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Sample records for paleozoic baltic basin

  1. Tectonic context of the penetrative fracture system origin in the Early Paleozoic shale complex (Baltic Basin, Poland/Sweden).

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    Jarosiński, Marek; Gluszynski, Andrzej; Bobek, Kinga; Dyrka, Ireneusz

    2017-04-01

    Characterization of natural fracture and fault pattern play significant role for reservoir stimulation design and evaluation of its results. Having structural observations limited to immediate borehole surrounding it is a common need to build up a fracture model of reservoir in a range of stimulation reservoir volume or even beyond. To do this we need both a 3D seismic model and a consistent concept of the regional tectonic evolution. We present the result of integrated tectonic study in several deep boreholes target the Lower Paleozoic shale complex of Baltic Basin (BB), combined with analysis of 3D seismic survey and outcrop screening in Scania (Swedish part of the BB). During deposition of shale complex in the Ordovician and Silurian the research area was located 200-300 km away from the continental margin of Baltica involved in the Caledonian collision with the Eastern Avalonia. This distance allowed the shale complex to avoid significant tectonic deformation. Regional seismic cross section reveals the general pattern of the BB infill characteristic for the foreland basin underwent post-collisional isostatic rebound. Due to stress changes in collisional context the shale complex was cross-cut by steep, mostly inverse faults trending NW-SE and NE-SW. The fault zones oriented NW-SE are associated with an array of en echelon faults characteristic for strike-slip displacement. In our interpretation, these faults of Silurian (Wenlock) age create pattern of the regional pop-up structure, which is simultaneously involved in the plate flexure extension. Seismic attributes (e.g. curvature or ant tracking) highlight lineaments which mostly mimic the faults orientation. However, attributes show also some artefacts that come from regular array of seismic sources and receivers, which mimic the orthogonal joint system. Structural observations on borehole core lead us to conclusion that regular, orthogonal fracture system developed after maximum burial of the complex

  2. Magmatism and petroleum exploration in the Brazilian Paleozoic basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomaz Filho, Antonio; Antonioli, Luzia [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Faculdade de Geologia, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier, no 524/2030, CEP 20550-900, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mizusaki, Ana Maria Pimentel [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Instituto de Geociencias, Avenida Bento Goncalves, no 9500, Campus do Vale, CEP 91509-900, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2008-02-15

    Petroleum exploration in the Paleozoic sedimentary basins of Brazil has proven very challenging for explorationists. Except for the Solimoes Basin, in which transcurrent tectonism formed prospective structural highs, Brazilian Paleozoic basins lack intense structural deformation, and hence the detection and prospecting of place is often difficult. Magmatic intrusive and associated rocks in all these basins have traditionally been considered heat sources and hydrocarbon traps. The role of tholeiitic basic dikes in the generation, migration and accumulation of petroleum in the Anhembi oil occurrence (Sao Paulo State) is discussed herein. It follows that similar geological settings in other Paleozoic basins can be regarded as promising sites for oil accumulation that warrant investigation via modern geological and geophysical methods. (author)

  3. Paleozoic unconformities favorable for uranium concentration in northern Appalachian basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennison, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Unconformities can redistribute uranium from protore rock as ground water moves through poorly consolidated strata beneath the erosion surface, or later moves along the unconformity. Groundwater could migrate farther than in present-day lithified Paleozoic strata in the Appalachian basin, now locally deformed by the Taconic and Allegheny orogenies. Several paleoaquifer systems could have developed uranium geochemical cells. Sandstone mineralogy, occurrences of fluvial strata, and reduzate facies are important factors. Other possibilities include silcrete developed during desert exposure, and uranium concentrated in paleokarst. Thirteen unconformities are evaluated to determine favorable areas for uranium concentration. Cambrian Potsdam sandstone (New York) contains arkoses and possible silcretes just above crystalline basement. Unconformities involving beveled sandstones and possible fluvial strata include Cambrian Hardyston sandstone (New Jersey), Cambrian Potsdam Sandstone (New York), Ordovician Oswego and Juniata formations (Pennsylvania and New York), Silurian Medina Group (New York), and Silurian Vernon, High Falls, and Longwood formations (New York and New Jersey). Devonian Catskill Formation is beveled by Pennsylvanian strata (New York and Pennsylvania). The pre-Pennsylvanian unconformity also bevels Lower Mississippian Pocono, Knapp, and Waverly strata (Pennsylvania, New York, and Ohio), truncates Upper Mississippian Mauch Chunk Formation (Pennsylvania), and forms paleokarst on Mississippian Loyalhanna Limestone (Pennsylvania) and Maxville Limestone (Ohio). Strata associated with these unconformities contain several reports of uranium. Unconformities unfavorable for uranium concentration occur beneath the Middle Ordovician (New York), Middle Devonian (Ohio and New York), and Upper Devonian (Ohio and New York); these involve marine strata overlying marine strata and probably much submarine erosion

  4. End Late Paleozoic tectonic stress field in the southern edge of Junggar Basin

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    Wei Ju

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the end Late Paleozoic tectonic stress field in the southern edge of Junggar Basin by interpreting stress-response structures (dykes, folds, faults with slickenside and conjugate joints. The direction of the maximum principal stress axes is interpreted to be NW–SE (about 325°, and the accommodated motion among plates is assigned as the driving force of this tectonic stress field. The average value of the stress index R′ is about 2.09, which indicates a variation from strike-slip to compressive tectonic stress regime in the study area during the end Late Paleozoic period. The reconstruction of the tectonic field in the southern edge of Junggar Basin provides insights into the tectonic deformation processes around the southern Junggar Basin and contributes to the further understanding of basin evolution and tectonic settings during the culmination of the Paleozoic.

  5. IODP expedition 347: Baltic Sea basin paleoenvironment and biosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrén, T; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Cotterill, Carol

    2015-01-01

    -rich clay. Due to the stratified water column of the brackish Baltic Sea and the recurrent and widespread anoxia, the deeper basins harbor laminated sediments that provide a unique opportunity for high-resolution chronological studies. The Baltic Sea is a eutrophic intra-continental sea that is strongly...... degassing upon core recovery. The depth distributions of conservative sea water ions still reflected the transition at the end of the last glaciation from fresh-water clays to Holocene brackish mud. High-resolution sampling and analyses of interstitial water chemistry revealed the intensive mineralization......The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) expedition 347 cored sediments from different set- tings of the Baltic Sea covering the last glacial–interglacial cycle. The main aim was to study the geological development of the Baltic Sea in relation to the extreme climate variability of the region...

  6. IODP expedition 347: Baltic Sea basin paleoenvironment and biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrén, T.; Barker Jørgensen, B.; Cotterill, C.; Green, S.; IODP expedition 347 scientific party, the

    2015-12-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) expedition 347 cored sediments from different settings of the Baltic Sea covering the last glacial-interglacial cycle. The main aim was to study the geological development of the Baltic Sea in relation to the extreme climate variability of the region with changing ice cover and major shifts in temperature, salinity, and biological communities. Using the Greatship Manisha as a European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD) mission-specific platform, we recovered 1.6 km of core from nine sites of which four were additionally cored for microbiology. The sites covered the gateway to the North Sea and Atlantic Ocean, several sub-basins in the southern Baltic Sea, a deep basin in the central Baltic Sea, and a river estuary in the north. The waxing and waning of the Scandinavian ice sheet has profoundly affected the Baltic Sea sediments. During the Weichselian, progressing glaciers reshaped the submarine landscape and displaced sedimentary deposits from earlier Quaternary time. As the glaciers retreated they left a complex pattern of till, sand, and lacustrine clay, which in the basins has since been covered by a thick deposit of Holocene, organic-rich clay. Due to the stratified water column of the brackish Baltic Sea and the recurrent and widespread anoxia, the deeper basins harbor laminated sediments that provide a unique opportunity for high-resolution chronological studies. The Baltic Sea is a eutrophic intra-continental sea that is strongly impacted by terrestrial runoff and nutrient fluxes. The Holocene deposits are recorded today to be up to 50 m deep and geochemically affected by diagenetic alterations driven by organic matter degradation. Many of the cored sequences were highly supersaturated with respect to methane, which caused strong degassing upon core recovery. The depth distributions of conservative sea water ions still reflected the transition at the end of the last glaciation from fresh-water clays to

  7. Geochemistry of the Late Paleozoic cherts in the Youjiang Basin: Implications for the basin evolution

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    Huang Hu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the major and rare earth element compositions of siliceous deposits from the Upper Devonian Liujiang Formation, Lower Carboniferous Luzhai Formation, Lower–Middle Permian Sidazhai Formation and Tapi Formation, which are widely distributed as bedded cherts in the interplatform basinal successions of the Youjiang Basin. The Liujiang Formation and Luzhai Formation cherts generally have high Al/(Al+Fe+Mn values (0.38–0.94 and are non-hydrothermal cherts. These cherts are generally characterized by moderately negative Ce anomalies and high Y/Ho values relatived to PAAS, indicating that the Youjiang Basin might have evolved into an open rift basin during the Late Devonian–Early Carboniferous. The Sidazhai Formation cherts from Ziyun generally have high Al/(Al+Fe+Mn values (0.60–0.78, suggesting negligible contribution from a hydrothermal component. The Sidazhai Formation cherts from Hechi and the Tapi Formation cherts from Malipo generally have low Al/(Al+Fe+Mn values (0.09–0.41, indicating an intense hydrothermal input. Relatived to the Sidazhai Formation cherts, the Tapi Formation cherts have higher Ce/Ce* values (0.68±0.19 and lower Y/Ho values (41.83±13.27, which may be affected by the terrigenous input from the Vietnam Block. The Sidazhai Formation cherts from Ziyun and Hechi exhibit negative Ce anomalies (0.43±0.12, 0.33±0.17, respectively with high Y/Ho values (57.44±16.20, 46.02±4.27, respectively, resembling the geochemical characteristics of open-ocean basin cherts. These cherts were deposited on a passive continental margin adjacent to the Babu branch ocean, which may have contributed to upwelling. Detailed spatial studies on geochemical characteristics of the Late Paleozoic cherts can unravel the evolution of the Youjiang Basin.

  8. Pore characteristics of shale gas reservoirs from the Lower Paleozoic in the southern Sichuan Basin, China

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    Xianqing Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Data was acquired from both the drillings and core samples of the Lower Paleozoic Qiongzhusi and Longmaxi Formations' marine shale gas reservoirs in the southern Sichuan Basin by means of numerous specific experimental methods such as organic geochemistry, organic petrology, and pore analyses. Findings helped determine the characteristics of organic matter, total porosity, microscopic pore, and pore structure. The results show that the Lower Paleozoic marine shale in the south of the Sichuan Basin are characterized by high total organic carbon content (most TOC>2.0%, high thermal maturity level (RO = 2.3%–3.8%, and low total porosity (1.16%–6.87%. The total organic carbon content and thermal maturity level of the Qiongzhusi Formation shale are higher than those of the Longmaxi Formation shale, while the total porosity of the Qiongzhusi Formation shale is lower than that of the Longmaxi Formation shale. There exists intergranular pore, dissolved pore, crystal particle pore, particle edge pore, and organic matter pore in the Lower Paleozoic Qiongzhusi Formation and Longmaxi Formation shale. There are more micro-nano pores developed in the Longmaxi Formation shales than those in the Qiongzhusi Formation shales. Intergranular pores, dissolved pores, as well as organic matter pores, are the most abundant, these are primary storage spaces for shale gas. The microscopic pores in the Lower Paleozoic shales are mainly composed of micropores, mesopores, and a small amount of macropores. The micropore and mesopore in the Qiongzhusi Formation shale account for 83.92% of the total pore volume. The micropore and mesopore in the Longmaxi Formation shale accounts for 78.17% of the total pore volume. Thus, the micropores and mesopores are the chief components of microscopic pores in the Lower Paleozoic shale gas reservoirs in the southern Sichuan Basin.

  9. The Paleozoic ichthyofauna of the Amazonas and Parnaíba basins, Brazil

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    Figueroa, Rodrigo Tinoco; Machado, Deusana Maria da Costa

    2018-03-01

    The Brazilian Paleozoic ichthyofauna from the Parnaíba and Amazonas basins regard a sparsely known diversity, including chondrichthyans and acanthodians, besides some osteichthyan remains. This work proposes a revision of the fossil material from these two sedimentary basins and synthesizes the morphological aspect of such material trying to understand the influences of those fossils to the paleontology of the region, comparing the Brazilian fossils with other gondwanan faunas. The Brazilian Paleozoic fish fauna shows great resemblance to those of Bolivia, especially during the Devonian. Many of the Acanthodian spines from the Manacapuru Formation (Amazonas Basin), and the Pimenteira Formation (Parnaíba Basin), are comparable to the taxa found in Bolivia. The lack of more Placoderm remains in the Brazilian outcrops is similar to the low diversity of this group in Bolivia, when compared to other South American and Euramerican localities. The most diverse Brazilian ichthyofauna is encountered in the Permian Pedra de Fogo Formation where numerous chondrichthyans and 'paleopterygians' remains are found, together with dipnoans and actinistians. Despite the apparent lack of more representative Paleozoic ichthyofaunas in Brazil, the available material that ranges from Lower Devonian to early Permian from Brazil bears important taxa that could address valuable taxonomic and biogeographic informations.

  10. Hydrocarbon preservation conditions in Mesozoic–Paleozoic marine strata in the South Yellow Sea Basin

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    Jie Liang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the South Yellow Sea Basin, Mesozoic–Paleozoic marine strata are generally well developed with large thickness, and they are characterized by multi-source and multi-stage hydrocarbon accumulation, providing a material basis for the formation of large-scale oil and gas fields. However, no substantial breakthrough has been made in this area. Based on previous research results, the complex tectonic pattern of this superimposed basin was formed by multi-stage tectonic movements and the favorable static conditions for hydrocarbon preservation were reworked or destroyed by later superimposition. Therefore, hydrocarbon preservation conditions are the key factors for restricting the breakthrough of marine oil and gas exploration in this area. In this paper, hydrocarbon preservation conditions of marine strata in the South Yellow Sea Basin were comprehensively analyzed from many aspects, such as tectonic movement, source conditions, caprock characteristics, magmatic activities, and hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical characteristics. It is indicated that the complex tectonic pattern of the South Yellow Sea Basin is resulted from tectonic events in multiple stages, and the development and evolution of regional source rocks are mainly controlled by two stages (i.e., the stable evolution stage of Mesozoic–Paleozoic marine basin and the Mesozoic–Cenozoic tectonic pattern transformation and basin formation stage, so the characteristics of differential oil and gas preservation are presented. Besides, better marine hydrocarbon preservation preconditions in this area are weaker tectonic reworking, development of high-quality thick source rocks, good vertical sealing capacity of caprocks, weaker magmatic activity and confined hydrogeological conditions. It is concluded that the Laoshan Uplift in the central part of the South Yellow Sea Basin is structurally stable with weaker faulting and magmatic activities, so it is better in oil and gas preservation

  11. The Baltic Basin Case Study—towards a sustainable Baltic Europe

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    Jansson, Bengt-Owe; Stålvant, Carl-Einar

    2001-12-01

    Four watersheds, each characterized by a major resource use were selected for the study: The Vistula River in Poland—agriculture; the Dalälven River in Sweden—forestry; the Archipelago Sea in Sweden, Finland, Estonia—tourism; and the Lake Peipsi in Estonia/Russia—fisheries/agriculture. The main objective was to examine the reactions of particular ecosystems within the Baltic Sea drainage area, and to assess sustainability conditions on the regional level. The degree of sustainability and impact on the Baltic Sea were investigated through workshops and seminars in the areas. Overviews of environmental and socio-economic conditions were succinctly summarized in commissioned papers. Interventions by and discussions with scholars, sector experts, administrators and stakeholders of the various sites laid the foundation for conceptualizing the interaction of natural and human forces for each case. The project was able to draw quite a number of conclusions, summarized as the following lessons learnt. In the Vistula Region, nutrient emissions have levelled off but shortage of freshwater is critical. Forestry in the Dalälven watershed is largely environmental-friendly, except for fragmentation of the landscape and its negative impact on biodiversity. In the Archipelago area a former low-energy community has been replaced by a leisure time society. Different types of tourism is developing, but despite this variety, an improved integration of ecological properties with socio-economic patterns is required in order to build a sustainable, living Archipelago. The lake Peipsi basin and the surrounding area suffer both from problems of resource management and economic backwardness. Parts of the local economy has lost access to the one time large Soviet market, although the Estonian side has apparently benefited from present economic growth. To cope with the division of the lake, a regime for trans-national management is unfolding. It is based on both informal and, to an

  12. Late Paleozoic paleofjord in the southernmost Parana Basin (Brazil): Geomorphology and sedimentary fill

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    Tedesco, Julia; Cagliari, Joice; Coitinho, Julia dos Reis; da Cunha Lopes, Ricardo; Lavina, Ernesto Luiz Correa

    2016-09-01

    In the southernmost part of the Parana Basin, records of the late Paleozoic glaciation occur in a discontinuous form preserved in paleovalley systems excavated in the crystalline basement. This paper addresses one of these paleovalleys, the Mariana Pimentel, which extends over 60 km with NW-SE valley direction and a constant width of 2.5 km. With the objective of demonstrating that the paleovalley worked as a fjord during the glaciation period, its origin as well as sedimentary fill and morphology were analyzed. The paleovalley morphology was obtained through electrical resistivity (electrical sounding and lateral mapping) and mathematical modeling in four transverse sections. The morphology of the paleovalley documented by the U-shape, steady width, and high depth reaching up to 400 m are typical features of modern glacial valleys. The sedimentary facies that fill the base of the paleovalley, such as rhythmites and dropstones with thickness up to 70 m and diamictites with faceted pebbles (up to 5 m thick) are signs of its glacial origin. During the glaciation period, the paleovalley had a connection to the epicontinental sea located to the northwest, extended toward Namibia, and was excavated by glaciers from the highlands of this region. Thus, the evidence attests that the Mariana Pimentel paleovalley was a fjord during the late Paleozoic glaciation. The duration of the late Paleozoic glaciation (which is longer than the Quaternary glaciation), the apatite fission track that suggests erosion up to 4 km thick in the study area, and the lack of preserved hanging valleys in the Mariana Pimentel indicate that the paleovalley once featured a higher dimension. Furthermore, the existence of paleofjords excavated in the border of the basement corroborates the idea of small ice centers controlled by topography during the late Paleozoic glaciation.

  13. Upper Paleozoic coal measures and unconventional natural gas systems of the Ordos Basin, China

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    Xuan Tang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Upper Paleozoic coal measures in the Ordos Basin consist of dark mudstone and coal beds and are important source rocks for gas generation. Gas accumulations include coal-bed methane (CBM, tight gas and conventional gas in different structural areas. CBM accumulations are mainly distributed in the marginal area of the Ordos Basin, and are estimated at 3.5 × 1012 m3. Tight gas accumulations exist in the middle part of the Yishan Slope area, previously regarded as the basin-centered gas system and now considered as stratigraphic lithologic gas reservoirs. This paper reviews the characteristics of tight gas accumulations: poor physical properties (porosity < 8%, permeability < 0.85 × 10−3 μm2, abnormal pressure and the absence of well-defined gas water contacts. CBM is a self-generation and self-reservoir, while gas derived from coal measures migrates only for a short distance to accumulate in a tight reservoir and is termed near-generation and near-reservoir. Both CBM and tight gas systems require source rocks with a strong gas generation ability that extends together over wide area. However, the producing area of the two systems may be significantly different.

  14. Conodont color alteration index and upper Paleozoic thermal history of the Amazonas Basin, Brazil

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    Cardoso, Cassiane Negreiros; Sanz-López, Javier; Blanco-Ferrera, Silvia; Lemos, Valesca Brasil; Scomazzon, Ana Karina

    2015-12-01

    The conodont color alteration index (CAI) was determined in elements from core samples of the Frasnian Barreirinha Formation (one well) and of the Pennsylvanian-Permian Tapajós Group (twenty three wells and one limestone quarry) in the Amazonas Basin. The thermal history of the basin is analyzed using the CAI value distribution represented in maps and stratigraphic sections through correlation schemes, and in conjunction with previously published data. The pattern of palaeotemperatures for CAI values of 1.5-3 is coincident with organic matter maturation under a sedimentary overburden providing diagenetic conditions in the oil/gas window. Locally, conodonts show metamorphism (CAI value of 6-7) in relation to the intrusion of diabase bodies in beds including high geothermal gradient evaporites. Microtextural alteration on the surface conodonts commonly shows several types of overgrowth microtextures developed in diagenetic conditions. Locally, recrystallization in conodonts with a high CAI value is congruent with contact metamorphism in relation to Mesozoic intrusions. The CAI values of 1.5 or 2 observed close to the surface in several areas of the basin may be interpreted in relation to a high thermal palaeogradient derived from the magmatic episode or/and to the local denudation of the upper part of the Paleozoic succession prior to this thermal event.

  15. Paleozoic evolution of active margin basins in the southern Central Andes (northwestern Argentina and northern Chile)

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    Bahlburg, H.; Breitkreuz, C.

    The geodynamic evolution of the Paleozoic continental margin of Gondwana in the region of the southern Central Andes is characterized by the westward progression of orogenic basin formation through time. The Ordovician basin in the northwest Argentinian Cordillera Oriental and Puna originated as an Early Ordovician back-arc basin. The contemporaneous magmatic arc of an east-dipping subduction zone was presumably located in northern Chile. In the back-arc basin, a ca. 3500 meter, fining-up volcaniclastic apron connected to the arc formed during the Arenigian. Increased subsidence in the late Arenigian allowed for the accomodation of large volumes of volcaniclastic turbidites during the Middle Ordovician. Subsidence and sedimentation were caused by the onset of collision between the para-autochthonous Arequipa Massif Terrane (AMT) and the South American margin at the Arenigian-Llanvirnian transition. This led to eastward thrusting of the arc complex over its back-arc basin and, consequently, to its transformation into a marine foreland basin. As a result of thrusting in the west, a flexural bulge formed in the east, leading to uplift and emergence of the Cordillera Oriental shelf during the Guandacol Event at the Arenigian-Llanvirnian transition. The basin fill was folded during the terminal collision of the AMT during the Oclóyic Orogeny (Ashgillian). The folded strata were intruded post-tectonically by the presumably Silurian granitoids of the "Faja Eruptiva de la Puna Oriental." The orogeny led to the formation of the positive area of the Arco Puneño. West of the Arco Puneño, a further marine basin developed during the Early Devonian, the eastern shelf of which occupied the area of the Cordillera Occidental, Depresión Preandina, and Precordillera. The corresponding deep marine turbidite basin was located in the region of the Cordillera de la Costa. Deposition continued until the basin fill was folded in the early Late Carboniferous Toco Orogeny. The basin

  16. Electrical structures in the northwest margin of the Junggar basin: Implications for its late Paleozoic geodynamics

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    Zhang, Sheng; Xu, Yixian; Jiang, Li; Yang, Bo; Liu, Ying; Griffin, W. L.; Luo, Yong; Huang, Rong; Zhou, Yong; Zhang, Liangliang

    2017-10-01

    Recent geological, geochemical and geophysical data have inclined to support the presence of a remnant Paleozoic oceanic lithosphere beneath the Western Junggar, southwestern Chinese Altaids. However, regional high-resolution geophysical data have been rarely deployed to image its geometry, making it difficult to trace its evolution and final geodynamic setting. Presently, two magnetotelluric (MT) profiles are deployed across the northwest margin of the Junggar basin and the southern Darbut belt to image the electrical structure of the crust and lithospheric mantle. High-quality data at 102 sites and the quasi-2D indications of phase tensor skew angles and impedance phase ellipses for relatively short periods (up to 500 s) allow us to invert the two profile data by a 2-D scheme. The resistivity cross-section of a NW-SE striking LINE2 sheds light on a fossil intraoceanic subduction system, and reveals the Miaoergou intrusions as a bowl-like pluton, indicating that the multi-phase intrusions primarily formed in a post-collisional setting. The resistivity cross-section of striking NE-SW LINE1 reveals a possible oceanic slab with relatively lower resistivity underlying the low-resistivity sedimentary strata and high-resistivity mélange. Given that the profile of LINE1 cuts the out-rise zone of a subducted slab developed during the late Paleozoic, the 2-D resistivity model may thus represent the zone that have experienced heterogeneous deformation, reflecting subduction with barrier variation parallel to the ancient trench. Moreover, as shown in previous results, the new MT data also illustrate that the Darbut Fault is a thin-skinned structure, which has been erased at depths during the subsequent magmatism.

  17. Oceanographic influences on the distribution of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua , during spawning in the Bornholm Basin of the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Lehmann, K.M.; St. John, Michael

    1998-01-01

    proportion of males to females. On the basin slopes, aggregations of cod were found near the bottom. These individuals were mainly immature and maturing stages with an increasing proportion of females to males with size. Salinity and oxygen conditions were found to be the major factors influencing...... the vertical and horizontal distribution of adult cod. Abundance of immature cod was also positively related to decreasing bottom depths. The effect of temperature was minor. The observed size- and sex-dependent spawning aggregation patterns, in association with habitat volume and stock size, may influence cod......The Baltic Sea is a stratified, semi-enclosed sea typified by a low-salinity surface layer and a deep saline layer of varying volume, salinity, temperature and oxygen concentration. The relationships between these oceanographic factors and the distribution of Baltic cod are presented, utilizing...

  18. The petroleum system of the lower Palaeozoic strata in the central part of the Baltic basin

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    Lazauskiene, Jurga; Zdanaviciute, Onyte

    2013-04-01

    The Baltic Basin is an intra-cratonic sedimentary basin with conspicuous Early Palaeozoic sections. In terms of hydrocarbon prospectively, the it has been perceived as a classical oil basin with several tens of relatively small oil and gas fields occur there over a wide stratigraphic interval, ranging from the crystalline basement through the entire Lower Palaeozoic succession. Until now conventional oil has been predominantly produced in the basin, i.e. only few conventional gas accumulations have been found in the Polish Baltic Sea offshore. Petroleum potential within the basin also is associated with Silurian reefogenic and carbonate build-ups. New organic geochemistry data as well revealed the potential for shale gas/oil in the basin. The analysis of the composition of the organic matter and crude oils from Kaliningrad region (Russia) and Lithuanian revealed genesis and the general trends of the migration of hydrocarbons in the Baltic Basin. The organic matter of the source rocks is of similar composition and represents typical marine type II, showing considerable variations of the maturity thought the basin: ranging from immature in the eastern Lithuania and Kaliningrad region of Russia to oil window to the south-west. In some places the anomalously high maturity of organic matter, indicating the lower part of the wet gas/condensate window have been recorded, most probably being related to the locally increased paleo-temperatures. Oils of the Baltic Basin have low densities (Oils of the Baltic Basin are not biodegraded, despite their early emplacement (e.g. by the Lower Palaeozoic age) and the relatively low present reservoir temperatures. Results of biomarker and stable carbon isotope analyses allow three genetic oil groups to be distinguished in the Kaliningrad region. These oils appear to be confined to tectonically distinct areas suggesting that the hydrocarbons were derived from different kitchens. The hydrocarbon generation in the Baltic Basin started by

  19. Tides in three enclosed basins: the Baltic, Black and Caspian seas

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    Igor P Medvedev

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tides are the main type of sea level variability in the world ocean. However, oceanic tides penetrate weakly, or do not penetrate at all, into enclosed basins such as the Baltic, Black and Caspian seas. Consequently, only directly forced tides are formed in these basins. Long observation time series (up to 123 years in the Baltic Sea and 38 years in the Black and Caspian seas at numerous stations were used to precisely estimate tidal constituents. High-resolution spectra revealed fine structure of discrete peaks at tidal frequencies. The diurnal radiational constituent S1 (1 cpd, apparently associated with breeze winds, was found to play an important role in general tidal dynamics in these seas. Harmonic analysis of tides for individual yearly series with consecutive vector averaging over the entire observational period was applied to estimate mean amplitudes and phases of tidal constituents. Our findings indicate that the formation and predominance of diurnal or semidiurnal tides in these seas appears to depend on the frequency-selective properties of the basins. Thus, in the Baltic Sea with fundamental modal period of about 27 h, diurnal tides dominate in the major eastern gulfs. In the Black Sea resonant amplification of semidiurnal tides is observed in the northwestern part. The predominance of semidiurnal tides in the Caspian Sea has also probably a resonant nature. Maximum tidal heights estimated for a 100-year period are 23 cm in the Baltic Sea, 18 cm in the Black Sea and 21 cm in the southern Caspian Sea.

  20. Barents Sea Paleozoic basement and basin configurations: Crustal structure from deep seismic and potential field data

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    Aarseth, Iselin; Mjelde, Rolf; Breivik, Asbjørn Johan; Huismans, Ritske; Faleide, Jan Inge

    2016-04-01

    The Barents Sea is underlain by at least two different basement domains; the Caledonian in the west and the Timanian in the east. The transition between these two domains is not well constrained and contrasting interpretations have been published recently. Interpretations of new high-quality magnetic data covering most of the SW Barents Sea has challenged the Late Paleozoic basin configurations in the western and central Barents Sea as outlined in previous studies. Two regional ocean bottom seismic (OBS) profiles were acquired in 2014. This new dataset crosses the two major directions of Caledonian deformation proposed by different authors: N-S direction and SW-NE direction. Of particular importance are the high velocity anomalies related to Caledonian eclogites, revealing the location of Caledonian suture zones in the northern Barents Sea. One of the main objectives with this project is to locate the main Caledonian suture in the western Barents Sea, as well as the possible Barentsia-Baltica suture postulated further eastwards. The collapse of the Caledonian mountain range predominantly along these suture zones is expected to be tightly linked to the deposition of large thicknesses of Devonian erosional products, and later rifting is expected to be influenced by inheritance of Caledonian trends. The P-wave travel-time modelling is done by use of a combined ray-tracing and inversion scheme, and gravity- and magnetic modelling will be used to augment the seismic model. The preliminary results indicate high P-wave velocities (mostly over 4 km/s) close to the seafloor as well as high velocity (around 6 km/s) zones at shallow depths which are interpreted as volcanic sills. The crustal transects reveal areas of complex geology and velocity inversions. A low seismic impedance contrast between the sedimentary section and top crystalline basement makes identification of this interface uncertain. Depth to Moho mostly lies around 30 km, except in an area of rapid change in

  1. A review on late Paleozoic ice-related erosional landforms in the Paraná Basin: origin and paleogeographical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Luiz Menozzo da Rosa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The Late Paleozoic Ice Age is recorded in the Paraná Basin as glacial deposits, deformational features and ice-related erosional landforms of the Itararé Group. Erosional landforms are often employed to build paleogeographic models that depict the location of ice masses and paleo ice-flow directions. This paper provides a review of the literature and new data on micro- to meso-scale ice-related, erosional landforms of the Paraná Basin. Examined landforms can be placed into four broad categories based on their mode of origin. Subglacial landforms on rigid substrates occur on the Precambrian basement or on older units in the Paraná Basin. They include streamlined landforms and striated pavements formed by abrasion and/or plucking beneath advancing glaciers. Subglacial landforms on soft beds are intraformational surfaces generated by erosion and deformation of unconsolidated deposits when overridden by glaciers. Ice-keel scour marks are soft-sediment striated/grooved landforms developed by the scouring of free-floating ice masses on underlying sediments. Striated clast pavements are horizons containing aligned clasts that are abraded subglacially due to the advance of glaciers on unconsolidated deposits. Only those erosional landforms formed subglacially can be used as reliable paleo ice-flow indicators. Based on these data, the paleogeography of the Paraná Basin during the Late Paleozoic Ice Age fits into a model of several glacial lobes derived from topographically-controlled ice spreading centers located around the basin instead of a single continental ice sheet.

  2. Transplant experiments uncover Baltic Sea basin-specific responses in bacterioplankton community composition and metabolic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindh, Markus V; Figueroa, Daniela; Sjöstedt, Johanna; Baltar, Federico; Lundin, Daniel; Andersson, Agneta; Legrand, Catherine; Pinhassi, Jarone

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenically induced changes in precipitation are projected to generate increased river runoff to semi-enclosed seas, increasing loads of terrestrial dissolved organic matter and decreasing salinity. To determine how bacterial community structure and functioning adjust to such changes, we designed microcosm transplant experiments with Baltic Proper (salinity 7.2) and Bothnian Sea (salinity 3.6) water. Baltic Proper bacteria generally reached higher abundances than Bothnian Sea bacteria in both Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea water, indicating higher adaptability. Moreover, Baltic Proper bacteria growing in Bothnian Sea water consistently showed highest bacterial production and beta-glucosidase activity. These metabolic responses were accompanied by basin-specific changes in bacterial community structure. For example, Baltic Proper Pseudomonas and Limnobacter populations increased markedly in relative abundance in Bothnian Sea water, indicating a replacement effect. In contrast, Roseobacter and Rheinheimera populations were stable or increased in abundance when challenged by either of the waters, indicating an adjustment effect. Transplants to Bothnian Sea water triggered the initial emergence of particular Burkholderiaceae populations, and transplants to Baltic Proper water triggered Alteromonadaceae populations. Notably, in the subsequent re-transplant experiment, a priming effect resulted in further increases to dominance of these populations. Correlated changes in community composition and metabolic activity were observed only in the transplant experiment and only at relatively high phylogenetic resolution. This suggested an importance of successional progression for interpreting relationships between bacterial community composition and functioning. We infer that priming effects on bacterial community structure by natural episodic events or climate change induced forcing could translate into long-term changes in bacterial ecosystem process rates.

  3. Transplant experiments uncover Baltic Sea basin-specific responses in bacterioplankton community composition and metabolic activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus V Lindh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenically induced changes in precipitation are projected to generate increased river runoff to semi-enclosed seas, intensifying loads of terrestrial dissolved organic matter and decreasing salinity. To determine how bacterial community structure and functioning adjust to such changes, we designed microcosm transplant experiments with Baltic Proper (salinity 7.2 and Bothnian Sea (salinity 3.6 water. Baltic Proper bacteria generally reached higher abundance than Bothnian Sea bacteria in both Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea water, indicating a higher adaptability. Moreover, Baltic Proper bacteria growing in Bothnian Sea water consistently showed highest bacterial production and beta-glucosidase activity. These metabolic responses were accompanied by basin-specific changes in bacterial community structure. For example, Baltic Proper Pseudomonas and Limnobacter populations increased markedly in relative abundance in Bothnian Sea water, indicating replacement. In contrast, Roseobacter and Rheinheimera populations were stable or increased in abundance when challenged by either of the waters, indicating adjustment. Transplants to Bothnian Sea water triggered the initial emergence of particular Burkholderiaceae populations, and transplants to Baltic Proper water triggered Alteromonadaceae populations. Notably, in the subsequent re-transplant experiment, the original triggering, or priming effect, resulted in further increases to dominance of these populations. Correlated changes in community composition and metabolic activity were observed only in the transplant experiment, and only at relatively high phylogenetic resolution. This suggested an importance of successional progression for interpreting relationships between bacterial community composition and functioning. We infer that priming effects on bacterial community structure by natural episodic events or climate change induced forcing could translate into long-term changes in bacterial

  4. Late Paleozoic volcanic rocks of the Intra-Sudetic Basin, Bohemian Massif: Petrological and geochemical characteristics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ulrych, Jaromír; Fediuk, F.; Lang, Miloš; Martinec, Petr

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 2 (2004), s. 127-153 ISSN 0009-2819 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA3013903 Keywords : Late Paleozoic * volcanic rocks * Bohemian Massif Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.643, year: 2004

  5. Analysis of runoff for the Baltic basin with an integrated Atmospheric-Ocean-Hydrology Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.-G. Richter

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A fully integrated Atmospheric-Ocean-Hydrology Model (BALTIMOS = Baltic Integrated Model System has been developed using existing model components. Experiment and model design has been adapted to the Baltic basin with a catchment area of approximately 1 750 000 km2. A comprehensive model validation has been completed using large meteorological and hydrological measurement database. Comparing the calculated runoff from the integrated and non-integrated model system with measurements for three different representative subbasins and the entire Baltic basin, the effect of the integrated model is described. The results display a good agreement between measured and calculated runoff. The effect of the integrated model is rather negligible looking at computed mean values: There is no significant difference between mean monthly runoff of the integrated and non-integrated model during the year with the exception of spring. There is a delay of one month with regard to peak runoff for the non-integrated model in spring caused by different interactive processes during the melting period.

  6. Crustal structure beneath the Paleozoic Parnaíba Basin revealed by airborne gravity and magnetic data, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castroa, David L.; Fuck, Reinhardt A.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Vidotti, Roberta M.; Bezerra, Francisco H. R.; Dantas, Elton L.

    2014-01-01

    The Parnaíba Basin is a large Paleozoic syneclise in northeastern Brazil underlain by Precambrian crystalline basement, which comprises a complex lithostructural and tectonic framework formed during the Neoproterozoic–Eopaleozoic Brasiliano–Pan African orogenic collage. A sag basin up to 3.5 km thick and 1000 km long formed after the collage. The lithologic composition, structure, and role in the basin evolution of the underlying basement are the focus of this study. Airborne gravity and magnetic data were modeled to reveal the general crustal structure underneath the Parnaíba Basin. Results indicate that gravity and magnetic signatures delineate the main boundaries and structural trends of three cratonic areas and surrounding Neoproterozoic fold belts in the basement. Triangular-shaped basement inliers are geophysically defined in the central region of this continental-scale Neoproterozoic convergence zone. A 3-D gravity inversion constrained by seismological data reveals that basement inliers exhibit a 36–40.5 km deep crustal root, with borders defined by a high-density and thinner crust. Forward modeling of gravity and magnetic data indicates that lateral boundaries between crustal units are limited by Brasiliano shear zones, representing lithospheric sutures of the Amazonian and São Francisco Cratons, Tocantins Province and Parnaíba Block. In addition, coincident residual gravity, residual magnetic, and pseudo-gravity lows indicate two complex systems of Eopaleozoic rifts related to the initial phase of the sag deposition, which follow basement trends in several directions.

  7. Geochemical records of salt-water inflows into the deep basins of the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, T.; Christiansen, C.; Clasen, S.

    1997-01-01

    The estuarine circulation system of the Baltic Sea promotes stable stratification and bottom water anoxia in sedimentary basins of the Baltic proper. Ingressions of saline, oxygen-rich waters from the North Sea replace the oxygen depleted deep water. Timing and extent of the ingressions vary...... on time-scales of years to decades, and are largely determined by wind-strength and storm frequency over the North Atlantic Ocean and Europe. Mn/Fe-ratios in sediments from a dated sediment core of the Gotland Deep (250 m water depth) record variations in redox conditions that can be linked to historical......-pressure areas over the North Atlantic in more recent times. The last three events have also been observed by hydrographic measurements. During the long time stagnation periods, Fe and Mn will be segregated into a particulate phase (iron sulfide) which accumulates at the seafloor and a dissolved phase (Mn2...

  8. Shelf-to-basin iron shuttling enhances vivianite formation in deep Baltic Sea sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Daniel C.; Gustafsson, Bo G.; Slomp, Caroline P.

    2016-01-01

    Coastal hypoxia is a growing and persistent problem largely attributable to enhanced terrestrial nutrient (i.e., nitrogen and phosphorus) loading. Recent studies suggest phosphorus removal through burial of iron (II) phosphates, putatively vivianite, plays an important role in nutrient cycling in the Baltic Sea - the world's largest anthropogenic dead zone - yet the dynamics of iron (II) phosphate formation are poorly constrained. To address this, a reactive-transport model was used to reconstruct the diagenetic and depositional history of sediments in the Fårö basin, a deep anoxic and sulphidic region of the Baltic Sea where iron (II) phosphates have been observed. Simulations demonstrate that transport of iron from shelf sediments to deep basins enhances vivianite formation while sulphide concentrations are low, but that pyrite forms preferentially over vivianite when sulphate reduction intensifies due to elevated organic loading. Episodic reoxygenation events, associated with major inflows of oxic waters, encourage the retention of iron oxyhydroxides and iron-bound phosphorus in sediments, increasing vivianite precipitation as a result. Results suggest that artificial reoxygenation of the Baltic Sea bottom waters could sequester up to 3% of the annual external phosphorus loads as iron (II) phosphates, but this is negligible when compared to potential internal phosphorus loads due to dissolution of iron oxyhydroxides when low oxygen conditions prevail. Thus, enhancing vivianite formation through artificial reoxygenation of deep waters is not a viable engineering solution to eutrophication in the Baltic Sea. Finally, simulations suggest that regions with limited sulphate reduction and hypoxic intervals, such as eutrophic estuaries, could act as important phosphorus sinks by sequestering vivianite. This could potentially alleviate eutrophication in shelf and slope environments.

  9. Status report: numerical modeling of ground-water flow in the Paleozoic formations, western Paradox Basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunbar, D.B.; Thackston, J.W.

    1985-10-01

    A three-dimensional finite-difference numerical model was applied to simulate the ground-water flow pattern in Paleozoic strata within the western Paradox Basin region. The primary purpose of the modeling was to test the present conceptual hydrogeologic model and evaluate data deficiencies. All available data on ground-water hydrology, although sparse in this area, were utilized as input to the model. Permeability and potentiometric levels were estimated from petroleum company drill-stem tests and water-supply wells; formation thicknesses were obtained from geologic correlation of borehole geophysical logs. Hydrogeologic judgment weighed heavily in the assignment of hydrologic values to geologic features for this preliminary modeling study. Calibration of the model was accomplished through trial-and-error matching of simulated potentiometric contours with available head data. Hypothetical flow patterns, flux rates, recharge amounts, and surface discharge amounts were produced by the model. 34 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs

  10. The Cottage Grove fault system (Illinois Basin): Late Paleozoic transpression along a Precambrian crustal boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchek, A.B.; McBride, J.H.; Nelson, W.J.; Leetaru, H.E.

    2004-01-01

    The Cottage Grove fault system in southern Illinois has long been interpreted as an intracratonic dextral strike-slip fault system. We investigated its structural geometry and kinematics in detail using (1) outcrop data, (2) extensive exposures in underground coal mines, (3) abundant borehole data, and (4) a network of industry seismic reflection profiles, including data reprocessed by us. Structural contour mapping delineates distinct monoclines, broad anticlines, and synclines that express Paleozoic-age deformation associated with strike slip along the fault system. As shown on seismic reflection profiles, prominent near-vertical faults that cut the entire Paleozoic section and basement-cover contact branch upward into outward-splaying, high-angle reverse faults. The master fault, sinuous along strike, is characterized along its length by an elongate anticline, ???3 km wide, that parallels the southern side of the master fault. These features signify that the overall kinematic regime was transpressional. Due to the absence of suitable piercing points, the amount of slip cannot be measured, but is constrained at less than 300 m near the ground surface. The Cottage Grove fault system apparently follows a Precambrian terrane boundary, as suggested by magnetic intensity data, the distribution of ultramafic igneous intrusions, and patterns of earthquake activity. The fault system was primarily active during the Alleghanian orogeny of Late Pennsylvanian and Early Permian time, when ultramatic igneous magma intruded along en echelon tensional fractures. ?? 2004 Geological Society of America.

  11. Fission track analysis and evolution of mesozoic-paleozoic hydrocarbon resource-rocks headed in Northern Jiangsu-South Yellow sea basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Hong; Cai Qianzhong; Sun Heqing; Guo Zhenxuan; Yan Guijing; Dai Jing; Liu Dongying

    2008-01-01

    Fission track data of different geologic epoches from Binhai salient, Yancheng sag, Haian sag, Baiju sag, Gaoyou sag, Hongze sag and Jinhu sag of northern Jiangsu basin and seismic data from Laoshan uplift in South Yellow Sea basin and evolution of Paleozoic hydrocarbon resource-rocks headed in the Northern Jiangsu-South Yellow Sea basin were studied. Results indicate that Binhai salient uplifted in 38-15 Ma, forming 'structure uplifting model', Paleozoic hydrocarbon resource-rocks have the appearance of 'different layers but identical mature, different layers but identical temperature' with Laoshan uplift. All sags have the characters of 'long time heating model', and sedimentations in Cenozoic were exploited by 2 km. Mesozoic-Paleozoic hydrocarbon resource- rocks of Laoshan uplift get ahead of 10 km. Structure evolution was compared with Binhai salient. According to the modeling results of secondary hydrocarbon generation, Mesozoic-Paleozoic hydrocarbon resource-rocks of Laoshan uplift have the good reservoir potentiality and probably become an important new window for sea oil and gas exploration. (authors)

  12. Ferroan dolomite cement in Cambrian sandstones: burial history and hydrocarbon generation of the Baltic sedimentary basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sliaupa, S.; Cyziene, J.; Molenaar, Nicolaas

    2008-01-01

    The conditions and timing of carbonate cementation in Cambrian sandstones of the Baltic sedimentary basin were determined by oxygen and carbon stable isotope and chemical data in combination with optical and cathodoluminescence petrographic studies. Studied samples represent a range in present...... burial depth from 340 to 2150 m. The carbonate cement is dominantly ferroan dolomite that occurs as dispersed patches of poikilotopic crystals. Temperatures of dolomite precipitation, based on delta O-18 values, range from 27 degrees C in the shallow buried to 95 degrees C in the deep buried sandstones...

  13. Geology of Paleozoic Rocks in the Upper Colorado River Basin in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming, Excluding the San Juan Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldon, Arthur L.

    2003-01-01

    The geology of the Paleozoic rocks in the Upper Colorado River Basin in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming, was studied as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Regional Aquifer-System Analysis Program to provide support for hydrogeological interpretations. The study area is segmented by numerous uplifts and basins caused by folding and faulting that have recurred repeatedly from Precambrian to Cenozoic time. Paleozoic rocks in the study area are 0-18,000 feet thick. They are underlain by Precambrian igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks and are overlain in most of the area by Triassic formations composed mostly of shale. The overlying Mesozoic and Tertiary rocks are 0-27,000 feet thick. All Paleozoic systems except the Silurian are represented in the region. The Paleozoic rocks are divisible into 11 hydrogeologic units. The basal hydrogeologic unit consisting of Paleozoic rocks, the Flathead aquifer, predominantly is composed of Lower to Upper Cambrian sandstone and quartzite. The aquifer is 0-800 feet thick and is overlain gradationally to unconformably by formations of Cambrian to Mississippian age. The Gros Ventre confining unit consists of Middle to Upper Cambrian shale with subordinate carbonate rocks and sandstone. The confining unit is 0-1,100 feet thick and is overlain gradationally to unconformably by formations of Cambrian to Mississippian age. The Bighom aquifer consists of Middle Cambrian to Upper Ordovician limestone and dolomite with subordinate shale and sandstone. The aquifer is 0-3,000 feet thick and is overlain unconformably by Devonian and Mississipplan rocks. The Elbert-Parting confining unit consists of Lower Devonian to Lower Mississippian limestone, dolomite, sandstone, quartzite, shale, and anhydrite. It is 0-700 feet thick and is overlain conformably to unconformably by Upper Devonian and Mississippian rocks. The Madison aquifer consists of two zones of distinctly different lithology. The lower (Redwall-Leadville) zone

  14. Land surface modelling in hydrology and meteorology – lessons learned from the Baltic Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Graham

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available By both tradition and purpose, the land parameterization schemes of hydrological and meteorological models differ greatly. Meteorologists are concerned primarily with solving the energy balance, whereas hydrologists are most interested in the water balance. Meteorological climate models typically have multi-layered soil parameterisation that solves temperature fluxes numerically with diffusive equations. The same approach is carried over to a similar treatment of water transport. Hydrological models are not usually so interested in soil temperatures, but must provide a reasonable representation of soil moisture to get runoff right. To treat the heterogeneity of the soil, many hydrological models use only one layer with a statistical representation of soil variability. Such a hydrological model can be used on large scales while taking subgrid variability into account. Hydrological models also include lateral transport of water – an imperative if' river discharge is to be estimated. The concept of a complexity chain for coupled modelling systems is introduced, together with considerations for mixing model components. Under BALTEX (Baltic Sea Experiment and SWECLIM (Swedish Regional Climate Modelling Programme, a large-scale hydrological model of runoff in the Baltic Basin is used to review atmospheric climate model simulations. This incorporates both the runoff record and hydrological modelling experience into atmospheric model development. Results from two models are shown. A conclusion is that the key to improved models may be less complexity. Perhaps the meteorological models should keep their multi-layered approach for modelling soil temperature, but add a simpler, yet physically consistent, hydrological approach for modelling snow processes and water transport in the soil. Keywords: land surface modelling; hydrological modelling; atmospheric climate models; subgrid variability; Baltic Basin

  15. The Baltic Basin: structure, properties of reservoir rocks, and capacity for geological storage of CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaher, Rein

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Baltic countries are located in the limits of the Baltic sedimentary basin, a 700 km long and 500 km wide synclinal structure. The axis of the syneclise plunges to the southwest. In Poland the Precambrian basement occurs at a depth of 5 km. The Baltic Basin includes the Neoproterozoic Ediacaran (Vendian at the base and all Phanerozoic systems. Two aquifers, the lower Devonian and Cambrian reservoirs, meet the basic requirements for CO2 storage. The porosity and permeability of sandstone decrease with depth. The average porosity of Cambrian sandstone at depths of 80–800, 800–1800, and 1800–2300 m is 18.6, 14.2, and 5.5%, respectively. The average permeability is, respectively, 311, 251, and 12 mD. Devonian sandstone has an average porosity of 26% and permeability in the range of 0.5–2 D. Prospective Cambrian structural traps occur only in Latvia. The 16 largest ones have CO2 storage capacity in the range of 2–74 Mt, with total capacity exceeding 400 Mt. The structural trapping is not an option for Lithuania as the uplifts there are too small. Another option is utilization of CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR. The estimated total EOR net volume of CO2 (part of CO2 remaining in the formation in Lithuania is 5.6 Mt. Solubility and mineral trapping are a long-term option. The calculated total solubility trapping capacity of the Cambrian reservoir is as high as 11 Gt of CO2 within the area of the supercritical state of carbon dioxide.

  16. Hydrothermal zebra dolomite in the Great Basin, Nevada--attributes and relation to Paleozoic stratigraphy, tectonics, and ore deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, S.F.; Hofstra, A.H.; Koenig, A.E.; Emsbo, P.; Christiansen, W.; Johnson, Chad

    2010-01-01

    In other parts of the world, previous workers have shown that sparry dolomite in carbonate rocks may be produced by the generation and movement of hot basinal brines in response to arid paleoclimates and tectonism, and that some of these brines served as the transport medium for metals fixed in Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) and sedimentary exhalative (Sedex) deposits of Zn, Pb, Ag, Au, or barite. Numerous occurrences of hydrothermal zebra dolomite (HZD), comprised of alternating layers of dark replacement and light void-filling sparry or saddle dolomite, are present in Paleozoic platform and slope carbonate rocks on the eastern side of the Great Basin physiographic province. Locally, it is associated with mineral deposits of barite, Ag-Pb-Zn, and Au. In this paper the spatial distribution of HZD occurrences, their stratigraphic position, morphological characteristics, textures and zoning, and chemical and stable isotopic compositions were determined to improve understanding of their age, origin, and relation to dolostone, ore deposits, and the tectonic evolution of the Great Basin. In northern and central Nevada, HZD is coeval and cogenetic with Late Devonian and Early Mississippian Sedex Au, Zn, and barite deposits and may be related to Late Ordovician Sedex barite deposits. In southern Nevada and southwest California, it is cogenetic with small MVT Ag-Pb-Zn deposits in rocks as young as Early Mississippian. Over Paleozoic time, the Great Basin was at equatorial paleolatitudes with episodes of arid paleoclimates. Several occurrences of HZD are crosscut by Mesozoic or Cenozoic intrusions, and some host younger pluton-related polymetallic replacement and Carlin-type gold deposits. The distribution of HZD in space (carbonate platform, margin, and slope) and stratigraphy (Late Neoproterozoic Ediacaran-Mississippian) roughly parallels that of dolostone and both are prevalent in Devonian strata. Stratabound HZD is best developed in Ediacaran and Cambrian units, whereas

  17. Impact of river basin management on coastal water quality and ecosystem services: A southern Baltic estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schernewski, Gerald; Hürdler, Jens; Neumann, Thomas; Stybel, Nardine; Venohr, Markus

    2010-05-01

    Eutrophication management is still a major challenge in the Baltic Sea region. Estuaries or coastal waters linked to large rivers cannot be managed independently. Nutrient loads into these coastal ecosystems depend on processes, utilisation, structure and management in the river basin. In practise this means that we need a large scale approach and integrated models and tools to analyse, assess and evaluate the effects of nutrient loads on coastal water quality as well as the efficiency of river basin management measures on surface waters and especially lagoons and estuaries. The Odra river basin, the Szczecin Lagoon and its coastal waters cover an area of about 150,000 km² and are an eutrophication hot-spot in the Baltic region. To be able to carry out large scale, spatially integrative analyses, we linked the river basin nutrient flux model MONERIS to the coastal 3D-hydrodynamic and ecosystem model ERGOM. Objectives were a) to analyse the eutrophication history in the river basin and the resulting functional changes in the coastal waters between early 1960's and today and b) to analyse the effects of an optimal nitrogen and phosphorus management scenario in the Oder/Odra river basin on coastal water quality. The models show that an optimal river basin management with reduced nutrient loads (e.g. N-load reduction of 35 %) would have positive effects on coastal water quality and algae biomass. The availability of nutrients, N/P ratios and processes like denitrification and nitrogen-fixation would show spatial and temporal changes. It would have positive consequences for ecosystems functions, like the nutrient retention capacity, as well. However, this optimal scenario is by far not sufficient to ensure a good coastal water quality according to the European Water Framework Directive. A "good" water quality in the river will not be sufficient to ensure a "good" water quality in the coastal waters. Further, nitrogen load reductions bear the risk of increased

  18. Iron and manganese shuttles control the formation of authigenic phosphorus minerals in the euxinic basins of the Baltic Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jilbert, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304835714; Slomp, C.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/159424003

    2013-01-01

    Microanalysis of epoxy resin-embedded sediments is used to demonstrate the presence of authigenic iron (Fe) (II) phosphates and manganese (Mn)-calcium (Ca)-carbonate-phosphates in the deep euxinic basins of the Baltic Sea. These minerals constitute major burial phases of phosphorus (P) in this area,

  19. Dating and assessing the recent sediments of three deep basins of the Baltic Sea: Indication of natural and anthropogenic changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunzendorf, H.

    1999-01-01

    -Mn are followed by about 300 years lasting sections with low Ca-Mn. Mo accumulations with peak valuesexceeding 300 mg/kg are found in all cores. The Mo transport to the seafloor is thought to be coupled with the nitrogen fixation processes by cyanobacteria being known for their need of Mo as central element......A 3-years EU-MAST-3 project (Baltic Sea System Study, BASYS) recovered short and long sediment cores from 3 deep basins of the Baltic Sea (Bornholm Basin, Gotland Basin and North Central Basin). During a paleoenvironmental study, lead-210 dating andgeochemical data were generated.Dating of cores...... to rhodochrosite formation which is thought to be coupled to saltwater inflows in that oxygen and HCO_3- rich saltwater converts bacterially re-dissolved Mninto the carbonate mineral. There is a clear indication for cyclic rhodochrosite deposition in that about 300 year long periods with relatively high Ca...

  20. Braided fluvial sedimentation in the lower paleozoic cape basin, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Richard G.; Tankard, Anthony J.

    1981-07-01

    Lower Paleozoic braided stream deposits from the Piekenier Formation in the Cape Province, South Africa, provide information on lateral and vertical facies variability in an alluvial plain complex influenced by a moderate to high runoff. Four braided stream facies are recognized on the basis of distinct lithologies and assemblages of sedimentary structures. A lower facies, dominated by upward-fining conglomerate to sandstone and mudstone channel fill sequences, is interpreted as a middle to lower alluvial plain deposit with significant suspended load sedimentation in areas of moderate to low gradients. These deposits are succeeded by longitudinal conglomerate bars which are attributed to middle to upper alluvial plain sedimentation with steeper gradients. This facies is in turn overlain by braid bar complexes of large-scale transverse to linguoid dunes consisting of coarse-grained pebbly sandstones with conglomerate lenses. These bar complexes are compared with environments of the Recent Platte River. They represent a middle to lower alluvial plain facies with moderate gradients and no significant suspended load sedimentation or vegetation to stabilize channels. These bar complexes interfinger basinward with plane bedded medium to coarse-grained sandstones interpreted as sheet flood deposits over the distal portions of an alluvial plain with low gradients and lacking fine-grained detritus or vegetation.

  1. Exploration practices and prospect of Upper Paleozoic giant gas fields in the Ordos Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengli Xi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas resources is abundant in the Ordos Basin, where six gas fields with more than 100 billion cubic meters of gas reserves have been successively developed and proved, including Jingbian, Yulin, Zizhou, Wushenqi, Sulige and Shenmu. This study aims to summarize the fruitful results and functional practices achieved in the huge gas province exploration, which will be regarded as guidance and reference for the further exploration and development in this basin. Based on the past five decades' successful exploration practices made by PetroChina Changqing Oilfield Company, we first comb the presentation of geological theories at different historical stages as well as the breakthrough in the course. Then, we analyze a complete set of adaptive techniques obtained from the long-time technological research and conclude historical experiences and effective measures in terms of broadening exploration ideas, such as the fluvial delta reservoir-forming theory, giant tight gas reservoir-forming theory, the idea of sediment source system in the southern basin, etc., and innovating technical and management mechanism, such as all-digit seismic prediction, fine logging evaluation for gas formations, stimulation of tight sand reservoirs, flat project and benchmarking management, and so on.

  2. Simulation of nitrate reduction in groundwater - An upscaling approach from small catchments to the Baltic Sea basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, A. L.; Donnelly, C.; Refsgaard, J. C.; Karlsson, I. B.

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes a modeling approach proposed to simulate the impact of local-scale, spatially targeted N-mitigation measures for the Baltic Sea Basin. Spatially targeted N-regulations aim at exploiting the considerable spatial differences in the natural N-reduction taking place in groundwater and surface water. While such measures can be simulated using local-scale physically-based catchment models, use of such detailed models for the 1.8 million km2 Baltic Sea basin is not feasible due to constraints on input data and computing power. Large-scale models that are able to simulate the Baltic Sea basin, on the other hand, do not have adequate spatial resolution to simulate some of the field-scale measures. Our methodology combines knowledge and results from two local-scale physically-based MIKE SHE catchment models, the large-scale and more conceptual E-HYPE model, and auxiliary data in order to enable E-HYPE to simulate how spatially targeted regulation of agricultural practices may affect N-loads to the Baltic Sea. We conclude that the use of E-HYPE with this upscaling methodology enables the simulation of the impact on N-loads of applying a spatially targeted regulation at the Baltic Sea basin scale to the correct order-of-magnitude. The E-HYPE model together with the upscaling methodology therefore provides a sound basis for large-scale policy analysis; however, we do not expect it to be sufficiently accurate to be useful for the detailed design of local-scale measures.

  3. New age constraints on the palaeoenvironmental evolution of the late Paleozoic back-arc basin along the western Gondwana margin of southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boekhout, F.; Reitsma, M. J.; Spikings, R.; Rodriguez, R.; Ulianov, A.; Gerdes, A.; Schaltegger, U.

    2018-03-01

    The tectonic evolution of the western Gondwana margin during Pangaea amalgation is recorded in variations in the Permo-Carboniferous back-arc basin sedimentation of Peru. This study provides the first radiometric age constraints on the volcanic and sedimentary sequences of south-central eastern Peru up to the western-most tip of Bolivia, and now permits the correlation of lateral facies variations to the late Paleozoic pre-Andean orogenic cycle. The two phases of Gondwanide magmatism and metamorphism at c. 315 Ma and c. 260 Ma are reflected in two major changes in this sedimentary environment. Our detrital U-Pb zircon ages demonstrate that the timing of Ambo Formation deposition corroborates the Late Mississipian age estimates. The transition from the Ambo to the Tarma Formation around the Middle Pennsylvanian Early Gondwanide Orogeny (c. 315 Ma) represents a relative deepening of the basin. Throughout the shallow marine deposits of the Tarma Formation evidence for contemporaneous volcanism becomes gradually more pronounced and culminates around 312 - 309 Ma. Continuous basin subsidence resulted in a buildup of platform carbonates of the Copacabana Formation. Our data highlights the presence of a previously unrecognized phase of deposition of mainly fluvial sandstones and localized volcanism (281-270 Ma), which we named ´Oqoruro Formation'. This sedimentary succession was previously miss-assigned to the so-called Mitu Group, which has recently been dated to start deposition in the Middle Triassic (∼245-240 Ma). The emersion of this marine basin coincides with the onset of a major plutonic pulse related to the Late Gondwanide Orogeny (c. 260). Exhumation lead to the consequent retreat of the epeiric sea to the present-day sub-Andean region, and the coeval accumulation of the fluvial Oqoruro Formation in south eastern Peru. These late Paleozoic palaeoenvironmental changes in the back-arc basins along the western Gondwana margin of southern reflect changes in

  4. Genetic Types and Source of the Upper Paleozoic Tight Gas in the Hangjinqi Area, Northern Ordos Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqi Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular and stable isotopic compositions of the Upper Paleozoic tight gas in the Hangjinqi area in northern Ordos Basin were investigated to study the geochemical characteristics. The tight gas is mainly wet with the dryness coefficient (C1/C1–5 of 0.853–0.951, and δ13C1 and δ2H-C1 values are ranging from -36.2‰ to -32.0‰ and from -199‰ to -174‰, respectively, with generally positive carbon and hydrogen isotopic series. Identification of gas origin indicates that tight gas is mainly coal-type gas, and it has been affected by mixing of oil-type gas in the wells from the Shilijiahan and Gongkahan zones adjacent to the Wulanjilinmiao and Borjianghaizi faults. Gas-source correlation indicates that coal-type gas in the Shiguhao zone displays distal-source accumulation. It was mainly derived from the coal-measure source rocks in the Upper Carboniferous Taiyuan Formation (C3t and Lower Permian Shanxi Formation (P1s, probably with a minor contribution from P1s coal measures from in situ Shiguhao zone. Natural gas in the Shilijiahan and Gongkahan zones mainly displays near-source accumulation. The coal-type gas component was derived from in situ C3t-P1s source rocks, whereas the oil-type gas component might be derived from the carbonate rocks in the Lower Ordovician Majiagou Formation (O1m.

  5. The paleozoic of Amazonas basin south edge: Tapajos river, Para state; O paleozoico da borda sul da bacia do Amazonas: rio Tapajos, estado do Para

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Nilo Siguehiko [Petrobras E e P, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Exploracao. Estratigrafia e Sedimentologia Geologia Aplicada a Exploracao], E-mail: nilo@petrobras.com.br; Winter, Wilson Rubem [Petrobras, Campoas dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Exploracao. Sedimentologia e Estratigrafia], E-mail: winter@petrobras.com.br; Wanderley Filho, Joaquim Ribeiro; Cacela, Alessandra Suzely Moda [Petrobras, Manaus, AM (Brazil). Exploracao. Unidade de Operacoes de Exploracao e Producao da Amazonia], Emails: jwand@petrobras.com.br, alessandra.suzely@petrobras.com.br

    2009-11-15

    The intracratonic Amazonas Basin covers an area close to 500.000km{sup 2} shared between the Amazonas and Para states. The phanerozoic stratigraphic framework is up to 6.000m thick and may be subdivided into two, first order depositional sequences: the Paleozoic sequence, intruded by diabase dikes and sills and the Mesozoic-Cenozoic sequence. Analyzing the stratigraphic framework, the great tectonic influence on the basin development can be appreciated. The mainly NW-SE structural directions of the basement, which mark the boundaries of the geochronological provinces of the Amazonas, are clearly identified along the Tapajos River. The Paleozoic sequence outcrops on the southern border of the Amazonas Basin embraces potential source rocks, reservoirs and seal rocks. They can be subdivided in three, second order sequences, limited by regional unconformities, as: the Ordovician/Devonian, which corresponds to the Pitinga lithostratigraphic formation; the Devonian-Tournaisian, which corresponds to the Maecuru, Erere, Barreirinha and Curiri formations and, the Pensylvanian-Permian that are represented by the Monte Alegre and Itaituba formations. This field trip guide presents these classic lithostratigraphic outcrop units, together with a brief sedimentological description and an analysis of their positioning related to sequence stratigraphical concepts. (author)

  6. U-Pb Detrital Zircon Geochronologic Constraints on Depositional Age and Sediment Source Terrains of the Late Paleozoic Tepuel-Genoa Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffis, N. P.; Montanez, I. P.; Isbell, J.; Gulbranson, E. L.; Wimpenny, J.; Yin, Q. Z.; Cúneo, N. R.; Pagani, M. A.; Taboada, A. C.

    2014-12-01

    The late Paleozoic Ice Age (LPIA) is the longest-lived icehouse of the Phanerozoic and the only time a metazoan dominated and vegetated world transitioned from an icehouse climate into a greenhouse. Despite several decades of research, the timing, extent of glaciation and the location of ice centers remain unresolved, which prohibits reconstruction of ice volume. The Permo-Carboniferous sediments in the Tepuel-Genoa Basin, Patagonia contains a near complete record of sedimentation from the lower Carboniferous through lower Permian. Outsized clasts, thin pebble-rich diamictites and slumps represent the last of the late Paleozoic glacially influenced deep-water marine sediments in the Mojón de Hierro Fm. and the Paleozoic of Patagonia. U-Pb analysis of detrital zircons separated from slope sediments reveal groupings (20 myr bins, n≥5 zircons) with peak depositional ages of 420, 540 to 660 and 1040 Ma. Zircon age populations recovered from the Mojón de Hierro Fm. compare well with bedrock ages of the Deseado Massif of SE Patagonia, suggesting this may be a potential source of sediments. The maximum depositional age of the sediments is 306.05 ± 3.7 Ma (2σ) as determined by the median age of the two youngest concordant zircons that overlap in error. The youngest zircon from the analysis yields a 238U/206Pb age of 301.3 ± 4.5 Ma (2σ; MSWD = 2.3). Younger zircons from the analysis compare well with the age of granite bedrock exposed along the basin margin to the E-NE suggesting they may reflect a more proximal source. These data, which indicate a maximum age of late Carboniferous for the Mojón de Hierro Fm, provide the first geochemical constraints for the timing of final deposition of glaciomarine sediments in the Tepuel-Genoa Basin, and contributes to the biostratigraphic correlation of the late Paleozoic succession in Patagonia with other key LPIA basins that has thus far been hindered by faunal provincialism.

  7. Reconstructing the groundwater flow in the Baltic Basin during the Last glaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saks, T.; Sennikovs, J.; Timuhins, A.; Kalvāns, A.

    2012-04-01

    In last decades it has been discussed that most large ice sheets tend to reside on warm beds even in harsh clima tic conditions and subglacial melting occurs due to geothermal heat flow and deformation heat of the ice flow. However the subglacial groundwater recharge and flow conditions have been addressed in only few studies. The aim of this study is to establish the groundwater flow pattern in the Baltic Basin below the Scandinavian ice sheet during the Late Weichselian glaciation. The calculation results are compared to the known distribution of the groundwater body of the glacial origin found in Cambrian - Vendian (Cm-V) aquifer in the Northern Estonia which is believed to have originated as a result of subglacial meltwater infiltration during the reoccurring glaciations. Steady state regional groundwater flow model of the Baltic Basin was used to simulate the groundwater flow beneath the ice sheet with its geometry adjusted to reflect the subglacial topography. Ice thickness modelling data (Argus&Peltier, 2010) was used for the setup of the boundary conditions: the meltwater pressure at the ice bed was assumed equal to the overlying ice mass. The modelling results suggest two main recharge areas of the Cm-V aquifer system, and reversed groundwater flow that persisted for at least 14 thousand years. Model results show that the groundwater flow velocities in the Cm-V aquifer in the recharge area in N-Estonia beneath the ice sheet exceeded the present velocities by a factor of 10 on average. The calculated meltwater volume recharged into the Cm-V aquifer system during the Late Weichselian corresponds roughly to the estimated, however, considering the fact, that the study area has been glaciated at least 4 times this is an overestimation. The modeling results attest the hypothesis of light dO18 groundwater glacial origin in the Cm-V aquifer system, however the volumes, timing and processes involved in the meltwater intrusion are yet to be explored. This study was

  8. Lack of inhibiting effect of oil emplacement on quartz cementation: Evidence from Cambrian reservoir sandstones, Paleozoic Baltic Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molenaar, Nicolaas; Cyziene, Jolanta; Sliaupa, Saulius

    2008-01-01

    Currently, the question of whether or not the presence of oil in sandstone inhibits quartz cementation and preserves porosity is still debated. Data from a number of Cambrian sandstone oil fields and dry fields have been studied to determine the effects of oil emplacement on quartz cementation. T...

