Energy expenditure (EE, calculated in metabolic equivalents (METs, was compared between groups for moderate to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA, using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test, and for domain-specific prevalence rates of meeting public health guidelines and all-domain insufficient PA. Correlates of insufficient PA were assessed by multivariable logistic modeling. Results Palestinian men had the highest median of MVPA (4740 METs-min*wk-1 compared to Israeli men (2,205 METs-min*wk-1 p *wk-1. Two thirds (65% of the total MVPA reported by Palestinian women were derived from domestic chores compared to 36% in Israeli women and 25% among Palestinian and Israeli men. A high proportion (63% of Palestinian men met the PA recommendations by occupation/domestic activity, compared to 39% of Palestinian women and 37% of the Israelis. No leisure time PA was reported by 42% and 39% of Palestinian and Israeli men (p = 0.337 and 53% and 28% of Palestinian and Israeli women (p p Conclusions Substantial proportions of Palestinian women, and subgroups of Palestinian men, are insufficiently active. Culturally appropriate intervention strategies are warranted, particularly for this vulnerable

  14. Counter-Buffing: A Visual Criticism of Guerrilla Advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauzon, Robb Conrad; Cooke, Laquana

    2017-01-01

    This article addresses and explores hip-hop's reclamation of space using transit as a public bulletin. It is situated within counter-publics discourse and couched in the theoretical frameworks offered by visual rhetorical theory. This article also discusses hip-hop counter-publics through guerrilla advertising by former graffiti artists, SKI and…

  15. The Palestinian Novel From 1948 to the Present

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Manneh, Bashir

    2016-01-01

    What happens to the Palestinian novel after the national dispossession of the nakba, and how do Palestinian novelists respond to this massive crisis? This is the first study in English to chart the development of the Palestinian novel in exile and under occupation from 1948 onwards. By reading the novel in the context of the ebb and flow of Arab and Palestinian revolution, Bashir Abu-Manneh defines the links between aesthetics and politics. Combining historical analysis with textual readings ...

  16. Palestinian Elections

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pina, Aaron D

    2006-01-01

    .... In 2002, the Palestinian Authority (PA), under increasing internal and external pressure, announced a so-called 100-Day Reform Plan for institutional reform and elections in order to rejuvenate PA leadership...

  17. Palestinian Refugees

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This policy saw some government construction of emergency housing, but largely ..... Palestinian households are known to be large due to high fertility rates, with ...... It would also create significant equity problems, and considerable tension ...

  18. Palestinian Education and the Debate Over Textbooks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pina, Aaron D

    2005-01-01

    .... Many observers frequently have expressed concern that the Palestinian Authority (PA) education curriculum incites a younger generation of Palestinians to reject Israel, Judaism, and the achievement of peace in the region...

  19. 'Performative narrativity': Palestinian identity and the performance of catastrophe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saloul, I.

    2008-01-01

    The day Israel annually celebrates as its "Day of Independence" Palestinians commemorate as their day of catastrophe (al-nakba). To most Palestinians, the catastrophic loss of Palestine in 1948 represents the climactic formative event of their lives. In the aftermath of this loss, the Palestinian

  20. Digital Literacy: A Palestinian Refugee Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traxler, John

    2018-01-01

    This paper is the first attempt to explore digital literacy in the specific context of the Palestinian refugee community in the Middle East by looking at the cultural specificity of digital literacy theorising and practice, by analysing current digital education policy in the countries hosting the Palestinian refugee community and by documenting…

  1. Changes in Guerrilla Conflicts in Latin America After the Cold War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martinez, Francisco

    2000-01-01

    ... conflicts than ever before. At the same time, the acceleration of the communications revolution has increased the power of non-state international actors, and has played a key role in helping guerrilla movements disseminate their ideas and goals...

  2. Dialogue on Solutions to the Palestinian Refugee Problem | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Palestinian refugee issue remains a key component of any just and lasting resolution to the Palestinian Israeli conflict. How the subject is addressed will shape the future of the Middle East; unresolved refugee issues will prevent a durable peace between Israelis and Palestinians. This project will enhance the capacity ...

  3. Una resistenza “verde” contro il degrado urbano: il Guerrilla Gardening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Berni

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the early 1970’s, a small group of American ambientalists squatted a vacant lot in Manhattan to create a small garden in response to the scarcity of public space in their neighbourhood. Forty years later, “Guerrilla Gardening” became an international network of independent activists fighting against globalized commerce and the strict rules of urban planning to improve the quality of open space. They regenerated forbidden public and private open spaces at different scales: from small sizes such as public flowerbeds to large pieces of land around the city. The legacy of “Guerrilla Gardening” creates an opportunity for urban planners and architects to rethink the strategy of open space in the urban environment and to realize the importance of informal work in the transformation and management process of the city. 

  4. Palestinian Youth of the Intifada: PTSD and Future Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavi, Tamar; Solomon, Zahava

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the nature of chronic exposure to terror and its psychological and cognitive toll on Palestinian youths, as is reflected in posttraumatic symptoms, future orientation, and attitudes toward peace. Method: In the summer of 2001, 245 Palestinian and 300 Israeli-Palestinian adolescents in the sixth to ninth grades were assessed…

  5. The Palestinian Problem In The Middle East Policy Of The USSR / Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Nosenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the stages in the formation of the USSR policy in the field of the Palestinian-Israeli conflict resolution, the features of the developed policy and practical conclusions that could be useful in advancing the current Middle East policy of the Russian Federation. Initially, the Soviet Union perceived the Palestinian theme primarily from the point of view of the problem of refugees. However, Moscow increasingly felt the need for reliable allies in the region. The movement for cooperation between the Palestine Liberation Organization and the USSR was bilateral: the PLO departed from revolutionary romanticism and began to follow a pragmatic line to expand contacts with opponents of Israel. Moscow began to consider the activities of the PLO as part of the national liberation movement, took a sharply anti-Israeli stance. Such a distortion led to a loss of freedom of maneuver in the region and to the announcement of deliberately non-constructive proposals for a Palestinian-Israeli settlement. Only since 1985 the USSR returned to a more flexible position, which sought to combine the interests of the Palestinian people and Israel. At the present stage, Russian diplomacy uses Soviet experience and connections, especially in the sphere of personal contacts. But Russia’s role in the Middle East conflict resolution has decreased due to subjective and objective reasons. Against the backdrop of the Arab Spring and the Civil War in Syria, Palestinian issues have become secondary in the agenda of Moscow, which, however, can lead to a new surge of violence and tension. Special relations with the Palestinian national liberation movement have always been an advantage of Soviet and then Russian diplomacy. The authors believe that this advantage should be used more actively to strengthen Russia’s positions in the region.

  6. Palestinian Refugees : Challenges of Repatriation and Development

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Palestinian Refugees : Challenges of Repatriation and Development. Couverture du livre Palestinian Refugees : Challenges of Repatriation and Development. Directeur(s):. Rex Brynen et Roula El-Rifai. Maison(s) d'édition: I.B. Tauris, CRDI. 14 avril 2007. ISBN : 9781845113117. 224 pages. e-ISBN : 9781552502310.

  7. Napoleon’s Nightmare: Guerrilla Warfare in Spain (1808-1814) -The French Army’s Failed Counterinsurgency Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    religion , and Napoleon and his troops had wounded the Spaniards in their deepest beliefs and national pride. The Spanish had contempt for the invasion and...organizations with force, as the French attempted to do in Spain, must first fully ground themselves in knowledge of the culture, traditions, religion ...de la Independencia. Madrid: Leynfor Siglo XXI, 2007. The book is focused on one of the guerrilla leaders who became senior officer in the Spanish

  8. Sexual torture of Palestinian men by Israeli authorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weishut, Daniel J N

    2015-11-01

    In the context of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, arrests and imprisonment of Palestinian men in their early adulthood are common practice. The Public Committee Against Torture in Israel (PCATI) collected thousands of testimonies of Palestinian men allegedly tortured or ill-treated by Israeli authorities. There are many types of torture, sexual torture being one of them. This study is based on the PCATI database during 2005-2012, which contains 60 cases-- 4% of all files in this period--with testimonies of alleged sexual torture or ill-treatment. It is a first in the investigation of torture and ill-treatment of a sexual nature, allegedly carried out by Israeli security authorities on Palestinian men. Findings show that sexual ill-treatment is systemic, with 36 reports of verbal sexual harassment, either directed toward Palestinian men and boys or toward family members, and 35 reports of forced nudity. Moreover, there are six testimonies of Israeli officials involved in physical sexual assault of arrested or imprisoned Palestinian men. Physical assault in most cases concerned pressing and/or kicking the genitals, while one testimony pertained to simulated rape, and another described an actual rape by means of a blunt object. The article provides illustrations of the various types of sexual torture and ill-treatment of boys and men in the light of existing literature, and recommendations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Palestinian Territories: Background and U.S. Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morro, Paul

    2007-01-01

    .... policy toward the Palestinians since the advent of the Oslo process in the early 1990s has been marked by efforts to establish a Palestinian state through a negotiated two-state solution with Israel...

  10. Command and Control of Guerrilla Groups in the Philippines, 1941-1945

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    Jerry’s “All Those who Remained: The American-Led Guerrillas in the Philippines, 1942-1945” focuses exclusively on the resistance on Luzon. He...coastlines from steep hills to smooth sandy beaches; transportation from luxury airliner to carabao cart; inhabitants from educated Americans and

  11. Koncepcija partizanskoj vojny v Litve v 1920— 1930-e gody [The concept of guerrilla warfare in Lithuania in the 1920—1930s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokubauskas Vytautas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the military and tactical training of the members of the Lithuanian Riflemen’s Union for guerrilla warfare in the interwar period. Small nations, such as Lithuania and other Baltic states, being unable to build up military strength in order to ensure national security, were forced to seek for unconventional methods of warfare, including guerrilla strategies. The study places emphasis on the development of the guerrilla war concept in the Union periodicals. The author retraces a change in the intensity of the guerrilla warfare concept propagation amongst Lithuanian population and riflemen, in particular, through publications in the Trimitas — a periodical of the Lithuanian Riflemen’s Union. The author also identifies the narratives associated with the guerrilla matters employed for propaganda purposes in order to create an image of a guerrilla as a defender of the Homeland — Lithuania. Additionally, the structure and numbers of the Union are analysed through a comparison with similar organisations of the other «small nations» of the Baltic North-East. The author addresses the issue of military missions planned by the Lithuanian Army, as well as the way riflemen implemented them. Since the Union did not only offer military training, but was also engaged in the patriotic propaganda, the article focuses on the network of cultural institutions, homes of riflemen, orchestras, libraries, choirs, and athletic clubs used by the Union. The article sets out to establish whether the loss of Lithuanian sovereignty could have been possible without giving rise to a protracted guerrilla war.

  12. Lebanese Palestinian Dialogue Committee (LPDC) - Phase II | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Lebanese Palestinian Dialogue Committee (LPDC) was established in 2006 to raise awareness of the social and humanitarian conditions of Palestinian refugees in Lebanon and to coordinate efforts by stakeholders (United Nations Relief and Works Agency-UNRWA, Lebanese ministries, the international community, ...

  13. Between Tikkun Olam and Self-Defense: Young Jewish Americans Debate the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella Ben Hagai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined processes associated with ingroup members’ break from their ingroup and solidarity with the outgroup. We explored these processes by observing the current dramatic social change in which a growing number of young Jewish Americans have come to reject Israel’s treatment of the Palestinians. We conducted a yearlong participant observation and in-depth interviews with 27 Jewish American college students involved in Israel advocacy on a college campus. Findings suggest that Jewish Americans entering the Jewish community in college came to learn about the Israeli-Palestinian conflict through a lens of Jewish vulnerability. A bill proposed by Palestinian solidarity organizations to divest from companies associated with Israel (part of the Boycott, Divestment, and Sanctions or BDS movement was also interpreted through the lens of Israel's vulnerability. As the college’s Student Union debated the bill, a schism emerged in the Jewish community. Some Jewish students who had a strong sense of their Jewish identity and grounded their Judaism in principles of social justice exhibited a greater openness to the Palestinian narrative of the conflict. Understanding of Palestinian dispossession was associated with the rejection of the mainstream Jewish establishment’s unconditional support of Israel. Moreover, dissenting Jewish students were concerned that others in the campus community would perceive them as denying the demands of people of color. We discuss our observations of the process of social change in relation to social science theories on narrative acknowledgment and collective action.

  14. Lebanese Palestinian Dialogue Committee (LPDC) - Phase II | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    During Phase I (100971), LPDC set up a website and commissioned papers from Lebanese and Palestinian researchers on such subjects as "non-Ids" - Palestinians with no official documents - and employment issues in Lebanon. LPDC was instrumental in coordinating the efforts of Lebanese stakeholders during the Nahr ...

  15. Triple Jeopardy: Special Education for Palestinians in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasler, Jonathan; Jabareen, Yousef T.

    2017-01-01

    Research comparing special education for Jews and for Palestinian Arabs in Israel outlines major inequalities. This situation has remained largely unchanged for decades and there is little evidential reason to believe there will be improvement in the near future. Palestinian children requiring special education are adversely affected by a…

  16. Un Laboratorio de Guerra en Antioquia: Desmitificando la Victoria Paramilitar y la Desaparición de las Guerrillas

    OpenAIRE

    Jerónimo Ríos

    2017-01-01

    Uno de los aspectos menos investigados sobre el conflicto armado colombiano es la coincidencia espacio-temporal de guerrillas y grupos paramilitares. Es decir, cómo afectó a los niveles de presencia y activismo guerrillero la aparición de un actor como el paramilitarismo. Al respecto, la consideración tan predominante como, en pocas ocasiones, poco contrastada, pasa por atribuir una derrota a las guerrillas allí donde el paramilitarismo obtuvo un mayor arraigo. Tomando como estudio de caso el...

  17. Palestinian mothers' perceptions of child mental health problems and services

    Science.gov (United States)

    THABET, ABDEL AZIZ; EL GAMMAL, HOSSAM; VOSTANIS, PANOS

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore Palestinian mothers' perceptions of child mental health problems and their understanding of their causes; to determine Palestinian mothers' awareness of existing services and sources of help and support; to identify professionals in the community whom Palestinian mothers would consult if their child had mental health problems; and to establish their views on ways of increasing awareness of child mental health issues and services. Checklists exploring the above issues were completed by 249 Palestinian mothers living in refugee camps in the Gaza Strip. Palestinian mothers equally perceived emotional, behavioural and psychotic symptoms as suggestive of mental ill health in childhood. Mothers perceived multiple causes of child mental health problems, including family problems, parental psychiatric illness and social adversity. A substantial proportion (42.6%) had knowledge of local child mental health care services. Overall, mothers preferred Western over traditional types of treatment, and were keen to increase mental health awareness within their society. Despite a different cultural tradition, Palestinian mothers appear open to a range of services and interventions for child mental health problems. As in other non-Western societies, child mental health service provision should be integrated with existing primary health care, schools, and community structures. PMID:16946953

  18. Integrating Islamist Militants into the Political Process : Palestinian ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Integrating Islamist Militants into the Political Process : Palestinian Hamas. The striking victory of Hamas in the elections of January 2006 raises questions about the integration of Islamists into the Palestinian political system. This project, which is part of a larger program of research on the role of political parties in the Middle ...

  19. The Palestinian Authority and 'Climate Change' as an Emergent Public Problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fustec, Klervi

    2014-01-01

    'Climate change' is an oft avowed environmental priority among cooperation and development actors. The Palestinian Territories, for their part, are one of the largest recipients of international aid. To the degree that the UNPD has played a role in promoting the question of 'climate change', the dependence of the Palestinian Authority on international aid has contributed to framing this emergent public problem; its construction is anchored in the context of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and the Palestinian state's demand for recognition at the international level. In the international arenas dedicated to 'climate change', what's more, the Palestinian Authority discusses this question in terms of political and climatic injustice. Two questions thus merit study: what effect does the construction of the climate problem have on the Palestinian Authority and, conversely, what effect does the Palestinian Authority have on the construction of the climate problem?

  20. The Holocaust in Palestinian Textbooks: Differences and Similarities in Israel and Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alayan, Samira

    2016-01-01

    The article explores how the Holocaust is represented in history textbooks for Palestinian pupils in the Palestinian and Arab-Israeli curricula from a pedagogical perspective. Since no mention of the Holocaust was found in Palestinian Authority textbooks, the study seeks to explain why this is so, while examining representations of the Holocaust…

  1. ‘All the beautiful things’ : trauma, aesthetics and the politics of Palestinian childhood.

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the ways in which Palestinian children variously perform and transform the discourse of trauma and the aesthetic of suffering that have come to dominate representations of Palestinian childhood, and the Palestinian struggle in general. I argue that everyday beauty in the lives of Palestinian refugee children, as found in mundane spaces and enacted through interpersonal relationships, constitutes an aesthetic disruption to the dominant representation of trauma as put forwar...

  2. Disaster Mitigation Towards Sustainable Development in the Occupied Palestinian Territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Atrash, Ahmad A.; Salem, Hilmi S.; Isaac, Jad E.

    2008-01-01

    Due to political, economical and social conditions dominating the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT; consisting of the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, and the Gaza Strip), the Palestinian people and government in the OPT face a multitude of challenges, in relation to governance, development, sustainability, and natural disasters. In this paper, several interventions that form the basis of some present and future Palestinian developmental and planning dilemmas are tackled. Among the challenges the Palestinian people facing are natural disasters. Such disasters have caused enormous losses and have set back economic progress in developed and undeveloped countries alike. On the Palestinian arena, the water shortages, the environmental degradation, and the land and natural resources' depletion, which all go hand in hand with the political conflict in the Middle East, are perceived to be the most significant anthropogenic disasters currently affecting the Palestinian people in the OPT. In addition, natural disasters are significantly considered a potential threat to the OPT's population. Earthquakes in the region are considered a major hazard, with low probability but high adverse impacts. Adding to this, the proposed Red Sea-Dead Sea Conveyance that will bring about two billion cubic meter of saline water from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea will be potentially, if constructed, a huge source of induced earthquakes. Moreover, the future looks not so promising; due to the rapid population growth and the way the cities are developing in the OPT, as more than 50% of the Palestinian population lives in what is defined as ''hazard-prone'' areas. These areas are particularly vulnerable, because of their dependence on complex infrastructures. Moreover, the lack of knowledgeable professionals and technical capabilities in the OPT, in regard to disaster-sound management, is another reason for the current chaotic situation

  3. Perspectives on induced abortion among Palestinian women: religion, culture and access in the occupied Palestinian territories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahawy, Sarrah; Diamond, Megan B

    2018-03-01

    Induced abortion is an important public health issue in the occupied Palestinian territories (OPT), where it is illegal in most cases. This study was designed to elicit the views of Palestinian women on induced abortion given the unique religious, ethical and social challenges in the OPT. Sixty Palestinian women were interviewed on their perceptions of the religious implications, social consequences and accessibility of induced abortions in the OPT at Al-Makassed Islamic Charitable Hospital in East Jerusalem. Themes arising from the interviews included: the centrality of religion in affecting women's choices and views on abortion; the importance of community norms in regulating perspectives on elective abortion; and the impact of the unique medico-legal situation of the OPT on access to abortion under occupation. Limitations to safe abortion access included: legal restrictions; significant social consequences from the discovery of an abortion by one's community or family; and different levels of access to abortion depending on whether a woman lived in East Jerusalem, the West Bank, or Gaza. This knowledge should be incorporated to work towards a legal and medical framework in Palestine that would allow for safe abortions for women in need.

  4. «Unclear Enemy»: Why the Guerrilla War in France in 1814 Failed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay A. Mogilevskiy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Author of the article analyzes the reasons of the fail of Napoleon’s attempts to set the guerrilla war in France during the campaign of 1814. While the forces of anti-Napoleonic coalition were standing near the border of France, Napoleon did his best to recruit his new army. But the human resources of France were exhausted, and that’s why Napoleon decided to set the guerrillia. But all his proclamations and even his orders were disobeyed - French people were too tired of incessant war, and Napoleon again decided to gain his goals on the battlefield. Besides author shows great efforts of Russian headquarters to avoid the guerrilla war. Alexander I and his allies in theirs proclamations declared that they were fighting only with Napoleon, but not with the French nation. That tactic gave a brilliant result and helped to avoid the patriotic uplift in France in 1814. In this propagandistic war Napoleon was defeated and that cost him his throne. The reasons of Napoleon’s fail, firstly, was the unclear image of the enemy. French emperor didn’t manage to unite French nation against the rival. On the contrary the French Emperor, his enemies managed (in their proclamations and personal conversations to persuade the French people, that the allies had one enemy - the Emperor Napoleon, not the French nation, and the ultimate goal of war - to set peace on the European continent. That was exactly how the allies did set the disunity between Napoleon and his people. Ultimately, the combination of these factors was the reason that a guerrilla war never broke out in France.

  5. Barriers to breast cancer screening participation among Jordanian and Palestinian American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawar, Lina Najib

    2013-02-01

    Increasing breast cancer screening (BCS) among diverse women from minority groups is a goal of health care providers and national organizations as a way to help in the early detection and treatment of breast cancer. The purpose of this article is to investigate barriers to BCS encountered by Jordanian and Palestinian women living in the United States (US). Descriptive content analysis of interviews of 107 Jordanian and Palestinian immigrant women provided data on BCS barriers that were thematically analyzed. Data revealed 4 barriers that affect Jordanian and Palestinian immigrant women's participation in BCS: (1) culture-specific barriers such as embarrassment, family relationships, fatalism, and traditional healers consultation; (2) immigration-related barriers (citizenship issues and language); (3) general barriers (including nonparticipation in health screening, stigmatization of cancer, fear, and ignorance about BCS); and (4) irrelevant barriers. Clinicians should be cognizant of the culture, beliefs and practices of Arab Middle Eastern immigrant women and the influence of these factors on their decision to participate in routine BCS. To increase participation in BCS and knowledge of breast cancer, appropriate language and culturally sensitive educational materials should be created and made available to Arab Middle Eastern immigrant women. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Differences in the triglyceride to HDL-cholesterol ratio between Palestinian and Israeli adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Weiss

    Full Text Available AIMS: To evaluate differences in the triglyceride to HDL-cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL, thought to be a proxy measure of insulin resistance, between Palestinian and Israeli adults in view of the greater incidence of coronary heart disease and high prevalence of diabetes in Palestinian Arabs. RESEARCH METHODS: A population-based observational prevalence study of cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors in Jerusalem. Participants (968 Palestinians, 707 Israelis, sampled at ages 25-74 years underwent fasting and 2 h post-75 g oral challenge plasma glucose determinations. Metabolic risk was assessed using the surrogate index TG/HDL. Sex-specific comparisons were stratified by categories of body mass index and sex-specific waist circumference quartiles, adjusted by regression for age, glucose tolerance status and use of statins. RESULTS: Prevalence of overweight and obesity was substantially larger in Palestinians (p = 0.005. Prevalence of diabetes was 2.4 and 4 fold higher among Palestinian men and women, respectively (p<0.001. Adjusted TG/HDL was higher in Palestinians than Israelis across BMI and waist circumference categories (p<0.001 for both. Higher TG/HDL in Palestinians persisted in analyses restricted to participants with normal glucose tolerance and off statins. Notably, higher TG/HDL among Palestinians prevailed at a young age (25-44 years and in normal weight individuals of both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: Palestinians have a higher TG/HDL ratio than Israelis. Notably, this is evident also in young, healthy and normal weight participants. These findings indicate the need to study the determinants of this biomarker and other measures of insulin resistance in urban Arab populations and to focus research attention on earlier ages: childhood and prenatal stages of development.

  7. Forcible Displacement of Palestinians to Jordan: A National Security Crisis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Al

    2002-01-01

    ... into the Hasemite Kingdom of Jordan have become an issue of grave concern. The Palestinian refugee issue is a derivative of the expulsion of millions of Palestinians after the creation of the State of Israel in 1948, and after the 1967 Six-Day War...

  8. The effect of smoking on the healthy life expectancy of Palestinian men in the West Bank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Jonassen, Marie; Shaheen, Amira

    2018-01-01

    differed between Palestinians living in and outside refugee camps. Methods: The study was based on representative samples of Palestinians living in the occupied Palestinian territory (West Bank and Gaza Strip), aged 25 years and older, collected by the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics in 2006...

  9. CSR practices of Palestinian Islamic banks: contribution to socio-economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalrahman Mohamed Migdad

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - Corporate social responsibility (CSR is an important corporate activity that affirms the importance of giving back to the community. This research aims to examine the CSR practices of Palestinian Islamic banks and their contribution to socio-economic development. There is an ongoing debate regarding Islamic financial institutions’ profit motive versus their motivation to achieve human welfare. The Palestinian Islamic banks are not disconnected from this debate, and this paper aims to discuss this issue. Design/methodology/approach - For the purpose of assessing the CSR practices of Palestinian Islamic banks, a secondary analysis of the banks’ annual reports was carried out. In addition, 11 structured interviews were conducted with Islamic banks’ practitioners at the decision-making level and with some of the banks’ Sharīʿah board members to gather their views on CSR. These have been analyzed in light of the actual CSR practices disclosed in each bank’s annual reports. Findings - The main research findings suggest that the CSR practice is highly valued by the Palestinian Islamic banks, but it is small and has marginal effects on the community’s socio-economic development. Another important observation from report analysis is that Islamic banks have great potential for expansion, given that the demand for Islamic financial transactions is double of what Islamic banks currently offer. If Islamic banks live up to that opportunity, they could deliver more in CSR practices, which is their ultimate goal according to the majority of the interviewees. Originality/value - Existing literature has presented findings on the CSR of Palestinian corporations in general, but there is no available literature on the CSR practices of Palestinian Islamic banks. This research attempts to fill in the gap by presenting preliminary findings on Palestinian Islamic banks’ CSR practices.

  10. El modelo cubano en la guerrilla guatemalteca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino Martínez-Rebollar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir del enfoque de la integración conceptual propuesto por Gilles Fauconnier y Mark Turner se mostró la importancia del modelo de la Revolución cubana en el primer ciclo revolucionario guatemalteco, que va de 1956 a 1967. Se analizaron los testimonios de los combatientes y un comunicado estatal que muestran la influencia de la Revolución cubana en el surgimiento de tres organizaciones guerrilleras en Guatemala: el Movimiento Revolucionario 13 de Noviembre (MR-13, el Movimiento Revolucionario 20 de Octubre o guerrilla de Concuá y las Fuerzas Armadas Rebeldes (FAR. Se demuestra la influencia que tuvo la Revolución comandada por Fidel Castro tanto en la violencia revolucionaria como en el uso estatal de la fuerza en el país centroamericano.

  11. Reproductive decisions in the lives of West Bank Palestinian women: Dimensions and contradictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pell, Stephanie

    2017-02-01

    Palestinian women have one of the highest fertility rates in the world, averaging 4.38 births per woman. However, Palestinian fertility patterns are distinct from those of other developing nations, in that high fertility rates coexist alongside high levels of education and low levels of infant mortality - both of which have been established elsewhere as predictors of low total fertility rates. This study explores the dimensions and context of the contradictions between fertility predictors and rates, isolating main factors that shape Palestinian reproductive behaviour. Furthermore, while this study addresses factors that influence the high fertility in the Palestinian Territories, it also addresses factors that contribute to the steady decline of this trend. In-depth interviews were conducted with Palestinian women in urban refugee communities and key informant interviews with experts on Palestinian reproductive health. The findings indicate that five factors shape women's reproductive behaviour: (1) the fear of losing one's children in the ongoing conflict; (2) socio-economic factors including poverty and density of space; (3) the marital relationship; (4) religious values; and (5) generational differences. These results highlight the influence of socio-political conditions on reproductive behaviour and the significance of women's agency in manoeuvring their fertility outcomes.

  12. 'Shedding light' on the challenges faced by Palestinian maternal health-care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan-Bitar, Sahar; Narrainen, Sheila

    2011-04-01

    to explore the challenges and barriers faced by Palestinian maternal health-care providers (HCPs) to the provision of quality maternal health-care services through a case study of a Palestinian public referral hospital in the Occupied Palestinian Territory. descriptive qualitative study. The data are from a broader study, conducted in 2005 at the same hospital as part of a baseline assessment of maternal health services. 31 maternal HCPs; nine midwives and 14 nurses and eight doctors. the quality of care provided for women and infants at this Palestinian public hospital is substandard. The maternal HCPs work within a difficult and resource-constrained environment. ISSUES INCLUDE: high workload, poor compensation, humiliation in the workplace, suboptimal supervision and the absence of professional support and guidance. Midwives are perceived to be at the bottom of the health professional hierarchy. there is a need for managers and policy makers to enable maternal HCPs to provide better quality care for women and infants during childbirth, through facilitating the roles of midwives and nurses and creating a more positive and resourceful environment. Palestinian midwives need to increase their knowledge and use evidence-based practices during childbirth. They need to unite and create their own circle of professional support in the form of a Palestinian midwifery professional body. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bits or Shots in Combat? The Generalized Deitchman Model of Guerrilla Warfare

    OpenAIRE

    Kress, Moshe; MacKay, Niall J.

    2013-01-01

    Operations Research Letters, accepted. We generalize Deitchman's guerrilla warfare model to account for trade-off between intelligence ('bits') and firepower ('shots'). Intelligent targeting leads to aimed fire, absence of intelligence leads to unaimed fire, dependent on targets' density. We propose a new Lanchester-type model that mixes aimed with unaimed fire, the balance between these being determined by quality of information. We derive the model's conserved quantity, and use it ...

  14. Mandated to fail? Humanitarian agencies and the protection of Palestinian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Jason; Forte, Claudia Lo

    2013-10-01

    This paper considers the efforts of United Nations and international agencies to address the threats to Palestinian children arising from Israeli occupation. It contains an account of the reasons why agencies have failed, over many years, to prevent systematic violations by the Israeli authorities and settlers. The discussion is organised around two inter-related domains: institutional and political. The paper argues that, in the occupied Palestinian territory (oPt), limitations to the ways in which child protection has been conceptualised and pursued in practice are abundantly evident. Nevertheless, political pressure by Western donor governments serves to constrain an approach to child protection that is more preventative in nature, that addresses more explicitly Israeli violations of international law, and that reflects the experience and aspirations of Palestinian children themselves. Ultimately, therefore, the failure to protect Palestinian children must be seen not only as a result of humanitarian miscalculation but also as a consequence of political strategy. © 2013 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2013.

  15. Differences in the Triglyceride to HDL-Cholesterol Ratio between Palestinian and Israeli Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Ram; Nassar, Hisham; Sinnreich, Ronit; Kark, Jeremy D.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To evaluate differences in the triglyceride to HDL-cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL), thought to be a proxy measure of insulin resistance, between Palestinian and Israeli adults in view of the greater incidence of coronary heart disease and high prevalence of diabetes in Palestinian Arabs. Research Methods A population-based observational prevalence study of cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors in Jerusalem. Participants (968 Palestinians, 707 Israelis, sampled at ages 25-74 years) underwent fasting and 2h post-75g oral challenge plasma glucose determinations. Metabolic risk was assessed using the surrogate index TG/HDL. Sex-specific comparisons were stratified by categories of body mass index and sex-specific waist circumference quartiles, adjusted by regression for age, glucose tolerance status and use of statins. Results Prevalence of overweight and obesity was substantially larger in Palestinians (p = 0.005). Prevalence of diabetes was 2.4 and 4 fold higher among Palestinian men and women, respectively (psexes. Conclusions Palestinians have a higher TG/HDL ratio than Israelis. Notably, this is evident also in young, healthy and normal weight participants. These findings indicate the need to study the determinants of this biomarker and other measures of insulin resistance in urban Arab populations and to focus research attention on earlier ages: childhood and prenatal stages of development. PMID:25635396

  16. A Research on the Determination of Consumer Perceptions Related to Guerrilla Marketing Methods: Sample of Izmir Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Onurlubaş

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In developing technology and differentiating markets, businesses have resorted the way of increasing their competitiveness by taking advantage of new marketing methods in order to stand out in the market. Within this context, companies have started to use different marketing strategies in order to be more effective in the market and to maintain their presence and awareness in different ways. Guerrilla marketing is an important marketing technique that small and medium-sized businesses are using with minimum marketing investments in extraordinary ways at unexpected times to attract attention of the target audience in today's increasingly competitive environment. This study focuses on guerrilla marketing which is an important marketing technique that small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs have applied, using unusual methods, in unexpected times, with minimum marketing investments to attract the attention of target audience in today's increasingly competitive environment. In order to determine the consumer perception about guerrilla marketing methods, a survey was applied to 384 people living in İzmir. Factor analysis was applied to the obtained survey data in SPSS 22 statistics program. Three results were obtained. 'Extraordinary' has been identified as the most important factor. The second important factor is 'Interesting and surprising', and the final factor is 'Communication'. Kolmogorov Smirnov test was conducted to determine which tests should be performed on the sub-dimensions of the scale of Consumer Perception on Guerrilla Marketing Methods (SCPGMM. It was determined that the distribution was not normal and Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney U tests were applied to the sub-dimensions of  SCPGMM. According to the test results, It has been determined that the "Extraordinary" (F1 sub-dimension of the SCPGMM sub-dimensions varies according to gender, age, education and marital status; the "interesting and surprising" (F2 sub-dimension varies

  17. Social Understanding in Israeli-Jewish, Israeli-Palestinian, Palestinian, and Jordanian 5-year-old Children: Moral Judgments and Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenick, Alaina; Killen, Melanie; Lee-Kim, Jennie; Fox, Nathan; Leavitt, Lewis; Raviv, Amiram; Masalha, Shafiq; Murra, Farid; Smadi, Yahia

    2010-11-30

    An empirical investigation was conducted of young Palestinian, Jordanian, Israeli-Palestinian, and Israeli-Jewish children's ( N = 433; M = 5.7 years of age) cultural stereotypes and their evaluations of peer intergroup exclusion based upon a number of different factors, including being from a different country and speaking a different language. Children in this study live in a geographical region that has a history of cultural and religious tension, violence, and extreme intergroup conflict. Our findings revealed that the negative consequences of living with intergroup tension are related to the use of stereotypes. At the same time, the results for moral judgments and evaluations about excluding peers provided positive results about the young children's inclusive views regarding peer interactions.

  18. Well-being and associated factors among adults in the occupied Palestinian territory (oPt).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsha, Nouh; Ziq, Luay; Ghandour, Rula; Giacaman, Rita

    2016-08-30

    The World Health Organization (WHO) incorporated well-being into its definition of health in 1948. The significance given to this concept is due to its role in the assessment of people's quality of life and health. Using the WHO Well-being Index, we estimated well-being among adults and identified selected associated factors in the occupied Palestinian territory (oPt) using data obtained from the National Time Use Survey conducted by the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS) 2012-2013 on a representative sample of persons living in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Univariate and bivariate analyses were conducted among participants 18 years old and above. Multivariate analysis (Regression) was performed with factors found significant in cross-tabulations, using SPSS® version 20. Overall, 33.8 % (2395) of respondents reported low levels of well-being (ill-being). Neither age, nor sex, nor region were found significant in regression analysis. People who were married, working 15 h or more, with a higher standard of living, who reported participating in community, cultural, and social events, or in religious activities reported high levels of well-being. Those who reported regularly following the mass media, or living in Palestinian refugee camps reported low levels of wellbeing. Overall, about one-third of adult Palestinians reported low levels of well-being (ill-being), a finding which in itself requires attention. Marriage, employment, high living standards, community participation, and religious activities were found to be protective against ill-being. Further investigations are required to determine additional causes of ill-being in the oPt, taking into consideration the possible effects of chronic exposure to political violence on subjective well-being.

  19. Are the Guerrillas Gone?: a historical political economy and social analysis of the rise and demise of the Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias Columbianas (FARC), 1964-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Castano, Arturo Herrera; Tarrant, Shane L.

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This thesis looks at how the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) was able to survive and control significant parts of Colombia until relatively recently. It also explains the decline of the FARC as a significant insurgency (and as one of the last, if not the last significant guerrilla organization in the region). While a historical political economy and social analysis of the rise and demise of the Fuerzas Armadas Revolucio...

  20. Queering the occupation : From zionist sexual politics to Palestinian decolonial-queer imaginaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelder, M.L.

    2018-01-01

    Queering the Occupation exposes a gap between the existing critical frameworks that discuss the role of gender and sexual politics in the context of Israel/Palestine and what it calls Palestinian anticolonial-queer critiques. Such critiques emerge from within Palestinian queer communities and offer

  1. Caught in the Middle of Persistent Conflict. The Rights of Palestinian Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J.M. Arts (Karin)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPalestinian children have suffered greatly, whether as a result of numerous conflicts and Israel’s continued belligerent occupation of the occupied Palestinian territory, as a result of discrimination, or due to their prolonged exile. Their plight is a tragic illustration of the failure

  2. Oil Characteristics of Four Palestinian Olive Varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodolini, Enrico Maria; Polverigiani, Serena; Ali, Saed; Mutawea, Mohammed; Qutub, Mayyada; Arabasi, Taysir; Pierini, Fabio; Abed, Mohammed; Neri, Davide

    2017-05-01

    Olive oil represents an important source of income for Palestinian farmers in local, national and international markets. Sometimes, olive oil produced in local climatic conditions, does not achieve the International Olive Council (IOC) trade standards so that international markets are precluded. The oil chemical composition and sensory profile of four Palestinian olive varieties (Nabali Baladi, Nabali Mohassan, Souri and K18) were characterized in 2010 throughout an in situ evaluation. Most of the physicchemical characteristics and the fatty acid composition of the varieties met the International Olive Council trade standards (IOC-TS) for extra virgin olive oils. Values of K 270 for Nabali Baladi and linolenic acid for Souri slightly exceeded the limit. Eicosanoic acid exceeded the IOC-TS limits in the oils of all considered varieties. Among the sterols, the Δ-7-stigmastenol resulted too high for Nabali Baladi and Souri. Sensory profile for the tested varieties showed a reminiscence of tomato or artichoke and light to medium bitter and pungent sensations. Results represent an important baseline reference for further studies about oil composition and quality of the main Palestinian olive germplasm and provide indication of potential critical points to be controlled in order to ensure the full achievement of IOC-TS and access international markets.

  3. Indigenous practices among Palestinians for healing eye diseases and inflammations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Rabia, Aref

    2005-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the state health services in general, and eye care in particular for Palestinian Arabs under the British Mandate (1917-1948). The paper will also discuss the environmental and cultural origins of the prevalence of eye diseases among Palestinian Arabs. The second part of the research describes in detail indigenous practices of traditional medicine for healing trachoma and other eye diseases, inflammation that were prevalent in Mandatory Palestine.

  4. Mental health, social distress and political oppression: the case of the occupied Palestinian territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacaman, Rita; Rabaia, Yoke; Nguyen-Gillham, Viet; Batniji, Rajaie; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Summerfield, Derek

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a brief history of Palestinian mental health care, a discussion of the current status of mental health and health services in the occupied Palestinian territory, and a critique of the biomedical Western-led discourse as it relates to the mental health needs of Palestinians. Medicalising distress and providing psychological therapies for Palestinians offer little in the way of alleviating the underlying causes of ongoing collective trauma. This paper emphasises the importance of separating clinical responses to mental illness from the public health response to mass political violation and distress. Palestinian academic research reframes the mental health paradigm utilising an approach based on the broader framework of social justice, quality of life, human rights and human security. Recognising social suffering as a public mental health issue requires a shift in the emphasis from narrow medical indicators, injury and illness to the lack of human security and human rights violations experienced by ordinary Palestinians. Such a change in perspective requires a parallel change in mental health policies from short-term emergency humanitarian aid to the development of a sustainable system of public mental health services, in combination with advocacy for human rights and the restoration of political, historical and moral justice.

  5. Interview with Ramadan Shallah, Secretary General, Palestinian Islamic Jihad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Atran

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available On December 14-16, 2009, a delegation from the World Federation of Scientists, including the authors, traveled to Damascus to interview senior Syrian and Palestinian leaders from Syria and various Palestinian factions, including the members of the leadership of Hamas and the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. The objective was to gain insight from field interviews into how to further advance scientific understanding of cultural and political conflict in order to create new theoretical and practical frameworks for negotiation and cooperation.

  6. A community-based qualitative study of intergenerational resilience with Palestinian refugee families facing structural violence and historical trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atallah, Devin G

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore resilience processes in Palestinian refugee families living under Israeli occupation for multiple generations. Qualitative methods, critical postcolonial theories, and community-based research approaches were used to examine intergenerational protective practices and to contribute to reconceptualizations of resilience from indigenous perspectives. First, the researcher developed a collaborative partnership with a nongovernmental organization (NGO) in a UN refugee camp in the occupied West Bank. Then, with the support of this NGO, semistructured group and individual interviews were completed with a total of 30 participants ( N = 30) ranging in age from 18 to 90 years old coming from 5 distinct extended family networks. Using grounded theory situational analysis, the findings were organized in a representation entitled Palestinian Refugee Family Trees of Resilience (PRFTR). These findings explain resilience in terms of three interrelated themes: (a) Muqawama/resistance to military siege and occupation; (b) Awda/return to cultural roots despite historical and ongoing settler colonialism; and (c) Sumoud/perseverance through daily adversities and accumulation of trauma. The study findings shed light on how Palestinian families cultivate positive adaptation across generations and highlight how incorporating community-based perspectives on the historical trauma and violent social conditions of everyday life under occupation may be critical for promoting resilience. Results may be relevant to understanding the transgenerational transmission of trauma and resilience within other displaced communities internationally.

  7. Profiles of refugee and non-refugee Palestinians from the West Bank and Gaza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-qudsi, S S

    2000-01-01

    Relying on demographic and labor surveys which the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics collected in 1995, this article investigates the profile of West Bank and Gaza refugees. Refugees are better educated and have higher fertility than non-refugee Palestinians, but the difference is small. However, they have a significantly lower participation rate, a higher unemployment rate and a higher incidence of arrests and work stoppage than the corresponding rates among non-refugee Palestinians. A smaller proportion of Palestinians commute to work into the Israeli labor market and refugees earn lower wages than nonrefugees. Returns to investment in education are small for both groups. High fertility among refugees imposes a future challenge for policy makers in terms of resources required for the provision of appropriate education and health facilities. Employing future labor market entrants is another serious policy challenge.

  8. The Palestinian-Israeli conflict: a disease for which root causes must be acknowledged and treated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelaish, Izzeldin; Arya, Neil

    2017-09-01

    Fourth of June 2017 marks a half century of the Six Day War, three decades post the first Intifada, seven decades post the Palestinian Nakba (catastrophe), the 70th anniversary of Israeli Independence, and one century post the Balfour Declaration. Both Palestinians and Israelis remain occupied. Five million Palestinians remain sick with hopelessness and despair rendered by years of subjugation. Israelis are stuck, occupied by their historical narrative and transcendental fears. Over two decades have passed since the Oslo accords, which both Israelis and Palestinians hoped might be a historic turning point. This was supposed to put an end to the chronic disease of protracted conflict, allowing Palestinians to enjoy freedom in an independent state side by side to Israel and Israelis to live within peaceful, secure borders with the respect of the international community. Palestinians were ready to give up 78% of their land. Free Palestine would be in the remaining 22%, with East Jerusalem as the capital and a satisfactory solution to the Right of Return. The patient's diagnosis and seeking therapy has been delayed by greed, ignorance, ideology, violence and fear. Accurate diagnosis is needed to successfully heal the wounds and cure this chronic disease.

  9. Unprotected Palestinians in Egypt since 1948

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    £E: Egyptian pound. FMRS: Forced Migration Refugee Studies Program. GAP: ...... Generally, our research team located Palestinians by word of mouth. After finding the ...... I then applied for a tourist visa to Egypt and I got one for two weeks.

  10. International Reaction to the Palestinian Unity Government

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morro, Paul

    2007-01-01

    .... The international sanctions have not driven Hamas from power, and instead, some assert they may have provided an opening for Iran to increase its influence among Palestinians by filling the void...

  11. Addressing violence against Palestinian women | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-02-04

    Feb 4, 2011 ... ... in Gaza City while her husband lives — with her four grown children — in Egypt. ... This project is a first: neither the media, government officials, nor even ... Amal Hamad of the Palestinian Ministry of Social Affairs admits that ...

  12. Palestinian Education and the Debate Over Textbooks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pina, Aaron D

    2005-01-01

    .... interests in the region. From their perspective, a diverse, balanced curriculum may serve as a benchmark toward greater peace, democratization, and the development of a vibrant civil society in the Palestinian Territories...

  13. Rebelión, guerrilla y tributo: los indios en Charcas durante el proceso de independencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soux, María Luisa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the strategic ways of Indian participation during the process of independence in Charcas (actual Bolivia, between 1809-1825. It shows that Indian population basically fought to keep their land and to secure the autonomy of their own authorities, during this political crises. In this sense, they established alliances, conspired, organized uprisings and openly involved themselves in guerrilla movements molded by their own political culture.

    El artículo analiza las formas de participación indígena en el proceso hacia la independencia en Charcas (hoy Bolivia, entre 1809 y 1825. Los indios buscaron fundamentalmente mantener la propiedad de sus tierras y la independencia de sus autoridades frente a la crisis generalizada y la incertidumbre; para ello, establecieron alianzas, conspiraron, organizaron sublevaciones y participaron abiertamente en la lucha guerrillera siguiendo pautas propias de su cultura política.

  14. Simulation of Demographic Change in Palestinian Territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumour, M. A.; El-Astal, A. H.; Shabat, M. M.; Radwan, M. A.

    Mortality, birth rates and retirement play a major role in demographic changes. In most cases, mortality rates decreased in the past century without noticeable decrease in fertility rates, leading to a significant increase in population growth. In many poor countries like Palestinian Territories the number of births has fallen and the life expectancy increased. In this paper we concentrate on measuring, analyzing and extrapolating the age structure in Palestine a few decades ago into the future. A Fortran program has been designed and used for the simulation and analysis of our statistical data. This study of demographic change in Palestine has shown that Palestinians will have in future problems as the strongest age cohorts are the above-60-year olds. We therefore recommend the increase of both the retirement age and female employment.

  15. Health-related quality of life of Palestinian refugees inside and outside camps in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alduraidi, Hamza; Waters, Catherine M

    Jordan hosts more Palestinian refugees than any country in the world. Conditions under which people in a community live influence their health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The purpose of this descriptive comparative cross-sectional study was to compare HRQOL of Palestinian refugees in Jordan who live inside camps with those who live outside camps. Participants, recruited from inside the Baqa'a camp (n = 86) and the surrounding Abu Nsair community (n = 91), completed the World Health Organization Quality of Life Brief questionnaire. There were disparities in education and social relations and environment HRQOL related to income and residency, but not gender, among refugees. Refugees living inside camps, particularly if poorer, fared worse than refugees living outside camps. Enhanced programs and policies may be needed to improve HRQOL, education, and socioeconomics for camp refugees. Nursing's perspective on refugee health could make an important contribution to humanitarian efforts and health diplomacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A cross-sectional study of the availability and pharmacist's knowledge of nano-pharmaceutical drugs in Palestinian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assali, Mohyeddin; Shakaa, Ali; Abu-Hejleh, Sabaa; Abu-Omar, Reham; Karajeh, Nareman; Ajory, Nawal; Zyoud, Saed; Sweileh, Waleed

    2018-04-05

    Nanomedicine is the medical application of nanomaterials that may have an infinite size with the range less than 100 nm. This science has provided solutions to many of the current limitations in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Therefore, the pharmacist's knowledge and awareness of nano-pharmaceutical drugs will increase their availability in the market, and will improve the patient's compliance to their drug therapy. This study aimed to determine the availability of nano-pharmaceutical drugs in Palestinian hospitals and evaluate the extent of pharmacist's knowledge about them. A cross-sectional study design questionnaire was used to determine the availability of nano-pharmaceutical drugs based on the database of the ministry of health in the Palestinian hospitals (governmental, private and non- governmental organizations). Moreover, the knowledge of these nano-pharmaceutical drugs among pharmacists working in Palestinian hospitals was assessed based on developed questionnaire from the literature of the pharmaceutical formulations and nano-formulations. The variables were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 22). Fifty six pharmacists from 27 hospitals in the West bank completed the survey. The results regarding the availability of nano-pharmaceutical drugs indicated only eight available in hospitals with a frequency range 0-39.3%. Moreover, pharmacist's knowledge in the pharmaceutical formulations was better than that in nano-formulations. The availability of nano-pharmaceutical drugs in Palestinian hospitals was not adequate due to the lack of various nano-pharmaceutical drugs. The knowledge among pharmacists regarding nano-pharmaceutical drugs should be improved by providing courses in nanomedicine during the undergraduate pharmacy programs.

  17. On the interaction between media frames and individual frames of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Kempf

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports on a media effects research experiment in which six groups of participants were asked to read and evaluate differently framed news articles about two scenarios: a Palestinian attack on Israel and an Israeli military operation against Palestinians. The experimental results show that media peace frames of violent events in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict are generally regarded by the German public as more comprehensible, less biased, more balanced and less partisan than media war frames of the same events. The specific ways in which recipients respond to the frames, however, depend on their prior knowledge of the conflict, on their positioning to the conflict and on their sensitivity to the ambivalence of war and peace for both Israel and the Palestinians. This supports the hypothesis that neither news selection nor framing have uniform effects on public opinion.

  18. Nationalist Narratives, Boundaries and Social Inclusion/Exclusion in Palestinian Camps in South Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincham, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how in the contexts of exile and statelessness and in the absence of Palestinian institutions, such as schools, Palestinian youth in south Lebanon construct their identities through nationalist narratives of shared history, kinship, culture and religion. Although these narratives help to construct shared notions of…

  19. 78 FR 12585 - Waiver of Restriction on Providing Funds to the Palestinian Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... certify that it is important to the national security interests of the United States to waive the...-05 of February 8, 2013--Waiver of Restriction on Providing Funds to the Palestinian Authority.... 2013-05 of February 8, 2013 Waiver of Restriction on Providing Funds to the Palestinian Authority...

