Atlagić Marko P.
Full Text Available Subsidiary historical disciplines are an important segment of the studies of history without which the history cannot achieve its main methodological goal. They are available for the purpose of history and historical scientific research. Also, they are of an immense importance for collecting and examining historical sources that is for heuristics. At the same time they are relevant for the judgment regarding choosing, valorization and the use of historical sources, namely for historical critique. In the modern period of the development of teaching history at the universities, subsidiary historical disciplines were consisted mostly of Latin paleography, diplomatics and chronology. Since teaching at universities is being developed, the extension of subsidiary historical disciplines is also being slowly spread on sphragistics and numismatics so that nowadays they include Latin paleography, Slavic paleography, epigraphic, filigranology, diplomatics, chronology, genealogy, sphragistics, numismatics, historical metrology, toponomastics with topography and vexillology. Subsidiary historical disciplines became a part of the programmes for studying history at the end of the XVIII century while they were completely affirmed during the XIX century. However, that practice was not included in Yugoslav and especially not in Serbian universities where subsidiary historical disciplines should have been given the first place in the programmes for studying history as well as in their practical use.
Brink, A. A.; Smit, J.; Bulacu, M. L.; Schomaker, L. R. B.
As suggested by modern paleography, the width of ink traces is a powerful source of information for off-line writer identification, particularly if combined with its direction. Such measurements can be computed using simple, fast and accurate methods based on pixel contours, the combination of which
the temple library itself, and it can be shown that some features are closely linked to specific scribes and their personal habits. The many distinctive hands attested in the library leads to the related question of paleography and orthography and the extent to which these factors may help to determinative...
Gaucher, C.; Sprechmann, P.; Montana, J.; Martinez, S.
The lithostratigraphy of the Vendian to Lower Cambrian Arroyo del Soldado Group of the Nico Perez Terrane is presented. The Yerbal Formation is defined and the Barriga Negra Formation is included in the Group. The Arroyo del Soldado Group represents a transgressive - regressive sequence developed on a passive continental margin, reaching a thickness of 5000m. The lithofacies succession is mainly explained by the combination of tectonic processes, global climatic - and sea level changes. Its geographic extension allows the determination of the eastern and southern boundaries of the Nico Perez Terrane. The known surface of this Terrane is therefore considerably increased. Several outcroups previously assigned to the Lavalleja Group are in this paper included in the Arroyo del Soldado Group, using sedimentalogical and paleontological criteria
Full Text Available The Franks Casket, a small whalebone box from about 700 AD, contains 59 Old English words inscribed in runes. Systematic differences between its panels have never called into question the standard procedure of explaining one panel basing on the others. The present paper aims at a re-examination of the validity of this approach. The panels show a large enough differentiation of spelling and paleographical features to exclude the possibility of a single author for the whole Casket.
Ilves, Eh.; Liiva, A.; Punning, Ya.M.
Work of the Tartusk radiocarbon laboratory for the last 15 years is presented. Methodological problems of the radiocarbon method are discussed. The geochemistry of carbon isotopes, principles of radiocarbon dating, and areas of its application are considered. Methods of recording natural radiocarbon and materials used for radiocarbon dating are discussed. Preliminary treatment of the samples and synthesis of the radioactive carbon carrier are presented. The preparation of the counter compound in the form of a liquid scintillator from the synthesized natural radiocarbon carrier is described. The scintillator efficiencies of different scintillators are compared. Data are given on the development of criteria for selecting the photoelectron multiplier. Construction of alumina cuvettes used for scintillation counting is described. It is noted that, in the counter apparatus system, amplitude analyzers with two differential discriminators are used, which allows directing the recording of activity to two 14 C regions. The results of using the radiocarbon method for different aspects of natural science and archeology are considered. Problems of geology of the late Pleistocene and the Pre-Baltic Holocene are considered: base of the mid-Valdaisk Karukyulask interglacier, history of deterioration of the final glacial mantle, development of a drainage system and late glacier, development and paleography of the Holocene, and others. New material on the chronology of primeval cultures in the Estonia region and on growth of meteoric craters are presented
Constantin Ion Ciobanu
Full Text Available The third part of the study The problem of text and image... is devoted to the typological classification of the inscriptions in the Romanian medieval art. Specialists in paleography observed non-compliance – extremely common – dating between actual painting of icons and the inscriptions dating from the same icons. One of the reasons for failure of traditional palaeographical methods in the research of epigraphic texts is related to the ineffectiveness of nomenclature types of characters taken from writing on parchment or paper and applied to hard materials such as wood, stone or metal. The difficulties, mentioned above, in the second half of the Twentieth century have pushed forward taxonomic investigations of medieval inscriptions. The methodological principles of epigraphical classification have been substantially clarified and finalized. Inscriptions on Orthodox icons and mural paintings were grouped according to various criteria: material and technical execution, location, language, content, form, time and so on. Thus, it was built the general typology of the texts and the inscriptions of the Ancient Orthodox Art. A second issue mentioned in the study is referring to morphological and grammatical structure of the names (theonyms, hagionyms, anthroponyms, names of places, eortonyms, ekklesionyms, icononyms present in medieval icons and mural painting. The end of the study is addressed to issue of hierotopy’s genesis – seen in close connection with the acting-pragmatic aspect of the relationship between the work of Christian art and its users.