  9. The structure and stratigraphy of the sedimentary succession in the Swedish sector of the Baltic Basin: New insights from vintage 2D marine seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopher, Daniel; Erlström, Mikael; Bell, Nicholas; Juhlin, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    We present five interpreted regional seismic profiles, describing the full sedimentary sequence across the Swedish sector of the Baltic Sea. The data for the study are part of an extensive and largely unpublished 2D seismic dataset acquired between 1970 and 1990 by the Swedish Oil Prospecting Company (OPAB). The Baltic Basin is an intracratonic basin located in northern Europe. Most of the Swedish sector of the basin constitutes the NW flank of a broad synclinal depression, the Baltic Basin. In the SW of the Swedish sector lies the Hanö Bay Basin, formed by subsidence associated with inversion of the Tornquist Zone during the Late Cretaceous. The geological history presented here is broadly consistent with previously published works. We observe an area between the Hanö Bay and the Baltic Basin where the Palaeozoic strata has been affected by transpression and subsequent inversion, associated with the Tornquist Zone during the late Carboniferous-Early Permian and Late Cretaceous, respectively. We propose that the Christiansø High was a structural low during the Late Jurassic, which was later inverted in the Late Cretaceous. We suggest that a fan shaped feature in the seismic data, adjacent to the Christiansø Fault within the Hanö Bay Basin, represents rapidly deposited, coarse-grained sediments eroded from the inverted Christiansø High during the Late Cretaceous. We identify a number of faults within the deeper part of the Baltic Basin, which we also interpret to be transpressional in nature, formed during the Caledonian Orogeny in the Late Silurian-Early Devonian. East of Gotland a number of sedimentary structures consisting of Silurian carbonate reefs and Ordovician carbonate mounds, as well as a large Quaternary glacial feature are observed. Finally, we use the seismic interpretation to infer the structural and stratigraphic history of the Baltic and Hanö Bay basins within the Swedish sector.

  10. Hydrologic properties and ground-water flow systems of the Paleozoic rocks in the upper Colorado River basin in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming, excluding the San Juan Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldon, Arthur L.

    2003-01-01

    The hydrologic properties and ground-water flow systems of Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in the Upper Colorado River Basin were investigated under the Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) program of the U.S. Geological Survey in anticipation of the development of water supplies from bedrock aquifers to fulfill the region's growing water demands. The study area, in parts of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming, covers about 100,000 square miles. It includes parts of four physiographic provinces--the Middle Rocky Mountains, Wyoming Basin, Southern Rocky Mountains, and Colorado Plateaus. A variety of landforms, including mountains, plateaus, mesas, cuestas, plains, badlands, and canyons, are present. Altitudes range from 3,100 to 14,500 feet. Precipitation is distributed orographically and ranges from less than 6 inches per year at lower altitudes to more than 60 inches per year in some mountainous areas. Most of the infrequent precipitation at altitudes of less than 6,000 feet is consumed by evapotranspiration. The Colorado and Green Rivers are the principal streams: the 1964-82 average discharge of the Colorado River where it leaves the Upper Colorado River Basin is 12,170 cubic feet per second (a decrease of 5,680 cubic feet per second since construction of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963). On the basis of their predominant lithologic and hydrologic properties, the Paleozoic rocks are classified into four aquifers and three confining units. The Flathead aquifer, Gros Ventre confining unit, Bighorn aquifer, Elbert-Parting confining unit, and Madison aquifer (Redwall-Leadville and Darwin-Humbug zones) make up the Four Corners aquifer system. A thick sequence, composed mostly of Mississippian and Pennsylvanian shale, anhydrite, halite, and carbonate rocks--the Four Corners confining unit (Belden-Molas and Paradox-Eagle Valley subunits)--overlies the Four Corners aquifer system in most areas and inhibits vertical ground-water flow between the Four Corners aquifer

  11. The estimation of CO2 storage potential of gas-bearing shale complex at the early stage of reservoir characterization: the case of Baltic Basin (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcicki, Adam; Jarosiński, Marek

    2017-04-01

    For the stage of shale gas production, like in the USA, prediction of the CO2 storage potential in shale reservoir can be performed by dynamic modeling. We have made an attempt to estimate this potential at an early stage of shale gas exploration in the Lower Paleozoic Baltic Basin, based on data from 3,800 m deep vertical well (without hydraulic fracking stimulation), supplemented with additional information from neighboring boreholes. Such an attempt makes a sense as a first guess forecast for company that explores a new basin. In our approach, the storage capacity is build by: (1) sorption potential of organic matter, (2) open pore space and (3) potential fracture space. the sequence. our estimation is done for 120 m long shale sequence including three shale intervals enriched with organic mater. Such an interval is possible to be fracked from a single horizontal borehole as known from hydraulic fracture treatment in the other boreholes in this region. The potential for adsorbed CO2 is determined from Langmuir isotherm parameters taken from laboratory measurements in case of both CH4 and CO2 adsorption, as well as shale density and volume. CO2 has approximately three times higher sorption capacity than methane to the organic matter contained in the Baltic Basin shales. Finally, due to low permeability of shale we adopt the common assumption for the USA shale basins that the CO2 will be able to reach effectively only 10% of theoretical total sorption volume. The pore space capacity was estimated by utilizing results of laboratory measurements of dynamic capacity for pores bigger than 10 nm. It is assumed for smaller pores adsorption prevails over free gas. Similarly to solution for sorption, we have assumed that only 10 % of the tight pore space will be reached by CO2. For fracture space we have considered separately natural (tectonic-origin) and technological (potentially produced by hydraulic fracturing treatment) fractures. From fracture density profile and

  12. Active subsurface cellular function in the Baltic Sea Basin, IODP Exp 347

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, B. K.; Zinke, L. A.; Bird, J. T.; Lloyd, K. G.; Marshall, I.; Amend, J.; Jørgensen, B. B.

    2016-12-01

    The Baltic Sea Basin is a unique depositional setting that has experienced periods of glaciation and deglaciation as a result of global temperature fluctuations over the course of several hundred thousand years. This has resulted in laminated sediments formed during periods with strong permanent salinity stratification. The high sedimentation rates (100-500 cm/1000 y) make this an ideal setting to understand the microbial structure of a deep biosphere community in a high-organic matter environment. The responses of deep sediment microbial communities to variations in conditions during and after deposition are poorly understood. Samples were collected through scientific drilling during the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 347 on board the Greatship Manisha, September-November 2013. We examined the active microbial community structure using the 16S rRNA gene transcript and active functional genes through metatranscriptome sequencing. Major biogeochemical shifts have been observed in response to the depositional history between the limnic, brackish, and marine phases. The microbial community structure in the BSB is diverse and reflective of the unique changes in the geochemical profile. These data further define the existence life in the deep subsurface and the survival mechanisms required for this extreme environment.

  13. Active microbial community structure of deep subsurface sediments within Baltic Sea Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, B. K.; Zinke, L.; Carvalho, G.; Lloyd, K. G.; Marshall, I.; Shumaker, A.; Amend, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Baltic Sea Basin (BSB) is a unique depositional setting that has experienced periods of glaciation and deglaciation as a result of climatic fluctuations over past tens of thousands of years. This has resulted in laminated sediments formed during periods with strong permanent salinity stratification. The high sedimentation rates make this an ideal setting to understand the microbial structure of a deep biosphere community in a relatively high carbon, and thus high-energy environment, compared to other deep subsurface sites. Samples were collected through scientific drilling during the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 347 on board the Greatship Manisha, September-November 2013. We examined the active microbial community structure using the 16S rRNA gene transcript and active functional genes through metatranscriptome sequencing. Major biogeochemical shifts have been observed in response to the depositional history between the limnic, brackish, and marine phases. The active microbial community structure in the BSB is diverse and reflective of the unique changes in the geochemical profile. These data further refine our understanding of the existence life in the deep subsurface and the survival mechanisms required for this extreme environment.

  14. Characteristics of the Paleozoic slope break system and its control on stratigraphic-lithologic traps: An example from the Tarim Basin, western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on comprehensive analyses of seismic and log data, this study indicates that mainly four widespread angular to minor angular unconformities (Tg8, Tg51, Tg5 and Tg3 were formed during the Paleozoic. Through the interpretation of structural unconformities, calculation of eroded thickness, correction of palaeo-water depth and compaction and compilation of the Early Paleozoic structural maps, the Early Paleozoic slope break belt (geomorphologic unit of the Tarim Basin is subdivided into uplift area, subaqueous uplift area, rift slope break belt, flexure slope break belt (slope belt, depression area and deep basin area. Palaeogeomorphology of the Cambrian-Early Ordovician was approximately in EW trend within which three tectonic units including the Tabei Palaeo-uplift, the northern Depressional Belt and the southern Palaeo-uplift developed respectively and are grouped into two slope break systems namely as the Tabei Palaeo-uplift and the southern Palaeo-uplift. These tectonic units obviously control the deposition of isolated platform, open platform, restricted platform and deep basin. Influenced by extrusion in the Mid-Late Ordovician, the southern and northern subaqueous uplifts gradually elevated and then were eroded. Resultantly two slope break systems developed, namely as the northern and central Palaeo-uplifts which obviously controlled the deposition of provenance area, isolated platform, mixed continental shelf, slope and basin facies. The intensive extrusion of the Mid-Late Ordovician leads to significant tectonic deformation of the Tarim Basin: large area of uplifting and erosion and development of EW trending anticline and syncline. Deposition of shore, tidal flat, delta, shallow marine clastics and deep marine facies is obviously controlled by the Tabei, the southern and the Tadong Palaeo-uplifts. Slope break systems control development of stratigraphic unconformity and thus truncation and onlap unconformity zones become favorable

  15. Use of regional climate models data for groundwater recharge modelling in Baltic artesian basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timuhins, A.; Klints, I.; Sennikovs, J.; Virbulis, J.

    2012-04-01

    Baltic artesian basin (BAB) covers about 480000 square kilometres. BAB includes territory of Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, parts of Poland, Russia, Belarus and Baltic Sea. The closed hydrogeological mathematical model for the BAB is developed in University of Latvia and reference calculations made in steady state mode. No-flow boundary condition is applied on the bottom and side boundaries of BAB. Hydraulic head is fixed on the seabed and largest lakes, and along the main river lines. Main water supply wells also are presented in the model as a pointwise water extraction. Precipitation is the main source of the groundwater recharge in the BAB region. Infiltration parameterization is responsible for this water source in BAB model. During the early stage of calibration of BAB hydrogeological model an automatic calibration for the hydraulic conductivities of permeable layers and single infiltration rate was attempted. Performing BAB model calibration it was noted that the differences of calculated and observed hydraulic heads (used for calculating the calibration penalty function) can be reduced by introducing a spatially distributed infiltration model. The aim of the present study is improving of the infiltration model, as well as preserving a short computation time (several minutes) for the piezometric head. Direct solution of improvement of the infiltration would be a usage of the advanced hydrological models. However, an accurate hydrological model requires a lot of computational power. It should couple meteorological and hydrological parameters and requires additional calibration. The regional climate model (KNMI-RACMO2 25 km resolution) results from ENSEMBLES project are used for the spatially distributed infiltration field calculation. The infiltration field is constructed as weighted difference of 30 year averaged precipitation and evaporation fields. The weight value is calibrated and a considerable decrease of the value of penalty function of the groundwater

  16. Impact of the climate change to shallow groundwater in Baltic artesian basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauva, D.; Bethers, P.; Timuhins, A.; Sennikovs, J.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of our work was to find the long term pattern of annual shallow ground water changes in region of Latvia, ground water level modelling for the contemporary climate and future climate scenarios and the model generalization to the Baltic artesian basin (BAB) region. Latvia is located in the middle part of BAB. It occupies about 65'000 square kilometers. BAB territory (480'000 square kilometres) also includes Lithuania, Estonia as well as parts of Poland, Russia, Belarus and the Baltic Sea. Territory of BAB is more than seven times bigger than Latvia. Precipitation and spring snow melt are the main sources of the ground water recharge in BAB territory. The long term pattern of annual shallow ground water changes was extracted from the data of 25 monitoring wells in the territory of Latvia. The main Latvian groundwater level fluctuation regime can be described as a function with two maximums (in spring and late autumn) and two minimums (in winter and late summer). The mathematical model METUL (developed by Latvian University of Agriculture) was chosen for the ground water modelling. It was calibrated on the observations in 25 gauging wells around Latvia. After the calibration we made calculations using data provided by an ensemble of regional climate models, yielding a continuous groundwater table time-series from 1961 to 2100, which were analysed and split into 3 time windows for further analysis: contemporary climate (1961-1990), near future (2021-2050) and far future (2071-2100). The daily average temperature, precipitation and humidity time series were used as METUL forcing parameters. The statistical downscaling method (Sennikovs and Bethers, 2009) was applied for the bias correction of RCM calculated and measured variables. The qualitative differences in future and contemporary annual groundwater regime are expected. The future Latvian annual groundwater cycle according to the RCM climate projection changes to curve with one peak and one drought point

  17. Assessment of Appalachian basin oil and gas resources: Utica-Lower Paleozoic Total Petroleum System: Chapter G.10 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Robert T.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The Utica-Lower Paleozoic Total Petroleum System (TPS) in the Appalachian Basin Province is named for the Upper Ordovician Utica Shale, which is the source rock, and for multiple lower Paleozoic sandstone and carbonate units that are the important reservoirs. The total organic carbon (TOC) values for the Utica Shale are usually greater than 1 weight percent. TOC values ranging from 2 to 3 weight percent outline a broad, northeast-trending area that extends across western and southern Pennsylvania, eastern Ohio, northern West Virginia, and southeastern New York. The Utica Shale is characterized by type II kerogen, which is a variety of kerogen that is typically prone to oil generation. Conondont color-alteration index (CAI) isograds, which are based on samples from the Upper Ordovician Trenton Limestone (or Group), indicate that a pod of mature Utica Shale source rocks occupies most of the TPS.

  18. People, lakes and seashores: Studies from the Baltic Sea basin and adjacent areas in the early and Mid-Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groß, Daniel; Zander, Annabell; Boethius, Adam; Dreibrodt, Stefan; Grøn, Ole; Hansson, Anton; Jessen, Catherine; Koivisto, Satu; Larsson, Lars; Lübke, Harald; Nilsson, Björn

    2018-04-01

    During the Early and Mid-Holocene significant changes in the ecology and socio-cultural spheres occurred around the Baltic Sea. Because of the underlying climatic changes and thus environmental alterations, the area was the scene for various cultural developments during the period under investigation. In the course of the melting of the glaciers at the end of the last Ice Age, isostatic and eustatic movements caused continual changes to the Baltic Sea basin. Changes in water level, however, affected not only the Early and Mid-Holocene coastlines, but also the whole Baltic Sea drainage system, including large lakes, rivers and watersheds in the hinterland were also dramatically impacted by these ecological changes. Prehistoric people were thus affected by changes in resource availability and reduction or enlargement of their territories, respectively. In order to evaluate the impact of changes in the water and land networks on the environment, resource availability, and human behaviour, and to reconstruct human responses to these changes, we pursue an interdisciplinary approach connecting environmental and archaeological research highlighted through different case studies.

  19. Remote sensing of chlorophyll in the Baltic Sea at basin scale from 1997 to 2012 using merged multisensor data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitarch, J.; Volpe, G.; Colella, S.; Krasemann, H.; Santoleri, R.

    2015-09-01

    Fifteen-year (1997-2012) time series of chlorophyll a (CHL) in the Baltic Sea, based on merged multisensor satellite data provided by the European projects Globcolour and ESA-OC-CCI were analysed. Several available CHL algorithms were sea-truthed against a large in situ CHL dataset consisting of data by Seadatanet, HELCOM and NOAA. Matchups were calculated for three separate areas (1) Skagerrak and Kattegat, (2) Baltic Proper plus gulfs of Riga and Finland, called here "Central Baltic", (3) Gulf of Bothnia, and for the three areas as a whole. Statistics showed low linearity. The OC4v6 algorithm (R2 = 0.46, BIAS = +60 %, RMS = 79 % for the whole dataset) was linearly transformed by using the best linear fit (OC4corr). By construction, the bias was corrected, but RMS was increased instead. Despite this shortcoming, we demonstrated that errors between OC4corr and in situ data were log-normally distributed and centred at zero. Consequently, unbiased estimators of the horizontally-averaged CHL could be obtained, the error of which tends to zero when a large amount of pixels is averaged. From the basin-wide time series, the climatology and the annual anomalies were separated. The climatologies revealed completely different CHL dynamics among regions: in Skagerrak and Kattegat, CHL strongly peaks in late winter, with a minimum in summer and a secondary peak in spring. In the Central Baltic, CHL follows a dynamics of a spring CHL peak, followed by a much stronger summer bloom, with decreasing CHL towards winter. The Gulf of Bothnia shows a similar CHL dynamics as the central Baltic, although the summer bloom is absent. Across years, CHL showed great variability. Supported by auxiliary satellite sea-surface temperature (SST) data, we found that phytoplankton growth was inhibited in the central Baltic Sea in the years of colder summers or when the SST happened to increase later in the season. Extremely high CHL in spring 2008 was detected and linked to an exceptionally warm

  20. Transplant experiments uncover Baltic Sea basin-specific responses in bacterioplankton community composition and metabolic activities

    OpenAIRE

    Lindh, Markus V.; Figueroa, Daniela; Sjöstedt, Johanna; Baltar, Federico; Lundin, Daniel; Andersson, Agneta; Legrand, Catherine; Pinhassi, Jarone

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenically induced changes in precipitation are projected to generate increased river runoff to semi-enclosed seas, intensifying loads of terrestrial dissolved organic matter and decreasing salinity. To determine how bacterial community structure and functioning adjust to such changes, we designed microcosm transplant experiments with Baltic Proper (salinity 7.2) and Bothnian Sea (salinity 3.6) water. Baltic Proper bacteria generally reached higher abundance than Bothnian Sea bacteria ...

  1. Past, present and future formation of groundwater resources in northern part of Baltic Artesian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marandi, A.; Vallner, L.; Vaikmae, R.; Raidla, V.

    2012-04-01

    Cambrian-Vendian Aquifer System (CVAS) is the deepest confined aquifer system used for water consumption in northern part of Baltic Artesian Basin (BAB). A regional groundwater flow and transport model (Visual Modflow) was used to investigate the paleohydrogeological scientific and contemporary management problems of CVAS. The model covers the territory of Estonia and its close surrounding, all together 88,000 km2 and includes all main aquifers and aquitards from ground surface to as low as the impermeable part of the crystalline basement. Three-dimensional distribution of groundwater heads, flow directions, velocities, and rates as well as transport and budget characteristics were simulated by the model. Water composition was changed significantly during the last glaciations.Strongly depleted O and H stable isotope composition, absence of 3H and low radiocarbon concentration are the main indicators of glacial origin of groundwater in the Cambrian-Vendian aquifer in northern Estonia. The noble gas analyses allowed concluding, that palaeorecharge took place at temperatures around the freezing point. While in North Estonia, most of water was changed by glacial melt water, high salinity water is till preserved in Southern part of Estonia.First results of modeling suggest that during the intrusion period lasting 7.3-9.3 ka the front of glacial thaw water movement had southeast direction and reachedto 180-220 kmfrom CVAS outcrop in Baltic Sea. Confining layer of CVAS is cut through by deep buried valleys in several places in North Estonia making possible for modern precipitation to infiltrate into aquifer system in present day. In case of natural conditions, the water pressure of CVAS is few meters above sea level and most of valleys act as discharge areas for aquifers system. Two regional depression ones have formed in North Estonia as a result of groundwater use from CVAS. Water consumption changes the natural groundwater gradient, flow direction and thereforerecharge

  2. Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    In 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimated undiscovered oil and gas resources that have the potential for additions to reserves in the San Juan Basin Province, New Mexico and Colorado. Paleozoic rocks were not appraised. The last oil and gas assessment for the province was in 1995. There are several important differences between the 1995 and 2002 assessments. The area assessed is smaller than that in the 1995 assessment. This assessment of undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in the San Juan Basin Province also used a slightly different approach in the assessment, and hence a number of the plays defined in the 1995 assessment are addressed differently in this report. After 1995, the USGS has applied a total petroleum system (TPS) concept to oil and gas basin assessments. The TPS approach incorporates knowledge of the source rocks, reservoir rocks, migration pathways, and time of generation and expulsion of hydrocarbons; thus the assessments are geologically based. Each TPS is subdivided into one or more assessment units, usually defined by a unique set of reservoir rocks, but which have in common the same source rock. Four TPSs and 14 assessment units were geologically evaluated, and for 13 units, the undiscovered oil and gas resources were quantitatively assessed.

  3. Oxygen isotope composition as late glacial palaeoclimate indicators of groundwater recharge in the Baltic Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokrik, R.; Mazeika, J.

    2002-01-01

    Several hypotheses were established to explain low δ 18 O values of groundwater which have been found in the Estonian Homocline. Traces of depleted groundwater were found also in other parts of the Baltic Basin near the shoreline. From data collected in this and previous studies, the δ 18 O values of groundwater in most aquifers are known to range from -7.7 to -13.9 per mille. However, the groundwater in Estonia in the Cambrian-Vendian aquifer system has significantly lower δ 18 O values, which vary mainly from -18 to -22.5 per mille. The overlying Ordovician-Cambrian aquifer is also depleted in 18 O, but, as a rule, the degree of depletion is several per mille less than in case of the Cambrian- Vendian aquifer. The thickness of the depleted water in Estonia reaches 450 m. At similar depths beneath Gotland Island (Sweden Homocline), groundwater has significantly higher δ 18 O values (from -5.7 to -6.1 per mille). A hydrogeologic model, depicting conditions during the pre Late Glacial, and accounting for hydraulic connections between the lake and river systems through taliks in permafrost, was developed to explain the observed groundwater isotope data. According to the adopted model, penetration of isotopically depleted surface waters could have reached depths of up to 500 m, with subsequent mixing between subglacial meltwater and old groundwater of Huneborg-Denekamp time. Traces of this penetration were discovered only near the shoreline, where δ 18 O values vary from -12 to -13.9 per mille and 14 C is below 4%. In the territory of the Estonian Homocline, the hydraulically close connection via the Cambrian-Vendian aquifer between talik systems of the Gulf of Riga and the Gulf of Finland existed through permafrost before the Late Glacial. This was due to subglacial recharge during the recessional Pandivere (12 ka BP) and Palivere (11.2 ka BP) phases, which is also associated with recharge of isotopically depleted groundwater. (author)

  4. Holocene history of the Baltic Sea as a background for assessing records of human impact in the sediments of the Gotland Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrén, E.; Andrén, T.; Kunzendorf, Helmar

    2000-01-01

    Sediment cores from the Gotland Basin were studied for their siliceous microfossil assemblages and organic carbon content to compare recent environmental changes in the Baltic Sea with its natural long-term history. Age models were constructed using Pb-210, Cs-137 and corrected and calibrated C-14...

  5. A Systems Approach to Identifying Exploration and Development Opportunities in the Illinois Basin: Digital Portifolio of Plays in Underexplored Lower Paleozoic Rocks [Part 1 of 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyler, Beverly; Harris, David; Keith, Brian; Huff, Bryan; Lasemi, Yaghoob

    2008-06-30

    This study examined petroleum occurrence in Ordovician, Silurian and Devonian reservoirs in the Illinois Basin. Results from this project show that there is excellent potential for additional discovery of petroleum reservoirs in these formations. Numerous exploration targets and exploration strategies were identified that can be used to increase production from these underexplored strata. Some of the challenges to exploration of deeper strata include the lack of subsurface data, lack of understanding of regional facies changes, lack of understanding the role of diagenetic alteration in developing reservoir porosity and permeability, the shifting of structural closures with depth, overlooking potential producing horizons, and under utilization of 3D seismic techniques. This study has shown many areas are prospective for additional discoveries in lower Paleozoic strata in the Illinois Basin. This project implemented a systematic basin analysis approach that is expected to encourage exploration for petroleum in lower Paleozoic rocks of the Illinois Basin. The study has compiled and presented a broad base of information and knowledge needed by independent oil companies to pursue the development of exploration prospects in overlooked, deeper play horizons in the Illinois Basin. Available geologic data relevant for the exploration and development of petroleum reservoirs in the Illinois Basin was analyzed and assimilated into a coherent, easily accessible digital play portfolio. The primary focus of this project was on case studies of existing reservoirs in Devonian, Silurian, and Ordovician strata and the application of knowledge gained to future exploration and development in these underexplored strata of the Illinois Basin. In addition, a review of published reports and exploration in the New Albany Shale Group, a Devonian black shale source rock, in Illinois was completed due to the recent increased interest in Devonian black shales across the United States. The New

  6. Iodine Isotopes (129I and 127I) in the Baltic Proper, Kattegat, and Skagerrak Basins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, P.; Aldahan, A.; Hansen, Violeta

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive anthropogenic pollution has raised concerns about the present and future environmental status of the semienclosed Baltic Sea. We here study the distribution and inventory of the anthropogenic radioactive 129I in water depth profiles collected from 16 sites in August 2006 and 19 sites ...

  7. The Baltic Sea Experiment (BALTEX): A European contribution to the investigation of the energy and water cycle over a large drainage basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raschke, E.; Meywerk, J.; Warrach, K.

    2001-01-01

    The Baltic Sea Experiment (BALTEX) is one of the five continental-scale experiments of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX). More than 50 research groups from 14 European countries are participating in this project to measure and model the energy and water cycle over the large...... drainage basin of the Baltic Sea in northern Europe. BALTEX aims to provide a better understanding of the processes of the climate system and to improve and to validate the water cycle in regional numerical models for weather forecasting and climate studies. A major effort is undertaken to couple...

  8. On the representation of regional characteristics by hydrographic measurements at central stations in four deep basins of the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Reissmann

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the eddy resolving data sets of salinity, temperature, and oxygen content aquired in the framework of the German-Russian project MESODYN (MESOscale DYNamics in the Arkona Basin, the Bornholm Basin, the Stolpe Furrow, and the Eastern Gotland Basin during summer and winter stratification situations are utilized to examine to which extent the observations at the central monitoring stations within these basins are representative for the spatial mean state of the corresponding region with respect to comparative monitoring purposes of the whole Baltic Sea. The investigation covers profiles of salinity, potential temperature, oxygen content, potential density, and squared buoyancy or Brunt-Väisälä frequency. Moreover, some parameters of the halocline, namely its depth, thickness, and upper and lower boundaries, and the first baroclinic Rossby radii are subject to the investigation. The profiles match best for the squared buoyancy or Brunt-Väisälä frequency. The profiles of salinity match best in the Eastern Gotland Basin and worst in the Arkona Basin both for summer and winter stratification situations. The overall agreement for the halocline parameters is good. The baroclinic Rossby radii match their spatial mean values well, if the depth range considered for their calculation is restricted to the mean depth in each region at the bottom side. In doing so they also match the spatial mean values of the first baroclinic Rossby radii calculated considering the whole depth range at each station. Overall, the regional characteristics of the investigated quantities and parameters are represented well by the hydrographic measurements at the central stations in the four regions in spite of some significant differences between the spatial mean states and the observations at the central stations. In particular, the observations at the central stations seem to be usefull for comparisons between these regions. However, the observed differences

  9. Trend Analysis of Nitrogen Deposition to Baltic Sea and its sub basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeena, V. S.; Jerzy, Bartnicki

    2009-04-01

    Since the beginning of last century, Baltic Sea has changed from a clear-water sea into a eutrophic marine environment. Eutrophication is the major problem in the Baltic Sea. Excessive nitrogen and phosphorus loads coming from land-based sources within and outside the catchment area of the bordering countries of the Baltic Sea are the main cause of the eutrophication in the sea. Even though a major part of nitrogen(75%) and phosphorus load(95%) enter the sea via rivers or as water-born discharges, 25% of the nitrogen load comes as atmospheric deposition. Numerical models are the best tools to measure atmospheric deposition into sea waters. We have used the latest version of the Unified EMEP model - which has been developed at the EMEP/MSC-W (Meteorological Synthesizing Centre - West of EMEP) for simulating atmospheric transport and deposition of acidifying and eutrophying compounds as well as photo-oxidants in Europe- to study the trends in atmospheric deposition of nitrogen into Baltic Sea for the period 1995-2006. The model domain covers Europe and the Atlantic Ocean. The model grid (of the size 170×133) has a horizontal resolution of 50 km at 60o N, which is consistent with the resolution of emission data reported to CLRTAP. Approximately 10 of these layers are placed below 2 km to obtain high resolution of the boundary layer which is of special importance to the long range transport of air pollution. EMEP model has been thouroughly validated (Fagerli et.al.[1], Simpson et.al.[2], Simpson et.al.[3] ) The contribution of deposition of nitrogen into Baltic Sea from each of the bordering countries of the Baltic Sea and the deposition trends for the period 1995-2006 has been analysed and the results will be presented. References: [1]. Fagerli H., Simpson D. and Aas W.: Model performance for sulphur and nitrogen compounds for the period 1980 to 2000. [In:] L. Tarraśon, (editor), Transboundary Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground Level Ozone in Europe. EMEP

  10. Geochemistry of Early Paleozoic boninites from the Central Qilian block, Northwest China: Constraints on petrogenesis and back-arc basin development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhong; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Yang, He; Luo, Bi-Ji; Guo, Liang; Xu, Wang-Chun; Pan, Fa-Bin

    2018-06-01

    Early Paleozoic boninites occur in the Central Qilian orogenic belt, Northwest China. Their petrogenesis provides insights into lithosphere process and tectonic evolution of the Qilian block. In this paper, we carry out a study of geochronological, geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic compositions for the Early Paleozoic boninites in the Lajishan area of the Central Qilian block. The Lajishan boninites (∼483 Ma) have high Al2O3/TiO2 (36.7-64.7) and CaO/TiO2 (31.1-49.6) ratios, and high MgO (7.86-10.47 wt%), Cr (439-599 ppm) and Ni (104-130 ppm) contents, indicating that the boninites result from a refractory mantle source. They are depleted in high field-strength elements (HFSE) and enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILE), coupled with slightly high initial 87Sr/86Sr values of 0.7059-0.7074 and low εNd(t) values of -1.05 to +2.66, indicating that the mantle source was metasomatized by subducted slab-derived components. We found that an assemblage of low-Ca group and high-Ca group boninites occurred in the Lajishan belt. The high-Ca group boninites were derived from relatively fertile mantle with slightly higher melting degree, whereas the low-Ca group boninites were generated by partial melting of more refractory mantle wedge peridotites with slightly lower melting degree. The assemblage of low-Ca group and high-Ca group boninites reveals that the low-Ca group boninites were generated by the further melting of the more refractory mantle source after the segregation of the high-Ca group boninitic magmas in response to the back-arc basin opening. In the light of reported boninites worldwide, a diagram of Zr/Y vs. CaO/Al2O3 is used to identify boninites in fore-arc and back-arc regions. We suggest that the Lajishan boninites represent the products of back-arc basin development in response to the northward subduction of the Qaidam-West Qinling ocean slab.

  11. Central Paleozoic prehistory of Vilyuyskiy syneclise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ul' mesvay, F S

    1981-01-01

    Based on a study of lithological features of the central Paleozoic deposits of the Ygyattinskiy and Kempendyayskiy Basins, a comparison plan is developed. The main features of the middle Paleozoic history of the region are clarified. Their affiliation to a single structure of the avlakogen type is established. Based on the proximity of rock associations and time for development, a similarity of the studied region and the Pripyatskiy-Donets avlakogen has been established. A conclusion is drawn about the possible productivity of the middle Paleozoic deposits.

  12. Silurian extension in the Upper Connecticut Valley, United States and the origin of middle Paleozoic basins in the Québec embayment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, D.W.; Coish, R.A.; Tucker, R.D.; Peng, Z.X.; Wilson, S.A.; Rouff, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    Pre-Silurian strata of the Bronson Hill arch (BHA) in the Upper Connecticut Valley, NH-VT are host to the latest Ludlow Comerford Intrusive Suite consisting, east to west, of a mafic dike swarm with sheeted dikes, and an intrusive complex. The rocks are mostly mafic but with compositions ranging from gabbro to leucocratic tonalite. The suite is truncated on the west by the Monroe fault, a late Acadian thrust that carries rocks of the BHA westward over Silurian-Devonian strata of the Connecticut Valley-Gaspe?? trough (CVGT). Dikes intrude folded strata with a pre-intrusion metamorphic fabric (Taconian?) but they experienced Acadian deformation. Twenty fractions of zircon and baddeleyite from three sample sites of gabbrodiorite spanning nearly 40 km yield a weighted 207Pb/206Pb age of 419 ?? 1 Ma. Greenschist-facies dikes, sampled over a strike distance of 35 km, were tholeiitic basalts formed by partial melting of asthenospheric mantle, with little or no influence from mantle or crustal lithosphere. The dike chemistry is similar to mid-ocean ridge, within-plate, and back-arc basin basalts. Parent magmas originated in the asthenosphere and were erupted through severely thinned lithosphere adjacent to the CVGT. Extensive middle Paleozoic basins in the internides of the Appalachian orogen are restricted to the Que??bec embayment of the Laurentian rifted margin, and include the CVGT and the Central Maine trough (CMT), separated from the BHA by a Silurian tectonic hinge. The NE-trending Comerford intrusions parallel the CVGT, CMT, and the tectonic hinge, and indicate NW-SE extension. During post-Taconian convergence, the irregular margins of composite Laurentia and Avalon permitted continued collision in Newfoundland (St. Lawrence promontory) and coeval extension in the Que??bec embayment. Extension may be related to hinge retreat of the northwest directed Brunswick subduction complex and rise of the asthenosphere following slab break-off. An alternative hypothesis is

  13. Executive summary--2002 assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado: Chapter 1 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    In 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimated undiscovered oil and gas resources that have the potential for additions to reserves in the San Juan Basin Province (5022), New Mexico and Colorado (fig. 1). Paleozoic rocks were not appraised. The last oil and gas assessment for the province was in 1995 (Gautier and others, 1996). There are several important differences between the 1995 and 2002 assessments. The area assessed is smaller than that in the 1995 assessment. This assessment of undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in the San Juan Basin Province also used a slightly different approach in the assessment, and hence a number of the plays defined in the 1995 assessment are addressed differently in this report. After 1995, the USGS has applied a total petroleum system (TPS) concept to oil and gas basin assessments. The TPS approach incorporates knowledge of the source rocks, reservoir rocks, migration pathways, and time of generation and expulsion of hydrocarbons; thus the assessments are geologically based. Each TPS is subdivided into one or more assessment units, usually defined by a unique set of reservoir rocks, but which have in common the same source rock. Four TPSs and 14 assessment units were geologically evaluated, and for 13 units, the undiscovered oil and gas resources were quantitatively assessed.

  14. A new Xenacanthiformes shark (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii from the Late Paleozoic Rio do Rasto Formation (Paraná Basin, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VICTOR E. PAULIV

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian records on Xenacanthiformes include teeth and cephalic spines from the Parnaíba, Amazonas and Paraná basins. This work describes a new species of Xenacanthidae, collected in an outcrop of Serrinha Member of Rio do Rasto Formation (Wordian to Wuchiapingian, Paraná Basin, municipality of Jacarezinho, State of Paraná. The teeth of the new species are two or three-cuspidated and the aboral surface show a smooth concavity and one rounded basal tubercle. The coronal surface presents one semi-spherical and subcircular coronal button, and also two lateral main cusps and one central (when present with less than one fifth of the size of the lateral cusps in the labial portion. The lateral cusps are asymmetric or symmetric, rounded in transversal section, lanceolate in longitudinal section, devoid of lateral carinae and lateral serrations, and with few smooth cristae of enameloid. In optical microscope the teeth show a trabecular dentine (osteodentine base, while the cusps are composed by orthodentine, and the pulp cavities are non-obliterated by trabecular dentine. The fossil assemblage in the same stratigraphical level and in the whole Rio do Rasto Formation indicates another freshwater record for xenacanthid sharks.

  15. A new Xenacanthiformes shark (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii) from the Late Paleozoic Rio do Rasto Formation (Paraná Basin), Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauliv, Victor E; Dias, Eliseu V; Sedor, Fernando A; Ribeiro, Ana Maria

    2014-03-01

    The Brazilian records on Xenacanthiformes include teeth and cephalic spines from the Parnaíba, Amazonas and Paraná basins. This work describes a new species of Xenacanthidae, collected in an outcrop of Serrinha Member of Rio do Rasto Formation (Wordian to Wuchiapingian), Paraná Basin, municipality of Jacarezinho, State of Paraná. The teeth of the new species are two or three-cuspidated and the aboral surface show a smooth concavity and one rounded basal tubercle. The coronal surface presents one semi-spherical and subcircular coronal button, and also two lateral main cusps and one central (when present) with less than one fifth of the size of the lateral cusps in the labial portion. The lateral cusps are asymmetric or symmetric, rounded in transversal section, lanceolate in longitudinal section, devoid of lateral carinae and lateral serrations, and with few smooth cristae of enameloid. In optical microscope the teeth show a trabecular dentine (osteodentine) base, while the cusps are composed by orthodentine, and the pulp cavities are non-obliterated by trabecular dentine. The fossil assemblage in the same stratigraphical level and in the whole Rio do Rasto Formation indicates another freshwater record for xenacanthid sharks.

  16. Geochronological and sedimentological evidences of Panyangshan foreland basin for tectonic control on the Late Paleozoic plate marginal orogenic belt along the northern margin of the North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jialiang; Zhou, Zhiguang; He, Yingfu; Wang, Guosheng; Wu, Chen; Liu, Changfeng; Yao, Guang; Xu, Wentao; Zhao, Xiaoqi; Dai, Pengfei

    2017-08-01

    There is a wide support that the Inner Mongolia Palaeo-uplift on the northern margin of the North China Craton has undergone an uplifting history. However, when and how did the uplift occurred keeps controversial. Extensive field-based structural, metamorphic, geochemical, geochronological and geophysical investigations on the Inner Mongolia Palaeo-uplift, which suggested that the Inner Mongolia Palaeo-uplift was an uplifted region since the Early Precambrian or range from Late Carboniferous-Early Jurassic. The geochemical characteristics of the Late Paleozoic to Early Mesozoic intrusive rocks indicated that the Inner Mongolia Palaeo-uplift was an Andean-type continental margin that is the extensional tectonic setting. To address the spatial and temporal development of the Inner Mongolia Palaeo-uplift, we have carried out provenance analysis of Permian sedimentary rocks which collected from the Panyangshan basin along the northern margin of the North China Craton. The QFL diagram revealed a dissected arc-recycled orogenic tectonic setting. Moreover, the framework grains are abundant with feldspar (36-50%), indicating the short transport distance and unstable tectonic setting. Detrital zircon U-Pb analysis ascertained possible provenance information: the Precambrian basement ( 2490 and 1840 Ma) and continental arc magmatic action ( 279 and 295 Ma) along the northern margin of the North China Craton. The projection in rose diagrams of the mean palaeocurrent direction, revealing the SSW and SSE palaeoflow direction, also shows the provenance of the Panyangshan basin sources mainly from the Inner Mongolia Palaeo-uplift. The andesite overlying the Naobaogou Formation has yielded U-Pb age of 277.3 ± 1.4 Ma. The additional dioritic porphyry dike intruded the Naobaogou and Laowopu Formations, which has an emplacement age of 236 ± 1 Ma. The above data identify that the basin formed ranges from Early Permian to Middle Triassic (277-236 Ma). Accordingly, the Inner Mongolia

  17. Comparison between results of detailed tectonic studies on borehole core vs microresistivity images of borehole wall from gas-bearing shale complexes, Baltic Basin, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobek, Kinga; Jarosiński, Marek; Pachytel, Radomir

    2017-04-01

    Structural analysis of borehole core and microresistivity images yield an information about geometry of natural fracture network and their potential importance for reservoir stimulation. Density of natural fractures and their orientation in respect to the maximum horizontal stress has crucial meaning for hydraulic fractures propagation in unconventional reservoirs. We have investigated several hundred meters of continuous borehole core and corresponding microresistivity images (mostly XRMI) from six boreholes in the Pomeranian part of the Early Paleozoic Baltic Basin. In general, our results challenge the question about representatives of statistics based on structural analyses on a small shale volume represented by borehole core or borehole wall images and credibility of different sets of data. Most frequently, fractures observed in both XRMI and cores are steep, small strata-bound fractures and veins with minor mechanical aperture (0,1 mm in average). These veins create an orthogonal joint system, locally disturbed by fractures associated with normal or by gently dipping thrust faults. Mean fractures' height keeps in a range between 30-50 cm. Fracture density differs significantly among boreholes and Consistent Lithological Units (CLUs) but the most frequent means falls in a range 2-4 m-1. We have also payed an attention to bedding planes due to their expected coupling with natural fractures and their role as structural barriers for vertical fracture propagation. We aimed in construction for each CLU the so-called "mean brick", which size is limited by an average distance between two principal joint sets and between bedding fractures. In our study we have found out a discrepancy between structural profiles based on XRMI and core interpretation. For some CLUs joint fractures densities, are higher in cores than in XRMI. In this case, numerous small fractures were not recorded due to the limits of XRMI resolution. However, the most veins with aperture 0,1 mm

  18. Consistent lithological units and its influence on geomechanical stratification in shale reservoir: case study from Baltic Basin, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachytel, Radomir; Jarosiński, Marek; Bobek, Kinga

    2017-04-01

    Geomechanical investigations in shale reservoir are crucial to understand rock behavior during hydraulic fracturing treatment and to solve borehole wall stability problem. Anisotropy should be considered as key mechanical parameter while trying to characterize shale properties in variety of scales. We are developing a concept of step-by-step approach to characterize and upscale the Consistent Lithological Units (CLU) at several scales of analysis. We decided that the most regional scale model, comparable to lithostratigraphic formations, is too general for hydraulic fracture propagation study thus a more detailed description is needed. The CLU's hierarchic model aims in upscale elastic properties with their anisotropy based on available data from vertical borehole. For the purpose of our study we have an access to continuous borehole core profile and full set of geophysical logging from several wells in the Pomeranian part of the Ordovician and Silurian shale complex belongs to the Baltic Basin. We are focused on shale properties that might be crucial for mechanical response to hydraulic fracturing: mineral components, porosity, density, elastic parameters and natural fracture pattern. To prepare the precise CLU model we compare several methods of determination and upscaling every single parameter used for consistent units secretion. Mineralogical data taken from ULTRA log, GEM log, X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence were compared with Young modulus from sonic logs and Triaxial Compressive Strength Tests. The results showed the impact of clay content and porosity increase on Young's modulus reduction while carbonates (both calcite and dolomite) have stronger impact on elastic modulus growth, more than quartz, represented here mostly by detrital particles. Comparing the shales of similar composition in a few wells of different depths we concluded that differences in diagenesis and compaction due to variation in formation depth in a range of 1 km has negligible

  19. Scenarios for shale gas development and their related land use impacts in the Baltic Basin, Northern Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranzelli, Claudia; Vandecasteele, Ine; Ribeiro Barranco, Ricardo; Mari i Rivero, Ines; Pelletier, Nathan; Batelaan, Okke; Lavalle, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Scenarios for potential shale gas development were modelled for the Baltic Basin in Northern Poland for the period 2015–2030 using the land allocation model EUCS100. The main aims were to assess the associated land use requirements, conflicts with existing land use, and the influence of legislation on the environmental impact. The factors involved in estimating the suitability for placement of shale gas well pads were analysed, as well as the potential land and water requirements to define 2 technology-based scenarios, representing the highest and lowest potential environmental impact. 2 different legislative frameworks (current and restrictive) were also assessed, to give 4 combined scenarios altogether. Land consumption and allocation patterns of well pads varied substantially according to the modelled scenario. Potential landscape fragmentation and conflicts with other land users depended mainly on development rate, well pad density, existing land-use patterns, and geology. Highly complex landscapes presented numerous barriers to drilling activities, restricting the potential development patterns. The land used for shale gas development could represent a significant percentage of overall land take within the shale play. The adoption of appropriate legislation, especially the protection of natural areas and water resources, is therefore essential to minimise the related environmental impact. -- Highlights: •A range of scenarios for shale gas development in Poland were modelled. •The impact in terms of land take and competition for land was assessed. •Of land used for industrial purposes, 7–12% was attributed to shale gas extraction. •If unregulated, 24% of well pads were developed within protected areas. •The legislative framework can have a major influence on overall environmental impact

  20. [Detection of the mitochondrial DNA haplotype characteristic of the least cisco (Coregonus sardinella, Valenciennes, 1848) in the vendace (C. albula, Linnaeus, 1758) population of Vodlozero (the Baltic Sea basin)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovikova, E A; Makhrov, A A

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial ND-1 gene in the vendace population in lake Vodlozero (the eastern part of the Baltic Sea basin) revealed a sequence variant that is closely related to that of the least cisco of Siberia (the Indigirka River). Thus, together with the results of morphological and allozyme analysis of this population performed earlier, the results obtained in this study are suggestive of the immigration of the least cisco to the Baltic Sea basin during the last glaciation.

  1. Baltic Earth - Earth System Science for the Baltic Sea Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Markus; Rutgersson, Anna; Lehmann, Andreas; Reckermann, Marcus

    2014-05-01

    The Baltic Sea region, defined as its river catchment basin, spans different climate and population zones, from a temperate, highly populated, industrialized south with intensive agriculture to a boreal, rural north. It encompasses most of the Scandinavian Peninsula in the west; most of Finland and parts of Russia, Belarus, and the Baltic states in the east; and Poland and small parts of Germany and Denmark in the south. The region represents an old cultural landscape, and the Baltic Sea itself is among the most studied sea areas of the world. Baltic Earth is the new Earth system research network for the Baltic Sea region. It is the successor to BALTEX, which was terminated in June 2013 after 20 years and two successful phases. Baltic Earth stands for the vision to achieve an improved Earth system understanding of the Baltic Sea region. This means that the research disciplines of BALTEX continue to be relevant, i.e. atmospheric and climate sciences, hydrology, oceanography and biogeochemistry, but a more holistic view of the Earth system encompassing processes in the atmosphere, on land and in the sea as well as in the anthroposphere shall gain in importance in Baltic Earth. Specific grand research challenges have been formulated, representing interdisciplinary research questions to be tackled in the coming years. A major means will be scientific assessments of particular research topics by expert groups, similar to the BACC approach, which shall help to identify knowledge gaps and develop research strategies. Preliminary grand challenges and topics for which Working Groups have been installed include: • Salinity dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Land-Sea biogeochemical feedbacks in the Baltic Sea region • Natural hazards and extreme events in the Baltic Sea region • Understanding sea level dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Understanding regional variability of water and energy exchange • Utility of Regional Climate Models • Assessment of Scenario Simulations

  2. Shahejie-Shahejie/Guantao/Wumishan and Carboniferous/Permian Coal-Paleozoic Total Petroleum Systems in the Bohaiwan Basin, China (based on geologic studies for the 2000 World Energy Assessment Project of the U.S. Geological Survey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Robert T.; Qiang, Jin; McCabe, Peter J.; Nuccio, Vito F.; Persits, Felix

    2012-01-01

    This report discusses the geologic framework and petroleum geology used to assess undiscovered petroleum resources in the Bohaiwan basin province for the 2000 World Energy Assessment Project of the U.S. Geological Survey. The Bohaiwan basin in northeastern China is the largest petroleum-producing region in China. Two total petroleum systems have been identified in the basin. The first, the Shahejie&ndashShahejie/Guantao/Wumishan Total Petroleum System, involves oil and gas generated from mature pods of lacustrine source rock that are associated with six major rift-controlled subbasins. Two assessment units are defined in this total petroleum system: (1) a Tertiary lacustrine assessment unit consisting of sandstone reservoirs interbedded with lacustrine shale source rocks, and (2) a pre-Tertiary buried hills assessment unit consisting of carbonate reservoirs that are overlain unconformably by Tertiary lacustrine shale source rocks. The second total petroleum system identified in the Bohaiwan basin is the Carboniferous/Permian Coal–Paleozoic Total Petroleum System, a hypothetical total petroleum system involving natural gas generated from multiple pods of thermally mature coal beds. Low-permeability Permian sandstones and possibly Carboniferous coal beds are the reservoir rocks. Most of the natural gas is inferred to be trapped in continuous accumulations near the center of the subbasins. This total petroleum system is largely unexplored and has good potential for undiscovered gas accumulations. One assessment unit, coal-sourced gas, is defined in this total petroleum system.

  3. Migration of 90Sr in the cooling basin of the Ignalina atomic power plant and the Baltic sea ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dushauskiene-Duzh, R.

    1992-01-01

    On the basis of a long-time radiation monitoring of the Ignalina APP and the Baltic sea ecosystems determined regularities of the 90 Sr distribution in the main components of the ecosystems (water, bottom sediments, biota). It was established that 90 Sr accumulation coefficient in the aquatic plants of the warmed up water zone of the Ignalina APP is 2.6 lower than that of the stable water suction zone. The accumulation of 90 Sr in molluscs is higher in the warmed up water zone than in the stable water zone. It was determined that the mean concentration of 90 Sr in surface water of near-shore areas of the Baltic sea are higher than that in the open Baltic. Concentration of the 90 Sr in the biota in the Baltic sea is about 300-500 times higher than in the water. The accumulation level of 90 Sr in zoobenthos varies in different species being in organs and tissues of fishes consuming actively calcium for building up their skeletons. 90 Sr levels in bottom sediments of bays are higher than those in sediments of the open sea. Accumulation of 90 Sr in muds is about 11 times higher than in sands. (author). 5 figs., 3 refs

  4. Hierarchy of factors exerting an impact on nutrient load of the Baltic Sea and sustainable management of its drainage basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiedrzyńska, Edyta; Jóźwik, Adam; Kiedrzyński, Marcin; Zalewski, Maciej

    2014-11-15

    The aim of the paper was to evaluate 23 catchment factors that determine total phosphorus and total nitrogen load to the Baltic Sea. Standard correlation analysis and clustering were used. Both phosphorus and nitrogen loads were found to be positively related to the number of pigs and the human population associated with wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) per km(2), while the number of cattle and agricultural area were found to influence nitrogen rather than phosphorus load, and the area of forests is negatively related to loads of both nutrients. Clustering indicates an overall north-south pattern in the spatial co-occurrence of socio-ecological factors, with some exceptions discussed in the paper. Positive steps in the Baltic Sea region have already been taken, but much remains to be done. The development of coherent response policies to reduce eutrophication in the Baltic Sea should be based on a comprehensive knowledge base, an appropriate information strategy and learning alliance platform in each drainage river catchments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Societal, land cover and climatic controls on river nutrient flows into the Baltic Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saaltink, R.; Velde, van der Y.; Dekker, S.C.; Lyon, S.W.; Dahlke, H.E.

    2014-01-01

    Study region River basins draining into the Baltic Sea, known as the Baltic Sea Drainage Basin (BSDB). Study focus Dramatic shifts in water quality have been observed in the Baltic Sea in past decades. This study investigated the spatial distribution of trends in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in

  6. Societal, land cover and climatic controls on river nutrient flows into the Baltic Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saaltink, Rémon; van der Velde, Ype; Dekker, Stefan; Lyon, Steve W.; Dahlke, Helen E.

    Study region River basins draining into the Baltic Sea, known as the Baltic Sea Drainage Basin (BSDB). Study focus Dramatic shifts in water quality have been observed in the Baltic Sea in past decades. This study investigated the spatial distribution of trends in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in

  7. Societal, land cover and climatic controls on river nutrient flows into the Baltic Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saaltink, Rémon; van der Velde, Ype; Dekker, Stefan C.; Lyon, Steve W.; Dahlke, Helen E.

    2014-01-01

    Study region: River basins draining into the Baltic Sea, known as the Baltic Sea Drainage Basin (BSDB). Study focus: Dramatic shifts in water quality have been observed in the Baltic Sea in past decades. This study investigated the spatial distribution of trends in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in

  8. A paleozoic pangaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucot, A J; Gray, J

    1983-11-11

    Paleozoic paleogeographies should be consistent with all available, reliable data. However, comparison of three different Devonian paleogeographies that are based largely or wholly on the data of remanent magnetism show them to be inconsistent in many regards. When these three paleogeographies are provided with possible ocean surface current circulation patterns, and have added to them lithofacies and biogeographic data, they also are shown to be inconsistent with such data. A pangaeic reconstruction positioned in the Southern Hemisphere permits the lithofacies and biogeographical data to be reconciled in a plausible manner.

  9. New evidence of an early Pridoli barrier reef in the southern part of the Baltic Silurian basin based on three-dimensional seismic survey, Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatas Kaminskas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Reefs and a barrier reef have been newly identified and mapped by three-dimensional (3D seismic survey in Lithuania. Seismic data analysis has allowed the size and geometry of these reefs to be determined. The largest reefs occur at Pavasaris and South Bliudziai. They have a similar shape and are about 1.5 km long and 1 km wide. A circle-shaped smaller patch reef at North Bliudziai is 1 km in diameter. The overall heights of the studied structures do not exceed 30–40 m. The reefs consist of coarse-grained bioclastic stromatoporoid limestone. A barrier reef rising structurally from SW to NE was established in the west of the mapped area. The stratigraphic position (early Minija Regional Stage and lateral distribution of the barrier reef suggest it started to form earlier than the group of patch reefs. The development of patch reefs was related to the transgression of the Silurian Baltic basin.

  10. Reproduction of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua (Actinopterygii: Gadiformes: Gadidae), in the Gotland Basin: Causes of annual variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plikshs, Maris; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Elferts, D.

    2015-01-01

    observations during 1969–1995 on four stations in each of two transects. The oceanographic monitoring and demersal trawl research survey data from 1974–2012 have been used in analyses. Results. The sufficient reproduction conditions in the southern Gotland Basin persisted only until 1981. In later decades...... reproduction volume concept can be used as an ecological indicator for egg survival probability in the Gotland Basin. However, it is too premature to re-define the concept of the suitable reproduction volume because it is applicable only to the Gotland spawning ground...

  11. Investigation on the upper Paleozoic Strata in Tang-e-Zakeen, and introducing Zakeen formation, Kuh-e Faraghan Zagros Basin, South Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghavidel-Syooki, M.

    1998-01-01

    A thick clastic sequence is well-developed in Tang-e-Zakeen, Kuh-e-Faraghan, being situated approximately 80 Km north of Bandar Abbas. The sequence is 340 m. thick and mainly consists of sandstone, siltstone, shale and subordinate dolomitic beds. So far, this clastic sequence has been called Faraghan Formation. This rock unit lacks marine fauna and based on stratigraphic position, it was assigned to the Early Permian (Szabo and Kheradpir, 1978). Since then, a detailed palynological study has been carried out on the Faraghan Formation by the author. These studies resulted identification of numerous palynomorph taxa, including miospore and acritarch species. The known palynomorph taxa indicated that, a major part of Faraghan Formation belongs to the Devonian Period, while the rest is Early Permian. As a result, the National Iranian Stratigraphic Committee decided and agreed upon to divide the Faraghan Formation into two rock units, namely, the Zakeen Formation, embracing the Devonian strata, and Faraghan Formation for the Early Permian sequence in the Zagros Basin respectively. The Zakeen Formation derives from the Zakeen Village which is located in the southern flank of Kuh-e-Faraghan, about 80 km north of Bandar Abbas. The type section of Zakeen Formation attains a thickness of 285m. in Tang-e-Zakeen, Kuh-e-Faraghan, approximately 23 Km from the Zakeen village. It disconformably rests on the Sarchahan Formation, while it too, disconformably overlain by the Faraghan Formation. A total of 100 samples from the Zakeen Formation were selected and treated in the palynological laboratory of the Exploration Division of National Iranian Oil Company. 63 palynomorph taxa were encountered from the Zakeen Formation. The known species were arranged in five local stratigraphic assemblage zones. Zones I and II occur in a thickness of 96 m. of the Zakeen Formation, in ascending order, suggesting the Early Devonian whereas Zones III and IV occur Within 156 m. interval of the Zakeen

  12. Grey seal predation on forage fish in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Aro; Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Aho, Teija

    The mean annual growth rate of grey seal stock in the Baltic has been on average 7.5% annually during the last decade. In 2010, a total of approximately 23 100 grey seals were counted. The increase in stock size was highest in the northern areas and the predation pressure of grey seals on clupeoids...... has increased accordingly. The diet of grey seal in the Baltic consists of ca. 20 fish species. The most abundant prey items in the Baltic proper are Baltic herring, sprat, and cod, and in the Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay Baltic herring, Coregonus sp., Baltic salmon, and sea trout. An adult seal...... consumes on average round 4.5 kg fish per day, of which 55% are clupeoids in the Baltic Main basin and 70% in the Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay. According to acoustic estimates, predator– prey distribution patterns, migration patterns, and multispecies analysis (SMS), the predation effect of grey seals...

  13. Kaolinite, illite and quartz dissolution in the karstification of Paleozoic sandstones of the Furnas Formation, Paraná Basin, Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Mário Sérgio de; Guimarães, Gilson Burigo; Chinelatto, Adilson Luiz; Giannini, Paulo César Fonseca; Pontes, Henrique Simão; Chinelatto, Adriana Scoton Antonio; Atencio, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Karstification processes in sandstones of the Furnas Formation, Silurian to Devonian of the Paraná Basin, have been described since the mid-twentieth century. However, some geologists still doubt the idea of true karst in sandstones. Studies carried out in the Campos Gerais region, Paraná State, Southern Brazil, aimed at investigating the nature of erosion processes in Furnas Formation and the role of the dissolution in the development of their notorious erosive features and underground cavities. These studies have led to the recognition of dissolution macro to micro features ('furnas', caves, ponds, sinks, ruiniform relief on cliffs and rocky surfaces, grain corrosion, speleothems, mineral reprecipitation and incrustation). The analysis (scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry and x-ray diffractometry) of sandstones and their alterites has indicated significant dissolution of clay cement along with discrete quartz grain dissolution. This mesodiagenetic cement (kaolinite and illite) is dissolved and reprecipitated as clay minerals with poorly developed crystallinity along with other minerals, such as variscite and minerals of the alunite supergroup, suggesting organic participation in the processes of dissolution and incrustation. The mineral reprecipitation usually forms centimetric speleothems, found in cavities and sheltered rocky surfaces. The cement dissolution associated with other factors (fractures, wet weather, strong hydraulic gradient, antiquity of the landforms) leads to the rock arenisation, the underground erosion and the appearance of the karst features. Carbonate rocks in the basement may locally be increasing the karst forms in the overlying Furnas Formation. The recognition of the karst character of the Furnas Formation sandstones has important implications in the management of underground water resources (increasingly exploited in the region), in the use of the unique geological heritage and in the prevention of geo

  14. Tectonic model for the Late Paleozoic of southeastern New England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wintsch, R.P.; Sutter, J.F.

    1986-07-01

    Hornblende and biotite /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar age spectra from rocks in south-central Connecticut help define a Permian-Triassic cooling curve for the area. Together with petrologic and structural information, a time-temperature-pressure-strain path is established. Similar data for the Narragansett basin in Rhode Island and Massachusetts allow correlation of the late Paleozoic histories of the two areas. Together, these data suggest that in the late Paleozoic, south-central New England was part of a fold-thrust belt, and the Narragansett basin was a retroarc foreland basin. NW-SE compression during the final assembly of Pangaea resulted in SE directed thrusting, causing the development of clastic wedges in adjacent Rhode Island and Massachusetts in the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian. A clockwise rotation of this deformation from NW to NNE led to northward underthrusting and concomitant uplift of both eastern Connecticut and Rhode Island in the Permian and Triassic.

  15. Introduction for the SI "Understanding the Baltic Sea"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikauniece, Anda; Markus Meier, H. E.; Kalniņa, Laimdota

    2017-08-01

    The Baltic Sea is a semi-enclosed sea with a low salinity, slow water exchange and distinguished stratification. Natural properties of the Baltic thus promote development of anoxic areas at the deepest parts of the sea. In addition, the coasts of the Baltic Sea are heavily populated - 85 million inhabitants living in the drainage basin and 9 countries surrounding the sea, most of them highly industrially developed. Anthropogenic activities consequently add considerable pressure on the already vulnerable environment of the sea. Eutrophication, over-fishing and changed food-web, oil pollution, occurrence of hazardous substances, damage of seafloor by trawling and construction works are all present in the Baltic Sea.

  16. Solar radiation in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Dera

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The influx of solar radiation to the Baltic Sea and its penetration into its waters is described on the basis of selected results of optical and bio-optical studies in the Baltic published by various authors during the past ca 50 years. The variability in the natural irradiance of this sea is illustrated on time scales from short-term fluctuations occurring during a single day to differences in mean monthly values over a period of many years. Data on variability of the proportions between UV, VIS and IR energy in the light reaching the sea surface are also discussed.Long-term monthly mean values of the incident solar radiation flux at the surface of the Baltic Proper are given; they were obtained from meteorological and solar radiation measurements and model approximations. The transmittances of these mean monthly radiation fluxes across the surface of the Baltic are given, as are the typical energyand spectral characteristics of the underwater irradiance, its attenuation with depth in the sea and the associated euphotic zone depths, as well as typical ranges of variability of these characteristics in different Baltic basins. Some of these characteristics are illustrated by typical empirical data. These mean values are not fully representative, however, because with the sole use of classical in situ measurement methods from on board research vessels in the Baltic, it has not been possible to gather a sufficientlyrepresentative set of empirical data that would adequately reflect the variability of the optical characteristics of all the basins of this sea. The article goes on to introduce the statistical model of vertical distributions of chlorophyll a concentration in the Baltic and the bio-optical model of Baltic Case 2 waters, the use of which contribute very significantly to this description of the optical characteristics and will enable this data set to be hugely expanded to include all the Baltic basins. This opportunity is presented by the

  17. Introduction to the 2002 geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks: Chapter 2 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The U.S Geological Survey (USGS) periodically conducts assessments of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the United States. The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The last major USGS assessment of oil and gas of the most important oil and gas provinces in the United States was in 1995 (Gautier and others, 1996). Since then a number of individual assessment provinces have been reappraised using new methodology. This was done particularly for those provinces where new information has become available, where new methodology was expected to reveal more insight to provide a better estimate, where additional geologic investigation was needed, or where continuous accumulations were deemed important. The San Juan Basin was reevaluated because of industry exploitation of new hydrocarbon accumulations that were not previously assessed and because of a change in application of assessment methodology to potential undiscovered hydrocarbon accumulations. Several changes have been made in this study. The methodology is different from that used in 1995 (Schmoker, 2003; Schmoker and Klett, 2003). In this study the total petroleum system (TPS) approach (Magoon and Dow, 1994) is used rather than the play approach. The Chama Basin is not included. The team of scientists studying the basin is different. The 1995 study focused on conventional accumulations, whereas in this 2002 assessment, it was a priority to assess continuous-type accumulations, including coal-bed gas. Consequently we are presenting here an entirely new study and results for the San Juan Basin Province. The results of this 2002 assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province (5022) are presented in this report within the geologic context of individual TPSs and their assessment units (AU) (table 1). Results

  18. Phosphorus dynamics in the Black Sea and Baltic Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, N.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/372617034

    2017-01-01

    The dynamics of the key nutrient phosphorus (P) in hypoxic and anoxic marine basins are still incompletely understood. This thesis focuses on the cycling of P in two of such basins: the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea. Water column particulates and sediments from the deep basin of the Black Sea were

  19. Isotopic tracers of gold deposition in Paleozoic limestones, Southern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterman, Z.E.; Widmann, B.L.; Marshall, B.D.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; Futa, K.; Mahan, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    Strontium isotopic analyses of barren and mineralized Paleozoic carbonate rocks show that hydrothermal fluids added radiogenic strontium ( 87 Sr) to the mineralized zones. At Bare Mountain, samples collected from mineralized areas have δ 87 Sr t values ranging from +3.0 to +23.0, whereas unmineralized carbonate rocks have δ 87 Sr, values of -0.6 to +2.9. In other ranges, δ 87 Sr, values of the unmineralized carbonate rocks are even lower and virtually indistinguishable from primary marine values. This correlation of elevated δ 87 Sr t values with mineralized zones provides a useful technique for assessing the mineral potential of the Paleozoic basement beneath Yucca Mountain, and may find broader use in mineral exploration in the Basin and Range province as a whole

  20. Assessment of Appalachian basin oil and gas resources: Devonian gas shales of the Devonian Shale-Middle and Upper Paleozoic Total Petroleum System: Chapter G.9 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milici, Robert C.; Swezey, Christopher S.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents the results of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment of the technically recoverable undiscovered natural gas resources in Devonian shale in the Appalachian Basin Petroleum Province of the eastern United States. These results are part of the USGS assessment in 2002 of the technically recoverable undiscovered oil and gas resources of the province. This report does not use the results of a 2011 USGS assessment of the Devonian Marcellus Shale because the area considered in the 2011 assessment is much greater than the area of the Marcellus Shale described in this report. The USGS assessment in 2002 was based on the identification of six total petroleum systems, which include strata that range in age from Cambrian to Pennsylvanian. The Devonian gas shales described in this report are within the Devonian Shale-Middle and Upper Paleozoic Total Petroleum System, which extends generally from New York to Tennessee. This total petroleum system is divided into ten assessment units (plays), four of which are classified as conventional and six as continuous. The Devonian shales described in this report make up four of these continuous assessment units. The assessment results are reported as fully risked fractiles (F95, F50, F5, and the mean); the fractiles indicate the probability of recovery of the assessment amount. The products reported are oil, gas, and natural gas liquids. The mean estimates for technically recoverable undiscovered hydrocarbons in the four gas shale assessment units are 12,195.53 billion cubic feet (12.20 trillion cubic feet) of gas and 158.91 million barrels of natural gas liquids

  1. The Baltic haline conveyor belt or the overturning circulation and mixing in the Baltic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döös, Kristofer; Meier, H E Markus; Döscher, Ralf

    2004-06-01

    A study of the water-mass circulation of the Baltic has been undertaken by making use of a three dimensional Baltic Sea model simulation. The saline water from the North Atlantic is traced through the Danish Sounds into the Baltic where it upwells and mixes with the fresh water inflow from the rivers forming a Baltic haline conveyor belt. The mixing of the saline water from the Great Belt and Oresund with the fresh water is investigated making use of overturning stream functions and Lagrangian trajectories. The overturning stream function was calculated as a function of four different vertical coordinates (depth, salinity, temperature and density) in order to understand the path of the water and where it upwells and mixes. Evidence of a fictive depth overturning cell similar to the Deacon Cell in the Southern Ocean was found in the Baltic proper corresponding to the gyre circulation around Gotland, which vanishes when the overturning stream function is projected on density layers. A Lagrangian trajectory study was performed to obtain a better view of the circulation and mixing of the saline and fresh waters. The residence time of the water masses in the Baltic is calculated to be 26-29 years and the Lagrangian dispersion reaches basin saturation after 5 years.

  2. Thermal evolution of Lower Paleozoic sedimentary successions from organic and inorganic studies: the case history of the Holy Cross Mountains (central Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trolese, Matteo; Stefano Celano, Antonio; Corrado, Sveva; Caricchi, Chiara; Schito, Andrea; Aldega, Luca

    2015-04-01

    The rapid increase in shale gas production in the USA has triggered a growing interest in unconventional resources in Eastern and Northern Europe. In this framework, the potential shale gas reserves in Poland are the most promising in Europe, extending from the Baltic Sea to the Ukraine border. In this area, the Baltic, Podlasie and Lublin basins have already become objective of shale gas exploration and the Holy Cross Mountains (HCM, Central Poland) represents the outcropping analog of the buried targeted Lower Paleozoic successions, providing a unique opportunity to study and assess source rock potential. In this work, we provide new thermal maturity data of Paleozoic rocks exposed in the HCM. A multi-method approach, coupling organic matter/graptolites (i.e., marine organoclasts) optical analysis and X-ray diffraction of clay-sized fraction of sediments, was applied to constrain the burial - thermal evolution of the sedimentary succession. The investigated area of the HCM includes two different tectonic blocks: the Łysogóry region to the North and the Kielce region to the South, separated by the Holy Cross Fault (HCF). lllite content in mixed layer illite-smectite determinations and vitrinite/graptolites reflectance measurements (Roeq%), performed on samples (Cambrian - Devonian) collected from both the regions, show a substantial difference between the two blocks in terms of thermal maturity and burial history. Roeq% values in the southern block range from 0.5% to 1.0%, with few exceptions, indicating early to mid-mature stage of hydrocarbon generation. Samples collected in the northern block show much higher values, mainly from 1.2% up to 1.7%, representative of the gas generation window. The I-S ordering type also shows relevant differences in the two blocks. In the southern block, mixed-layered clay minerals varies from R1 (short-range) to R3 (long-range), whereas R3 structures are recorded in the northern block. Vitrinite reflectance and mixed-layer I

  3. Sedimentary alkenone distributions reflect salinity changes in the Baltic Sea over the Holocene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warden, L.A.; van der Meer, M.T.J.; Moros, Matthias; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    The Baltic Sea has had a complex salinity history since the last deglaciation. Here we show how distributions of alkenones and their δD values varied with past fluctuations in salinity in the Baltic Sea over the Holocene by examining a Holocene record (11.2–0.1 cal kyr BP) from the Arkona Basin.