  20. Socioeconomic status and chronic disease in Palestinians living in and outside refugee camps in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonassen, Marie; Shaheen, Amira; Duraidi, Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    differed between Palestinians living in and outside refugee camps. Methods: The study was based on representative samples of Palestinians living in the occupied Palestinian territory (West Bank and Gaza Strip), aged 25 years and older, collected by the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics in 2006...

  1. The Palestinian Wall – two perspectives. Jehuda Amichai and Mahmud Darwish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Roszak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is a reflection on the wall being built since 2002 between Israel and the Palestinian Authority. The paper presents this structure, its history and how it is reflected in poetry (Yehuda Amichai and Mahmud Darwish, reportage (Raja Shehadeh and film. Artists’ initiatives once focussed on the Berlin Wall and more recently on the initiatives related to the Palestinian wall prompt the question how the media report on the present situation of the excluded. It is worth bearing in mind that memory or post-memory of our European wall and ghettos does not shape the discourse about the Middle-East. The preferred method of talking about walls has become geocritics (based more broadly on cultural and postcolonial studies; it is significant that the foundations of the theory of postcolonialism were put forward by a Palestinian – Edward Said.

  2. El marketing de guerrilla: street marketing, viral marketing y análisis de campañas

    OpenAIRE

    Pedraza de Juan, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    En el siguiente trabajo se nos presentan las técnicas del marketing de guerrilla, específicamente street marketing y viral marketing. Asimismo se da a conocer un análisis del marketing, su historia y cómo afecta a nuestro día de hoy. Grado en Publicidad y Relaciones Públicas

  3. Moral othering at the checkpoint: The case of Israeli soldiers and Palestinian civilians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grassiani, E.

    2015-01-01

    In many ways the Palestinian civilian is the ultimate or significant ‘other' for the Israeli soldier serving in the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT). (S)he is the one who will be stopped, checked, controlled and at times arrested. (S)he is the one who negotiates, pleads, begs and sometimes

  4. The vulnerability of Palestinian refugees from Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Morrison

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available While Syrian nationals may eventually return to their home country, the future for Palestinians from Syria is increasingly uncertain. Meanwhile they are more vulnerable than, and treated worse than, most other refugees from the Syrian conflict.

  5. A Theoretical Exploration of Lawrence of Arabia’s Inner Meanings on Guerrilla Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    the earliest days it has been a tactic of war used by every class of man against those defined as invaders and oppressors. Hannibal Barca‟s early...His ruses were so constant, his stratagems so subtle that the Romans felt constantly insecure, off- balance, and on edge. Hannibal was stymied by...Quintus Fabius Maximus, who turned the Roman army into virtually a guerrilla force. His forces shadowed Hannibal ‟s marches, harassed his foragers, cut

  6. Un Laboratorio de Guerra en Antioquia: Desmitificando la Victoria Paramilitar y la Desaparición de las Guerrillas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerónimo Ríos

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los aspectos menos investigados sobre el conflicto armado colombiano es la coincidencia espacio-temporal de guerrillas y grupos paramilitares. Es decir, cómo afectó a los niveles de presencia y activismo guerrillero la aparición de un actor como el paramilitarismo. Al respecto, la consideración tan predominante como, en pocas ocasiones, poco contrastada, pasa por atribuir una derrota a las guerrillas allí donde el paramilitarismo obtuvo un mayor arraigo. Tomando como estudio de caso el departamento de Antioquia, tradicionalmente, un escenario de gran presencia tanto guerrillera como paramilitar, se busca analizar la afectación de este último a las dinámicas de la violencia y obtener así una aproximación más sólida a una de las aristas más intrincadas del conflicto armado y que requiere de trabajos de mayor profundidad e investigación.

  7. Moral Disengagement Mechanisms and Armed Violence. A Comparative Study of Paramilitaries and Guerrillas in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    VILLEGAS DE POSADA, CRISTINA; FLOREZ, JORGE; ESPINEL, NICOLÁS

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Moral disengagement mechanisms are strategies to make immoral actions appear moral. This study explores their usage by two Colombian illegal armed groups (guerrillas and paramilitaries), as well as differences between the groups. The analysis covered 367 communiqués issued in 55 months. A deductive content analysis revealed that the most used mechanisms were: attribution of blame, euphemistic labeling, moral justification and labeling with undesirable names. Results showed difference...

  8. Moral Disengagement Mechanisms and Armed Violence. A Comparative Study of Paramilitaries and Guerrillas in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    María Cristina Villegas de Posada; Jorge Flórez; Nicolás Espinel

    2018-01-01

    Moral disengagement mechanisms are strategies to make immoral actions appear moral. This study explores their us-age by two Colombian illegal armed groups (guerrillas and paramilitaries), as well as differences between the groups. The analysis covered 367 communiqués issued in 55 months. A deductive content analysis revealed that the most used mechanisms were: attribution of blame, euphemistic labeling, moral justification and labeling with undesirable names. Results showed differences betwee...

  9. Cumulative Effects of Exposure to Violence on Posttraumatic Stress in Palestinian and Israeli Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubow, Eric F.; Boxer, Paul; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Landau, Simha; Dvir, Shira; Shikaki, Khalil; Ginges, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    We examine cumulative and prospective effects of exposure to conflict and violence across four contexts (ethnic-political, community, family, school) on posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms in Palestinian and Israeli youth. Interviews were conducted with 600 Palestinian and 901 Israeli (Jewish and Arab) children (ages 8, 11, and 14) and their…

  10. The European Union's governance practices in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pace, Michelle

    an end to Israeli settlement activity and of helping bring about a Palestinian state with Palestinians living alongside Israelis in peace and security. The academic discussion on the EU’s involvement in this conflict has centred upon issues of EU actorness, its capabilities and expectations...... and / or effectiveness, concluding that the EU has been weak and / or ineffective in this context. This paper suggests that Bang’s notion of governance as political communication can help us nuance better the EU’s endless efforts at attempting a solution to this intractable conflict. Such a focus on political...

  11. Guerrilla Hospitality: Urban Decay, Entrepreneurship\\ud and the ‘Ruin’ Bars of Budapest

    OpenAIRE

    Lugosi, Peter; Lugosi, K.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the development\\ud and evolution of rom bars and focuses on three\\ud themes:\\ud 1 the relationship\\ud between urban\\ud regeneration and\\ud rom venues\\ud 2 the entrepreneurial\\ud forces that\\ud have perpetuated\\ud the rom phenomenon\\ud 3 the role of art\\ud and culture in\\ud these venues.\\ud It is argued that\\ud the key characteristics\\ud of the rom\\ud phenomenon are\\ud best captured by the\\ud notion of ‘guerrilla hospitality’, which is discussed in\\ud the final part of th...

  12. Social Media Rhetoric of the Transnational Palestinian-led Boycott, Divestment, and Sanctions Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Hitchcock

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article uses rhetorical analysis to determine the effectiveness and characteristics of social media usage by the Boycott, Divestment, and Sanctions (BDS movement targeting Israel. Hundreds of local student, community, and religious groups in the United States use social media platforms such as Twitter and Facebook to promote BDS discourse and organize local BDS-related events. Even though social media platforms are important for an international movement composed of a very dispersed population, with millions of Palestinians also living under military occupation, the history of traditional media use during the First Intifada also suggests that social media are not necessary for mobilizing Palestinians at the local level. A preliminary rhetorical analysis of several BDS-related Facebook pages and Twitter accounts reveals that the BDS movement’s social media usage functions similarly in some ways to other contemporary mass movements by facilitating on-the-ground actions and delivering useful information to supporters. BDS movement social media discourse, however, does not establish the same level of emotional connection or interactivity with audiences as some other recent movements have, but these limitations can be partly explained by the unique political, material, and rhetorical constraints of the situation.

  13. Scholarships bring hope to poor Palestinian women | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-22

    Oct 22, 2010 ... Their unemployment rate hovers around 40%, and poverty is common. ... Palestinian women obtain a university degree and an escape from poverty. ... "In the Ivory Coast, when a woman leaves home to give birth, her relatives ...

  14. El caso de Guadalupe Salcedo y las guerrillas del Llano entre 1949-1957 como una respuesta a la Violencia Bipartidista

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Pinilla, Blanca Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Este trabajo realiza un análisis de las acciones guerrillas del Llano y de Guadalupe Salcedo entre 1949-1957 a partir de los repertorios de acción colectiva violenta que emplearon, basándose en los postulados de Charles Tilly.

  15. Palestinian-Israeli Scenario Planning - Phase II | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    As currently foreseen, neither the two-state nor the one-state solution offers much hope of resolving the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. The Scenario Planning Program of the Strategic Assessments Initiative (SAI) aims to launch a deeper examination of what a sustainable solution requires by shifting the debate from the ...

  16. Palestinian Refugee Research Policy Papers | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    EASF) aimed to support Canada's role in the multilateral peace process in the Middle East focusing on the issue of Palestinian refugees. EASF closed in March 2008, although IDRC has continued to finance some key follow-up activities and is ...

  17. Teaching Clinical Social Work under Occupation: Listening to the Voices of Palestinian Social Work Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaliari, Efrosini; Berzoff, Joan; Byers, David S.; Fareed, Anan; Berzoff-Cohen, Jake; Hreish, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    The authors were invited to teach clinical social work in the Palestinian West Bank. In order to teach, we designed a study exploring how 65 Palestinian social work students described the psychological and social effects of working under occupation. Students described social stressors of poverty, unemployment, lack of infrastructure, violence,…

  18. Operation «Brother’s Keeper» in Context of the Palestinian-Israeli Standoff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Mihailovich Morozov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the Gaza Strip radical movement HAMAS is the most dangerous opponent for the State of Israel in the Palestinian arena. In recent years most attention of the world community has been focused on the events in the Gaza Strip. This attention is caused by the dynamics of standoff and the scale of events occurred. During the period after authority setting in the Palestinian enclave by HAMAS movement Israel carried out a series of large-scale military operations. These were «Cast Lead», «Pillar of Defense» and «Protective Edge». However for better understanding of dynamics of the conflict between Israelis and Palestinians it is necessary to pay equal attention to confrontation both in the Gaza Strip and West Bank. In the article the authors study the events of June 2014 that were a part of the permanent standoff in the West Bank. In June 2014 after abduction of the three teenagers by radicals Israel carried out the operation «Brother's Keeper» which preceded the large-scale operation «Protective Edge». The actions of Israelis aimed at weakening the infrastructure of HAMAS. During the operation in the West Bank Israel used considerable forces. Israelis caused a painful blow to HAMAS. The results of the operation «Brother's Keeper» suggested that the radicals of the West Bank may get developed underground infrastructure and developed infrastructure for production of rockets. The events of summer 2014 in zone of the Palestinian- Israeli conflict showed that escalation may spread from one part of the Palestinian land to another.

  19. Returning to ourselves: Palestinian complementary healers in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popper-Giveon, Ariela; Weiner-Levy, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    Studies of traditional healers in various cultures describe their initiation into the healing profession as a climax that constructs their professional and personal identity. Literature emphasizes the healers' intense association with the culture in which they work, as reflected in the initiation narratives that healers in various cultures recount. In this article we reveal unique initiation stories and identity formation from Palestinian nonconventional healers in Israel who described a cross-cultural journey: After studying healing traditions of foreign cultures and on returning to their own cultural environment, they developed a unique and complex combination of healing values and traditions. We examine the stories of these healers, whose personal and professional identities are affected by cultural, political, and social contexts. We note the blending of healing traditions and practices, and the changes in identity, assessing them against cultural processes that many Palestinians in Israel have been undergoing over the past few decades.

  20. Justification, Perception of Severity and Harm, and Criminalization of Wife Abuse in the Palestinian Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M.; Wilson, Rula M.; Naqvi, Syed Agha M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of Palestinian adults toward different dimensions of wife abuse. A cross-sectional survey, using a combination of self-administered questionnaires and interviews, was conducted among a systematic random sample of 624 adult Palestinian men and women from the West Bank and Gaza Strip (18 years…

  1. Second Gender Profile on the Palestinian Occupied Territories 1999 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The first gender profile was compiled by the Institute of Women's Studies ... and published under the title, Towards Gender Equality in the Palestinian Territories. ... inequality, promote greater gender parity, and empower women and girls.

  2. 31 CFR 594.513 - Transactions with entities under the control of the Palestinian President and certain other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Palestinian Authority Presidency, including only the Office of the President, Presidential Security, General Intelligence Apparatus, Governors and Governorate staff, the Attorney General's Office, the Palestine... Information Services); (2) The Palestinian Judiciary, including the Higher Judicial Council; (3) Members of...

  3. Occupational Hazards : Providing Human Security in the Palestinian West Bank in the context of Israeli Occupation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.

    2013-01-01

    Palestinian in the West Bank are facing a situation that can be characterised as a double-barrelled occupation. On the one hand there are the Israeli military forces - omnipresent throughout and around the West Bank - and on the other there is the Palestinian Authority, which overtly cooperates with

  4. Palestinian Adolescents Coping with Trauma (PACT) - Phase III ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Palestinian Adolescents Coping with Trauma (PACT) - Phase III. Violent conflict has been repeatedly shown to result in severe, long-term social and mental health problems for exposed children and adolescents. While in the developed world, it is generally accepted that individuals seek professional one-on-one ...

  5. Feelings and perceptions about the relationship among young palestinians and young israeli women

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Maria Casarotti Peirano; EST

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this essay is based on a personal concern and interest in young women. Being in Israel/Palestine my interest gained a fundamental and regional orientation's sit to illustrate this point: the Israeli State celebrates sixty years of its foundation while the Palestinians commemorate sixty years of Nakba - Nakba is an Arabic word that means catastrophe or disaster and it is used to designate the Palestinian exodus due to the Arab-Israeli war in 1948. Both sides are suffering from this ...

  6. Population genetics of Leishmania infantum in Israel and the Palestinian Authority through microsatellite analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amro, Ahmad; Schönian, Gabriele; Al-Sharabati, Mohamed Barakat; Azmi, Kifaya; Nasereddin, Abedelmajeed; Abdeen, Ziad; Schnur, Lionel F; Baneth, Gad; Jaffe, Charles L; Kuhls, Katrin

    2009-04-01

    Multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT) was used to investigate the genetic variation among 44 Israeli and Palestinian strains of L. infantum isolated from infected dogs and human cases to determine their population structure and to compare them with strains isolated from different European countries. Most of the Israeli and Palestinian strains had their own individual MLMT profiles; a few shared the same profile. A Bayesian model-based approach and phylogenetic reconstructions based on genetic distances inferred two main populations that were significantly different from the European strains: population A, containing 16 strains from places in the West Bank and 11 strains from central Israel;and population B, containing 7 strains from northern Israel, 9 from central Israel, and one Palestinian strain from the Jenin District.Geographically distributed sub-populations were detected within population B. These results demonstrate similar disease dynamics in Israel and the Palestinian Authority. The re-emergence of VL in the case of population A is more likely owing to increased dog and human contact with sylvatic cycles of parasitic infection rather than to recent introduction from the older foci of northern Israel. The latter scenario could be true for population B found in few foci of Central Israel. (c) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Social ecology of resilience and Sumud of Palestinians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Mohammad; Hannigan, Ben; Jones, Aled

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide an overview of theoretical perspectives and practical research knowledge in relation to 'resilience', the resilience of Palestinians in particular and the related concept of 'Sumud'. 'Sumud' is a Palestinian idea that is interwoven with ideas of personal and collective resilience and steadfastness. It is also a socio-political concept and refers to ways of surviving in the context of occupation, chronic adversity, lack of resources and limited infrastructure. The concept of 'resilience' has deep roots, going back at least to the 10th century when Arabic scholars suggested strategies to cope with life adversity. In Europe, research into resilience extends back to the 1800s. The understanding of resilience has developed over four overlapping waves. These focus on individual traits, protective factors, ecological assets and (in the current wave) social ecological factors. The current wave of resilience research focuses on the contribution of cultural contextualisation and is an approach that is discussed in this article, which draws on Arabic and English language literature located through a search of multiple databases (CINAHL, British Nursing Index, ASSIA, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and EMBASE). Findings suggest that 'Sumud' is linked to the surrounding cultural context and can be thought of as an innovative, social ecological, approach to promoting resilience. We show that resilience is a prerequisite to 'Sumud', meaning that the individual has to be resilient in order to stay and not to leave their place, position or community. We close by pressing the case for studies which investigate resilience especially in underdeveloped countries such as Palestine (occupied Palestinian territories), and which reveal how resilience is embedded in pre-existing cultural contexts.

  8. The Museological Side of the Conflict: Israeli Exhibition of Terror and the Palestinian Museum of Prisoners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonatan Mendel

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay deals with a section of somewhat unfamiliar terrain within the battlefield of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict: museum sites. The focus is on two museological case studies, the Palestinian Museum of Prisoners in Abu Dis and the Israeli Captured Material Display (also known as the Exhibition of Terror in Ramat Hasharon. Through an analysis of the artistic, educational and political characteristics of both sites, one can observe the complex internal and external power relations of museums located within an ongoing conflict zone. The essay will showcase the role these institutions play in a tenacious struggle for representation amidst efforts to gain the hearts and minds of the world’s public opinion while simultaneously battling for national and communal memory. It will show that museums both serve as and perpetuate model behavior and perceptions of a political consciousness and its enemy and, in doing so, help shape political discourse. It also suggests that the study of Israeli and Palestinian museological sites can make a significant contribution to the understanding of Israeli and Palestinian collective fears, phobias, political perceptions, and desires.

  9. Active surveillance for asymptomatic colonisation by multidrug-resistant bacteria in patients transferred to a tertiary care hospital in the occupied Palestinian territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Adham Abu; Daoud, Ayman; Zaid, Sawsan; Sammour, Sajida; Belleh, Maram; Daifi, Refqa

    2018-02-21

    Active surveillance is important in infection control programmes, allowing the detection of patients colonised with multi-drug resistant organisms and preventing the spread of multi-drug resistant organisms. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of asymptomatic colonisation with multi-drug resistant organisms and the prevalence of each organism in patients transferred to An-Najah National University Hospital, Nablus, occupied Palestinian territory. Patients transferred from other hospitals between January and December, 2015, were screened at time of admission by taking nasal, groin, and axillary swabs. Swabs were cultured and assessed for the presence of multi-drug resistant organisms (extended spectrum β-lactamase producers, Pseudomonas aeroginosae, Acinetobacter baumannii, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococcus, and carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae. Of the 822 screened patients, 265 (32%) had infections with multi-drug resistant organisms. 394 isolates of multi-drug resistant organisms were obtained: 131 (33%) isolates were extended spectrum β-lactamase producers, 119 (30%) isolates were P aeroginosae, 26 (9%) isolates were A baumannii, 94 (24%) isolates were methicillin-resistant S aureus, 13 (3%) isolates were vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and one (<1%) isolate was carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae. We identified a high prevalence of asymptomatic colonisation with multidrug-resistant bacteria in transferred patients. These findings emphasise the need for a national strategy to combat the spread of multi-drug resistant organisms in the occupied Palestinian territory. An-Najah National University. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Lessons learned: A comparative study of the integration experiences of Armenian and Palestinian refugees in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Figure 12. Socio-economic Satisfaction Items. ...........................................................68 Figure 13. Domains of Integration...religious authorities, provided assistance to the incoming refugees until the United Nations could secure financial and practical aid.186 The Palestinian...given to Lebanese workers in each respective country. In this case, the stateless Palestinian refugees cannot work in job sectors that are subject to

  11. Fusiles y plegarias: guerra de guerrillas en Cundinamarca, Boyacá y Santander, 1876-1877

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz Mesa, Luis Javier

    2004-01-01

    Resumen: Este libro estudia el fenómeno de la guerra de guerrillas durante la Guerra civil de 1876-1877 en el centro oriente de los Estados Unidos de Colombia, es decir, en los Estados de Cundinamarca, Boyacá y Santander, considerando los ritmos de la contienda en los demás Estados de la Unión colombiana y su larga duración desde las Guerras de independencia. Esta guerra fue el resultado de un período de 14 años de confrontación (1863- 1876) entre el liberalismo radical gobernante y el partid...

  12. Time to end violence against Palestinian women and girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FMR editors

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Domestic violence is an all too common response to the pressures of life in crowded refugee camps and communities living under occupation. The Palestinian Authority (PA has failed to establish a framework to respond to violence against women and girls.

  13. [Medical waste management in healthcare centres in the occupied Palestinian territory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khatib, Issam A

    2007-01-01

    Medical waste management in primary and secondary healthcare centres in the occupied Palestinian territory was assessed. The overall monthly quantity of solid healthcare waste was estimated to be 512.6 tons. Only 10.8% of the centres completely segregated the different kinds of healthcare waste and only 15.7% treated their medical waste. In the centres that treated waste, open burning was the main method of treatment. The results indicate that Palestinians are exposed to health and environmental risks because of improper disposal of medical waste and steps are needed to improve the situation through the establishment and enforcement of laws, provision of the necessary infrastructure for proper waste management and training of healthcare workers and cleaners.

  14. A Research on the Determination of Consumer Perceptions Related to Guerrilla Marketing Methods: Sample of Izmir Province

    OpenAIRE

    Ebru Onurlubaş

    2017-01-01

    In developing technology and differentiating markets, businesses have resorted the way of increasing their competitiveness by taking advantage of new marketing methods in order to stand out in the market. Within this context, companies have started to use different marketing strategies in order to be more effective in the market and to maintain their presence and awareness in different ways. Guerrilla marketing is an important marketing technique that small and medium-sized businesses are usi...

  15. The Impact of Parental Detention on the Psychological Wellbeing of Palestinian Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Shehadeh

    Full Text Available Since 1967, the Palestinian Occupied Territories are marked by a political conflict between Palestinians and Israel. During this conflict, about one fifth of the Palestinian population has been detained; about one quarter of these are parents. Although we know that father's incarceration might impact their children's psychological wellbeing, little is known about the impact of father's imprisonment on young children (under 11 years old, and when the incarceration is framed in contexts of political conflict. Therefore, this study aimed at gaining insight into the impact of parental detention on young children's psychological wellbeing, and the impact of witnessing the detention process itself.Based on the list of imprisoned Palestinian men with children living in the West Bank, a group of 79 (3- to 10-years old children was randomly composed. Above, through schools and health centers, a comparison sample of 99 children who didn't experience imprisonment of a family member was selected. Mothers of these children completed two cross-culturally validated questionnaires on their children's psychological wellbeing, the UCLA-PTSD-Index and the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ.Results showed higher levels of PTSD and general mental health problems associated with father's capturing. Above, when the children watched the arrest process of their fathers, scores still increased further. Younger children tended to show higher SDQ scores, and children living in villages reported higher posttraumatic stress scores compared to children living in urban areas or refugee camps. Little gender differences were found.This study shows the important impact of parental detention on the psychological wellbeing for young children and urges for more psychological care and support for family members--in particular children--of detainees.

  16. The Impact of Parental Detention on the Psychological Wellbeing of Palestinian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehadeh, Amer; Loots, Gerrit; Vanderfaeillie, Johan; Derluyn, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    Since 1967, the Palestinian Occupied Territories are marked by a political conflict between Palestinians and Israel. During this conflict, about one fifth of the Palestinian population has been detained; about one quarter of these are parents. Although we know that father's incarceration might impact their children's psychological wellbeing, little is known about the impact of father's imprisonment on young children (under 11 years old), and when the incarceration is framed in contexts of political conflict. Therefore, this study aimed at gaining insight into the impact of parental detention on young children's psychological wellbeing, and the impact of witnessing the detention process itself. Based on the list of imprisoned Palestinian men with children living in the West Bank, a group of 79 (3- to 10-years old) children was randomly composed. Above, through schools and health centers, a comparison sample of 99 children who didn't experience imprisonment of a family member was selected. Mothers of these children completed two cross-culturally validated questionnaires on their children's psychological wellbeing, the UCLA-PTSD-Index and the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Results showed higher levels of PTSD and general mental health problems associated with father's capturing. Above, when the children watched the arrest process of their fathers, scores still increased further. Younger children tended to show higher SDQ scores, and children living in villages reported higher posttraumatic stress scores compared to children living in urban areas or refugee camps. Little gender differences were found. This study shows the important impact of parental detention on the psychological wellbeing for young children and urges for more psychological care and support for family members--in particular children--of detainees.

  17. Meanings of Education under Occupation: The Shifting Motivations for Education in Palestinian Refugee Camps in the West Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pherali, Tejendra; Turner, Ellen

    2018-01-01

    Despite being a protracted refugee crisis that entails international debates and controversies, discussions about Palestinian education have frequently sidelined the perspectives, needs and priorities of the Palestinian refugee population. Drawing upon a qualitative study in the West Bank and engaging with theoretical ideas of Johan Galtung, Paulo…

  18. Fear in the Palestinian Classroom: Pedagogy, Authoritarianism and Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affouneh, Saida; Hargreaves, Eleanore

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on pictures, written sentences and interview contributions, this article explores some Palestinian children's perspectives in order to gain insights into some children's classroom fear in the light of its potential influence on learning. After presenting some existing research indicating a negative relationship between fear and young…

  19. U.S. Policy in the Israeli-Palestinian Dispute

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Project (0704-0188) Washington, DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE September 2017 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s...policy, Israel, Palestine, peace process, Oslo Accords, qualitative military edge, Middle East, strategic interests, U.S. strategy, Hamas, Palestinian...role. vi THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK vii TABLE OF CONTENTS I. MAJOR RESEARCH QUESTION

  20. Emerging Adulthood among Palestinian Minority in Israel: The Relation between Perceived Career Barriers, Future Orientation and Career Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajna, Sami

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the relation between perceived career barriers, future orientation and career decisions among young Palestinian-Israeli youth. The study employs a theoretical model that links perceived career barriers and career decisions via variables of future orientation. Three hundred eighty-eight young Palestinian-Israeli women (73.20%)…

  1. Long-Term Policy Options for the Palestinian Economy

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2002-01-01

    In light of deteriorating economic relations between Israel and the West Bank and Gaza, and suspended peace negotiations, it is timely at this juncture between the lapsed Interim Period and a final status agreement to examine past experience with a view to assessing the policy choices facing Palestinian policymakers in the future. The post-Oslo experience points to failed economic normaliz...

  2. Gendering Palestinian Dispossession : Evaluating Land Loss in the West Bank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryan, Caitlin

    Despite increasing attention to Palestinian territorial dispossession, there is inadequate attention paid to how this dispossession is gendered in its legitimising discourses and practices. Inattention to gender results in a failure to understand the power relations at play in the processes through

  3. Dental Caries Status, Socio-Economic, Behavioral and Biological Variables among 12-Year-Old Palestinian School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgan-Cohen, H D; Bajali, M; Eskander, L; Steinberg, D; Zini, A

    2015-01-01

    There are currently inadequate data regarding the prevalence of dental caries and its associated variables, among Palestinian children. To determine the current prevalence of dental caries and related variables, among Palestinian children in East Jerusalem. A stratified sample of 286 East Jerusalem Palestinian children was selected, employing randomly chosen sixth grade clusters from three pre-selected socio-economic school groups. Dental caries was recorded according to WHO recommendations. Salivary flow, pH, buffer capacity and microbial parameters, were recorded according to previously employed methodologies. The mean level of caries experience, by DMFT, was 1.98 ± 2.05. This level was higher than those found among Israeli children, but lower than several other Middle Eastern countries. In uni-variate analysis, significant associations were revealed between caries and school categories, which indicated lower, middle and higher socio-economic position(SEP), mothers' employment, home densities, dental visits, tooth brushing, Streptococci mutans (SM), Lactobacilli (LB), and saliva pH. According to a linear logistic regression model, children learning in lower SEP schools, with higher SM levels and more acidic saliva, had a higher chance of experiencing dental caries. These findings should be considered in the planning of services and dental health care programs for Palestinian children.

  4. Watershed: The Role of Fresh Water in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    They offer immediate solutions to water problems in Israel and the Occupied Palestinian Territories. ... problems of water supply and water quality, and regional conflicts over water. ... New project to improve water management in the Sahel.

  5. The Palestinians: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    with its hybrid Islamist/Palestinian nationalist views. In 2009, Hamas even produced its first feature-length film celebrating the life and death of...status to the PLO in 1974, declaring that Zionism is a form of racism in 1975, and broadening PLO rights as “observer” in the Assembly in 1998.138 The...138 In 1988, the Assembly redesignated the PLO as Palestine and in 1991 repealed the “Zionism equals racism ” resolution. The Institute for Palestine

  6. Adapting the Critical Thinking Assessment Test for Palestinian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basha, Sami; Drane, Denise; Light, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Critical thinking is a key learning outcome for Palestinian students. However, there are no validated critical thinking tests in Arabic. Suitability of the US developed Critical Thinking Assessment Test (CAT) for use in Palestine was assessed. The test was piloted with university students in English (n = 30) and 4 questions were piloted in Arabic…

  7. Palestinian and Jewish Israeli-born immigrants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Y; Tyree, A

    1994-01-01

    "This article considers both Arab and Jewish emigration from Israel to the United States, relying on the 5 percent Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) of the 1980 U.S. census. Using the ancestry and language questions to identify Jews and Arabs, we found that over 30 percent of Israeli-born Americans are Palestinian-Arab natives of Israel, the West Bank, and Gaza Strip. While the Jews are of higher educational levels, hold better jobs and enjoy higher incomes than their Arab counterparts, both groups have relatively high socioeconomic characteristics. Both have high rates of self-employment, particularly the Palestinian-Arabs, who appear to serve as middlemen minority in the grocery store business in the cities where they reside. The fact that nearly a third of Israeli-born immigrants are Arabs accounts for the occupational diversity previously observed of Israelis in America but does not account for their income diversity as much as does differences between early and recent immigrants." excerpt

  8. An analysis of cross sectional survey data of stunting among Palestinian children less than five years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Nahida H; Halileh, Samia

    2013-09-01

    The object of this study is to report on determinants of stunting, defined as low height for age, among children in the occupied Palestinian territories. Using 2006-2007 cross sectional survey data collected by the Palestine Central Bureau of Statistics and using multivariate mixed model techniques for logistic regression, the relationships of stunting to characteristics of 9,051 Palestinian children less than 5 years of age living in the Palestinian territories were estimated. These characteristics included demographic and social characteristics of the child, geographic region, type of location (urban, rural, refugee camp) and food insecurity for each governorate. Listed in order of the greater contribution to the explained variation in stunting, children with lower birth weight (P refugee camps have lower rates of stunting than urban areas; however the difference does not reach statistical significance. The relationship between the child's gender and stunting is not statistically significant. Lack of food security is directly linked to stunting. The continuing incidence of food insecurity means that the deleterious effects of under-nutrition will continue to affect the children of Palestine. Removing the avoidable causes of food insecurity in the occupied Palestinian territories will alleviate under-nutrition and its deleterious effects.

  9. Validity of Palestinian University Students' Responses in Evaluating Their Instructors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ahmad M.

    1986-01-01

    A study of Palestinian university students' evaluations of their teachers' instruction examined the possible biasing effect of their sex, academic class, or expected grade in the course. The results are examined in the context of Arab and Third World higher education and the need to establish standards of evaluation. (MSE)

  10. Health risk behaviours of Palestinian youth: findings from a representative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Peter; Al-Khammash, Umaiyeh; Shaheen, Mohammed; Brown, Ryan; Goutam, Prodyumna; Karam, Rita; Linnemayr, Sebastian; Massad, Salwa

    2018-05-03

    There is little systematic information about health risk behaviours among youth in Middle Eastern countries, leaving public health authorities unprepared to deal with emerging public health threats at a time of major social change. The Palestinian Youth Health Risk study investigates patterns of risk behaviours among Palestinian youth, their perceptions of the risks and benefits of such behaviours, and the relationship of exposure to violence with mental health and engagement in risk behaviours. We conducted a representative survey among 2500 individuals aged 15-24 years in the West Bank and East Jerusalem, permitting reliable comparison across sex and rural-urban divisions. A stratified 2-stage random sample was drawn from the 2007 population census, with strata formed by crossing the 12 governorates with urban, rural and refugee camp locations. Within strata, 208 survey clusters were sampled with probability proportional to size. Within each cluster, 14 households with youth of the appropriate age were sampled. Among youth aged 20-24 years, 22.4% of males and 11.6% of females reported trying alcohol; 10.5% of males and 4.3% of females reported trying drugs. Almost one quarter of unmarried youth aged 20-24 years reported any sexual experience. Tobacco use is high, even among younger youth (45.4% of males and 21.2% of females aged 15-19 smoke). Risk behaviours are higher among males, older youth and in urban areas and refugee camps. While smoking is of particular concern, prevention outreach for all behaviours should be directed at subgroups and areas identified as highest risk. Copyright © World Health Organization (WHO) 2018. Some rights reserved. This work is available under the CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/igo).

  11. Moral Disengagement Mechanisms and Armed Violence. A Comparative Study of Paramilitaries and Guerrillas in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Villegas de Posada

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Moral disengagement mechanisms are strategies to make immoral actions appear moral. This study explores their us-age by two Colombian illegal armed groups (guerrillas and paramilitaries, as well as differences between the groups. The analysis covered 367 communiqués issued in 55 months. A deductive content analysis revealed that the most used mechanisms were: attribution of blame, euphemistic labeling, moral justification and labeling with undesirable names. Results showed differences between groups only in the number of press releases, but not in frequency or type of the mechanisms used. The findings are analyzed in the discussion section in relation to the theory of dissonance, extreme violence and motives for joining illegal armed groups.

  12. Internal displacement and health among the Palestinian minority in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoud, Nihaya; Shankardass, Ketan; O'Campo, Patricia; Anderson, Kim; Agbaria, Ayman K

    2012-04-01

    Long term health impacts of internal displacement (ID) resulting from political violence are not well documented or understood. One such case is the ID of 300,000-420,000 Palestinian citizens of Israel and their descendants during the Nakba of 1948 (Palestinian Catastrophe). We aim to document the long term health impacts of this ID. We draw on data collected in 2005 from a nationwide random sample of 902 individuals aged 30-70. Research participants were interviewed in person after being selected through a multistage sampling procedure. About 24% of participants reported that either they or their families had been internally displaced. Palestinian internally displaced persons (IDPs), that is, those who were forcibly displaced and dispossessed from their homes and lands during the Nakba and its aftermath, as well as their families and descendants, and who reside within the current borders of Israel, had an odds ratio of 1.45 (95% CI = 1.02-2.07) for poor self-rated health (SRH) compared to non-IDPs after controlling for demographic, socioeconomic and psychosocial factors. No difference was found between IDPs and non-IDPs in limiting longstanding illness following control for confounders. Low socioeconomic position and chronic stress were significantly related to ID and to SRH. Our findings suggest adverse long term health impacts of the Nakba on the IDPs when compared to non-IDPs. We propose that these disparities might stem from IDPs' unhealed post-traumatic scars from the Nakba, or from becoming a marginalized minority within their own society due to their displacement and loss of collective identity. Given these long term health consequences, we conclude that displacement should be addressed with health and social policies for IDPs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Identity, Conflict, and Coexistence: Life Stories of Israeli and Palestinian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammack, Phillip L.

    2006-01-01

    Assuming a cultural psychology approach, this study examines the life stories of 30 Israeli and Palestinian adolescent participants in a coexistence program. Prior to participation, youth identity was characterized by polarization in which an ingroup ideology is internalized with little understanding of the outgroup's ideological perspective.…

  14. Adapted Traditions: The Case of Traditional Palestinian Women Healers in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariela Popper-Giveon

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines transformations in the roles and treatment practices of traditional Palestinian women healers in Israel. Comparing narratives of women healers residing in Jewish-Arab mixed cities in central Israel with those of their counterparts in the Bedouin community of the Negev reveals that traditional healing has not disappeared as a result of modernization but rather has transformed. Urban women healers are abandoning treatment of physical problems in favor of addressing life hardships; they distance themselves from problems whose cause and treatment are considered natural and prefer those perceived as derived from supernatural causes and treated through supernatural, magical and religious means. Despite these transformations, traditional Palestinian women healers appear as agents of preservation and conservatism, a role that imbues them with a central position in their community. Hence, their place is currently secured and expected to remain so as processes of modernization and acculturation increase in intensity. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0902119

  15. Social Forces Sustaining the Israeli-Palestinian Tensions: A Dynamical Psychology Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Lawrence Michaels

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Israeli-Palestinian conflict remains one of the most deeply entrenched in the world. While there is great knowledge about numerous individual factors contributing to this conflict’s persistence, much of the information is fragmented and segregated into different disciplines. This article seeks to integrate an array of literature using a dynamic systems perspective to examine how social – as opposed to political – forces contribute to ongoing tensions. The first part describes the dynamical systems perspective, focusing on how intractable conflicts emerge as a result of interlinking factors that anchor the social system in patterns that resist change. The second part explores the Israeli-Palestinian conflict in terms of specific social forces contributing to the conflict’s persistence. These include leadership issues, economic inequalities poverty, youth disenfranchisement, and population distribution. Then the contribution maps how the discussed social factors interrelate to reinforce the ongoing tensions and addresses how small-scale approaches may circumvent the volatile, entrenched patterns of hostility.

  16. Psychological Factors Associated with Emotional Distress among Palestinian Arabs from East Jerusalem Accessing Psychiatric Care in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakash, Ora; Nagar, Maayan; Levav, Itzhak; Danilovich, Eli; Abu-Tair, Mamoun; Podolsky, Grigory

    2016-01-01

    The Palestinian population residing in East Jerusalem is characterized by high rates of poverty and unemployment and is subject to discrimination in various forms, including infrastructure of mental health services. Little is known about the help seeking needs and practices of East Jerusalem residents. We examined socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of a consecutive sample Palestinian residents from East Jerusalem (N=50) who accessed a specially assigned psychiatric clinic in Israel. In addition, we examined the psychological factors associated with emotional distress among these service-users upon entry to care. Participants completed a survey in Arabic that included a socio-demographic questionnaire and measures assessing emotional distress, perceived exposure to discrimination and social support, and mental health stigma. Participants reported high levels of emotional distress. Female gender, low socioeconomic status, higher perceived exposure to discrimination and higher perceived social support were associated with increased emotional distress. Findings add to the scarce body of knowledge on specific mental health characteristics of East Jerusalem Palestinian residents.

  17. Tracking Drop-out Students in Palestinian Refugee Camps in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hroub, Anies

    2015-01-01

    This research paper examines the perceptions of students on the school drop-out problem in Palestinian refugee camps in Lebanon regarding (a) the social and economic causes associated with the phenomenon of school drop-out; (b) the educational policies and practices used in UNRWA schools and their relationship to student drop-out; and (c) the role…

  18. Communication barriers in the debate between supporters and critics of Israeli Palestinian policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Kempf

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on findings of the Anti-Semitism and the Criticism of Israel (ASCI Survey, this paper examines difficulties hindering constructive dialogue between supporters and opponents of Israeli Palestinian policy. While none of the two sides wants to stand idly by watching injustice being committed before their eyes, hardliners on both sides hold diametrically opposed beliefs that make the slightest deviation from their doctrines be experienced as double standards, delegitimation and demonization. Since Natan Sharanski mistakenly declared these 3 Ds to be unique features of anti-Israeli anti-Semitism, these communication difficulties have increased even more and are not only suited to destroy the ability of Jews to engage with a peace settlement between Israel and the Palestinians, but in the end also to obstruct the struggle against anti-Semitism.

  19. Radical Ground: Israeli and Palestinian activists and joint protest against the Wall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pallister-Wilkins, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper will seek to address a new and vibrant development within the field of Israeli-Palestinian socio-politics and social movement studies. By interrogating the received wisdom surrounding social movements as agents bearing collective claims as expressed by Charles Tilly (2004), this paper

  20. Environmental vulnerability as a legacy of violent conflict: a case study of the 2012 waste crisis in the Palestinian gathering of Shabriha, South Lebanon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stel, Nora; van der Molen, I.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, South Lebanon faced a solid waste management crisis that particularly affected Palestinian refugee communities, which were excluded from municipal service mandates. By means of a case study of the Palestinian community living in Shabriha, this article demonstrates that the vulnerability to

  1. Governing the Israeli-Palestinian peace process: The European Union Partnership for Peace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    İşleyen, B.

    2015-01-01

    This study applies a governmentality approach to analyse the European Union’s civil society promotion in the context of the Israeli-Palestinian peace process through the EU’s Partnership for Peace instrument. Contrary to a widespread conviction in earlier academic research, it argues that the EU

  2. Maternal monitoring, adolescent disclosure, and adolescent adjustment among Palestinian refugee youth in Jordan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmad, L.; Smetana, J.; Klimstra, T.A.

    2015-01-01

    The role of parenting (adolescent-perceived maternal solicitation of information and control), and child-driven processes (adolescent disclosure and secrecy) in parental knowledge of adolescents' activities, norm-breaking, and anxiety were examined among 498 poor Palestinian youth (M = 15 years)

  3. Dieting behaviours, obesity and predictors of dieting among female college students at Palestinian universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayyari, W D; Henry, L J; Jones, C

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore dieting practices of female Palestinian college students. Participants ( = 410) were selected by cluster-sampling from 4 Palestinian universities. A regression model investigated dieting using: body mass index (BMI); body satisfaction; self-esteem; dress style; exercise; sociocultural factors; residence; strength of faith; perceived impact of weight on social interaction; and number of previous times dieting. Significant predictors of dieting were low body satisfaction, number of previous dieting times, perceived media pressure, regular exercising, BMI, and perceived impact of weight on social interaction, The model accounted for 45% of the variance in dieting. Body satisfaction was not significantly correlated with self-esteem or strength of faith, which indicates that "internalization of thinness" may be becoming evident among populations in certain developing countries, as in "Western" countries.

  4. Configuración de la identidad de desertores de la guerrilla Colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Andrés Patiño Orozco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Al tiempo en que se desarrolla el conflicto armado entre organizaciones guerrilleras, paramilitares y fuerzas del Estado, funciona en Colombia un programa de reincorporación a la vida civil de personas que pertenecieron a los grupos armados ilegales; el objetivo de este trabajo fue comprender de qué forma se configura la identidad de jóvenes desertores de la guerrilla. Para tal efecto, el referencial teórico-epistemológico usado fue la psicología social construccionista. El diseño general fue cualitativo, con un enfoque metodológico interpretativo. Se realizaron entrevistas en profundidad con cada uno de los participantes y un grupo de discusión. Finalmente, las narrativas fueron analizadas con el apoyo del programa Atlas-ti para análisis de datos cualitativos. Los resultados permitieron comprender las transformaciones en la identidad a partir de las dimensiones que la soportan: el cuerpo, el nombre propio, las relaciones con los otros, la consciencia de sí y la memoria.

  5. Palestinian Continuing Education under Occupation:Images of Distress and Possibilities for Hope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Howard

    2010-01-01

    This study examines how aspects of a militarily enforced occupation have influenced continuing education at Palestinian universities. It focuses on three influences: the impact of the politics of occupation on the history of continuing education; the effect of travel restriction, violence, and a damaged economy on participation; and the influence…

  6. Americans and Palestinians judge spontaneous facial expressions of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayyal, Mary H; Russell, James A

    2013-10-01

    The claim that certain emotions are universally recognized from facial expressions is based primarily on the study of expressions that were posed. The current study was of spontaneous facial expressions shown by aborigines in Papua New Guinea (Ekman, 1980); 17 faces claimed to convey one (or, in the case of blends, two) basic emotions and five faces claimed to show other universal feelings. For each face, participants rated the degree to which each of the 12 predicted emotions or feelings was conveyed. The modal choice for English-speaking Americans (n = 60), English-speaking Palestinians (n = 60), and Arabic-speaking Palestinians (n = 44) was the predicted label for only 4, 5, and 4, respectively, of the 17 faces for basic emotions, and for only 2, 2, and 2, respectively, of the 5 faces for other feelings. Observers endorsed the predicted emotion or feeling moderately often (65%, 55%, and 44%), but also denied it moderately often (35%, 45%, and 56%). They also endorsed more than one (or, for blends, two) label(s) in each face-on average, 2.3, 2.3, and 1.5 of basic emotions and 2.6, 2.2, and 1.5 of other feelings. There were both similarities and differences across culture and language, but the emotional meaning of a facial expression is not well captured by the predicted label(s) or, indeed, by any single label.

  7. Cultural factors affecting the differential performance of Israeli and Palestinian children on the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josman, Naomi; Abdallah, Taisir M; Engel-Yeger, Batya

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive performance is essential for children's functioning and may also predict school readiness. The suitability of Western standardized assessments for cognitive performance among children from different cultures needs to be elaborated. This study referred to the existence of differences in cognitive performance between and within children from the middle-east-Israeli and Palestinian on the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA), by elucidating cultural effects on the construct validity of the LOTCA using factor analysis. Participants included 101 Israeli and 125 Palestinian children from kindergarten, first and second grade who underwent the LOTCA. Factor analysis revealed four factors underlying items on the LOTCA, explaining the differences found between Israeli and Palestinian children in most of LOTCA subtests. Culture may affect the construct validity of the LOTCA and may explain the difference in performance between both cultural groups. LOTCA's validity as well as the validity of other instruments on which norms and decisions regarding the child's development and performance are made should be further evaluated among children from different cultural backgrounds. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Israel Fires But “Palestinian Claim to Citizenship Has Never Been Stronger”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pace, Michelle

    2018-01-01

    On March 30, which happened to be Good Friday – a Christian holiday commemorating the crucifixion of Jesus and His death at Calvary — Palestinians in the Gaza Strip set off for their “Great March of Return”. Their plan: walk, chant, and sit meters from an electric fence surrounding the greatest p...

  9. 3 CFR - Waiver of Restriction on Providing Funds to the Palestinian Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... hereby certify that it is important to the national security interests of the United States to waive the... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Waiver of Restriction on Providing Funds to the...-23 of July 8, 2009 Waiver of Restriction on Providing Funds to the Palestinian Authority Memorandum...

  10. Hebrew and Palestinian Arabic in Israel: Linguistic Frameworks and Speech-Language Pathology Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uziel-Karl, Sigal; Kanaan, Fadi; Yifat, Rachel; Meir, Irit; Abugov, Netta; Ravid, Dorit

    2014-01-01

    This article is the result of cooperation between Israeli Jewish and Arab psycholinguists and speech-language disorders specialists. It presents two facets of the Israeli communications disorders scene: (1) a review of some linguistic, psycholinguistic, and sociolinguistic facets of Hebrew and Palestinian Arabic, two Semitic languages whose…

  11. Facebook, Political Narrative, and Political Change: A Case Study of Palestinian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenderes, Amanda M.

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation I aim to advance political narrative theory by exploring the use of political narrative on Facebook and the possibility for Facebook to be used among Palestinian youth for political change. To examine the concepts of political narrative and political change, I developed a model for political change based on the changing…

  12. Dietary patterns and physical activity among Palestinian female schoolchildren in East Jerusalem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha Nubani-Husseini

    2016-04-01

    Acknowledgments: The authors thank the participating schools, the Palestinian Ministry of Education, the UNRWA Office of Education and Jerusalem Municipality for facilitating fieldwork. Their gratitude also goes to Mr. Radwan Qasrawi (Al-Quds University, Dr. Marrio Baras and Dr. Deena Jaffeh (Hebrew University for statistical support, and  to Mrs. Suzy Daher for editing.

  13. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus complications among palestinians with T2DM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abu Al-Halaweh, Ahmad; Davidovitch, Nadav; Almdal, Thomas Peter

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: To assess the prevalence of microvascular and macrovascular complications of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) among Palestinians. METHODS: 1308 diagnosed T2DM attending four main Primary Health Care Clinics on the Southern West Bank of Palestine examined by a Mobile Diabetes Clinic team. All diabetes...

  14. The Impact of Structured Activities among Palestinian Children in a Time of Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughry, Maryanne; Ager, Alastair; Flouri, Eirini; Khamis, Vivian; Afana, Abdel Hamid; Qouta, Samir

    2006-01-01

    Background: There is growing evidence of the impact on children's well-being of exposure to political conflict in such settings as the Palestinian territories. This study examined the impact of child-focused interventions involving structured activities, supported by provision of equipment and training of facilitators. The focus of interventions…

  15. The impact of political news on German students' assessments of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Kempf

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Employing the design of a prior experiment by Peleg & Alimi (2005, the present study examines how differently framed texts about the Knesset's approval of the Israeli-Palestinian 'Road Map' influence German students' assessments of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. The results of the study confirmed our theoretical hypothesis that information presented in political news reports influences more than just recipients' assessments of the specifically mentioned issues. In addition, it also affects their assessments of issues related only via the structures of the mental models into which they integrate information. Moreover, the influence of political news is not uniform, but rather varies with differences in the mental models recipients have previously formed. These a priori mental models, therefore, can be more powerful predictors of media effects than variables such as recipients' political orientations, their personal views or the relevance they attribute to a conflict.

  16. Public concerns about and perceptions of solid waste dump sites and selection of sanitary landfill sites in the West Bank, Palestinian territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khatib, Issam A; Abu Hammad, Ahmad; Sharkas, Othman A; Sato, Chikashi

    2015-04-01

    Palestinian inhabitants have disposed of their solid wastes at open dumpsites over the past 40 years without an adequate solid waste management (SWM) plans. Recently, the Palestinian Authority initiated SWM planning to establish controlled sanitary landfills, based on a participatory approach. The purpose of this study was to assess public concerns about existing solid waste dumpsites and public perceptions of sanitary landfill site selection. The study will also take into consideration the effect of diverse social, economic, and environmental related factors of the inhabitants on sitting suitable landfill sites in three Palestinian districts in the West Bank, namely, "Nablus," "Salfit," and "Ramallah and Al-Bireh." The results of this study showed that 64.9% of the sample population are aware of the problems and potential impacts associated with random dumpsites, and 41.6% think that they are suffering from the dumps. Among the environmental, socioeconomic, and political factors, the environmental factors, air pollution in particular, are thought be the most important consideration in selecting a landfill site. The "fairness in selecting a landfill site" was chosen to be one of the most important socioeconomic factors, possibly as a reaction to the Israeli occupation and subsequent land use restrictions in the West Bank, Palestinian territory.