Quinn, Rhonda L; Lepre, Christopher J; Wright, James D; Feibel, Craig S
Plio-Pleistocene East African grassland expansion and faunal macroevolution, including that of our own lineage, are attributed to global climate change. To further understand environmental factors of early hominin evolution, we reconstruct the paleogeographic distribution of vegetation (C(3)-C(4) pathways) by stable carbon isotope (delta(13)C) analysis of pedogenic carbonates from the Plio-Pleistocene Koobi Fora region, northeast Lake Turkana Basin, Kenya. We analyzed 202 nodules (530 measurements) from ten paleontological/archaeological collecting areas spanning environments over a 50-km(2) area. We compared results across subregions in evolving fluviolacustrine depositional environments in the Koobi Fora Formation from 2.0-1.5 Ma, a stratigraphic interval that temporally brackets grassland ascendancy in East Africa. Significant differences in delta(13)C values between subregions are explained by paleogeographic controls on floral composition and distribution. Our results indicate grassland expansion between 2.0 and 1.75 Ma, coincident with major shifts in basin-wide sedimentation and hydrology. Hypotheses may be correct in linking Plio-Pleistocene hominin evolution to environmental changes from global climate; however, based on our results, we interpret complexity from proximate forces that mitigated basin evolution. An approximately 2.5 Ma tectonic event in southern Ethiopia and northern Kenya exerted strong effects on paleography in the Turkana Basin from 2.0-1.5 Ma, contributing to the shift from a closed, lacustrine basin to one dominated by open, fluvial conditions. We propose basin transformation decreased residence time for Omo River water and expanded subaerial floodplain landscapes, ultimately leading to reduced proportions of wooded floras and the establishment of habitats suitable for grassland communities.
Sweden, covers an area of approx. 450 000 square kilometers. It has a population of 8 millions. With few exceptions in the northern part the access can be regarded as good. A dense network of motorroads and railroad exists. The results obtained by the exploration works combined with other available geo-information permit a separation of two principal uranium provinces in Sweden. The first one is confined to sediments of Upper Cambrian and Lower Ordovician which appears in Southern Sweden and along the border of the Caledonian mountain range in Central Sweden. The uranium occurrence are stratiform, of blackshale type which occurs in the Peltura zone of Upper Cambrian or they are associated to a phosphatite-bearing unit of Lower Ordovician overlying the Cambrian shale formation. The distribution of uranium in Upper Cambrian rocks is in general dependant on their lithology which itself is related to the paleography. This conditions explain relatively higher uranium content of the shale from Billigen.The potential resources of the province are estimated at about 1 million tonnes uranium. The second uranium province, called Arjeplog-Arvidsjaur, situated immediately south of the Arctic circle, comprises one deposit - Pleutajokk - and a group of more than twenty occurrences of similar characteristics and age (1 700 - 1 800 my.). The results of the past exploration have shown that uranium is present in different types of rocks. Because of the presence of uranium in many of the pegmatites the possibility of the formation of large low grade deposits should be tested. Favourable areas are those regions where the geological conditions are similar to the geology of the Grenville province in Canada or the Damara belt of SW-Africa. Special studies are recommended on this subject
Full Text Available Research objectives: to consider the current state of the study of sources on the history of the Crimean Khanate in Turkish archives and determine the prospects for the study of this issue. Research materials: works of domestic and foreign Orientalists in the study of the Crimean sources in Turkish archives. Results and novelty of the research: the author analyzed the current state of the study of sources on the history of the Crimean Khanate in Turkish archives. The works of such prominent scholars as A. Bennigsen, Ö. Gokbilgin, A.N. Kurat, Ch. Lemercier-Quelquejay, V.D. Smirnov and others deserve the most attention. Sophisticated paleography (age and conditions of documents of the Ottoman sources and difficulties with their translation were the main reason for their insufficient use. In their studies, Orientalists presents facsimiles of the originals of letters and their translations, give the transcript values of complex or controversial words, solve problems with the translation of dates into the modern chronology and also produce a detailed external criticism of documents: they describe their length, quality of the paper, handwriting and also decode the khans’ seals. This enables modern researchers to get acquainted with some of the earliest sources on the history of the Crimean Khanate. The author has revealed a number of new challenges that need to be addressed in the further study of sources on the history of the Crimean Khanate: translation of foreign Orientalists’ works into Russian as well as synthesis and integration of predecessors’ works, since each individual work does not cover all the documents of interest to modern scholars. The study of sources on the history of the Crimean Khanate remains a promising challenge for modern researchers, since in Turkish archives are stored unpublished documents waiting for their turn to enter into scholarly circulation.
Fernández Marcos, Natalio
Full Text Available In textual criticism it is important to detect the genesis of mistakes; sometimes the true reading is only reached through the unmasking of the wrong one. Likewise, in order to use critically the Septuagint it is indispensable to find out first its corruptions and mistranslations. The making of a Greek-Hebrew Index of the Antiochene Text in the Historical Books is an excellent occasion to observe the translation process and find out the most common errors made by the translators. A few examples will be commented concerning the following issues: inner-Greek corruptions and misleading translations caused by the graphic confusion of similar letters (paleography or sounds (phonetics, and by a different reading or vocalization of the consonantal text. In several cases this analysis may open a window towards a non-Masoretic Hebrew Vorlage.
En crítica textual es muy importante descubrir la génesis de los errores; a veces la lectura verdadera sólo se descubre desenmascarando la falsa. De igual manera, para usar críticamente la Septuaginta es imprescindible descubrir primero las corrupciones y los errores de traducción. La confección de un índice griego-hebreo del texto antioqueno en los libros históricos es una ocasión excelente para analizar el proceso de traducción y detectar los errores más comunes cometidos por los traductores. En el artículo se estudian algunos ejemplos con relación a los siguientes fenómenos: corrupciones internas al griego y traducciones equivocadas motivadas por la confusión gráfica de letras (paleografía o sonidos (fonética semejantes y por una vocalización diferente del texto consonántico. En varios casos este análisis permite vislumbrar un texto base hebreo distinto del masorético.