  4. The baltic states' energy system

    OpenAIRE

    Nikitaravičius, Martynas

    2006-01-01

    THE BALTIC STATES’ ENERGY SYSTEM SUMMARY The goal of paper – the comparative analysis of Baltic states‘ (i.e. of Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia) energy systems in 1990-2004. The main causes that affected the development of Baltic states’ energetics are indicated in this work. By the method of statistical analysis, the comparative advantages of Baltic states‘ energetics are detected. Moreover, the main trends of further development of integration of Baltic states ‘ energetics into the energetics o...

  5. Regional cost-effectiveness in transboundary water quality management for the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler, Berit; Smart, James Christopher Rudd; Fonnesbech-Wulff, Anders

    In 2007 HELCOM launched a plan for transboundary management of the Baltic Sea. This plan, called the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP), aims amongst other things, to reduce eutrophication in the different regions of the Baltic Sea by reducing incoming nutrient loads from all discharging drainage basins...... difficult to achieve, and that additional abatement measures are likely to be required to fulfil these targets. The minimised total cost of delivering the achievable load reductions across the 9 Baltic littoral countries is estimated to be 4.69 billion Euros, annually, with substantial differences...

  6. Arsenic in sediments from the southeastern Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnaga, Galina; Wyse, Eric; Azemard, Sabine; Stankevicius, Algirdas; Mora, Stephen de

    2006-01-01

    Arsenic occurs as a persistent constituent in many of the chemical weapons dumped into the Baltic Sea; it can be used as an indicator of leakage and dispersal of released munitions to the marine environment. Total arsenic was analysed in sediment samples taken from the Lithuanian economic zone in the Baltic Sea, which included samples from the chemical munitions dumpsite in the Gotland Basin and national monitoring stations in the southeastern Baltic Sea. Arsenic concentrations in sediments ranged from 1.1 to 19.0 mg kg -1 , with an average of 3.4 mg kg -1 . Although there was evidence of slightly elevated arsenic content in sediments near the weapons dumpsite, arsenic concentrations were nevertheless quite low relative to other investigations in the Baltic and North Seas. - Arsenic concentrations in sediments near chemical weapons dumpsites were only slightly elevated

  7. Baltic Landscapes : Festival of Images from Baltics

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Hanno Soans eesti projektist "Analogue TV" N.E.W.S. (north-east-west-süd) seminaril. Eesti videoprogramm näitusel "Baltic Landscapes" (kunstnikud A. Maimik, K. Kaljo, E-L. Semper, M. Raat, M. Laanemets, K. Sukmit, J. Zoova) Bornholmis

  8. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki

    2011-01-01

    The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s...... about 14%. For 90Sr in the Baltic Sea, input from atmospheric fallout from nuclear weapons tests has contributed about 81%, while the contribution from Chernobyl fallout was about 13%. Cesium-137 is the main indicator of Baltic seawater with respect to anthropogenic radioactivity. The highest...... concentrations in seawater during 1999–2006 were found in the Baltic Proper and the Bothnian Sea. The general trend is steadily decreasing. Concentrations of anthropogenic radioactivity in fish generally show decreasing trends in agreement with concentrations in seawater. Among freshwater fish, pike showed large...

  9. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki

    2010-01-01

    The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s...... about 14%. For 90Sr in the Baltic Sea, input from atmospheric fallout from nuclear weapons tests has contributed about 81%, while the contribution from Chernobyl fallout was about 13%. Cesium-137 is the main indicator of Baltic seawater with respect to anthropogenic radioactivity. The highest...... concentrations in seawater during 1999–2006 were found in the Baltic Proper and the Bothnian Sea. The general trend is steadily decreasing. Concentrations of anthropogenic radioactivity in fish generally show decreasing trends in agreement with concentrations in seawater. Among freshwater fish, pike showed large...

  10. Coastal fisheries in the Eastern Baltic Sea (Gulf of Finland and its basin from the 15 to the Early 20th centuries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Lajus

    Full Text Available The paper describes and analyzes original data, extracted from historical documents and scientific surveys, related to Russian fisheries in the southeastern part of the Gulf of Finland and its inflowing rivers during the 15- early 20(th centuries. The data allow tracing key trends in fisheries development and in the abundance of major commercial species. In particular, results showed that, over time, the main fishing areas moved from the middle part of rivers downstream towards and onto the coastal sea. Changes in fishing patterns were closely interrelated with changes in the abundance of exploited fish. Anadromous species, such as Atlantic sturgeon, Atlantic salmon, brown trout, whitefish, vimba bream, smelt, lamprey, and catadromous eel were the most important commercial fish in the area because they were abundant, had high commercial value and were easily available for fishing in rivers. Due to intensive exploitation and other human-induced factors, populations of most of these species had declined notably by the early 20(th century and have now lost commercial significance. The last sturgeon was caught in 1996, and today only smelt and lamprey support small commercial fisheries. According to historical sources, catches of freshwater species such as roach, ide, pike, perch, ruffe and burbot regularly occurred, in some areas exceeding half of the total catch, but they were not as important as migrating fish and no clear trends in abundance are apparent. Of documented marine catch, Baltic herring appeared in the 16(th century, but did not become commercially significant until the 19(th century. From then until now herring have been the dominant catch.

  11. Isotopic tracers of gold deposition in paleozoic limestones, southern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterman, Z.E.; Widmann, B.L.; Marshall, B.D.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; Futa, K.; Mahan, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    Strontium isotopic analyses of barren and mineralized Paleozoic carbonate rocks show that hydrothermal fluids added radiogenic strontium ( 87 Sr) to the mineralized zones. At Bare Mountain, samples collected from mineralized areas have δ 87 Sr t values (per mil deviation from primary marine values) ranging from +3.0 to +23.0 (mean of this log-normal distribution is +7.0), whereas unmineralized carbonate rocks have δ 87 Sr t values of -0.6 to +2.9 (mean of +1.07±1.03). In other ranges (Striped Hills, Spring Mountains, and ranges in the vicinity of Indian Springs Valley), δ 87 Sr t values of the unmineralized carbonate rocks are even lower and virtually indistinguishable from primary marine values. This correlation of elevated δ 87 Sr t values with mineralized zones provides a useful technique for assessing the mineral potential of the Paleozoic basement beneath Yucca Mountain, and may find broader use in mineral exploration in the Basin and Range province as a whole

  12. Early Permian intrusions in the Paleozoic sediments of the Eastern North Sea area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, O.R.; Andresen, Katrine Juul; Rasmussen, Jens Andreas

    in the Northern Permian Basin which in the eastern North Sea is separated from the Southern Permian Basin by the Ringkøbing-Fyn High. The Permian basins were initiated during thermal subsidence following a late Carboniferous- early Permian rifting phase associated with extensive igneous activity recorded across...... the entire North Sea Basin. The easternmost intrusions and extrusions have been associated to the “Skagerrak-Centered Large Igneous Province” that has an early Permian age of c. 297 Ma. Compared to the Southern Permian Basin which historically has been intensely investigated because of the known presence...... of hydrocarbons within the Paleozoic sediments, the Northern Permian Basin has gained much less interest outside the hydrocarbon producing Mesozoic graben systems. This is mainly due to an apparent lack of potential source rocks. A major E-W striking northward dipping fault system characterizes the study area...

  13. The Donets Basin (Ukraine/Russia): coalification and thermal history.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sachsenhofer, R.F.; Privalov, V.A.; Zhykalyak, M.V.; Bueker, C.; Panova, E.A.; Rainer, T.; Shymanovskyy, V.A.; Stephenson, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    The Donets Basin (Donbas) is one of the major late Paleozoic coal basins in the world. The Donbas Foldbelt is an inverted part of the Donets Basin characterized by WNW-ESE-trending folds and faults. The age of basin inversion is under discussion. Large parts of the Donets Basin host anthracite and

  14. Baltic, Slavic, Germanic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Kortlandt

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The western Indo-European vocabulary in Baltic and Slavic is the result of an Indo-European substratum which contained an older non-Indo-European layer and was part of the Corded Ware horizon. The numbers show that a considerable part of the vocabulary was borrowed after the split between Baltic and Slavic, which came about when their speakers moved westwards north and south of the Pripet marshes. Germanic and Balto-Slavic were never contiguous Indo-European dialects at any stage of their prehistory.

  15. Tectonic subsidence modelling of the Polish Basin in the light of new data on crustal structure and magnitude of inversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stephenson, R.A.; Narkiewicz, M.; Dadlez, R.; van Wees, J.D.A.M.; Andriessen, P.A.M.; Poprowa, P.

    2003-01-01

    The Polish Basin (PB) is one of a set of basins developed on the Paleozoic platform of western Europe in the Late Paleozoic between the Variscan Orogen and the East European Craton (EEC). Its main depocentral axis (the Mid-Polish Trough-MPT) was active during most of the basin development as a

  16. Geological analysis of paleozoic large-scale faulting in the south-central Pyrenees

    OpenAIRE

    Speksnijder, A.

    1986-01-01

    Detailed structural and sedimentological analysis reveals the existence of an east-west directed fundamental fault zone in the south-central Pyrenees, which has been intermittently active from (at least) the Devonian on. Emphasis is laid on the stUdy of fault-bounded post-Variscan (StephanoPermian) sedimentary basins, and the influence of Late Paleozoic faulting on the underlying Variscan basement. The present structure of the basement is rather complex as it results from multiple Variscan an...

  17. Baltic financial markets attractive

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Tallinnas toimunud konverentsil East Baltic Summit tõdesid eksperdid, et Balti riikidel on välisinvestorite silmis positiivne maine. Esinejate hulgas olid Rootsi endine peaminister Carl Bildt, Baltimaade juhtivaid eksperte Bengt Dennis, investeerimispankur Rain Lõhmus, East Capitali president Peter Elam Hakansson

  18. Baltic Exchange toodi Tallinna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Viimane osa merekonteineritesse kokkupakitud Londoni laevandus- ja merebörsi Baltic Exchange'i endise peakorteri detailidest jõudis 2007. a. juunis Tallinna. Hoone detailid ostnud ärimehed Heiti Hääl ja Eerik-Niiles Kross plaanivad leida hoonele koha Tallinna kesklinnas. E.-N. Krossi kommentaar

  19. South Baltic Wind Atlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    A first version of a wind atlas for the South Baltic Sea has been developed using the WRF mesoscale model and verified by data from tall Danish and German masts. Six different boundary-layer parametrization schemes were evaluated by comparing the WRF results to the observed wind profiles at the m...

  20. Spatial and interannual variability in Baltic sprat batch fecundity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haslob, H.; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Hinrichsen, H.H.

    2011-01-01

    in the central Baltic Sea, namely the Bornholm Basin, Gdansk Deep and Southern Gotland Basin. Environmental parameters such as hydrography, fish condition and stock density were tested in order to investigate the observed variability in sprat fecundity. Absolute batch fecundity was found to be positively related...... to fish length and weight. Significant differences in absolute and relative batch fecundity of Baltic sprat among areas and years were detected, and could partly be explained by hydrographic features of the investigated areas. A non-linear multiple regression model taking into account fish length...... and ambient temperature explained 70% of variability in absolute batch fecundity. Oxygen content and fish condition were not related to sprat batch fecundity. Additionally, a negative effect of stock size on sprat batch fecundity in the Bornholm Basin was revealed. The obtained data and results are important...

  1. Paleozoic in situ spores and pollen. Lycopsida

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bek, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 296, 1/6 (2017), s. 1-111 ISSN 0375-0299 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/12/2053 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : in situ spores * reproductive organs * Lycopsida * Paleozoic Sub ject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Paleontology Impact factor: 1.333, year: 2016

  2. Denitrification in the water column of the central Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Tage; De Brabandere, Loreto; Hall, Per O. J.

    2013-01-01

    Removal of fixed nitrogen in the water column of the eastern Gotland Basin, central Baltic Sea, was studied during two cruises in September 2008 and August 2010. The water column was stratified with anoxic sulfidic bottom water meeting oxic nitrate containing water at the oxic–anoxic interface......3 or sulfide concentrations were converted to in situ rates using the measured water column concentrations of NO3 and sulfide and the actual measured relations between NO3 and sulfide concentrations and enitrification rates. In situ denitrification ranged from 0.24 to 15.9 nM N2 h1. Assuming...... area. Even with an active denitrification layer of 3–6 m thickness the pelagic denitrification per unit area clearly exceeded sediment denitrification rates elsewhere in the Baltic Sea. When extrapolated to the entire Baltic Proper (BP) denitrification in the water column was in the range of 132...

  3. Eastern Baltic cod recruitment revisited—dynamics and impacting factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köster, Fritz; Huwer, Bastian; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald

    2017-01-01

    The Eastern Baltic cod abundance started rapidly to increase in the mid-2000s as evidenced by analytical stock assessments, due to increased recruitment and declining fishing mortality. Since 2014, the analytical stock assessment is not available, leaving the present stock status unclear and cast......The Eastern Baltic cod abundance started rapidly to increase in the mid-2000s as evidenced by analytical stock assessments, due to increased recruitment and declining fishing mortality. Since 2014, the analytical stock assessment is not available, leaving the present stock status unclear...... and casting doubts about the magnitude of the recent increase in recruitment. Earlier studies identified main factors impacting on cod reproductive success to be related to the loss of two out of three spawning areas in the 1980s caused by lack of major Baltic inflows with a concurrent reduction in salinity...... decade, as the period was characterized by an absence of large-scale Baltic inflows since 2003 and persistent anoxic conditions in the bottom water of the deep Baltic basins. This questions the perception of the increased recruitment in later years and challenges our present understanding of cod...

  4. Think - Baltic Extension / Kalle Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Kalle

    2002-01-01

    Tallinna TÜ Rehabilitatsiooni tehnoloogia keskus korraldas pressikonverentsi, kus tutvustati osalemist EL V raamprogrammis Think - Baltic Extension, mis on suunatud puuetega inimeste tööhõive tagamisele

  5. Archean inheritance in zircon from late Paleozoic granites from the Avalon zone of southeastern New England: an African connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zartman, R.E.; Don, Hermes O.

    1987-01-01

    In southeastern New England the Narragansett Pier Granite locally intrudes Carboniferous metasedimentary rocks of the Narragansett basin, and yields a monazite UPb Permian emplacement age of 273 ?? 2 Ma. Zircon from the Narragansett Pier Granite contains a minor but detectable amount of an older, inherited component, and shows modern loss of lead. Zircon from the late-stage, aplitic Westerly Granite exhibits a more pronounced lead inheritance -permitting the inherited component to be identified as Late Archean. Such old relict zircon has not been previously recognized in Proterozoic to Paleozoic igneous rocks in New England, and may be restricted to late Paleozoic rocks of the Avalon zone. We suggest that the Archean crustal component reflects an African connection, in which old Archean crust was underplated to the Avalon zone microplate in the late Paleozoic during collision of Gondwanaland with Avalonia. ?? 1987.

  6. Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen to the Baltic Sea in the period 1995–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bartnicki

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The EMEP/MSC-W model has been used to compute atmospheric nitrogen deposition into the Baltic Sea basin for the period of 12 yr: 1995–2006. The level of annual total nitrogen deposition into the Baltic Sea basin has changed from 230 Gg N in 1995 to 199 Gg N in 2006, decreasing 13 %. This value corresponds well with the total nitrogen emission reduction (11 % in the HELCOM Contracting Parties. However, inter-annual variability of nitrogen deposition to the Baltic Sea basin is relatively large, ranging from −13 % to +17 % of the averaged value. It is mainly caused by the changing meteorological conditions and especially precipitation in the considered period. The calculated monthly deposition pattern is similar for most of the years showing maxima in the autumn months October and November. The source allocation budget for atmospheric nitrogen deposition to the Baltic Sea basin was calculated for each year of the period 1997–2006. The main emission sources contributing to total nitrogen deposition are: Germany 18–22 %, Poland 11–13 % and Denmark 8–11 %. There is also a significant contribution from distant sources like the United Kingdom 6–9 %, as well as from the international ship traffic on the Baltic Sea 4–5 %.

  7. Baltic nuclear projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adlys, Gediminas; Adliene, Diana

    2009-01-01

    The Authors discuss the Baltic energy policy with respect to new nuclear power plants for Lithuania, Belarus and the Kaliningrad region. The construction of a new nuclear power plant in Lithuania would threaten Russian interests in the region. Therefore Lithuania is looking to Russian plans to build a new nuclear power plant in the Kaliningrad region as an attempt to subvert Lithuania's foreign partners and potential investors from participating in the Visaginas NPP project. However, the authors conclude, that the Visaginas NPP project is and must be the preferential project for the EU and NATO member states.

  8. Baltic Grid for e-Science Development in Baltic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilmars, S.; Olgerts, B.

    2007-01-01

    Latvia, Estonia and Lithuania as new members of European Union now are involved in e- Science projects. The Baltic Grid (BG) project is a first step to infrastructure development for e-Science grid computing. Together with the universities of Baltic States some universities and organisations of neighbouring countries are involved in BG project to disseminate their experience and management skills. This paper presents achievements and experiences of BG project in e-infrastructure development in Baltic States and in Latvia and Riga Technical University, in particular. (Author)

  9. Tectonic framework of the Hanoe Bay area, southern Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wannaes, K.O.; Floden, T.

    1994-06-01

    The tectonic framework and the general geologic development of the Hanoe Bay, from the Scanian coast in the west to south of Oeland in the east, has been investigated by means of reflection seismic methods. The Hanoe Bay is in this paper subdivided into four areas of different geologic settings. These are: 1) The Hanoe Bay slope, which forms a southward dipping continuation of the rigid Blekinge coastal plain. 2) The eastward dipping Kalmarsund Slope, which southwards from Oeland forms the western part of the Paleozoic Baltic Syneclise. 3) The Mesozoic Hanoe Bay Halfgraben, which forms the central and southern parts of the Hanoe Bay. The ongoing subsidence of the Halfgraben is estimated to be in the order of 20-60 m during the Quaternary. 4) The Yoldia Structural Element, which forms a deformed, tilted and possibly rotated block of Paleozoic bedrock located east of the Hanoe Bay Halfgraben. Two tectonic phases dominate the post-Paleozoic development of the Hanoe Bay, these are: 1) The Early Kimmerian phase, which initiated subsidence and reactivated older faults. 2) The Late Cretaceous phase, which is the main subsidence phase of the Hanoe Bay Halfgraben. The tectonic fault pattern of the Hanoe Bay is dominated by three directions, i.e. NW-SE, NE-SW and WNW-ESE. The two main tectonic elements of the area are the Kullen-Christiansoe Ridge System (NW-SE) and the Bornholm Gat Tectonic Zone (NE-SW). Sinistral strike-slip movements in order of 2-3 km are interpreted to have occurred along the Bornholm Gat Tectonic Zone during the late Cretaceous. 20 refs, 19 figs

  10. The independent Baltic states: Maritime law and resource management implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canfield, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    The achievement of independence by the Baltic states impacts nearly all aspects of the maritime law and resource management regimes appertaining to the Baltic Sea. The unique position of these states, given their maritime history and role as a bridge between East and West, warrants reconsideration. The Baltic Sea basin is among the most highly industrialized shorelines in the world, accounting for approximately 15% of world industrial output, and is relatively dense in population. Large quantities of pollutants water its waters by way of industrial, agricultural, and municipal waste. A lack of adequate sewage treatment accounts for much of the waste. The Baltic is also especially sensitive to oil pollution as the relatively cold water inhibits bacteriological breakdown. Important issues of maritime border delimitation, treaty devolution, and the potential for reinstitution of exclusionary regimes reappeared with the attainment of independence. Further, the legacy of Soviet maritime environment and resource management has engendered fundamental political, social, and economic conflicts for which resources and effective management structures are lacking. The competing requirements of economic development, reintegration into Western markets, and management of critical marine resources highlights the need for comprehensive and regionally focused approaches to the problems identified

  11. The invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the central Baltic Sea: seasonal phenology and hydrographic influence on spatio-temporal distribution patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaber, M.; Haslob, H.; Huwer, Bastian

    2011-01-01

    In the Western Baltic, the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi was recorded for the first time in autumn 2006. An eastward propagation of the ctenophore into the central Baltic, and thus into important spawning grounds of major Baltic fish stocks, was observed in 2007. The focus of the present...... distribution was mostly confined to water layers below the permanent halocline and significantly influenced by ambient temperature. Our results indicate that there is no self-sustaining population of M. leidyi in the central Baltic Sea. Instead, the species is most likely re-introduced into the Bornholm Basin...... every year via lateral advection from source populations in the Western Baltic. These findings are important not only to further assess the potential impact of M. leidyi on the pelagic ecosystem of the central Baltic Sea, but also for a better understanding of the mechanisms of its invasion into other...

  12. Baltic Nuclear workshop. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlberg, L.G.

    2001-05-01

    Proceedings of the NKS/BOK-1.6 workshop on crisis communication 'Baltic Nuclear', held in Stockholm March 19 -20, 2001, with participants from the nuclear power plants and nuclear authorities in the Baltic Sea region. The main content of the workshop was founded on the principle of 'learning by doing'. The participants were therefore practically trained in how to handle a crisis from an information and communication point of view. Added to that there were three different lectures. (au)

  13. Plate tectonics in the late Paleozoic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Domeier

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As the chronicle of plate motions through time, paleogeography is fundamental to our understanding of plate tectonics and its role in shaping the geology of the present-day. To properly appreciate the history of tectonics—and its influence on the deep Earth and climate—it is imperative to seek an accurate and global model of paleogeography. However, owing to the incessant loss of oceanic lithosphere through subduction, the paleogeographic reconstruction of ‘full-plates’ (including oceanic lithosphere becomes increasingly challenging with age. Prior to 150 Ma ∼60% of the lithosphere is missing and reconstructions are developed without explicit regard for oceanic lithosphere or plate tectonic principles; in effect, reflecting the earlier mobilistic paradigm of continental drift. Although these ‘continental’ reconstructions have been immensely useful, the next-generation of mantle models requires global plate kinematic descriptions with full-plate reconstructions. Moreover, in disregarding (or only loosely applying plate tectonic rules, continental reconstructions fail to take advantage of a wealth of additional information in the form of practical constraints. Following a series of new developments, both in geodynamic theory and analytical tools, it is now feasible to construct full-plate models that lend themselves to testing by the wider Earth-science community. Such a model is presented here for the late Paleozoic (410–250 Ma together with a review of the underlying data. Although we expect this model to be particularly useful for numerical mantle modeling, we hope that it will also serve as a general framework for understanding late Paleozoic tectonics, one on which future improvements can be built and further tested.

  14. Egg mortality: predation and hydrography in the central Baltic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, R.; Hinrichsen, H.-H.; Stepputtis, D.

    2011-01-01

    during the egg phase to be of critical importance. Two years of extensive field investigations in the Bornholm Basin, central Baltic Sea, were undertaken. In 2002, a typical stagnation situation characterized by low salinity and poor oxygen conditions was investigated, and in early 2003, a major inflow...... of North Sea water completely changed the hydrographic conditions by increasing salinity and oxygen content, thereby altering ecological conditions. The goal was to quantify egg mortality caused by predation and hydrography, and to compare these estimates with independent estimates based on cohort analysis....... Results indicated high intra-annual variability in egg mortality. Cod and sprat egg mortality responded differently to the major Baltic inflow: mortality related to hydrographic conditions increased for sprat and decreased for cod. On the other hand, predation mortality during peak spawning decreased...

  15. Paleozoic oil/gas shale reservoirs in southern Tunisia: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soua, Mohamed

    2014-12-01

    During these last years, considerable attention has been given to unconventional oil and gas shale in northern Africa where the most productive Paleozoic basins are located (e.g. Berkine, Illizi, Kufra, Murzuk, Tindouf, Ahnet, Oued Mya, Mouydir, etc.). In most petroleum systems, which characterize these basins, the Silurian played the main role in hydrocarbon generation with two main 'hot' shale levels distributed in different locations (basins) and their deposition was restricted to the Rhuddanian (Lllandovery: early Silurian) and the Ludlow-Pridoli (late Silurian). A third major hot shale level had been identified in the Frasnian (Upper Devonian). Southern Tunisia is characterized by three main Paleozoic sedimentary basins, which are from North to South, the southern Chotts, Jeffara and Berkine Basin. They are separated by a major roughly E-W trending lower Paleozoic structural high, which encompass the Mehrez-Oued Hamous uplift to the West (Algeria) and the Nefusa uplift to the East (Libya), passing by the Touggourt-Talemzane-PGA-Bou Namcha (TTPB) structure close to southern Tunisia. The forementioned major source rocks in southern Tunisia are defined by hot shales with elevated Gamma ray values often exceeding 1400 API (in Hayatt-1 well), deposited in deep water environments during short lived (c. 2 Ma) periods of anoxia. In the course of this review, thickness, distribution and maturity maps have been established for each hot shale level using data for more than 70 wells located in both Tunisia and Algeria. Mineralogical modeling was achieved using Spectral Gamma Ray data (U, Th, K), SopectroLith logs (to acquire data for Fe, Si and Ti) and Elemental Capture Spectroscopy (ECS). The latter technique provided data for quartz, pyrite, carbonate, clay and Sulfur. In addition to this, the Gamma Ray (GR), Neutron Porosity (ΦN), deep Resistivity (Rt) and Bulk Density (ρb) logs were used to model bulk mineralogy and lithology. Biostratigraphic and complete

  16. Geology, sequence stratigraphy, and oil and gas assessment of the Lewis Shale Total Petroleum System, San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Colorado: Chapter 5 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubiel, R.F.

    2013-01-01

    The Lewis Shale Total Petroleum System (TPS) in the San Juan Basin Province contains a continuous gas accumulation in three distinct stratigraphic units deposited in genetically related depositional environments: offshore-marine shales, mudstones, siltstones, and sandstones of the Lewis Shale, and marginal-marine shoreface sandstones and siltstones of both the La Ventana Tongue and the Chacra Tongue of the Cliff House Sandstone. The Lewis Shale was not a completion target in the San Juan Basin (SJB) in early drilling from about the 1950s through 1990. During that time, only 16 wells were completed in the Lewis from natural fracture systems encountered while drilling for deeper reservoir objectives. In 1991, existing wells that penetrated the Lewis Shale were re-entered by petroleum industry operators in order to fracture-stimulate the Lewis and to add Lewis gas production onto preexisting, and presumably often declining, Mesaverde Group production stratigraphically lower in the section. By 1997, approximately 101 Lewis completions had been made, both as re-entries into existing wells and as add-ons to Mesaverde production in new wells. Based on recent industry drilling and completion practices leading to successful gas production from the Lewis and because new geologic models indicate that the Lewis Shale contains both source rocks and reservoir rocks, the Lewis Shale TPS was defined and evaluated as part of this U.S. Geological Survey oil and gas assessment of the San Juan Basin. Gas in the Lewis Shale Total Petroleum System is produced from shoreface sandstones and siltstones in the La Ventana and Chacra Tongues and from distal facies of these prograding clastic units that extend into marine rocks of the Lewis Shale in the central part of the San Juan Basin. Reservoirs are in shoreface sandstone parasequences of the La Ventana and Chacra and their correlative distal parasequences in the Lewis Shale where both natural and artificially enhanced fractures produce

  17. Spatio-temporal dynamics of cod nursery areas in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichsen, H.-H.; von Dewitz, B.; Lehmann, A.; Bergström, U.; Hüssy, K.

    2017-06-01

    In this study the drift of eastern Baltic cod larvae and juveniles spawned within the historical eastern Baltic cod spawning grounds was investigated by detailed drift model simulations for the years 1971-2010, to examine the spatio-temporal dynamics of environmental suitability in the nursery areas of juvenile cod settlement. The results of the long-term model scenario runs, where juvenile cod were treated as simulated passively drifting particles, enabled us to find strong indications for long-term variations of settlement and potentially the reproduction success of the historically important eastern Baltic cod nursery grounds. Only low proportions of juveniles hatched in the Arkona Basin and in the Gotland Basin were able to settle in their respective spawning ground. Ocean currents were either unfavorable for the juveniles to reach suitable habitats or transported the juveniles to nursery grounds of neighboring subdivisions. Juveniles which hatched in the Bornholm Basin were most widely dispersed and showed the highest settlement probability, while the second highest settlement probability and horizontal dispersal was observed for juveniles originating from the Gdansk Deep. In a long-term perspective, wind-driven transport of larvae/juveniles positively affected the settlement success predominately in the Bornholm Basin and in the Bay of Gdansk. The Bornholm Basin has the potential to contribute on average 54% and the Bay of Gdansk 11% to the production of juveniles in the Baltic Sea. Furthermore, transport of juveniles surviving to the age of settlement with origin in the Bornholm Basin contributed on average 13 and 11% to the total settlement in the Arkona Basin and in the Gdansk Deep, respectively. The time-series of the simulated occupied juvenile cod habitat in the Bornholm Basin and in the Gdansk Deep showed a similar declining trend as the Fulton's K condition factor of demersal 1-group cod, which may confirm the importance of oxygen-dependent habitat

  18. Estimating the effective nitrogen import: An example for the North Sea-Baltic Sea boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, H.; Maar, M.

    2016-10-01

    Semienclosed water bodies such as the Baltic Sea are prone to eutrophication problems. If local nutrient abatement measures are taken to tackle these problems, their success may be limited if a strong nutrient exchange with the adjacent waters exists. The quantification of this exchange is therefore essential to estimate its impact on the ecosystem status. At the example of the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, we illustrate that neither gross transports nor net transports of nutrients have a strong informative value in this context. Instead, we define an "effective import" as the import of nutrients which have not been inside the Baltic Sea before and estimate it in an ecological model with a nutrient-tagging technique. This effective import of bioreactive nitrogen from the Skagerrak to the Kattegat amounts to 103 kt/yr; from Kattegat to Belt Sea it is 54 kt/yr. The nitrogen exchange is therefore 30% stronger than other estimates, e.g., based on import in the deep water, suggest. An isolated view on the Baltic Sea and the North Sea in terms of eutrophication, as it is practiced in management today, is therefore questionable. Nitrogen imported from the North Sea typically spreads eastward up to the Bornholm Basin but can be transported into the deep waters of the Gotland Basin during Major Baltic Inflows in a significant amount.

  19. New data on the Paleozoic of the Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ergaliev, G.Kh.; Myasnikov, A.K.; Nikitin, I.F.; Polyanskij, N.V.; Sergeeva, L.V.; Sergieva, M.N.; Sal'menova, L.T.; Utegulov, M.T.; Tsaj, D.T.; Shuzhanov, V.M.

    1998-01-01

    The latest data on Paleozoic of the Semipalatinsk test site acquired as result of the stratigraphic and pale ontological investigation which have been conducted for the first time after 46-year interval in geological studies are presented. (author)

  20. Lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks of Baird Mountains Quadrangle, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumoulin, J.A.; Harris, A.G.

    1985-04-01

    Lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks in the Baird Mountains quadrangle form a relatively thin (about 550 m), chiefly shallow-water succession that has been imbricately thrust and metamorphosed to lower greenschist facies. Middle and Upper Cambrian rocks - the first reported from the western Brooks Range - occur in the northeastern quarter of the quadrangle, south of Angayukaqsraq (formerly Hub) Mountain. They consist of marble grading upward into thin-bedded marble/dolostone couplets and contain pelagiellid mollusks, acetretid brachiopods, and agnostid trilobites. Sedimentologic features and the Pelagiellas indicate a shallow-water depositional environment. Overlying these rocks are Lower and Middle Ordovician marble and phyllite containing graptolites and conodonts of midshelf to basinal aspect. Upper Ordovician rocks in this area are bioturbated to laminated dolostone containing warm, shallow-water conodonts. In the Omar and Squirrel Rivers areas to the west, the Lower Ordovician carbonate rocks show striking differences in lithofacies, biofacies, and thickness. Here they are mainly dolostone with locally well-developed fenestral fabric and evaporite molds, and bioturbated to laminated orange- and gray-weathering dolomitic marble. Upper Silurian dolostone, found near Angayukaqsraq Mountain and on the central Squirrel River, contains locally abundant corals and stronmatoporoids. Devonian carbonate rocks are widely distributed in the Baird Mountains quadrangle; at least two distinct sequences have been identified. In the Omar area, Lower and Middle Devonian dolostone and marble are locally cherty and rich in megafossils. In the north-central (Nakolik River) area, Middle and Upper Devonian marble is interlayered with planar to cross-laminated quartz-carbonate metasandstone and phyllite.

  1. Lost Terranes of Zealandia: possible development of late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic sedimentary basins at the southwest Pacific margin of Gondwanaland, and their destination as terranes in southern South America Terrenos perdidos de Zealandia: posible desarrollo de cuencas sedimentarias del Paleozoico tardío y Mesozoico temprano en el margen suroccidental del Pacífico de Gondwana y su destino como terrenos en el sur de América del Sur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Adams

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Latest Precambrian to Ordovician metasedimentary successions and Cambrian-Ordovician and Devonian-Carboniferous granitoids form the major part of the basement of southern Zealandia and adjacent sectors of Antarctica and southeast Australia. Uplift/cooling ages of these rocks, and local Devonian shallow-water cover sequences suggest that final consolidation of the basement occurred through Late Paleozoic time. A necessary consequence of this process would have been contemporaneous erosion and the substantial development of marine sedimentary basins at the Pacific margin of Zealandia. These are found nowhere at the present day, suggesting that the basins have been lost by tectonic erosion, perhaps in a margin-parallel dextral translation similar to late Paleozoic-Mesozoic suspect terranes of New Zealand. Aprobable detrital zircon age pattern is assembled for these lost Zealandia sediments, and then compared with those of pre-Jurassic (probable Triassic to Devonian metasedimentary rocks in the Chilean archipelago. Significant Mesoproterozoic, latest Neoproterozoic-Cambrian and Devonian-Carboniferous detrital zircon age components are common to both, thus supporting a possible Chilean terrane destination for these 'lost terranes of Zealandia'.Las sucesiones metasedimentarias del Precámbrico tardío al Ordovícico y granitoides del Cámbrico-Ordovícico y Devónico-Carbonífero constituyen la mayor parte del basamento del sur de Zealandia y sectores adyacentes de la Antartica y el sudeste de Australia. Las edades de enfriamiento/alzamiento de estas rocas y la cobertura local de secuencias de aguas someras del Devónico, sugieren que la consolidación definitiva del basamento se produjo durante el Paleozoico tardío. Una consecuencia necesaria de este proceso habría sido la erosion contemporánea y el desarrollo sustancial de cuencas sedimentarias marinas en el margen del Pacífico de Zealandia. Estas no se encuentran en ninguna parte en la

  2. The Costs of a Cleaner baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Sisse Liv; Konrad, Maria Theresia Hedegaard; Hasler, Berit

    2009-01-01

    In 2007 the Helcom (The Helsinki Comity), representing most of the countries around the Baltic, made an agreement for the future of the Baltic Sea, on reducing the nutrient input to the Baltic Sea and thereby avert further environmental damage, called the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP). One...... of the results was nutrient reduction targets for each country - the BSAP targets. Because the Baltic Sea is such an international marine area, receiving pollutants from many  countries, an international approach is necessary to make effective solutions. But is the BSAP the most cost-effective solution...... to the regulation of the Baltic Sea? And does the BSAP result in cost-effective reductions in the different countries, which is a requirement of the Water Framework Directive and the Marine Strategy Directive?   These questions are studied and answered using a cost minimisation model for the Baltic sea, initially...

  3. Use of existing hydrographic infrastructure to forecast the environmental spawning conditions for Eastern Baltic cod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Dewitz, Burkhard; Tamm, Susanne; Höflich, Katharina; Voss, Rüdiger; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald

    2018-01-01

    The semi-enclosed nature and estuarine characteristics, together with its strongly alternating bathymetry, make the Baltic Sea prone to much stronger interannual variations in the abiotic environment, than other spawning habitats of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Processes determining salinity and oxygen conditions in the basins are influenced both by long term gradual climate change, e.g. global warming, but also by short-term meteorological variations and events. Specifically one main factor influencing cod spawning conditions, the advection of highly saline and well-oxygenated water masses from the North Sea, is observed in irregular frequencies and causes strong interannual variations in stock productivity. This study investigates the possibility to use the available hydrographic process knowledge to predict the annual spawning conditions for Eastern Baltic cod in its most important spawning ground, the Bornholm Basin, only by salinity measurements from a specific location in the western Baltic. Such a prediction could serve as an environmental early warning indicator to inform stock assessment and management. Here we used a hydrodynamic model to hindcast hydrographic property fields for the last 40+ years. High and significant correlations were found for months early in the year between the 33m salinity level in the Arkona Basin and the oxygen-dependent cod spawning environment in the Bornholm Basin. Direct prediction of the Eastern Baltic cod egg survival in the Bornholm Basin based on salinity values in the Arkona Basin at the 33 m depth level is shown to be possible for eggs spawned by mid-age and young females, which currently predominate the stock structure. We recommend to routinely perform short-term predictions of the Eastern Baltic cod spawning environment, in order to generate environmental information highly relevant for stock dynamics. Our statistical approach offers the opportunity to make best use of permanently existing infrastructure in the

  4. Stock recruitment relationships for cod ( Gadus morhua L.) in the central Baltic Sea incorporating environmental variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarre, Astrid; Wieland, Kai; MacKenzie, Brian

    2000-01-01

    of investigations on recruitment, which were continued through a partial recovery of the stock in the mid-1990s. The principal factors influencing recruitment and recognized at present are: (i) the volume of water with temperature, oxygen and salinity conditions which meet the minimum requirements for successful......Recruitment of central/eastern Baltic cod critically depends on favourable oceanographic conditions in the deeper basins of the Baltic Sea creating a suitable habitat for the development of early life stages. The decline in the size of the spawning stock since the mid-1980s initiated a series...

  5. The Late Paleozoic relative gas fields of coal measure in China and their significances on the natural gas industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenchen Fang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The coal measure gas sources of coal-derived gas fields in the Late Paleozoic China are the Lower Carboniferous Dishuiquan Formation, the Upper Carboniferous Batamayineishan Formation and Benxi Formation, the Lower Permian Taiyuan Formation and Shanxi Formation, and the Upper Permian Longtan Formation. The coal-derived gas accumulates in Ordovician, Carboniferous, Permian, and Paleocene reservoirs and are distributed in Ordos Basin, Bohai Bay Basin, Junggar Basin, and Sichuan Basin. There are 16 gas fields and 12 of them are large gas fields such as the Sulige large gas field which is China's largest reserve with the highest annual output. According to component and alkane carbon isotope data of 99 gas samples, they are distinguished to be coal-derived gas from coal-derived gas with δ13C2 > −28.5‰ and δ13C1 -δ13C2 -δ13C3 identification chart. The Late Paleozoic relative gas fields of coal measure are significant for the Chinese natural gas industry: proven natural gas geological reserves and annual output of them account for 1/3 in China, and the gas source of three significant large gas fields is coal-derived, which of five significant large gas fields supporting China to be a great gas producing country. The average reserves of the gas fields and the large gas fields formed from the late Paleozoic coal measure are 5.3 and 1.7 times that of the gas fields and the large gas fields in China.

  6. Seabed geodiversity in a glaciated shelf area, the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaskela, Anu Marii; Kotilainen, Aarno Tapio

    2017-10-01

    Geodiversity describes the heterogeneity of the physical terrain. We have performed basin-wide geodiversity analysis on a glaciated epicontinental seabed to assess geodiversity measures and patterns, locate areas with high geodiversity, and draw conclusions on contributing processes. Geodiversity quantification is a rather new topic and is mainly practiced in land areas. We applied geodiversity methods developed for terrestrial studies to a seabed environment. Three geodiversity parameters, including the richness, patchiness, and geodiversity index, of the Baltic Sea were assessed in a GIS environment based on broad-scale datasets on seabed substrates, structures, and bedrock. A set of environmental and geological variables, which were considered to reflect geological processes under seabed conditions, were compared with the geodiversity to identify some of its drivers. We observed differences in the geodiversity levels of the Baltic subbasins, which are mainly due to basement type/bedrock, roughness, shore density, and glacier-derived processes. The geodiversity of the Baltic Sea generally increases from South to North and from open-sea to high-shore density areas (archipelagos). Crystalline bedrock areas provide more diverse seabed environments than sedimentary rock areas. The analysis helps to inform scientists, marine spatial planners, and managers about abiotic conservation values, the dynamics of the seabed environment, and potential areas with elevated biodiversity.

  7. Geology and oil and gas assessment of the Todilto Total Petroleum System, San Juan Basin Province, New Mexico and Colorado: Chapter 3 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgley, J.L.; Hatch, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    Organic-rich, shaly limestone beds, which contain hydrocarbon source beds in the lower part of the Jurassic Todilto Limestone Member of the Wanakah Formation, and sandstone reservoirs in the overlying Jurassic Entrada Sandstone, compose the Todilto Total Petroleum System (TPS). Source rock facies of the Todilto Limestone were deposited in a combined marine-lacustrine depositional setting. Sandstone reservoirs in the Entrada Sandstone were deposited in eolian depositional environments. Oil in Todilto source beds was generated beginning in the middle Paleocene, about 63 million years ago, and maximum generation of oil occurred in the middle Eocene. In the northern part of the San Juan Basin, possible gas and condensate were generated in Todilto Limestone Member source beds until the middle Miocene. The migration distance of oil from the Todilto source beds into the underlying Entrada Sandstone reservoirs was short, probably within the dimensions of a single dune crest. Traps in the Entrada are mainly stratigraphic and diagenetic. Regional tilt of the strata to the northeast has influenced structural trapping of oil, but also allowed for later introduction of water. Subsequent hydrodynamic forces have influenced the repositioning of the oil in some reservoirs and flushing in others. Seals are mostly the anhydrite and limestone facies of the Todilto, which thin to as little as 10 ft over the crests of the dunes. The TPS contains only one assessment unit, the Entrada Sandstone Conventional Oil Assessment Unit (AU) (50220401). Only four of the eight oil fields producing from the Entrada met the 0.5 million barrels of oil minimum size used for this assessment. The AU was estimated at the mean to have potential additions to reserves of 2.32 million barrels of oil (MMBO), 5.56 billion cubic feet of natural gas (BCFG), and 0.22 million barrels of natural gas liquids (MMBNGL).

  8. Baltic Exchange teper v Tallinne

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Viimane osa merekonteineritesse kokkupakitud Londoni laevandus- ja merebörsi Baltic Exchange'i endise peakorteri detailidest jõudis 2007. a. juunis Tallinna. Hoone detailid ostnud ärimehed Heiti Hääl ja Eerik-Niiles Kross plaanivad leida hoonele koha Tallinna kesklinnas. E.-N. Krossi kommentaar

  9. Tectono-thermal Evolution of the Lower Paleozoic Petroleum Source Rocks in the Southern Lublin Trough: Implications for Shale Gas Exploration from Maturity Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botor, Dariusz

    2018-03-01

    The Lower Paleozoic basins of eastern Poland have recently been the focus of intensive exploration for shale gas. In the Lublin Basin potential unconventional play is related to Lower Silurian source rocks. In order to assess petroleum charge history of these shale gas reservoirs, 1-D maturity modeling has been performed. In the Łopiennik IG-1 well, which is the only well that penetrated Lower Paleozoic strata in the study area, the uniform vitrinite reflectance values within the Paleozoic section are interpreted as being mainly the result of higher heat flow in the Late Carboniferous to Early Permian times and 3500 m thick overburden eroded due to the Variscan inversion. Moreover, our model has been supported by zircon helium and apatite fission track dating. The Lower Paleozoic strata in the study area reached maximum temperature in the Late Carboniferous time. Accomplished tectono-thermal model allowed establishing that petroleum generation in the Lower Silurian source rocks developed mainly in the Devonian - Carboniferous period. Whereas, during Mesozoic burial, hydrocarbon generation processes did not develop again. This has negative influence on potential durability of shale gas reservoirs.

  10. BALTEX—an interdisciplinary research network for the Baltic Sea region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reckermann, Marcus; Langner, Joakim; Arheimer, Berit; Markus Meier, H E; Omstedt, Anders; Von Storch, Hans; Hünicke, Birgit; Keevallik, Sirje; Schneider, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    BALTEX is an environmental research network dealing with the Earth system of the entire Baltic Sea drainage basin. Important elements include the water and energy cycle, climate variability and change, water management and extreme events, and related impacts on biogeochemical cycles. BALTEX was founded in 1993 as a GEWEX continental-scale experiment and is currently in its second 10 yr phase. Phase I (1993–2002) was primarily dedicated to hydrological, meteorological and oceanographic processes in the Baltic Sea drainage basin, hence mostly dealt with the physical aspects of the system. Scientific focus was on the hydrological cycle and the exchange of energy between the atmosphere, the Baltic Sea and the surface of its catchment. The BALTEX study area was hydrologically defined as the Baltic Sea drainage basin. The second 10 yr phase of BALTEX (Phase II: 2003–12) has strengthened regional climate research, water management issues, biogeochemical cycles and overarching efforts to reach out to stakeholders and decision makers, as well as to foster communication and education. Achievements of BALTEX Phase II have been the establishment of an assessment report of regional climate change and its impacts on the Baltic Sea basin (from hydrological to biological and socio-economic), the further development of regional physical climate models and the integration of biogeochemical and ecosystem models. BALTEX features a strong infrastructure, with an international secretariat and a publication series, and organizes various workshops and conferences. This article gives an overview of the BALTEX programme, with an emphasis on Phase II, with some examples from BALTEX-related research.

  11. Devonian paleomagnetism of the North Tien Shan: Implications for the middle-Late Paleozoic paleogeography of Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levashova, Natalia M.; Mikolaichuk, Alexander V.; McCausland, Philip J. A.; Bazhenov, Mikhail L.; Van der Voo, Rob

    2007-05-01

    The Ural-Mongol belt (UMB), between Siberia, Baltica and Tarim, is widely recognized as the locus of Asia's main growth during the Paleozoic, but its evolution remains highly controversial, as illustrated by the disparate paleogeographic models published in the last decade. One of the largest tectonic units of the UMB is the Kokchetav-North Tien Shan Domain (KNTD) that stretches from Tarim in the south nearly to the West Siberian Basin. The KNTD comprises several Precambrian microcontinents and numerous remnants of Early Paleozoic island arcs, marginal basins and accretionary complexes. In Late Ordovician time, all these structures had amalgamated into a single contiguous domain. Its paleogeographic position is of crucial importance for elucidating the Paleozoic evolution of the UMB in general and of the Urals in particular. The Aral Formation, located in Kyrgyzstan in the southern part of the KNTD, consists of a thick Upper Devonian (Frasnian) basalt-andesite sequence. Paleomagnetic data show a dual-polarity characteristic component (Dec/Inc = 286° / + 56°, α95 = 9°, k = 21, N = 15 sites). The primary origin of this magnetization is confirmed by a positive test on intraformational conglomerates. We combine this result with other Paleozoic data from the KNTD and show its latitudinal motion from the Late Ordovician to the end of the Paleozoic. The observed paleolatitudes are found to agree well with the values extrapolated from Baltica to a common reference point (42.5°N, 73°E) in our sampling area for the entire interval; hence coherent motion of the KNTD and Baltica is strongly indicated for most of the Paleozoic. This finding contradicts most published models of the UMB evolution, where the KNTD is separated from Baltica by a rather wide Ural Ocean containing one or more major plate boundaries. An exception is the model of Şengör and Natal'in [A.M.C. Şengör, B.A. Natal'in, Paleotectonics of Asia: fragments of a synthesis, in: A. Yin and M. Harrison (eds

  12. Uranium 234U and 238U isotopes in the southern Baltic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borylo, A.; Skwarzec, B.

    2002-01-01

    The concentration and distribution of uranium in water and sediment of selected basins of the southern Baltic Sea have been analysed. It was observed that the concentration of uranium in sediments increases with core depth. This is probably connected to diffusion processes from sediments to water through interstitial water where uranium concentration is much higher than in bottom water. The measurements of 234 U/ 238 U activity ratios indicate that sedimentation of terrigenic material and transport through Vistula river are the major sources of uranium in sediments of the southern Baltic Sea. Estimation of the 234 U/ 238 U ratios in reduction areas of the Baltic Deep and the Bornholm Deep suggest that the processes of reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) and of removal of authogenic uranium from seawater to sediments do not play major roles in the Gdansk Deep. (author)

  13. Sedimentation rate in the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilus, E.; Mattila, J.; Klemola, S.; Ikaeheimonen, T.K.; Niemisto, L.

    2001-01-01

    Varying redox conditions may affect the occurrence and concentrations of certain radionuclides in the surface layers of sediments and in near-bottom waters by causing remobilization of radionuclides from surface sediments to the overlying water and their settling back into the sediment. In recent decades about 70.000 km 2 of the sea bottom in the deepest part of the Baltic Sea (about 19% of its total area) have withstood almost continuous anoxic conditions; thus, it is important to know to what extent depletion of oxygen can affect the behaviour of these radionuclides in near-bottom waters. The aim of the project was to resolve the above question in a coastal basin periodically undergoing anoxic conditions. Radioecological processes in sediments and in near-bottom water under varying redoxconditions were studied in the deep area of the Haestholmsfjaerden Bay in Loviisa (eastern Gulf of Finland) in 1995-1996. The Haestholmsfjaerden Bay is a semienclosed basin between the mainland and the archipelago and is connected with the open Gulf of Finland only through narrow, shallow sounds: In 1995, total depletion of oxygen occurred in the hypolimnion of Haestholmsfjaerden Bay during 2 periods in late summer and autumn. In 1996, oxygen conditions were the worst ever observed in the Haestholmsfjaerden deep. During early autumn anoxic conditions prevailed for more than 1 month in the near-bottom water. The highest total phosphorus and total nitrogen concentrations in the near-bottom water during these periods were 20- and 4- fold compared with the corresponding values in surface water. According to the results obtained in this project, remobilization of 137 Cs and 239,240 Pu from sediments to near-bottom water is negligible or non-existent in the Haestholmsfjaerden deep. If it does occur, however, it may be so slight that it is not possible to observe with the methods used in this study. Although the anoxic periods are quite short in the Haestholmsfjaerden deep, they are of

  14. [Pietro U. Dini. Prelude to Baltic linguistics : earliest theories about Baltic languages (16th century)] / Stefan Donecker

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Donecker, Stefan, 1977-

    2015-01-01

    Arvustus: Dini, Pietro U. Prelude to Baltic linguistics : earliest theories about Baltic languages (16th century). (On the boundary of two worlds : identity, freedom, and moral imagination in the Baltics, 36). Verlag Rodopi, Amsterdam und New York 2014

  15. Resolving the impact of short-term variations in physical processes impacting on the spawning environment of eastern Baltic cod : application of a 3-D hydrodynamic model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrichsen, H.H.; St. John, Michael; Lehmann, A.

    2002-01-01

    /Kattegat area and in the western Baltic influence the water mass properties (high oxygen solubility). Eastward oriented transports of these well-oxygenated highly saline water masses may have a significant positive impact on the Baltic cod reproduction volume in the Bornholm Basin. Finally, we analysed how...... large scale and local atmospheric forcing conditions are related to the identified major processes affecting the reproduction volume. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  16. Developing Baltic cod recruitment models I : Resolving spatial and temporal dynamics of spawning stock and recruitment for cod, herring, and sprat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köster, Fritz; Möllmann, C.; Neuenfeldt, Stefan

    2001-01-01

    The Baltic Sea comprises a heterogeneous oceanographic environment influencing the spatial and temporal potential for reproductive success of cod (Gadus morhua) and sprat (Sprattus sprattus) in the different spawning basins. Hence, to quantify stock and recruitment dynamics, it is necessary......-disaggregated multispecies virtual population analyses (MSVPA) were performed for interacting species cod, herring (Clupea harengus), and sprat in the different subdivisions of the Central Baltic. The MSVPA runs revealed distinct spatial trends in population abundance, spawning biomass, recruitment, and predation...

  17. Parimad suhtekorraldusteod konkursil Baltic PR Awards

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2012-01-01

    Balti riikide suhtekorraldusliidud koostöös Rahvusvahelise Avalike Suhete Assotsiatsiooniga (IPRA) korraldavad 2001. aastast iga aasta kommunikatsioonijuhtimisalast auhinnakonkurssi Baltic PR Awards

  18. Revisions to the original extent of the Devonian Shale-Middle and Upper Paleozoic Total Petroleum System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Catherine B.; Rouse, William A.; Trippi, Michael H.; Higley, Debra K.

    2016-04-11

    Technically recoverable undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in continuous accumulations are present in Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian strata in the Appalachian Basin Petroleum Province. The province includes parts of New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia, and Alabama. The Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian strata are part of the previously defined Devonian Shale-Middle and Upper Paleozoic Total Petroleum System (TPS) that extends from New York to Tennessee. This publication presents a revision to the extent of the Devonian Shale-Middle and Upper Paleozoic TPS. The most significant modification to the maximum extent of the Devonian Shale-Middle and Upper Paleozoic TPS is to the south and southwest, adding areas in Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi where Devonian strata, including potential petroleum source rocks, are present in the subsurface up to the outcrop. The Middle to Upper Devonian Chattanooga Shale extends from southeastern Kentucky to Alabama and eastern Mississippi. Production from Devonian shale has been established in the Appalachian fold and thrust belt of northeastern Alabama. Exploratory drilling has encountered Middle to Upper Devonian strata containing organic-rich shale in west-central Alabama. The areas added to the TPS are located in the Valley and Ridge, Interior Low Plateaus, and Appalachian Plateaus physiographic provinces, including the portion of the Appalachian fold and thrust belt buried beneath Cretaceous and younger sediments that were deposited on the U.S. Gulf Coastal Plain.

  19. Indicator Properties of Baltic Zooplankton for Classification of Environmental Status within Marine Strategy Framework Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorokhova, Elena; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Postel, Lutz; Rubene, Gunta; Amid, Callis; Lesutiene, Jurate; Uusitalo, Laura; Strake, Solvita; Demereckiene, Natalja

    2016-01-01

    The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive requires the EU Member States to estimate the level of anthropogenic impacts on their marine systems using 11 Descriptors. Assessing food web response to altered habitats is addressed by Descriptor 4 and its indicators, which are being developed for regional seas. However, the development of simple foodweb indicators able to assess the health of ecologically diverse, spatially variable and complex interactions is challenging. Zooplankton is a key element in marine foodwebs and thus comprise an important part of overall ecosystem health. Here, we review work on zooplankton indicator development using long-term data sets across the Baltic Sea and report the main findings. A suite of zooplankton community metrics were evaluated as putative ecological indicators that track community state in relation to Good Environmental Status (GES) criteria with regard to eutrophication and fish feeding conditions in the Baltic Sea. On the basis of an operational definition of GES, we propose mean body mass of zooplankton in the community in combination with zooplankton stock measured as either abundance or biomass to be applicable as an integrated indicator that could be used within the Descriptor 4 in the Baltic Sea. These metrics performed best in predicting zooplankton being in-GES when considering all datasets evaluated. However, some other metrics, such as copepod biomass, the contribution of copepods to the total zooplankton biomass or biomass-based Cladocera: Copepoda ratio, were equally reliable or even superior in certain basin-specific assessments. Our evaluation suggests that in several basins of the Baltic Sea, zooplankton communities currently appear to be out-of-GES, being comprised by smaller zooplankters and having lower total abundance or biomass compared to the communities during the reference conditions; however, the changes in the taxonomic structure underlying these trends vary widely across the sea basins due to

  20. Sustainable energy in Baltic States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klevas, Valentinas; Streimikiene, Dalia; Grikstaite, Ramute

    2007-01-01

    Integration of New Member States to the European Union has created a new situation in the frame of implementation of the Lisbon strategy and EU Sustainable Development. The closure of Ignalina NPP is the biggest challenge to the energy sector development of the Baltic States. The Baltic States have quite limited own energy resources and in the Accession agreement with the EU Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia have verified their targets to increase the share of electricity produced from renewable energy sources (RES-E) by the year 2010. A wider use of renewable energy and increase of energy efficiency can make a valuable contribution to meeting the targets of sustainable development. The article presents a detailed overview of the present policies and measures implemented in the Baltic States, aiming to support the use of RES and the increase of energy efficiency. The review of possibilities to use the EU Structural Funds (SF) for the implementation of sustainable energy projects in the Baltic States was performed.The use of regional social-economic-environmental indicators is the main key to integrate sustainable energy development at the program deployment level. The indicators to be used should describe the contribution of energy programs to the sustainable development, medium- and long-term trends and inter-relationship between them and the typical energy indicators (saved toe, improved energy efficiency, percentage of RES). Municipalities may play a considerable role by promoting sustainable energy since local authorities are fulfilling their functions in the energy sector via a number of roles. The Netherlands' example shows that municipalities may act as facilitators by implementing national environmental policy and increasing energy efficiency in an integral part of these activities. The guidelines for Lithuanian local sustainable energy development using the SF co-financing have been presented

  1. Sedimentology and stratigraphy of Neoproterozoic-lower Paleozoic carbonate-siliciclastic succession of the southwesternmost Amazon Craton, state of Rondônia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Afonso, Jhon Willy Lopes; Nogueira, Afonso César Rodrigues

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Facies and stratigraphic analysis were carried out in Neoproterozoic-Lower Paleozoic carbonate-siliciclastic deposits of Cacoal and Pimenta Bueno formations exposed on basement rocks and into the Pimenta Bueno Graben, northwestern portion of Parecis Basin, southwesternmost Amazon Craton. The redescription and redefinion of this succession confirmed the previous interpretation for the Cacoal Formation as a Marinoan (~ 635 Ma) cap carbonate. The Cacoal Formation is subdivided here in ...

  2. Education in the Soviet Baltic Republics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soviet Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Includes 11 articles about education in the Soviet Baltic Republics. The articles include historical studies of Estonian and Latvian schools and medieval Estonian folk games. The impact of Marxist educational theories and Soviet policies on educational research, teacher education, and teaching methods in the Baltic region from 1920-50 is…

  3. A model assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran sources and fate in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, James M; McLachlan, Michael S; Wiberg, Karin; Jonsson, Per

    2009-06-01

    The contamination of the Baltic Sea with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) has resulted in restrictions on the marketing and consumption of Baltic Sea fish, making this a priority environmental issue in the European Union. To date there is no consensus on the relative importance of different sources of PCDD/Fs to the Baltic Sea, and hence no consensus on how to address this issue. In this work we synthesized the available information to create a PCDD/F budget for the Baltic Sea, focusing on the two largest basins, the Bothnian Sea and the Baltic Proper. The non-steady state multimedia fate and transport model POPCYCLING-Baltic was employed, using recent data for PCDD/F concentrations in air and sediment as boundary conditions. The PCDD/F concentrations in water predicted by the model were in good agreement with recent measurements. The budget demonstrated that atmospheric deposition was the dominant source of PCDD/Fs to the basins as a whole. This conclusion was supported by a statistical comparison of the PCDD/F congener patterns in surface sediments from accumulation bottoms with the patterns in ambient air, bulk atmospheric deposition, and a range of potential industrial sources. Prospective model simulations indicated that the PCDD/F concentrations in the water column will continue to decrease in the coming years due to the slow response of the Baltic Sea system to falling PCDD/F inputs in the last decades, but that the decrease would be more pronounced if ambient air concentrations were to drop further in the future, for instance as a result of reduced emissions. The study illustrates the usefulness of using monitoring data and multimedia models in an integrated fashion to address complex organic contaminant issues.

  4. Cost effective reductions in the agricultural load of nitrogen to the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elofsson, K.

    1997-11-01

    To restore the health of the Baltic Sea, the Helsinki Commission, HELCOM, suggests that the nitrogen load should be reduced by 50%. The agricultural sector accounts for about 1/3 of the total load of nitrogen to the Baltic Sea, while point sources account for about 1/4. The remaining load reaches the Baltic as atmospheric deposition. The purpose of this study is to calculate cost effective reductions in the agricultural load of nitrogen to the Baltic Sea coastal waters. The Baltic Sea drainage basin is divided into 17 regions, which differ with respect to costs, leaching and nitrogen retention. For each region, cost functions are estimated for 11 nitrogen abatement measures in the agricultural sector. It is difficult to find reliable data on both costs and biological parameters for all regions included, and several assumptions are made to obtain the cost functions. In this paper the total cost of a 50% reduction of the nitrogen load from arable land is estimated to 11,700 million SEK per year. A decrease in the use of fertilizer nitrogen is the most important measure in a cost effective policy. Other measures included in the cost effective solution are changes in land-use and in manure management practices. If, instead, each country is required to reduce its load by 50%, the total cost will increase by nearly 60%. Three out of nine countries around the Baltic Sea would gain from separate reduction targets, while all others lose by such a policy. The results are sensitive to assumptions about the biological parameters and the shape of the cost functions for reductions in chemical fertilizer. 75 refs, 3 figs, 11 tabs

  5. Scandinavia and the Baltic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Data from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera were combined to create this cloud-free natural-color mosaic of Scandinavia and the Baltic region. The image extends from 64oN, 0oE in the northwest to 56oN, 32oE in the southeast, and has been draped over a shaded relief Digital Terrain Elevation Model from the United States Geological Survey. It is displayed in an equidistant conic projection.The image area includes southern Norway, Sweden and Finland, northern Denmark, Estonia, Latvia and part of western Russia. Norway's rugged western coastline is deeply indented by fjords. Elongated lakes, formed by glacial erosion and deposition, are characteristic of the entire region, and are particularly dense throughout Finland and Sweden. Numerous islands are present, and a virtually continuous chain of small, scattered islands occur between Sweden and Finland. The northern and eastern waters of the Baltic Sea are almost fresh, since the Baltic receives saltwater only from the narrow and shallow sounds between Denmark and Sweden that connect it to the North Sea. Most of the major cities within the image area are coastal, including St. Petersburg, Stockholm, Helsinki, Riga, and Oslo.The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude.MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  6. Mechanisms Causing Hypoxia in the Baltic Sea at Different Spatial and Temporal Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, D. J.; Carstensen, J.; Gustafsson, B.; Slomp, C. P.

    2016-02-01

    A number of synthesis efforts have documented the world-wide increase in hypoxia, which is primarily driven by nutrient inputs with consequent organic matter enrichment. Physical factors including freshwater or saltwater inputs, stratification and temperature also play an important role in causing and sustaining hypoxia. The Baltic Sea provides an interesting case study to examine changes in oxygen dynamics over time because of the diversity of the types of hypoxia that occur, which ranges from episodic to seasonal hypoxia to perennial hypoxia. Hypoxia varies spatially across the basin with differences between open water bottoms and coastal systems. In addition, the extent and intensity of hypoxia has also varied greatly over the history of the basin, e.g. the last 8000 years. We will examine the mechanisms causing hypoxia at different spatial and temporal scales. The hydrodynamical setting is an important governing factor controlling possible time scales of hypoxia, but enhanced nutrient fluxes and global warming amplify oxygen depletion when oxygen supply by physical processes cannot meet oxygen demands from respiration. Our results indicate that climate change is counteracting management efforts to reduce hypoxia. We will address how hypoxia in the Baltic Sea is terminated at different scales. More importantly, we will explore the prospects of getting rid of hypoxia with the nutrient reductions that have been agreed upon by the countries in the Baltic Sea basin and discuss the time scales of improvement in bottom water oxygen conditions.

  7. Tria Pharmaceuticals in the Baltics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kratochvil, Renate; Nell, Phillip C.

    2016-01-01

    Linda, a management consultant, had to solve a tricky problem regarding difficulties with the 'Baltic region subsidiary' of a global pharmaceutical company. She was hired by their Regional Headquarters (RHQ) for Central and Eastern Europe to disentangle this multifaceted challenge (eg sales down...... on the topic were the cultural misunderstandings between the employees of the various countries, or the company’s outdated products. Linda was challenged to, first, get a clear and comprehensive picture of the situation, and, second, propose a well-conceived solution to the RHQ. This case is written as a two...

  8. Peculiarities of distribution of oil polution in the Southeastern Baltic by satellite data and in situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulycheva, E. V.; Krek, A. V.; Kostianoy, A. G.

    2016-01-01

    The results of satellite monitoring of oil pollution of the sea surface and field measurements of the concentration of oil products in the water column and bottom sediments for the first time allowed the establishment of a relation between the surface pollution from ships and the general characteristics of spatial and temporal distribution of oil products in the Southeastern Baltic Sea. Areas with increased concentrations of oil products in the surface and bottom layers were determined in the southeastern Baltic Sea. The basic directions of pollution spread, which are consistent with the main direction of annual mean transport of substances in the Gdansk Basin, are determined.

  9. Two possibilities for New Siberian Islands terrane tectonic history during the Early Paleozoic based on paleomagnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metelkin, Dmitry V.; Chernova, Anna I.; Vernikovsky, Valery A.; Matushkin, Nikolay Yu.

    2017-04-01

    The New Siberian Islands (NSI), located in the East Siberian Sea in the junction region of various structural elements, are a key target for deciphering the tectonic evolution of the Eastern Arctic. In recent years, we went on several expeditions and gathered an extensive geological material for this territory. Among other things, we could prove that the basement of the De Long and Anjou archipelagos structures is Precambrian and the overlying Paleozoic sections formed within the same terrane. The form of the boundaries of the NSI terrane are actively debated and are probably continued from the Lyakhovsky islands in the south-west to the southern parts of the submerged Mendeleev Ridge, for which there is increasing evidence of continental crust. Today there are several models that interpret the Paleozoic-Mesozoic tectonic history and structural affiliation of the NSI terrane. Some propose that the Paleozoic sedimentary section formed in a passive margin setting of the Siberian paleocontinent. Others compare its history with marginal basins of the Baltica and Laurentia continents or consider the NSI terrane as an element of the Chukotka-Alaska microplate. These models are mainly based on results of paleobiogeographical and lithological-facies analyses, including explanations of probable sources for detrital zircons. Our paleomagnetic research on sedimentary, volcanogenic-sedimentary and igneous rocks of the Anjou (Kotelny and Bel'kovsky islands) and De Long (Bennett, Jeannette and Henrietta islands) archipelagos let us calculate an apparent polar wander path for the early Paleozoic interval of geological history, which allows us to conclude that the NSI terrane could not have been a part of the continental plates listed above, but rather had active tectonic boundaries with them. Our paleomagnetic data indicate that the NSI terrane drifted slowly and steadily in the tropical and subtropical regions no higher than 40 degrees. However, the main uncertainty for the

  10. La Formación Los Llantenes en la Precordillera de Jagüé (La Rioja y la identificación de un episodio de extensión en la evolución temprana de las cuencas del Paleozoico superior en el oeste argentino The Los Llantenes Formation in the Precordillera of Jagüé (La Rioja Province and the recognition of a rifting stage in the early evolution of the late Paleozoic basins in western Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo A Astini

    2011-07-01

    Formación Los Llantenes, sumado a la procedencia local, permiten interpretar el desarrollo de depocentros asociados con un marco tectónico extensional o transtensivo, conclusiones importantes para reconstruir la historia de la cuenca.In the northern part of the Argentine Precordillera, northwestern La Rioja, the Upper Paleozoic is over 4,000 m thick. Very coarse conglomerates from the basal section have not been described nor adequately interpreted. This work analyses this unit in the context of a stratigraphic revision of the upper Paleozoic of the region, and interprets the conglomerate as a rift deposit. The thick (>1,000 m and coarse purple conglomeratic succession, herein named 'Los Llantenes Formation', non-conformably rests on the basement rocks of the region and underlies deposits of the first glacial record associated with the Gondwanan glaciation. While its great thickness and restricted areal extent indicate localized subsidence, the crude stratification, poor sorting and abundance of >1-m boulders indicate an origin related to high-gradient, low-efficiency alluvial fans. Their composition and coarse-grained size indicate local provenance, abrupt relief and incipiently developed drainage systems and a highly compartmentalized and abrupt paleogeography. A complex glacial history generated deep 'U'-shaped paleovalleys in the Los Llantenes Formation, developing paleovalleys that accommodated basal lodgment tills and glacial diamictites with sedimentologic features comparable to the Cerro Tres Cóndores Formation (Visean in age exposed to the south. The age of the conglomerales of Los Llantenes Formation, clearly preglacial, can be stratigraphically bracketed between the Middle Devonian substrate cropping out to the south in the sierra de Las Minitas and the Middle Mississippian, age of the Cerro Tres Condores Formation. Consequently, Los Llantenes Formation may partly correlate with the Agua de Lucho Formation (Tournaisian-Vissean that in the area of Río del Pe

  11. Stickleback increase in the Baltic Sea - A thorny issue for coastal predatory fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Ulf; Olsson, Jens; Casini, Michele; Eriksson, Britas Klemens; Fredriksson, Ronny; Wennhage, Håkan; Appelberg, Magnus

    2015-09-01

    In the Baltic Sea, the mesopredator three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) spends a large part of its life cycle in the open sea, but reproduces in shallow coastal habitats. In coastal waters, it may occur in high abundances, is a potent predator on eggs and larvae of fish, and has been shown to induce trophic cascades with resulting eutrophication symptoms through regulation of invertebrate grazers. Despite its potential significance for the coastal food web, little is known about its life history and population ecology. This paper provides a description of life history traits, migration patterns and spatiotemporal development of the species in the Baltic Sea during the past decades, and tests the hypothesis that stickleback may have a negative impact on populations of coastal predatory fish. Offshore and coastal data during the last 30 years show that stickleback has increased fourfold in the Bothnian Sea, 45-fold in the Central Baltic Sea and sevenfold in the Southern Baltic Sea. The abundances are similar in the two northern basins, and two orders of magnitude lower in the Southern Baltic Sea. The coastward spawning migration of sticklebacks from offshore areas peaks in early May, with most spawners being two years of age at a mean length of 65 mm. The early juvenile stage is spent at the coast, whereafter sticklebacks perform a seaward feeding migration in early autumn at a size of around 35 mm. A negative spatial relation between the abundance of stickleback and early life stages of perch and pike at coastal spawning areas was observed in spatial survey data, indicating strong interactions between the species. A negative temporal relationship was observed also between adult perch and stickleback in coastal fish monitoring programmes supporting the hypothesis that stickleback may have negative population level effects on coastal fish predators. The recent increase in stickleback populations in different basins of the Baltic Sea in combination with

  12. Paleozoic stratigraphy of two areas in southwestern Indiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droste, J.B.