  17. 76 FR 59491 - Waiver of Restriction on Providing Funds to the Palestinian Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ..., the ``Act''), I hereby certify that it is important to the national security interests of the United States to waive the provisions of section 7040(a) of the Act, in order to provide funds appropriated to..., 2011 Waiver of Restriction on Providing Funds to the Palestinian Authority Memorandum for the Secretary...

  18. The impact of smoking on expected lifetime with and without chronic disease among Palestinian men in the West Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Jonassen, Marie; Shaheen, Amira; Duraidi, Mohammed; Qalalwa, Khaled; Jeune, Bernard

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to estimate life expectancy and the average lifetime with and without chronic disease among male never smokers, ex-smokers and smokers living in the West Bank of the occupied Palestinian territory. The study used a life table for the West Bank male population and Danish relative risk estimates for death for smokers and ex-smokers vs. never smokers and utilized data from the Palestinian Family Survey 2010. Expected lifetime with and without chronic disease was estimated and the contributions from the mortality and the morbidity effect to smoking related difference in average lifetime with and without chronic disease were assessed by decomposition. In the West bank 40% of the male population are smokers. Life expectancy of 15-year-old Palestinian men who would never start smoking was 59.5 years, 41.1 of which were expected to be without chronic disease. Ex-smokers could expect 57.9 years of remaining lifetime, 37.7 years of which without disease. For lifelong heavy smokers (> 20 cigarettes per day), the expected lifetime was reduced to 52.6 years, of which 38.5 years were without chronic disease. Of the total loss of 6.9 years of life expectancy among heavy smokers, the mortality effect accounted for 2.5 years without and 4.4 years with disease, whereas the morbidity effect was negligible. The high prevalence of smoking causes a considerable loss of life years and lifetime without chronic disease. We recommend the Palestinian health authorities to enforce the anti-smoking law.

  19. Effects of armed conflict on access to emergency health care in Palestinian West Bank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Maren Johanne Heilskov; Kjaeldgaard, Anne-Lene; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    , delay in access to hospital, and course of hospital contact. SETTING: Three hospital emergency departments in Bethlehem and Nablus, in the occupied Palestinian West Bank, during one week in each hospital. PARTICIPANTS: All patients seeking health care in the three hospitals during the study period...

  20. The impact of smoking on expected lifetime with and without chronic disease among Palestinian men in the West Bank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Jonassen, Marie; Shaheen, Amira

    2018-01-01

    population and Danish relative risk estimates for death for smokers and ex-smokers vs. never smokers and utilized data from the Palestinian Family Survey 2010. Expected lifetime with and without chronic disease was estimated and the contributions from the mortality and the morbidity effect to smoking related...... among heavy smokers, the mortality effect accounted for 2.5 years without and 4.4 years with disease, whereas the morbidity effect was negligible. Conclusions: The high prevalence of smoking causes a considerable loss of life years and lifetime without chronic disease. We recommend the Palestinian...... health authorities to enforce the anti-smoking law....

  1. 77 FR 33947 - Waiver of Restriction on Providing Funds to the Palestinian Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... is important to the national security interests of the United States to waive the provisions of section 7040(a) of the Act, in order to provide funds appropriated to carry out Chapter 4 of Part II of... April 25, 2012 Waiver of Restriction on Providing Funds to the Palestinian Authority Memorandum for the...

  2. 75 FR 19535 - Waiver of Restriction on Providing Funds to the Palestinian Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... is important to the national security interests of the United States to waive the provisions of section 7040(a) of the Act, in order to provide funds appropriated to carry out Chapter 4 of Part II of... April 7, 2010 Waiver of Restriction on Providing Funds to the Palestinian Authority Memorandum for the...

  3. The effect of smoking on the healthy life expectancy of Palestinian men in the West Bank: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Jonassen, Marie; Shaheen, Amira; Duraidi, Mohammed; Qalalwa, Khaled; Jeune, Bernard

    2018-02-21

    The high prevalence of smoking (40%) in men living in the West Bank of the occupied Palestinian territory is a major challenge for the Palestinian health authorities. The aim of this study was to estimate life expectancy and the average lifetime with and without chronic disease in men living in the West Bank who had never smoked, were ex-smokers, or were smokers. We used a life table for the male population in the West Bank and Danish relative risk estimates for death for smokers and ex-smokers versus never smokers and data from the 2010 Palestinian Family Survey. We estimated expected life time with and without chronic disease, and the contributions from the mortality and morbidity effects to smoking-related differences in average lifetime with and without chronic disease were assessed by decomposition. The life expectancy of a Palestinian man aged 15 years who would never start smoking was 59·5 years, of which 41·1 years (95% CI 40·3-41·9) were expected to be without chronic disease. Ex-smokers could expect 57·9 years of remaining life time, 37·7 years (35·9-39·4) of which would be without chronic disease. For life-long heavy smokers, the expected lifetime was 52·6 years, of which 38·5 years (37·3-39·7) would be without chronic disease. Of the total loss of 6·9 years of life expectancy in heavy smokers, the mortality effect accounted for 2·5 years without disease and 4·4 years with disease, whereas the morbidity effect was negligible. The morbidity component of the decomposition accounted for 1·7 years with disease for moderate smokers and 2·9 years without disease for ex-smokers. The high prevalence of smoking causes a considerable loss of life-years and life time without chronic disease. We recommend that the Palestinian health authorities enforce an anti-smoking law. None. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 75 FR 75849 - Waiver of Restriction on Providing Funds to the Palestinian Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... important to the national security interests of the United States to waive the provisions of section 7040(a) of the Act, in order to provide funds appropriated to carry out Chapter 4 of Part II of the Foreign... October 6, 2010 Waiver of Restriction on Providing Funds to the Palestinian Authority Memorandum for the...

  5. Political Economy of Aid in Conflict: An Analysis of Pre- and Post-Intifada Donor Behaviour in the Occupied Palestinian Territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Taghdisi Rad

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite conflict-affected economies being among the largest recipients of aid worldwide, the theoretical frameworks and the political inclinations of donors make it very unlikely for their assistance programmes to have a lasting developmental impact in conflict zones. This paper highlights the key shortcomings in donors’ theoretical frameworks, policies and approaches when dealing with a situation of conflict – suggesting that such shortcomings in some cases could even contribute towards a prolonging of the conflict itself. A pre- and post-Intifada analysis of donor activities in the occupied Palestinian territories is presented in order to demonstrate the stark shifts in donor funding in response to the rise of conflict: from development spending to institution building and governance reforms. It is argued that this shift was not only out of tune with the emerging needs of the Palestinian economy, but also, in some cases, helped worsen the impact of the conflict on the Palestinian economy – yet, nevertheless, it helped to justify the donors’ continued presence in one of the most politically-charged conflicts in the world.

  6. Israeli and Palestinian Teachers' Self-Reported Motivations for Teaching Religion: An Exploratory Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilheany, Terence

    2013-01-01

    The teaching of religion raises opportunities to reduce prejudicial beliefs and attitudes among students. In this study, 30 religion, history, and civics teachers in Israel, East Jerusalem, and the Palestinian Territories were interviewed about their motivations for teaching religion. This study found that teachers expressed a variety of…

  7. Quality of life, human insecurity, and distress among Palestinians in the Gaza Strip before and after the Winter 2008-2009 Israeli war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoudeh, Weeam; Hogan, Dennis; Giacaman, Rita

    2013-11-01

    This study investigates changes in the quality of life (QoL) of Gaza Palestinians before and after the Israeli winter 2008-2009 war using the World Health Organization's WHOQOL-Bref; the extent to which this instrument adequately measures changing situations; and its responsiveness to locally developed human insecurity and distress measures appropriate for context. Ordinary least squares regression analysis was performed to detect how demographic and socioeconomic variables usually associated with QoL were associated with human insecurity and distress. We estimated the usual baseline model for the three QoL domains, and a second set of models including these standard variables and human insecurity and distress to assess how personal exposure to political violence affects QoL. No difference between the quality of life scores in 2005 and 2009 was found, with results suggesting lack of sensitivity of WHOQOL-Bref in capturing changes resulting from intensification of preexisting political violence. Results show that human insecurity and individual distress significantly increased in 2009 compared to 2005. Results indicate that a political domain may provide further understanding of and possibly increase the sensitivity of the instrument to detect changes in the Qol of Palestinians and possibly other populations experiencing intensified political violence.

  8. When we are the violent: The Chechen Islamist guerrillas' discourse on their own armed actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Tarín Sanz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the strategic profile of the discourse with which wars are narrated has been reinforced. This discourse has also varied in the light of a recent – and alleged – peace culture permeating Western societies. Whereas the war discourse in Russia during the Second Russian-Chechen War has been widely studied, this has not been the case of the rhetoric of the Chechen Islamist guerrillas. The aim of this paper is to contribute to bridging this gap in the academic literature on the North Caucasus, employing to this end a critical discourse analysis (CDA of a selection of texts posted by the Kavkaz Center (KC news agency. On the basis of this analysis, it can be concluded that one of the main discursive strategies revolved around the construction of an “us” embodying the Chechen victims of the initial aggression in a conflict provoked by the Russian “other”.

  9. Differences in rates and odds for emergency caesarean section in six Palestinian hospitals: a population-based birth cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, Katariina; Hassan, Sahar; Fosse, Erik; Lieng, Marit; Zimmo, Kaled; Anti, Marit; Sørum Falk, Ragnhild; Vikanes, Åse

    2018-01-01

    Objective To assess the differences in rates and odds for emergency caesarean section among singleton pregnancies in six governmental Palestinian hospitals. Design A prospective population-based birth cohort study. Setting Obstetric departments in six governmental Palestinian hospitals. Participants 32 321 women scheduled to deliver vaginally from 1 March 2015 until 29 February 2016. Methods To assess differences in sociodemographic and antenatal obstetric characteristics by hospital, χ2 test, analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis test were applied. Logistic regression was used to estimate differences in odds for emergency caesarean section, and ORs with 95% CIs were assessed. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was the adjusted ORs of emergency caesarean section among singleton pregnancies for five Palestinian hospitals as compared with the reference (Hospital 1). Results The prevalence of emergency caesarean section varied across hospitals, ranging from 5.8% to 22.6% among primiparous women and between 4.8% and 13.1% among parous women. Compared with the reference hospital, the ORs for emergency caesarean section were increased in all other hospitals, crude ORs ranging from 1.95 (95% CI 1.42 to 2.67) to 4.75 (95% CI 3.49 to 6.46) among primiparous women. For parous women, these differences were less pronounced, crude ORs ranging from 1.37 (95% CI 1.13 to 1.67) to 2.99 (95% CI 2.44 to 3.65). After adjustment for potential confounders, the ORs were reduced but still statistically significant, except for one hospital among parous women. Conclusion Substantial differences in odds for emergency caesarean section between the six Palestinian governmental hospitals were observed. These could not be explained by the studied sociodemographic or antenatal obstetric characteristics. PMID:29500211

  10. Characterization of Theileria equi genotypes in horses in Israel, the Palestinian Authority and Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketter-Ratzon, Dafna; Tirosh-Levy, Sharon; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Saar, Tal; Qura'n, Lara; Zivotofsky, Doni; Abdeen, Ziad; Baneth, Gad; Steinman, Amir

    2017-06-01

    Equine theileriosis caused by Theileria equi is endemic in the Middle East, where it causes a severe disease as well as widespread subclinical infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diversity of T. equi genotypes in Israel and the neighboring Palestinian Authority and Jordan. Blood samples from 355 horses from Israel, the Palestinian Authority and Jordan were tested for the prevalence of T. equi DNA. Two hundred and fourteen (60%) were found positive for T. equi infection by PCR. Of those, the 18S rRNA (1458bp) and the EMA-1 (745bp) genes of T. equi were sequenced from 15 horse samples that represent Israel's geographical distribution together with four samples from the Palestinian Authority and two from Jordan. The results were used for genotype characterization and phylogenetic analysis of T. equi in the equine population in Israel and its surroundings. Three 18S rRNA genotype clades were found in Israel (A, C and D) with clade D being the most prevalent and included all four isolates from the PA. In contrast, the EMA-1 gene showed little diversity with all sequences clustering in the same clade apart from one Jordanian sequence. Results suggest that although the Israeli horse population is small and relatively confined geographically, it is probable that the genetic variability, which was found among Israeli horses, is a result of introduction of horses from other countries. It also suggests that the EMA-1 gene is probably not a good target for the evaluation of variance in T. equi populations. Characterization of the different genotypes prevalent in a certain region is important in order to map out the intra-species sequence heterogeneity of the parasite, which is needed in order to develop new diagnostic tools and vaccines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. The quality of reports of medical and public health research from Palestinian institutions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarqouni, Loai; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen Me; Elessi, Khamis; Obeidallah, Mohammad; Bjertness, Espen; Chalmers, Iain

    2017-06-09

    Over the past decade, there has been an increase in reports of health research from Palestine, but no assessment of their quality. We have assessed the quality of reports of Palestinian health research and factors associated with it. This is a systematic review. We searched Medline and Scopus for reports of original research relevant to human health or healthcare authored by researchers affiliated with Palestinian institutions and published between January 2000 and August 2015 inclusive. We used international guidelines to assess report quality, classifying as adequate those with ≥50% of items completely addressed. Of 2383 reports identified, 497 met our inclusion criteria. Just over half (264; 55%) of these were published after 2010. 354 (71%) of first authors were affiliated with Palestinian institutions; 261 (53%) reports had coauthors from outside Palestine. The majority of the reports in our study were inadequately reported (342; 69%), and none had adequately reported all items. Of 439 observational studies, 11 (2.5%) reports provided adequate descriptions of eligibility criteria and selection procedures; 35 (8%) reported efforts to address potential sources of bias; 50 (11.4%) reported the basis for the study sample size; and funding sources were mentioned in 74 reports (17%). Higher reporting quality was associated with international affiliation of the first author (prevalence ratio (PR) 1.6 (95% CI 1.2 to 2.1)), international collaboration (PR 2.9 (95% CI 1.7 to 5.0)), international funding (PR 1.9 (95% CI1.5 to 2.5)), publication after 2005 (PR 3.9 (95% CI 1.8 to 8.5)) and four or more coauthors (PR 1.5 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.1)). Although the quality of reports of Palestinian research has improved in recent years, it remains well below an acceptable standard. International reporting guidelines should be used to guide research design and improve the quality of reports of research. The systematic review protocol was registered in the International Prospective

  12. Novel 31.2 kb α0 Deletion in a Palestinian Family with α-Thalassemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brieghel, Christian; Birgens, Henrik; Frederiksen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    A previously unknown α(0) deletion, designated - -(DANE), was found in three generations of a Danish family of Palestinian origin. Six patients were heterozygous and three patients had deletional Hb H (β4) disease with a compound heterozygosity for the common -α(3.7) (rightward) deletion. Multipl...

  13. How Personality Affects Vulnerability among Israelis and Palestinians following the 2009 Gaza Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetti, Daphna; Kimhi, Shaul; Hanoun, Rasmiyah; Rocha, Gabriel A; Galea, Sandro; Morgan, Charles A

    2016-01-01

    Can the onset of PTSD symptoms and depression be predicted by personality factors and thought control strategies? A logical explanation for the different mental health outcomes of individuals exposed to trauma would seem to be personality factors and thought control strategies. Trauma exposure is necessary but not sufficient for the development of PTSD. To this end, we assess the role of personality traits and coping styles in PTSD vulnerability among Israeli and Palestinian students amid conflict. We also determine whether gender and exposure level to trauma impact the likelihood of the onset of PTSD symptoms. Five questionnaires assess previous trauma, PTSD symptoms, demographics, personality factors and thought control strategies, which are analyzed using path analysis. Findings show that the importance of personality factors and thought control strategies in predicting vulnerability increases in the face of political violence: the higher stress, the more important the roles of personality and thought control strategies. Thought control strategies associated with introverted and less emotionally stable personality-types correlate positively with higher levels of PTSD symptoms and depression, particularly among Palestinians. By extension, because mental health is key to reducing violence in the region, PTSD reduction in conflict zones warrants rethinking.

  14. How Personality Affects Vulnerability among Israelis and Palestinians following the 2009 Gaza Conflict.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphna Canetti

    Full Text Available Can the onset of PTSD symptoms and depression be predicted by personality factors and thought control strategies? A logical explanation for the different mental health outcomes of individuals exposed to trauma would seem to be personality factors and thought control strategies. Trauma exposure is necessary but not sufficient for the development of PTSD. To this end, we assess the role of personality traits and coping styles in PTSD vulnerability among Israeli and Palestinian students amid conflict. We also determine whether gender and exposure level to trauma impact the likelihood of the onset of PTSD symptoms. Five questionnaires assess previous trauma, PTSD symptoms, demographics, personality factors and thought control strategies, which are analyzed using path analysis. Findings show that the importance of personality factors and thought control strategies in predicting vulnerability increases in the face of political violence: the higher stress, the more important the roles of personality and thought control strategies. Thought control strategies associated with introverted and less emotionally stable personality-types correlate positively with higher levels of PTSD symptoms and depression, particularly among Palestinians. By extension, because mental health is key to reducing violence in the region, PTSD reduction in conflict zones warrants rethinking.

  15. Pain, Sleep Disturbance, and Quality of Life Among Palestinian Patients Diagnosed with Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreidi, Mu'taz M; Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this descriptive study is to explore the relationships between pain, sleep disturbance, and quality of life among Palestinian patients diagnosed with cancer in the West Bank. A cross-sectional, descriptive-correlational design was used to collect data from 184 patients with cancer. The quality of life questionnaire, visual analogue pain scale, and physical health status were used in data collection. The results showed that the mean score for pain was 5, the best functioning was for cognitive scale (M = 75, SD = 29), the worst symptoms experienced by patients was appetite loss (M = 47, SD = 35), a moderate global health status (M = 53, SD = 27), and the mean for sleep disturbance was 43 (SD = 35). Pain and sleep disturbance showed high negative correlations with functional scales of quality of life and positive with symptom scales. The findings showed that the co-occurrence of pain and sleep disturbance was negatively correlated with quality of life (QoL) and positively with symptom scales. The regression analysis revealed that pain and sleep disturbance accounted for a significant proportion of variance in the QoL (p quality among Palestinian patients with cancer.

  16. Mujeres en las "guerrillas" peruanas de finales del siglo XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Romero Delgado

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En las dos últimas décadas del pasado siglo se formaron y desaparecieron movimientos armados en la sociedad peruana, popularmente llamados “guerrillas”. Dichos grupos se enfrentaron al Estado provocando una fuerte oleada de violencia política. La participación femenina en todo el proceso fue muy amplia e inesperada. Tras una investigación cualitativa en la que se entrevistó a mujeres de los dos grupos armados más importantes, Partido Comunista del Perú-Sendero Luminoso (PCP-SL y Movimiento Revolucionario Tupac Amaru (MRTA, presentamos las razones sociales e identitarias que condujeron a las mujeres a su implicación en esta expresión de violencia política, así como la problemática de fractura y reconstrucción identitaria que se vieron obligadas a realizar y la evaluación de sus experiencias. In the last two decades of the last century there have been formed and eliminated armed movements in the Peruvian society, popularly called guerrillas. Those groups confronted the State causing waves of political violence. In these groups, the women's participation was very wide and unexpected. After a qualitative research based on interviews of women from the most important armed groups (Shining Path and Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement, we present the identity and social factors that led to their involvement in this expression of political violence, as well as the problematic of identity fracture and reconstruction they needed to carry out, and the evaluation of their experiences.

  17. ATLAS welcomes a new Palestinian student

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    Mahmoud Ibrahim Alstaty, from near Jenin, is starting a PhD studentship at CERN, where he will be working on the new inner layer of the ATLAS pixel detector. He joins a growing number of other Palestinian researchers who are working at CERN.   Mahmoud Ibrahim Alstaty. Mahmoud Alstaty's PhD scholarship is supported by the Sharing Knowledge Foundation. In 2013, Robert Klapisch, president of the foundation and former Director of Research at CERN, signed a framework agreement with CERN to open the Doctoral Student programme to countries from the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Mahmoud is the second student to benefit from such an opportunity, following Mohamed Gouighri from Morocco. “Mahmoud will work on the ATLAS experiment on the commissioning and performance of the new inner layer of the pixel detector (IBL) and on the search for new physics, including leptons in the final state, under the supervision of Fares Djama and myself”, says Pascal Pralavorio from Cen...

  18. The Impact of the Dimensions of the Administrative Decision Support Systems on the Re-engineering of the Systems of the Palestinian universities in Gaza Strip from the Employees’ Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazen Jehad I. Al Shobaki

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the impact of the dimensions of the administrative decision support systems on the re-engineering of the systems of the Palestinian universities in Gaza Strip from the standpoint of employees. A descriptive approach was used through which a questionnaire was developed and distributed to a stratified random sample. (500 questionnaires were distributed and (449 were returned, with (89.8% response rate. The study revealed these results: There was an effect for the potentials (physical, human, technical, and organizational design available for the decision support systems and re-engineering of the systems in the Palestinian higher education institutions in Gaza Strip.There were significant differences between the assessment means of the study sample about the impact of decision support systems to re-engineer the systems in the Palestinian higher education institutions in Gaza Strip due to the gender variable in favor of males. There also differences due to the name of the university variable in favor of the Islamic University, Al Azhar University, Al Aqsa University, respectively. It was recommended that Palestinian higher education institutions which intend to start re-engineering the systems should be encouraged immediately start the process. These institutions should also develop the infrastructure of the decisions support systems when re-engineering their operations. Keywords: Decision support systems, Re-engineering, Palestinian higher education institutions.

  19. Autonomy as State Prevention: The Palestinian Question after Camp David, 1979-1982

    OpenAIRE

    Anziska, S. E.

    2017-01-01

    The context of Israel’s post-1967 rule over the Palestinian territories, which began well after the end of empire, the mandates, and the major waves of decolonization, sheds new light on the relationship between late-twentieth-century occupation and the persistence of prolonged statelessness. This essay examines how a particular practice within the political and diplomatic repertoire of transformative occupation—the promotion of local autonomy—was successfully deployed in the Israeli-Palestin...

  20. Facebook, Political Narrative, and Political Change: A Case Study of Palestinian Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Kenderes, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation I aim to advance political narrative theory by exploring the use of political narrative on Facebook and the possibility for Facebook to be used among Palestinian youth for political change. To examine the concepts of political narrative and political change, I developed a model for political change based on the changing political narratives which in part prompted the 2011 Egyptian revolution. The model, Political Narrative Perspectives (PNPs), identifies individual and re...

  1. 31 CFR 595.511 - Transactions with entities under the control of the Palestinian President and certain other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Authority Presidency, including only the Office of the President, Presidential Security, General Intelligence Apparatus, Governors and Governorate staff, the Attorney General's Office, the Palestine... Information Services); (2) The Palestinian Judiciary, including the Higher Judicial Council; (3) Members of...

  2. Substance use among Palestinian youth in the West Bank, Palestine: a qualitative investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salwa G. Massad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Youth health risk behaviors, including substance use (psychoactive substances including alcohol and illicit drugs, have been the subject of relatively limited study to date in Middle Eastern countries. This study provides insights into the perceived prevalence and patterns of alcohol and drug use among Palestinian youth. Methods The study was based on ten focus groups and 17 individual interviews with youth aged 16–24 years (n = 83, collected as part of the formative phase of a cross-sectional, population representative study of risk taking behaviors among Palestinian youth in the West Bank in 2012. Qualitative analysis was used to code detailed notes of focus groups and interviews. Results Most participants reported that substance use exists, even in socially conservative communities. Almost all participants agreed that alcohol consumption is common and that alcohol is easily available. The top alcoholic drinks referred to by the study participants were vodka, whisky, beer, and wine. Most participants claimed that they drink alcohol to cope with stress, for fun, out of curiosity, to challenge society, and due to the influence of the media. Participants were familiar with illicit drugs and knew of youth who engaged in drug use: marijuana, cocaine, and heroin were mentioned most frequently. Study participants believed that youth use drugs as a result of stress, the Israeli occupation, inadequate parental control, lack of awareness, unhappiness, curiosity, and for entertainment. Many participants were unaware of any local institutions to support youth with substance use problems. Others expressed their distrust of any such institution as they assumed them to be inefficient, profit-driven, and posing the risk of potential breaches of confidentiality. Conclusions Although this study uses a purposive sample, the results suggest that substance use exists among Palestinian youth. Risk behaviors are a concern given inadequate

  3. Substance use among Palestinian youth in the West Bank, Palestine: a qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massad, Salwa G; Shaheen, Mohammed; Karam, Rita; Brown, Ryan; Glick, Peter; Linnemay, Sebastian; Khammash, Umaiyeh

    2016-08-17

    Youth health risk behaviors, including substance use (psychoactive substances including alcohol and illicit drugs), have been the subject of relatively limited study to date in Middle Eastern countries. This study provides insights into the perceived prevalence and patterns of alcohol and drug use among Palestinian youth. The study was based on ten focus groups and 17 individual interviews with youth aged 16-24 years (n = 83), collected as part of the formative phase of a cross-sectional, population representative study of risk taking behaviors among Palestinian youth in the West Bank in 2012. Qualitative analysis was used to code detailed notes of focus groups and interviews. Most participants reported that substance use exists, even in socially conservative communities. Almost all participants agreed that alcohol consumption is common and that alcohol is easily available. The top alcoholic drinks referred to by the study participants were vodka, whisky, beer, and wine. Most participants claimed that they drink alcohol to cope with stress, for fun, out of curiosity, to challenge society, and due to the influence of the media. Participants were familiar with illicit drugs and knew of youth who engaged in drug use: marijuana, cocaine, and heroin were mentioned most frequently. Study participants believed that youth use drugs as a result of stress, the Israeli occupation, inadequate parental control, lack of awareness, unhappiness, curiosity, and for entertainment. Many participants were unaware of any local institutions to support youth with substance use problems. Others expressed their distrust of any such institution as they assumed them to be inefficient, profit-driven, and posing the risk of potential breaches of confidentiality. Although this study uses a purposive sample, the results suggest that substance use exists among Palestinian youth. Risk behaviors are a concern given inadequate youth-friendly counseling services and the strong cultural

  4. A community of citizens: disability rehabilitation in the Palestinian transition to statehood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacaman, R

    2001-09-20

    It has been widely argued that community based programmes offer considerable advantages to the classical institutional forms of health and rehabilitation services delivery. With about 10 years of experience in operating community based rehabilitation projects (CBR) for the disabled, the Palestinian experience points to potentially serious problems relating to the conception and operationalization of such programmes in real life situations. Of importance is the issue of the impact of communal care on the already burdened lives of women, especially when such care is expected to be voluntary in nature. Caretaking in the Palestinian context, especially of the disabled, elderly and the sick, is a pre-defined sex linked role dictated by a patriarchal society and system of policy making that excludes women from economic and social life. The voluntary care aspect entailed in the CBR conception and practice, can and does contribute further to the exclusion of women not only from the labour force, but from most other aspects of life as well. This represents an apparent contradiction between the needs of two excluded groups, the disabled and women. The other problematic entailed in the communal model of caring for the disabled is the strategic and operational bias focusing on community, to the exclusion of the notion of social rights of all citizens, and the role and duty of state structures in the fulfilment of the disabled basic needs. Such an approach can only relegate the disabled rights back to their original place as charity. On the other hand, when CBR projects are operated holistically, in the context of social movements existing within power relation and with a broader democratic agenda engaging different groups-including a disability movement-as is currently taking place in Palestine, CBR projects can also turn into a mobilizing force for the social rights of all excluded groups. Thus the question is not merely one of governmental involvement as opposed to the

  5. DIACHRONIC ANALYSIS OF THREE PALESTINIAN MARRIAGE CONTRACTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR TRANSLATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ahmad Thawabteh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Unlike other discourses, legal discourse should be very simple, straightforward and unambiguous, and so should legal translation. However, legal translation implies multifarious challenges. Though, it is still under-research in the Arab World and the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT. The present article attempts to shed some light on the development of the language of legal texts in the OPT as illustrated in the study of three marriage contracts representing three sporadic periods of time— post-First World War, post-Israeli occupation to Palestine and post-foundation of Palestinian National Authority (PNA. The rationale beyond this selection is that the OPT has witnessed a political upheaval since the First World War, started with British Mandate until 1948, Israeli occupation in 1948 and now the rule of PNA. A thorough investigation into the contracts over these periods of time shows a noticeable development of the language of the contracts in terms of terminologies, structure and cultural components. The article reveals a good affinity between the language employed in the structure of the contracts and the social, economic and political situations when the contracts were written. Translation-wise, the article reflects on sample translations of the contracts by Hatim et al. (1995 with a view to examining the intricacies of legal translation. The findings show how important for legal translator to be well-versed in the language of law and the development of legal discourse diachronically. The article finally draws some conclusions which may be useful for legal translator trainers/trainees.

  6. Entertainment-Education: Dilemmas of Israeli Creators of Theatre about the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict in Promoting Peace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat

    2011-01-01

    Israeli-Palestinian peace is promoted through political and diplomatic channels, as well as indirect channels such as conferences, lectures, meetings, workshops and political journalism. However, there is less awareness of the extensive artistic activity in Israel surrounding peace and its implications for society, or of the uniqueness of the…

  7. Solid health care waste management status at health care centers in the West Bank - Palestinian Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Khatib, Issam A.; Sato, Chikashi

    2009-01-01

    Health care waste is considered a major public health hazard. The objective of this study was to assess health care waste management (HCWM) practices currently employed at health care centers (HCCs) in the West Bank - Palestinian Territory. Survey data on solid health care waste (SHCW) were analyzed for generated quantities, collection, separation, treatment, transportation, and final disposal. Estimated 4720.7 m 3 (288.1 tons) of SHCW are generated monthly by the HCCs in the West Bank. This study concluded that: (i) current HCWM practices do not meet HCWM standards recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) or adapted by developed countries, and (ii) immediate attention should be directed towards improvement of HCWM facilities and development of effective legislation. To improve the HCWM in the West Bank, a national policy should be implemented, comprising a comprehensive plan of action and providing environmentally sound and reliable technological measures.

  8. Links Between Education and Age at Marriage among Palestinian Women in Israel: Changes Over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbah-Karkaby, Maha; Stier, Haya

    2017-03-01

    This study focuses on the link between education and marriage timing among Israeli-Palestinian women. Theoretical discussions on marriage timing center on the effect of the time women spend in educational institutions on their age at marriage, and on the change in the desirable traits of women in the marriage market. But most of these arguments overlook situations where significant changes in education take place alongside retention of traditional patriarchal values. Based on data from three population censuses - in 1983, 1995 and 2008-our results suggest that staying longer in schooling delays marriage, so women with less education are more likely to marry earlier than others. While young age is still considered an important characteristic in the Israeli-Palestinian marriage market, and women who delay marriage face a greater risk of remaining single, education becomes more important over the years so that postponing marriage becomes especially problematic for low-educated women. Our findings suggest that traditional norms and structural conditions together shape marriage timing. © 2017 The Population Council, Inc.

  9. Discourses of Blame and Responsibility: U.S./Canadian Media Representations of Palestinian-Israeli Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Baltodano

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available To test the assumption of a deep cultural divide between Canada and the United States, the researchers employed critical discourse analysis to examine the texts of one U.S. and one Canadian newspaper as artifacts and productions of the two countries' cultural inclinations toward international conflict and peace. The authors found differences in the intensity and pervasiveness of pro-militaristic discourse in the two nations' media texts but did not find evidence to support the thesis that Canada and the United States are divided by profound and intractable distinctions of values, beliefs or cultures. Instead the two newspapers demonstrated a noteworthy similarity of language, tone and text that presented shared perspectives on distant political and electoral initiatives in Israel and Palestine. Several strong similarities appeared across some two years of news coverage and political statements in Canada and the United States about the Palestinian parliamentary and presidential elections as well as the Israeli withdrawal from Gaza. Five familiar themes emerged to present Israelis and Palestinians in largely dichotomous and oppositional terms. When the news context was an election or a withdrawal from occupied territory, rather than military aggression, media nevertheless represented the two parties as engaged in a zero-sum game. The consistent narratives of "othering" established and re-enforced narrow roles for both parties, placed blame and responsibility, and charged Palestinians with the (often unilateral obligation to resolve the conflict. This media coverage demonstrates a convergence rather than a division of cultures across the longest undefended border in the world. These findings also support earlier work establishing the prevalence of "war journalism" in mainstream news coverage by the West. In news contexts that might have provided an opportunity to embrace significant components of Johan Galtung's concept of peace journalism, neither

  10. Constructing Israeli and Palestinian Identity: A Multimodal Critical Discourse Analysis of World History Textbooks and Teacher Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    This research critically evaluates the depiction of Israelis and Palestinians in World History textbooks and World History teachers' instructional discourse. Employing a Multimodal Critical Discourse Analysis methodology, this study offers a comparison between written narratives and spoken discourse in order to analyze the portrayals found in…

  11. Feminismo e configurações de gênero na guerrilha: perspectivas comparativas no Cone Sul, 1968-1985 Feminism and gender configurations in the guerrilla: comparative perspectives in the Southern Cone, 1968-1985

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Scheibe Wolff

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende discutir as interfaces entre o feminismo de segunda onda e as configurações de gênero na guerrilha urbana durante o regime de Ditadura Militar, através de uma perspectiva comparativa, entre Brasil, Argentina e Uruguai. Para isso são utilizadas memórias e testemunhos de militantes e documentos produzidos pelas organizações de esquerda armada. Apesar de o feminismo não ser reconhecido como uma reivindicação importante pelos movimentos de esquerda da época, o número de militantes mulheres dessas organizações era muito maior que o de situações anteriores. As maneiras pelas quais as organizações lidavam com a presença de mulheres e utilizavam discursos de gênero também é problematizada e analisada de maneira comparativa.This work discusses the links between second-wave feminism and the gender configurations in urban guerrilla organizations during the so-called Military Dictatorship governments between 1964 and 1984, comparatively as between Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay, using memories and statements of the militants and documents of the armed left-wing organizations. Although feminism was not considered priority by these organizations at the time, the number of militant women was much larger than previously. The ways the organizations handled the presence of women, and the gender discourses used are also compared.

  12. Lessons from psychiatry in the Arab world--a Lebanese trainee psychiatrist's qualitative views on the provision of mental healthcare services for Palestinian refugees in Lebanon and an interview with a consultant psychiatrist on the effects of the Arab spring on the mental health of Libyans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankir, Ahmed; Sadiq, Asad

    2013-09-01

    In this manuscript, a Lebanese trainee psychiatrist qualitatively analyses and discusses the provision of mental healthcare services for Palestinian refugees in Lebanon. There are more than 250,000 Palestinian people sporadically dispersed in the refugee camps in Sidon, Beirut and other major cities in the Levant. Displacement, conflict, trauma, unemployment and poverty are but some of the myriad factors that influence Palestinian refugee mental health. This article traces the historical, political and socioeconomic determinants of health for Palestinians exiled in Lebanon and describes the pivotal role that the non-Govenmental Organisation Medical Aid for Palestinians is playing in helping to alleviate the psychiatric distress of Palestinian sufferers of mental illness. The latter half of the manuscript contains an interview with a consultant psychiatrist about his experiences volunteering in the war-torn lands of Libya post Arab Spring. He expounds on how he feels mental healthcare services in Libya are woefully inadequate and broaches on his perception of how the resilience and the 'family-centric' model of the Libyan people has conferred a certain degree of protection towards developing severe psychiatric illness.

  13. Effects of Israeli Press Restrictions on Coverage of the Palestinian Uprising and on U.S. Public Opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Jeffrey L.

    Comparing United States television news coverage of the Palestinian uprising in the Israeli-occupied territories before and after press restrictions were introduced in March 1988, a study examined whether Israel's press clampdown (restricting particularly the activities of camera crews, and apparently begun in response to negative foreign opinion…

  14. Support Services for Victims of Political Violence and Their Families: A Comparison between Israelis and Palestinians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Douglas A.

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes interviews with five social workers who helped families that experienced political violence, and with 16 families that lost a family member due to terrorist activity in Israel and Palestine from 2000 to 2005. Results revealed a great disparity between the Israelis and the Palestinians on the types of and extent of benefits…

  15. Potential and Limitations of Multicultural Education in Conflict-Ridden Areas: Bilingual Palestinian-Jewish Schools in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekerman, Zvi

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, a new integrative bilingual multicultural educational initiative has been developed in Israel. Its main purpose is to offer dignity and equality to the two Israeli groups who have for the last 100 years denied each other's humanity: Palestinians and Jews. The research examines this attempt at encouraging each group to take pride…

  16. How the Future Orientation of Traditional Israeli Palestinian Girls Links Beliefs about Women's Roles and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seginer, Rachel; Mahajna, Sami

    2004-01-01

    A model in which future orientation links perceived fathers' and girls' beliefs about traditional women's roles and academic achievement was tested on data collected from traditional Israeli Palestinian girls (N=295) attending a Moslem all-girl senior high school. LISREL analyses estimated two empirical models pertaining to educational and family…

  17. Learning the Nation in Exile: Constructing Youth Identities, Belonging and "Citizenship" in Palestinian Refugee Camps in South Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincham, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the ways in which "Palestine" and "Palestinianess" are culturally, socially and symbolically produced and regulated through formal and non-formal institutional sites in Palestinian camps in south Lebanon. It argues that although institutional power, processes and outcomes help to construct shared notions of…

  18. Personal value preferences, group identifications, and cultural practices of Palestinian Israelis working in close contact with Jewish Israelis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartakovsky, Eugene; Abu Kheit, Ayat

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigates the connection between personal value preferences, group identifications, and cultural practices among Palestinian Israelis working in close contact with the Jewish population in Israel. One hundred twenty-two Palestinian Israelis participated in the study. The participants were employed in different professional positions in the Tel Aviv Metropolitan area and were recruited to the study using the snowball technique. A stronger national identification was associated with a higher preference for the security and conformity values, and a lower preference for the humility values. A stronger ethnic identification was associated with a lower preference for the security, power, and stimulation values. Group identifications mediated the connection between personal value preferences and cultural practices. A longer time working in close contact with the majority group and less frequent visits home were associated with a greater adherence to the majority group's cultural practices but not with adherence to the ethnic group's practices and not with the group identifications.

  19. Confronting water in an Israeli-Palestinian peace agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, David; Trottier, Julie

    2010-03-01

    SummaryTrans-boundary water agreements are usually conceived as allocation agreements. In other words, water is treated as if it were a pie to be divided among the riparian states. The treatment of water as if it were as immobile as land may be useful in the short term, but it is fundamentally flawed as a means to avoid conflict as well as to ensure efficient, equitable, and sustainable management of water over the long term. This article proposes to avoid quantitative allocations within international water agreements, whether they be presented as percentage or fixed allocations or whether or not accompanied by a periodic revision clause. It proposes instead an ongoing joint management structure that allows for continuous conflict resolution concerning water demands and uses in a manner that effectively de-nationalises water uses. As well, it builds on existing, functioning institutions that are already active over a variety of scalar levels. It disaggregates what is usually perceived as a national water demand into its component institutions and re-aggregates them within an international institutional context. Though this approach for building trans-boundary water agreements can prove useful in any geographical situation, this article uses the Israeli-Palestinian conflict as a model. It proposes to respect the existing differences in the institutional management of water between the two entities and to reach four general objectives: economic efficiency, social and political equity, ecological sustainability, and the ability to implement the agreement in practice. The institutional design and proposed mechanisms follow five key principles for shared management: water allocations that are not fixed but variable over time; equality in rights and responsibilities; priority for demand management over supply management; continuous monitoring of water quality and quantity; and mediation among competing uses of fresh water. This institutional structure balances water

  20. Workplace violence against physicians and nurses in Palestinian public hospitals: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Violence against healthcare workers in Palestinian hospitals is common. However, this issue is under researched and little evidence exists. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence, magnitude, consequences and possible risk factors for workplace violence against nurses and physicians working in public Palestinian hospitals. Methods A cross-sectional approach was employed. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on different aspects of workplace violence against physicians and nurses in five public hospitals between June and July 2011. The questionnaires were distributed to a stratified proportional random sample of 271 physicians and nurses, of which 240 (88.7%) were adequately completed. Pearson’s chi-square analysis was used to test the differences in exposure to physical and non-physical violence according to respondents’ characteristics. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to assess potential associations between exposure to violence (yes/no) and the respondents’ characteristics using logistic regression model. Results The majority of respondents (80.4%) reported exposure to violence in the previous 12 months; 20.8% physical and 59.6% non-physical. No statistical difference in exposure to violence between physicians and nurses was observed. Males’ significantly experienced higher exposure to physical violence in comparison with females. Logistic regression analysis indicated that less experienced (OR: 8.03; 95% CI 3.91-16.47), and a lower level of education (OR: 3; 95% CI 1.29-6.67) among respondents meant they were more likely to be victims of workplace violence than their counterparts. The assailants were mostly the patients' relatives or visitors, followed by the patients themselves, and co-workers. Consequences of both physical and non-physical violence were considerable. Only half of victims received any type of treatment. Non-reporting of violence was a concern, main reasons were lack of

  1. Foreign Wars and Domestic Prejudice: How Media Exposure to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict Predicts Ethnic Stereotyping by Jewish and Arab American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huesmann, L. Rowell; Dubow, Eric F.; Boxer, Paul; Souweidane, Violet; Ginges, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    This study was based on the theory that adolescents view scenes of violent ethnic conflicts in the mass media through the lens of their own ethnicity, and that the resulting social-cognitive reactions influence their negative stereotypes about similar ethnic groups in their own country. We interviewed 89 Jewish and 180 Arab American high school students about their exposure to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, their social cognitive reactions to it, and their stereotypes toward ethnic groups. Beyond the effects of ethnic identity, the degree to which adolescents identified with Israelis and Palestinians in the media was a key variable linking exposure to media depictions of the conflict and the implicit ethnic stereotypes they displayed about Jewish Americans and Arab Americans. PMID:23243381

  2. The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: A Hopeless Case for U.S. Policy in the Middle East?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-24

    the liberation of Palestine. The fusion of Fatah with the PLO following the 1967 war, the formal adoption of...fostering democracy and free market economies in the Middle East. Goals also included guaranteeing the survival and security of the state of Israel...of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, “for Jews, whose attachment to the Land the Bible , the West Bank is Judea and Samaria, is sacred land. For

  3. Proteolytic enzymes involved in MHC class I antigen processing: A guerrilla army that partners with the proteasome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro, Silvia; Gamarra, David; Del Val, Margarita

    2015-12-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class I proteins (MHC-I) load short peptides derived from proteolytic cleavage of endogenous proteins in any cell of the body, in a process termed antigen processing and presentation. When the source proteins are altered self or encoded by a pathogen, recognition of peptide/MHC-I complexes at the plasma membrane leads to CD8(+) T-lymphocyte responses that clear infections and probably underlie tumor immune surveillance. On the other hand, presentation of self peptides may cause some types of autoimmunity. The peptides that are presented determine the specificity and efficiency of pathogen clearance or, conversely, of immunopathology. In this review we highlight the growing number of peptidases which, as a by-product of their regular activity, can generate peptide epitopes for immune surveillance. These ∼20 peptidases collectively behave as a guerrilla army partnering with the regular proteasome army in generating a variety of peptides for presentation by MHC-I and thus optimally signaling infection. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. The Role of Education in Upholding the Development of Human Rights Regimes: The Case of the Palestinian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuibat, Mohammad; Abu Samra, Mahmoud; Shuibat, Nida

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a historical background of the Palestinian education. It outlines a theoretical basis for the development of Human Rights Regimes. The paper tackles the views of some philosophers like Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau and Kant who laid down the foundations for the development of Human Rights Regimes. The paper illustrates that Human…

  5. Prevalence and Correlates of Food Insecurity among Palestinian Refugees in Lebanon: Data from a Household Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Ghattas

    Full Text Available Lebanon hosts the highest per capita refugee concentration worldwide. The Palestinian presence in Lebanon dates from 1948 and they remain a marginalized population. No information on their food security status has been reported previously. A survey of a representative sample of Palestinian refugee households in Lebanon (n = 2501 was conducted using a stratified two stage cluster sampling approach. We measured food insecurity using a modified USDA household food security module, locally validated. We collected data on household demographic, socioeconomic, health, housing, coping strategies and household intake of food groups and analysed these by food security status. About 41% (CI: 39-43 of households reported being food insecure and 20% (CI: 18-22 severely food insecure. Poor households were more likely to be severely food insecure (OR 1.41 (1.06-1.86 while higher education of the head of household was significantly associated with protection against severe food insecurity (OR 0.66 (0.52-0.84. Additionally, higher food expenditure and possession of food-related assets were significantly associated with food security (OR 0.93 (0.89-0.97 and OR 0.74 (0.59-0.92, respectively. After adjusting for confounders, households where at least one member suffered from an acute illness remained significantly more likely to be severely food insecure (OR 1.31(1.02-1.66, as were households whose proxy respondent reported poor mental health (OR 2.64 (2.07-3.38 and poor self-reported health (OR 1.62 (1.22-2.13. Severely food insecure households were more likely to eat cheaper foods when compared to non-severely food insecure households (p<0.001 and were more likely to rely on gifts (p<0.001 or welfare (p<0.001. They were also more likely to have exhausted all coping strategies, indicating significantly more frequently that they could not do anything (p = 0.0102. Food insecurity is a significant problem among Palestinian refugees in Lebanon and is likely to be

  6. Streptococcus pneumoniae from Palestinian nasopharyngeal carriers: serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abedelmajeed Nasereddin

    Full Text Available Infections of Streptococcus pneumoniae in children can be prevented by vaccination; left untreated, they cause high morbidity and fatalities. This study aimed at determining the nasopharyngeal carrier rates, serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance patterns of S. pneumoniae in healthy Palestinian children under age two prior to the full introduction of the pneumococcal 7-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV7, which was originally introduced into Palestine in a pilot trial in September, 2010. In a cross sectional study, nasopharyngeal specimens were collected from 397 healthy children from different Palestinian districts between the beginning of November 2012 to the end of January 2013. Samples were inoculated into blood agar and suspected colonies were examined by amplifying the pneumococcal-specific autolysin gene using a real-time PCR. Serotypes were identified by a PCR that incorporated different sets of specific primers. Antimicrobial susceptibility was measured by disk diffusion and MIC methods. The resulting carrier rate of Streptococcus pneumoniae was 55.7% (221/397. The main serotypes were PCV7 serotypes 19F (12.2%, 23F (9.0%, 6B (8.6% and 14 (4% and PCV13 serotypes 6A (13.6% and 19A (4.1%. Notably, serotype 6A, not included in the pilot trial (PCV7 vaccine, was the most prevalent. Resistance to more than two drugs was observed for bacteria from 34.1% of the children (72/211 while 22.3% (47/211 carried bacteria were susceptible to all tested antibiotics. All the isolates were sensitive to cefotaxime and vancomycin. Any or all of these might impinge on the type and efficacy of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines and antibiotics to be used for prevention and treatment of pneumococcal disease in the country.

  7. Rethinking the Green Line: “Dwelling” in the Mediterranean Environment in Contemporary Israeli and Palestinian Poetry

    OpenAIRE

    Cuadrado-Fernández, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Since the creation of the state of Israel in 1948, Israeli national identity has been constructed on the basis of national narratives that have excluded the Mediterranean environment. Similarly, an ethno-symbolic, construction of identity has antagonised Israel from both the Mediterranean environment and its neighbours, especially the Palestinians. However, despite the weight of their different cultural and historical trajectories, a number of contemporary Israeli poets have featured elements...

  8. Perceptions of sexual risk behavior among Palestinian youth in the West Bank: a qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massad, Salwa G; Karam, Rita; Brown, Ryan; Glick, Peter; Shaheen, Mohammed; Linnemayr, Sebastian; Khammash, Umaiyeh

    2014-11-24

    Young people in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) are profoundly affected by violence, high unemployment, and economic hardship. Experiences of community-level violence and personal trauma increase the likelihood that young people will engage in risky behaviors that include smoking, drug use, and unsafe sex. Little is known about the sexual behavior of young people in the region, particularly in the occupied Palestinian territory (oPt). Our aim in this study was to gain an insight into the perceived prevalence and patterns of sexual behavior among Palestinian youth. The study was based on ten focus groups and 17 in-depth interviews with young people aged 16-24 years as part of the formative phase of a cross-sectional representative study of risk behaviors in the West Bank, including Jerusalem, in 2012. The sample was selected using a combination of purposive and convenience sampling. Qualitative analysis was used to code detailed notes of focus groups and interviews. Based on participants' reports, different types of sexual activity outside marriage were not uncommon, even in conservative communities. The most reported sexual activity was non-penetrative sex: oral and anal intercourse, and virtual sex. Some young people had sexual intercourse with sex workers; they went to brothels in Israel and to brothels operating clandestinely in the West Bank, including East Jerusalem. Most respondents were of the opinion that young people did not usually use protection during sexual intercourse. Many reported that youth engage in different types of sexual activity outside marriage for several reasons: to challenge the culture, financial constraints and inability to marry, basic human need, personal pleasure, suppression, to kill boredom, and to prove manhood. In contrast with the conservative social context of the occupied Palestinian territory (oPt), the findings suggest that sexual activities outside marriage may be more common than is currently assumed. Sexual

  9. “Dreamers Often Lie”: On “Compromise”, the subversive documentation of an Israeli- Palestinian political adaptation of Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Munk

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Is Romeo and Juliet relevant to a description of the Middle-East conflict? This is the question raised in Compromise, an Israeli documentary that follows the Jerusalem Khan Theater's production of the play in the mid-1990's. This paper describes how the cinematic documentation of a theatrical Shakespeare production can undermine the original intentions of its creators. This staging of the play was carefully planned in order to demonstrate to the country and the world that Israelis and Palestinians are willing to search for a peaceful solution in the Middle East: Two directors - Israeli -Eran Baniel and Palestinian Fuad Awad - co-directed both Israeli and Palestinian actors, using both languages: Arabic and Hebrew. This seemingly balanced solution was acclaimed on European television but for Israeli director Even, this was only a façade. Following backstage situation,  Compromise reveals the truth behind the mask in order to denounce the manipulative use of what Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben defines as state of emergency, which is the hegemonic mechanism that deprives people of the elementary civil rights. Questioning the issue of co-existence against the political background of the 1990's (including bomb attacks and the signing of the Camp David Treaty in 1993, the film plays on the discrepancy between the denouement of Romeo and Juliet and the unsolvable situation in which people in the Middle-East - amongst them the actors themselves- are condemned to live.

  10. What Makes Me Happy, and What Makes Me Scared? An Analysis of Drawings Made by Norwegian and Palestinian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maagerø, Eva; Sunde, Tone

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we present and discuss a project in which children in two different environments, in Palestinian refugee camps in Lebanon and in the south-eastern part of Norway, were given the opportunity to express themselves through drawings. We investigate how differently--and how similarly--the children express themselves when they were…

  11. Workplace violence against physicians and nurses in Palestinian public hospitals: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitaneh Mohamad

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Violence against healthcare workers in Palestinian hospitals is common. However, this issue is under researched and little evidence exists. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence, magnitude, consequences and possible risk factors for workplace violence against nurses and physicians working in public Palestinian hospitals. Methods A cross-sectional approach was employed. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on different aspects of workplace violence against physicians and nurses in five public hospitals between June and July 2011. The questionnaires were distributed to a stratified proportional random sample of 271 physicians and nurses, of which 240 (88.7% were adequately completed. Pearson’s chi-square analysis was used to test the differences in exposure to physical and non-physical violence according to respondents’ characteristics. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to assess potential associations between exposure to violence (yes/no and the respondents’ characteristics using logistic regression model. Results The majority of respondents (80.4% reported exposure to violence in the previous 12 months; 20.8% physical and 59.6% non-physical. No statistical difference in exposure to violence between physicians and nurses was observed. Males’ significantly experienced higher exposure to physical violence in comparison with females. Logistic regression analysis indicated that less experienced (OR: 8.03; 95% CI 3.91-16.47, and a lower level of education (OR: 3; 95% CI 1.29-6.67 among respondents meant they were more likely to be victims of workplace violence than their counterparts. The assailants were mostly the patients' relatives or visitors, followed by the patients themselves, and co-workers. Consequences of both physical and non-physical violence were considerable. Only half of victims received any type of treatment. Non-reporting of violence was a concern, main

  12. Explaining the frequency of alcohol consumption in a conflict zone: Jews and Palestinians in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Zohar; Chartier, Karen G; Stebbins, Mary B; Canetti, Daphna; Hobfoll, Stevan E; Hall, Brian J; Shuval, Kerem

    2015-07-01

    Experiencing stress and exposure to terrorism may have an adverse effect on health risk behaviors. Few studies have examined alcohol use among adults living in Israel under chronic, stressful terrorism-related conditions. In this study, we examined the relationships of demographics, past stressful events, and terrorism exposure to the frequency of alcohol use and the mediating roles of depressive and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. We used three waves of data from a 2007-2008 nationally representative sample of Jewish and Palestinian adults in Israel. We assessed past stressful events, in addition to direct and indirect exposures to terrorism. Results indicated that past stressful events and exposure to terrorism were not directly associated with alcohol use, but were indirectly associated and mediated by depressive and PTSD symptomology. Mental health symptoms were differentially associated with alcohol use. More frequent drinking was mediated by higher levels of depression, including for women and Palestinians; however, PTSD symptom severity was related to less frequent drinking. Mental health may play a prominent role in the frequency of alcohol use among adults exposed to terrorism in Israel. Alcohol use, as a coping mechanism, may differ by demographic characteristics (gender and ethnicity) and psychological symptomology for adults living in a conflict zone in Israel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. mHealth for mental health in the Middle East: Need, technology use, and readiness among Palestinians in the West Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zeev, Dror; Fathy, Cherie; Jonathan, Geneva; Abuharb, Batoul; Brian, Rachel M; Kesbeh, Lana; Abdelkader, Samer

    2017-06-01

    Palestinians in the West Bank are at heightened risk for mental health problems. Limited availability of clinicians and a host of geopolitical, topographical, and infrastructural challenges create significant regional barriers to clinic-based care. The objective of this study was to examine whether mHealth approaches that leverage mobile phones for remote mental health treatment may be viable alternatives. We surveyed 272 Palestinian adults in urban, rural, and refugee camp settings. Most participants (93.4%) reported owning mobile phones. The penetration of mobile devices was high across all study sites. Males and females did not differ in their access to this resource. Among mobile phone owners, 79.9% had smartphones, 32.2% had basic mobile phones, and 12.2% owned both. Respondents reported having reliable access to electricity (99.6%) and Wi-Fi (80.9%). Almost all mobile phone owners (99.6%) reported using social media such as Facebook, WhatsApp, or Twitter. When asked to estimate the prevalence of mental health problems in the region, 61.4% of participants reported that over half of the people in their communities struggled with depression, posttraumatic stress, or auditory hallucinations. Most participants indicated that they would personally be interested in mHealth for Mental Health options such as bi-directional texting with clinicians (68.8%), smartphone applications (66.5%), unidirectional support texts (64.7%), or web-based interventions (64.0%). Given the Palestinian populations' broad access to technology and technological infrastructure, need for care, and openness to engage in mobile interventions, mHealth should be considered a promising strategy for mental health services in the West Bank. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Suicidal ideation and planning among Palestinian middle school students living in Gaza Strip, West Bank, and United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA camps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Itani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to identify the prevalence and correlates of suicidal thinking among Palestinian middle school students by using complex samples analysis to explore data about suicidal ideation and suicidal planning in the past year from 14,303 students in grades 7, 8, and 9 (roughly ages 13–15 years who participated in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS in 2010 in the Occupied Palestinian Territory (OPT and United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA refugee camps. We also analyzed data from the seven other GSHS-participating countries from the Eastern Mediterranean region: Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Morocco, Tunisia, and the United Arab Emirates. The overall prevalence of suicidal ideation and/or planning was 25.6%. Males were more likely than females to report suicidal thinking. The health behaviors and exposures most strongly associated with suicidal thinking were marijuana use, having no close friends, tobacco use, loneliness, worry-induced insomnia, food insecurity, and being the victim of a bully. Being involved in physical fights and attacks, skipping school, and perceptions of limited parental support were also associated with suicidal thinking. The prevalence of suicidal thinking among Palestinian adolescents was higher than the rates in the other GSHS-participating countries, pointing toward a need for improved access to adolescent mental health services.

  15. Evaluation of the validity of osteoporosis and fracture risk assessment tools (IOF One Minute Test, SCORE, and FRAX) in postmenopausal Palestinian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharroubi, Akram; Saba, Elias; Ghannam, Ibrahim; Darwish, Hisham

    2017-12-01

    The need for simple self-assessment tools is necessary to predict women at high risk for developing osteoporosis. In this study, tools like the IOF One Minute Test, Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX), and Simple Calculated Osteoporosis Risk Estimation (SCORE) were found to be valid for Palestinian women. The threshold for predicting women at risk for each tool was estimated. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the validity of the updated IOF (International Osteoporosis Foundation) One Minute Osteoporosis Risk Assessment Test, FRAX, SCORE as well as age alone to detect the risk of developing osteoporosis in postmenopausal Palestinian women. Three hundred eighty-two women 45 years and older were recruited including 131 women with osteoporosis and 251 controls following bone mineral density (BMD) measurement, 287 completed questionnaires of the different risk assessment tools. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were evaluated for each tool using bone BMD as the gold standard for osteoporosis. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was the highest for FRAX calculated with BMD for predicting hip fractures (0.897) followed by FRAX for major fractures (0.826) with cut-off values ˃1.5 and ˃7.8%, respectively. The IOF One Minute Test AUC (0.629) was the lowest compared to other tested tools but with sufficient accuracy for predicting the risk of developing osteoporosis with a cut-off value ˃4 total yes questions out of 18. SCORE test and age alone were also as good predictors of risk for developing osteoporosis. According to the ROC curve for age, women ≥64 years had a higher risk of developing osteoporosis. Higher percentage of women with low BMD (T-score ≤-1.5) or osteoporosis (T-score ≤-2.5) was found among women who were not exposed to the sun, who had menopause before the age of 45 years, or had lower body mass index (BMI) compared to controls. Women who often fall had lower BMI and approximately 27% of the recruited postmenopausal

  16. Pharmacological and phytochemical screening of Palestinian traditional medicinal plants Erodium laciniatum and Lactuca orientalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaradat, Nidal; AlMasri, Motasem; Zaid, Abdel Naser; Othman, Dua'a Ghazi

    2017-09-01

    Various epidemiological studies showed that herbal remedies containing polyphenols may protect against various diseases such as cancers, vascular diseases and inflammatory pathologies. Currently, such groups of bioactive compounds have become a subject of many antimicrobials and antioxidant investigations. Accordingly, the current study aimed to conduct biological and phytochemical screening for two Palestinian traditional medicinal plants, Erodium laciniatum and Lactuca orientalis. Current plants phytoconstituents and their antioxidant activities were evaluated by using standard phytochemical methods; meanwhile, antimicrobial activities were estimated by using several types of American Type Culture Collection and multidrug resistant clinical isolates by using agar diffusion well-variant, agar diffusion disc-variant and broth microdilution methods. Phytochemical screenings showed that L. orientalis and E. laciniatum contain mixtures of secondary and primary metabolites Moreover, total flavonoid, tannins and phenols content in E. laciniatum extract were higher than the L. orientalis extracts with almost the same antioxidant potentials. Additionally, both plants organic and aqueous extracts showed various potentials of antimicrobial activity Conclusions: Overall, the studied species have a mixture of phytochemicals, flavonoids, phenols and tannins also have antioxidant and antimicrobial activities which approved their folk uses in treatments of infectious and Alzheimer diseases and simultaneously can be used as therapeutic agents in the pharmaceutical industries.

  17. Book Review: Higher Education and the Palestinian Minority in Israel by Khalid Arar and Kussai Haj-Yehia, Palgrave Macmillan (US, 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Florian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available For both Prof. Arar and Haj-Yehia the study of education related topics in the context of the Palestinian Arab minority in Israel has been a career guiding theme. Their previous research projects and publications have touched on various dimensions of this issue, mainly emphasizing issues such as access to education, but also documentation of migration for study relation purposes of members of this community. Their latest book, “Higher Education and the Palestinian Arab Minority in Israel”, published in 2016 by Palgrave Macmillan, can be described as a synthesis of previous research and, at the same time, an argument for supporting access to education for underrepresented groups. From the prologue even of the book the authors state their objective clearly: “to raise pertinent questions concerning the dual marginality of Palestinian Arab minority in Israel (PAMI, […] in Israel’s HE system and employment market” (p. 1. The book is structured in seven chapters and an Epilogue, starting with general historical information about the PAMI and the formation of the state of Israel and ending with policy proposals to widen access to education for members of the PAMI minority. The narrative follows a classical structure, with each chapter approaching a different dimension of the more general topics of access to education, outcomes of education on the labor market and finally policy evaluation and proposals for improvement of both. Using data and research results from both quantitative and qualitative previous studies, the authors argue that the existence of numerous hurdles hampering access to higher education, in particular, foster further inequalities on the labor market for members of the PAMI community

  18. Salivary levels of mutans streptococci and Lactobacilli among Palestinian school children in East Jerusalem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Doron; Eskander, Lana; Zini, Avraham; Sgan-Cohen, Harold; Bajali, Musa

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the distribution of oral cariogenic bacteria among 12-year-old Palestinian children attending schools in East Jerusalem. Salivary levels of mutans streptococci (MS) and Lactobacilli (LB) were examined by semi-quantitative commercial kits and then correlated to social-demographic parameters. Overall, 52.1 % of the examined children presented the highest possible ranking score categories for MS bacteria, with only 5.4 % in the lowest category. Only 12.6 % of the school children presented the highest LB score, while 25 % had the lowest ranking score. Salivary MS levels in children attending private schools were lower than those of children in government schools and United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) schools. Conversely, levels of LB were lowest in children attending UNRWA schools compared to government and private schools. Girls had significantly higher amounts of MS and LB than boys (p = 0.001). Lower MS levels were significantly related to the following socioeconomic variables: higher father's education level (p = 0.037), higher mother's education level (p = 0.063), mother's employment status (p = 0.012), and lower home density (p = 0.001). For LB, the only significant socioeconomic variable was higher father's employment level, which was related to lower LB level (p = 0.025). Levels of MS and LB were found to be strongly related with socioeconomic status among Palestinian children in East Jerusalem. The relatively high prevalence of cariogenic bacteria suggests that oral care prevention and treatment demands special attention from the health care institutions and authorities.

  19. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and bone turnover markers in Palestinian postmenopausal osteoporosis and normal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharroubi, Akram; Saba, Elias; Smoom, Riham; Bader, Khaldoun; Darwish, Hisham

    2017-12-01

    This study evaluated the association of vitamin D and bone markers with the development osteoporosis in Palestinian postmenopausal women. Even though vitamin D deficiency was very high for the recruited subjects, it was not associated with osteoporosis except for bones of the hip. Age and obesity were the strongest determining factors of the disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of bone mineral density (BMD) with serum vitamin D levels, parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium, obesity, and bone turnover markers in Palestinian postmenopausal women. Three hundred eighty-two postmenopausal women (≥45 years) were recruited from various women clinics for BMD assessment (131 women had osteoporosis and 251 were normal and served as controls). Blood samples were obtained for serum calcium, PTH, 25(OH)D, bone formation (N-terminal propeptide (PINP)), and bone resorption (serum C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX1)) markers. Women with osteoporosis had statistically significant lower mean weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and serum calcium (p osteoporosis decreased with increasing BMI (overweight OR = 0.11, p = 0.053; obese OR = 0.05, p = 0.007). There was no direct correlation between BMD and PTH, bone turnover markers, and vitamin D except at the lumbar spine. A negative correlation between BMD and age and a positive correlation with BMI were observed. The protective effect of obesity on osteoporosis was complicated by the effect of obesity on vitamin D and PTH.

  20. The Lebanese Armed Forces Engaging Nahr Al-Bared Palestinian Refugee Camp Using the Instruments of National Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    destroyed during the Lebanese civil war between 1975 and 1990 and never reconstructed (Gambil 2003). The Sunni Palestinians represented 75 percent of the...2015, 6). Deptula (2001) argued that the nation’s power does not rest in the military alone , it is stronger when the full weight of national power is...less than three feet between buildings in Old Camp, with several underground bunkers filled with weapons ammunition, and ready-to- eat meals, was hard

  1. A 'sense of urgency': The EU, the EU member states and the recognition of the Palestinian state

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Bruno Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    In the aftermath of the July-August 2014 war in Gaza, the Swedish government officially recognized the State of Palestine. This decision triggered a cascade of resolutions adopted in national parliaments of European Union member states and, eventually, led to the adoption of a European Parliament resolution supporting in principle the recognition of Palestinian statehood. Understood collectively, these efforts constitute a multifaceted European attempt to break with the status quo of the Isra...

  2. Genomic analysis of a heterogeneous Mendelian phenotype: multiple novel alleles for inherited hearing loss in the Palestinian population

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh Tom; Rayan Amal; Sa'ed Judeh; Shahin Hashem; Shepshelovich Jeanne; Lee Ming K; Hirschberg Koret; Tekin Mustafa; Salhab Wa'el; Avraham Karen B; King Mary-Claire; Kanaan Moien

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Recessively inherited phenotypes are frequent in the Palestinian population, as the result of a historical tradition of marriages within extended kindreds, particularly in isolated villages. In order to characterise the genetics of inherited hearing loss in this population, we worked with West Bank schools for the deaf to identify children with prelingual, bilateral, severe to profound hearing loss not attributable to infection, trauma or other known environmental exposure. Of 156 fa...

  3. Guerrilla Hunter Killer Smartbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-04

    down the Host Nation Government vs . GH/K views by opposing sides. Observing the model becomes convoluted unless the relationship between these two...be measured only by land ownership , but by area of influence to where human needs can be marked by spheres of influence. Concentration inside of... franchisement amongst the populace if the efforts of external advisors and civil organizations (Coalition Forces), the Host Nation Government, or even the

  4. The Delphi Technique in Identifying Learning Objectives for the Development of Science, Technology and Society Modules for Palestinian Ninth Grade Science Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abualrob, Marwan M. A.; Daniel, Esther Gnanamalar Sarojini

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines how learning objectives based upon science, technology and society (STS) elements for Palestinian ninth grade science textbooks were identified, which was part of a bigger study to establish an STS foundation in the ninth grade science curriculum in Palestine. First, an initial list of STS elements was determined. Second,…

  5. Health expectancy in the occupied Palestinian territory: estimates from the Gaza Strip and the West Bank: based on surveys from 2006 and 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qlalweh, Khaled; Duraidi, Mohammed; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Strip and the West Bank. Participants: 17 034 and 38 071 adults aged 20 or over participating the Palestinian Family Health Surveys of 2006 and 2010. Death rates for 2007 and 2010 covered the entire population. Outcome measures: Life expectancy and expected lifetime with and without chronic disease were...

  6. University students' knowledge of corneal donation and willingness to donate corneas in the occupied Palestinian territory: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Labadi, Liana; Gammoh, Yazan; Shehada, Reham; Shahin, Reem; Jbarah, Walaa; Amro, Madleen; Athamny, Hanan

    2018-02-21

    Access to corneal transplantation is limited worldwide because of poor knowledge. Ethical, religious, and cultural barriers contribute to low rates of corneal donation. In the occupied Palestinian territory, limited information is available on factors affecting corneal donation. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and willingness towards corneal donation in Palestinian students. This cross-sectional study included university students selected through convenience sampling in Nablus in the summer of 2016. The sample size was determined using the sample formulae and a 15% non-response rate. All students registered in obligatory courses were included in the study after verbal consent. Each participant was given a self-administered questionnaire consisting of 14 questions to assess knowledge, awareness, and willingness toward corneal donation. Frequencies were used for descriptive analysis, and associations were determined using multivariate analysis and χ 2 test, with a p value of less than 0·05 considered significant. Of the 634 students completing the questionnaire, 411 (65%) were women, 614 (97%) were Muslims, and 155 (25%) were health or medical students. 592 (93%) respondents were unaware of eye bank availability, and 407 (69%; p=0.002) of these respondents did not show willingness towards corneal donation. 431 (67%) respondents were aware of a lack in corneal donation, but 274 (64%; p=0·01) of these respondents did not show willingness towards corneal donation. 429 (68%) respondents were not willing to donate their corneas, the most common reasons being disapproval by family members and poor awareness. We found no association between sociodemographic factors and willingness was determined. Palestinian students are aware of the lack of local cornea donation but are unwilling to donate their corneas. The study results are not representative of the entire population because of the homogeneous nature of the sample. Large efforts are needed locally to

  7. The Israeli–Palestinian Separation Wall and the Assemblage Theory: The Case of the Weekly Rosary at the Icon of Our Lady of the Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Farinacci

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work I analyse the ethnographic case study of the icon of Our Lady of the Wall as establishing a unique ritual landscape among the cement slabs of the Israeli–Palestinian Wall separating Jerusalem from Bethlehem. Although the Wall has been widely described as a technology of occupation on one side and as a device to ensure security on the other, through Latour’s concept of assemblages I unearth its agency in developing a Christian shrine. Through a decade of weekly recitations of the Rosary along the Wall near Checkpoint 300, the Elizabethan nuns of the Caritas Baby Hospital have been invoking Mary’s help to dismantle the Wall. This weekly ritual represents both political dissent against the bordering action enacted by the Wall, as well as giving visibility to the plea of the Palestinian Christian right to live in this territory in the face of their status as an ethno-religious minority.

  8. Two Fragments in Christian Palestinian Aramaic of the Book of Genesis from the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus

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    Juan Pedro Monferrer-Sala

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Our aim in the present article is to analyze two fragments that contain the texts of Gn 19,1-5 and Gn 19,7-10. These are two translations rendered into Christian-Palestinian Aramaic dialect from a Greek text belonging to the Septuagint version. However, as we try to show the translators of these versions used additional texts along with their Greek Vorlage to revise the translation intended for the rural population among which the monks who used this version developed their pastoral work.

  9. The new Hamas document: An analytical reading of its development and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed ALMadani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO has been the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people since the creation of the Palestinian. The PLO adopted the option of armed struggle against the Israeli occupation, but ended with the signing of the Oslo accords between the Palestine Liberation Organization and Israel in the 1990s. The Islamic Resistance Movement in Palestine (Hamas was established in the 1980s. Hamas developed its political ideas through a new political document resulted in a new vision to resolve the Palestinian-Israeli conflict by transforming the conflict from religious conflict to political conflict and accepting the establishment of a Palestinian state on the 1967 borders as a common ground between the Palestinian movements and parties, while the armed struggle remains a path of resistance. The purpose of this article is to truly understand this development and the possibility of its application on the ground or not, by clarifying the differences between the ideas of the former and the new Hamas, The researcher relied on a number of academic articles and political research in addition to the political TV shows that talked about the new document, the Arab and international positions of this document, The result of this article is that the Palestinian Hamas movement as a Palestinian resistance movement is capable of political development and finding the alternatives available to solve the Palestinian file while preserving the Palestinian national constants. The Conclusion is the Palestinian Hamas movement is developing with the developments of regional and international events and political development has been partially accepted internationally, Hamas have to work more in the political field to balance between political development and the Palestinian constants.

  10. A social neuroscience approach to conflict resolution: Dialogue intervention to Israeli and Palestinian youth impacts oxytocin and empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Influs, Moran; Pratt, Maayan; Masalha, Shafiq; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna; Feldman, Ruth

    2018-06-12

    The rapid increase in terror-related activities, shift of battlefield into civilian locations, and participation of youth in acts of violence underscore the need to find novel frameworks for youth interventions. Building on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and social neuroscience models we developed an eight-week dialogue group-intervention for youth growing up amidst intractable conflict. Eighty-eight Israeli-Jewish and Arab-Palestinian adolescents (16-18years) were randomly assigned to intervention or control groups. Before (T1) and after (T2) intervention, one-on-one conflict interaction with outgroup member were videotaped, oxytocin levels assayed, attitudes self-reported, and youth interviewed regarding national conflict. We tested the hypothesis that dialogue intervention would enhance empathic behavior and increase oxytocin levels following interaction with outgroup member. Intervention increased youth perspective-taking on national conflict. Oxytocin increased from T1 to T2 only for adolescents undergoing intervention who improved perspective taking in the process. Structural equation modelling charted three pathways to behavioral empathy toward outgroup member at T2; via endogenous oxytocin, empathic cognitions, and dialogue intervention; however, an alternative model without the intervention arm was non-significant. Our findings highlight the important role of empathy in programs for inter-group reconciliation and support evolutionary models on the precarious balance between the neurobiology of affiliation and the neurobiology of outgroup derogation.

  11. Wisdom’s rebellion: Kingdom politics as a guerrilla drama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrus P. Kruger

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at exploring kingdom politics in South Africa as a guerrilla drama, not only of a contemporary play of wisdom as human virtue, but specifically in the form of the personified Wisdom’s play (cf. Christ’s parable of the children on the marketplace; Lk 7. Firstly, it investigates the availability of hermeneutical space for such an enterprise, attending to the concept of rebellion vis-à-vis a scripture-based, imaginative, theodramatic articulation of the Wisdom’s play of the parable. Secondly, the public space for the enactment of such a ‘wisdom’s rebellion’ is probed. It should not be neutrally indifferent to, but positively advancing of, the nearly universally accepted ‘golden rule’. The public space should, in the public imagination, be seen and treated as a kind of public theatre, hospitable to a plurality of worldviews, each freely and imaginatively enacting its own political alternatives before the critical eyes of a democratic voting public. A follow-up article will attempt to outline the difference it might make to the human dignity of the participants (actors and in their humane political actions (theodramatic roles, if they can imagine themselves as performing (not only theorising about and not only feeling passionately about wisdom’s subversive play of God’s kingdom in South Africa.   Hierdie artikel stel ondersoek in na koninkrykspolitiek in Suid-Afrika as ’n guerrilladrama wat die vorm van ’n wysheidspel aanneem; nie alleen ’n eietydse spel van wysheid as ’n menslike deug nie, maar veral as spel van die gepersonifieerde Wysheid (vgl. Christus se gelykenis van die kinders wat op die markplein speel; Luk 7. Eerstens word na die beskikbaarheid van ’n hermeneutiese ruimte vir so ’n onderneming gevra. Daarby word aandag geskenk aan die konsep van rebellie in verband met ’n skriftuurlik gefundeerde, verbeeldingryke, teodramatiese uitwerking van Wysheid se spel na aanleiding van die

  12. Genetic characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the West Bank, Palestinian Territories

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    Ereqat Suheir

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization (WHO declared human tuberculosis (TB a global health emergency and launched the “Global Plan to Stop Tuberculosis” which aims to save a million lives by 2015. Global control of TB is increasingly dependent on rapid and accurate genetic typing of species of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB complex including M. tuberculosis. The aim of this study was to identify and genetically characterize the MTB isolates circulating in the West Bank, Palestinian Territories. Genotyping of the MTB isolates from patients with pulmonary TB was carried out using two molecular genetic techniques, spoligotyping and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR supported by analysis of the MTB specific deletion 1 (TbD1. Findings A total of 17 MTB patterns were obtained from the 31 clinical isolates analyzed by spoligotyping; corresponding to 2 orphans and 15 shared-types (SITs. Fourteen SITs matched a preexisting shared-type in the SITVIT2 database, whereas a single shared-type SIT3348 was newly created. The most common spoligotyping profile was SIT53 (T1 variant, identified in 35.5 % of the TB cases studied. Genetic characterization of 22 clinical isolates via the 15 loci MIRU-VNTR typing distinguished 19 patterns. The 15-loci MIT144 and MIT145 were newly created within this study. Both methods determined the present of M. bovis strains among the isolates. Conclusions Significant diversity among the MTB isolates circulating in the West Bank was identified with SIT53-T1 genotype being the most frequent strain. Our results are used as reference database of the strains circulating in our region and may facilitate the implementation of an efficient TB control program.

  13. Talking back in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict: Rational dialogue or emotional shouting match?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elie Friedman

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has facilitated a broad global conversation among citizens, enabling cross-cultural dialogue on a range of issues, in particular through Web 2.0 tools. This study analyzes the nature of the talkback discourse on news web sites within the framework of the Palestinian-Israeli conflict. The study's findings demonstrated that several talkback writers engage in rational-critical discussion of issues essential to the conflict, although they often use rational arguments to de-legitimize conflicting opinions. Talkback dialogue is characterized by engaged discussion, though the majority of respondents engage in dialogue with the article, rather than with other talkback writers. The findings showed that talkback discourse enables a lively, eclectic, and inclusive version of a public sphere, which facilitates the exchange of heterogeneous opinions, though favoring exhibitionism over engagement.

  14. Reducing prejudice and promoting positive intergroup attitudes among elementary-school children in the context of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Rony; Benatov, Joy; Abu-Raiya, Hisham; Tadmor, Carmit T

    2016-08-01

    The current investigation tested the efficacy of the Extended Class Exchange Program (ECEP) in reducing prejudicial attitudes. Three hundred and twenty-two 3rd and 4th grade students from both Israeli-Jewish and Israeli-Palestinian schools in the ethnically mixed city of Jaffa were randomly assigned to either intervention or control classes. Members of the intervention classes engaged in ECEP's activities, whereas members of the control classes engaged in a social-emotional learning program. The program's outcomes were measured a week before, immediately after, and 15months following termination. Results showed that the ECEP decreased stereotyping and discriminatory tendencies toward the other group and increased positive feelings and readiness for social contact with the other group upon program termination. Additionally, the effects of the ECEP were generalized to an ethnic group (i.e., Ethiopians) with whom the ECEP's participants did not have any contact. Finally, the ECEP retained its significant effect 15months after the program's termination, despite the serious clashes between Israel and the Palestinians that occurred during that time. This empirical support for the ECEP'S utility in reducing prejudice makes it potentially applicable to other areas in the world, especially those that are characterized by ethnic tension and violent conflicts. Copyright © 2016 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Measuring the efficiency of Palestinian public hospitals during 2010-2015: an application of a two-stage DEA method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Wasim I M; Crispim, José

    2018-05-29

    While health needs and expenditure in the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT) are growing, the international donations are declining and the economic situation is worsening. The purpose of this paper is twofold, to evaluate the productive efficiency of public hospitals in West Bank and to study contextual factors contributing to efficiency differences. This study examined technical efficiency among 11 public hospitals in West Bank from 2010 through 2015 targeting a total of 66 observations. Nationally representative data were extracted from the official annual health reports. We applied input-oriented Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) models to estimate efficiency scores. To elaborate further on performance, we used Tobit regression to identify contextual factors whose impact on inefficient performance is statistically significant. Despite the increase in efficiency mean scores by 4% from 2010 to 2015, findings show potential savings of 14.5% of resource consumption without reducing the volume of the provided services. The significant Tobit model showed four predictors explaining the inefficient performance of a hospital (p public hospitals in the OPT. Our work identified their efficiency levels for potential improvements and the determinants of efficient performance. Based on the measurement of efficiency, the generated information may guide hospitals' managers, policymakers, and international donors improving the performance of the main national healthcare provider. The scope of this study is limited to public hospitals in West Bank. For a better understanding of the Palestinian market, further research on private hospitals and hospitals in Gaza Strip will be useful.

  16. Associations between life conditions and multi-morbidity in marginalized populations: the case of Palestinian refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Rima R; Hojeij, Safa; Elzein, Kareem; Chaaban, Jad; Seyfert, Karin

    2014-10-01

    Evidence suggests that higher multi-morbidity rates among people with low socioeconomic status produces and maintains poverty. Our research explores the relationship between socioeconomic deprivation and multi-morbidity among Palestinian refugees in Lebanon, a marginalized and impoverished population. A representative sample of Palestinian refugees in Lebanon was surveyed, interviewing 2501 respondents (97% response rate). Multi-morbidity was measured by mental health, chronic and acute illnesses and disability. Multinomial logistic regression models assessed the association between indicators of poverty and multi-morbidities. Findings showed that 14% of respondents never went to school, 41% of households reported water leakage and 10% suffered from severe food insecurity. Participants with an elementary education or less and those completing intermediate school were more than twice as likely to report two health problems than those with secondary education or more (OR: 2.60, CI: 1.73-3.91; OR: 2.47, CI: 1.62-3.77, respectively). Those living in households with water leakage were nearly twice as likely to have three or more health reports (OR = 1.88, CI = 1.45-2.44); this pattern was more pronounced for severely food insecure households (OR = 3.41, CI = 1.83-6.35). We identified a positive gradient between socioeconomic status and multi-morbidity within a refugee population. These findings reflect inequalities produced by the health and social systems in Lebanon, a problem expected to worsen following the massive influx of refugees from Syria. Ending legal discrimination and funding infrastructural, housing and health service improvements may counteract the effects of deprivation. Addressing this problem requires providing a decent livelihood for refugees in Lebanon. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  17. Assessing the Curricula of Political Sciences’ Programs at the Palestinian Universities in Accordance with the Academic Standards of Political Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa H. A . Aburedwan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at answering the following key question: Are academic standards of political sciences fulfilled in the curricula of political science programs at the Palestinian universities? Accordingly, the study included a theoretical section that explained the basic concepts of quality in education, and some international experiences adopted for quality assurance of political sciences programs. Then the study analyzed, according to the standard criteria, the curricula of four departments that grant a bachelor's degree in political sciences, based on information published on the departments’ sites on the internet, and according to the academic guidebook of each department. The study concluded that the mission and objectives of three departments are clear, while the findings of the analysis showed that there is mismatch of requirements in the Palestinian curricula with academic standards. Most programs are rich with major materials, but need a little adjustment to conform to the standards. The findings also showed a number of negative points in study plans, which do not contain enough credit hours for scientific research, computer applications, and field training, while they have extra credit hours for university requirements. The study made several recommendations to address the problems of the curricula, including: Inviting departments to form committees to ensure quality, to modify the curricula, and develop it in accordance with international standards. Keywords: Academic program, Academic standards, Curricula assessment, Political sciences.

  18. Knowledge and Adherence to Medications among Palestinian Geriatrics Living with Chronic Diseases in the West Bank and East Jerusalem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najjar, Anas; Amro, Yazan; Kitaneh, Islam; Abu-Sharar, Salam; Sawalha, Maryam; Jamous, Abrar; Qiq, Muhannad; Makharzeh, Enas; Subb Laban, Bayan; Amro, Wafa; Amro, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background Adequate patient knowledge about medications is essential for appropriate drug taking behavior and patient adherence. This study aims to assess and quantify the level of knowledge and adherence to medications among Palestinian geriatrics living with chronic diseases and to investigate possible associated socio-demographic characteristics. Methods and Findings We conducted a cross-sectional study during June 2013 and January 2014 among Palestinian geriatrics ≥60 years old living with chronic disease in the West Bank and East Jerusalem. A stratified random sample was selected and a questionnaire-assisted interview was applied for data collection. T-test was applied for bivariate analyzing and one-way ANOVA test was applied for multivariate analyses. Results A total of 1192 Palestinian geriatrics were studied. The average age was 70.3 (SD=8.58) years and ranged from 60-110 years. The sample comprised 659 (55.3%) females and 533 (44.7%) males. The global knowledge and global adherence scores were (67.57%) and (89.29%), respectively. Adequate levels of knowledge were 71.4%, and of adherence 75%, which were recorded for 705 (59.1%) and 1088 (91.3%) participants, respectively. Significant higher levels of global knowledge and global adherence were recorded for males, and for participants who hold a Bachelor’s degree, those who live on their own, and did physical activity for more than 40 hours/week (p-value <0.05). Furthermore, workers, participants with a higher monthly income, and non-smokers have a higher knowledge level with (p-value <0.05). We found positive correlation between participants’ global adherence and global knowledge (r=0.487 and p-value <0.001). Negative correlation was found between participants’ global knowledge and adherence with age (r= -0.236, p-value <0.001 and r= -0.211 and p-value <0.001, respectively. Negative correlation between global knowledge and the number of drugs taken (r= -0.130, p-value <0.001) was predicted

  19. Evaluation of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c for diagnosing type 2 diabetes and prediabetes among Palestinian Arab population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram T Kharroubi

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to compare the potential of HbA1c to diagnose diabetes among Palestinian Arabs compared to fasting plasma glucose (FPG. A cross-sectional sample of 1370 Palestinian men (468 and women (902 without known diabetes and above the age of 30 years were recruited. Whole blood was used to estimate HbA(1c and plasma for FPG and total lipid profile. Fasting plasma glucose was used as a reference to diagnose diabetes (≥ 126 mg/dL and prediabetes (100-125 mg/dL. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC for HbA(1c was 81.9% to diagnose diabetes and 63.9% for prediabetes. The agreement between HbA(1c and diabetes as diagnosed by FPG was moderate (ĸ  =  0.498 and low with prediabetes (ĸ = 0.142. The optimal cut-off value for HbA1c to diagnose diabetes was ≥ 6.3% (45 mmol/mol. The sensitivity, specificity and the discriminant ability were 65.6% (53.1-76.3%, 94.5% (93.1-95.6%, 80.0% (72.8-87.3%, respectively. However, using cut-off value of ≥ 6.5% (48 mmol/mol improved specificity. At this cut-off value, the sensitivity, specificity and the discriminant ability were 57.4% (44.9-69.0%, 97.1% (96.0-97.9% and 77.3% (71.0-83.5%. For diagnosing prediabetes with HbA1c between 5.7-6.4% (39-46 mmol/mol, the sensitivity, specificity and the discriminant ability were 62.7% (57.1-67.9%, 56.3% (53.1-59.4% and 59.5% (56.3-62.5%, respectively. HbA(1c at cut-off value of ≥ 6.5% (48 mmol/mol by itself diagnosed 5.3% and 48.3% as having diabetes and prediabetes compared to 4.5% and 24.2% using FPG, respectively. Mean HbA(1c and FPG increase significantly with increasing body mass index. In conclusion, the ROC curves showed HbA1c could be used for diagnosing diabetes when compared to FPG but not for prediabetes in Palestinians Arabs even though only about 50% of the diabetic subjects were identified by the both HbA1c and FPG.

  20. Forced Migration in the Middle East: The Palestinian and Syrian Refugee Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem YNCE YENILMEZ

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Forced migration in the Middle East has a long history, going back to, at least, the early days of the 20th century. This paper looks at the experience of two populations, the Palestinian refugees, who experienced their initial displacement in the mid-20th century, and the current day growing population of Syrian refugees. This latter group constitutes the largest group of displaced people since the Second World War. This paper uses the experience of both of these groups to explore the impact that forced migration has had on the host countries and the region at large. It looks at the economic, cultural and political impact of forced migration and concludes that, in the long-term, forced migration, although extremely disruptive to all involved, has a net benefit on the host countries. It also explores lack of regional coping mechanisms, and proposes that the terms “crisis” and “guests” should be replaced when discussing forced migrations.

  1. Physicians' and Nurses' Perceptions of and Attitudes Toward Incident Reporting in Palestinian Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, Anan; Hamdan, Motasem

    2015-06-22

    Underreporting of incidents that happen in health care services undermines the ability of the systems to improve patient safety. This study assessed the attitudes of physicians and nurses toward incident reporting and the factors influencing reporting in Palestinian hospitals. It also examined clinicians' views about the preferred features of incident reporting system. Cross-sectional self-administered survey of 475 participants, 152 physicians and 323 nurses, from 11 public hospitals in the West Bank; response rate, 81.3%. There was a low level of event reporting among participants in the past year (40.3%). Adjusted for sex and age, physicians were 2.1 times more likely to report incidents than nurses (95% confidence interval, 1.32-3.417; P = 0.002). Perceived main barriers for reporting were grouped under lack of proper structure for reporting, prevalence of blame, and punitive environment. The clinicians indicated fear of administrative sanctions, social and legal liability, and of their competence being questioned (P > 0.05). Getting help for patients, learning from mistakes, and ethical obligation were equally indicated motivators for reporting (P > 0.05). Meanwhile, clinicians prefer formal reporting (77.8%) of all type of errors (65.5%), disclosure of reporters (52.7%), using reports to improve patient safety (80.3%), and willingness to report to immediate supervisors (57.6%). Clinicians acknowledge the importance of reporting incidents; however, prevalence of punitive culture and inadequate reporting systems are key barriers. Improving feedback about reported errors, simplifying procedures, providing clear guidelines on what and who should report, and avoiding blame are essential to enhance reporting. Moreover, health care organizations should consider the opinions of the clinicians in developing reporting systems.

  2. Social Guerilla marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Hejkalová, Tereza

    2011-01-01

    The diploma thesis deals with the social guerrilla marketing and its aim is to analyze the social guerrilla campaigns and to evaluate the suitability of the guerilla marketing for the social issues. The theoretical part describes marketing communications, new trends in communication, including guerrilla marketing, and also social marketing and social guerrilla marketing. The practical part includes the market research of guerrilla campaigns. The chosen campaigns are introduced and afterwards ...

  3. The paradox of vaginal examination practice during normal childbirth: Palestinian women's feelings, opinions, knowledge and experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Sahar J; Sundby, Johanne; Husseini, Abdullatif; Bjertness, Espen

    2012-08-28

    Vaginal examination (VE), is a frequent procedure during childbirth. It is the most accepted ways to assess progress during childbirth, but its repetition at short intervals has no value. Over years, VE continued to be plagued by a nature that implies negative feelings and experiences of women. The aim of this exploratory qualitative study was to explore women's feelings, opinions, knowledge and experiences of vaginal examinations (VE) during normal childbirth. We interviewed 176 postpartum women using semi-structured questionnaire in a Palestinian public hospital in the oPt. Descriptive statistics were conducted; frequency counts and percentages for the quantitative questions. The association between the frequency of VE and age, parity, years of education, locale and the time of delivery was tested by Chi-squared and Fisher's Exact test. The open-ended qualitative questions were read line-by-line for the content and coded. The assigned codes for all responses were entered to the SPSS statistical software version 18. As compared with WHO recommendations, VE was conducted too frequently, and by too many providers during childbirth. The proportion of women who received a 'too high' frequency of VEs during childbirth was significantly larger in primipara as compared to multipara women (P = .037). 82% of women reported pain or severe pain and 68% reported discomfort during VE. Some women reported insensitive approaches of providers, insufficient means of privacy and no respect of dignity or humanity during the exam. Palestinian women are undergoing unnecessary and frequent VEs during childbirth, conducted by several different providers and suffer pain and discomfort un-necessarily. Adhering to best evidence, VE during childbirth should be conducted only when necessary, and if possible, by the same provider. This will decrease the laboring women's unnecessary suffering from pain and discomfort. Providers should advocate for women's right to information, respect

  4. Violence against women in the context of war: experiences of Shi'i women and Palestinian refugee women in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Maria

    2013-03-01

    In times of war, women are likely to experience, in addition to the "normal" violence of peacetime, random cruelties perpetrated by the enemy against all members of the community. During research conducted with Palestinian refugees and Shi'i Muslims in Lebanon, women described various forms of violence and, in this article, I examine violence suffered by women in the context of conflict from three perspectives: victimization, trauma, and resistance. I argue that traumatic events have the effect of obliterating identity, but they can also strengthen the resolve to resist.

  5. Work-Based Learning Programmes for Young People in the Mediterranean Region: Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Syria, Tunisia and Turkey. Comparative Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This report examines programmes for youth that combine learning in classrooms with participation in work in 10 Mediterranean countries: Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Syria, Tunisia and Turkey. It is one element, together with the development of a network of policymakers and experts from the…

  6. Iraqi, Syrian, and Palestinian Refugee Adolescents' Beliefs About Parental Authority Legitimacy and Its Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G; Ahmad, Ikhlas; Wray-Lake, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This study examined intra- and interindividual variations in parental legitimacy beliefs in a sample of 883 Arab refugee adolescents (M(age) = 15.01 years, SD = 1.60), 277 Iraqis, 275 Syrians, and 331 Palestinians in Amman, Jordan. Confirmatory factor analyses showed distinct latent factors for moral-conventional, prudential, and personal legitimacy items. Older adolescents rated legitimacy lower for personal issues, but higher for prudential issues. Beliefs were associated with socioeconomic status (fathers' education, family size), particularly for personal issues, but were more pervasively associated with displacement-related experiences. Greater war trauma was associated with less prudential legitimacy for all youth and more authority legitimacy over moral-conventional issues for Syrian youth. Greater hopefulness was associated with more authority legitimacy over all but personal issues. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  7. The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia - People's Army (FARC-EP): Marxist-Leninist Insurgency or Criminal Enterprise

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saskiewicz, Paul E

    2005-01-01

    ...), Latin America s oldest and most powerful guerrilla organization, has not abandoned its ideological beliefs and devolved into a criminal enterprise as a result of its immersion in the drug trade...

  8. Loss of social resources predicts incident posttraumatic stress disorder during ongoing political violence within the Palestinian Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Brian J; Murray, Sarah M; Galea, Sandro; Canetti, Daphna; Hobfoll, Stevan E

    2015-04-01

    Exposure to ongoing political violence and stressful conditions increases the risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in low-resource contexts. However, much of our understanding of the determinants of PTSD in these contexts comes from cross-sectional data. Longitudinal studies that examine factors associated with incident PTSD may be useful to the development of effective prevention interventions and the identification of those who may be most at-risk for the disorder. A 3-stage cluster random stratified sampling methodology was used to obtain a representative sample of 1,196 Palestinian adults living in Gaza, the West Bank and East Jerusalem. Face-to-face interviews were conducted at two time points 6-months apart. Logistic regression analyses were conducted on a restricted sample of 643 people who did not have PTSD at baseline and who completed both interviews. The incidence of PTSD was 15.0 % over a 6-month period. Results of adjusted logistic regression models demonstrated that talking to friends and family about political circumstances (aOR = 0.78, p = 0.01) was protective, and female sex (aOR = 1.76, p = 0.025), threat perception of future violence (aOR = 1.50, p = 0.002), poor general health (aOR = 1.39, p = 0.005), exposure to media (aOR = 1.37, p = 0.002), and loss of social resources (aOR = 1.71, p = 0.006) were predictive of incident cases of PTSD. A high incidence of PTSD was documented during a 6-month follow-up period among Palestinian residents of Gaza, the West Bank, and East Jerusalem. Interventions that promote health and increase and forestall loss to social resources could potentially reduce the onset of PTSD in communities affected by violence.

  9. From Sticks and Stones to Zeros and Ones: The Development of Computer Network Operations as an Element of Warfare. A Study of the Palestinian-Israeli Cyberconflict and What the United States Can Learn from the "Interfada"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wrona, Jacqueline-Marie W

    2005-01-01

    The Palestinian-Israeli Cyberconflict erupted in 2000, when Israeli hackers crippled the prime website of Hezbollah by mobilizing pro-Israeli supporters to bomb the site with automated floods of electronic mail...

  10. From Revolutionaries to Muslims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kublitz, Anja

    2016-01-01

    from Lebanon in the wake of the Lebanese Civil War were members of the Palestinian Liberation Organization and were known as the generation of the revolution (j¯ıl al-thawra). Extending Karl Mannheim’s approach to generations, I argue that in order to explain the transition among Palestinians...

  11. A Palestinian State - Yes or No? Constructing political discourse in the Israeli print news media - An experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Peleg

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a research project which examines how attitudes are shaped and formed and how opinion makers and agenda setters influence such attitudes in their followers. We concentrate on the written media as our research environment. We explore how framing of news items affect readers. Our research design creates three articles which describe an identical topic: the ratification of a Palestinian state by the Israeli Cabinet. The three articles are framed differently: one advocates the decision and thus is imbued with positive framing, the second condemns it, and accordingly is permeated by negative frames and the third is frameless. Three different reader groups grapple with the texts and are being tested with the same three tests: memory, categorization and meaning tests. We predict that people who read the pro-state text would respond favorably to the idea of a Palestinian state, whereas those who were exposed to the opposite framing would develop an adverse attitude. In sum, the interaction between leaders and followers is extremely important in shaping attitudes such as adherence, loyalty and commitment. Leaders with established authority and command have the potential of molding and forging beliefs, judgments and evaluations. Our results demonstrate significant support for this claim. This research might have long-range implications beyond indicating the nexus between manipulating a text and the comprehension of its readers. The suggestions and conclusions elaborated here can be incorporated into a broader research agenda, which deals with issues such as: authority and legitimacy (how do leaders lead, why do adherents follow?, recruitment and mobilization (how to animate and stimulate crowds?, political activism (how to elicit loyalty, commitment and willing to sacrifice?, propaganda and incitement (how to sway opinions and positions?, and from there, to even larger scaled explorations into the political, psychological and

  12. Molecular Detection and Identification of Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae in Ticks Collected from the West Bank, Palestinian Territories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suheir Ereqat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tick-borne rickettsioses are caused by obligate intracellular bacteria belonging to the spotted fever group (SFG rickettsiae. Although Spotted Fever is prevalent in the Middle East, no reports for the presence of tick-borne pathogens are available or any studies on the epidemiology of this disease in the West Bank. We aimed to identify the circulating hard tick vectors and genetically characterize SFG Rickettsia species in ixodid ticks from the West Bank-Palestinian territories.A total of 1,123 ixodid ticks belonging to eight species (Haemaphysalis parva, Haemaphysalis adleri, Rhipicephalus turanicus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus bursa, Hyalomma dromedarii, Hyalomma aegyptium and Hyalomma impeltatum were collected from goats, sheep, camels, dogs, a wolf, a horse and a tortoise in different localities throughout the West Bank during the period of January-April, 2014. A total of 867 ticks were screened for the presence of rickettsiae by PCR targeting a partial sequence of the ompA gene followed by sequence analysis. Two additional genes, 17 kDa and 16SrRNA were also targeted for further characterization of the detected Rickettsia species. Rickettsial DNA was detected in 148 out of the 867 (17% tested ticks. The infection rates in Rh. turanicus, Rh. sanguineus, H. adleri, H. parva, H. dromedarii, and H. impeltatum ticks were 41.7, 11.6, 16.7, 16.2, 11.8 and 20%, respectively. None of the ticks, belonging to the species Rh. bursa and H. aegyptium, were infected. Four SFG rickettsiae were identified: Rickettsia massiliae, Rickettsia africae, Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae and Candidatus Rickettsia goldwasserii.The results of this study demonstrate the geographic distribution of SFG rickettsiae and clearly indicate the presence of at least four of them in collected ticks. Palestinian clinicians should be aware of emerging tick-borne diseases in the West Bank, particularly infections due to R. massiliae and R. africae.

  13. Coming to Terms: A conflict analysis of the usage, in official and unofficial sources, of 'security fence', 'apartheid wall', and other terms for the structure between Israel and the Palestinian Territories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, R.A.; Ben-David, A.

    2010-01-01

    The official terms for the dividing wall are ‘security fence’ on the Israeli side and ‘apartheid wall’ on the Palestinian side. Both terms fuse two contextually charged notions to describe the construction project. Beyond the two official terms, the structure has been given other names by sources

  14. Impact of the Pro12Ala Polymorphism of the PPAR-Gamma 2 Gene on Metabolic and Clinical Characteristics in the Palestinian Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ereqat

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-gamma2 (PPARγ2 represents the transcriptional master regulator of adipocyte differentiation and therefore has been suggested as a candidate gene for obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. The objective of the study was to investigate for the first time the potential association of the most common variant Pro12Ala (p.P12A substitution of the PPARγ2 gene with body mass index (BMI, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, plasma total cholesterol, LDL and HDL cholesterol, and plasma triglyceride in a sample of 202 (138 females and 64 male type 2 diabetic Palestinians. Genotyping of the PPARγ2 p.P12A polymorphism was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP analysis. The A12 allele was associated with lower fasting plasma glucose (P=.03 but had no influence on blood pressure, BMI, or other metabolic parameters. In obese patients, the p.P12A substitution was associated with elevated total plasma cholesterol levels (P=.02 and a tendency toward increased LDL cholesterol level (P=.06. In conclusion, the p.P12A variant of the PPARγ2 may influence cardiovascular risk through effects on lipid metabolism in obese T2D Palestinian patients.