    1976-09-01

    Two areas recommended for evaluation as solid waste disposal sites lie along the strike of Paleozoic rocks in southwestern Indiana. Thin Pennsylvanian rocks and rocks of the upper Mississippian are at the bedrock surface in maturely dissected uplands in both areas. The gross subsurface stratigraphy beneath both areas is the same, but facies and thickness variation in some of the subsurface Paleozoic units provide for some minor differences between the areas. Thick middle Mississippi carbonates grade downward into clastics of lower Mississippian (Borden Group) and upper Devonian (New Albany Shale) rocks. Middle Devonian and Silurian rocks are dominated by carbonate lithologies. Upper Ordovician (Maquoketa Group) overly carbonates of middle Ordovician age. Thick siltstone and shale of the Borden Group-New Albany Shale zone and Maquoketa Group rocks should be suitable for repository development

  13. Ontogenetic evidence for the Paleozoic ancestry of salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoch, Rainer R; Carroll, Robert L

    2003-01-01

    The phylogenetic positions of frogs, salamanders, and caecilians have been difficult to establish. Data matrices based primarily on Paleozoic taxa support a monophyletic origin of all Lissamphibia but have resulted in widely divergent hypotheses of the nature of their common ancestor. Analysis that concentrates on the character states of the stem taxa of the extant orders, in contrast, suggests a polyphyletic origin from divergent Paleozoic clades. Comparison of patterns of larval development in Paleozoic and modern amphibians provides a means to test previous phylogenies based primarily on adult characteristics. This proves to be highly informative in the case of the origin of salamanders. Putative ancestors of salamanders are recognized from the Permo-Carboniferous boundary of Germany on the basis of ontogenetic changes observed in fossil remains of larval growth series. The entire developmental sequence from hatching to metamorphosis is revealed in an assemblage of over 600 specimens from a single locality, all belonging to the genus Apateon. Apateon forms the most speciose genus of the neotenic temnospondyl family Branchiosauridae. The sequence of ossification of individual bones and the changing configuration of the skull closely parallel those observed in the development of primitive living salamanders. These fossils provide a model of how derived features of the salamander skull may have evolved in the context of feeding specializations that appeared in early larval stages of members of the Branchiosauridae. Larvae of Apateon share many unique derived characters with salamanders of the families Hynobiidae, Salamandridae, and Ambystomatidae, which have not been recognized in any other group of Paleozoic amphibians.

  14. Continental-scale transport of sediments by the Baltic Ice Stream elucidated by coupled grain size and Nd provenance analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Steven M.; Toucanne, Samuel; Creyts, Timothy T.; Hemming, Sidney R.

    2018-05-01

    We introduce a methodology for determining the transport distance of subglacially comminuted and entrained sediments. We pilot this method on sediments from the terminal margin of the Baltic Ice Stream, the largest ice stream of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet during the Last Glacial Maximum. A strong correlation (R2 = 0.83) between the εNd and latitudes of circum-Baltic river sediments enables us to use εNd as a calibrated measure of distance. The proportion of subglacially transported sediments in a sample is estimated from grain size ratios in the silt fraction (investigations of Fennoscandinavian erosion, and is consistent with rapid ice flow into the Baltic basins prior to the Last Glacial Maximum. The methodology introduced here could be used to infer the distances of glacigenic sediment transport from Late Pleistocene and earlier glaciations.

  15. The impact of fire on the Late Paleozoic Earth System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian J. Glasspool

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of bulk petrographic data indicate that during the Late Paleozoic wildfires were more prevalent than at present. We propose that the development of fire systems through this interval was controlled predominantly by the elevated atmospheric oxygen concentration (p(O2 that mass balance models predict prevailed. At higher levels of p(O2, increased fire activity would have rendered vegetation with high moisture contents more susceptible to ignition and would have facilitated continued combustion. We argue that coal petrographic data indicate that p(O2 rather than global temperatures or climate, resulted in the increased levels of wildfire activity observed during the Late Paleozoic and can therefore be used to predict it. These findings are based upon analyses of charcoal volumes in multiple coals distributed across the globe and deposited during this time period, and that were then compared with similarly diverse modern peats and Cenozoic lignites and coals. Herein, we examine the environmental and ecological factors that would have impacted fire activity and we conclude that of these factors p(O2 played the largest role in promoting fires in Late Paleozoic peat-forming environments and, by inference, ecosystems generally, when compared with their prevalence in the modern world.

  16. The impact of fire on the Late Paleozoic Earth system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasspool, Ian J; Scott, Andrew C; Waltham, David; Pronina, Natalia; Shao, Longyi

    2015-01-01

    Analyses of bulk petrographic data indicate that during the Late Paleozoic wildfires were more prevalent than at present. We propose that the development of fire systems through this interval was controlled predominantly by the elevated atmospheric oxygen concentration (p(O2)) that mass balance models predict prevailed. At higher levels of p(O2), increased fire activity would have rendered vegetation with high-moisture contents more susceptible to ignition and would have facilitated continued combustion. We argue that coal petrographic data indicate that p(O2) rather than global temperatures or climate, resulted in the increased levels of wildfire activity observed during the Late Paleozoic and can, therefore, be used to predict it. These findings are based upon analyses of charcoal volumes in multiple coals distributed across the globe and deposited during this time period, and that were then compared with similarly diverse modern peats and Cenozoic lignites and coals. Herein, we examine the environmental and ecological factors that would have impacted fire activity and we conclude that of these factors p(O2) played the largest role in promoting fires in Late Paleozoic peat-forming environments and, by inference, ecosystems generally, when compared with their prevalence in the modern world.

  17. Meso and microscopic characterization of deformation bands in porous sandstones: an example on the Paleozoic, Pre- and Sin-rift sequences of the Araripe Basin, Northeast of Brazil; Caracterizacao meso e microscopica de bandas de deformacao em arenitos porosos: um exemplo nas tectonossequencias Paleozoica, Pre- e Sin-rifte da Bacia do Araripe, Nordeste do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo Neto, Joao Marculino de; Silva, Fernando Cesar Alves da; Sa, Emanuel Ferraz Jardim de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Geodinamica e Geofisica], e-mails: jota_ex2@hotmail.com, fernando@geologia.ufrn.br, emanuel@ccet.ufrn.br

    2012-04-15

    Deformation bands are narrow tabular volumes developed in porous sandstones. Although these structures are a product of brittle deformation, they may have internally a continuous displacement gradient. When granular cataclasis is the dominant deformation mechanism, the initial properties of their host rocks (i.e., porosity and permeability) can change significantly. The deformation bands in sandstones from the pre- and syn-rift of the Araripe Basin were studied in meso and microscale in order to classify them and to understand the deformation mechanisms involved during their nucleation and development. Their geometric-spatial, kinematic, and rheological criteria allowed establishing relations between the origin of deformation bands and lithification of their host rocks. Additionally, some inferences on their influence to the fluid flow in the reservoir-scale were outlined. Moreover, the study of deformation bands contributed to the understanding of the tectonic evolution of the studied basin. Accordingly, the study of deformation bands can support research on local and regional aspects of the tectonosedimentary evolution of sedimentary basins. (author)

  18. BALTIC CONTAINER SHIPPING MARKET GOES GLOBAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Czermański

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at summarizing the last period of the Baltic container shipping mar-ket’s development, especially after 2000. The author, taking especially into account changes that have occurred in 2010, ultimately demonstrate that through the analyzed changes, this market has become a global one - thus being shaped by global determinants influencing its further development. Author selected and analyzed some chosen, most important factors influencing future market development. Secondly, some chances and threats resulting from the described changes were presented, either for the entire market as a base for international trade of Baltic Sea Region countries, and for its actors, mainly shipping owners and operators acting as a supply side of the Baltic container market. Finally, author has tried to verify and questioned the doubts and strong concerns about the future of the Baltic container shipping, especially about the feeder services, as because there are real indications and arguments against these concern.

  19. Dissent and Nationalism in the Soviet Baltic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    Pius XII after he issued a decree ecommunicating Catholics who join the Communist Party. Only 19 of 800 Lithuanian priests were willing to sign...comparison-the form of the dissent has basic similarities that warrant a collective treatment. Baltic political dissent has generally focused on specific...PUBLIC PROTEST AND DEMONSTRATIONS Political dissent in the Baltic region takes two basic forms: open public protest and organized (often underground

  20. Managing oil logistics around the Baltic Rim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilander, H.

    1997-01-01

    Finland's Neste Group is a major player in the oil business in the Baltic area. Neste tankers and petroleum product logistics services comprehensively serve the region. Neste's main Baltic Rim terminal outside Finland is located at Muuga close to the Estonian capital, Tallinn. This will be joined by one in Riga in Latvia at the end of this year. A terminal for St. Petersburg is in the planning stage

  1. Status of biodiversity in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojaveer, Henn; Jaanus, Andres; Mackenzie, Brian R; Martin, Georg; Olenin, Sergej; Radziejewska, Teresa; Telesh, Irena; Zettler, Michael L; Zaiko, Anastasija

    2010-09-01

    The brackish Baltic Sea hosts species of various origins and environmental tolerances. These immigrated to the sea 10,000 to 15,000 years ago or have been introduced to the area over the relatively recent history of the system. The Baltic Sea has only one known endemic species. While information on some abiotic parameters extends back as long as five centuries and first quantitative snapshot data on biota (on exploited fish populations) originate generally from the same time, international coordination of research began in the early twentieth century. Continuous, annual Baltic Sea-wide long-term datasets on several organism groups (plankton, benthos, fish) are generally available since the mid-1950s. Based on a variety of available data sources (published papers, reports, grey literature, unpublished data), the Baltic Sea, incl. Kattegat, hosts altogether at least 6,065 species, including at least 1,700 phytoplankton, 442 phytobenthos, at least 1,199 zooplankton, at least 569 meiozoobenthos, 1,476 macrozoobenthos, at least 380 vertebrate parasites, about 200 fish, 3 seal, and 83 bird species. In general, but not in all organism groups, high sub-regional total species richness is associated with elevated salinity. Although in comparison with fully marine areas the Baltic Sea supports fewer species, several facets of the system's diversity remain underexplored to this day, such as micro-organisms, foraminiferans, meiobenthos and parasites. In the future, climate change and its interactions with multiple anthropogenic forcings are likely to have major impacts on the Baltic biodiversity.

  2. Paleozoic and Mesozoic deformations in the central Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokleberg, Warren J.; Kistler, Ronald Wayne

    1980-01-01

    Analysis of structural and stratigraphic data indicates that several periods of regional deformation, consisting of combined folding, faulting, cataclasis, and regional metamorphism, occurred throughout the central Sierra Nevada during Paleozoic and Mesozoic time. The oldest regional deformation occurred alono northward trends during the Devonian and Mississippian periods in most roof pendants containing lower Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks at the center and along the crest of the range. This deformation is expressed in some roof pendants by an angular unconformity separating older thrice-deformed from younger twice-deformed Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks. The first Mesozoic deformation, which consisted of uplift and erosion and was accompanied by the onset of Andean-type volcanism during the Permian and Triassic, is expressed by an angular unconformity in several roof pendants from the Saddlebag Lake to the Mount Morrison areas. This unconformity is defined by Permian and Triassic andesitic to rhyolitic metavolcanic rocks unconformably overlying more intensely deformed Pennsylvanian, Permian(?), and older metasedimentary rocks. A later regional deformation occurred during the Triassic along N. 20?_30? W. trends in Permian and Triassic metavolcanic rocks of the Saddlebag Lake and Mount Dana roof pendants, in upper Paleozoic rocks of the Pine Creek roof pendant, and in the Calaveras Formation of the western metamorphic belt; the roof pendants are crosscut by Upper Triassic granitic rocks of the Lee Vining intrusive epoch. A still later period of Early and Middle Jurassic regional deformation occurred along N. 30?-60? E. trends in upper Paleozoic rocks of the Calaveras Formation of the western metamorphic belt. A further period of deformation was the Late Jurassic Nevadan orogeny, which occurred along N. 20?_40? W. trends in Upper Jurassic rocks of the western metamorphic belt that are crosscut by Upper Jurassic granitic rocks of the Yosemite intrusive epoch

  3. Scaling the Baltic Sea environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Gutzon

    2008-01-01

    of this development, this article suggests that environmental politics critically depend on the delineation of relatively bounded spaces that identify and situate particular environmental concerns as spatial objects for politics. These spaces are not simply determined by ‘nature' or some environmental......The Baltic Sea environment has since the early 1970s passed through several phases of spatial objectification in which the ostensibly well-defined semi-enclosed sea has been framed and reframed as a geographical object for intergovernmental environmental politics. Based on a historical analysis......-scientific logic, but should rather be seen as temporal outcomes of scale framing processes, processes that are accentuated by contemporary conceptions of the environment (or nature) in terms of multi-scalar ecosystems. This has implications for how an environmental concern is perceived and politically addressed....

  4. Management-focused approach to investigating coastal water-quality drivers and impacts in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigouroux, G.; Destouni, G.; Chen, Y.; Bring, A.; Jönsson, A.; Cvetkovic, V.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal areas link human-driven conditions on land with open sea conditions, and include crucial and vulnerable ecosystems that provide a variety of ecosystem services. Eutrophication is a common problem that is not least observed in the Baltic Sea, where coastal water quality is influenced both by land-based nutrient loading and by partly eutrophic open sea conditions. Robust and adaptive management of coastal systems is essential and necessitates integration of large scale catchment-coastal-marine systems as well as consideration of anthropogenic drivers and impacts, and climate change. To address this coastal challenge, relevant methodological approaches are required for characterization of coupled land, local coastal, and open sea conditions under an adaptive management framework for water quality. In this paper we present a new general and scalable dynamic characterization approach, developed for and applied to the Baltic Sea and its coastal areas. A simple carbon-based water quality model is implemented, dividing the Baltic Sea into main management basins that are linked to corresponding hydrological catchments on land, as well as to each other though aggregated three-dimensional marine hydrodynamics. Relevant hydrodynamic variables and associated water quality results have been validated on the Baltic Sea scale and show good accordance with available observation data and other modelling approaches. Based on its scalability, this methodology is further used on coastal zone scale to investigate the effects of hydrodynamic, hydro-climatic and nutrient load drivers on water quality and management implications for coastal areas in the Baltic Sea.

  5. The geological history of the Baltic Sea. A review of the literature and investigation tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckholmen, Monica; Tiren, Sven A.

    2009-09-01

    The bedrock in Sweden mainly comprises Proterozoic magmatic and metamorphic rocks older than a billion or one and a half billion years with few easily distinguished testimonies for the younger history. For the construction of a geological repository for deposition of nuclear waste this later, brittle, history is of great consequence. In the Gulf of Bothnia, the Baltic Sea and the countries on the eastern and southern sides of the Baltic Sea, the Proterozoic bedrock of the Svecofennian Province continues underneath a cover of sedimentary rocks of Mesoproterozoic, Palaeozoic and in the south up to Tertiary age. By studying these, lithologies, basin analyses, preserved structures, topography, etc., information may be gained on the later history, not only in the basins but also in the exposed shield area. The deformation is governed by the plate tectonic scenario and mantle configuration of a specific time and suitable structures are utilized and reactivated. The collision and amalgamation of the different tectonic terranes that comprise the basement left it strongly heterogeneous and the sutures between these rheologically different segments ample for future deformation and the adjustment between the segments to the changing and prevailing plate tectonic scenarios; the assembling and break-up of Rodinia, Laurasia and Pangea. Glaciations induce bending of the plate. Suitable datum surfaces for assessment of the deformation are the base of major sedimentary sequences, often linked to plate tectonic cycles, specifically the sub-Cambrian peneplain, the base of the Devonian, Mesozoic, Oligocene, Rupelian and Pleistocene, as well as major differences in metamorphic grade and style of deformation in adjacent rock blocks. The Baltic Sea with its Gulfs has almost since the beginning of history been the locus for rifting and extensional events, e.g. the rapakivi magmatism, 1.5-1.6Ga, formation of the Mesoproterozoic Jotnian sandstone basins and the opening of the Tornquist Sea

  6. The geological history of the Baltic Sea. A review of the literature and investigation tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckholmen, Monica; Tiren, Sven A. (Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2009-09-15

    The bedrock in Sweden mainly comprises Proterozoic magmatic and metamorphic rocks older than a billion or one and a half billion years with few easily distinguished testimonies for the younger history. For the construction of a geological repository for deposition of nuclear waste this later, brittle, history is of great consequence. In the Gulf of Bothnia, the Baltic Sea and the countries on the eastern and southern sides of the Baltic Sea, the Proterozoic bedrock of the Svecofennian Province continues underneath a cover of sedimentary rocks of Mesoproterozoic, Palaeozoic and in the south up to Tertiary age. By studying these, lithologies, basin analyses, preserved structures, topography, etc., information may be gained on the later history, not only in the basins but also in the exposed shield area. The deformation is governed by the plate tectonic scenario and mantle configuration of a specific time and suitable structures are utilized and reactivated. The collision and amalgamation of the different tectonic terranes that comprise the basement left it strongly heterogeneous and the sutures between these rheologically different segments ample for future deformation and the adjustment between the segments to the changing and prevailing plate tectonic scenarios; the assembling and break-up of Rodinia, Laurasia and Pangea. Glaciations induce bending of the plate. Suitable datum surfaces for assessment of the deformation are the base of major sedimentary sequences, often linked to plate tectonic cycles, specifically the sub-Cambrian peneplain, the base of the Devonian, Mesozoic, Oligocene, Rupelian and Pleistocene, as well as major differences in metamorphic grade and style of deformation in adjacent rock blocks. The Baltic Sea with its Gulfs has almost since the beginning of history been the locus for rifting and extensional events, e.g. the rapakivi magmatism, 1.5-1.6Ga, formation of the Mesoproterozoic Jotnian sandstone basins and the opening of the Tornquist Sea

  7. Geology and oil and gas assessment of the Mancos-Menefee Composite Total Petroleum System: Chapter 4 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgley, J.L.; Condon, S.M.; Hatch, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    The Mancos-Menefee Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS) includes all genetically related hydrocarbons generated from organic-rich shales in the Cretaceous Mancos Shale and from carbonaceous shale, coal beds, and humate in the Cretaceous Menefee Formation of the Mesaverde Group. The system is called a composite total petroleum system because the exact source of the hydrocarbons in some of the reservoirs is not known. Reservoir rocks that contain hydrocarbons generated in Mancos and Menefee source beds are found in the Cretaceous Dakota Sandstone, at the base of the composite TPS, through the lower part of the Cliff House Sandstone of the Mesaverde Group, at the top. Source rocks in both the Mancos Shale and Menefee Formation entered the oil generation window in the late Eocene and continued to generate oil or gas into the late Miocene. Near the end of the Miocene in the San Juan Basin, subsidence ceased, hydrocarbon generation ceased, and the basin was uplifted and differentially eroded. Reservoirs are now underpressured.

  8. Decadal-scale changes of dinoflagellates and diatoms in the anomalous baltic sea spring bloom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riina Klais

    Full Text Available The algal spring bloom in the Baltic Sea represents an anomaly from the winter-spring bloom patterns worldwide in terms of frequent and recurring dominance of dinoflagellates over diatoms. Analysis of approximately 3500 spring bloom samples from the Baltic Sea monitoring programs revealed (i that within the major basins the proportion of dinoflagellates varied from 0.1 (Kattegat to >0.8 (central Baltic Proper, and (ii substantial shifts (e.g. from 0.2 to 0.6 in the Gulf of Finland in the dinoflagellate proportion over four decades. During a recent decade (1995-2004 the proportion of dinoflagellates increased relative to diatoms mostly in the northernmost basins (Gulf of Bothnia, from 0.1 to 0.4 and in the Gulf of Finland, (0.4 to 0.6 which are typically ice-covered areas. We hypothesize that in coastal areas a specific sequence of seasonal events, involving wintertime mixing and resuspension of benthic cysts, followed by proliferation in stratified thin layers under melting ice, favors successful seeding and accumulation of dense dinoflagellate populations over diatoms. This head-start of dinoflagellates by the onset of the spring bloom is decisive for successful competition with the faster growing diatoms. Massive cyst formation and spreading of cyst beds fuel the expanding and ever larger dinoflagellate blooms in the relatively shallow coastal waters. Shifts in the dominant spring bloom algal groups can have significant effects on major elemental fluxes and functioning of the Baltic Sea ecosystem, but also in the vast shelves and estuaries at high latitudes, where ice-associated cold-water dinoflagellates successfully compete with diatoms.

  9. On the importance of Major Baltic Inflows for oxygenation of the central Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Thomas; Radtke, Hagen; Seifert, Torsten

    2017-02-01

    In December 2014, the third strongest salt water inflow into the Baltic Sea occurred since 1880. It was assumed that the inflow would turn the entire bottom water of the Baltic Sea from anoxic into oxic conditions for an extended period. However, already in late 2015, the central Eastern Baltic Sea had turned back into anoxic conditions. This rapid oxygen decline was in fact surprising since a weaker inflow in 2003 ventilated the Baltic Sea for a longer period of time. With the aid of an ecosystem model of the Baltic Sea, the two inflows in 2003 and 2014 were analyzed in detail. Although the 2014 inflow event was twice as strong as the 2003 inflow event, oxygen transport continued after the latter one, supplying about the same amount of oxygen again. In addition to the major inflow event, a series of smaller inflows in 2003 supplied the extra oxygen transport. Therefore, the strength of a major inflow event alone cannot be used to predict the oxygenation impact. Instead, it is necessary to consider smaller events, in particular those occurring just before and after a major inflow event, as well. An element tagging method showed that the share of oxygen imported across the Danish Straits on the total oxygen arriving at the central Eastern Baltic Sea is between 10% and 20%. Therefore, the oxygen concentration of the inflowing water seems to be of less importance for the oxygenation effect on the central Baltic Sea due to the strong dilution effect.

  10. Simulating Baltic Sea climate for the period 1902-1998 with the Rossby Centre coupled ice-ocean model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, H.E. Markus [Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Inst., Rossby Centre, Norrkoeping (Sweden); Kauker, Frank [Alfred Wegener Inst. for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven (Germany)

    2002-12-01

    Hindcast simulations for the period 1902-1998 have been performed using a 3D coupled ice-ocean model for the Baltic Sea. Daily sea level observations in Kattegat, monthly basin-wide discharge data, and reconstructed atmospheric surface data have been used to force the Baltic Sea model. The reconstruction utilizes a statistical model to calculate daily sea level pressure and monthly surface air temperature, dew point temperature, precipitation, and cloud cover fields on a 1 deg x 1 deg regular horizontal grid for the Baltic Sea region. An improved turbulence scheme has been implemented into the Baltic Sea model to simulate saltwater inflows realistically. The results are validated against available observational datasets for sea level, salinity, saltwater inflow, volume transport, and sea ice. In addition, a comparison is performed with simulations for the period 1980-1993 using 3-hourly gridded atmospheric observations from synoptic stations. It is shown that the results of the Baltic Sea model forced with the reconstructed data are satisfactory. Sensitivity experiments have been performed to explore the impact of internal mixing, fresh and saltwater inflows, sea ice, and the sea level in Kattegat on the salinity of the Baltic Sea. It is found that the decadal variability of mean salinity is explained partly by decadal volume variations of the accumulated freshwater inflow from river runoff and net precipitation and partly by decadal variations of the large-scale sea level pressure over Scandinavia. During the last century two exceptionally long stagnation periods are found, the 1920s to the 1930s and the 1980s to the mid 1990s. During these periods precipitation, runoff and westerly winds were stronger than normal. Stronger westerly winds caused increased eastward surface-layer transports. Consequently, the mean eastward lower layer transports through the Stolpe Channel is reduced. The response time scale of the Baltic Sea is of the order of 30-40 years. The large

  11. Variations in the drift of larval cod ( Gadus morhua L.) in the Baltic Sea : combining field observations and modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, R.; Hinrichsen, H.H.; St. John, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Coupled three-dimensional (3-D) physical oceanographic modelling and field sampling programmes were carried out in May 1988 and August 1991 to investigate the potential drift of larval cod (Gadus morhua L.) in the Bornholm Basin of the Baltic Sea. The goals were to predict the transport of cod...... larvae, thus aiding the identification of physical processes influencing larval retention/dispersal. Numerical simulations were performed using a 3-D eddy-resolving baroclinic model based on the Bryan-Cox-Semtner code adapted for the Baltic Sea. Within the Bornholm Basin, the model was initialized...... for the time periods considered. Larval drift was simulated either by incorporation of passive drifters, or as the initial horizontal distribution of larvae implemented into the model. Drift model simulations of larval transport agreed relatively well with field observations. The influence of variations...

  12. Late paleozoic fusulinoidean gigantism driven by atmospheric hyperoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Jonathan L; Groves, John R; Jost, Adam B; Nguyen, Thienan; Moffitt, Sarah E; Hill, Tessa M; Skotheim, Jan M

    2012-09-01

    Atmospheric hyperoxia, with pO(2) in excess of 30%, has long been hypothesized to account for late Paleozoic (360-250 million years ago) gigantism in numerous higher taxa. However, this hypothesis has not been evaluated statistically because comprehensive size data have not been compiled previously at sufficient temporal resolution to permit quantitative analysis. In this study, we test the hyperoxia-gigantism hypothesis by examining the fossil record of fusulinoidean foraminifers, a dramatic example of protistan gigantism with some individuals exceeding 10 cm in length and exceeding their relatives by six orders of magnitude in biovolume. We assembled and examined comprehensive regional and global, species-level datasets containing 270 and 1823 species, respectively. A statistical model of size evolution forced by atmospheric pO(2) is conclusively favored over alternative models based on random walks or a constant tendency toward size increase. Moreover, the ratios of volume to surface area in the largest fusulinoideans are consistent in magnitude and trend with a mathematical model based on oxygen transport limitation. We further validate the hyperoxia-gigantism model through an examination of modern foraminiferal species living along a measured gradient in oxygen concentration. These findings provide the first quantitative confirmation of a direct connection between Paleozoic gigantism and atmospheric hyperoxia. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  13. A 35-year hindcast for the Baltic Sea (1980-2014) - a statistical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräwe, Ulf; Holtermann, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The Baltic Sea is a semi-enclosed sea with limited water exchange. The most important process that leads to deep water renewal of the Baltic Sea are inflows of dense, saline North Sea water. These water masses have to pass narrow channels and sills in the Danish Straits and three basins with increasing depth. Along this path, the inflowing gravity currents are subject to entrainment, vertical and horizontal mixing. Thus, physical and numerical mixing are crucial for the proper propagation of these inflows. Additionally, a permanent halocline and a summer thermocline are challenging for state of the art ocean models. Moreover, Holtermann et al (2014) could show, that boundary mixing in the deep basins dominates the vertical mixing of tracers. To tackle these challenges, we used the General Estuarine Transport Model (GETM) to give a state estimate for the Baltic Sea for the period 1980-2014. The setup has a horizontal resolution of 1 nm. In the vertical, terain following coordinates are used. A special feature of GETM is that it can run with vertical adaptive coordinates. Here we use an adaptation towards stratification. The minimum layer thickness is limited to 30 cm. We also include the effects of wind waves (by radiation stresses, and changes in the bottom stresses) into our simulations. The atmospheric forcing is taken from the global reanalysis of the NCEP-CFSR (Saha et al 2011) with a spatial resolution of 30 km and hourly values. The model validation at selected stations in the Baltic Sea shows an average Bias of ±0.15 psu and a RMSE of 0.4 psu. These values are similar to the data assimilation runs of Fu et al (2011) or Liu et al (2013). However, one has to note that our simulations are free runs without any nudging or data assimilation. Driven by the good performance of the model, we use the model output to provide a state estimate of the actual climate period (1980-2010). The analysis includes a quantification and estimation of: surge levels with a 30-year

  14. Quantifying environmental heterogeneity : habitat size necessary for successful development of cod Gadus morhua eggs in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Hinrichsen, H.H.; Plikshs, M.

    2000-01-01

    ) of reproductive volumes among the areas to identify spatial differences. The results of 2 independent volume-estimation methods are comparable, indicating that highly significant differences exist among the sites, and that the westernmost spawning ground, Bornholm Basin, has on average the highest reproductive...... volume and the lowest variability among the 4 sites. These findings may be useful in evaluating how spatial and temporal variability in environmental conditions affect egg hatching success and possibly recruitment in the Baltic stock....

  15. Modeling the cod larvae drift in the Bornholm Basin in summer 1994

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrichsen, H.H.; Lehmann, A.; St. John, Michael

    1997-01-01

    , initial fields of temperature, salinity and cod larvae concentration for the Bornholm Basin were constructed by objective analysis using observations taken during a research survey in early July, 1994. Outside the Bornholm Basin generalized hydrographic features of the Baltic Sea were utilized....... In general, most of the hydrographic features observed during the second research cruise are correctly simulated, with variations mainly attributed to the prescribed initial conditions outside the Bornholm Basin. Results from larval sampling during the second cruise could not entirely confirm the modeled......A combined 3-D physical oceanographic model and a field sampling program was performed in July and August 1994 to investigate the potential drift of larval Baltic cod from the center of spawning effort in the Bornholm Basin, Baltic Sea. The goal of this exercise was to predict the drift...

  16. Hypoxia and cyanobacteria blooms - are they really natural features of the late Holocene history of the Baltic Sea?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zillén

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available During the last century (1900s industrialized forms of agriculture and human activities have caused eutrophication of Baltic Sea waters. As a consequence, the hypoxic zone in the Baltic Sea has increased, especially during the last 50 years, and has caused severe ecosystem disturbance. Climate forcing has been proposed to be responsible for the reported trends in hypoxia (< 2 mg/l O2 both during the last c. 100 years (since c. 1900 AD and the Medieval Period. By contrast, investigations of the degree of anthropogenic forcing on the ecosystem on long time-scales (millennial and greater have not been thoroughly addressed. This paper examines evidence for anthropogenic disturbance of the marine environment beyond the last century through the analysis of the human population growth, technological development and land-use changes in the drainage area. Natural environmental changes, i.e. changes in the morphology and depths of the Baltic basin and the sills, were probably the main driver for large-scale hypoxia during the early Holocene (8000–4000 cal yr BP. We show that hypoxia during the last two millennia has followed the general expansion and contraction trends in Europe and that human perturbation has been an important driver for hypoxia during that time. Hypoxia occurring during the Medieval Period coincides with a doubling of the population (from c. 4.6 to 9.5 million in the Baltic Sea watershed, a massive reclamation of land in both established and marginal cultivated areas and significant increases in soil nutrient release. The role of climate forcing on hypoxia in the Baltic Sea has yet to be demonstrated convincingly, although it could have helped to sustain hypoxia through enhanced salt water inflows or through changes in hydrological inputs. In addition, cyanobacteria blooms are not natural features of the Baltic Sea as previously deduced, but are a consequence of enhanced phosphorus release from the seabed that occurs during

  17. Bio-engineering in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Bio-engineering in the Baltic Sea – value of water quality improvements & risk perceptions Dr. Marianne Zandersen1 Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University Abstract The Baltic Sea is heavily eutrofied and the trend has gone from bad to worse. The hypoxic zone has increased about 4...... of the water column to the bottom waters/deepwater. The expected effects include a slowing down of the sediment release from the bottom and improvement of the possibilities for aerobic bacterial decomposition and over time for the establishment of fauna. The projects test a bio-engineered approach to speeding...

  18. Finnish studies on radioactivity in the Baltic Sea in 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikaeheimonen, T.K.; Ilus, E.; Saxen, R.

    1988-05-01

    Monitoring of radioactive substances in the Baltic Sea was continued within the framework of the Finnish national monitoring programme. The only regularly detected gamma nuclides in sea water were 40 K, 134 Cs and 137 Cs. The ratio 134 Cs/ 137 Cs in surface water samples was 0.36+-0.01. The activity concentrations of 137 Cs have became more evenly distributed during the last year, so that in the surface water of the Baltic Proper the values were 100-200 Bq m -3 , in the Gulf of Finland 200-300 Bq m -3 , in the Bothnian Sea 300-400 Bq m -3 and in the Bothnian Bay about 100 Bq m -3 in 1987. The sedimentation of the Chernobyl fallout into the bottom sediments of the open sea basins only began to increase in 1987. The addition of 137 Cs and other fallout nuclides was strongest at the XV 1 station in the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland, where the total deposition of 137 Cs was about 18 kBq m -3 during the last year. No areal differences were found in the fish samples caught from the coastal waters of Finland in 1987. In pike and cod the 137 Cs values have slightly increased since 1986, being now about five times (15-30 Bq kg -1 fresh weight) the values before the Chernobyl accident. The activity concentrations of 90 Sr (0.030-0.11 Bq kg -1 fresh weight) were at the same level as in 1985 and the preceding years

  19. Paleozoic subduction complex and Paleozoic-Mesozoic island-arc volcano-plutonic assemblages in the northern Sierra terrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Richard E.; Girty, Gary H.; Harwood, David S.; Schweickert, Richard A.

    2000-01-01

    This field trip provides an overview of the stratigraphic and structural evolution of the northern Sierra terrane, which forms a significant part of the wall rocks on the western side of the later Mesozoic Sierra Nevada batholith in California. The terrane consists of a pre-Late Devonian subduction complex (Shoo Fly Complex) overlain by submarine arc-related deposits that record the evolution of three separate island-arc systems in the Late Sevonian-Early Mississippian, Permian, and Late Triassic-Jurassic. The two Paleozoic are packages and the underlying Shoo Fly Complex have an important bearing on plate-tectonic processes affecting the convergent margin outboard of the Paleozoic Cordilleran miogeocline, although their original paleogeographic relations to North America are controversial. The third arc package represents an overlap assemblage that ties the terrane to North America by the Late Triassic and helps constrain the nature and timing of Mesozoic orogenesis. Several of the field-trip stops examine the record of pre-Late Devonian subduction contained in the Shoo Fly Complex, as well as the paleovolcanology of the overlying Devonian to Jurassic arc rocks. Excellent glaciated exposures provide the opportunity to study a cross section through a tilted Devonian volcano-plutonic association. Additional stops focus on plutonic rocks emplaced during the Middle Jurassic arc magmatism in the terrane, and during the main pulse of Cretaceous magmatism in the Sierra Nevada batholith to the east.

  20. Baltic Eye: Focusing on Science and Communication to Improve Policy Making for the Baltic Sea Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrackin, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    In order to better communicate relevant scientific knowledge to policy- and decision makers, Stockholm University and the Baltic Sea 2020 Foundation partnered to create Baltic Eye in 2014. Seven scientists and two communicators constitute the core team of this initiative. The team integrates communications with scientific analysis and synthesis of Baltic Sea environmental issues. In the past year, the team has focused on two main issues: fisheries management and microplastics. Baltic Sea cod stocks are in poor condition, with large numbers of small individuals. Baltic Eye recommended improvements to the European Union's multiannual fisheries plan to better align with ecosystem-based management principles: prioritization of cod stock recovery, greater consideration of natural variability of temperature and salinity (which affects cod spawning success), and inclusion of mechanisms to adjust quotas in the event of major environmental changes. Communications included policy briefs and debate articles targeted to the European Parliament, national government ministries, and non-governmental organizations. Every year, up to 40 tons of microplastics from personal care products are released in the Baltic Sea catchment. Baltic Eye raised awareness of the issue and made recommended ways to reduce microplastic emissions. Communications included a public presentation to journalists, politicians, and representatives of Swedish government ministries. A policy brief was provided Heads of Delegates of the Helsinki Commission (for protrection of the Baltic Sea environment) in advance of a meeting to develop a plan of action for marine litter. Researchers were interviewed for radio, TV, and print media in Sweden, Finland, and Germany. Next steps are to engage with multinational manufacturers about plans to voluntarily phase out microplastics in personal care products.

  1. Beyond the Fe-P-redox connection: preferential regeneration of phosphorus from organic matter as a key control on Baltic Sea nutrient cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Jilbert

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of regeneration and burial of phosphorus (P in the Baltic Sea are strongly dependent on redox conditions. Redox varies spatially along water depth gradients and temporally in response to the seasonal cycle and multidecadal hydrographic variability. Alongside the well-documented link between iron oxyhydroxide dissolution and release of P from Baltic Sea sediments, we show that preferential remineralization of P with respect to carbon (C and nitrogen (N during degradation of organic matter plays a key role in determining the surplus of bioavailable P in the water column. Preferential remineralization of P takes place both in the water column and upper sediments and its rate is shown to be redox-dependent, increasing as reducing conditions become more severe at greater water-depth in the deep basins. Existing Redfield-based biogeochemical models of the Baltic may therefore underestimate the imbalance between N and P availability for primary production, and hence the vulnerability of the Baltic to sustained eutrophication via the fixation of atmospheric N. However, burial of organic P is also shown to increase during multidecadal intervals of expanded hypoxia, due to higher net burial rates of organic matter around the margins of the deep basins. Such intervals may be characterized by basin-scale acceleration of all fluxes within the P cycle, including productivity, regeneration and burial, sustained by the relative accessibility of the water column P pool beneath a shallow halocline.

  2. 137Cs dating of laminated sediments in Swedish archipelago areas of the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meili, M.; Jonsson, P.; Carman, R.

    1998-01-01

    In deep off-shore areas of the Baltic Sea, sediment accumulation rates are typically on the order of one or a few millimeters per year, and even less in consolidated sediments, based on laming counts and radiometric dating. In lacustrine and marine basins, the highest sedimentation rates are usually found in the deepest part, since sediments and associated contaminants are known to be gradually 'focused' from shallow to deep areas by resuspension. Accordingly, net sedimentation in coastal areas is usually low or absent due to strong erosion forces. On the other hand, coastal sediments are likely to be important in controlling the fate and turnover of contaminants that are released into coastal waters. Since little is known about the turnover of coastal sediments, in particular for heterogeneous semi-enclosed areas such as the Baltic archipelagos, a study of sediment accumulation rates has been initaited, with a focus on areas where erosion is likely to be minimal. The study is part of a project focusing on the relationship between eutrophication and contaminant cycling (EUCON). 88 sediment cores were collected during summer 1996 from accumulation bottoms of 18 more or less protected bays in archipalgo areas along the swedish coast of the Baltic Sea

  3. Prediction of vertical distribution and ambient development temperature of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua L., eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai; Jarre, Astrid

    1997-01-01

    An artificial neural network (ANN) model was established to predict the vertical distribution of Baltic cod eggs. Data from vertical distribution sampling in the Bornholm Basin over the period 1986-1995 were used to train and test the network, while data sets from sampling in 1996 were used...... for validation. The model explained 82% of the variance between observed and predicted relative frequencies of occurrence of the eggs in relation to salinity, temperature and oxygen concentration; The ANN fitted all observations satisfactorily except for one sampling date, where an exceptional hydrographic...

  4. Seeds of Failure in Colbert's Baltic Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Richard William

    1984-01-01

    This investigation of French mercantilist initiatives and policies in the seventeenth century focuses on the attempts of Colbert, the controller general of finance to Louis XIV, to stimulate French trade with the Baltic by establishing a Company of the North. (RM)

  5. The electricity markets around the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    A thorough description of the electric power markets in the countries surrounding the Baltic sea is given in this book. Environmental problems and regulations and nuclear power are surveyed. Factors that may affect an expanded trade of electricity between the countries are analyzed

  6. Environmental economics and the Baltic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birk Mortensen, J.

    1994-03-01

    This volume originates from a workshop on Economics of the Environment held at the Institute of Economics, Copenhagen University, November 14-15, 1990 with participants from Lithuania, Estonia, Poland, Finland, Sweden and Denmark. The volume contains the papers presented at the workshop. In all the countries around the Baltic Sea there has been an increasing understainding of the importance of using the economic incentive approach to reach environmental goals. By changing the incentives an individual producer or consumer faces, the best private choice can be made to coincide with the best social choice. All the countries around the Baltic Sea have used direct regulation or command and control in environment regulation. Growing concern about environmental degradation, dissatisfaction with the command and control approach and the need to extend environmental regulation to sectors with a large number of small producers or consumers have increased attention to economic instruments in environmental policy. The Baltic sea is an almost coherent ecological system and there is a growing interest in addressing common environmental problems among the countries around the Baltic Sea. The recent political development offer new possibilites for cooperation in environmental policy. This is important because many environmental problems in the region require solutions involving several countries. (EG)

  7. Baltic air wars intensify / Dorian Ziedonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ziedonis, Dorian

    2008-01-01

    Leedu lennufirma FlyLAL pidi maksma ära 40 000 euro suuruse trahvi, et firma lennuk saaks Riia lennuväljalt lahkuda. Varem oli FlyLAL nõudnud Riia Lennujaamalt kompensatsiooni, kuna lennujaam oli võimaldanud Läti lennufirmal airBaltic maksta väiksemaid lennujaamatasusid

  8. St. Canute Lavard around the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Holger

    2018-01-01

    This chapter discusses the Baltic Sea-area manifestations of the cult of the Danish Royal saint, Canute the Duke, in Danish, Knud Lavard, during the Middle Ages. It also applies theories of cultural memory by Jan and Aleida Assmann in order to approach an understanding of how the cult of St. Canu...

  9. Recreational Value of the Baltic Sea:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne

    2018-01-01

    The Baltic Sea plays a significant role for recreational use in the nine littoral countries with more than 70% of the population visiting the coast, representing some 80 million recreation visits annually. Understanding the values associated with coastal recreation and the potential welfare chang...

  10. Nato enlarging into the Baltic States

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Prahas 21.-22. novembrini 2002 toimunud NATO tippkohtumisest ja seal vastu võetud otsusest Balti riikide alliansiga ühinemise kohta. Vt. samas: Russia's attitude to the NATO enlargement; Bush in Vilnius; Baltic states' prime ministers' met; Supporting USA?

  11. Radiocarbon dates for the earliest period of habitation in the Baltic States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorska, I.

    2003-01-01

    Hitherto, the Stone age of the East Baltic was known for its series of Late Mesolithic - Early Neolithic dates, but over the past decade the number of the dates for the Middle Stone Age and the Final Palaeolithic has also increased. The article brings together the published Palaeolithic and Mesolithic dates from the East Baltic, based on radiocarbon age. This is because a proportion of the dates has never been calibrated, while a proportion of the new dates have been calibrated using various software programmes, often without stating the programme used. For the first time, radiocarbon dates have been obtained for the Late Palaeolithic in Lithuania: 10 550-9820 BP (cal. 10 600-9000 BC). This period is connected with the Swidry Culture in the central and southern part of the East Baltic. At the present best-dated stage of the Mesolithic is the Early Mesolithic, with several dates from Estonia (Pulli, Kunda-Lammasmagi) and Latvia, covering the period 9600 to around 9000 BP (cal. 8900-8300 BC). These dates are also supported by dates obtained from Mesolithic sites in neighbouring areas: northern Poland, southern Finland and north-east Russia. Much has been gained from the dating in recent years of burials in Lithuania and Latvia. Currently the oldest known burial is male buried in the cultural layer of Zvejnieki II settlement site, dated to 8240 BP. Another three burials in Lithuania,in the Spiginas and Duonkalnis cemeteries, as well as eight burials at Zvejnieki cemetery, date from the late Mesolithic, confirming the idea that it was in the Late Mesolithic that large special burial sites developed adjacent to settlements in the Baltic basin, both in the east and west. The development of cemeteries in Lithuania began in the period 7780-7470 BP, while the Late Mesolithic graves at Zvejnieki date from 6900-6400 BP. The dates show that a special feature of the cemeteries in the Baltic is their long duration of use, starting from the Middle Mesolithic up to the end of the

  12. Global plate boundary evolution and kinematics since the late Paleozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Kara J.; Maloney, Kayla T.; Zahirovic, Sabin; Williams, Simon E.; Seton, Maria; Müller, R. Dietmar

    2016-11-01

    Many aspects of deep-time Earth System models, including mantle convection, paleoclimatology, paleobiogeography and the deep Earth carbon cycle, require high-resolution plate motion models that include the evolution of the mosaic of plate boundaries through time. We present the first continuous late Paleozoic to present-day global plate model with evolving plate boundaries, building on and extending two previously published models for the late Paleozoic (410-250 Ma) and Mesozoic-Cenozoic (230-0 Ma). We ensure continuity during the 250-230 Ma transition period between the two models, update the absolute reference frame of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic model and add a new Paleozoic reconstruction for the Baltica-derived Alexander Terrane, now accreted to western North America. This 410-0 Ma open access model provides a framework for deep-time whole Earth modelling and acts as a base for future extensions and refinement. We analyse the model in terms of the number of plates, predicted plate size distribution, plate and continental root mean square (RMS) speeds, plate velocities and trench migration through time. Overall model trends share many similarities to those for recent times, which we use as a first order benchmark against which to compare the model and identify targets for future model refinement. Except for during the period 260-160 Ma, the number of plates (16-46) and ratio of "large" plates (≥ 107.5 km2) to smaller plates ( 2.7-6.6) are fairly similar to present-day values (46 and 6.6, respectively), with lower values occurring during late Paleozoic assembly and growth of Pangea. This temporal pattern may also reflect difficulties in reconstructing small, now subducted oceanic plates further back in time, as well as whether a supercontinent is assembling or breaking up. During the 260-160 Ma timeframe the model reaches a minima in the number of plates, in contrast to what we would expect during initial Pangea breakup and thus highlighting the need for refinement

  13. Characteristics of core sampling from crumbing Paleozoic rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barabashkin, I I; Edelman, Y A; Filippov, V N; Lychev, V N

    1981-01-01

    The results of analysis of core sampling using standard core sampling tools with small and medium inside diameter are cited. It is demonstrated that when using these tools loss of core in Paleozoic deposits promising with regard to oil and gas content does not exceed 25 - 30%. The use of a new core sampling tool with a large inside diameter which includes drill bits of different types and a core lifter ''Krembriy'' SKU-172/100 made it possible to increase core removal approximately 52%. A representative core from a highly crumbling and vesicular rock belinging to groups III - IV in terms of difficulty of core sampling was obtained first. A description of a new core sampling tool is given. The characteristics of the technology of its use which promote preservation of the core are cited. Means of continued improvement of this tool are noted.

  14. Pacing of Paleozoic macroevolutionary rates by Milankovitch grand cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, James S; Meyers, Stephen R; Cooper, Roger A; Sadler, Peter M; Foote, Michael; Harte, David

    2018-05-29

    Periodic fluctuations in past biodiversity, speciation, and extinction have been proposed, with extremely long periods ranging from 26 to 62 million years, although forcing mechanisms remain speculative. In contrast, well-understood periodic Milankovitch climate forcing represents a viable driver for macroevolutionary fluctuations, although little evidence for such fluctuation exists except during the Late Cenozoic. The reality, magnitude, and drivers of periodic fluctuations in macroevolutionary rates are of interest given long-standing debate surrounding the relative roles of intrinsic biotic interactions vs. extrinsic environmental factors as drivers of biodiversity change. Here, we show that, over a time span of 60 million years, between 9 and 16% of the variance in biological turnover (i.e., speciation probability plus species extinction probability) in a major Early Paleozoic zooplankton group, the graptoloids, can be explained by long-period astronomical cycles (Milankovitch "grand cycles") associated with Earth's orbital eccentricity (2.6 million years) and obliquity (1.3 million years). These grand cycles modulate climate variability, alternating times of relative stability in the environment with times of maximum volatility. We infer that these cycles influenced graptolite speciation and extinction through climate-driven changes to oceanic circulation and structure. Our results confirm the existence of Milankovitch grand cycles in the Early Paleozoic Era and show that known processes related to the mechanics of the Solar System were shaping marine macroevolutionary rates comparatively early in the history of complex life. We present an application of hidden Markov models to macroevolutionary time series and protocols for the evaluation of statistical significance in spectral analysis.

  15. TBT and its metabolites in sediments: Survey at a German coastal site and the central Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Marion; Westphal, Lina; Hand, Ines; Lerz, Astrid; Jeschek, Jenny; Bunke, Dennis; Leipe, Thomas; Schulz-Bull, Detlef

    2017-08-15

    Since the 1950s the organotin compound tributyltin (TBT) was intensively used in antifouling paints for marine vessels and it became of concern for the marine environment. Herein, we report on a study from 2015 on TBT and its metabolites monobutyltin (MBT) and dibutyltin (DBT) in sediments from the central Baltic Sea and a Baltic Sea coastal site with strong harbor activities (Warnemünde). Sublayers from a sediment core from the Arkona Basin were analyzed to investigate the long term organotin pressure for the Baltic Sea. For the central Baltic Sea total organotin (MBT+DBT+TBT) ranged from 100 to 500ng/g TOC with distinct areas of high organotin content probably due to historical inputs. For the coastal site total organotin ranged from 10,000 to 60,000ng/g TOC. MBT and DBT were the predominant organotin species detected. Overall, the data obtained indicate the progress of TBT degradation at the investigated sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A New Model of the Early Paleozoic Tectonics and Evolutionary History in the Northern Qinling, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yunpeng; Zhang, Guowei; Yang, Zhao; Qu, Hongjun; Liu, Xiaoming

    2010-05-01

    a back-arc basin on the northern side of the island-arc terrain. To the east, it is presented by the Erlangping group in Xixia area, which consists mainly of clastic sediments, carbonatites and basic volcanic rocks. The geochemistry of the basalts show that they were formed in a back-arc basin setting (Sun et al.,1996), and the radiolarites from the interlayed silicalites show the Orovician-Silurian age (Wang et al., 1995). Our new investigation reveals some new tectonic assemblages exposed in the Yinggerzui area, Qinghusi area to the west. The detailed geochemical studies indicate that they were formed in a back-arc basin. All above evidences suggest that there had existed an Early Paleozoic subduction system, which consists of a subduction trench, island-Arc and back-arc basin along the northern Qinling zone. It is also indicated that the Paleo-ocean had been evolved into a complete evolutionary process including initial spreading (E-MORB ophiolite), maturated extension (N-MORB ophiolite) and subduction (Island-arc volcanic rocks). However, it is notable that there are large scale of Devonian clastic sediments distributing on the south of the Shangdan suture, and the pre-Mesozoic rocks in the South Qinling without any metamorphism or just underwent the low-greenschist facies metamorphism in some places, which are very different from the North Qinling Terrane consisting mainly of Precambrian rocks and evolving into an amphibolite facies metamorphism at ~1.0 Ga and greenschist facies metamorphism at ~400 Ma (Liu et al., 1993; Zhang et al., 1994). Accordingly, it is prefer that there only occurred a subduction of the Shangdan oceanic crust from south to north along the Shangdan suture on the south of the Northern Qinling Terrane. However, the Piaochi and the Anjiping granites possessing the sym-collisional type granite geochemistry and formation age of 450-486 (Chen et al., 1991; zhang et al., 1996) indicate that there occurred a collisional event between the North

  17. Future export of particulate and dissolved organic carbon from land to coastal zones of the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strååt, Kim Dahlgren; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Undeman, Emma

    2018-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is a semi-enclosed brackish sea in Northern Europe with a drainage basin four times larger than the sea itself. Riverine organic carbon (Particulate Organic Carbon, POC and Dissolved Organic Carbon, DOC) dominates carbon input to the Baltic Sea and influences both land-to-sea transport of nutrients and contaminants, and hence the functioning of the coastal ecosystem. The potential impact of future climate change on loads of POC and DOC in the Baltic Sea drainage basin (BSDB) was assessed using a hydrological-biogeochemical model (CSIM). The changes in annual and seasonal concentrations and loads of both POC and DOC by the end of this century were predicted using three climate change scenarios and compared to the current state. In all scenarios, overall increasing DOC loads, but unchanged POC loads, were projected in the north. In the southern part of the BSDB, predicted DOC loads were not significantly changing over time, although POC loads decreased in all scenarios. The magnitude and significance of the trends varied with scenario but the sign (+ or -) of the projected trends for the entire simulation period never conflicted. Results were discussed in detail for the "middle" CO2 emission scenario (business as usual, a1b). On an annual and entire drainage basin scale, the total POC load was projected to decrease by ca 7% under this scenario, mainly due to reduced riverine primary production in the southern parts of the BSDB. The average total DOC load was not predicted to change significantly between years 2010 and 2100 due to counteracting decreasing and increasing trends of DOC loads to the six major sub-basins in the Baltic Sea. However, predicted seasonal total loads of POC and DOC increased significantly by ca 46% and 30% in winter and decreased by 8% and 21% in summer over time, respectively. For POC the change in winter loads was a consequence of increasing soil erosion and a shift in duration of snowfall and onset of the spring flood

  18. Evidence for an autumn downstream migration of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar (Linnaeus) and brown trout Salmo trutta (Linnaeus) parr to the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taal, Imre; Kesler, Martin; Saks, Lauri; Rohtla, Mehis; Verliin, Aare; Svirgsden, Roland; Jürgens, Kristiina; Vetemaa, Markus; Saat, Toomas

    2014-06-01

    In the eastern Baltic rivers, anadromous salmonid parr are known to smoltify and migrate to the sea from March until June, depending on latitude, climate and hydrological conditions. In this study, we present the first records of autumn descent of brown trout Salmo trutta and Atlantic salmon Salmo salar from the Baltic Sea Basin. Otolith microchemistry analyses revealed that these individuals hatched in freshwater and had migrated to the brackish water shortly prior to capture. The fish were collected in 2006, 2008, 2009 and 2013 from Eru Bay (surface salinity 4.5-6.5 ‰), Gulf of Finland. This relatively wide temporal range of observations indicates that the autumn descent of anadromous salmonids is not a random event. These results imply that autumn descent needs more consideration in the context of the effective stock management, assessment and restoration of Baltic salmonid populations and their habitats.

  19. Power Sector Reform in the Baltic States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-08-01

    The Swedish Energy Agency is active in different ways to support and promote an environmentally friendly development of the energy sector in the Baltic Sea Region. The Agency is of the opinion that it is of greatest importance to use the market forces in the work to introduce a more rational use of both production resources and the electricity network installations that in a longer perspective contribute to a more efficient and environmentally adapted electricity system in the Baltic Sea Region. In the present report it is fairly evident that in recent years certain important progress has been made in the work on integration of the electricity markets of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. However, it also points out that important measures remains to be implemented. The report puts focus on areas that may need further studies or widened studies that include more countries in the Baltic Sea Region. One of the aims of the report is to form a basis also when it comes to evaluate the needs to replace electricity production that will be phased out when the two nuclear reactors in the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant will be closed down. What possibilities are there to use alternative energy sources that will not increase the emissions of green house gases and what possibilities will there be to implement such projects as climate projects in line with the mechanism of Joint Implementation under the Kyoto Protocol? The report also touches upon such aspects. The development of the electricity market in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania has been in the focus ever since these countries reached independence from the former Soviet Union. In later years thus certain important steps to establish a common and joint electricity markets has been achieved. The development is very rapid - from three separate markets dominated by the three national power monopolies to a more or less open market allowing for trade with electricity over the borders. To start with it will be possible for greater

  20. Power Sector Reform in the Baltic States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-08-01

    The Swedish Energy Agency is active in different ways to support and promote an environmentally friendly development of the energy sector in the Baltic Sea Region. The Agency is of the opinion that it is of greatest importance to use the market forces in the work to introduce a more rational use of both production resources and the electricity network installations that in a longer perspective contribute to a more efficient and environmentally adapted electricity system in the Baltic Sea Region. In the present report it is fairly evident that in recent years certain important progress has been made in the work on integration of the electricity markets of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. However, it also points out that important measures remains to be implemented. The report puts focus on areas that may need further studies or widened studies that include more countries in the Baltic Sea Region. One of the aims of the report is to form a basis also when it comes to evaluate the needs to replace electricity production that will be phased out when the two nuclear reactors in the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant will be closed down. What possibilities are there to use alternative energy sources that will not increase the emissions of green house gases and what possibilities will there be to implement such projects as climate projects in line with the mechanism of Joint Implementation under the Kyoto Protocol? The report also touches upon such aspects. The development of the electricity market in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania has been in the focus ever since these countries reached independence from the former Soviet Union. In later years thus certain important steps to establish a common and joint electricity markets has been achieved. The development is very rapid - from three separate markets dominated by the three national power monopolies to a more or less open market allowing for trade with electricity over the borders. To start with it will be possible for greater

  1. Suitability of otolith microchemistry for stock separation of Baltic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, F; Marohn, L; Hinrichsen, HH

    2012-01-01

    differences between individuals from the eastern and the western Baltic Sea and between North Sea and Baltic Sea samples. Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca, Y/Ca, Mg/Ca, Zr/Ca and Mn/Ca ratios had the strongest discriminatory power. A further separation of individuals caught in 3 different spawning grounds of the eastern Baltic......, however, was not possible. Elemental compositions from the core regions of otoliths from young of the year cod caught in eastern and western Baltic Sea spawning grounds showed significant differences in Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca and Mg/Ca concentrations. Analyses of similarities again showed significant differences...

  2. Nitrification and the ammonia-oxidizing communities in the central Baltic Sea water column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäntti, Helena; Ward, Bess B.; Dippner, Joachim W.; Hietanen, Susanna

    2018-03-01

    The redoxclines that form between the oxic and anoxic water layers in the central Baltic Sea are sites of intensive nitrogen cycling. To gain better understanding of nitrification, we measured the biogeochemical properties along with potential nitrification rates and analyzed the assemblages of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea using functional gene microarrays. To estimate nitrification in the entire water column, we constructed a regression model for the nitrification rates and applied it to the conditions prevailing in the area in 2008-2012. The highest ammonia oxidation rates were found in a thin layer at the top of the redoxcline and the rates quickly decreased below detection limit when oxygen was exhausted. This is probably because extensive suboxic layers, which are known to harbor pelagic nitrification, are formed only for short periods after inflows in the Baltic Sea. The nitrification rates were some of the highest measured in the water columns, but the thickness of the layer where conditions were favorable for nitrification, was very small and it remained fairly stable between years. However, the depth of the nitrification layer varied substantially between years, particularly in the eastern Gotland Basin (EGB) due to turbulence in the water column. The ammonia oxidizer communities clustered differently between the eastern and western Gotland Basin (WGB) and the composition of ammonia-oxidizing assemblages correlated with the environmental variables. The ammonia oxidizer community composition was more even in the EGB, which may be related to physical instability of the redoxcline that does not allow predominance of a single archetype, whereas in the WGB, where the position of the redoxcline is more constant, the ammonia-oxidizing community was less even. Overall the ammonia-oxidizing communities in the Baltic Sea redoxclines were very evenly distributed compared to other marine environments where microarrays have been applied previously.

  3. Numerical modelling of thermodynamics and dynamics of sea ice in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Herman

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a numerical dynamic-thermo-dynamic sea-ice model for the Baltic Sea is used to analyze the variability of ice conditions in three winter seasons. The modelling results are validated with station (water temperature and satellite data (ice concentration as well as by qualitative comparisons with the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute ice charts. Analysis of the results addresses two major questions. One concerns effects of meteorological forcing on the spatio-temporal distribution of ice concentration in the Baltic. Patterns of correlations between air temperature, wind speed, and ice-covered area are demonstrated to be different in larger, more open sub-basins (e.g., the Bothnian Sea than in the smaller ones (e.g., the Bothnian Bay. Whereas the correlations with the air temperature are positive in both cases, the influence of wind is pronounced only in large basins, leading to increase/decrease of areas with small/large ice concentrations, respectively. The other question concerns the role of ice dynamics in the evolution of the ice cover. By means of simulations with the dynamic model turned on and off, the ice dynamics is shown to play a crucial role in interactions between the ice and the upper layers of the water column, especially during periods with highly varying wind speeds and directions. In particular, due to the fragmentation of the ice cover and the modified surface fluxes, the ice dynamics influences the rate of change of the total ice volume, in some cases by as much as 1 km3 per day. As opposed to most other numerical studies on the sea-ice in the Baltic Sea, this work concentrates on the short-term variability of the ice cover and its response to the synoptic-scale forcing.

  4. Impedance-matching hearing in Paleozoic reptiles: evidence of advanced sensory perception at an early stage of amniote evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Müller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insights into the onset of evolutionary novelties are key to the understanding of amniote origins and diversification. The possession of an impedance-matching tympanic middle ear is characteristic of all terrestrial vertebrates with a sophisticated hearing sense and an adaptively important feature of many modern terrestrial vertebrates. Whereas tympanic ears seem to have evolved multiple times within tetrapods, especially among crown-group members such as frogs, mammals, squamates, turtles, crocodiles, and birds, the presence of true tympanic ears has never been recorded in a Paleozoic amniote, suggesting they evolved fairly recently in amniote history. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we performed a morphological examination and a phylogenetic analysis of poorly known parareptiles from the Middle Permian of the Mezen River Basin in Russia. We recovered a well-supported clade that is characterized by a unique cheek morphology indicative of a tympanum stretching across large parts of the temporal region to an extent not seen in other amniotes, fossil or extant, and a braincase specialized in showing modifications clearly related to an increase in auditory function, unlike the braincase of any other Paleozoic tetrapod. In addition, we estimated the ratio of the tympanum area relative to the stapedial footplate for the basalmost taxon of the clade, which, at 23:1, is in close correspondence to that of modern amniotes capable of efficient impedance-matching hearing. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Using modern amniotes as analogues, the possession of an impedance-matching middle ear in these parareptiles suggests unique ecological adaptations potentially related to living in dim-light environments. More importantly, our results demonstrate that already at an early stage of amniote diversification, and prior to the Permo-Triassic extinction event, the complexity of terrestrial vertebrate ecosystems had reached a level that

  5. New paleomagnetic data from late Paleozoic sedimentary rocks of Novaya Zemlya Archipelago: tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abashev, Victor V.; Metelkin, Dmitry V.; Mikhaltsov, Nikolay E.; Vernikovsky, Valery A.; Matushkin, Nikolay Yu.

    2017-04-01

    New paleomagnetic data for Novaya Zemlya archipelago were obtained by processing the samples collection gathered during the 2014 field season. The paleomagnetic directions and paleomagnetic poles were determined from the Paleozoic sedimentary complexes located on the Southern Island (Upper Permian) and the Northern Island (Lower and Upper Devonian, Upper Carboniferous) of the archipelago. Positive fold and reversal tests indicate that the isolated paleomagnetic directions correspond to the primary magnetization components. The corresponding paleomagnetic pole are in good agreement with poles obtained earlier in the 1980s by E.L. Gurevich and I.A. Pogarskaya. Considering the confidence ovals, the paleomagnetic poles obtained for the sites of the Northern Island are located close to the corresponding path segment of the APWP of Europe. This means that at least since the early Devonian, the northern part of Novaya Zemlya Archipelago had a position that was close to its current position relatively to the Arctic margin of Europe and has not undergone significant shifts or rotations. However, the upper Permian paleomagnetic pole for the Southern Island is very different from the corresponding part of the European APWP. We are considering this pole position within a model, involving significant intraplate movement between the structures of the European and Siberian tectonic provinces until the Late Cretaceous. The sinistral strike-slips inferred by the model could have caused or were accompanying the opening of the Mesozoic rift system in Western Siberia. This event has reached its maximum within the South Kara basin and resulted in the north-westward (in geographic coordinates) displacement of the southern part of the Novaya Zemlya Archipelago in relation to the Arctic margin of Europe and in the deformation of the Pay-Khoy-Novaya Zemlya margin, which caused its modern curved form. The study was supported by the Russian Science Foundation, grant No. 14-37-00030 and the

  6. Nord Stream, Sweden and Baltic Sea Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Robert L

    2007-03-15

    In June 2006, FOI published the report: Sweden and the NEGP: a Pilot Study of the North European Gas Pipeline and Sweden's Dependence on Russian Energy, a base data report on a topic that FOI considered to be of rising importance. Much has happened since then and the NEGP has changed its name to Nord Stream and submitted an official notification on the intention of realising the project of constructing a gas pipeline from Russia to Germany via the Baltic Sea. The primary aim of this report is to discuss and analyse some of the core aspects of Nord Stream and the pipeline project with regard to the security situation for the Baltic Sea region. The report constitutes an updated version of the previous report. Most of the old report still stands valid, especially concerning the historical survey of Russia's energy policy, but the new report has additional chapters and is broader in scope concerning the consequences of the project

  7. The maritime law of the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahnke, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Before the end of the 13th century, the Baltic seamen created a law system codi ed in Bjarkey and Söderköping and then Schleswig laws. The increasing Germanic domination of Baltic navigation resulted in the creation of speci c maritime laws for Lübeck and Hamburg before the introduction of the Laws...... lois de Bjarkey et de Söderköping, puis de Schleswig. La progressive domination germanique sur la navigation en Baltique a pour conséquence la création de lois maritimes propres à Lübeck et à Hambourg, avant l’introduction des Rôles d’Oléron, traduits en bas-allemand pour former le Vonesse von Damme...

  8. Nord Stream, Sweden and Baltic Sea Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Robert L.

    2007-03-01

    In June 2006, FOI published the report: Sweden and the NEGP: a Pilot Study of the North European Gas Pipeline and Sweden's Dependence on Russian Energy, a base data report on a topic that FOI considered to be of rising importance. Much has happened since then and the NEGP has changed its name to Nord Stream and submitted an official notification on the intention of realising the project of constructing a gas pipeline from Russia to Germany via the Baltic Sea. The primary aim of this report is to discuss and analyse some of the core aspects of Nord Stream and the pipeline project with regard to the security situation for the Baltic Sea region. The report constitutes an updated version of the previous report. Most of the old report still stands valid, especially concerning the historical survey of Russia's energy policy, but the new report has additional chapters and is broader in scope concerning the consequences of the project

  9. The Scandinavian baltic pancreatic club (SBPC) database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Søren S; Poulsen, Jakob Lykke; Drewes, Asbjørn M

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a multifaceted disease associated with several risk factors and a complex clinical presentation. We established the Scandinavian Baltic Pancreatic Club (SBPC) Database to characterise and study the natural history of CP in a Northern European cohort. Here......, we describe the design of the database and characteristics of the study cohort. METHODS: Nine centres from six different countries in the Scandinavian-Baltic region joined the database. Patients with definitive or probable CP (M-ANNHEIM diagnostic criteria) were included. Standardised case report...... forms were used to collect several assessment variables including disease aetiology, duration of CP, preceding acute pancreatitis, as well as symptoms, complications, and treatments. The clinical stage of CP was characterised according to M-ANNNHEIM. Yearly follow-up is planned for all patients. RESULTS...