  15. The paradox of vaginal examination practice during normal childbirth: Palestinian women’s feelings, opinions, knowledge and experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Sahar J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaginal examination (VE, is a frequent procedure during childbirth. It is the most accepted ways to assess progress during childbirth, but its repetition at short intervals has no value. Over years, VE continued to be plagued by a nature that implies negative feelings and experiences of women. The aim of this exploratory qualitative study was to explore women’s feelings, opinions, knowledge and experiences of vaginal examinations (VE during normal childbirth. Methods We interviewed 176 postpartum women using semi-structured questionnaire in a Palestinian public hospital in the oPt. Descriptive statistics were conducted; frequency counts and percentages for the quantitative questions. The association between the frequency of VE and age, parity, years of education, locale and the time of delivery was tested by Chi-squared and Fisher’s Exact test. The open-ended qualitative questions were read line-by-line for the content and coded. The assigned codes for all responses were entered to the SPSS statistical software version 18. Results As compared with WHO recommendations, VE was conducted too frequently, and by too many providers during childbirth. The proportion of women who received a ‘too high’ frequency of VEs during childbirth was significantly larger in primipara as compared to multipara women (P = .037. 82% of women reported pain or severe pain and 68% reported discomfort during VE. Some women reported insensitive approaches of providers, insufficient means of privacy and no respect of dignity or humanity during the exam. Conclusions Palestinian women are undergoing unnecessary and frequent VEs during childbirth, conducted by several different providers and suffer pain and discomfort un-necessarily. Practice implications Adhering to best evidence, VE during childbirth should be conducted only when necessary, and if possible, by the same provider. This will decrease the laboring women’s unnecessary suffering

  16. From Sticks and Stones to Zeros and Ones: The Development of Computer Network Operations as an Element of Warfare. A Study of the Palestinian-Israeli Cyberconflict and What the United States Can Learn from the Interfada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    Israeli teens who sabotaged a website of Hezbollah, the militantly anti-Israel guerrilla movement in Lebanon, with a defacement which placed an Israeli...ftp with out a password. FUCK HIZZBALLA!!! Sincerely digibrain & haboshanik (we are the domain masters).” • Hackers of Israel Unite: Hackers of...other defacement. 2. b1n4ry c0d3 defaced only one site on December 3, 2000. This defacement was the only one to refer to the WFD as the “World’s Fuck

  17. Negative Stereotypes of Ethnic Out-groups: A Longitudinal Examination Among Palestinian, Israeli Jewish, and Israeli Arab Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Erika Y.; Boxer, Paul; Dubow, Eric F.; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Landau, Simha; Shikaki, Khalil; Gvirsman, Shira Dvir

    2014-01-01

    Ethno-political conflict impacts thousands of youth globally and has been associated with a number of negative psychological outcomes. Extant literature has mostly addressed the adverse emotional and behavioral outcomes of exposure while failing to examine change over time in social-cognitive factors in contexts of ethno-political conflict. Using cohort-sequential longitudinal data, the present study examines ethnic variation in the development of negative stereotypes about ethnic out-groups among Palestinian (n=600), Israeli Jewish (n=451), and Israeli Arab (n=450) youth over three years. Age and exposure to ethno-political violence were included as covariates for these trajectories. Findings indicate important ethnic differences in trajectories of negative stereotypes about ethnic out-groups, as well as variation in how such trajectories are shaped by prolonged ethno-political conflict. PMID:27019573

  18. Assessing the nutritional status of Palestinian adolescents from East Jerusalem: a school-based study 2002-03.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jildeh, Christine; Papandreou, Christopher; Abu Mourad, Tayser; Hatzis, Christos; Kafatos, Anthony; Qasrawi, Radwan; Philalithis, Anastas; Abdeen, Ziad

    2011-02-01

    In Palestine, there is a little information about nutrition of adolescents compared to other age groups. This study was designed to assess the nutritional status of Palestinian school-aged children (11-16 years) in East Jerusalem during 2002-03. A school-based cross-sectional study targeted randomly 313 adolescents from public and private schools. A previously validated and reliable questionnaire was administered through interviews that included anthropometric and hemoglobin measurements, 24-h dietary intake recall and physical activity questionnaire. It was found that being overweight (24.3%) or obese (9.9%) coexisted with being underweight (4.8%) and/or anemic (23.3%). Only 22.4% of the study subject had physical activity for ≥5 days a week with boys being more physically active than girls (p education programs targeted at adolescents and parents need to be developed as part of overweight-obesity, malnutrition and anemia prevention.

  19. Un cinéma palestinien « en mal d’archive » The “Archive Fever” of Palestinian Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Fourest

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available À partir de l’analyse de trois films palestiniens réalisés dans les années 2000, cet article propose d’interroger l’insertion d’images d’archives par les cinéastes dans leur montage : quelles stratégies mettent-ils en œuvre et à quelles fins ? Qu’apportent des images d’archives en plus des témoignages filmés ? Comment le recours à ces images permet-il de participer au débat historiographique qui sous-tend et détermine en partie le conflit israélo-palestinien ? Dans le contexte palestinien où il n’existe pas d’institution archivistique officielle, les archives sont porteuses d’enjeux particulièrement saillants, donnant lieu à un véritable « mal d’archive ». Celui-ci fait naître une multiplicité de stratégies cinématographiques visant à questionner cette zone d’inconfort, où le maniement des qualités émotionnelles et sensorielles de l’archive peut être un moyen de faire preuve.Through the analysis of three Palestinian films created in the 2000-2010 period, this article considers filmmakers’ insertion of archival images in their montages: what strategies do they employ and for what purpose? What do archival images add to filmed testimony? How does the use of these images enable participation in the historiographical debate underlying and partly determining the Israel-Palestine conflict? In the Palestinian context, where no official archive institution exists, archives entail particularly salient issues, making their lack truly sore. This generates a multiplicity of cinematographic strategies aiming to challenge this discomfort zone, where the manipulation of the emotional and sensorial qualities of archives can be a means of proving something.

  20. British-Zionist Military Cooperation in Palestine, 1917-1939

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen M. Saleh

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The essence of the British military and security formula in Palestine was the smooth establishment of the Jewish national home with minimum costs of lives and money. However, this British pro-Zionist policy created a continuous security problem, and opened the door to all possibilities of Palestinian revolts and uprisings of both national and religious nature. The British were very active in disarming the Arabs and adopted stringent measures to crush their uprisings and revolts. But, they turned a blind eye to the Jewish arms smuggling and Jewish military organizations, especially, the Hagana, which later became the backbone of the Israeli Army. During Palestinian uprisings of 1920, 1921 and 1929 against the Zionists, most of the Palestinian casualties were inflicted by the British forces despite the fact that the Palestinians avoided attacking the British. The British-Zionist cooperation reached its peak during the Palestinian revolt of 1936-1939, and took different forms, including allowing the Jews to establish a military force of twenty two thousand men under the pretext of protecting the Jewish community.

  1. ‘EU differentiation’ as a case of ‘Normative Power Europe’ (NPE) in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Anders

    2018-01-01

    strategy has worked in the sense that it has created a normative, legal and in a few cases economic separation in the EU’s dealings with the internationally-recognised Israel and the non-recognised settlements, it has with some very minor, insignificant exceptions, not changed the realities on the ground......Opposition to Israel’s occupation and in particular its settlement enterprise on what the European Union (EU) perceives to be Palestinian/Syrian territories has been a consistent EC/EU policy since 1977 when what was then called the European Community (EC) issued its first declaration against...... the settlements. While there has been a long historical precedent for EU differentiation in the conflict, the ‘differentiation strategy’ was inofficially operationalized first in 2013. Using the theory of ‘Normative Power Europe’ (NPE) as a framework of analysis, this article argues that while the differentiation...

  2. Political Imprisonment and Adult Functioning: A Life Event History Analysis of Palestinians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeely, Clea; Barber, Brian K; Spellings, Carolyn; Belli, Robert; Giacaman, Rita; Arafat, Cairo; Daher, Mahmoud; El Sarraj, Eyad; Mallouh, Mohammed Abu

    2015-06-01

    Political imprisonment is a traumatic event, often accompanied by torture and deprivation. This study explores the association of political imprisonment between 1987 and 2011 with political, economic, community, psychological, physical, and family functioning in a population-based sample of Palestinian men ages 32-43 years (N = 884) derived from a dataset collected in 2011. Twenty-six percent (n = 233) had been politically imprisoned. Men imprisoned between 1987 and 2005 reported functioning as well as never-imprisoned men in most domains, suggesting that men imprisoned as youth have moved forward with their lives in ways similar to their nonimprisoned counterparts. In an exception to this pattern, men imprisoned during the Oslo Accords period (1994-1999) reported higher levels of trauma-related stress (B = 0.24, p = .027) compared to never-imprisoned men. Men imprisoned since 2006 reported lower functioning in multiple domains: human insecurity (B = 0.33, p = .023), freedom of public expression (B = -0.48, p = .017), perceived government stability (B = -0.38, p = .009), feeling broken or destroyed (B = 0.59, p = .001), physical limitations (B = 0.55, p = .002), and community belonging (B = -0.33, p = .048). Findings pointed to the value of examining the effects of imprisonment on functioning in multiple domains. © 2015 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  3. Sacred values in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict: resistance to social influence, temporal discounting, and exit strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Hammad; Ginges, Jeremy; Atran, Scott

    2013-09-01

    Conflicts over sacred values may be particularly difficult to resolve. Because sacred values are nonfungible with material values, standard attempts to negotiate, such as offering material incentives to compromise, often backfire, increasing moral outrage and support for violent action. We present studies with Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza demonstrating three other ways sacred values may make conflict more intractable, focusing on what we call devoted actors, people who regard issues central to the Israel-Palestine conflict as sacred values. We show that devoted actors (1) were less amenable to social influence, (2) perceived conflict-related events in the past as well as expected events in the future to be temporally closer, and (3) were blind to individual opportunities to escape the conflict. These results suggest that sacred values may affect decision making in a number of ways, which, when combined, contribute to common defense and continuation of conflict. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  4. Traditional Arabic Palestinian ethnoveterinary practices in animal health care: A field survey in the West Bank (Palestine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali-Shtayeh, Mohammed S; Jamous, Rana M; Jamous, Rania M

    2016-04-22

    In Palestine, medicinal plants have continued to play a vital role in fulfilling animal healthcare needs of rural communities. However, these valuable resources are being depleted mainly due to over-harvesting, inappropriate agricultural practices (e.g., over use of herbicides), agricultural expansion, and over-grazing. Therefore, immediate action is required to conserve these resources and document the associated knowledge. The purpose of this study was, thus, to document and analyze information associated with medicinal plants that are used in managing animal health problems in the West Bank, Palestine. Ethnobotanical data were collected from Apr 2012 to Feb 2014 mainly using semi-structured interviews with informants sampled using purposive sampling technique and through field observations. The study revealed the use of 138 medicinal plant species in the West Bank for the treatment of several livestock diseases, of these 75 species representing 70 genera and 33 families were reported by 3 independent informants or above. Classification of the ethnoveterinary plant species cited by three informants or above used in a rank-order priority (ROP) based on their claimed relative healing potential has demonstrated that the following are the plants with the highest efficacy: Camellia sinenses, Teucrium capitatum, and Salvia fruticosa with ROPs of 97.1, 93.2, and 91.4, respectively, are used primarily to relieve gastric disorders. Gastrointestinal disorders is the disease group in the study area that scored the highest Informant consensus factor (ICF) value (0.90), followed by urinary, and reproductive disorders (0.89). Our study provided evidence that medicinal plants are still playing important role in the management of livestock diseases, and showed that ethnoveterinary plants used in animal health care in Palestine have been also recorded in human Traditional Arabic Palestinian Herbal Medicine (TAPHM), and demonstrated a strong link between human and veterinary

  5. Dynamics of soil organic carbon and microbial activity in treated wastewater irrigated agricultural soils along soil profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jüschke, Elisabeth; Marschner, Bernd; Chen, Yona; Tarchitzky, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    Treated wastewater (TWW) is an important source for irrigation water in arid and semiarid regions and already serves as an important water source in Jordan, the Palestinian Territories and Israel. Reclaimed water still contains organic matter (OM) and various compounds that may effect microbial activity and soil quality (Feigin et al. 1991). Natural soil organic carbon (SOC) may be altered by interactions between these compounds and the soil microorganisms. This study evaluates the effects of TWW irrigation on the quality, dynamics and microbial transformations of natural SOC. Priming effects (PE) and SOC mineralization were determined to estimate the influence of TWW irrigation on SOC along soil profiles of agricultural soils in Israel and the Westbank. The used soil material derived from three different sampling sites allocated in Israel and The Palestinian Authority. Soil samples were taken always from TWW irrigated sites and control fields from 6 different depths (0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-50, 50-70, 70-100 cm). Soil carbon content and microbiological parameters (microbial biomass, microbial activities and enzyme activities) were investigated. In several sites, subsoils (50-160 cm) from TWW irrigated plots were depleted in soil organic matter with the largest differences occurring in sites with the longest TWW irrigation history. Laboratory incubation experiments with additions of 14C-labelled compounds to the soils showed that microbial activity in freshwater irrigated soils was much more stimulated by sugars or amino acids than in TWW irrigated soils. The lack of such "priming effects" (Hamer & Marschner 2005) in the TWW irrigated soils indicates that here the microorganisms are already operating at their optimal metabolic activity due to the continuous substrate inputs with soluble organic compounds from the TWW. The fact that PE are triggered continuously due to TWW irrigation may result in a decrease of SOC over long term irrigation. Already now this could be

  6. Association between exposure to political violence and intimate-partner violence in the occupied Palestinian territory: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Cari Jo; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Suglia, Shakira Franco; Btoush, Rula; Alonso, Alvaro; Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M

    2010-01-23

    Intimate-partner violence might increase during and after exposure to collective violence. We assessed whether political violence was associated with male-to-female intimate-partner violence in the occupied Palestinian territory. A nationally representative, cross-sectional survey was done between Dec 18, 2005, and Jan 18, 2006, by the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics. 4156 households were randomly selected with a multistage random cluster design, from which 3815 ever-married women aged 15-64 years were identified. We restricted our analysis to presently married women (n=3510, 92% participation rate), who completed a short version of the revised conflict tactics scales and exposure to political violence inventory. Exposure to political violence was characterised as the husband's direct exposure, his indirect exposure via his family's experiences, and economic effects of exposure on the household. We used adjusted multinomial logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for association between political violence and intimate-partner violence. Political violence was significantly related to higher odds of intimate-partner violence. ORs were 1.89 (95% CI 1.29-2.76) for physical and 2.23 (1.49-3.35) for sexual intimate-partner violence in respondents whose husbands were directly exposed to political violence compared with those whose husbands were not directly exposed. For women whose husbands were indirectly exposed, ORs were 1.61 (1.25-2.07) for physical and 1.97 (1.49-2-60) for sexual violence, compared with those whose husbands were not indirectly exposed. Economic effects of exposure were associated with increased odds of intimate-partner violence in the Gaza Strip only. Because exposure to political violence is associated with increased odds of intimate-partner violence, and exposure to many traumas is associated with poor health, a range of violent exposures should be assessed when establishing the need for psychosocial interventions in

  7. Metabolic syndrome among overweight and obese adults in Palestinian refugee camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiri, Basma; Abualsoud, Mohammed S; Samara, Amjad M; Salameh, Sakhaa K

    2018-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is one of the main reasons for elevated cardiovascular morbidity and mortality worldwide. Obese and overweight individuals are at high risk of developing these chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to characterize and establish sex-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015, 689 (329 men and 360 women) aged 18-65 years from three refugee camps in the West Bank. International Diabetes Federation and modified National Cholesterol Education Program-Third Adult Treatment Panel definitions were used to identify MetS. The overall prevalence of obesity and overweight was high, 63.1%; Obesity (42 and 29.2% in women men; respectively and overweight 25.8 and 28.9% in women and men; respectively. The prevalence of MetS among obese and overweight was significantly higher (69.4%) according to IDF than NCEP definition (52%) ( p  family history of hypertension or diabetes mellitus. In this study, irrespective of the definition used, metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in obese and overweight Palestinian adults with no gender-based differences. The contribution of the metabolic components to the metabolic syndrome is different in men and women. With the increase of age and obesity, the clustering of metabolic syndrome components increased remarkably. More attention through health care providers should, therefore, be given to the adult population at risk to reduce adulthood obesity and subsequent cardiovascular diseases.

  8. Guerilla Warfare & Law Enforcement: Combating the 21st Century Terrorist Cell within the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Major Richard Hughbank

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Both domestic and international terrorist organizations employ guerrilla warfare tactics, techniques, and procedures. Thus, the ability to identify and defeat the members of these organizations, cripple their infrastructures, and disrupt their financial resources lies in the understanding of modern guerrilla warfare as it develops in the twenty-first century within the United States.3 The forms of asymmetric warfare4 adopted by domestic and international terrorist groups alike is no longer intended to gain simple media exposure or governmental manipulation; they want to make an overpowering impact by causing massive loss of life and severe damage to infrastructure and are often motivated by religious imperatives and political goals. As terrorism analyst Stephen Flynn has observed, "Throughout the 20th century [Americans] were able to treat national security as essentially an out-of-body experience. When confronted by threats, [America] dealt with them on the turf of our allies or our adversaries. Aside from the occasional disaster and heinous crime, civilian life [in the United States] has been virtually terror-free." With the turn of the twenty-first century, terrorist operations have become more prevalent in the United States and are taking shape in the form of modern guerrilla warfare, thus creating new challenges for federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies. After reviewing the origin and nature of these challenges, this article will offer some suggestions for countering guerilla warfare in the United States.

  9. Influence of organizational culture on provider adherence to the diabetic clinical practice guideline: using the competing values framework in Palestinian Primary Healthcare Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, Mahmoud; Akbari Sari, Ali; Rashidian, Arash; Takian, Amirhossein; Abou-Dagga, Sanaa; Elsous, Aymen

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a serious chronic disease and an important public health issue. This study aimed to identify the predominant culture within the Palestinian Primary Healthcare Centers of the Ministry of Health (PHC-MoH) and the Primary Healthcare Centers of the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees (PHC-UNRWA) by using the competing values framework (CVF) and examining its influence on the adherence to the Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG) for DM. A cross-sectional design was employed with a census sample of all the Palestinian family doctors and nurses (n=323) who work within 71 PHC clinic. A cross-cultural adaptation framework was followed to develop the Arabic version of the CVF questionnaire. The overall adherence level to the diabetic guideline was disappointingly suboptimal (51.5%, p culture was the most predominant (mean =41.13; standard deviation [SD] =8.92), followed by hierarchical (mean =33.14; SD=5.96), while in the PHC-UNRWA, hierarchical was the prevailing culture (mean =48.43; SD =12.51), followed by clan/group (mean =29.73; SD =8.37). Although a positively significant association between the adherence to CPG and the rational culture and a negatively significant association with the developmental archetype were detected in the PHC-MoH, no significant associations were found in the PHC-UNRWA. Our study demonstrates that the organizational culture has a marginal influence on the adherence to the diabetic guideline. Future research should preferably mix quantitative and qualitative approaches and explore the use of more sensitive instruments to measure such a complex construct and its effects on guideline adherence in small-sized clinics.

  10. MATERNAL TRAUMA AFFECTS PRENATAL MENTAL HEALTH AND INFANT STRESS REGULATION AMONG PALESTINIAN DYADS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isosävi, Sanna; Diab, Safwat Y; Kangaslampi, Samuli; Qouta, Samir; Kankaanpää, Saija; Puura, Kaija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2017-09-01

    We examined how diverse and cumulated traumatic experiences predicted maternal prenatal mental health and infant stress regulation in war conditions and whether maternal mental health mediated the association between trauma and infant stress regulation. Participants were 511 Palestinian mothers from the Gaza Strip who reported exposure to current war trauma (WT), past childhood emotional (CEA) and physical abuse, socioeconomic status (SES), prenatal mental health problems (posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms), and perceived stress during their secondtrimester of pregnancy as well as infant stress regulation at 4 months. While all trauma types were associated with high levels of prenatal symptoms, CEA had the most wide-ranging effects and was uniquely associated with depression symptoms. Concerning infant stress regulation, mothers' CEA predicted negative affectivity, but only among mothers with low WT. Against hypothesis, the effects of maternal trauma on infant stress regulation were not mediated by mental health symptoms. Mothers' higher SES was associated with better infant stress regulation whereas infant prematurity and male sex predisposed for difficulties. Our findings suggest that maternal childhood abuse, especially CEA, should be a central treatment target among war-exposed families. Cumulated psychosocial stressors might increase the risk for transgenerational problems. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  11. Nutritional status of Palestinian preschoolers in the Gaza Strip: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massad Salwa G

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The authors examined factors associated with nutritional resilience/vulnerability among preschoolers in the Gaza Strip in 2007, where political violence and deprivation are widespread. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2007 using random sampling of kindergartens in order to select 350 preschoolers. Binary logistic regression was used to compare resilient (adequate nutrition and vulnerable (stunted groups with those with moderate nutrition. Results Approximately 37% of the subjects demonstrated nutritional resilience and 15% were vulnerable. Factors associated with nutritional resilience were child younger age, normal birth weight, actively hand- or spoon-feeding when the child was below two years, and residential stability in the past two years. The only factor associated with nutritional vulnerability was lower total score on the mother's General Health Questionnaire, which we interpret as a marker of maternal mental health. Conclusions Children with low-birth weight and older children had worse nutritional resiliency outcomes. Further, poorer outcomes for children were associated with lower maternal mental health status, as well as increased family residential instability. Our results add to the large literature on the pervasive effects of violence and instability on children and underscore the need for resources for early intervention and for the urgent resolution of the Palestinian and other armed conflicts.

  12. Nutritional status of Palestinian preschoolers in the Gaza Strip: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massad, Salwa G; Nieto, F J; Palta, Mari; Smith, Maureen; Clark, Roseanne; Thabet, Abdel-Aziz

    2012-01-11

    The authors examined factors associated with nutritional resilience/vulnerability among preschoolers in the Gaza Strip in 2007, where political violence and deprivation are widespread. This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2007 using random sampling of kindergartens in order to select 350 preschoolers. Binary logistic regression was used to compare resilient (adequate nutrition) and vulnerable (stunted) groups with those with moderate nutrition. Approximately 37% of the subjects demonstrated nutritional resilience and 15% were vulnerable. Factors associated with nutritional resilience were child younger age, normal birth weight, actively hand- or spoon-feeding when the child was below two years, and residential stability in the past two years. The only factor associated with nutritional vulnerability was lower total score on the mother's General Health Questionnaire, which we interpret as a marker of maternal mental health. Children with low-birth weight and older children had worse nutritional resiliency outcomes. Further, poorer outcomes for children were associated with lower maternal mental health status, as well as increased family residential instability. Our results add to the large literature on the pervasive effects of violence and instability on children and underscore the need for resources for early intervention and for the urgent resolution of the Palestinian and other armed conflicts. © 2012 Massad et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  13. Multiple risk behaviors and suicidal ideation and behavior among Israeli and Palestinian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Abdeen, Ziad; Walsh, Sophie D; Radwan, Qasrowi; Fogel-Grinvald, Haya

    2012-07-01

    Based conceptually on Problem Behavior Theory, Normalization Theory and theories of adolescent ethnic identity formation this study explores relationships between individual and cumulative multiple risk behaviors and suicidal ideation and behavior among mid-adolescents in three different populations in the Middle East. Data from the 2004 Health Behavior in School-Aged Children in the Middle-East (HBSC-ME) study included 8345 10th-grade pupils in three populations: Jewish Israelis (1770), Arab Israelis (2185), and Palestinians in Gaza and the West Bank (4390). We considered risk behaviors and factors including tobacco use, bullying, medically-attended injuries, excessive time with friends, parental disconnectedness, negative school experience, truancy and poor academic performance. Substantial population differences for suicidal tendency and risk behaviors were observed, with notably high levels of suicidal ideation and behavior among Arab-Israeli youth and higher levels of risk behaviors among the Jewish and Arab-Israeli youth. For all populations suicidal tendency was at least 4 times higher among adolescents reporting 4+ risk behaviors, suggesting that similar psychosocial determinants affect patterns of risk behaviors and suicidal tendency. Results highlight the importance of understanding cultural contexts of risk behaviors and suicidal ideation and behavior. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Reproductive health and rights in East Jerusalem: the effects of militarisation and biopolitics on the experiences of pregnancy and birth of Palestinians living in the Kufr 'Aqab neighbourhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamayel, Layaly; Hammoudeh, Doaa; Welchman, Lynn

    2017-10-01

    Research with marginalised communities points to the need to understand political determinants of reproductive health. For residents of Kufr 'Aqab neighbourhood, Israeli biopolitics in East Jerusalem can be barriers to access to maternal health. This is manifested in women having to cross military checkpoints to give birth in hospitals located in Jerusalem to make their children eligible for "permanent residency", a document required for Palestinians to live in Jerusalem. A basic qualitative design is utilised, and semi-structured in-depth interviews with 27 women and 20 men were conducted and thematic analysis was used to extract themes and subthemes. Women reported exposure to risky conditions during pregnancy and worries of giving birth at checkpoints. Social support was restricted for some women due to inability of the husband/family to reach the hospital at the time of birth. Men reported distress related to inability to attend birth. Giving birth in a Jerusalem hospital, as part of passing residency to children, was perceived as reaffirming Palestinian presence in the City and transforming sites of suffering to sites of resistance. Israeli residency policies and segregation of Jerusalem affect Kufr 'Aqab residents' pregnancy and birth on physical, social and psychological levels. Results indicate the importance of incorporating political determinants of access to maternal care and safe pregnancy in the conceptualisation of reproductive rights.

  15. Fighting Networks: The Defining Challenge of Irregular Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    fighting networks, different skills allow for increased operational complexity. Lawrence and Lorsch found that organizations in more uncertain...Uncertainty in the Face of Risk,” in Cooperation and Prosocial Behavior, ed. Robert Hindle and Jo Groebel (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991...simplistic to describe al-Qaeda as a guerrilla organization as they have transcended traditional practices by their skilled utilization of the network form

  16. Management level of Intellectual Capital in the Palestinian Universities from the Perspective of Faculty Members in Relationship to the Aspects of Excellence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud A.R. Assaf

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to identify the degree of assessment given by faculty members of the Palestinian universities about their efforts in managing the intellectual capital, and to identify the aspects of excellence mostly preferred by them and the relationship between these aspects. To achieve the objectives of the study, the researcher followed the descriptive method by applying two questionnaires: the first consisting of (37 items; and the second comprising (28 items distributed to (4 areas. The sample consisted of (229 faculty members from these universities: (Al-Azhar, the Islamic university and al-Aqsa. They were selected using the random stratified method. The results were as follows: The respondents’ total degree of assessment of the efforts exerted by the universities in intellectual capital was at the rate of (63.8%, which is a medium degree. The area of (management of relations came in first place at a rate of (71.2% with a large degree. The ‘management of intellectual and organizational assets’ was given the last rank with a medium degree and the rate of (56.80% The aspect of excellence that was given the first rank by the respondents was the (development of faculty members and teaching at the rate of (65.2 % , and with a medium degree. The least trend is (supporting talent and creativity which came in the last rank, with a medium degree and a rate of (59.4%. There was a statistically significant correlation of (α≤0.05 between the degree of respondents’ assessment of university efforts in managing intellectual capital and their assessment of the aspects of excellence, recording a correlation coefficient of (0.737 .  Keywords: Aspects of excellence, Intellectual capital, Efforts of Palestinian Universities.

  17. Don't think about blue elephants! / Paul Hanley ; interv. Alina Lisina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanley, Paul

    2005-01-01

    "Guerrilla marketing'i" (partisani turundus) - hoolikalt kavandatud ja alternatiivseid kanaleid kasutav ebatraditsiooniline turundustegevus - tutvustus. Lisad: Paul Hanley; GM müüdid; 15 Guerrilla turunduse saladust

  18. The relationship between relative deprivation and self-rated health among Palestinian women in refugee camps in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisreen Salti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Relative deprivation (RD has been advanced as a theory to explain the relationship between income inequality and health in high-income countries. In this study, we tested the theory in a low-income protracted refugee setting in a middle-income country. Methods: Using data from the 2010 Socioeconomic Survey of Palestine Refugees in Lebanon, we examined the relationship between RD and health among a representative sample of Palestinian refugee women (N=1047. Data were gathered utilizing a household questionnaire with information on socio-demographics and an individual-level questionnaire with information on the health of each respondent. We examined self-rated health (SRH as the main health measure but also checked the sensitivity of our results using self-reported chronic conditions. We used two measures for absolute SES: total household monthly expenditures on non-food goods and services and total household monthly expenditures on non-health goods and services. With refugee camp as a reference group, we measured a household’s RD as a household’s rank of absolute SES within the reference group, multiplied by the distance between its absolute SES and the average absolute SES of all households ranked above it. We investigated the robustness of the RD–SRH relationship using these two alternative measures of absolute SES. Results: Our findings show that, controlling for absolute SES and other possible confounders, women report significantly poorer health when they live in households with a higher score on our RD measure (because of either lower relative rank or lower relative SES compared to households better off in the reference group which we take to be the refugee camp. While RD is always significant as a determinant of SRH under a variety of specifications, absolute SES is not consistently significant. These findings persist when we use self-reported chronic conditions as our measure of health instead of SRH, suggesting that the

  19. Age-dependent decrease of anti-HBs titers and effect of booster doses using 2 different vaccines in Palestinian children vaccinated in early childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qawasmi, Mohammad; Samuh, Monjed; Glebe, Dieter; Gerlich, Wolfram H; Azzeh, Maysa

    2015-01-01

    Immunization against hepatitis B virus (HBV) has proven to be highly effective and led to significant reduction of new infections worldwide. However, protective immunity measured by anti-HBs titers may decrease to critical levels in the years after basal immunization, particularly in case of exposure to HBV variants different from the vaccine strain. We tested 400 Palestinian children between one and 19 years of age for their anti-HBs titer, challenged the immune memory of those with low or absent anti-HBs with 2 types of hepatitis B vaccines and determined thereafter the anti-HBs titer. At the age of one, 92.2% of the children presented with protective anti-HBs titers (≥10 mIU/ml) with the majority having ≥100 mIU/ml. Protective immunity was still high at ages 2 (87.5%) and 4 (95%), declining by age 5 and 6 (from 69.2% to 66.7%) and down to an average of 39.8% between the ages of 7 and 19. 160 children with a nonprotective or low immune response challenged with either the yeast-derived Engerix-B or the mammalian cell-derived preS1-containing Sci-B-Vac vaccine showed an anamnestic immune response. 92.4% and 85.9% of the children challenged with one dose Sci-B-Vac and Engerix-B presented with anti-HBs titers >100 mIU/ml respectively. Our results reveal that vaccine-induced protective anti-HBs titers against HBV decrease rapidly beyond the age of 6 in Palestinian children, but can be strongly enhanced with a single booster vaccine dose, independent of brand and antigen composition. Our data suggest that a booster vaccine dose against HBV during school years may be useful. PMID:25996579

  20. Silence, Speech and Gender in Shakespeare’s Othello: A Presentist, Palestinian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal M.T. Hamamra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper follows the critical lines of feminism and psychoanalysis to argue that Othello is a conflict between female characters' moral voices and male figures' treacherous voices. Drawing on the concepts of Jungian and Freudian psychoanalysis, I argue that the association of female speech and silence with sexuality is a projection of misogynist and racist discourses. I read Iago's projection of his evil onto Othello as a verbal intercourse of homosexuality.  The cause of tragedy emanates from the fact that Othello weds his shadow, Iago and ignores his anima, Desdemona. While the verbal marriage between Othello and Iago results in Othello's accusation of Desdemona of being a whore, I argue that Desdemona escapes this category because a boy actor impersonates her physically and vocally. I argue that Othello stages for audiences in contemporary Palestine male figures’ deafness to feminist views. While Othello’s marriage to Desdemona symbolizes his integration into Venetian society, his murder of Desdemona signals the loss of his heroic identity and the dissolution of his link to Venice. In contrast, killing the supposedly aggressive female figures in Palestine marks the public respect of the killer. Furthermore, I use the romance of Antar (525-608 as a Palestinian literary intertext to scrutinize the significance of female figures in constructing male figures’ heroic identity and the racial discourse that the Romance of Antar and Othello embodies. Key words: Racism, Misogyny, Projection, Honour Killing, Gender Difference, Boy Actor

  1. Homozygosity mapping reveals new nonsense mutation in the FAM161A gene causing autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa in a Palestinian family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobor, Ditta; Balousha, Ghassan; Baumann, Britta; Wissinger, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a heterogenous group of inherited retinal degenerations caused by mutations in at least 45 genes. Recently, the FAM161A gene was identified as the causative gene for RP28, an autosomal recessive form of RP. We performed a clinical and molecular genetic study of a consanguineous Palestinian family with two three siblings affected with retinitis pigmentosa. DNA samples were collected from the index patient, his father, his affected sister, and two non-affected brothers. DNA sample from the index was subjected to high resolution genome-wide SNP array. Assuming identity-by-descent in this consanguineous family we applied homozygosity mapping to identify disease causing genes. The index patient reported night blindness since the age of 20 years, followed by moderate disease progression with decrease of peripheral vision, the development of photophobia and later on reduced central vision. At the age of 40 his visual acuity was counting fingers (CF) for both eyes, color discrimination was not possible and his visual fields were severely constricted. Funduscopic examination revealed a typical appearance of advanced RP with optic disc pallor, narrowed retinal vessels, bone-spicule like pigmentary changes in the mid-periphery and atrophic changes in the macula. His younger affected brother (37 years) was reported with overall milder symptoms, while the youngest sister (21 years) reported problems only with night vision. Applying high-density SNP arrays we identified several homozygous genomic regions one of which included the recently identified FAM161A gene mutated in RP28-linked autosomal recessive RP. Sequencing analysis revealed the presence of a novel homozygous nonsense mutation, c.1003C>T/p.R335X in the index patient and the affected sister. We identified an RP28-linked RP family in the Palestinian population caused by a novel nonsense mutation in FAM161A. RP in this family shows a typical disease onset with moderate to rapid progression

  2. ATLAS virtual visit features Al-Quds University, a Palestinian university with campuses in Abu Dis and al-Bireh.

    CERN Multimedia

    claudia marcelloni

    2012-01-01

    Mon, 02 Apr - 14:00 CET (15:00 local) ATLAS virtual visit features Al-Quds University, a Palestinian university with campuses in Abu Dis and al-Bireh. As part of the "Physics Without Frontiers" project, funded by ICTP, Al-Quds is hosting a one day particle physics masterclass. During the day the students are given an introduction to particle physics, the LHC and the ATLAS Experiment, before having the chance to analyse real LHC data. This virtual visit comprises of a live tour around the ATLAS control room and the opportunity to ask questions to the ATLAS physicists. Al-Quds Physics has active research in accelerators, biophysics, laser, nuclear & particle, plasma, and solid state. A new collaboration is underway Forschungszentrum Jülich in spintronics, bioelectronics Alquds Physics is involved in the regional synchrotron SESAME in Jordan. Members include nine states from the region and over 10 observers worldwide. SESAME was established a long the same philosophy behind building CERN.

  3. Change in diet of the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo suggests decline in biodiversity in Wadi Al Makhrour, Bethlehem Governorate, Palestinian Territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Zuhair S.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The diet of the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo was studied in Wadi Al Makhrour, Bethlehem, Palestinian Territories in 2015 with fresh and several year old pellets. Three species of arthropods, one reptile species, at least four bird species, and six species of mammals were recovered from the studied pellets. Black rat (Rattus rattus was the most common prey (37.0%, followed by the southern white-breasted hedgehog (Erinaceus concolor (29.4% and birds (21.8%. Comparison of recent and older pellets showed change in diet composition. Recent pellets contained more Rattus rattus compared to older ones. Older pellets included more naturally-occurring species such as Meriones tristrami, Microtus guentheri, and Rousettus aegyptiacus, which were absent in newer pellets.

  4. Effects of political and military traumas on children: the Palestinian case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, A; Shalhoub-Kevorkian, N

    1999-12-01

    Social scientists have long recognized that individuals subjected to traumatic events associated with military and political conflict experience dire psychological consequences. The systematic study of this phenomenon, however, could be considered a nascent event. Research on the psychological sequel of traumatic events (traumatology) is well-rooted in the recognition and development of posttraumatic stress disorder as a separate psychological disorder category. The early studies in this field focused mainly on adult populations. With the recent advent of involvement of children in military conflicts such as in Africa (e.g., Mozambique), the Middle East (e.g., Palestine, Lebanon), and Southeast Asia (e.g., Cambodia), psychologists have taken a keen interest in examining the psychological effects such conflicts reap on children. Hence, a growing but modest body of literature has been amassed within the past 20 years on the subject. This article is an attempt to synthesize this literature in order to examine the universal and culture-specific correlates of political and military trauma. Specifically, the article will focus on the psychological symptoms children display following their exposure to such traumatic events. Special emphasis will be placed on anxiety, phobic, psychosomatic, and depressive symptoms. More importantly, however, an examination will be made to ascertain which factors (e.g., psychosocial, cultural, and political) serve to shield (protect) or predispose (vulnerability) children to psychological dysfunction. Furthermore, the analyses presented will be gender specific. The article will attempt to delineate a paradigm that explains the relationship between trauma, culture, and personality. Although the article will examine studies from various regions, specific emphasis will be placed on the Palestinian experience.

  5. Exposure to violence across the social ecosystem and the development of aggression: a test of ecological theory in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxer, Paul; Rowell Huesmann, L; Dubow, Eric F; Landau, Simha F; Gvirsman, Shira Dvir; Shikaki, Khalil; Ginges, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Bronfenbrenner's (1979) ecological model proposes that events in higher order social ecosystems should influence human development through their impact on events in lower order social ecosystems. This proposition was tested with respect to ecological violence and the development of children's aggression via analyses of 3 waves of data (1 wave yearly for 3 years) from 3 age cohorts (starting ages: 8, 11, and 14) representing three populations in the Middle East: Palestinians (N = 600), Israeli Jews (N = 451), and Israeli Arabs (N = 450). Results supported a hypothesized model in which ethnopolitical violence increases community, family, and school violence and children's aggression. Findings are discussed with respect to ecological and observational learning perspectives on the development of aggressive behavior. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  6. Severe extremity amputations in surviving Palestinian civilians caused by explosives fired from drones during the Gaza War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heszlein-Lossius, Hanne; Al-Borno, Yahya; Shaqoura, Samar; Skaik, Nashwa; Giil, Lasse Melvær; Gilbert, Mads

    2018-02-21

    During four separate Israeli military attacks on Gaza (2006, 2009, 2012, and 2014), about 4000 Palestinians were killed and more than 17 000 injured (412 killed and 1264 injured in 2006; 1383 killed and more than 5300 injured in 2009; 130 killed and 1399 injured in 2012; and 2251 killed and 11 231 injured in 2014). An unknown number of people had traumatic amputations of one or more extremities. Use of unmanned Israeli drones for surveillance and armed attacks on Gaza was evident, but exact figures on numbers of drone strikes on Gaza are not available. The aim of this study was to explore the medical consequences of strikes on Gaza with different weapons, including drones. We studied a cohort of civilians in the Gaza Strip who had one of more traumatic limb amputation during the Israeli military attacks between 2006 and 2016. The study was done at The Artificial Limb and Polio Center (ALPC) in the Gaza Strip where most patients are treated and trained after amputation. We used standardised forms and validated instruments to record date and mechanism of injury, self-assessed health, socioeconomic status, anatomical location and length of amputation, comorbidity, and the results of a detailed clinical examination. The studied cohort consisted of 254 Paletinian civilians (234 [92%] men, 20 [8%] women, and 43 [17%] children aged 18 years and younger) with traumatic amputations caused by different weapons. 216 (85%) people had amputations proximal to wrist or ankle, 131 (52%) patients had more than one major amputation or an amputation above the knee, or both, and 136 (54%) people were injured in attacks with Israeli drones, including eight (40%) of the women. The most severe amputations were caused by drone attacks (p=0·0001). Extremity injuries after drone attacks led to immediate amputation more often than with other weapons (p=0·014). Patients injured during cease-fire periods were younger than patients injured during periods of declared Israeli military

  7. Trauma and autobiographical memory: contents and determinants of earliest memories among war-affected Palestinian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltonen, Kirsi; Kangaslampi, Samuli; Qouta, Samir; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2017-11-01

    The contents of earliest memories (EM), as part of autobiographical memory, continue to fascinate scientists and therapists. However, research is scarce on the determinants of EM, especially among children. This study aims, first, to identify contents of EM of children living in war conditions, and, second, to analyse child gender, traumatic events and mental health as determinants of the contents of EM. The participants were 240 Palestinian schoolchildren from the Gaza Strip (10-12 years, M = 11.35, SD = 0.57; 49.4% girls). They responded to an open-ended EM question, and reported their trauma exposures (war trauma, losses and current traumatic events), posttraumatic stress, depressive symptoms and psychosocial well-being, indicating mental health. The EM coding involved nature, social orientation, emotional tone and specificity. Results showed, first, that 43% reported playing or visiting a nice place as EM, and about a third (30%) traumatic events or accidents (30%) or miscellaneous events (27%). The individual and social orientation were almost equally common, the emotional tone mainly neutral (45.5%), and 60% remembered a specific event. Second, boys remembered more EM involving traumatic events or accidents, and girls more social events. Third, war trauma was associated with less positive emotional tone and with more specific memories.

  8. Academics urge Europe to suspend funds for Israel

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    A total of 125 academics have demanded that Israel should be prevented from receiving funds from European research organizations until it opens peace negotiations with the Palestinians (4 paragraphs).

  9. Israel's Counter-Terrorism Strategy and its Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Jerry D

    2005-01-01

    This thesis analyzes Israeli counter-terrorism strategy and its effectiveness. Because of ongoing suicide attacks from Palestinian and other terrorist organizations, Israel will continue to have an aggressive counter-terrorism strategy...

  10. “Dreamers Often Lie”: On “Compromise”, the subversive documentation of an Israeli- Palestinian political adaptation of Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Munk

    2010-03-01

    Jerusalem Khan Theater's production of the play in the mid-1990's. This paper describes how the cinematic documentation of a theatrical Shakespeare production can undermine the original intentions of its creators. This staging of the play was carefully planned in order to demonstrate to the country and the world that Israelis and Palestinians are willing to search for a peaceful solution in the Middle East: Two directors - Israeli -Eran Baniel and Palestinian Fuad Awad - co-directed both Israeli and Palestinian actors, using both languages: Arabic and Hebrew. This seemingly balanced solution was acclaimed on European television but for Israeli director Even, this was only a façade. Following backstage situation,  Compromise reveals the truth behind the mask in order to denounce the manipulative use of what Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben defines as state of emergency, which is the hegemonic mechanism that deprives people of the elementary civil rights. Questioning the issue of co-existence against the political background of the 1990's (including bomb attacks and the signing of the Camp David Treaty in 1993, the film plays on the discrepancy between the denouement of Romeo and Juliet and the unsolvable situation in which people in the Middle-East - amongst them the actors themselves- are condemned to live.

     

  11. Exposure to Family Violence, Perceived Psychological Adjustment of Parents, and the Development of Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms Among Palestinian University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M; Bargal, David

    2015-10-01

    The article presents the results of a study on the relationship between exposure to (i.e., witnessing and experiencing) different patterns and types of family violence during childhood, during adolescence, and during young adulthood, on one hand, and adult post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), on the other. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1,969 Palestinian students using a self-administered questionnaire. The results reveal that the more the participants witnessed and experienced psychological aggression (PS) and physical violence (PH) in their families of origin, the more they exhibited PTSS. Furthermore, the results indicate that a significant amount of the variance in the participants' PTSS could be attributed to their exposure to family violence, over and above the amounts of variance that were explained by their sociodemographic characteristics and by their perceptions of their parents' psychological adjustment. The limitations of the study and implications for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. The Utility of Freedom: A Principal-Agent Model for Unconventional Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Lanchester Model of Guerrilla Warfare,‖ Operations Research 10, no. 6 (December 1962): 818–827; William A. Niskanen, ―Review: The Economics of Insurgency...http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/DDRS?locID=navalps. Deitchman, S. J. ―A Lanchester Model of Guerrilla Warfare.‖ Operations Research 10, no

  13. Enhancing National Security in Jamaica Through the Development and Employment of Special Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    Sendero Luminoso – SL – (Shining Path) and the Tupac Amaru (MRTA) guerrillas in Peru are well documented, as are the activities of the narco-terrorists...of the quasi-Maoist Sendero Luminoso (Shining Path) guerrilla movement in the Ayacucho province, and 1984 witnessed the arrival of the Tupac Amaru

  14. Influence of organizational culture on provider adherence to the diabetic clinical practice guideline: using the competing values framework in Palestinian Primary Healthcare Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radwan M

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mahmoud Radwan,1 Ali Akbari Sari,1 Arash Rashidian,1 Amirhossein Takian,1 Sanaa Abou-Dagga,2 Aymen Elsous1 1Department of Health Management and Economics, School of Public Health, International Campus, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 2Department of Research Affairs and Graduates Studies, Islamic University of Gaza, Gaza Strip, Palestine Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM is a serious chronic disease and an important public health issue. This study aimed to identify the predominant culture within the Palestinian Primary Healthcare Centers of the Ministry of Health (PHC-MoH and the Primary Healthcare Centers of the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees (PHC-UNRWA by using the competing values framework (CVF and examining its influence on the adherence to the Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG for DM.Methods: A cross-sectional design was employed with a census sample of all the Palestinian family doctors and nurses (n=323 who work within 71 PHC clinic. A cross-cultural adaptation framework was followed to develop the Arabic version of the CVF questionnaire. Results: The overall adherence level to the diabetic guideline was disappointingly suboptimal (51.5%, p<0.001; 47.3% in the PHC-MoH and 55.5% in the PHC-UNRWA. In the PHC-MoH, the clan/group culture was the most predominant (mean =41.13; standard deviation [SD] =8.92, followed by hierarchical (mean =33.14; SD=5.96, while in the PHC-UNRWA, hierarchical was the prevailing culture (mean =48.43; SD =12.51, followed by clan/group (mean =29.73; SD =8.37. Although a positively significant association between the adherence to CPG and the rational culture and a negatively significant association with the developmental archetype were detected in the PHC-MoH, no significant associations were found in the PHC-UNRWA. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that the organizational culture has a marginal influence on the adherence to the diabetic guideline. Future research

  15. Just Add a Verse from the Quran: Effects of Religious Rhetoric in Gain- and Loss-Framed Anti-Alcohol Messages with a Palestinian Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhabash, Saleem; Almutairi, Nasser; Rub, Mohammad Abu

    2017-10-01

    This experiment investigated the effects of message framing (gain vs. loss) and religious rhetoric (religious vs. non-religious) on the expression of anti-alcohol civic intentions with a sample (N = 80) of Palestinian young adults. Results showed that the main effects of message framing (gain > loss) and religious rhetoric (non-religious > religious) on anti-alcohol civic intentions were significant. Furthermore, the study showed that viral behavioral intentions were strongly and significantly associated with expressing anti-alcohol civic intentions, with larger explanatory power for gain-framed PSAs that used a religious rhetoric. Additionally, a serial mediation model showed that the effect of religious rhetoric on anti-alcohol civic intentions was successfully mediated by the serial combination of attitudes toward the PSA and viral behavioral intention for gain-framed PSAs, but not for loss-framed PSAs. Findings are discussed within the framework of persuasion models.

  16. Colombia: la guerra irregular en el fin de siglo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo RANGEL SUÁREZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El artículo analiza las transformaciones de la guerra irregular de las guerrillas colombianas en las últimas décadas. Para ello, se estudian los cambios que han afectado a distintos factores, como los objetivos estratégicos, los medios financieros, militares, las relaciones que mantienen con los partidos políticos tradicionales en el nivel local, sus parámetros ideológicos, el origen social de sus miembros. Con esta perspectiva, se analiza el cálculo político/temporal que la guerrilla hace en la actual coyuntura y sus consecuencias para el proceso de paz.ABSTRACT: This article examines the transformations of the irregular war of the colombian guerrillas, studying the changes of several factors such as the strategic goals, the financial and army resources, the relationship among the political parties in the local level, the evolution of their ideological parameters and of the social origin of their members. With this perspectiva, the author analyses temporal and political calculation that the guerrilla makes at this point, and its consequences for the peace process.

  17. Génesis y desarrollo de un movimiento armado indígena en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel IBEAS DELGADO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El autor describe y analiza, desde la perspectiva organizacional, el ciclo de una guerrilla indígena colombiana desde su nacimiento, fruto de una gran movilización social previa, hasta su incorporación a la vida legal, resultado de un proceso de negociación que culmina con la entrega de las armas.ABSTRACT: In this article, the author focusses on a Colombian indigenous guerrilla cycle, from the organizational point of view. The author deals with the cycle of this guerrilla since its emergente, as a result of a previous social mobilization, to its incorporation to legal political life, after a negotiation process that finishes with the rending of the weapons.

  18. Posttraumatic stress and worry as mediators and moderators between political stressors and emotional and behavioral disorders in Palestinian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, Vivian

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to assess whether the symptoms of posttraumatic stress mediate or moderate the relationship between political stressors and emotional and behavioral disorders in Palestinian children. It was hypothesized that (a) posttraumatic stress and worry mediate the effect of political stressors on behavioral and emotional disorders and (b) the relationship between political stressors and behavioral and emotional disorders should be attenuated for children with low levels of worry and posttraumatic stress and strengthened for children with high levels of worry and posttraumatic stress. The total sample was 1267 school age children of both sexes with a mean age of 11.97 years. Interviews were conducted with children at school. As hypothesized, the results indicated that posttraumatic stress and worry mediated and moderated the relationship between political stressors and emotional and behavioral disorders in children. Cognitive-behavioral therapy may be used to reduce the incidence of posttraumatic stress and decrease self-reported worry, somatic symptoms, general anxiety, and depression among children exposed to political trauma. Cognitive-behavioral treatment that exclusively targets excessive worry can lead to clinical change in the other interacting subsystems at the cognitive, physiological, affective and behavioral levels.