  10. Effects of the 2014 major Baltic inflow on methane and nitrous oxide dynamics in the water column of the central Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myllykangas, Jukka-Pekka; Jilbert, Tom; Jakobs, Gunnar; Rehder, Gregor; Werner, Jan; Hietanen, Susanna

    2017-09-01

    In late 2014, a large, oxygen-rich salt water inflow entered the Baltic Sea and caused considerable changes in deep water oxygen concentrations. We studied the effects of the inflow on the concentration patterns of two greenhouse gases, methane and nitrous oxide, during the following year (2015) in the water column of the Gotland Basin. In the eastern basin, methane which had previously accumulated in the deep waters was largely removed during the year. Here, volume-weighted mean concentration below 70 m decreased from 108 nM in March to 16.3 nM over a period of 141 days (0.65 nM d-1), predominantly due to oxidation (up to 79 %) following turbulent mixing with the oxygen-rich inflow. In contrast nitrous oxide, which was previously absent from deep waters, accumulated in deep waters due to enhanced nitrification following the inflow. Volume-weighted mean concentration of nitrous oxide below 70 m increased from 11.8 nM in March to 24.4 nM in 141 days (0.09 nM d-1). A transient extreme accumulation of nitrous oxide (877 nM) was observed in the deep waters of the Eastern Gotland Basin towards the end of 2015, when deep waters turned anoxic again, sedimentary denitrification was induced and methane was reintroduced to the bottom waters. The Western Gotland Basin gas biogeochemistry was not affected by the inflow.

  11. Improved management based on stock identification of eastern and western Baltic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; Bastardie, Francois; Eero, Margit

    The objective of this project was to establish an empirically founded knowledge base for the sustainable exploitation of the western Baltic cod stock by including the complex stock structure and migration patterns. Stock mapping: Extensive immigration of “Eastern” cod into the Arkona Basin (SD 24......) within the “Western” cod’s management unit was documented using high-powered genetic tools. The majority (91%) of all spawning fish caught in SD 24 in 2011 were “Eastern” cod and only 9% were from the “Western” stock. The results suggest that the stock structure in the Arkona Basin is highly influenced...... by mixing of genetically separate stocks. Trends in mixing: Since the 1980’s where cod in SD 24 consisted primarily of “Western” type, the proportion of “Eastern” cod has increased, particularly since 2005. Throughout that period, the immigration of “Eastern” cod into SD 24 consisted primarily of adult...

  12. High-resolution sequence stratigraphy of lower Paleozoic sheet sandstones in central North America: The role of special conditions of cratonic interiors in development of stratal architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkel, Anthony C.; Miller, J.F.; McKay, R.M.; Palmer, A.R.; Taylor, John F.

    2007-01-01

    Well-known difficulties in applying sequence stratigraphic concepts to deposits that accumulated across slowly subsiding cratonic interior regions have limited our ability to interpret the history of continental-scale tectonism, oceanographic dynamics of epeiric seas, and eustasy. We used a multi-disciplinary approach to construct a high-resolution stratigraphic framework for lower Paleozoic strata in the cratonic interior of North America. Within this framework, these strata proved readily amenable to modern sequence stratigraphic techniques that were formulated based on successions along passive margins and in foreland basins, settings markedly different from the cratonic interior. Parasequences, parasequence stacking patterns, systems tracts, maximum flooding intervals, and sequence-bounding unconformities can be confidently recognized in the cratonic interior using mostly standard criteria for identification. The similarity of cratonic interior and foreland basin successions in size, geometry, constituent facies, and local stacking patterns of nearshore parasequences is especially striking. This similarity indicates that the fundamental processes that establish shoreface morphology and determine the stratal expression of retreat and progradation were likewise generally the same, despite marked differences in tectonism, physiography, and bathymetry between the two settings. Our results do not support the widespread perception that Paleozoic cratonic interior successions are so anomalous in stratal geometries, and constitute such a poor record of time, that they are poorly suited for modern sequence stratigraphic analyses. The particular arrangement of stratal elements in the cratonic interior succession we studied is no more anomalous or enigmatic than the variability in architecture that sets all sedimentary successions apart from one another. Thus, Paleozoic strata of the cratonic interior are most appropriately considered as a package that belongs in a

  13. New airBaltic owner on board

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Transatlantic Holdings Company on ostnud 9,6 miljoni euro eest 59 110 airBalticu aktsiat. Läti majandusminister Artis Kampars soovib raskustesse sattunud lennufirma juhi Bertolt Flicki väljavahetamist. airBaltic plaanib koondamist. Riigikogu liige Arto Aas rõhutas, et airBalticu kadumine turult ei ole Eesti reisijate huvides, kuna ta on suuruselt kolmas lennukompanii Tallinna Lennujaamas

  14. Modelling the Baltic power system till 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumberga, Andra; Lauka, Dace; Barisa, Aiga; Blumberga, Dagnija

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A dynamic model was developed to evaluate changes in the energy system till 2050. • Wind energy has the potential to become dominant in the Baltic region. • Solar energy has the potential to become popular from 2025 till 2050. - Abstract: The European Union has given a long-term commitment towards a low-carbon society. Power sector is to play an important role in achieving ambitious emission reduction goals. This article presents results of a research aimed at evaluating development of the Baltic power system under current framework conditions. Special focus is put on renewable energy analysis to estimate the potential of power sector decarbonization. A dynamic energy-economy model was developed by applying system dynamics modelling approach in order to evaluate changes in the energy system till 2050. Underlying structure of the model is based on energy resource flows according to the national electricity mix of each Baltic State. The model calculates energy generation costs of each technology taking into account national support schemes. Based on cost estimation, the installed capacity of each energy resource is determined. Modelling results suggest that wind energy has the potential to become dominant in the Baltic region. This is explained by increasing competitiveness of wind-generated power price compared to fossil-fuel-based generation. Solar energy has the potential to become popular from 2025 onwards due to decreasing investment costs. The market share of other renewable electricity technologies, such as hydro and biomass, will continue to increase reaching maximum between 2020 and 2030. Biogas plants are still not expected to play considerable role in electricity generation.

  15. Strategic Assurance and Signaling in the Baltics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    the Cold War, signaled their “ pivot to the Pacific,” and has not modernized military capability in the region at the rate Russia has. Working to...asserting assurance and “deterrence, based on an appropriate mix of nuclear and conventional capabilities, remains a core element of our overall...international waters and airspace in and over the Baltic Sea with fighters launched from modernized bases near the NATO border. On the ground, Russia has been

  16. Spatial sea-level reconstruction in the Baltic Sea and in the Pacific Ocean from tide gauges observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Olivieri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Exploiting the Delaunay interpolation, we present a newly implemented 2-D sea-level reconstruction from coastal sea-level observations to open seas, with the aim of characterizing the spatial variability of the rate of sea-level change. To test the strengths and weaknesses of this method and to determine its usefulness in sea-level interpolation, we consider the case studies of the Baltic Sea and of the Pacific Ocean. In the Baltic Sea, a small basin well sampled by tide gauges, our reconstructions are successfully compared with absolute sea-level observations from altimetry during 1993-2011. The regional variability of absolute sea level observed across the Pacific Ocean, however, cannot be reproduced. We interpret this result as the effect of the uneven and sparse tide gauge data set and of the composite vertical land movements in and around the region. Useful considerations arise that can serve as a basis for developing sophisticated approaches.

  17. Sea salt in aerosols over the southern Baltic. Part 2. The neutralizing properties of sea salt and ammonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Urszula Lewandowska

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In 2001-2007 aerosols were measured in the coastal zone (11 campaigns and over the open waters of the Gdańsk Basin (southern Baltic (5 campaigns. The marine aerosols contained nitrogen and sulphur compounds, which increased their acidity. This situation intensified during the cool months of the year, when fossil fuel emissions were higher, proportionate to energy and heat requirements. Irrespective of the season, these acidic aerosols were neutralized in the reaction with sea salt. The likelihood of sodium nitrate being formed increased at air humidities > 80% and nitrate concentrations > 30 nmol m-3. Sodium sulphate was present in aerosols mostly in autumn and winter, with northerly advection, and at the highest wind speeds. The excess of free ammonia resulted in the formation of ammonium sulphate and ammonium nitrate in aerosols over the southern Baltic.

  18. Distribution of N2O in the Baltic Sea during transition from anoxic to oxic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Walter

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In January 2003, a major inflow of cold and oxygen-rich North Sea Water terminated an ongoing stagnation period in parts of the central Baltic Sea. In order to investigate the role of North Sea Water inflow in the production of nitrous oxide (N2O, we measured dissolved and atmospheric N2O at 26 stations in the southern and central Baltic Sea in October 2003. At the time of our cruise, water renewal had proceeded to the eastern Gotland Basin, whereas the western Gotland Basin was still unaffected by the inflow. The deep water renewal was detectable in the distributions of temperature, salinity, and oxygen concentrations as well as in the distribution of the N2O concentrations: Shallow stations in the Kiel Bight and Pomeranian Bight were well-ventilated with uniform N2O concentrations near equilibrium throughout the water column. In contrast, stations in the deep basins, such as the Bornholm and the Gotland Deep, showed a clear stratification with deep water affected by North Sea Water. Inflowing North Sea Water led to changed environmental conditions, especially enhanced oxygen (O2 or declining hydrogen sulphide (H2S concentrations, thus, affecting the conditions for the production of N2O. Pattern of N2O profiles and correlations with parameters like oxygen and nitrate differed between the basins. Because of the positive correlation between ΔN2O and AOU in oxic waters the dominant production pathway seems to be nitrification rather than denitrification. Advection of N2O by North Sea Water was found to be of minor importance. A rough budget revealed a significant surplus of in situ produced N2O after the inflow. However, due to the permanent halocline, it can be assumed that the N2O produced does not reach the atmosphere. Hydrographic aspects therefore are decisive factors determining the final release of N2O produced to the atmosphere.

  19. Testing the impact of miniaturization on phylogeny: Paleozoic dissorophoid amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröbisch, Nadia B; Schoch, Rainer R

    2009-06-01

    Among the diverse clade of Paleozoic dissorophoid amphibians, the small, terrestrial amphibamids and the neotenic branchiosaurids have frequently been suggested as possible antecedents of either all or some of the modern amphibian clades. Classically, amphibamids and branchiosaurids have been considered to represent distinct, but closely related clades within dissorophoids, but despite their importance for the controversial lissamphibian origins, a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of small dissorophoids has thus far not been attempted. On the basis of an integrated data set, the relationships of amphibamids and branchiosaurids were analyzed using parsimony and Bayesian approaches. Both groups represent miniaturized forms and it was tested whether similar developmental pathways, associated with miniaturization, lead to an artificial close relationship of branchiosaurids and amphibamids. Moreover, the fit of the resulting tree topologies to the distribution of fossil taxa in the stratigraphic rock record was assessed as an additional source of information. The results show that characters associated with a miniaturized morphology are not responsible for the close clustering of branchiosaurids and amphibamids. Instead, all analyses invariably demonstrate a monophyletic clade of branchiosaurids highly nested within derived amphibamids, indicating that branchiosaurids represent a group of secondarily neotenic amphibamid dissorophoids. This understanding of the phylogenetic relationships of small dissorophoid amphibians provides a new framework for the discussion of their evolutionary history and the evolution of characters shared by branchiosaurids and/or amphibamids with modern amphibian taxa.

  20. Qualitative and quantitative composition of microplastics particles during the expeditionary measurement program in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esiukova, Elena; Bagaeva, Margarita; Chubarenko, Natalia

    2016-04-01

    According to the tasks of the Russian Science Foundation project "Physical and dynamical properties of marine microplastics particles and their transport in a basin with vertical and horizontal salinity gradient on the example of the Baltic Sea" number 15-17-10020, a comprehensive expeditionary program of measurements in the South-Eastern Baltic started. The project is aimed at finding solutions for a number of problems caused by superfluous plastic pollution in the World Ocean and, in particular, in the Baltic Sea. This pollution has been accumulating for years and just recently it has become obvious that only multidisciplinary approach (geographical, biological, chemical, etc.) to the issues related to the processes of transformation of properties and propagation of plastic particles will allow the study of physical aspects of the problem. During the first stage of the study samples should be selected from the water surface, water column at various horizons, bottom sediments in the Baltic Sea, from different areas at the beaches - in order to further examine the qualitative and quantitative composition of microplastic particles in different seasons for different hydrophysical situations. Reconnaissance survey was begun to choose the fields for research close to point and distributed sources of microplastics. Preference is given to those beaches that are exposed to maximum anthropogenic pollution: areas around the town of Baltiysk, the northern part of the Vistula Spit (near the settlement of Kosa), and the Sambia peninsula coast (settlements of Yantarny, Donskoye, Primorye, Kulikovo, towns of Svetlogorsk, Pionersky, Zelenogradsk). Locations for experimental sites were found in order to assess time for formation of microplastics (Vistula Spit, Kosa settlement). In June-November, 2015 there were 5 expeditions in the waters of the South-Eastern Baltic, 7 expeditions along the coast line of the Baltic Sea (in Kaliningrad Oblast), and 5 expeditions to the Vistula

  1. Bacteriohopanepolyols record stratification, nitrogen fixation and other biogeochemical perturbations in Holocene sediments of the central Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Blumenberg

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic Sea, one of the world's largest brackish-marine basins, established after deglaciation of Scandinavia about 17 000 to 15 000 yr ago. In the changeable history of the Baltic Sea, the initial freshwater system was connected to the North Sea about 8000 yr ago and the modern brackish-marine setting (Littorina Sea was established. Today, a relatively stable stratification has developed in the water column of the deep basins due to salinity differences. Stratification is only occasionally interrupted by mixing events, and it controls nutrient availability and growth of specifically adapted microorganisms and algae. We studied bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs, lipids of specific bacterial groups, in a sediment core from the central Baltic Sea (Gotland Deep and found considerable differences between the distinct stages of the Baltic Sea's history. Some individual BHP structures indicate contributions from as yet unknown redoxcline-specific bacteria (bacteriohopanetetrol isomer, methanotrophic bacteria (35-aminobacteriohopanetetrol, cyanobacteria (bacteriohopanetetrol cyclitol ether isomer and from soil bacteria (adenosylhopane through allochthonous input after the Littorina transgression, whereas the origin of other BHPs in the core has still to be identified. Notably high BHP abundances were observed in the deposits of the brackish-marine Littorina phase, particularly in laminated sediment layers. Because these sediments record periods of stable water column stratification, bacteria specifically adapted to these conditions may account for the high portions of BHPs. An additional and/or accompanying source may be nitrogen-fixing (cyanobacteria, which is indicated by a positive correlation of BHP abundances with Corg and δ15N.

  2. Recruitment processes in Baltic sprat - A re-evaluation of GLOBEC Germany hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Rüdiger; Peck, Myron A.; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Clemmesen, Catriona; Baumann, Hannes; Stepputtis, Daniel; Bernreuther, Matthias; Schmidt, Jörn O.; Temming, Axel; Köster, Fritz W.

    2012-12-01

    year-to-year changes in reproductive success. However, due to the strong linkages and feed-back loops in the Baltic Sea food web, the most robust projections of the future strength of the Baltic sprat stock will need to take into account climate-driven changes in both abiotic (e.g., drift trajectories) and biotic (trophodynamic) factors. Although our understanding of processes affecting pre-recruit (larval) growth and survival has been advanced by the integrated research conducted within the GLOBEC Germany program, key mechanisms potentially affecting life stages outside of the spawning basins remain to be explored including the dynamics of coastal habitats of juveniles and the feeding and overwintering grounds of adults.

  3. The Baltic Region in U.S. Western Civilization Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mork, Gordon R.

    1992-01-01

    Evaluates six U.S. western civilization textbooks' treatment of the Baltic region. Reports that the books devote little or no attention to the region, emphasize larger nations, and ignore Baltic social history. Suggests that social histories may continue to neglect small countries, whereas reaction against "Eurocentrism" may result in…

  4. Multimission satellite altimetric data validation in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Yongcun; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Knudsen, Per

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of altimetric data is crucial for investigating the regional sea level variability. Few works has been performed to validate the altimetric data [1, 2] in the Baltic Sea. The exploring of multi-mission altimetric data in the Baltic Sea has yet to be published. The number of available...

  5. BALCOFISH - a BONUS+ project in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Jakob

    The project BALCOFISH, acronym for "Integration of pollutant gene responses and fish ecology in Baltic coastal fisheries and management" is a newly started 3-years BONUS+-project funded by Baltic Organisations Network for Funding Science EEIG (www.bonusportal.org) with focus on contaminants...

  6. The Baltic Republics and the Crisis of 2008-2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Kattel (Rainer); R. Raudla (Ringa)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This essay explores how the Baltic republics responded to the crisis of 2008-2011. We argue that while there are significant differences in how the Baltic economies responded to the crisis, these responses not only remain within the neo-liberal policy paradigm

  7. Rationale for restocking the Eastern Baltic cod stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støttrup, Josianne; Overton, Julia Lynne; Paulsen, Helge

    2008-01-01

    The Danish Institute for Fisheries Research and Bornholm's Salmon Hatchery examined the potential for restocking Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias L.) in the eastern Baltic Sea. This cod population has adapted to the unique brackish water conditions where successful spawning depends on regular i...

  8. airBaltic claims to be subsidizing Ryanair

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Riia lennujaama väitel võlgneb airBaltic neile 3,5 miljoni euro väärtuses lennujaamatasusid ning annab lennufirma kohtusse. airBaltic on aga lennujaama diskrimineeriva käitumise tõttu pöördunud konkurentsiameti poole

  9. Implications of stock recovery for a neighbouring management unit: experience from the Baltic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Margit; Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Hüssy, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Cod in the Baltic Sea is assessed and managed as two separate stocks, i.e. eastern and western Baltic cod. The eastern Baltic cod has recently started to recover after several decades of severe depletion. In the present study, we suggest that the recovery of the eastern Baltic cod population has ...

  10. Robustness of egg production methods as a fishery independent alternative to assess the Eastern Baltic cod stock (Gadus morhua callarias L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Gerd; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Voss, Rüdiger

    2012-01-01

    potential (SRP). Eastern Baltic cod (Gad us morhua callarias L) has severely declined throughout the 2nd half of the 1980s and 1st half of the 1990s due to climate-driven adverse hydrographic conditions and high fishing intensity. Since 2007 the stock is managed under a long-term management plan and showed...... signs of recovery in most recent years. Since 1986. egg surveys have been carried! out regularly in the Bornholm Basin, the most important spawning area of Eastern Baltic cod since mid-1980s. In the present paper the robustness of EPM towards simplification of spawning parameters and toward; reduction...... of the number of egg surveys is tested applying three different methods requiring different numbers of egg surveys. We applied the annual egg production method (AEPM) requiring full egg survey coverage of the spawning season to estimate cod abundances in the Bornholm Basin. In addition, the daily fecundity...

  11. Methane anomalies in the oxygenated upper waters of the central Baltic Sea associated with zooplankton abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmale, Oliver; Wäge, Janine; Morholz, Volker; Rehder, Gregor; Wasmund, Norbert; Gräwe, Ulf; Labrenz, Matthias; Loick-Wilde, Natalie

    2017-04-01

    Apart from the sediment as the dominant source of methane in the aquatic realm the process of methane production in well-oxygenated waters has received considerable attention during the last years. The paradox of methane accumulation in these relatively shallow waters, commonly termed as "oceanic methane paradox", has been sporadically observed in lakes as well as in marine ecosystems like the Gulf of Mexico, the Black Sea, the Baltic Sea, Arctic waters or above the continental shelf off the coast of Spain and Africa. Even if this phenomenon has been described in the literature over the last decades, the potential sources of shallow methane accumulation are still controversially discussed. We report on methane enrichments that were observed during summer in the upper water column of the Gotland Basin, central Baltic Sea. In the eastern part of the basin methane concentrations just below the thermocline (in about 30 m water depth) varied between 15 and 77 nM, in contrast to the western part of the basin where no methane enrichments could be detected. Stable carbon isotope ratios of methane (delta 13C-CH4 of -67.6‰) clearly indicated its in situ biogenic origin. This is supported by clonal sequences from the depth with high methane concentrations in the eastern Gotland Basin, which cluster with the clade Methanomicrobiacea, a family of methanogenic Archaea. Hydroacoustic observation in combination with plankton net tows displayed a seston enrichment (size >100 micro meter) in a layer between 30-50 m depth. The dominant species in the phytoplankton, Dinophysis norvegica, was concentrated at 10-20 m depth, and showed higher concentrations in the eastern Gotland Basin in comparison with the western part of the basin. In contrast to the western Gotland Basin, the zooplankton community in the eastern part was dominated by the copepod species Temora longicornis. Laboratory incubations of a T. longicornis dominated seston fraction (>100 micro meter) sampled in the depth

  12. Petrophysics and hydrocarbon potential of Paleozoic rocks in Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Fowzia; Shaaban, Fouad; Khalaf, Fikry; Bahaman, Fatma; Akbar, Bibi; Al-Khamiss, Awatif

    2017-10-01

    Well logs from nine deep exploratory and development wells in Kuwaiti oil fields have been used to study petrophysical characteristics and their effect on the reservoir quality of the subsurface Paleozoic Khuff and Unayzah formations. Petrophysical log data have been calibrated with core analysis available at some intervals. The study indicates a complex lithological facies of the Khuff Formation that is composed mainly of dolomite and anhydrite interbeds with dispersed argillaceous materials and few limestone intercalations. This facies greatly lowered the formation matrix porosity and permeability index. The porosity is fully saturated with water, which is reflected by the low resistivity logs responses, except at some intervals where few hydrocarbon shows are recorded. The impermeable anhydrites, massive (low-permeability) carbonate rock and shale at the lower part of the formation combine to form intraformational seals for the clastic reservoirs of the underlying Unayzah Formation. By contrast, the log interpretation revealed clastic lithological nature of the Unayzah Formation with cycles of conglomerate, sandstone, siltstone, mudstone and shales. The recorded argillaceous materials are mainly of disseminated habit, which control, for some extent, the matrix porosity, that ranges from 2% to 15% with water saturation ranges from 65% to 100%. Cementation, dissolution, compaction and clay mineral authigenesis are the most significant diagenetic processes affecting the reservoir quality. Calibration with the available core analysis at some intervals of the formation indicates that the siliciclastic sequence is a fluvial with more than one climatic cycle changes from humid, semi-arid to arid condition and displays the impact of both physical and chemical diagenesis. In general, the study revealed that the Unyazah Formation has a better reservoir quality than the Khuff Formation and possible gas bearing zones.

  13. The Baltic Klint beneath the central Baltic Sea and its comparison with the North Estonian Klint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuuling, Igor; Flodén, Tom

    2016-06-01

    Along its contact with the Baltic Shield, the margin of the East European Platform reveals a well-developed, flooded terraced relief. The most striking and consistent set of escarpments at the contact of the Lower Palaeozoic calcareous and terrigenous rocks, known as the Baltic Klint (BK), extends from northwest of Russia to the Swedish island of Öland. Marine seismic reflection profiling in 1990-2004 revealed the central Baltic Sea Klint (BSK) section in detail and enabled comparison of its geology/geomorphology with a classical klint-section onshore, namely the North Estonian Klint (NEK). The conception of the BK onshore, which is based on the land-sea separating terraced relief in northern Estonia, is not fully applicable beneath the sea. Therefore, we consider that the BSK includes the entire terraced Cambrian outcrop. We suggest the term "Baltic Klint Complex" to include the well-terraced margin of the Ordovician limestone outcrop, which is weakly developed in Estonia. Because of a steady lithological framework of the bedrock layers across the southern slope of the Fennoscandian Shield, the central BSK in the western and the NEK in the eastern part of the Baltic Homocline have largely identical morphologies. The North Estonian Ordovician limestone plateau with the calcareous crest of the BK extends across the central Baltic Sea, whereas morphological changes/variations along the Klint base occur due to the east-westerly lithostratigraphic/thickness changes in the siliciclastic Cambrian sequence. The verge of the NEK, located some 30-50 m above sea level, starts to drop in altitude as its east-westerly course turns to northeast-southwest in western Estonia. Further westwards, the BK shifts gradually into southerly deepening (0.1-0.2°) layers as its crest drops to c. 150 m below sea level (b.s.l.) near Gotska Sandön. This course change is accompanied by a considerable decrease in thickness of the platform sedimentary cover, as below the central Baltic Sea the

  14. Saints and Sainthood around the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection of articles covers most of the Baltic Region with a special focus on the cult of saints in Russia, Prussia, Finland, Sweden, Denmark, Estonia and Latvia (more commonly referred to in the Middle Ages as Livonia). The articles cover a wide range of topics, for example the introduction...... of foreign (and ‘old’) saints into new regions, the creation of new local cults of saints in newly Christianized regions, the role of the cult of saints in the creation of political and lay identities, the adaption of the cult of saints in folk poetry and the potential role of saints in times of war...

  15. Accumulation of 210Po in Baltic invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skwarzec, B.; Falkowski, L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation of the 210 Po contents of Baltic marine invertebrates. The 210 Po concentrations fall within the range 11.3-78.9 Bq kg -1 (dry wt), the higher values relating to polychaeta, priapulida and malacostraca and the lower levels to bivalvia. It is demonstrated that 210 Po is non-uniformly distributed within the isopod Mesidotea entomon and the bivalve Mya arenaria. The 210 Po contents of the internal organs decreasing in the order-hepatopancreas > alimentary tract > gill > muscle. Moreover, the results indicate the dominant role of the digestive organs of these invertebrates in controlling absorption and elimination of 210 Po. (author)

  16. Internal wave mixing in the Baltic Sea: Near-inertial waves in the absence of tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lee, E. M.; Umlauf, L.

    2011-10-01

    The dynamics of near-inertial motions, and their relation to mixing, is investigated here with an extensive data set, including turbulence and high-resolution velocity observations from two cruises conducted in 2008 (summer) and 2010 (winter) in the Bornholm Basin of the Baltic Sea. In the absence of tides, it is found that the basin-scale energetics are governed by inertial oscillations and low-mode near-inertial wave motions that are generated near the lateral slopes of the basin. These motions are shown to be associated with persistent narrow shear-bands, strongly correlated with bands of enhanced dissipation rates that are the major source of mixing inside the permanent halocline of the basin. In spite of different stratification, near-inertial wave structure, and atmospheric forcing during summer and winter conditions, respectively, the observed dissipation rates were found to scale with local shear and stratification in a nearly identical way. This scaling was different from the Gregg-Henyey-type models used for the open ocean, but largely consistent with the MacKinnon-Gregg scaling developed for the continental shelf.

  17. New insight into defining the lakes of the southern Baltic coastal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśliński, Roman; Olszewska, Alicja

    2018-01-29

    There exist many classification systems of hydrographic entities such as lakes found along the coastlines of seas and oceans. Each system has its advantages and can be used with some success in the area of protection and management. This paper aims to evaluate whether the studied lakes are only coastal lakes or rather bodies of water of a completely different hydrological and hydrochemical nature. The attempt to create a new classification system of Polish coastal lakes is related to the incompleteness of lake information in existing classifications. Thus far, the most frequently used are classifications based solely on lake basin morphogenesis or hydrochemical properties. The classifications in this paper are based not only on the magnitude of lake water salinity or hydrochemical analysis but also on isolation from the Baltic Sea and other sources of water. The key element of the new classification system for coastal bodies of water is a departure from the existing system used to classify lakes in Poland and the introduction of ion-"tracking" methods designed to identify anion and cation distributions in each body of water of interest. As a result of the work, a new classification of lakes of the southern Baltic Sea coastal zone was created. Featured objects such as permanently brackish lakes, brackish lakes that may turn into freshwater lakes from time to time, freshwater lakes that may turn into brackish lakes from time to time, freshwater lakes that experience low levels of salinity due to specific incidents, and permanently freshwater lakes. The authors have adopted 200 mg Cl -  dm -3 as a maximum value of lake water salinity. There are many conditions that determine the membership of a lake to a particular group, but the most important is the isolation lakes from the Baltic Sea. Changing a condition may change the classification of a lake.

  18. A Eulerian nutrient to fish model of the Baltic Sea — A feasibility-study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Hagen; Neumann, Thomas; Fennel, Wolfgang

    2013-09-01

    A nutrient-to-fish-model with an explicit two-way interaction between a biogeochemical model of the lower food web and a fish model component is presented for the example of the Baltic Sea, demonstrating the feasibility of a consistent coupling of the upper and lower parts of the food web in a Eulerian model system. In the Baltic Sea, the fish stock is dominated by two prey species (sprat and herring) and one predator (cod). The dynamics of the fish model is driven by size (mass-class) dependent predator-prey interactions while the interaction between the biogeochemical and Fish model component is established through feeding of prey fish on zooplankton and recycling of fish biomass to nutrients and detritus. The fish model component is coupled to an advanced three dimensional biogeochemical model (ERGOM, Neumann et al., 2002). A horizontally explicit representation of fish requires the implementation of fish behavior. As a first step, we propose an algorithm to stimulate fish migration by letting the fish follow the food. Moreover, fish species are guided to their respective spawning areas. Results of first three-dimensional simulations are presented with emphasis on the transport of matter by moving fish. The spawning areas of cod and sprat are in the deep basins, which are not well reached by advective transport. Hence the deposition of matter in these areas by spawning fish could play some role in the distribution of matter. The approach is not limited to applications for the Baltic and the model can be transferred also to other systems.

  19. The geology of the southeastern Baltic Sea: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ūsaitytė, Daiva

    2000-06-01

    The Baltic Sea, particularly its southeastern part, is discussed in the paper. Investigations of regional character as well as specialized studies in the area are reviewed. General historical works are mentioned briefly. Previous surveys since the 1950s are presented by the subject studied. The compilation of geological structure of the SE Baltic Sea bottom and adjacent land of Balticum (Baltic States: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania) is based on considerable amounts of summarized materials. The crystalline basement, sedimentary cover and Quaternary deposits are characterized in the comprehensive survey of geological structure. From a stratigraphical point of view, geological sequence of the platformal cover is comparatively complete: deposits of all geological systems (from the Archean to Cenozoic) are present in the Baltic Syneclise. Considering geotectonical cycles, the sedimentary cover of the syneclise is subdivided into four structural complexes. The thickness and distribution of Quaternary deposits are closely related to the recent bottom relief of the Baltic Sea that in turn is inherited from the Pre-Quaternary surface. Buried palaeo-valleys are characteristic of the Pre-Quaternary surface in the Baltic region and the Baltic Sea bottom. The Quaternary is characterized by layers of various geneses and by sharp changes of their thicknesses.

  20. The Baltic policy of Germany and current international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salikov Aleksey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the Baltic policy of united Germany from the 1990s until today. The authors set out to identify the significance of German-Baltic relations and the role of the Eastern policy in Russian-German relations. The method of dynamic comparison between the political and economic narrative in intergovernmental relations makes it possible to identify distinctive features of Germany’s Baltic policy in the context of current international relations. In particular, it is noted that Germany was most active in the Baltic region in the 1990s, when the country was establishing political, economic, and cultural ties with the new independent states. In the second half of the 1990s, Germany’s foreign policy became less intense. After the accession of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia to the EU and NATO in 2004, certain disagreements started to arise between Germany and the Baltics. It explains the lukewarm relations between them. The Ukraine events brought about a change in Germany’s regional policy. Despite Russia remaining one of the key economic and political counteractors, Germany, being a partner of the Baltics in the EU and NATO, cannot adopt a neutral position in the conflict of interests between the Baltics and Russia.

  1. The Baltic States in the EU: yesterday, today and tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigas, Agnia; Kasekamp, Andres; Maslauskaite, Kristina; Buzek, Jerzy; Zorgenfreija, Liva

    2013-07-01

    2013 is a significant year for the Baltic states in their relations with European integration. On 1 July 2013, Lithuania became the first of the Baltic states to hold the rotating presidency of the EU Council of ministers. Its performance is closely watched by Latvia and Estonia, whose turns to hold the presidency come in 2015 and 2018, respectively. In addition, this year Latvia has been invited to join the Euro Area thus becoming the second Baltic state after Estonia to share the common currency. This Study aims to show that these developments are extremely important for the young and small Baltic states, which continue to aspire to secure their place in the European 'core'. Having emerged from the crisis as good students of internal devaluation, the Baltic states have a window of opportunity to voice their main concerns and priorities regarding the future of European integration. Lithuanian presidency puts an emphasis on more economic growth and credibility within the E(M)U as well as increased energy security, the challenges that have been daunting the Baltic states in the past years and decades. In order to better understand the origins and the significance of these priorities, this Study is divided into three distinct parts dealing with historical and political context of the three Baltic states (Part 1), the causes and consequences of the recent economic crisis (Part 2) and specific issues related to the energy policy in the region (Part 3)

  2. Population dynamics of calanoid copepods and the implications of their predation by clupeid fish in the Central Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möllmann, C.; Köster, Fritz

    2002-01-01

    . Additionally this study investigated the effect of predation by the major planktivorous fish species herring (Clupea harengus) and sprat (Sprattus sprattus) for the period 1977-1996 in the Gotland Basin (Central Baltic Sea). Examination of consumption by these fish species in relation to copepod production...... by sprat on CV/CVI of both copepod species in spring resulted in higher copepod mortality rates. In consequence, based on these results we suggest that the increase in the sprat stock since the late 1980s contributed to a decline of P. elongatus, and additionally prevented an even more pronounced...

  3. Migration waves to the Baltic Sea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappalainen, T; Laitinen, V; Salmela, E; Andersen, P; Huoponen, K; Savontaus, M-L; Lahermo, P

    2008-05-01

    In this study, the population history of the Baltic Sea region, known to be affected by a variety of migrations and genetic barriers, was analyzed using both mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosomal data. Over 1200 samples from Finland, Sweden, Karelia, Estonia, Setoland, Latvia and Lithuania were genotyped for 18 Y-chromosomal biallelic polymorphisms and 9 STRs, in addition to analyzing 17 coding region polymorphisms and the HVS1 region from the mtDNA. It was shown that the populations surrounding the Baltic Sea are genetically similar, which suggests that it has been an important route not only for cultural transmission but also for population migration. However, many of the migrations affecting the area from Central Europe, the Volga-Ural region and from Slavic populations have had a quantitatively different impact on the populations, and, furthermore, the effects of genetic drift have increased the differences between populations especially in the north. The possible explanations for the high frequencies of several haplogroups with an origin in the Iberian refugia (H1, U5b, I1a) are also discussed.

  4. Oil pollution in the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostianoy, Andrey G.; Lavrova, Olga Yu.

    2014-01-01

    This thorough review is based on observational satellite, airborne and in-situ data, scientific literature and technical reports, as well as the substantial experience of the authors, who hail from several Baltic Sea countries. They pay special attention to national practices, HELCOM and EMSA CleanSeaNet activities in oil pollution monitoring, and show different applications of the Seatrack Web model for oil spill drift prediction and the identification of illegal polluters, as well as for environmental risk assessment. Furthermore, some of the results on satellite monitoring of the Nord Stream gas pipeline construction in the Gulf of Finland are presented. This volume addresses the needs of specialists working in different fields of marine, environmental, and remote sensing sciences. It is a useful handbook on oil pollution for international and governmental agencies, as well as for policy makers who plan and manage oil and gas projects, the construction of ports and terminals, shipping, fishery, recreation, and tourist activities in the Baltic Sea.

  5. Demographic Ranking of the Baltic Sea States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sluka N.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the study lies in the acute need to modernise the tools for a more accurate and comparable reflection of the demographic reality of spatial objects of different scales. This article aims to test the methods of “demographic rankings” developed by Yermakov and Shmakov. The method is based on the principles of indirect standardisation of the major demographic coefficients relative to the age structure.The article describes the first attempt to apply the method to the analysis of birth and mortality rates in 1995 and 2010 for 140 countries against the global average, and for the Baltic Sea states against the European average. The grouping of countries and the analysis of changes over the given period confirmed a number of demographic development trends and the persistence of wide territorial disparities in major indicators. The authors identify opposite trends in ranking based on the standardised birth (country consolidation at the level of averaged values and mortality (polarisation rates. The features of demographic process development in the Baltic regions states are described against the global and European background. The study confirmed the validity of the demographic ranking method, which can be instrumental in solving not only scientific but also practical tasks, including those in the field of demographic and social policy.

  6. Nord Stream, Sweden and Baltic Sea Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Robert L.

    2007-03-15

    In June 2006, FOI published the report: Sweden and the NEGP: a Pilot Study of the North European Gas Pipeline and Sweden's Dependence on Russian Energy, a base data report on a topic that FOI considered to be of rising importance. Much has happened since then and the NEGP has changed its name to Nord Stream and submitted an official notification on the intention of realising the project of constructing a gas pipeline from Russia to Germany via the Baltic Sea. The primary aim of this report is to discuss and analyse some of the core aspects of Nord Stream and the pipeline project with regard to the security situation for the Baltic Sea region. The report constitutes an updated version of the previous report. Most of the old report still stands valid, especially concerning the historical survey of Russia's energy policy, but the new report has additional chapters and is broader in scope concerning the consequences of the project

  7. An Earth System Science Program for the Baltic Sea Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, H. E. M.; Rutgersson, A.; Reckermann, M.

    2014-04-01

    From Russia in the east to Sweden, Denmark, and Germany in the west, reaching south to the tips of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Ukraine, the Baltic Sea watershed drains nearly 20% of Europe (see Figure 1). In the highly populated south, the temperate climate hosts intensive agriculture and industry. In the north, the landscape is boreal and rural. In the Baltic Sea itself, complex bathymetry and stratification patterns as well as extended hypoxic and anoxic deep waters add to the diversity. Yet in recent history, the differences across the Baltic Sea region have been more than physical: In the mid-20th century, the watershed was split in two.

  8. The Acampamento Velho Formation is a succession of rhyolitic basaltic belong to the lower Paleozoic.: Geochemical characterization of the trace elements and strange lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Almeida, M.; Zerfass, H.; De Lima, L.

    1998-01-01

    During at the end of Brazilian orogeny cycle (lower Paleozoic), the Camaqua basin was filled by a thick vulcanic series, named Acampamento Velho Formation , which consists of a recurrence of basaltic episodes (at the base) and the alternance of pyroclastic rocks with a rhyolitic composition TBr and Igr) in the intermediate portion and rhyolitic flows (Dr) at the top. Based on the geochemical results, especially on the trace elements such as Zr, Ti, Nb, Y, YB,Th. Ta and the REE., it is confirmed the stratigraphical succession and the depositation chronological order observed in the field. All the volcanic succession presents a behavior pattern typical of post- collisional orogenic, rocks, originated from the crustal contamination of basaltic magmas generated in an environment of the active continental margin. (author)

  9. Pulp-mill related polychlorinated organic compounds in Baltic Sea sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Per (Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Solna (Sweden)); Rappe, C.; Kjeller, L.O. (Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Inst. of Environmental Chemistry); Kierkegaard, A. (Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Inst. of Applied Environmental Research); Haakansson, L. (Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Inst. of Earth Sciences); Jonsson, Bjoern (County Adm. Board, Umeaa (Sweden))

    1993-01-01

    Sediment samples from the Baltic basin were analyzed for PCDD/Fs, alkyl-CDFs, chloroguaiacols and EOCl. The EOCl distribution pattern in the Iggesund pulp-mill area shows high sediment concentrations close to the mill, and decreasing concentrations with increasing distance from the mill. Two series of alkyl-CDFs have been identified. The PCDD/Fs in offshore surficial sediments from the Baltic proper show a typical incineration pattern, while sediments collected in the vicinity of the mill show enhanced levels of 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD, 2,3,7,8- and 1,2,7,8-tetraCDF, and 1,2,3,7,8-pentaCDD. These PCDD/F congeners are statistically correlated to di-, tri-, and tetrachloroguaiacols, alkyl-CDFs, EOCl, and to the distance from the pulp mill, indicating the same source and transportation regime. Principal component analysis of the data set supports this conclusion. The three 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-substituted PCDD/F congeners have formerly been found in high concentrations in sediments and crab hepatopancreas close to a pulp mill on the Swedish west coast. Our results from a pulp mill on the Swedish east coast support the conclusion that these congeners are typically associated with pulp bleaching. Deep layer sediments have significantly lower levels of PCDD/Fs. The isomer profiles are different in the surficial and the deep sediments, indicating a more natural preindustrial production of PCDD/Fs. (53 refs., 7 figs.).

  10. Champacyclin, a New Cyclic Octapeptide from Streptomyces Strain C42 Isolated from the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Pesic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available New isolates of Streptomyces champavatii were isolated from marine sediments of the Gotland Deep (Baltic Sea, from the Urania Basin (Eastern Mediterranean, and from the Kiel Bight (Baltic Sea. The isolates produced several oligopeptidic secondary metabolites, including the new octapeptide champacyclin (1a present in all three strains. Herein, we report on the isolation, structure elucidation and determination of the absolute stereochemistry of this isoleucine/leucine (Ile/Leu = Xle rich cyclic octapeptide champacyclin (1a. As 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy could not fully resolve the structure of (1a, additional information on sequence and configuration of stereocenters were obtained by a combination of multi stage mass spectrometry (MSn studies, amino acid analysis, partial hydrolysis and subsequent enantiomer analytics with gas chromatography positive chmical ionization/electron impact mass spectrometry (GC-PCI/EI-MS supported by comparison to reference dipeptides. Proof of the head-to-tail cyclization of (1a was accomplished by solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS compared to an alternatively side chain cyclized derivative (2. Champacyclin (1a is likely synthesized by a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS, because of its high content of (d-amino acids. The compound (1a showed antimicrobial activity against the phytopathogen Erwinia amylovora causing the fire blight disease of certain plants.

  11. Deposition of a saline giant in the Mississippian Windsor Group, Nova Scotia, and the nascent Late Paleozoic Ice Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeil, Laura A.; Pufahl, Peir K.; James, Noel P.

    2018-01-01

    Saline giants are vast marine evaporite deposits that currently have no modern analogues and remain one of the most enigmatic of chemical sedimentary rocks. The Mississippian Windsor Group (ca. 345 Ma), Maritimes Basin, Atlantic Canada is a saline giant that consists of two evaporite-rich sedimentary sequences that are subdivided into five subzones. Sequence 1 is composed almost entirely of thick halite belonging to Subzone A (Osagean). Sequence 2 is in unconformable contact and comprised of stacked carbonate-evaporite peritidal cycles of Subzones B through E (Meramecian). Subzone B, the focus of research herein, documents the transition from wholly evaporitic to open marine conditions and thus, preserves an exceptional window into the processes forming saline giants. Lithofacies stacking patterns in Subzone B reveal that higher-order fluctuations in relative sea level produced nine stacked parasequences interpreted to reflect high frequency glacioeustatic oscillations during the onset of the Late Paleozoic Ice Age. Each parasequence reflects progradation of intertidal and sabkha sediments over subtidal carbonate and evaporite deposits. Dissimilarities in cycle composition between sub-basins imply the development of contrasting brine chemistries from differing recharge rates with the open ocean. What the Windsor Group shows is that evaporite type is ostensibly linked to the amplitude and frequency of sea level rise and fall during deposition. True saline giants, like the basinwide evaporites of Sequence 1, apparently require low amplitude, long frequency changes in sea level to promote the development of stable brine pools that are only periodically recharged with seawater. By contrast, the high amplitude, short frequency glacioeustatic variability in sea level that controlled the accumulation of peritidal evaporites in Subzone B produce smaller, subeconomic deposits with more complex facies relationships.

  12. Late Devonian glacial deposits from the eastern United States signal an end of the mid-Paleozoic warm period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezinski, D.K.; Cecil, C.B.; Skema, V.W.; Stamm, R.

    2008-01-01

    A Late Devonian polymictic diamictite extends for more than 400??km from northeastern Pennsylvania across western Maryland and into east-central West Virginia. The matrix-supported, unbedded, locally sheared diamictite contains subangular to rounded clasts up to 2??m in diameter. The mostly rounded clasts are both locally derived and exotic; some exhibit striations, faceting, and polish. The diamictite commonly is overlain by laminated siltstone/mudstone facies associations (laminites). The laminites contain isolated clasts ranging in size from sand and pebbles to boulders, some of which are striated. The diamictite/laminite sequence is capped by massive, coarse-grained, pebbly sandstone that is trough cross-bedded. A stratigraphic change from red, calcic paleo-Vertisols in strata below the diamictite to non-calcic paleo-Spodosols and coal beds at and above the diamictite interval suggests that the climate became much wetter during deposition of the diamictite. The diamictite deposit is contemporaneous with regressive facies that reflect fluvial incision during the Late Devonian of the Appalachian basin. These deposits record a Late Devonian episode of climatic cooling so extreme that it produced glaciation in the Appalachian basin. Evidence for this episode of climatic cooling is preserved as the interpreted glacial deposits of diamictite, overlain by glaciolacustrine varves containing dropstones, and capped by sandstone interpreted as braided stream outwash. The Appalachian glacigenic deposits are contemporaneous with glacial deposits in South America, and suggest that Late Devonian climatic cooling was global. This period of dramatic global cooling may represent the end of the mid-Paleozoic warm interval that began in the Middle Silurian. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Holocene sedimentary record of cyanobacterial glycolipids in the Baltic Sea: an evaluation of their application as tracers of past nitrogen fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sollai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Heterocyst glycolipids (HGs are lipids exclusively produced by heterocystous dinitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria. The Baltic Sea is an ideal environment to study the distribution of HGs and test their potential as biomarkers because of its recurring summer phytoplankton blooms, dominated by a few heterocystous cyanobacterial species of the genera Nodularia and Aphanizomenon. A multi-core and a gravity core from the Gotland Basin were analyzed to determine the abundance and distribution of a suite of selected HGs at a high resolution to investigate the changes in past cyanobacterial communities during the Holocene. The HG distribution of the sediments deposited during the Modern Warm Period (MoWP was compared with those of cultivated heterocystous cyanobacteria, including those isolated from Baltic Sea waters, revealing high similarity. However, the abundance of HGs dropped substantially with depth, and this may be caused by either a decrease in the occurrence of the cyanobacterial blooms or diagenesis, resulting in partial destruction of the HGs. The record also shows that the HG distribution has remained stable since the Baltic turned into a brackish semi-enclosed basin ∼ 7200 cal. yr BP. This suggests that the heterocystous cyanobacterial species composition remained relatively stable as well. During the earlier freshwater phase of the Baltic (i.e., the Ancylus Lake and Yoldia Sea phases, the distribution of the HGs varied much more than in the subsequent brackish phase, and the absolute abundance of HGs was much lower than during the brackish phase. This suggests that the cyanobacterial community adjusted to the different environmental conditions in the basin. Our results confirm the potential of HGs as a specific biomarker of heterocystous cyanobacteria in paleo-environmental studies.

  14. South Baltic wind atlas. South Baltic offshore wind energy regions project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, A.; Hahmann, A.; Hasager, C.B.; Bingoel, F.; Karagali, I.; Badger, J.; Badger, M.; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    2011-05-15

    A first version of a wind atlas for the South Baltic Sea has been developed using the WRF mesoscale model and verified by data from tall Danish and German masts. Six different boundary-layer parametrization schemes were evaluated by comparing the WRF results to the observed wind profiles at the masts. The WRF modeling was done in a nested domain of high spatial resolution for 4 years. In addition the long-term wind statistics using the NCAR-NCEP reanalysis data were performed during 30 years to provide basis for a long-term adjustment of the results and the final WRF results include a weighting for the long-term trends variability in the South Baltic Sea. Observations from Earth observing satellites were used to evaluate the spatial resolution of the WRF model results near the surface. The QuikSCAT and the WRF results compared well whereas the Envisat ASAR mean wind map showed some variation to the others. The long-term analysis revealed that the South Baltic Sea has a spatially highly variable wind climate during the 30-years. (Author)

  15. Nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria stimulates production in Baltic food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlson, Agnes M L; Duberg, Jon; Motwani, Nisha H; Hogfors, Hedvig; Klawonn, Isabell; Ploug, Helle; Barthel Svedén, Jennie; Garbaras, Andrius; Sundelin, Brita; Hajdu, Susanna; Larsson, Ulf; Elmgren, Ragnar; Gorokhova, Elena

    2015-06-01

    Filamentous, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria form extensive summer blooms in the Baltic Sea. Their ability to fix dissolved N2 allows cyanobacteria to circumvent the general summer nitrogen limitation, while also generating a supply of novel bioavailable nitrogen for the food web. However, the fate of the nitrogen fixed by cyanobacteria remains unresolved, as does its importance for secondary production in the Baltic Sea. Here, we synthesize recent experimental and field studies providing strong empirical evidence that cyanobacterial nitrogen is efficiently assimilated and transferred in Baltic food webs via two major pathways: directly by grazing on fresh or decaying cyanobacteria and indirectly through the uptake by other phytoplankton and microbes of bioavailable nitrogen exuded from cyanobacterial cells. This information is an essential step toward guiding nutrient management to minimize noxious blooms without overly reducing secondary production, and ultimately most probably fish production in the Baltic Sea.

  16. Baltic companies prepare for stiff competition / Jorgen Johansson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Johansson, Jorgen

    2001-01-01

    "Baltic Sea Partenariat 2001" on Rootsi valitsuse toetatav projekt ärisidemete arendamiseks Rootsi ja Baltimaade ettevõtete vahel ning aitamaks läänemeremaade väikeettevõtetel valmistuda konkurentsiks EL-i turul

  17. Baltic Property Trust - professionaalseim kinnisvara investeerimisfirma Baltimere piirkonnas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    BPT Eesti direktor Meelis Liivak Baltic Property Trusti (BPT) eesmärkidest, tegevusvaldkondadest ja tulevikuplaanidest. Kommenteerivad Alo Kullamaa, Priit Põldoja, Andres Järving ja Aivar Tomson. Lisa: Ajalugu

  18. Nutrient control of cyanobacterial blooms in the Baltic Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stal, L.J.; Staal, M.J.; Villbrandt, M.

    1999-01-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms in the Baltic Sea were investigated with respect to growth Limitation and nitrogen fixation. The community was composed predominantly of Synechococcus spp., and large, heterocystous, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon spp, and Nodularia spp.), that usually formed

  19. Metals, Metalloids and Radionuclides in the Baltic Sea Ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szefer, P.

    2002-01-01

    The state of knowledge of the distribution, bioavailability, biomagnification, discrimination, fate and sources of chemical pollutants (metals, metalloids, radionuclides and nutrients) in all compartments (atmosphere, water, deposits, biota) of the Baltic environment is presented. Particular components of the Baltic ecosystem are considered as potential monitors of pollutants. Budgets of chemical elements and the ecological status of the Baltic Sea in the past, present and future are presented. Estimates of health risks to man in respect to some toxic metals and radionuclides in fish and seafood are briefly discussed. The content of the book makes possible the identification of gaps in our environmental knowledge of the Baltic Sea, with certain sections establishing possible priorities, key areas or strategies for future research

  20. Pan-Baltic airline talks again on the table

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Baltimaad võivad luua ühise lennukompanii. Läti kommunikatsiooniministri Kaspars Gerhardsi, Leedu transpordiministri Eligijus Masiulise ja Eesti majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniministri Juhan Partsi arvamused. AirBaltic plaanib luua interneti-reisibürood

  1. Air Baltic: Estonian Air on nurka surutud / Teele Tammeorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammeorg, Teele

    2010-01-01

    Air Balticu asepresidendi Janis Vanagsi hinnangul on Estonian Air aastaid jätnud tähelepanuta oma peamised turismiturud ning on praegu halvas seisus. Air Baltic on endiselt huvitatud Estonian Airi ostust. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsi seisukoht

  2. Transborder corporate integration in the Baltic Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov Alexei

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines flows of foreign direct investment within the Baltic region. The author demonstrates close investment ties among the EU members, which are of special importance for Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Transborder corporate integration in the region is characterized by significant imbalances. In many aspects, it can be viewed as Sweden’s economic expansion or development of domestic markets for northern European companies. Although many German, Polish and Russian companies are involved in corporate integration in the Baltic region, other vectors of their foreign economic relations are still more important for them. As a result, the integration of Russian business in the Baltic part of the European integration area is still rather weak despite Russia’s considerable foreign direct investment in the Baltic States.

  3. FDI in small accession countries: The Baltic states

    OpenAIRE

    Hunya, Gábor

    2004-01-01

    Analysing the evolution and determinants of foreign direct investment (FDI) in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, this paper argues that sound economic policies have created an environment conducive for FDI. Overall, FDI has contributed to economic growth in the Baltic economies, having financed around one-fifth of fixed investment. However, their small size makes the Baltic countries relatively less attractive for market-seeking FDI in manufacturing. Moreover, at the outset of transition, their ...

  4. Topical problems related to the pollution of the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report sums up the current state of knowledge on the pollution of the Baltic Sea as an aquatic system. Mineral oil hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, heavy metals and radionuclides are pinpointed as the main causes of pollution. Furthermore, the work presents the results of investigations carried through for several years on the contamination of salt-water fishes. The causes and consequences of nutrient accumulation in the Baltic Sea are discussed. (VT) [de

  5. Fish production and climate: Sprat in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Köster, Fritz

    2004-01-01

    Processes controlling the production of new fish (recruitment) are poorly understood and therefore challenge population ecologists and resource managers. Sprat in the Baltic Sea is no exception: recruitment varies widely between years and is virtually independent of the biomass of mature sprat......-scale climate variability (North Atlantic Oscillation), Baltic Sea ice coverage, and water temperature. These relationships increase our understanding of sprat population dynamics and enable a desirable integration of fisheries ecology and management with climatology and oceanography....

  6. Prediction of vertical distribution and ambient development temperature of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua L., eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai; Jarre, Astrid

    1997-01-01

    An artificial neural network (ANN) model was established to predict the vertical distribution of Baltic cod eggs. Data from vertical distribution sampling in the Bornholm Basin over the period 1986-1995 were used to train and test the network, while data sets from sampling in 1996 were used...... for validation. The model explained 82% of the variance between observed and predicted relative frequencies of occurrence of the eggs in relation to salinity, temperature and oxygen concentration; The ANN fitted all observations satisfactorily except for one sampling date, where an exceptional hydrographic...... situation was observed. Mean ambient temperatures, calculated from the predicted vertical distributions of the eggs and used for the computation of egg developmental times, were overestimated by 0.05 degrees C on average. This corresponds to an error in prediction of egg developmental time of less than 1%...

  7. Stage-specific mortality of Baltic cod ( Gadus morhua L.) eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai; Hinrichsen, H.H.; Grønkjær, P.

    2000-01-01

    A study on cod egg mortality was carried out in the Bornholm Basin (southern central Baltic Sea) toward the end of July 1996. An initial egg aggregation marked by a satellite-tracked drifter buoy was sampled repeatedly over an Ii-day period; profiles of temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen...... were concurrently recorded. Three replicate estimates of mortality were obtained for each pair of subsequent developmental stages from newly spawned eggs to early larvae. A consistent pattern of stage-specific mortality coincided well with previous experimental observations. Average daily mortality...... rates were 7.2% (eggs IA/IB), 38.7% (eggs (IB/II), 25.6% (eggs II/III), 40.0% (eggs III/IV), and 42.3% (eggs IV/early larvae). The cumulative mortality until hatch amounted to 99.9%. Results from hydrodynamic modelling, however, indicated that the drifter's trajectory was influenced by wind stress...

  8. Developing Baltic cod recruitment models II : Incorporation of environmental variability and species interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köster, Fritz; Hinrichsen, H.H.; St. John, Michael

    2001-01-01

    We investigate whether a process-oriented approach based on the results of field, laboratory, and modelling studies can be used to develop a stock-environment-recruitment model for Central Baltic cod (Gadus morhua). Based on exploratory statistical analysis, significant variables influencing...... affecting survival of eggs, predation by clupeids on eggs, larval transport, and cannibalism. Results showed that recruitment in the most important spawning area, the Bornholm Basin, during 1976-1995 was related to egg production; however, other factors affecting survival of the eggs (oxygen conditions......, predation) were also significant and when incorporated explained 69% of the variation in 0-group recruitment. In other spawning areas, variable hydrographic conditions did not allow for regular successful egg development. Hence, relatively simple models proved sufficient to predict recruitment of 0-group...

  9. Life cycle and spring phenology of Temora longicornis in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dutz, Jörg; Mohrholz, V.; van Beusekom, J. E. E.

    2010-01-01

    The seasonal variation in abundance, biomass and vertical distribution of nauplii and copepodites of Temora longicornis in the Bornholm Basin was studied from March 2002 to May 2003 to understand the overwintering, spring development and life cycle of this species in the Baltic Sea. The analysis...... of the life cycle by means of stage structure, copepodite length and stage duration revealed that T. longicornis produced 5 to 6 generations yr–1. The species overwintered in low abundance as an active, slowly developing generation with adults appearing from February/March onwards. The onset of the spring...... bloom in April triggered reproduction and initiated the first spring generation (G1) with a strong rise in nauplii abundance. The stock biomass increased in May with the occurrence of the copepodites of G1 and remained high during the succeeding generations G2 and G3 until August. The stock...

  10. On Russian/Nordic Investment Competition in the Baltic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olenchenko Vladimir

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The researchers often overlook the relationships between Russian and Nordic investment capital; and even less attention is paid to studying the competition between the two. Yet this subject can be of particular relevance to the areas that are geographically, historically and culturally close to both Russia and the Nordic countries. Thus, the aim of this article is to understand how the competition between Russian and Nordic capital investment is played out in the Baltic States. The study discusses the principles of Russian and Nordic investment in the Baltic, and suggests ways to regulate these relations. To this end, we compare the investment conditions created in the Baltic States for both Russian and Nordic investors. The analysis shows that most of the Baltic market is controlled by the Nordic capital, which blocks the arrival of Russian investment to the Baltic States. With a nod to a number of previous studies, the authors of this article suggest some adjustments to the theory of foreign direct investment. The study will be also of practical interest to those Russian investors who are seeking entry points to the Baltic markets.

  11. Forecasting Actions of Baltic elites: A Scenario Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnov Vadim A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of different approaches to forecasting the future of the three Baltic States. The author’s theoretical approach to studying Baltic elites is used to forecast changes in the action models of the Baltic elites. The article stresses the scarcity of internal political processes in the Baltics. However, a significant number of scenarios focusing on military aspects in the Baltics have recently been published. The author distinguishes between inertia, confrontation, and cooperation scenarios and examines their prerequisites and possible consequences. The scenarios are developed based on an analysis of geographic, economic, and political factors. The decisive factor is a state-controlled foreign policy, which is affected by the international situation as well as relations between the state and the external resources exploited by political elites. The paper contributes to the general debate about the factors of political development and the role of political elites in it. The author pr ovides additional material for analysing possible developments in the domestic policies of the Baltic States in view of external factors.

  12. Islamic Diffusion in the Baltics: The Fruit of European Multiculturalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladkiy Yu. N.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article considers Western Europe as a principal centre that has been attracting migrants over recent decades, primarily, in the aftermath of the Arab Spring. The Baltic region states are chosen for demonstration. Although they have different proportions of Muslim immigrants, Muslim diasporas are the most numerous and rapidly growing ones in the Baltics. Undoubtedly, Muslim communities across the region enjoy certain similarities. The differences they have are explained, among other factors, by national policies towards migrant integration. This article aims to identify the features of Muslim migration to the Baltic States in the aftermath of the Arab Spring. The authors analyse the timeline of Muslim immigration to the Baltic region. It is stressed that, despite current difficulties, Germany and Finland are more successful in integrating immigrants than, for instance, Sweden and Denmark. Just like other Western European countries, the Baltic States have not developed a conceptual framework for their migration and integration policies towards Muslim immigrants. The authors describe possible Muslim integration scenarios — the Singaporean and Palestinian ones, simulation, and confrontation. Given their apparent conscientious refusal to adapt and integrate migrants, the Baltic States are most likely to face the Palestinian scenario.

  13. Tectonic isolation from regional sediment sourcing of the Paradox Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T. M.; Saylor, J.; Sundell, K. E.; Lapen, T. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Appalachian and Ouachita-Marathon mountain ranges were created by a series of tectonic collisions that occurred through the middle and late Paleozoic along North America's eastern and southern margins, respectively. Previous work employing detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology has demonstrated that fluvial and eolian systems transported Appalachian-derived sediment across the continent to North America's Paleozoic western margin. However, contemporaneous intraplate deformation of the Ancestral Rocky Mountains (ARM) compartmentalized much of the North American western interior and mid-continent. We employ lithofacies characterization, stratigraphic thickness, paleocurrent data, sandstone petrography, and detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology to evaluate source-sink relationships of the Paradox Basin, which is one of the most prominent ARM basins. Evaluation of provenance is conducted through quantitative comparison of detrital zircon U-Pb distributions from basin samples and potential sources via detrital zircon mixture modeling, and is augmented with sandstone petrography. Mixing model results provide a measure of individual source contributions to basin stratigraphy, and are combined with outcrop and subsurface data (e.g., stratigraphic thickness and facies distributions) to create tectonic isolation maps. These maps elucidate drainage networks and the degree to which local versus regional sources influence sediment character within a single basin, or multiple depocenters. Results show that despite the cross-continental ubiquity of Appalachian-derived sediment, fluvial and deltaic systems throughout much of the Paradox Basin do not record their influence. Instead, sediment sourcing from the Uncompahgre Uplift, which has been interpreted to drive tectonic subsidence and formation of the Paradox Basin, completely dominated its sedimentary record. Further, the strong degree of tectonic isolation experienced by the Paradox Basin appears to be an emerging, yet common

  14. 210Pb dating of Baltic Sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gellermann, R.

    1990-01-01

    The paper reports on the results of 210 Pb measurement in sediment cores from the Baltic Sea. The models used for the interpretation are derived and discussed. In general, the sedimentation parameters calculated with different models are consistent. However, parameters of cores independently taken on same partly show clearly differing values. The reasons of this observation have to be analysed by further studies. An essential problem considered in this paper is the dating of disturbed sediments. The use of such cores for the reconstruction of the input history of chemical indicators requires a deconvolution of data. The response function necessary for this procedure can be derived from 210 Pb measurements. The results of such a reconstruction considerably differ from those obtained by conventional dating models. The analysis of the measuring uncertainty of the indicator (e.g. lead) in the deconvolution procedure unveals the limits of the method and prevents it from overinterpretation. (orig.) [de

  15. Contents of Global Talent Evaluations: Baltics & Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antanas Buracas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study discuss the reliability of global talent competitiveness (GTC as framework of deter- minants based on multiple criteria assessment method- ology presenting the comparisons of Baltic States and Serbia as a case study. The multiple criteria evaluation principles are focused on the knowledge components interdependencies with global talent determinants as well as other criterial systems used for the innovation strategies. The approach in a research under review and de- tailing of GTC criterial system when evaluating the talent potential determinants revealed some benefits of multicriteria decision making analysis. The GTC index is a useful instrument for rational global talent management when using the EU structural funds, in- tersectorial distributing of limited resources for more rational development of labour & vocational skills, for evaluating the innovation and talent growth determi- nants.

  16. Upper Paleozoic Marine Shale Characteristics and Exploration Prospects in the Northwestern Guizhong Depression, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhenhong; Yao, Genshun; Lou, Zhanghua; Jin, Aimin; Zhu, Rong; Jin, Chong; Chen, Chao

    2018-05-01

    Multiple sets of organic-rich shales developed in the Upper Paleozoic of the northwestern Guizhong Depression in South China. However, the exploration of these shales is presently at a relatively immature stage. The Upper Paleozoic shales in the northwestern Guizhong Depression, including the Middle Devonian Luofu shale, the Nabiao shale, and the Lower Carboniferous Yanguan shale, were investigated in this study. Mineral composition analysis, organic matter analysis (including total organic carbon (TOC) content, maceral of kerogen and the vitrinite reflection (Ro)), pore characteristic analysis (including porosity and permeability, pore type identification by SEM, and pore size distribution by nitrogen sorption), methane isothermal sorption test were conducted, and the distribution and thickness of the shales were determined, Then the characteristics of the two target shales were illustrated and compared. The results show that the Upper Paleozoic shales have favorable organic matter conditions (mainly moderate to high TOC content, type I and II1 kerogen and high to over maturity), good fracability potential (brittleness index (BI) > 40%), multiple pore types, stable distribution and effective thickness, and good methane sorption capacity. Therefore, the Upper Paleozoic shales in the northern Guizhong Depression have good shale gas potential and exploration prospects. Moreover, the average TOC content, average BI, thickness of the organic-rich shale (TOC > 2.0 wt%) and the shale gas resources of the Middle Devonian shales are better than those of the Lower Carboniferous shale. The Middle Devonian shales have better shale gas potential and exploration prospects than the Lower Carboniferous shales.

  17. The late Paleozoic ecological-evolutionary laboratory, a land-plant fossil record perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looy, Cindy; Kerp, Hans; Duijnstee, Ivo; DiMichele, Bill

    2014-01-01

    In this essay we examine the fossil record of land plants, focusing on the late Paleozoic. We explore the nature of this record in terms of what is preserved, where, why and with what biases. And as a consequence, how it can be used to answer questions posed at various spatial and temporal scales,

  18. Modeling pathways of riverine nitrogen and phosphorus in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, H.; Neumann, T.; Voss, M.; Fennel, W.

    2012-09-01

    A better understanding of the fate of nutrients entering the Baltic Sea ecosystem is an important issue with implications for environmental management. There are two sources of nitrogen and phosphorus: riverine input and atmospheric deposition. In the case of nitrogen, the fixation of dinitrogen by diazotrophic bacteria represents a third source. From an analysis of stable nitrogen isotope ratios it was suggested that most of the riverine nitrogen is sequestered in the coastal rim, specifically along the southern Baltic Sea coast with its coarse sediments, whereas nitrogen from fixation dominates the central basins. However, pathways of nutrients and timescales between the input of the nutrients and their arrival in different basins are difficult to obtain from direct measurements. To elucidate this problem, we use a source attribution technique in a three-dimensional ecosystem model, ERGOM, to track nutrients originating from various rivers. An “age” variable is attributed to the marked elements to indicate their propagation speeds and residence times. In this paper, we specifically investigate the spreading of nitrogen and phosphorus from the riverine discharges of the Oder, Vistula, Neman and Daugava. We demonstrate which regions they are transported to and for how long they remain in the ecosystem. The model results show good agreement with source estimations from observed δ15N values in sediments. The model results suggest that 95% of nitrogen is lost by denitrification in sediments, after an average time of 1.4 years for riverine nitrogen. The residence time of riverine phosphorus is much longer and exceeds our simulated period of 35 years.

  19. Metal pollutants and radionuclides in the Baltic Sea - an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Szefer

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This overview presents in detail the state of knowledge of the abilities of various components of the Baltic Sea environment to accumulate trace elements and radionuclides. Particular components of the Baltic ecosystem (abiotic and biotic are considered as potential monitors of pollutants. The use of seaweeds, e.g. Fucus vesiculosus or Zostera marina is recommended, also molluscs, e.g. Mytilus edulis, for biomonitoring surveys of metal pollutants and radionuclides in the Baltic Sea. However, several requirements need to be met if results are to be reliable. Since metal levels and radionuclide activities in the growing tips of F. vesiculosus reflect exclusively the levels of their dissolved species in the ambient seawater, this alga is very useful for monitoring dissolved species of metal pollutants and radioisotopes in the Baltic ecosystem. In contrast, M. edulis, a filter feeder is an appropriate tool for monitoring trace elements occurring in both chemical forms, i.e. dissolved and suspended species. Therefore, full information on the bioavailability and toxicity of heavy metals (depending on their chemical speciation as pollutants of the Baltic Sea can be obtained if at least two biomonitoring organisms are applied simultaneously, e.g. F. vesiculosus and M. edulis. Moreover, the data matrix can be interpreted more accurately if not only trace element but also macroelement concentrations (Ca, Mg, Na, K in these two representatives of Baltic phyto- and zoobenthos are taken into consideration; this point requires special attention. Two coastal species of fish, i.e. Zoarces viviparus and Perca fluviatilis, are good biomonitors of metallic contaminants, so their use as sentinels is recommended. The budgets of chemical elements and the ecological status of the Baltic Sea are presented. Several "black spots", e.g. large estuaries and seaport towns, heavily polluted by trace elements, are identified in the Baltic Sea and other enclosed seas such the

  20. Kas Baltic Talks on oma missiooni täitnud? / Tiit Meren

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meren, Tiit

    2006-01-01

    21.-24. septembril toimus Tapal Läänemere-äärsete riikide reservohvitseride traditsiooniline suurfoorum Baltic Talks 2006. 1931. aastal Norra ja Rootsi reservohvitseride algatatud Nording Meeting ning Baltic Talks'i algus

  1. Baltic Fibresi tekk katab Inglise kõrgklassi / Liis Kängsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kängsepp, Liis, 1981-

    2005-01-01

    Tekke ja patju valmistav ettevõte OÜ Baltic Fibres tegutseb alles viiendat aastat, kuid on saavutanud edu teiste padjatootjate seas. Vt. samas: Padjatootjate kasumi sõi liitumine ELiga. Lisa: Baltic Fibres areneb tekstiilituru liidrist Wendrest kiiremini

  2. Fifth Baltic Sea pollution load compilation (PLC-5)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuuttila, S.; Svendsen, L. M.; Staaf, H.; Kotilainen, P.; Boutrup, S.; Pyhala, M.; Durkin, M.