  19. Bringing Back the Palestinian State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sen, Somdeep

    2015-01-01

    It is not a particularly novel academic endeavour to explore Hamas’ armed resistance. Nevertheless, this essay contributes to the conversation by deliberating on the organization's military faction through the stories my informants told of their experiences and memories of resistance...

  20. Changes in Guerrilla Conflicts in Latin America After the Cold War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martinez, Francisco

    2000-01-01

    .... As a consequence of the world' 5 transformation from a bipolar to a multipolar system, non-governmental agencies, international organizations, and the United Nations have more influence in insurgent...

  1. War trauma and maternal-fetal attachment predicting maternal mental health, infant development, and dyadic interaction in Palestinian families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Isosävi, Sanna; Qouta, Samir R; Kuittinen, Saija; Diab, Safwat Y

    2017-10-01

    Optimal maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) is believed to be beneficial for infant well-being and dyadic interaction, but research is scarce in general and among risk populations. Our study involved dyads living in war conditions and examined how traumatic war trauma associates with MFA and which factors mediate that association. It also modeled the role of MFA in predicting newborn health, infant development, mother-infant interaction, and maternal postpartum mental health. Palestinian women from the Gaza Strip (N = 511) participated during their second trimester (T1), and when their infants were 4 (T2) and 12 (T3) months. Mothers reported MFA (interaction with, attributions to, and fantasies about the fetus), social support, and prenatal mental health (post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety) at T1, newborn health at T2, and the postpartum mental health, infant's sensorimotor and language development, and mother-infant interaction (emotional availability) at T3. Results revealed, first, that war trauma was not directly associated with MFA but that it was mediated through a low level of social support and high level of maternal prenatal mental health problems. Second, intensive MFA predicted optimal mother-reported infant's sensorimotor and language development and mother-infant emotional availability but not newborn health or maternal postpartum mental health.

  2. Between Jewish settlers and Palestinian citizens of Israel: negotiating ethno-national power relations through the discourse of PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman-Peleg, Keren

    2014-12-01

    This article traces a critical change in the professional implementation of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD): the broadening of its use from an apolitical sign of psychopathology, to an interpretative framework in which clinical questions of diagnosis and treatment intersect with political questions of ethno-national power relations. The aid discourse of a new NGO--the "Israeli Trauma Coalition" (ITC)--serves as my case study. I analyze how the experts negotiated similar clinical questions, associated with a single biomedical idiom, PTSD, but in relation to two different matrices of political relations: the "Disengagement Plan" (August 2005), which led to the evacuation of National-Orthodox Jews who had settled in the Occupied Territories, and the Second Lebanon War (July 2006), which led to the exposure of Palestinian citizens of Israel to missile attacks. In particular, I shed light on the ITC's decision-making processes regarding the organizational representation of suffering and its empirical validation. I found that the distress of both groups has been left dangling between the processes of medicalization and de-medicalization, while a context-related transition from one meaning of trauma to another has taken place. Finally, I discuss how this implementation of PTSD compares with other national sites of its growing globalization.

  3. Attitude of Palestinian Nursing Students Toward Caring for Dying Patients: A Call for Change in Health Education Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-El-Noor, Nasser Ibrahim; Abu-El-Noor, Mysoon Khalikl

    2016-06-01

    Death is a natural process that occurs each day. Some nursing students may encounter the experience of taking care of a dying patient while others do not. Therefore, their attitude toward death and caring for dying patients may vary. The purpose of this study was to assess Palestinian student nurses' attitudes toward death and caring for dying patients and their families. In a cross-sectional, descriptive study, all fourth-year students at the College of Nursing, Islamic University of Gaza, Palestine, were invited to participate in this study. A total of 141 students completed the Frommelt Attitude Toward Care of the Dying Scale Form B (FATCOD-B). Results revealed that the mean score on the FATCOD-B was (96.96 ± 8.30). Overall, nursing students in the sample demonstrated a relatively low attitude toward caring for dying patients and their families. No statistically significant differences of students' attitudes toward caring for dying patients were found between male and female students nor between students who attended death cases and those who did not. The results suggest that theoretical nursing education should place more emphasis on palliative care to improve the quality of care at the end of life. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Paths to Victory: Lessons from Modern Insurgencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    1996 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Laos , 1959–1975...1973–1978) Angola (UNITA) (1975–2002) Indonesia (Aceh) (1976–2005) Mozambique (RENAMO) (1976–1995) Cuba (1956–1959) Eritrea (1961–1991) Laos ...guerrilla must move amongst the people as a fish swims in the sea.” Mao Tse -tung, On Guerrilla Warfare, trans. Samuel B. Griffith II, Chicago, Ill

  5. Do Villages Still Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    popular. Revolutionary author, Abraham Guillen wrote in his book published in 1973, Philosophy of the Urban Guerrilla, that “the center of operations...campaigns by insurgents 43 Abraham Guillén, Philosophy of the Urban Guerrilla: The Revolutionary...Dharavi” slum, the setting for the 2008 film Slumdog Millionaire, and is often referred to as the world’s largest slum.101 Dharavi, which has

  6. Economics of Higher Education under Occupation: The Case of Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Abd Al-Qadir Alfoqahaa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Through some extremely difficult experiences, education in general and Higher Education in particular has remained a constant focus of resources in Palestine.  Due to the ongoing occupation of Palestine, Palestinian universities could not expect to contribute significantly to economic development in the same way as other institutions around the world. However, the establishment and development of universities in Palestine meant that Palestine was investing in Palestinians, and, for reasons discussed in this paper, the development represented a clear breakthrough to be celebrated throughout Palestinian society. Most of the previous studies on the Economics of Higher Education (HE have not explicitly dealt with the Economics of Higher Education under occupation, especially in Palestine, neglecting much of the broader context and strategic impact of Palestinian Higher Education. This research investigates in depth Palestinian HE socio-economic outcomes for Palestinians, bringing to the light the meaning of HE under occupation that goes beyond mere economic impact to include its impact on Palestinians' human capital, dignity, and national identity reflecting the unique case of Palestine. This research reveals that from very early on it was clear that Palestinian Higher Education could not give the economy a boost, but that universities did give people a pride in Palestine, which, given the conditions of a brutal military occupation that increasingly separated one Palestinian from the next, amounted to quite a significant achievement. It demonstrated the central role Palestinian HE plays in the life of Palestinians as it is goes beyond means of economic growth to means of survival, building human capital, and maintaining people's dignity and national identity.

  7. Abu Sada Caroline, ONG palestiniennes et construction étatique. L'expérience de Palestinian Agricultural Relief Committees (PARC dans les Territoires occupés palestiniens, 1983-2005, Institut Français du Proche-Orient, Beyrouth, 2007, 252 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Romani

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available For more than one reason, Caroline Abu Sada's book is seminal. First of all, her work studies the re-shaping of polity inside the Palestinian society since the second Intifada. Based on the authors' PhD dissertation, this book contributes to the limited works on political sociology addressing post-Oslo Palestine (after 2000. This book is also promising in terms of methodology, claiming to conduct a ''bottom-up'' approach looking at a society still over-analyzed in terms of polemology, elites...

  8. Conditions for Adopting an Irregular Defense Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    guerrillas are becoming increasingly professional, more professional soldiers are fighting with guerrilla techniques, with no one side having a monopoly ...legally procured through the commercial market system. Whether “from below” or “from above,” however, this equipment is significantly cheaper than jet...demonstrated extreme brutality, using chlorine gas with conventional explosives. These ruthless tactics, the bombings of three hotels in Amman, the

  9. Mutation of KREMEN1, a modulator of Wnt signaling, is responsible for ectodermal dysplasia including oligodontia in Palestinian families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Yasmin A; Kamal, Lara; Rayyan, Amal Abu; Dweik, Dima; Pierce, Sarah; Lee, Ming K; King, Mary-Claire; Walsh, Tom; Kanaan, Moien

    2016-10-01

    Tooth development is controlled by the same processes that regulate formation of other ectodermal structures. Mutations in the genes underlying these processes may cause ectodermal dysplasia, including severe absence of primary or permanent teeth. Four consanguineous Palestinian families presented with oligodontia and hair and skin features of ectodermal dysplasia. Appearance of ectodermal dysplasia was consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance. Exome sequencing followed by genotyping of 56 informative relatives in the 4 families suggests that the phenotype is due to homozygosity for KREMEN1 p.F209S (c.626 T>C) on chromosome 22 at g.29,521,399 (hg19). The variant occurs in the highly conserved extracellular WSC domain of KREMEN1, which is known to be a high affinity receptor of Dickkopf-1, a component of the Dickkopf-Kremen-LRP6 complex, and a potent regulator of Wnt signaling. The Wnt signaling pathway is critical to development of ectodermal structures. Mutations in WNT10A, LRP6, EDA, and other genes in this pathway lead to tooth agenesis with or without other ectodermal anomalies. Our results implicate KREMEN1 for the first time in a human disorder and provide additional details on the role of the Wnt signaling in ectodermal and dental development.

  10. Effects of prevailing conditions during second Palestinian uprising on solid waste management system in Nablus city in Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafat, Hassan A; Al-Khatib, Issam A; Zahra, Abdulsalam Abu

    2006-08-01

    Since the start of the second Palestinian uprising (Al-Aqsa Intifada), and due to the Israeli activities, curfews, closures, and military checkpoints imposed since 2000, the quality of social services rendered by Nablus city has been gradually deteriorating. Solid waste management in Nablus city was badly affected by these conditions, and this situation is negatively affecting health and damaging the environment. Most of these cases were due to reasons beyond the capability of the municipality with its limited resources. This study revealed that some of the important municipal solid waste (MSW) equipment had been damaged during the uprising. The workforce in the MSW system was reduced and certain MSW-related development projects and activities have been frozen due to the current conditions. The city's medical waste incinerator had been phased out and the number of special medical containers had been reduced from 16 to 10. Some MSW compressing trucks had been out of use with no substitute. Another important figure is the number of waste collection workers which decreased from 420 to 301, although the city is growing in premises as well as population. The created unsanitary solid waste transfer station is now a pollution source on its own, causing an ugly scene at the eastern entrance of Nablus city. There should be a comprehensive and urgent solution for this problem and the needed resources should be invested.

  11. Domestic violence against women during pregnancy: the case of Palestinian refugees attending an antenatal clinic in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoury, N; Khawaja, M; Mahfoud, Z; Afifi, R A; Madi, H

    2009-03-01

    To determine the factors associated with domestic violence against pregnant Palestinian refugee women residing in Lebanon and currently using the United Nation Relief and Work Agency's (UNRWA) primary healthcare services. This was a cross-sectional study conducted at a polyclinic of primary healthcare of the UNRWA in South Lebanon during the years 2005-2006. The sample was 351 pregnant women who were 15-42 years of age and not accompanied by their husbands or relatives. All women were invited by the midwife to participate in the study during their visit to the clinic for their first checkup or during a follow-up visit. The Abuse Assessment Screen instrument was used to screen for past and recent history of physical and emotional abuse among the participants. Domestic violence was significantly associated with education, gestational age, fear of husband or someone else in the house, and unintended pregnancy. The odds of abuse for women with an elementary or lower education were 6.86 (95% CI 1.2-38.1) and for women with an intermediate or secondary education 6.84 (95% CI 1.4-33.3) compared with women with a university education. The odds of abuse during pregnancy for women whose husbands did not desire their pregnancy were 3.80 (95% CI 1.5-9.7) compared with other women. Domestic violence against women in Lebanon was associated with educational level, gestational age, fear of husband or someone else in the house, and unintended pregnancy.

  12. Joint Special Operations University SOF-Power Workshop: A Way Forward for Special Operations Theory and Strategic Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    participants‘ particular points of view and may be helpful in researching, developing, testing, and explaining theory. The Secret War in Laos was...Jan 1985. Tse -Tung, Mao. On Guerrilla Warfare. Praeger, New York: 1961. The Use and Utility of Force; Force Fungibles Art, Robert J. and...Penguin Books, New York: 1968. Griffith, Samuel B., (BrigGen (Ret) USMC). On Guerrilla Warfare – Mao Tse -Tung. Praeger, New York: 1961

  13. A study on the attitudes and behavioural influence of construction waste management in occupied Palestinian territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sari, Majed I; Al-Khatib, Issam A; Avraamides, Marios; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo

    2012-02-01

    As a step towards comprehending what drives the management of construction waste in the occupied Palestinian territory, this paper quantifies construction waste generation and examines how the local contractors' waste management attitudes and behaviour are influenced. Collection of data was based on a survey, carried out in the southern part of the West Bank between April and May 2010. The survey targeted contractors who specialized in the construction of buildings. A logistic regression model was used to investigate the relationship between various attributes and the attitudes and behaviour that the local contractors demonstrate towards waste management. The results showed that during the construction of buildings, 17 to 81 kg of construction waste are generated per square metre of building floor. Although the area of a building is the key factor determining 74.8% of the variation of construction waste generation, the employment of labour-intensive techniques in the study area means that human factors such as the contractor's attitude and behaviour towards waste management, exert a key influence on waste generation. Attitudes towards the 3Rs of waste minimization and behaviour towards waste disposal are generally positive with smaller contractors exhibiting more positive attitudes and more satisfactory behaviour towards waste management. Overall, while contractors' behaviour towards waste sorting and disposal tends to be more satisfactory among contractors who are more conscious about the potential environmental impacts of construction waste, it was generally observed that in the absence of a regulatory framework, the voluntary attitudes and behaviour among the local contractors are mostly driven by direct economic considerations.

  14. Crisis of Legitimacy in Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani Albasoos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Palestinian society is geographically separated and politically fragmented. This is attributed to partisan affiliation and alignment, absence of conceptual and professional framework of civil society, unethical approach of Palestinian political leaders, and unconstitutional political institutions. Such polarization and division have created political antagonism within elites and between factions. The broad objective of this research is to investigate the legitimacy crisis in Palestine, the current political dilemma in the Palestinian Authority, and the public response to the situation. The research introduces direct and thorough understanding of the developing political context surrounding these issues; taking into consideration that growing deficit in legitimacy could create potentially dire consequences, particularly if present trends on the ground continue. The research promotes an analytical perspective based on legitimacy theory and exploring recent public opinion polls. This study formulates a constructive analysis of the failure of the Palestinian political institutions at the leadership level to meet the basic expectations of the Palestinian people and the unproductive methodology of hampering the implementation of the Basic Law concerning the Palestinian political system. It reviews the empirical dilemmas of the Palestinian Authority and eliminates several assumptions of Fatah and Hamas’s - main parties - political and domestic priorities. The possibility of a new Palestinian political phenomena emerging is in the context of a new popular mobilisation lessened by the fact that both movements (Fatah and Hamas are firmly enmeshed in the very fabric of Palestinian society through patronage networks.

  15. اثر القضية الفلسطينية في العلاقات السعودية-الكويتية 1964-1968 تأريخ حديث ومعاصر

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    هادي خليف كريم

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the study of the impact of the Palestinian issue in Saudi relations-Kuwaiti 1964-1968 is one of the political and economic importance in the increasing sophistication of the Saudi-Kuwaiti relations, as well as posed by the length of time which is one of the most important and most reliable historical eras. In this duration was clearly evident political, economic and military conflict and its effects on the Palestinian issue , as well as the boiling democratic that was found by the Egyptian President Jamal Abdel Nasser, the rule which stems from which for the Liberation of Palestine as well as democratic trends that is rised by the proclamation unitary in spite of the failure of Union project in 1958, and the unity between Egypt and Syria in 1961, these were the slogans and orientations mass crystallization Liberation Organization appearance Palestinian legitimate representative of the Palestinian people during the summit, the first Arab, which was held in Cairo in 1964. The epoch eventful reflected directly or indirectly, to the growth of Saudi Arabia and Kuwait Saudi relations of the events of the Palestinian cause especially after it became clear to us that epoch did not incite carefully researchers did not meet what it deserves from the study and scrutiny, we have encountered a number of difficulties for sources and references. The study consists of an introduction and four research and a conclusion dealt with in the first part, Saudi Arabia and the Palestinian cause in the Arab Summit first (Cairo, January 13-17 1964, in the second part I dealt with, the role of Saudi Arabia and Kuwait in the second Summit (Alexandria from September 11-5 1964, the third section devoted for the role of Saudi Arabia and Kuwait in the third Conference of the Arab Summit (Casablanca from 13-17 September 1965, while the fourth section has highlighted the position of Saudi Arabia and Kuwait in the fifth of June 1967 war, while the conclusion has

  16. Analysis and evaluation of various aspects of solar radiation in the Palestinian territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, M.S.; Moghavvemi, M.; Mahlia, T.M.I.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We used genetic algorithm to optimize the tilt angles of the PV panels. • Different PV tracking systems were evaluated considering annual energy production. • Various models used to calculate hourly solar radiation from daily data were tested. • Coefficients of various regression models were calibrated to select the most accurate. • Linear, quadratic and linear–logarithmic models showed approximate similar results. - Abstract: This paper aims to evaluate the different models used to analyze different aspects of solar radiation in the Palestinian territories. Calculations of the optimized tilt and surface azimuth angles on monthly, seasonal and yearly basis were conducted, with the genetic algorithm being used for this purpose. Different PV tracking methods were also evaluated, taking into account the annual energy production. The different models used to calculate hourly global solar radiation from the daily data were tested in order to facilitate the selection of the most suitable model in the context of Palestine. The calibration of coefficients for the different regression models that were used for estimating the global solar radiation based on sunshine hours was also performed during the course of this work. These coefficients were calculated using both MATLAB’s fitting tool and genetic algorithm. Linear, quadratic and linear–algorithmic regression models displayed almost identical results. Each has a distinctive predominant feature, especially in the context of statistical indicators. They were calculated using both the monthly average daily data and the daily data sets. With regards to the PV panel angles’ optimization, it was found that the yearly optimum tilt angle (32.8°) is adjacent to the latitude of the location (31.8°), while the surface azimuth angle is 16°. It was also found that changing the tilt angle of the PV panels quarterly (optimized on seasonally basis) increases energy yield by 3.4% when compared with

  17. Finding the Balance to Combat a Hybrid Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    supporting operation to conventional warfare. Mao Tse -tung stated that guerrilla warfare is one aspect of total war, because it cannot win a war by itself.15...of Military and Associated Terms, 147. 15Mao Tse -tung, On Guerrilla Warfare, trans. Samuel B. Griffith II (Champaign, IL: University of Illinois...to deny the Vietcong or the North Vietnamese sanctuary in neither Laos nor Cambodia. Summary In Afghanistan, insurgency has become more a

  18. Civil-Military Relations in China: Assessing the PLA’s Role in Elite Politics (INSS China Strategic Perspectives, Number 2, August 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Chinese leaders have abandoned key tenets of Marxism while retaining key elements of Leninism such as the emphasis on the Party’s absolute...leadership. These changes (including the eligibility of capitalists for Party member- ship) have reduced the CCP’s ability to draw upon Marxism as an...William M. LeoGrande argue, Communist guerrilla movements like those of China and Cuba tend to begin as symbiotic ones. Over time, as the guerrilla

  19. Coexistence and sport: the Israeli case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yair Galily

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing sports and other recreational activities to foster peaceful relations and coexistence is an idea that has gained popularity in recent years, particularly in Israel. The aim of the current research is to fill a gap in the research literature on the subject of coexistence programming. The Mifalot organization conducts a program called “Get to Know Your Neighbor” in which Palestinian, Jordanian, and Israeli youth play soccer together. The program, based mainly on the participants’ love for football, is a series of activities and lessons designed to prepare children to meet and interact with youth from neighboring communities. The study examines the effects of participation in this program on the attitudes of the Palestinians, Jordanians, and Israelis toward each other.

  20. Starting from scratch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christina, R

    1999-11-01

    This paper highlights the work of the Early Childhood Resource Center (ECRC) in promoting changes in gender-role stereotypes in Jerusalem. Established in 1985, ECRC provides training and advocacy in early childhood care, education, and development for the Palestinian Territories and East Jerusalem. In collaboration with other nongovernmental organizations and the New Palestinian Authority, ECRC promoted an integrated system of early childhood programs for Palestine. The Center helps people who work with young children, particularly those in rural villages and refugee camps. Central to the work of ECRC is the Convention on the Rights of the Child, in which freedom from discrimination (including gender discrimination) is a basic right. Components of the training program of ECRC are summarized and program results are presented.

  1. Search Results | Page 40 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 391 - 400 of 439 ... Gender, International Law and Justice : Access to Gender Equality ... Faith, Social Activism and Politics : Role of Faith Based Organizations in Influencing Public Policy (Lebanon) ... Palestinian women and girls account for over half of the Arab population in Israel, which comprises approximately 17% ...

  2. Memories of the armed struggle in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Margarita Pasquali

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents and develops some of the edges on working of the guerrilla that emerge in the memories of the former militants of the armed organizations in Argentina. Beginig from this journey we will have access to the registration that one has presently on it, which will allows us to establish part of the subjective environment of the moment, the main characters consideration of the activism and their significance in the general context of the militancy.

  3. Taking Academic Freedom Seriously: Exploring the Legal and Moral Underpinnings of BDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D. Handmaker (Jeff)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe call for a cultural and academic boycott of Israel that was launched by Palestinian civil society in 2004 represents a decisive turning point in the long-time Palestinian struggle for social justice and academic freedom and the broader struggle for Palestinian self-determination.

  4. History of Neurosurgery in Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwazeh, Rami; Darwazeh, Mazhar; Sun, Xiaochuan

    2017-08-01

    Palestinian neurosurgery started with Dr. Antone Tarazi as the first Palestinian neurosurgeon. Before that, there was no organized neurosurgery specialty, and general surgeons performed neurosurgical procedures. Here we review the history of neurosurgery and neurosurgical applications in Palestine, evaluate some limitations of the current system, and discuss major challenges to improving this system. We collected information from various sources in either English or Arabic. The development of neurosurgery and neurosurgical training in Palestine began in 1960 with the first center established in Jerusalem, which provided much-needed neurosurgical services and training in the fields of neurosurgery and neurology. Palestine has produced a number of its own neurosurgeons and has promoted further progress by establishing the Palestinian Neurosurgical Society in 2014. Today, there are 34 neurosurgeons (including 1 female neurosurgeon) and 17 residents providing expert care in 17 centers across Palestine, along with 1 neurosurgical residency program. Neurosurgery in Palestine has faced many challenges, some of which have been overcome. However, there remain many challenges, which will require much time and effort to surmount. Political stabilization is a significant factor in the progress of neurosurgery in Palestine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Ongoing Catastrophe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kublitz, Anja

    2015-01-01

    as camps. Based on fieldwork among Palestinians in the Danish camps, this article explores why my interlocutors describe their current lives as a catastrophe. Al-Nakba literally means the catastrophe and, in Palestinian national discourse, it is used to designate the event of 1948, when the Palestinians...

  6. Mutable Conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kublitz, Anja

    The Arabic term al-Nakba literally means the catastrophe and is used in Palestinian national discourse to designate the outcome of the Arab-Israeli war of 1948, when the state of Israel was declared and more than 700,000 Palestinians became stateless. Among Palestinians in Denmark, though...

  7. Publications | Page 269 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Palestinian Refugees: Challenges of Repatriation and Development. The magnitude of the Palestinian refugee issue is difficult to fully grasp. The number of Palestinian Arabs who were initially displaced in 1948 has been estimated at anywhere from 520 000 to 914 000, depending on the source. Several.

  8. Getting the Next War Right: Beyond Population-centric Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    respectively: Che Guevara and Mao Tse -tung. Che’s foco theory, as we have discussed, advocates mobilizing from the top. The armed challenger chooses an...example, Thomas A. Marks, “Guerrillas in the Mist: Hmong Resistance Continues in Laos ,” Combat and Survival 8, no. 5 (August 1996), 4–11. 12 Theory and...Mao Tse -tung, On Guerrilla Warfare, trans. and ed. Samuel B. Grif!th (Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 2005). The book is available from a wide

  9. It’s Nakba, Not a Party

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sen, Somdeep

    2015-01-01

    to the Palestinian quest for statehood and what it continues to do as a mechanism influencing the “brand” Palestinian politics that can be practiced (uninhibitedly) within the occupied Palestinian territories (oPt). In this way, charting the path for future research, this article concludes that any subsequent...

  10. Enhanced solid waste management by understanding the effects of gender, income, marital status, and religious convictions on attitudes and practices related to street littering in Nablus - Palestinian territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Khatib, Issam A.; Arafat, Hassan A.; Daoud, Raeda; Shwahneh, Hadeel

    2009-01-01

    Litter is recognized as a form of street pollution and a key issue for solid waste managers. Nablus district (West Bank, Palestinian Territory), which has an established network of urban and rural roads, suffers from a wide-spread litter problem that is associated with these roads and is growing steadily with a well-felt negative impact on public health and the environment. The purpose of this research was to study the effects of four socio-economic characteristics (gender, income, marital status, and religious convictions) of district residents on their attitudes, practices, and behavior regarding street litter generation and to suggest possible remedial actions. All four characteristics were found to have strong correlations, not only with littering behavior and practices, but also with potential litter prevention strategies. In particular, the impact of religious convictions of the respondents on their littering habits and attitudes was very clear and interesting to observe

  11. Experiencias históricas recientes de reintegración de excombatientes en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Villarraga

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of a comprehensive peace agreement that enables the end of Colombia's armed conflict, there have been peace agreements with several guerrillas' organizations such as the M19, the EPL and others. Despite this, hostilities persist other guerrillas (FARC and ELN. At the same time, there was an agreement with paramilitary groups to achieve their deactivation. As a result, in the last decades there have been disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR experiences that have notorious differences according to the nature of the different armed groups, the processes carried out with each of them and their circumstances. However, the reintegration process is very similar for all participants in terms of the services offer by the institution in charged of the reintegration phase. The main difference of these DDR processes is related to the collective political aspiration hoped for by the insurgent forces following their insertion as a civilian group within legality. Simultaneously, the individual desertion and reintegration process comes up as a different case due to its application outside of a peace process frame. This individual dynamic cannot be seen as a demobilization process as the recent governments have assumed it.

  12. La lucha de los servicios de inteligencia israelíes contra el terrorismo suicida palestino durante la Intifada de Al Aqsa (años 2001-2006)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos María San Felipe Donlo

    2013-01-01

    The Palestinian suicidal terrorism was the greatest danger for Israel during the Intifada of Al Aqsa. The Israeli Intelligence Services, particularly the Shabak, worked with an enormous efficacy to defeat this suicidal terrorism. Since 2004, the Palestinian suicidal terrorism was defeated, but the Palestinian-Israeli conflict follows without a definitive solution.

  13. An Assessment of the Services Quality of Palestine Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koni, Aida; Zainal, Khalim; Ibrahim, Maznah

    2013-01-01

    The history of the Palestinian universities is relatively recent; however their impact on the Palestinians case and wellbeing is undeniable. Today, almost forty years later the Palestinian universities like many higher education institutions in the region and worldwide tussle to fulfil the students' demands on education while trying to maintain…

  14. Entre o fechamento e a abertura: a trajetória do PC do B da guerrilha do Araguaia à Nova República (1974-1985 Between the closing and the opening: the path of the "PC do B" from the Araguaia guerrilla to the New Republic (1974-1985

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Rodrigues Sales

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é discutir a história do Partido Comunista do Brasil (PC do B no período compreendido entre o final da guerrilha do Araguaia, em 1974, até a Nova República Brasileira, com a chegada de José Sarney à presidência da República, em 1985. A análise está voltada para o entendimento do processo de mudança na linha político-partidária, que procura adaptar-se ao processo de democratização pelo qual passava o Brasil.The objective of the present article is to discuss the history of the Brazilian Communist Party (PC do B during the period that stretches from the Araguaia guerrilla in 1974 to the consolidation of the New Brazilian Republic with José Sarney elected President of the Republic in 1985. Our analysis focuses on understanding the process of change of the political line of the party as the latter seeks to adapt to the process of democratization Brazil underwent at that time.

  15. Protecting, Isolating, and Controlling Behavior: Population and Resource Control Measures in Counterinsurgency Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    Clausewitz: A Very Short Introduction, 36. 17Clausewitz, On War, 177. 18Ibid. 19Clausewitz, On War, 88. 20Mao Tse -Tung, On Guerrilla Warfare, trans. Samuel...directly. In so doing, Mao will destroy his enemy‘s means and will to resist and therefore win the war. 24Mao Tse -Tung, On Guerrilla Warfare, 43. 25Ibid...DRV to the RVN.10 The Ho Chi Minh trail and the accompanying sanctuary areas in Laos and Cambodia significantly complicated the war efforts of the

  16. Embracing the Fog of War: Assessment and Metrics in Counterinsurgency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Mao Tse -Tung states that in order to win, insurgents may need the support of only 15–25 percent of the population (Mao, 2000, p. 27). Data or...Figure 6.1 Map of Vietnam, Including Military Sector Delineation NOTE: MACV consisted of four corps-level sectors. RAND MG1086-6.1 CHINA LAOS ...publications dating back to the 1950s, Mao Tse -Tung’s On Guerrilla Warfare, and Che Guevara’s Guerrilla Warfare. 167Sheehan, 1988, p. 290. 168As commander

  17. Negociaciones de paz y agencias de seguridad: perspectivas para el caso colombiano

    OpenAIRE

    Restrepo Villamil, José Libardo

    2014-01-01

    En el presente trabajo de tesis se propone una perspectiva comparada sobre las agendas de negociaciones de paz con las guerrillas centroamericanas y Colombia, en lo relacionado con las transformaciones de las agencias de seguridad, con la intención de tener perspectivas analíticas para el actual proceso de paz que se desarrolla en la Habana-Cuba entre la guerrilla de las FARC-EP y el gobierno colombiano. This tesis job proposes a comparative perspective about the peace negotiation diary be...

  18. Estructura social en el movimiento político guerrillero de El Salvador. Basado en el “Libro Amarillo”. Documento del Ejército salvadoreño para identificar a sus enemigos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Felipe Nuñez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Las guerrillas son fenómenos sociales y expresiones de nuestras sociedades que, de acuerdo a su composición social y humana, ofrecen dos perspectivas: a una complejidad sociocultural y política interna que es muy difícil de analizar, dada la poca información disponible, y b es una estructura social y orgánica orientada hacia la generación de una estrategia de guerra local. Cada Guerrilla se integra a través de dinámicas reticulares que las vuelven susceptibles de ser analizadas por medio del Análisis de Redes Sociales. En este contexto, la guerrilla del FMLN fue monitoreada por el ejército salvadoreño entre julio y agosto de 1987, levantando información sobre su composición social y algunas dinámicas de asociación entre miembros y organizaciones que conformaron a dicho movimiento

  19. Israel’s Associated Regime: Exceptionalism, Human Rights and Alternative Legality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica D’Alessandra

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the context of Israel’s declared permanent state of exception, this article focuses on the legal protection awarded to the Palestinian populations under Israeli control. To broaden the discussion over Palestinian people’s rights, which generally focuses on the confiscation of land and the right to return, the author consciously focuses on anti-terrorism and security measures, which contribute to the creation of what the International Court of Justice has defined as an ‘associated regime’ of occupation. The article is divided into three parts. In the first part, the author discusses Israel’s domestic obligations towards Palestinians (arguing the case of both Palestinian citizens of Israel, and Palestinian residents and their de jure and de facto discrimination. The second part discusses the applicability of humanitarian law, specifically the applicability of the Fourth Geneva Convention. This section discusses the applicability of the Convention to both territories and people under Israeli control. The third part discusses the applicability of international human rights law to all territories under Israeli control and delves into the issue of the mutual relationship between the two international legal regimes in the territories under occupation. The article posits that Israel’s rationale for the non-applicability of such legislation to the Palestinian territories and populations it controls constitutes a form of ‘alternative legality’. The article concludes that Israel’s disproportionate application of security practices and anti-terrorism measures to the Palestinian segment of its population violates Palestinian rights protected under Israel’s domestic and international legal obligations.

  20. The protective role of maternal posttraumatic growth and cognitive trauma processing among Palestinian mothers and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, Safwat Y; Isosävi, Sanna; Qouta, Samir R; Kuittinen, Saija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2018-02-01

    War survivors use multiple cognitive and emotional processes to protect their mental health from the negative impacts of trauma. Because mothers and infants may be especially vulnerable to trauma in conditions of war, it is urgent to determine which cognitive and emotional processes are effective for preventing negative trauma impacts." This study examined whether mothers' high posttraumatic growth (PTG) and positive posttraumatic cognitions (PTC) protected (a) their own mental health and (b) their infants' stress regulation and sensorimotor and language development from the effects of war trauma. The participants were 511 Palestinian mothers and their infants living in the Gaza strip. The mothers were interviewed in their second trimester of pregnancy (T1) as well as when the infant was four months (T2) and twelve months (T3). Mothers reported posttraumatic growth (PTG; Tedeschi & Calhoun, 1996) at T1 and posttraumatic cognitions (PTCI; Foa et al., 1999) at T2. They also reported their exposure to traumatic war events both at T1 and T3 and described their mental health conditions (e.g., PTSD and/or depressive and dissociation symptoms) at T3. The Infant Behaviour Questionnaire (IBQ) was used to measure infants' stress regulation at T2 and sensorimotor and language development at T3. The results, based on regression analyses with interaction terms between trauma and PTG, showed that high levels of traumatic war events were not associated with high levels of PTSD, depressive, or dissociation symptoms among mothers showing high levels of PTG. This suggests that PTG may protect maternal mental health from the effects of trauma. In turn, positive maternal PTCs appeared to protect the infants' stress regulation from the effects of war trauma. The study concludes by discussing ways to develop and implement preventive interventions for mother-infant dyads in war conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Red blood-cell alloantibodies in multiply transfused patients in the occupied Palestinian territory: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaseen, Ahmad; Suleiman, Sa'd; Zenah, Omar Abu; Abu Taha, Adham

    2018-02-21

    Red blood-cell transfusion has greatly reduced the mortality and morbidity in multiply transfused patients with thalassaemia and sickle cell disease. However, this can result in red blood-cell isoimmunisation with autoantibodies and alloantibodies, which can lead to serious complications such as delayed haemolytic transfusion reaction. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency and types of alloantibodies in multiply transfused patients living in the north of the West Bank. This pilot study was done at three thalassaemia centres in Nablus, Jenin, and Tulkarm in the occupied Palestinian territory where 300 patients with thalassaemia and sickle cell anaemia regularly receive blood transfusions. Alloantibody screening and identification were done using three-cell and eleven-cell panels (DiaPanel, Bio-rad, Switzerland) respectively. Ethical approval was obtained from Institutional Review Board Centre at Najah University. Written consent was obtained from participants. 131 patients were enrolled. Of the 20 (15%) patients with alloantibodies, 14 (70%) were diagnosed with β-thalassaemia major, three (15%) were diagnosed with sickle cell anaemia, two (10%) were diagnosed with thalassaemia intermedia, and one (5%) was diagnosed with sickle cell thalassaemia. 13 (65%) patients had alloantibodies that belonged to the Rh blood group system (nine [45%] patients had anti-D; two [10%] had anti-E; one [5%] had anti Rh-C; and one [5%] had anti-c). Anti-Kell was found in seven (35%) patients. Our data showed a quite high prevalence of alloimmunisation in multiply transfused patients. Rh and Kell blood group system antibodies were the only alloantibodies identified in this study. To reduce alloimmunisation, it will be essential to introduce a policy for extended red blood-cell phenotyping of these patients and for the issuing of antigen-matched blood (at least for Rh and Kell antigen). Najah National University. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Compliance with the national palestinian infection prevention and control protocol at governmental paediatric hospitals in gaza governorates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eljedi, Ashraf; Dalo, Shareef

    2014-08-01

    Nosocomial infections are a significant burden for both patients and the healthcare system. For this reason, infection prevention and control (IPC) practices are extremely important. The Palestinian Ministry of Health adopted the national IPC Protocol in 2004. This study aimed to assess the compliance of healthcare providers (HCPs) with the Protocol in three governmental paediatric hospitals in Gaza governorates. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from February to November 2010. Data were collected from a sample of doctors, nurses and physiotherapists (N = 334) using a self-administered questionnaire and observation checklists to record HCP practices and assess the hospital environment. The response rate was 92%. The most important reasons for non-compliance with the IPC Protocol were the absence of an education programme (61.5%), lack of knowledge (52.4%) and the scarcity of required supplies (46.9%). Only 2.3% of respondents had a copy of the IPC Protocol, while 65.8% did not know of its existence. Only 16.9% had participated in training sessions regarding general IPC practices. The observation checklist regarding HCP practices revealed low levels of compliance in hand washing (45.9%), wearing gloves (40.7%) and using antiseptics/disinfectants (49.16%). The health facilities checklist indicated that there was a lack of certain essential equipment and materials, such as covered waste containers and heavy-duty gloves. Due to the lack of HPC knowledge, the authors recommend that the IPC Protocol be made available in all hospitals. In addition, a qualified team should implement intensive IPC education and training programmes and facilities should provide the required equipment and materials.

  3. Israel - Palestine: The Geopolitics of Electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amsellem, David

    2014-01-01

    The electricity sector in the Middle-East is rarely studied, however this energy has a key role in the rivalry between Israelis and Palestinians. Indeed, the Hebrew State uses it as a tool of conquest and control in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, by giving an access to commodities to Jewish settlers. Moreover, Palestinians are strongly dependent on electricity produced by Israeli power plants, which enables Israel to pressure on the Palestinians. Yet the Palestinian electricity dependence is a critical issue for Israel's security as the Hamas, whose leadership is at stake in the region, knows how to take advantage of the situation

  4. Hunting Leadership Targets in Counterinsurgency and Counterterrorist Operations: Selected Perspectives and Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    DefenceInternet/Defence- News/MilitaryOperations/SpecialForcesSupportGroupFormsInWales. htm. 60. Victor Alonso, “GAL, terrorismo de estado ” (GAL, terrorism of...Guerrilla Movement,” El Financiero , 18 Novem- ber 1994, as translated in FBIS-LAT-94-226, pp. 12-13 c. Orlando Ortíz, Genaro Vázquez, 3rd ed. (Mexico City...Backgrounder No. 660, 5 July 1988 b. Tomás Tenorio Galinda, “Una vieja visión de la guerrilla” c. “The Announced Guerrilla Movement,” El Financiero 97

  5. Assessing the spatial and temporal variability of fine particulate matter components in Israeli, Jordanian, and Palestinian cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnat, Jeremy A.; Moise, Tamar; Shpund, Jacob; Liu, Yang; Pachon, Jorge E.; Qasrawi, Radwan; Abdeen, Ziad; Brenner, Shmuel; Nassar, Khaled; Saleh, Rami; Schauer, James J.

    2010-07-01

    This manuscript presents results from an extensive, multi-country comparative monitoring study of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) and its primary chemical components in Israeli, Jordanian and Palestinian cities. This study represented the first time that researchers from these countries have worked together to examine spatial and temporal relationships for PM 2.5 and its major components among the study sites. The findings indicated that total PM 2.5 mass was relatively homogenous among many of the 11 sites as shown from strong between-site correlations. Mean annual concentrations ranged from 19.9 to 34.9 μg m -3 in Haifa and Amman, respectively, and exceeded accepted international air quality standards for annual PM 2.5 mass. Similarity of total mass was largely driven by SO 42- and crustal PM 2.5 components. Despite the close proximity of the seven, well correlated sites with respect to PM 2.5, there were pronounced differences among the cities for EC and, to a lesser degree, OC. EC, in particular, exhibited spatiotemporal trends that were indicative of strong local source contributions. Interestingly, there were moderate to strong EC correlations ( r > 0.65) among the large metropolitan cities, West Jerusalem, Tel Aviv and Amman. For these relatively large cities, (i.e., West Jerusalem, Tel Aviv and Amman), EC sources from the fleet of buses and cars typical for many urban areas predominate and likely drive spatiotemporal EC distributions. As new airshed management strategies and public health interventions are implemented throughout the Middle East, our findings support regulatory strategies that target integrated regional and local control strategies to reduce PM 2.5 mass and specific components suspected to drive adverse health effects of particulate matter exposure.

  6. Characterization and prevalence of metabolic syndrome among overweight and obese young Palestinian students at An-Najah National University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiri, Basma; Aghbar, Amir; Alkhdour, Saja; Arafat, Yousef

    2018-05-01

    Metabolic Syndrome "MetS" is characterized by the presence of several factors that play a major role in the development of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus. This study was conducted to establish the prevalence of MetS and its individual components among the overweight and obese students at An-Najah National University (ANU) using IDF and modified NCEP ATP III definition and to identify conditions associated with it. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2016. Data were collected in two stages: first stage included anthropometric and blood pressure measurements for 850 participants. Second stage included a self-administered questionnaire and biochemical analysis for only overweight or obese (154) participants. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 26.2%, with significant increase among males (36.4%) compared with females (19.1%). The prevalence of MetS among obese and overweight was (28.6%) according to IDF with no significant increase compared to NCEP ATP criteria (24%). Reduced HDL- cholesterol was the most prevalent component (74.7%) in obese and overweight participants followed by central obesity (72.1%), raised blood pressure (29.9%), elevated fasting blood sugar (24%), and lastly increased triglycerides (18.2%). No significant differences were found between males and females according to both criteria. Moreover, no significant associations with geographic locality, house-hold income, smoking, physical activity, or family history were determined. The prevalence of MetS among overweight and obese young adult Palestinians was high and demands immediate intervention, given the potential for these adults to develop chronic diseases. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Trajectories of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) after major war among Palestinian children: Trauma, family- and child-related predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Palosaari, Esa; Diab, Marwan; Peltonen, Kirsi; Qouta, Samir R

    2015-02-01

    Research shows great individual variation in changes in posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSSs) after major traumas of terrorist attacks, military combat, and natural disasters. Earlier studies have identified specific mental health trajectories both in children and adults. This study aimed, first, to identify potential PTSS-related trajectories by using latent class growth analyses among children in a three-wave assessment after the 2008/2009 War on Gaza, Palestine. Second, it analyzed how family- and child related factors (e.g., attachment relations, posttraumatic cognitions (PTCs), guilt, and emotion regulation) associate with the trajectory class membership. The sample consisted of 240 Palestinian children (49.4% girls and 50.6% boys) of 10-13 years of age (M=11.29, SD=0.68), who completed PTSS (CRIES) assessments at 3 (T1), 5 (T2), and 11 (T3) months after the war. Children reported their personal exposure to war trauma, attachment style, cognitive trauma processing, and emotion regulation, and their parents reported family war trauma exposure and attachment style. Results revealed a three-trajectory solution, a majority of children belonging to the Recovery trajectory (n=183), and a minority belonged either to Resistant trajectory (n=29) or to Increasing symptoms trajectory (n=28). Low levels of negative posttraumatic cognitive appraisals, feelings of guilt and emotion regulation were characteristic of children in the Resistant trajectory as compared to Increasing symptoms trajectory. Father׳s attachment security was further associated with the Resistant trajectory membership. Children׳s attachment avoidance and high parental trauma were typical to children in Recovery trajectory (as compared to the Increasing symptoms trajectory). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Burnout among workers in emergency Departments in Palestinian hospitals: prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Motasem; Hamra, Asma'a Abu

    2017-06-15

    Working in Emergency Departments (EDs) entails high work pressure and stress due to witnessing human suffering and the unpredictable nature of the work. This environment puts personnel at risk of burnout. This analysis aims to assess burnout levels and associated risk factors among health workers in EDs in Palestinian hospitals. Also, it examines the association between burnout and workplace violence, as well as with job turnover. Cross-sectional design utilising a self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from all workers at 14 EDs; 8 from the West Bank and 6 from the Gaza Strip. Burnout was measured using Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey. A total of 444 workers (response rate 74.5%) participated: 161(36.3%) nurses, 142(32.0%) physicians and 141(31.7%) administrative personnel. Results showed high levels of burnout among EDs workers; 64.0% suffered from high emotional exhaustion, 38.1% from high depersonalization and 34.6% from low personal accomplishment. In addition, high levels of emotional exhaustion (72.3%) was significantly prevalent among physicians compared to nurses (69.8%) and administrative workers (51.4%) (p nurses (48.8%) compared to physicians (32.1%) and administrative workers (31.9%) (p burnout among the three groups (p > 0.05). Moreover, high degree of burnout was more prevalent among EDs workers in the West Bank than among those working in the Gaza Strip (OR 2.02, 95% CI = 1.11-3.69, p = 0.019), and higher among younger workers (aged ≤30 years old) than their older counterparts (OR 2.4, 95% CI = 1.302-4.458, p = 0.005). Exposure to physical violence was significantly associated with having a high degree of burnout (OR 2.017 95% CI = 1.121-3.631, p = 0.019), but no association was observed with regards to exposure to verbal violence (p > 0.05). Finally, burnout was significantly associated with workers' intention to leave work at EDs (p Burnout is considerably prevalent among EDs' workers

  9. Serious physical violence among Arab-Palestinian adolescents: The role of exposure to neighborhood violence, perceived ethnic discrimination, normative beliefs, and, parental communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarwi, Adeem Ahmad; Khoury-Kassabri, Mona

    2017-01-01

    This study adopted a social-ecological perspective to exploring perpetration of serious physical violence against others among Arab-Palestinian adolescents. A total of 3178 adolescents (aged 13-18) completed anonymous, structured, self-report questionnaire, which included selected items from several instruments that measured variables relating to the constructs examined in the study. We explored the association of individual characteristics (age, gender, normative beliefs about violence, and perceived ethnic discrimination), familial characteristics (parent-adolescent communication and socioeconomic status), and contextual characteristics (exposure to community violence in the neighborhood) with perpetration of serious physical violence against others. A moderation-mediation model was tested, and 28.4% of the adolescents reported that they had perpetrated serious physical violence against others at least once during the month preceding the study. The findings also show that exposure of youth to violence in their neighborhood correlated significantly and positively with their perpetration of serious physical violence against others. A similar trend was revealed with respect to personal perceptions of ethnic discrimination. These correlations were mediated by the adolescents' normative beliefs about violence. Furthermore, the correlation of direct exposure to violence in the neighborhood and normative beliefs about violence with perpetration of serious physical violence against others was stronger among adolescents who have poor communication with their parents than among those who have strong parental communication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Family systems approach to attachment relations, war trauma, and mental health among Palestinian children and parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Qouta, Samir R.; Peltonen, Kirsi

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Trauma affects the family unit as a whole; however, most existing research uses individual or, at most, dyadic approaches to analyse families with histories of trauma. Objective: This study aims to identify potentially distinct family types according to attachment, parenting, and sibling relations, to analyse how these family types differ with respect to war trauma, and to explore how children’s mental health and cognitive processing differ across these family types. Method: Participants included Palestinian mothers and fathers (N = 325) and their children (one per family; 49.4% girls; 10–13 years old; mean ± SD age = 11.35 ± 0.57 years) after the Gaza War of 2008–2009. Both parents reported their exposure to war trauma, secure attachment availability, and parenting practices, as well as the target child’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms [Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)]. Children reported their symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (on the Children’s Revised Impact Event Scale), depression (Birleson), and SDQ, as well as their post-traumatic cognitions (Children’s Post Traumatic Cognitions Inventory). Results: A cluster analysis identified four family types. The largest type reflected secure attachment and optimal relationships (security and positive family relationships, 36.2%, n = 102), and the smallest exhibited insecurity and problematic relationships (insecurity and negative family relationships, 15.6%; n = 44). Further, families with discrepant experiences (23.0%; n = 65) and moderate security and neutral relationships (25.2%; n = 71) emerged. The insecurity and negative relationships family type showed higher levels of war trauma; internalizing, externalizing, and depressive symptoms among children; and dysfunctional post-traumatic cognitions than other family types. Conclusion: The family systems approach to mental health is warranted in war conditions, and therapeutic

  11. Family systems approach to attachment relations, war trauma, and mental health among Palestinian children and parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Qouta, Samir R; Peltonen, Kirsi

    2017-01-01

    Background : Trauma affects the family unit as a whole; however, most existing research uses individual or, at most, dyadic approaches to analyse families with histories of trauma. Objective : This study aims to identify potentially distinct family types according to attachment, parenting, and sibling relations, to analyse how these family types differ with respect to war trauma, and to explore how children's mental health and cognitive processing differ across these family types. Method: Participants included Palestinian mothers and fathers ( N  = 325) and their children (one per family; 49.4% girls; 10-13 years old; mean ±  SD age = 11.35 ± 0.57 years) after the Gaza War of 2008-2009. Both parents reported their exposure to war trauma, secure attachment availability, and parenting practices, as well as the target child's internalizing and externalizing symptoms [Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)]. Children reported their symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (on the Children's Revised Impact Event Scale), depression (Birleson), and SDQ, as well as their post-traumatic cognitions (Children's Post Traumatic Cognitions Inventory). Results: A cluster analysis identified four family types. The largest type reflected secure attachment and optimal relationships (security and positive family relationships, 36.2%, n  = 102), and the smallest exhibited insecurity and problematic relationships (insecurity and negative family relationships, 15.6%; n  = 44). Further, families with discrepant experiences (23.0%; n  = 65) and moderate security and neutral relationships (25.2%; n  = 71) emerged. The insecurity and negative relationships family type showed higher levels of war trauma; internalizing, externalizing, and depressive symptoms among children; and dysfunctional post-traumatic cognitions than other family types. Conclusion: The family systems approach to mental health is warranted in war conditions, and therapeutic interventions for

  12. Bringing abundance into environmental politics: Constructing a Zionist network of water abundance, immigration, and colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatout, Samer

    2009-06-01

    For more than five decades, resource scarcity has been the lead story in debates over environmental politics. More importantly, and whenever environmental politics implies conflict, resource scarcity is constructed as the culprit. Abundance of resources, if at all visited in the literature, holds less importance. Resource abundance is seen, at best, as the other side of scarcity--maybe the successful conclusion of multiple interventions that may turn scarcity into abundance. This paper reinstates abundance as a politico-environmental category in its own right. Rather than relegating abundance to a second-order environmental actor that matters only on occasion, this paper foregrounds it as a crucial element in modern environmental politics. On the substantive level, and using insights from science and technology studies, especially a slightly modified actor-network framework, I describe the emergence and consolidation of a Zionist network of abundance, immigration, and colonization in Palestine between 1918 and 1948. The essential argument here is that water abundance was constructed as fact, and became a political rallying point around which a techno-political network emerged that included a great number of elements. To name just a few, the following were enrolled in the service of such a network: geologists, geophysicists, Zionist settlement experts, Zionist organizations, political and technical categories of all sorts, Palestinians as the negated others, Palestinian revolts in search of political rights, the British Mandate authorities, the hydrological system of Palestine, and the absorptive capacity of Palestine, among others. The point was to successfully articulate these disparate elements into a network that seeks opening Palestine for Jewish immigration, redefining Palestinian geography and history through Judeo-Christian Biblical narratives, and, in the process, de-legitimizing political Palestinian presence in historic Palestine.