    2011-07-01

    This report includes the main results from the Fifth Pollution Load Compilation abbreviated PLC-5. It includes quantified annual waterborne total loads (from rivers, unmonitored and coastal areas as well as direct point and diffuse sources discharging directly to the Baltic Sea) from 1994 to 2008 to provide a basis for evaluating any decreasing (or increasing) trends in the total waterborne inputs to the Baltic Sea. Chapter 1 contains the objectives of PLC and the framework on classification of inputs and sources. Chapter 2 includes a short description of the Baltic Sea catchment area, while the methods for quantification and analysis together with quality assurance topics are briefly introduced in Chapter 3. More detailed information on methodologies is presented in the PLC-5 guidelines (HELCOM 2006). Chapter 4 reports the total inputs to the Baltic Sea of nutrients and selected heavy metals. Furthermore, the results of the quatification of discharges and losses of nitrogen and phosphorus from point and diffuse sources into inland surface waters within the Baltic Sea catchment area (source-oriented approach or gross loads) as well as the total load to the maritime area (load-oriented approarch or net loads) in 2006 are shown. Typically, results are presented by country and by main Baltic Sea sub-region. In Chapter 5, flow normalization is introduced and the results of trend analyses on 1994-2008 time series data on total waterborne loads of nitrogen and phosphorus are given together with a first evaluation of progress in obtaining the provisional reduction targets by country and by main Baltic Sea sub-region. Chapter 6 includes discussion of some of the main conclusions and advice for future PLCs. The annexes contain the flow-normalized annual load data and figures and tables with results from the PLC-5.

  3. Baltijskaja Evropa: ot idei k strategii [From the idea to the strategy of Baltic Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmowski Tadeusz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the historic prerequisites and forms of international cooperation in the Baltic region (“Baltic cooperation”. According to the author, Baltic Europe is being formed as a single administrative, economic, cultural and infrastructural area, which could become a new economic and cultural center of Europe. Special emphasis is given to policies and strategies of the EU in the Baltic Sea region.

  4. Baltic Consortium on Promoting Gender Equality in Marine Research Organisations (Baltic Gender)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kısakürek Ibsen, Başak; Braun, Sarah; Heiskanen, Anna-Stiina; Kutser, Tiit; Stadmark, Johanna; Vaitkevičienė, Viktorija; Waniek, Joanna; Werner, Iris; Matthes, Katja

    2017-04-01

    Marine Science and Technology has been traditionally a male-dominated research field, with a significant lack of women in leadership positions. However, the whole intellectual capacity of men and women alike are needed to create innovative solutions for the sustainable use of marine resources in the face of major global challenges for the development of the marine environment. The EU-funded project, Baltic Gender (GA No. 710363), responds to this need for creating policies and implementing measures at the institutional level with the aim of harvesting the full human capital for the needs of marine research. The main goal of Baltic Gender is to help reduce gender segregation and gender inequalities in Marine Science and Technology. To this end, eight partner institutions from five countries in the Baltic Sea region (Estonia, Finland, Germany, Lithuania and Sweden) came together for the exchange of institutional practices as well as for the transfer of knowledge from institutions/countries leading in gender equality to those following. Baltic Gender will sow the seeds for long-lasting institutional practices by initiating schemes and strategies that promote gender equality in the partner institutions. These include, for instance: the founding of grass-root networks that support the career advancement of women; creating strategies for better reconciliation of work and family life of women and men; the review and improvement of institutional policies and practices with regard to gender balance, fairness and transparency; development of a method protocol for incorporating gender analysis into research projects or programmes of Marine Science and Technology; initiating gender focused training and mentoring in or across all partner institutions. The project will support the implementation of Gender Equality Plans (GEPs), which consist of a set of actions an institution commits to in order to identify any existing gender bias and to implement strategies to advance gender

  5. Detail AR2-PR1 geochronological scale of the Baltic Shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balashov, Yu.A.

    1995-01-01

    The version of the detail scale of the Precambrian Baltic Shield, based on selection of new crust increment through mantel genesis material is presented. The AR 2 -PR 1 -scale of the Baltic Shield is based through U-Pb, Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd-methods for the Cord Peninsula on the Precambrian period of the other Baltic Shield regions

  6. Sustainable manure management in the Baltic Sea Region - results, cases and project recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tybirk, Knud; Luostarinen, S; Hamelin, Lorie

    This magazine contains the major results, conclusions and recommendations of the project Baltic Forum for Innovative Technologies for Sustainable Manure Management (Baltic Manure) which via co-funding from Interreg Baltic Sea Region programme has been a Flagship project in the EU Strategy...

  7. Stable lead (Pb) isotopes and concentrations - A useful independent dating tool for Baltic Sea sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zillén, L.; Lenz, C.; Jilbert, T.

    2012-01-01

    The prehistory of the Baltic Sea has for a long time suffered from imprecise dating, due to the large uncertainties associated with bulk radiocarbon dating of Baltic Seasediments. To constrain the timing of environmental changes in the Baltic Sea it is critical to apply new dating approaches. This

  8. Recipient Capacity of Tvaeren, a Baltic Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnedal, P.O.; Bergstroem, S.O.W.

    1966-07-01

    The research station at Studsvik is situated on the Baltic coast and includes several reactors and laboratories, a waste disposal plant serving both the station and waste producers outside Studsvik. A storage plant for irradiated fuel from power reactors has also been built. A total of 850 people are employed. The waste disposal plant was designed for a personnel of 900 using foreign information to correlate waste amounts to personnel. After a delay production has increased at a rate very close to the one expected. The composition of the waste is varied and difficult to predict. Minor amounts of fission products, active corrosion products, and fissile materials have been detected. Most of the waste activity is released to a strait leading into the Bay. Large volumes of water with very low specific activity are released immediately off the coast. Hydrological and dispersion data for the bay are quoted from a paper presented at the symposium mentioned below. The Baltic has brackish water. Both the chemistry and the biology are quite different from those of marine or fresh water recipients. A short description is given of the fauna and flora and important food webs are discussed. The different ways in which man is exposed to radioactivity in waste releases are dependent upon biological accumulation in living organisms and adsorption to dead materials. Fish consumption is the type of exposure which is likely to be the most critical, though it is possible that the exposure from sunbathing and fishing-gear handling could reach similar significance if conservative calculations are used. Accumulation factors from water to fish are given for iron, cobalt,and zinc . Permissible releases have been calculated using relevant accumulation factors. Fission products and corrosion products seem to be of similar significance with regard to possible human exposure. Permission to release liquid waste is granted by water courts in Sweden and operations inspected by special authorities

  9. Recipient Capacity of Tvaeren, a Baltic Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnedal, P O; Bergstroem, S O.W.

    1966-07-15

    The research station at Studsvik is situated on the Baltic coast and includes several reactors and laboratories, a waste disposal plant serving both the station and waste producers outside Studsvik. A storage plant for irradiated fuel from power reactors has also been built. A total of 850 people are employed. The waste disposal plant was designed for a personnel of 900 using foreign information to correlate waste amounts to personnel. After a delay production has increased at a rate very close to the one expected. The composition of the waste is varied and difficult to predict. Minor amounts of fission products, active corrosion products, and fissile materials have been detected. Most of the waste activity is released to a strait leading into the Bay. Large volumes of water with very low specific activity are released immediately off the coast. Hydrological and dispersion data for the bay are quoted from a paper presented at the symposium mentioned below. The Baltic has brackish water. Both the chemistry and the biology are quite different from those of marine or fresh water recipients. A short description is given of the fauna and flora and important food webs are discussed. The different ways in which man is exposed to radioactivity in waste releases are dependent upon biological accumulation in living organisms and adsorption to dead materials. Fish consumption is the type of exposure which is likely to be the most critical, though it is possible that the exposure from sunbathing and fishing-gear handling could reach similar significance if conservative calculations are used. Accumulation factors from water to fish are given for iron, cobalt,and zinc . Permissible releases have been calculated using relevant accumulation factors. Fission products and corrosion products seem to be of similar significance with regard to possible human exposure. Permission to release liquid waste is granted by water courts in Sweden and operations inspected by special authorities

  10. BALTIC STATES IN THE EUROZONE: THE ACCESSION PROCESS AND RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Wołkonowski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the process of the Baltic states’ accession to the eurozone and examines the consequences of their adoption of the euro currency. Although Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania joined the eurozone in different years, they share a number of common features in terms of both their accession process and presence in the euro area. The article consists of three parts – the first surveys the Baltic states’ conformity with the convergence criteria and the second examines the effects that can be observed in the economies of the three Baltic countries after accession. The third part contains a comparative analysis of actual inflation versus perceived inflation index seen over the three years spanning the periods before, during and after the adoption of the euro. For this purpose, calculations of simplified perceived inflation indices in the Baltic States were compiled and compared against actual inflation. The differences across the Baltic states between the perceived inflation index and real inflation were similar to those in Austria and Germany during these countries’ accession to the euro zone.

  11. Countries of the Baltic Region in the Global Culinary Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhmanov A. B.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation is creating a global culinary space where culinary traditions of different countries interact and compete. The author sets out to explore characteristic features of the culinary space of nine Baltic States as part of the global culinary space. The author uses empirical data on the number of restaurants serving different national cuisines in the main cities of the region. The Baltic culinary space incorporates the world’s leading cuisines (Italian, Japanese, Chinese, etc. as well as the local cuisines of the BSR countries. The world’s leading cuisines prove to be more influential in the region than the local ones. Some countries of the Baltic Sea region (Russia, Poland, Sweden, Latvia, and Denmark have culinary sovereignty, since their residents prefer national cuisines. In some other countries of the region (Finland, Estonia, and Lithuania, the public favours the world’s leading cuisines — Italian, Japanese and American — over the local ones. The non-capital Baltic cities of Poland and Germany, as well as St. Petersburg, display a greater sense of culinary patriotism than Warsaw, Berlin, and Moscow respectively. This article attempts to explore the features of the Baltic culinary space. The author considers the environmental and socio- historical factors key determinants of the countries’ cuisines.

  12. Coastal Dunes of the Baltic Sea Shores: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łabuz Tomasz Arkadiusz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article summarises results of studies conducted along the Baltic Sea sandy coasts by scientists involved in coastal dune research, and presents an attempt to describe the types and distribution of dune coasts. The Baltic Sea coasts feature lower and higher foredunes. The lowland behind the coastal dune belt is covered by wandering or stabilised inland dunes – transgressive forms, mainly parabolic or barchans. The source of sediment for dune development includes fluvioglacial sands from eroded coasts, river-discharged sand, and older eroded dunes. Due to the ongoing erosion and coastal retreat, many dunes have been eroded, and some are withdrawing onto the adjacent land. There are visible differences between the south-eastern, western, and northern parts of the Baltic Sea coast with respect to dune development. The entire southern and eastern coast abounds in sand, so the coastal dunes are large, formerly or currently wandering formations. The only shifting dunes are found at the Polish and the Russian–Lithuanian coasts on the Łebsko Lake Sandbar as well as on the Vistula and Curonian Spits. The very diverse shoreline of the south-western coast experiences a scarcity of larger sandy formations. Substantial parts of the Baltic Sea sandy coasts have been eroded or transformed by humans. The northern part of the Baltic Sea coast features mainly narrow and low sandy coasts (e.g. in Estonia. Further north, sandy dunes are virtually absent.

  13. NATO Policies in the Baltics: Objectives and Priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gribanova G. I.

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The authors employ geopolitical analysis to identify the core characteristics of NATO’s current policy towards the Baltic Sea region. After the demise of the Soviet Union, the region was considered as one of the safest in terms of military security. However, in the aftermath of the Ukraine crisis, the region has witnessed a growing tension in relations between NATO and the Russian Federation. A comparative analysis of NATO’s official documents on the Baltics shows that the chief pretext for increased military presence in the region is the alleged need to defend the Baltic states from the Russian threat. Special attention is paid to the attempts of Western military strategists to encourage the neutral Nordic states — Sweden and Finland — to accede to NATO. This would lead to the organisation’s northern enlargement. The current situation suggests that to ease tension in the Baltic Sea region Russia has not only to respond adequately to emerging military threats but also to launch an awareness campaign to explain its position and dispel the myth about Russia preparing to start a hybrid war against the Baltic States.

  14. Monitoring of radionuclides in the Baltic Sea in 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxen, R.; Ikaeheimonen, T.K.; Ilus, E.

    1989-12-01

    Monitoring of radioactive substances in the Baltic Sea was continued within the framework of the Finnish national monitoring programme. Samples of sea water, bottom sediment and fish were collected for radionuclide analyses. All samples were analysed for gamma-emitting radionuclides and partly also for 90 Sr and transuranic elements. The activity concentrations of 137 Cs were about 120 Bq/m 3 in the surface water of the Bothnian Bay, 220-320 Bq/m 3 in the Bothnian Sea, 120-230 Bq/m 3 in the Gulf of Finland and 150-170 Bq/m 3 in the Baltic Proper. In the open Gulf of Finland and Bothnian Sea the 137 Cs concentrations of surface water were about 20 and 55 % of the maximum values in 1986. The total amounts of 137 Cs in bottom sediments ranged from 1700 to 16000 Bq/m 2 . In the Gulf of Bothnia and Gulf of Finland the total amounts of 137 Cs were about 5-6 times higher in 1988 than before the Chernobyl accident and 3 times higher in the northern Baltic Proper. The 137 Cs concentrations in Baltic herring ranged from 20 to 37 Bq/kg fresh weight and in pike from 38 to 160 Bq/kg fresh weight, the maximum values being in samples supplied from the Vaasa archipelago. The internal radiation dose to Finnish people caused by the consumption of Baltic Sea fish in 1988 was about 0.009mSv. (orig.)

  15. Paleozoic-involving thrust array in the central Sierras Interiores (South Pyrenean Zone, Central Pyrenees): regional implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, L.; Cuevas, J.; Tubía, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    This work deals with the structural evolution of the Sierras Interiores between the Tena and Aragon valleys. The Sierras Interiores is a WNW-trending mountain range that bounds the South Pyrenean Zone to the north and that is characterized by a thrust-fold system with a strong lithological control that places preferably decollements in Triassic evaporites. In the studied area of the Sierras Interiores Cenomanian limestones cover discordantly the Paleozoic rocks of the Axial Zone because there is a stratigraphic lacuna developed from Triassic to Late Cretaceous times. A simple lithostratigraphy of the study area is made up of Late Cenomanian to Early Campanian limestones with grey colour and massive aspect in landscape (170 m, Lower calcareous section), Campanian to Maastrichtian brown coloured sandstones (400-600 m, Marboré sandstones) and, finally, Paleocene light-coloured massive limestones (130-230 m), that often generate the higher topographic levels of the Sierras Interiores due to their greater resistance to erosion. Above the sedimentary sequence of the Sierras Interiores, the Jaca Basin flysch succession crops out discordantly. Based on a detailed mapping of the studied area of the Sierras Interiores, together with well and structural data of the Jaca Basin (Lanaja, 1987; Rodríguez and Cuevas, 2008) we have constructed a 12 km long NS cross section, approximately parallel to the movement direction deduced for this region (Rodríguez et al., 2011). The main structure is a thrust array made up of at least four Paleozoic-involving thrusts (the deeper thrust system) of similar thickness in a probably piggyback sequence, some of which are blind thrusts that generate fold-propagation-folds in upper levels. The higher thrust of the thrust array crops out duplicating the lower calcareous section all over the Sierras Interiores. The emplacement of the deeper thrust system generated the tightness of previous structures: south directed piggyback duplexes (the upper

  16. Genetic diversity of a Daugava basin brown trout (Salmo trutta brood stock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetics play an increasingly important role in the conservation of threatened fish populations. We have examined twelve microsatellite markers to determine the genetic diversity of a brood stock of brown trout from the Latvian Daugava river basin, used in a local supportive breeding program and compared diversity values to other Baltic populations. Allelic data was further inspected for indications of increased inbreeding. Additionally, we have analyzed the mitochondrial control region to classify the population within a broader phylogenetic framework. We found that the genetic diversity was comparatively low, but there was no strong evidence of high inbreeding. A newly detected mitochondrial haplotype indicates unnoticed genetic diversity of “Atlantic lineage” brown trout in the Daugava basin region. Our study provides first genetic details on resident brown trout from the Baltic Daugava river basin to improve the regional conservation management of this valuable genetic resource and contributes phylogeographically useful information.

  17. Blueschist metamorphism and its tectonic implication of Late Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic metabasites in the mélange zones, central Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinrui; Wei, Chunjing; Chu, Hang

    2015-01-01

    Blueschists in central Inner Mongolia are distributed as layers and blocks in mélanges including the southern zone in Ondor Sum area and the northern zone in Manghete and Naomuhunni areas. They have been attributed to the subduction of Early Paleozoic oceanic crust. Blueschists from Ondor Sum and Naomuhunni are characterized by occurrence of sodic amphibole coexisting with epidote, albite, chlorite, calcic amphibole (in Ondor Sum) and muscovite (in Naomuhunni). Blueschists in Manghete contain porphyroblastic albite with inclusions of garnet and epidote in a matrix dominated by calcic-sodic amphibole, epidote, chlorite, albite and muscovite. Phase equilibria modeling for three blueschist samples using pseudosection suggest that the AlM2 contents in sodic amphibole can be used as a good barometer in the limited assemblage involving sodic amphibole + actinolite + epidote + chlorite + albite + quartz under pressures 7-10 kbar. In the sodic amphibole-bearing assemblages, the NaM4 contents in sodic amphibole mainly decrease as temperature rises, being a potential thermometry. The calculated pseudosections constrain the P-T conditions of blueschists to be 3.2-4.2 kbar/355-415 °C in Ondor Sum, 8.2-9.0 kbar/455 °C-495 °C in Manghete and 6.6-8.1 kbar/420-470 °C in Naomuhunni. These P-T estimates indicate a rather high geothermal gradient of 18-25 °C/km for the blueschist metamorphism, being of intermediate P/T facies series. Available zircon U-Pb age data suggests that the protoliths of blueschists were formed later than Late Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic and metamorphosed soon afterwards. An alternative interpretation for the tectonic implication of blueschists in central Inner Mongolia is that they may be a new type attributed to closure of limited ocean basins and do not represent a tectonic regime occurred in conventional subduction setting.

  18. Late Paleozoic to Jurassic chronostratigraphy of coastal southern Peru: Temporal evolution of sedimentation along an active margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boekhout, F.; Sempere, T.; Spikings, R.; Schaltegger, U.

    2013-11-01

    We present an integrated geochronological and sedimentological study that significantly revises the basin and magmatic history associated with lithospheric thinning in southern coastal Peru (15-18°S) since the onset of subduction at ˜530 Ma. Until now, estimating the age of the sedimentary and volcanic rocks has heavily relied on paleontologic determinations. Our new geochronological data, combined with numerous field observations, provide the first robust constraints on their chronostratigraphy, which is discussed in the light of biostratigraphical attributions. A detailed review of the existing local units simplifies the current stratigraphic nomenclature and clarifies its absolute chronology using zircon U-Pb ages. We observe that the Late Paleozoic to Jurassic stratigraphy of coastal southern Peru consists of two first-order units, namely (1) the Yamayo Group, a sedimentary succession of variable (0-2 km) thickness, with apparently no nearby volcanic lateral equivalent, and (2) the overlying Yura Group, consisting of a lower, 1-6 km-thick volcanic and volcaniclastic unit, the Chocolate Formation, and an upper, 1-2 km-thick sedimentary succession that are in markedly diachronous contact across the coeval arc and back-arc. We date the local base of the Chocolate Formation, and thus of the Yura Group, to 216 Ma, and show that the underlying Yamayo Group spans a >110 Myr-long time interval, from at least the Late Visean to the Late Triassic, and is apparently devoid of significant internal discontinuities. The age of the top of the Chocolate Formation, i.e. of the volcanic arc pile, varies from ˜194 Ma to less than ˜135 Ma across the study area. We suggest that this simplified and updated stratigraphic framework can be reliably used as a reference for future studies.

  19. Sedimentology and stratigraphy of Neoproterozoic-lower Paleozoic carbonate-siliciclastic succession of the southwesternmost Amazon Craton, state of Rondônia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon Willy Lopes Afonso

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Facies and stratigraphic analysis were carried out in Neoproterozoic-Lower Paleozoic carbonate-siliciclastic deposits of Cacoal and Pimenta Bueno formations exposed on basement rocks and into the Pimenta Bueno Graben, northwestern portion of Parecis Basin, southwesternmost Amazon Craton. The redescription and redefinion of this succession confirmed the previous interpretation for the Cacoal Formation as a Marinoan (~ 635 Ma cap carbonate. The Cacoal Formation is subdivided here in two units separate by sharp contact found exclusively overlying Mesoproterozoic crystalline basement rocks: 1 a homonymous formation characterized by diamictites, sandstones and siltstones with dropstones interpreted as glacio-marine deposits; and 2 the Espigão d’Oeste Formation that consists of dolostone, dolomitic stromatolites, dolostone-siltstone rhythmite and siltstone interpreted as shallow to moderately deep platform deposits. The Ordovician to Silurian Pimenta Bueno Formation is a filling of Pimenta Bueno graben and overlies locally the Meso and Neoproterozoic rocks. This unit consists in diamictites, sandstones, siltstones and pelites interpreted as glacial-marine and tide- to storm-influenced platform deposits, recording a glacio-eustatic regressive-transgressive event. This new stratigraphic proposal modify the current stratigraphy for the Parecis Basin and suggest, at least, two levels of glaciation exposed in the sothwesternmost Amazon Craton related to the Marinoan and Late Ordovician-Early Silurian events.

  20. The earthquakes of the Baltic shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slunga, R.

    1990-06-01

    More than 200 earthquakes in the Baltic Shield area in the size range ML 0.6-4.5 have been studied by dense regional seismic networks. The analysis includes focal depths, dynamic source parameters, and fault plane solutions. In southern Sweden a long part of the Protogene zone marks a change in the seismic activity. The focal depths indicate three crustal layers: Upper crust (0-18 km in southern Sweden, 0-13 km in northern Sweden), middle crust down to 35 km, and the quiet lower crust. The fault plane solutions show that strike-slip is dominating. Along the Tornquist line significant normal faulting occurs. The stresses released by the earthquakes show a remarkable consistency with a regional principle compression N60W. This indicates that plate-tectonic processes are more important than the land uplift. The spatial distribution is consistent with a model where the earthquakes are breakdowns of asperities on normally stably sliding faults. The aseismic sliding is estimated to be 2000 times more extensive than the seismic sliding. Southern Sweden is estimated to deform horizontally at a rate of 1 mm/year or more. (orig.)

  1. Innovative economy in the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezhevich Nikolay

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Innovative activity is carried out at three levels — those of the state, region and a company or a university. This article considers the level of development of knowledge-based economy in Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland at each of the three levels, as well as descripes the spatial differentiation of innovative activity within the Baltic region. The analysis is done on the basis of national and international research, as well as statistical data on the intensity of research and development, structure of research expenditure, human capital in the field of advanced technologies, and the methods of institutional support for innovative activity. The authors characterise the role of business, university, and authorities — which constitute the «triple helix» — in national innovative systems. The article also analyses such important factors as the intensity of research and development, the share of employees in the field of advanced technologies, and the methods of public support. Examples of private-public infrastructure for the implementation of innovative projects are offered.

  2. Development of interdisciplinary model of microplastics transport and transformation in the Baltic sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagaev, Andrei; Chubarenko, Irina; Mizyuk, Artem; Zobkov, Mikhail; Esiukova, Elena; Isachenko, Igor; Stepanova, Natalya

    2016-04-01

    and lifecycle of plastic pollution in the enclosed basins such as the Baltic Sea. The model consists of the TRACMASS lagrangian numerical module written in FORTRAN programming language, while the TRACPY shell (written in Python) provides input-output interface (Döös et al., 2013). The data on the Baltic Sea circulation was provided by Copernicus project (marine.copernicus.eu) based on HIROMB model for 1998-2015. The MARBLE project is supported by Russian Science Foundation grant #15-17-10020. References: Chubarenko I., Bagaiev A., Zobkov M., Esiukova E. On some physical and dynamical properties of microplastic particles in marine environment. Submitted to Marine Pollution Bulletin. Cole, M., Lindeque, P., Halsband, C., & Galloway, T. S. (2011). Microplastics as contaminants in the marine environment: A review. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 62, 2588-2597. Döös, K., Kjellsson, J., & Jönsson, B. (2013). TRACMASS - A Lagrangian Trajectory Model. In Preventive Methods for Coastal Protection (pp. 225-249). Springer International Publishing.

  3. Structural Characteristics of Paleozoic and Geological Significance of Oil and Gas of Dongpu Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨世刚

    2003-01-01

    The Dongpu depression has experienced a complicated evolution of structure since Mesozoic. The Paleozoic carbonate rock has been strongly reformed and the buried hills with different characteristics of structure are developed in the depression. There exist lots of groups of fault structures with strikes of NNE(or NE),NW, near NS and EW etc., of which the faults with strikes of NNE and NW play an important controlling role on present-day structural framework of the depression. The faults with near NS-striking and EW-striking deeply affect the establishment of structural framework of basement of the depression. Although most of the fractures are filled by calcite and other minerals, under the action of later structural stress, the earlier fractures could change their features into tensional ones. Therefore, much attention should be paid to the exploration and exploitation of Paleozoic oil and gas in Dongpu depression.

  4. Radioactivity in the Baltic Sea, 1999-2006 HELCOM thematic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, J.; Ikaeheimonen, T.K.; Ilus, E.; Kanisch, G.; Luning, M.; Mattila, J.; Nielsen, S.P.; Osvath, I.; Outola, I.

    2009-01-01

    The report describes work carried out by HELCOM's (Helsinki Commission, Baltic Marine Environment Commission) project on the Monitoring of Radioactive Substances in the Baltic Sea (MORS-PRO) during the period 1999-2006. The main topics include: sources of man-made radioactivity in the Baltic Sea; levels of man-made radionuclides in seawater, sediments and biota; work on modelling and evaluations of the riks to man caused by radioactivity in the Baltic Sea; comparison of man-made radionuclides in the Baltic Sea with levels in other sea regions. The concequent recommendations and work on data quality are presented in the Appendix

  5. Monitoring of the radioactive materials in the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaworowski, Z.; Baranski, A.; Grzybowska, D.; Pawlak, A.; Pietruszewski, A.; Suplinska, M.; Wardaszko, T.; Tomczak, J.; Skiba, D.

    1986-01-01

    Between 1975 and 1984 the measurements of concentrations of Sr-90, Cs-137, Pu-239, 240, H-3, K-40, Ra-226, Ta-232, Ti, Mn, Fe, Zn, Rb, Pb, Cd and Sr have been determined in various components of the Baltic Sea. The radionuclides were determined by radiochemical and gamma spectroscopic methods, and the stable nuclides by differential pulse anodic stripping voltametry and by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. The concentrations of Cs-137 in the Baltic seawater was up to 7 times lower than in the Northern sea but 20 times higher than in the water from the Polish rivers. The concentrations of Cs-137 were related to the salinity. In sediments Sr-90 levels were 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than those of other nuclides. The radioactivity of fish was found 1 order of magnitude higher in the Baltic than in Polish lakes and rivers. (author)

  6. The results of artificial radionuclides monitoring in the Baltic sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astrauskiene, N.; Lukinskiene, M; Zemaitiene, G.

    1994-01-01

    Long-term radionuclides volume activity (v.a.) monitoring (1976-1990) data showed that measurement results obtained in steady observation station give reliable information of the coastal area of the Baltic sea radioactive equilibrium between atmosphere and surface water was observed in the coastal zone. Chernobyl Power Plant accident influenced upon the Baltic sea coastal water by radionuclides 137 Cs and 144 Ce. Radionuclide 90 Sr volume activity was practically unchangerable. The mechanism of radionuclides fallout from atmosphere are various. lt can be illustrated by 137 Cs and 144 Ce a.v. structure field variations in open sea and coastal zone near Juodkrante. The Baltic sea inhomogeneous contamination by radionuclide 137 Cs in 1988-1990 leads to equalization of 137 Cs v.a. in the surface waters and it causes v.a. increase in coastal waters. (author)

  7. The transnational territorial transport system of the Baltic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gumenyuk Ivan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we focus on the structure and territorial borders of the Baltic Sea region, and examine the key structural elements of the transnational territorial transport system. In this respect, we clarify some terms used in transport geography. For the first time the transport system gets territorially localized, which allows for a broad range of new studies of transnational transportation in the Baltic Sea area. We also identify the main principles of development and operation of international territorial transport systems and present them taking the Baltic Sea region as an example. Our findings, we hope, will have a great practical application for researchers of transport geography, especially those studying international logistics.

  8. Factors affecting metal and radionuclide pollution in the Baltic sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lodenius

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available External pollution load in the Baltic Sea originates from urban, agricultural and industrial sources. Emissions of heavy metals have decreased substantially in the catchment area but the temporal trends are not always significant and differ with sample, area and pollutant. The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Many factors affect the future development of pollutant concentrations including anthropogenic emissions, political decisions and changes in salinity, temperature and water currents, in eutrophication and oxygen status, in fisheries and in atmospheric deposition of pollutants. Large scale changes like eutrophication and climate change affect ecosystems in many ways, directly and indirectly, causing biological and abiotic effects. These factors are interrelated and difficult to predict. Measures aiming to enhance the ecological status of the Baltic Sea will certainly give positive results but this will take at least several decades.

  9. Oral Region Homologies in Paleozoic Crinoids and Other Plesiomorphic Pentaradial Echinoderms

    OpenAIRE

    Kammer, Thomas W.; Sumrall, Colin D.; Zamora, Samuel; Ausich, William I.; Deline, Bradley

    2013-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships between major groups of plesiomorphic pentaradial echinoderms, the Paleozoic crinoids, blastozoans, and edrioasteroids, are poorly understood because of a lack of widely recognized homologies. Here, we present newly recognized oral region homologies, based on the Universal Elemental Homology model for skeletal plates, in a wide range of fossil taxa. The oral region of echinoderms is mainly composed of the axial, or ambulacral, skeleton, which apparently evolved ...

  10. The fossil record, function, and possible origins of shell color patterns in Paleozoic marine invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobluk, D.R. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)); Mapes, R.H. (Ohio Univ., Athens (USA))

    1989-02-01

    Fossil invertebrate shells and carapaces displaying preserved original color patterns are among the rarest fossils. The fossil record of color patterns extends into the Middle Cambrian where the trilobite Anomocare displays a fan-like array of stripes on the pygidium. About 180 Paleozic genera are known with patterns, including trilobites, cephalopods, gastropods, brachiopods, bivalves, crinoids, and crustaceans. Based upon an analysis of these taxa, it appears that patterns and pigments in middle and late Paleozoic invertebrates may have served several functions such as warning displays, light screening, camouflage, or waste disposal. However, the presence of color patterns in fossil invertebrates in the early Paleozoic may have developed prior to the evolution of vision sufficiently sophisticated to see them. This suggests that camouflage and warning displays were not the original functions of color patterns, and that in the earliest Paleozoic they may not have been functional. The authors propose a hypothesis that involves three developmental phases in the evolution of invertebrate color patterns: (1) the incorporation of metabolic by-products, perhaps some pigmented and some not pigmented, into shells and carapaces as a means of disposal of dietary or metabolic wastes, (2) use of these pigments and patterns as an environmental adaptation, such as light screening, and (3) display during and following the evolution of vision in predators sufficiently sophisticated to see the patterns.

  11. Understanding the ecocline at shallow coasts of the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenartz, B.; Jurasinski, G.; Voss, M.; Janssen, M.

    2017-12-01

    We report on results of the Research Training Group Baltic TRANSCOAST. The overall aim of Baltic TRANSCOAST is to enhance our knowledge of the shallow coast ecocline. How is the marine coastal zone influenced by terrestrial processes? How is the terrestrial coastal zone influenced by marine processes? These questions lead our research within the three research fields covering hydro-dynamic, (bio)geochemical and biological processes. Regarding the hydro-dynamics we assess how the peatland's water balance, the current dynamics and hydraulic properties of the marine sediments and the subsoil influence sea water intrusions into the peatland and/or submarine groundwater discharge into the Baltic Sea. With respect to (bio)geochemical processes we address how (bio)geochemical transformation processes both in the marine and the terrestrial part of the coast are influenced by water and matter inputs from the respective other coastal domain. Finally, reagrding the biological processes, we are interested in revealing how the primary production and the composition of the micro- and macro-phytobenthos in the shallow Baltic Sea influence matter transformation processes. The integrative approach of Baltic TRANSCOAST allows us to get to grips with questions that are otherwise hard to tackle. For instance, we address how the pore water constituents drive microbial processes and the deposition of nutrients and and how they are impacted by sediment resuspension and translocation. We investigate how the hydrology of the peat layers interferes with the generation of trace gases and investigate the role of the nearby Warnow river and its plume and how this changes under the impact of wind direction and wind strength. For the latter we rely on data and models. Further, as a common basis for all topics addressed in Baltic TRANSCOAST we established the geology of the study area and learned that regional variability may play a major role in shaping the processes under study.

  12. The Baltic Sea natural long-term variability of salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimanke, Semjon; Markus Meier, H. E.

    2015-04-01

    The Baltic Sea is one of the largest brackish sea areas of the world. The sensitive state of the Baltic Sea is sustained by a fresh-water surplus by river discharge and precipitation on one hand as well as inflows of highly saline and oxygen-rich water masses from the North Sea on the other. Major inflows which are crucial for the renewal of the deep water occur very intermittent with a mean frequency of approximately one per year. Stagnation periods (periods without major inflows) lead for instance to a reduction of oxygen concentration in the deep Baltic Sea spreading hypoxic conditions. Depending on the amount of salt water inflow and fresh-water supply the deep water salinity of the Baltic Sea varies between 11 to 14 PSU on the decadal scale. The goal of this study is to understand the contribution of different driving factors for the decadal to multi-decadal variability of salinity in the Baltic Sea. Continuous measurement series of salinity exist from the 1950 but are not sufficiently long for the investigation of long-term fluctuations. Therefore, a climate simulation of more than 800 years has been carried out with the Rossby Center Ocean model (RCO). RCO is a biogeochemical regional climate model which covers the entire Baltic Sea. It is driven with atmospheric data dynamical downscaled from a GCM mimicking natural climate variability. The analysis focus on the role of variations in river discharge and precipitation, changes in wind speed and direction, fluctuations in temperature and shifts in large scale pressure patterns (e.g. NAO). Hereby, the length of the simulation will allow to identify mechanisms working on decadal to multi-decadal time scales. Moreover, it will be discussed how likely long stagnation periods are under natural climate variability and if the observed exceptional long stagnation period between 1983-1993 might be related to beginning climate change.

  13. Future conditions for integration of the Baltic Electricity Supply System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The economies of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania developed in close association with the north-west region of the former Soviet Union. This is especially true for energy supply systems and electricity generation and transmission; the Baltic States depend on Russia for much of their primary energy needs, and export power to Russia and Belarus. In restructuring their electricity industries, the Baltic States hope to establish closer relationships and trade with Western Europe. The initial focus has been on changes to the legislative framework, industry restructuring and the establishment of new regulatory institutions. Vertically integrated utilities are in the process of being broken up into a number of separate generation, transmission and distribution companies. This restructuring is a prelude to privatisation. The states aim to establish a common power market among themselves, and hope to integrate this market with neighbouring (Nordic and European) markets. Despite the target set by the Baltic authorities of a common market by 2001, there is little clarity, as yet, on the framework and guidelines for the structure and functioning of the market. This process is supported by other players in the region, and the EU has recently prioritised closer co-operation and harmonisation of power networks in the Baltic Sea region. The Swedish National Energy Administration has identified cooperation on energy and environmental issues in the Baltic Sea region as one of its priorities. Consequently, the Administration commissioned ECON to analyse the conditions for closer linkages between the Baltic and Nordic electricity systems. This report presents the findings of this analysis

  14. Future conditions for integration of the Baltic Electricity Supply System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The economies of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania developed in close association with the north-west region of the former Soviet Union. This is especially true for energy supply systems and electricity generation and transmission; the Baltic States depend on Russia for much of their primary energy needs, and export power to Russia and Belarus. In restructuring their electricity industries, the Baltic States hope to establish closer relationships and trade with Western Europe. The initial focus has been on changes to the legislative framework, industry restructuring and the establishment of new regulatory institutions. Vertically integrated utilities are in the process of being broken up into a number of separate generation, transmission and distribution companies. This restructuring is a prelude to privatisation. The states aim to establish a common power market among themselves, and hope to integrate this market with neighbouring (Nordic and European) markets. Despite the target set by the Baltic authorities of a common market by 2001, there is little clarity, as yet, on the framework and guidelines for the structure and functioning of the market. This process is supported by other players in the region, and the EU has recently prioritised closer co-operation and harmonisation of power networks in the Baltic Sea region. The Swedish National Energy Administration has identified cooperation on energy and environmental issues in the Baltic Sea region as one of its priorities. Consequently, the Administration commissioned ECON to analyse the conditions for closer linkages between the Baltic and Nordic electricity systems. This report presents the findings of this analysis.

  15. Fish, fishing, and pollutant reduction in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Almesjö, L.; Hansson, S.

    2004-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is heavily polluted yet supports major Commercial fisheries for cod (Gadus morhua), herring (Clupea harengus), and sprat (Sprattus sprattus). Emissions of persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDT, were high during the 1960s and 1970s, and conc......The Baltic Sea is heavily polluted yet supports major Commercial fisheries for cod (Gadus morhua), herring (Clupea harengus), and sprat (Sprattus sprattus). Emissions of persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDT, were high during the 1960s and 1970s...

  16. Baltic Nuclear workshop. Final report[Crisis communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlberg, L.G

    2001-05-01

    Proceedings of the NKS/BOK-1.6 workshop on crisis communication 'Baltic Nuclear', held in Stockholm March 19 -20, 2001, with participants from the nuclear power plants and nuclear authorities in the Baltic Sea region. The main content of the workshop was founded on the principle of 'learning by doing'. The participants were therefore practically trained in how to handle a crisis from an information and communication point of view. Added to that there were three different lectures. (au)

  17. Diatom stratigraphy and long-term dissolved silica concentrations in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olli, Kalle; Clarke, Annemarie; Danielsson, Åsa; Aigars, Juris; Conley, Daniel J.; Tamminen, Timo

    2008-10-01

    In many parts of the world coastal waters with anthropogenic eutrophication have experienced a gradual depletion of dissolved silica (DSi) stocks. This could put pressure on spring bloom diatom populations, e.g. by limiting the intensity of blooms or by causing shifts in species composition. In addition, eutrophication driven enhanced diatom growth is responsible for the redistribution of DSi from the water phase to the sediments, and changes in the growth conditions may be reflected in the sediment diatom stratigraphy. To test for changes in diatom communities we have analyzed four sediment cores from the Baltic Sea covering approximately the last 100 years. The sediment cores originate from the western Gulf of Finland, the Kattegat, the Baltic Proper and the Gulf of Riga. Three out of the four cores reveal only minor changes in composition of diatom assemblages, while the Gulf of Riga core contains major changes, occurring after the second World War. This area is set apart from the other Baltic Sea basins by a high frequency of low after spring bloom DSi concentrations (< 2 µmol L - 1 ) during a relatively well defined time period from 1991-1998. In 1991 to 1993 a rapid decline of DSi spring concentrations and winter stocks (down to 5 µmol L - 1 ) in the Gulf was preceded by exceptionally intense diatom spring blooms dominated by the heavily silicified species Thalassiosira baltica (1991-1992; up to 5.5 mg ww L - 1 ). T. baltica has been the principal spring bloom diatom in the Gulf of Riga since records began in 1975. DSi consumption and biomass yield experiments with cultured T. baltica suggest that intense blooms can potentially exhaust the DSi stock of the water column and exceed the annual Si dissolution in the Gulf of Riga. The phytoplankton time series reveals another exceptional T. baltica bloom period in 1981-1983 (up to 8 mg L - 1 ), which, however, took place before the regular DSi measurements. These periods may be reflected in the conspicuous

  18. Geophysical evidence of pre-sag rifting and post-rifting fault reactivation in the Parnaíba basin, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    de Castro, David Lopes; Bezerra, Francisco Hilário; Fuck, Reinhardt Adolfo; Vidotti, Roberta Mary

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the rifting mechanism that preceded the prolonged subsidence of the Paleozoic Parnaíba basin in Brazil and shed light on the tectonic evolution of this large cratonic basin in the South American platform. From the analysis of aeromagnetic, aerogravity, seismic reflection and borehole data, we concluded the following: (1) large pseudo-gravity and gravity lows mimic graben structures but are associated with linear supracrustal strips in the basement. (2...

  19. Collision of the Tacheng block with the Mayile-Barleik-Tangbale accretionary complex in Western Junggar, NW China: Implication for Early-Middle Paleozoic architecture of the western Altaids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji'en; Xiao, Wenjiao; Luo, Jun; Chen, Yichao; Windley, Brian F.; Song, Dongfang; Han, Chunming; Safonova, Inna

    2018-06-01

    OIB/E-MORB to N-MORB lava geochemistry away from the Tacheng block. Comparisons with published data suggest that these positive isotopic values, stratigraphic, structural and geochemical relationships can be best understood as an analogue of the relationships between the Ontong Java oceanic plateau and the Pacific oceanic crust. Therefore we propose that the basement of the Tacheng block was an Early Paleozoic oceanic plateau. The southern part of the Tacheng block was an accretionary complex and the northern part was an oceanic basin in the Early Paleozoic, the configuration of which is similar to that of the present Ontong Java oceanic plateau situated on the Pacific oceanic crust, and its accretion into the Solomon accretionary complex. The presence of Ordovician SSZ-type ophiolites, early Paleozoic blueschist and Silurian SSZ-type intrusions in the BMTC, and Early-Middle Paleozoic continental arc-related intrusive rocks in the northern margin of the CBY provide further corroboration of a former subduction zone between the southern West Junggar and the northern margin of the CBY. Furthermore, consideration of the fact that the Kokchetav-North Tianshan range was collaged to the southern margin of the CBY in the Ordovician-Devonian indicates that both ranges were amalgamated synchronously with the CBY constructing the Early-Middle Paleozoic architecture of western Altaids.

  20. Numerical modelling of the buoyant marine microplastics in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagaev, Andrei; Mizyuk, Artem; Chubarenko, Irina; Khatmullilna, Liliya

    2017-04-01

    Microplastics is a burning issue in the marine pollution science. Its sources, ways of propagation and final destiny pose a lot of questions to the modern oceanographers. Hence, a numerical model is an optimal tool for reconstruction of microplastics pathways and fate. Within the MARBLE project (lamp.ocean.ru), a model of Lagrangian particles transport was developed. It was tested coupled with oceanographic transport fields from the operational oceanography product of Copernicus Marine Monitoring Environment Service. Our model deals with two major types of microplastics such as microfibres and buoyant spheroidal particles. We are currently working to increase the grid resolution by means of the NEMO regional configuration for the south-eastern Baltic Sea. Several expeditions were organised to the three regions of the Baltic Sea (the Gotland, the Bornholm, and the Gdansk basins). Water samples from the surface and different water layers were collected, processed, and analysed by our team. A set of laboratory experiments was specifically designed to establish the settling velocity of particles of various shapes and densities. The analysis in question provided us with the understanding necessary for the model to reproduce the large-scale dynamics of microfibres. In the simulation, particles were spreading from the shore to the deep sea, slowly sinking to the bottom, while decreasing in quantity due to conditional sedimentation. Our model is expected to map out the microplastics life cycle and to account for its distribution patterns under the impact of wind and currents. For this purpose, we have already included the parameterization for the wind drag force applied to a particle. Initial results of numerical experiments seem to indicate the importance of proper implicit parameterization of the particle dynamics at the vertical solid boundary. Our suggested solutions to that problem will be presented at the EGU-2017. The MARBLE project is supported by Russian Science

  1. Mercury in precipitation over the coastal zone of the southern Baltic Sea, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siudek, Patrycja; Falkowska, Lucyna; Brodecka, Aleksandra; Kowalski, Artur; Frankowski, Marcin; Siepak, Jerzy

    2015-02-01

    An investigation of atmospheric mercury was conducted in the urban coastal zone of the Gulf of Gdansk (Baltic Sea, Poland) in 2008. Rainwater samples were collected in bulk samplers and Hg concentration was determined using AAS method. Total mercury concentration ranged from 1.9 to 14.8 ng l(-1) (the mean was 8.3 ng l(-1) with standard deviation ±3.7), out of which about 34 % were water-soluble Hg(II) forms. Distribution of Hg species in rainwater was related to both the emission source and the atmospheric processes. During the sampling period, two maxima of Hg concentration in precipitation were observed: the first in the cold season and the second one in the warm season. Elevated concentrations of Hg in wintertime precipitation were generally the result of local urban atmospheric emission connected with the following anthropogenic sources: intensive combustion of fossil fuels in domestic furnaces, individual power/heat generating plants, and motor vehicles. During summertime, Hg° re-emitted from contaminated land and sea surfaces was photochemically oxidized by active atmospheric substances (e.g., hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen peroxide, halogens) and could be an additional source of atmospherically deposited Hg. The results presented in this work indicate that rainwater Hg concentration and deposition values are not much higher in comparison with other urban locations along the Baltic Sea basin and other coastal cities. However, the elevated mercury concentration in rainwater and, consequently, higher deposition ratio could appear occasionally as an effect of intensive anthropogenic emissions (domestic heating) and/or photochemical reactions.

  2. STRESSANDSTRAIN RECONSTRUCTION FOR THE EASTERN SEGMENT OF THE BALTIC SHIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia A. Sim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The publication presents stress determinations from geological and kinematical indicators of tectonic stress fields, varying in ranks, for the Kola Peninsula. The objective is to determine possible mechanisms of formation of recent structures in the eastern segment of the Baltic shield and to forecast seismogenic and technogenic hazard of fracturing.The study is focused on the Kovdor and Khibin Paleozoic alkaline-ultrabasic blocks. Tectonic stresses are reconstructed by M.V. Gzovsky’s method [1954; 1975] based on identification of conjugated shear systems. Neotectonic stresses are studied by the kinematic method [Gushchenko, 1979] on the basis of measurements of tectonic displacment vectors from slickensides (Figure 2. Local stress data processed by the method for determination of general stress fields provide for reconstruction of main normal stresses which are arbitrarily considered as regional stresses [Sim, 1980; 2000]. This study uses the method of bandpattern distribution of fracturing in fault zones [Danilovich, 1961] which determines the main displacement line on the fault plane.The study of the Zhelezny mining site (Kovdor block, Figures 3 and 4 revealed that elements of fractures of two different ages (centroclinal fractures of the prototectonic genesis and fractures of later tectonic activation are spatially overlapping due to rock collapse and lacking stability of benches. Numerous inversions and changes of kinematics of relative displacements were reviewed. It was observed that the southeastern wall of the quarry collapsed due to local extension (Fig. 6Band Photos 1 and 2, and a large fault, i.e. a prototectonic fracture, was dipping towards the quarry. Based on the analyses of local stresses at various points of the quarry (Table 1, two ‘regional’ stress fields can be revealed (Figures 7 and 8. The first paleostess field was associated with reverse faults of the WNW subhorizontal axis of compression and the

  3. Eclogite-facies metamorphism in impure marble from north Qaidam orogenic belt: Geodynamic implications for early Paleozoic continental-arc collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Xu, Rongke; Schertl, Hans-Peter; Zheng, Youye

    2018-06-01

    In the North Qaidam ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic belt, impure marble and interbedded eclogite represent a particular sedimentary provenance and tectonic setting, which have important implications for a controversial problem - the dynamic evolution of early Paleozoic subduction-collision complexes. In this contribution, detailed field work, mineral chemistry, and whole-rock geochemistry are presented for impure marble to provide the first direct evidence for the recycling of carbonate sediments under ultrahigh-pressures during subduction and collision in the Yuka terrane, in the North Qaidam UHP metamorphic belt. According to conventional geothermobarometry, pre-peak subduction to 0.8-1.3 GPa/485-569 °C was followed by peak UHP metamorphism at 2.5-3.3 GPa/567-754 °C and cooling to amphibolite facies conditions at 0.6-0.7 GPa/571-589 °C. U-Pb dating of zircons from impure marble reveals a large group with ages ranging from 441 to 458 Ma (peak at 450 Ma), a smaller group ranging from 770 to 1000 Ma (peak at 780 Ma), and minor >1.8 Ga zircon aged ca. 430 Ma UHP metamorphism. The youngest detrital zircons suggest a maximum depositional age of ca. 442 Ma and a burial rate of ca. 1.0-1.1 cm/yr when combined with P-T conditions and UHP metamorphic age. The REE and trace element patterns of impure marble with positive Sr and U anomalies, negative high field strength elements (Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, and Ti), and Ce anomalies imply that the marble had a marine limestone precursor. Impure marble intercalated with micaschist and eclogite was similar to limestone and siltstone protoliths deposited in continental fore-arc or arc setting with basic volcanic activity. Therefore, the Yuka terrane most likely evolved in a continental island arc setting during the Paleozoic. These data suggest that metasediments were derived from a mixture of Proterozoic continental crust and juvenile early Paleozoic oceanic and/or island arc crust. In addition, their protoliths were likely

  4. Screening of prospective sites for geological storage of CO{sub 2} in the Southern Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernon, R.; O' Neil, N.; Pasquali, R. [SLR Consulting, Dublin (Ireland); Nieminen, M.

    2013-05-15

    The BASTOR project focuses on identifying and characterising potential sites for CO{sub 2} storage in the southern Baltic Sea region. A compilation of available digital data from well logs, seismic line data interpretations, mapped structure outlines and published material from existing hydrocarbon fields and identified and mapped structures from Sweden, Poland, Latvia, Lithuania and Kaliningrad have been incorporated into a regional GIS for the Baltic Sea region. A detailed screening of regional sedimentary basins identified the Slupsk Border Zone as having suitable structures for storage of CO{sub 2} in depleted oil and gas fields or saline aquifers. Cambrian sandstone saline aquifers below 900 m have been identified as the principal regional potential storage target with the Dalders Monocline as the most promising area. Eight individual structures were identified as having greatest potential. Detailed 3D geological static models were developed for three of these structures located in offshore Latvia (E6 and E7) and one cross-border structure (Dalders Structure). A theoretical regional CO{sub 2} storage capacity calculation based on the GeoCapacity methodology was undertaken. A regional storage capacity for Cambrian sandstones below 900 m was estimated at a total of 16 Gt, with 2 Gt for the Dalders Monocline. Theoretical storage estimates for individual structures for the Baltic Sea regions includes 760 Mt for the Latvian structures and the Dalders Structure, 9.1 Mt for the structures located in Poland, 31 Mt in Lithuania and 170 Mt in Kaliningrad. These estimates are based on the best available data at the time of writing. However these estimates will be improved upon as new data becomes available from other sources. (orig.)

  5. Service concepts EnBW Baltic-1 and Baltic-2 and first operational experiences with the offshore wind farm EnBW Baltic-1; Servicekonzepte EnBW Baltic-1 und Baltic-2 sowie erste Betriebserfahrungen des Offshore-Windparks EnBW Baltic-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boll, Michael [EnBW Erneuerbare Energien GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2013-02-01

    EnBW Erneuerbare Energien GmbH, a wholly-owned subsidiary of EnBW AG, intends to operate two offshore wind farms in each of the Baltic and North Sea, respectively. The main distinguishing criterion for service concepts for operating offshore wind farms is the question of the service base location and of the maritime logistics. The paper provides an exemplary comparison between land- and sea-based service concepts, and assumes accessibility of the plant at specific offshore locations under various weather conditions. The paper not only presents the so far satisfactory production results of EnBW Baltic 1 but also informs about experience with weather conditions in the Baltic and about type and frequency of services provided there.

  6. Reconstructing palaeo-environmental conditions in the Baltic: A multi-proxy comparison from IODP Site M0059 (Little Belt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotthoff, Ulrich; Andrén, Thomas; Bauersachs, Thorsten; Fanget, Anne-Sophie; Granoszewski, Wojciech; Groeneveld, Jeroen; Krupinski, Nadine; Peyron, Odile; Stepanova, Anna; Cotterill, Carol

    2015-04-01

    Some of the largest marine environmental impacts from ongoing global climate change are occurring in continental shelf seas and enclosed basins, including severe oxygen depletion, intensifying stratification, and increasing temperatures. In order to predict future changes in water mass conditions, it is essential to reconstruct how these conditions have changed in the past. The brackish Baltic Sea is one of the largest semi-enclosed basins worldwide, and hence provides a unique opportunity to analyse past changes. IODP Expedition 347 recovered a unique set of long sediment cores from the Baltic Sea Basin which allow new high-resolution reconstructions. The application of existing and development of new proxies in such a setting is complicated, as environmental changes often occur on much faster time scales with much larger variations. Therefore, we present a comparison of commonly used proxies to reconstruct palaeoecosystems, -temperatures, and -salinity from IODP Site M0059 in the Little Belt. The age model for Site M0059 is based on 14C dating and biostratigraphic correlation with neighbouring terrestrial pollen records. The aim of our study is to reconstruct the development of the terrestrial and marine ecosystems in the research area and the related environmental conditions, and to identify potential limitations for specific proxies. Pollen is used as proxy for vegetation development in the hinterland of the southern Baltic Sea and as land/air-temperature proxies. By comparison with dinoflagellate cysts and green algae remains from the same samples, a direct land-sea comparison is provided. The application of the modern analogues technique to pollen assemblages has previously yielded precise results for late Pleistocene and Holocene datasets including specific information on seasonality, but pollen-based reconstructions for Northern Europe may be hampered by plant migration effects. Chironomid remains are used where possible as indicators for surface water

  7. Investigation and evaluation of airborne pollution in the framework of PARCOM (North Sea) and HELCOM (Baltic Sea) - subproject: Measurements of trace metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, B.

    1993-01-01

    On the basis of measurements of the deposition and concentrations of atmospheric trace metals the annual input of some selected elements (Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni, V) into the North Sea and the Baltic Sea was estimated. For the Baltic Sea, deposition measurements with a buoy system in the Kiel Bight and data from the EGAP(HELCOM)-monitoring network were used. Data from the measurement stations were extrapolated to related sub-basins according to the deposition fields obtained from model calculations (EMEP). For the North Sea, a mean atmospheric trace metal distribution was determined from numerous measurements at a coastal site and over the central North Sea and the annual input was calculated by multiplication with corresponding deposition velocities and scavenging ratios. A comparison of the deposition data based on measurements with those from model calculations show good agreement in the case of Pb in the Baltic Sea as well as in the North Sea. However, for Zn and Cd large discrepancies are observed. Additionally, deposition processes were studied. Scavenging ratios were determined and dry deposition velocities were estimated by the use of a new method for high time resolution measurements of atmospheric trace metal concentrations (impactor/TXRF). (orig.). 9 figs., 14 tabs [de

  8. Sodium storage in deep paleoweathering profiles beneath the Paleozoic-Triassic unconformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiry, M.; Parcerisa, D.; Ricordel-Prognon, C.; Schmitt, J.-M.

    2009-04-01

    in potassium. The Na+ enrichment is most likely linked with the peculiar geochemical setting of the Triassic environment where for instance halite moulds are very common in transgressive epicontinental deposits. The leaching of such salts, the role of salty marine aerosols, or a periodic/episodic contribution of seawater or evaporative solutions may be equally invoked. Mass balance Taking into account the surpergene origin of albitization and its widespread development on the Paleozoic basement rocks (from Morocco to Scandinavia) means that high amounts of Na+ have been stored in the deep paleoweathering profiles of the Triassic continents. This sodium storage in weathering profiles has to be taken in consideration in addition to the major sodium chloride accumulation in the basins during the Permo-Triassic times. Further investigations are needed to demonstrate the extent of these paleoweathering profiles and then to estimate the amount of this continental sodium storage. References Cathelineau M (1986) The hydrothermal alkali metasomatism effects on granitic rocks: Quartz dissolution and related sub-solidus changes. Jour. Petrol., 27: 945-965. Hay, W.W.; Migdisov, A.; Balukhovsky, A.N.; Wold, C.N.; Flogel, S., Soding, E. (2006) Evaporites and the salinity of the ocean during the Phanerozoic: Implications for climate, ocean circulation and life. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 240/1-2: 3-46. Parcerisa D., Thiry M., Schmitt J.-M. (2009) Albitisation related to the Triassic unconformity in igneous rocks of the Morvan Massif (France), International Journal of Earth Sciences, DOI: 10.1007/s00531-008-0405-1. Petersson J, Eliasson T (1997) Mineral evolution and element mobility during episyenitization (dequartzification) and albitization in the postkinematic Bohus granite, southwest Sweden. Lithos, 42: 123-146. Ricordel C, Parcerisa D, Thiry M, Moreau M-G, Gómez-Gras D (2007) Triassic magnetic overprints related to albitization in granites from the

  9. Quantifying predation on Baltic cod early life stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Viola; Schaber, Matthias; Eero, Margit

    2017-01-01

    Predation on cod (Gadus morhua) eggs by sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring (Clupea harengus) is known to be one of the processes influencing reproductive success of the eastern Baltic cod and has been reported to have contributed to lack of recovery of the stock in the 1990s. This study quanti...

  10. Baltic Metal - metallisektori koostööorgan / Endel Soon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soon, Endel

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: EAKL Teataja : Narodnaja Gazeta, märts, nr. 3, 2004, lk. 4. Riias toimus Balti- ja Põhjamaade metalliala ametiühinguorganisatsioonide esindajate ühisnõupidamine. Kirjutati alla Baltimaade metallisektori koostööorgani Baltic Metal moodustamise leping

  11. airBaltic claims monopoly abuse by RIX

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    AirBalticu andmetel on nende tasud peale 2009. aasta novembris Riia lennujaamas uute tasude süsteemi kehtestamist tõusnud, kuid Ryanairi tasud on langenud. AirBaltic plaanib nõuda Riia lennujaamalt kohtus 5,9 miljonit latti hüvitist

  12. The Security Concerns of the Baltic States as NATO Allies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    people with excellent professional qualifications, as well as high fluency in English. Since they are EU states, there is nothing to inhibit...port of these conflicts with the main goal of cementing and supporting the transatlantic alliance. U.S. support is shown in other aspects of Baltic

  13. Anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus diet in the North and Baltic Seas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raab, K.E.; Nagelkerke, L.A.J.; Boerée, L.A.J.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.; Temming, A.; Dickey-Collas, M.

    2011-01-01

    The diet of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) in the North and Baltic Seas was studied using stomach analysis from four sampling events in different areas. Zooplanktivory was confirmed; the most frequent prey items (in over 40% of stomachs) were copepods, malacostracan larvae and fish larvae. In the

  14. International Agreements in the Multispecies Baltic Sea Fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieminen, Emmi; Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk; Lindroos, Marko

    2016-01-01

    between the three countries can be stabilised when the most efficient country compensates the other countries. This solution is not feasible when using a single-species model for the cod population; thus, taking into account the multispecies nature of the Baltic Sea fisheries, the scope of cooperation...

  15. Natural gas co-operation in the Baltic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, J.K.

    1996-01-01

    Co-operation between the gas companies in the Baltic Region has been in place for several years. The overview given in this paper shows that the co-operation has been developed in trade, investments, privatisation and participation in the restructuring process. Finally, through a broad technical co-operation, significant efforts are made to establish common operational practices, codes and standards and the integrity of gas transmission pipelines. The Baltic Region, from a resource and gas interconnection point of view, enjoys a strategic position in the future development of the gas industry in Europe. The Baltic gas sector represents an interesting and growing gas market with the significant gas storage capacity. The region is also located strategically for planned gas interconnections and could serve as a transit corridor for the future gas supplies from western Siberia or the North Sea. This co-operation in the region is being supported by international regulations and agreements such as the Energy Charter between the European Union and the central and east European countries. However, at present the gas industry in the Baltic Region seems to be ahead of these international agreements. It may well be seen that trade arrangements such as Third Party Access are implemented directly by market forces rather than through international agreements. The regional development may thus be a driving force for the implementation of the Internal Energy Market for the gas industry

  16. Level and origin of Iodine-129 in the Baltic Sea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hou, XL.; Dahlgaard, H.; Nielsen, SP.; Kučera, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 3 (2002), s. 331-343 ISSN 0265-931X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK4055109 Keywords : lodine-129 * Baltic sea * neutron activation analysis * seawater Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 0.674, year: 2002

  17. 16th Nordic-Baltic Conference on Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Persson, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the joint 16th Nordic-Baltic Conference on Biomedical Engineering & Medical Physics and Medicinteknikdagarna 2014!  The conference theme is Strategic Innovation. It aims at inspiring increased triple helix collaborations between health care providers, academia and the medtech industry.

  18. Macroeconomic adjustment: The Baltic states versus euro area crisis countries

    OpenAIRE

    Lindner, Axel

    2011-01-01

    Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania have succeeded in rapidly reducing their current account deficits despite fixed exchange rates. Which factors have played a major role in this? What similarities, and what differences, do the Baltic states show compared to Greece and Portugal? What insights can be gained for the political debate on the euro area debt crisis?

  19. Policy incentives for flexible district heating in the Baltic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sneum, Daniel Møller; Sandberg, Eli; Koduvere, Hardi

    2018-01-01

    This study analyzes the impacts of taxes, subsidies, and electricity transmission and distribution tariffs and heat storage on the operation and economic feasibility of district heating plants with different flexibility potentials in the Baltic countries. Under 2016 conditions, the lowest levelized...

  20. Projekt "Baltenet - The Baltic Technology Network" / Leonid Pai

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pai, Leonid

    2005-01-01

    Baltenet - The Baltic Technology Network on projekt, mille alusel teevad koostööd tehniliste erialade koolituse arendamiseks Baltimere äärsetes riikides neli kutseõppeasutust Soomest, Rootsist, Lätis ja Eestist. Projekti rahastab Euroopa Liidu Leonardo da Vinci programm

  1. The electricity markets around the Baltic Sea; Elmarknaderna runt Oestersjoen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    A thorough description of the electric power markets in the countries surrounding the Baltic sea is given in this book. Environmental problems and regulations and nuclear power are surveyed. Factors that may affect an expanded trade of electricity between the countries are analyzed

  2. Review of western Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) recruitment dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Important processes in the recruitment dynamics of western Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) are identified. Spawning areas are in the deep, saline waters below 20–40 m, depending on area topography. Spatial distribution remains relatively stable over time. Peak spawning shows an area-specific pattern...

  3. Essential coastal habitats for fish in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraufvelin, Patrik; Pekcan-Hekim, Zeynep; Bergström, Ulf

    2018-01-01

    Many coastal and offshore fish species are highly dependent on specific habitat types for population maintenance. In the Baltic Sea, shallow productive habitats in the coastal zone such as wetlands, vegetated flads/lagoons and sheltered bays as well as more exposed rocky and sandy areas are utili...

  4. Controlling benthic release of phosphorus in different Baltic Sea scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitkänen, Heikki; Bendtsen, Jørgen; Hansen, Jørgen L. S.

    The general aim of the PROPPEN project was to study whether it is possible to counteract near-bottom anoxia and excess benthic nutrient release ("internal loading") in the Baltic Sea by artificial oxygenation in cost-efficient and socio-economically beneficial ways. Two pilot sites were selected ...

  5. Options for Enhancing Nordic–Baltic Defence and Security Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbauch, Henrik Ø.; Kristensen, Kristian Søby; Schaub Jr, Gary John

    The Nordic–Baltic region is located as a geopolitical buffer zone between the great power interests of the East and the West. As external pressures are rising with an assertive Russia to the east and uncertainties about US NATO guarantees to the west, compounded by an uncertain EU, the region...

  6. Geologic map and upper Paleozoic stratigraphy of the Marble Canyon area, Cottonwood Canyon quadrangle, Death Valley National Park, Inyo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Paul; Stevens, Calvin H.; Belasky, Paul; Montañez, Isabel P.; Martin, Lauren G.; Wardlaw, Bruce R.; Sandberg, Charles A.; Wan, Elmira; Olson, Holly A.; Priest, Susan S.

    2014-01-01

    This geologic map and pamphlet focus on the stratigraphy, depositional history, and paleogeographic significance of upper Paleozoic rocks exposed in the Marble Canyon area in Death Valley National Park, California. Bedrock exposed in this area is composed of Mississippian to lower Permian (Cisuralian) marine sedimentary rocks and the Jurassic Hunter Mountain Quartz Monzonite. These units are overlain by Tertiary and Quaternary nonmarine sedimentary deposits that include a previously unrecognized tuff to which we tentatively assign an age of late middle Miocene (~12 Ma) based on tephrochronologic analysis, in addition to the previously recognized Pliocene tuff of Mesquite Spring. Mississippian and Pennsylvanian rocks in the Marble Canyon area represent deposition on the western continental shelf of North America. Mississippian limestone units in the area (Tin Mountain, Stone Canyon, and Santa Rosa Hills Limestones) accumulated on the outer part of a broad carbonate platform that extended southwest across Nevada into east-central California. Carbonate sedimentation was interrupted by a major eustatic sea-level fall that has been interpreted to record the onset of late Paleozoic glaciation in southern Gondwana. Following a brief period of Late Mississippian clastic sedimentation (Indian Springs Formation), a rise in eustatic sea level led to establishment of a new carbonate platform that covered most of the area previously occupied by the Mississippian platform. The Pennsylvanian Bird Spring Formation at Marble Canyon makes up the outer platform component of ten third-order (1 to 5 m.y. duration) stratigraphic sequences recently defined for the regional platform succession. The regional paleogeography was fundamentally changed by major tectonic activity along the continental margin beginning in middle early Permian time. As a result, the Pennsylvanian carbonate shelf at Marble Canyon subsided and was disconformably overlain by lower Permian units (Osborne Canyon and

  7. Essential coastal habitats for fish in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraufvelin, Patrik; Pekcan-Hekim, Zeynep; Bergström, Ulf; Florin, Ann-Britt; Lehikoinen, Annukka; Mattila, Johanna; Arula, Timo; Briekmane, Laura; Brown, Elliot John; Celmer, Zuzanna; Dainys, Justas; Jokinen, Henri; Kääriä, Petra; Kallasvuo, Meri; Lappalainen, Antti; Lozys, Linas; Möller, Peter; Orio, Alessandro; Rohtla, Mehis; Saks, Lauri; Snickars, Martin; Støttrup, Josianne; Sundblad, Göran; Taal, Imre; Ustups, Didzis; Verliin, Aare; Vetemaa, Markus; Winkler, Helmut; Wozniczka, Adam; Olsson, Jens

    2018-05-01

    Many coastal and offshore fish species are highly dependent on specific habitat types for population maintenance. In the Baltic Sea, shallow productive habitats in the coastal zone such as wetlands, vegetated flads/lagoons and sheltered bays as well as more exposed rocky and sandy areas are utilized by fish across many life history stages including spawning, juvenile development, feeding and migration. Although there is general consensus about the critical importance of these essential fish habitats (EFH) for fish production along the coast, direct quantitative evidence for their specific roles in population growth and maintenance is still scarce. Nevertheless, for some coastal species, indirect evidence exists, and in many cases, sufficient data are also available to carry out further quantitative analyses. As coastal EFH in the Baltic Sea are often found in areas that are highly utilized and valued by humans, they are subjected to many different pressures. While cumulative pressures, such as eutrophication, coastal construction and development, climate change, invasive species and fisheries, impact fish in coastal areas, the conservation coverage for EFH in these areas remains poor. This is mainly due to the fact that historically, fisheries management and nature conservation are not integrated neither in research nor in management in Baltic Sea countries. Setting joint objectives for fisheries management and nature conservation would hence be pivotal for improved protection of EFH in the Baltic Sea. To properly inform management, improvements in the development of monitoring strategies and mapping methodology for EFH are also needed. Stronger international cooperation between Baltic Sea states will facilitate improved management outcomes across ecologically arbitrary boundaries. This is especially important for successful implementation of international agreements and legislative directives such as the Baltic Sea Action Plan, the Marine Strategy Framework

  8. Environmental changes in the central Baltic Sea during the past 1000 years: inferences from sedimentary records, hydrography and climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Bartholdy

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Short sediment cores from the eastern Gotland Basin were investigated using a multi-proxy approach in order to reconstruct the environmental conditions of the area during the past 1000 years. Sediment data and facies were discussed in relation to hydrographic features (salinity, oxygen and climate change. During the medieval warm period (MWP, from about 900 to 1250 AD, the hydrographic and environmental conditions were similar to those of the present time (modern warm period, since about 1850: a temporally stable halocline, caused by regular saline water inflows from the North Sea, prevents vertical mixing and leads to bottom water anoxia and the deposition of laminated, organic-rich sapropels. During the period from about 1250 to 1850, referred to as the cold phase (including the Little Ice Age, the environmental conditions of the central Baltic Sea were distinctly different: the lower salinity, resulting from reduced North Sea water inflows, allowed vertical convection of the water column and long-term stable ventilation of the sea bed (oxic stage. Both the productivity of the planktonic ecosystem as well as the preservation of organic matter in the sediments improved during the warm periods. The anthropogenic impact can be identified within the recent laminated sequence by a temporal reconstruction of pollutant deposition. Our findings imply a climate-change driven shift in the environmental conditions and the ecosystem of the Baltic from the north to the south and back to the north.

  9. Correlation analyses of Baltic Sea winter water mass formation and its impact on secondary and tertiary production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörn Schmidt

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The thermal stratification of the upper water layers in the BalticSea varies seasonally in response to the annual cycle of solarheating and wind-induced mixing. In winter, the stratificationdown to the halocline is almost completely eroded by convectionand strong wind mixing. Monthly averaged temperature profilesobtained from the ICES hydrographic database were used to studythe long-term variability (1950 to 2005 of winter water massformation in different deep basins of the Baltic Sea east ofthe island of Bornholm. Besides strong interannual variabilityof deep winter water temperatures, the last two decades showa positive trend (increase of 1-1.5°C. Correlationsof winter surface temperatures to temperatures of the winterwater body located directly above or within the top of the haloclinewere strongly positive until the autumn months. Such a closecoupling allows sea surface temperatures in winter to be usedto forecast the seasonal development of the thermal signaturein deeper layers with a high degree of confidence. The most significantimpact of winter sea surface temperatures on the thermal signaturein this depth range can be assigned to February/March. Strongersolar heating during spring and summer results in thermal stratificationof the water column leading to a complete decoupling of surfaceand deep winter water temperatures. Based on laboratory experiments,temperature-dependent relationships were utilised to analyseinterannual variations of biological processes with special emphasison the upper trophic levels (e.g., stage-specific developmentalrates of zooplankton and survival rates of fish eggs.

  10. Geochemistry and 40Ar/39Ar age of Early Carboniferous dolerite sills in the southern Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gediminas Motuza

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Early Carboniferous magmatic event in the southern Baltic Sea is manifested by dolerite intrusions. The presumable area in which the dolerite intrusions occur ranges from 30 to 60 km in east–west direction, and is about 100 km in north–south direction. The dolerites were sampled in well D1-1 and investigated by applying chemical analysis and 40Ar/39Ar step-heating dating. Dolerites are classified as alkali and sodic, characterized by high TiO2 (3.92, 3.99 wt% and P2O5 (1.67, 1.77 wt% and low MgO (4.89, 4.91 wt% concentrations, enriched in light rare earth elements, originated from an enriched mantle magma source and emplaced in a continental rift tectonic setting. The 351 ± 11 Ma 40Ar/39Ar plateau age for groundmass plagioclase indicates a considerable age gap with the 310–250 Ma magmatism in southern Scandinavia and northern Germany. The magmatic rocks in the Baltic Sedimentary Basin are coeval with alkaline intrusions of NE Poland. Both magmatic provinces lie in the northwestward prolongation of the Pripyat–Dnieper–Donetsk Rift (370–359 Ma and may constitute a later phase of magmatic activity of this propagating rift system.

  11. Oil, gas potential in shallow water: Peru`s continental shelf basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuniga-Rivero, F.; Keeling, J.A.; Hay-Roe, H. [BPZ and Associates Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1998-11-16

    This third article of a series highlights the three sedimentary basins that underlie the 16 million acres of continental shelf adjacent to a 650-mile stretch of Peruvian coastline. This area lies roughly between the ports of Chiclayo and Pisco. These basins offer a variety of reservoirs, traps, and source-rock potential in water depths of less than 1,000 ft. They are characterized by a thick sequence of Neogene strata, underlain by Paleogene, Mesozoic, and Upper Paleozoic sediments down to as much as 7 sec two-way time on modern seismic records. In some places the sedimentary section may reach an aggregate thickness in excess of 50,000 ft. From north to south these contiguous shelf basins are the Sechura-Salaverry, Huacho, and Pisco basins. All three basins are described.

  12. Baltic States in NATO: Results of the Decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav V. Vorotnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the post-Soviet period participation in NATO was one of the major goals of euro-atlantic integration for the Baltic states. Political leaders of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania have considered participation in the alliance as an important element of euro-atlantic solidarity which allows small - from all viewpoints - states claim decision-making over global issues. This satisfies demands of the political elites and victimized public consciousness for more security, makes it possible for elites to consider their states as bulwark against Russia. Throughout the whole decade, such reasoning has been reflected in doctrines and speeches of Baltic politicians. After joining NATO, the Baltic states became the most active supporters of a deeper integration in the military area and "open door" policy. They have continued reforming their armed forces and renovating military infrastructure. They have acquired "specialization" within NATO by establishing centers of excellence. In terms of euro-atlantic solidarity, the participation in the International Security Assistance Force in Afganistan has become the most important international project for the Baltic states. However, only Estonia managed to mount their defence expenses to the level of 2% GDP. During the „Ukranian crisis" the issue of Baltic membership in NATO acquired special importance. Confrontational rhetoric and appeals to "Russian threat" in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, on the one hand, make it possible for their political leaders to constantly demonstrate their importance in the eyes of Western partners and demand more activity of the alliance and, on the other hand, make ground for the political elites to consolidate the electorate, by that ensuring that the right-wing conservative forces remain in power.

  13. Implementation of the NEMO model for estimating the spread of leakage from chemical munitions in the Baltic Sea - the first approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrzejewski, Jan

    2017-04-01

    After the Second World War, during the Potsdam Conference a decision about demilitarization of Germany was made, and as a consequence, ammunition including chemical warfare agents (CWA) was dumped into the basins of the Baltic Sea. This type of weapon was stored in metal barrels that were under strong influence of electrochemical oxidation, also known as corrosion. Several tens years later, scientists were wondering what consequences for marine ecosystem could a leakage from this weapon bring. Although over 70 years passed since the Second World War, the influence of potential leakage of the CWA has not been properly estimated. Thus, the main goal of this work is to estimate dangerous area caused by potential leakage using the NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean) ocean model. The NEMO ocean model is developed by the European Consortium including research institutes from France, England and Italy. The first step of this work is to implement the model for the area of the Baltic Sea. It requires generation of horizontal and vertical grid, bathymetry, atmospheric forces and lateral boundary conditions. Implemented model will have to be checked - it means it will have to pass a validation process. The Baltic Sea is one of the best measured sea in the World - as a consequence a lot of data are freely available for researchers. After validation and tuning up the model, implementation of passive tracer is planned. Passive tracer is the prognostic variable that could represent concentration of potential leakage and does not have influence on the density of the model. Based on distribution of the passive tracer, dangerous areas in the locations of dumpsites will be assessed. The research work was funded by the European Union (European Regional Development Fund) under the Interreg Baltic Sea Region Programme 2014-2020, project #R013 DAIMON (Decision Aid for Marine Munitions).

  14. [Baltic connections : archival guide to the maritime relations of the countries around the Baltic Sea (including the Netherlands) 1450-1800)] / Enn Küng

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Küng, Enn

    2009-01-01

    Arvustus: Baltic connections : archival guide to the maritime relations of the countries around the Baltic Sea (including the Netherlands) 1450-1800). Leiden, Boston : Brill, 2007. Lisaks raamatule on arhiivijuht kättesaadav ka elektrooniliselt http://www.balticconnections.net/

  15. Geochemical evidence for Paleozoic crustal growth and tectonic conversion in the Northern Beishan Orogenic Belt, southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yu; Zong, Keqing; He, Zhenyu; Klemd, Reiner; Jiang, Hongying; Zhang, Wen; Liu, Yongsheng; Hu, Zhaochu; Zhang, Zeming

    2018-03-01

    The Beishan Orogenic Belt is located in the central southernmost part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), which plays a key role in understanding the formation and evolution of the CAOB. Granitoids are the documents of crustal and tectonic evolution in orogenic belts. However, little is known regarding the petrogenesis and geodynamic setting of the widely distributed Paleozoic granitoids in the Northern Beishan Orogenic Belt (NBOB). The present study reveals significant differences concerning the petrogenesis and tectonic setting of early and late Paleozoic granitoids from the NBOB. The early Paleozoic granitoids from the 446-430 Ma Hongliuxia granite complex of the Mazongshan unit and the 466-428 Ma Shibanjing complex of the Hanshan unit show classic I-type granite affinities as revealed by the relative enrichment of LILEs and LREEs, pronounced depletions of Nb, Ta and Ti and the abundant presence of hornblende. Furthermore, they are characterized by strongly variable zircon εHf(t) values between - 16.7 and + 12.8 and evolved plagioclase Sr isotopic compositions of 0.7145-0.7253, indicating the involvement of both juvenile and ancient continental crust in the magma source. Thus, we propose that the early Paleozoic granitoids in the NBOB were generated in a subduction-related continental arc setting. In contrast, the late Paleozoic 330-281 Ma granitoids from the Shuangjingzi complex of the Hanshan unit exhibit positive zircon εHf(t) values between + 5.8 and + 13.2 and relatively depleted plagioclase Sr isotopic compositions of 0.7037-0.7072, indicating that they were mainly formed by remelting of juvenile crust. Thus, an intra-plate extensional setting is proposed to have occurred during formation of the late Paleozoic granitoids. Therefore, between the early and late Paleozoic, the magma sources of the NBOB granitoids converted from the reworking of both juvenile and ancient crusts during a subduction-induced compressional setting to the remelting of

  16. Origin and tectonic evolution of early Paleozoic arc terranes abutting the northern margin of North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hao; Pei, Fu-Ping; Zhang, Ying; Zhou, Zhong-Biao; Xu, Wen-Liang; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Cao, Hua-Hua; Yang, Chuan

    2017-12-01

    The origin and tectonic evolution of the early Paleozoic arc terranes abutting the northern margin of the North China Craton (NCC) are widely debated. This paper presents detrital zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic data of early Paleozoic strata in the Zhangjiatun arc terrane of central Jilin Province, northeast (NE) China, and compares them with the Bainaimiao and Jiangyu arc terranes abutting the northern margin of the NCC. Detrital zircons from early Paleozoic strata in three arc terranes exhibit comparable age groupings of 539-430, 1250-577, and 2800-1600 Ma. The Paleoproterozoic to Neoarchean ages and Hf isotopic composition of the detrital zircons imply the existence of the Precambrian fragments beneath the arc terranes. Given the evidences from geology, igneous rocks, and detrital zircons, we proposed that the early Paleozoic arc terranes abutting the northern margin of the NCC are a united arc terrane including the exotic Precambrian fragments, and these fragments shared a common evolutionary history from Neoproterozoic to early-middle Paleozoic.

  17. Reworked crustal of early Paleozoic WuYi Orogen revealed by receiver function data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y.; Duan, Y.; Tian, X.; Zhao, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Intraplate orogenic belt, which occurs at the rigid and undeformable plate interiors, is a distinct new type of orogen rather than an interplate or plate marginal orogenic belt, whose deformation occurs exclusively at plate margins. Therefore, intraplate orogenic belts are the most obvious exception to the plate-tectonic paradigm, they are uncommon in Earth's history. The early Paleozoic Wuyi orogen in South China is one of the few examples of intraplate orogen, and is a key to understanding the process of intraplate orogenesis and global early Paleozoic geodynamics. In this study, we select teleseismic records from 45 mobile linear seismic stations deployed in Wuyi Mountain and 58 permanent stations setting in Jiangxi and Fujian provinces, from January 2011 to December 2012, and calculate the crustal thickness and average crustal Vp/Vs ratio using the H-κ stacking method. The main results include the following: 1) the crustal average Poission's ratio shows an increase tendency from land to sea, the interior of Wuyi orogen belt with an low ration less than 0.23, and the coastline with high ration which is up to 0.28, which indicate a very heterogeneous crustal structure and composition in Wuyi orogen and coast belt. 2) the crustal thickness ranges 28-34 km and shows a tendency of thinning from inland to coast in the region of SE China margin, which maight mean the eastern Eurasia lithospheric is extension and thinning induced by the subducted paleo-Pacific slab. To conclusion, we assume that Wuyi orogen experienced upper crustal thickening, lower crust and lithosphere delamination during the early Paleozoic orogeny, and lithosphere extension in Mesozoic. This research is founded by the Natural Science Foundation of China (41174052 and 41604048).

  18. The water footprint of agricultural products in European river basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanham, D; Bidoglio, G

    2014-01-01

    This work quantifies the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WF prod, agr ) and consumption (WF cons, agr ) and the resulting net virtual water import (netVW i, agr ) of 365 European river basins for a reference period (REF, 1996–2005) and two diet scenarios (a healthy diet based upon food-based dietary guidelines (HEALTHY) and a vegetarian (VEG) diet). In addition to total (tot) amounts, a differentiation is also made between the green (gn), blue (bl) and grey (gy) components. River basins where the REF WF cons, agr, tot exceeds the WF prod, agr, tot (resulting in positive netVW i, agr, tot values), are found along the London–Milan axis. These include the Thames, Scheldt, Meuse, Seine, Rhine and Po basins. River basins where the WF prod, agr, tot exceeds the WF cons, agr, tot are found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. These include the Loire, Ebro and Nemunas basins. Under the HEALTHY diet scenario, the WF cons, agr, tot of most river basins decreases (max −32%), although it was found to increase in some basins in northern and eastern Europe. This results in 22 river basins, including the Danube, shifting from being net VW importers to being net VW exporters. A reduction (max −46%) in WF cons, agr, tot is observed for all but one river basin under the VEG diet scenario. In total, 50 river basins shift from being net VW importers to being net exporters, including the Danube, Seine, Rhone and Elbe basins. Similar observations are made when only the gn + bl and gn components are assessed. When analysing only the bl component, a different river basin pattern is observed. (letters)

  19. Uranium prospecting in Cerro Partido Region-Encruzilhada do Sul Basin-RS, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraenkel, M.O.

    1974-01-01

    The Cerro Partido residual basin is a shallow (85 meters) and small (25km 2 ) sedimentary basin, a remainder of the erosive cicle, enclosed in the pre-cambrian granitic rocks of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield. Grades of 0.2 + U 3 O 8 were found in its upper-paleozoic sandstones and shales drilles for uranium. The small size and thicknesses of these concentrations prevent their economic mining. However, the different levels of the shield exposed by tectonics, the intrusive granitic, riolitic and syenitic rocks, the anomalous uranium contents in sedimentary and crystalline rocks recommend further investigations on the shield area

  20. The Carbon Dioxide System in the Baltic Sea Surface Waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesslander, Karin

    2011-05-15

    The concentration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in the atmosphere is steadily increasing because of human activities such as fossil fuel burning. To understand how this is affecting the planet, several pieces of knowledge of the CO{sub 2} system have to be investigated. One piece is how the coastal seas, which are used by people and influenced by industrialization, are functioning. In this thesis, the CO{sub 2} system in the Baltic Sea surface water has been investigated using observations from the last century to the present. The Baltic Sea is characterized of a restricted water exchange with the open ocean and a large inflow of river water. The CO{sub 2} system, including parameters such as pH and partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}), has large seasonal and inter-annual variability in the Baltic Sea. These parameters are affected by several processes, such as air-sea gas exchange, physical mixing, and biological processes. Inorganic carbon is assimilated in the primary production and pCO{sub 2} declines to approx150 muatm in summer. In winter, pCO{sub 2} levels increase because of prevailing mineralization and mixing processes. The wind-mixed surface layer deepens to the halocline (approx60 m) and brings CO{sub 2}- enriched water to the surface. Winter pCO{sub 2} may be as high as 600 muatm in the surface water. The CO{sub 2} system is also exposed to short-term variations caused by the daily biological cycle and physical events such as upwelling. A cruise was made in the central Baltic Sea to make synoptic measurements of oceanographic, chemical, and meteorological parameters with high temporal resolution. Large short-term variations were found in pCO{sub 2} and oxygen (O{sub 2}), which were highly correlated. The diurnal variation of pCO{sub 2} was up to 40 muatm. The CO{sub 2} system in the Baltic Sea changed as the industrialization increased around 1950, which was demonstrated using a coupled physical-biogeochemical model of the CO{sub 2} system

  1. The Influence of Weather Anomalies on Mercury Cycling in the Marine Coastal Zone of the Southern Baltic-Future Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bełdowska, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Despite the decreased emission loads of mercury, historical deposits of this metal in various compartments of the environment may become an additional diffuse source in the future. Global climate change manifests itself in the temperate zone in several ways: warmer winters, shorter icing periods, increased precipitation and heightened frequency of extreme events such as strong gales and floods, all of which cause disturbances in the rate and direction of mercury biogeochemical cycling. The present study was conducted at two sites, Oslonino and Gdynia Orlowo (both in the coastal zone of the Gulf of Gdansk), from which samples were collected once a month between January 2012 and December 2012. In the Southern Baltic region, climate changes can certainly enhance coast to basin fluxes of mercury and the transfer of bioavailable forms of this metal to the food web. They may also, in the future, contribute to uncontrollable increases of mercury in the seawater.

  2. Hydroacoustic resolution of small-scale vertical distribution in Baltic cod Gadus morhua - habitat choise and limits during spawning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaber, Matthias; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Neuenfeldt, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    to cod. The results showed a clear influence of ambient salinity and oxygen concentration on the distribution pattern and distributional limitation of cod during spawning time, and also consistency of data storage tag-derived distribution patterns with those based on individual echotracking. We therefore...... and hence the spatial structure of the ecosystem. Our aim here is to present a method to resolve small-scale distribution on an individual level, as needed for the behaviorally-based prediction of habitat choice and limits. We focused on the small-scale vertical distribution of cod Gadus morhua L....... in the Bornholm Basin, central Baltic Sea, during spawning time in 2 years with different vertical thermohaline and oxygen stratifications. Individual cod were identified by echotracking of real-time in situ hydroacoustic distribution data. In order to resolve and identify hydrographic preferences and limits...

  3. Swedish political attitudes towards Baltic independence in the short 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    Kuldkepp, M.

    2016-01-01

    This article considers the history of Swedish attitudes towards Baltic independence in the period in the so-called short 20th century (1914-1991), focusing primarily on the years when Baltic independence was gained (1918-1920) and regained (1989-1991). The former period was characterized by Swedish skepticism towards the ability of the Baltic states to retain their independence long-term, explainable by the Swedish political elites’ conviction that the weakening of Russia in the First World W...

  4. An Anthropology of Marketplace Behavior. Aspects of embeddedness in Norwegian entrepreneurship in the Baltics

    OpenAIRE

    Cimdina, Agnese

    2012-01-01

    Based on fieldwork undertaken between 2005 and 2008, this thesis provides an anthropological analysis of cross border Norwegian entrepreneurship in the Baltics in a timeframe that spans from the middle of the 1990s to 2008. The Baltic states had barely reinstated their independence from the Soviet Union when the Nordic countries, including Norway, began to devise strategies to enter these emerging markets. In the 1990s, the growing Baltic markets, as they were in such close proximity to ...

  5. The importance of colloids and mires for the transport of uranium isotopes through the Kalix River watershed and Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porcelli, D.; Wasserburg, G.J.; Andersson, P.S.

    1997-01-01

    The importance of colloids and organic deposits for the transport of uranium isotopes from continental source regions and through the estuarine environment was investigated in the mire-rich Kalix River drainage basin in northern Sweden and the Baltic Sea. Ultrafiltration techniques were used to separate uranium and other elements associated with colloids > 10 kD and >3 kD from open-quotes soluteclose quotes uranium and provided consistent results and high recovery rates for uranium as well as for other elements from large volume samples. Uranium concentrations in 0.45 μm-filtered Kalix River water samples increased by a factor of 3 from near the headwaters in the Caledonides to the river mouth while major cation concentrations were relatively constant. 234 U 238 U ratios were high (δ 234 U = 770-1500) throughout the basin, without showing any simple pattern, and required a supply of 234 U-rich water. Throughout the Kalix River, a large fraction (30-90%) of the uranium is carried by >10 kD colloids, which is compatible with uranium complexation with humic acids. No isotopic differences were found between colloid-associated and solute uranium. Within the Baltic Sea, about half of the uranium is removed at low salinities. The proportion that is lost is equivalent to that of river-derived colloid-bound uranium, suggesting that while solute uranium behaves conservatively during estuarine mixing, colloid-bound uranium is lost due to rapid flocculation of colloidal material. The association of uranium with colloids therefore may be an important parameter in determining uranium estuarine behavior. Mire peats in the Kalix River highly concentrate uranium and are potentially a significant source of recoil 234 U to the mirewaters and river waters. However, mirewater data clearly demonstrate that only small 234 U/ 238 U shifts are generated relative to inflowing groundwater. 63 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs. groundwater. 63 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  6. The features of the isotope composition of carbon in the Paleozoic and Mesozoic oils of Western Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golyshev, S.I.; Lebedena, L.V.

    1984-01-01

    The isotope composition of the carbon in the oils from the Mesozoic and Paleozoic deposits is measured. The variations in the isotope composition of carbon for the Paleozoic oils is between 27.5 and 30.8 percent, while for the oils from the lower Jurassic and Triassic levels it is between 27.7 and 31.2 percent and for the upper Jurassic oils it is between 30.1 and 34.5 percent. The dependence of the isotope composition of the carbon in the oils on the type of original organic matter and its metamorphosis conditions during lithogenesis is analyzed. A softening in the isotope composition of the carbon in the oils from the oceanic deposits relative to continental deposits is found, together with a genetic individualism of the oils from the Paleozoic deposits and their difference from the oils in the Mesozoic deposits.

  7. Sedimentary tectonic evolution and reservoir-forming conditions of the Dazhou–Kaijiang paleo-uplift, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueming Yang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Great breakthrough recently achieved in the Sinian–Lower Paleozoic gas exploration in the Leshan–Longnüsi paleo-uplift, Sichuan Basin, has also made a common view reached, i.e., large-scale paleo-uplifts will be the most potential gas exploration target in the deep strata of this basin. Apart from the above-mentioned one, the other huge paleo-uplifts are all considered to be the ones formed in the post-Caledonian period, the impact of which, however, has rarely ever been discussed on the Sinian–Lower Paleozoic oil and gas reservoir formation. In view of this, based on outcrops, drilling and geophysical data, we analyzed the Sinian–Lower Paleozoic tectonic setting and sedimentary background in the East Sichuan Basin, studied the distribution rules of reservoirs and source rocks under the control of paleo-uplifts, and finally discussed, on the basis of structural evolution analysis, the conditions for the formation of Sinian–Lower Paleozoic gas reservoirs in this study area. The following findings were achieved. (1 The Dazhou–Kaijiang inherited uplift in NE Sichuan Basin which was developed before the Middle Cambrian controlled a large area of Sinian and Cambrian beach-facies development. (2 Beach-facies reservoirs were developed in the upper part of the paleo-uplift, while in the peripheral depression belts thick source rocks were developed like the Upper Sinian Doushantuo Fm and Lower Cambrian Qiongzhusi Fm, so there is a good source–reservoir assemblage. (3 Since the Permian epoch, the Dazhou–Kaijiang paleo-uplift had gradually become elevated from the slope zone, where the Permian oil generation peak occurred in the slope or lower and gentle uplift belts, while the Triassic gas generation peak occurred in the higher uplift belts, both with a favorable condition for hydrocarbon accumulation. (4 The lower structural layers, including the Lower Cambrian and its underlying strata, in the East Sichuan Basin, are now equipped with a

  8. A new paleozoic Symmoriiformes (Chondrichthyes from the late Carboniferous of Kansas (USA and cladistic analysis of early chondrichthyans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Pradel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The relationships of cartilaginous fishes are discussed in the light of well preserved three-dimensional Paleozoic specimens. There is no consensus to date on the interrelationship of Paleozoic chondrichthyans, although three main phylogenetic hypotheses exist in the current literature: 1. the Paleozoic shark-like chondrichthyans, such as the Symmoriiformes, are grouped along with the modern sharks (neoselachians into a clade which is sister group of holocephalans; 2. the Symmoriiformes are related to holocephalans, whereas the other Paleozoic shark-like chondrichthyans are related to neoselachians; 3. many Paleozoic shark-like chondrichthyans, such as the Symmoriiformes, are stem chondrichthyans, whereas stem and crown holocephalans are sister group to the stem and crown neoselachians in a crown-chondrichthyan clade. This third hypothesis was proposed recently, based mainly on dental characters. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: On the basis of two well preserved chondrichthyan neurocrania from the Late Carboniferous of Kansas, USA, we describe here a new species of Symmoriiformes, Kawichthys moodiei gen. et sp. nov., which was investigated by means of computerized X-ray synchrotron microtomography. We present a new phylogenetic analysis based on neurocranial characters, which supports the third hypothesis and corroborates the hypothesis that crown-group chondrichthyans (Holocephali+Neoselachii form a tightly-knit group within the chondrichthyan total group, by providing additional, non dental characters. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results highlight the importance of new well preserved Paleozoic fossils and new techniques of observation, and suggest that a new look at the synapomorphies of the crown-group chondrichthyans would be worthwhile in terms of understanding the adaptive significance of phylogenetically important characters.

  9. Subfamily Limoniinae Speiser, 1909 (Diptera, Limoniidae) from Baltic amber (Eocene): the genus Helius Lepeletier & Serville, 1828.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Iwona

    2014-06-10

    A revision of the genus Helius Lepeletier & Serville, 1828 (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Baltic amber (Eocene) is presented. Redescriptions of 5 species, Helius formosus Krzemiński, 1993, Helius linus Podenas, 2002, Helius minutus (Loew, 1850), Helius mutus Podenas, 2002, Helius pulcher (Loew, 1850) of this genus from Baltic amber are given and documented by photographs and drawings. Four new species of the genus Helius from Baltic amber are described: Helius gedanicus sp. nov., Helius hoffeinsorum sp. nov., Helius similis sp. nov., Helius fossilis sp. nov. A key to species of Helius from Baltic amber is provided. Patterns morphological evolution and the aspects evolutionary history of Helius are discussed.

  10. The diet of whiting Merlangius merlangus in the western Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Stine Dalmann; Gislason, Henrik; Andersen, Niels Gerner

    2016-01-01

    The diet of whiting Merlangius merlangus in the western Baltic Sea was investigated and compared to the diet in the southern North Sea. Clupeids were important prey in both areas, but especially in the western Baltic Sea where they constituted up to 90% of the diet of larger individuals. Gobies......, brown shrimps and polychaetes were the main prey of juveniles in the western Baltic Sea, while a wider range of species were consumed in the North Sea. The shift to piscivory occurred at smaller sizes in the western Baltic Sea and the fish prey consumed was proportionately larger than in the southern...

  11. A geochemical record of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during the late Paleozoic Ice Age: The relationship between atmospheric pCO2, climate and fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hren, M. T.; Harris, G.; Montanez, I. P.; DiMichele, W.; Eley, Y.; White, J. D.; Wilson, J. P.; McElwain, J.; Poulsen, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    The late Paleozoic Ice Age (LPIA) represents a dynamic period of widespread glacial/interglacial cycling as the earth underwent a major transition from an icehouse to greenhouse climate. During this transition period, pCO2 is shown to have varied by several hundred ppm and within the predicted range for anthropogenic change. Glacial/interglacial changes in atmospheric pCO2 during this time are associated with restructuring of tropical forests and carbon cycle dynamics. At present however, there is considerable debate over the potential hydrologic and fire-frequency feedbacks associated with this climatic variability. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are produced from the incomplete combustion of organic matter and are shown to be preserved over hundreds of millions of years. Thus, these organic compounds provide a potential record of the feedbacks between global biogeochemical systems and fire. We analyzed sedimentary organic matter from the Illinois Basin spanning the late Carboniferous glacial-interglacial cycles to assess the evolution of fire during this period. Our data show a decrease in the overall abundance of high molecular weight PAHs (HMW) from 312 to 304 Myr with significant variability that is coincident with the general timing of pCO2 cycling. Decreasing PAH abundance is also coincident with a proposed long-term change in pO2 and may reflect the influence of atmospheric oxygen in regulating fire occurrence and hydrologic cycling in tropical ecosystems in the late Carboniferous.

  12. Gneiss Macuira: tectonic evolution of Paleozoic metamorphic rocks of the Alta Guajira, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez I; A Julian; Zuluaga C; A, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The Macuira Gneiss is a Paleozoic metamorphic unit that outcrops in the Simarua, Jarara and Macuira ranges, Alta Guajira. It is composed by a lithologies metamorphosed under amphibolite facies P-T conditions and consist of amphibolitic and quartz feldspathic gneisses, amphibolites, schists, pegmatites, calc-silicated rocks and marbles, with migmatization evidences in gneisses and amphibolites. Five foliations (S1-5) and three folding events (F1-3) were identified and interpreted as product of two metamorphic events, developed in a progressive barrovian metamorphic gradient of intermediate pressure with intermediate P-T ratio, interpreted as product of continental collision tectonics. This unit is important in understanding of the tectonic evolution of the Alta Guajira and Caribbean because it records different deformational phases pre-, syn- and post-migmatitic, that could be related with different tectonic episodes: the first associated with the collision between Laurasia and Gondwana (Alleghanian Orogeny - Late Paleozoic), and the second related with the Caribbean Plate evolution (Andean Orogeny - Meso-Cenozoic).

  13. Ship emissions and the use of current air cleaning technology: contributions to air pollution and acidification in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claremar, Björn; Haglund, Karin; Rutgersson, Anna

    2017-10-01

    . The resulting potential of future acidification in the Baltic Sea, both from atmospheric deposition and from scrubber water along the shipping lanes, based on different assumptions about sulfur content in fuel, scrubber usage, and increased shipping density has been assessed. The increase in deposition for different shipping and scrubber scenarios differs for the basins in the Baltic Sea, with highest potential of acidification in the southern basins with high traffic. The proportion of ocean-acidifying sulfur from ships increases when taking scrubber water into account and the major reason for increasing acidifying nitrogen from ships is increasing ship traffic. Also, with the implementation of emission control for nitrogen, the effect of scrubbers on acidification is evident. This study also generates a database of shipping and scrubber scenarios for atmospheric deposition and scrubber exhaust from the period 2011 to 2050.

  14. [The "Baltic Frontier" revisited. Power structures and gross-cultural interactions in the Baltic region. Proceedings of the international symposium in Florence, February 29th and March Ist, 2008] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2010-01-01

    Arvustus: The "Baltic Frontier" revisited. Power structures and gross-cultural interactions in the Baltic region. Proceedings of the international symposium in Florence, February 29th and March Ist, 2008. Vienna, 2009

  15. The volcanic rocks construction of the late paleozoic era and uranium mineralization in Beishan area of Gansu province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Zhengchang; Luo Xiaoqiang

    2010-01-01

    Late Paleozoic volcanic rocks in Beishan area are the favorable constructions of hydrothermal type and volcanic type deposit. From the distribution of volcanic rocks, the volcanic compositions, the volcanic facies, volcanic eruption method and rhythm, chemical and trace elements compositions, and so on, it discusses the characteristics of the Late Devonian volcanic construction in this area and its relationship with uranium mineralization, analyzes the role of volcanic ore-control mechanism, and summarizes uranium ore forming regularity of volcanic construction in Late Paleozoic. (authors)

  16. LATEST CHALLENGES IN EFFICIENCY CONVERGENCE IN BALKAN AND BALTIC COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihăiță-Cosmin M. POPOVICI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of banks has been widely and extensively studied in the past few decades. Using a sample of Balkan and Baltic countries and by employing a Data Envelopment Analysis model, we want to highlight the main challenges for the highly concentrated banking system. Over the period 2007 - 2011, these countries have coped with the worst financial crisis from the Great Depression, which has severe effects on the banking systems. Our sample includes the least developed countries in the EU and for reference purpose, Luxembourg, with the highest GDP per capita. We expect to find similarities between Balkan countries and Baltic countries and we can draw lessons from Luxembourg`s results.

  17. Transitivity pairs in Baltic: between Finnic and Slavic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nau Nicole

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine transitivity pairs in the two modern Baltic languages Lithuanian and Latvian and compare them to neighbouring Finnic (Finnish, Estonian and Slavic (Russian, Polish languages. In Slavic the main strategy is to derive the intransitive (noncausal verb from the transitive (causal verb, while in Finnic we find a high number of derived causatives. Baltic uses both techniques, and in addition, there is a higher number of pairs where either both verbs are marked, or two etymologically related verbs are underived from a synchronic point of view. Differences and similarities across the six languages are investigated, using a list of 20 notions divided into five groups. Special attention is paid to animacy and to the distinction between inchoative and durative noncausal verbs.

  18. On the Baltic Sea Response to Climate Change: Model Implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omstedt, Anders; Leppaeranta, Matti

    1999-01-01

    The sensitivity of the Baltic Sea to climate change is reviewed on the basis of recent model studies. In general, the presently available models indicate that the Baltic Sea is a most sensitive system to climate change, particularly in air temperature, wind, fresh water inflow and the barotropic forcing in the entrance area. Available scenarios for ice conditions and climate warming around year 2100 show 2-3 months' shortening of the ice season in the Bothnian Bay and about 0.4 m decrease in the maximum annual ice thickness. Corresponding scenarios for climate cooling show 1-2 months' longer ice season in the Bothnian Bay and 0.2 - 0.5 m increase in the maximum annual ice thickness

  19. Tectonic lineaments in the Baltic from Gaevle to Simrishamn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floden, T.

    1977-12-01

    The present report deals with the tectonic pattern within the offshore area of middle and SE Sweden. The study is restricted to the large scale pattern that can be detected by seismic reflection profiling. Neotectonic events are discussed in connection with the special study of echosounding and seismic records from the Baltic Sea. This report is mainly based on investigations performed during the period 1966-1976 by means of continuous seismic reflection profiling. The investigations were mainly concentrated to areas with a sedimentary rock cover and thus, there is a large discrepance in the amount of available information between different parts of the Baltic. In the coastal zone, only those tectonic lineaments that are of importance for the understanding of the offshore conditions are included in the present maps. References to other known lineaments are made in the text

  20. Mid-infrared spectroscopy for characterization of Baltic amber (succinite)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner-Wysiecka, Ewa

    2018-05-01

    Natural Baltic amber (succinite) is the most appreciated fossil resin of the rich cultural traditions dating back to prehistoric times. Its unequivocal identification is extremely important in many branches of science and trades including archeology, paleontology, chemistry and finally mineralogical and gemological societies. Current methods of modification of natural succinite are more and more sophisticated making the identification of natural Baltic amber often challenging. In article the systematic analytical approach for identification of natural and modified under different conditions succinite, using mid-infrared spectroscopy (transmission, Drifts and ATR techniques) is presented. The correlation between spectral characteristics and properties of succinite is discussed pointing that the understanding of the nature of changes is the key of identification of this precious material.

  1. Labor Share in National Income: Implications in the Baltic Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razgūnė Aušra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that stability of labor share in national income is a key foundation in macroeconomic models, scientists acknowledge, that in the last three decades it has been declining around the world. The Baltic countries are not an exception; they follow similar patters to large economies, thus the research aims at determining economic factors at play. With the help of error correction model and time series data covering the past twenty years, we determine factors which contribute to the decline of labor share in the Baltic countries. We find significant long-term relationships between labor share and government spending, trade openness, and emigration. Government spending exhibits the highest contribution to variance of labor share in Lithuania, which also explains a large part of Latvia’s labor share variations. We find many similarities between the analyzed countries, however some differences are also visible.

  2. Radionuclides in the ecosystem of the southern Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skwarzec, B.; Struminska, D.I.; Borylo, A.

    2006-01-01

    It has been shown that 210 Po and plutonium are significantly more concentrated in the Baltic Sea ecosystem than uranium . Bioaccumulation coefficients in flora and fauna (BCFs) of 210 Po are of the 2·10 3 - 2·10 5 range and plutonium - of the 1·10 2 - 1·10 4 . 238 Pu/ 239-240 Pu isotopic ratio shows for the increasing content in the living organisms of plutonium coming from the Chernobyl NPP accident. Content of 55 Fe and 63 Ni in the Baltic ecosystem (sea water, Fucus Vesilculous) is inverse proportional to the distance from the contamination place (e.g. from the NPP). Against to 55 Fe - 63 Ni is accumulated in the fish skin and flakes through passive diffusion

  3. A new proposal concerning the botanical origin of Baltic amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Alexander P; Tappert, Ralf; Muehlenbachs, Karlis; Boudreau, Marc; McKellar, Ryan C; Basinger, James F; Garrett, Amber

    2009-10-07

    Baltic amber constitutes the largest known deposit of fossil plant resin and the richest repository of fossil insects of any age. Despite a remarkable legacy of archaeological, geochemical and palaeobiological investigation, the botanical origin of this exceptional resource remains controversial. Here, we use taxonomically explicit applications of solid-state Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy, coupled with multivariate clustering and palaeobotanical observations, to propose that conifers of the family Sciadopityaceae, closely allied to the sole extant representative, Sciadopitys verticillata, were involved in the genesis of Baltic amber. The fidelity of FTIR-based chemotaxonomic inferences is upheld by modern-fossil comparisons of resins from additional conifer families and genera (Cupressaceae: Metasequoia; Pinaceae: Pinus and Pseudolarix). Our conclusions challenge hypotheses advocating members of either of the families Araucariaceae or Pinaceae as the primary amber-producing trees and correlate favourably with the progressive demise of subtropical forest biomes from northern Europe as palaeotemperatures cooled following the Eocene climate optimum.

  4. Shaping Baltic States Defence Strategy: Host Nation Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otzulis Valdis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of NATO troops in the Baltic states has increased in the last years due to changing international environment, increased level of potential risks and threats, and necessity to enhance deterrence in the region. As a result of NATO’s Wales and Warsaw summits decisions, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania are entitled to host a battalion size battle group. The article aims at investigating how host nation support (HNS can contribute to the national defence and, additionally, to the self-defence capabilities of the Baltic states. The concept of HNS is present in the national defence concepts of all three countries. However, its active application and utilization started in the last two years. The article argues that more intensive incorporation of an HNS system in national defence policies serve the capability development in fields like national military logistics, infrastructure, and civil-military cooperation. Those capabilities can serve as an extension of the national defence.

  5. The first fossil cyphophthalmid harvestman from Baltic amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunlop, Jason A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The first fossil cyphophthalmid harvestman (Opiliones: Cyphophthalmi from Palaeogene (Eocene Baltic amber is described. This is only the third fossil example of this basal harvestman lineage; the others being from the probably slightly younger Bitterfeld amber and the much older, early Cretaceous, Myanmar (Burmese amber. Although incomplete and lacking most of the appendages, the new Baltic amber fossil can be identified as a female. The somatic characters preserved, especially spiracle morphology and the coxo-genital region, allow it to be assigned with some confidence to the extant genus Siro Latreille, 1796 (Sironidae. This fossil is formally described here as Siro balticus sp. nov. It resembles modern North American Siro species more than modern European ones, and can be distinguished principally on its relatively large size and the outline form of the body.

  6. Plastic pollution on the Baltic beaches of Kaliningrad region, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esiukova, Elena

    2017-01-30

    Contamination of sandy beaches of the Baltic Sea in Kaliningrad region is evaluated on the base of surveys carried out from June 2015 to January 2016. Quantity of macro/meso/microplastic objects in the upper 2cm of the sandy sediments of the wrack zone at 13 sampling sites all along the Russian coast is reported. Occurrence of paraffin and amber pieces at the same sites is pointed out. Special attention is paid to microplastics (range 0.5-5mm): its content ranges between 1.3 and 36.3 items per kg dry sediment. The prevailing found type is foamed plastic. No sound differences in contamination are discovered between beaches with high and low anthropogenic load. Mean level of contamination is of the same order of magnitude as has been reported by other authors for the Baltic Sea beaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The genetic prehistory of the Baltic Sea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittnik, Alissa; Wang, Chuan-Chao; Pfrengle, Saskia; Daubaras, Mantas; Zariņa, Gunita; Hallgren, Fredrik; Allmäe, Raili; Khartanovich, Valery; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Tõrv, Mari; Furtwängler, Anja; Andrades Valtueña, Aida; Feldman, Michal; Economou, Christos; Oinonen, Markku; Vasks, Andrejs; Balanovska, Elena; Reich, David; Jankauskas, Rimantas; Haak, Wolfgang; Schiffels, Stephan; Krause, Johannes

    2018-01-30

    While the series of events that shaped the transition between foraging societies and food producers are well described for Central and Southern Europe, genetic evidence from Northern Europe surrounding the Baltic Sea is still sparse. Here, we report genome-wide DNA data from 38 ancient North Europeans ranging from ~9500 to 2200 years before present. Our analysis provides genetic evidence that hunter-gatherers settled Scandinavia via two routes. We reveal that the first Scandinavian farmers derive their ancestry from Anatolia 1000 years earlier than previously demonstrated. The range of Mesolithic Western hunter-gatherers extended to the east of the Baltic Sea, where these populations persisted without gene-flow from Central European farmers during the Early and Middle Neolithic. The arrival of steppe pastoralists in the Late Neolithic introduced a major shift in economy and mediated the spread of a new ancestry associated with the Corded Ware Complex in Northern Europe.

  8. Corrosion of ammunition dumped in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurczak Wojciech

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the preliminary results of a research aimed at preparation for the extraction of chemical ammunition immersed after the Second World War(WWII in the waters of the Baltic Sea (BS. It has been 70 years since the first steps aiming at elimination of mainly German chemical weapons were taken, while the expected durability (tightness of metal barrels construction or other containers was estimated at 50-60 years. Consequently there is a serious risk of contamination of the Baltic Sea waters, not only with toxic warfare agents but also with the products of their decomposition. The evaluation of barrels’ and containers’ with TWA corrosion processes progress will determine the possibility of these munitions extraction to the surface in order to perform their classic utilization.

  9. Baltic Sea biodiversity status vs. cumulative human pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper H.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Korpinen, Samuli

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Many studies have tried to explain spatial and temporal variations in biodiversity status of marine areas from a single-issue perspective, such as fishing pressure or coastal pollution, yet most continental seas experience a wide range of human pressures. Cumulative impact assessments have...... been developed to capture the consequences of multiple stressors for biodiversity, but the ability of these assessments to accurately predict biodiversity status has never been tested or ground-truthed. This relationship has similarly been assumed for the Baltic Sea, especially in areas with impaired...... status, but has also never been documented. Here we provide a first tentative indication that cumulative human impacts relate to ecosystem condition, i.e. biodiversity status, in the Baltic Sea. Thus, cumulative impact assessments offer a promising tool for informed marine spatial planning, designation...

  10. Hirnantia sagittifera (Brachiopoda and Mucronaspis mucronata s.l. (Trilobita in the Upper Ordovician of the East Baltic: taxonomy and distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Hints

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The brachiopod Hirnantia sagittifera (M’Coy and trilobite morphs of the genus Mucronaspis from the topmost Ordovician Porkuni Stage of the central East Baltic are described and compared with those from the Hirnantian Stage of other regions. These important Hirnantian taxa occur in the Livonian Tongue of the Central Baltoscandian Facies Belt of the Baltic Basin, where the Porkuni Stage is represented by the non-graptolitic Kuldiga and Saldus formations. Hirnantia sagittifera appears in the lowermost part of the Porkuni Stage and is rather widely distributed in the basin in spite of its rare finds in each locality. Our study of trilobites of the genus Mucronaspis has enabled us to observe morphological changes in its exoskeleton in time and to identify a succession of five morphotypes (morphs. In some characteristics these morphs are similar to those of different alleged species of the genus Mucronaspis (M. olini, M. danai, M. ganabina, M. mucronata but they cannot be definitely assigned to any of these species due to some variances. However, here for the first time a stratigraphically ordered collection is presented, which deserves attention in revising the taxonomy of highly variable Mucronaspis. The described brachiopods and trilobites occur mainly in the strata correlated with the Normalograptus extraordinarius graptolite Biozone. However, the uppermost finds of both taxa come from strata correlated with the N. persculptus Biozone.

  11. Identification of the Early Permian (Autunian) in the subsurface of the Ebro Basin, NE Spain, and its paleogeographic consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Arche, A.; Díez, J.B.; López-Gómez, José

    2007-01-01

    [EN] The Early Permian (Autunian) has not been identifi ed up to now in the subsurface of the Tertiary Ebro Basin because of the scarcity of oil well boreholes reaching the Variscan basement and the systematic attribution of a Carboniferous age, without any paleontological data, to the unmetamorfosed siliciclastic sediments found at the base of some of them, clearly above the Early Paleozoic basement. Grey and black shale samples recovered from cores preserved in the REPSOL-YPF archi...

  12. [History of pedagogy and educational sciences in the Baltic countries from 1940 to 1990. An overview] / Mare Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Mare, 1960-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: History of pedagogy and educational sciences in the Baltic countries from 1940 to 1990. An overview. Hrsg. im Auftrag der Baltic Association of Historians of Pedagogy von Vadim Rõuk und Vidimantas Raudys. Verlag RaKa. Riga 2013

  13. Emission Permits trade between the Nordic and Baltic Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, Leif Kristian

    2000-05-01

    A bottom-up technology oriented model of the energy systems in the Nordic and Baltic countries have been constructed and used for analysing an optimal set of energy and emission trading within the region. The model used is MARKAL, which has been developed within the IEA-ETSAP. The analyses are based on national emission levels agreed on in the Kyoto protocol (and the following burden sharing negotiations within the European Union), and with an additional strengthening after 2010. Only energy related CO{sub 2} emissions are explicitly considered. Nuclear power in Sweden is assumed to be phased out. The results show that especially Norway and Sweden have large abatement costs when acting alone, whale the Baltic countries will probably not need to take domestic actions due to the Kyoto protocol if they act alone, as the restructuring of their economies in the beginning of the 1990ties cut emissions (and their economies) dramatically. It is shown that emission trading among the Nordic and Baltic countries can reduce abatement costs among the Nordic countries significantly, possibly down to a level equivalent to a world market (Annex I) permit price. Extending the Nordic common electricity market to Balticum will have minor influence on overall energy system costs. There is no pronounced direction for net electricity flow between the Nordic and Baltic countries. High marginal costs during peak hours in Balticum indicate that imports of Nordic hydro power during peak-hours could be a cost-effective option. This possibility could be implemented with a subsea AC/DC connection between Sweden and Latvia. It is politically viable to develop more hydropower in Norway, this country will be the major electricity exporter in the region, while Sweden will be the main importer. Changing scenario assumptions, i.e. no more Norwegian hydropower, but life extension of Swedish nuclear power, could change this picture. (author)

  14. Power engineers of the Nordic and Baltic countries in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veski, Rein

    1999-01-01

    The Estonian delegation had been invited by Helsinki Energy to participate in the Nordic-Baltic District Heating Symposium. Distance heating enjoys a wide popularity in the Nordic countries. For heating purposes the use of biofuels, incl. peat, is highly recommended. Biofuels have found wide use in the Nordic countries, the share of peat being more considerable in Finland. The Estonians attended also the MODIS Workshop and made a visit to heat enterprises. (author)

  15. Use of bioenergy in the Baltic Sea region. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barz, M; Ahlhaus, M [eds.

    2006-07-01

    The actual situation in our world can shortly be characterized by growing population and increasing energy demand, mainly covered by fossil fuels. This results in environmental as well as climate change problems. Renewable energies offer many opportunities to overcome these problems - they can provide heat and electricity as well as automotive fuels in environmentally friendly systems and thus contribute to lower the fossil fuels dependency. Biomass as the oldest renewable energy of mankind is still playing a dominant role as an energy carrier in some African and Asian regions, where biofuels are still used in traditional ways - mainly for cooking. On the other hand biomass has a huge potential to become a more important energy resource even in industrialized countries. All over the world the opportunities of biomass are accepted and biomass has become a common term in politics resulting in new strategic analyses, political documents, legislative actions and funding programs. A lot of modern and new high-tech solutions for bioenergy systems are already developed and others are under research. Aims of the actual developments are new bioenergy systems on the basis of regional biomass potentials in rural regions. The Baltic Sea Region offers a high potential to produce biofuels for different applications to fit the growing demand of heat, electricity and fuels. In combination with its industry and engineering skills the Baltic Sea Region is predestinated as a nucleus for further development and demonstration of advanced bioenergy solutions. In the result of the conference ''Contribution of Agriculture to Energy Production'', held in Tallinn, Estonia in October 2005 representatives from policy, economy and science identified a high potential and demand for bioenergy solutions and realized the necessity of establishment of an international network (Baltic Bioenergy Net - BaBEt) for information and know-how transfer between the Baltic States to foster the energetic use

  16. Use of bioenergy in the Baltic Sea region. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barz, M.; Ahlhaus, M. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    The actual situation in our world can shortly be characterized by growing population and increasing energy demand, mainly covered by fossil fuels. This results in environmental as well as climate change problems. Renewable energies offer many opportunities to overcome these problems - they can provide heat and electricity as well as automotive fuels in environmentally friendly systems and thus contribute to lower the fossil fuels dependency. Biomass as the oldest renewable energy of mankind is still playing a dominant role as an energy carrier in some African and Asian regions, where biofuels are still used in traditional ways - mainly for cooking. On the other hand biomass has a huge potential to become a more important energy resource even in industrialized countries. All over the world the opportunities of biomass are accepted and biomass has become a common term in politics resulting in new strategic analyses, political documents, legislative actions and funding programs. A lot of modern and new high-tech solutions for bioenergy systems are already developed and others are under research. Aims of the actual developments are new bioenergy systems on the basis of regional biomass potentials in rural regions. The Baltic Sea Region offers a high potential to produce biofuels for different applications to fit the growing demand of heat, electricity and fuels. In combination with its industry and engineering skills the Baltic Sea Region is predestinated as a nucleus for further development and demonstration of advanced bioenergy solutions. In the result of the conference ''Contribution of Agriculture to Energy Production'', held in Tallinn, Estonia in October 2005 representatives from policy, economy and science identified a high potential and demand for bioenergy solutions and realized the necessity of establishment of an international network (Baltic Bioenergy Net - BaBEt) for information and know-how transfer between the Baltic States to foster

  17. Evidence concerning oxidation as a surface reaction in Baltic amber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shashoua, Yvonne

    2012-01-01

    , obtained from pressed amber powder, were subjected to accelerated thermal ageing. Cross-sections of the pellets were analyzed by infrared micro-spectroscopy, in order to identify and quantify changes in chemical properties. The experimental results showed strong oxidation exclusively at the exterior part...... of cross-sections from samples subjected to long-term thermal ageing, confirming that oxidation of Baltic amber starts from the surface....

  18. Upwelling events, coastal offshore exchange, links to biogeochemical processes - Highlights from the Baltic Sea Science Congress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Ołdakowski

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic Sea Science Congress was held at Rostock University, Germany, from 19 to 22 March 2007. In the session entitled"Upwelling events, coastal offshore exchange, links to biogeochemical processes" 20 presentations were given,including 7 talks and 13 posters related to the theme of the session.This paper summarises new findings of the upwelling-related studies reported in the session. It deals with investigationsbased on the use of in situ and remote sensing measurements as well as numerical modelling tools. The biogeochemicalimplications of upwelling are also discussed.Our knowledge of the fine structure and dynamic considerations of upwelling has increased in recent decades with the advent ofhigh-resolution modern measurement techniques and modelling studies. The forcing and the overall structure, duration and intensity ofupwelling events are understood quite well. However, the quantification of related transports and the contribution to the overall mixingof upwelling requires further research. Furthermore, our knowledge of the links between upwelling and biogeochemical processes is stillincomplete. Numerical modelling has advanced to the extent that horizontal resolutions of c. 0.5 nautical miles can now be applied,which allows the complete spectrum of meso-scale features to be described. Even the development of filaments can be describedrealistically in comparison with high-resolution satellite data.But the effect of upwelling at a basin scale and possible changes under changing climatic conditions remain open questions.

  19. Possible extrinsic controls on the Ordovician radiation: Stratigraphic evidence from the Great Basin, western USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droser, M.L. (Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Dept. of Earth Sciences); Fortey, R.A. (Natural History Museum, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Palaeontology)

    1993-04-01

    The Ordovician radiation has been previously examined by looking at 1/analyses of patterns of diversification within small clades, 2/analyses of large databases to elucidate large-scale paleoecological patterns such as increased tiering and onshore-offshore shifts associated with this radiation. In order to resolve the relationships between these two scales of analysis there is critical need to examine in detail the paleoecology and possible biofacies shifts associated with the Ordovician radiation. The authors have examined the base of the Whiterock Series (Lower-Middle Ordovician) in the Great Basin as it represents one of the most complete records of the Ordovician radiation on the North American continent. Detailed field evidence suggests that the base of the Whiterock does not represent a simple faunal turnover but corresponds with the first occurrences in the region of groups that come to dominate the rest of the Paleozoic. Among the trilobites, this includes the lichides, calymenids, proetides, and phacopides. Similar patterns are found among the dominate Paleozoic bivalve, cephalopod, brachiopod and graptolite clades. Global correlation of this time interval suggests that this pattern of first broad geographic occurrences is not unique to North America. This boundary corresponds with a globally recognized sea level lowstand. In the Great Basin, significant facies shifts are present in shallow and deep water settings. While extrinsic controls are commonly reserved for extinctions, these data suggest that extrinsic factors may have been significant in the timing of the Paleozoic fauna rose to dominance.

  20. Fisheries management responses to climate change in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Thomas Talund; Hoff, Ayoe; Frost, Hans S.

    2015-01-01

    The long term management plan for cod in the eastern Baltic Sea was introduced in 2007 to ensure the full reproductive capacity of cod and an economically viable fishing industry. If these goals are to be fulfilled under changing environmental conditions, a readjustment of the current management ...... scenarios in which the economic consequences of different management objectives for the fishing fleets are assessed through a dynamic multi-species and multi-fleet bio-economic assessment model that include both species interactions and climate change....... plan may be needed. Therefore, this paper investigates the economic impacts of managing the cod, sprat and herring stocks in the eastern Baltic Sea, given on-going climate change, which is known to affect cod recruitment negatively. It is shown that climate change may have severe biological......The long term management plan for cod in the eastern Baltic Sea was introduced in 2007 to ensure the full reproductive capacity of cod and an economically viable fishing industry. If these goals are to be fulfilled under changing environmental conditions, a readjustment of the current management...

  1. The Baltics on Their Way towards a Circular Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigoryan A. A.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Circular economy has been studied extensively both in Europe and worldwide. It is largely viewed as a potential strategy for societal development, aimed to increase prosperity while reducing dependence on raw materials and energy. Many businesses regard circular economy as a way to enhance economic growth and increase profits. Governments across the world actively engage in the discussion about the benefits of a transition to a circular economy and about its impact on employment, economic growth, and the environment. This paper aims to study the major issues of circular economy, to identify its advantages, and to offer an insight into the transition stage the Baltic States are undergoing today on their way to circular economy. It is stressed that the Baltic countries are not fully using the opportunities offered by a circular economy. For example, Latvia’s, Lithuania’s, and Estonia’s recycling rates are significantly below those of other European countries. The Baltics depend heavily on EU financial support. An increase in funding will contribute to the implementation of circular economy technologies.

  2. Use of electroconvulsive therapy in the Baltic states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lõokene, Margus; Kisuro, Aigars; Mačiulis, Valentinas; Banaitis, Valdas; Ungvari, Gabor S; Gazdag, Gábor

    2014-07-01

    While the use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been investigated worldwide, nothing is known about its use in the Baltic states. The purpose of this study was thus to explore ECT practice in the three Baltic countries. A 21-item, semi-structured questionnaire was sent out to all psychiatric inpatient settings that provided ECT in 2010. In Lithuania, four services provided ECT in 2010. Only modified ECT with anaesthesia and muscle relaxation is performed in the country. In 2010, approximately 120 patients received ECT, i.e., 0.375 patients/10,000 population. Only two centres offer ECT in Latvia. The first centre treated only three patients with ECT in 2010, while the second centre six patients. In both centres outdated Soviet machines are used. The main indication for ECT was severe, malignant catatonia. ECT is practiced in five psychiatric facilities in Estonia. In 2010, it was used in the treatment of 362 patients (17% women) nationwide, i.e., 2.78 patients/10,000 population. Only a senior psychiatrist may indicate ECT in Estonia and pregnancy is no contraindication. In 2010, the main indication for ECT was schizophrenia (47.8%). This 2010 survey revealed significant differences in the use and availability of ECT between the Baltic countries.

  3. Cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes in fish from the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, Amelie; Bignert, Anders; McLachlan, Michael S

    2013-10-01

    Laboratory studies suggest that the cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes (cVMS) octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) will persist in the aquatic environment and bioaccumulate in fish. Here these cVMS were measured in herring collected in the Swedish waters of the Baltic Sea and the North Sea and in grey seals from the Baltic Proper. D4, D5, and D6 were present in herring muscle at concentrations around 10, 200, and 40ngg(-1) lipid weight, respectively. The ratio of these concentrations was similar to the relative magnitude of estimated emissions to water, suggesting that the efficiency of overall transfer through the environment and food web was similar (within a factor 2-3) for the three chemicals. The concentrations of D5 and D6 were similar in herring caught in the highly populated Baltic Proper and in the less populated Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay. The D4 concentrations were lower at the most remote northern station, suggesting that D4 is less persistent than D5 and D6. Herring from the North Sea had lower levels of all three chemicals. The concentrations of D4, D5 and D6 in grey seal blubber were lower than the lipid normalized concentrations in herring, indicating that they do not biomagnify in grey seals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Actual economic and energetics problems of Baltic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapala, J.; Miskins, V.; Rudi, U.; Caikovska, M.; Zeltins, N.

    1999-01-01

    The paper characterises the economic development of the Baltic countries after they have restored the independence. The authors explore the dynamic of the key economic indices - the GDP and inflation level, and show that there are tendencies for the economy to improve. The data on the direct foreign investments per capita are given for each Baltic country as well as on the greatest foreign firms - investors functioning in Latvia and the investment allocation among the sectors. The State Investment Programme realised in Latvia since 1996 is well illustrated, and the share is shown of the sectors involved. The authors briefly discuss legislative activities in the energy sector for Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia, and present statistical data on the energy supply in Baltic countries. The energy production and import/export balance is analysed, and the tariffs for electricity are exemplified for all the three countries. The information is also given as to the number of energy debtors and the distributors of the debts for consumed energy among separate branches of energetics in Latvia and Lithuania. The data presented in the paper show that due to decrease in energy resource consumption the harmful pollution have also diminished. (author)

  5. Bringing Western-standard service stations to the Baltic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesonen, H.

    1992-01-01

    Neste is the only Western oil company so far to have established a service station presence in the Baltic, with the exception of Norway's Statoil, which has one outlet near Tallinn Airport. Neste has an important logistical advantage compared to other companies in this respect as its two Finnish refineries are ideally located for supplying the region with high-quality petroleum products. Neste's first joint venture in the Baltic, Traffic Service, based in Estonia, was set up with Eesti Kutus in 1988 and opened its first service station in 1990. Other joint ventures are now up and running in Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, and St. Petersburg. A total of 10 - 15 stations, the majority strategically located along the route of the Via Baltica, are expected to be operational by the end of this year. The Neste network comprises a combination of new outlets and refurbished older stations that have been modernized to bring them up to Western standards. These offer a comprehensive range of fuels, lubricants, spare parts, and accessories, as well as food, confectionery, and coffee shop services. Some stations also offer repair and car wash facilities. Adapting to the transition from a communist economy to a Western, capitalist one has not been easy for the Baltic countries, and has inevitably created difficulties for companies like Neste, in areas such as legislation covering land ownership. Neste's joint ventures have also encountered difficulties in instilling the Western approach to business efficiency, and customer service in a workforce used to the Soviet retail system

  6. Dissolved organic phosphorus and its bioavailable fraction in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nausch, M.; Nausch, G.; Setzkorn, D.; Welz, Ä.

    2009-04-01

    shortage. DOP concentrations of 0.54 µM exceeding this range has been detected in a spring bloom. BAP concentrations ranged between 0.02 and 0.34 µM comprising a proportion between 9 and 61% of the DOP. The amount of BAP was strongly correlated with the ambient DOP concentrations at the beginning of the experiments and can be described by the equation: BAP= (0.92* DOP)-0.14. The regression slope of 0.92 indicated that all DOP above the intercept with the abscissa is bioavailable and those variations in DOP were caused by fluctuations in BAP. The remaining refractory DOP varied between 0.13 and 0.20µM and did not vary seasonally. Parallel experiments in 2005 without carbon and nitrogen additions reveal the BAP utilization by heterotrophic bacteria under natural conditions. The bacterial uptake of BAP ranged between 18 and 78% and reached 100% during the summer bloom of diazotrophic cyanobacteria. BAP utilization despite the availability of DIP indicates that phosphorus uptake may be often carbon and/or nitrogen limited and the BAP could satisfy bacterial carbon or nitrogen demand. The limitation was repressed during the summer bloom of diazotrophioc cyanobacteria. Here the BAP fulfils the phosphorus demand. The spatial variability of DOP concentrations in summer 2008 shows a gradient in DOP concentrations from south to north. In the southern and central Baltic Sea, DOP values in the surface ranged between 0.25 and 0.39 µM. In the Gulf of Finland, concentrations of around 0.25 µM were found. In the Gulf of Bothnia, characterized by a phosphate limitation especially in the northern part, DOP concentrations decreased from 0.20 µM in the southernmost part down to 0.12 µM in the northernmost region. BAP amounted between 8% and 57% of DOP. High BAP proportions were detected in the Bornholm Basin (57%) and the Gulf of Finland (45%). The lowest percentage (8 %) was found in the northernmost part in the Gulf of Bothnia. Differing from the results in the central Baltic Sea in

  7. Local level sustainability policies in the Baltic Sea area: Local Agenda 21 within the Union of the Baltic Cities network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joas, M; Grönholm, B

    2001-08-01

    Local Agenda 21 (LA21) processes have 2 central goals. i) On the basis of some of the empirical evidence in this study, the primary goal is to improve democratic (environmental) policy-making processes in such a manner that a larger share of the population will be able to participate in planning and decision making and will also be able to understand the consequences of these decisions. ii) The LA21 processes seek to improve (at least indirectly) the broadly defined environmental situation locally in a manner that takes into account both the local and the global contexts. The first part of this article discusses the concept and methods of LA21 and sheds light on the different action areas that are central to the Baltic LA21 processes. In addition, the study will describe and display the LA21 situation within one network of cities, the Union of the Baltic Cities (UBC). Networking, including transfer of information, models and ideas, has been among the main tools for the diffusion of LA21 ideas especially into newly democratized societies. Finally, the article will conclude with an overall assessment of the LA21 situation on the Baltic rim.

  8. Kas "balti kirjanik" on olemas? / Does the "Baltic Writer" Exist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius Hasselblatt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Teesid: Artiklis küsitakse 2009. a ilmunud leksikoni „300 Baltic Writers“ põhjal, kas „Balti kirjanik“ on põhjendatud mõiste. Varem mõisteti Baltikumi all laiemat ala, kuhu kuulusid ka Poola ja Soome. Uurides, kui palju „Balti“ kirjanikke on tõlgitud naaberkeeltesse, selgus, et läti keelde on neid tõlgitud rohkem kui leedu ja eesti keelde. Samuti on eesti autoreid rohkem tõlgitud soome keelde ja leedu autoreid poola keelde. Ilmneb, et Balti kontseptsioon on liiga kitsas, sest relevantne regioon on suurem: soome-eesti ja leedu-poola suhetega võrreldes ei paista eesti-läti-leedu suhe eriti millegagi silma.   The article takes a closer look at the reference guide 300 Baltic Writers (Kalnačs jt 2009 which was published in 2009. The initial (and may-be even provocative question is, whether the concept “Baltic writer” which is introduced here is indeed as clear and senseful as the introduction suggests. In this introduction, some basic problems occur, as can be exemplified through the following quotations: “This reference book presents a hundred of the best-known writers from each of the three Baltic States, starting with the time in the 16th century when the written word first appeared in their national languages, and going on to the twenty-first century (the bibliography goes up to the year 2008. In doing so, it shows the historical and cultural partnerships between the three Baltic countries.” (p. 5 While the first sentence is comprehensible and correct, the second sentence shows a simple logical mistake: one cannot show a unity simply by putting things together. In doing so, one may create a (wishful unity, i.e. postulate it, but one cannot show it. Also one of the following sentences is not convincing, but highly problematic: “For a long time, the writers, poets, playwrights and literary critics of each of these countries have deserved to be introduced to a wider international literary audience as a regional

  9. Predation by crustaceans on native and non-native Baltic clams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ejdung, G.; Flach, E.; Byrén, L.; Hummel, H.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the effect of crustacean predators on native/non-native Macoma balthica bivalves in aquarium experiments. North Sea M. balthica (NS Macoma) were recently observed in the southern Baltic Sea. They differ genetically and in terms of morphology, behaviour and evolutionary history from Baltic

  10. The Role of Political Elites in the Development of Politics of Memory in the Baltic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnov Vadim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on multiple cases of the politicization of history by the Baltic political elites. Three states of development of politics of memory in the Baltic States are identified. Problems of political exploitation of the past are scrutinized in the context of political life and international relations. It is concluded that the narratives of the past where nazi and Soviet legacies are equated are actively promoted on the pan-European level. Elites of the Baltic States play a salient role in this process and enhance ties with the elites of the Eastern Europe, expert and political communities of the Western Europe and USA. The dominant trends in the development of the historical politics in the Baltic countries are the administrative and legislative instruments for approval of the preferred narratives of the past, as well as an active political work at the international level aimed at the inclusion of the Baltic narratives of the past into the European politics of memory. Historical politics of the Baltic States shows the Baltic countries as the victims of "two totalitarianisms" ("Nazi and Soviet occupation", and this point of view is widely used as a foreign policy tool. The politicization of the "anti-totalitarianism" issue is now a popular foreign policy tool that not only serves the interests of the Baltic and Eastern European politicians, but also finds ideological supporters in Western Europe and the United States.

  11. Baltic salmon activates immune relevant genes in fin tissue when responding to Gyrodactylus salaris infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kania, Per Walther; Larsen, Thomas Bjerre; Ingerslev, Hans C.

    2007-01-01

    A series of immune relevant genes are expressed when the Baltic salmon responds on infections with the ectoparasite Gyrodactylus salaris which leads to a decrease of the parasite infection......A series of immune relevant genes are expressed when the Baltic salmon responds on infections with the ectoparasite Gyrodactylus salaris which leads to a decrease of the parasite infection...

  12. The Two-sector Economic Problem Of Persistent Organic Pollution and Baltic Sea Salmon Fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutniczak, Barbara; Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk

    2011-01-01

    sector. The paper sets up a general social planner model and demonstrates it in simple functional form, using the problem of persistent organic pollution in the Baltic Sea and its effects on the regulation and economic value of the Baltic Salmon. The paper illustrates how a modified golden rule can...