  13. Imagine There Is War and It Is Tweeted Live – An Analysis of Digital Diplomacy in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa-Maria Kretschmer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The interplay between use of force in conflicts and involved parties’ rhetorical efforts to determine related international discourse has long been subject of research and debate. However, how and why states adopt digital media in conflict, as well as how the emerging opportunity for “Digital Diplomacy” influences their actual communication warrants further consideration. This question raised in public, media and academia during Israel’s eight-day operation “Pillar of Defense” in Gaza in November 2012, when the military confrontation between Israel and Hamas was mirrored in a clash on social media as additional battlefield. The presented analysis of Israel’s online performance bases on Ben Mor’s self-presentation framework (2007, 2012, which explains constraints for structure and substance of communication by which states seek to build, maintain or defend their image in home and foreign audiences. Relevant Israeli Twitter feeds are analyzed and results flanked by semi-structured interviews with Israeli communication officials. Accordingly, Israel more than other political actors engages in proactive Digital Diplomacy, expecting benefits of directly reaching crucial publics and providing an alternative story, while accepting a certain loss of control. The constant communication aims at explaining and thus “humanizing” Israel’s militarized image in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. However, with a focus on hard-power messages (threat scenarios, delegitimization, in-group/ out-group thinking, military instead of political successes and the absence of political solutions, it is unlikely to convey a peace-oriented image or even – taking a longer view – to prepare the ground for a political solution.

  14. A cross-sectional study to assess the patient safety culture in the Palestinian hospitals: a baseline assessment for quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsous, Aymen; Akbari Sari, Ali; Rashidian, Arash; Aljeesh, Yousef; Radwan, Mahmoud; AbuZaydeh, Hatem

    2016-12-01

    To measure and establish a baseline assessment of the patient safety culture in the Palestinian hospitals. A cross-sectional descriptive study using the Arabic version of the Safety Attitude Questionnaire (Short Form 2006). A total of 339 nurses and physicians returned the questionnaire out of 370 achieving a response rate of 91.6%. Four public general hospitals in the Gaza Strip, Palestine. Nurses and physicians were randomly selected using a proportionate random sampling. Data analysis performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software version 20, and p value less than 0.05 was statistically significant. Current status of patient safety culture among healthcare providers and percentage of positive attitudes. Male to female ratio was 2.16:1, and mean age was 36.5 ± 9.4 years. The mean score of Arabic Safety Attitude Questionnaire across the six dimensions on 100-point scale ranged between 68.5 for Job Satisfaction and 48.5 for Working Condition. The percentage of respondents holding a positive attitude was 34.5% for Teamwork Climate, 28.4% for Safety Climate, 40.7% for Stress Recognition, 48.8% for Job Satisfaction, 11.3% for Working Conditions and 42.8% for Perception of Management. Healthcare workers holding positive attitudes had better collaboration with co-workers than those without positive attitudes. Findings are useful to formulate a policy on patient safety culture and targeted a specific safety culture dimension to improve the safety of patients and improve the clinical outcomes within healthcare organisations.

  15. Iran’s Foreign and Defense Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-06

    Palestinian peace process through Hamas attacks on buses, restaurants , and other civilian targets inside Israel. However, in 2012, their differing positions...mid-2015, declared its loyalty to the Islamic State organization. 105 Almost all of the Central Asian states share a common language and culture with...natural gas customer . Perhaps in an attempt to diversify gas export routes, President Gurbanguly Berdymukhamedov signaled in 2007 that Turkmenistan

  16. Rethinking the social history in the era of biolegitimacy: global health and medical education in the care of Palestinian and Syrian refugees in Beirut, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premkumar, Ashish; Raad, Kareem; Haidar, Mona H

    2016-01-01

    The critiques leveled towards medical humanitarianism by the social sciences have yet to be felt in medical education. The elevation of biological suffering, at the detriment of sociopolitical contextualization, has been shown to clearly impact both acute and long-term care of individuals and communities. With many medical students spending a portion of their educational time in global learning experiences, exposure to humanitarianism and its consequences becomes a unique component of biomedical education. How does the medical field reconcile global health education with the critiques of humanitarianism? This paper argues that the medical response to humanitarian reason should begin at the level of a social history. Using experiential data culled from fieldwork with Palestinian and Syrian refugees in Lebanon, the authors argue that an expanded social history, combined with knowledge derived from the social sciences, can have significant clinical implications. The ability to contextualize an individual's disease and life within a complex sociopolitical framework means that students must draw on disciplines as varied as anthropology, sociology, and political history to further their knowledge base. Moreover, situating these educational goals within the framework of physician advocacy can build a strong base in medical education from both a biomedical and activist perspective.

  17. PEOPLE & POINTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    “The Chinese Government respectsthe legitimate status of President [Mahmoud] Abbas and the Palestinian National Authority.”Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman Qin Gang, calling on Palestinian factions to end conflicts and solve their concerns through dial

  18. Did nukes nudge the PLO?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, A.

    1993-01-01

    The author presents arguments to support the belief that a factor in the partial Palestinian-Israeli reconciliation was Israel's nuclear capability. He believes that the image of Israel as an invincible nuclear power helped the Palestinians realize the necessity of seeking peaceful coexistence with Israel. The nuclear lessons of Iraq--and the specter of a mutually nuclearized future Middle East--may also have had an important impact on the Rabin government. The author also discusses some of the political implications of the joint Palestinian-Israeli recognition

  19. Petróleo, desarrollo y paz Oil, development and peace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez O. Astrid

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Este articulo analiza los planteamientos del Gobierno Nacional sobre politica petrolera. La relacion entre el petroleo y los temas de desarrollo y la paz se exploran con base en la lectura de los pronunciamientos de la guerrilla y los grupos sociales sobre el manejo de los hidrocarburos en Colombia vis a vis los pronunciamientos gubernamentales.This article analyzes the proposals of the National Government concerning oil policy. The relation ship between oil and topics of development and peace are explored based on a reading of the pronouncements of the guerrillas and of social groups about the management of hydrocarbons en Colombia vis a vis governmental pronouncements.

  20. Food insufficiency and food insecurity as risk factors for physical disability among Palestinian refugees in Lebanon: Evidence from an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salti, Nisreen; Ghattas, Hala

    2016-10-01

    Potential interactions between malnutrition and disability are increasingly recognized, and both are important global health issues. Causal effects working from nutrition to disability and from disability back to nutrition present an empirical challenge to measuring either of these effects. However, disability affects nutrition whatever the cause of disability, whereas nutrition is likelier to affect disease-related disability than war- or work-related disability. This paper investigates the association of food insufficiency with the risk of physical disability. Data on disability by cause allow us to address the difficulty of reverse causality. Multinomial logit regressions of disability by cause on food insufficiency are run using survey data from 2010 on 2575 Palestinian refugee households in Lebanon. Controls include household sociodemographic, health and economic characteristics. Regressions of food insufficiency on disability by cause are also run. Disability has a significant coefficient in regressions of food insufficiency, whatever the cause of disability; but in regressions of disability on food insufficiency, food insufficiency is significant only for disease-related disability (log odds of disease-related disability .78 higher, p = .008). The difference in the results by cause of disability is evidence of a significant association between food insufficiency and disease-related disability, net of any reverse effect from disability to food access. The association between disease-related disability and food insufficiency is statistically significant suggesting that even taking into account feedback from disability to nutrition, nutrition is an effective level of intervention to avert the poverty-disability trap resulting from the impoverishing effect of disability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Thinking from God's perspective decreases biased valuation of the life of a nonbeliever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginges, Jeremy; Sheikh, Hammad; Atran, Scott; Argo, Nichole

    2016-01-12

    Religious belief is often thought to motivate violence because it is said to promote norms that encourage tribalism and the devaluing of the lives of nonbelievers. If true, this should be visible in the multigenerational violent conflict between Palestinians and Israelis which is marked by a religious divide. We conducted experiments with a representative sample of Muslim Palestinian youth (n = 555), examining whether thinking from the perspective of Allah (God), who is the ultimate arbitrator of religious belief, changes the relative value of Jewish Israelis' lives (compared with Palestinian lives). Participants were presented with variants of the classic "trolley dilemma," in the form of stories where a man can be killed to save the lives of five children who were either Jewish Israeli or Palestinian. They responded from their own perspective and from the perspective of Allah. We find that whereas a large proportion of participants were more likely to endorse saving Palestinian children than saving Jewish Israeli children, this proportion decreased when thinking from the perspective of Allah. This finding raises the possibility that beliefs about God can mitigate bias against other groups and reduce barriers to peace.

  2. Thinking from God’s perspective decreases biased valuation of the life of a nonbeliever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginges, Jeremy; Sheikh, Hammad; Atran, Scott; Argo, Nichole

    2016-01-01

    Religious belief is often thought to motivate violence because it is said to promote norms that encourage tribalism and the devaluing of the lives of nonbelievers. If true, this should be visible in the multigenerational violent conflict between Palestinians and Israelis which is marked by a religious divide. We conducted experiments with a representative sample of Muslim Palestinian youth (n = 555), examining whether thinking from the perspective of Allah (God), who is the ultimate arbitrator of religious belief, changes the relative value of Jewish Israelis’ lives (compared with Palestinian lives). Participants were presented with variants of the classic “trolley dilemma,” in the form of stories where a man can be killed to save the lives of five children who were either Jewish Israeli or Palestinian. They responded from their own perspective and from the perspective of Allah. We find that whereas a large proportion of participants were more likely to endorse saving Palestinian children than saving Jewish Israeli children, this proportion decreased when thinking from the perspective of Allah. This finding raises the possibility that beliefs about God can mitigate bias against other groups and reduce barriers to peace. PMID:26711991

  3. Women and the Palestinian National Movement: A Comparative Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tucker, Elien

    2000-01-01

    .... During the Intifada, women seized the opportunity to demonstrate their significance as participants in the struggle for national independence through socio-political organizations that had been...

  4. The United States and Tunisia: A Foreign Policy Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    headquarters to Tunis from Cairo following the signing of the Egypt- Israel peace treaty, and when the Palestine Liberation Organization .- set up its... Israel [Ref. 201. Such a message serves only to reinforce the appeal of Populist Islam. It is probable that the Islamic movement will, if well...THE ARAB-ISRAELI CONFLICT~ Tunisia has been a consistent supporter of the rights of Palestina * Arabs, but the Bourguibist idea of how Palestinians

  5. Beyond al-Qaeda. Part 1. The Global Jihadist Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    the Tokyo subway in March 1995, was able to fashion a crude chemical weapon, but failed to fabricate a biological device, despite substantial...in Morocco, terrorist lead- ers with al-Qaeda connections who trained in Afghanistan were the organizers. One major change in these “ franchised ...from Eurasia. Hamas and its offshoot, the Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ), provided shelter, food , and training. From Saudi Arabia and Yemen, Saudi

  6. All projects related to | Page 414 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Security Reasoning, Spatial Politics, Patriarchy and the Economic Rights of Palestinian Women in Israel ... and humanitarian conditions of Palestinian refugees in Lebanon and to coordinate efforts by stakeholders (United Nations Relief and Works Agency-UNRWA, Lebanese ministries, the international community, etc.

  7. Building Walls Instead of Building Friendships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Else Marie Wiberg

    2008-01-01

    An editorial about the perspectives and proportions in the Palestinian-Israeli conflict and the Israeli claim that a wall prevents "evil".......An editorial about the perspectives and proportions in the Palestinian-Israeli conflict and the Israeli claim that a wall prevents "evil"....

  8. Hajj Amīn al-Ḥusaynī, the “creation” of a leader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Kamel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Hajj Amīn al-Ḥusaynī – the «Grand Muftī of Jerusalem» – is often portrayed as the legitimate representative of the Palestinian people in the first part of XX century. Due to his collusion with Nazism, such a position implies that the Palestinian people are, at least in principle, responsible for their own tragic destiny. This study challenges that assumption and sheds light on how and why the Grand Muftī was imposed on the Palestinian people by London. Analyzing the rise to power of Hajj Amīn al-Ḥusaynī and the means granted to him is crucial for understanding the ways through which the British authorities related to the local realities in post-World War I Palestine and to what extent these practices have marked the subsequent development of Palestinian society.

  9. Job satisfaction and mental health of Palestinian nurses with shift work: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaradat, Yousef; Birkeland Nielsen, Morten; Kristensen, Petter; Bast-Pettersen, Rita

    2018-02-21

    Shift work is associated with sleep disturbances, mental health problems, and job dissatisfaction. Disparities between male and female nurses in the effect of shift work on mental distress and job satisfaction have been scarcely studied. We aimed to examine differences between female and male nurses in the associations between shift work and job satisfaction and mental health. In this cross-sectional study, male and female nurses were recruited to rate their job satisfaction on the Generic Job Satisfaction Scale and to complete the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30). Associations between shift work, mental distress, and satisfaction were estimated from χ 2 tests and linear regression analyses using Stata/IC10. The study was approved by the ministry of health. Written informed consent was provided by all participants. In 2012, we recruited 372 registered nurses from the Hebron governorate in the occupied Palestinian territory. 28 (8%) nurses were excluded, and the final sample (n=344) included 213 (62%) women and 131 (38%) men. 338 nurses rated their job satisfaction, and 309 nurses completed the GHQ-30. After adjusting for covariates, men with shift work reported significantly lower job satisfaction (β-coefficient -3·3, 95% CI -6·2 to -0·5) than men with day schedules. Women with shift work reported significantly higher levels of mental distress (3·6, 95% CI 0·3 to 7·0) than women with day schedules. Distress was reported by more women than men, but this difference concerned only nurses working day shifts. No differences in job satisfaction associated with shift work was seen between men and women. We found no demonstrable interaction between sex and shift work for job satisfaction (β-coefficient -1·6, 95% CI -4·4 to 1·2) or distress (-0·03, 95% CI -5·3 to 5·3). Shift work was associated with low job satisfaction in male nurses and high distress in female nurses. Because the study had a cross-sectional design and both exposure and outcomes were

  10. Mesa solución política al conflicto armado Oslo y la Habana 2: la imaginación pacificadora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Vélez R

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente texto realizado en razón del I Congreso regional de paz – Antioquia, se realiza una recopilación investigativa respecto de los temas tocados en la agenda de paz entre el gobierno y la guerrilla y sus posibles consecuencias, para ello se toman las diferentes publicaciones realizadas en el blog Atisbos, desarrollado por el autor y tomando como referencia el número 158, y la expectativa generada por los resultados del proceso Santos-Guerrillas, con el fin de darle un marco conceptual analítico adecuado al proceso de Oslo y de la Habana 2, y para lo cual se realiza en lenguaje crítico-político.

  11. Search Results | Page 12 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 111 - 120 of 439 ... ... ADAPTATION TO CHANGE filter · EMPOWERMENT 9 Apply EMPOWERMENT ... The first gender profile was compiled by the Institute of Women's Studies (IWS) ... under the title, Towards Gender Equality in the Palestinian Territories. ... The Lebanese Palestinian Dialogue Committee (LPDC) was ...

  12. Search Results | Page 11 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 101 - 110 of 420 ... Second Gender Profile on the Palestinian Occupied Territories 1999-2008 ... under the title, Towards Gender Equality in the Palestinian Territories. ... The state of Punjab has created community-partnered policing ... Innovation Systems for Inclusive Development : Lessons from Rural China and India.

  13. Genomic analysis of a heterogeneous Mendelian phenotype: multiple novel alleles for inherited hearing loss in the Palestinian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walsh Tom

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recessively inherited phenotypes are frequent in the Palestinian population, as the result of a historical tradition of marriages within extended kindreds, particularly in isolated villages. In order to characterise the genetics of inherited hearing loss in this population, we worked with West Bank schools for the deaf to identify children with prelingual, bilateral, severe to profound hearing loss not attributable to infection, trauma or other known environmental exposure. Of 156 families enrolled, hearing loss in 17 families (11 per cent was due to mutations in GJB2 (connexin 26, a smaller fraction of GJB2-associated deafness than in other populations. In order to estimate how many different genes might be responsible for hearing loss in this population, we evaluated ten families for linkage to all 36 known human autosomal deafness-related genes, fully sequencing hearing-related genes at any linked sites in informative relatives. Four families harboured four novel alleles of TMPRSS3 (988ΔA = 352stop, otoancorin (1067A >T = D356V and pendrin (716T > A = V239D and 1001G > T = 346stop. In each family, all affected individuals were homozygous for the critical mutation. Each allele was specific to one or a few families in the cohort; none were widespread. Since epidemiological tests of association of mutations with deafness were not feasible for such rare alleles, we used functional and bioinformatics approaches to evaluate their consequences. In six other families, hearing loss was not linked to any known gene, suggesting that these families harbour novel genes responsible for this phenotype. We conclude that inherited hearing loss is highly heterogeneous in this population, with most extended families acting as genetic isolates in this context. We also conclude that the same genes are responsible for hearing loss in this population as elsewhere, so that gene discovery in these families informs the genetics of hearing loss worldwide.

  14. Definition, causes, and consequences of Hamm (idiom of distress in Arabic) in the Palestinian context: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Abeer A; Salah, Razan; Ahmad, Abla Sayyed; Hijleh, Samah Abu; Kattab, Sa'eed Abu; Kurd, Alia Al; Sharif, Rawan Al; Amro, Raed; Khatib, Ahmad; Mousa, Hana'; Shamasnah, Walaa; Shqerat, Khammisa; Giacaman, Rita

    2018-02-21

    Hamm is an Arabic word that is used to express suffering. Idioms of distress are communicated differently in different contexts and cultures. Understanding idioms of distress and symptoms can help in diagnosis and lead to socioculturally sensitive health care. In this qualitative study, we did semi-structured interviews with men and women of all age groups. Questions focused on the definition, causes, and consequences of Hamm. Responses were analysed by reading and re-reading interview transcripts until themes and subthemes emerged. Oral informed consent was obtained from participants. 52 participants contributed to this study (26 women, 26 men; half of whom were aged 18-40 years, and the other half of whom were older than 40 years. Hamm was defined by participants as a feeling of discomfort, sadness, stress, anxiety, and fear of the future. Causes of Hamm included social, economic, and political factors and varied between the sexes: young men (aged 18-40 years) reported family obligations, conflicts, unsolved problems, and failure in studies, whereas young women (aged 18-40 years) reported gossip, social traditional restrictions, isolation, and gender-related problems. People older than 40 years reported fear of family separation, fear for children and their future, or the loss of loved ones. Political causes of Hamm included the Israeli occupation, Israeli checkpoints separating families and creating difficult living conditions, Palestinian authority measures, and the burden of colonialism. Young respondents reported that Hamm results in psychological problems apparent from facial expressions and body language, sleeplessness, miscommunication with others, rudeness and aggression, appetite changes, and mental illnesses. Respondents older than 40 years reported deterioration in psychosocial health, including feelings described as broken spirits, and emphasised the physical consequences of Hamm such as diabetes, heart attack, and hypertension. Hamm is precipitated

  15. Israel: Strategic Asset or Strategic Liability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    and most of the coastline to The Jews. Arab Palestinians were awarded the mountain region of the Palestinian heartland, Gaza Strip, and Western...French Mandate) Palestineg Transjordan British Mandate RED SEA Saudi Arabia D Area Separaled ancs Closed 10 Jewish 5eDiemenl 1921 • Alea

  16. [丹]埃娃·延霍尔特, 黄隽华. 显影不可见之物

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørholt, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Palestinians actually live in exile, the third group primarily consists of films made by Palestinians living outside the Middle East - films often revolving around nostalgia and issues of identity and belonging. Finally, the films made by Israelis testify to the opposition within Israel to the official policy...

  17. Search Results | Page 639 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 6381 - 6390 of 9601 ... Second Gender Profile on the Palestinian Occupied Territories 1999-2008 ... and published under the title, Towards Gender Equality in the Palestinian Territories. ... System to Address Violence Against Women in the Punjab (India). The state of Punjab has created community-partnered policing ...

  18. Creating an Economically Enabling and Competitive Business ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Creating an Economically Enabling and Competitive Business Environment in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. The prospect of indefinite Israeli occupation of the Palestinian territories, and their extreme dependence on foreign assistance and Israeli-controlled customs revenues, had led to the conclusion that the Palestinian ...

  19. Lutte nationale ou fondation étatique ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyala Hamzah

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Is today’s recentering of the Palestinian “intellectual field” around NGO-activism and at the expense of a (muted marxist rearguard imputable to political as well as social islamist militancy ? Why has the hegemonic presence of “Islam” in the Palestinian “public sphere”, not generated “new Muslim intellectuals”, whose exegetic commitment on the global scene does not preclude national and secular commitments ? Is it because the Palestinian “civil society” has been hindered, since the breakout of the second Intifada, by the disintegration of those infrastructures and institutions granted by the Oslo process and forced into emergency-driven actions—making it difficult for more autonomous discourses, of whatever tendency, to emerge ? This paper approaches these questions by deconstructing, in the Palestinian case, the prerequisits of an intellectual sphere; by delineating the structural constraints under which these actors labour; last, by illustrating their polarisation in the debate over suicide operations.

  20. The U.S. Marine Corps Combined Action Program (CAP): A Proposed Alternative Strategy for the Vietnam War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williamson, Curtis

    2002-01-01

    .... The CAP offered a viable alternative to the strategy taken in Vietnam, challenging the sustaining infrastructure of the guerrilla, while providing security for the largely agrarian populace. Discussion...

  1. Guerrilla Warfare in Nicaragua, 1975-1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    accompanied by Archbishop Obando N ’ :, . "..,’yg Bravo,,an4 other dignitaries serving as guarantors of safe passage out ’, [ ];", , ". - .f:Ni agua ...inspection tour to insure that Sandinistas were-qnot,, the frontier area. The entry point at Los Chiles across thevborder fromSan Carlos was ,closed

  2. Green Guerrilla: Creating Sustainable Development through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-05-12

    May 12, 2018 ... advancing life enlightenment, public enlightenment and democratic Bildung (The ... Lange, a teacher at Vestjyllands Folk High School, states that a .... I argue that when learning to imagine a new, sustainable world, and thus balancing ... learning about permaculture and the practical work in the garden, the ...

  3. IMPROVING WOMEN'S LIVES Practical support for women gives ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC Communications. LASTING IMPACTS. IDRC has supported poor women in developing countries in their efforts to learn, to earn, and to take part in local decision-making. University degrees and decent jobs make it easier ... Two Palestinian women sit in classroom. Scholarships bring hope to poor Palestinian women ...

  4. All projects related to | Page 371 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-06-18

    Displaying 3701 - 3710 of 6834. Palestinian Refugee Research Policy Papers. Project. IDRC's Expert and Advisory Fund (EASF) aimed to support Canada's role in the multilateral peace process in the Middle East focusing on the issue of Palestinian refugees. Start Date: June 18, 2009. End Date: December 19, 2010.

  5. To Tame a Chechen Wolf: Shedding the Failing Frame of Salafism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    Palestinians because they were perceived as the ‘ underdog .’ Using the tool of emotions, Palestinians were able to gain and mobilize significant...Maskhadov couldn’t control him. Basayev accused the president of pretending to be a Muslim. Maskhadov did not like the Salafi brand of religious fanaticism

  6. Child Geopolitical Agency: A Mixed Methods Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habashi, Janette; Worley, Jody

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the geopolitical agency of Palestinian children. Mixed methodology was used to identify the etiologies contributing to processes of political socialization. Both qualitative and qualitative methods are equally distributed throughout this research. Focus groups and interviews with 12 Palestinian children, aged 10 to 13 years,…

  7. U.S. Military Interventiuon in Colombia: Strategic and Operational Planning Considerations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hernandez, Bryan

    2003-01-01

    Colombia is on the verge of collapse because of the instability generated by leftist guerrilla groups, drug traffickers, and right-wing paramilitaries against the Colombian government and its ability...

  8. The relationship between relative deprivation and self-rated health among Palestinian women in refugee camps in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salti, Nisreen; Abdulrahim, Sawsan

    2016-12-01

    Relative deprivation (RD) has been advanced as a theory to explain the relationship between income inequality and health in high-income countries. In this study, we tested the theory in a low-income protracted refugee setting in a middle-income country. Using data from the 2010 Socioeconomic Survey of Palestine Refugees in Lebanon, we examined the relationship between RD and health among a representative sample of Palestinian refugee women ( N =1047). Data were gathered utilizing a household questionnaire with information on socio-demographics and an individual-level questionnaire with information on the health of each respondent. We examined self-rated health (SRH) as the main health measure but also checked the sensitivity of our results using self-reported chronic conditions. We used two measures for absolute SES: total household monthly expenditures on non-food goods and services and total household monthly expenditures on non-health goods and services. With refugee camp as a reference group, we measured a household's RD as a household's rank of absolute SES within the reference group, multiplied by the distance between its absolute SES and the average absolute SES of all households ranked above it. We investigated the robustness of the RD-SRH relationship using these two alternative measures of absolute SES. Our findings show that, controlling for absolute SES and other possible confounders, women report significantly poorer health when they live in households with a higher score on our RD measure (because of either lower relative rank or lower relative SES compared to households better off in the reference group which we take to be the refugee camp). While RD is always significant as a determinant of SRH under a variety of specifications, absolute SES is not consistently significant. These findings persist when we use self-reported chronic conditions as our measure of health instead of SRH, suggesting that the relationship between health and RD may be

  9. Importance of life domains in different cultural groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizur, Dov; Kantor, Jeffrey; Yaniv, Eyal; Sagie, Abraham

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the role of individualism and collectivism in the shaping of personal values of Canadians, Israelis, and Palestinians. Based on Sagie and Elizur's (1996) multifaceted approach, we distinguished personal values that are individual centered (i.e., associated with one's home, family, or work) from collective-centered values (i.e., associated with the religion, sports, or politics). The magnitude of the difference between both value types differs according to cultural orientation. As compared with Palestinians, we predicted that Canadians and Israelis would rank individual-centered values higher and collective-centered values lower. Data obtained from samples of Palestinians, Israelis, and Canadians supported this hypothesis.

  10. Promoting the Middle East peace process by changing beliefs about group malleability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Eran; Russell, Alexandra G; Trzesniewski, Kali H; Gross, James J; Dweck, Carol S

    2011-09-23

    Four studies showed that beliefs about whether groups have a malleable versus fixed nature affected intergroup attitudes and willingness to compromise for peace. Using a nationwide sample (N = 500) of Israeli Jews, the first study showed that a belief that groups were malleable predicted positive attitudes toward Palestinians, which in turn predicted willingness to compromise. In the remaining three studies, experimentally inducing malleable versus fixed beliefs about groups among Israeli Jews (N = 76), Palestinian citizens of Israel (N = 59), and Palestinians in the West Bank (N = 53)--without mentioning the adversary--led to more positive attitudes toward the outgroup and, in turn, increased willingness to compromise for peace.

  11. States of Liberation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sen, Somdeep

    in the context of the Palestinian quest for liberation. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in the Gaza Strip, the West Bank, Israel and Egypt, this dissertation argues that resistance and governance serve as means of emboldening the signature of Palestinian existence – as a cause and as a people. Hamas’ resistance...

  12. Facilitated Dialogues with Teachers in Conflict-Ridden Areas: In Search of Pedagogical Openings that Move beyond the Paralysing Effects of Perpetrator-Victim Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekerman, Zvi; Zembylas, Michalinos

    2010-01-01

    This paper shows some mechanisms as well as the paralysing implications of the perpetrator-victim positioning in the context of inservice education with Jewish- and Palestinian-Israeli teachers who teach in Palestinian-Jewish integrated schools. It examines how these teachers remain rooted in the hegemonic historical narratives of their own…

  13. "Shooting Back" in the Occupied Territories: An Anti-Colonial Participatory Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Chandni

    2015-01-01

    In this article I argue that Palestinians, in particular Palestinian youth engage in forms of cultural resistance such as filming, video production and dissemination in their everyday lives as a way to re-configure place, space, law, knowledge and violence, through a critical race, feminist, anti-colonial theoretical analysis. Recently, interest…

  14. Tactical Requirements for Peacekeeping Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-02

    is the slum area of Burj - Al -Barjneh, which houses Palestinian refugees and Shia Muslims. Sniper fire from ’o.- this area became one of the greatest...isolation and low target value of most outposts, the only organization that might benefit from attacking them would be radical Arab terrorists, either...prevention and treatment (1/2 hr) Navigate in a desert environment (8 hrs) CD training (16 hrs) Handling POW’s (1 hr) Arabic familiarization course (40 hrs

  15. Coexistence and sport: the Israeli case

    OpenAIRE

    Yair Galily; Michael Leitner; Pini Shimon

    2013-01-01

    Utilizing sports and other recreational activities to foster peaceful relations and coexistence is an idea that has gained popularity in recent years, particularly in Israel. The aim of the current research is to fill a gap in the research literature on the subject of coexistence programming. The Mifalot organization conducts a program called “Get to Know Your Neighbor” in which Palestinian, Jordanian, and Israeli youth play soccer together. The program, based mainly on the participants’ love...

  16. Economic evaluation of three alternative methods for control of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Israel, Palestinian Territories, and Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enkerlin, W.; Mumford, J.

    1997-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), is a major pest of fruit crops in the Mediterranean Basin countries. If no control measures are applied in Israel, Palestinian Territories, and Jordan against this pest, the annual fruit losses are estimated to be about U.S. $365 million, which is more than half the total revenue produced by fruits considered to be Mediterranean fruit fly hosts in these countries. Under the current control programs, the direct damage (yield loss and control costs) and indirect damage (environmental impact and market loss) amount to U.S. $192 million per year. This amount could increase each year if the current control programs are kept. The aim of this study was to evaluate, on a regional basis, the economic returns of 3 improved alternative Mediterranean fruit fly control methods using a 9-yr time frame. The control alternatives include population suppression using bait sprays, population suppression using massive release of sterile male flies, and population eradication also using massive releases of sterile male flies. For each option, an action plan was prepared which includes intensity, frequency and timing of sampling (trapping and fruit gathering), control (bait sprays and sterile male releases), and postcontrol (quarantine and emergency capacity) techniques. For the economic evaluation costs and benefits at net present value are computed for each control option to estimate the economic indices. Results indicate that the 3 area-wide control options are technically and economically feasible and all are better than the current control programs. For each option, the economic returns on a medium and long term are discussed, along with the environmental impact. Over the 9-yr time frame, the greatest economic return is from the sterile male suppression option. Over a much longer time frame, the greatest return is for the sterile male eradication option

  17. A Review of The Statehood of Palestine from The Perspective of International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Kongxiang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the United Nations’ partition plan of Israel-Palestine, Palestinians enjoy autonomy. But with Israel’s invasion by force, thousands of Palestinian people have been displaced and made homeless. In its Advisory Opinion, “the legitimacy of the building of an isolation wall in the occupied Palestinian territories”, the ICJ confirmed that the Palestinians enjoy the people’s right to self-determination. Also, a tit-for-tat legal struggle was launched in the UNSC and the GA, the UNESCO, the ICC and other agencies concerning the issue of Palestinian’s national identity. In September 2011, Palestine applied to become a formal member state in the UN, and failed to get the Security Council’s support due to the US and Israel’s blockade. Shortly thereafter, Palestine was allowed to join the UNESCO. On November 29, 2012, Palestine upgraded its status to “Non-Member Observer” through the GA’s votes. The focus of Palestine’s national identity is on whether Palestine obtains the desired qualification of the United Nations Member States.

  18. On Political Islam in Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egor A. Stepkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article deals with analyzing the place and the political Islam occupies on the Palestinian territories. The author tries to prove that despite the “Arab spring” and growing popularity of Islamism in the neighbor Arab countries its popular support among Palestinians is low. The main reason for this is Israeli total control of political, economic and - partially - social processes taking place in the West Bank. Position of the officials in Ramallah who together with Tel-Aviv strictly contain spread of Islamism throughout the West Bank also has a strong suppressing effect. Central Palestinian leadership may be called one of the few secular political establishments that are still in power in the Arab countries. The main explanation for this is the desire to make a positive effect on the international community, which Palestine totally depends on in political and financial terms. Also one should keep in mind secular beliefs of the current political elite in Palestine. President Mahmoud Abbas with his counterparts from FATAH and PLO represent old type of Arab nationalist politicians, almost all of who were stripped from power after the beginning of “Arab spring” in 2011. Finally, Palestinian society itself still feels united by the idea of national liberation from the Israeli occupation. This helps Palestinians to put aside the issue of religious self-identification. According to the surveys, most of Palestinians still rank their national identity number while describing their identity, while religion comes only second (despite the strong stable tendency for growing Islamization of their views. The only Palestinian enclave where political Islam has gained ground is isolated Gaza Strip. However ruling there “Islamic Resistance Movement” (HAMAS, despite declared anti-Zionism and Islamism, in reality show pragmatic readiness for certain coordination of its actions with Israel and central government in Ramallah. Nowadays one can

  19. The Effect of Marketing Strategies Construct on Firm Performance: Results from Pilot Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazal Akbar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The difficulties that face small and medium organization in any field are severe nowadays. The importance of SMEs is vital. Different researchers have proposed different success factors for small and medium organization, like finance, skilled workforce, technology, innovation and most importantly marketing. Marketing is the spine of any organization, through marketing firms bring innovation, awareness of competitors, awareness of products, building relation with customers. A good marketing strategy increases the sale of product for sure. The small and medium organization face difficulties in doing marketing, because of limited finance, limited or unskilled staff, unawareness of marketing strategies, no or less use of media. This paper presents the pilot survey result for the study of effect of marketing strategies construct (entrepreneurial, guerrilla, relationship, ambush, viral and niche marketing, on firm performance. Descriptive statistics, normality, reliability and preliminary factor analysis (EFA test were run, all the data were presented in tables below. The result shows that all the questionnaire were normally distributed, and the outcomes are all normal.

  20. review article how unique is south african military integration?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Roy Licklider

    The military cultures of these groups varied from the hierarchical ones of a modern army to the individualistic ones of guerrilla fighters. Education ... Sierra Leone, while others were more autonomous, like South Africa and Lebanon.

  1. United States Strategy in Colombia: New Opportunities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, Lee C

    2003-01-01

    .... Despite decades of U.S. support to the Government of Colombia, the troika of guerrilla insurgency, civil disorder by paramilitaries, and illegal drug activities has brought Colombia close to becoming a failed State. U.S...

  2. Sequencing: Targeting Insurgents and Drugs in Colombia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Farrell, Michelle L

    2007-01-01

    Peru's success in first defeating the Shining Path guerrilla movement in the early 1990s and then reducing coca cultivation in the mid-1990s demonstrates the effectiveness of a sequential approach to these problems...

  3. Palestinian Security Sector Reform : the View of the Public | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    PSR will consult with various stakeholders - the Ministry of the Interior, the security services, the judiciary, members of Parliament, human rights organizations and international donors - in extensive surveys of the public's perception of the security sector in all its dimensions, including capacity, mission, performance, service ...

  4. CCIR for Complex and Uncertain Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spinuzzi, Marc A

    2007-01-01

    .... These purposes were all developed with conventional warfare in mind. Lessons learned from unconventional wars against insurgents or guerrillas were rarely applied to the concept of CCIR, and were systematically removed from doctrine when they did appear...

  5. Factors related to high dental caries experience in Palestinian pregnant women in the Jerusalem governorate: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kateeb, Elham; Momany, Elizabeth

    2018-02-21

    Beliefs about oral health during pregnancy demographic factors, such as level of education and socioeconomic status, are associated with an increased risk of oral diseases during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to assess the oral health status of pregnant women and the relation to the women's oral health knowledge, beliefs, behaviour, and access to dental care. For this cross-sectional study, pregnant women visiting pre-natal care clinics at the Palestinian Ministry of Health centres in the Jerusalem governorate were invited to complete a structured interview with questions about beliefs about oral health care and their oral hygiene practices. Screening for oral health conditions was done using the Decayed, Missed and Filled Teeth (DMFT) index to assess the women's dental caries experience, and gingival health indices (plaque, gingival, and calculus) were measured to assess gingival health. Ethical approval was obtained from Al-Quds University Ethics Committee. 152 pregnant women agreed to participate in this study. Participants had a mean DMFT score of 15·5 (SD 4·5). Bivariate analysis showed that women who had completed a degree after high school had a lower DMFT score than women who did not (F=4; p=0·024). Women who had visited a dentist in the past 6 months had a higher DMFT score than women who had never visited a dentist (F=2·4, p=0·05). Additionally, women who believed they could lose a tooth just because they are pregnant scored high DMFT scores (t=-4; p=0·037). Results of the multivariable analysis showed that age, level of education, recent dental visit, and the belief that it is unsafe to get routine dental care during pregnancy explained 25% of the variation in the DMFT score. Women in this study had high prevalence of dental disease and knew little about dental care during pregnancy. Faulty beliefs about oral health care and barriers to dental care were major factors in the high prevalence of the disease. This project was partially funded by

  6. Ragam Vegetasi dalam Puisi‐Puisi Palestina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hindun Hindun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetasi Palestina adalah sekelompok tanaman yang tumbuh di bumi Palestina. Para penyair Palestina, melalui puisinya, mengemukakan beragam vegetasi yang tumbuh di Palestina sehingga menimbulkan permasalahan ragam vegetasi apa saja yang disebut dalam puisi dan apa fungsi penyebutannya? Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengungkap ragam vegetasi asli Palestina dalam puisi karya penyair Palestina. Teori yang dimanfaatkan adalah teori adab al-muqawamah, yang mengatakan bahwa karya sastra merupakan piranti perlawanan terhadap segala penjajah dalam bentuk kata sehingga karya sastra tersebut dapat menggugah semangat pembacanya untuk berjuang. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ragam vegetasi Palestina adalah penanda keberadaan wilayah dan bangsa Palestina yang berarti bahwa ada tanah tempat tanaman itu tumbuh dan ada bangsa yang memanfaatkan tanaman itu dalam kehidupan mereka. Penyebutan ragam vegetasi Palestina itu menjadi simbol perlawanan bangsa Palestina terhadap penjajahan Israel yang menduduki tanah Palestina melalui aneksasi dan kolonialisasi. Puisi perlawanan ini merupakan sebuah upaya untuk membangkitkan kesadaran umat manusia di dunia, khususnya bangsa Palestina, untuk melawan segala bentuk penjajahan di muka bumi. Palestine’s vegetation is a group of plants growing in the Palestine’s soil. The Palestinian poets, through their poetries, explained the variety of plants growing in Palestine. Therefore, the research questions are what kinds of native plant growing in Palestine and why the Palestinian poets explain those plants in their poetries? The analysis theory is adab al-muqawamah meaning that literary work is an instrument to fight all forms of occupation and colonialism by using words to inspire the readers to fight. The result is that Palestine’s plant variety is a symbol of the presence of the region and the Palestinians, which means that there is a land where the plants grow and there is a nation that use the plants in their lives

  7. In vitro and in vivo postmarketing surveillance of valsartan, alone or in combination with amlodipine or hydrochlorthiazide, among Palestinian hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid AN

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abdel Naser Zaid,1 Masshour Ghanem,2 Dua’a Shweiki,1 Hala Shtewi,1 Raja’ Shaheen,1 Sondos Al Helaly,1 Zeina Khayyat,1 Rowa’a Al Ramahi,1 Sa’ed H Zyoud1 1Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, An-Najah National University, Nablus, 2Pharmacare Ltd, Ramallah, Palestine Objectives: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the general quality of the most prescribed products of valsartan (VL; alone or in combination and to evaluate their efficacy and safety among Palestinian population through in vivo postmarketing surveillance. Patients and methods: The first part was pharmacopeial quality control assay, including dissolution, disintegration, friability, and weight uniformity for VL. The second part was a 3-month cardiology clinics, observational, postmarketing surveillance pilot study that included 103 hypertensive patients who were prescribed 80 mg or 160 mg of VL as monotherapy or combination therapy. The end points were reduction in blood pressure (BP and the rate of incidence of adverse effects (AEs at weeks 4 and 8. Results: According to our quality control tests, all VL products showed high-quality standards according to the international guidelines. A reduction in BP was observed at weeks 4 and 8, and no significant difference was observed between the strengths of 80 mg and 160 mg. Higher BP reduction was observed after the use of combination therapy. Moreover, VL was well tolerated; most of the AEs were of mild-to-moderate intensity. In general, the most frequently reported AEs included headache (17.5%, dizziness (11.75%, and weakness (11.7%. No serious AEs or death cases were reported during the study period. Conclusion: High quality of VL tablet products was used; hence, the observed efficacy and safety results should be related to patient’s factors and not due to any product defects or substandard quality. Moreover, VL is an effective treatment for essential hypertension. Keywords: valsartan

  8. Israel: Background and U.S. Relations in Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-24

    of the March 2015 Israeli electoral campaign, Netanyahu says that a Palestinian state will not be established under his watch, but after the elections...www.state.gov/p/nea/rls/rpt/259262.htm. It also lamented terrorist attacks against civilians and Palestinian incitement to violence . 29 The...U.S. Relations in Brief Congressional Research Service 10  Calls for immediate steps to prevent acts of violence against civilians and to

  9. Hebrón, la otra Jerusalén

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basallote Marín, Antonio

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, symbolized by the turbulent and dramatic singularity of the ancient city of Hebron, is put back in the spotlight of international relations and the Barak Obama administration in the United States. However, there are many obstacles to peace. One of the most serious impediments and potential momentum remains the territorial maximalist Zionist Jewish fundamentalism in Israel focused West Bank (Judea and Samaria for the Zionists and the spearhead of the settlement. Hebron and Jerusalem, two cities inextricably linked throughout history and the Palestinian-Israeli conflict (and therefore to its eventual resolution are the main goals of political and religious colonization.Focusing on the symbolic architectural sites and historical town on one side and the problem of Jewish fundamentalism and colonization, on the other, the article will try to briefly trace the outline of the history of Hebron, as a key millennium city with a history similar sacred to Jews, Christians and Muslims and for being the ultimate example or exponent of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, as well as suffer the wounds themselves from other cities under occupation and the controversy regarding places revered, it is the only Palestinian city with Jewish settlements and military checkpoints in the same old town.

  10. In the Borderland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Mette-Louise

    their children engage in crime, violence, or become embroiled in local conflicts with the police and institutional staff. A main concern for the parents is to minimize the damage that these conflicts cause to their sons and the family, while at the same time seeking to "keep the family together". The latter......The PhD thesis is an ethnography of the encounter between Danish welfare state officials and refugee parents of Palestinian descent with sons involved in crime and violence in the largest so-called "migrant ghetto" in Denmark, Gellerupparken. The analytical concern of the thesis is to understand...... how marginality is enacted at the interface between the Danish welfare state, Palestinian families, and the Palestinian community in Gellerupparken. Empirically, the thesis explores how a group of parents experience and navigate welfare state interventions into their private family lifeworld when...

  11. Where I stand on peace journalism and the academic boycott of Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake Lynch

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In reply to Kempf’s (2016 essay on “Dangers of peace journalism” the author argues that peace journalism has always been advocated as a way to implement the journalistic remit of factual reporting, and refutes the claim that it is tantamount to a call for journalism to act as any form of advocacy. Academic researchers who are the subject of a call by Palestinian civil society to boycott institutional links with Israeli higher education are in a different situation, however. They face a choice, either to participate in these links, and therefore become inadvertently complicit in the occupation of Palestinian territory, or to join the boycott which should be seen as a source of external pressure on Israel to cease its violations of international humanitarian law, and negotiate a just peace with the Palestinians.

  12. The trauma of war in Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Kaz de; Mulhern, M.; Ford, N.; Kam, S. van der; Kleber, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    Civilians are increasingly targeted in today's wars. To reduce military casualties, civilians are used as protective shields; to facilitate guerrilla warfare, they are abducted or enslaved; torture, rape, and executions are carried out to undermine morale and to eradicate the cultural links and

  13. Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-29

    23, 2013. 6 Background information on Saudi cabinet members is available at http://www.saudiembassy.net/about/ Biographies - of-Ministers.aspx. Saudi...territories it occupied in 1967, (2) agree to the establishment of a Palestinian state with a capital in East Jerusalem , and provide for the (3) “[a...compromise on Palestinian sovereignty in Jerusalem .” Elhanan Miller, “Arab ministers back Abbas in rejecting ‘Jewish’ Israel,” Times of Israel, January

  14. Trauma und Terror : Zum palästinensischen und tschetschenischen Nationalismus

    OpenAIRE

    Szyszkowitz, Tessa

    2007-01-01

    Although small and not particularly peoples both Chechens and Palestinians became famous for suicide bomber attacks in recent years. This can - partly - be explained by the unrecognised collective traumas of the past. Both Chechens and Palestinians experienced collective traumas in the 1940ties. The entire Chechen population wad deported by Josef Stalin to Kasakhstan, Kirgysia and Sibiria in February 1944 under the pretext of collaboration with the Third Reich. Those who survived were allo...

  15. JPRS Report Near East & South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-19

    PALESTINIAN AFFAIRS PFLP Leader Habash on Mideast Conflict [Barcelona LA VANGUARDIA 4 Feb] 4 EQYPT Islamic Leaders Say War During Holy Months...Valid [AKHIR SA’AH 23 Jan] 5 Muslim Brotherhood Leader on Persian Gulf War [Barcelona LA VANGUARDIA 3 Feb] 7 Growing Political Role Perceived...PALESTINIAN AFFAIRS PFLP Leader Habash on Mideast Conflict 91P20180A Barcelona LA VANGUARDIA in Spanish 4Feb91 p9 [Interview with PFLP [Popular Front for

  16. The Ironic Hypocrisy of Killing: How Sanctioned Counterinsurgency Policies of the Philippine War Ends in the Court-Martial of Major Littleton Waller

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Hughes whose troops were ordered to kill guerrillas and civilians alike, burn villages, destroy cops and slaughter livestock. 83 Major Littleton... slaughter his entire command. After capturing many of the ring leaders, Maj Waller would have been more than justified in executing them for their

  17. Psychiatry, authoritarianism, and revolution: the politics of mental illness during military dictatorships in Argentina, 1966-1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Marco A

    2013-01-01

    From 1966 to 1983, Argentina underwent a period of political radicalization as fascist regimes used terror to control its citizens and leftist guerrillas resorted to violence to spark revolution. During this politically volatile period, psychiatry transformed from an apolitical clinical specialty into an ideological tool used for both leftist resistance and military oppression. The largest psychiatric organization at the time, the Federación Argentina de Psiquiatras (FAP), became the center for a new politically committed brand of psychiatry in Argentina that united psychoanalysis and community psychiatry with Marxist theory. Though the military targeted and eventually dismantled the FAP and its leftist brand of psychoanalysis and community psychiatry, sectors of the government also paradoxically appropriated and reframed community-based psychiatric perspectives to pathologize leftist subversion and advance their own conservative ideology.

  18. The effects of war on the Colombian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arboleda, Nelson

    2002-01-01

    In the last decade, more than 1.5 million children have died as victims of war and 2000 over 300,000 children were being used as combatants. Colombia, the fourth largest country in Latin America in terms of population and second in area, has been the site of conflict between the government and guerrilla groups, which has created over 200,000 victims and has worsened in the last five years. There is severe poverty and illegal trading in arms and narcotics is closely linked to the conflict. Kidnapping, both individual and mass and often of children, has been a particular feature. Colombia urgently needs programmes to eradicate poverty and violence and must be fully supported by international organizations. Research to suggest effective interventions is an essential part of such programmes.

  19. Gesetzesgerechtigkeit und Glaubensgerechtigkeit in Rom 4:13—25: In Gesprach mit E P Sanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. du Toit

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Righteousness through the law and rightousness through faith in Rm 4:13—25: A reaction to EP Sanders In his book Paul and Palestinian Judaism EP Sanders has presented us with a most stimulating approach. His main thesis that traditional New Testament research has misunderstood Paul as well as first century Palestinian Judaism, received positive comment from many quarters. According to Sanders first century Judaism should be understood within a context of gratuity rather than as a religion of works. A survey of Rm 4:13-25 shows, however, that at least Paul viewed righteousness through the law as an entrance requirement in Judaism. As far as the Jewish sources are concerned a preliminary investigation indicates that Sanders' usage and interpretation of these sources are questionable. It seems highly probable that Sanders has misinterpreted Palestinian Judaism and for that reason also Paul's criticism of it.

  20. Resettlement, Regroupment, Reconcentration: Deliberate Government- Directed Population Relocation in Support of Counter-Insurgency Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    administered poorly, with arbitrary, unconsidered decisions -- such as Angolan commander-in-chief Air Force General Joao de Almeida Viana’s mandate to...Volumes 1 and 2. Garden City, New York: Doubleday and Co., Inc., 1975. Bayo, Alberto . One Hundred Fifty Questions for a Guerrilla. Boulder, Colorado

  1. Security for women and the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Security for women and the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex people in the conflict-affected regions in Colombia. Colombia is currently in the process of concluding peace negotiations with the guerrilla group Colombian Revolutionary Armed Forces (FARC). One of the principal expectations generated by the ...