  13. USBF recognized President Ilves for promoting relations between the Baltic countries and the United States

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves pälvis Balti riikide ja Ameerika Ühendriikide suhete edendamise eest Ameerika-Balti Fondi (USBF - The United States-Baltic Foundation) autasu - Baltic Statesmanship Award'i. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 17.-23.04.2008

  14. Less ice on the Baltic reduces the extent of hypoxic bottom waters and sedimentary phosphorus release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermaat, J.E.; Bouwer, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    A significant relation was established between the maximum extent of sea ice covering the Baltic Sea and the hypoxic area in the deeper parts of the Baltic Proper, with a lag of 2 years: for the period 1970-2000, less ice was correlated with a smaller anoxic area. At the same time, maximum ice

  15. Baltic Heritage Network : die Pflege des exilbaltischen Kulturerbes - Zwischenbilanz und Zukunftsperspektiven / Piret Noorhani

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noorhani, Piret, 1960-

    2008-01-01

    Välisbalti kultuuripärandi portaal Baltic Heritage Network, mis on mitmekeelne portaal koondamaks informatsiooni Balti diasporaa kultuuripärandi leidumuse ja sellealase tegevuse kohta. Rahvusvahelise ja siseriikliku koostöö laiendamiseks ja tegevuste koordineerimiseks loodi jaanuaris 2008 mittetulundusühing Baltic Heritage Network, kuhu kuulub praegu liikmeid kõigist kolmest Balti riigist.

  16. US Baltic Foundation award winners from Estonia are Arvo Pärt and Enn Kunila

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Washingtonis toimunud tänavusel U.S Baltic Foundationi auhinnagalal tunnustati kahte eestlast: helilooja Arvo Pärti auhinnaga Baltimaade kuvandi rikastamise eest (Baltic Image Enhancement Award) ja ettevõtjast kunstikollektsionääri Enn Kunilat Baltimaade filantroopiaauhinnaga

  17. Determination of the Basin Structure Beneath European Side of Istanbul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabulut, Savas; Cengiz Cinku, Mulla; Thomas, Michael; Lamontagne, Maurice

    2016-04-01

    Istanbul (near North Anatolian Fault Zone:NAFZ, Turkey) is located in northern part of Sea of Marmara, an area that has been influenced by possible Marmara Earthquakes. The general geology of Istanbul divided into two stratigraphic unit such as sedimentary (from Oligocene to Quaternary Deposits) and bedrock (Paleozoic and Eocene). The bedrock units consists of sand stone, clay stone to Paleozoic age and limestone to Eocene age and sedimentary unit consist of sand, clay, mil and gravel from Oligocene to Quaternary age. Earthquake disaster mitigation studies divided into two important phases, too. Firstly, earthquake, soil and engineering structure problems identify for investigation area, later on strategic emergency plan can prepare for these problems. Soil amplification play important role the disaster mitigation and the site effect analysis and basin structure is also a key parameter for determining of site effect. Some geophysical, geological and geotechnical measurements are requeired to defined this relationship. Istanbul Megacity has been waiting possible Marmara Earthquake and their related results. In order to defined to possible damage potential related to site effect, gravity measurements carried out for determining to geological structure, basin geometry and faults in Istanbul. Gravity data were collected at 640 sites by using a Scientrex CG-5 Autogravity meter Standard corrections applied to the gravity data include those for instrumental drift, Earth tides and latitude, and the free-air and Bouguer corrections. The corrected gravity data were imported into a Geosoft database to create a grid and map of the Bouguer gravity anomaly (grid cell size of 200 m). As a previously results, we determined some lineminants, faults and basins beneath Istanbul City. Especially, orientation of faults were NW-SE direction and some basin structures determined on between Buyukcekmece and Kucukcekmece Lake.

  18. Regional variations in diffuse nitrogen losses from agriculture in the Nordic and Baltic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagstad, N.; Stålnacke, P.; Andersen, H.-E.; Deelstra, J.; Jansons, V.; Kyllmar, K.; Loigu, E.; Rekolainen, S.; Tumas, R.

    This paper describes nitrogen losses from, and the characteristics of, 35 selected catchments (12 to 2000 ha) in the Nordic and Baltic countries. Average annual losses of N in 1994-1997 ranged from 5 to 75 kg ha-1, generally highest and characterised by significant within-country and interannual variations, in Norway and the lowest losses were observed in the Baltic countries. An important finding of the study is that the average nutrient losses varied greatly among the studied catchments. The main explanations for this variability were water runoff, fertiliser use (especially the amount of manure), soil type and erosion (including stream bank erosion). However, there were several exceptions, and it was difficult to find general relationships between the individual factors. For example, there was poor correlation between nitrogen losses and surpluses. Therefore, the results suggest that the observed variability in N losses cannot have been due solely to differences in farm management practices, although the studied catchments do include a wide range of nutrient application levels, animal densities and other relevant elements. There is considerable spatial variation in the physical properties (soil, climate, hydrology, and topography) and the agricultural management of the basins, and the interaction between and relative effects of these factors has an important impact on erosion and nutrient losses. In particular, hydrological processes may have a marked effect on N losses measured in the catchment stream water. The results indicate that significant differences in hydrological pathways (e.g. the relationship between fast- and slow-flow processes) lead to major regional differences in N inputs to surface waters and therefore also in the response to changes in field management practices. Agricultural practices such as crop rotation systems, nutrient inputs and soil conservation measures obviously play a significant role in the site-specific effects, although they

  19. Tectonic contact beetwen Paleozoic and Triassic rocks south of Podolševa (Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogomir Celarc

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Tectonic contact between Paleozoic and Triassic rocks south of Podolševa, which passes prominent cliffs over the left bank of Savinja river (Klemenča peč, Jamnikova peč, Golerjeva peč, Strevčeva peč and Huda peč, is on the basis of the new mapping a steep fault, dipping to the north. In the last phase, the fault was dextral strike – slip active, before was probably reverse, and can represent accompanying structure of Periadriatic lineament. It was under transpresive tectonic regime and complies with model of positive flower structure.We named it Podol{evski prelom (Podol{eva fault.

  20. Selection of areas for testing in the Eleana formation: Paleozoic geology of western Yucca Flat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, J J

    1984-07-01

    The Paleozoic geology of NTS is reviewed to select an area for underground nuclear testing in shale. Constraints on possible areas, dictated by test program requirements and economics, are areas with topographic slope less than 5/sup 0/, depths to working point less than 3000 ft., and working points above the water table. The rock formation selected is Unit J (argillite) of the Mississippian age Eleana Formation. Within NTS, Western Yucca Flat is selected as the best area to meet the requirements. Details of the Paleozoic structure of western Yucca Flat are presented. The interpretation is based on published maps, cross-sections, and reports as well as borehole, refraction seismic, and gravity data. In terms of subsurface structure and areas where Eleana Formation Unit J occurs at depths between 500 ft to 3000 ft, four possible testing areas are identified. The areas are designated here as A, B, C and the Gravity High. Available data on the water table (static water level) is reviewed for western Yucca Flat area. Depth to the water table increases from 500 to 600 ft in Area A to 1500 ft or more in the Gravity High area. Review of the water table data rules out area A and B for testing in argillite above the water table. Area C is relatively unexplored and water conditions are unknown there. Thus, the Gravity High is selected as the most promising area for selecting testing sites. There is a dolomite thrust sheet of unknown thickness overlying the argillite in the Gravity High area. An exploration program is proposed to better characterize this structure. Finally, recommendations are made for procedures to follow for eventual site characterization of a testing site in argillite. 22 references, 12 figures, 1 table.

  1. Bedded Barite Deposits from Sonora (nw Mexico): a Paleozoic Analog for Modern Cold Seeps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canet, C.; Anadón, P.; González-Partida, E.; Alfonso, P.; Rajabi, A.; Pérez-Segura, E.; Alba-Aldave, L. A.

    2013-05-01

    The Mazatán barite deposits represent an outstanding example of Paleozoic bedded barite, a poorly understood type of mineral deposit of major economic interest. The largest barite bodies of Mazatán are hosted within an Upper Carboniferous flysch succession, which formed part of an accretionary wedge related to the subduction of the Rheic Ocean beneath Gondwana. As well, a few barite occurrences are hosted in Upper Devonian, pre-orogenic turbidites. A variety of mineralized structures is displayed by barite, including: septaria nodules, enterolitic structures, rosettes and debris-flow conglomerates. Barite is accompanied by chalcedony, pyrite (framboids) and berthierine. Gas-rich fluid inclusions in barite were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy and methane was identified, suggesting the occurrence of light hydrocarbons in the environment within which barite precipitated. 13C-depleted carbonates (δ13C: -24.3 to -18.8‰) were found in the barite deposits; they formed through anaerobic oxidation of methane coupled to sulfate reduction, and yield negative δ18O values (-11.9 to -5.2‰) reflecting the isotopic composition of Devonian-Carboniferous seawater. Methane-derived carbonates occur in modern hydrocarbon seeps and have been reported from Mesozoic and Cenozoic seep sediments, but they have never before been described in Paleozoic bedded barite deposits. δ34S of barite varies from +17.6 to +64.1‰, with the lowest values overlapping the range for coeval seawater sulfate; this distribution indicates a process of sulfate reduction. Barite precipitation can be explained by mixing of methane- and barium-rich fluids with pore-water (seawater) containing sulfate residual from microbial reduction. Two analyses from barite gave an 87Sr/86Sr within and slightly above the range for seawater at the time of deposition, with 0.708130 and 0.708588, which would preclude the involvement of hydrothermal fluids in the mineralization process.

  2. Delayed fungal evolution did not cause the Paleozoic peak in coal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelsen, Matthew P; DiMichele, William A; Peters, Shanan E; Boyce, C Kevin

    2016-03-01

    Organic carbon burial plays a critical role in Earth systems, influencing atmospheric O2 and CO2 concentrations and, thereby, climate. The Carboniferous Period of the Paleozoic is so named for massive, widespread coal deposits. A widely accepted explanation for this peak in coal production is a temporal lag between the evolution of abundant lignin production in woody plants and the subsequent evolution of lignin-degrading Agaricomycetes fungi, resulting in a period when vast amounts of lignin-rich plant material accumulated. Here, we reject this evolutionary lag hypothesis, based on assessment of phylogenomic, geochemical, paleontological, and stratigraphic evidence. Lignin-degrading Agaricomycetes may have been present before the Carboniferous, and lignin degradation was likely never restricted to them and their class II peroxidases, because lignin modification is known to occur via other enzymatic mechanisms in other fungal and bacterial lineages. Furthermore, a large proportion of Carboniferous coal horizons are dominated by unlignified lycopsid periderm with equivalent coal accumulation rates continuing through several transitions between floral dominance by lignin-poor lycopsids and lignin-rich tree ferns and seed plants. Thus, biochemical composition had little relevance to coal accumulation. Throughout the fossil record, evidence of decay is pervasive in all organic matter exposed subaerially during deposition, and high coal accumulation rates have continued to the present wherever environmental conditions permit. Rather than a consequence of a temporal decoupling of evolutionary innovations between fungi and plants, Paleozoic coal abundance was likely the result of a unique combination of everwet tropical conditions and extensive depositional systems during the assembly of Pangea.

  3. ADMINISTRATIVE SUPERVISION OF LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENT IN THE BALTIC STATES: A COMPARATIVE VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIOLETA KIURIENÉ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses models of administrative supervision of local self-government in the Baltic States (Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of these models. The research done in this article defines the theoretical concept of administrative supervision of local self-government; gives an overview of the legislative framework underpining the key administrative supervision bodies of local self-government in the Baltic States; discusses the issue of legal regulation and the present state of administrative supervision over local self-government units in the Baltic States; gives some theoretical and practical suggestions to develop this field in the Baltic States.The research methods employed in preparation of this article are theoretical methods of analysis of scientific literature and sources, legal acts and documents as well as comparative and logical analysis, induction and generalisation. Three Baltic States similar in their area, number of inhabitants, and governmental peculiarities have been chosen for the analysis.

  4. Artistic Alliances and Revolutionary Rivalries in the Baltic Art World, 1890-1914

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Pushaw

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the areas now known as Estonia and Latvia, art remained a matter for the Baltic German minority throughout the nineteenth century. When ethnic Estonian and Latvian artists gained prominence in the late 1890s, their presence threatened Baltic German hegemony over the region’s culture. In 1905, revolution in the Russian Empire spilled into the Baltic Provinces, sparking widespread anti-German violence. The revolution also galvanized Latvian and Estonian artists towards greater cultural autonomy and independence from Baltic German artistic institutions. This paper argues that the situation for artists before and after the 1905 revolution was not simply divisive along ethnic lines, as some nationalist historians have suggested. Instead, this paper examines how Baltic German, Estonian and Latvian artists oscillated between common interests, inspiring rivalries, and politicized conflicts, questioning the legitimacy of art as a universalizing language in multicultural societies.

  5. EIA in the Baltic countries. The case of three oil terminals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm-Hansen, J. [ed.

    1995-12-31

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) in the Baltic Countries: The Case of Three Oil Terminals is the second phase of a research and exchange project that has been going on between Baltic and Nordic experts on Environmental Impact Assessment since 1992. The objective of the projects is to contribute to the capability of the Baltic states in carrying out EIAs. By scrutinizing the processes of the EIAs carried out for three Baltic oil terminals, working groups consisting of both Nordic and Baltic EIA experts have sought to highlight the practical implications of the `EIA vocabulary` eagerly taught by Western experts and perhaps even more eagerly studied by their `Eastern` counterparts during the last few years. The three cases were: Lithuania, Oil Port of Klaipeda; Latvia, Oil Terminal in Liepaja; Estonia, Muuga Port. (au)

  6. Sedimentary history and economic geology of San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, J.A.; LeLeit, A.J.; Spencer, C.W.; Ullrich, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    The San Juan Basin contains up to 15,000 ft of sedimentary rocks ranging in age from Cambrian to Recent. The earliest development of the area as a sedimentary basin or trough apparently took place in Pennsylvanian time, and the basin was maintained, with changing rates of subsidence and filling, through the remainder of geologic time. During the Early Paleozoic, sedimentation was dominated by marine transgressions across the northwestern flank of the regional Transcontinental Arch. The Late Paleozoic history was strongly influenced by tectonism related to development of the Ancestral Rocky Mountains Uplifts and associated downwarping. The Early Mesozoic is characterized by fluvial and eolian environments, interrupted periodically by thin marine transgressive deposits of nearshore redbeds. The final Mesozoic event was the widespread Late Cretaceous marine transgression which deposited a thick cyclic sequence of marine gray shale and sandstone, with interbedded coal. Late Tertiary regional uplift and resulting volcanism were accompanied by a regional dissection of the area by stream systems that evolved into the present drainage pattern of superposed streams. The sedimentary history is directly related to the occurrence of economic deposits in the basin. Major reserves of petroleum and gas are in Cretaceous and Pennsylvanian rocks, coal in Cretaceous, and uranium in Jurassic and Cretaceous. Abstract only

  7. Geotemperature pattern and geothermal resources in North China Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Xiao; Chen Moxing; Xiong Liangping; Zhang Juming [Inst. of Geology. Academis Sinica, Beijing (China)

    1995-12-31

    Geotemperature pattern of the North China Basin has been studied. Results indicate that the geotemperature pattern of the Basin is in close correlation with its geological structure, mainly controlled by the structural form or the relief of the basement rock. Generally, high heat flow and high geotemperature zone correspond to basement uplifts whereas low heat flow and low geotemperature zone, to basement depressions. As a consequence, a `high-low-high` geotemperature pattern with NE and EW trending was thus formed and is observed in the North China Basin. This pattern has been validated and revealed by mathematical simulation. In the North China Basin, two main thermal water reservoirs are identified: porous type water in the Neogene system and fissure type water in Lower Paleozoic to Mid-Upper Proterozoic limestone bedrocks. The reserve of thermal water and recoverable resource are estimated. Results show that the North China Basin is an area with abundant low-medium temperature thermal water resources. 9 figs., 5 tabs., 10 refs.

  8. Microplastics in the Baltic Sea water: fibers everywhere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatmullina, Lilia; Bagaev, Andrey; Chubarenko, Irina

    2017-04-01

    Presence of thin synthetic fibres (microfibres, tens of micrometres in diameter) in the surface waters and sediments is documented in different studies; however, the data on their exact abundances in the marine environment are commonly not presented owing to the shortcomings of the sampling procedure and general absence of well-established methodology for microplastics data collection. Nevertheless, we made an attempt to qualitatively analyse the amounts of microplastic fibres in the water column of the Baltic Sea. Water samples acquired during 6 cruises over the Baltic Sea Proper in 2015-2016 were filtered using 174 μm filters, which were subsequently analysed by microscope. From the total of 95 examined filters, 63% contained fibres. They were identified by colour and the reaction to the mechanical action of a thin needle: justification of anthropogenic origin was considered to be enough; any questionable objects were discarded. Fibres comprise more than 90% of the whole microplastic particles found in the near-bottom layers in the coastal zone and around 24% of microplastics in the surface and intermediate waters, with mean concentrations of 0.71 and 0.07 fibres per litre, respectively. Although the methodology still requires a lot of enhancement, even the preliminary results indicate ubiquitous distribution of the microfibres in the water column of the Baltic Sea with surface and bottom layers revealing higher abundances of microfibres in comparison with intermediate layers, and open-sea waters being less contaminated than the coastal ones. Apart from enhancing the sampling technics, we consider that it is crucial to understand principal physical features of fibers behavior in the marine environment (e.g., settling, entrainment by currents), as it would provide an opportunity to parameterize their transport and further on to model distribution of fibers in the water column. The research is supported by the Russian Science Foundation grant number 15-17-10020.

  9. Acid-base properties of Baltic Sea dissolved organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Karoline; Schneider, Bernd; Kuliński, Karol; Schulz-Bull, Detlef E.

    2017-09-01

    Calculations related to the marine CO2 system that are based on alkalinity data may be strongly biased if the contributions of organic compounds are ignored. In coastal seas, concentrations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) are frequently high and alkalinity from inorganic compounds is low. In this study, based on measurements of total alkalinity, total CO2, and pH, we determined the organic alkalinity, Aorg, in water from the central Baltic Sea. The maximum Aorg measured in the surface mixed layer during the spring bloom was > 50 μmol/kg-SW but the Aorg decreased with depth and approached zero below the permanent halocline. This behavior could be attributed to the decreased pH of deeper water layers. The data were used to calculate the bulk dissociation constant, KDOM, for marine DOM and the fraction f of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) that acts as a carrier for acid-base functional groups. The p KDOM (7.27) agreed well with the value (7.34) previously estimated in a preliminary study of organic alkalinity in the Baltic Sea. The fraction of carbon atoms carrying acid-base groups was 17% and was somewhat higher than previously reported (12%). Spike experiments performed using artificial seawater and three different humic/fulvic substances tested whether the acid-base properties of these substances explain the results of our field study. Specifically, Aorg was determined at different concentrations (DOC) of the added humic/fulvic substances. The relationship between Aorg and the DOC concentrations indicated that humic/fulvic substances are more acidic (p KDOM < 6.5) than the bulk DOC natural occurring in the Baltic Sea.

  10. Solar radiation at the surface in the Baltic Proper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirje Keevallik

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiation data recorded at 12 sites around the central part of the Baltic Sea during 1996-2000 drawn from the BALTEX (Baltic Sea Experiment meteorological data archives are used to study the spatio-temporal variability of daily global radiation totals. The annual average daily global radiation total varies from about 10 MJ m-2 at Visby(on Gotland and Kołobrzeg (on the coast of Poland to less than 9 MJ m-2 at Zīlāni (inland Latvia, Šilutė (Lithuaniaand Jokioinen (Finland. The monthly average daily global radiation total over the whole region extends from 0.93 in December to 19.0 in June. The variability in global radiation is analysed on the basis of the fraction of the daily total at the top of the atmosphere.The spatial and temporal variability is the least in August - this shows that the variation in the cloud cover and atmospheric properties at this time of year is the smallest. The spatial correlation is the strongest between the two Finnish stations - Vantaa and Jokioinen. It is also high between Stockholm and Norrköping, on the east coast of Sweden. The correlation coefficients are the largest over the whole area in April. Radiation data from coastal stations are compared with an earlier parameterization basedon ship observations (Rozwadowska & Isemer 1998, Isemer & Rozwadowska 1999. It is concluded that in climatological research, actinometric data from Visby can be used to characterize the radiation field over the northern part of the Baltic Proper and those from Kołobrzeg to characterize the radiation field over the southern part of this sea.

  11. Renewable energy in the Baltic countries: the case of hydropower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punys, P.; Dumbrauskas, A.; Rimkus, Z.; Streimikiene, D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the use of renewable energy sources (RES) dedicated mainly for electricity generation in the Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania). Hydropower sector including both large (medium) and small power plants is particularly considered. The region has very limited energy resources of its own and is heavily dependent on the import of the primary energy sources (in some way except Estonia). The main objective of energy policy of the Baltic countries is to reduce such a total dependence by favouring the use of RES. A brief description of energy sector is given, focusing on electricity generation. RES potential currently in use and to be exploited in the future, buy- back rates of the key sources are presented. The countries' target broken down according to the individual RES to meet the EU 'green' electricity directive (2001/77/CE) are presented. Small and large hydropower potential is analyzed, a general overview of hydro-plants in operation and planned schemes is provided. A particular attention is devoted to environmental and social aspects of hydropower development. The requirements of the protected areas in relation to dam construction are analyzed, an estimation of resistance to small hydropower development is shown. The environmental legislation including forbidden rivers for damming actually in force in the Baltic countries is considered; hydropower image perceptible by general public, NGOs and official environmental bodies are discussed. The causes and legal basis of the promulgation of the list of forbidden rivers are revealed. A conclusion is drawn that the contradiction between two EU legal frameworks - environmental protection and promotion of renewables, in the case of hydropower, exists. The evaluation of the quantitative impact of the forbidden rivers on small hydropower resources in Lithuania proves. the environmental legislation is one of the strictest in the European countries. (authors)

  12. MACROECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF BAD LOANS IN BALTIC COUNTRIES AND ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana DONATH

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The 2008–09 global crisis raised debates concerning the determinants of financial vulnerability. Among these, bad loans have been identified as significantly influencing financial imbalances. After a decade in which borrowing has constantly grown mainly because of the deregulation of financial markets, the crisis highlighted the importance of an effective credit risk management. The purpose of the paper is to study the evolution of bad loans ratio in relation with selected macroeconomic indicators in the Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania and Romania.

  13. Fisheries management responses to climate change in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Thomas Talund; Hoff, Ayoe; Frost, Hans S.

    2015-01-01

    plan may be needed. Therefore, this paper investigates the economic impacts of managing the cod, sprat and herring stocks in the eastern Baltic Sea, given on-going climate change, which is known to affect cod recruitment negatively. It is shown that climate change may have severe biological...... scenarios in which the economic consequences of different management objectives for the fishing fleets are assessed through a dynamic multi-species and multi-fleet bio-economic assessment model that include both species interactions and climate change....

  14. Nutritional condition and vertical distribution of Baltic cod larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønkjær, P.; Clemmesen, C.; St. John, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Newly hatched Baltic cod Gadus morhua larvae are typically found at depths >60 m. This is a region of low light and prey availability, hence generating the hypothesis that larvae have to migrate from hatching depth to the surface layer to avoid starvation and improve their nutritional condition...... aged 2-25 days (median 10 days) ranged from 0.4 to 6.2, corresponding to levels exhibited by starving and fast growing larvae in laboratory calibration studies (starvation, protein growth rate, G(pi)=-12.2% day(-1); fast-growing larvae, G(pi)=14.1% day(-1)) respectively. Seventy per cent of the field...

  15. Has eutrophication promoted forage fish production in the Baltic Sea?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Margit; Andersson, Helén C; Almroth-Rosell, Elin

    2016-01-01

    Reducing anthropogenic nutrient inputs is a major policy goal for restoring good environmental status of coastal marine ecosystems. However, it is unclear to what extent reducing nutrients would also lower fish production and fisheries yields. Empirical examples of changes in nutrient loads...... and concurrent fish production can provide useful insights to this question. In this paper, we investigate to what extent a multi-fold increase in nutrient loads from the 1950s to 1980s enhanced forage fish production in the Baltic Sea. We use monitoring data on fish stock dynamics covering the period...

  16. Gravity anomalies and flexure of the lithosphere at the Middle Amazon Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Jeffrey A.; Aires, Jose R.

    1988-01-01

    The Middle Amazon Basin is a large Paleozoic sedimentary basin on the Amazonian craton in South America. It contains up to 7 km of mainly shallow water sediments. A chain of Bouguer gravity highs of approximately +40 to +90 mGals transects the basin roughly coincident with the axis of maximum thickness of sediment. The gravity highs are flanked on either side by gravity lows of approximately -40 mGals. The observed gravity anomalies can be explained by a steeply sided zone of high density in the lower crust varying in width from 100 to 200 km wide. Within this region, the continental crust has been intruded/replaced by more dense material to more than half its original thickness of 45-50 km. The much wider sedimentary basin results from regional compensation of the subsurface load and the subsequent load of accumulated sediments by flexure of the lithosphere. The observed geometry of the basin is consistent with an elastic lithosphere model with a mechanical thickness of 15-20 km. Although this value is lower than expected for a stable cratonic region of Early Proterozoic age, it is within the accepted range of effective elastic thicknesses for the earth. Rapid subsidence during the late Paleozoic may be evidence of a second tectonic event or lithospheric relaxation which could lower the effective mechanical thickness of the lithosphere. The high-density zone in the lower crust, as delineated by gravity and flexural modeling, has a complex sinuous geometry which is narrow and south of the axis of maximum sediment thickness on the east and west margins and wide and offset to the north in the center of the basin. The linear trough geometry of the basin itself is a result of smoothing by regional compensation of the load in the lower crust.

  17. How different institutional arrangements promote integrated river basin management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Frederiksen, Pia; Saarikoski, Heli

    2013-01-01

    Management Planning processes in six countries around the Baltic Sea. We use theories on multi-level governance, regime interplay and institutional effectiveness. We find that, in most cases, central governments have played a dominant role in the formulation of river basin management plans, while local......, member states must therefore address both the roles of different institutional actors and the interplay among institutions. In this paper, we will explore strengths and weaknesses of different institutional arrangements for integrated water management through a comparative analysis of River Basin...... influence has been somewhat limited. The tight procedural deadlines of the di-rective appear to have pushed for more centralisation than originally intended by the countries. But the analysis also shows that interplay mechanisms such as norms, ideas and incentives do promote effective institutional...

  18. Model-supported estimation of mortality rates in Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias L. larvae: the varying impact of 'critical periods'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinrichsen Hans-Harald

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in the survival-rate during the larval phase may strongly influence the recruitment level in marine fish species. During the larval phase different 'critical periods' are discussed, e.g. the hatching period and the first-feeding period. No such information was available for the Baltic cod stock, a commercially important stock showing reproduction failure during the last years. We calculated field-based mortality rates for larval Baltic cod during these phases using basin-wide abundance estimates from two consecutive surveys. Survey information was corrected by three dimensional hydrodynamic model runs. Results The corrections applied for transport were of variable impact, depending on the prevailing circulation patterns. Especially at high wind forcing scenarios, abundance estimates have the potential to be biased without accounting for transport processes. In May 1988 mortality between hatch and first feeding amounted to approximately 20% per day. Mortality rates during the onset of feeding were considerably lower with only 7% per day. In August 1991 the situation was vice versa: Extremely low mortality rates of 0.08% per day were calculated between hatch and first feeding, while the period between the onset of feeding to the state of an established feeder was more critical with mortality rates of 22% per day. Conclusions Mortality rates during the different proposed 'critical periods' were found to be highly variable. Survival rates of Baltic cod are not only influenced by a single 'critical period', but can be limited at different points during the larval phase, depending on several biotic and abiotic factors.

  19. Speculative petroleum systems of the Punta del Este Basin (offshore Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethel Morales

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The Uruguayan continental margin was generated as the result of the breakup of Gondwana and, later, the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean, which began in the Jurassic. Three major areas of Meso-Cenozoic sedimentation are located in the Uruguayan offshore: the Punta del Este Basin, the southernmost sector of the Pelotas Basin and the Oriental del Plata Basin. These basins share the classical stages of tectono-sedimentary evolution of the other Atlantic basins, including the prerift (Paleozoic, rift (Jurassic-Early Cretaceous, transition (Barremian-Aptian and postrift (Aptian-present phases. Based on the analysis of basin evolution through seismic sections and well data as well as on the establishment of analogies with productive Atlantic basins, four speculative petroleum systems are proposed for the Punta del Este Basin: 1 Marine petroleum system of the prerift stage: Devonian/Permian-Devonian/Permian(?, 2 Lacustrine petroleum system of the synrift stage: Neocomian-Neocomian(?, 3 Marine petroleum system of the Cretaceous postrift: Aptian-Late Cretaceous(?, 4 Marine petroleum system of the Cenozoic postrift: Paleocene-Paleogene/Neogene(?.

  20. Trauma research in the Baltic countries: from political oppression to recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazlauskas, Evaldas; Zelviene, Paulina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of traumatic stress studies from the three Baltic countries-Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia-and reveal how specific social context contributes to the topics relevant in traumatic stress field in the region. Traumatic stress studies in the Baltic countries are closely related to the complicated history of the region. It was only since the restoration of independence of the Baltic States in the 1990s when traumatic stress studies could emerge. The start of the psychotraumatology in the Baltic States was inspired by the interest of the psychological effects of political violence. Four major topics in traumatic stress literature from the Baltic countries were identified in this article: political violence studies, epidemiology of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), disaster studies, and developmental aspects of trauma. Traumatic events prevalence was reported between 70 and 75%, and PTSD prevalence range 2-7% in the Baltic countries. The interest in psychotraumatology in the Baltic countries is rising.

  1. Upper Paleozoic mafic and intermediate volcanic rocks of the Mount Pleasant caldera associated with the Sn-W deposit in southwestern New Brunswick (Canada): Petrogenesis and metallogenic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostal, Jaroslav; Jutras, Pierre

    2016-10-01

    Upper Paleozoic ( 365 Ma) mafic and intermediate volcanic rocks of the Piskahegan Group constitute a subordinate part of the Mount Pleasant caldera, which is associated with a significant polymetallic deposit (tungsten-molybdenum-bismuth zones 33 Mt ore with 0.21% W, 0.1% Mo and 0.08% Bi and tin-indium zones 4.8 Mt with 0.82% Sn and 129 g/t In) in southwestern New Brunswick (Canada). The epicontinental caldera complex formed during the opening of the late Paleozoic Maritimes Basin in the northern Appalachians. The mafic and intermediate rocks make up two compositionally distinct associations. The first association includes evolved rift-related continental tholeiitic basalts, and the second association comprises calc-alkaline andesites, although both associations were emplaced penecontemporaneously. The basalts have low Mg# 0.34-0.40, smooth chondrite-normalized REE patterns with (La/Yb)n 5-6, primitive mantle-normalized trace element patterns without noticeable negative Nb-Ta anomalies, and their ɛNd(T) ranges from + 2.5 to + 2.2. The basalts were generated by partial melting of a transition zone between spinel and garnet mantle peridotite at a depth of 70-90 km. The calc-alkaline andesites of the second association have chondrite-normalized REE patterns that are more fractionated, with (La/Yb)n 7-8.5, but without significant negative Eu anomalies. Compared to the basaltic rocks, they have lower ɛNd(T) values, ranging from + 0.5 to + 1.9, and their mantle-normalized trace element plots show negative Nb-Ta anomalies. The ɛNd(T) values display negative correlations with indicators of crustal contamination, such as Th/La, Th/Nb and SiO2. The andesitic rocks are interpreted to have formed by assimilation-fractional crystallization processes, which resulted in the contamination of a precursor basaltic magma with crustal material. The parent basaltic magma for both suites underwent a different evolution. The tholeiitic basalts experienced shallow-seated fractional

  2. Atmospheric forcing of decadal Baltic Sea level variability in the last 200 years. A statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huenicke, B. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Kuestenforschung

    2008-11-06

    This study aims at the estimation of the impact of different atmospheric factors on the past sealevel variations (up to 200 years) in the Baltic Sea by statistically analysing the relationship between Baltic Sea level records and observational and proxy-based reconstructed climatic data sets. The focus lies on the identification and possible quantification of the contribution of sealevel pressure (wind), air-temperature and precipitation to the low-frequency (decadal and multi-decadal) variability of Baltic Sea level. It is known that the wind forcing is the main factor explaining average Baltic Sea level variability at inter-annual to decadal timescales, especially in wintertime. In this thesis it is statistically estimated to what extent other regional climate factors contribute to the spatially heterogeneous Baltic Sea level variations around the isostatic trend at multi-decadal timescales. Although the statistical analysis cannot be completely conclusive, as the potential climate drivers are all statistically interrelated to some degree, the results indicate that precipitation should be taken into account as an explanatory variable for sea-level variations. On the one hand it has been detected that the amplitude of the annual cycle of Baltic Sea level has increased throughout the 20th century and precipitation seems to be the only factor among those analysed (wind through SLP field, barometric effect, temperature and precipitation) that can account for this evolution. On the other hand, precipitation increases the ability to hindcast inter-annual variations of sea level in some regions and seasons, especially in the Southern Baltic in summertime. The mechanism by which precipitation exerts its influence on Baltic Sea level is not ascertained in this statistical analysis due to the lack of long salinity time series. This result, however, represents a working hypothesis that can be confirmed or disproved by long simulations of the Baltic Sea system - ocean

  3. Electric energy cooperation in the Baltic Sea region and the role of Russia in it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zverev Yuri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines cooperation in the electric energy sector in the Baltic region. The author explores the existing undersea HVDC power exchange projects. It is emphasised that cooperation in the electric energy sector is concentrated largely in the EU member states despite earlier plans to establish the Baltic energy ring, which would also include Russia and Belarus. The author stresses that one of the most acute problems for the EU today is overcoming isolation of the energy systems of the Baltic States (Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia from that of the major part of the EU. This task has become especially relevant after the closing of the Ignalina NPP (Lithuania, which used to be the primary energy source for the three Baltic States. The article examines key projects of the construction of new international power transmission lines in the framework of the Baltic Energy Market Interconnection Plan (BEMIP and the prospects of the Visaginas NPP (Lithuania in solving energy problems of the Baltic States. The author analyses Russia’s role in the electric energy market and focuses on a possible increase of the country’s energy market share following the construction of the Baltic NPP and the export of generated electric energy to Poland, Lithuania, Germany, and Sweden. The author concludes that the prospects of Russia’s energy export to the Baltic Sea region will be determined not only by technological, economic and market factors, but rather by the general state of relations between Russia and the EU. Moreover, a lot depends on Lithuania’s decision on the construction of the Visaginas NPP, as well as the way the EU and the Baltic States solve the problem of energy supply in case the NPP project is terminated.

  4. Spatial and temporal habitat partitioning by zooplankton in the Bornholm Basin (central Baltic Sea)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, J.; Peck, M.A.; Barz, K.

    2012-01-01

    taxa (Bosmina coregoni maritima, Acartia spp., Pseudocalanus spp., Temora longicornis, Synchaeta spp.) contributed >10% to the zooplankton community composition. The appearance of cladocerans was mainly correlated with the phenology of thermocline development in the spring. The cladoceran B. coregoni...

  5. Glacially striated, soft sediment surfaces on late Paleozoic tillite at São Luiz do Purunã, PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Trosdtorf Jr.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Striae and furrows found on the upper surfaces of three stratigraphically superposed decimetric beds of late Paleozoic lodgement tillite of the Itararé Subgroup in the northern Paraná Basin were engraved by ploughing of clasts and possibly also ice protuberances at the base of the glacier, on unconsolidated to partially consolidated sediment. Associated features indicate that the rheology of the bed varied from stiff during lodgement to soft and deformable during ploughing. Poor drainage of meltwater at the glacier-bed interface may have contributed to lower the strength of sediment to deformation. The deformed interval was probably generated during a single glacial phase or advance of a glacier grounding in a marine or lacustrine water body. Changes in the dynamics of the glacier involving slow and fast flow were correlated respectively with alternation of deposition and erosion. The proposed model is analogous to that of lodgement till complexes from the Pleistocene of the northern hemisphere. Retreat of the glacier was probably fast, followed by settling of muds on top of the upper striated and furrowed surface, and progradation of deltaic sands during post-glacial time.Estrias e sulcos encontrados sobre três camadas decimétricas, estratigraficamente superpostas, de tilito de alojamento neopaleozóico do Subgrupo Itararé, na porção norte da Bacia do Paraná, foram formados por aração de clastos e, possivelmente, por protuberâncias de gelo, na base da geleira. Feições associadas indicam que a reologia do sedimento variou de rígido, durante o alojamento, a inconsolidado e deformável durante a aração. A baixa drenagem da água de degelo na interface geleira-substrato pode ter contribuído para reduzir a resistência do sedimento à deformação. A sucessão acima foi gerada provavelmente durante uma única fase glacial ou avanço de geleira sobre corpo de água marinho ou lacustre. Mudanças na dinâmica da geleira envolvendo

  6. The Paleozoic metamorphic history of the Central Orogenic Belt of China from 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of eclogite garnet fluid inclusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, H.N.; Wijbrans, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    The pressure-temperature-time evolution of the UHP eclogites of Dabie-Sulu, in the eastern sector of the Central Orogenic Belt of China shows a complex pattern of predominantly Triassic, and to a lesser extent Early Paleozoic ages.

  7. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  8. Rock encrusting assemblages: Structure and distribution along the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowska, Monika; Grzelak, Katarzyna; Kukliński, Piotr

    2015-09-01

    Aquatic community structure and dynamics are generally controlled by a variety of biological and physical factors. Among these factors in marine ecosystems, salinity is known to have a significant effect on species occurrence and composition. In this study, we investigated the large-scale distribution and abundance of encrusting fauna along a salinity gradient on the shallow Baltic Sea rocky coast. Rock samples collected from 14 locations distributed between the Gulf of Bothnia (salinity 0.6) and Skagerrak (salinity 28) supported a total number of 24 encrusting species. The faunas were composed mostly of marine species with opportunistic life histories; however, some brackish water specialists were also present. The number of species and abundance counts is strongly positively correlated with increases in salinity. No encrusting faunas were recorded below salinity level 4. Multivariate analysis (nMDS) revealed three major groups based on species composition that differed in terms of abundance and number of species. Each group was associated with specific salinity conditions. The first assemblage type occurred within salinity 4-7, the second within salinity between 22 and 27, and the third type was a mixture between the two observed at a salinity of approximately 17. This study indicates that to determine the assemblage structure of the Baltic Sea encrusting fauna, analyses at the family level were found to be a reliable surrogate for species composition.

  9. Regional differences in semen qualities in the Baltic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punab, Margus; Zilaitiene, Birute; Jørgensen, Niels; Horte, Antero; Matulevicius, Valentinas; Peetsalu, Ants; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2002-08-01

    Recent prospective studies of male reproductive health have shown differences between several European countries. Our objective was to evaluate the current situation in the two Baltic States Estonia and Lithuania. In 1997-99 we investigated semen parameters, levels of reproductive hormones and general health factors of 196 men from the general population in Lithuania; from Estonia, 79 men from the general population and 118 soldiers were investigated. Adjusted for interlaboratory differences and abstinence period, sperm concentration of Lithuanian and Estonian men from the general populations were shown to be 55 and 67 million/mL, respectively. The Estonian soldiers had the highest sperm concentration, 82 million/mL. The frequencies of morphologically normal spermatozoa were 6.2, 7.7 and 9.6%, respectively. In contrast to the semen qualities, highest Inhibin B levels were detected in the Lithuanians (233 pg/mL) followed by Estonian men from the general population (220 pg/mL) and Estonian soldiers (185 pg/mL). The soldiers had also the lowest level of testosterone and oestradiol. The sperm counts of the Estonian and Lithuanian men investigated here are higher than recently shown for Norwegian, Danish, Estonian and Finnish men. Comparisons should be cautiously drawn as the groups are not completely comparable. Still, even within the Baltic region, geographically close and sharing common recent social history, differences in semen quality and levels of reproductive hormones are apparent.

  10. The history of cyanobacterial blooms in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finni, T; Kononen, K; Olsonen, R; Wallström, K

    2001-08-01

    Long-term information on possible changes in cyanobacterial blooms in the Baltic Sea, formed mainly by Nodularia spumigena and Aphanizomenon sp., was sought in published records in historical (years 1887-1938) and modern (years 1974-1998) phytoplankton data sets. Old and new sampling methods and fixatives were tested to improve the comparison of data that had been collected and analyzed in different ways. A hundred years ago, plankton was mainly of interest as a source of fish food; eutrophication problems were only locally reported from the coast, mainly in southern haffs and the receiving waters of larger cities. There were few recordings of open-sea blooms before World War II. Abundances of Nodularia spumigena and Aphanizomenon sp. were low in the old material, and 137 summer samples from 1887-1938 showed no peak abundance. High abundances are common in the new material, and the range of the numbers of both taxa has increased markedly relative to the old material. Since the 1960s, cyanobacterial blooms have been common in the open sea in both the Baltic proper and the Gulf of Finland, indicating high availability of nutrients.

  11. [History of German-Baltic relations in medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankler, H; Laschinski, G; Roots, I

    2004-04-30

    Today, the three Baltic countries Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, have well-known medical faculties with international standing. Their individual histories are briefly outlined. However, relations of the German academic world were closest with the university of Dorpat (today: Tartu). It was re-opened in 1802 by tsar Alexander I in order to keep young Baltic people from studying abroad. The medical faculty was its biggest faculty. The university was Russian, but the official language was German. So many a German professor came to Dorpat and many professors from Dorpat were offered a chair at a German university. The scientific imports connected Dorpat with other centres of West-European science, they brought knowledge and ideas and an exchange of information. The standard was high, and among the teaching staff was a handsome number of medical celebrities, e.g. the anatomist August Rauber and the surgeon Ernst von Bergmann. In Dorpat, Rudolf Buchheim brought a new science, experimental pharmacology, into being, which his pupil and successor, Oswald Schmiedeberg, fully established and propagated all over the world.

  12. Fostering Employee Engagement Through Gamification: AirBaltic Forecaster Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiga Ergle

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Next to the employee productivity or indicators for staff turnover and absenteeism in organizations, Employee Engagement stands out as one of the most significant measurements for Human Resource Management efficiency. With younger generation representatives joining the workforce companies are bound to investigate and pursue some of the new tools and techniques that respond more effectively to engagement triggers of generations Y and Z. At AirBaltic Corporation in Riga, Latvia, management has been trying to foster engagement of the workforce through introduction of a business game, called Forecaster. According to management belief, in addition to improved internal communication, Forecaster has potential to save up to 1 million eur annually due to the resulting better quality management decisions. Within the article author looks at the theory and research related to application and effects of gamification within corporate settings, as well as reviews workplace environment at AirBaltic Corporation. Further in the article, Forecaster game is described in more detail and its impact on employee engagement and organizational performance is analysed. Finally, recommendations are drawn for organizations to consider when gamifying people management processes in their organizations.

  13. Renewable Energy in the Baltic States. Different Situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streimikiene, Dalia

    2007-01-01

    In many ways, the Baltic nations seem to be good students with ambitious objectives for applying European directives and the Kyoto Protocol. For example, in 2006, renewable energies already accounted for 9 % in Lithuania, 10 % in Estonia and 43 % in Latvia (5.2 % in the EU-15) of primary energy output. This should increase to 12 %, 15 % and 50 % in 2010 (12 % in the EU-15) respectively. While all are dependent on oil imports, their own resources vary: nuclear power in Lithuania (at least until 2009 when the last reactor of the Ignalina power station will close, with EU compensation), oil shale feeds Estonian power stations, wood in Latvia. The latter must import electricity while the two other countries produce double their domestic demand. All three are linked to the Russian power grid built up during the Soviet era rather than the European. Nevertheless, the share of renewable energy produced electricity is very small in these two producer countries, unlike Latvia which has hydraulic resources. The three countries have very different taxation on energy and electrical products, including renewable energy price support. All were granted transitional periods of differing lengths to apply European standard. The Baltic nations produce low greenhouse gas emissions and only Estonia has organized an emission rights trading market

  14. Projected future climate change and Baltic Sea ecosystem management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Agneta; Meier, H E Markus; Ripszam, Matyas; Rowe, Owen; Wikner, Johan; Haglund, Peter; Eilola, Kari; Legrand, Catherine; Figueroa, Daniela; Paczkowska, Joanna; Lindehoff, Elin; Tysklind, Mats; Elmgren, Ragnar

    2015-06-01

    Climate change is likely to have large effects on the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Simulations indicate 2-4 °C warming and 50-80 % decrease in ice cover by 2100. Precipitation may increase ~30 % in the north, causing increased land runoff of allochthonous organic matter (AOM) and organic pollutants and decreased salinity. Coupled physical-biogeochemical models indicate that, in the south, bottom-water anoxia may spread, reducing cod recruitment and increasing sediment phosphorus release, thus promoting cyanobacterial blooms. In the north, heterotrophic bacteria will be favored by AOM, while phytoplankton production may be reduced. Extra trophic levels in the food web may increase energy losses and consequently reduce fish production. Future management of the Baltic Sea must consider the effects of climate change on the ecosystem dynamics and functions, as well as the effects of anthropogenic nutrient and pollutant load. Monitoring should have a holistic approach, encompassing both autotrophic (phytoplankton) and heterotrophic (e.g., bacterial) processes.

  15. Baltic Sea hazardous substances management: results and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selin, Henrik; VanDeveer, Stacy D

    2004-05-01

    The introduction into the Baltic Sea of hazardous substances that are persistent, bioaccumulate, and are toxic is an important environmental and human health problem. Multilateral efforts to address this problem have primarily been taken under the Helsinki Commission (HELCOM). This article examines past HELCOM efforts on hazardous substances, and discusses future challenges regarding their management. The article finds that past actions on hazardous substances have had a positive effect on improving Baltic environmental quality and reducing human health risks, although there are remaining issues and difficulties that need to be addressed. In particular, four related future challenges for HELCOM management of hazardous substances are identified and discussed: i) the need to engender further implementation and building public and private sector capacities; ii) the need to improve data availability, quality and comparability across the region and international fora; iii) the need to strengthen existing regulations and incorporate new issues; and iv) the need to effectively coordinate HELCOM activities with efforts on hazardous substances in other international fora.

  16. Investigations of Baltic See radioactivity within 1976-1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, D.; Lyonnig, M.; Tille, J.; Gzhibovska, D.; Tomchak, Ya.; Gedeonov, L.I.; Gusev, D.I.; Ivanova, L.M.; Pavlovskij, O.A.; Stepanova, V.D.

    1983-01-01

    The report presents summary of data on the Baltic Sea radioactive contamination obtained in DDR, PPR and the USSR within 1976-1980. The seawater, sediments and aquatic plants and animals were investigated. The distribution of strontium-90 and cesium-137 isotopes is given both for the open sea and its gulfs. Tendency towards strontium-90 concentration decrease is noted though cesium-137 concentration rise was observed in 1980 due to radioactive and polluted water ingress from the Northern Sea. In a number of points, except western regions in the vicinity of the Northern Sea, uniform distributions of strontium-90 and cesium-137 concentations versus depth were established. The radionuclide contents in water, sediments and aquatic organisms of Greifswald and Finland gulfs where Nuclear Power Plants are located on the seashore were found to be the same as in the open sea. The dependence of strontium-90 and especially cesium-137 sorption on the sediments composition has been noticed. In 1980 DDR presented data on tritium content in both near-surface and deep waters. Poland has carried out the first investigations of plutonium-239 and 240 content in the sediments. The dynamic behaviour of strontium-90 and cesium-137 concentrations in the Baltic Sea water within 1959-1980 has been reviewed. Data on strontium-90 and cesium-137 content in fishes and plants are given. On this basis the dose commitmments for population were estimated. 19 refs.; 27 tabs.; 6 figs

  17. First results of the Nordic and Baltic GNSS Analysis Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahtinen, Sonja; Pasi, Häkli; Jivall, Lotti; Kempe, Christina; Kollo, Karin; Kosenko, Ksenija; Pihlak, Priit; Prizginiene, Dalia; Tangen, Oddvar; Weber, Mette; Paršeliūnas, Eimuntas; Baniulis, Rimvydas; Galinauskas, Karolis

    2018-03-01

    The Nordic Geodetic Commission (NKG) has launched a joint NKG GNSS Analysis Centre that aims to routinely produce high qualityGNSS solutions for the common needs of the NKG and the Nordic and Baltic countries. A consistent and densified velocity field is needed for the constraining of the gla-cial isostatic adjustment (GIA) modelling that is a key component of maintaining the national reference frame realisations in the area. We described the methods of the NKG GNSS Analysis Centre including the defined processing setup for the local analysis centres (LAC) and for the combination centres.We analysed the results of the first 2.5 years (2014.5-2016). The results showed that different subnets were consistent with the combined solution within 1-2 mm level. We observed the so called network effect affecting our reference frame alignment. However, the accuracy of the reference frame alignment was on a few millimetre level in the area of the main interest (Nordic and Baltic Countries). TheNKGGNSS AC was declared fully operational in April 2017.

  18. Adaptive governance of the Baltic Sea - lessons from elsewhere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilda Valman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Governance of marine resources is increasingly characterized by integrated, cross sectoral and ecosystem based approaches. Such approaches require that existing governing bodies have an ability to adapt to ecosystem dynamics, while also providing transparent and legitimate outcomes. Here, we investigate how the Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission (HELCOM, the international governing body for the Baltic Sea, could improve its prospects for working with the ecosystem approach, drawing from the literature on adaptive governance. We construct an ideal type of adaptive governance to which we compare the way in which HELCOM is operating and relate these dynamics to two other international marine environment governance organizations, the Coral Triangle Initiative on Coral Reefs, Fisheries and Food Security (CTI-CFF and the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR. We conclude that HELCOM deviates from an ideal type of adaptive governance in several ways but also that the other two case studies provide empirical support for potential ways in which HELCOM could improve its adaptive capacity. Key aspects where HELCOM could improve include increasing stakeholder participation – both in information sharing and decision making. Further, HELCOM need to develop evaluation mechanisms, secure compliance to improve adaptive capacity and organizational effectiveness, which entails the development of structures for conflict resolution. Finally, HELCOM need to increase communication and harmonization between different levels of authority.

  19. Modelling PCB bioaccumulation in a Baltic food web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nfon, Erick; Cousins, Ian T.

    2007-01-01

    A steady state model is developed to describe the bioaccumulation of organic contaminants by 14 species in a Baltic food web including pelagic and benthic aquatic organisms. The model is used to study the bioaccumulation of five PCB congeners of different chlorination levels. The model predictions are evaluated against monitoring data for five of the species in the food web. Predicted concentrations are on average within a factor of two of measured concentrations. The model shows that all PCB congeners were biomagnified in the food web, which is consistent with observations. Sensitivity analysis reveals that the single most sensitive parameter is log K OW . The most sensitive environmental parameter is the annual average temperature. Although not identified amongst the most sensitive input parameters, the dissolved concentration in water is believed to be important because of the uncertainty in its determination. The most sensitive organism-specific input parameters are the fractional respiration of species from the water column and sediment pore water, which are also difficult to determine. Parameters such as feeding rate, growth rate and lipid content of organism are only important at higher trophic levels. - The bioaccumulation behaviour of PCB congeners in a Baltic food web is studied using a novel mechanistic model

  20. Trends in confidence in public institutions: A comparative analysis of the Baltic countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudžinskas Liutauras

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the variation of institutional confidence in the Baltic countries. Within of framework of qualitative comparative framework, it employs a historical approach to detect causes of divergence of trust in rule of law institutions between Estonia vis-à-vis other two Baltic states. While it observes a range of variables that could affect the differences, it emphasises the role of political leadership during critical junctures, which might explain both why Estonia forged ahead at the outset of the post-communist transformation and most recent positive developments in the Baltic countries since the financial crisis in 2008–2010.

  1. Long-term temporal and spatial trends in eutrophication status of the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper; Carstensen, Jacob; Conley, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    the last 50–100 years. Secondly, the Baltic Sea is naturally susceptible to nutrient enrichment due to a combination of long retention times and stratification restricting ventilation of deep waters. Here, based on a unique data set collated from research activities and long-term monitoring programs, we......Much of the Baltic Sea is currently classified as ‘affected by eutrophication’. The causes for this are twofold. First, current levels of nutrient inputs (nitrogen and phosphorus) from human activities exceed the natural processing capacity with an accumulation of nutrients in the Baltic Sea over...

  2. Large-scale environmental effects and ecological processes in the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulff, F.

    1990-11-01

    A Swedish research programme concerning the Baltic Sea is initiated by the SNV to produce budgets and models of eutrophying substances (nitrogen, phosphorus, silicate, some organic substances) and toxic substances (PCB, lindane and PAH). A description of the distribution and turnover of these substances including their transformation will be necessary in the evaluation of critical processes controlling concentrations in relation to external load. A geographical information system will be made available as a database and analytical tool for all participants (BED, Baltic Ecosystem Data). This project is designed around cooperation between the Baltic Sea countries. (au)

  3. Ferry traffic in the Baltic Sea Region in south – north corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Czermański

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available All countries form the Baltic Sea Region are strongly economically connected with each other. International trade inbound the Region is usually realized by shipping lines, especially ro-ro and ferry lines. Ferry traffic on the BSR shows specific features, which draw a distinctions between other regions. In this article was tried to analized quantity and directions of maritime traffic in the BSR in years 2006 – 2008. Those period was excellent time for market growing for all owners. And more over – the analysis was made for main directions in the Baltic Sea Region – between Norway, Sweden and Finland – versus polish and german Baltic sea ports.

  4. Population Development of Baltic Bird Species: Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) - Update with results from 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Christof; Bregnballe, Thomas; Larsson, Kjell

    2011-01-01

    pair numbers started to increase during the second half of the 1970s. During the 1980s, the Cormorant started to expand its range towards the northern and eastern parts of the Baltic. Currently, the species is present in the whole Baltic Sea area, including the northern parts of the Gulf of Bothnia....... After a decade of exponential growth, the breeding population of the Cormorant has stabilized in the south-western Baltic (Denmark and the northern Federal States of Germany - Schleswig-Holstein and Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania) in the 1990s, but breeding populations are still growing in the central...

  5. The Chara-Sina dyke swarm in the structure of the Middle Paleozoic Vilyui rift system (Siberian Craton)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, A. I.; Konstantinov, K. M.; Yarmolyuk, V. V.; Ivanov, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    The formation of the Vilyui rift system in the eastern Siberian Craton was finished with breakdown of the continent and formation of its eastern margin. A characteristic feature of this rift system is the radial distribution of dyke swarms of basic rocks. This peculiarity allows us to relate it to the breaking processes above the mantle plume, the center of which was located in the region overlain in the modern structure by the foreland of the Verkhoyan folded-thrust belt. The Chara-Sina dyke swarm is the southern part of a large area of Middle Paleozoic basaltic magmatism in the eastern Siberian Craton. The OIB-like geochemical characteristics of dolerite allow us to suggest that the melting substrate for Middle Paleozoic basaltic magmatism was represented by a relatively homogeneous, mid-depleted mantle of the plume with geochemical parameters similar to those of OIB.

  6. RIVERTON DOME GAS EXPLORATION AND STIMULATION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION, WIND RIVER BASIN, WYOMING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr. Ronald C. Surdam

    1999-01-01

    This project will provide a full demonstration of an entirely new package of exploration technologies that will result in the discovery and development of significant new gas reserves now trapped in unconventional low-permeability reservoirs. This demonstration includes the field application of these technologies, prospect definition and well siting, and a test of this new strategy through wildcat drilling. In addition this project includes a demonstration of a new stimulation technology that will improve completion success in these unconventional low permeability reservoirs which are sensitive to drilling and completion damage. The work includes two test wells to be drilled by Snyder Oil Company on the Shoshone/Arapahoe Tribal Lands in the Wind River Basin. This basin is a foreland basin whose petroleum systems include Paleozoic and Cretaceous source beds and reservoirs which were buried, folded by Laramide compressional folding, and subsequently uplifted asymmetrically. The anomalous pressure boundary is also asymmetric, following differential uplift trends

  7. Contribution of the gravimetry to the structural study of the Haouz basin (Morocco)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Goumi, N.; Jaffal, M.; Kchikach, A.; Manar, A.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to improve the knowledge of the Haouz basin structure using gravity data analysis. First of all, a residual anomaly map was computed from the Bouguer anomaly, greatly affected by an important regional gravity gradient. The calculated map provides information on the ground density variations mainly attributed to the top of the Paleozoic basement undulations under the sedimentary cover. However, in order to further study this map, it has been later analyzed with a method that allows evidencing different buried geological structures, combining the horizontal gradient and the upward continuations processing. The obtained results allows us to establish a structural map of the Haouz basin which confirms the existence of structures already recognized or assumed by the classic geological studies, and highlights accidents, as yet, unknown until the present time. This map shows that the fault system of the Haouz basin is organized in two families of directions NE-SW and NW-SE. (Author).

  8. Evolutionary and ecological perspectives of Late Paleozoic ferns. Part III. Anachoropterid ferns (including Anachoropteris, Tubicaulis, the Sermayaceae, Kaplanopteridaceae and Psalixochlaenaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Galtier, Jean; Phillips, Tom L.

    2014-01-01

    The anachoropterid ferns, previously assigned to the family Anachoropteridaceae, are a group of anatomically preserved late Paleozoic filicalean ferns characterized by a C-shaped foliar xylem with abaxially recurved arms (inversicatenalean anatomy) and two main protoxylem strands. The variously curved to strongly inrolled foliar xylem certainly reflects different evolutionary trends within the morphogenus Anachoropteris. The occurrence of two groups of Tubicaulis is supported by differences i...

  9. A joint analysis of wave and surge conditions for past and present extrem events in the south-western Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groll, Nikolaus; Gaslikova, Lidia

    2017-04-01

    Extreme marine events in the south-western Baltic Sea like the historic storm in 1872 are rare, but have large impacts on human safety and coastal infrastructure. The aforementioned extreme storm event of 1872 and has cost over 250 human lives, left severely damaged infrastructure and caused land loss due to coastal erosion. Recent extreme events also result in drastic impacts to coastal regions. Using results from numerical wave and hydrodynamic model simulations we will present a joint analysis of wave and water level conditions for selected extreme events. For the historic event the numerical models have been forced by reconstructed wind and pressure fields from pressure readings. Simulated atmospheric conditions from reanalysis have been used for the more recent events. The height of the water level due to the possible previous inflow of water masses in the Baltic Sea basin, as well as possible seiches and swell effects have been incorporated in the simulations. We will discuss similarities and differences between the historic and the more recent marine hazard events.

  10. Stable Isotopes of Nitrogen in Fossil Cladoceran Exoskeletons: Implications for Nitrogen Sources in the Central Baltic Sea During the Past Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struck, Ulrich; Voss, Maren; von Bodungen, Bodo; Mumm, Nicolai

    The ratios of stable nitrogen isotopes were analysed in zooplankton exoskeletons extracted from dated sediment cores from the Gotland Basin of the central Baltic Sea. Combined with results on δ15N of bulk sediment, organic carbon concentrations, and abundances of exoskeletons of Bosminalongispinamaritima in the sediment, the data are used to evaluate significant sources of nitrogen in the food web over the past century. Nitrogen isotopic composition of bulk sediments ranges from 2.5 to 4.5ö, that of exokeletons varies between 0.4 and 6.2ö. The two are positively correlated. A marked increase in the abundance of Bosmina since 1965 (from less than 500 specimen to more than 5000 specimencm3 of sediment) is correlated with a significant increase in sedimentary organic carbon concentrations (from 4% to more than 10%). The isotopic data do not identify increased land-derived nitrate as the dominant nitrogen source fuelling the increase. Instead, we postulate that nitrogen fixation by diazotrophic bacteria has been one of the larger sources of nitrogen in the Baltic Sea, as it is today.

  11. Late Archaean-early Proterozoic source ages of zircons in rocks from the Paleozoic orogen of western Galicia, NW Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuijper, R P; Priem, H N.A. [Laboratorium voor Isotopen-Geologie, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Den Tex, E [Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands). Inst. voor Aardwetenschappen

    1982-08-01

    U-Pb data are reported for nine suites of zircons and three monazites from the Paleozoic orogen in western Galicia: one paragneiss and six orthogneisses from the early Paleozoic basement, and two Carboniferous (ca. 310 Ma old) intrusions of two-mica granite. New whole-rock Rb-Sr analyses, along with earlier data, indicate an age of ca. 470-440 Ma (Ordovician) for the emplacement of the granitic precursors of the orthogneisses. Monazite from the paragneiss also yields an U-Pb age of ca. 470 Ma. From the high initial /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios an involvement of Precambrian continental crust material is evident in the generation of the early Paleozoic suite of granites, while the zircon U-Pb data give evidence of the presence of about 3.0-2.0 Ga old (late Archaean-early Proterozoic) components in the source material. Zircons from the oldest sedimentary rocks in the area, now present as catazonal paragneisses and a likely source for the granites, likewise reveal a provenance age of 3.0-2.0 Ga.

  12. Structure, stratigraphy, and petroleum geology of the Little Plain basin, northwestern Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattick, R.E.; Teleki, P.G.; Phillips, R.L.; Clayton, J.L.; David, G.; Pogcsas, G.; Bardocz, B.; Simon, E.

    1996-01-01

    The basement of the Little Plain (Kisalfo??ld) basin is composed of two parts: an eastern part comprised of folded and overthrusted Triassic and Paleozoic rocks of the Pelso block (Transdanubian Central Range) compressed in the Early Cretaceous, and a western part consisting of stacked nappes of the Austroalpine zone of Paleozoic rocks, significantly metamorphosed during Cretaceous and later compression, overriding Jurassic oceanic rift-zone rocks of the Penninic zone. The evolution of the basin began in the late Karpatian-early Badenian (middle Miocene) when the eastern part of the basin began to open along conjugate sets of northeast- and northwest-trending normal faults. Neogene rocks in the study area, on the average, contain less than 0.5 wt. % total organic carbon (TOC) and, therefore, are not considered effective source rocks. Locally, however, where TOC values are as high as 3 wt. %, significant amounts of gas may have been generated and expelled. Although potential stratigraphic traps are numerous in the Neogene section, these potential traps must be downgraded because of the small amount of hydrocarbons discovered in structural traps to date. With the exception of the Cretaceous, the Mesozoic section has not been actively explored. Large anticlinal and overthrust structures involving pre-Cretaceous strata remain undrilled.

  13. Application of the migration models implemented in the decision system MOIRA-PLUS to assess the long term behaviour of 137Cs in water and fish of the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    This work presents and discusses the results of an application of the contaminant migration models implemented in the decision support system MOIRA-PLUS to simulate the time behaviour of the concentrations of 137 Cs of Chernobyl origin in water and fish of the Baltic Sea. The results of the models were compared with the extensive sets of highly reliable empirical data of radionuclide contamination available from international databases and covering a period of, approximately, twenty years. The model application involved three main phases: a) the customisation performed by using hydrological, morphometric and water circulation data obtained from the literature; b) a blind test of the model results, in the sense that the models made use of default values of the migration parameters to predict the dynamics of the contaminant in the environmental components; and c) the adjustment of the model parameter values to improve the agreement of the predictions with the empirical data. The results of the blind test showed that the models successfully predicted the empirical contamination values within the expected range of uncertainty of the predictions (confidence level at 68% of approximately a factor 2). The parameter adjustment can be helpful for the assessment of the fluxes of water circulating among the main sub-basins of the Baltic Sea, substantiating the usefulness of radionuclides to trace the movement of masses of water in seas. - Highlights: • The MOIRA-PLUS models were applied to 137 Cs in water and fish of Baltic Sea. • The model results were compared with empirical values from the HELCOM dataset. • Values of some model parameters were adjusted to improve the model performances. • The parameter adjustment helps to evaluate radionuclide fluxes through the Baltic

  14. Evolution study of contamination Russian Baltic fish by PCDD/F and WHO-PCB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelepchikov, A.; Brodsky, E. [Inst. of Ecology and Evolution of Russian Academy of Sciences (IPEE RAS) (Russian Federation); Shenderyuk, V.; Baholdina, L. [Atlantic Research Inst. of Fish Industry and Oceanography, (AtlantNIRO) (Russian Federation)

    2004-09-15

    Baltic Sea is well known as the most polluted sea in the world, but its fish products have a significant role in diet of Baltic countries habitants. In Dioxin 2003 meeting we have present first results of analysis of Baltic fishes caught by Russian fisherman for market. The results confirmed a rather high level of pollution in the Baltic seafood by PCDD/Fs and have shown necessity of the further researches. Although PCDD/Fs profile in fisher's body is not consist unsteady and was formed under affection of various factors, it was obvious that essential path comes with PCB; also previously were found that WHO-TEQ{sub PCB} in seafood could exceed WHO-TEQ{sub PCDD/F} level. In given works we present results of the analysis of two freshwater species of fishes and updating research of former analyzed kinds, included of WHO-PCBs determination.

  15. [Perceptions of Loss, Decline and Doom in the Baltic Sea - Untergangsvorstellungen im Ostseeraum] / David Feest

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Feest, David, 1969-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus : Perceptions of Loss, Decline and Doom in the Baltic Sea - Untergangsvorstellungen im Ostseeraum. Berlin : Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag, 2004. (Die Ostseeregione: Nördliche Dimensionen - Europäische Perspektiven. 1)

  16. Phosphorus recycling and burial in Baltic Sea sediments with contrasting redox conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mort, Haydon P; Slomp, Caroline P; Gustafson, Bo G

    2010-01-01

    . Most burial of P takes place as organic P. We find no evidence for significant authigenic Ca–P formation or biogenic Ca–P burial. The lack of major inorganic P burial sinks makes the Baltic Sea very sensitive to the feedback loop between increased hypoxia, enhanced regeneration of P and increased......In this study, redox-dependent phosphorus (P) recycling and burial at 6 sites in the Baltic Sea is investigated using a combination of porewater and sediment analyses and sediment age dating (210Pb and 137Cs). We focus on sites in the Kattegat, Danish Straits and Baltic Proper where present...... be accounted for in budgets and models for the Baltic Sea....

  17. Hypoxia is increasing in the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Daniel J; Carstensen, Jacob; Aigars, Juris; Axe, Philip; Bonsdorff, Erik; Eremina, Tatjana; Haahti, Britt-Marie; Humborg, Christoph; Jonsson, Per; Kotta, Jonne; Lännegren, Christer; Larsson, Ulf; Maximov, Alexey; Medina, Miguel Rodriguez; Lysiak-Pastuszak, Elzbieta; Remeikaité-Nikiené, Nijolé; Walve, Jakob; Wilhelms, Sunhild; Zillén, Lovisa

    2011-08-15

    Hypoxia is a well-described phenomenon in the offshore waters of the Baltic Sea with both the spatial extent and intensity of hypoxia known to have increased due to anthropogenic eutrophication, however, an unknown amount of hypoxia is present in the coastal zone. Here we report on the widespread unprecedented occurrence of hypoxia across the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea. We have identified 115 sites that have experienced hypoxia during the period 1955-2009 increasing the global total to ca. 500 sites, with the Baltic Sea coastal zone containing over 20% of all known sites worldwide. Most sites experienced episodic hypoxia, which is a precursor to development of seasonal hypoxia. The Baltic Sea coastal zone displays an alarming trend with hypoxia steadily increasing with time since the 1950s effecting nutrient biogeochemical processes, ecosystem services, and coastal habitat.

  18. [Experience of international cooperation among Baltic countries in occupational health and security].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloutka, E V; Andronova, E R; Dedkova, L E

    2013-01-01

    The article covers longstanding experience of international cooperation in occupational health and security with Baltic countries. The authors describe history of information network creation, its structure, objectives, importance for occupational health services and safety in the region.

  19. Addressing socio-cultural values in the use and management of Baltic herring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ignatius, Suvi; Haapasaari, Päivi Elisabet

    2016-01-01

    , and is mainly used for animal feed and fishmeal and oil. Harmful dioxins in Baltic herring have been offered as an explanation for its reduced human consumption. We argue that dioxins are only part of the explanation while sociocultural values also influence the use and management of the fish resource....... By applying the justification theory of Boltanski and Thévenot to expert workshop discussions and a literature review, we investigate (1) what values people in Sweden, Finland, Denmark and Estonia associate with Baltic herring; and (2) which values determine the way the fish resource is used. Our study...... indicates that management decisions related to Baltic herring are predominantly guided by economic values and industrial efficiency. Profit optimisation in the fishery together with the image problem that Baltic herring suffers from, seem to have contributed to the devaluation of this fish species as food...

  20. Two new fossil species of Cryptocephalus Geoffroy (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from Baltic and Dominican Amber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two new species of Cryptocephalus Geoffroy (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are described and illustrated from fossil resin: Cryptocephalus groehni sp. nov (Baltic amber) and Cryptocephalus kheelorum sp. nov. (Dominican amber). These are the first described species of Cryptocephalinae from fossil resin. ...