  2. On Popular Response to Violence During Insurgencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    function”, Advances in Computational Mathematics 5: 329–359. [5] Deitchman, S. J. (1962), “A Lanchester model of guerrilla warfare,” Operartions Re...Intelligence in Counterinsurgency Operations – A Best Case Scenario”, Operations Research, V. 57, pp 578-585. [11] Lanchester , F. W., (1916), Aircraft in

  3. Algorithms for Efficient Intelligence Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    2006. Cortical substrates for exploratory decisions in humans. Nature 441(7095) 876–879. Deitchman, S. J. 1962. A lanchester model of guerrilla...Monterey, CA. Pearl, J. 1986. Fusion, propagation and structuring in belief networks. Artificial Intelligence 29 241–288. Schaffer, M. B. 1968. Lanchester

  4. Hannah Höchi ja feministide peavoolu poliitikat häiriv eraelu / Rebeka Põldsam

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Põldsam, Rebeka

    2010-01-01

    Saksa kunstniku Hannah Höchi näitus "Personal is Political. Hannah Höch ja tema kunsti tõlgendus" Tallinna Kunstihoones 17. oktoobrini 2010, kuraator Reet Varblane. Eksponeeritakse ka Guerrilla Girlsi (USA), Martha Rosleri (USA), Shadi Ghadiriani (Iraan), Anna-Stina Treumundi (Eesti) jt. töid

  5. Book Reviews

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abel Esterhuyse

    on expelling or overthrowing European colonial rulers or white minority settler regimes. The security forces which operated against the nationalist insurgencies, employed a number of counterinsurgency methods to find the elusive guerrillas who often had their staging areas in remote, uninhabited, areas. Tracking was one ...

  6. Mis isiklik? Mis poliitiline? / Katrin Kivimaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivimaa, Katrin, 1969-

    2010-01-01

    Saksa kunstniku Hannah Höchi näitus "Isiklik on poliitiline. Hannah Höch ja tema kunsti tõlgendus" Tallinna Kunstihoones 17. oktoobrini 2010, kuraator Reet Varblane. Ka näitusel eksponeeritud Martha Rosleri (USA), Guerrilla Girlsi (USA), Anna-Stina Treumundi (Eesti) töödest

  7. THE DEMOBILIZATION OF TWO ILLEGAL ARMED GROUPS: ANALYSIS OF THE COVERAGE BY NATIONAL PRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeny Serrano

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the start of new peace talks between the FARC guerrillas and the Colom-bian government, it is crucial to understand the role of Colombian journalists in reporting peace and war.This article presents an analysis on the National Press coverage of the demobilizations of a paramilitary group (Bloque Cacique Nutibara and a section of the FARC guerrillas (BloqueCacicaGaitana within a frame that reflects over the ethical practice of journalism in the context of war. The results are consistent with literature arguing that ethical codes are not documents dictating how journalists should do their job, but rather they repre-sent political acts of communication which allow journalists to reclaim their prof-fessional independence from sources and defend themselves from threats. The paper also discusses the apparent tension between journalism ethics, and the barriers imposed by the media´s informational needs and the strategic military aims of armed groups.

  8. A certain East: the characterization of palestinians and israelis in the photographic coverage of the Folha de S. Paulo Um certo Oriente: a caracterização de palestinos e israelenses na cobertura fotográfica da Folha de S. Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Krauss

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present an image analysis of photographic coverage on the conflict between palestinians and israelis through the covers of Folha de S. Paulo in five periods of dispute intensification: from 1947 up to 1948, establishment of the State of Israel, 1967, the Six Day War with Gaza and West Bank Israeli occupation, from 1987 up to 1988, the beginning of the first Palestinian Intifada, from 2000 to 2004, second Intifada and finally december 2008 to january 2009, when occured the largest israeli attack on palestine. The paper considers the characterization of the two sides involved from the schemes of representation chosen in each period, using as supportthe theoretical concepts of the image and the Bystrina semiotics of culture to understand how it produces the representation of otherness in the opposition West versus East. Relate the changes in the field of representation, starting from the official photographic information in the first decades, until a strategy of emotional appeal and strongly linked to spectacularization and mythologizing of the characters researched in recent years.Este trabalho apresenta a análise da cobertura imagética do conflito entre palestinos e israelenses nas capas da Folha de S. Paulo em cinco períodos de recrudescimento do litígio: 1947 a 1948, estabelecimento do Estado de Israel; 1967, Guerra dos Seis Dias e ocupação israelense da Faixa de Gaza e Cisjordânia; 1987 a 1988, início da primeira Intifada palestina; 2000 a 2004, segunda Intifada e dezembro de 2008 a janeiro de 2009, período do maior ataque israelense ao território palestino. A partir dos esquemas de representação escolhidos pelo veículo em cada período, atenta para a caracterização dos lados envolvidos utilizando como subsídio os conceitos de teóricos da imagem e a semiótica da cultura de Bystrina, além das noções de estereótipo e arquétipo para compreender de que modo se elabora a construção da alteridade

  9. Cost-volume-profit analysis and expected benefit of health services: a study of cardiac catheterization services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Mustafa Z; Jabr, Samer; Smith, Pamela C; Al-Hajeri, Maha; Hartmann, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Academic research investigating health care costs in the Palestinian region is limited. Therefore, this study examines the costs of the cardiac catheterization unit of one of the largest hospitals in Palestine. We focus on costs of a cardiac catheterization unit and the increasing number of deaths over the past decade in the region due to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). We employ cost-volume-profit (CVP) analysis to determine the unit's break-even point (BEP), and investigate expected benefits (EBs) of Palestinian government subsidies to the unit. Findings indicate variable costs represent 56 percent of the hospital's total costs. Based on the three functions of the cardiac catheterization unit, results also indicate that the number of patients receiving services exceed the break-even point in each function, despite the unit receiving a government subsidy. Our findings, although based on one hospital, will permit hospital management to realize the importance of unit costs in order to make informed financial decisions. The use of break-even analysis will allow area managers to plan minimum production capacity for the organization. The economic benefits for patients and the government from the unit may encourage government officials to focus efforts on increasing future subsidies to the hospital.

  10. Near East/South Asia Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-25

    series of name-brand goods, chicken, milk, yogurt , and other things. These items not only must be produced, but distributed and sold as well. Right...villages, was in ferment . This reminds us of the death of Raja Abu ’Ammashah on the roof of the British embassy in Jerusalem. The Palestinian...who took the easy way out caused the crisis. 84 We decided to take a stand on the side of the ferment within Fatah, on the side of the Palestinian

  11. Mutations in a Novel Isoform of TRIOBP That Encodes a Filamentous-Actin Binding Protein Are Responsible for DFNB28 Recessive Nonsyndromic Hearing Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Shahin, Hashem; Walsh, Tom; Sobe, Tama; Abu Sa’ed, Judeh; Abu Rayan, Amal; Lynch, Eric D.; Lee, Ming K.; Avraham, Karen B.; King, Mary-Claire; Kanaan, Moein

    2005-01-01

    In a large consanguineous Palestinian kindred, we previously mapped DFNB28—a locus associated with recessively inherited, prelingual, profound sensorineural hearing impairment—to chromosome 22q13.1. We report here that mutations in a novel 218-kDa isoform of TRIOBP (TRIO and filamentous actin [F-actin] binding protein) are associated with DFNB28 hearing loss in a total of nine Palestinian families. Two nonsense mutations (R347X and Q581X) truncate the protein, and a potentially deleterious mi...

  12. Israel: New history and post zionist cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Schvarzman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses a cultural and political movement that seeks, by reviewing the history of the creation of Israel, to replace recognition of the Palestinians as well as the responsibility for their exile/deportation. Duty of memory and duty of recognition in which Israeli cinema is engaged, and to which filmmaker Eyal Sivan proposes constitute an archive with testimony of the perpetrators. Not only Palestinian victims, but especially Israeli perpetrators, questioning, too, the forms of documentary. 

  13. Utopias of youth: politics of class in Maoist post-revolutionary mobilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirslund, Dan Vesalainen

    2018-01-01

    This article investigates the changing role of youth in Nepali Maoism following their transformation from a guerrilla army to a parliamentary party after 2006. Drawing on one year of ethnographic fieldwork, I trace how the category of youth gained renewed relevance after the war and allowed the M...

  14. The Role of Civil Affairs in Unconventional Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    neighbor to the west, and secured the eastern border of Laos 32 Mao Tse -Tung, On Guerrilla Warfare...INTRODUCTION..........................................................................................19  B.  BRIEF HISTORY OF LAOS ...Royal Lao Army SCA Support to Civil Administration SCIRI Supreme Council of Iraq SG Shadow Government SOF Special Operations Forces TAI Targeted

  15. Afghanistan...Another Chance for Peace With Honor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    brought an end to the First Indochina War.50 During the Geneva Peace Accords, Laos , Cambodia, and Vietnam received their independence and Vietnam...59Herring, America’s Longest War, 346. 26 60Mao Tse Tung, Guerrilla Warfare (MD: The Nautical and Aviation Publishing Company of America, 1992), 73

  16. Utopias of youth: politics of class in Maoist post-revolutionary mobilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirslund, Dan Vesalainen

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates the changing role of youth in Nepali Maoism following their transformation from a guerrilla army to a parliamentary party after 2006. Drawing on one year of ethnographic fieldwork, I trace how the category of youth gained renewed relevance after the war and allowed the M...

  17. Global 1989 in El Salvador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dykmann, Klaas

    1989 can be regarded as a regional moment (and not as a global moment) in Latin America and for the inter-American relations. The changes in El Salvador (moderation of guerrilla, change of UCA academics‘ position, tamed right-wing in power) were rather accelerated through the rebels’ offensive...

  18. A RESPONSABILIDADE DO BRASIL PELOS CRIMES CONTRA HUMANIDADE: ANÁLISE DO JULGAMENTO «GOMES LUND E OUTROS»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Macedo de Pinto Ferreira Júnior

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación tiene como objetivo analizar el juicio del caso conocido como “Guerrilla de Araguaia” y la responsabilidad internacional del Estado brasileño. Brasil había sido declarado culpable de graves violaciones de los derechos humanos, al exigir el cumplimiento de la sen- tencia la Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos (CIDH y el castigo de los culpables. El caso se vuelve relevante en el escenario legal en el mundo, debido que la principal institu- ción de la justicia brasileña, la Corte Suprema de Justicia, celebró una ley constitucional que indultó a todos los acusados de asesinatos de esa guerrilla. Surge, por lo tanto, un conflicto ​​ entre el Tribunal Internacional y la jurisdicción brasileña. Para el desarrollo de este trabajo, la investigación se realizó sobre la base de la jurisprudencia brasileña, la legislación nacional e internacional y las decisiones de la Corte Suprema de Justicia y el Tribunal de Derechos Humanos. El método aplicado fue deductivo y se llegó a la conclusión de que en el citado caso hasta ahora nadie ha sido castigado por los crímenes crueles contra la dignidad humana. Brasil es signatario de varios tratados y transnacionales que buscan una protección eficaz de los derechos humanos. La auto-amnistía a los torturadores y asesinos traerá un enorme des- crédito y, probablemente, nuevos cargos en el ámbito internacional. Palabras clave Derechos Humanos, Jurisdicción Nacional, Tortura, Juzgamiento, Condena, Responsabilidad del Estado brasilero, Guerrilla de Araguaia.

  19. Historia del paramilitarismo en Colombia History of the paramilitarismo in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar de Jesús Velásquez Rivera

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia, desde la década de los años ochenta del siglo XX tomó fuerza el paramilitarismo como estrategia contrainsurgente, política que no ha sido reconocida como tal por parte de los distintos gobiernos y se expresa como terrorismo de Estado. Incidió en el surgimiento de tal fenómeno, la ideología anticomunista que profesan la mayoría de miembros de las fuerzas armadas, la cultura política derivada de la violencia, la corrupción y el clientelismo, así como el narcotráfico, al igual que las influencias externas, provenientes principalmente de Francia y Estados Unidos. El paramilitarismo invadió las distintas estructuras del poder estatal, en la perspectiva de configurarse como un proyecto político, militar, social y económico de alcance nacional. Originado, según sus mentores, como una respuesta a los excesos de la guerrilla, el paramilitarismo ha privilegiado, como método de lucha, las masacres, asesinatos selectivos y desplazamientos de población civil, acusados de ser simpatizantes o colaboradores de las guerrillas. Al presidente Álvaro Uribe Vélez, se le atribuye el haber auspiciado el paramilitarismo y de institucionalizarlo en su gestión de gobierno.In Colombia, since the eighties of the XXth century, the paramilitarism has been taking force as a strategy against insurgence, a kind of politics which has not been yet recognized by part of different governments, being expressed State terrorism. It caused the emergence of such a phenomenon named anti-communist ideology, professed by most Armed Forces members, political culture that comes from violence, corruption and clientelism as well as from drug dealing, and external influences, mainly from France and the United States. Paramilitarism has invaded all the different structures of the state power aiming at forming itself as a political, military, social and economic project at national level. According to its mentors, paramilitary groups have resulted from a reaction

  20. Above the Influence: The Strategic Effects of Airpower in Irregular Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    INDOCHINA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 APPENDIX B: MAP OF LAOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 APPENDIX...perspectives. These perspectives involve the use of airpower in North Vietnam, South Vietnam, and Laos . The overarching political endstate or...Nagl, ―Principles, Imperatives, and Paradoxes of Counterinsurgency,‖ 50; Mao Tse -Tung, Problems of Strategy in Guerrilla Warfare, 215-216; Gray

  1. Afghanistan: The First Five Years of Soviet Occupation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    July 1982, reported that be- fore reaching the Kabul River his group passed three DRA outposts or forts. One of his guerrilla companions assured him...driver, chef , doctor, and six chief advisers, all were Soviets. At the palace where he resided and worked, the guard force was Soviet, except for a

  2. The British scorched earth and concentration camp policies in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The continued military resistance of the Republics after the occupation of Bloemfontein and Pretoria and exaggerated by the advent of guerrilla tactics frustrated ... British policy came to revolve around denying Liebenberg use of the abundant food supplies in the Gatsrand by applying a scorched earth policy there and in the ...

  3. Sawaba's rebellion in Niger (1964-1965) : narrative and meaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, van K.

    2003-01-01

    One of the least-studied revolts in postcolonial Africa, the invasion of Niger in 1964 by guerrillas of the outlawed Sawaba party, was a dismal failure and culminated in a failed attempt on the life of President Diori in the spring of 1965. Personal aspirations for higher education, access to jobs

  4. Gangs and Guerrillas: Ideas from Counterinsurgency and Counterterrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    things like the ability of groups to freely assemble and protest; the nature of the country’s or city’s government (democracy, dictatorship , failed...initiated out of childhood into warriorhood or an apprenticeship of some sort, and then, eventually, into adulthood. Roles and responsibilities

  5. Guerrilla Violence in Colombia: Examining Causes and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Ecuador’s Alfaro 27 Walker, Phyllis, "National Security", in Colombia a Country Study, Washington, 1990, p. 300. 28 Registraduria Nacional del Estado Civil...necessary to profoundly transform institutions. On several occasions, the old political 114 Informe Financiero Contraloria General de la Rep~blica, June...Societies, Princeton Press, 1988. Informe Financiero Contraloria General de la Repzblica, Bogota, 1988. Kalmanovitz, Salomon, Economia del

  6. Guerrilla science survival strategies of a Cuban physicist

    CERN Document Server

    Altshuler, Ernesto

    2017-01-01

    Full of drama, dedication, and humor, this book narrates the author’s often frustrating experiences working as an experimental physicist in Cuba after the disintegration of the so-called socialist block. Lacking finance and infrastructure, faced with makeshift equipment, unpredictable supplies, and unreliable IT, Altshuler tells how he and his students overcame numerous challenges to make novel and interesting contributions to several fields of science. Along the way, he explains the science - from studies of ant colonies to superconductivity - either qualitatively or quantitatively, but always at a level fully understandable to an undergraduate student of natural sciences or engineering. An even wider audience, however, may skip the technical sections without missing the essence. With numerous anecdotes, photographs and the author’s own delightful cartoons, the book tells a remarkable, and often amusing story of how successful science can be performed against all odds.

  7. Guerrilla Video: Adjudicating the Credible and the Cool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Patricia; Fadde, Peter Jae

    2010-01-01

    Because video on the web has spread almost virally, video crafted out of an amateur aesthetic has contributed to a disruption of professional communication economies as it prompts us to ask: Can we use digital video to make work-related communication cool? Professional writing pedagogies are beginning to respond to new student expectations about…

  8. Pesticide use and opportunities of exposure among farmers and their families: cross-sectional studies 1998-2006 from Hebron governorate, occupied Palestinian territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sham'a Farid

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse health effects caused by pesticide exposure have been reported in occupied Palestinian territory and the world at large. The objective of this paper is to compare patterns of pesticide use in Beit-U'mmar village, West Bank, between 1998 and 2006. Methods We studied two populations in Beit-U'mmar village, comprised of: 1 61 male farmers and their wives in 1998 and 2 250 male farmers in 2006. Both populations completed a structured interview, which included questions about socio-demographic factors, types of farming tasks, as well as compounds, quantities, and handling of pesticides. Using the 1998 population as a reference, we applied generalized linear regression models (GLM and 95% confidence intervals (CI in order to estimate prevalence differences (PD between the two populations. Results In 1998, farmers used 47 formulated pesticides on their crops. In 2006, 16 of these pesticides were still in use, including five internationally banned compounds. There were positive changes with less use of large quantities of pesticides (>40 units/year (PD -51; CI -0.60, -0.43, in applying the recommended dosage of pesticides (PD +0.57; CI +0.48, +0.68 and complying with the safety period (PD +0.89; CI+0.83, +0.95. Changes also included farmers' habits while applying pesticides, such as less smoking (PD -0.20; CI-0.34, -0.07 and eating at the work place (PD -0.33; CI-0.47, -0.19. No significant changes were found from 1998 to 2006 regarding use of personal protective equipment, pesticide storage, farmers' habits after applying pesticides, and in using some highly hazardous pesticides. Conclusions The results were based on two cross-sectional surveys and should be interpreted with caution due to potential validity problems. The results of the study suggest some positive changes in the handling of pesticides amongst participants in 2006, which could be due to different policy interventions and regulations that were implemented

  9. Criminalidad, grupos armados y reinserción: perfiles y motivaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melina Ocampo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de determinar las causas por las cuales una persona ingresa a un grupo armado ilegal en Antioquia, se revisó la literatura existente tanto en el ámbito internacional como en el nacional. La misma se contrastó con la información cuantitativa existente de los victimarios y exvictimarios en los órdenes nacional y departamental, y la información cualitativa encontrada en entrevistas a miembros de bandas criminales y en grupos focales con expertos. Un sujeto puede tener motivaciones para delinquir basadas en la coerción, los deseos individuales, los incentivos selectivos, los entornos sociales y familiares, los agravios, la falta de control social, y en unas características o rasgos personales que lo pueden hacer más propenso a realizar actividades delictivas. Su continuidad en un grupo armado dependerá de las estrategias de enganche que pueden consistir en la incriminación, las prebendas económicas, el discurso ideoló- gico, o en amenazas. Luego de un proceso de desmovilización, otros factores como la inseguridad personal, la falta de influencia política, la ausencia de prestigio social, la inseguridad económica y otras fallas específicas del proceso de reintegración a la sociedad pueden influir en la reincidencia en actividades criminales. En Antioquia, la coerción como estrategia de reclutamiento continúa siendo utilizada; las motivaciones fundamentadas en los entornos sociales se observaron cómo esenciales y comunes para bandas criminales y guerrilla; los deseos individuales enfocados en el interés por una vida militar estuvieron más relacionados con la guerrilla, y los sentimientos codiciosos se asociaron más con las bandas criminales; los incentivos selectivos a través de las promesas de salario fueron propios de las bandas criminales; y por último, los agravios, que son soporte ideológico propio de la guerrilla, son también usados por las bandas criminales como estrategia de reclutamiento y de b

  10. Down to the River

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, Josepha Ivanka

    2015-01-01

    Currently there is no coherent or sustainable water cooperation among the five states—Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestinian territories and Syria—that share the Jordan River. Why do people not cooperate on sustainable river basin management, even if it seems the most rational course from the persp......Currently there is no coherent or sustainable water cooperation among the five states—Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestinian territories and Syria—that share the Jordan River. Why do people not cooperate on sustainable river basin management, even if it seems the most rational course from...

  11. Strategic Challenges for Counterinsurgency and the Global War on Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    the United States as an oppressor and guarantor of an Israeli version of "’Manifest Destiny ." In Iraq, that vision already appeals to the majority, even...guerrilla force is the party in embryo ." Regis Debray, Revolution in the Revolution? Armed Struggle and Political Struggle in Latin America, New York, 1967

  12. The brutality of war: a perspective on the actions of Olaf Bergh's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intensity of the South African War (1899-1902) escalated sharply during the guerrilla phase in the rural areas outside the conventional theatre of operations. The conflict, which already resembled a total war, had a devastating destabilizing effect on the socio-economic stability and internal security in the rural areas of ...

  13. Taming the Frontier: A Myth of Impossibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    frequently attributed to their fiercely independent nature and what Louis Dupree describes as an “almost genetically ” endowed expertise “at guerrilla...about the “wilderness, harsh climate and lack of resources” in the FATA, so they bypassed the hills and moved on to “greener pastures ” which were a

  14. Parameters, Volume 23, Number 4, Winter 1993-94

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    international groups, the failure of the US-supported ESAF to defeat the underdog FMLN made the guerrilla movement the undeclared winner of this bout...to Win: Special Forces at War. London, Eng.: Arms and Armour (Dist. in US by Sterling Publishing Co.), 1993. 214 pp. $27.50. 128 Parameters 1M n Fuller

  15. (1899–1902). Vincent Kuitenbrouwer. Amsterdam

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    over de ontwikkelingen in Zuid-Afrika Ne- derland via Nederlands-Indië konden berei- ken. Het media-offensief van de Nederlandse pro-Boerorganisaties had dan ook wel iets weg van een guerrilla-oorlog, net als de strijd van de Boeren tegen het Britse leger. De kern van Kuitenbrouwers proefschrift bestaat uit drie delen.

  16. Petróleo, desarrollo y paz

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez O., Astrid

    2009-01-01

    Este articulo analiza los planteamientos del Gobierno Nacional sobre politica petrolera. La relacion entre el petroleo y los temas de desarrollo y la paz se exploran con base en la lectura de los pronunciamientos de la guerrilla y los grupos sociales sobre el manejo de los hidrocarburos en Colombia vis a vis los pronunciamientos gubernamentales.

  17. the namibian border war: an appraisal of the south african strategy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ariane

    military service, and many served in some or other capacity in Namibia – then South. West Africa – often ... warfare and really were convinced that they had Swapo on the run, make mistakes ... Mao stated that guerrilla warfare “must fail… if its ...... peasantry and progressive intellectuals into a vanguard party capable of safe-.

  18. The use of offensive public relations during a conflict: Hamas's efforts to damage Israel's image during the 2010 flotilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomer Mozes-Sadeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Crisis communication models contain strategies to rehabilitate an organization's image, but do not deal with strategies used to damage the image of another player or competitor. Using qualitative content analysis of 178 items published by Palestinian Information Center (PIC, the Hamas's leading website, the purpose of this manuscript is to examine Hamas's efforts to run offensive PR and to harm Israel's image restoration efforts at the time of the flotilla crisis in May 2010. We discover that Hamas deployed a strategy that consisted of five elements: evidence of existence of the crisis event, damages, victims, performance history and undermining the competitor's response.

  19. Youth wellbeing through the lens of the Senian capability approach: insights from the occupied Palestinian territory: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Zaineh, Mohammad; Woode, Maame Esi; Giacaman, Rita

    2018-02-21

    Interest in the Senian capability framework as an alternative approach to wellbeing measurement has increased in recent decades. The aim of this study was to look at the extent to which an individual's capability to achieve wellbeing in one dimension is associated with his or her attempt to achieve wellbeing in another dimension in a fragile setting affected by conflict. Capability is defined as the ability to achieve health, knowledge, and wealth and is measured as latent variables using a structural equation model. Health capability is identified by self-assessed health, mental health, lifestyle, and knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases. Knowledge capability is captured using school attendance, completion of compulsory education, and media access. Wealth capability is identified using indicators on utilities, asset ownership, and housing conditions. Estimation results are used to derive normalised capability scores with values close to 1 indicating high capabilities. A nationally representative sample of 4329 youth aged 15-29 years was drawn from the 2010 Palestinian Family Survey. Interpretations are made in terms of standardised units, which measure the change in the explained variable due to a standard deviation's change in the explanatory variable. Achieving good health is associated with knowledge capability (0·125; p=0·098) and vice versa (0·462; p=0·004). Health capability is positively associated with wealth capability (0·109; p=0·021); however, the reverse is not the case (-0·753; p=0·021). Men are more likely than women to have higher health knowledge and living conditions capabilities but lower knowledge capabilities. Results suggest the importance of some exogenous factors in the conversion of capabilities into achievements (eg, location of residence). With the exception of health, the data show higher capabilities in Areas A and B of the West Bank than in Area C and the Gaza Strip (mean 0·71 and 0·69 vs 0·60 and 0·61 vs 0·57 and 0

  20. Soviet Policy in Cuba and Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-06

    critical stance to the USSR for much of the rest of the decade. Along with Castro’s efforts to establish the Cuban experience of a rural guerrilla-based...Neresidades de Financamento Externo parea el Desarrollo de Chile, January 28. 1974, p. V-9. 17. New aid loans from the United States declined to $S.5 million

  1. 'Going to The Hague' as Coercive Leverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schack, Marc

    2017-01-01

    the Israeli offensive itself and later, after combat operations had ended, to compel the United Nations (UN) Security Council to demand an Israeli withdrawal to the 1967-borders. Palestine’s policies, however, did not succeed. Its threats did not secure an Israeli withdrawal from Gaza, nor did they compel...... the UN Security Council to pass a resolution demanding Israel’s withdrawal to the 1967-borders. The present article argues that, most likely, this lack of result was due to a flawed Palestinian policy, conceived and employed in a very difficult situation. Specifically, it is argued that the Palestinian...

  2. To be or not to be Violent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sen, Somdeep

    2012-01-01

    June 19, 2012: the Palestinian skies lit up again with an exchange of rockets and air strikes between Israel and Hamas in Gaza, breaking the uneasy calm that had prevailed since March when Islamic Jihad had engaged in hostilities with Israel following the assassination of Zuhir al-Qaisi, the Secr......June 19, 2012: the Palestinian skies lit up again with an exchange of rockets and air strikes between Israel and Hamas in Gaza, breaking the uneasy calm that had prevailed since March when Islamic Jihad had engaged in hostilities with Israel following the assassination of Zuhir al...

  3. In-vitro screening of acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of extracts from Palestinian indigenous flora in relation to the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Saleem Ali-Shtayeh

    2014-09-01

    simple, accurate, sensitive, spectrophotometric and colorimetric, and superior to Ellman’s, and therefore can be used efficiently for qualitative and quantitative studies of AChEI activities of extracts. Palestinian flora have shown to be a rich source for, new and promising agents (AChEIs for the treatment of AD Further studies are needed to isolate and identify the active compounds responsible for AChEI activities.

  4. On Terrorism: An Analysis of Terrorism as a Form of Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    unwitting political terrorists subconsciously reacting to their political and social environment. Given this, it is necessary to subject the...overt political rationale, there are some who would argue that it was, at least subconsciously , a product of sincere political motivations. For example...Isolate 3) Expansion Guerrilla War Physically Isolate 4) Victorious Conventional Physically Destroy 5) Consolidation Terrorism Reprogram Populace 6

  5. The Roots and Evolution of the Royal Australian Navy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    place, the Indonesian- Malaysian Confrontation began. This low level guerrilla-style 21 United Nations Department of...responsible for helping the Malaysian government defend its sovereignty. The United States viewed this action as the responsibility of the parties...be expected that Australia will be less emotional than other countries about a possible pandemic of avian bird flu, and will likely be among the

  6. French Theory's American Adventures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusset, Francois

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how it is simply too late to be still speaking about French theory and its role in the intellectual life of the United States today. It seems to many observers that the gap between real-life politics and theory's guerrillas is much too wide already, after 30 years of academic fever, for the two worlds to even…

  7. Las cortes de Cádiz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abelardo Forero Benavides

    1966-07-01

    Full Text Available Esta es una página gloriosa e infecunda de la historia de España. La mayor parte de su territorio está ocupado por las tropas francesas. Se adelanta una guerrilla cruel en contra del usurpador. El rey Fernando continúa cautivo en Valancay. La resistencia tenaz y formidable ha roto todos los cálculos de Bonaparte.

  8. Um espaço racializado: engenharia social em Jerusalém

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saree Makdisi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Desde 1980, Jerusalém é o núcleo do projeto sionista de remover, coercitivamente, comunidades palestinas há muito estabelecidas para dar lugar a novos moradores judeus. Este artigo examina a natureza e os mecanismos dessa transferência em andamento, da redefinição das fronteiras e o sistema de postos de controle aos dispositivos, complexidades e manobras legais empregados para a transferência dos palestinos. Centro político, cultural e geográfico do conflito entre o sionismo e os palestinos, Jerusalém é , de fato, uma espécie de microcosmo do conflito mais amplo.Since 1980, Jerusalem is the central hub of the project Zionist of coercively removing long-established Palestinian communities in order to make space for new Jewish arrivals. This paper examines the nature and mechanisms of this ongoing transfer from redrawing of boundaries and a system of checkpoints to the legal devices, complexities and manoeuvring employed to achieve the transfer of Palestinians. As the political, cultural and geographical core of the conflict between Zionism and the Palestinians, Jerusalem serves, in effect, as a kind of microcosm of the wider conflict.

  9. Identità oltre l'illusione. Palestina, terra di architettura e poteri, dove smarrirsi può significare trovare senso e identità

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Fiume

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The case study is focused on the Israeli-Palestinian context. Power relations are analyzed under the lenses of practical examples and bibliographic references to demonstrate how in this peculiar context architecture and urban planning constitute a web of power. A situationist approach has been suggested as a key tool to overcome those power relations. It is just in virtue of this situationist approach that an alternative discourse can grow, becoming strong enough to be a counter-hegemonic narrative. The first part of the essay set up a set of interpretive tools, analysing the concept of landscape from an anthropological, sociological and geographical perspective. The second part merge those theories with practical samples taken from Israeli and Palestinian bureaucracy and urban planning. A key concept is the "matrix of control" proposed by the Israeli-American anthropologist and activist Jeff Halper. The core of the essay is an excerpt of the fieldwork diary of the author, written during summer 2011 in the Occupied Palestinian Territories. The detail of the account is a car trip from Bethlehem to Jenin (on the North shore of West Bank.

  10. Guerrilla Video: A New Protocol for Producing Classroom Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadde, Peter; Rich, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary changes in pedagogy point to the need for a higher level of video production value in most classroom video, replacing the default video protocol of an unattended camera in the back of the classroom. The rich and complex environment of today's classroom can be captured more fully using the higher level, but still easily manageable,…

  11. War of the Masses: a Component of Guerrilla Warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-10

    Bogotá: Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Facultad de Derecho, Ciencias Politicas y Sociales, 2009), 72. 59 Carlos Medina Gallego, “FARC-EP: El Partido...de Derecho, Ciencias Politicas y Sociales, 2009. 53 Mendoza, Plinio Apuleyo. “La Segunda Independencia.” El Tiempo. September 13, 2013. Accessed

  12. Abraham Guillen: A Relevant Theory for Contemporary Guerrilla Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-23

    peasants, proletarianized middle class, native bourgeoisie , and landed oligarchy.98 Like other insurgent theorists, he includes the peasants, workers...inclusion of segments of the bourgeoisie , Parsa’s capitalists, that are reliant on the market but oppose foreign competition.99 Guillén goes so far as to say

  13. Un intento por explicar la violencia en Colombia: ¿y si no somos nación?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor de CURREA-LUGO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: "La desintegración nacional no es posible porque el país nunca ha estado articulado". Bajo esta premisa, el autor ensaya una reflexión sobre las múltiples dificultades de articulación que pesan sobre las relaciones que mantienen Estado y sociedad en Colombia. Realiza un repaso de las posiciones mantenidas por las diferentes fuerzas en conflicto —guerrillas, paramilitares, narcos, Ejército, Estados Unidos por medio de sus agencias-, que le lleva a concluir que la violencia armada generalizada e impune está conformando una sociedad cada vez más incapacitada para generar un proyecto colectivo.ABSTRACT: "The national desintegration is not possible because the country has never been articulated". Under this statement, the author reflects on the multiple difficulties of articulation between the State and the society in the colombian case. He makes a review of the positions standing by the different forces in conflict —guerrillas, paramilitaries, narcos, Army, USA through its agencies— which allows him to conclude that the generalized and unpunished armed violence is conforming a increasingly unable society to create a colective project.

  14. El campo jurídico del “otro derecho” en la Sierra de La Macarena. Elementos para un análisis crítico de la justicia alternativa en una zona de fuerte conflicto armado.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Espinosa

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available El artículo recoge los principales resultados de una investigación que, realizada en la Sierra de La Macarena (Meta, Colombia, se propuso explorar —a partir de la teoría sociológica de Pierre Bourdieu y de corrientes críticas del derecho— la configuración de un campo jurídico regional que se encuentra al margen del campo jurídico del derecho oficial. Dicho campo, el de la justicia local, integra a comunidades campesinas y a la guerrilla de las FARC en una relación dinámica que ha derivado en la instauración de un sistema jurídico consuetudinario. El artículo expone los principales elementos teóricos y metodológicos utilizados en la investigación y se sintetizan las principales conclusiones a que dio lugar. Asimismo, se ofrece una reflexión sobre las posibilidades políticas de la justicia alternativa como estrategia y escenario para la construcción regional a partir del empoderamiento comunitario, su autonomía ante la guerrilla y su posicionamiento frente al Estado.

  15. COLONIZATION AND CONFLICTS IN TRANSAMAZONICS IN TIMES OF THE BRAZILIAN CIVIL-MILITARY DICTATORSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airton dos Reis Pereira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the Transamazônica Highway colonization and land conflicts in southeast of Pará during the Brazilian civil-military dictatorship. For such, it was established the process of implementation of the Programa Integrado de Colonização Marabá performed in the government of Emílio Garrastazu Médici as a guide. This Program was implemented next to Transamazônica in the municipalities of Itupiranga and São João do Araguaia. In the last municipality mentioned, the project in focus was accomplished when the military sought to repress the guerrilla movement led by activists of the Communist Party of Brazil at the confluence of the Araguaia and Tocantins rivers. There, not only many rural workers were arrested and tortured, but also required to be Army guides to hunt guerrillas. Since 1974, many families who had come from various parts of Brazil attracted by colonization, came to occupy a series of unproductive lands with definitive titles or aforamentos, starting with those who lined the highway, causing intense and prolonged conflict with farmers who were owners of these properties, because the families did not find support from INCRA.

  16. “Ni guerra que nos mate, ni paz que nos oprima”: incursión petrolera y defensa del agua durante las negociaciones y la firma de la paz en el sur de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefanía Ciro Rodríguez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available During the negotiations for a peace treaty between the FARC guerrilla group and the Colombian government, headed by President Juan Manuel Santos, a petroleum exploration venture began in the Department of Caquetá, in southern Colombia, which led to protests revolving around the defense of water. This article analyzes the effects of the seismic exploration undertaken by the oil companies there and the actions of the peasant-farmer organizations which were defending water. In contrast with the idea that the Colombian State is institutionally weak, it has been a crucial actor in the consolidation of extractive industries. In that respect, the article also reveals how the historic shaping of territories limits the margin of action for social protest. Using a qualitative methodology, this study of the abovementioned events seeks to throw light on the challenge of balancing peace with the protection of the environment in the frontiers of Colombia.

  17. Understanding the Form, Function, and Logic of Clandestine Cellular Networks: The First Step in Effective Counternetwork Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    to Guerrilla Warfare and Underground Operations, ed. R. K. Brown, (Boulder, CO: Panther Publications, Inc., 1965); and Trinquier. Espionage related...Leaderless Resistance…has been used by white supremacists, anti-abortion and environmental activists, and animal rights groups. I argue that, despite...Stenson, Chad Oman, and Branko Lustig, “Scene 5,” Black Hawk Down, DVD, directed by Ridley Scott, (Culver City, CA: Columbia Pictures, 2002). 225 Ney

  18. Professional Irregular Defense Forces: The Other Side of COIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    war against native Zulu tribes. The Boer soldiers capitalized on their horse-mounted mobility by riding into Zulu territory, dismounting, firing into... Zulu formations and fleeing away quickly. This way, one hundred and thirty five Boers defeated approximately twelve thousand Zulus . Sir Arthur Conan...The Impact of Guerrilla Armies on the Creation of South Africa’s Armed Forces,” Monograph 127 (2006), accessed November 28, 2011, http

  19. Proliferation of Precision Strike: Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    industrial base. Finally, should Congress legislate requirements for DOD to develop precision strike countermeasures and then provide funding for that...Defense, Part 187 – Environmental Effects Abroad of Major Department of Defense Actions, Section 187.3: Definitions. 32 Bryan Clark and Dan Whiteneck...so many missiles ... referring to reports of Venezuelan arms flowing to Colombian guerrillas.... The Chavez regime also has close ties with

  20. Pragmatic Idealism: Ernesto Che Guevaras Strategic Choice for Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    security could be achieved through a more mature guerrilla movement. B. LITERATURE REVIEW A review of previous analysis and criticism regarding...was, he split his time prior to Bolivia between Tanzania and Czechoslovakia.24 Whether Guevara spent the majority of his time nursing the emotional ...believed it rational to pursue revolution prior to the maturation of a revolutionary movement as long as the objective

  1. Landslides of Palestinian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwahsh, H.

    2013-12-01

    Natural disasters are extreme sudden events caused by environmental and natural actors that take away the lives of many thousands of people each year and damage large amount of properties. They strike anywhere on earth, often without any warning. A risk maps of natural disaster are very useful to identify the places that might be adversely affected in the event of natural disaster. The earthquakes are one of natural disaster that have the greatest hazards and will cause loss of life and properties due to damaging the structures of building, dams, bridges. In addition, it will affect local geology and soil conditions. The site effects play an important role in earthquake risk because of its amplification or damping simulation. Another parameter in developing risk map is landslide, which is also one of the most important topics in site effect hazards. Palestine region has been suffering landslide hazards because of the topographical and geological conditions of this region. Most Palestine consists of mountainous area, which has great steep slopes and the type of soil is mainly grayish to yellowish silty clay (Marl Soil). Due to the above mentioned factors many landslides have been occurred from Negev south to the northern borders of Palestine. An example of huge and destruction landslide in a Palestine authority is the landslide in the White Mountain area in the city of Nablus, which occurred in 1997. The geotechnical and geophysical investigation as well as slope stability analysis should be considered in making landslide maps that are necessary to develop risk levels of the natural disaster. Landslides occurred in slopes that are created naturally or by human beings. Failure of soil mass occurs, and hence landslide of soil mass happen due to sliding of soil mass along a plane or curved surface. In general, the slopes become unstable when the shear stresses (driving force) generated in the soil mass exceed the available shearing resistance on the rupture surface. There are many factors which affect directly or indirectly the slope stability, the stability of a slope depends on the geometry and soil engineering properties which include geological, topography, climate, hydrologic conditions, weather and land use (human effects). There are many things that can be used to mitigate landslides disaster. The most important one is the control of the landslides by establishing landslide maps. Other methods such as geometrical, hydrological, mechanical and chemical methods would also be effective in mitigate landslides. Recently, due to the development of the technology in all aspects, a safe and economical design for slopes can be achieved easily.

  2. Probing the Terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Runa

    2016-01-01

    Whether manifest in built structures or invisible infrastructures, architectures of control in the occupied Palestinian West Bank is structurally defined by endemic uncertainty. Shifting lines and frontiers are recorded on the terrain, creating elastic zones of uncertainty necessitating navigatio...... to the territory through its lines and laws, and how the very structure of the occupation has changed over the years, I seek to make visible the ways in which architectures of uncertainty compensate for the fleeting terrain that HH is probing.......Whether manifest in built structures or invisible infrastructures, architectures of control in the occupied Palestinian West Bank is structurally defined by endemic uncertainty. Shifting lines and frontiers are recorded on the terrain, creating elastic zones of uncertainty necessitating...

  3. 76 FR 4046 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ...), Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Palestinian... products in accordance with regulations of USDA's Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS). To avoid...

  4. Equity in health care financing in Palestine: the value-added of the disaggregate approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Zaineh, Mohammad; Mataria, Awad; Luchini, Stéphane; Moatti, Jean-Paul

    2008-06-01

    This paper analyzes the redistributive effect and progressivity associated with the current health care financing schemes in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, using data from the first Palestinian Household Health Expenditure Survey conducted in 2004. The paper goes beyond the commonly used "aggregate summary index approach" to apply a more detailed "disaggregate approach". Such an approach is borrowed from the general economic literature on taxation, and examines redistributive and vertical effects over specific parts of the income distribution, using the dominance criterion. In addition, the paper employs a bootstrap method to test for the statistical significance of the inequality measures. While both the aggregate and disaggregate approaches confirm the pro-rich and regressive character of out-of-pocket payments, the aggregate approach does not ascertain the potential progressive feature of any of the available insurance schemes. The disaggregate approach, however, significantly reveals a progressive aspect, for over half of the population, of the government health insurance scheme, and demonstrates that the regressivity of the out-of-pocket payments is most pronounced among the worst-off classes of the population. Recommendations are advanced to improve the performance of the government insurance schemes to enhance its capacity in limiting inequalities in health care financing in the Occupied Palestinian Territory.

  5. Politics drives human functioning, dignity, and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Brian K; Spellings, Carolyn; McNeely, Clea; Page, Paul D; Giacaman, Rita; Arafat, Cairo; Daher, Mahmoud; El Sarraj, Eyad; Mallouh, Mohammed Abu

    2014-12-01

    Too little is known about human functioning amidst chronic adversity. We addressed that need by studying adult Palestinians in the occupied Palestinian territories (oPt), a population that has experienced longstanding economic and political hardships. Fourteen group interviews were conducted in February, 2010 in Arabic by local fieldworkers with 68 participants representing the main stratifications of Palestinian society: gender, region, refugee status, and political affiliation. Interview tasks included each participant: describing someone doing well and not well, free listing domains of functioning, and prioritizing domains to the three most important. Thematic analyses highlighted the dominating role of the political domain of functioning (e.g., political structures, constraints, effects, identity, and activism) and the degree to which political conditions impacted all other realms of functioning (economic, education, family, psychological, etc.). The discussion links the findings to relevant theory and empirical work that has called attention to the need to include the political in frameworks of quality of life. It also emphasized that values, such as justice, rights, dignity and self-determination, that underlie political structures and policies, are key elements of human functioning. This is the case not only in the oPt, but in any society where power imbalances marginalize segments of the population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Effects of National Policy on Refugee Welfare and Related Security Issues: A Comparative Case Study of Lebanon, Egypt and Syria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cleary, Jessica E

    2008-01-01

    .... This thesis examines the relationship between the tendency of state policies regarding Palestinian refugees in Lebanon, Egypt, and Syria to create isolation or integration, and the relative extent...

  7. The protective role of maternal post-traumatic growth and cognitive trauma processing in Palestinian mothers and infants: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, Safwat Y; Isosävi, Sanna; Qouta, Samir R; Kuittinen, Saija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2018-02-21

    Women at pre partum and post partum are especially susceptible to war trauma because they struggle to protect their infants from danger. Trauma research suggests increased problems in maternal mental health and infant development. Yet many cognitive-emotional processes affect the trauma survivors' mental health, such as post-traumatic growth and post-traumatic cognition. The aim of this study was to examine whether a mother's high post-traumatic growth and optimal post-traumatic cognition could protect their own mental health and their infant's stress regulation from the effects of traumatic war experiences. This three-wave prospective study involved Palestinian women living in the Gaza Strip who were at the second trimester of pregnancy (T1), women with infants aged 4 months (T2), and women with children aged 12 months (T3) months. The participants reported their war experiences in a 30-item checklist of losses, destruction, and atrocities in the 2008-09, 2012, and 2014 military offensives. Post-traumatic growth was assessed by a 21-item scale and post-traumatic cognition by a 36-item scale. Maternal mental health was assessed by post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depressive, anxiety, and dissociation symptoms at T1 and T3, and infants' stress regulation was assessed with the Infant Behaviour Questionnaire at T2 and T3. We included 511 women at T1, 481 women at T2, and 454 women at T3. High maternal post-traumatic growth and post-traumatic cognition had protective roles. Post-traumatic growth had a protective effect on maternal mental health since severe exposure to traumatic war experiences was not associated with maternal PTSD, depression, and dissociation if women showed high post-traumatic growth, as indicated by the significant interaction effect between post-traumatic growth and war trauma on each of the three symptoms. Post-traumatic cognition had a protective effect on infant development since severe exposure was not associated with dysfunctional

  8. Getting Ugly: Exploring Network Development in The Ugly American

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    firepower and numerical strength against the elusive Viet Minh guerrillas. The men study the writings of Mao Tse -tung in an effort to develop an...eventually finds U Tien, a devout Catholic from northern 86 Wing-Tsit Chan trans., The Way of Lao Tzu (Tao...D.C.: GPO, March 2012. Chan, Wing-Tsit, trans. The Way of Lao Tzu (Tao-te Ching). New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1963. Christakis, Nicholas A. and

  9. Harbingers of the Caliphate: Islamic State Revolutionary Actions 2011-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Together: Symbolic Violence and Guerrilla Mobilisation,” Third World Quarterly 28, no. 2 (2007): 295–320. 8 generate a bandwagon effect that further...military force. The fall of Mosul and other population centers within the Sunni regions of Iraq and Syria were the product of a lengthy and effective ...against revolutionary movements that are not isolated from society can have a counter-productive effect on the population, actually increasing public

  10. Tribe Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    9 All literacy rates are from “The world factbook”, CIA. 10 "Dictionnaire critique de la sociologie ", Boudon...Economie et Société, I, Plon, Paris, p. 298. 17 Ibid, p. 291. Sociologie des religions, Gallimard, Paris, p.374-375. 18 Georges Balandier... Sociologie actuelle de l’Afrique noire, Presses Universitaires de France, Paris, 1963, p. 390. 19 Kilcullen, The accidental guerrilla,op. cit., p. 50

  11. La violencia rural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Antonio Bejarano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dossier Comunicación y Drogas. En la Colombia rural, el narcotráfico, la guerrilla y la delincuencia común son factores de inseguridad y violencia. A pesar de la incertidumbre social que generan, gran parte de los medios de comunicación de ese país solo se limitan a describir los hechos en forma superficial. ¡Las amenazas a los periodistas son reales!

  12. Analýza vnímání guerillových a tradičních forem marketingové komunikace českými spotřebiteli

    OpenAIRE

    Pravdová, Klára

    2014-01-01

    The aim of my bachelor's thesis is to clarify the perception of guerilla marketing communications and traditional marketing communications by Czech consumers, their relation to business communications and to prove high efficiency of guerilla marketing communications. In the theoretical part of the thesis, there are presented specifics and instruments of both traditional communication mix and guerrilla marketing communications. In the practical part of the thesis, there is a quantitative resea...

  13. Lean, Mean, and Green: An Expeditionary Imperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    buildup of combat power and the conduct of combat operations, followed by a turnover with occupatio.nal forces and subsequent withdrawal. 3 To...Afghanistan: Invasion and Resistance (London: Arms and Armour Press, 1989!t 16-24. 12 Mark Urban, War in Afghanistan, 2nd ed. (Houndmills...Invasion and Resistance. London: Arms and Armour Press, 1989. Jalali, Ali Ahmad, and Lester W. Grau. Afghan Guerrilla Waifare: In the Words of the

  14. Persistent Engagement in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    the southwest to the northeast, provide the elevation that affords much of the population reprieve from the tropical heat . The Cordillera Oriental...intensification of urban terrorism and guerrilla warfare in 2001 had the opposite of the intended effect. Rather than cowing the government and its supporters, it...theorists have stressed the need for insurgents to conduct conventional warfare in the latter stages of conflict. Only conventional military forces

  15. Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blanchard, Christopher M

    2008-01-01

    ... issues such as Lebanon and the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Recent domestic reforms have codified royal succession rules, begun restructuring the justice system, and updated some educational curricula and practices...

  16. Komparace strategie íránské podpory terorismu na příkladu Hamásu a Hizballáhu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef KRAUS

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the comparison of strategy of state-sponsoring of terrorist groups Hamas and Hezbollah by the Islamic Republic of Iran. The strategy is described using five types of support – propaganda and political support, directing the terror, the use of financial leverage, instruction and training, the transfer of weaponry. The primary aim of this text is to clear up the Iranian role in supporting of two chosen Islamic terrorist organization and to explain its differences caused by historical, ideological, political and technical matters to the reader of this article. The text also contains the explanation of the origin, ideological background, political demands and the main terroristic activity of Palestinian Hamas and Lebanese Hezbollah.

  17. Organization within Organization Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    This paper explores how prevalent contemporary problematizations of organizations coincide with a widespread assessment that Organization Studies (OS) has run out of steam. This impasse, the paper argues, is largely due to the emergence of an organization-phobia that has come to seize several...... strands of theorizing. By attending to the wide-ranging and far-reaching history of this organization-phobia, the paper argues that OS has become increasingly incapable of speaking about its core object. I show how organizations went from being conceptualized as entities of major importance to becoming...... credibility and legitimacy to begin with, the organization-phobia resulting from this history has been implicated in dismantling organizations, and in making OS progressively irrelevant to a wider public....

  18. Search Results | Page 9 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 81 - 90 of 8492 ... ... Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (185) Apply Canadian ... Empowering Palestinian girls through digital learning innovations in STEM fields ... Targeting senescence cells in pancreatic cancer.

  19. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1992-01-01

    This report covers international issues relating to the Near East: regional affairs, Palestinian affairs, Iraq, Jordan, Mauritania, Morocco, Sudan, United Arab Emirates, and the Republic of Yemen; and South Asia...

  20. Strategic Forum. The Arab-Israeli Conflict: Toward an Equitable and Durable Solution. July 2005, Number 215

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Aaron D

    2005-01-01

    .... diplomacy must recognize that ending the conflict is a generational proposition. The fundamental asymmetry between Israeli power and Palestinian weakness undermines any prospect of making the Oslo peace process work...